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1

Failure Criteria for Evaluating Accidental Drops of Fuel Containers at INTEC  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a failure criterion that has been developed for use in evaluating fuel containers at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) for accidental drop events. The criterion would typically be used in dynamic finite element analyses using the ABA-QUS/Explicit program. The failure criterion used in the past is generally considered to substantially underestimate the strength and ductility of the materials involved. The new criterion is intended to be more realistic, allowing for more accurate impact analyses. The criterion is based on the distortion energy theory, which is considered to be appropriate for the ductile materials typically used in fuel containers. Also addressed in development of the criterion were the effects of strain rate and hydrostatic stress. The importance of these factors, however, is highly dependent on the material used. Three materials specifically addressed in this study were stainless steel, aluminum, and lead. The criterion is presented in the form of guidelines and recommendations that are based on material data obtained from the literature. The most significant difference between these and the previous criterion is that ductile materials are allowed to strain to much higher levels before they are considered to fail.

Miller, G. K.

1998-10-01

2

A simulation study of dispersion of air borne radionuclides from a nuclear power plant under a hypothetical accidental scenario at a tropical coastal site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meteorological condition in coastal regions is diurnally variable and spatially heterogeneous due to complex topography, land–sea interface, etc. A wide range of dispersion conditions is possible on a given day in the coastal regions. In case of inadvertent accidental situations, though unlikely, it would be necessary to examine the potentially severe case among different dynamically occurring local atmospheric conditions for

C. V. Srinivas; R. Venkatesan

2005-01-01

3

Accidental Hypothermia  

PubMed Central

Accidental hypothermia was studied in 11 patients, five of whom died. This condition occurs spontaneously, usually in a cold environment, and should be suspected in the comatose hypotensive patient. It is easily missed because regular clinical thermometers do not record extremely low body temperatures. It is distinguished from other forms of hypothermia by the very low body temperature and by the absence of recognized causes of hypothermia. Ten of the 11 patients were either alcoholic or diabetic. Intravascular thrombosis was the most common complication leading to death. PMID:5492500

Tolman, Keith G.; Cohen, Arthur

1970-01-01

4

Foot Drop  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Foot Drop Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What is Foot Drop? Is there ... research is being done? Clinical Trials What is Foot Drop? Foot drop describes the inability to raise ...

5

Gamma Ray Burst engine activity within the quark nova scenario: Prompt emission, X-ray Plateau, and sharp drop-off  

E-print Network

We present a three-stage model for a long GRB inner engine to explain the prompt gamma ray emission, and interpret recent Swift satellite observations of early X-ray afterglow plateaus followed by a sharp drop off or a shallow power law decay. The three stages involves a neutron star phase, a quark star (QS) and a black hole phase as described in Staff et al. (2007). We find that the QS stage allows for more energy to be extracted from neutron star to QS conversion as well as from ensuing accretion onto the QS. The QS accretion phase naturally extends the engine activity and can account for both the prompt emission and irregular early X-ray afterglow activity. Following the accretion phase, the QS can spin-down by emission of a baryon-free outflow. The magnetar-like magnetic field strengths resulting from the NS to QS transition provide enough spin-down energy, for the correct amount of time, to account for the plateau in the X-ray afterglow. In our model, a sharp drop-off following the plateau occurs when the QS collapses to a BH during the spin-down, thus shutting-off the secondary outflow. We applied our model to GRB 070110 and GRB 060607A and found that we can consistently account for the energetics and duration during the prompt and plateau phases.

Jan Staff; Brian Niebergal; Rachid Ouyed

2007-11-19

6

Acute accidental phosgene poisoning  

PubMed Central

Phosgene is a highly toxic gas to which accidental exposure may occur in occupational workers. This case report describes the clinical presentation and management of accidental phosgene poisoning happened after the leakage of phosgene gas from nearby pipeline. The need to suspect phosgene gas exposure and observe such patients is crucial for life saving, especially in view of the delay in clinical deterioration observed in some patients who subsequently develop adult respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:22602834

Gutch, Manish; Jain, Nirdesh; Agrawal, Avinash; Consul, Suchi

2012-01-01

7

Accidental inflation in the landscape  

SciTech Connect

We study some aspects of fine tuning in inflationary scenarios within string theory flux compactifications and, in particular, in models of accidental inflation. We investigate the possibility that the apparent fine-tuning of the low energy parameters of the theory needed to have inflation can be generically obtained by scanning the values of the fluxes over the landscape. Furthermore, we find that the existence of a landscape of eternal inflation in this model provides us with a natural theory of initial conditions for the inflationary period in our vacuum. We demonstrate how these two effects work in a small corner of the landscape associated with the complex structure of the Calabi-Yau manifold P{sup 4}{sub [1,1,1,6,9]} by numerically investigating the flux vacua of a reduced moduli space. This allows us to obtain the distribution of observable parameters for inflation in this mini-landscape directly from the fluxes.

