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1

Numerical and Experimental Investigations of Polyurethane Foam for Use as Cask Impact Limiter in Accidental Drop Scenarios - 12099  

SciTech Connect

Rigid, closed-cell polyurethane foams are frequently used as cask impact limiters in nuclear materials and hazardous waste transport due to their high energy-absorption potential. When assessing the cask integrity in accidental scenarios based on numerical simulations, a description of the foam damping properties is required for different strain rates and for a wide temperature range with respect to waste heat generation in conjunction with critical operating and environmental conditions. Implementation and adaption of a respective finite element material model strongly relies on an appropriate experimental data base. Even though extensive impact experiments were conducted e.g. in Sandia National Laboratories, Savannah River National Laboratory and by Rolls Royce plc, not all relevant factors were taken into account. Hence, BAM who is in charge of the mechanical evaluation of such packages within the approval procedure in Germany, incorporated systematic test series into a comprehensive research project aimed to develop numerical methods for a couple of damping materials. In a first step, displacement driven compression tests have been performed on confined, cubic specimens at five loading rates ranging from 0.02 mm/s to 3 m/s at temperatures between +90 deg. C and -40 deg. C. Materials include two different polyurethane foam types called FR3718 and FR3730 having densities of 280 kg/m{sup 3} and 488 kg/m{sup 3} from the product line-up of General Plastics Manufacturing Company. Their data was used to adapt an advanced plasticity model allowing for reliably simulating cellular materials under multi-axial compression states. Therefore, an automated parameter identification procedure had been established by combining an artificial neural network with local optimization techniques. Currently, the selected numerical material input values are validated and optimized by means of more complex loading configurations with the prospect of establishing methods applicable to impact limiters under severe accidental conditions. The reference data base is provided by experiments, where weights between 212 kg and 1200 kg have been dropped from heights between 1.25 m and 7 m on confined 10 cm cubic foam specimens. By presenting the deviations between experimental values and the corresponding output of finite element simulations, the potentials and restrictions of the resulting models are highlighted. Systematic compression tests on polyurethane foams had been performed at BAM test site within the framework of a research project on impact limiters for handling casks for radioactive waste. The experimental results had been used to adapt numerical models for simulating the behaviour of different foam types at different temperatures. The loading speed, however, turned out to have a major influence on their flow curves that can not be captured by simple strain-rate dependent multipliers. Especially for guided drop tests that come close to real accidental scenarios there is a significant gap between experimental and numerical results even when applying such advanced material models. Hence, the extensive data base is currently deployed for expanding the standard algorithms to include adequate dynamic hardening factors. (authors)

Kasparek, Eva M.; Voelzke, Holger; Scheidemann, Robert; Zencker, Uwe [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, 12200 Berlin (Germany)

2012-07-01

2

An experimental study on the uptake factor of tungsten oxide particles resulting from an accidentally dropped storage container.  

PubMed

A test procedure was developed and verified to measure the airborne concentrations of particles of different sizes (0.5-20 ?m) within the vicinity of a dropped container when a significant portion of the tungsten oxide powder (simulating uranium oxide) is ejected from the container. Tests were carried out in a full-scale stainless steel environmental chamber with an interior volume of 24.1 m(3). Thirty-two drop tests were performed, covering variations in dropping height, room air movement, landing scenario, and lid condition. Assuming a breathing rate of 1.2 m(3)/hr, the uptake factor during the first 10 min was calculated to be between 1.13 × 10(-9) and 1.03 × 10(-7) in reference to the amount loaded; or between 6.44 × 10(-8) and 3.55 × 10(-4) in reference to the amount spilled. Results provide previously unavailable data for estimating the exposure and associated risk to building occupants in the case of an accidental dropping of heavy powder containers. The test data show that for spills larger than 0.004 g, the power-law correlation between the spill uptake factor and the spilled mass (i.e., SUF = 2.5 × 10(-5) × Spill_Mass(-0.667)) established from the test data is smaller and a more accurate estimate than the constant value of 10(-3) assumed in the Department of Energy Nuclear Material Packaging Manual. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene for the following free supplementary resource: an online supplementary table of all cumulative uptake amounts at 10 min for all test data.]. PMID:23679340

Gao, Zhi; Zhang, J S; Byington, Jerry G A

2013-01-01

3

Preliminary Drop Testing Results to Validate an Analysis Methodology for Accidental Drop Events of Containers for Radioactive Materials  

SciTech Connect

The National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program, operating from the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), developed the standardized Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) canister. During the development of this canister, more than twenty drop tests were completed, evaluating high strain behavior, puncture resistance, maintenance of containment, and other canister responses. Computer analyses of these drop-test specimens/canisters employed the ABAQUS/Explicit software. A pre-drop analysis was performed for each test specimen to predict the deformed shape and resulting material straining. Typically, a postdrop analysis was also performed to better match actual test specifics (actual impact angle, test specimen material properties, etc.). The purpose for this analysis effort was to determine the capability of current analysis techniques to accurately predict the deformed shape of a standardized DOE SNF canister subjected to a defined drop event, without actually having to perform a drop test for every drop event of interest. Those analytical efforts yielded very accurate predictions for nearly all of the drop tests. However, it was noted, during one small-scale test, that the calculated deformed shape of the test specimen depended on the modeled frictional behavior as it impacted the essentially unyielding flat surface. In order to calculate the correct deformed shape, the modeled frictional behavior had to be changed to an unanticipated value. This paper will report the results of a preliminary investigation that determined the appropriate frictional modeling for a variety of impact angles. That investigation included drop testing performed at the INEEL from September 2000 to January 2001.

Snow, Spencer David; Morton, Dana Keith; Rahl, Tommy Ervin; Ware, Arthur Gates

2001-07-01

4

NAPL migration and ecotoxicity of conventional and renewable fuels in accidental spill scenarios.  

PubMed

Fuels derived from non-petroleum renewable resources have raised interest due to their potential in replacing petroleum-based fuels, but information on their fate and effects in the terrestrial and aquatic environments in accidental spill scenario is limited. In this study, migration of four fuels (conventional diesel, conventional gasoline, renewable diesel NExBTL, and ethanol-blended gasoline RE85 containing maximum 85% ethanol) as non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL) in soil was demonstrated in a laboratory-scale experiment. Ecotoxicity data was produced for the same fuels. There was no significant difference in migration of conventional and renewable diesel, but gasoline migrated 1.5 times deeper and 7-9 times faster in sand than diesel. RE85 spread horizontally wider but not as deep (p?

Malk, Vuokko; Barreto Tejera, Eduardo; Simpanen, Suvi; Dahl, Mari; Mäkelä, Riikka; Häkkinen, Jani; Kiiski, Anna; Penttinen, Olli-Pekka

2014-08-01

5

Stochastic Behavior of Inter-Drop Time in an M Frame Buffer Video Decoding Scenario  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the stochastic behavior of inter-drop time in an M frame buffer scheme. The problem arises from digital television signal decoding. We can set up a random walk model with lower bound. The drop occurs when the random walk exceeds a pre-determined upper bound. Our main result is that, under certain conditions, the tail distribution of the inter-drop time

Xiaoming Huo; Sam Liu

1998-01-01

6

A simulation study of dispersion of air borne radionuclides from a nuclear power plant under a hypothetical accidental scenario at a tropical coastal site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meteorological condition in coastal regions is diurnally variable and spatially heterogeneous due to complex topography, land-sea interface, etc. A wide range of dispersion conditions is possible on a given day in the coastal regions. In case of inadvertent accidental situations, though unlikely, it would be necessary to examine the potentially severe case among different dynamically occurring local atmospheric conditions for dispersion and its range of impact around a nuclear power plant for safety analysis. In this context, dispersion of air borne radioactive effluents during a hypothetical accidental scenario from a proposed prototype fast breeder reactor (PFBR) at an Indian coastal site, Kalpakkam, is simulated using a 3-D meso-scale atmospheric model MM5 and a random walk particle dispersion model FLEXPART. A simulation carried out for a typical summer day predicted the development of land-sea breeze circulation and thermal internal boundary layer (TIBL) formation, which have been confirmed by meteorological observations. Analysis of dose distribution shows that the maximum dose for releases from a 100 m stack occurs at two places within 4 km distance during sea breeze/TIBL fumigation hours. Maximum dose also occurred during nighttime stable conditions. Results indicate that, on the day of present study, the highest concentrations occurred during periods of TIBL fumigation rather than during stable atmospheric conditions. Further, the area of impact (plume width at the surface) spreads up to a down wind distance of 4 km during fumigation condition. Simulation over a range of 25 km has shown turning of plume at the incidence of sea breeze circulation and two different dispersion patterns across the sea breeze front. These results are significant in comparison to the expected pattern shown by Gaussian plume model used for routine analysis.

Srinivas, C. V.; Venkatesan, R.

7

Accidental Pinhole and Pinspeck Cameras  

E-print Network

We identify and study two types of “accidental” images that can be formed in scenes. The first is an accidental pinhole camera image. The second class of accidental images are “inverse” pinhole camera images, formed by ...

Torralba, Antonio

8

Acute accidental phosgene poisoning  

PubMed Central

Phosgene is a highly toxic gas to which accidental exposure may occur in occupational workers. This case report describes the clinical presentation and management of accidental phosgene poisoning happened after the leakage of phosgene gas from nearby pipeline. The need to suspect phosgene gas exposure and observe such patients is crucial for life saving, especially in view of the delay in clinical deterioration observed in some patients who subsequently develop adult respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:22602834

Gutch, Manish; Jain, Nirdesh; Agrawal, Avinash; Consul, Suchi

2012-01-01

9

Accidental inflation in the landscape  

SciTech Connect

We study some aspects of fine tuning in inflationary scenarios within string theory flux compactifications and, in particular, in models of accidental inflation. We investigate the possibility that the apparent fine-tuning of the low energy parameters of the theory needed to have inflation can be generically obtained by scanning the values of the fluxes over the landscape. Furthermore, we find that the existence of a landscape of eternal inflation in this model provides us with a natural theory of initial conditions for the inflationary period in our vacuum. We demonstrate how these two effects work in a small corner of the landscape associated with the complex structure of the Calabi-Yau manifold P{sup 4}{sub [1,1,1,6,9]} by numerically investigating the flux vacua of a reduced moduli space. This allows us to obtain the distribution of observable parameters for inflation in this mini-landscape directly from the fluxes.

Blanco-Pillado, Jose J.; Metallinos, Konstantinos [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA (United States); Gomez-Reino, Marta, E-mail: jose@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu, E-mail: marta.gomez-reino.perez@cern.ch, E-mail: Konstantinos.Metallinos@tufts.edu [Department of Physics, University of Oviedo, Oviedo (Spain)

2013-02-01

10

Accidental Inflation in the Landscape  

E-print Network

We study some aspects of fine tuning in inflationary scenarios within string theory flux compactifications and, in particular, in models of accidental inflation. We investigate the possibility that the apparent fine-tuning of the low energy parameters of the theory needed to have inflation can be generically obtained by scanning the values of the fluxes over the landscape. Furthermore, we find that the existence of a landscape of eternal inflation in this model provides us with a natural theory of initial conditions for the inflationary period in our vacuum. We demonstrate how these two effects work in a small corner of the landscape associated with the complex structure of the Calabi-Yau manifold P^4_[1,1,1,6,9] by numerically investigating the flux vacua of a reduced moduli space. This allows us to obtain the distribution of observable parameters for inflation in this mini-landscape directly from the fluxes.

Jose J. Blanco-Pillado; Marta Gomez-Reino; Konstantinos Metallinos

2012-09-04

11

Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved home insulation and increased use of space heaters have increased the potential for accidental carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings in the home. CO is a major environmental pollutant in today's society and is also contained in cigarette smoke. The toxic effects, metabolic pathways, and treatment of CO poisoning are described.

D. L. Jackson; H. Menges

1980-01-01

12

Gamma Ray Burst engine activity within the quark nova scenario: Prompt emission, X-ray Plateau, and sharp drop-off  

E-print Network

We present a three-stage model for a long GRB inner engine to explain the prompt gamma ray emission, and interpret recent Swift satellite observations of early X-ray afterglow plateaus followed by a sharp drop off or a shallow power law decay. The three stages involves a neutron star phase, a quark star (QS) and a black hole phase as described in Staff et al. (2007). We find that the QS stage allows for more energy to be extracted from neutron star to QS conversion as well as from ensuing accretion onto the QS. The QS accretion phase naturally extends the engine activity and can account for both the prompt emission and irregular early X-ray afterglow activity. Following the accretion phase, the QS can spin-down by emission of a baryon-free outflow. The magnetar-like magnetic field strengths resulting from the NS to QS transition provide enough spin-down energy, for the correct amount of time, to account for the plateau in the X-ray afterglow. In our model, a sharp drop-off following the plateau occurs when the QS collapses to a BH during the spin-down, thus shutting-off the secondary outflow. We applied our model to GRB 070110 and GRB 060607A and found that we can consistently account for the energetics and duration during the prompt and plateau phases.

Jan Staff; Brian Niebergal; Rachid Ouyed

2007-11-19

13

Penny Drop  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this quick activity about the properties of water (page 1 of PDF), learners will use an eyedropper to slowly place one drop of water at a time onto a penny, counting the number of drops until the water spills over the edge. Besides searching for the greatest number drops a penny will hold, drops of milk or vegetable oil can be tested in addition to water, raising the question, "What property of water allows it to pile up this way?" Relates to the linked video, DragonflyTV: Malformed Frogs.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2005-01-01

14

The Accidental Scientist: Cooking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Another great Web site from the Exploratorium in San Francisco (last mentioned in the August 16, 2002 NSDL MET Report), The Accidental Scientist: Cooking is the first in a series of "Web-based projects focusing on the science behind everyday life." Offering a mind-boggling array of food-related information and activities, foodies and science-lovers alike should find this Web site extremely engaging. Life science-related material includes an exploration of taste and smell; the biological properties of meat; microbe action in pickling, fermentation, and leavening; and much more. The site's other features not directly related to the life sciences shouldn't be missed. Users can find recipes and cooking tips, fun projects, and live Web casts starting in November 2002 that explore the science and culture of cooking, "just in time for picking up cooking tips for the holiday season."

1969-12-31

15

Voltage Drop  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first site with information on voltage drop is provided by Power and System Innovations on their Frequently Asked Questions: Voltage Drop (1) page. Visitors can read what voltage drop is, what causes it, what happens as a result of it, and what the maximum recommended voltage drop is. The second site, Basics of Electricity (2), is part of General Electric's Lighting for Business Web site. Through descriptions and illustrations, the site explains what voltage drop is and gives examples of how it is calculated using Ohm's law. The next site is a lab worksheet that is part of a class from the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department of Montana State University called Voltage Drop in Cables (3). The objective of the lesson is to determine the internal resistance of an extension cord and choose the proper wire size for a particular application. Students are given an explanation of the procedure and a number of questions to answer related to the exercise. The Oregon Building Congress offers the Lesson Plans (4) Web site and the downloadable Voltage Drop educational activity. The lesson, which is suggested to be contained within a unit on formulas and solving literal equations, explores the concept of voltage drop that is encountered in basic wiring. The fifth site entitled Explanation of Voltage Drop in a Series Circuit (5) is offered by the Horizons Electronic Lesson Plan Resource. The page describes voltage drop as an electronic concept, gives a formula determining voltage drop, provides a schematic that helps illustrate the concept, and offers a quiz and answer sheet. Next, from electrician.com, is the online Voltage Drop Calculator (6). Users input the type and size of wire being used, the voltage and phase, circuit length, and amp load to calculate voltage drop and several other parameters. The seventh site, entitled The Hazards of Voltage Drop (7), is provided within the Electrical Construction Maintenance Web site. The page describes how electrical equipment can overheat or even power down if it operates below its voltage rating. It also provides a thorough explanation of how to determine the load's operating voltage. The last site, maintained by Williamson Labs (8), is a comprehensive learning site called Elementary Electricity. Visitors will find a wealth of information here, including fun descriptions, graphics, and animations on all aspects of electricity including voltage drop.

16

Epidemiology of accidental radiation exposures.  

PubMed Central

Much of the information on the health effects of radiation exposure available to date comes from long-term studies of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Accidental exposures, such as those resulting from the Chernobyl and Kyshtym accidents, have as yet provided little information concerning health effects of ionizing radiation. This paper will present the current state of our knowledge concerning radiation effects, review major large-scale accidental radiation exposures, and discuss information that could be obtained from studies of accidental exposures and the types of studies that are needed. PMID:8781398

Cardis, E

1996-01-01

17

Accidental supersymmetric dark matter and baryogenesis  

SciTech Connect

We show that ''accidental'' supersymmetry is a beyond-the-Standard Model framework that naturally accommodates a thermal relic dark matter candidate and successful electroweak baryogenesis, including the needed strongly first-order character of the electroweak phase transition. We study the phenomenology of this setup from the standpoint of both dark matter and baryogenesis. For energies around the electroweak phase transition temperature, the low-energy effective theory is similar to the MSSM with light super-partners of the third-generation quarks and of the Higgs and gauge bosons. We calculate the dark matter relic abundance and the baryon asymmetry across the accidental supersymmetry parameter space, including resonant and non-resonant CP-violating sources. We find that there are regions of parameter space producing both the observed value of the baryon asymmetry and a dark matter candidate with the correct relic density and conforming to present-day constraints from dark matter searches. This scenario makes sharp predictions for the particle spectrum, predicting a lightest neutralino mass between 200 and 500 GeV, with all charginos and neutralinos within less than a factor 2 of the lightest neutralino mass and the heavy Higgs sector within 20–25% of that mass, making it an interesting target for collider searches. In addition, we demonstrate that successful accidental supersymmetric dark matter and baryogenesis will be conclusively tested with improvements smaller than one order of magnitude to the current performance of electron electric dipole moment searches and of direct dark matter searches, as well as with IceCube plus Deep Core neutrino telescope data.

Kozaczuk, Jonathan; Profumo, Stefano; Wainwright, Carroll L., E-mail: jkozaczu@ucsc.edu, E-mail: profumo@ucsc.edu, E-mail: cwainwri@ucsc.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, 1156 High St., Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

2013-01-01

18

Epidemiology of accidental radiation exposures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the information on the health effects of radiation exposure available to date comes from long-term studies of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Accidental exposures, such as those resulting from the Chernobyl and Kyshtym accidents, have as yet provided little information concerning health effects of ionizing radiation. This paper will present the current state of our knowledge

Cardis

1996-01-01

19

Accidental intra-arterial injection.  

PubMed

The potential for an accidental intra-arterial injection is present whenever an intravenous route of drug administration is used. Because of the serious nature of the morbidity associated with this iatrogenic injury, and its preventability, this article is presented to update the available information on the etiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of this problem. PMID:3283309

Lieblich, S E; Topazian, R G

1988-04-01

20

Accidental benzalkonium chloride (zephiran) injection.  

PubMed

We report a case of an accidental injection of benzalkonium chloride (zephiran) instead of a local anesthetic agent during a tooth extraction. The sudden development of chin and neck swelling led to dyspnea and the patient lost consciousness. She was sent to an emergency clinic by her dentist immediately. After medical treatment for 20 days, the necrotic tissue was debrided and a gingival sulcoplasty was performed. Healing was uneventful. PMID:22014998

Kilic, Erdem; Er, Nilay; Alkan, Alper; Ferahbas, Ayten

2011-12-01

21

Why Chalk Breaks into Three Pieces When Dropped  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has been the author's experience over many years, no doubt shared by others, that a stick of chalk usually breaks into three pieces when accidentally dropped onto the floor. I rarely gave it any thought, apart from noting that the fundamental mode of vibration of a freely supported, rigid rod has two nodes at an equal distance from each…

Cross, Rod

2015-01-01

22

Accidental intra-arterial injection.  

PubMed

Accidental intra-arterial injection of intramuscular antibiotic preparations is described in 3 cases in infants. In 2 benzathine penicillin was injected, and in 1 rolitetracycline. The clinical features are dominated by arteriolar obstruction which produces gangrene of the most severely affected limb. In addition, neuroloigcal involvement occurs when vessels to nerves or spinal cord are involved. The arteriolateral aspect of the thigh is preferable to the buttock as a site for intramuscular injection, and a short (2.5 cm) needle should be used to minimise the risk of intra-arterial injection. PMID:666353

Wynne, J M; Williams, G L; Ellman, B A

1978-05-01

23

Accidental intra-arterial injection.  

PubMed Central

Accidental intra-arterial injection of intramuscular antibiotic preparations is described in 3 cases in infants. In 2 benzathine penicillin was injected, and in 1 rolitetracycline. The clinical features are dominated by arteriolar obstruction which produces gangrene of the most severely affected limb. In addition, neuroloigcal involvement occurs when vessels to nerves or spinal cord are involved. The arteriolateral aspect of the thigh is preferable to the buttock as a site for intramuscular injection, and a short (2.5 cm) needle should be used to minimise the risk of intra-arterial injection. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 p397-b p397-c Fig. 3 PMID:666353

Wynne, J M; Williams, G L; Ellman, B A

1978-01-01

24

Science Scenarios.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on using science-related issues in classrooms. Explains how to select these issues and create a scenario, and presents a sample scenario for a role-playing activity. Provides several format structures for role-plays. (YDS)

Cronin-Jones, Linda

2000-01-01

25

Example Scenarios  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This section explores several hypothetical scenarios of nuclear-weapon detonations on U.S. cities. These scenarios are meant to illustrate the possibilities of such events. Scenarios include a "what-if" scenario of a 150-kiloton nuclear explosion by terrorists on New York City, and the effects of a nuclear accident or "broken arrow" on board a nuclear submarine in San Francisco Bay.

Christopher Griffith

26

A Different Cone: Bursting Drops in Solids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drops in fluids tend to be spheres---a shape that minimizes surface energy. In thunderstorm clouds, drops can become unstable and emit thin jets when charged beyond certain limits. The instability of electrified drops in gases and liquids has been widely studied and used in applications including ink-jet printing, electrospinning nano-fibers, microfluidics and electrospray ionization. Here we report a different scenario: drops in solids become unstable and burst under sufficiently high electric fields. We find the instability of drops in solids morphologically resembles that in liquids, but the critical electric field for the instability follows a different scaling due to elasticity of solids. Our observations and theoretical models not only advance the fundamental understanding of electrified drops but also suggest a new failure mechanism of high-energy-density dielectric polymers, which have diverse applications ranging from capacitors for power grids and electric vehicles to muscle-like transducers for soft robots and energy harvesting.

Zhao, Xuanhe

2013-03-01

27

Voltage Bursting Drops in Solids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Droplets in air or liquids under electrical voltages appear in diverse processes from thunderstorm cloud formation, ink-jet printing, electrospinning nanofibers to electrospray ionization. In these processes, the electrostatic energy competes with surface energy of the drops and causes sharp tips to form on the ends of the drops. Here, we report a physically distinct scenario for droplets in solid matrices under voltages. We show that water drops in elastic polymers can form sharp tips and surprisingly burst into long tubes under applied voltages. The new phenomenon is governed by the elasticity and fracture of the solids, instead of the drops' surface energy as in previous cases. A new scaling is derived for the critical electrical field of the voltage-induced instability of drops in solids. The observations and analyses have significant practical impacts, as they illustrate the mechanism of a major failure mode, defect-induced breakdown, of dielectric polymers, which are widely used as insulating cables and polymer capacitors and transducers.

Wang, Qiming; Suo, Zhigang; Zhao, Xuanhe

2012-02-01

28

Accidental release prevention: Recent EPA actions  

SciTech Connect

Industry should expect a resurgence in EPA accidental release prevention mandates. Among recent federal rulemakings, a list of substances and their thresholds for accidental releases were addressed in a final rule March 1994. Risk management of accidental releases was addressed in a related, proposed rule. The rules will affect an estimated 118,000 facilities nationwide. The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 are the driving force. CAAA Title 3 Section 112 (r) requires EPA to formulate and implement requirements for accidental release prevention. Section 112 (r) provisions can be viewed as the culmination of federal legislative efforts to prevent accidental releases and protect the public. Federal interest was fanned by a number of serious accidents in the US and worldwide in the past 20 years.

Mester, Z.C.

1995-05-01

29

5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Accidental death and dismemberment. 870.206 Section 870...Amount of Insurance § 870.206 Accidental death and dismemberment. (a)(1) Accidental death and dismemberment coverage is an...

2012-01-01

30

5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Accidental death and dismemberment. 870.206 Section 870...Amount of Insurance § 870.206 Accidental death and dismemberment. (a)(1) Accidental death and dismemberment coverage is an...

2014-01-01

31

49 CFR 192.751 - Prevention of accidental ignition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Prevention of accidental ignition. 192.751 Section 192.751...751 Prevention of accidental ignition. Each operator shall take steps to minimize the danger of accidental ignition of gas in any structure or...

2010-10-01

32

Modeling downwind hazards after an accidental release of chlorine trifluoride  

SciTech Connect

A module simulating ClF{sub 3} chemical reactions with water vapor and thermodynamic processes in the atmosphere after an accidental release has been developed. This module was liked to the HGSYSTEM. Initial model runs simulate the rapid formation of HF and ClO{sub 2} after an atmospheric release of ClF{sub 3}. At distances beyond the first several meters from the release point, HF and ClO{sub 2} concentrations pose a greater threat to human health than do ClF{sub 3} concentrations. For most of the simulations, ClF{sub 3} concentrations rapidly fall below the IDLH. Fro releases occurring in ambient conditions with low relative humidity and/or ambient temperature, ClF{sub 3} concentrations exceed the IDLH up to almost 500 m. The performance of this model needs to be determined for potential release scenarios that will be considered. These release scenarios are currently being developed.

Lombardi, D.A.; Cheng, Meng-Dawn

1996-05-01

33

PERSPECTIVES Scenarios &  

E-print Network

on alternative energy scenarios and strategies aimed at a clean, clever and competitive energy future" #122 0 0 6 ENERGY TECHNOLOGY PERSPECTIVES Scenarios & Strategies to 2050 Energy Technology/speech/2006/ramsay/etp_tokyo.pdf #12;INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY AGENCE INTERNATIONALE DE L'ENERGIE G8

34

The characterization and evaluation of accidental explosions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accidental explosions are discussed from a number of viewpoints. First, all accidental explosions, intentional explosions and natural explosions are characterized by type. Second, the nature of the blast wave produced by an ideal (point source or HE) explosion is discussed to form a basis for describing how other explosion processes yield deviations from ideal blast wave behavior. The current status blast damage mechanism evaluation is also discussed. Third, the current status of our understanding of each different category of accidental explosions is discussed in some detail.

Strehlow, R. A.; Baker, W. E.

1975-01-01

35

[Accidental intra-arterial propofol injection].  

PubMed

We report a case of accidental intra-arterial injection of propofol in a 37-year-old woman admitted for gynaecological surgery. The patient first reported pain and then demonstrated hyperaemia and swelling of the hand lasting for 15 minutes. No specific treatment was required, all symptoms disappeared spontaneously and the patient was discharged without any functional deficit. It is, nevertheless, important to prevent or discover accidental intra-arterial cannulation. When infusion is difficult or when strong pain appears during propofol administration, accidental intra-arterial injection must be excluded. PMID:20444411

Kjaergaard, Maj; Rovsing, Marie Louise

2010-05-01

36

An accidental poisoning with mitragynine.  

PubMed

An increasing number of drugs of abuse are sold word wide over the internet. Names like "legal highs", "herbal highs" etc. give the impression that these are safe products, although the risk of fatal reactions might be substantial. Leaves from the plant Mitragyna speciosa, contain active compounds like mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine. It has been reported that the potency of 7-hydroxymitragynine at the ?-opioid receptor is 30 times higher than that of mitragynine and 17 times higher than that of morphine. Case reports regarding poisoning with Kratom are reported, but the toxic or lethal ranges for the concentrations of the active substances have not been established, and concentrations of 7-hydroxymitragynine have not been reported previously. We present a case report where a middle aged man was found dead at home. The deceased had a history of drug abuse and mental illness for several years. At autopsy, there were no significant pathological findings. Post-mortem analysis of peripheral blood revealed: zopiclone 0.043mg/L, citalopram 0.36mg/L and lamotrigine 5.4mg/L, i.e. concentrations regularly seen after therapeutic ingestion of these drugs. Additionally mitragynine 1.06mg/L and 7-hydroxymitragynine 0.15mg/L were detected in blood and both also in urine. The high concentrations of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine indicate that the cause of death is intoxication by these substances; and the circumstances point toward the manner of death being accidental. We recommend that both mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine are analyzed for in cases with suspected Kratom intoxication. PMID:25453780

Karinen, Ritva; Fosen, Jan Toralf; Rogde, Sidsel; Vindenes, Vigdis

2014-10-24

37

Drag and Drop Drag-and-Drop based  

E-print Network

Drag and Drop Drag-and-Drop based Visual Programming Environment for Algebraic Speci#12;cation of Information Sciences and Electronics, University of Tsukuba Drag and Drop 1 (ASL) ASL C Pascal (VPS) [1] VPSOBJ 3 Drag-and-Drop Drag-and-Drop (Drag) (Drop) Drag Drag Drap 1 Drag-and-Drop (A) (B) (A) Source (B

Tanaka, Jiro

38

Accidental Dark Matter: Case in the Scale Invariant Local $B-L$ Model  

E-print Network

We explore the idea of accidental dark matter (aDM) stability in the scale invariant local $U(1)_{B-L}$ model, which is a theory for neutrino and at the same time radiatively breaks scale invariance via quantum mechanical dynamics in the $U(1)_{B-L}$ sector. A real singlet scalar can be accidental DM with an accidental $Z_2$, by virtue of both extended symmetries. A $U(1)_{B-L}$ charged complex scalar can also be a viable accidental DM due to an accidental (or remanent) $Z_3$. They can reproduce correct relic density via the annihilations through the conventional Higgs portal or dark Higgs portal. The dark Higgs portal scenario is in tension with the LHC bound on $Z_{B-L}$, and only heavy DM of a few TeVs can have correct relic density. In particular, DM may trigger spontaneous breaking of scale Invariance (SISB). The situation is relaxed significantly in the $Z_3$ case due to the effective semi-annihilation mode and then light DM can be accommodated easily. In addition, the $Z_3$ model can accommodate the Ge...

Guo, Jun; Ko, P; Orikasa, Yuta

2015-01-01

39

Dilating Eye Drops  

MedlinePLUS

... the eye allows for a more accurate measurementof refractive error (need for glasses) in children. Finally, dilating eye ... lasting drops than do adults to accurately measure refractive error. Weaker drops are used for premature babies and ...

40

Yield-stress drops   

E-print Network

The behaviour of viscoplastic drops during formation and detachment from a capillary nozzle, free-fall, impact on a solid substrate and subsequent spreading are investigated experimentally by high-speed imaging. Drop ...

German, Guy

2010-01-01

41

Prescription of eye drops  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to assess whether patients have their ocular drops correctly prescribed during non-ophthalmic admissions to hospital. A retrospective review of notes of patients who were admitted to hospital for general medical or surgical care, while on regular eye drops at the time of admission was performed. Twenty two patients were on regular ocular medication when admitted. Only seven out of 22 patients had their eye drops correctly prescribed. Furthermore, six patients had been prescribed topical ?-blockers, yet suffered from medical conditions that may have been aggravated by these drops. These findings demonstrate that the majority of patients on drops do not have their medication correctly prescribed during non-ophthalmic admissions to hospital. Also topical ?-blockers continue to be inappropriately prescribed.???Keywords: eye drops; non-ophthalmic admissions PMID:11571373

O'Sullivan, E; Malhotra, R; Migdal, C

2001-01-01

42

Eye drop neurology.  

PubMed

Eye drops can help to diagnose and prevent complications of neurological disorders. Guttae ophthalmicae (eye drops) are generally safe because the drugs rarely achieve significant systemic concentrations, although there are rare exceptions. This article covers contemporary pharmacological pupil testing; how to dilate a pupil safely; common reasons why pupils do not respond to drops; and corneal lubrication to prevent complications of weak eye closure. PMID:24520179

Bennetto, Luke; Guly, Catherine; Ormerod, Ian; Plant, Gordon T

2014-06-01

43

Accidental Head Injury: A Real Life Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The adult victim of accidental head injury as a result of an automobile accident recounts his experiences as a brain injured adult with such problems as poor balance, poor speech, spasticity, and lack of fine motor movement. He emphasizes his determination to get on with his life. (DB)

Blakely, Jim

1988-01-01

44

Youth Crime Drop. Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report examines the recent drop in violent crime in the United States, discussing how much of the decrease seen between 1995-99 is attributable to juveniles (under age 18 years) and older youth (18-24 years). Analysis of current FBI arrest data indicates that not only did America's violent crime drop continue through 1999, but falling youth…

Butts, Jeffrey A.

45

Drop Tower Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The drop towers of yesteryear were used to make lead shot for muskets, as described in "The Physics Teacher" in April 2012. However, modern drop towers are essentially elevators designed so that the cable can "break" on demand, creating an environment with microgravity for a short period of time, currently up to nine seconds at…

Dittrich, William A.

2014-01-01

46

Drops on a Penny  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, challenge learners to predict and investigate how many water drops they can fit on one penny. Learners conduct the test three times to find the average number of drops they can fit on a penny. Learners then repeat this process using a nickel, dime, and quarter. Use this activity to demonstrate the principles of surface tension, adhesion/cohesion, and gravity.

Boston, Wgbh

2002-01-01

47

Accidental release of chlorine and its impact on urban areas  

SciTech Connect

Among the possible scenarios of accidental releases of chlorine from high pressure cylinders, this paper considers a typical one for the analysis. The calculated transient mass flow rate of chlorine released from a one-tonne cylinder showed that such an accident takes about 10 minutes to evacuate the cylinder. However, the toxic effect in the surrounding atmosphere continues for a longer period (about 20 minutes). The size and location of the toxic cloud at ground level were predicted as functions of time using an EPA-based dispersion model. The results showed a growth of the toxic cloud for some time beyond which it started to decay. For the typical scenario considered in this study, the most dangerous situation generated a toxic cloud with dimensions of 4000 m and 600 m in the downwind and crosswind directions, respectively. A study of the effects of some meteorological parameters on the size and location of the toxic cloud at ground level was also conducted. In general, it was observed that enhancing atmospheric mixing produced larger toxic zones during the early stages of the release and caused an opposite effect during the later ones. This dynamic data was linked to a GIS environment and the time variant was represented using an animation technique for Al-Ain City, United Arab Emirates. Data base information related to physical urban characteristics and population was immediately obtained for the affected areas.

El-Sheikh, H.A.; Badr, O.A.; El Kadi, H.M.; Hamoda, M.F. [United Arab Emirates Univ., Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates). Faculty of Engineering

1995-12-31

48

Load drop evaluation for TWRS FSAR  

SciTech Connect

Operational or remediation activities associated with existing underground high-level waste storage tank structures at the Hanford Site often require the installation/removal of various equipment items. To gain tank access for installation or removal of this equipment, large concrete cover blocks must be removed and reinstalled in existing concrete pits above the tanks. An accidental drop of the equipment or cover blocks while being moved over the tanks that results in the release of contaminants to the air poses a potential risk to onsite workers or to the offsite public. To minimize this potential risk, the use of critical lift hoisting and rigging procedures and restrictions on lift height are being considered during development of the new tank farm Basis for Interim Operation and Final Safety Analysis Report. The analysis contained herein provides information for selecting the appropriate lift height restrictions for these activities.

Julyk, L.J.; Ralston, G.L.

1996-09-30

49

Assessment of hazard of chemical accidental releases triggered by floods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, the number of accidents happened, when floods trigger the releases of hazardous materials and following environment contamination. Baia Mare (Romania), Spolana Neratovice (Czech Republic) and hurricane Katrina (USA) are well known examples. The importance of this kind of phenomenon as a type of so called NATECH events is expressed among others in the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC, which reorganises water conservation in Europe. It requires programmes of protection measures to be drawn up not later than 2009, and in sub-article 11 (3) l b) to prevent and/or reduce the impact of accidental pollution incidents, for example as a result of floods. Effective measures demand the assessment of hazard and risk of accidental release triggered by floods and there is a need for the method which can be used for these purposes. Such a method is still missing and this is why the basic method for hazard assessment has been developed. Simple indexes-based method is composed of three segments (natural risks, technological risks and combined risk) and it has flexible, modular structure. First segment estimates the probability of flooding of installation, the second, based on the reference scenarios estimates the possibility of release of chemicals and the third classify consequences. The work on refining of parameters and method continues. Method can be used in prevention of major accidents in the framework of the Council Directive 96/82/EC on the control of major-accident hazards involving dangerous substances (Seveso II directive) and can help to complete the safety studies in classified establishments.

Simonova, M.; Danihelka, P.

2009-04-01

50

Drop Tower Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The drop towers of yesteryear were used to make lead shot for muskets, as described in The Physics Teacher1 in April 2012. However, modern drop towers are essentially elevators designed so that the cable can "break" on demand, creating an environment with microgravity for a short period of time, currently up to nine seconds at the drop tower in Bremen, Germany. Using these drop towers, one can briefly investigate various physical systems operating in this near zero-g environment. The resulting "Drop Tower Physics" is a new and exciting way to challenge students with a physical example that requires solid knowledge of many basic physics principles, and it forces them to practice the scientific method. The question is, "How would a simple toy, like a pendulum, behave when it is suddenly exposed to a zero-g environment?" The student must then postulate a particular behavior, test the hypothesis against physical principles, and if the hypothesis conforms to these chosen physical laws, the student can formulate a final conclusion. At that point having access to a drop tower is very convenient, in that the student can then experimentally test his or her conclusion. The purpose of this discussion is to explain the response of these physical systems ("toys") when the transition is made to a zero-g environment and to provide video demonstrations of this behavior to support in-class discussions of Drop Tower Physics.

Dittrich, William A. Toby

2014-10-01

51

Accidental intra-arterial injection of propofol.  

PubMed

We report a case of accidental intra-arterial injection of propofol in a 30-year-old woman admitted for curettage. The patient reported pain, which was followed by a hyperaemic area of 6 x 7 cm around the injection site. Later a blanching of the distal part of the hand was noticed, lasting for 3 min. When pain appears during propofol administration, an intra-arterial injection must be excluded. PMID:10500949

Ohana, E; Sheiner, E; Gurman, G M

1999-08-01

52

Bursting drops in solid dielectrics caused by high voltages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluid drops tend to be spheres—a shape that minimizes surface energy. In thunderstorm clouds, drops can become unstable and emit thin jets when charged beyond certain limits. The instability of electrified drops in gases and liquids has been widely studied and used in applications including ink-jet printing, electrospinning nanofibers, microfluidics and electrospray ionization. Here we report a different scenario: drops in solids become unstable and burst under sufficiently high electric fields. We find the instability of drops in solids morphologically resembles that in liquids, but the critical electric field for the instability follows a different scaling due to elasticity of solids. Our observations and theoretical models not only advance the fundamental understanding of electrified drops, but also suggest a new failure mechanism of high energy density dielectric polymers, which have diverse applications ranging from capacitors for power grids and electric vehicles to muscle-like transducers for soft robots and energy harvesting.

Wang, Qiming; Suo, Zhigang; Zhao, Xuanhe

2012-10-01

53

Bursting drops in solid dielectrics caused by high voltages.  

PubMed

Fluid drops tend to be spheres--a shape that minimizes surface energy. In thunderstorm clouds, drops can become unstable and emit thin jets when charged beyond certain limits. The instability of electrified drops in gases and liquids has been widely studied and used in applications including ink-jet printing, electrospinning nanofibers, microfluidics and electrospray ionization. Here we report a different scenario: drops in solids become unstable and burst under sufficiently high electric fields. We find the instability of drops in solids morphologically resembles that in liquids, but the critical electric field for the instability follows a different scaling due to elasticity of solids. Our observations and theoretical models not only advance the fundamental understanding of electrified drops, but also suggest a new failure mechanism of high energy density dielectric polymers, which have diverse applications ranging from capacitors for power grids and electric vehicles to muscle-like transducers for soft robots and energy harvesting. PMID:23093194

Wang, Qiming; Suo, Zhigang; Zhao, Xuanhe

2012-01-01

54

Millikan's Oil Drop Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a Keynote Presentation exported as a clickable quicktime movie. This presentation develops Millikan's Oil Drop experiment. The presentation is animated and the learner or Instructor can click their way through the presenation. The mathematical theory is fully developed.

Dimauro, Mr. T.

2009-01-12

55

Rain Drop Charge Sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

begin{center} Large Large Rain Drop Charge Sensor Sreekanth T S*, Suby Symon*, G. Mohan Kumar (1) , S. Murali Das (2) *Atmospheric Sciences Division, Centre for Earth Science Studies, Thiruvananthapuram 695011 (1) D-330, Swathi Nagar, West Fort, Thiruvananthapuram 695023 (2) Kavyam, Manacaud, Thiruvananthapuram 695009 begin{center} ABSTRACT To study the inter-relations with precipitation electricity and precipitation microphysical parameters a rain drop charge sensor was designed and developed at CESS Electronics & Instrumentation Laboratory. Simultaneous measurement of electric charge and fall speed of rain drops could be done using this charge sensor. A cylindrical metal tube (sensor tube) of 30 cm length is placed inside another thick metal cover opened at top and bottom for electromagnetic shielding. Mouth of the sensor tube is exposed and bottom part is covered with metal net in the shielding cover. The instrument is designed in such a way that rain drops can pass only through unhindered inside the sensor tube. When electrically charged rain drops pass through the sensor tube, it is charged to the same magnitude of drop charge but with opposite polarity. The sensor tube is electrically connected the inverted input of a current to voltage converter operational amplifier using op-amp AD549. Since the sensor is electrically connected to the virtual ground of the op-amp, the charge flows to the ground and the generated current is converted to amplified voltage. This output voltage is recorded using a high frequency (1kHz) voltage recorder. From the recorded pulse, charge magnitude, polarity and fall speed of rain drop are calculated. From the fall speed drop diameter also can be calculated. The prototype is now under test running at CESS campus. As the magnitude of charge in rain drops is an indication of accumulated charge in clouds in lightning, this instrument has potential application in the field of risk and disaster management. By knowing the charge magnitude of initial drops from a precipitation event, gross cloud charge can be estimated and necessary precautions can be taken during convective cloud events. Being a site of high lightning incidence in tropics, Kerala state is affected in India and calls for much attention in lightning hazards mitigation. Installing this charge sensor and atmospheric electric field mill, an attempt to a better warning system can be attempted.

S, Sreekanth T.

56

Do-It-Yourself device for recovery of cryopreserved samples accidentally dropped into cryogenic storage tanks.  

PubMed

Liquid nitrogen is colorless, odorless, extremely cold (-196 °C) liquid kept under pressure. It is commonly used as a cryogenic fluid for long term storage of biological materials such as blood, cells and tissues (1,2). The cryogenic nature of liquid nitrogen, while ideal for sample preservation, can cause rapid freezing of live tissues on contact - known as 'cryogenic burn' (2), which may lead to severe frostbite in persons closely involved in storage and retrieval of samples from Dewars. Additionally, as liquid nitrogen evaporates it reduces the oxygen concentration in the air and might cause asphyxia, especially in confined spaces (2). In laboratories, biological samples are often stored in cryovials or cryoboxes stacked in stainless steel racks within the Dewar tanks (1). These storage racks are provided with a long shaft to prevent boxes from slipping out from the racks and into the bottom of Dewars during routine handling. All too often, however, boxes or vials with precious samples slip out and sink to the bottom of liquid nitrogen filled tank. In such cases, samples could be tediously retrieved after transferring the liquid nitrogen into a spare container or discarding it. The boxes and vials can then be relatively safely recovered from emptied Dewar. However, the cryogenic nature of liquid nitrogen and its expansion rate makes sunken sample retrieval hazardous. It is commonly recommended by Safety Offices that sample retrieval be never carried out by a single person. Another alternative is to use commercially available cool grabbers or tongs to pull out the vials (3). However, limited visibility within the dark liquid filled Dewars poses a major limitation in their use. In this article, we describe the construction of a Cryotolerant DIY retrieval device, which makes sample retrieval from Dewar containing cryogenic fluids both safe and easy. PMID:22617806

Mehta, Rohini; Baranova, Ancha; Birerdinc, Aybike

2012-01-01

57

Do-It-Yourself Device for Recovery of Cryopreserved Samples Accidentally Dropped into Cryogenic Storage Tanks  

PubMed Central

Liquid nitrogen is colorless, odorless, extremely cold (-196 °C) liquid kept under pressure. It is commonly used as a cryogenic fluid for long term storage of biological materials such as blood, cells and tissues 1,2. The cryogenic nature of liquid nitrogen, while ideal for sample preservation, can cause rapid freezing of live tissues on contact - known as 'cryogenic burn'2, which may lead to severe frostbite in persons closely involved in storage and retrieval of samples from Dewars. Additionally, as liquid nitrogen evaporates it reduces the oxygen concentration in the air and might cause asphyxia, especially in confined spaces2. In laboratories, biological samples are often stored in cryovials or cryoboxes stacked in stainless steel racks within the Dewar tanks1. These storage racks are provided with a long shaft to prevent boxes from slipping out from the racks and into the bottom of Dewars during routine handling. All too often, however, boxes or vials with precious samples slip out and sink to the bottom of liquid nitrogen filled tank. In such cases, samples could be tediously retrieved after transferring the liquid nitrogen into a spare container or discarding it. The boxes and vials can then be relatively safely recovered from emptied Dewar. However, the cryogenic nature of liquid nitrogen and its expansion rate makes sunken sample retrieval hazardous. It is commonly recommended by Safety Offices that sample retrieval be never carried out by a single person. Another alternative is to use commercially available cool grabbers or tongs to pull out the vials3. However, limited visibility within the dark liquid filled Dewars poses a major limitation in their use. In this article, we describe the construction of a Cryotolerant DIY retrieval device, which makes sample retrieval from Dewar containing cryogenic fluids both safe and easy. PMID:22617806

Mehta, Rohini; Baranova, Ancha; Birerdinc, Aybike

2012-01-01

58

Drying drops of blood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The drying of a drop of human blood is fascinating by the complexity of the physical mechanisms that occur as well as the beauty of the phenomenon which has never been previously evidenced in the literature. The final stage of full blood evaporation reveals for a healthy person the same regular pattern with a good reproducibility. Other tests on anemia and hyperlipidemic persons were performed and presented different patterns. By means of digital camera, the influence of the motion of red blood cells (RBCs) which represent about 50% of the blood volume, is revealed as well as its consequences on the final stages of drying. The mechanisms which lead to the final pattern of dried blood drops are presented and explained on the basis of fluid and solid mechanics in conjunction with the principles of hematology. Our group is the first to evidence that the specific regular patterns characteristic of a healthy individual do not appear in a dried drop of blood from a person with blood disease. Blood is a complex colloidal suspension for which the flow motion is clearly non-Newtonian. When drops of blood evaporate, all the colloids are carried by the flow motion inside the drop and interact.