Blanco-Pillado, Jose J.; Metallinos, Konstantinos [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA (United States); Gomez-Reino, Marta, E-mail: jose@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu, E-mail: marta.gomez-reino.perez@cern.ch, E-mail: Konstantinos.Metallinos@tufts.edu [Department of Physics, University of Oviedo, Oviedo (Spain)

2013-02-01

8

Penny Drop  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this quick activity about the properties of water (page 1 of PDF), learners will use an eyedropper to slowly place one drop of water at a time onto a penny, counting the number of drops until the water spills over the edge. Besides searching for the greatest number drops a penny will hold, drops of milk or vegetable oil can be tested in addition to water, raising the question, "What property of water allows it to pile up this way?" Relates to the linked video, DragonflyTV: Malformed Frogs.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2005-01-01

9

Accidental sexual strangulation.  

PubMed

Accidental death by manual strangulation among homosexuals during the act of sodomy is an uncommon event. In our recent case, the pattern of injuries indicates that strangulation resulted from the forearm application on the neck in a manner better known as "choke holding." PMID:3728426

Michalodimitrakis, M; Frangoulis, M; Koutselinis, A

1986-03-01

10

Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved home insulation and increased use of space heaters have increased the potential for accidental carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings in the home. CO is a major environmental pollutant in today's society and is also contained in cigarette smoke. The toxic effects, metabolic pathways, and treatment of CO poisoning are described.

D. L. Jackson; H. Menges

1980-01-01

11

Advancement Is Seldom Accidental.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Success in college goals and programs for institutional advancement is seldom accidental: success in philanthropic support is seen as 90 percent planning and 10 percent implementation. Trustee membership, long-range plans, the motivational case, experienced staff, adequate budgets, prospect research, supportive communication all meld into a plan…

Frantzreb, Arthur C.

1981-01-01

12

Voltage Drop  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first site with information on voltage drop is provided by Power and System Innovations on their Frequently Asked Questions: Voltage Drop (1) page. Visitors can read what voltage drop is, what causes it, what happens as a result of it, and what the maximum recommended voltage drop is. The second site, Basics of Electricity (2), is part of General Electric's Lighting for Business Web site. Through descriptions and illustrations, the site explains what voltage drop is and gives examples of how it is calculated using Ohm's law. The next site is a lab worksheet that is part of a class from the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department of Montana State University called Voltage Drop in Cables (3). The objective of the lesson is to determine the internal resistance of an extension cord and choose the proper wire size for a particular application. Students are given an explanation of the procedure and a number of questions to answer related to the exercise. The Oregon Building Congress offers the Lesson Plans (4) Web site and the downloadable Voltage Drop educational activity. The lesson, which is suggested to be contained within a unit on formulas and solving literal equations, explores the concept of voltage drop that is encountered in basic wiring. The fifth site entitled Explanation of Voltage Drop in a Series Circuit (5) is offered by the Horizons Electronic Lesson Plan Resource. The page describes voltage drop as an electronic concept, gives a formula determining voltage drop, provides a schematic that helps illustrate the concept, and offers a quiz and answer sheet. Next, from electrician.com, is the online Voltage Drop Calculator (6). Users input the type and size of wire being used, the voltage and phase, circuit length, and amp load to calculate voltage drop and several other parameters. The seventh site, entitled The Hazards of Voltage Drop (7), is provided within the Electrical Construction Maintenance Web site. The page describes how electrical equipment can overheat or even power down if it operates below its voltage rating. It also provides a thorough explanation of how to determine the load's operating voltage. The last site, maintained by Williamson Labs (8), is a comprehensive learning site called Elementary Electricity. Visitors will find a wealth of information here, including fun descriptions, graphics, and animations on all aspects of electricity including voltage drop.

13

Soft Drop  

E-print Network

We introduce a new jet substructure technique called "soft drop declustering", which recursively removes soft wide-angle radiation from a jet. The soft drop algorithm depends on two parameters--a soft threshold $z_\\text{cut}$ and an angular exponent $\\beta$--with the $\\beta = 0$ limit corresponding roughly to the (modified) mass drop procedure. To gain an analytic understanding of soft drop and highlight the $\\beta$ dependence, we perform resummed calculations for three observables on soft-dropped jets: the energy correlation functions, the groomed jet radius, and the energy loss due to soft drop. The $\\beta = 0$ limit of the energy loss is particularly interesting, since it is not only "Sudakov safe" but also largely insensitive to the value of the strong coupling constant. While our calculations are strictly accurate only to modified leading-logarithmic order, we also include a discussion of higher-order effects such as multiple emissions and (the absence of) non-global logarithms. We compare our analytic results to parton shower simulations and find good agreement, and we also estimate the impact of non-perturbative effects such as hadronization and the underlying event. Finally, we demonstrate how soft drop can be used for tagging boosted W bosons, and we speculate on the potential advantages of using soft drop for pileup mitigation.

Andrew J. Larkoski; Simone Marzani; Gregory Soyez; Jesse Thaler

2014-02-11

14

Soft drop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a new jet substructure technique called "soft drop declustering", which recursively removes soft wide-angle radiation from a jet. The soft drop algorithm depends on two parameters — a soft threshold z cut and an angular exponent ? — with the ? = 0 limit corresponding roughly to the (modified) mass drop procedure. To gain an analytic understanding of soft drop and highlight the ? dependence, we perform resummed calculations for three observables on soft-dropped jets: the energy correlation functions, the groomed jet radius, and the energy loss due to soft drop. The ? = 0 limit of the energy loss is particularly interesting, since it is not only "Sudakov safe" but also largely insensitive to the value of the strong coupling constant. While our calculations are strictly accurate only to modified leading-logarithmic order, we also include a discussion of higher-order effects such as multiple emissions and (the absence of) non-global logarithms. We compare our analytic results to parton shower simulations and find good agreement, and we also estimate the impact of non-perturbative effects such as hadronization and the underlying event. Finally, we demonstrate how soft drop can be used for tagging boosted W bosons, and we speculate on the potential advantages of using soft drop for pileup mitigation.

Larkoski, Andrew J.; Marzani, Simone; Soyez, Gregory; Thaler, Jesse

2014-05-01

15

Accidental Hypothermia In Man  

PubMed Central

Much is yet unknown on the pathogenesis of accidental hypothermia in man. Data are mainly derived from comparative physiological studies in mammals, but some knowledge has been obtained from direct clinical observation and the experience gained with induced hypothermia in anesthesia. The usual criteria of death do not apply to hypothermia and awareness of the altered physiology under such conditions is essential for quick and effective treatment. There appears to be a shift in rewarming procedures from superficial rewarming by conservative methods to the more aggressive forms of central rewarming. Despite practical limitations the latter methods, especially peritoneal dialysis, are more effective and decrease mortality. PMID:20469079

Kats, B. A.

1974-01-01

16

The Accidental Scientist: Cooking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Another great Web site from the Exploratorium in San Francisco (last mentioned in the August 16, 2002 NSDL MET Report), The Accidental Scientist: Cooking is the first in a series of "Web-based projects focusing on the science behind everyday life." Offering a mind-boggling array of food-related information and activities, foodies and science-lovers alike should find this Web site extremely engaging. Life science-related material includes an exploration of taste and smell; the biological properties of meat; microbe action in pickling, fermentation, and leavening; and much more. The site's other features not directly related to the life sciences shouldn't be missed. Users can find recipes and cooking tips, fun projects, and live Web casts starting in November 2002 that explore the science and culture of cooking, "just in time for picking up cooking tips for the holiday season."

1969-12-31

17

Parachute Drop  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this hands-on activity, learners make model parachutes out of various materials such as thin plastic, paper, or gauze. Then, learners test drop their parachutes to compare how long each material takes to land on the ground. For an online extension, learners can enter their results into a database and see how their parachutes compares with other learners. Materials listed are only suggestions - experiment to create your own unique parachute!

Science, Lawrence H.