Brutin, David; Sobac, Benjamin; Loquet, Boris; Sampol, José.

2010-11-01

59

Anaphylaxis after accidental ingestion of kiwi fruit  

PubMed Central

Numerous cases of anaphylaxis after ingestion of kiwi fruit, after the skin tests and during oral immunotherapy were described. The article describes the case of severe anaphylactic reaction that occurred in a 55-year-old patient after accidental ingestion of kiwi. Allergy to kiwi fruit was confirmed by a native test with fresh kiwi fruit. After the test, the patient experienced generalized organ response in the form of headache, general weakness and rashes on the neck and breast, and dyspnea. The patient had significantly elevated levels of total IgE and IgE specific to kiwi fruit. PMID:24278073

Ró?alska, Anna; Ukleja-Soko?owska, Natalia; ?bikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

2013-01-01

60

How do drops evaporate?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of evaporating drops with non-pinned contact line, although seemingly trivial, so far lacks satisfactory theoretical description. In particular, there has been much discussion regarding appropriate evaporative mass flux model. We make an attempt to resolve this issue by comparing our experimental data with the results of several mathematical models for evaporating drops. After describing experimental procedure, we propose several models for mass flux and develop a governing equation for evolution of drop's thickness. Two-dimensional numerical results are then compared to the experimental results, and the most appropriate mass flux model is identified. Finally, we propose the governing equation for the full 3D system and present some new numerical results related to curious phenomena, where so-called ``octopus-shaped'' instabilities appear ahead of the contact line of volatile dropsootnotetextY. Gotkis, I. Ivanov, N. Murisic, L. Kondic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 186101 (2006)..

Murisic, Nebojsa; Kondic, Lou

2007-11-01

61

Drum drop test report  

SciTech Connect

Testing was performed to determine actual damage to drums when dropped from higher than currently stacked elevations. The drum configurations were the same as they are placed in storage; single drums and four drums banded to a pallet. Maximum drop weights were selected based on successful preliminary tests. Material was lost from each of the single drum tests while only a small amount of material was lost from one of the pelletized drums. The test results are presented in this report. This report also provides recommendations for further testing to determine the appropriate drum weight which can be stored on a fourth tier.

McBeath, R.S.

1995-02-28

62

Drop-In Article  

Cancer.gov

Drop-In Article The Influence of Media on Tobacco Use The Role of the Media in Promoting and Reducing Tobacco Use, the 19th monograph published in the National Cancer Institute Tobacco Control Monograph series, finds that the mass media affects attitudes

63

Sessile drops in microgravity  

E-print Network

Interfaces with a liquid are governing several phenomena. For instance, these interfaces are giving the shape of sessile droplets and rule the spread of liquids on surfaces. Here we analyze the shape of sessile axisymmetric drops and how it is depending on the gravity, obtaining results in agreement with experimental observations under conditions of microgravity.

Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

2013-01-01

64

Safe Storage Gun Laws: Accidental Deaths, Suicides and Crime  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is frequently assumed that safe storage gun laws reduce accidental gun deaths and total suicides, while the possible impact on crime rates are ignored. However, given existing work on the adverse impact of other safety laws, such as safety caps for storing medicine, even the very plausible assumption of reduced accidental gun deaths cannot be taken for granted. Our

John E. Whitley

2001-01-01

65

Safe Storage Gun Laws: Accidental Deaths, Suicides, and Crime  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is frequently assumed that safe storage gun laws reduce accidental gun deaths and total suicides, while the possible impact on crime rates are ignored. However, given existing work on the adverse impact of other safety laws, such as safety caps for storing medicine, even the very plausible assumption of reduced accidental gun deaths cannot be taken for granted. Our

John E. Whitley

2000-01-01

66

Course Management Systems for Learning: Beyond Accidental Pedagogy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Course Management Systems for Learning: Beyond Accidental Pedagogy" is a comprehensive overview of standards, practices and possibilities of course management systems in higher education. "Course Management Systems for Learning: Beyond Accidental Pedagogy" focuses on what the current knowledge is (in best practices, research, standards and…

McGee, Patricia; Carmean, Colleen; Jafari, Ali

2005-01-01

67

Experiences of Causing an Accidental Death: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accidentally killing or feeling responsible for another person's death constitutes an event that is different from many typical traumatic stressors in that the responsibility for causing the trauma is located in the person themselves, rather than another person or persons. Research exploring the perspective of those who have accidentally caused a…

Rassool, Sara B.; Nel, Pieter W.

2012-01-01

68

Rickettsial infection caused by accidental conjunctival inoculation.  

PubMed

The most common transmission route of tick-borne Rickettsia is through tick bite; nevertheless, other transmission routes should also be considered. We report a case of rickettsial infection in a 15-year-old boy caused by accidental contamination of the conjunctiva through the infected fluid of a crushed engorged tick removed from a dog. Right eye pain, conjunctival hyperaemia with mucopurulent exudate, chemosis and eyelid oedema were the first signs and symptoms. Two days later, the boy developed fever, myalgia, headache, abdominal pain and was vomiting; physical examination showed multiple cervical adenopathies but no rash. He was treated with doxycycline (200?mg/day) for 7?days with progressive resolution of clinical signs. Rickettsial infection was confirmed by immunofluorescence assay with serological seroconversion in two consecutive samples. Rickettsia conorii or Rickettsia massiliae were the possible causal agents since they are the Rickettsia spp found in the Rhipicephalus sanguineus dog tick in Portugal. PMID:25568272

Brissos, Joao; de Sousa, Rita; Santos, Ana Sofia; Gouveia, Catarina

2015-01-01

69

Drop tube technical tasks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Criteria, using fundamental thermochemical dynamics, were developed to assist a scientist using the Drop Tube Facility in designing a good experiment. The types of parameters involved in designing the experiments include the type of furnace, the type of atmosphere, and in general which materials are better behaved than others as determined by past experience in the facility. One of the major advantages of the facility lies in its ability to provide large undercoolings in the cooling curve during the drops. A beginning was to consider the effect of oxygen and other gases upon the amount of undercooling observed. The starting point of the thermochemistry was given by Ellingham and later transformed into what is known as the Richardson Chart. The effect of surface oxidations upon the nucleation phenomena can be observed in each specimen.

Workman, G. L.

1986-01-01

70

Egg Drop Lander  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is about collaborative design of a lander vehicle. Learners will design and build a descent and landing system for an egg. The students will also practice their writing skills by writing a letter or article about the success or failure of their spacecraft design. This is lesson 15 of 16 in the MarsBots learning module. This lesson is adapted from "Mars Pathfinder: Egg Drop and Landing" an activity in The Mars Activity Book (see related resources).

2012-08-03

71

CAPILLARY DROPS: CONTACT ANGLE HYSTERESIS AND STICKING DROPS  

E-print Network

explains some simple phenomena observed in everyday life, such as the sticking drop on an inclined plane: If the support plane is inclined at angle to the horizontal in the y-direction, the potential can be written, the drop should always slide down the plane, no matter how small the inclination. However, a water drop

Mellet, Antoine

72

78 FR 6149 - Final Interim Staff Guidance Assessing the Radiological Consequences of Accidental Releases of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Accidental Releases of Radioactive Materials From Liquid Waste Tanks for Combined...Accidental Releases of Radioactive Materials From Liquid Waste Tanks in Ground and...Accidental Releases of Radioactive Materials from Liquid Waste Tanks for...

2013-01-29

73

Liquid drops impacting superamphiphobic coatings.  

PubMed

The dynamics of liquid drops impacting superamphiphobic coatings is studied by high-speed video microscopy. Superamphiphobic coatings repel water and oils. The coating consists of a fractal-like hydrophobized silica network. Mixtures of ethanol-water and glycerin-water are chosen to investigate the influence of interfacial tension and viscosity on spreading and retraction dynamics. Drop spreading is dominated by inertia. At low impact velocity, the drops completely rebound. However, the contact time increases with impact velocity, whereas the restitution coefficient decreases. We suggest that the drop temporarily impales the superamphiphobic coating, although the drop completely rebounds. From an estimate of the pressure, it can be concluded that impalement is dominated by depinning rather than sagging. With increasing velocity, the drops partially pin, and an increasing amount of liquid remains on the coating. A time-resolved study of the retraction dynamics reveals two well-separated phases: a fast inertia-dominated phase followed by a slow decrease of the contact diameter of the drop. The crossover occurs when the diameter of the retracting drop matches the diameter of the drop before impact. We suggest that the depth of impalement increases with impact velocity, where impalement is confined to the initial impact zone of the drop. If the drop partially pins on the coating, the depth of impalement exceeds a depth, preventing the whole drop from being removed during the retraction phase. PMID:23697383

Deng, Xu; Schellenberger, Frank; Papadopoulos, Periklis; Vollmer, Doris; Butt, Hans-Jürgen

2013-06-25

74

Scenarios and task analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Critical Review of Carroll's book on scenario-based design is offered [Making Use: Scenario-Based Design of Human–Computer Interactions (2000)]. Carroll characterises scenarios as ‘stories about use’. The paper demonstrates that Carroll's proposals about scenarios and their use in software engineering can be fitted into the broader framework of task analysis in Human–Computer Interaction.

Dan Diaper

2002-01-01

75

Drop foot corrective device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A light weight, economical device to alleviate a plurality of difficulties encountered in walking by a victim suffering from a drop foot condition is discussed. A legband girdles the leg below the knee and above the calf providing an anchor point for the upper end of a ligament having its lower end attached to a toe of a shoe or a toe on the foot. The ligament is of such length that the foot is supported thereby and retained in a normal position during walking.

Deis, B. C. (inventor)

1986-01-01

76

Youth Crime Drop  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report issued in December 2000 by the Urban Institute (see the September 9, 1999 Scout Report for Business and Economics presents and analyzes data on juvenile crime in the 1990s. The report examines the most recent FBI data about police arrests and considers how much of the recent drop in crime rates can be attributed to a decrease in juvenile crime and whether the decrease in crime rates continued through the later half of the 1990s. For the original FBI data analyzed in this report, go to the Uniform Crime Reports.

Butts, Jeffrey A.

2000-01-01

77

Radiological consequences of a postulated drop of a maximally Lloaded FFTF fuel cask  

SciTech Connect

Onsite and site boundary radiological consequences were estimated for a postulated accidental drop of an Interim Storage Cask (ISC) loaded 7 assemblies at the maximum available burnup. The postulated cask drop was assumed to occur from the maximum physically attainable height during crane movement of the cask. The resulting onsite and site boundary doses of 45 mSv and 0.04 mSv are far below the corresponding 1 Sv and 250 mSv risk guidelines for highly unlikely accidents

Scott, P.A.

1995-09-22

78

Investigation of Pb-free solder interconnect under drop impact by ball pull and shear tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reliability of Pb-free solder interconnect under drop impact was investigated. In this paper, solder ball pull and shear tests were introduced to assess the interconnect reliability since high speed pull and shear tests exhibit high strain rate deformation followed by brittle fracture of actual drop scenario. The design, material, and process parameters considered in this study are SR condition,

Soon-Wan Chung; Mi-Jin Kim

2010-01-01

79

The cytogenetic dosimetry of recent accidental overexposure.  

PubMed

When accidental exposure to ionizing radiations is suspected, optimal choice of a treatment strategy requires, in addition to information about the clinical signs and physical dosimetry, a determination by biological parameters of the dose received. The scoring of unstable chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes is the current reference method. Preparation of these samples depends on the goal sought--an exact assessment of several irradiations or rapid triage in the case of a large-scale accident. Moreover, some adaptation may be necessary if the irradiation is either heterogenous or not recent. Despite the robustness and adaptability of this procedure, conventional cytogenetics remains a tedious and time-consuming technique, and it requires specialized staff. Scoring micronuclei in binucleated lymphocytes may be an easier, simpler altemative to a dicentric assay. This paper, which is based on the experience acquired by the IPSN in recent years in expert assessment of suspected radiations, has as its goal to provide a succinct technical guideline of these different approaches, as they are adapted to suspected recent irradiation and triage. PMID:11441964

Voisin, P; Benderitter, M; Claraz, M; Chambrette, V; Sorokine-Durm, I; Delbos, M; Durand, V; Leroy, A; Paillole, N

2001-05-01

80

Quick management of accidental tritium exposure cases.  

PubMed

Removal half-life (RHL) of tritium is one of the best means for optimising medical treatment, reduction of committed effective dose (CED) and quick/easy handling of a large group of workers for medical treatment reference. The removal of tritium from the body depends on age, temperature, relative humidity and daily rainfall; so tritium removal rate, its follow-up and proper data analysis and recording are the best techniques for management of accidental acute tritium exposed cases. The decision of referring for medical treatment or medical intervention (MI) would be based on workers' tritium RHL history taken from their bodies at the facilities. The workers with tritium intake up to 1 ALI shall not be considered for medical treatment as it is a derived limit of annual total effective dose. The short-term MI may be considered for tritium intake of 1-10 ALI; however, if the results show intake ?100 ALI, extended strong medical/therapeutic intervention may be recommended based on the severity of exposure for maximum CED reduction requirements and annual total effective dose limit. The methodology is very useful for pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs) which are mainly operated by Canada and India and future fusion reactor technologies. Proper management will optimise the cases for medical treatment and enhance public acceptance of nuclear fission and fusion reactor technologies. PMID:22349318

Singh, Vishwanath P; Badiger, N M; Managanvi, S S; Bhat, H R

2012-07-01

81

First drop dissimilarity in drop-on-demand inkjet devices  

SciTech Connect

As inkjet printing technology is increasingly applied in a broader array of applications, careful characterization of its method of use is critical due to its inherent sensitivity. A common operational mode in inkjet technology known as drop-on-demand ejection is used as a way to deliver a controlled quantity of material to a precise location on a target. This method of operation allows ejection of individual or a sequence (burst) of drops based on a timed trigger event. This work presents an examination of sequences of drops as they are ejected, indicating a number of phenomena that must be considered when designing a drop-on-demand inkjet system. These phenomena appear to be driven by differences between the first ejected drop in a burst and those that follow it and result in a break-down of the linear relationship expected between driving amplitude and drop mass. This first drop, as quantified by high-speed videography and subsequent image analysis, can be different in morphology, trajectory, velocity, and volume from subsequent drops within a burst. These findings were confirmed orthogonally by both volume and mass measurement techniques which allowed quantitation down to single drops.

Famili, Amin; Palkar, Saurabh A.; Baldy, William J. Jr. [Cordis Corporation, a Johnson and Johnson Company, Welsh and McKean Roads, Spring House, Pennsylvania 19477 (United States)

2011-01-15

82

Accidental Implant Screwdriver Ingestion: A Rare Complication during Implant Placement  

PubMed Central

One of the complications during a routine dental implant placement is accidental ingestion of the implant instruments, which can happen when proper precautions are not taken. Appropriate radiographs should be taken to locate the correct position of foreign body; usually the foreign body passes asymptomatically from gastrointestinal tract but sometimes it may lead to intestinal obstruction, perforations and impactions. The aim of this article is to report accidental ingestion of 19 mm long screw driver by a senile patient.

Jain, Anshul; Baliga, Shridhar D

2014-01-01

83

INCIDENTAL AND ACCIDENTAL POLLUTION IN ITALY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three different scenarios of pollution of the environment in the Campania Region, south Italy, were studied. The first study\\u000a (a) deals with the spatial and temporal distribution of the radioactive levels of 134Cs, 137Cs, 103Ru in the unpolluted area of the Vesuvius National Park after the nuclear accident of Chernobyl in 1986. The effectiveness\\u000a of S. vesuvianus as biomonitor and

MICHELE ARIENZO

84

Infrasonic signals from an accidental chemical explosion  

SciTech Connect

A series of large accidental explosions occurred at a chemical plant in Henderson, Nevada on May 4, 1988. The explosions were produced by the ignition of stores of ammonium perchlorate produced for solid rocket fuel at the Pacific Engineering and Production Co. This material, prior to the incident, had been believed to be non- explosive. The blasts destroyed the plant and caused one death. There was a series of explosions over a period of time with two major explosions which we will identify as A at 18:53:34 (all times herein will be given in C.U.T.) and B at 18:57:35. Signals from events A and B as well as smaller events were detected by the infrasound arrays operated by the Los Alamos National Laboratory at St. George, Utah (distance 159 km) and at Los Alamos, N.M. (distance 774 km). The Henderson explosions present an interesting and challenging set of infrasound observations. The case may be unique in providing two very large sources separated in time by only four minutes. To fully understand the propagation details will require further analysis and probably a modeling effort. The understanding of the St. George signals in the context of Lamb waves would be valuable for a better understanding of this mode of propagation. The improved understanding of long range infrasonic propagation is now especially important in the context of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). A portion of the plan for CTBT monitoring includes a global distribution of sixty infrasound arrays to provide for the monitoring of signals in as uniform a way as possible. It is expected that under this global network many signals and interpretation questions of the type described here will be encountered. Investigations of propagation over the ranges of hundreds to thousands of kilometers will be highly desired.

Mutschlecner, J.P.; Whitaker, R.W.

1996-12-31

85

Evaporative Deposition in Receding Drops  

E-print Network

We present a framework for calculating the surface density profile of a stain deposited by a drop with a receding contact line. Unlike a pinned drop, a receding drop pushes fluid towards its interior, continuously deposits mass across its substrate as it evaporates, and does not produce the usual "coffee ring." For a thin, circular drop with a constant evaporation rate, we find the surface density of the stain goes as $\\eta(r) \\propto \\left(\\left(r/a_0\\right)^{-1/2}-r/a_0\\right)$, where $r$ is the radius from the drop center and $a_0$ is the initial outer radius. Under these conditions, the deposited stain has a mountain-like morphology. Our framework can easily be extended to investigate new stain morphologies left by drying drops.

Julian Freed-Brown

2014-10-02

86

Evaporative deposition in receding drops.  

PubMed

We present a framework for calculating the surface density profile of a stain deposited by a drop with a receding contact line. Unlike a pinned drop, a receding drop pushes fluid towards its interior, continuously deposits mass across its substrate as it evaporates, and does not produce the usual "coffee ring." For a thin, circular drop with a uniform evaporation rate, we find the surface density of the stain goes as ?(r) ? ((r/a0)(-1/2)-r/a0), where r is the radius from the drop center and a0 is the initial outer radius. Under these conditions, the deposited stain has a mountain-like morphology. Our framework can easily be extended to investigate new stain morphologies left by drying drops. PMID:25350152

Freed-Brown, Julian

2014-12-21

87

Scenarios: Heuristics for action  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper present a heuristic model to ease scenario construction and usage in interaction design processes. We argue that the role of scenarios varies: I) along the design process, thus scenario building and usage have to be attuned to the particular goal of the design phase; II) in respect to the people that will use them (e.g., design team, client,

Antonio Rizzo; Margherita Bacigalupo

2004-01-01

88

Technology Forecasting Scenario Development  

E-print Network

Technology Forecasting and Scenario Development Newsletter No. 1 June 1998 Systems Analysis research programme (tenta- tively titled: Technology Forecasting and Scenario Development). The tentative. This newsletter presents the status on the Risø initiative on technology forecasting and scenario development

89

The rho meson in a scenario of pure chiral restoration  

E-print Network

Based on QCD sum rules we explore the consequences of a pure chiral restoration scenario for the rho meson, where all chiral symmetry breaking condensates are dropped whereas the chirally symmetric condensates remain at their vacuum values. This pure chiral restoration scenario causes the drop of the rho spectral moment by about 120 MeV. The complementarity of mass shift and broadening is discussed. A simple parametrization of the rho spectral function leads to a width of about 600 MeV if no shift of the peak position is assumed.

Thomas Hilger; Ronny Thomas; Burkhard Kampfer; Stefan Leupold

2010-05-26

90

How Many Drops?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson and its associated activity, students conduct a simple test to determine how many drops of each of three liquids can be placed on a penny before spilling over. The three liquids are water, rubbing alcohol, and vegetable oil; because of their different surface tensions, more water can be piled on top of a penny than either of the other two liquids. However, this is not the main point of the activity. Instead, students are asked to come up with an explanation for their observations about the different amounts of liquids a penny can hold. In other words, they are asked to make hypotheses that explain their observations, and because middle school students are not likely to have prior knowledge of the property of surface tension, their hypotheses are not likely to include this idea. Then they are asked to come up with ways to test their hypotheses, although they do not need to actually test their hypotheses. The important points for students to realize are that 1) the tests they devise must fit their hypotheses, and 2) the hypotheses they come up with must be testable in order to be useful.

Engineering K-PhD Program,

91

Gas Pressure-Drop Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most chemical engineering undergraduate laboratories have fluid mechanics experiments in which pressure drops through pipes are measured over a range of Reynolds numbers. The standard fluid is liquid water, which is essentially incompressible. Since density is constant, pressure drop does not depend on the pressure in the pipe. In addition, flow…

Luyben, William L.; Tuzla, Kemal

2010-01-01

92

Hanging drop crystal growth apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This invention relates generally to control systems for controlling crystal growth, and more particularly to such a system which uses a beam of light refracted by the fluid in which crystals are growing to detect concentration of solutes in the liquid. In a hanging drop apparatus, a laser beam is directed onto drop which refracts the laser light into primary and secondary bows, respectively, which in turn fall upon linear diode detector arrays. As concentration of solutes in drop increases due to solvent removal, these bows move farther apart on the arrays, with the relative separation being detected by arrays and used by a computer to adjust solvent vapor transport from the drop. A forward scattering detector is used to detect crystal nucleation in drop, and a humidity detector is used, in one embodiment, to detect relative humidity in the enclosure wherein drop is suspended. The novelty of this invention lies in utilizing angular variance of light refracted from drop to infer, by a computer algorithm, concentration of solutes therein. Additional novelty is believed to lie in using a forward scattering detector to detect nucleating crystallites in drop.

Naumann, Robert J. (inventor); Witherow, William K. (inventor); Carter, Daniel C. (inventor); Bugg, Charles E. (inventor); Suddath, Fred L. (inventor)

1990-01-01

93

Nonlinear oscillations of pendant drops  

SciTech Connect

Whereas oscillations of [ital free] drops have been scrutinized for over a century, oscillations of [ital supported] ([ital pendant] or [ital sessile]) drops have only received limited attention to date. Here, the focus is on the axisymmetric, free oscillations of arbitrary amplitude of a viscous liquid drop of fixed volume [ital V] that is pendant from a solid rod of radius [ital R] and is surrounded by a dynamically inactive ambient gas. This nonlinear free boundary problem is solved by a method of lines using Galerkin/finite element analysis for discretization in space and an implicit, adaptive finite difference technique for discretization in time. The dynamics of such nonlinear oscillations are governed by four dimensionless groups: (1) a Reynolds number Re, (2) a gravitational Bond number [ital G], (3) dimensionless drop volume [ital V]/[ital R][sup 3] or some other measure of drop size, and (4) a measure of initial drop deformation [ital a]/[ital b]. The change in frequency [Delta][omega] of pendant drops with increasing initial deformation is drop size dependent. As the average linear size of pendant drops characterized by [ital V][sup 1/3] becomes large compared to the rod radius, [ital V][sup 1/3]/[ital R][much gt]1, [Delta][omega] falls as [ital a]/[ital b] rises, in accordance with results for free drops. The dynamics of very small drops, i.e., ones for which [ital V][sup 1/3]/[ital R][much lt]1, however, are profoundly affected by the presence of the solid rod. For such small drops, [Delta][omega] rises as [ital a]/[ital b] rises, a remarkable fact. The results show that for drops of a given size, the frequency is insignificantly affected by viscosity over a wide of range of Reynolds numbers. However, when Re falls below a critical value, the nature of drop motion changes from underdamped oscillations to an aperiodic return to the rest state (Abstract Truncated)

Basaran, O.A.; DePaoli, D.W. (Chemical Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6224 (United States))

1994-09-01

94

Investigation on drop size distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two types of atomizer, swirl atomizer and air blast atomizer, have been investigated. For swirl atomizer, the effect of pressure drop, air velocity, fuel viscosity on drop size distribution (as expressed by the drop size distribution parameter N in Rosin-Rammler distribution), and for air blast atomizer, the effect of atomization air velocity, air/liquid ratio, axial distance from the nozzle on drop size distribution, were experimentally determined. For swirl atomizer, all the factors causing mean diameter decreasing will decrease the parameter N. For air blast atomizer, increasing atomization air velocity, and decreasing air/liquid ratio will decrease the parameter N. N also increases with axial distance. Based on the experimental data, and the mathematical equation, the ratio of MMD/SMD is a single function of N and can be used to indicate the uniformity of drop size distribution of sprays, particularly for sprays expressed by different distribution functions.

Zhao, Y. H.; Hou, M. H.; Kong, X. Z.; Chin, J. S.

1984-06-01

95

Magnetic control of Leidenfrost drops.  

PubMed

We show how a magnetic field can influence the motion of a paramagnetic drop made of liquid oxygen in a Leidenfrost state on solids at room temperature. It is demonstrated that the trajectory can be modified in both direction and velocity and that the results can be interpreted in terms of classical mechanics as long as the drop does not get too close to the magnet. We study the deviation and report that it can easily overcome 180? and even diverge under certain conditions, leading to situations where a drop gets captured. In the vicinity of the magnet, another type of trapping is observed, due to the deformation of the drop in this region, which leads to a strong energy dissipation. Conversely, drops can be accelerated by moving magnets (slingshot effect). PMID:23004866

Piroird, Keyvan; Clanet, Christophe; Quéré, David

2012-05-01

96

Forced oscillations of pendant drops  

SciTech Connect

The efficiency of droplet/bubble breakup in multiphase contactors can be increased by applying external fields at resonance frequencies of the drops/bubbles. Experimental and theoretical techniques, developed for the study of forced oscillation of pendant drops on nozzles, are used to gain a fundamental understanding of drop response as a function of forcing frequency. Preliminary results of drop oscillations caused by electrical and flow perturbation techniques indicate that the relationship of resonance frequency to drop size for a given fluid system is not affected by the means of excitation. Computational techniques may be used to gain insight into phenomena which are difficult to probe by experiment, such as internal flow fields. The understanding gained by use of these techniques will be indispensable in design and operation of future multiphase contacting devices.

DePaoli, D.W.; Basaran, O.A.; Scott, T.C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)] [and others

1995-04-01

97

Reducing the loss of vaccines from accidental freezing in the cold chain: The experience of continuous temperature monitoring in Tunisia.  

PubMed

Accidental freezing of vaccines is a growing threat and a real risk for national immunization programs when the potency of many vaccines can be compromised if these are exposed to sub-zero temperatures in the cold chain. In Tunisia, this issue is compounded by using sub-standard domestic cold chain equipment instead of equipping the program with medical refrigerators designed specifically for storing vaccines and temperature sensitive pharmaceuticals. Against this backdrop, this paper presents the findings of a demonstration project conducted in Tunisia in 2012 that tested the impact of introducing several freeze prevention solutions to mitigate the risk of accidental freezing of vaccines. The main finding is that, despite the continued use of underperforming domestic refrigerators, continuous temperature monitoring using new technologies combined with other technological interventions significantly reduced the prevalence of accidental exposure to freezing temperatures. These improvements were noticed for cold chain storage at regional, district and health center levels, and during the transport legs that were part of the demonstration conducted in the regions of Kasserine in the South-Eastern part of Tunisia. Subsequent to introducing these freeze prevention solutions, the incidence of freeze alarms was reduced and the percent of time the temperatures dropped below the 2°C recommended threshold. The incidence of freeze alarms at health center level was reduced by 40%. Lastly, the solutions implemented reduced risk of freezing during transport from 13.8% to 1.7%. Although the solution implemented is not optimal in the longer term because domestic refrigerators are used extensively in district stores and health centers, the risk of accidental freezing is significantly reduced by introducing the practice of continuous temperature monitoring as a standard. The management of the cold chain equipment was strengthened as a result which helps protect the potency of vaccines to the areas of most difficult access. PMID:25444810

Lloyd, John; Lydon, Patrick; Ouhichi, Ramzi; Zaffran, Michel

2015-02-11

98

Reducing the loss of vaccines from accidental freezing in the cold chain: The experience of continuous temperature monitoring in Tunisia  

PubMed Central

Accidental freezing of vaccines is a growing threat and a real risk for national immunization programs when the potency of many vaccines can be compromised if these are exposed to sub-zero temperatures in the cold chain. In Tunisia, this issue is compounded by using sub-standard domestic cold chain equipment instead of equipping the program with medical refrigerators designed specifically for storing vaccines and temperature sensitive pharmaceuticals. Against this backdrop, this paper presents the findings of a demonstration project conducted in Tunisia in 2012 that tested the impact of introducing several freeze prevention solutions to mitigate the risk of accidental freezing of vaccines. The main finding is that, despite the continued use of underperforming domestic refrigerators, continuous temperature monitoring using new technologies combined with other technological interventions significantly reduced the prevalence of accidental exposure to freezing temperatures. These improvements were noticed for cold chain storage at regional, district and health center levels, and during the transport legs that were part of the demonstration conducted in the regions of Kasserine in the South-Eastern part of Tunisia. Subsequent to introducing these freeze prevention solutions, the incidence of freeze alarms was reduced and the percent of time the temperatures dropped below the 2 °C recommended threshold. The incidence of freeze alarms at health center level was reduced by 40%. Lastly, the solutions implemented reduced risk of freezing during transport from 13.8% to 1.7%. Although the solution implemented is not optimal in the longer term because domestic refrigerators are used extensively in district stores and health centers, the risk of accidental freezing is significantly reduced by introducing the practice of continuous temperature monitoring as a standard. The management of the cold chain equipment was strengthened as a result which helps protect the potency of vaccines to the areas of most difficult access. PMID:25444810

Lloyd, John; Lydon, Patrick; Ouhichi, Ramzi; Zaffran, Michel

2015-01-01

99

Doses from accidental releases of tritium and activation products into the atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In view of public acceptance and the licensing procedure of projected fusion reactors, the release of tritium and activation products during normal operation as well as after accidents is a significant safety aspect. Calculations have been performed under accidental conditions for unit releases of corrosion products from water coolant loops, of first wall erosion products including different coating materials, and of tritium in its chemical form of tritiated water (HTO). Dose assessments during normal operation have been performed for corrosion products from first wall primary coolant loop and for tritium in both chemical forms (HT/HTO). The two accident consequence assessment (ACA) codes UFOTRI and COSYMA have been applied for the deterministic dose calculations with nearly the same input variables and for several radiological source terms. Furthermore, COSYMA and NORMTRI have been applied for routine release scenarios. The paper analyzes the radioation doses to individuals and the population resulting from the different materials assumed to be released in the environment.

Raskob, W.

1993-06-01

100

A screening tool to prioritize public health risk associated with accidental or deliberate release of chemicals into the atmosphere.  

PubMed

The Chemical Events Working Group of the Global Health Security Initiative has developed a flexible screening tool for chemicals that present a risk when accidentally or deliberately released into the atmosphere. The tool is generic, semi-quantitative, independent of site, situation and scenario, encompasses all chemical hazards (toxicity, flammability and reactivity), and can be easily and quickly implemented by non-subject matter experts using freely available, authoritative information. Public health practitioners and planners can use the screening tool to assist them in directing their activities in each of the five stages of the disaster management cycle. PMID:23517410

Blakey, David H; Lafontaine, Marc; Lavigne, Jocelyn; Sokolowski, Danny; Philippe, Jean-Marc; Sapori, Jean-Marc; Biederbick, Walter; Horre, Regine; Marzi, Willi B; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Kuroki, Yumiko; Namera, Akira; Okumura, Tetsu; Yamamoto, Miyako; Yashiki, Mikio; Blain, Peter G; Russell, David R; Cibulsky, Susan M; Jett, David A

2013-01-01

101

Extension of drop experiments with the MIKROBA balloon drop facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The German balloon drop facility MIKROBA extends the worldwide available drop experiment opportunities to the presently highest usable experimentation time span of 55 s at microgravity conditions better than 0.001 g. The microgravity period is started with the typical quasi-deal step function from 1 to 0 g. MIKROBA allows flexible experiment design, short access time, and easy hands-on payload integration. The transport to the operational height is realized by soft energies and technologies compatible with the earth's environment. Balloon campaigns are not restricted to a certain test range, i.e., several suitable sites are available all over the world. MIKROBA combines negligible mechanical loads at the mission start, typical of all drop facilities, with extremely low drop deceleration loads (less than g), due to the implemented three-stage parachute and airbag recovery subsystem.

Sommer, K.; Kretzschmar, K.; Dorn, C.

1992-12-01

102

Rawson, C., Crake, K. (students) and Brown, A.J., "Assessing the Environmental Performance of Tankers in Accidental Grounding and Collision", SNAME Transactions 106, pp. 41-58, 1998.  

E-print Network

1 Rawson, C., Crake, K. (students) and Brown, A.J., "Assessing the Environmental Performance and accident scenario probabilities. This methodology is used to assess the environmental performance of Tankers in Accidental Grounding and Collision", SNAME Transactions 106, pp. 41-58, 1998. Assessing

Brown, Alan

103

Extension of drop experiments with the MIKROBA balloon drop facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The German balloon drop facility MIKROBA extends the worldwide available drop experiment opportunities to the presently highest usable experimentation time span of 55 s at microgravity conditions better than 0.001 g. The microgravity period is started with the typical quasi-deal step function from 1 to 0 g. MIKROBA allows flexible experiment design, short access time, and easy hands-on payload integration.

K. Sommer; K. Kretzschmar; C. Dorn

1992-01-01

104

Coalescence of viscous liquid drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on studies of the early stage of coalescence of two liquid drops. The drops were high viscosity silicon oil immersed in a water-alcohol mixture of the same density in order to eliminate the effects of gravity. The viscosity was sufficiently large that measurements could be made under the conditions of Stokes flow. Measurements were made of the radius of the neck between the drops as a function of the time from the onset of coalescence, and the results compared with theoretical predictions.

Yao, W.; Maris, H. J.; Pennington, P.; Seidel, G. M.

2005-01-01

105

Scaling and gender behavior of road accidental dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The probability distribution of the time intervals between two consecutive accidents is investigated, based on the road accidental records of the Great Britain. A universal description is obtained for different roads, by rescaling the probability distribution and time intervals. The scaling curve is found to deviate from the Gaussian distribution, but it is well fitted by a stretched exponential function. Long-range time correlation is revealed for the interevent series. Moreover, gender similarity is found for the small accidental intervals, while for the large intervals, the female drivers are observed to present a higher probability than the male drivers.

Qiu, Tian; Zou, Xiang-Xiang; Chen, Guang; Jiang, Xiong-Fei; Zhong, Li-Xin

2014-12-01

106

Curvature Inspired Cosmological Scenario  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using modified gravity with non-linear terms of curvature, R 2 and R (2+ r) (with r being a positive real number and R being the scalar curvature), cosmological scenario, beginning at the Planck scale, is obtained. Here a unified picture of cosmology is obtained from f( R)- gravity. In this scenario, universe begins with power-law inflation followed by deceleration and

S. K. Srivastava

2008-01-01

107

Technology Forecasting Scenario Development  

E-print Network

Technology Forecasting and Scenario Development Newsletter No. 2 October 1998 Systems Analysis allocated to the Technology Forecasting and Scenario Develop- ment programme (marked (*) ) in the following development of theories and methodologies for Technology Foresight in a Danish context. 1 The research

108

Analysis for Eccentric Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Drops at the Canister Storage Building (CSB) (CSB-S-0073)  

SciTech Connect

Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) containing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) will be routinely handled at the Canister Storage Building (CSB) during fuel movement operations in the SNF Project. This analysis was performed to investigate the potential for damage from an eccentric accidental drop onto the standard storage tube, overpack tube, service station, or sample/weld station. Appendix D was added to the FDNW document to include the peer Review Comment Record & transmittal record.

TU, K.C.

1999-10-08

109

ARAMIS PROJECT Accidental Risk Assessment Methodology for Industries  

E-print Network

ARAMIS PROJECT Accidental Risk Assessment Methodology for Industries in the Framework of SEVESOII, which started on January 2002. The ARAMIS project aims at developing a new risk assessment methodology measures against major accidents and the vulnerability of its environment. The methodology will support

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

110

ARAMIS PROJECT Accidental Risk Assessment Methodology for Industries  

E-print Network

ARAMIS PROJECT Accidental Risk Assessment Methodology for Industries in the framework of SEVESO II on January 2002. The ARAMIS project aims at developing a new risk assessment methodology which allows accidents and the vulnerability of its environment. The methodology will support the harmonised

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

111

GROUP LIFE AND ACCIDENTAL DEATH AND DISMEMBERMENT INSURANCE  

E-print Network

GROUP LIFE AND ACCIDENTAL DEATH AND DISMEMBERMENT INSURANCE PROGRAM University of California Regents #12;#12;GROUP LIFE INSURANCE #12;#12;LRS-6441 Ed. 11/84 CERTIFICATE OF INSURANCE We certify that you (provided you belong to a class described on the Schedule of Benefits) are insured

Mullins, Dyche

112

Pneumonitis and pneumatoceles following accidental hydrocarbon aspiration in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accidental ingestion and aspiration of hydrocarbons in children are common. Among the various clinical and pathological manifestations of hydrocarbon (HC) poisoning, pneumonitis is the most significant and occurs in up to 40% of children, whereas formation of pneumatoceles is believed to be a rare event. We report two children with HC pneumonitis and pneumatoceles as a reversible complication after ingestion

Gabriela H. Thalhammer; Ernst Eber; Maximilian S. Zach

2005-01-01

113

Accidental intra-arterial injection of papaveretum during anaesthesia.  

PubMed

The circulatory depressant action of papaveretum was demonstrated when the drug was injected accidentally into the radial artery during neuroanaesthesia in the upright (sitting) position. The signs of air embolism were mimicked. The condition reponded promptly to a vasopressor given intravenously. There were no harmful sequelae to the patient's hand. PMID:474950

Michel, R; Adams, A P

1979-05-01

114

Survival following accidental ligature strangulation: a case report.  

PubMed

Survival following accidental ligature strangulation is quite rare. The present case involves an adult male strangulated by a soft cotton cloth entangled in the rotor of a machine. Unilateral neck compression allowed survival of the victim. The victim escaped with minimal injuries which were limited to contusion of the neck and edema of the vocal cords and inter arytenoid region. PMID:17112764

Chattopadhyay, Saurabh; Pal, Indranil

2008-01-01

115

Key-locked guard prevents accidental switch actuation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Switch guard, which locks in place on a panel, protects individual switches from accidental activation. The guard consists of a cup to cover the switch lever, a standard screw lock tumbler, and a stud that mates with a threaded adapter in the panel.

Hawthorne, K. C.

1966-01-01

116

Accidentes en plantas nucleares de electricidad y el riesgo de cáncer  

Cancer.gov

Hoja informativa acerca de los riesgos del cáncer asociados con accidentes en plantas nucleares de electricidad. Incluye información para pacientes con cáncer que viven en una zona que puede haber sido afectada por un accidente en una planta nuclear.

117

ACCIDENTAL INJURY AND INCLEMENT WEATHER: DEFINING THE RELATIONSHIP AND ANTICIPATING THE EFFECTS OF A CHANGING CLIMATE  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this activity is to utilize a combination of existing scientific knowledge and professional expertise and experience to develop a research strategy for lessening the incidence and the impact of accidental injuries associated with inclement weather. Accidental inj...

118

Production of ultra-small ink jet drops using drop-on-demand (DOD) drop formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of drops having radii that are smaller than the radii of the nozzle from which they are ejected is an active area of research in drop-on-demand (DOD) ink jet printing. In the last decade, Chen and Basaran (Phys Fluids, 2002; US patent, 2003) showed experimentally and computationally that several fold reduction in drop radius R (an order of magnitude reduction in drop volume V) is possible by judicious use of waveform modulation in which one or more intrinsic time scales such as capillary time, time for vorticity diffusion, and time for piezo actuation are varied. In this paper, we report the results of a computational study through which we have uncovered a novel method for achieving a factor of 5-10 reduction in R (about two to three orders of magnitude reduction in V). Scaling arguments are also developed which yield a simple expression for the size of the ultra-small drops formed as a function of the governing dimensionless groups. Formation of such small drops using DOD technology may prove especially attractive in applications involving direct printing of flexible electronics and solar cells.

Gao, Haijing; Xu, Qi; Harris, Michael; Basaran, Osman

2009-11-01

119

Forced Oscillations of Supported Drops  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Oscillations of supported liquid drops are the subject of wide scientific interest, with applications in areas as diverse as liquid-liquid extraction, synthesis of ceramic powders, growing of pure crystals in low gravity, and measurement of dynamic surface tension. In this research, axisymmetric forced oscillations of arbitrary amplitude of viscous liquid drops of fixed volume which are pendant from or sessile on a rod with a fixed or moving contact line and surrounded by an inviscid ambient gas are induced by moving the rod in the vertical direction sinusiodally in time. In this paper, a preliminary report is made on the computational analysis of the oscillations of supported drops that have 'clean' interfaces and whose contact lines remain fixed throughout their motions. The relative importance of forcing to damping can be increased by either increasing the amplitude of rod motion A or Reynolds number Re. It is shown that as the ratio of forcing to damping rises, for drops starting from an initial rest state a sharp increase in deformation can occur when they are forced to oscillate in the vicinity of their resonance frequencies, indicating the incipience of hysteresis. However, it is also shown that the existence of a second stable limit cycle and the occurrence of hysteresis can be observed if the drop is subjected to a so-called frequency sweep, where the forcing frequency is first increased and then decreased over a suitable range. Because the change in drop deformation response is abrupt in the vicinity of the forcing frequencies where hysteresis occurs, it should be possible to exploit the phenomenon to accurately measure the viscosity and surface tension of the drop liquid.

Wilkes, Edward D.; Basaran, Osman A.

1996-01-01

120

LIFE INSURANCE AND ACCIDENTAL DEATH AND DISMEMBERMENT PLAN 01-01-2012  

E-print Network

1 LIFE INSURANCE AND ACCIDENTAL DEATH AND DISMEMBERMENT PLAN 01-01-2012 The Life Insurance and Accidental Death and Dismemberment Plan (the "Plan") offers Basic and Supplemental Life Insurance coverage or terminate this Life Insurance and Accidental Death and Dismemberment Plan at any time and for any reason

Johnson, Peter D.

121

COMMISSION SCENARIO ANALYSES OF  

E-print Network

: · Two additional energy efficiency scenarios. · Carbon adder impact on coal plant dispatch. · Resource, generation costs, production costs, transmission, Western Interconnection, sensitivity assessment. v #12................................................. 3 Production Cost Model Results

122

Sensitivity and Scenario Results  

E-print Network

Presents the results of various scenarios using models used to study water, climate, agriculture and the economy in Pakistan's Indus Basin, and discusses the policy and investment implications. The water allocations per ...

Yu, Winston

123

Isoelectric Focusing in a Drop  

PubMed Central

A novel approach to molecular separations is investigated using a technique termed droplet-based isoelectric focusing. Drops are manipulated discretely on a superhydrophobic surface, subjected to low voltages for isoelectric focusing, and split—resulting in a preparative separation. A universal indicator dye demonstrates the generation of stable, reversible pH gradients (3–10) in ampholyte buffers and these gradients lead to protein focusing within the drop length. Focusing was visually characterized, spectroscopically verified, and assessed quantitatively by non-invasive light scattering measurements. It was found to correlate with a quantitative model based on 1D steady state theory. This work illustrates that molecular separations can be deployed within a single open drop and the differential fractions can be separated into new discrete liquid elements. PMID:21117663

Weiss, Noah G.; Hayes, Mark A.; Garcia, Antonio A.; Ansari, Rafat R.

2010-01-01

124

Can vibrations control drop motion?  

PubMed

We discuss a mechanism for controlled motion of drops with applications for microfluidics and microgravity. The mechanism is the following: a solid plate supporting a liquid droplet is simultaneously subject to lateral and vertical harmonic oscillations. In this way the symmetry of the back-and-forth droplet movement along the substrate under inertial effects is broken and thus will induce a net driven motion of the drop. We study the dependency of the traveled distance on the oscillation parameters (forcing amplitude, frequency, and phase shift between the two perpendicular oscillations) via phase field simulations. The internal flow structure inside the droplet is also investigated. We make predictions on resonance frequencies for drops on a substrate with a varying wettability. PMID:25398095

Borcia, Rodica; Borcia, Ion Dan; Bestehorn, Michael

2014-12-01

125

Autophobic Spreading of Drops John K. Hunter  

E-print Network

of the surfactant hexadecanethiol (HDT) in hexadecane is placed on a gold surface, the drop deposits an HDT of a drop on an HDT monolayer is nonzero. A pure HDT drop deposits an HDT monolayer on the gold surface a model for the spread­ ing of a drop that deposits an autophobic monolayer of surfactant on a surface

126

Accidental degeneracy of double Dirac cones in a phononic crystal.  

PubMed

Artificial honeycomb lattices with Dirac cone dispersion provide a macroscopic platform to study the massless Dirac quasiparticles and their novel geometric phases. In this paper, a quadruple-degenerate state is achieved at the center of the Brillouin zone in a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice phononic crystal, which is a result of accidental degeneracy of two double-degenerate states. In the vicinity of the quadruple-degenerate state, the dispersion relation is linear. Such quadruple degeneracy is analyzed by rigorous representation theory of groups. Using k·p method, a reduced Hamiltonian is obtained to describe the linear Dirac dispersion relations of this quadruple-degenerate state, which is well consistent with the simulation results. Near such accidental degeneracy, we observe some unique properties in wave propagating, such as defect-insensitive propagating character and the Talbot effect. PMID:24714512

Chen, Ze-Guo; Ni, Xu; Wu, Ying; He, Cheng; Sun, Xiao-Chen; Zheng, Li-Yang; Lu, Ming-Hui; Chen, Yan-Feng

2014-01-01

127

Accidental degeneracy of double Dirac cones in a phononic crystal  

PubMed Central

Artificial honeycomb lattices with Dirac cone dispersion provide a macroscopic platform to study the massless Dirac quasiparticles and their novel geometric phases. In this paper, a quadruple-degenerate state is achieved at the center of the Brillouin zone in a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice phononic crystal, which is a result of accidental degeneracy of two double-degenerate states. In the vicinity of the quadruple-degenerate state, the dispersion relation is linear. Such quadruple degeneracy is analyzed by rigorous representation theory of groups. Using method, a reduced Hamiltonian is obtained to describe the linear Dirac dispersion relations of this quadruple-degenerate state, which is well consistent with the simulation results. Near such accidental degeneracy, we observe some unique properties in wave propagating, such as defect-insensitive propagating character and the Talbot effect. PMID:24714512

Chen, Ze-Guo; Ni, Xu; Wu, Ying; He, Cheng; Sun, Xiao-Chen; Zheng, Li-Yang; Lu, Ming-Hui; Chen, Yan-Feng

2014-01-01

128

Parental substance abuse and accidental death in children.  