2009-01-01

18

Epidemiology of accidental radiation exposures.  

PubMed Central

Much of the information on the health effects of radiation exposure available to date comes from long-term studies of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Accidental exposures, such as those resulting from the Chernobyl and Kyshtym accidents, have as yet provided little information concerning health effects of ionizing radiation. This paper will present the current state of our knowledge concerning radiation effects, review major large-scale accidental radiation exposures, and discuss information that could be obtained from studies of accidental exposures and the types of studies that are needed. PMID:8781398

Cardis, E

1996-01-01

19

The accidental (acoustical) tourist  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The acoustical phenomenon observed at an ancient temple in the Great Ball Court at Chichen Itza was described as ''little short of amazing--an ancient whispering gallery'' by Silvanus G. Morley, leader of the Carnegie Institute's archaeological team that excavated and restored these structures in the 1920s. Since then, many others have experienced the extraordinary acoustics at Chichen Itza and other Maya sites. Despite these reports, archaeologists and acousticians have until recently shown little interest in understanding these phenomena. After experiencing Chichen Itza's remarkable acoustics as a tourist in 1994, the author commenced collecting and disseminating information about acoustical phenomena there and at other Mayan sites, hoping to stimulate interest among archaeologists and acousticians. Were these designs accidental or intentional? If intentional, how was the knowledge obtained? How were acoustical features used? This paper highlights the author's collection of anecdotal reports of mysterious Mayan acoustics (http://http://www.ianlawton.com/pa1.htm), recommended reading for scientists and engineers who wish to pursue this fascinating study. Also recounted are some of the reactions of archaeologists-ranging from curious, helpful, and insightful to humorous and appalling--to outsiders' efforts to bring serious scientific attention to the new field of acoustical archaeology.

Van Kirk, Wayne

2002-11-01

20

Accidental supersymmetric dark matter and baryogenesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that ``accidental'' supersymmetry is a beyond-the-Standard Model framework that naturally accommodates a thermal relic dark matter candidate and successful electroweak baryogenesis, including the needed strongly first-order character of the electroweak phase transition. We study the phenomenology of this setup from the standpoint of both dark matter and baryogenesis. For energies around the electroweak phase transition temperature, the low-energy effective theory is similar to the MSSM with light super-partners of the third-generation quarks and of the Higgs and gauge bosons. We calculate the dark matter relic abundance and the baryon asymmetry across the accidental supersymmetry parameter space, including resonant and non-resonant CP-violating sources. We find that there are regions of parameter space producing both the observed value of the baryon asymmetry and a dark matter candidate with the correct relic density and conforming to present-day constraints from dark matter searches. This scenario makes sharp predictions for the particle spectrum, predicting a lightest neutralino mass between 200 and 500 GeV, with all charginos and neutralinos within less than a factor 2 of the lightest neutralino mass and the heavy Higgs sector within 20-25% of that mass, making it an interesting target for collider searches. In addition, we demonstrate that successful accidental supersymmetric dark matter and baryogenesis will be conclusively tested with improvements smaller than one order of magnitude to the current performance of electron electric dipole moment searches and of direct dark matter searches, as well as with IceCube plus Deep Core neutrino telescope data.

Kozaczuk, Jonathan; Profumo, Stefano; Wainwright, Carroll L.

2013-01-01

21

Accidental Supersymmetric Dark Matter and Baryogenesis  

E-print Network

We show that "accidental" supersymmetry is a beyond-the-Standard Model framework that naturally accommodates a thermal relic dark matter candidate and successful electroweak baryogenesis, including the needed strongly first-order character of the electroweak phase transition. We study the phenomenology of this setup from the standpoint of both dark matter and baryogenesis. For energies around the electroweak phase transition temperature, the low-energy effective theory is similar to the MSSM with light super-partners of the third-generation quarks and of the Higgs and gauge bosons. We calculate the dark matter relic abundance and the baryon asymmetry across the accidental supersymmetry parameter space, including resonant and non-resonant CP-violating sources. We find that there are regions of parameter space producing both the observed value of the baryon asymmetry and a dark matter candidate with the correct relic density and conforming to present-day constraints from dark matter searches. This scenario makes sharp predictions for the particle spectrum, predicting a lightest neutralino mass between 200 and 500 GeV, with all charginos and neutralinos within less than a factor 2 of the lightest neutralino mass and the heavy Higgs sector within 20-25% of that mass, making it an interesting target for collider searches. In addition, we demonstrate that successful accidental supersymmetric dark matter and baryogenesis will be conclusively tested with improvements smaller than one order of magnitude to the current performance of electron electric dipole moment searches and of direct dark matter searches, as well as with IceCube plus Deep Core neutrino telescope data.