PubMed

In this report, the authors present two cases of accidental death in children of addicted parents. In the first case, the child was left unattended at home while the mother went out to buy cocaine. She was arrested and detained with no mention of the unsupervised child. The cause of death in this case was determined to be starvation and dehydration. In the second case, a child mistakenly received a methadone suppository by her father instead of an antipyretic suppository. Toxicological analysis of the femoral blood revealed methadone at a concentration of 1.2 mg/L. The cause of death was determined to be methadone intoxication. The literature is reviewed and discussed. We report these cases to illustrate the risk of harm to children from illicit drugs and prescription medications at home and because there is no mention of accidental death in children following a methadone suppository administration in the current literature. PMID:20345788

Palmiere, Cristian; Staub, Christian; La Harpe, Romano; Mangin, Patrice

2010-05-01

129

Steam prices drop in 1988  

SciTech Connect

Steam prices at The Geysers, the worlds largest producer of geothermal power, have dropped to their lowest level in 10 years and will result in a several-hundred-thousand-dollar loss in property taxes for Sonoma and Lake Counties. Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E) and Unocal, which get together once a year to set the steam price, have set a 1988 price of $15.15 per megawatt hour, a $2.11 drop from last years $17.26. PG and E produces about 8.5 billion kilowatt hours of electricity from its power plants at The Geysers every year, and it pays Unocal based on the kilowatts of power that are produced. Unocal, the biggest steam producer at The Geysers, supplies steam exclusively to PG and E for 16 of the utilities 19 power plant units in Sonoma and Lake Counties. While the price drop is bad news for steam suppliers and public agencies that benefit from geothermal tax dollars, the impact will not be as devastating as last year when the steam price fell 43.6% - from $30.60 a megawatt hour to $17.26. Hardest hit was Unocal, which lost close to $100 million with the big price drop last year and virtually halted all high-risk ventures, including exploration.

Saludes, B.

1988-12-01

130

Air cushioning in drop impact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid drops impacting on solid surfaces deform under the influence of the ambient gas that needs to be squeezed out before a true solid-liquid contact can be established. We demonstrate experimentally the existence of this theoretically predicted air layer and follow its evolution with time for moderate impact speeds (We ˜ 1 10) using reflection interference microscopy with a thickness resolution of approximately 10nm. For a wide range of fluid properties (?, ?, ?) we find a very robust generic behavior that includes the predicted formation of a dimple in the center of the drop with a local minimum of the air film thickness at its boundary. Depending on We as well as the fluid properties, a skating layer of more or less constant thickness as well as a second local minimum of the air film thickness farther away from the drop center develop in time. Eventually, solid-liquid contact is generated via random nucleation event. The nucleation spot spreads across the drop-substrate interface within a few milliseconds. This process can lead to the entrapment of an air bubble.

de Ruiter, Jolet; Oh, Jung; van den Ende, Dirk; Mugele, Frieder

2011-11-01

131

Egg Drop: An Invention Workshop  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an activity designed to stimulate elementary and junior high students to become actively engaged in thinking creatively rather than only analytically, convergently, or repetitively. The activity requires students to devise means of dropping an egg from a height without it breaking. (JR)

McCormack, Alan J.

1973-01-01

132

Getting the Drop on Sediment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this exercise, students examine Aristotle's weight hypothesis by testing variously shaped marble chips. These chips are weighed and dropped down a water tube. Average fall times and weights are recorded and graphed. Students are asked to apply this information to rock and soil deposition by streams. (MA)

Galindez, Peter

1977-01-01

133

Treatment of accidental hypothermia: a prospective clinical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 15-year prospective study was carried out of 44 patients with accidental hypothermia (mean age 60 years) admitted to an intensive therapy unit. The lowest core temperature recorded in each patient ranged from 20.0 to 34.3 degrees C. The precipitating factors were poisoning (by drugs, alcohol, or coal gas) in 25 cases and various illnesses in 19. Rewarming was achieved

I M Ledingham; J G Mone

1980-01-01

134

Rhabdomyolysis following accidental intra-arterial injection of local anesthetic.  

PubMed

Drug-induced myopathy, also named Nicolau syndrome, is a well-known phenomenon following intramuscular injection of certain agents, most commonly reported with penicillin or diclofenac. The mechanism responsible for the pathology is proposed to be incidental administration of the drug into the small arterioles. In this report, we present a Nicolau syndrome-like case that developed following accidental injection of a local anesthetic agent into the femoral artery during coronary angiography. PMID:18388104

Selimoglu, Ozer; Basaran, Murat; Ugurlucan, Murat; Ogus, Temucin Noyan

2009-01-01

135

Electrohydrodynamics of a compound drop.  

PubMed

The behavior of a compound drop, comprising two concentric fluid spheres, in a uniform electric field is studied analytically. The governing electrohydrodynamic equations are solved for Newtonian and immiscible fluids in the framework of leaky-dielectric theory and in the limit of small electric field strength and fluid inertia. A detailed analysis of the electric and flow fields is presented and it is shown that there will be four possible flow patterns in and around the globule, in terms of the direction of the external flow (pole-to-equator vs equator-to-pole) and the number of vortices (single-vortex vs double vortices) in the shell, and that the senses of the net electric shear stresses at the surfaces of the inner and the outer drops and their relative importance are the key parameters in setting these patterns. A circulation map is constructed, which is used to infer about the likelihood of the flow patterns and transition from one pattern to another for representative fluid systems. For small distortion from the spherical shape, the deformations of the inner and the outer drops are found using normal stress balances at the corresponding surfaces. It is shown that there will be four possible modes for the deformation of the compound drop, which are determined by the net normal electric and hydrodynamic stresses at the pertinent surfaces. The dynamic responses of the inner and the outer drops for representative fluid systems are studied using a deformation map, which characterizes the possibilities of the deformation modes and transition from one mode to another as a function of the fluid properties. PMID:24125349

Behjatian, Ali; Esmaeeli, Asghar

2013-09-01

136

An alternative approach for computing seismic response with accidental eccentricity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accidental eccentricity is a non-standard assumption for seismic design of tall buildings. Taking it into consideration requires reanalysis of seismic resistance, which requires either time consuming computation of natural vibration of eccentric structures or finding a static displacement solution by applying an approximated equivalent torsional moment for each eccentric case. This study proposes an alternative modal response spectrum analysis (MRSA) approach to calculate seismic responses with accidental eccentricity. The proposed approach, called the Rayleigh Ritz Projection-MRSA (RRP-MRSA), is developed based on MRSA and two strategies: (a) a RRP method to obtain a fast calculation of approximate modes of eccentric structures; and (b) an approach to assemble mass matrices of eccentric structures. The efficiency of RRP-MRSA is tested via engineering examples and compared with the standard MRSA (ST-MRSA) and one approximate method, i.e., the equivalent torsional moment hybrid MRSA (ETM-MRSA). Numerical results show that RRP-MRSA not only achieves almost the same precision as ST-MRSA, and is much better than ETM-MRSA, but is also more economical. Thus, RRP-MRSA can be in place of current accidental eccentricity computations in seismic design.

Fan, Xuanhua; Yin, Jiacong; Sun, Shuli; Chen, Pu

2014-09-01

137

IPCC SCENARIO DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

This Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has made available a consistent set of up-to-date scenarios of changes in climate and related environmental and socio-economic factors for use in climate impacts assessments. This is a link to this data through the Data Distr...

138

The SAFRR Tsunami Scenario  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey and several partners operate a program called Science Application for Risk Reduction (SAFRR) that produces (among other things) emergency planning scenarios for natural disasters. The scenarios show how science can be used to enhance community resiliency. The SAFRR Tsunami Scenario describes potential impacts of a hypothetical, but realistic, tsunami affecting California (as well as the west coast of the United States, Alaska, and Hawaii) for the purpose of informing planning and mitigation decisions by a variety of stakeholders. The scenario begins with an Mw 9.1 earthquake off the Alaska Peninsula. With Pacific basin-wide modeling, we estimate up to 5m waves and 10 m/sec currents would strike California 5 hours later. In marinas and harbors, 13,000 small boats are damaged or sunk (1 in 3) at a cost of $350 million, causing navigation and environmental problems. Damage in the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach amount to $110 million, half of it water damage to vehicles and containerized cargo. Flooding of coastal communities affects 1800 city blocks, resulting in $640 million in damage. The tsunami damages 12 bridge abutments and 16 lane-miles of coastal roadway, costing $85 million to repair. Fire and business interruption losses will substantially add to direct losses. Flooding affects 170,000 residents and workers. A wide range of environmental impacts could occur. An extensive public education and outreach program is underway, as well as an evaluation of the overall effort.

Porter, K.; Jones, Lucile M.; Ross, Stephanie L.; Borrero, J.; Bwarie, J.; Dykstra, D.; Geist, Eric L.; Johnson, L.; Kirby, Stephen H.; Long, K.; Lynett, P.; Miller, K.; Mortensen, Carl E.; Perry, S.; Plumlee, G.; Real, C.; Ritchie, L.; Scawthorn, C.; Thio, H.K.; Wein, Anne; Whitmore, P.; Wilson, R.; Wood, Nathan J.

2013-01-01

139

Climate Change, Impacts, Future Scenarios  

E-print Network

...................................................................................................... 20 4.3 FORESIGHT SCENARIOS............................................................. 30 4.6 AEA TECHNOLOGY AND ICCEPT

Watson, Andrew

140

Thermocapillary motion of deformable drops  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thermocapillary motion of initially spherical drops/bubbles driven by a constant temperature gradient in an unbounded liquid medium is simulated numerically. Effects of convection of momentum and energy, as well as shape deformations, are addressed. The method used is based on interface tracking on a base cartesian grid, and uses a smeared color or indicator function for the determination of the surface topology. Quad-tree adaptive refinement of the cartesian grid is implemented to enhance the fidelity of the surface tracking. It is shown that convection of energy results in a slowing of the drop, as the isotherms get wrapped around the front of the drop. Shape deformation resulting from inertial effects affect the migration velocity. The physical results obtained are in agreement with the existing literature. Furthermore, remarks are made on the sensitivity of the calculated solutions to the smearing of the fluid properties. Analysis and simulations show that the migration velocity depends very strongly on the smearing of the interfacial force whereas it is rather insensitive to the smearing of other properties, hence the adaptive grid.

Haj-Hariri, Hossein; Shi, Qingping; Borhan, Ali

1994-01-01

141

Attracting Water Drops - Duration: 1:28.  

NASA Video Gallery

Astronauts Cady Coleman and Ron Garan perform the Attracting Water Drops experiment from Chabad Hebrew Academy in San Diego, Calif. This research determines if a free-floating water drop can be att...

142

'Gobbling drops': the jetting-dripping transition in flows of polymer solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the breakup of capillary jets of dilute polymer solutions and the dynamics associated with the transition from dripping to jetting. High-speed digital video imaging reveals a new scenario of transition and breakup via periodic growth and detachment of large terminal drops. The underlying mechanism is discussed and a basic theory for the mechanism of breakup is also

G. H. Mc KINLEY

143

Dropping the Bomb in CEDA.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given a choice of one argument, most Cross Examination Debate Association (CEDA) competitors would choose the nuclear war scenario, which attempts to capitalize on apocalyptism. A three-stage methodology can be applied to apocalyptic appeals. First is an application of the concept of universal audience, composed of all reasonable and competent…

Hubbard, Bryan K.

144

Accidental Chlorine Gas Intoxication: Evaluation of 39 Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Chlorine is a known pulmonary irritant gas that may cause acute damage in the respiratory system. In this paper, the socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of 39 accidentally exposed patients to chlorine gas are reported and different emergency treatment modalities are also discussed. Methods Two emergency departments applications were retrospectively analyzed for evaluation of accidental chlorine gas exposure for year 2007. Patients were classified into 3 groups according to severity of clinical and laboratory findings based on the literature and duration of land of stay in the emergency department. The first group was slightly exposed (discharged within 6 hours), second group moderately exposed (treated and observed for 24 hours), and third group was severely exposed (hospitalized). Most of the patients were initially treated with a combination of humidified oxygen, corticosteroids, and bronchodilators. Results The average age was 17.03 ± 16.01 years (95% CI). Seven (17.9%) of them were female and 29 (74.4%) were children. Twenty-four patients (61.5%) were included in the first, nine (23.1%) were in second and six (15.4%) were in the third group. The presenting symptoms were cough, nausea, and vomiting and conjunctiva hyperemia for the first group, first groups symptoms plus dyspnea for the second group. Second groups symptoms plus palpitation, weakness and chest tightness were for the third group. Cough and dyspnea were seen in 64.1% and 30.8% of the patients respectively. No patients died. Conclusions The authors recommend that non symptomatic or slightly exposed patients do not need any specific treatment or symptomatic treatment is sufficient. Keywords Accidental; Chlorine exposure; Chlorine gas; Chlorine intoxication; Emergency department PMID:22481989

Sever, Mustafa; Mordeniz, Cengiz; Sever, Fidan; Dokur, Mehmet

2009-01-01

145

Charlie's Gumballs Scenario Video  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page from the Math Forum blog of Suzanne Alejandre links to a one-minute video during which Max Ray acts out the "Charlie's Gumball" Problem of the Week. The page includes links to PDFs of the scenario, the PoW Packet with the solution and teaching suggestions, a scoring rubric and the "Notice/Wonder" strategy handout that can be used to introduce the problem.

Alejandre, Suzanne

2012-04-06

146

Electrohydrodynamic flow and chaotic mixing inside drops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrohyodynamics, proposed by G. I. Taylor (1966), is the study of fluid motion under the influence of electric fields. In this work, we investigate theoretically and experimentally the electrohydrodynamic flow field inside a dielectric liquid drop and its application in driving chaotic mixing. Previous works on the electrohydrodynamic flows are mainly restricted to neutrally buoyant drops. Since settling drops are

Xiumei Xu

2007-01-01

147

Water drop friction on superhydrophobic surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate water drop friction on superhydrophobic surfaces, the motion of water drops on three different superhydrophobic surfaces has been studied by allowing drops to slide down an incline and capturing their motion using high-speed video. Two surfaces were prepared using crystallization of an alkyl ketene dimer (AKD) wax and the third surface was the leaf of a Lotus (Nelumbo

P. H. Olin; S. B. Lindström; T. Pettersson; L. Wågberg

2013-01-01

148

Contact line deposits in an evaporating drop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solids dispersed in a drying drop will migrate to the edge of the drop and form a solid ring. This phenom- enon produces ringlike stains and occurs for a wide range of surfaces, solvents, and solutes. Here we show that the migration is caused by an outward flow within the drop that is driven by the loss of solvent by

Robert D. Deegan; Olgica Bakajin; Todd F. Dupont; Greg Huber; Sidney R. Nagel; Thomas A. Witten

2001-01-01

149

Accidental dextromethorphan ingestions in children less than 5 years old  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical presentation of accidental dextromethorphan (DXM) ingestions in children\\u000a <5 years old. Two consecutive years of poison center patient encounters were reviewed. Data including age, outcomes, amount\\u000a of DXM ingested, co-ingestions, vital signs, clinical manifestations, hospital admissions, and mortality were abstracted.\\u000a Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Discussion  A total of 304

Frank LoVecchio; Anthony Pizon; Bradley Riley; Leslie Matesick; Sean O’Patry

2008-01-01

150

Self-Administered Ethanol Enema Causing Accidental Death  

PubMed Central

Excessive ethanol consumption is a leading preventable cause of death in the United States. Much of the harm from ethanol comes from those who engage in excessive or hazardous drinking. Rectal absorption of ethanol bypasses the first pass metabolic effect, allowing for a higher concentration of blood ethanol to occur for a given volume of solution and, consequently, greater potential for central nervous system depression. However, accidental death is extremely rare with rectal administration. This case report describes an individual with klismaphilia whose death resulted from acute ethanol intoxication by rectal absorption of a wine enema. PMID:25436159

Peterson, Thomas; Rentmeester, Landen; Judge, Bryan S.; Cohle, Stephen D.; Jones, Jeffrey S.

2014-01-01

151

[Intoxication from accidental ingestion of hashish: Analysis of eight cases].  

PubMed

Consultations at pediatric emergency units for acute consciousness alterations is frequent. Miscellaneous causes include cranial trauma, meningoencephalitis, metabolic disorders, drugs, or other intoxications. We report here eight cases of infants who were brought to the emergency division due to acute consciousness failure after accidental ingestion of hashish, confirmed by urinary dosage of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol. This series of under 24-month-old infants only emphasizes the value of screening for cannabis in urine in cases of abnormal consciousness and/or abnormal behavior in an infant. PMID:25466782

Patissier, C; Akdhar, M; Manin, C; Rosellini, D; Tambat, A; Tiprez, C; Wendremaire, P; Renoux, M-C

2015-01-01

152

Method and apparatus for controlling accidental releases of tritium  

DOEpatents

An improvement is described in a tritium control system based on a catalytic oxidation reactor wherein accidental releases of tritium into room air are controlled by flooding the catalytic oxidation reactor with hydrogen when the tritium concentration in the room air exceeds a specified limit. The sudden flooding with hydrogen heats the catalyst to a high temperature within seconds, thereby greatly increasing the catalytic oxidation rate of tritium to tritiated water vapor. Thus, the catalyst is heated only when needed. In addition to the heating effect, the hydrogen flow also swamps the tritium and further reduces the tritium release. 1 fig.

Galloway, T.R.

1980-04-01

153

Method and apparatus for controlling accidental releases of tritium  

DOEpatents

An improvement in a tritium control system based on a catalytic oxidation reactor wherein accidental releases of tritium into room air are controlled by flooding the catalytic oxidation reactor with hydrogen when the tritium concentration in the room air exceeds a specified limit. The sudden flooding with hydrogen heats the catalyst to a high temperature within seconds, thereby greatly increasing the catalytic oxidation rate of tritium to tritiated water vapor. Thus, the catalyst is heated only when needed. In addition to the heating effect, the hydrogen flow also swamps the tritium and further reduces the tritium release.

Galloway, Terry R. [Berkeley, CA

1980-04-01

154

Atmospheric entry of Mars-return nuclear-powered vehicles due to accidental termination of operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The entry of nuclear reactors into Earth's atmosphere resulting from an accidental or inadvertent abort of a space vehicle powered by nuclear-thermal rockets is investigated. The study is made for a typical piloted Mars mission vehicle incapacitated by an accident or malfunction during the Earth-arrival phase of the Mars-return journey due to simultaneous, multiple failures of its component systems. A single accident/abort scenario resulting in three entry possibilities is considered for a nominal hyperbolic in-bound approach velocity of 8 km/sec. The most severe case involving a direct entry is then analyzed over a broad range of approach velocities extending to 12 km/sec to include sprint-type missions. The results indicate that the severe surface heating, stagnation pressures, and g-loads are greater than 150 kW/sq cm, 300 atm, and 800-g, respectively. The wall heat transfer rate exceeds the value that can be accommodated by a carbon heatshield through radiation equilibrium prior to sublimation at 5500 K. These conditions are beyond our previous experience in crew safety, structural design, and thermal protection.

Menees, Gene P.; Park, Chul

1993-01-01

155

Drag and drop display & builder  

SciTech Connect

The Drag and Drop (DnD) Display & Builder is a component-oriented system that allows users to create visual representations of data received from data acquisition systems. It is an upgrade of a Synoptic Display mechanism used at Fermilab since 2002. Components can be graphically arranged and logically interconnected in the web-startable Project Builder. Projects can be either lightweight AJAX- and SVG-based web pages, or they can be started as Java applications. The new version was initiated as a response to discussions between the LHC Controls Group and Fermilab.

Bolshakov, Timofei B.; Petrov, Andrey D.; /Fermilab

2007-12-01

156

Liquid Drops on an Inclined Plane: The Relation between Contact Angles, Drop Shape, and Retentive Force  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contact angle hysteresis, drop shape, and drop retention were studied with a tiltable plane. Contact liquids were water and ethylene glycol. Four polymers and silicon wafers were used as substrates. When the plane was inclined, the shape of drops distorted, exhibiting advancing and receding contact angles. Drops remained stationary until a critical angle of tilt was exceeded, and then they

Charles W. Extrand; Y. Kumagai

1995-01-01

157

Channel drop filter for CWDM systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a new design of channel drop filter (CDF) based on two-dimensional photonic crystal ring resonators (PCRRs) is provided by two-dimensional (2D) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations in triangular lattice photonic crystal (PC) silicon rods. 100% forward dropping efficiency and a quality factor of over 1000 can be achieved at maximum transfer efficiency while the operating wavelength is 1550 nm. Through this novel component, three channel drop operation with 100% dropping efficiencies at all output channels can be obtained. The proposed filter provides a possibility of channel drop filter and could be used in coarse wavelength division multiplexing (CWDM) systems.

Youcef Mahmoud, Mahmoud; Bassou, Ghaouti; de Fornel, Frédérique; Taalbi, Ahmed

2013-10-01

158

Local injuries by accidental ingestion of corrosive substances by children.  

PubMed

Own data and analysis of previous publications show that situations where accidental ingestion of corrosive substances by children may have happened are frequent, but severe corrosive esophagitis leading to perforation or stricture formation is very rare. In case of suspected esophageal injury, esophagoscopy and glucocorticoid treatment become necessary. The evaluation of the initial symptoms in patients from our own material and from the literature indicates that all children with serious esophageal burns had one or more of the following symptoms: visible burns in the oral cavity, hypersalivation, retching, vomiting, retrosternal or epigastric pain, cardiovascular collaps, airway stenosis. Hence, children with an uncertain history of ingestion and without any of these symptoms need not be treated. After ingestion of liquid substances, but never of dry or granular products, lesions in the esophagus without accompanying burns in the oral cavity were observed. The evaluation of 1158 cases of accidental ingestions of several types of household products and a collection of data from the literature on the causticity of these substances shows that cleaners containing mainly detergents and phosphates (with pH values generally between 9 and 11), and household bleaches on sodium hypochlorite basis, are relatively harmless. Drain cleaners (NaOH), decalcifiers (formic acid) and detergents for automatic dish washing machines (metasilicates) are very caustic and are responsible for the majority of serious accidents in children. PMID:25063

Mühlendahl, K E; Oberdisse, U; Krienke, E G

1978-02-14

159

An unusual case of accidental poisoning: fatal methadone inhalation.  

PubMed

In this report, the authors present a case of unusual, accidental methadone intoxication in a 40-year-old man, who had inhaled methadone powder. The drug dealer was a pharmacy technician; methadone had been stolen from a pharmacy and sold as cocaine. After having inhaled methadone powder, he suffered cardiopulmonary arrest. He was admitted to hospital where he died after 24 h of intensive care. The autopsy revealed congestion of internal organs and cerebral and pulmonary edema. Microscopically, the heart showed no changes. The toxicological analyses performed on blood and urine taken at the hospital revealed methadone, cannabinoids, and ethanol. The blood methadone concentration was 290 ?g/L. The urine methadone concentration was 160 ?g/L. Midazolam and lidocaine, which were administered to the patient at the hospital, were also detected in the blood. The cause of death was determined to be methadone intoxication. The literature has been reviewed and discussed. To date, and to our knowledge, only very few cases of accidental death resulting from methadone inhalation have been described up to the case presented herein. PMID:21361950

Palmiere, Cristian; Brunel, Christophe; Sporkert, Frank; Augsburger, Marc

2011-07-01

160

Preventing Accidental Ignition of Upper-Stage Rocket Motors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A report presents a proposal to reduce the risk of accidental ignition of certain upper-stage rocket motors or other high energy hazardous systems. At present, mechanically in-line initiators are used for initiation of many rocket motors and/or other high-energy hazardous systems. Electrical shorts and/or mechanical barriers, which are the basic safety devices in such systems, are typically removed as part of final arming or pad preparations while personnel are present. At this time, static discharge, test equipment malfunction, or incorrect arming techniques can cause premature firing. The proposal calls for a modular out-of-line ignition system incorporating detonating-cord elements, identified as the donor and the acceptor, separated by an air gap. In the safe configuration, the gap would be sealed with two shields, which would prevent an accidental firing of the donor from igniting the system. The shields would be removed to enable normal firing, in which shrapnel generated by the donor would reliably ignite the acceptor to continue the ordnance train. The acceptor would then ignite a through bulkhead initiator (or other similar device), which would ignite the motor or high-energy system. One shield would be remotely operated and would be moved to the armed position when a launch was imminent or conversely returned to the safe position if the launch were postponed. In the event of failure of the remotely operated shield, the other shield could be inserted manually to safe the system.

Hickman, John; Morgan, Herbert; Cooper, Michael; Murbach, Marcus

2005-01-01

161

Drop shaping by laser-pulse impact  

E-print Network

We study the hydrodynamic response of a falling drop hit by a laser pulse. Combining high-speed with stroboscopic imaging we report that a millimeter-sized dyed water drop hit by a milli-Joule nanosecond laser-pulse deforms and propels forward at several meters per second, until it eventually fragments. We show that the drop motion results from the recoil momentum imparted at the drop surface by water vaporization. We measure the propulsion speed and the time-deformation law of the drop, complemented by boundary integral simulations. We explain the drop propulsion and shaping in terms of the laser pulse energy and drop surface tension. These findings are crucial for the generation of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light in lithography machines.

Klein, Alexander L; Visser, Claas Willem; Lhuissier, Henri; Sun, Chao; Snoeijer, Jacco H; Villermaux, Emmanuel; Lohse, Detlef; Gelderblom, Hanneke

2015-01-01

162

Why Chalk Breaks into Three Pieces When Dropped  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been the author's experience over many years, no doubt shared by others, that a stick of chalk usually breaks into three pieces when accidentally dropped onto the floor. I rarely gave it any thought, apart from noting that the fundamental mode of vibration of a freely supported, rigid rod has two nodes at an equal distance from each end. For example, a baseball bat has a node in the barrel (the sweet spot) about 15 cm from the end and another node in the handle. However, chalk is not expected to break at the node points, since maximum stress arises at the antinode in the middle of the chalk where bending is a maximum. Richard Feynman described a similar problem with long sticks of spaghetti.1 He found that they always break into three or more pieces when bent slowly beyond their breaking point, rather than simply breaking in half. He was unable to figure out why, although the problem was solved many years later2 and is nicely illustrated by Vollmer and Mollmann.3

Cross, Rod

2015-01-01

163

EXAMPLE EXPOSURE SCENARIOS ASSESSMENT TOOL  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposure scenarios are a tool to help the assessor develop estimates of exposure, dose, and risk. An exposure scenario generally includes facts, data, assumptions, inferences, and sometimes professional judgment about how the exposure takes place. The human physiological and beh...

164

Knowledge based crime scenario modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A crucial concern in the evaluation of evidence related to a major crime is the formulation of sufficient alternative plausible scenarios that can explain the available evidence. However, software aimed at assisting human crime investigators by automatically constructing crime scenarios from evidence is difficult to develop because of the almost infinite variation of plausible crime scenarios. This paper introduces a

Jeroen Keppens; Burkhard Schafer

2006-01-01

165

Environmental management scenarios: Ecological implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measure of whether a management scenario is capable of establishing regional-scale ecosystem sustainability is the degree to which it recovers the historical characteristics of the regional landscape mosaic. This study examines the ability of alternate management scenarios to recover the defining ecological features of the Everglades and South Florida landscape. Five conceptual scenarios are evaluated for recovering and sustaining

John C. Ogden; Joan A. Browder; John H. Gentile; Lance H. Gunderson; Robert Fennema; John Wang

1999-01-01

166

Curvature Inspired Cosmological Scenario  

E-print Network

Using modified gravity with non-linear terms of curvature, $R^2$ and $R^{(r +2)}$ (with $r$ being the positive real number and $R$ being the scalar curvature), cosmological scenario,beginning at the Planck scale, is obtained. Here, a unified picture of cosmology is obtained from $f(R)-$ gravity. In this scenario, universe begins with power-law inflation, followed by deceleration and acceleration in the late universe as well as possible collapse of the universe in future. It is different from $f(R)-$ dark energy models with non-linear curvature terms assumed as dark energy. Here, dark energy terms are induced by linear as well as non-linear terms of curvature in Friedmann equation being derived from modified gravity.It is also interesting to see that, in this model, dark radiation and dark matter terms emerge spontaneously from the gravitational sector. It is found that dark energy, obtained here, behaves as quintessence in the early universe and phantom in the late universe. Moreover, analogous to brane-tension in brane-gravity inspired Friedmann equation, a tension term $\\lambda$ arises here being called as cosmic tension. It is found that, in the late universe, Friedmann equation (obtained here) contains a term $- \\rho^2/2\\lambda$ ($\\rho$ being the phantom energy density) analogous to a similar term in Friedmann equation with loop quantum effects, if $\\lambda > 0$ and brane-gravity correction when $\\lambda < 0.$

S. K. Srivastava

2007-06-04

167

Biomass Scenario Model Scenario Library: Definitions, Construction, and Description  

SciTech Connect

Understanding the development of the biofuels industry in the United States is important to policymakers and industry. The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a system dynamics model of the biomass-to-biofuels system that can be used to explore policy effects on biofuels development. Because of the complexity of the model, as well as the wide range of possible future conditions that affect biofuels industry development, we have not developed a single reference case but instead developed a set of specific scenarios that provide various contexts for our analyses. The purpose of this report is to describe the scenarios that comprise the BSM scenario library. At present, we have the following policy-focused scenarios in our library: minimal policies, ethanol-focused policies, equal access to policies, output-focused policies, technological diversity focused, and the point-of-production- focused. This report describes each scenario, its policy settings, and general insights gained through use of the scenarios in analytic studies.

Inman, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Bush, B.; Peterson, S.

2014-04-01

168

Micro-explosion of compound drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introducing water into spray combustion systems, by either water-in-oil emulsification or supplementary water injection, is one of the major techniques for combustion improvement and NOx reduction. Plentiful researches are available on combustion of water-in-oil emulsion fuel drops. The emulsified liquid is a heterogeneous mixture of immiscible liquids. One component forms the continuous phase and the other component forms the discrete phase. The discrete phase consists of globules of the one fluid that are suspended in the continuous phase fluid. Water-in-oil emulsions are commonly considered for combustion applications because emulsions can result in micro-explosion, thereby reducing the average drop diameter to enhance liquid vaporization, and suppressing the formation of soot and NOx. However, the water addition generally does not exceed about 20% for smooth engine operations[!, 21. The combustion characteristics and micro-explosion of emulsion drop were studied by many researchers. The micro-explosion of water in fuel emulsion drops was caused by very fast growth of superheated water vapor bubbles, its superheat limits must be lower than the boiling point temperature of the fuel. These bubbles were primarily governed by the pressure difference between the superheated vapor and the liquid, and by the inertia imparted to the liquid by the motion of the bubble surface[3 6 In this study, we used a coaxial nozzle to generation the multi-component drop. The different type of water-in-oil fuel drops called the compound drops. Unlike an emulsion drop, a compound drop consists of a water core and a fuel shell, which can originate from the phase separation of emulsion[7, 81 or a water drop colliding with a fuel drop[9, 101 Burning and micro-explosion of compound drops have been found to be distinct from those of emulsion drops[9-111 Wang et al.[9 , 101 studied the combustion characteristics of collision merged alkane-water drops. The merged drops appeared in adhesive and inserted manners. The drop ignition delay time increased with increasing water content. The average burning rate of alkane-water drops decreased with increasing water content. In the burning process, hexadecane-water drops exhibited flash vaporization or flame extinction. Heterogeneous explosion was occasionally observed in drops with trapped air bubbles. The air bubbles were assumed to be the nucleation points of the heterogeneous explosions. Chen and Lin[11 studied the characteristics of water-in-dodecane compound drop with different water content, diameter of drop and environmental oxygen concentration. The vaporization rate increased with increasing environmental oxygen concentration. The compound drops micro-exploded during the burning process in a random way. The number of micro-explosions was majorly influenced by drop diameter, followed by environmental oxygen concentration. Water content had a weaker effect on micro-explosion. As available literature and research results of compound drop burning are scarce, their combustion and micro-explosion behaviors are still poorly understood. In this regard, we changed the drop nature as compound drops to study their combustion characteristics and micro-explosion phenomena.

Chen, Chun-Kuei; Lin, Ta-Hui

2014-08-01

169

Drop Tower Experiments concerning Fluid Management under Microgravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transport and positioning of liquid under microgravity is done utilizing capillary forces. Therefore, capillary transport processes have to be understood for a wide variety of space applications, ranging from propellant management in tanks of space transportation systems to eating and drinking devices for astronauts. There are two types of liquid transportation in microgravity using capillary forces. First, the driven liquid flow in open channels where the capillary forces at free surfaces ensure a gas and vapor free flow. Here it is important to know the limiting flow rate through such an open channel before the free surface collapses and gas is sucked into the channel. A number of different experiments at the drop tower Bremen, on sounding rockets and at the ISS have been conducted to analyse this phenomenon within different geometries. As result a geometry dependent theory for calculating the maximum flow rate has been found. On the other hand liquid positioning and transportation requires the capillary pressure of curved surfaces to achieve a liquid flow to a desired area. Especially for space applications the weight of structure has to be taken into account for development. For example liquid positioning in tanks can be achieved via a complicated set of structure filling the whole tank resulting in heavy devices not reasonable in space applications. Astrium developed in cooperation with ZARM a propellant management device much smaller than the tank volume and ensuring a gas and vapour free supply of propellant to the propulsion system. In the drop tower Bremen a model of this device was tested concerning different microgravity scenarios. To further decrease weight and ensure functionality within different scenarios structure elements are designed as perforated geometries. Capillary transport between perforated plates has been analyzed concerning the influence of geometrical pattern of perforations. The conducted experiments at the drop tower Bremen show the remarkable influence of perforations on the capillary transport capability.

Gaulke, Diana; Dreyer, Michael

2012-07-01

170

A dramatic drop in human fertility.  

PubMed

It is doubtful that the population will increase until it degrades the environment to the degree predicted by the UN, since worldwide fertility is decreasing greatly. A recent article in Scientific American, entitled "The Fertility Decline in Developing Countries," shows that birth rates in Sub-Saharan Africa, where fertility rates had been very high, are falling. For example, during 1977-1978, Kenya had a total fertility rate of 8.3 but feel to 6.7 in 1989 and to 5.4 in 1993. This is one of the fastest declines in fertility ever. The fertility decline in Sub-Saharan Africa (e.g., Botswana and Zimbabwe) means a smaller global population than that projected by the UN. It will be more difficult to declare demographic doom at the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo. The large fall in fertility will likely result in more money for global family planning. US President Clinton wants to contribute more money. The article showed that the drops in fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa occurred even though the economy was weak. The leading determinants for this decrease were increase in age at first marriage, more female education, more contraceptive use, and urbanization. Besides, fertility has been falling in Latin America, Northern Africa, and Asia for many years. Developed countries have also experienced considerable declines in fertility: Russia 1.4, the former East Germany 0.8, Spain 1.3, and Japan 1.5. Despite these lower rates, the Un still uses higher fertility assumptions (2.1, replacement fertility) to project population growth to 7.8-10 billion people, depending on the scenario. The higher rates support the UN's belief that population growth causes food shortages and reduced natural resources. PMID:12287733

Wattenberg, B

1994-03-18

171

Magnetically focused liquid drop radiator  

DOEpatents

A magnetically focused liquid drop radiator for application in rejecting energy from a spacecraft, characterized by a magnetizable liquid or slurry disposed in operative relationship within the liquid droplet generator and its fluid delivery system, in combination with magnetic means disposed in operative relationship around a liquid droplet collector of the LDR. The magnetic means are effective to focus streams of droplets directed from the generator toward the collector, thereby to assure that essentially all of the droplets are directed into the collector, even though some of the streams may be misdirected as they leave the generator. The magnetic focusing means is also effective to suppress splashing of liquid when the droplets impinge on the collector.

Botts, T.E.; Powell, J.R.; Lenard, R.

1984-12-10

172

Magnetically focused liquid drop radiator  

DOEpatents

A magnetically focused liquid drop radiator for application in rejecting rgy from a spacecraft, characterized by a magnetizable liquid or slurry disposed in operative relationship within the liquid droplet generator and its fluid delivery system, in combination with magnetic means disposed in operative relationship around a liquid droplet collector of the LDR. The magnetic means are effective to focus streams of droplets directed from the generator toward the collector, thereby to assure that essentially all of the droplets are directed into the collector, even though some of the streams may be misdirected as they leave the generator. The magnetic focusing means is also effective to suppress splashing of liquid when the droplets impinge on the collector.

Botts, Thomas E. (Fairfax, VA); Powell, James R. (Shoreham, NY); Lenard, Roger (Redondo Beach, CA)

1986-01-01

173

Dynamics of Aqueous Foam Drops  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We develop a model for the nonlinear oscillations of spherical drops composed of aqueous foam. Beginning with a simple mixture law, and utilizing a mass-conserving bubble-in-cell scheme, we obtain a Rayleigh-Plesset-like equation for the dynamics of bubbles in a foam mixture. The dispersion relation for sound waves in a bubbly liquid is then coupled with a normal modes expansion to derive expressions for the frequencies of eigenmodal oscillations. These eigenmodal (breathing plus higher-order shape modes) frequencies are elicited as a function of the void fraction of the foam. A Mathieu-like equation is obtained for the dynamics of the higher-order shape modes and their parametric coupling to the breathing mode. The proposed model is used to explain recently obtained experimental data.

Akhatov, Iskander; McDaniel, J. Gregory; Holt, R. Glynn

2001-01-01

174

Experimental validation of a numerical model for predicting the trajectory of blood drops in typical crime scene conditions, including droplet deformation and breakup, with a study of the effect of indoor air currents and wind on typical spatter drop trajectories.  

PubMed

Bloodstain Pattern Analysis (BPA) provides information about events during an assault, e.g. location of participants, weapon type and number of blows. To extract the maximum information from spatter stains, the size, velocity and direction of the drop that produces each stain, and forces acting during flight, must be known. A numerical scheme for accurate modeling of blood drop flight, in typical crime scene conditions, including droplet oscillation, deformation and in-flight disintegration, was developed and validated against analytical and experimental data including passive blood drop oscillations, deformation at terminal velocity, cast-off and impact drop deformation and breakup features. 4th order Runge-Kutta timestepping was used with the Taylor Analogy Breakup (TAB) model and Pilch and Erdman's (1987) expression for breakup time. Experimental data for terminal velocities, oscillations, and deformation was obtained via digital high-speed imaging. A single model was found to describe drop behavior accurately in passive, cast off and impact scenarios. Terminal velocities of typical passive drops falling up to 8m, distances and times required to reach them were predicted within 5%. Initial oscillations of passive blood drops with diameters of 1mmdrop aspect ratio were within 1.6% of experiment. Under typical crime scene conditions, the velocity of the drop within the first 1.5m of fall is affected little by drag, oscillation or deformation. Blood drops with diameter 0.4-4mm and velocity 1-15m/s cast-off from a rotating disk showed low deformation levels (Weber number<3). Drops formed by blunt impact 0.1-2mm in diameter at velocities of 14-25m/s were highly deformed (aspect ratios down to 0.4) and the larger impact blood drops (?1-1.5mm in diameter) broke up at critical Weber numbers of 12-14. Most break-ups occurred within 10-20cm of the impact point. The model predicted deformation levels of cast-off and impact blood drops within 5% of experiment. Under typical crime scene conditions, few cast-off drops will break up in flight. However some impact-generated drops were seen to break up, some by the vibration, others by bag breakup. The validated model can be used to gain deep understanding of the processes leading to spatter stains, and can be used to answer questions about proposed scenarios, e.g. how far blood drops may travel, or how stain patterns are affected by winds and draughts. PMID:25447183

Kabaliuk, N; Jermy, M C; Williams, E; Laber, T L; Taylor, M C

2014-10-18

175

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 2. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF AMMONIA  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses the control of accidental releases of ammonia to the atmosphere. Ammonia has an IDLH (immediately dangerous to life and health) concentration of 500 ppm, making it an acute toxic hazard. Reducing the risk associated with an accidental release of ammonia invol...

176

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 10. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF HYDROGEN CYANIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses the control of accidental releases of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) to the atmosphere. HCN has an IDLH (immediately dangerous to life and health) concentration of 50 ppm, making it an acute toxic hazard. Reducing the risk associated with an accidental release of HCN...

177

Involving Parents in Indicated Early Intervention for Childhood PTSD Following Accidental Injury  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accidental injuries represent the most common type of traumatic event to which a youth is likely to be exposed. While the majority of youth who experience an accidental injury will recover spontaneously, a significant proportion will go on to develop Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). And yet, there is little published treatment outcome…

Cobham, Vanessa E.; March, Sonja; De Young, Alexandra; Leeson, Fiona; Nixon, Reginald; McDermott, Brett; Kenardy, Justin

2012-01-01

178

Scenario planning and nanotechnological futures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scenario planning may assist us in harnessing the benefits of nanotechnology and managing the associated risks for the good of the society. Scenario planning is a way to describe the present state of the world and develop several hypotheses about the future of the world, thereby enabling discussions about how the world ought to be. Scenario planning thus is not only a tool for learning and foresight, but also for leadership. Informed decision making by experts and political leaders becomes possible, while simultaneously allaying the public's perception of the risks of new and emerging technologies such as nanotechnology. Two scenarios of the societal impact of nanotechnology are the mixed-signals scenario and the confluence scenario. Technoscientists have major roles to play in both scenarios.

Farber, Darryl; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

2009-07-01

179

Scenario-Based Tasks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page from The Experiential Learning Center provides a number of scenario-based tasks for use in the classroom or for professional development training. The materials are freely available for download and use and would be applicable to learners in a variety of subjects including software development, faculty professional development, office system applications/ICT, biology/bioinformatics, environmental studies, Python programming, engineering, network security/MIS, computational thinking and English writing. Instructor guides and other classroom instructional materials are provided. The project requests that educators let them know when these materials are used in order to track dissemination of the work and in order to inform the community about upcoming workshops and presentations.

2012-10-09

180

Accidental Intraoral Formalin Injection: A Rare Case Report  

PubMed Central

Formalin is a hazardous chemical that needs cautious handling and special storage. Owing to its disinfectant and fixative (i.e. for preserving pathologic tissue specimens in histopathology) properties, it is widely used in dentistry. Although, the terms formaldehyde and formalin are often confused as being identical, these are different as to the concentrations of the primary component i.e. formaldehyde. In fact, the common fixative available as 10% neutral buffered formalin is actually a 4% solution of formaldehyde (i.e., a 10% solution made from a 37-40% commercially pure formaldehyde solution). This case report describes an unfortunate case of accidental injection instead of local anesthetic, of formalin into the pterygomandibular space in a 35-year old woman during inferior alveolar nerve block for surgical removal of impacted lower right third molar and its successful management by cautious debridement (under both local and general anesthesia) and empirical drug therapy (utilizing analgesics and antibiotics). PMID:25568771

Dandriyal, Ramakant; Giri, Kolly Yada; Alam, Sarwar; Singh, Aishwarya Pratap

2014-01-01

181

Accidental poisoning deaths in British children 1958-77.  

PubMed Central

In the 20 years 1958-77 598 deaths were registered as due to accidental poisoning in British children under the age of 10-343 boys and 255 girls. Drugs caused 484 deaths, non-medicinal products 111, and plants three. The annual number of deaths reached a peak in 1964 but fell steadily thereafter; 16 deaths occurred in 1977. After 1970 tricyclic antidepressants replaced salicylates as the most commonly fatal poison. The next ten drugs most often recorded in 1970-7 were, in order, opiates (including diphenoxylate/atropine (Lomotil)), barbiturates, digoxin, orphenadrine (Disipal), quinine, potassium, iron, fenfluramine (Ponderax), antihistamines, and phenothiazines. In 20 years paracetamol caused one death, and before 1976 deaths caused by aspirin had fallen to fewer than two a year. Thus the introduction in 1976 and 1977 of safety packaging of these drugs can be expected to have little impact on the mortality from them in childhood. PMID:7427181

Fraser, N C

1980-01-01

182

Accidental intrathecal injection of magnesium sulfate for cesarean section.  

PubMed

Magnesium sulfate is used frequently in the operation room and risks of wrong injection should be considered. A woman with history of pseudocholinesterase enzyme deficiency in the previous surgery was referred for cesarean operation. Magnesium sulfate of 700 mg (3.5 ml of 20% solution) was accidentally administered in the subarachnoid space. First, the patient had warm sensation and cutaneous anesthesia, but due to deep tissue pain, general anesthesia was induced by thiopental and atracurium. After the surgery, muscle relaxation and lethargy remained. At 8-10 h later, muscle strength improved and train of four (TOF) reached over 0.85, and then the endotracheal tube was removed. The patient was evaluated during the hospital stay and on the anesthesia clinic. No neurological symptoms, headache or backache were reported. Due to availability of magnesium sulfate, we should be careful for inadvertent intravenous, spinal and epidural injection; therefore before injection must be double checked. PMID:25422620

Gilani, Mehryar Taghavi; Zirak, Nahid; Razavi, Majid

2014-10-01

183

Trapping of drops by wetting defects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Controlling the motion of drops on solid surfaces is crucial in many natural phenomena and technological processes including the collection and removal of rain drops, cleaning technology and heat exchangers. Topographic and chemical heterogeneities on solid surfaces give rise to pinning forces that can capture and steer drops in desired directions. Here we determine general physical conditions required for capturing sliding drops on an inclined plane that is equipped with electrically tunable wetting defects. By mapping the drop dynamics on the one-dimensional motion of a point mass, we demonstrate that the trapping process is controlled by two dimensionless parameters, the trapping strength measured in units of the driving force and the ratio between a viscous and an inertial time scale. Complementary experiments involving superhydrophobic surfaces with wetting defects demonstrate the general applicability of the concept. Moreover, we show that electrically tunable defects can be used to guide sliding drops along actively switchable tracks—with potential applications in microfluidics.

't Mannetje, Dieter; Ghosh, Somnath; Lagraauw, Rudy; Otten, Simon; Pit, Arjen; Berendsen, Christian; Zeegers, Jos; van den Ende, Dirk; Mugele, Frieder

2014-04-01

184

Bubbles and drops on curved surfaces.  

PubMed

Surface curvature affects the shape, stability, and apparent contact angle of sessile and pendant drops. Here, we develop an approximate analytical solution for non-axisymmetric perturbations to small spherical drops on a flat substrate, assuming a fixed contact angle and fixed drop volume. The analytical model is validated using numerical solutions of the Laplace equation from the Surface Evolver software. We investigate the effects of surface curvature on drop shape, pressure, and surface energy, ascertaining the energy-gradient force that drives lateral drop migration. By balancing this force with the viscous resistance/drag force, in the lubrication approximation, we predict velocities of the order of 0.1 mm s(-1) for 1 mm diameter drops of water with a 30° contact angle on a substrate with a curvature gradient of 0.01 mm(-2), achieved, for example, on a harmonic surface with a wavelength of 4 cm and an amplitude of 4 mm. PMID:24093829

Soleimani, Majid; Hill, Reghan J; van de Ven, Theo G M

2013-11-19

185

Trapping of drops by wetting defects.  

PubMed

Controlling the motion of drops on solid surfaces is crucial in many natural phenomena and technological processes including the collection and removal of rain drops, cleaning technology and heat exchangers. Topographic and chemical heterogeneities on solid surfaces give rise to pinning forces that can capture and steer drops in desired directions. Here we determine general physical conditions required for capturing sliding drops on an inclined plane that is equipped with electrically tunable wetting defects. By mapping the drop dynamics on the one-dimensional motion of a point mass, we demonstrate that the trapping process is controlled by two dimensionless parameters, the trapping strength measured in units of the driving force and the ratio between a viscous and an inertial time scale. Complementary experiments involving superhydrophobic surfaces with wetting defects demonstrate the general applicability of the concept. Moreover, we show that electrically tunable defects can be used to guide sliding drops along actively switchable tracks-with potential applications in microfluidics. PMID:24721935

't Mannetje, Dieter; Ghosh, Somnath; Lagraauw, Rudy; Otten, Simon; Pit, Arjen; Berendsen, Christian; Zeegers, Jos; van den Ende, Dirk; Mugele, Frieder

2014-01-01

186

Drop oscillations in liquid-liquid systems  

SciTech Connect

When the ratio of the drop radius to the distance separating any two drops and the relative importance of gravitational to surface forces are both small, the small amplitude oscillations of a drop of one viscous fluid immersed in another fluid are governed by the nonlinear dispersion relation derived by Miller and Scriven. The dispersion relation has been solved numerically to determine the character of oscillations for arbitrary values of drop size, physical properties of the two fluids, and interfacial tension. The new theoretical results determine the range of validity of the low-viscosity approximation, and are also shown to be essential for proper interpretation of many previously reported experimental results. New experimental measurements of natural frequencies of oscillation of water drops falling in 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, a system having properties characteristic of many others in solvent extraction, agree well with the theoretical predictions when drop radius is smaller than a critical size.

Basaran, O.A.; Scott, T.C.; Byers, C.H. (Chemical Technology, Div., Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN (US))

1988-08-01

187

Containing the accidental laboratory escape of potential pandemic influenza viruses  

PubMed Central

Background The recent work on the modified H5N1 has stirred an intense debate on the risk associated with the accidental release from biosafety laboratory of potential pandemic pathogens. Here, we assess the risk that the accidental escape of a novel transmissible influenza strain would not be contained in the local community. Methods We develop here a detailed agent-based model that specifically considers laboratory workers and their contacts in microsimulations of the epidemic onset. We consider the following non-pharmaceutical interventions: isolation of the laboratory, laboratory workers’ household quarantine, contact tracing of cases and subsequent household quarantine of identified secondary cases, and school and workplace closure both preventive and reactive. Results Model simulations suggest that there is a non-negligible probability (5% to 15%), strongly dependent on reproduction number and probability of developing clinical symptoms, that the escape event is not detected at all. We find that the containment depends on the timely implementation of non-pharmaceutical interventions and contact tracing and it may be effective (>90% probability per event) only for pathogens with moderate transmissibility (reproductive number no larger than R0?=?1.5). Containment depends on population density and structure as well, with a probability of giving rise to a global event that is three to five times lower in rural areas. Conclusions Results suggest that controllability of escape events is not guaranteed and, given the rapid increase of biosafety laboratories worldwide, this poses a serious threat to human health. Our findings may be relevant to policy makers when designing adequate preparedness plans and may have important implications for determining the location of new biosafety laboratories worldwide. PMID:24283203

2013-01-01

188

System level drop reliability method research for netbook memory module  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prevalence of portable devices such as netbook led to increased concerns on drop reliability of FBGA. In order to investigate drop reliability, board level drop test according to Jedec is done in assembly and SMT company, whereas system drop test such as netbook drop test is processed in final product company. In general, the lifetime of Jedec board level drop

Minyi Lou; Jianwei Zhou; Long Wen; Weiwei Feng; Jaisung Lee

2010-01-01

189

Rapid Drop Dynamics During Superhydrophobic Condensation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid drop motion is observed on superhydrophobic surfaces during condensation; condensate drops with diameter of order 10 ?m can move at above 100G and 0.1 m/s. When water vapor condenses on a horizontal superhydrophobic surface, condensate drops move in a seemingly random direction. The observed motion is attributed to the energy released through coalescence of neighboring condensate drops. A scaling analysis captured the initial acceleration and terminal velocity. Our work is a step forward in understanding the dynamics of superhydrophobic condensation occurring in both natural water-repellant plants and engineered dropwise condensers.

Zhang, Xiaodong; Boreyko, Jonathan; Chen, Chuan-Hua

2008-11-01

190

Nonlinear oscillations of inviscid free drops  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present analysis of free liquid drops' inviscid oscillations proceeds through solution of Bernoulli's equation to obtain the free surface shape and of Laplace's equation for the velocity potential field. Results thus obtained encompass drop-shape sequences, pressure distributions, particle paths, and the temporal evolution of kinetic and surface energies; accuracy is verified by the near-constant drop volume and total energy, as well as the diminutiveness of mass and momentum fluxes across drop surfaces. Further insight into the nature of oscillations is provided by Fourier power spectrum analyses of mode interactions and frequency shifts.

Patzek, T. W.; Benner, R. E., Jr.; Basaran, O. A.; Scriven, L. E.

1991-01-01

191

Saving every drop of water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the beginning of 2011 there has been extremely low rainfall, which has resulted in drought conditions that have affected several provinces in China. The situation of the acute water shortage requires people to make many changes in the little things they do in their daily life. Saving every drop of water and forming good habits of using water is of the utmost importance. Based on this need, our students, organized by our teachers, reached out into to the communities. By visiting, observing and issuing questionnaires, the students identified unreasonable water usage in the communities. The results of the research showed that the ratio of secondary treatment of domestic waste is very low, especially the ratio of collecting wastewater from washing, greywater, to flush the toilet. In order to solve this problem, students themselves designed a set of water saving facilities by collecting greywater to flush the toilet. They successfully installed these facilities in residential houses in the XiYinLi community, which achieved satisfactory results regarding saving water.

Jinyu, J.

2012-04-01

192

Mission Scenario Development Workbench  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mission Scenario Development Workbench (MSDW) is a multidisciplinary performance analysis software tool for planning and optimizing space missions. It provides a number of new capabilities that are particularly useful for planning the surface activities on other planets. MSDW enables rapid planning of a space mission and supports flight system and scientific-instrumentation trades. It also provides an estimate of the ability of flight, ground, and science systems to meet high-level mission goals and provides means of evaluating expected mission performance at an early stage of planning in the project life cycle. In MSDW, activity plans and equipment-list spreadsheets are integrated with validated parameterized simulation models of spacecraft systems. In contrast to traditional approaches involving worst-case estimates with large margins, the approach embodied in MSDW affords more flexibility and more credible results early in the lifecycle through the use of validated, variable- fidelity models of spacecraft systems. MSDW is expected to help maximize the scientific return on investment for space missions by understanding early the performance required to have a successful mission while reducing the risk of costly design changes made at late stages in the project life cycle.

Kordon, Mark; Baker, John; Gilbert, John; Hanks, David; Mandutianu, Dan; Hooper, David

2006-01-01

193

Thick drops on a slowly oscillating substrate.  

PubMed

We examine the evolution of a liquid drop on an inclined substrate oscillating vertically. The oscillations are weak and slow, which makes the liquid's inertia and viscosity negligible (so that the drop's shape is determined by a balance of surface tension, gravity, and vibration-induced inertial force). No assumptions are made about the drop's thickness, which extends our previous results on thin drops [Benilov, Phys. Rev. E 84, 066301 (2011)] to more realistic situations. It is shown that, if the amplitude of the substrate's oscillations exceeds a certain threshold value ?(*), the drop climbs uphill. ?(*), however, strongly depends on the thickness of the drop, which, in turn, depends on the liquid's equilibrium contact angle ?[over ¯]. In particular, there is a dramatic decrease in ?(*) when ?[over ¯] exceeds a certain threshold, which means that thick drops climb uphill for a much weaker vibration of the substrate. At the same time, the frequency range of the substrate's vibration within which drops climb uphill becomes much narrower. PMID:24032930

Benilov, E S; Cummins, C P

2013-08-01

194

Disassembly of hot classical charged drops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disassembly of hot classical charged drops containing --230 and 130 particles is studied with the molecular dynamics method. The strength of the Coulomb repulsion is chosen so that these drops have a binding energy formula similar to that of nuclei. The phase diagram of neutral matter, obtained by switching off the Coulomb force, is also similar to that of

R. J. Lenk; V. R. Pandharipande

1986-01-01

195

Leidenfrost drops Anne-Laure Biance  

E-print Network

of liquid is deposited on a hot solid, of temperature around the boiling temperature of the liquid, the drop boils and quickly vanishes. But if the solid temperature is much higher than the boiling point, the drop properties of the film, the evaporation is rather slow: a millimetric droplet of water on a metallic surface

Clanet, Christophe

196

Water drop friction on superhydrophobic surfaces.  

PubMed

To investigate water drop friction on superhydrophobic surfaces, the motion of water drops on three different superhydrophobic surfaces has been studied by allowing drops to slide down an incline and capturing their motion using high-speed video. Two surfaces were prepared using crystallization of an alkyl ketene dimer (AKD) wax, and the third surface was the leaf of a Lotus (Nelumbo Nucifera). The acceleration of the water droplets on these superhydrophobic surfaces was measured as a function of droplet size and inclination of the surface. For small capillary numbers, we propose that the energy dissipation is dominated by intermittent pinning-depinning transitions at microscopic pinning sites along the trailing contact line of the drop, while at capillary numbers exceeding a critical value, energy dissipation is dominated by circulatory flow in the vicinity of the contacting disc between the droplet and the surface. By combining the results of the droplet acceleration with a theoretical model based on energy dissipation, we have introduced a material-specific coefficient called the superhydrophobic sliding resistance, b(sh). Once determined, this parameter is sufficient for predicting the motion of water drops on superhydrophobic surfaces of a general macroscopic topography. This theory also infers the existence of an equilibrium sliding angle, ?(eq), at which the drop acceleration is zero. This angle is decreasing with the radius of the drop and is in quantitative agreement with the measured tilt angles required for a stationary drop to start sliding down an incline. PMID:23721176

Olin, Pontus; Lindström, Stefan B; Pettersson, Torbjörn; Wågberg, Lars

2013-07-23

197

Spatial Distribution of Large Cloud Drops  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

By analyzing aircraft measurements of individual drop sizes in clouds, we have shown in a companion paper (Knyazikhin et al., 2004) that the probability of finding a drop of radius r at a linear scale l decreases as l(sup D(r)) where 0 less than or equal to D(r) less than or equal to 1. This paper shows striking examples of the spatial distribution of large cloud drops using models that simulate the observed power laws. In contrast to currently used models that assume homogeneity and therefore a Poisson distribution of cloud drops, these models show strong drop clustering, the more so the larger the drops. The degree of clustering is determined by the observed exponents D(r). The strong clustering of large drops arises naturally from the observed power-law statistics. This clustering has vital consequences for rain physics explaining how rain can form so fast. It also helps explain why remotely sensed cloud drop size is generally biased and why clouds absorb more sunlight than conventional radiative transfer models predict.

Marshak, A.; Knyazikhin, Y.; Larsen, M.; Wiscombe, W.

2004-01-01

198

Drop Impact Reliability - A Comprehensive Summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a comprehensive summary of research activities focusing on the reliability of board level interconnections in drop impact, covering experimental work together with analytical and numerical modeling studies. These activities involve investigating (i) the dynamics of the PCB in product level and board level drop impact; (ii) the failure drivers: inertia force, differential flexing, and knocking; (iii) the

E. H. Wong; Y.-W. Mai; S. K. W. Seah; R. Rajoo; T. B. Lim; C. T. Lim; J. Field

2005-01-01

199

Suspended-drop electroporation for high-  

E-print Network

Suspended-drop electroporation for high- throughput delivery of biomolecules into cells Emmanuel G are top-loaded, electroporated and bottom-ejected into 96-well plates. We demonstrate the use of this suspended-drop electroporation (SDE) device to effectively introduce fluorescent dextran, small interfering

Cai, Long

200

Drops and Bubble in Materials Science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The formation of extended p-n junctions in semiconductors by drop migration, mechanisms and morphologies of migrating drops and bubbles in solids and nucleation and corrections to the Volmer-Weber equations are discussed. Bubble shrinkage in the processing of glass, the formation of glass microshells as laser-fusion targets, and radiation-induced voids in nuclear reactors were examined.

Doremus, R. H.

1982-01-01

201

Pressure Drop in a Pebble Bed Reactor  

E-print Network

Pressure drops over a packed bed of pebble bed reactor type are investigated. Measurement of porosity and pressure drop over the bed were carried out in a cylindrical packed bed facility. Air and water were used for working fluids. There are several...

Kang, Changwoo

2011-10-21

202

Drop Study/Attrition Rates, Fall 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes the attrition rate at Johnson County Community College (JCCC) (Kansas). The overall attrition rate for classes starting in fall 2000 was nearly 12%--during the fall semester 4,652 students dropped classes. Useable drop surveys were completed for 93% of those classes. Findings indicated that: (1) the Science, Math, and Health…

Summer, Pat

203

University Drop-Out: An Italian Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

University students' drop-out is a crucial issue for the universities' efficiency evaluation and funding. In this paper, we analyze the drop-out rate of the Economics and Business faculty of Sapienza University of Rome. We use administrative data on 9,725 undergraduates students enrolled in three-years bachelor programs from 2001 to 2007 and…

Belloc, Filippo; Maruotti, Antonello; Petrella, Lea

2010-01-01

204

Mixing in colliding, ultrasonically levitated drops.  

PubMed

Lab-in-a-drop, using ultrasonic levitation, has been actively investigated for the last two decades. Benefits include lack of contact between solutions and an apparatus and a lack of sample cross-contamination. Understanding and controlling mixing in the levitated drop is necessary for using an acoustically levitated drop as a microreactor, particularly for studying kinetics. A pulsed electrostatic delivery system enables addition and mixing of a desired-volume droplet with the levitated drop. Measurement of mixing kinetics is obtained by high-speed video monitoring of a titration reaction. Drop heterogeneity is visualized as 370 nl of 0.25 M KOH (pH: 13.4) was added to 3.7 ?L of 0.058 M HCl (pH: 1.24). Spontaneous mixing time is about 2 s. Following droplet impact, the mixed drop orbits the levitator axis at about 5 Hz during homogenization. The video's green channel (maximum response near 540 nm) shows the color change due to phenolphthalein absorption. While mixing is at least an order of magnitude faster in the levitated drop compared with three-dimensional diffusion, modulation of the acoustic waveform near the surface acoustic wave resonance frequency of the levitated drop does not substantially reduce mixing time. PMID:24460103

Chainani, Edward T; Choi, Woo-Hyuck; Ngo, Khanh T; Scheeline, Alexander

2014-02-18

205

Visualizing Air Around a Splashing Drop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that when a drop impacts a surface at a large enough velocity it will splash. However, it was recently discovered that removing the surrounding air from a drop can suppress splashing completely. This discovery still remains unexplained. Not only is it not understood why the air matters but it is also not even known where the liquid-air interaction is important: Is it beneath the drop, is it at the drop's edge or is it at the drops upper surface? Using modified schlieren optics combined with high-speed video imaging, we were able to visualize vortices in the air that were created when the drop spread out rapidly after hitting the substrate. These vortices varied with impact velocity and splash type. We are currently measuring the strength of forces created by the air on the upper surface of the drop in order to confirm our tentative conclusion that it is the air above the spreading drop that plays the dominant role in creating a splash.

Mauser, Kelly W.; Bischofberger, Irmgard; Nagel, Sidney R.

2012-10-01

206

Mixing of stabilised drops in suspension polymerisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In suspension polymerisation it is sometimes necessary to add material to the reactor after the reaction has started. When that happens, the new material and existing drops can remain segregated for significant amounts of time. Hashim and Brooks (Chem. Eng. Sci. 57 (2002) 3703) showed that the viscosity of drops affects both their sizes and their rates of coalescence. In

S. Hashim; B. W. Brooks

2004-01-01

207

Drop Ejection From an Oscillating Rod  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dynamics of a drop of a Newtonian liquid that is pendant from or sessile on a solid rod that is forced to undergo time-periodic oscillations along its axis is studied theoretically. The free boundary problem governing the time evolution of the shape of the drop and the flow field inside it is solved by a method of lines using a finite element algorithm incorporating an adaptive mesh. When the forcing amplitude is small, the drop approaches a limit cycle at large times and undergoes steady oscillations thereafter. However, drop breakup is the consequence if the forcing amplitude exceeds a critical value. Over a wide range of amplitudes above this critical value, drop ejection from the rod occurs during the second oscillation period from the commencement of rod motion. Remarkably, the shape of the interface at breakup and the volume of the primary drop formed are insensitive to changes in forcing amplitude. The interface shape at times close to and at breakup is a multi-valued function of distance measured along the rod axis and hence cannot be described by recently popularized one-dimensional approximations. The computations show that drop ejection occurs without the formation of a long neck. Therefore, this method of drop formation holds promise of preventing formation of undesirable satellite droplets.

Wilkes, E. D.; Basaran, O. A.

1999-01-01

208

Condensation on Surface Energy Gradient Shifts Drop Size Distribution toward Small Drops  

E-print Network

Condensation on Surface Energy Gradient Shifts Drop Size Distribution toward Small Drops Ashley M condensation from vapor onto a cooled surface, distributions of drops evolve by nucleation, growth is condensed onto a horizontally oriented surface that has been treated by silanization to deliver either

Daniel, Susan

209

The Quest for an Intermediate-Scale Accidental Axion and Further ALPs  

E-print Network

The recent detection of the cosmic microwave background polarimeter experiment BICEP2 of tensor fluctuations in the B-mode power spectrum basically excludes all plausible axion models where its decay constant is above $10^{13}$ GeV. Moreover, there are strong theoretical, astrophysical, and cosmological motivations for models involving, in addition to the axion, also axion-like particles (ALPs), with decay constants in the intermediate scale range, between $10^9$ GeV and $10^{13}$ GeV. Here, we present a general analysis of models with an axion and further ALPs and derive bounds on the relative size of the axion and ALP photon (and electron) coupling. We discuss what we can learn from measurements of the axion and ALP photon couplings about the fundamental parameters of the underlying ultraviolet completion of the theory. For the latter we consider extensions of the Standard Model in which the axion and the ALP(s) appear as pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons from the breaking of global chiral $U(1)$ (Peccei-Quinn (PQ)) symmetries, occuring accidentally as low energy remnants from exact discrete symmetries. In such models, the axion and the further ALP are protected from disastrous explicit symmetry breaking effects due to Planck-scale suppressed operators. The scenarios considered exploit heavy right handed neutrinos getting their mass via PQ symmetry breaking and thus explain the small mass of the active neutrinos via a seesaw relation between the electroweak and an intermediate PQ symmetry breaking scale. We show some models that can accommodate simultaneously an axion dark matter candidate, an ALP explaining the anomalous transparency of the universe for $\\gamma$-rays, and an ALP explaining the recently reported 3.55 keV gamma line from galaxies and clusters of galaxies, if the respective decay constants are of intermediate scale.

A. G. Dias; A. C. B. Machado; C. C. Nishi; A. Ringwald; P. Vaudrevange

2014-06-09

210

Atmospheric dispersion of ammonia accidentally released from the 242-A Evaporator, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington  

SciTech Connect

Two errors have been identified in the authorization basis for the 242-A Evaporator at the Hanford Site. These errors, which appear in the 242-A Evaporator/Crystallizer Final Safety Analysis Report analysis of ammonia gas concentrations accidentally released from the 242-A Evaporator, are: (1) the vessel ventilation system flow rate used in the previous calculations is a factor of ten higher than the actual flow rate, and (2) the previous calculations did not account for the ammonia source term reduction that would occur via condensation of ammonia vapors, which will remove a large fraction of the ammonia from the exhaust gas stream. The purpose of this document is to correct these errors and recalculate the maximum ground-level concentrations of ammonia released to the environment as a result of potential errors in blending Evaporator feed. The errors offset each other somewhat, so it is unlikely that the 242-A Evaporator has operated outside its current authorization basis. However, the errors must be corrected and the results incorporated into a revision of the 242-A Evaporator/Crystallizer Safety Analysis Report, WHC-SD-WM-SAR-023. An EPA-approved atmospheric dispersion model, SCREEN3, was used to recalculate the maximum ground-level concentrations of ammonia that would be released from the 242-A Evaporator as a result of a feed-blending error. The results of the re-analysis of the 242-A Evaporator`s ammonia release scenario are as follows. The onsite receptor 100 m away from the release point (242-A vessel vent stack) is projected to be exposed to a maximum ground-level concentration of ammonia of 8.3 ppm. The maximally-exposed offsite receptor, located at the nearest Hanford Site boundary 16 km away from the 242-A vessel vent stack, will be exposed to a maximum ground-level concentration of 0.11 ppm ammonia.

Daling, P.M.; Lavender, J.C.

1997-11-01

211

U. S. plastics demand drops sharply  

SciTech Connect

According to the Society of the Plastics Industry, plastics demand dropped sharply in the U.S. during second-quarter 1980. U.S. exports of themoplastics are down slightly from year-ago levels, and PVC and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) exports are increasing strongly, but strong exports can not offset a weak domestic market. The weakness in domestic PVC sales is due mostly to large drops in contruction pipe (-49%) and automotive uses, its leading markets, in the last year. LDPE sales have dropped 3% over the year, and 8% in film, LPDE's largest market. Polypropylene's two largest U.S. markets, molding and fibers, have also dropped sharply. Epoxy resin showed a May 1979 to May 1980 gain of 28% in exports, but three other thermosets, polyesters, urea-melamine, and phenolics, have dropped sharply since May 1979.

Not Available

1980-07-28

212

Dynamic Stability of Equilibrium Capillary Drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate a model for contact angle motion of quasi-static capillary drops resting on a horizontal plane. We prove global in time existence and long time behavior (convergence to equilibrium) in a class of star-shaped initial data for which we show that topological changes of drops can be ruled out for all times. Our result applies to any drop which is initially star-shaped with respect to a small ball inside the drop, given that the volume of the drop is sufficiently large. For the analysis, we combine geometric arguments based on the moving-plane type method with energy dissipation methods based on the formal gradient flow structure of the problem.

Feldman, William M.; Kim, Inwon C.

2014-03-01

213

Condensation on surface energy gradient shifts drop size distribution toward small drops.  

PubMed

During dropwise condensation from vapor onto a cooled surface, distributions of drops evolve by nucleation, growth, and coalescence. Drop surface coverage dictates the heat transfer characteristics and depends on both drop size and number of drops present on the surface at any given time. Thus, manipulating drop distributions is crucial to maximizing heat transfer. On earth, manipulation is achieved with gravity. However, in applications with small length scales or in low gravity environments, other methods of removal, such as a surface energy gradient, are required. This study examines how chemical modification of a cooled surface affects drop growth and coalescence, which in turn influences how a population of drops evolves. Steam is condensed onto a horizontally oriented surface that has been treated by silanization to deliver either a spatially uniform contact angle (hydrophilic, hydrophobic) or a continuous radial gradient of contact angles (hydrophobic to hydrophilic). The time evolution of number density and associated drop size distributions are measured. For a uniform surface, the shape of the drop size distribution is unique and can be used to identify the progress of condensation. In contrast, the drop size distribution for a gradient surface, relative to a uniform surface, shifts toward a population of small drops. The frequent sweeping of drops truncates maturation of the first generation of large drops and locks the distribution shape at the initial distribution. The absence of a shape change indicates that dropwise condensation has reached a steady state. Previous reports of heat transfer enhancement on chemical gradient surfaces can be explained by this shift toward smaller drops, from which the high heat transfer coefficients in dropwise condensation are attributed to. Terrestrial applications using gravity as the primary removal mechanism also stand to benefit from inclusion of gradient surfaces because the critical threshold size required for drop movement is reduced. PMID:24490757

Macner, Ashley M; Daniel, Susan; Steen, Paul H

2014-02-25

214

Futures Scenario in Science Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we describe our experiences in developing futures scenarios in two science contexts, space science and atmospheric science/climate change. Futures scenario writing can develop scientific literacy by connecting science learning to students' lifeworlds--past, present and future. They also provide a synthesising mechanism for…

Lloyd, David; Vanderhout, Annastasia; Lloyd, Lisa; Atkins, David

2010-01-01

215

Robert Collins Data Association Scenarios  

E-print Network

CSE598G Robert Collins Outline · Data Association Scenarios · Track Filtering and Gating · Global) #12;CSE598G Robert Collins Data Association Scenarios Two-frame Matching (Correspondence Problem) e.g. corners, Sift keys, image patches Matching features across frames #12;CSE598G Robert Collins Data

Collins, Robert T.

216

Robert Collins Data Association Scenarios  

E-print Network

CSE598C Robert Collins Outline · Data Association Scenarios · Track Filtering and Gating · Global) · Markov Chain Monte Carlo DA (MCMCDA) TODAY #12;CSE598C Robert Collins Multi Target Tracking (MTT harder to solve. #12;CSE598C Robert Collins Recall: Data Assoc Scenario Multi-frame Matching (matching

Collins, Robert T.

217

Robert Collins Data Association Scenarios  

E-print Network

1 CSE598G Robert Collins Outline · Data Association Scenarios · Track Filtering and Gating · Global) CSE598G Robert Collins Data Association Scenarios Two-frame Matching (Correspondence Problem) e.g. corners, Sift keys, image patches Matching features across frames CSE598G Robert Collins Data Association

Collins, Robert T.

218

Scenario Management: An Interdisciplinary Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scenario management (SM) means different things to different people, even though everyone seems to admit its current importance and its further potential. In this paper, we seek to provide an interdisciplinary framework for SM from three major disciplines that use scenarios - strategic management, human-computer interaction, and software and systems engineering - to deal with description of current and future

Matthias Jarke; Tung X. Bui; John M. Carroll

1998-01-01

219

Biofuel and Bioenergy implementation scenarios  

E-print Network

Biofuel and Bioenergy implementation scenarios Final report of VIEWLS WP5, modelling studies #12;Biofuel and Bioenergy implementation scenarios Final report of VIEWLS WP5, modelling studies By André of this project are to provide structured and clear data on the availability and performance of biofuels

220

Embedding Scenarios in Ambient Trac  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present an approach to embedding scenarios in ambient trac through the use of on-line casting, wherein vehicles are dynamically assigned scenario roles during simulation. We present a model of a scene as an abstraction that encapsulates the actions of principal role players, the background activity, and the setting in which it is to take place. We

Olivier Alloyer; Esmail Bonakdarian; James Cremer; Joseph Kearney; Peter Willemsen

1997-01-01

221

A fatality caused by accidental production of hydrogen sulfide.  

PubMed

A 55-year-old male Caucasian truck driver was dead at the scene after breathing hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) produced by an accidental transfer of sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaHS) from a tanker truck to a tank containing 4% sulfuric acid (H(2)SO(4)) and iron(II) sulfate (FeSO(4)). Autopsy of the decedent's body revealed pulmonary edema and passive congestion in lungs, spleen, kidneys, and adrenal glands. Postmortem biological samples were analyzed for carbon monoxide, cyanide, ethanol, and drugs. Since a potential exposure to H(2)S was involved, blood was also analyzed for sulfide (S(2-)). The analysis entailed isolating S(2-) from blood as H(2)S using 0.5M H(3)PO(4), trapping the gas in 0.1M NaOH, and determining the electromotive force using a sulfide ion specific electrode. Acetaminophen at a concentration of 14.3 microg/ml was found in blood, and metoprolol was detected in the blood, liver, and kidney samples. The blood S(2-) level was determined to be 1.68 microg/ml. It is concluded that the cause of death was H(2)S poisoning associated with a hazardous material accident in an industrial situation. PMID:11728749

Chaturvedi, A K; Smith, D R; Canfield, D V

2001-12-01

222

Mitigation of Lung Injury after Accidental Exposure to Radiation  

PubMed Central

There is a serious need to develop effective mitigators against accidental radiation exposures. In radiation accidents, many people may receive nonuniform whole-body or partial-body irradiation. The lung is one of the more radiosensitive organs, demonstrating pneumonitis and fibrosis that are believed to develop at least partially because of radiation-induced chronic inflammation. Here we addressed the crucial questions of how damage to the lung can be mitigated and whether the response is affected by irradiation to the rest of the body. We examined the widely used dietary supplement genistein given at two dietary levels (750 or 3750 mg/kg) to Fischer rats irradiated with 12 Gy to the lung or 8 Gy to the lung + 4 Gy to the whole body excluding the head and tail (whole torso). We found that genistein had promising mitigating effects on oxidative damage, pneumonitis and fibrosis even at late times (36 weeks) when drug treatment was initiated 1 week after irradiation and stopped at 28 weeks postirradiation. The higher dose of genistein showed no greater beneficial effect. Combined lung and whole-torso irradiation caused more lung-related severe morbidity resulting in euthanasia of the animals than lung irradiation alone. PMID:22013884

Mahmood, J.; Jelveh, S.; Calveley, V.; Zaidi, A.; Doctrow, S. R.; Hill, R. P.

2011-01-01

223

Non-accidental health impacts of wildfire smoke.  

PubMed

Wildfires take a heavy toll on human health worldwide. Climate change may increase the risk of wildfire frequency. Therefore, in view of adapted preventive actions, there is an urgent need to further understand the health effects and public awareness of wildfires. We conducted a systematic review of non-accidental health impacts of wildfire and incorporated lessons learned from recent experiences. Based on the literature, various studies have established the relationship between one of the major components of wildfire, particulate matter (particles with diameter less than 10 µm (PM10) and less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5)) and cardiorespiratory symptoms in terms of Emergency Rooms visits and hospital admissions. Associations between wildfire emissions and various subclinical effects have also been established. However, few relationships between wildfire emissions and mortality have been observed. Certain segments of the population may be particularly vulnerable to smoke-related health risks. Among them, people with pre-existing cardiopulmonary conditions, the elderly, smokers and, for professional reasons, firefighters. Potential action mechanisms have been highlighted. Overall, more research is needed to better understand health impact of wildfire exposure. PMID:25405597

Youssouf, Hassani; Liousse, Catherine; Roblou, Laurent; Assamoi, Eric-Michel; Salonen, Raimo O; Maesano, Cara; Banerjee, Soutrik; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

2014-11-01

224

[Gonococcal vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls: sexual abuse or accidental transmission?].  

PubMed

Vulvovaginitis is the most frequent gynecologic pathology among prepubertal females. An infectious cause is found in 30% of cases and is highly associated with the presence of vaginal discharge upon examination. Neisseria gonorrhoeae may be one of the causative agents. Since N. gonorrhoeae is a common sexually transmitted disease, sexual abuse should be considered in the pediatric setting. We report the case of a 5-year-old girl with N. gonorrhoeae vulvovaginitis. Her previous history, multiple interviews with the patient and her parents, and clinical examination showed no evidence or signs of sexual abuse. Both parents presented gonorrhea, urethritis for the father and vaginitis for the mother. The discrepancy between pediatric evaluation and the presence of a bacterium associated with sexually transmitted disease led us to consider other means of contamination. Previous studies have shown that other routes of transmission are possible but are often neglected. Hence, contamination can be transmitted by the hands or mostly through passive means (towels, rectal thermometer, etc.). Many epidemics have been noted in group settings with young girls with no evidence of sexual transmission. Therefore, we concluded that this patient's infection was likely an accidental transmission within her family. The acknowledgement of these transmission routes is very important in order to avoid misguided suspicion of sexual abuse and the possible traumatic family and psychosocial consequences. PMID:23219271

Daval-Cote, M; Liberas, S; Tristan, A; Vandenesch, F; Gillet, Y

2013-01-01

225

Non-Accidental Health Impacts of Wildfire Smoke  

PubMed Central

Wildfires take a heavy toll on human health worldwide. Climate change may increase the risk of wildfire frequency. Therefore, in view of adapted preventive actions, there is an urgent need to further understand the health effects and public awareness of wildfires. We conducted a systematic review of non-accidental health impacts of wildfire and incorporated lessons learned from recent experiences. Based on the literature, various studies have established the relationship between one of the major components of wildfire, particulate matter (particles with diameter less than 10 µm (PM10) and less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5)) and cardiorespiratory symptoms in terms of Emergency Rooms visits and hospital admissions. Associations between wildfire emissions and various subclinical effects have also been established. However, few relationships between wildfire emissions and mortality have been observed. Certain segments of the population may be particularly vulnerable to smoke-related health risks. Among them, people with pre-existing cardiopulmonary conditions, the elderly, smokers and, for professional reasons, firefighters. Potential action mechanisms have been highlighted. Overall, more research is needed to better understand health impact of wildfire exposure. PMID:25405597

Youssouf, Hassani; Liousse, Catherine; Roblou, Laurent; Assamoi, Eric-Michel; Salonen, Raimo O.; Maesano, Cara; Banerjee, Soutrik; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

2014-01-01

226

Orthopaedic aspects of paediatric non-accidental injury.  

PubMed

Non-accidental injury (NAI) in children includes orthopaedic trauma throughout the skeleton. Fractures with soft-tissue injuries constitute the majority of manifestations of physical abuse in children. Fracture and injury patterns vary with age and development, and NAI is intrinsically related to the mobility of the child. No fracture in isolation is pathognomonic of NAI, but specific abuse-related injuries include multiple fractures, particularly at various stages of healing, metaphyseal corner and bucket-handle fractures and fractures of ribs. Isolated or multiple rib fractures, irrespective of location, have the highest specificity for NAI. Other fractures with a high specificity for abuse include those of the scapula, lateral end of the clavicle, vertebrae and complex skull fractures. Injuries caused by NAI constitute a relatively small proportion of childhood fractures. They may be associated with significant physical and psychological morbidity, with wide- ranging effects from deviations in normal developmental progression to death. Orthopaedic surgeons must systematically assess, recognise and act on the indicators for NAI in conjunction with the paediatric multidisciplinary team. PMID:20130307

Jayakumar, P; Barry, M; Ramachandran, M

2010-02-01

227

The relation of steady evaporating drops fed by an influx and freely evaporating drops  

E-print Network

We discuss a thin film evolution equation for a wetting evaporating liquid on a smooth solid substrate. The model is valid for slowly evaporating small sessile droplets when thermal effects are insignificant, while wettability and capillarity play a major role. The model is first employed to study steady evaporating drops that are fed locally through the substrate. An asymptotic analysis focuses on the precursor film and the transition region towards the bulk drop and a numerical continuation of steady drops determines their fully non-linear profiles. Following this, we study the time evolution of freely evaporating drops without influx for several initial drop shapes. As a result we find that drops initially spread if their initial contact angle is larger than the apparent contact angle of large steady evaporating drops with influx. Otherwise they recede right from the beginning.

Desislava Todorova; Uwe Thiele; Len M. Pismen

2010-08-26

228

Drop rebound in clouds and precipitation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possibility of rebound for colliding cloud drops was measured by determining the collection efficiency. The collection efficiency for 17 size pairs of relatively uncharged drops in over 500 experimental runs was measured using two techniques. The collection efficiencies fall in a narrow range of 0.60 to 0.70 even though the collection drop was varied between 63 and 326 microns and the size ratio from 0.05 to 0.33. In addition the measured values of collection efficiencies (Epsilon) were below the computed values of collision efficiencies (E) for rigid spheres. Therefore it was concluded that rebound was occurring for these sizes since inferred coalescence (epsilon = Epsilon/E) efficiencies are about 0.6 yo 0.8. At a very small size ratio (r/R = p = 0.05, R = 326 microns) the coalescence efficiency inferred is in good agreement with the experimental findings for a supported collector drop. At somewhat large size ratios the inferred values of epsilon are well above results of supported drop experiments, but show a slight correspondence in collected drop size dependency to two models of drop rebound. At a large size ratio (p = 0.73, R = 275) the inferred coalescence efficiency is significantly different from all previous results.

Ochs, H. T., III; Beard, K. V.

1982-01-01

229

Superheated water drops in hot oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drops of water at room temperature were released in hot oil, which had a temperature higher than that of the boiling point of water. Initially, the drop temperature increases slowly mainly due to heat transfer diffusion; convective heat transfer is small because the motion takes place at a small Reynolds number. Once the drop reaches the bottom of the container, it sticks to the surface with a certain contact angle. Then, a part of the drop vaporizes: the nucleation point may appear at the wall, the interface or the bulk of the drop. The vapor expands inside the drop and deforms its interface. The way in which the vapor expands, either smooth or violent, depends on the location of the nucleation point and oil temperature. Furthermore, for temperatures close to the boiling point of water, the drops are stable (overheated); the vaporization does not occur spontaneously but it may be triggered with an external perturbation. In this case the growth of the vapor bubble is rather violent. Many visualization for different conditions will be shown and predictions of the growth rate will be discussed.

Soto, Enrique; Zenit, Roberto; Belmonte, Andrew

2009-11-01

230

Proceedings of the Second International Colloquium on Drops and Bubbles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Applications of bubble and drop technologies are discussed and include: low gravity manufacturing, containerless melts, microballoon fabrication, ink printers, laser fusion targets, generation of organic glass and metal shells, and space processing. The fluid dynamics of bubbles and drops were examined. Thermomigration, capillary flow, and interfacial tension are discussed. Techniques for drop control are presented and include drop size control and drop shape control.

Lecroissette, D. H. (editor)

1982-01-01

231

Condensation-induced jumping water drops.  

PubMed

Water droplets can jump during vapor condensation on solid benzene near its melting point. This phenomenon, which can be viewed as a kind of micro scale steam engine, is studied experimentally and numerically. The latent heat of condensation transferred at the drop three phase contact line melts the substrate during a time proportional to R (the drop radius). The wetting conditions change and a spontaneous jump of the drop results in random direction over length approximately 1.5R , a phenomenon that increases the coalescence events and accelerates the growth. Once properly rescaled by the jump length scale, the growth dynamics is, however, similar to that on a solid surface. PMID:19905120

Narhe, R D; Khandkar, M D; Shelke, P B; Limaye, A V; Beysens, D A

2009-09-01

232

Condensation-induced jumping water drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water droplets can jump during vapor condensation on solid benzene near its melting point. This phenomenon, which can be viewed as a kind of micro scale steam engine, is studied experimentally and numerically. The latent heat of condensation transferred at the drop three phase contact line melts the substrate during a time proportional to R (the drop radius). The wetting conditions change and a spontaneous jump of the drop results in random direction over length ˜1.5R , a phenomenon that increases the coalescence events and accelerates the growth. Once properly rescaled by the jump length scale, the growth dynamics is, however, similar to that on a solid surface.

Narhe, R. D.; Khandkar, M. D.; Shelke, P. B.; Limaye, A. V.; Beysens, D. A.

2009-09-01

233

Further investigation on drop size distribution measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extension of an investigation of an atomization drop-size distribution measurement to include the interaction of two sprays, the comparison of drop-size distribution data from an independent mode and Rosin-Rammler distribution fitting, the effect of air temperature on the drop-size measurement by a light scattering technique, and the relationship between obscuration and an atomizer fuel flow rate, is discussed. The apparatus, atomizer, and instrument are described. The results of the investigation of these aspects are presented and some further research needs are identified.

Zhao, Y. H.; Hou, M. H.; Chin, J. S.

1985-07-01

234

Electrically assisted drop sliding on inclined planes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate that electrowetting using alternating current (ac) voltage can be used to overcome pinning of small drops due to omnipresent heterogeneities on solid surfaces. By balancing contact angle hysteresis with gravity on inclined planes, we find that the critical electrowetting number for mobilizing drops is consistent with the voltage-dependent reduction in contact angle hysteresis in ac electrowetting. Moreover, the terminal velocity of sliding drops under ac electrowetting is found to increase linearly with the electrowetting number. Based on this effect, we present a prototype of a wiper-free windscreen.

't Mannetje, D. J. C. M.; Murade, C. U.; van den Ende, D.; Mugele, F.

2011-01-01

235

Critical point wetting drop tower experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments with the wetting behavior of immiscible fluids against the container below the critical temperature are being performed in the MSFC Drop Tower Facility. Microgravity conditions extending up to three seconds (of the 4.5 second drop) are generated for the experiment. Specimens consist of glass cylindrical ampoules partially filled with fluid phases. How the fluids develop the meniscus geometry as well as hot the fluid interfaces respond to the microgravity induced oscillations is recorded during the experiment with on-board cameras. Drops are made at various temperatures to determine the interfacial energy variation as a function of temperature.

Kaulker, William F.

1988-01-01

236

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 8. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF HYDROGEN FLUORIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report is a chemical specific manual for hydrogen fluoride (HF). It summarizes information to aid regulators and industry personnel in identifying and controlling release hazards associated with HF. Reducing the risk associated with accidental release of HF involves identifyi...

237

A new therapeutic approach to accidental intra-arterial injection of thiopentone.  

PubMed

After an accidental intra-arterial injection of thiopentone, good therapeutic results were obtained with a selective intra-arterial injection of urokinase during digital subtraction angiography. PMID:2644965

Vangerven, M; Delrue, G; Brugman, E; Cosaert, P

1989-01-01

238

A case of accidental intrathecal injection of a large dose of ropivacaine during cesarean section  

PubMed Central

Continuous spinal anesthesia may provide excellent labor analgesia. The incidence of accidental intrathecal injection of megadose of ropivacaine, as one of the possible complications during cesarean section, is very rare. Present case report provides reference to clinical practice. PMID:25232443

Yuan, Yan P; Chen, Hong F; Yang, Chen; Tian, Fu B; Huang, Shao Q

2014-01-01

239

21 CFR 369.9 - General warnings re accidental ingestion by children.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...re accidental ingestion by children. Section 369.20 includes...this and all medicines out of children's reach. In case of overdose...contact a Poison Control Center right away,” or “Keep out of reach of children.” However, in...

2010-04-01

240

Shapes of Bubbles and Drops in Motion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the shape distortions that take place in fluid packets (bubbles or drops) with steady flow motion by using the laws of Archimedes, Pascal, and Bernoulli rather than advanced vector calculus. (WRM)

O'Connell, James

2000-01-01

241

Complementizer Drop And IP Complementation in Japanese  

E-print Network

The main purpose of the present paper is to provide a principled account for a phenomenon called "Complementizer Drop" in the dialects of Japanese and its related phenomena in teens of the head-raising approach without ...

Fukuda, Minoru

2000-01-01

242

Detachment of a single water drop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detachment process of a single water drop from a nozzle made of poorly wetted material is followed using high-speed video equipment. The formation and motion dynamics of various flow components are investigated. These are the drop itself; a liquid bridge (jumper), which connects the drop with the mother liquid; the primary satellite, which is formed from the jumper; and a microsatellite, which is thrown from the satellite and flies to the mother liquid. The strong influence of surface effects, under which the satellite initially moves upward and only at a certain time starts to fall along the ballistic trajectory, is established. Bounce of the microsatellite from the mother liquid, which precedes its absorption, is fixed. It is shown that a stable connection of the formation mechanism of satellites with the jumper dynamics opens the possibility of obtaining uniform-sized drops.

Chashechkin, Yu. D.; Prokhorov, V. E.

2014-01-01

243

Teen Birth Rates Drop, But Disparities Persist  

MedlinePLUS

... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button CDC Features Teen Birth Rates Drop, But Disparities Persist Language: English ... to Reduce Disparities and Address Social Determinants of Teen Pregnancy Visit national partner JSI's Reproductive Health Equity ...

244

Monarch Caterpillar or Larva and Droppings  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

An approximately 2 inch long monarch butterfly caterpillar or larva grazes on the leaves of a butterfly weed in a northern Virginia garden. The dark lumps on the leaves around the caterpillar are its droppings or feces....

245

Making Drop Off at Child Care Easier  

MedlinePLUS

... Easier Family Life Listen Making Drop Off at Child Care Easier Article Body Getting the day started can ... some suggestions to make your separation at the child care setting a little easier for both of you. ...

246

Drop size measurement of liquid aerosols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The factor B = D/ D' relating the diameter D of a spherical liquid drop to the diameter, D˜, of the same drop collected on a microscope slide has been measured for DOP (di-octyl phthalate) and oleic acid aerosols. The microscope slide was coated with a fluorocarbon, oleophobic surfactant (L-1428, 3M Co., St. Paul, MN). The ratio was found to be independent of drop diameter in the 2-50 ?m range and the mean value of B was found to be 0.700 for oleic acid and 0.690 for DOP. Similar measurements for oleic acid and DOP drops collected on a clean, uncoated slide resulted in the values of 0.419 and 0.303, respectively. The experimental values of B were compared with the theoretical values based on contact angle measurements. Good agreement was obtained.