Jonathan Kozaczuk; Stefano Profumo; Carroll L. Wainwright

2012-08-25

22

Eye Drop Tips  

MedlinePLUS

... Putting in Eye Drops Prescription eye drops for glaucoma help maintain the pressure in your eye at ... a "Best Technique" for Putting in Eye Drops? Glaucoma Eye Drops: Suggestions on Use Glaucoma and the ...

23

[My accidental discovery].  

PubMed

We wonder what we should do in medical care besides daily routine work as a laboratory technician. I made a discovery in my routine laboratory work, which gave me a theme for my research. This led to me successfully completing a number of scientific research projects, and these experiences have enabled me to be able to give advice on appropriate treatments for infectious diseases in medical care. It was March 1999 when I identified Escherichia coli (E. coli) in an intra-abdominal abscess resistant to antibacterial agents. The E. coli was producing an enzyme, extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase (ESBL), that breaks down cefem-group antibiotics often used in Japan. Therefore, it was resistant to those antimicrobial agents. Detailed analysis was performed by us and researchers of the National Institute of Infectious Diseases, which revealed that the E. coli had a SHV12 genotype of ESBL. It was the first case report of this type of ESBL-producing E. coli infection in Japan. After this experience, I became interested in searching for the mechanism of resistance to antibiotics with various kinds of approaches, such as a method involving genomic analysis by the polymerase-chain reaction (PCR), therapeutic management of drug-resistant bacterial infection, and so on, through which I learned a series of investigative approaches. Since I had plenty of data and experiences generated from routine work, I could perform novel studies and obtained many interesting findings. I am feeding back these findings to routine work in order to improve my performance. From my experience, we should look for the seeds for research from routine work as much as possible, and knowledge and experience generated by resolving problems teaches us how to perform in a clinical setting. This may lead to the further development of our research, which, in turn, promotes the accumulation of knowledge and experience. This feed-forward cycle enables laboratory technicians to improve their quality of work. This I gleaned from my one accidental discovery. PMID:19068786

Nakamura, Tatsuya

2008-10-01

24

Drop Impact Reliability Testing for Lead-Free and Leaded Soldered IC Packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Portable electronic products such as cellular phones, PDAs, and MP3 units are increasingly designed for accidental drop. Repeated drop events can lead to solder joint failure and malfunction of these products. Hence board-level reliability drop testing is a useful way to characterize the drop durability of the printed circuit board with different soldered assemblies. Lead-free (or Pb-free) solders are replacing

D. Y. R. Chong; Kellin Ng; J. Y. N. Tan; P. T. H. Low; J. H. L. Pang; F. X. Che; B. S. Xiong; L. H. Xu

2005-01-01

25

Example Scenarios  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This section explores several hypothetical scenarios of nuclear-weapon detonations on U.S. cities. These scenarios are meant to illustrate the possibilities of such events. Scenarios include a "what-if" scenario of a 150-kiloton nuclear explosion by terrorists on New York City, and the effects of a nuclear accident or "broken arrow" on board a nuclear submarine in San Francisco Bay.

Griffith, Christopher

26

Scenario Testing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This subset of the Black Box Software Testing collection includes resources to teach Scenario Testing. The scenario test involves a story about how the program is used, including information about the motivations of the people involved. The Soap Opera emphasizes the human issues, even beyond the traditional scenario. Resources include lecture videos, slides, activities, suggested readings, and study guide materials.

Kaner, Cem; Fiedler, Rebecca L.

2011-06-01

27

Accidental poisoning in young children.  