Liu, B. Y. H.; Pui, D. Y. H.; Xian-Qing, Wang

247

Program calculates two-phase pressure drop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysts have developed a program for determining the two-phase pressure drop in piping. Written for the TI-59 programmable calculator used with a PC-100C printer, the program incorporates several unique features: it calculates single-phase as well as two-phase pressure drops, has a 10-20 s execution time, permits the operating data to be changed easily, and includes an option for calculating the

Blackwell

1980-01-01

248

Program calculates two-phase pressure drop  

SciTech Connect

Analysts have developed a program for determining the two-phase pressure drop in piping. Written for the TI-59 programmable calculator used with a PC-100C printer, the program incorporates several unique features: it calculates single-phase as well as two-phase pressure drops, has a 10-20 s execution time, permits the operating data to be changed easily, and includes an option for calculating the estimated surface tension of paraffinic hydrocarbon liquids.

Blackwell, W.W.

1980-11-24

249

La Gocciolina (The Little Drop of Water).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This primary level reader in Italian intended for use in a bilingual education setting, is about the life cycle of a drop of water. The drop of water is personified and the story tells of its adventures as it travels from the top of the lake to the bottom, its meeting with the inhabitants of the lake, and its trip to the clouds. After deciding not…

Palandra, Maria

250

Bubble, Drop and Particle Unit (BDPU)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This section of the Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS) publication includes the following articles entitled: (1) Oscillatory Thermocapillary Instability; (2) Thermocapillary Convection in Multilayer Systems; (3) Bubble and Drop Interaction with Solidification Front; (4) A Liquid Electrohydrodynamics Experiment; (5) Boiling on Small Plate Heaters under Microgravity and a Comparison with Earth Gravity; (6) Thermocapillary Migration and Interactions of Bubbles and Drops; and (7) Nonlinear Surface Tension Driven Bubble Migration

1998-01-01

251

Optimal drop heights for plyometric training  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of drop height in the performance of plyometric training. Thirty male subjects were asked to perform drop jumps from heights of 012, 0-24, 0-36, 0-46, 0-58, and 0-68 m, as well as counter-movement jumps and squat jumps. They performed their jumps on a Kistler force platform, and the resultant force

ADRIAN LEES; EMAD FAHMI

1994-01-01

252

Dropping out of treatment: A critical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a discussion of methodological issues, literature on dropping out of treatment is critically reviewed in 6 areas: hospital treatment of general psychiatric and tubercular patients, outpatient treatment of internal medical conditions, alcoholism, heroin addiction, general psychiatric outpatient psychotherapy, and double-blind drug studies. 15 factors were found to predict dropping out in 100%, 83-88%, and 60-75% of the relevant studies:

Frederick Baekeland; Lawrence Lundwall

1975-01-01

253

Targeting of observations for accidental atmospheric release monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the event of an accidental atmospheric release of radionuclides from a nuclear power plant, accurate real-time forecasting of the activity concentrations of radionuclides is acutely required by the decision makers for the preparation of adequate countermeasures. Yet, the accuracy of the forecasted plume is highly dependent on the source term estimation. Inverse modelling and data assimilation techniques should help in that respect. However the plume can locally be thin and could avoid a significant part of the radiological monitoring network surrounding the plant. Deploying mobile measuring stations following the accident could help to improve the source term estimation. In this paper, a method is proposed for the sequential reconstruction of the plume, by coupling a sequential data assimilation algorithm based on inverse modelling with an observation targeting strategy. The targeting design strategy consists in seeking the optimal locations of the mobile monitors at time t + 1 based on all available observations up to time t. The performance of the sequential assimilation with and without targeting of observations has been assessed in a realistic framework. It focuses on the Bugey nuclear power plant (France) and its surroundings within 50 km from the plant. The existing surveillance network is used and realistic observational errors are assumed. The targeting scheme leads to a better estimation of the source term as well as the activity concentrations in the domain. The mobile stations tend to be deployed along plume contours, where activity concentration gradients are important. It is shown that the information carried by the targeted observations is very significant, as compared to the information content of fixed observations. A simple test on the impact of model error from meteorology shows that the targeting strategy is still very useful in a more uncertain context.

Abida, Rachid; Bocquet, Marc

2009-12-01

254

Persistent Seroconversion after Accidental Eye Exposure to Calcifying Nanoparticles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biosafety of nanomaterials has attracted much attention recently. We report here a case where accidental human eye exposure to biogenic nanosized calcium phosphate in the form of calcifying nanoparticles (CNP) raised a strong IgG immune response against proteins carried by CNP. The antibody titer has persisted over ten years at the high level. The IgG was detected by ELISA using CNPs propagated in media containing bovine and human serum as antigen. The exposure incident occurred to a woman scientist (WS) at a research laboratory in Finland at 1993. CNP, also termed "nanobacteria", is a unique self-replicating agent that has not been fully characterized and no data on biohazards were available at that time. Before the accident, her serum samples were negative for both CNP antigen and anti-CNP antibody using specific ELISA tests (Nanobac Oy, Kuopio, Finland). The accident occurred while WS was harvesting CNP cultures. Due to a high pressure in pipetting, CNP pellet splashed into her right eye. Both eyes were immediately washed with water and saline. The following days there was irritation and redness in the right eye. These symptoms disappeared within two weeks without any treatment. Three months after the accident, blood and urine samples of WS were tested for CNP cultures (2), CNP-specific ELISA tests, and blood cell counts. Blood cell counts were normal, CNP antigen and culture tests were negative. A high IgG anti-CNP antibody titer was detected (see Figure). The antibodies of this person have been used thereafter as positive control and standard in ELISA manufacturing (Nano-Sero IgG ELISA, Nanobac Oy, Kuopio, Finland).

Ciftcioglu, Neva; Aho, Katja M.; McKay, David S.; Kajander, E. Olavi

2007-01-01

255

14 CFR 29.727 - Reserve energy absorption drop test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Reserve energy absorption drop test. 29.727 Section 29.727...Landing Gear § 29.727 Reserve energy absorption drop test. The reserve energy absorption drop test must be conducted as...

2012-01-01

256

14 CFR 27.727 - Reserve energy absorption drop test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Reserve energy absorption drop test. 27.727 Section 27.727...Landing Gear § 27.727 Reserve energy absorption drop test. The reserve energy absorption drop test must be conducted as...

2012-01-01

257

14 CFR 27.727 - Reserve energy absorption drop test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-01-01 false Reserve energy absorption drop test. 27.727 Section 27.727...Landing Gear § 27.727 Reserve energy absorption drop test. The reserve energy absorption drop test must be conducted as...

2014-01-01

258

14 CFR 29.727 - Reserve energy absorption drop test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Reserve energy absorption drop test. 29.727 Section 29.727...Landing Gear § 29.727 Reserve energy absorption drop test. The reserve energy absorption drop test must be conducted as...

2013-01-01

259

14 CFR 29.727 - Reserve energy absorption drop test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-01-01 false Reserve energy absorption drop test. 29.727 Section 29.727...Landing Gear § 29.727 Reserve energy absorption drop test. The reserve energy absorption drop test must be conducted as...

2014-01-01

260

14 CFR 27.727 - Reserve energy absorption drop test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Reserve energy absorption drop test. 27.727 Section 27.727...Landing Gear § 27.727 Reserve energy absorption drop test. The reserve energy absorption drop test must be conducted as...

2013-01-01

261

Hanging drop crystal growth apparatus and method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus (10) is constructed having a cylindrical enclosure (16) within which a disc-shaped wicking element (18) is positioned. A well or recess (22) is cut into an upper side (24) of this wicking element, and a glass cover plate or slip (28) having a protein drop disposed thereon is sealably positioned on the wicking element (18), with drop (12) being positioned over well or recess (22). A flow of control fluid is generated by a programmable gradient former (16), with this control fluid having a vapor pressure that is selectively variable. This flow of control fluid is coupled to the wicking element (18) where control fluid vapor diffusing from walls (26) of the recess (22) is exposed to the drop (12), forming a vapor pressure gradient between the drop (12) and the control fluid vapor. Initially, this gradient is adjusted to draw solvent from the drop (12) at a relatively high rate, and as the critical supersaturation point is approached (the point at which crystal nucleation occurs), the gradient is reduced to more slowly draw solvent from the drop (12). This allows discrete protein molecules more time to orient themselves into an ordered crystalline lattice, producing protein crystals which, when processed by X-ray crystallography, possess a high degree of resolution.

Carter, Daniel C. (Inventor); Smith, Robbie E. (Inventor)

1989-01-01

262

Electrochemistry in an acoustically levitated drop.  

PubMed

Levitated drops show potential as microreactors, especially when radicals are present as reactants or products. Solid/liquid interfaces are absent or minimized, avoiding adsorption and interfacial reaction of conventional microfluidics. We report amperometric detection in an acoustically levitated drop with simultaneous ballistic addition of reactant. A gold microelectrode sensor was fabricated with a lithographic process; active electrode area was defined by a photosensitive polyimide mask. The microdisk gold working electrode of radius 19 ?m was characterized using ferrocenemethanol in aqueous buffer. Using cyclic voltammetry, the electrochemically active surface area was estimated by combining a recessed microdisk electrode model with the Randles-Sevcik equation. Computer-controlled ballistic introduction of reactant droplets into the levitated drop was developed. Chronoamperometric measurements of ferrocyanide added ballistically demonstrate electrochemical monitoring using the microfabricated electrode in a levitated drop. Although concentration increases with time due to drop evaporation, the extent of concentration is predictable with a linear evaporation model. Comparison of diffusion-limited currents in pendant and levitated drops show that convection arising from acoustic levitation causes an enhancement of diffusion-limited current on the order of 16%. PMID:23351154

Chainani, Edward T; Ngo, Khanh T; Scheeline, Alexander

2013-02-19

263

Drops can bounce from perfectly hydrophilic surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drops are well known to rebound from superhydrophobic surfaces and from liquid surfaces. Here, we show that drops can also rebound from a superhydrophilic solid surface such as an atomically smooth mica sheet. However, the coefficient of restitution CR associated with this process is significantly lower than that associated with rebound from superhydrophobic surfaces. A direct imaging method allows us to characterize the dynamics of the deformation of the drop in entering the vicinity of the surface. We find that drop bouncing occurs without the drop ever touching the solid and there is a nanometer-scale film of air that separates the liquid and solid, suggesting that shear in the air film is the dominant source of dissipation during rebound. Furthermore, we see that any discrete nanometer-height defects on an otherwise hydrophilic surface, such as treated glass, completely inhibits the bouncing of the drop, causing the liquid to wet the surface. Our study adds a new facet to the dynamics of droplet impact by emphasizing that the thin film of air can play a role not just in the context of splashing but also bouncing, while highlighting the role of rare surface defects in inhibiting this response.

Kolinski, J. M.; Mahadevan, L.; Rubinstein, S. M.

2014-10-01

264

Pressure drop across spined heat exchangers in crossflow  

E-print Network

Spined Tubes Other Geometries . 11 . 16 . 17 . 18 . 19 III EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENT AND PROCEDURE . 20 IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 29 V COMPARISON OF SPINED TUBES WITH OTHER SURFACES 55 VI CONCLUSIONS LITERATURE CITED . 81 . 84 V1 1 TABLE... with plastic boards. Method of using cotton to reduce edge effects. Page . 21 24 . 28 10. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. Pressure drop Pressure drop Pressure drop Pressure drop Pressure drop Pressure drop Effect of tube spined tubes...

Carranza, Richard Guy

2012-06-07

265

Alternative scenarios utilizing nonterrestrial resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A collection of alternative scenarios that are enabled or substantially enhanced by the utilization of nonterrestrial resources is provided. We take a generalized approach to scenario building so that our report will have value in the context of whatever goals are eventually chosen. Some of the topics covered include the following: lunar materials processing; asteroid mining; lunar resources; construction of a large solar power station; solar dynamic power for the space station; reduced gravity; mission characteristics and options; and tourism.

Eldred, Charles H.; Roberts, Barney B.

1992-01-01

266

Self-Diffusion of Drops in a Dilute Sheared Emulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Self-diffusion coefficients that describe cross-flow migration of non-Brownian drops in a dilute sheared emulsion were obtained by trajectory calculations. A boundary integral formulation was used to describe pairwise interactions between deformable drops; interactions between undeformed drops were described with mobility functions for spherical drops. The results indicate that drops have large anisotropic self-diffusivities which depend strongly on the drop viscosity and modestly on the shear-rate. Pairwise interactions between drops in shear-flow do not appreciably promote drop breakup.

Loewenberg, Michael; Hinch, E. J.

1996-01-01

267

Baseline scenario(s) for muon collider proton driver  

SciTech Connect

This paper gives an overview of the various muon collider scenarios and the requirements they put on the Proton Driver. The required proton power is about 4-6MW in all the scenarios, but the bunch repetition rate varies between 12 and 65Hz. Since none of the muon collider scenarios have been simulated end-to-end, it would be advisable to plan for an upgrade path to around 10MW. Although the proton driver energy is flexible, cost arguments seems to favor a relatively low energy. In particular, at Fermilab 8GeV seems most attractive, partly due to the possibility of reusing the three existing fixed energy storage rings for bunch manipulations.

Jansson, Andreas; /Fermilab

2008-07-01

268

Lifetime of oil drops pressed by buoyancy against a planar interface: Large drops  

E-print Network

In a previous report [10] it was shown that emulsion stability simulations are able to reproduce the lifetime of micrometer-size drops of hexadecane pressed by buoyancy against a planar water-hexadecane interface. It was confirmed that small drops (rioil stabilized with bovine serum albumin. The potential obtained is then employed to study the lifetime of deformable drops in the range 10 \\leq ri \\leq 1000 {\\mu}m. It is established that the average lifetime of these drops can be adequately replicated using the model of truncated spheres. However, the results depend sensibly on the expressions of the initial distance of deformation and the maximum film radius used in the calculations. The set of equations adequate for large drops is not satisfactory for medium-size drops (10 \\leq ri \\leq 100 {\\mu}m), and vice versa. In the case of large particles, the increase in the interfacial area as a consequence of the deformation of the drops generates a very large repulsive barrier which opposes coalescence. Nevertheless, the buoyancy force prevails. As a consequence, it is the hydrodynamic tensor of the drops which determine the characteristic behavior of the lifetime as a function of the particle size. While the average values of the coalescence time of the drops can be justified by the mechanism of film thinning, the scattering of the experimental data of large drops cannot be rationalized using the methodology previously described. A possible explanation of this phenomenon required elaborate simulations which combine deformable drops, capillary waves, repulsive interaction forces, and a time-dependent surfactant adsorption.

Clara Rojas; Máximo García-Sucre; Germán Urbina-Villalba

2011-09-22

269

Do not drop: mechanical shock in vials causes cavitation, protein aggregation, and particle formation.  

PubMed

Industry experience suggests that g-forces sustained when vials containing protein formulations are accidentally dropped can cause aggregation and particle formation. To study this phenomenon, a shock tower was used to apply controlled g-forces to glass vials containing formulations of two monoclonal antibodies and recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH). High-speed video analysis showed cavitation bubbles forming within 30 ?s and subsequently collapsing in the formulations. As a result of echoing shock waves, bubbles collapsed and reappeared periodically over a millisecond time course. Fluid mechanics simulations showed low-pressure regions within the fluid where cavitation would be favored. A hydroxyphenylfluorescein assay determined that cavitation produced hydroxyl radicals. When mechanical shock was applied to vials containing protein formulations, gelatinous particles appeared on the vial walls. Size-exclusion chromatographic analysis of the formulations after shock did not detect changes in monomer or soluble aggregate concentrations. However, subvisible particle counts determined by microflow image analysis increased. The mass of protein attached to the vial walls increased with increasing drop height. Both protein in bulk solution and protein that became attached to the vial walls after shock were analyzed by mass spectrometry. rhGH recovered from the vial walls in some samples revealed oxidation of Met and/or Trp residues. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:602-611, 2015. PMID:25418950

Randolph, Theodore W; Schiltz, Elise; Sederstrom, Donn; Steinmann, Daniel; Mozziconacci, Olivier; Schöneich, Christian; Freund, Erwin; Ricci, Margaret S; Carpenter, John F; Lengsfeld, Corrine S

2015-02-01

270

Computer simulations of nematic drops: Coupling between drop shape and nematic order  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We perform Monte Carlo computer simulations of nematic drops in equilibrium with their vapor using a Gay-Berne interaction between the rod-like molecules. To generate the drops, we initially perform NPT simulations close to the nematic-vapor coexistence region, allow the system to equilibrate and subsequently induce a sudden volume expansion, followed with NVT simulations. The resultant drops coexist with their vapor and are generally not spherical but elongated, have the rod-like particles tangentially aligned at the surface and an overall nematic orientation along the main axis of the drop. We find that the drop eccentricity increases with increasing molecular elongation, ?. For small ? the nematic texture in the drop is bipolar with two surface defects, or boojums, maximizing their distance along this same axis. For sufficiently high ?, the shape of the drop becomes singular in the vicinity of the defects, and there is a crossover to an almost homogeneous texture; this reflects a transition from a spheroidal to a spindle-like drop.

Rull, L. F.; Romero-Enrique, J. M.; Fernandez-Nieves, A.

2012-07-01

271

Nonreciprocal photonic crystal add-drop filter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a versatile add-drop integrated photonic filter (ADF) consisting of nonreciprocal waveguides in which the propagation of light is restricted in one predetermined direction. With the bus and add/drop waveguides symmetrically coupled through a cavity, the four-port device allows each individual port to add and/or drop a signal of the same frequency. The scheme is general and we demonstrate the nonreciprocal ADF with magneto-optical photonic crystals. The filter is immune to waveguide defects, allowing straightforward implementation of multi-channel ADFs by cascading the four-port designs. The results should find applications in wavelength-division multiplexing and related integrated photonic techniques.

Tao, Keyu; Xiao, Jun-Jun; Yin, Xiaobo

2014-11-01

272

A Little Drop of Water: Cohesion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners explore water's property of cohesion through two investigations. In Drops on a Penny, they see how many drops of water or other fluids can fit on a penny before the drops run over, and in Filled to the Brim they fill a cup to the brim with water, then slowly add paperclips to observe what happens. In both activities, learners make predictions about what will happen and compare their predictions with observations. Learners also use marshmallows to become familiar with the atomic structure and behavior of water molecules, including the attraction between water molecules known as surface tension. The student journal includes a Science @ Home activity for experiencing how water molecules stick together when flowing from a can with holes.

New Jersey

2006-01-01

273

Drop impacting on a hydrophobic elastic beam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plant suraces found in nature often exhibit hydrophobic wetting properties; in particular, the surface of leaves are an example. When a water drop impacts a leaf a unique system of coupled solid and fluid mechanics is observed. By replacing the leaf as as simple thin polycarbonate cantilever beam it is possible to create a workable model for the system. A high-speed camera allows detailed observation of the dynamics of the beam and drop at the moment of impact. Through image analysis, the position and shape of the beam and drop are analyzed to calculate bending energy and kinetic energy. Experiments show that the available energy in the system is close to 0.1 mJ. The results of this experiment provide insight into energy harvesting from raindrops using a piezo cantilever.

Chique Canache, Daniel; Jung, Sunghwan

2011-11-01

274

Drop interaction with the ejecta sheet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied experimentally and numerically the dynamics of the ejecta sheet produced by a drop impacting on a deep pool of the same liquid at high Reynolds and Weber numbers. Ultra-high speed imaging revealed a diversity of evolutions by using different mixtures of water and glycerine, and different impact velocities. We observed a transition from a smooth ejecta sheet to a more irregular splashing for a Reynolds number of 3500. In this transition regime, the ejecta sheet interacts with the impacting drop. This interaction can pull the ejecta sheet towards the centre of the drop at lower splash parameters, or generate a bumping on the ejecta sheet moving outwards at higher splash parameters. The volume of fluid (VOF) code Gerris was used to reproduce numerically this peculiar dynamics in axisymmetric conditions. Very good agreement with the experiments was reached by using adaptive refinement and parallelization of the calculations.

Thoraval, M.-J.; Thoroddsen, S. T.; Takehara, K.; Etoh, T. G.; Ray, P.; Josserand, C.; Zaleski, S.

2011-11-01

275

Micro coulometric titration in a liquid drop.  

PubMed

Miniaturized coulometric titration in a liquid drop has been investigated. Assays of ascorbic acid and thiosulfate with iodine titration were chosen as models. Constant volumes of falling liquid drops containing sample or reagent are manipulated via gravimetrical force to move along a slope hydrophobic path and directed to stop or to move out from an electrode. Such manipulation is useful for delivery of sample and reagents, in a way of flow without tubing. Electrochemical generation of titrant, in this case, iodine, is started at the electrode and micro coulometric titration can be performed in a drop by applying constant current. Timing in the titration can be made via naked eye with a stopwatch or via recording with a webcam camera connecting to a computer to detect the change due to the blue color complex of the excess iodine and starch. PMID:24054589

Kanyanee, Tinakorn; Fuekhad, Pongwasin; Grudpan, Kate

2013-10-15

276

Profiles of electrified drops and bubbles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Axisymmetric equilibrium shapes of conducting drops and bubbles, (1) pendant or sessile on one face of a circular parallel-plate capacitor or (2) free and surface-charged, are found by solving simultaneously the free boundary problem consisting of the augmented Young-Laplace equation for surface shape and the Laplace equation for electrostatic field, given the surface potential. The problem is nonlinear and the method is a finite element algorithm employing Newton iteration, a modified frontal solver, and triangular as well as quadrilateral tessellations of the domain exterior to the drop in order to facilitate refined analysis of sharply curved drop tips seen in experiments. The stability limit predicted by this computer-aided theoretical analysis agrees well with experiments.

Basaran, O. A.; Scriven, L. E.

1982-01-01

277

Hysteresis in forced oscillations of pendant drops  

SciTech Connect

A hysteresis phenomenon has been revealed through experiments conducted with large-amplitude forced oscillations of pendant drops in air. Under strong excitation, the frequency response of a drop forced at constant amplitude exhibits jump behavior; a larger peak response amplitude {epsilon}{sub {down_arrow}} appears at a lower frequency {omega}{sub {down_arrow}} during a downward ({down_arrow}) variation of forcing frequency than during an upward ({up_arrow}) variation, viz. {epsilon}{sub {down_arrow}}{gt}{epsilon}{sub {up_arrow}} and {omega}{sub {down_arrow}}{lt}{omega}{sub {up_arrow}}. Similar results are obtained when forcing amplitude is varied at constant frequency. This behavior is characteristic of a system with a soft nonlinearity. These findings indicate that oscillating pendant drops constitute a convenient system for studying nonlinear dynamics.

DePaoli, D.W.; Feng, J.Q.; Basaran, O.A.; Scott, T.C. [Chemical Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6224 (United States)] [Chemical Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6224 (United States)

1995-06-01

278

Glaucoma Eye Drops Adverse Skin Reactions.  

PubMed

The term "Glaucoma" is used to describe a number of diseases of the eye characterized by a particular form of optic nerve damage that is often associated with high intraocular pressure (IOP). The open angle glaucoma is the most common form that is also referred to as chronic glaucoma. This is described as an optic neuropathy with multifactorial nature in which there is a loss of characteristics of the optic nerve fibers. Therapeutic options for the treatment of this disease are different, you can take advantage of eye drops, laser therapy and conventional surgery or more combined treatments. Medicated eye drops are the most common way to treat glaucoma. Although eye drops are widely used, adverse reactions are not frequently observed and described. In particular, the adverse skin reactions are not frequently described in the literature, but often seen in dermatologic clinic, we reported their skin reactions and possible alternative treatments described in literature and their patent applications. PMID:25487259

Carmen, Cantisani; Marina, Ambrifi; Federica, Frascani; Gilda, Fazia; Roberto, Lisi; Stefano, Calvieri

2014-12-01

279

Water Drops Dancing on Ice: How Sublimation Leads to Drop Rebound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drop rebound is a spectacular event that appears after impact on hydrophobic or superhydrophobic surfaces but can also be induced through the so-called Leidenfrost effect. Here we demonstrate that drop rebound can also originate from another physical phenomenon, the solid substrate sublimation. Through drop impact experiments on a superhydrophobic surfaces, a hot plate, and solid carbon dioxide (commonly known as dry ice), we compare drop rebound based on three different physical mechanisms, which apparently share nothing in common (superhydrophobicity, evaporation, and sublimation), but lead to the same rebound phenomenon in an extremely wide temperature range, from 300°C down to even below -79°C. The formation and unprecedented visualization of an air vortex ring around an impacting drop are also reported.

Antonini, C.; Bernagozzi, I.; Jung, S.; Poulikakos, D.; Marengo, M.

2013-07-01

280

Temporal and regional variations in accidental deaths of elderly people in Japan.  

PubMed

To ascertain the characteristics of accidental deaths of elderly people in urban and rural areas, we analyzed the deaths of elderly people over the 10-year period from 2000 to 2009, in three geographic areas: nationwide, in the 23 wards of the metropolis of Tokyo, and in Saga prefecture. In addition, to assess the regional variation in accidental deaths of the elderly, we aggregated the numbers of accidental deaths of elderly people for each of Japan's prefectures in the year 2009 and categorized the deaths by accident type. The results showed that nationwide, deaths due to threats to breathing, falls, and drowning and submersion are increasing, while deaths due to transport accidents are decreasing, indicating a need for measures to prevent deaths from accidents other than transport accidents. In the urban areas of Tokyo's 23 wards, there is an increasing incidence of deaths due to falls, which is likely due to the high number of structures such as buildings and railway stations that elderly people need to negotiate. In urban areas, measures to reduce the incidence of accidental deaths need to focus on improving the physical environment to help prevent falls. In the rural locality of Saga prefecture, increasing numbers of elderly people are dying by drowning and submersion. The results of analysis of accidents in all prefectures of Japan by accident type show that the causes of accidental deaths of elderly people vary regionally, suggesting that accident prevention measures for elderly people need to consider the characteristics of the locality. PMID:23812406

Kibayashi, Kazuhiko; Shimada, Ryo; Nakao, Ken-Ichiro

2013-07-01

281

Alternative Geothermal Power Production Scenarios  

SciTech Connect

The information given in this file pertains to Argonne LCAs of the plant cycle stage for a set of ten new geothermal scenario pairs, each comprised of a reference and improved case. These analyses were conducted to compare environmental performances among the scenarios and cases. The types of plants evaluated are hydrothermal binary and flash and Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) binary and flash plants. Each scenario pair was developed by the LCOE group using GETEM as a way to identify plant operational and resource combinations that could reduce geothermal power plant LCOE values. Based on the specified plant and well field characteristics (plant type, capacity, capacity factor and lifetime, and well numbers and depths) for each case of each pair, Argonne generated a corresponding set of material to power ratios (MPRs) and greenhouse gas and fossil energy ratios.

Sullivan, John

2014-03-14

282

Alternative Geothermal Power Production Scenarios  

DOE Data Explorer

The information given in this file pertains to Argonne LCAs of the plant cycle stage for a set of ten new geothermal scenario pairs, each comprised of a reference and improved case. These analyses were conducted to compare environmental performances among the scenarios and cases. The types of plants evaluated are hydrothermal binary and flash and Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) binary and flash plants. Each scenario pair was developed by the LCOE group using GETEM as a way to identify plant operational and resource combinations that could reduce geothermal power plant LCOE values. Based on the specified plant and well field characteristics (plant type, capacity, capacity factor and lifetime, and well numbers and depths) for each case of each pair, Argonne generated a corresponding set of material to power ratios (MPRs) and greenhouse gas and fossil energy ratios.

Sullivan, John

283

Best Measuring Time for a Millikan Oil Drop Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a Millikan oil drop experiment, there is a best measuring time for observing the drop, due to Brownian motion of the drop and the experimenter's reaction time. Derives an equation for the relative error in the measurement of the drop's excess charge, and obtains a formula for the best measuring time. (Author/MLH)

Kapusta, J. I.

1975-01-01

284

Sonically-Enhanced Drag and Drop Stephen A Brewster  

E-print Network

ICAD'98 1 Sonically-Enhanced Drag and Drop Stephen A Brewster Department of Computing Science if the addition of non-speech sounds to the drag and drop operation would increase usability. There are several problems with drag and drop that can result in the user not dropping a source icon over the target

Williamson, John

285

14 CFR 23.725 - Limit drop tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AIRPLANES Design and Construction Landing Gear § 23.725 Limit drop tests...provided for in free drop tests, the landing gear must be dropped with an effective...during the drop test, using a landing gear unit attitude, and applied...

2010-01-01

286

14 CFR 23.725 - Limit drop tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AIRPLANES Design and Construction Landing Gear § 23.725 Limit drop tests...provided for in free drop tests, the landing gear must be dropped with an effective...during the drop test, using a landing gear unit attitude, and applied...

2011-01-01

287

36 CFR 1230.10 - Who is responsible for preventing the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT UNLAWFUL OR ACCIDENTAL REMOVAL, DEFACING, ALTERATION, OR DESTRUCTION OF RECORDS § 1230.10 Who is responsible for...

2010-07-01

288

36 CFR 1230.10 - Who is responsible for preventing the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT UNLAWFUL OR ACCIDENTAL REMOVAL, DEFACING, ALTERATION, OR DESTRUCTION OF RECORDS § 1230.10 Who is responsible for...

2014-07-01

289

36 CFR 1230.10 - Who is responsible for preventing the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT UNLAWFUL OR ACCIDENTAL REMOVAL, DEFACING, ALTERATION, OR DESTRUCTION OF RECORDS § 1230.10 Who is responsible for...

2012-07-01

290

36 CFR 1230.10 - Who is responsible for preventing the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT UNLAWFUL OR ACCIDENTAL REMOVAL, DEFACING, ALTERATION, OR DESTRUCTION OF RECORDS § 1230.10 Who is responsible for...

2013-07-01

291

36 CFR 1230.10 - Who is responsible for preventing the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT UNLAWFUL OR ACCIDENTAL REMOVAL, DEFACING, ALTERATION, OR DESTRUCTION OF RECORDS § 1230.10 Who is responsible for...

2011-07-01

292

Voltage drop at interfaces in multilayer ferroelectrics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based upon a defined surface barrier in ferroelectric multilayers deposited on (100) p-type silicon, ?Va, which bears a portion of the external electrical voltage, a modified empirical power law I=A(?V)n is established for quantitatively describing detailed I-V dependence in ferroelectric multilayers. The voltage drop at the interface, Vi, which directly affects electrical characteristics of ferroelectric multiplayer system, is studied thoroughly. The voltage drop obtained from the modified empirical power law of the I-V dependence is consistent with that obtained from the C-V dependence model.

Li, Xingjiao; Wang, Ningzhang; Bao, Junbo; Chen, Tao; Xu, Jingping; Feng, Hanhua; Li, Shaoping

2003-03-01

293

Development of revolving drop surface tensiometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A revolving drop surface tensiometer, which measures the surface tension of a small amount of liquid, is proposed. A remarkable feature of this device is that while using the pendant drop method, it employs a centrifugal force to deform the liquid droplet. The centrifugal force induces a large distortion of the droplet, which enables an accurate measurement of the surface tension to be made. In our experimental setup, the centrifugal force can be increased so that the apparent acceleration becomes up to 100 times larger than that due to gravity, and the capability of this method to measure surface tensions was demonstrated with ethylene glycol.

Mitani, S.; Sakai, K.

2012-01-01

294

Development of revolving drop surface tensiometer.  

PubMed

A revolving drop surface tensiometer, which measures the surface tension of a small amount of liquid, is proposed. A remarkable feature of this device is that while using the pendant drop method, it employs a centrifugal force to deform the liquid droplet. The centrifugal force induces a large distortion of the droplet, which enables an accurate measurement of the surface tension to be made. In our experimental setup, the centrifugal force can be increased so that the apparent acceleration becomes up to 100 times larger than that due to gravity, and the capability of this method to measure surface tensions was demonstrated with ethylene glycol. PMID:22299980

Mitani, S; Sakai, K

2012-01-01

295

Spreading of liquid drops over porous substrates.  

PubMed

The spreading of small liquid drops over thin and thick porous layers (dry or saturated with the same liquid) has been investigated in the case of both complete wetting (silicone oils of different viscosities) and partial wetting (aqueous SDS solutions of different concentrations). Nitrocellulose membranes of different porosity and different average pore size have been used as a model of thin porous layers, glass and metal filters have been used as a model of thick porous substrates. The first problem under investigation has been the spreading of small liquid drops over thin porous layers saturated with the same liquid. An evolution equation describing the drop spreading has been deduced, which showed that both an effective lubrication and the liquid exchange between the drop and the porous substrates are equally important. Spreading of silicone oils over different nitrocellulose microfiltration membranes was carried out. The experimental laws of the radius of spreading on time confirmed the theory predictions. The spreading of small liquid drops over thin dry porous layers has also been investigated from both theoretical and experimental points of view. The drop motion over a dry porous layer appears caused by the interplay of two processes: (a). the spreading of the drop over already saturated parts of the porous layer, which results in a growth of the drop base, and (b). the imbibition of the liquid from the drop into the porous substrate, which results in a shrinkage of the drop base and a growth of the wetted region inside the porous layer. As a result of these two competing processes the radius of the drop base goes through a maximum as time proceeds. A system of two differential equations has been derived to describe the time evolution of the radii of both the drop base and the wetted region inside the porous layer. This system includes two parameters, one accounts for the effective lubrication coefficient of the liquid over the wetted porous substrate, and the other is a combination of permeability and effective capillary pressure inside the porous layer. Two additional experiments were used for an independent determination of these two parameters. The system of differential equations does not include any fitting parameter after these two parameters were determined. Experiments were carried out on the spreading of silicone oil drops over various dry nitrocellulose microfiltration membranes (permeable in both normal and tangential directions). The time evolution of the radii of both the drop base and the wetted region inside the porous layer was monitored. In agreement with our theory all experimental data fell on two universal curves if appropriate scales were used with a plot of the dimensionless radii of the drop base and of the wetted region inside the porous layer using a dimensionless time scale. Theory predicts that (a). the dynamic contact angle dependence on the dimensionless time should be a universal function, (b). the dynamic contact angle should change rapidly over an initial short stage of spreading and should remain a constant value over the duration of the rest of the spreading process. The constancy of the contact angle on this stage has nothing to do with hysteresis of the contact angle: there is no hysteresis in our system. These predictions are in the good agreement with our experimental observations. In the case of spreading of liquid drops over thick porous substrates (complete wetting) the spreading process goes in two similar stages as in the case of thin porous substrates. In this case also both the drop base and the radii of the wetted area on the surface of the porous substrates were monitored. Spreading of oil drops (with a wide range of viscosities) on dry porous substrates having similar porosity and average pore size shows universal behavior as in the case of thin porous substrates. However, the spreading behavior on porous substrates having different average pore sizes deviates from the universal behavior. Yet, even in this case the dynamic contact angle remains constant over the du

Starov, V M; Zhdanov, S A; Kosvintsev, S R; Sobolev, V D; Velarde, M G

2003-07-01

296

Acute effects of nitrogen dioxide after accidental release.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: Following an accidental release of nitrogen dioxide from a railroad tank car containing nitrous tetroxide, the authors undertook a study of the health effects of the release, measuring the association between acute low level exposure and pulmonary symptoms. METHODS: The authors reviewed the records of three emergency departments, surveyed 80 emergency department patients, 552 community residents, 21 chemical plant workers, and 29 emergency workers, and conducted a case-control study. Pulmonary case status was defined as having an objective pulmonary finding noted on the emergency department record, reporting that the onset of symptoms was subsequent to the release, and being within the city limits at the time of the release. Self-reported case status was defined as reporting one or more symptoms consistent with exposure to nitrogen dioxide in the week after the release and having been within the city limits at the time of the release. Control subjects were survey respondents who reported no symptoms in the week after the release and had been within the city limits at the time of the release. Chemical exposure was characterized by proximity to, direction from, and being outdoors within one hour after the release. Duration of potential exposure was not measured. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence interval for symptoms by exposure level, adjusted for age, sex, smoking, and preexisting pulmonary conditions. RESULTS: Local emergency department visits increased fivefold in the week after the release. The most common complaints recorded in a systematic sample of 528 visits in the first 30 hours after the release were headache (31%), burning eyes (30%), and sore throat (24%). Objective pulmonary findings were recorded for 41 (5%) patients in the week before and 165 (4%) in the week after the release. The odds of being a pulmonary case increased by 40% for each quarter-mile increment in proximity to the release (odds ratio [OR] 1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1, 1.7), while the odds of being a self-reported case increased by 20% for each quarter-mile increment in proximity (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1, 1.4). People who met the pulmonary case definition were 2.5 times (CI 1.3, 4.8) more likely than control subjects to have been outdoors and 6.4 times (CI 3.2, 12.6) more likely to report a preexisting pulmonary condition. Self-reported cases were 2.6 times (95% CI 1.8, 3.8) more likely than control subjects to have been outdoors and 1.9 times (95% CI 1.1, 3.1) more likely to report a preexisting pulmonary condition. CONCLUSIONS: Emergency department visits increased five-fold, but serious acute health effects were uncommon. People who met the pulmonary case definition were six times more likely to report pulmonary symptoms than those without preexisting conditions. This study was not designed to determine any potential long-term effects of exposure. PMID:9475936

Bauer, U; Berg, D; Kohn, M A; Meriwether, R A; Nickle, R A

1998-01-01

297

The USGS Earthquake Scenario Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Earthquake Hazards Program (EHP) is producing a comprehensive suite of earthquake scenarios for planning, mitigation, loss estimation, and scientific investigations. The Earthquake Scenario Project (ESP), though lacking clairvoyance, is a forward-looking project, estimating earthquake hazard and loss outcomes as they may occur one day. For each scenario event, fundamental input includes i) the magnitude and specified fault mechanism and dimensions, ii) regional Vs30 shear velocity values for site amplification, and iii) event metadata. A grid of standard ShakeMap ground motion parameters (PGA, PGV, and three spectral response periods) is then produced using the well-defined, regionally-specific approach developed by the USGS National Seismic Hazard Mapping Project (NHSMP), including recent advances in empirical ground motion predictions (e.g., the NGA relations). The framework also allows for numerical (3D) ground motion computations for specific, detailed scenario analyses. Unlike NSHMP ground motions, for ESP scenarios, local rock and soil site conditions and commensurate shaking amplifications are applied based on detailed Vs30 maps where available or based on topographic slope as a proxy. The scenario event set is comprised primarily by selection from the NSHMP events, though custom events are also allowed based on coordination of the ESP team with regional coordinators, seismic hazard experts, seismic network operators, and response coordinators. The event set will be harmonized with existing and future scenario earthquake events produced regionally or by other researchers. The event list includes approximate 200 earthquakes in CA, 100 in NV, dozens in each of NM, UT, WY, and a smaller number in other regions. Systematic output will include all standard ShakeMap products, including HAZUS input, GIS, KML, and XML files used for visualization, loss estimation, ShakeCast, PAGER, and for other systems. All products will be delivered via the EHP web pages in a user-searchable archive. In addition, we aim to duplicate most of the real-time earthquake event web page functionality for scenario drills and exercises, including all standard post-earthquake information tools. Hence, for each event, USGS PAGER runs will be produced, providing population exposure at current population levels, and Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) will produce HAZUS impact assessments. Anticipated users include FEMA, the loss modeling and insurance communities, emergency responders and mitigation planners (city, county, state, industry, utilities, corporate), the general public and the media. The Earthquake Scenario Project will also take on several pending scientific challenges related to scenario generation, including ways to include fault directivity, numerical ground motions, and ways to produce ground motion uncertainties (in addition to median peak ground motions). A parallel though less comprehensive effort is underway to produce scenarios for targeted regions and events around the globe.

Wald, D. J.; Petersen, M. D.; Wald, L. A.; Frankel, A. D.; Quitoriano, V. R.; Lin, K.; Luco, N.; Mathias, S.; Bausch, D.

2009-12-01

298

Analysis of a hypothetical dropped spent nuclear fuel shipping cask impacting a floor mounted crush pad  

SciTech Connect

A crush pad has been designed and analyzed to absorb the kinetic energy of a hypothetically dropped spent nuclear fuel shipping cask into a 44-ft. deep cask unloading pool at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The 110-ton Large Cell Cask was assumed to be accidentally dropped onto the parapet of the unloading pool, causing the cask to tumble through the pool water and impact the floor mounted crush pad with the cask`s top corner. The crush pad contains rigid polyurethane foam, which was modeled in a separate computer analysis to simulate the manufacturer`s testing of the foam and to determine the foam`s stress and strain characteristics. This computer analysis verified that the foam was accurately represented in the analysis to follow. A detailed non-linear, dynamic finite element analysis was then performed on the crush pad and adjacent pool structure to assure that a drop of this massive cask does not result in unacceptable damage to the storage facility. Additionally, verification was made that the crush pad adequately protects the cask from severe impact loading. At impact, the cask has significant vertical, horizontal and rotational velocities. The crush pad absorbs much of the energy of the cask through plastic deformation during primary and secondary impacts. After the primary impact with the crush pad, the cask still has sufficient energy to rebound and rotate until it impacts the pool wall. An assessment is made of the damage to the crush pad and pool wall and of the impact loading on the cask.

Hawkes, B.D.; Uldrich, E.D.

1998-03-01

299

Accidental Coverage of Both Renal Arteries during Infrarenal Aortic Stent-Graft Implantation: Cause and Treatment  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this paper is to report a salvage maneuver for accidental coverage of both renal arteries during endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) of an infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). A 72-year-old female with a 6?cm infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm was treated by endovascular means with a standard bifurcated graft. Upon completing an angiogram, both renal arteries were found to be accidentally occluded. Through a left percutaneous brachial approach, the right renal artery was catheterized and a chimney stent was deployed; however this was not possible for the left renal artery. A retroperitoneal surgical approach was therefore carried out with a retrograde chimney stent implanted to restore blood flow. After three months, both renal arteries were patent and renal function was not different from the baseline. Both endovascular with percutaneous access via the brachial artery and open retroperitoneal approaches with retrograde catheterization are feasible rescue techniques to recanalize the accidentally occluded renal arteries during EVAR.

Bracale, Umberto Marcello; Giribono, Anna Maria; Vitale, Gaetano; Narese, Donatella; Santini, Gianpaolo; del Guercio, Luca

2014-01-01

300

MODELLING LONG RUN SCENARIOS: METHODOLOGY  

E-print Network

MODELLING LONG RUN SCENARIOS: METHODOLOGY LESSONS FROM A PROSPECTIVE STUDY ON A LOW CO2 INTENSIVE. More generally, it points out the importance of possible bifurcation effects, and draws methodological some methodological pro- gress and no doubt it will be brought by on-going works. I would like to elabo

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

301

Future Scenarios and Environmental Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores a number of questions about visions of the future and their implications for environmental education (EE). If the future were known, what kind of actions would be needed to maintain the positive aspects and reverse the negative ones? How could these actions be translated into the aims of EE? Three future scenarios are…

Kopnina, Helen

2014-01-01

302

Scenario analysis for combat systems  

SciTech Connect

Under the current environment of budget cuts and force reductions, the U.S. Army must determine the resources required to ensure the ability to deal with contingencies throughout the world. Scenario analysis employs an optimization routine to determine the forces required to defeat several specified threats in diverse geographical locations. Uncertainty is assumed and exhibited by assigning probabilities to a finite set of events (scenarios). The optimization routine is a linear program that is executed for each potential event The results identify the forces required to achieve success in each scenario, and includes the resource implications to procure, maintain, and staff the force. The technique has been employed in several studies, mainly to develop up to an armor brigade, using results from approved computer combat models. The results of a study to develop a force to conduct several early entry operations will be presented. For this study, over 20 different combat systems were included in the trade-offs to develop the force necessary to achieve success in three contingencies. Overall scenario analysis shows a substantial capability in providing a fast tool to gain insights in developing a robust threat-based force.

Laferriere, R.

1994-12-31

303

Transportation scenarios for risk analysis.  

SciTech Connect

Transportation risk, like any risk, is defined by the risk triplet: what can happen (the scenario), how likely it is (the probability), and the resulting consequences. This paper evaluates the development of transportation scenarios, the associated probabilities, and the consequences. The most likely radioactive materials transportation scenario is routine, incident-free transportation, which has a probability indistinguishable from unity. Accident scenarios in radioactive materials transportation are of three different types: accidents in which there is no impact on the radioactive cargo, accidents in which some gamma shielding may be lost but there is no release of radioactive material, and accident in which radioactive material may potentially be released. Accident frequencies, obtainable from recorded data validated by the U.S. Department of Transportation, are considered equivalent to accident probabilities in this study. Probabilities of different types of accidents are conditional probabilities, conditional on an accident occurring, and are developed from event trees. Development of all of these probabilities and the associated highway and rail accident event trees are discussed in this paper.

Weiner, Ruth F.

2010-09-01

304

Biomechanical comparisons of single- and double-legged drop jumps with changes in drop height.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare the biomechanics of single- and double-legged drop jumps (SDJ vs. DDJ) with changes in drop height. Jumping height, ground contact time, reactive strength index, ground reaction force, loading rate of ground reaction force, joint power and stiffness were measured in 12 male college students during SDJ from 20-, 30-, 40-, and 50-cm heights and DDJ from of 20- and 40-cm heights. The peak impact force was increased with the incremental drop height during SDJs. The jumping height and leg and ankle stiffness of SDJ30 were greater than those of SDJ40 and SDJ50. The knee and hip stiffnesses of SDJ30 were greater than those of SDJ50. The impact forces of SDJ30-50 were greater than those of DDJ40. The leg, ankle, knee and hip joint stiffnesses of SDJ20-30 were greater than those of DDJ20 and DDJ40. The propulsive forces of SDJ20-50 were greater than those of DDJ20 and DDJ40. The jumping height of SDJ30 was greater than that of DDJ20. Drop height of 30?cm was recommended during single-legged drop jump with the best biomechanical benefit. Single-legged drop jump from 20-30?cm could provide comparable intensity to double-legged drop jump from 40?cm. PMID:23771829

Wang, L-I; Peng, H-T

2014-06-01

305

Inverted drop testing and neck injury potential.  

PubMed

Inverted drop testing of vehicles is a methodology that has long been used by the automotive industry and researchers to test roof integrity and is currently being considered by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration as a roof strength test. In 1990 a study was reported which involved 8 dolly rollover tests and 5 inverted drop tests. These studies were conducted with restrained Hybrid III instrumented Anthropometric Test Devices (ATD) in production and rollcaged vehicles to investigate the relationship between roof strength and occupant injury potential. The 5 inverted drop tests included in the study provided a methodology producing "repeatable roof impacts" exposing the ATDs to the similar impact environment as those seen in the dolly rollover tests. Authors have conducted two inverted drop test sets as part of an investigation of two real world rollover accidents. Hybrid-III ATD's were used in each test with instrumented head and necks. Both test sets confirm that reduction of roof intrusion and increased headroom can significantly enhance occupant protection. In both test pairs, the neck force of the dummy in the vehicle with less crush and more survival space was significantly lower. Reduced roof crush and dynamic preservation of the occupant survival space resulted in only minor occupant contact and minimal occupant loading, establishing a clear causal relationship between roof crush and neck injuries. PMID:12724903

Forrest, Stephen; Herbst, Brian; Meyer, Steve; Sances, Anthony; Kumaresan, Srirangam

2003-01-01

306

Reducing cyclone pressure drop with evasés  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cyclones are widely used to separate particles from gas flows and as air emissions control devices. Their cost of operation is proportional to the fan energy required to overcome their pressure drop. Evasés or exit diffusers potentially could reduce exit pressure losses without affecting collection...

307

The liquid drop nature of nucleoli.  

PubMed

Nucleoli are prominent subnuclear organelles, and are known to be hubs of ribosome synthesis. A recent study of Brangwynne et al. reports that the nucleoli of Xenopus oocytes display "liquid drop" behavior, suggesting that nucleolar structure may be driven by rather simple physical principles. PMID:22198683

Marko, John F

2012-03-01

308

Egg drop syndrome '76 in Bolivia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four outbreaks of Egg Drop Syndrome '76 (EDS '76) were diagnosed between April 1993 and July 1993 in the Santa Cruz Department of Bolivia, around the department capital Santa Cruz. Three outbreaks involved commercial laying birds and the fourth a broiler breeder unit. Clinical signs were typical of EDS '76 with decreases in egg production of up to 55% being

S. C. Bishop; P. Cardozo

1996-01-01

309

Viscosity Measurement Using Drop Coalescence in Microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present in here validation studies of a new method for application in microgravity environment which measures the viscosity of highly viscous undercooled liquids using drop coalescence. The method has the advantage of avoiding heterogeneous nucleation at container walls caused by crystallization of undercooled liquids during processing. Homogeneous nucleation can also be avoided due to the rapidity of the measurement using this method. The technique relies on measurements from experiments conducted in near zero gravity environment as well as highly accurate analytical formulation for the coalescence process. The viscosity of the liquid is determined by allowing the computed free surface shape relaxation time to be adjusted in response to the measured free surface velocity for two coalescing drops. Results are presented from two sets of validation experiments for the method which were conducted on board aircraft flying parabolic trajectories. In these tests the viscosity of a highly viscous liquid, namely glycerin, was determined at different temperatures using the drop coalescence method described in here. The experiments measured the free surface velocity of two glycerin drops coalescing under the action of surface tension alone in low gravity environment using high speed photography. The liquid viscosity was determined by adjusting the computed free surface velocity values to the measured experimental data. The results of these experiments were found to agree reasonably well with the known viscosity for the test liquid used.

Antar, Basil N.; Ethridge, Edwin C.; Maxwell, Daniel; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

310

Dropping Two Balls Near the Earth's Surface  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation depicts two balls being dropped near the Earth's surface in an interactive simulation. The user can control the initial horizontal speed of one ball and observe the path and acceleration of both balls as they fall and hit the Earth's surface at the same time.

Harrison, David M.

311

Standardisation of superheated drop and bubble detectors.  

PubMed

This study presents an analysis of the commercially available superheated drop detectors and bubble detectors, performed in substantial accordance with the guidelines developed by the International Organisation for Standardization (ISO). The analysis was performed in terms of linearity, reproducibility, ageing, minimum detection thresholds, energy and angular dependence of the response and the influence of various climatic conditions. PMID:12382753

Vanhavere, F; d'Errico, F

2002-01-01

312

Utah Drop-Out Drug Use Questionnaire.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This questionnaire assesses drug use practices in high school drop-outs. The 79 items (multiple choice or apply/not apply) are concerned with demographic data and use, use history, reasons for use/nonuse, attitudes toward drugs, availability of drugs, and drug information with respect to narcotics, amphetamines, LSD, Marijuana, and barbiturates.…

Governor's Citizen Advisory Committee on Drugs, Salt Lake City, UT.

313

Predicting Students Drop Out: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The monitoring and support of university freshmen is considered very important at many educational institutions. In this paper we describe the results of the educational data mining case study aimed at predicting the Electrical Engineering (EE) students drop out after the first semester of their studies or even before they enter the study program…

Dekker, Gerben W.; Pechenizkiy, Mykola; Vleeshouwers, Jan M.

2009-01-01

314

Spreading of liquid drops over porous substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spreading of small liquid drops over thin and thick porous layers (dry or saturated with the same liquid) has been investigated in the case of both complete wetting (silicone oils of different viscosities) and partial wetting (aqueous SDS solutions of different concentrations). Nitrocellulose membranes of different porosity and different average pore size have been used as a model of

V. M. Starov; S. A. Zhdanov; S. R. Kosvintsev; V. D. Sobolev; M. G. Velarde

2003-01-01

315

Lightweight, Economical Device Alleviates Drop Foot  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Corrective apparatus alleviates difficulties in walking for victims of drop foot. Elastic line attached to legband provides flexible support to toe of shoe. Device used with flat (heelless) shoes, sneakers, crepe-soled shoes, canvas shoes, and many other types of shoes not usable with short leg brace.

Deis, B. C.

1983-01-01

316

A volume-limited sample of X-ray galaxy groups and clusters - III. Central abundance drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of a search and study of central abundance drops in a volume-limited sample (z ? 0.071) of 101 X-ray galaxy groups and clusters. These are best observed in nearby, and so best resolved, groups and clusters, making our sample ideal for their detection. Out of the 65 groups and clusters in our sample for which we have abundance profiles, 8 of them have certain central abundance drops, with possible central abundance drops in another 6. All sources with central abundance drops have X-ray cavities, and all bar one exception have a central cooling time of ?1 Gyr. These central abundance drops can be generated if the iron injected by stellar mass-loss processes in the core of these sources is in grains, which then become incorporated in the central dusty filaments. These, in turn, are dragged outwards by the bubbling feedback process in these sources. We find that data quality significantly affects the detection of central abundance drops, inasmuch as a higher number of counts in the central 20 kpc of a source makes it easier to detect a central abundance drop, as long as these counts are more than ˜13 000. On the other hand, the magnitude of the central abundance drop does not depend on the number of these counts, though the statistical significance of the measured drop does. Finally, in line with the scenario briefly outlined above, we find that, for most sources, the location of X-ray cavities acts as an upper limit to the location of the peak in the radial metallicity distribution.

Panagoulia, E. K.; Sanders, J. S.; Fabian, A. C.

2015-02-01

317

Aluminum: Principled Scenario Exploration through Minimality  

E-print Network

Aluminum: Principled Scenario Exploration through Minimality Tim Nelson1, Salman Saghafi1, Daniel J Aluminum, a modification of Alloy that presents only minimal scenarios: those that contain no more than is necessary. Aluminum lets users explore the scenario space by adding to scenarios and backtracking. It also

Krishnamurthi, Shriram

318

Aluminum: Principled Scenario Exploration through Minimality  

E-print Network

Aluminum: Principled Scenario Exploration through Minimality Tim Nelson1, Salman Saghafi1, Daniel J. We present Aluminum, a modification of Alloy that presents only minimal scenarios: those that contain no more than is necessary. Aluminum lets users explore the scenario space by adding to scenarios

Dougherty, Daniel J.

319

Genomics and society: four scenarios for 2015  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops four alternative scenarios depicting possible futures for genomics applications within a broader social context. The scenarios integrate forecasts for future genomics applications with key drivers that are shaping genomics. Each scenario is a narrative depiction of an alternative path towards four very different futures for genomics. The scenarios are intended to give the user the a framework

Mark Justman; Clement Bezold; William R. Rowley

2002-01-01

320

THE METHODOLOGICAL BASIS FOR LOW CARBON SCENARIOS  

E-print Network

scenario literature which pre-dates the use of the concept for considering low-carbon futures. Since1 THE METHODOLOGICAL BASIS FOR LOW CARBON SCENARIOS ­ LESSONS FROM THE WIDER POST-WAR SCENARIO for the specific purpose of informing the ongoing development of energy and low carbon scenarios. The aim

321

Instabilities of volatile films and drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on instabilities during spreading of volatile liquids, with emphasis on the novel instability observed when isopropyl alcohol (IPA) is deposited on a monocrystalline silicon (Si) wafer. This instability is characterized by emission of drops ahead of the expanding front, with each drop followed by smaller, satellite droplets, forming the structures which we nickname "octopi" due to their appearance. A less volatile liquid, or a substrate of larger heat conductivity, suppress this instability. In addition, we examine the spreading of drops of water (DIW)-IPA mixtures on both Si wafers and plain glass slides, and describe the variety of contact line instabilities which appear. We find that the decrease of IPA concentration in mixtures leads to transition from "octopi" to mushroom-like instabilities. Through manipulation of our experimental set up, we also find that the mechanism responsible for these instabilities appears to be mostly insensitive to both the external application of convection to the gas phase, and the doping of the gas phase with vapor in order to create the saturated environment. In order to better understand the "octopi" instability, we develop a theoretical model for evaporation of a pure liquid drop on a thermally conductive solid substrate. This model includes all relevant physical effects, including evaporation, thermal conductivity in both liquid and solid, (thermocapillary) Marangoni effect, vapor recoil, disjoining pressure, and gravity. The crucial ingredient in this problem is the evaporation model, since it influences both the motion of the drop contact line, and the temperature profiles along the liquid-solid and liquid-gas interfaces. We consider two evaporation models: the equilibrium "lens" model and the non-equilibrium one-sided (NEOS) model. Along with the assumption of equilibrium at the liquid-gas interface, the "lens" model also assumes that evaporation proceeds in a (vapor) diffusion-limited regime, therefore bringing the focus to the gas phase, where the problem of vapor mass diffusion is to be solved, which invokes analogy with the problem of lens-shaped conductor from electrostatics. On the other hand, NEOS model assumes non-equilibrium at the liquid-gas interface and a reaction-limited regime of evaporation; the liquid and gas phases are decoupled using the one-sided assumption, and hence, the problem is to be solved in the liquid phase only. We use lubrication approximation and derive a single governing equation for the evolution of drop thickness, which includes both models. An experimental procedure is described next, which we use in order to estimate the volatility parameter corresponding to each model. We also describe the numerical code, which we use to solve the governing equation for drop thickness, and show how this equation can be used to predict which evaporation model is more appropriate for a particular physical problem. Next, we perform linear stability analysis (LSA) of perturbed thin film configuration. We find excellent agreement between our numerical results and LSA predictions. Furthermore, these results indicate that the IPA/Si configuration is the most unstable one, in direct agreement with experimental results. We perform numerical simulations in the simplified 2d geometry (cross section of the drop) for both planar and radial symmetry and show that our theoretical model reproduces the main features of the experiment, namely, the formation of "octopus"-like features ahead of the contact line of an evaporating drop. Finally, we perform quasi-3d numerical simulations of evaporating drops, where stability to azimuthal perturbations of the contact line is examined. We recover the "octopi" instability for IPA/Si configuration, similarly as seen in the experiments.

Murisic, Nebojsa

2008-12-01

322

Inhaled Surfactant in the treatment of accidental Talc Powder inhalation: a new case report  

PubMed Central

The use of talcum powder is incorrectly part of the traditional care of infants. Its acute aspiration is a very dangerous condition in childhood. Although the use of baby powder has been discouraged from many authors and the reports of its accidental inhalation have been ever more rare, sometimes new cases with several fatalities have been reported. We report on a patient in which accidental inhalation of baby powder induced severe respiratory difficulties. We also point out the benefits of surfactant administration. Surfactant contributed to the rapid improvement of the medical and radiological condition, preventing severe early and late complications and avoiding invasive approaches. PMID:21951993

2011-01-01

323

Head-on collision of drops: A numerical investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The head-on collision of equal sized drops is studied by full numerical simulations. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved for fluid motion both inside and outside the drops using a front tracking/finite difference technique. The drops are accelerated toward each other by a body force that is turned off before the drops collide. When the drops collide, the fluid between them is pushed outward leaving a thin later bounded by the drop surface. This layer gets progressively thinner as the drops continue to deform and in several of the calculations this double layer is artificially removed once it is thin enough, thus modeling rupture. If no rupture takes place, the drops always rebound, but if the film is ruptured the drops may coalesce permanently or coalesce temporarily and then split again.

Nobari, M. R.; Jan, Y.-J.; Tryggvason, G.

1993-01-01

324

Electric field-enhanced coalescence of liquid drops  

SciTech Connect

A fundamental understanding of drop coalescence and growth is of importance to separations and materials processing. Under external driving forces, drops dispersed in an immiscible fluid collide and coalesce with each other due to their relative motion. As a result of drop coalescence, the average drop size in the dispersion increases over time, improving the separation process. Collision and coalescence of spherical, conducting drops bearing no net charge in dilute, homogeneous dispersions are considered theoretically under conditions where drop motion results from gravity settling and electric field-induced attraction. A trajectory analysis is used to follow the relative motion of two drops and predict pairwise collision rates. A population dynamics equation is then solved to predict the time evolution of the size distribution and the average size of drops. The results show that the rate of drop collision and growth can be increased significantly by applying an electric field, in accord with fundamental experiments and patents on electrocoalescence.

Zhang, Xiaoguang [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Basaran, O.A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

1995-04-01

325

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 2. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF CHLORINE (SCAQMD) (SOUTH COAST AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT DISTRICT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The manual discusses reducing the risk associated with an accidental release of chlorine. It identifies some of the potential causes of accidental releases that apply to the processes that use chlorine. It also identifies examples of potential causes, as well as measures that may...

326

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES. VOLUME 1. PREVENTION AND PROTECTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR CONTROLLING ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF AIR TOXICS  

EPA Science Inventory

The volume discusses prevention and protection measures for controlling accidental releases of air toxics. The probability of accidental releases depends on the extent to which deviations (in magnitude and duration) in the process can be tolerated before a loss of chemical contai...

327

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES, VOLUME 2: POST-RELEASE MITIGATION MEASURES FOR CONTROLLING ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF AIR TOXICS  

EPA Science Inventory

The volume discusses prevention and protection measures for controlling accidental releases of air toxics. The probability of accidental releases depends on the extent to which deviations (in magnitude and duration) in the process can be tolerated before a loss of chemical contai...

328

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES, VOL. 2. POST-RELEASE MITIGATION MEASURES FOR CONTROLLING ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF AIR TOXICS  

EPA Science Inventory

The volume discusses prevention and protection measures for controlling accidental releases of air toxics. The probability of accidental releases depends on the extent to which deviations (in magnitude and duration) in the process can be tolerated before a loss of chemical contai...

329

Intravenous injection of diazepam to cubital vein can be complicated by accidental intra-arterial penetration and gangrene.  

PubMed

We present an elbow disarticulation due to accidental intra-arterial injection of diazepam. Considering the risk of inadvertent and accidental intra-arterial injection of diazepam and its subsequent severe sequelae that are reported in the literature, we emphasize that intravenous diazepam should be administered with more hesitancy and care. PMID:18588384

Mirzatolooei, Fardin; Afshar, Ahmadreza

2008-07-01

330

Pollination Drop in Juniperus communis: Response to Deposited Material  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The pollination drop is a liquid secretion produced by the ovule and exposed outside the micropyle. In many gymnosperms, pollen lands on the surface of the pollination drop, rehydrates and enters the ovule as the drop retracts. The objective of this work was to study the formation of the pollination drop in Juniperus communis, its carbohydrate composition and the response to deposition of conspecific pollen, foreign pollen and other particulate material, in an attempt to clarify the mechanism of pollination drop retraction. Method Branches with female cones close to pollination drop secretion were collected. On the first day of pollination drop exposure, an eyelash mounted on a wooden stick with paraffin was used to collect pollen or silica gel particles, which were then deposited by contact with the drop. Volume changes in pollination drops were measured by using a stereomicroscope with a micrometer eyepiece 3 h after deposition. The volume of non-pollinated control drops was also recorded. On the first day of secretion, drops were also collected for sugar analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography. Key Results The pollination drop persisted for about 12 d if not pollinated, and formed again after removal for up to four consecutive days. After pollination with viable conspecific pollen, the drop retracted quickly and did not form again. Partial withdrawal occurred after deposition of other biological and non-biological material. Fructose was the dominant sugar; glucose was also present but at a much lower percentage. Conclusions Sugar analysis confirmed the general trend of fructose dominance in gymnosperm pollination drops. Complete pollination drop withdrawal appears to be triggered by a biochemical mechanism resulting from interaction between pollen and drop constituents. The results of particle deposition suggest the existence of a non-specific, particle-size-dependent mechanism that induces partial pollination drop withdrawal. These results suggest that the non-specific response may decrease the probability of pollen landing on the drop, reducing pollination efficiency. PMID:17942592

Mugnaini, Serena; Nepi, Massimo; Guarnieri, Massimo; Piotto, Beti; Pacini, Ettore

2007-01-01

331

Electrohydrodynamic flow and chaotic mixing inside drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrohyodynamics, proposed by G. I. Taylor (1966), is the study of fluid motion under the influence of electric fields. In this work, we investigate theoretically and experimentally the electrohydrodynamic flow field inside a dielectric liquid drop and its application in driving chaotic mixing. Previous works on the electrohydrodynamic flows are mainly restricted to neutrally buoyant drops. Since settling drops are expected to occur more commonly in applications, in the first part of this thesis we extend Taylor's theory to deal with translating drops. Both shape distortion and charge convection, when coupled with an asymmetric velocity profile, will produce a net drag and a shift in the settling speed. Corrections to the settling velocity from both contributions are calculated to the first order. Experiments are performed using a PMM/castor oil system, and are in qualitative agreement with the theory: the deformations and the change in settling velocity are all proportional to E2, as predicted, and the settling speed shows the correct trends with drop size. In the second part of this thesis, we investigate three dimensional chaotic mixing driven by the electrohydrodynamic flows. A spatially uniform electric field is periodically switched through an angle, which is equivalent to switching the symmetry axis of the Taylor circulation back and forth, chaotic mixing is therefore generated inside a drop. Mixing efficiency is studied numerically by tracing trajectories of Lagrangian particles. Our calculations of the mixed volume fraction and Lyapunov exponents give optimal mixing conditions. Mixing experiments for a switching angle of 0.5pi are performed using a silicone oil/castor oil system, and show excellent agreement with the theory. In the third part of this thesis, we discuss effects of finite charge relaxation and charge convection on the flow field in both DC and AC electric fields. A pole-to-equator convection, acting together with a slow charge relaxation, causes a long transient process as discovered in experiments. Charge convection effect is found to play a more important role in a DC field than it does in an AC field. Our theory helps explain the experimental observations by Vizika & Saville (1992).

Xu, Xiumei

332

Dome It Challenge Scenario Cards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Student teams find solutions to hypothetical challenge scenarios that require them to sustainably manage both resources and wastes. They begin by creating a card representing themselves and the resources (inputs) they need and wastes (outputs) they produce. Then they incorporate additional cards for food and energy components and associated necessary resources and waste products. They draw connections between outputs that provide inputs for other needs, and explore the problem of using linear solutions in resource-limited environments. Then students incorporate cards based on biorecycling technologies, such as algae photobioreactors and anaerobic digesters in order to make circular connections. Finally, the student teams present their complete biorecycling engineering solutions to their scenarios—in poster format—by connecting outputs to inputs, and showing the cycles of how wastes become resources.

Membrane Biotechnology Laboratory, College of Engineering,

333

Evaluation of pressure response in the Los Alamos controlled air incinerator during three incident scenarios  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos Controlled Air Incinerator (CAI) is a system designed to accept radioactive mixed waste containing alpha-emitting radionuclides. A mathematical model was developed to predict the pressure response throughout the offgas treatment system of the CAI during three hypothetical incident scenarios. The scenarios examined included: (1) loss of burner flame and failure of the flame safeguard system with subsequent reignition of fuel gas in the primary chamber, (2) pyrolytic gas buildup from a waste package due to loss of induced draft and subsequent restoration of induced draft, and (3) accidental charging of propellant spray cans in a solid waste package to the primary chamber during a normal feed cycle. For each of the three scenarios, the finite element computer model was able to determine the transient pressure surge and decay response throughout the system. Of particular interest were the maximum absolute pressures attainable at critical points in the system as well as maximum differential pressures across the high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. Modeling results indicated that all three of the scenarios resulted in maximum HEPA filter differential pressures well below the maximum allowable levels.

Vavruska, J.S. [Equinox, Ltd., Santa Fe, NM (United States); Elsberry, K. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Thompson, T.K.; Pendergrass, J.A. [T.K. Thompson, Inc., White Rock, NM (United States)

1996-05-01

334

Confiding in others and illness rate among spouses of suicide and accidental-death victims  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveyed 19 spouses (mean age 37.5 yrs) of suicide and accidental death victims (representing a 61.3% response rate of all relevant cases that occurred in 1982 in a metropolitan county) concerning their health and coping strategies approximately 1 yr after their spouse's death. Results show that the more Ss discussed their spouse's death with friends and the less that they

James W. Pennebaker; Robin C. OHeeron

1984-01-01

335

Vibration behavior and response to an accidental collision of SFT prototype in Qiandao Lake (China)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents free vibration analysis of the submerged floating tunnel (SFT) prototype, which has been designed to be built in Qiandao Lake (China). As an approximation the supporting effect of the tethers is omitted in the calculation of beam-like bending vibrations. As a case study, the response of the SFT prototype to an accidental collision by an object like

Shuangyin Zhang; Lei Wang; Youshi Hong

2010-01-01

336

Accidental Risk Assessment Methodology for Industries in the framework of SEVESO II directive  

E-print Network

ARAMIS Accidental Risk Assessment Methodology for Industries in the framework of SEVESO II risk assessment methodology which allows to evaluate the risk level of an industrial plant by taking into account prevention measures against major accidents. The methodology will support the harmonised

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

337

Thermal Conductivity of the Accidental Degeneracy and Enlarged Symmetry Group Models for Superconducting UPt 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present theoretical calculations of the thermal conductivity for the “accidental degeneracy” and “enlarged symmetry group” models that have been proposed to explain the phase diagram of UPt3. The order parameters for these models possess point nodes or cross nodes, reflecting the broken symmetries of the ground state. These broken symmetries lead to robust predictions for the ratio of the

M. J. Graf; S.-K. Yip; J. A. Sauls

1999-01-01

338

Potentially dangerous sleeping environments and accidental asphyxia in infancy and early childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infants and young children may be exposed to a variety of dangerous situations when left sleeping in cots, chairs, or beds. A review of 30 cases of accidental asphyxia occurring in infants and young children who had been left to sleep unattended was undertaken from the necropsy and consultation files of the Adelaide Children's Hospital. Causes of death included hanging

R W Byard; S Beal; A J Bourne

1994-01-01

339

Geographical patterns of incendiary and accidental fires in Springfield, Massachusetts, 1980–1984  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arson is a serious crime occurring with increasing frequency in urban America today. To date, this crime remains poorly documented and seldom discussed in the literature, particularly from a geographical viewpoint. This study examined the spatial distribution and underlying factors associated with 440 arson and 732 accidental fires recorded in Springfield, Massachusetts, between 1980 and 1984. Based upon a series

William D. Bennett; Alida V. Merlo; Karl K. Leiker

1987-01-01

340

Colchicine poisoning by accidental ingestion of meadow saffron ( Colchicum autumnale): pathological and medicolegal aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although intoxications with colchicine, the alkaloid of Colchicum autumnale (meadow saffron), are well known, in most cases the intoxications are evoked by oral or parenteral preparations traditionally used as medication against gout. The accidental ingestion of Colchicum autumnale, on the other hand, is a rare event and has to our knowledge only twice been described in detail. We report a

Michael Klintschar; Christine Beham-Schmidt; Herbert Radner; Gerald Henning; Peter Roll

1999-01-01

341

Accidental Discovery of Information on the User-Defined Social Web: A Mixed-Method Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Frequently interacting with other people or working in an information-rich environment can foster the "accidental discovery of information" (ADI) (Erdelez, 2000; McCay-Peet & Toms, 2010). With the increasing adoption of social web technologies, online user-participation communities and user-generated content have provided users the…

Lu, Chi-Jung

2012-01-01

342

New Tracers Identify Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids and Accidental Releases from Oil and Gas Operations  

E-print Network

New Tracers Identify Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids and Accidental Releases from Oil and Gas fingerprints of fluids that return to the surface after high volume hydraulic fracturing of unconventional oil the hydraulic fracturing process, resulting in the relative enrichment of boron and lithium in HFFF

Jackson, Robert B.

343

A Method for Reliability Assessment of Aircraft Structures Subject to Accidental Damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method has been proposed to assess the reliability of aircraft structures subject to accidental damage using in-service damage data. The development of this method is motivated by the increasing use of composite materials in aircraft structures, which are particularly sensitive to impact damage. In addition, damage to composite structures may not be visible or may be difficult to detect.

Cary K. Huang; Kuen Y. Lin

344

Coping with Serious Accidental Injury: A One-Year Follow-Up Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The aim of this study was to analyze changes of coping strategies in severely injured accident victims over time and to compare patients with high and low posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom levels with regard to their coping patterns and accident-related cognitions. Methods: 106 consecutive patients with severe accidental injuries admitted to a trauma surgery intensive care unit (ICU)

Urs Hepp; Hanspeter Moergeli; Stefan Büchi; Lutz Wittmann; Ulrich Schnyder

2005-01-01

345

SUMMARY OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF RADIOACTIVITY DETECTED OFF THE NEVADA TEST SITE, 1963-1986  

EPA Science Inventory

Of the more than 450 underground nuclear explosives tests conducted at the Nevada Test Site from August 1963 (signing of the Limited Test Ban Treaty) through the end of 1986, only 23 accidentally released radioactivity that was detectable beyond the boundary of the NTS. Of these ...

346

Accidental Entry of Fish into Throat While Bathing in a Pond  

PubMed Central

While fish bones are common foreign bodies in the throat, a whole live fish in the pharynx is very rare. We report a case where a whole fish accidentally entered the throat of a 52-year-old male, where it became lodged causing throat pain and dysphagia. The fish was removed as an emergency procedure. PMID:24371443

Parida, Pradipta Kumar; Surianarayanan, Gopalakrishnan

2013-01-01

347

[Fingers necrosis after an accidental intra-arterial injection of flucloxacilline: case report].  

PubMed

Accidental intra-arterial injection of drugs is rare in pediatric patients. It is a source of considerable morbidity. Vessel proximity, aberrant vasculature, difficult procedures, and clerical errors can contribute to accidental intra-arterial injection. We report a case of a 7-year-old girl who had an accidental intra-arterial injection of 500 mg of floxacillin in her right elbow for open wound of the index. Initial signs and symptoms consisted of intense forearm pain and cyanosis. Two to 3 hours later, discoloration and nail bed pallor became evident, with no radial pulse. Rapid development of signs of acute ischemia prompted urgent brachial artery embolectomy and exploration and forearm fasciotomy. Postoperative heparin was administered. Postoperatively gangrene of the five fingers of the right hand developed. We present a comprehensive review of literature, highlighting available information on symptoms, pathogenesis, sequelae and management strategies for accidental intra-arterial injection. We believe that all physicians and ancillary personnel who administer intravenous therapy should be aware of this serious risk. PMID:21067956

Aghoutane, E M; Fezzazi, R; Elhaouati, R; Boumzebra, D

2011-04-01

348

Treatment of accidental digital injection of adrenaline from an auto-injector device.  

PubMed Central

Following an increase in the number of patients attending the accident and emergency department because of accidental injection of adrenaline from autoinjector devices prescribed for patients with severe allergic reactions, a review of published reports was undertaken to identify the best form of treatment. Local injection of phentolamine is effective for up to 13 hours after the inadvertent digital instillation of adrenaline. PMID:9413778

McGovern, S J

1997-01-01

349

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder following Accidental Injury: Rule or Exception in Switzerland?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There is still marked variability in the findings concerning psychiatric disorders associated with traumatic injury. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of acute stress disorder (ASD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following accidental injuries, and to predict the PTSD symptom level at 6 months, taking into particular consideration the role of pre-existing psychiatric morbidity and

Ulrich Schnyder; Lutz Wittmann; Josefina Friedrich-Perez; Urs Hepp; Hanspeter Moergeli

2008-01-01

350

DROP: Durable Reconnaissance and Observation Platform  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Robots have been a valuable tool for providing a remote presence in areas that are either inaccessible or too dangerous for humans. Having a robot with a high degree of adaptability becomes crucial during such events. The adaptability that comes from high mobility and high durability greatly increases the potential uses of a robot in these situations, and therefore greatly increases its usefulness to humans. DROP is a lightweight robot that addresses these challenges with the capability to survive large impacts, carry a usable payload, and traverse a variety of surfaces, including climbing vertical surfaces like wood, stone, and concrete. The platform is crash-proof, allowing it to be deployed in ways including being dropped from an unmanned aerial vehicle or thrown from a large MSL-class (Mars Science Laboratory) rover.

Parness, Aaron; McKenzie, Clifford F.

2012-01-01

351

Acute confusion secondary to steroid eye drops.  

PubMed

We present a case of a 90-year-old woman who presented to the acute medical unit with a new onset presentation of confusion. Her abbreviated mental test on admission was 5/10. Biochemical screen including full blood count, urea and electrolytes, C reactive protein and liver function test and imaging such as chest X-ray and CT of the head were normal. The patient had recently been started on steroid eye drops for shingles. Suspension of this medication was followed by a resolution of confusion with the abbreviated mental test on discharge improving to 9/10. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first presentation of a link between steroid eye drops and acute confusion. PMID:25540207

Farooq, Umar; Dallol, Bander

2014-01-01

352

Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) Contest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first NASA Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) student competition pilot project came to a conclusion at the Glenn Research Center in April 2001. The competition involved high-school student teams who developed the concept for a microgravity experiment and prepared an experiment proposal. The two student teams - COSI Academy, sponsored by the Columbus Center of Science and Industry, and another team from Cincinnati, Ohio's Sycamore High School, designed a microgravity experiment, fabricated the experimental apparatus, and visited NASA Glenn to operate their experiment in the 2.2 Second Drop Tower. Students from Sycamore High School in Cincinnati, Ohio (girls), and the COSI Academy, Columbus, Ohio (boys), participated. This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

2001-01-01

353

Scenario Planning for Coastal Adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea level rise (SLR) is a persistent environmental change observed globally for more than a century, and its expected continuation poses significant challenges to the United States (US). We summarize a process associated with the United States National Climate Assessment for identifying four scenarios of global mean sea level rise (SLR). The main finding is that global mean sea level is expected to rise no less than 0.2 meters and no more than 2.0 meters by the end of the century. Recent publications suggest that a 4 C world would result in global mean SLR towards the upper end of that range. Aside from this process, there is currently no coordinated, interagency effort in the US to identify agreed upon global mean sea level rise projections for the purpose of coastal planning, policy, and management. This is an important gap because identifying global mean SLR estimates is a critical step in assessing coastal impacts and vulnerabilities. At present, coastal managers are left to identify global SLR estimates through their own interpretation of the scientific literature or the advice of experts on an ad-hoc basis. Yet, relative SLR at over one hundred tide gages (~80%) along the US coast reflect the global trend (1.7 - 3.2 mm/yr). No widely accepted method is currently available for producing probabilistic projections of SLR at actionable scales (i.e., regional to local). The desire to have a most probable or likely outcome can lead to paralysis or inaction for coastal decision-making. Given the range of uncertainty in future global SLR, scenario planning offers an opportunity to overcome decision-making paralysis and initiate actions now that may reduce future impacts and vulnerabilities. Scenarios do not predict future changes, but describe future potential conditions in a manner that supports decision-making under uncertainty. Using multiple scenarios, none more likely than the other, encourages experts and decision makers to rehearse multiple, plausible futures and to develop multiple response options. Coastal management actions can take anywhere from a few years for alterations to an existing levee to a decade or longer for large-scale, multi-use projects. Given the observed accelerated rate of global SLR in recent decades, it is now critical for the scientific community to help decision makers use scenario planning approaches for coastal adaptation in order to avoid future impacts of sea level rise and its effect on the frequency and magnitude of coastal flooding.

Parris, A.; Obeysekera, J.; Knuuti, K.; Moss, R. H.; Horton, R. M.; Weiss, J. L.

2012-12-01

354

Electron–hole drops in synthetic diamond  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we give the first report of a high-density phase of condensed electron–hole drops in diamond. Synthetic crystals grown by the high pressure–high temperature technique were optically highly excited by laser pulses with photon energies above the band-gap of diamond. At temperatures below ?170K we observe novel broad luminescence bands, in addition to the well-known free exciton spectra,

K. Thonke; R. Schliesing; N. Teofilov; H. Zacharias; R. Sauer; A. M. Zaitsev; H. Kanda; T. R. Anthony

2000-01-01

355

Viscosity measurement using drop coalescence in microgravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present in here validation studies of a new method for application in microgravity environment which measures the viscosity\\u000a of highly viscous undercooled liquids using drop coalescence. The method has the advantage of avoiding heterogeneous nucleation\\u000a at container walls caused by crystallization of undercooled liquids during processing. Homogeneous nucleation can also be\\u000a avoided due to the rapidity of the measurement

Basil N. Antar; Edwin C. Ethridge; Daniel Maxwell

2003-01-01

356

Measurement of dynamic surface tension by a growing drop technique  

SciTech Connect

The recently developed growing drop technique for measuring dynamic surface tension in which a drop is grown at the end of a fine capillary into another immiscible fluid has been improved by the use of an ultra-high-speed video camera and motion analysis system. Because the new apparatus described in this paper is capable of measuring transient drop shapes and pressures in 1/6 to 1 ms, it permits detailed observation of profiles of growing drops and pressures inside them virtually from zero surface age and thereby allows exploration of the limitations of the growing drop method. In contrast to related work, the results demonstrate that the present technique can determine the surface tension of an interface with a surface age as low as 20 ms. Although the present technique is capable of measuring tension prior to the hemispherical stage, measurements in the very early stages of drop growth are rendered impossible due to oscillations of the newly forming drop. The high speed of data acquisition that is possible with the new system has resulted in the discovery of a disparity between the extremum in drop pressure and that in drop radius in surfactant-laden drops, which can be attributed to the changing of tension with time. The effect of drop viscosity on the measurement of dynamic surface tension with the growing drop technique is also studied for the first time by forming drops of mixtures of water and glycerol into air.

Zhang, X. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Harris, M.T.; Basaran, O.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical Technology Division)

1994-11-01

357

Organization of microbeads in Leidenfrost drops.  

PubMed

We investigated the organization of micrometric hydrophilic beads (glass or basalt) immersed in Leidenfrost drops. Starting from a large volume of water compared to the volume of the beads, while the liquid evaporates, we observed that the grains are eventually trapped at the interface of the droplet and accumulate. At a moment, the grains entirely cover the droplet. We measured the surface area at this moment as a function of the total mass of particles inserted in the droplet. We concluded that the grains form a monolayer around the droplet assuming (i) that the packing of the beads at the surface is a random close packing and (ii) that the initial surface of the drop is larger than the maximum surface that the beads can cover. Regarding the evaporation dynamics, the beads are found to reduce the evaporation rate of the drop. The slowdown of the evaporation is interpreted as being the consequence of the dewetting of the particles located at the droplet interface which makes the effective surface of evaporation smaller. As a matter of fact, contact angles of the beads with the water deduced from the evaporation rates are consistent with contact angles of beads directly measured at a flat air-water interface of water in a container. PMID:24705688

Maquet, Laurent; Colinet, Pierre; Dorbolo, Stéphane

2014-06-21

358

Viscosity Measurement using Drop Coalescence in Microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present in here details of a new method, using drop coalescence, for application in microgravity environment for determining the viscosity of highly viscous undercooled liquids. The method has the advantage of eliminating heterogeneous nucleation at container walls caused by crystallization of undercooled liquids during processing. Also, due to the rapidity of the measurement, homogeneous nucleation would be avoided. The technique relies on both a highly accurate solution to the Navier-Stokes equations as well as on data gathered from experiments conducted in near zero gravity environment. The liquid viscosity is determined by allowing the computed free surface shape relaxation time to be adjusted in response to the measured free surface velocity of two coalescing drops. Results are presented from two validation experiments of the method which were conducted recently on board the NASA KC-135 aircraft. In these tests the viscosity of a highly viscous liquid, such as glycerine at different temperatures, was determined to reasonable accuracy using the liquid coalescence method. The experiments measured the free surface velocity of two glycerine drops coalescing under the action of surface tension alone in low gravity environment using high speed photography. The free surface velocity was then compared with the computed values obtained from different viscosity values. The results of these experiments were found to agree reasonably well with the calculated values.

Antar, Basil N.; Ethridge, Edwin; Maxwell, Daniel

1999-01-01

359

Ultrasonic characterization of single drops of liquids  

DOEpatents

Ultrasonic characterization of single drops of liquids is disclosed. The present invention includes the use of two closely spaced transducers, or one transducer and a closely spaced reflector plate, to form an interferometer suitable for ultrasonic characterization of droplet-size and smaller samples without the need for a container. The droplet is held between the interferometer elements, whose distance apart may be adjusted, by surface tension. The surfaces of the interferometer elements may be readily cleansed by a stream of solvent followed by purified air when it is desired to change samples. A single drop of liquid is sufficient for high-quality measurement. Examples of samples which may be investigated using the apparatus and method of the present invention include biological specimens (tear drops; blood and other body fluid samples; samples from tumors, tissues, and organs; secretions from tissues and organs; snake and bee venom, etc.) for diagnostic evaluation, samples in forensic investigations, and detection of drugs in small quantities. 5 figs.

Sinha, D.N.

1998-04-14

360

Drop Accidents in the Canister Storage Building (CSB) Addressed by Design Features and or Design Calculations  

SciTech Connect

A variety of drop shear or impact scenarios have been identified for the Canister Storage Building. Some of these are being addressed by new calculations or require no specific action. This document describes five of them which are addressed by design features and/or existing design calculations. For each of the five a position is stated indicating the reason for assurance that the safety functions of the MCO will not be jeopardized by the accident. Following the position is a description of the basis for that position.

SEXTON, R.A.

2000-01-06

361

Controlling drop coalescence using nano-engineered surfaces  

E-print Network

The dynamics of drop coalescence are explored on micro-scale surface features for the first time. Drop coalescence is defined as a process by which two or more droplets, bubbles or particles merge during contact to form a ...

Corral, Manuel, Jr

2011-01-01

362

14 CFR 23.727 - Reserve energy absorption drop test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Reserve energy absorption drop test. 23.727 Section 23...Gear § 23.727 Reserve energy absorption drop test. (a) If compliance with the reserve energy absorption requirement in §...

2014-01-01

363

14 CFR 23.727 - Reserve energy absorption drop test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Reserve energy absorption drop test. 23.727 Section 23...Gear § 23.727 Reserve energy absorption drop test. (a) If compliance with the reserve energy absorption requirement in §...

2013-01-01

364

14 CFR 23.727 - Reserve energy absorption drop test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Reserve energy absorption drop test. 23.727 Section 23...Gear § 23.727 Reserve energy absorption drop test. (a) If compliance with the reserve energy absorption requirement in §...

2012-01-01

365

Stability of a rotating charged drop(let)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dispersion equation of the rotation of a charged drop along its symmetry axis is derived. It is shown that the rotation\\u000a increases the charged-drop stability toward the axisymmetric oscillations.

S. O. Shiryaeva; A. I. Grigoriev; P. V. Moksheev

2007-01-01

366

Characterizing the mechanical properties of drop stitch inflatable structures  

E-print Network

This study investigates the mechanical properties of drop stitch inflatable structures with specific reference to inflatable stand up paddleboards. A sample of drop stitch material was fabricated and simple beam bending ...

DiGiovanna, Lia (Lia Rose)

2013-01-01

367

Optimal inventory and admission policies for drop-shipping retailers serving in-store and online customers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article studies the optimal inventory and dynamic admission policies of two physical retailers who, besides selling through their traditional in-store channels, also act as drop-shippers for an online retailer (e-tailer). The e-tailer carries no inventory of its own and always turns to one of the two physical retailers for order fulfillment. The considered scenario is the one in which

Jian Chen; Youhua Chen; Mahmut Parlar; Yongbo Xiao

2011-01-01

368

drag/dropCIS4140-20 1 window events  

E-print Network

drag/dropCIS4140-20 1 today today cut/paste drag/drop undo window events one more java class after break project any questions on project? #12;drag/dropCIS4140-20 2 data transfer (almost) every GUI there are twists on top of this #12;drag/dropCIS4140-20 3 flavors different kinds of things can be cut pictures

Damon, Craig A.

369

Cerebral Infarction Presenting with Unilateral Isolated Foot Drop  

PubMed Central

Weakness of the dorsiflexor muscles of the ankle or toe, referred to as foot drop, is a relatively common presentation. In most cases, foot drop is caused by a lower motor neuron disease such as peroneal peripheral neuropathy, L4-5 radiculopathic sciatic neuropathy, or polyneuropathy. Although upper motor neuron lesions can present as foot drop, the incidence is very rare. Here, we report an extremely rare case in which foot drop was the only presenting symptom of cerebral infarction. PMID:25368770

Kim, Ki-Wan; Koh, Eun-Jeong; Lee, Jong-Myong

2014-01-01

370

Collision and Breakup of Water Drops at Terminal Velocity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The collision and subsequent breakup of water drops moving essentially vertically and at terminal velocity has been studied for five drop pairs: the diameters Ds of the large drops were 4.8, 3.6 and 3.0 mm; the diameters D3 of the small drops were 1.8 mm and 1.0 mm. 712 collisions were obtained in 25,000 individually recorded attempts. Three distinct types

J. D. McTaggart-Cowan; Roland List

1975-01-01

371

Spent fuel receipt scenarios study  

SciTech Connect

This study reports on the results of an assignment from the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management to evaluate of the effects of different scenarios for receipt of spent fuel on the potential performance of the waste packages in the proposed Yucca Mountain high-level waste repository. The initial evaluations were performed and an interim letter report was prepared during the fall of 1988. Subsequently, the scope of work was expanded and additional analyses were conducted in 1989. This report combines the results of the two phases of the activity. This study is a part of a broader effort to investigate the options available to the DOE and the nuclear utilities for selection of spent fuel for acceptance into the Federal Waste Management System for disposal. Each major element of the system has evaluated the effects of various options on its own operations, with the objective of providing the basis for performing system-wide trade-offs and determining an optimum acceptance scenario. Therefore, this study considers different scenarios for receipt of spent fuel by the repository only from the narrow perspective of their effect on the very-near-field temperatures in the repository following permanent closure. This report is organized into three main sections. The balance of this section is devoted to a statement of the study objective, a summary of the assumptions. The second section of the report contains a discussion of the major elements of the study. The third section summarizes the results of the study and draws some conclusions from them. The appendices include copies of the waste acceptance schedule and the existing and projected spent fuel inventory that were used in the study. 10 refs., 27 figs.

Ballou, L.B.; Montan, D.N.; Revelli, M.A.

1990-09-01

372

The Composite Twin Higgs scenario  

E-print Network

Based on an explicit model, we propose and discuss the generic features of a possible implementation of the Twin Higgs program in the context of composite Higgs models. We find that the Twin Higgs quadratic divergence cancellation argument can be uplifted to a genuine protection of the Higgs potential, based on symmetries and selection rules, but only under certain conditions which are not fulfilled in some of the existing models. We also find that a viable scenario, not plagued by a massless Twin Photon, can be obtained by not gauging the Twin Hypercharge and taking this as the only source of Twin Symmetry breaking at a very high scale.

Barbieri, Riccardo; Rattazzi, Riccardo; Wulzer, Andrea

2015-01-01

373

The Composite Twin Higgs scenario  

E-print Network

Based on an explicit model, we propose and discuss the generic features of a possible implementation of the Twin Higgs program in the context of composite Higgs models. We find that the Twin Higgs quadratic divergence cancellation argument can be uplifted to a genuine protection of the Higgs potential, based on symmetries and selection rules, but only under certain conditions which are not fulfilled in some of the existing models. We also find that a viable scenario, not plagued by a massless Twin Photon, can be obtained by not gauging the Twin Hypercharge and taking this as the only source of Twin Symmetry breaking at a very high scale.

Riccardo Barbieri; Davide Greco; Riccardo Rattazzi; Andrea Wulzer

2015-01-30

374

Neutrino mixing scenarios and AGN  

E-print Network

Active galactic nuclei (AGN) have been suggested to be sources of very high energy neutrinos. We consider the possibility of using AGN neutrinos to test neutrino mixings. From the atmospheric, solar and laboratory data on neutrino oscillations we derive the flavour composition of the AGN neutrino flux in different neutrino mixing schemes. We show that most of the schemes considered can be distinguished from each other and the existence of a sterile neutrino can be specially tested. AGN neutrinos can also be used to test those four-neutrino scenarios where solar neutrinos oscillate into an arbitrary mixture of $\

Luis Bento; Petteri Keränen; Jukka Maalampi

2000-02-01

375

Nuclear power for the future: Implications of some crisis scenarios  

SciTech Connect

As energy issues have dropped from public awareness, electricity demand growth has remained low, deregulation has destabilized the utility decision process, and least-cost regulation has pointed utilities to gas-fired plants for those additions that are coming on-line, the nuclear power industry has begun to ask the question: What will cause nuclear energy to again compete as an option in new, domestic generating capacity additions? Since virtually all of today`s corporate and societal decisions are driven by short-term factors, the preceding question can be translated into: What crisis might occur that would project nuclear as the solution to an immediately perceived problem? Thus, an examination of scenarios that would project nuclear power into the country`s immediate consciousness is in order, along with an analysis of the implications for and challenges to the nuclear industry resulting therefrom. This paper undertakes such an analysis.