PubMed Central

Cases of accidental childhood poisoning admitted to hospital were compared with community controls and hospital controls matched for age and sex. The relative risks of factors in the cases compared with both the control groups were significant for roughness, aggressiveness, noisiness, and pica behaviour in the child, and for large families. Mothers' knowledge of the toxicity of common household products and drugs did not give significant risk differences between cases and controls. The majority of poisonings occurred during the summer months. PMID:7069353

Basavaraj, D S; Forster, D P

1982-01-01

28

Alternate drop pulse polarography  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The new technique of alternate drop pulse polarography is presented. An experimental evaluation of alternate drop pulse polarography shows complete compensation of the capacitative background due to drop expansion. The capillary response phenomenon was studied in the absence of faradaic reaction and the capillary response current was found to depend on the pulse width to the -0.72 power. Increased signal-to-noise ratios were obtained using alternate drop pulse polarography at shorter drop times.

Christie, J.H.; Jackson, L.L.; Osteryoung, R.A.

1976-01-01

29

Scenario planning.  

PubMed

In facing future developments in health care, scenario planning offers a complementary approach to traditional strategic planning. Whereas traditional strategic planning typically consists of predicting the future at a single point on a chosen time horizon and mapping the preferred plans to address such a future, scenario planning creates stories about multiple likely potential futures on a given time horizon and maps the preferred plans to address the multiple described potential futures. Each scenario is purposefully different and specifically not a consensus worst-case, average, or best-case forecast; nor is scenario planning a process in probabilistic prediction. Scenario planning focuses on high-impact, uncertain driving forces that in the authors' example affect the field of radiology. Uncertainty is the key concept as these forces are mapped onto axes of uncertainty, the poles of which have opposed effects on radiology. One chosen axis was "market focus," with poles of centralized health care (government control) vs a decentralized private market. Another axis was "radiology's business model," with one pole being a unified, single specialty vs a splintered, disaggregated subspecialty. The third axis was "technology and science," with one pole representing technology enabling to radiology vs technology threatening to radiology. Selected poles of these axes were then combined to create 3 scenarios. One scenario, termed "entrepreneurialism," consisted of a decentralized private market, a disaggregated business model, and threatening technology and science. A second scenario, termed "socialized medicine," had a centralized market focus, a unified specialty business model, and enabling technology and science. A third scenario, termed "freefall," had a centralized market focus, a disaggregated business model, and threatening technology and science. These scenarios provide a range of futures that ultimately allow the identification of defined "signposts" that can suggest which basic features among the "possible futures" are playing out. Scenario planning provides for the implementation of appropriate constructed strategic responses. Scenarios allow for a pre-prepared game plan available for ready use as the future unfolds. They allow a deliberative response rather than a hastily constructed, urgent response. PMID:21371667

Enzmann, Dieter R; Beauchamp, Norman J; Norbash, Alexander

2011-03-01

30

Attracting Water Drops  

NASA Video Gallery

Astronauts Cady Coleman and Ron Garan perform the Attracting Water Drops experiment from Chabad Hebrew Academy in San Diego, Calif. This research determines if a free-floating water drop can be att...

31

Drop-on-Demand Drop Generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter provides information on different types of drop-on-demand drop generators. It starts with thermal or bubble jets,\\u000a in which a nucleation bubble is used to eject a droplet out of an orifice. This is followed by piezoelectric, pneumatic, microfluidic,\\u000a electrohydrodynamics (EHD) and aerodynamic droplet generators. For each droplet generator, the principle of operation and\\u000a major features and characteristics are

M. Eslamian; N. Ashgriz

32

PERSPECTIVES Scenarios &  

E-print Network

air pollution in conjunction with our vigorous efforts to reduce poverty" "The IEA will advise- carbonised by 2050 De-carbonising transport will take longer but must be achieved in the second half Buildings Transport Industry Transformation Power Generation ACT Scenarios 2050 +137% #12;INTERNATIONAL

33

5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Accidental death and dismemberment. 870.206 Section 870...Amount of Insurance § 870.206 Accidental death and dismemberment. (a)(1) Accidental death and dismemberment coverage is an...

2012-01-01

34

21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.  

...2014-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. 1002.20 Section 1002...Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a)...

2014-04-01

35

21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. 1002.20 Section 1002...Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a)...

2011-04-01

36

21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. 1002.20 Section 1002...Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a)...

2010-04-01

37

21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. 1002.20 Section 1002...Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a)...

2013-04-01

38

21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. 1002.20 Section 1002...Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a)...