Turner, K.H. [McCallum-Turner, Evergreen, CO (United States)

1996-12-31

376

Report on Scenario Development and Analysis  

E-print Network

Report on Scenario Development and Analysis Prepared for U.S. Department of Energy Office, Development and Analysis Methodology Delivered to: Richard Rocheleau, Director Hawai`i Natural Energy.........................................................................................................5 Methodology of Scenario Analysis

377

Comparing drag-and-drop implementations Maxime Collomb, Mountaz Hascoet  

E-print Network

Comparing drag-and-drop implementations Maxime Collomb, Mountaz Hasco¨et LIRMM, UMR 5506 du CNRS, mountaz}@lirmm.fr Abstract In this paper, we present the drag-and-drop as it is implemented in four of the interaction, drag, drop, and finalization. We also compare data structures used by each system. Key words

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

378

MSE Egg Drop Contest Offical Rules Sponsored by  

E-print Network

MSE Egg Drop Contest Offical Rules Sponsored by: The competition is sponsored by the Department on the materials used that will protect a "free range" grade A egg from breaking when dropped. Scoring: The score = Number of parts DZ = Drop Zone EIF = Egg Integrity Factor (1 is not cracked or 0 if cracked) · As can

Tennessee, University of

379

Pressure drop in gas-liquid flow at microgravity conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new set of experimental pressure drop air-water flow data at microgravity conditions obtained aboard the NASA KC-135 aircraft is reported. Comparisons between pressure drop values at ? ? g and 1 ? g vertical upward flow suggest that the forced convection two-phase flow frictional pressure drop at microgravity is of the same order of, magnitude as that at normal

L. Zhao; K. S. Rezkallah

1995-01-01

380

Aerodynamic Effects in a Dropped Ping-Pong Ball Experiment*  

E-print Network

Aerodynamic Effects in a Dropped Ping-Pong Ball Experiment* MARK NAGURKA Dept. of Mechanical addresses aerodynamic modeling issues related to a simple experiment in which a ping- pong ball is dropped) between bounce sounds, after a ping-pong ball is dropped onto a hard table surface. (Musician Arthur

Nagurka, Mark L.

381

Terminal Velocity and Shape of Cloud and Precipitation Drops Aloft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The terminal velocity of cloud and precipitation size drops has been analyzed for three physically distinct flow regimes: 1) slip flow about a water drop treated as rigid sphere at negligible Reynolds numbers, 2) continuum flow past a water drop treated as a rigid sphere with a steady wake at low and intermediate Reynolds numbers, and 3) continuum flow around

K. V. Beard

1976-01-01

382

An experimental study of dynamics of drop formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A liquid being ejected from a nozzle emanates from it as discrete, uniformly sized drops when the flow rate is sufficiently low. In this paper, an experimental study is presented of the dynamics of a viscous liquid drop that is being formed directly at the tip of a vertical tube into ambient air. The evolution in time of the drop

Xiaoguang Zhang; Osman A. Basaran

1995-01-01

383

Scenario Development for the Southwestern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary goal of employing a scenario development approach for the U.S. southwest is to inform regional policy by examining future possibilities related to regional vegetation change, water-leasing, and riparian restoration. This approach is necessary due to a lack of existing explicit water resources application of scenarios to the entire southwest region. A formal approach for scenario development is adopted and applied towards water resources issues within the arid and semi-arid regions of the U.S. southwest following five progressive and reiterative phases: scenario definition, scenario construction, scenario analysis, scenario assessment, and risk management. In the scenario definition phase, the inputs of scientists, modelers, and stakeholders were collected in order to define and construct relevant scenarios to the southwest and its water sustainability needs. From stakeholder-driven scenario workshops and breakout sessions, the three main axes of principal change were identified to be climate change, population development patterns, and quality of information monitoring technology. Based on the extreme and varying conditions of these three main axes, eight scenario narratives were drafted to describe the state of each scenario's respective future and the events which led to it. Events and situations are described within each scenario narrative with respect to key variables; variables that are both important to regional water resources (as distinguished by scientists and modelers), and are good tracking and monitoring indicators of change. The current phase consists of scenario construction, where the drafted scenarios are re-presented to regional scientists and modelers to verify that proper key variables are included (or excluded) from the eight narratives. The next step is to construct the data sets necessary to implement the eight scenarios on the respective computational models of modelers investigating vegetation change, water-leasing, and riparian restoration in the southwest

Mahmoud, M.; Gupta, H.; Stewart, S.; Liu, Y.; Hartmann, H.; Wagener, T.

2006-12-01

384

DEVELOPMENT OF IMPACT ORIENTED CLIMATE SCENARIOS  

EPA Science Inventory

Appropriate scenarios of future climate must be developed prior to any assessment of the impacts of climate change. he information needed by impact assessors was examined in consultation with those having experience in scenario use. ost assessors require regional scenarios with a...

385

Alternative future scenarios for marine ecosystems  

E-print Network

Alternative future scenarios for marine ecosystems Summary report C R U #12;#12;1 Alternative Futures for Marine Ecosystems contents Introduction to the AFMEC project 4 Outline of the scenarios 6 How. In this report a set of four distinct Alternative Future Scenarios for Marine Ecosystems (AFMEC) `futures' detail

386

Five Reasons for Scenario-based Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scenarios of human-computer interaction help us to understand and to create computer systems and applications as artifacts of human activity Ñas things to learn from, as tools to use in one's work, as media for interacting with other people. Scenario-based design of information technology addresses five technical challenges: Scenarios evoke reflection in the content of design work, helping developers coordinate

John M. Carroll

1999-01-01

387

Bringing Scenario Planning Home to KU  

E-print Network

1 Association of Research Libraries and Stratus, Inc., The ARL 2030 Scenarios: A User’s Guide for Research Libraries (Washington, DC: ARL, 2010), http://www.arl.org/bm~doc/arl-2030-scenarios- users-guide.pdf. 2 ARL and Stratus, ARL 2030 Scenarios...

Church-Duran, Jennifer; Ludwig, Deborah

2012-03-01

388

The role of scenarios in strategic foresight  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the role of scenarios in strategic foresight. It starts by discussing the need for strategic foresight over the next decade, and a set of qualities, structures and processes that facilitate the use of strategic foresight for renewal. The author describes two roles of scenarios in supporting these processes — scenarios as mental models, and through providing a

Gill Ringland

2010-01-01

389

Conservation of Combinatorial Structures in Evolution Scenarios  

E-print Network

and human X chromosomes. 1 Introduction The reconstruction of evolution scenarios based on genomeConservation of Combinatorial Structures in Evolution Scenarios Anne Bergeron, Cedric Chauve La in Evolution Scenarios Sâ??everine Bâ??erard 1 , Anne Bergeron 2 , and Cedric Chauve 2 1 LIRMM, Montpellier, France

Chauve, Cedric

390

Scenarios for coastal vulnerability assessment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coastal vulnerability assessments tend to focus mainly on climate change and especially on sea-level rise. Assessment of the influence of nonclimatic environmental change or socioeconomic change is less well developed and these drivers are often completely ignored. Given that the most profound coastal changes of the twentieth century due to nonclimate drivers are likely to continue through the twenty-first century, this is a major omission. It may result in not only overstating the importance of climate change but also overlooking significant interactions of climate change and other drivers. To support the development of policies relating to climate change and coastal management, integrated assessments of climatic change in coastal areas are required, including the effects of all the relevant drivers. This chapter explores the development of scenarios (or "plausible futures") of relevant climate and nonclimate drivers that can be used for coastal analysis, with an emphasis on the nonclimate drivers. It shows the importance of analyzing the impacts of climate change and sea-level rise in a broader context of coastal change and all its drivers. This will improve the analysis of impacts, key vulnerabilities, and adaptation needs and, hence, inform climate and coastal policy. Stakeholder engagement is important in the development of scenarios, and the underlying assumptions need to be explicit, transparent, and open to scientific debate concerning their uncertainties/realism and likelihood.

Nicholls, Robert J.; Woodroffe, Colin D.; Burkett, Virginia; Hay, John; Wong, Poh Poh; Nurse, Leonard

2011-01-01

391

Determinants of Suicide and Accidental or Violent Death in the Australian HIV Observational Database  

PubMed Central

Background Rates of suicide and accidental or violent death remain high in HIV-positive populations despite significantly improved prognosis since the introduction of cART. Methods We conducted a nested case-control study of suicide and accidental or violent death in the Australian HIV Observational Database (AHOD) between January 1999 and March 2012. For each case, 2 controls were matched by clinic, age, sex, mode of exposure and HIV-positive date to adjust for potential confounding by these covariates. Risk of suicide and accidental or violent death was estimated using conditional logistic regression. Results We included 27 cases (17 suicide and 10 violent/accidental death) and 54 controls. All cases were men who have sex with men (MSM) or MSM/ injecting drug use (IDU) mode of exposure. Increased risk was associated with unemployment (Odds Ratio (OR) 5.86, 95% CI: 1.69–20.37), living alone (OR 3.26, 95% CI: 1.06–10.07), suicidal ideation (OR 6.55, 95% CI: 1.70–25.21), and >2 psychiatric/cognitive risk factors (OR 4.99, 95% CI: 1.17–30.65). CD4 cell count of >500 cells/µL (OR 0.25, 95% CI: 0.07–0.87) and HIV-positive date ?1990 (1990–1999 (OR 0.31, 95% CI: 0.11–0.89), post-2000 (OR 0.08, 95% CI: 0.01–0.84)) were associated with decreased risk. CD4 cell count ?500 cells/µL remained a significant predictor of reduced risk (OR 0.15, 95% CI: 0.03–0.70) in a multivariate model adjusted for employment status, accommodation status and HIV-positive date. Conclusions After adjustment for psychosocial factors, the immunological status of HIV-positive patients contributed to the risk of suicide and accidental or violent death. The number of psychiatric/cognitive diagnoses contributed to the level of risk but many psychosocial factors were not individually significant. These findings indicate a complex interplay of factors associated with risk of suicide and accidental or violent death. PMID:24586519

McManus, Hamish; Petoumenos, Kathy; Franic, Teo; Kelly, Mark D.; Watson, Jo; O’Connor, Catherine C.; Jeanes, Mark; Hoy, Jennifer; Cooper, David A.; Law, Matthew G.

2014-01-01

392

Improved Refractometer for Measuring Temperatures of Drops  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Dual Rainbow refractometer is an enhanced version of the Rainbow refractometer, which is added to, and extends the capabilities of, a phase Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA). A PDPA utilizes pairs of laser beams to measure individual components of velocity and sizes of drops in a spray. The Rainbow-refractometer addition measures the temperatures of individual drops. The designs of prior versions of the Rainbow refractometer have required substantial modifications of PDPA transmitting optics, plus dedicated lasers as sources of illumination separate from, and in addition to, those needed for PDPA measurements. The enhancement embodied in the Dual Rainbow refractometer eliminates the need for a dedicated laser and confers other advantages as described below. A dedicated laser is no longer needed because the Dual Rainbow refractometer utilizes one of the pairs of laser beams already present in a PDPA. Hence, the design of the Dual Rainbow refractometer simplifies the task of upgrading PDPA hardware to enable measurement of temperature. Furthermore, in a PDPA/Dual Rainbow refractometer system, a single argon-ion laser with three main wavelengths can be used to measure the temperatures, sizes, and all three components of velocity (in contradistinction to only two components of velocity in a prior PDPA/Rainbow refractometer system). In order to enable the Dual Rainbow refractometer to utilize a pair of PDPA laser beams, it was necessary to (1) find a location for the refractometer receiver, such that the combined rainbow patterns of two laser beams amount to a pattern identical to that of a single beam, (2) adjust the polarization of the two beams to obtain the strongest rainbow pattern, and (3) find a location for the PDPA receiver to obtain a linear relationship between the measured phase shift and drop size.

Naqwi, Amir A.

2004-01-01

393

Microemulsions with timolol as potential eye drops.  

PubMed

Stable microemulsions oil-in-water (o/w) and water-in-oil (w/o) with timolol were obtained. These formulations were sterilized using two methods: by autoclaving and by sterile filtering according to the Polish Pharmacopeia V. Microemulsions were kept in the temperatures of 25 degrees C and 5 degrees C during three months. The following physical parameters were investigated: density, dynamic viscosity, refractive index, surface tension, pH and osmotic tension. All the microemulsions met the requirements for eye drops. PMID:16889077

Malina, I; Radomska-Soukharev, A

2006-07-01

394

Drop splashing on a dry smooth surface.  

PubMed

The corona splash due to the impact of a liquid drop on a smooth dry substrate is investigated with high-speed photography. A striking phenomenon is observed: splashing can be completely suppressed by decreasing the pressure of the surrounding gas. The threshold pressure where a splash first occurs is measured as a function of the impact velocity and found to scale with the molecular weight of the gas and the viscosity of the liquid. Both experimental scaling relations support a model in which compressible effects in the gas are responsible for splashing in liquid solid impacts. PMID:15904376

Xu, Lei; Zhang, Wendy W; Nagel, Sidney R

2005-05-13

395

Predicting Pressure Drop In Porous Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Theory developed to predict drop in pressure based on drag of individual fibers. Simple correlation method for data also developed. Helps in predicting flow characteristics of many strain-isolation pad (SIP) glow geometries in Shuttle Orbiter tile system. Also helps in predicting venting characteristics of tile assemblies during ascent and leakage of hot gas under tiles during descent. Useful in study of mechanics of flows through fibrous and porous media, and procedures applicable to purged fiberglass insulation, dialysis filters, and other fibrous and porous media.

Lawing, Pierce L.

1990-01-01

396

An explanation for anode voltage drops in MPD thrusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical and computational predictions of MPD thruster efficiency are substantially higher than experimental measurements for comparable geometries. One reason for this discrepancy is the large anode voltage drops found in experiments but not in current models. This paper shows that these voltage drops could be occurring in the quasi-neutral near anode region of the plasma. These near anode drops arise because of starvation of the plasma. A one-dimensional analytical model is used to show that these voltage drops may, in principle, exist. A computational axisymmetric thruster simulation is used to show that the voltage drops which arise by this mechanism show good agreement with experimental data.

Niewood, E. H.; Martinez-Sanchez, M.

1993-06-01

397

Directional motion of impacting drops on dual-textured surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we analyze the directional movement of impacting liquid drops on dual-textured solid surfaces comprising two different surface morphologies: a textured surface and a smooth surface. The dynamics of liquid drops impacting onto the junction line between the two parts of the dual-textured surfaces is studied experimentally for varying drop impact velocity. The dual-textured surfaces used here featured a variation in their textures’ geometrical parameters as well as their surface chemistry. Two types of liquid drop differing in their surface tension were used. The impact process develops a net horizontal drop velocity towards the higher-wettability surface portion and results in a bulk movement of the impacting drop liquid. The final distance moved by the impacting drop from the junction line decreases with increasing impacting drop Weber number We. A fully theoretical model, employing a balance of forces acting at the drop contact line as well as energy conservation, is formulated to determine the variation, with We, of net horizontal drop velocity and subsequent movement of the impacting drop on the dual-textured surfaces.

Vaikuntanathan, V.; Sivakumar, D.

2012-09-01

398

Thermocapillary Migration and Interactions of Bubbles and Drops  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments were performed aboard the LMS mission of the Space Shuttle in summer 1996 in the BDPU on isolated air bubbles and Fluorinert FC-75 drops as well as on interacting bubbles/drops migrating in a temperature gradient in a Dow-Corning DC-200 series silicone oil of nominal viscosity 10 centistokes. The data, recorded in the form of videotape images as well as cine images in selected runs, have been analyzed. The behavior of the isolated objects is consistent with earlier observations made aboard the IML-2 mission while the range of Reynolds and Marangoni numbers has been extended substantially over that in the IML-2 experiments. Large bubbles were found to be slightly deformed to an oblate shape while no deformation could be detected in the case of similarly large drops. Results on interacting drops and bubbles display interesting and unanticipated features. In some experiments, drops are found to follow a three-dimensional trajectory. In others, trailing drops and bubbles are found to move off the axis of the cell when migrating behind a leading drop or bubble which moves along the axis. In this type of run, if the trailing drop is sufficiently large, it is found to pass the leading drop. Finally, behavior similar to that observed in IML-2, namely that a small leading drop slows the movement of a larger trailing drop moving along the cell axis, was observed as well.

Subramaniam, R. Shankar; Balasubramaniam, R.; Wozniak, G.; Hadland, P. H.

1999-01-01

399

An experimental study of dynamics of drop formation  

SciTech Connect

A liquid being ejected from a nozzle emanates from it as discrete, uniformly sized drops when the flow rate is sufficiently low. In this paper, an experimental study is presented of the dynamics of a viscous liquid drop that is being formed directly at the tip of a vertical tube into ambient air. The evolution in time of the drop shape and volume is monitored with a time resolution of 1/12 to 1 ms. Following the detachment of the previous drop, the profile of the new growing drop at first changes from spherical to pear-shaped. As time advances, the throat of the pear-shaped drop takes on the appearance of a liquid thread that connects the bottom portion of the drop that is about to detach to the rest of the liquid that is pendant from the tube. The focus here is on probing the effects of physical and geometric parameters on the universal features of drop formation, paying special attention to the development, extension, and breakup of the liquid thread and the satellite drops that are formed subsequent to its breakup. The role of surfactants in modifying the dynamics of drop formation is also studied. The effects of finite inertial, capillary, viscous, and gravitational forces are all accounted for to classify drastically different formation dynamics and to elucidate the fate of satellite drops following thread rupture.

Zhang, X.; Basaran, O.A. [Chemical Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6224 (United States)] [Chemical Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6224 (United States)

1995-06-01

400

Large Ultrathin Shelled Drops Produced via Non-Confined Microfluidics.  

PubMed

We present a facile approach for producing large and monodisperse core-shell drops with ultrathin shells using a single-step process. A biphasic compound jet is introduced into a quiescent third (outer) phase that ruptures to form core-shell drops. Ultrathin shelled drops could only be produced within a certain range of surfactant concentrations and flow rates, highlighting the effect of interfacial tension in engulfing the core in a thin shell. An increase in surfactant concentrations initially resulted in drops with thinner shells. However, the drops with thinnest shells were obtained at an optimum surfactant concentration, and a further increase in the surfactant concentrations increased the shell thickness. Highly monodisperse (coefficient of variation smaller than 3?%) core-shell drops with diameter of ?200 ?m-2 mm with shell thickness as small as ?2 ?m were produced. The resulting drops were stable enough to undergo polymerisation and produce ultrathin shelled capsules. PMID:25382308

Chaurasia, Ankur S; Josephides, Dimitris N; Sajjadi, Shahriar

2015-02-01

401

Pathogen and nutrient pulsing and attenuation in "accidental" urban wetland networks along the Salt River in Phoenix, AZ  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increases in available nutrients and bacteria in urban streams are at the forefront of research concerns within the ecological and medical communities, and both pollutants are expected to become more problematic under projected changes in climate. Season, discharge, instream conditions (oxygen, water velocity), and weather conditions (antecedent moisture) all may influence loading rates to and the retention capabilities of wetlands fed by urban runoff and storm flow. The aim of this research was to examine the effect of these variables on nutrient (nitrogen, phosphorus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) loading and attenuation along flow paths in urban wetland networks along the Salt River in Phoenix, AZ. Samples were collected for one year along flowpaths through wetlands that formed below six perennially flowing outfalls. Collection took place monthly during baseflow (dry season) conditions, and before and immediately following storm events, in the summer monsoon and winter rainy seasons. Water quality was assessed at the following points: immediately downstream of the outfall, mid-wetland, and downstream of the wetland. For determination of E. coli counts, samples were plated on coliform-selective media (Chromocult) and incubated for 24 hours. Plates were then used to enumerate E. coli. For determination of nutrient concentrations, samples were filtered and frozen until they could be analyzed by ion chromatography and automated wet chemistry. During both summer and winter, total discharge into the wetlands increased during storm events. Concentrations of PO43+, NH4+, and E. coli were significantly higher following storm events than during baseflow conditions, and post-storm peaks in concentration ('pulses') were higher during the summer monsoon than in winter storms. Pulses of pollutants during storms were highest when preceded by hot, dry conditions. NO3- was high in both base and stormflow. E. coli counts and nutrient concentrations dropped along flowpaths through the wetlands, indicating high attenuation capability even during storms. Attenuation of nutrients during baseflow appeared to be a function of microbial processing, while during stormflow, when water retention time in the wetlands was reduced, attenuation was likely explained by other factors, such as sediment adsorption. Potential tradeoffs emerged between removal of NO3- (highest under low dissolved oxygen) and E. coli (highest under high dissolved oxygen) during baseflow. Climate change models project increases in severe droughts and extreme precipitation events for the southwestern United States, which can lead to more sewage leakages and increases in contaminated runoff from impervious surfaces in urban areas. Wetlands are constructed or restored to mitigate microbial contamination of wastewater. Our research indicates that even "accidental" urban wetlands can serve to reduce downstream transport of nutrients and pathogens in storm and wastewater. However, wetland restoration or design targeting increased water retention time may increase the capability of accidental wetlands in this urban desert river channel to remove nutrients and pathogens from stormwater.

Palta, M. M.; Grimm, N. B.

2013-12-01

402

Accidental versus operational oil spills from shipping in the Baltic Sea: risk governance and management strategies.  

PubMed

Marine governance of oil transportation is complex. Due to difficulties in effectively monitoring procedures on vessels en voyage, incentives to save costs by not following established regulations on issues such as cleaning of tanks, crew size, and safe navigation may be substantial. The issue of problem structure is placed in focus, that is, to what degree the specific characteristics and complexity of intentional versus accidental oil spill risks affect institutional responses. It is shown that whereas the risk of accidental oil spills primarily has been met by technical requirements on the vessels in combination with Port State control, attempts have been made to curb intentional pollution by for example increased surveillance and smart governance mechanisms such as the No-Special-Fee system. It is suggested that environmental safety could be improved by increased use of smart governance mechanisms tightly adapted to key actors' incentives to alter behavior in preferable directions. PMID:21446395

Hassler, Björn

2011-03-01

403

Photonic crystal surface-emitting lasers enabled by an accidental Dirac point  

DOEpatents

A photonic-crystal surface-emitting laser (PCSEL) includes a gain medium electromagnetically coupled to a photonic crystal whose energy band structure exhibits a Dirac cone of linear dispersion at the center of the photonic crystal's Brillouin zone. This Dirac cone's vertex is called a Dirac point; because it is at the Brillouin zone center, it is called an accidental Dirac point. Tuning the photonic crystal's band structure (e.g., by changing the photonic crystal's dimensions or refractive index) to exhibit an accidental Dirac point increases the photonic crystal's mode spacing by orders of magnitudes and reduces or eliminates the photonic crystal's distributed in-plane feedback. Thus, the photonic crystal can act as a resonator that supports single-mode output from the PCSEL over a larger area than is possible with conventional PCSELs, which have quadratic band edge dispersion. Because output power generally scales with output area, this increase in output area results in higher possible output powers.

Chua, Song Liang; Lu, Ling; Soljacic, Marin

2014-12-02

404

Impact Dynamics of Oxidized Liquid Metal Drops  

E-print Network

With exposure to air, many liquid metals spontaneously generate an oxide layer on their surface. In oscillatory rheological tests, this skin is found to introduce a yield stress that typically dominates the elastic response but can be tuned by exposing the metal to hydrochloric acid solutions of different concentration. We systematically studied the normal impact of eutectic gallium-indium (eGaIn) drops under different oxidation conditions and show how this leads to two different dynamical regimes. At low impact velocity (or low Weber number), eGaIn droplets display strong recoil and rebound from the impacted surface when the oxide layer is removed. In addition, the degree of drop deformation or spreading during the impact is controlled by the oxide skin. We show that the scaling law known from ordinary liquids for the maximum spreading radius as a function of impact velocity can still be applied to the case of oxidized eGaIn if an effective Weber number $We^{\\star}$ is employed that uses an effective surface...

Xu, Qin; Jaeger, Heinrich M

2013-01-01

405

Industrial research for transmutation scenarios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents the results of research scenarios for americium transmutation in a 22nd century French nuclear fleet, using sodium fast breeder reactors. We benchmark the americium transmutation benefits and drawbacks with a reference case consisting of a hypothetical 60 GWe fleet of pure plutonium breeders. The fluxes in the various parts of the cycle (reactors, fabrication plants, reprocessing plants and underground disposals) are calculated using EDF's suite of codes, comparable in capabilities to those of other research facilities. We study underground thermal heat load reduction due to americium partitioning and repository area minimization. We endeavor to estimate the increased technical complexity of surface facilities to handle the americium fluxes in special fuel fabrication plants, americium fast burners, special reprocessing shops, handling equipments and transport casks between those facilities.

Camarcat, Noel; Garzenne, Claude; Le Mer, Joël; Leroyer, Hadrien; Desroches, Estelle; Delbecq, Jean-Michel

2011-04-01

406

SAPPHIRE: scenarios, architecture, and process.  

PubMed

General Medical Practice (GMP) information systems within the UK are becoming more sophisticated and more complex and are widely available from numerous suppliers. Although such systems are viewed as being important, they are problematic in terms of interpreting and assessing their usefulness, and their impact upon work and the organisation (G. Walsham, Interpreting Information Systems in Organizations (Wiley, Chichester, 1993)). In particular, it is difficult for any who have an interest in these systems to apply existing technical specifications to a specific situation, and to match individual requirements with the supplier's products. The research project SAPPHIRE seeks to inform the decision making of stakeholders, e.g. GPs, facilitators and suppliers, with respect to procurement, update, design and supply of GMP systems by developing the means of evaluating such systems, and by facilitating an accreditation process through that evaluation. This extended paper introduces the multi-faceted approach, scenarios, architecture and process of SAPPHIRE. PMID:7956163

Kay, S; Redman, R; McWilliams, A; Bradley, P; Daniels, A

1994-06-01

407

Radiation Detection Computational Benchmark Scenarios  

SciTech Connect

Modeling forms an important component of radiation detection development, allowing for testing of new detector designs, evaluation of existing equipment against a wide variety of potential threat sources, and assessing operation performance of radiation detection systems. This can, however, result in large and complex scenarios which are time consuming to model. A variety of approaches to radiation transport modeling exist with complementary strengths and weaknesses for different problems. This variety of approaches, and the development of promising new tools (such as ORNL’s ADVANTG) which combine benefits of multiple approaches, illustrates the need for a means of evaluating or comparing different techniques for radiation detection problems. This report presents a set of 9 benchmark problems for comparing different types of radiation transport calculations, identifying appropriate tools for classes of problems, and testing and guiding the development of new methods. The benchmarks were drawn primarily from existing or previous calculations with a preference for scenarios which include experimental data, or otherwise have results with a high level of confidence, are non-sensitive, and represent problem sets of interest to NA-22. From a technical perspective, the benchmarks were chosen to span a range of difficulty and to include gamma transport, neutron transport, or both and represent different important physical processes and a range of sensitivity to angular or energy fidelity. Following benchmark identification, existing information about geometry, measurements, and previous calculations were assembled. Monte Carlo results (MCNP decks) were reviewed or created and re-run in order to attain accurate computational times and to verify agreement with experimental data, when present. Benchmark information was then conveyed to ORNL in order to guide testing and development of hybrid calculations. The results of those ADVANTG calculations were then sent to PNNL for compilation. This is a report describing the details of the selected Benchmarks and results from various transport codes.

Shaver, Mark W.; Casella, Andrew M.; Wittman, Richard S.; McDonald, Ben S.

2013-09-24

408

Electrohydrodynamically Driven Chaotic Advection in Drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a liquid drop of given dielectric constant, resistivity and viscosity is translating in a liquid of different dielectric constant, resistivity and viscosity under Stokes flow conditions in the presence of an electric field, the resulting internal circulation is a superposition of the Hadamard-Rybcynski circulation and the circulation first described theoretically by G. I. Taylor. For sufficiently strong electric field strengths, the quadrapole structure of the Taylor circulation can cause an internal stagnation disk to occur. Our interest is in the situation where a modulation of the electric field causes the stagnation disk to modulate its position, potentially leading to chaotic flows within the drop. The dimensionless electric field strength is characterized by W = 4V(1+lambda)/U where V is the maximum interfacial velocity of the Taylor circulation, U the translational velocity, and lambda the viscosity ratio. The streamfunction for the flow is: 1) psi = (r4-r2) sin2)(theta + W(t) (r3 - r5) sin2 (theta) cos(theta) 2) W(t) = W1 + W2 cos ((epsilon)t) where epsilon is the dimensionless frequency, and W1, W2 are the amplitudes of the DC and AC components, respectively. We have found it useful to replace these parameters by a secondary set, epsilon, Wmax and delta = (1 / W1 - 1 / W2) - (1 / W1 + 1 / W2). As shown in Figure 1a, delta is the dimensionless distance the stagnation disk moves over one period of modulation. The advection equations corresponding to the flow were integrated by standard techniques, and it was found that the trajectories were chaotic over a wide range of parameters. Experiments were conducted to test the predictions of rapid mixing on convective time scales. Drops of silicon oil were suspended in a small 60 mm x 120 mm x 120 mm test cell filled with castor oil, and subject to time-modulated axial electric fields with a wave form corresponding to eq(2). The drops were typically 5 mm in diameter and settled with typical speeds of O(10-1 mm/s). Once formed, the drops were innoculated with small scattering particles and illuminated in an,equatorial plane by an Argon-ion laser. Fields of O(10-1 kV/mm) and frequencies of O(10-2 Hz) resulted in typical values of Wmax = 20, epsilon = 8, delta = 0.4. The resulting advection of the particles was imaged by a CCD camera, which collected images over a number of modulation periods. In order to make comparisons between these images and the corresponding theory, the trajectories of a large number of particles (typically O( 104)) were simulated, with initial positions approximately the same as in the experiments.

Ward, Thomas; Homsy, G. M.

2002-11-01

409

Bitter pill to swallow: a case of accidental poisoning with digitalis purpurea.  

PubMed

While digitoxicity secondary to therapeutic use is frequent, due to its distinctive appearance and unpleasant taste accidental ingestion of digitalis purpurea (foxglove) is uncommon. This report relates the case of two previously healthy individuals who inadvertently consumed significant quantities of digitalis in its plant form. Both men presented in first-degree atrioventricular block and had digoxin levels of 4.9 ?g/litre, but were otherwise stable and made unremarkable recoveries with repeated dose activated charcoal. PMID:22791473

Mitchell, Andrew

2010-01-01

410

Bitter pill to swallow: a case of accidental poisoning with digitalis purpurea  

PubMed Central

While digitoxicity secondary to therapeutic use is frequent, due to its distinctive appearance and unpleasant taste accidental ingestion of digitalis purpurea (foxglove) is uncommon. This report relates the case of two previously healthy individuals who inadvertently consumed significant quantities of digitalis in its plant form. Both men presented in first-degree atrioventricular block and had digoxin levels of 4.9 ?g/litre, but were otherwise stable and made unremarkable recoveries with repeated dose activated charcoal. PMID:22791473

Mitchell, Andrew

2010-01-01

411

Neuroimaging in non-accidental head injury in children: an important element of assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Head injury from physical abuse is unfortunately a common occurrence in our society. It is a major cause of mortality and long-term physical and psychological disability in children. Diagnosis of non-accidental head injury may be difficult, as most infants present with non-specific clinical findings and without external signs of trauma. Neuroimaging plays a fundamental role both for medical management and

S Rajaram; R Batty; C D C Rittey; P D Griffiths; D J A Connolly

2011-01-01

412

Acute ischaemia of the hand following accidental radial artery infusion of Depo-Medrone.  

PubMed

Acute ischaemia of the hand following the accidental intra-arterial injection of steroid has not, to our knowledge, been previously reported. We present such a case of the injection of Depo-Medrone with Lidocaine (Upjohn) into the right radial artery during attempted treatment of stenosing tenosynovitis of the right thumb. The resultant acute ischaemia was successfully managed after 20 hours by a combination of surgical thrombectomy, intra-arterial streptokinase and intravenous heparin and thymoxamine. PMID:2307872

Taweepoke, P; Frame, J D

1990-02-01

413

Rewarming a patient with accidental hypothermia and cardiac arrest using thoracic lavage.  

PubMed

The optimal treatment for severe accidental hypothermia is cardiopulmonary bypass because this offers the most rapid rate of rewarming. However, cardiopulmonary bypass therapy is not available in every hospital. In these circumstances, rewarming has to be achieved with other methods. We present a patient who was successfully rewarmed with thoracic lavage after he had been found with a core temperature of 21°C and asystole. PMID:24882294

Turtiainen, Johanna; Halonen, Jari; Syväoja, Sakari; Hakala, Tapio

2014-06-01

414

Serologic markers for hepatitis B among Marshallese accidentally exposed to fallout radiation in 1954  

SciTech Connect

At least one serologic marker of prior hepatitis B infection (hepatitis B surface antigen, antibody to surface antigen, or antibody to core antigen) was found in 91.7% of 314 Marshallese tested. The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigenemia (3.3%) in a subpopulation that had resided on Rongelap Atoll at the time of accidental exposure to radioactive fallout from a thermonuclear test in 1954 did not differ significantly from the prevalence in a selected unexposed population (10.5%).

Adams, W.H.; Fields, H.A.; Engle, J.R.; Hadler, S.C.

1986-10-01

415

Involving parents in indicated early intervention for childhood PTSD following accidental injury.  

PubMed

Accidental injuries represent the most common type of traumatic event to which a youth is likely to be exposed. While the majority of youth who experience an accidental injury will recover spontaneously, a significant proportion will go on to develop Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). And yet, there is little published treatment outcome research in this area. This review focuses on two key issues within the child PTSD literature--namely the role of parents in treatment and the timing of intervention. The issue of parental involvement in the treatment of child PTSD is a question that is increasingly being recognized as important. In addition, the need to find a balance between providing early intervention to at risk youth while avoiding providing treatment to those youth who will recover spontaneously has yet to be addressed. This paper outlines the rationale for and the development of a trauma-focused CBT protocol with separate parent and child programs, for use with children and adolescents experiencing PTSD following an accidental injury. The protocol is embedded within an indicated intervention framework, allowing for the early identification of youth at risk within a medical setting. Two case studies are presented in order to illustrate key issues raised in the review, implementation of the interventions, and the challenges involved. PMID:22983482

Cobham, Vanessa E; March, Sonja; De Young, Alexandra; Leeson, Fiona; Nixon, Reginald; McDermott, Brett; Kenardy, Justin

2012-12-01

416

Ontogeny of accidental wetlands and hydric soil development in surface mined landscapes  

SciTech Connect

Reducing conditions are periodically present in hydric soils and are essential for chemical processes that support wetland functions and values. Indicators of these conditions, i.e., redoximorphic features, can be useful in determining the presence of a hydric soil. However, young wetlands, i.e., those recently formed, may not possess reducing conditions and/or may not exhibit redoximorphic features. Few studies have addressed the time needed for hydric soil development. In this study, we present data on redoximorphic features, including chroma and oxidized rhizospheres, gathered from two sets of wetlands in southwestern Virginia, including (1) constructed wetlands that are 3 years old and (2) accidental wetlands that are 10 to 30 years old. Under conditions described for these sites, there is strong evidence that discernable redoximorphic features form in accidental wetlands within 10 years, but not within 3 years in constructed wetlands. Since accidental wetlands have been in existence for longer than most man-made wetlands, they provide clues to the development of hydric soils in recently constructed wetland systems.

Atkinson, R.B. [Christopher Newport Univ., Newport News, VA (United States); Daniels, W.L.; Cairns, J. Jr. [Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States)

1996-12-31

417

A high-drop hole-type photonic crystal add-drop filter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the effect of total internal reflection (TIR) and photonic band gap, a new type of hexagonal-lattice hole-type silicon photonic crystal add-drop filter is proposed with a large circular hole as inner ring. The single mode operation is realized by compressing the two rows of photonic crystal above and below the line defect waveguide. Two-dimensional (2D) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is then applied to investigate the impacts of side length of inner ring and coupling strength on its drop efficiency. It is also fairly compared with the traditional inner ring structure composed of hexagonal-lattice holes. The results show that the proposed structure can offer higher spectral selectivity than the traditional one. Two channel wavelengths of 1.425 ?m and 1.45 ?m can be simultaneously dropped at corresponding ports with drop efficiency of more than 90% and quality factor of 900 in the proposed configuration when the width of bus waveguide, the side length of inner ring and the coupling strength are 0.8 ?3 a, 4 a and 0, respectively, where a is the lattice constant.

Jiang, Jun-zhen; Qiang, Ze-xuan; Zhang, Hao; Zheng, Yan-min; Qiu, Yi-shen

2014-01-01

418

Drops on hydrophilic conical fibers: gravity effect and coexistent States.  

PubMed

Controlling the droplet equilibrium location and shape on a conical fiber is essential to industrial applications such as dip-pen nanolithography. In this work, the equilibrium conformations of a drop on a vertical, conical fiber has been investigated by the finite element method, Surface Evolver simulations. Similar to the morphology of a drop on a cylinder, two different types (barrel shape and clam-shell shape) can be obtained. In the absence of gravity, the droplet moves upward (lower curvature) and the total surface energy decays as the drop ascends. Whatever the initial conformation of the drop on a conical fiber, the rising drop exhibits the clam-shell shape eventually and there is no equilibrium location. However, in the presence of gravity, the drop can stop at the equilibrium location stably. For a given contact angle, the clam-shell shape is generally favored for smaller drops but the barrel shape is dominant for larger drops. In a certain range of drop volume, the coexistence of both barrel and clam-shell shapes is observed. For large enough drops, the falling-off state is seen. PMID:25595207

Liang, Yu-En; Tsao, Heng-Kwong; Sheng, Yu-Jane

2015-02-10

419

Surface flow on an undeformable free drop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analytical model is presented of the flows on the surface and in the surrounding medium created by the introduction of a suractant into a liquid containing an undeformable drop of another liquid having a surface tension which is altered by the surfactant. The problem is posed in spherical coordinates, regarding the density, viscosity, and the temperature as constants and the interface as a Newtonian fluid. The flows created by the surfactant occur between areas of surface tension which are affected and those that are not, and within the fluid surrounding the unequal surface tension areas. The Navier-Stokes equations and the continuity equation are defined for the spherical system and velocity and pressure distributions are obtained. The velocity on the invaded surface is found to vary from 0 at the injection point to a finite value on the surfactant point.

Stan, I.

420

Planar Jumping-Drop Thermal Diodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phase-change thermal diodes transport heat asymmetrically with a large rectification coefficient unmatched by their solid-state counterparts, but are limited by either the gravitational orientation or one-dimensional configuration. We report a planar phase-change diode scalable to large areas with an orientation-independent diodicity of up to 100, in which water/vapor is enclosed by parallel superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic plates. The thermal rectification is enabled by spontaneously jumping dropwise condensate which only occurs when the superhydrophobic surface is colder than the superhydrophilic surface. Our jumping-drop thermal diode is expected to be particularly useful for the thermal protection of planar electronic components and the thermal regulation of large-area energy harvesting systems.

Boreyko, Jonathan; Zhao, Yuejun; Chen, Chuan-Hua

2011-11-01

421

Crime Drops for Eighth Straight Year  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In October 2000, the FBI issued its annual report on crime, a 422-page tome, which shows crime down in the United States for the eighth straight year. The report found a total of 11.6 million criminal offenses in 1999, or 4,267 crimes per 100,000 people, a 7.6 percent decrease and the largest drop in a single year in the last two decades. The nation's murder total of 15,533 victims represented an eight percent drop and a thirty-three year low, while rates of robbery, assault, burglary, forcible rape, and motor vehicle theft all fell between four and ten percent. The downward trend applied to virtually all types of crime in all areas of the country. While the news was considered to be good, criminologists warned that the declines were lower in the largest cities and that these numbers may be harbingers of an upswing in crime in the next decade. These same experts disagree over the causes of the decline in crime that has marked the decade of the 1990s. Many point to more police officers, tougher sentencing laws, and more prisons as primary factors, while others focus on good economic times, a greater focus on drug treatment, and the graying of the population. One curious fact to be gleaned from the data is that the person least likely to be murdered in America today would be a white, single woman living in Iowa or New Hampshire who does not have a male partner.

Charbonneau, David D.

422

Heat loss and drag of spherical drop tube samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis techniques for three aspects of the performance of the NASA/MSFC 32 meter drop tube are considered. Heat loss through the support wire in a pendant drop sample, temperature history of a drop falling through the drop tube when the tube is filled with helium gas at various pressures, and drag and resulting g-levels experienced by a drop falling through the tube when the tube is filled with helium gas at various pressures are addressed. The developed methods apply to systems with sufficiently small Knudsen numbers for which continuum theory may be applied. Sample results are presented, using niobium drops, to indicate the magnitudes of the effects. Helium gas at one atmosphere pressure can approximately double the amount of possible undercooling but it results in an apparent gravity levels of up to 0.1 g.

Wallace, D. B.

1982-01-01

423

Coarsening of capillary drops coupled by conduit networks.  

PubMed

A system of n spherical-cap drops, coupled by a network of conduits, coarsens due to surface tension forces. The total interfacial energy drives the fluid through the conduits such that, with time, the volume becomes increasingly localized into fewer large drops. The coarsening rate is predicted heuristically for drops coupled by orthogonal networks, a porous medium, and fractal networks of various dimensions. The predicted coarsening law as it depends upon the type and dimension of network, total number of drops, and initial drop volume is compared against numerical simulations of large n . Additionally, distributions of large drop volumes are obtained using a Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner (LSW) model. The predicted distributions are independent of network topology; in contrast, simulation results depend weakly on the network dimension. The heuristic coarsening rate laws are recovered using the LSW model for all but a square network topology. PMID:21230739

van Lengerich, Henrik B; Vogel, Michael J; Steen, Paul H

2010-12-01

424

Coarsening of capillary drops coupled by conduit networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A system of n spherical-cap drops, coupled by a network of conduits, coarsens due to surface tension forces. The total interfacial energy drives the fluid through the conduits such that, with time, the volume becomes increasingly localized into fewer large drops. The coarsening rate is predicted heuristically for drops coupled by orthogonal networks, a porous medium, and fractal networks of various dimensions. The predicted coarsening law as it depends upon the type and dimension of network, total number of drops, and initial drop volume is compared against numerical simulations of large n . Additionally, distributions of large drop volumes are obtained using a Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner (LSW) model. The predicted distributions are independent of network topology; in contrast, simulation results depend weakly on the network dimension. The heuristic coarsening rate laws are recovered using the LSW model for all but a square network topology.

van Lengerich, Henrik B.; Vogel, Michael J.; Steen, Paul H.

2010-12-01

425

Coalescence of bubbles and drops in an outer fluid.  

PubMed

When two liquid drops touch, a microscopic connecting liquid bridge forms and rapidly grows as the two drops merge into one. Whereas coalescence has been thoroughly studied when drops coalesce in vacuum or air, many important situations involve coalescence in a dense surrounding fluid, such as oil coalescence in brine. Here we study the merging of gas bubbles and liquid drops in an external fluid. Our data indicate that the flows occur over much larger length scales in the outer fluid than inside the drops themselves. Thus, we find that the asymptotic early regime is always dominated by the viscosity of the drops, independent of the external fluid. A phase diagram showing the crossovers into the different possible late-time dynamics identifies a dimensionless number that signifies when the external viscosity can be important. PMID:24458225

Paulsen, Joseph D; Carmigniani, Rémi; Kannan, Anerudh; Burton, Justin C; Nagel, Sidney R

2014-01-01

426

Coalescence of bubbles and drops in an outer fluid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When two liquid drops touch, a microscopic connecting liquid bridge forms and rapidly grows as the two drops merge into one. Whereas coalescence has been thoroughly studied when drops coalesce in vacuum or air, many important situations involve coalescence in a dense surrounding fluid, such as oil coalescence in brine. Here we study the merging of gas bubbles and liquid drops in an external fluid. Our data indicate that the flows occur over much larger length scales in the outer fluid than inside the drops themselves. Thus, we find that the asymptotic early regime is always dominated by the viscosity of the drops, independent of the external fluid. A phase diagram showing the crossovers into the different possible late-time dynamics identifies a dimensionless number that signifies when the external viscosity can be important.

Paulsen, Joseph D.; Carmigniani, Rémi; Kannan, Anerudh; Burton, Justin C.; Nagel, Sidney R.

2014-01-01

427

Five reasons for scenario-based design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scenarios of human-computer interaction help us to understand and to create computer systems and applications as artifacts of human activity-as things to learn from, as tools to use in one's work, as media for interacting with other people. Scenario-based design of information technology addresses five technical challenges. Scenarios evoke reflection in the content of design work, helping developers coordinate design

John M. Carroll

1999-01-01

428

Drop-out from a psychodynamic group psychotherapy outpatient unit.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND. Drop-out from psychotherapy is common and represents a considerable problem in clinical practice and research. Aim. To explore pre-treatment predictors of early and late drop-out from psychodynamic group therapy in a public outpatient unit for non-psychotic disorders in Denmark. Methods. Naturalistic design including 329 patients, the majority with mood, neurotic and personality disorders referred to 39-session group therapy. Predictors were socio-demographic and clinical variables, self-reported symptoms (Symptom Check List-90-Revised) and personality style (Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II). Drop-out was classified into early and late premature termination excluding patients who dropped out for external reasons. Results. Drop-out comprised 20.6% (68 patients) of the sample. Logistic regression revealed social functioning, vocational training, alcohol problems and antisocial behavior to be related to drop-out. However, early drop-outs had prominent agoraphobic symptoms, lower interpersonal sensitivity and compulsive personality features, and late drop-outs cognitive and somatic anxiety symptoms and antisocial personality features. Clinical and psychological variables accounted for the major part of variance in predictions of drop-out, which ranged from 15.6% to 19.5% (Nagelkerke Pseudo R-Square). Conclusion. Social functioning was consistently associated with drop-out, but personality characteristics and anxiety symptoms differentiated between early and late drop-out. Failure to discriminate between stages of premature termination may explain some of the inconsistencies in the drop-out literature. Clinical implications. Before selection of patients to time-limited psychodynamic groups, self-reported symptoms should be thoroughly considered. Patients with agoraphobic symptoms should be offered alternative treatment. Awareness of and motivation to work with interpersonal issues may be essential for compliance with group therapy. PMID:24754466

Jensen, Hans Henrik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Lotz, Martin

2014-11-01

429

Drop impact and rebound dynamics on an inclined superhydrophobic surface.  

PubMed

Due to its potential in water-repelling applications, the impact and rebound dynamics of a water drop impinging perpendicular to a horizontal superhydrophobic surface have undergone extensive study. However, drops tend to strike a surface at an angle in applications. In such cases, the physics governing the effects of oblique impact are not well studied or understood. Therefore, the objective of this study was to conduct an experiment to investigate the impact and rebound dynamics of a drop at various liquid viscosities, in an isothermal environment, and on a nanocomposite superhydrophobic surface at normal and oblique impact conditions (tilted at 15°, 30°, 45°, and 60°). This study considered drops falling from various heights to create normal impact Weber numbers ranging from 6 to 110. In addition, drop viscosity was varied by decreasing the temperature for water drops and by utilizing water-glycerol mixtures, which have similar surface tension to water but higher viscosities. Results revealed that oblique and normal drop impact behaved similarly (in terms of maximum drop spread as well as rebound dynamics) at low normal Weber numbers. However, at higher Weber numbers, normal and oblique impact results diverged in terms of maximum spread, which could be related to asymmetry and more complex outcomes. These asymmetry effects became more pronounced as the inclination angle increased, to the point where they dominated the drop impact and rebound characteristics when the surface was inclined at 60°. The drop rebound characteristics on inclined surfaces could be classified into eight different outcomes driven primarily by normal Weber number and drop Ohnesorge numbers. However, it was found that these outcomes were also a function of the receding contact angle, whereby reduced receding angles yielded tail-like structures. Nevertheless, the contact times of the drops with the coating were found to be generally independent of surface inclination. PMID:25216298

Yeong, Yong Han; Burton, James; Loth, Eric; Bayer, Ilker S

2014-10-14

430

Fluid dynamics and solidification of levitated drops and shells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fluid dynamic investigaton of simple free liquid drops is described based on ground-based and low-gravity experimental results. The behavior of compound drops and liquid shells as described in recent theoretical and experimental studies is discussed. Experimental investigations using both levitation devices and drop tubes are considered in the case of 1-g laboratory investigations, highlighting the advantages and drawbacks of both techniques.

Trinh, E. H.

1990-01-01

431

Terminal Velocity Adjustment for Cloud and Precipitation Drops Aloft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The velocities of cloud and precipitation drops aloft are obtained from the sea level velocity by multiplication with an adjustment factor. For cloud drops (1-40 µm diameter) the adjustment factor is found from the Stokes-Cunningham equation, and depends upon the Knudsen number and dynamic viscosity. For larger drops (40 µm-6 mm diameter) the adjustment factor is obtained from a semi-empirical

K. V. Beard

1977-01-01

432

Wetting and absorption of water drops on Nafion films.  

PubMed

Water drops on Nafion films caused the surface to switch from being hydrophobic to being hydrophilic. Contact angle hysteresis of >70 degrees between advancing and receding values were obtained by the Wilhelmy plate technique. Sessile drop measurements were consistent with the advancing contact angle; the sessile drop contact angle was 108 degrees . Water drop adhesion, as measured by the detachment angle on an inclined plane, showed much stronger water adhesion on Nafion than Teflon. Sessile water and methanol drops caused dry Nafion films to deflect. The flexure went through a maximum with time. Flexure increased with contact area of the drop, but was insensitive to the film thickness. Methanol drops spread more on Nafion and caused larger film flexure than water. The results suggest that the Nafion surface was initially hydrophobic but water and methanol drops caused hydrophilic sulfonic acid domains to be drawn to the Nafion surface. Local swelling of the film beneath the water drop caused the film to buckle. The maximum flexure is suggested to result from motion of a water swelling front through the Nafion film. PMID:18611043

Goswami, Sharonmoyee; Klaus, Shannon; Benziger, Jay

2008-08-19

433

Substrate constraint modifies the Rayleigh spectrum of vibrating sessile drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we study the resonance behavior of mechanically oscillated, sessile water drops. By mechanically oscillating sessile drops vertically and within prescribed ranges of frequencies and amplitudes, a rich collection of resonance modes are observed and their dynamics subsequently investigated. We first present our method of identifying each mode uniquely, through association with spherical harmonics and according to their geometric patterns. Next, we compare our measured resonance frequencies of drops to theoretical predictions using both the classical theory of Lord Rayleigh and Lamb for free, oscillating drops, and a prediction by Bostwick and Steen that explicitly considers the effect of the solid substrate on drop dynamics. Finally, we report observations and analysis of drop mode mixing, or the simultaneous coexistence of multiple mode shapes within the resonating sessile drop driven by one sinusoidal signal of a single frequency. The dynamic response of a deformable liquid drop constrained by the substrate it is in contact with is of interest in a number of applications, such as drop atomization and ink jet printing, switchable electronically controlled capillary adhesion, optical microlens devices, as well as digital microfluidic applications where control of droplet motion is induced by means of a harmonically driven substrate.

Chang, Chun-Ti; Bostwick, Joshua B.; Steen, Paul H.; Daniel, Susan

2013-08-01

434

Dynamics of a Janus drop in an external flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The steady motion of a Janus drop under a uniform external flow is considered. First, we analyze the equilibrium shape of a Janus-like drop in a motionless ambient fluid, i.e., the special case of a nearly spherical compound drop with a nearly flat internal interface. This configuration is realizable when the liquids comprising the drop have close interfacial tensions with the ambient fluid, but a small interfacial tension between each other. Then, we consider the flow past a perfect Janus drop composed of two hemispherical domains each occupied by a different fluid. For the sake of simplicity, all the interfaces are assumed nondeformable. The problem is solved both analytically, by means of the Lamb expansion, and numerically. The relation between the flow velocity and the force imposed on the drop, which is a generalization of the classical Hadamard-Rybczynski formula, is found. A torque is also imposed on the drop in the general case. The stable regime of motion of a torque-free drop is found to be axisymmetric, with the less viscous fluid at the upstream face. For this particular configuration, the deformation of the internal interface is also found employing a perturbation technique, whereas the distortion of the drop surface can be safely neglected.

Shklyaev, S.; Ivantsov, A. O.; Díaz-Maldonado, M.; Córdova-Figueroa, U. M.

2013-08-01

435

Vimentin networks at tunable ion-concentration in microfluidic drops  

PubMed Central

The structure and function of biological systems, for example, cells and proteins, depend strongly on their chemical environment. To investigate such dependence, we design a polydimethylsiloxane-based microfluidic device to encapsulate biological systems in picoliter-sized drops. The content of each individual drop is tuned in a defined manner. As a key feature of our method, the individual chemical composition is determined and related to the drop content. In our case, the drop content is imaged using microscopy methods, while the drops are immobilized to allow for long-time studies. As an application of our device, we study the influence of divalent ions on vimentin intermediate filament networks in a quantitative way by tuning the magnesium concentration from drop to drop. This way we are able to directly image the effect of magnesium on the fluorescently tagged protein in a few hundreds of drops. Our study shows that with increasing magnesium concentration in the drops, the compaction of the networks becomes more pronounced. The degree of compaction is characterized by different morphologies; freely fluctuating networks are observed at comparatively low magnesium concentrations of 5–10?mM, while with increasing magnesium concentration reaching 16?mM they develop into fully aggregated networks. Our approach demonstrates how a systematic study of interactions in biological systems can benefit from the exceptional controllability of microfluidic methods. PMID:22655012

Dammann, Christian; Nöding, Bernd; Köster, Sarah

2012-01-01

436

Substrate constraint modifies the Rayleigh spectrum of vibrating sessile drops.  

PubMed

In this work, we study the resonance behavior of mechanically oscillated, sessile water drops. By mechanically oscillating sessile drops vertically and within prescribed ranges of frequencies and amplitudes, a rich collection of resonance modes are observed and their dynamics subsequently investigated. We first present our method of identifying each mode uniquely, through association with spherical harmonics and according to their geometric patterns. Next, we compare our measured resonance frequencies of drops to theoretical predictions using both the classical theory of Lord Rayleigh and Lamb for free, oscillating drops, and a prediction by Bostwick and Steen that explicitly considers the effect of the solid substrate on drop dynamics. Finally, we report observations and analysis of drop mode mixing, or the simultaneous coexistence of multiple mode shapes within the resonating sessile drop driven by one sinusoidal signal of a single frequency. The dynamic response of a deformable liquid drop constrained by the substrate it is in contact with is of interest in a number of applications, such as drop atomization and ink jet printing, switchable electronically controlled capillary adhesion, optical microlens devices, as well as digital microfluidic applications where control of droplet motion is induced by means of a harmonically driven substrate. PMID:24032932

Chang, Chun-Ti; Bostwick, Joshua B; Steen, Paul H; Daniel, Susan

2013-08-01

437

Electrohydrodynamic deformation and interaction of a pair of emulsion drops  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The response of a pair of emulsion drops to the imposition of a uniform electric field is examined. The case studied is that of equal-sized drops whose line of centers is parallel to the axis of the applied field. A new boundary integral solution to the governing equations of the leaky dielectric model is developed; the formulation accounts for the electrostatic and hydrodynamic interactions between the drops, as well as their deformations. Numerical calculations show that, after an initial transient during which the drops primarily deform, the pair drift slowly together due to their electrostatic interactions.

Baygents, James C.

1994-01-01

438

How should indicators be found for scenario monitoring ?  

E-print Network

Scenario planning is a widely used approach for developing long-term strategies. The typical scenario process involves developing scenarios, identifying strategies whose success is contingent on the scenario, and monitoring ...

He, Zheng, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-01-01

439

Method for reducing pressure drop through filters, and filter exhibiting reduced pressure drop  

DOEpatents

Methods for generating and applying coatings to filters with porous material in order to reduce large pressure drop increases as material accumulates in a filter, as well as the filter exhibiting reduced and/or more uniform pressure drop. The filter can be a diesel particulate trap for removing particulate matter such as soot from the exhaust of a diesel engine. Porous material such as ash is loaded on the surface of the substrate or filter walls, such as by coating, depositing, distributing or layering the porous material along the channel walls of the filter in an amount effective for minimizing or preventing depth filtration during use of the filter. Efficient filtration at acceptable flow rates is achieved.

Sappok, Alexander; Wong, Victor

2014-11-18

440

Accidental Discoveries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students research scientific discoveries that happened by accident in the past, and learn how gamma-rays were discovered by 20th century scientists. In the process, students develop an understanding that science theories change in the face of new evidence. This acitivity is part of the "Swift: Eyes Through Time" collection that is available on the Teacher's Domain website.

441

Accidental Tourist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For 10 years, the author taught a high school Fundamentals of English class designed for juniors and seniors who needed special accommodations--individualized instruction, time for reading aloud, a pace that's slower than the norm. About half were learning English as a second language. Some of these students spoke Bosnian, Laotian, Russian, or…

Brown, Donna M.

2003-01-01

442

Accidental Art  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 (Click on image for larger view)

This image, acquired by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's panoramic camera on the 53rd martian day, or sol, of the rover's mission, struck science and engineering teams as not only scientifically interesting but remarkably beautiful. The large, shadowed rock in the foreground is nicknamed 'Sandia' for a mountain range in New Mexico. An imposing rock, 'Sandia' is about 33 centimeters high (1 foot) and about 1.7 meters (5.5 feet) long.

Figure 1 above is a lightened version of the more artistic image above.

The combination of the rover's high-resolution cameras with software tools used by scientists allows the minute details on martian targets to be visualized. When lightened, this image reveals much about the pictured rocks, which the science team believes are ejected material, or ejecta, from the nearby crater called 'Bonneville.' Scientists believe 'Sandia' is a basaltic rock that landed on its side after being ejected from the crater. The vertical lines on the side of the rock facing the camera are known by geologists as 'flow banding' and typically run horizontally, indicating that 'Sandia' is on its side. What look like small holes on the two visible sides of the rock are called vesicles; they were probably once gas bubbles within the lava.

The lighting not only makes for an artistic image, it helps scientists get a virtual three-dimensional feel for target rocks. Observations taken at different times of day, as shadows move and surface texture details on target rocks are revealed, are entered into modeling software that turns a two-dimensional image into a three-dimensional research tool.

Many smaller rocks can be seen in the background of the image. Some rocks are completely exposed, while others are only peeking out of the surface. Scientists believe that two processes might be at work here: accretion, which occurs when winds deposit material that slowly buries many of the rocks; and deflation, which occurs when surface material is removed by wind, exposing more and more of the rocks.

2004-01-01

443

Target heights alter the energetics of drop jumps when drop height is held constant.  

PubMed

Plyometrics are a popular form of training the stretch-shortening cycle in competitive athletes and recreational athletes. One method of controlling intensity is to vary the dropping height during the training session. It may be possible to alter the intensity by creating a target height to jump over when holding the dropping height constant. Fifteen college recreational athletes performed 15 trials of 60-cm depth jumps over 3 different target heights (40, 60, and 80 cm). One-way repeated measures analysis of variance was used to identify significant differences in kinematic and kinetic variables for both the concentric and eccentric phases. There were no significant differences in eccentric work found between the 3 conditions. Significant differences were found in the total work performed during the concentric portion of the jumps between the 40- and 60-cm trials but not between the 60- and 80-cm trials. These results were found to be different at each joint of the lower extremity as compared with past research. Power analysis showed no significant differences between target heights, which may suggest that higher target heights may not be necessary to achieve the same ground contact parameters. Overall analysis of the variables suggests that 60 cm is an adequate target height when dropping from 60 cm. PMID:22344053

Decker, Aaron J; McCaw, Steve T

2012-12-01

444

Validation of an All-Pressure Fluid Drop Model: Heptane Fluid Drops in Nitrogen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Despite the fact that supercritical fluids occur both in nature and in industrial situations, the fundamentals of their behavior is poorly understood because supercritical fluids combine the characteristics of both liquids and gases, and therefore their behavior is not intuitive. There are several specific reasons for the lack of understanding: First, data from (mostly optical) measurements can be very misleading because regions of high density thus observed are frequently identified with liquids. A common misconception is that if in an experiment one can optically identify "drops" and "ligaments", the observed fluid must be in a liquid state. This inference is incorrect because in fact optical measurements detect any large change (i.e. gradients) in density. Thus, the density ratio may be well below Omicron(10(exp 3)) that characterizes its liquid/gas value, but the measurement will still identify a change in the index of refraction providing that the change is sudden (steep gradients). As shown by simulations of supercritical fluids, under certain conditions the density gradients may remain large during the supercritical binary fluids mixing, thus making them optically identifiable. Therefore, there is no inconsistency between the optical observation of high density regions and the fluids being in a supercritical state. A second misconception is that because a fluid has a liquid-like density, it is appropriate to model it as a liquid. However, such fluids may have liquid-like densities while their transport properties differ from those of a liquid. Considering that the critical pressure of most fuel hydrocarbons used in Diesel and gas turbine engines is in the range of 1.5 - 3 MPa, and the fact that the maximum pressure attained in these engines is about 6 Mps, it is clear that the fuel in the combustion chamber will experience both subcritical and supercritical conditions. Studies of drop behavior over a wide range of pressures were performed in the past, however none of these studies identified the crucial differences between the subcritical and supercritical behavior. In fact, in two of these studies, it was found that the subcritical and supercritical behavior is similar as the drop diameter decreased according to the classical d(exp 2)-law over a wide range of pressures and drop diameters. The present study is devoted to the exploration of differences in fluid-behavior characteristics under subcritical and supercritical conditions in the particular case of heptane fluid drops in nitrogen; these substances were selected because of the availability of experimental observations for model validation.

Harstad, K.; Bellan, J.; Bulzan, Daniel L. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

445

Eye drop instillation technique in patients with glaucoma  

PubMed Central

Aims To evaluate the technique of eye drop instillation in patients with glaucoma and assess factors associated with a good technique. Methods A cross-sectional observational study of 85 participants using self-administered topical medication for glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Patients were asked to demonstrate how they normally instil eye drops using a 5-ml bottle of sterile artificial tear solution. The procedure was recorded and assessed by two masked graders. Whether the patient had been previously shown how to instil drops, the number of eye medications used, and self-perceived difficulty of using drops were also recorded. Univariable logistic regression was performed to relate each variable to drop technique and variables with P<0.2 were included in a multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results 54.1% (46/85) of patients had a poor drop technique, 11.8% (10/85) missed the eye, 15.3% (13/85) touched the tip of the bottle to the bulbar conjunctiva or cornea, and 27.1% (23/85) touched the eyelid or lashes with the bottle tip. 81.2% (69/85) could not recall being shown how to instil eye drops. In the multivariable model, previous instruction regarding drop instillation technique was significantly associated with good technique (adjusted OR=8.17, 95% CI 2.02–33.05, P=0.003) and increasing age was associated with poor technique (adjusted OR=0.95, 95% CI 0.91–0.99, P=0.017). Conclusions Education relating to eye drop instillation technique is significantly associated with a patient's ability to instil drops correctly. The assessment of a patient's ability to instil eye drops correctly should be a routine part of the glaucoma examination. PMID:23970024

Tatham, A J; Sarodia, U; Gatrad, F; Awan, A

2013-01-01

446

Computational and experimental analysis of dynamics of drop formation  

SciTech Connect

Dynamics of formation of a drop of a Newtonian liquid from a capillary tube into an ambient gas phase is studied computationally and experimentally. While this problem has previously been studied computationally either (a) using a set of one-dimensional equations or (b) treating the dynamics as that of irrotational flow of an inviscid fluid or creeping flow, here the full nonlinear, transient Navier{endash}Stokes system subject to appropriate initial and boundary conditions is solved in two dimensions to analyze the dynamics at finite Reynolds numbers. The success of the computations rests on a finite element algorithm incorporating a multiregion mesh which conforms to and evolves with the changing shape of the drop. The new algorithm is able to capture both the gross features of the phenomenon, such as the limiting length of a drop at breakup and the volume of the primary drop, and its fine features, such as a microthread that develops from a main thread or a neck in a viscous drop approaching breakup. The accuracy of the new calculations is verified by comparison of computed predictions to old and new experiments. With the new algorithm, it is shown for the first time that the interface of a {ital viscous} drop can overturn before the drop breaks. Calculations have also been carried out to determine the range of parameters over which algorithms that treat the drop liquid as inviscid and the flow inside it as irrotational can accurately predict the dynamics of formation of drops of low viscosity liquids. Limiting lengths of drops and primary drop volumes are computed over a wide range of the parameter space spanned by the relevant dimensionless groups. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

Wilkes, E.D.; Phillips, S.D.; Basaran, O.A. [School of Chemical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907-1283 (United States)] [School of Chemical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907-1283 (United States)

1999-12-01

447

EDITORIAL: Where next with global environmental scenarios? Where next with global environmental scenarios?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scenarios have become a standard tool in the portfolio of techniques that scientists and policy-makers use to envision and plan for the future. Defined as plausible, challenging and relevant stories about how the future might unfold that integrate quantitative models with qualitative assessments of social and political trends, scenarios are a central component in assessment processes for a range of global issues, including climate change, biodiversity, agriculture, and energy. Yet, despite their prevalence, systematic analysis of scenarios is in its beginning stages. Fundamental questions remain about both the epistemology and scientific credibility of scenarios and their roles in policymaking and social change. Answers to these questions have the potential to determine the future of scenario analyses. Is scenario analysis moving in the direction of earth system governance informed by global scenarios generated through increasingly complex and comprehensive models integrating socio-economic and earth systems? Or will global environmental scenario analyses lose favour compared to more focused, policy-driven, regionally specific modelling? These questions come at an important time for the climate change issue, given that the scenario community, catalyzed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), is currently preparing to embark on a new round of scenario development processes aimed at coordinating research and assessment, and informing policy, over the next five to ten years. These and related questions about where next to go with global environmental scenarios animated a workshop held at Brown University (Note1) that brought together leading practitioners and scholars of global environmental change scenarios from research, policy-making, advocacy, and business settings. The workshop aimed to provide an overview of current practices/best practices in scenario production and scenario use across a range of global environmental change arenas. Participants worked to bring the experience generated from over four decades of scenario development in other issue domains, including energy and security, to bear on environmental scenarios, and to bring into dialogue scenario practitioners, both producers and users, with social science scholars. The set of contributions to this focus issue of Environmental Research Letters arose out of this workshop and collectively examines key challenges facing the scenario community, synthesizes lessons, and offers recommendations for new research and practice in this field. One theme that emerged in many of the discussions at the workshop revolved around the distinction between two broad perspectives on the goals of scenario exercises: scenarios as products and scenarios as processes. Most global environmental change scenario exercises are product-oriented; the content of the scenarios developed is the main goal of many participants and those who commission or organize the scenario development process. Typically, what is of most interest are the environmental outcomes produced, how they relate to the various factors driving them, and what the results tell us about the prospects for future environmental change, for impacts, and for mitigation. A product-oriented perspective assumes that once produced, scenario products have lives of their own, divorced from the processes that generated them and able to serve multiple, often unspecified purposes. Thus, it is often assumed that the scenario products can be 'taken up' by a variety of users in a variety of fora. A contrasting scenario approach is process-oriented and self-consciously privileges the process of scenario development as the primary goal, for example as a means to motivate organizational learning, find commonalities across different perspectives, achieve consensus on goals, or come to a shared understanding of challenges. Focusing on scenarios as processes highlights the social contexts in which scenarios are created and used. Process-oriented scenario exercises also generate scenario products, but such products are recognized

O'Neill, Brian; Pulver, Simone; Van Deveer, Stacy; Garb, Yaakov

2008-12-01

448

Scenario Planning at College of Marin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews the scenario planning process implemented at the College of Marin (California). Scenario planning is a creative process in which a group of people who share a common fate develop stories about different ways their future might unfold, and use these stories to make decisions about what path to take. The Global Business Network…

College of Marin, Kentfield, CA.

449

Architectures for Developing Multiuser, Immersive Learning Scenarios  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiuser immersive learning scenarios hold strong potential for lifelong learning as they can support the acquisition of higher order skills in an effective, efficient, and attractive way. Existing virtual worlds, game development platforms, and game engines only partly cater for the proliferation of such learning scenarios as they are often…

Nadolski, Rob J.; Hummel, Hans G. K.; Slootmaker, Aad; van der Vegt, Wim

2012-01-01

450

Global Biodiversity Scenarios for the Year 2100  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scenarios of changes in biodiversity for the year 2100 can now be developed based on scenarios of changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide, climate, vegetation, and land use and the known sensitivity of biodiversity to these changes. This study identified a ranking of the importance of drivers of change, a ranking of the biomes with respect to expected changes, and the

Osvaldo E. Sala; F. Stuart Chapin III; Juan J. Armesto; Eric Berlow; Janine Bloomfield; Rodolfo Dirzo; Elisabeth Huber-Sanwald; Laura F. Huenneke; Robert B. Jackson; David M. Lodge; Harold A. Mooney; N. LeRoy Poff; Martin T. Sykes; Brian H. Walker; Diana H. Wall

2000-01-01

451

Future scenarios of European agricultural land use  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the development of quantitative, spatially explicit and alternative scenarios of future agricultural land use in Europe (the 15 European Union member states, Norway and Switzerland). The scenarios were constructed to support analyses of the vulnerability of ecosystem services, but the approach also provides an exploration of how agricultural land use might respond to a range of future

M. D. A. Rounsevell; F. Ewert; I. Reginster; R. Leemans; T. R. Carter

2005-01-01

452

Danish Greenhouse Gas Reduction Scenarios for 2020  

E-print Network

Danish Greenhouse Gas Reduction Scenarios for 2020 and 2050 February 2008 Prepared by Ea Energy 54 2.9 ENERGY RESOURCES 55 3 DANISH GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSION 58 3.1 GREENHOUSE GAS SOURCES 58 4 scenarios for Denmark for 2020 and 2050 for the Danish Environmental Protection Agency (DEPA). During

453

Global and Regional Greenhouse Gas Emissions Scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a set of 30 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenarios developed by six modeling teams. The scenarios describe trajectories up to 2100 by four world regions. Today the distribution of both income and GHG emissions is very unbalanced between various world regions. Furthermore, the relative importance of individual gases and sources of emission differ from region to region.

Tom Kram; Tsuneyuki Morita; Keywan Riahi; R. Alexander Roehrl; Sascha Van Rooijen; Alexei Sankovski; Bert De Vries

2000-01-01

454

Multimedia Scenario in a Primary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multimedia as an educational technology tool is used throughout the educational system. In this article we present a research project where multimedia scenario was used to initiate a discussion about Internet use among students and teachers at a primary school. Multimedia scenario is the use of large screen multimedia to initiate and facilitate…

Nulden, Urban; Ward, Bodil

2002-01-01

455

Molecular Diagnostic Analysis of Outbreak Scenarios  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the current laboratory assignment, technical aspects of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are integrated in the context of six different bacterial outbreak scenarios. The "Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus Sequence" (ERIC) PCR was used to analyze different outbreak scenarios. First, groups of 2-4 students determined optimal…

Morsink, M. C.; Dekter, H. E.; Dirks-Mulder, A.; van Leeuwen, W. B.

2012-01-01

456

SCENARIO RECOGNITION IN MODERN BUILDING AUTOMATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern building automation has to deal with very different types of demands, depending on the use of the building and therefore the persons acting within this building. To meet the demands of situation awareness in modern building automation, scenario recognition becomes more and more important to detect such demands and react to them. Two concepts of scenario recognition and their

R. Lang; D. Bruckner; G. Pratl; R. Velik; T. Deutsch

2009-01-01

457

Numerical prediction of rock mass damage due to accidental explosions in an underground ammunition storage chamber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accidental detonations in an underground ammunition storage chamber inside a rock mass may cause severe damage to the rock mass around the chamber, adjacent tunnels and chambers, ground surface, and in the worst case cause sympathetic detonation of explosives in adjacent storage chambers. To prevent such damage, underground ammunition storage chambers are often situated at minimum depth below the ground surface, and spaced at minimum distance from each other, so that damage, should it occur, is limited to the accidental chamber. Different codes and regulations for ammunition storage chambers specify minimum embedment depth and separation distance for underground ammunition storage chambers. They are usually given in terms of the rock mass properties and the weight of explosive stored in chambers. Some empirical formulae, usually based on the peak particle velocity of the stress wave or the maximum strain of the rock mass, are also available to estimate the damage zones in the rock mass from an explosion. All these empirical methods do not include the effects of explosion details, such as the loading density, chamber geometry and explosive distribution. In this paper, a previously calibrated numerical model is used to estimate the damage zones in a granite mass resulting from an accidental explosion in an underground ammunition storage chamber. Effects of various explosion conditions on rock mass damage are investigated. On the basis of the numerical results, some empirical formulae are derived to predict damage zones around the explosion chamber, as well as safe embedment depth of the storage chamber and safe separation distance between adjacent chambers. The numerical results are also compared with available empirical formulae and code specifications. It should be noted that the characteristics of stress wave propagation around an ammunition storage chamber has been published in a preceding paper (Int. J. Blast. Fragm. 5:57 90, 2001.

Wu, Chengqing; Hao, Hong

2006-03-01

458

Lung health consequences of reported accidental chlorine gas exposures among pulpmill workers.  

PubMed

The long-term consequences of accidental chlorine gas exposure have been investigated, mainly in the community setting, among persons exposed as a result of a nearby chlorine spill. This circumstance is not analogous to the more frequent chlorine or chlorine dioxide gas overexposures that occur commonly in pulpmills over a background of a low level of gas exposure. To investigate the respiratory health consequences of these accidental exposures ("chlorine gassing") in the industrial setting, we carried out a cross-sectional respiratory health survey among workers at a British Columbia coastal pulpmill and a nearby rail maintenance yard. A greater proportion of pulpmill workers were unavailable for study because of illness (10.5% versus 2.4% in the railyard, p less than 0.01). Procedures involved simple spirometry, respiratory symptom assessment, and measurement of average levels of air contaminants. Average chlorine levels in the pulpmill were below 1 ppm; however, 60% of the pulpmill workers reported one or more accidental "chlorine gassing" incidents. Pulpmill workers who reported being "gassed" were significantly more likely to report wheezing on occasion than were other pulpmill workers and railyard workers (rate for these three groups: nonsmokers: 8, 2, 1%; ex-smokers: 17, 11, 7%; current smokers: 42, 21, 19%; p less than 0.05). No significant lung function differences were found between the overall pulpmill group and the railyard workers; however, nonsmoking and formerly smoking pulpmill workers who reported being "gassed" had significantly lower average midmaximal flow rate and FEV1/FVC ratio than did their counterparts in the remainder of the pulpmill population (p less than 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1986687

Kennedy, S M; Enarson, D A; Janssen, R G; Chan-Yeung, M

1991-01-01

459

SAFRR Tsunami Scenario: Economic Impacts and Resilience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Business interruption (BI) losses for the SAFRR tsunami scenario are derived from the forecasted physical damages of about 100 million at the Ports of Los Angeles (LA) and Long Beach (LB), and 700 million in marina damages, and 2 billion in inundated property damages along the California coast. Economic impacts are measured by the reduction in California's gross domestic product (GDP). The analysis involves several steps. First, estimates are made of immediate business interruption losses due to physical damage to facilities or to disruption of production. Second, total economic impacts (consisting of both direct and indirect effects) are measured by a general equilibrium (quantity and price multiplier effects) of lost production in other sectors through ripple effects upstream and downstream along the supply chain. Third, many types of resilience are applied to demonstrate their potential reductions of the impacts. At the Ports of LA and LB, a two-day port shutdown, cargo losses, and additional terminal downtimes would expose 1.2 billion of trade (import and export) value associated with over 4 billion of BI losses. The sectors potentially most affected by trade disruptions are leather, metal, and motor vehicle manufacturing. Excess capacity, inventories, export conversion, and conservation could reduce the direct trade impacts by 85%. Production recapture alone (including clearing the backlog of waiting ships) could reduce BI losses by 85%. The Port of LA commercial fishing would be subject to damages to the fleet, perished fish that cannot be landed, and lost fishing days. Although BI losses are relatively small, the southern Californian fishing sector could incur a 4% drop in output. The impacts would depend on the speed at which boats are repaired and whether lost fishing days can be made up. Ship-building and repair could also be negatively affected, but these impacts would be offset somewhat by reconstruction. Effects on commercial fishing in other locations were not closely examined to assess the impacts. Extensive damages to marinas along the California coast could result in 30 million BI losses in terms of GDP. Interestingly, the service sectors including and relating to marinas (recreation, food services, and retail) indicate possible gains (of .02-1%) from price increases greater than the losses from quantity decreases. Sectors associated with development (residential construction, water and sewage, and health care) could suffer the most with losses of .03% or less. However, these sectors will likely also be bolstered by reconstruction. Economic hardships would be localized and the resilience of the marina sector would depend on alternative moorings and excess capacity elsewhere. Inundated coastal property damages could generate 1.7 billion of BI losses. Application of sector recapture factors (e.g., using overtime) alone could reduce these losses by 80%. For the overall set of loss categories, BI losses amount to 6 billion, and resilience strategies indicate the potential to reduce these economic impacts by 80-90%.

Wein, A. M.; Rose, A.; Sue Wing, I.; Wei, D.

2013-12-01

460

Critical point wetting drop tower experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 100 m Drop Tower at NASA-Marshall was used to provide the step change in acceleration from 1.0 to 0.0005 g. An inter-fluid meniscus oscillates vertically within a cylindrical container when suddenly released from earth's gravity and taken into a microgravity environment. Oscillations damp out from energy dissipative mechanisms such as viscosity and interfacial friction. Damping of the oscillations by the later mechanism is affected by the nature of the interfacial junction between the fluid-fluid interface and the container wall. In earlier stages of the project, the meniscus shape which developed during microgravity conditions was applied to evaluations of wetting phenomena near the critical temperature. Variations in equilibrium contact angle against the container wall were expected to occur under critical wetting conditions. However, it became apparent that the meaningful phenomenon was the damping of interfacial oscillations. This latter concept makes up the bulk of this report. Perfluoromethyl cyclohexane and isopropanol in glass were the materials used for the experiment. The wetting condition of the fluids against the wall changes at the critical wetting transition temperature. This change in wetting causes a change in the damping characteristics of the interfacial excursions during oscillation and no measurable change in contact angle. The effect of contact line friction measured above and below the wetting transition temperature was to increase the period of vertical oscillation for the vapor-liquid interface when below the wetting transition temperature.

Kaukler, William F.

1990-01-01

461

Herniation of uncus and parahippocampal gyrus: an accidental finding on magnetic resonance imaging of cerebrum.  

PubMed

Idiopathic herniation of uncus and parahippocampal gyrus into the ambient cistern is a very rare entity, which could be mistaken for other pathology such as tumor. To the best of our knowledge, two prior cases of this kind of herniation have been described. One of these cases was with associated symptomatology and other abnormalities, and the other was characterized as idiopathic. In this case report, we report a case of accidental finding of a herniation of uncus and parahippocampal gyrus into the ambient cistern, without any other accompanying abnormalities, well depicted by magnetic resonance imaging without further necessity for surgical brain intervention. PMID:25610616

Yavarian, Yousef; Bayat, Michael; Brøndum Frøkjær, Jens

2015-01-01

462

Relationship between plasma concentrations of clonidine and mean arterial pressure during an accidental clonidine overdose.  

PubMed Central

The time course of toxicity in a 28 year old man following a 100 mg accidental overdose of clonidine hydrochloride is compared with the decline of plasma clonidine over 5 days. The concentration data were analyzed by nonlinear least squares regression, and fitted to a model which dissociated the blood pressure effects into pressor and depressor components. According to this analysis, there appeared to be two phases of toxicity over time--a hypertensive, and a hypotensive phase. The hypotensive and the hypertensive phases may result primarily through differential stimulation of central alpha 2-, alpha 1-, and vascular post-synaptic alpha 2-adrenoceptors as plasma concentrations fall. PMID:3947506

Domino, L E; Domino, S E; Stockstill, M S

1986-01-01

463

Balantidiosis: a rare accidental finding in the urine of a patient with acute renal failure.  

PubMed

Balantidium coli is the only ciliated protozoan which is known to infect human and nonhuman primates. Route of infection is faecal-oral route. It is actively motile and causes mostly asymptomatic infections, or it may develop dysentery which is similar to that which is caused by Entamoeba histolytica. Here, we are describing a case of an accidental finding of B.coli in the urine of a patient who presented with acute renal failure, based on its characteristic morphology and motility which were seen on light microscopy. This is the third case of Urinary Balantidiosis which has been reported from India. PMID:24995185

Khanduri, Ankit; Chauhan, Sapna; Chandola, Iva; Mahawal, Bs; Kataria, Vk

2014-05-01

464

Accidental hijab pin ingestion in Muslim women: an emerging endoscopic emergency?  

PubMed

Ingested foreign body is an infrequent indication for emergency endoscopy in the adult gastroenterology practice. We describe the clinical features and endoscopic management of the first four cases of accidental ingestion of hijab pins by Muslim women in our unit, all presenting within a 12-month period. The pins were all successfully retrieved without any complications. In this report, we review published guidelines and the current literature, as well as discussing the approach (conservative vs proactive endoscopic retrieval) and timing of endoscopic treatment. The Muslim community may need to be alerted to the potential health hazard of hijab pins. PMID:24390968

Goh, Jason; Patel, Neeral; Boulton, Ralph

2014-01-01

465

Balantidiosis: A Rare Accidental Finding in the Urine of A Patient with Acute Renal Failure  

PubMed Central

Balantidium coli is the only ciliated protozoan which is known to infect human and nonhuman primates. Route of infection is faecal-oral route. It is actively motile and causes mostly asymptomatic infections, or it may develop dysentery which is similar to that which is caused by Entamoeba histolytica. Here, we are describing a case of an accidental finding of B.coli in the urine of a patient who presented with acute renal failure, based on its characteristic morphology and motility which were seen on light microscopy. This is the third case of Urinary Balantidiosis which has been reported from India. PMID:24995185

Chauhan, Sapna; Chandola, IVA; Mahawal, BS; Kataria, VK

2014-01-01

466

Serologic markers for hepatitis B among Marshallese accidentally exposed to fallout radiation in 1954.  

PubMed

At least one serologic marker of prior hepatitis B infection (hepatitis B surface antigen, antibody to surface antigen, or antibody to core antigen) was found in 91.7% of 314 Marshallese tested. The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigenemia (3.3%) in a subpopulation that had resided on Rongelap Atoll at the time of accidental exposure to radioactive fallout from a thermonuclear test in 1954 did not differ significantly from the prevalence in a selected unexposed population (10.5%). PMID:3774968

Adams, W H; Fields, H A; Engle, J R; Hadler, S C

1986-10-01

467

Study on the Accidental Rupture of Hot Leg or Surge Line in SBO Accident  

SciTech Connect

The postulated total station blackout accident (SBO) of PWR NPP with 600 MWe in China is analyzed as the base case using SCDAP/RELAP5 code. Then the hot leg or surge line are assumed to rupture before the lower head of Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) ruptures, and the progressions are analyzed in detail comparing with the base case. The results show that the accidental rupture of hot leg or surge line will greatly influence the progression of accident. The probability of hot leg or surge line rupture in intentional depressurization is also studied in this paper, which provides a suggestion to the development of Severe Accident Management Guidelines (SAMG). (authors)

Kun Zhang; Xuewu Cao [Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai (China)

2006-07-01

468

Acute ischaemia of the leg following accidental intra-arterial injection of dissolved flunitrazepam tablets.  

PubMed

Accidental intra-arterial injection of drugs is a sporadic complication in i.v. drug addicts. A 22-year-old drug-abuser injected flunitrazepam tablets dissolved in tap water into her left femoral artery and presented with clinical signs of acute ischaemia of the left leg. Severe rhabdomyolysis developed within 5 hours after the injection. Selective arterial catheter angiography showed an acute occlusion of the posterior tibial artery. Combination therapy with i.a. urokinase, i.a. prostaglandines and i.v. anticoagulation resulted in re-opening of the obstructed distal artery and complete cessation of symptoms. PMID:19003750

Leifert, J A; Bossaller, L; Uhl, M

2008-11-01

469

Herniation of uncus and parahippocampal gyrus: an accidental finding on magnetic resonance imaging of cerebrum  

PubMed Central

Idiopathic herniation of uncus and parahippocampal gyrus into the ambient cistern is a very rare entity, which could be mistaken for other pathology such as tumor. To the best of our knowledge, two prior cases of this kind of herniation have been described. One of these cases was with associated symptomatology and other abnormalities, and the other was characterized as idiopathic. In this case report, we report a case of accidental finding of a herniation of uncus and parahippocampal gyrus into the ambient cistern, without any other accompanying abnormalities, well depicted by magnetic resonance imaging without further necessity for surgical brain intervention. PMID:25610616

Bayat, Michael; Brøndum Frøkjær, Jens

2015-01-01

470

Delayed frost growth on jumping-drop superhydrophobic surfaces.  

PubMed

Self-propelled jumping drops are continuously removed from a condensing superhydrophobic surface to enable a micrometric steady-state drop size. Here, we report that subcooled condensate on a chilled superhydrophobic surface are able to repeatedly jump off the surface before heterogeneous ice nucleation occurs. Frost still forms on the superhydrophobic surface due to ice nucleation at neighboring edge defects, which eventually spreads over the entire surface via an interdrop frost wave. The growth of this interdrop frost front is shown to be up to 3 times slower on the superhydrophobic surface compared to a control hydrophobic surface, due to the jumping-drop effect dynamically minimizing the average drop size and surface coverage of the condensate. A simple scaling model is developed to relate the success and speed of interdrop ice bridging to the drop size distribution. While other reports of condensation frosting on superhydrophobic surfaces have focused exclusively on liquid-solid ice nucleation for isolated drops, these findings reveal that the growth of frost is an interdrop phenomenon that is strongly coupled to the wettability and drop size distribution of the surface. A jumping-drop superhydrophobic condenser minimized frost formation relative to a conventional dropwise condenser in two respects: preventing heterogeneous ice nucleation by continuously removing subcooled condensate, and delaying frost growth by limiting the success of interdrop ice bridge formation. PMID:23286736

Boreyko, Jonathan B; Collier, C Patrick

2013-02-26

471

(abstract) Production and Levitation of Free Drops of Liquid Helium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We are interested in the nucleation and behavior of quantized vorticies and surface excitations in free drops of superfluid helium. We have constructed an apparatus to maintain liquid helium drops isolated from any material container in the Earth's gravitational field, and have investigated two techniques for generating and introducing liquid drops into the region of confinement. The levitation apparatus utilizes the electrostatic force acting upon a charged liquid drop to counteract the gravitational force, with drop position stability provided by a static magnetic field acting upon the helium diamagnetic moment. Electrically neutral superfluid drops have been produced with a miniature thermomechanical pump; for a given configuration the liquid initial velocity has been varied up to several centimeters per second. Liquid drops carrying either net positive or negative charge are produced by an electrode which generates a flow of ionized liquid from the bulk liquid surface. Potentials of less than one thousand volts to several thousand volts are required. The mass flow is controlled by varying duration of the ionizing voltage pulse; drops as small as 30 micrometers diameter, charged to near the Rayleigh limit, have been observed.

Paine, C. G.; Petrac, D.; Rhim, W. K.

1995-01-01

472

Mass transfer around oblate spheroidal drops at low Reynolds numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steady and unsteady mass transfer in the continuous phase around slightly deformed oblate spheroidal drops at low (but not zero) Reynolds numbers was investigated theoretically. Asymptotic analytical solutions for short and long times, at large Peclet numbers, were obtained by the useful equations derived by Lochiel and Calderbank and by Favelukis and Mudunuri for axisymmetric drops of revolution, with the

Moshe Favelukis

2010-01-01

473

Large Eddy Simulation of jets laden with evaporating drops  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LES of a circular jet laden with evaporating liquid drops are conducted to assess computational-drop modeling and three different SGS-flux models: the Scale Similarity model (SSC), using a constant coefficient calibrated on a temporal mixing layer DNS database, and dynamic-coefficient Gradient and Smagorinsky models.

Leboissetier, A.; Okong'o, N.; Bellan, J.

2004-01-01

474

Seven problems in bubble and jet drop researches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four of the problems deal with the mechanics of bubble production and bursting, and the collection and sizing of jet drops; three concern the transfer of the bacterium Serratia mar- cescens from bursting bubbles to jet drops. The problem of producing bubbles of a specified size from glass capillary tips is overcome by paying careful attention to tip geometry. Problems

DUNCAN C. BLANCHARD; LAWRENCE D. SYZDEK

1978-01-01

475

Multicomponent drop vaporization modeling of petroleum and biofuel mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drop vaporization modeling is an important stage in spray combustion simulation. To improve the overall accuracy of multidimensional engine simulation, drop vaporization models based on multicomponent strategies was developed in this study. Petroleum fuels such as diesel fuel and gasoline are the major engine fuels composed of hundreds of hydrocarbon species. Therefore, a multicomponent model based on continuous thermodynamics (CT)

Lei Zhang

2011-01-01

476

Dynamics of colloid silver nanoparticles in an evaporating water drop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The method of photon correlation spectroscopy is used to investigate the distribution of the diffusion coefficient of silver nanoparticles in an evaporating water drop given that the drop base area remains unchanged (the pinning condition). It is established that the capillary flow dominates over the diffusion nanoparticle motion in redistribution of concentration of the dissolved nanoparticles.

Myslitskaya, N. A.; Khitrin, A. V.; Ivanov, A. M.; Samusev, I. G.; Bryukhanov, V. V.

2012-04-01

477

Electrohydrodynamics of drops in strong uniform dc electric fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drop deformation in an uniform dc electric field is a classic problem. The pioneering work of Taylor demonstrated that for weakly conducting media, the drop fluid undergoes a toroidal flow and the drop adopts a prolate or oblate spheroidal shape, the flow and shape being axisymmetrically aligned with the applied field. However, recent studies have revealed a nonaxisymmetric rotational flow in strong fields, similar to the rotation of solid dielectric particles observed by Quincke in the 19th century. We present a systematic experimental study of this phenomenon, which highlights the importance of charge convection along the drop surface. The critical electric field, drop inclination angle, and rate of rotation are measured. We find that for small, high viscosity drops, the threshold field strength is well approximated by the Quincke rotation criterion. Reducing the viscosity ratio shifts the onset for rotation to stronger fields. The drop inclination angle increases with field strength. The rotation rate is approximately given by the inverse Maxwell-Wagner polarization time. Novel features are also observed such as a hysteresis in the tilt angle for large low-viscosity drops.

Salipante, Paul F.; Vlahovska, Petia M.

2010-11-01

478

Ground Based Studies of Thermocapillary Flows in Levitated Drops  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ground-based experiments together with analytical studies are presently being conducted for levitated drops. Both acoustic and electrostatic techniques are being employed to achieve levitation of drops in a gaseous environment. The scientific effort is principally on the thermal and the fluid phenomena associated with the local heating of levitated drops, both at 1-g and at low-g. In particular, the thermocapillary flow associated with local spot heating is being studied. Fairly stable acoustic levitation of drops has been achieved with some exceptions when random rotational motion of the drop persists. The flow visualization has been carried out by light scattering from smoke particles for the exterior flow and fluorescent tracer particles in the drop. The results indicate a lack of axial symmetry in the internal flow even though the apparatus and the heating are symmetric. The theoretical studies for the past year have included fundamental analyses of acoustically levitated spherical drops. The flow associated with a particle near the velocity antinode is being investigated by the singular perturbation technique. As a first step towards understanding the effect of the particle displacement from the antinode, the flow field about the node has been calculated for the first time. The effect of the acoustic field on the interior of a liquid drop has also been investigated. The results predict that the internal flow field is very weak.

Sadhal, Satwindar Singh; Trinh, Eugene H.

1996-01-01

479

Laser Ablation of Aluminium: Drops and Voids Johannes Roth1  

E-print Network

Laser Ablation of Aluminium: Drops and Voids Johannes Roth1 , Johannes Karlin1 , Christian Ulrich2 for aluminium and a complex metallic alloy. Here we will concentrate on how drops or clusters and voids can part includes the formation of voids in the irradiated region and its temporal evolution. 2 Method

Roth, Johannes

480

Shape of a large drop on a rough hydrophobic surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large drops on solid surfaces tend to flatten due to gravitational effect. Their shapes can be predicted by solving the Young-Laplace equation when their apparent contact angles are precisely given. However, for large drops sitting on rough surfaces, the apparent contact angles are often unavailable a priori and hard to define. Here we develop a model to predict the shape of a given volume of large drop placed on a rough hydrophobic surface using an overlapping geometry of double spheroids and the free energy minimization principle. The drop shape depends on the wetting state, thus our model can be used not only to predict the shape of a drop but also to infer the wetting state of a large drop through the comparison of theory and experiment. The experimental measurements of the shape of large water drops on various micropillar arrays agree well with the model predictions. Our theoretical model is particularly useful in predicting and controlling shapes of large drops on surfaces artificially patterned in microscopic scales, which are frequently used in microfluidics and lab-on-a-chip technology.

Park, Joonsik; Park, Jaebum; Lim, Hyuneui; Kim, Ho-Young

2013-02-01

481

Water Drops on Surfaces Huamin Wang Peter J. Mucha  

E-print Network

-solid interaction, contact line/angle, virtual surface, water drop 1 Introduction Although simulating fluids has and splitting and the motion of water rivulets. The core of our algorithm is a virtual surface method, whichWater Drops on Surfaces Huamin Wang Peter J. Mucha Georgia Institute of Technology Greg Turk

Tu