2012-04-01

39

Piezoelectric Water Drop Energy Harvesting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piezoelectric materials convert mechanical deformation directly into electrical charges, which can be harvested and used to drive micropower electronic devices. The low power consumption of such systems on the scale of microwatts leads to the possibility of using harvested vibrational energy due to its almost universal nature. Vibrational energy harvested using piezoelectric cantilevers provides sufficient output for small-scale power applications. This work reports on vibrational energy harvesting from free-falling droplets at the tip of lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric-based cantilevers. The harvester incorporates a multimorph clamped-free cantilever made of lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric thick films. During the impact, the droplet's kinetic energy is transferred to the form of mechanical stress, forcing the piezoelectric structure to vibrate and thereby producing charges. Experimental results show an instantaneous drop-power of 2.15 mW cm-3 g-1. The scenario of a medium intensity of falling water drops, i.e., 200 drops per second, yielded a power of 0.48 W cm-3 g-1 per second.

Al Ahmad, Mahmoud

2014-02-01

40

Reducing accidental injuries during surgery.  

PubMed

Extensive clinical investigations have demonstrated that double-gloves and blunt-tipped surgical needles dramatically reduced the risk of accidental injuries during surgery. During the last decade, double-glove hole puncture indication systems have been developed that reduce the clinical risk of accidental needlestick injuries as well as detect the presence of glove hole puncture in the presence of fluids. When the outer glove is punctured, the colored underglove becomes apparent through the translucent outer glove, necessitating glove removal, hand washing, and donning of another double-glove hole puncture Indicator system. This article presents the first biomechanical performance study that documents the puncture resistance of blunt surgical needles in latex and nonlatex single gloves and double-glove hole puncture indication systems. The technique for measuring glove puncture resistance simulates the standard test for material resistance to puncture outlined by the American Society for Testing and Materials. The maximum puncture resistance force was measured by the compression load cell and recorded in grams with a strip chart recorder. Ten puncture resistance measurements for the taper point needle, blunt taper point needle, and blunt needle were taken from five samples of the Biogel Indicator underglove, Biogel Super-Sensitive glove, Biogel glove, Biogel Skinsense N Universal underglove, and Biogel Skinsense Polyisoprene glove; and the Biogel, Biogel Super-Sensitive, and Biogel Skinsense Polyisoprene double-glove hole puncture indication systems. The magnitude of puncture resistance forces recorded was influenced by several factors: glove material, number of glove layers, and type of surgical needle. For each type of curved surgical needle,the resistance to needle penetration by the nonlatex gloves was significantly greater than those encountered by the latex glove materials. The resistance to needle puncture of all three double-glove systems was significantly greater than that of either the nonlatex or latex underglove or outer glove. The taper point needle encountered the lowest puncture resistance forces in the five single gloves and the three double-glove systems. Blunting the sharp end of the taper point needle markedly increased its resistance to glove puncture in the five single gloves and five double-glove systems. The blunt-point surgical needle elicited the greatest needle penetration force in all of the single and double-glove systems. PMID:12825744

Edlich, Richard F; Wind, Tyler C; Hill, Lisa G; Thacker, John G; McGregor, Walter

2003-01-01

41

The characterization and evaluation of accidental explosions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accidental explosions are discussed from a number of viewpoints. First, all accidental explosions, intentional explosions and natural explosions are characterized by type. Second, the nature of the blast wave produced by an ideal (point source or HE) explosion is discussed to form a basis for describing how other explosion processes yield deviations from ideal blast wave behavior. The current status blast damage mechanism evaluation is also discussed. Third, the current status of our understanding of each different category of accidental explosions is discussed in some detail.

Strehlow, R. A.; Baker, W. E.

1975-01-01

42

Accidental death involving professional fireworks.  

PubMed

An interesting case of accidental death involving the explosion of professional fireworks in an apartment is described. The examination of the scene permitted to study several effects of the explosion on walls, ceiling, furniture and especially on a balcony where the victim was found. The external examination of the victim showed extensive thermal injuries, degloving injuries and extensive shrapnel wounds. The autopsy examination showed subarachnoid haemorrhage localized to the cerebellum, haemorrhage in the soft tissues of the neck and chest and fracture of one clavicle. Almost the entire surface of lungs showed blunt injuries and the liver showed tearing of parenchyma and multiple cavities. Histological analysis were carried out showing thickening of alveolar septae, enlargement of alveolar spaces and alveolar ruptures in lung sections while numerous, round, empty spaces were detected in the parenchyma of the liver. The examination of the scene and of the fragments found showed that at least eight pyrotechnical charges exploded on the balcony, in close proximity of the threshold with the living room of the apartment. According to the chemical findings, the charges were typical for professional use and were filled with a mixture of potassium perchlorate and aluminium. A conservative calculation results in more than 1.5 kg total mass of pyrotechnic composition exploding very close to the victim. PMID:24279979

Romolo, Francesco Saverio; Aromatario, Mariarosaria; Bottoni, Edoardo; Cappelletti, Simone; Fiore, Paola Antonella; Ciallella, Costantino

2014-01-01

43

Simulations of accidental coal immersion.  

PubMed

Coal is currently becoming an increasingly interesting fossil energy resource and that is the reason why its maritime transport, and hence the risk of collier accidents, increase. In this work, the environmental impact of an accidental coal immersion at sea is studied: the physicochemical effects are estimated using innovative experimental setups--a laboratory seawater canal called "polludrome" is used to evaluate the behaviour of coal particles submitted to a seawater flow, and a specifically designed tub is used to study the physicochemical consequences induced when coal is introduced into continuously renewed seawater. When coal is introduced into seawater, the most easily visible consequences are physical: fine coal particles reduce the daylight penetration up to 100% and move along with the flow, and coal chunks accumulate on the floor. Chemical effects are also measured: humic matters are dissolved from coal into seawater (up to 2 mg L(-1)), but no release of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is evidenced. Some inorganic compounds are dissolved, among which manganese, whose concentrations can reach 1 microg L(-1). Fortunately, the results show that the environmental impact of this type of accident would remain limited. PMID:17964611

Jaffrennou, Cathy; Giamarchi, Philippe; Cabon, Jean-Yves; Stephan, Ludovic; Burel-Deschamps, Laure; Bautin, François; Thomas, Annabelle; Dumont, Julien; Le Floch, Stéphane

2007-12-01

44

Youth Crime Drop. Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report examines the recent drop in violent crime in the United States, discussing how much of the decrease seen between 1995-99 is attributable to juveniles (under age 18 years) and older youth (18-24 years). Analysis of current FBI arrest data indicates that not only did America's violent crime drop continue through 1999, but falling youth…

Butts, Jeffrey A.

45

Liquid Drop Art  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection showcases the work of artist Corrie White, who has combined photographic techniques, use of different liquids, and precise production of drops to produce striking and original images of drops and soap films. Her work has been featured on the APS Division of Fluid Dynamics 2012 Image Gallery. The site includes a link to tutorials that present her methods.

White, Corrie

2013-01-25

46

Drops on a Penny  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, challenge learners to predict and investigate how many water drops they can fit on one penny. Learners conduct the test three times to find the average number of drops they can fit on a penny. Learners then repeat this process using a nickel, dime, and quarter. Use this activity to demonstrate the principles of surface tension, adhesion/cohesion, and gravity.

Boston, Wgbh

2002-01-01

47

Supercooled Water Drops  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners touch supercooled water drops with an ice crystal and trigger the water drops to freeze instantly. Learners discover that this process is used during candy making, when a single sugar crystal is used to crystallize an entire batch of sugar.

Exploratorium

2012-10-03

48

Scenario Generation Using Differential Scenario Information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method of generating scenarios using differential scenaro information is presented. Behaviors of normal scenarios of similar purpose are quite similar each other, while actors and data in scenarios are different among these scenarios. We derive the differential information between them and apply the differential information to generate new alternative/exceptional scenarios. Our method will be illustrated with examples. This paper describes (1) a language for describing scenarios based on a simple case grammar of actions, (2) introduction of the differential scenario, and (3) method and examples of scenario generation using the differential scenario.

Makino, Masayuki; Ohnishi, Atsushi

49

Drop Tower Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The drop towers of yesteryear were used to make lead shot for muskets, as described in The Physics Teacher1 in April 2012. However, modern drop towers are essentially elevators designed so that the cable can "break" on demand, creating an environment with microgravity for a short period of time, currently up to nine seconds at the drop tower in Bremen, Germany. Using these drop towers, one can briefly investigate various physical systems operating in this near zero-g environment. The resulting "Drop Tower Physics" is a new and exciting way to challenge students with a physical example that requires solid knowledge of many basic physics principles, and it forces them to practice the scientific method. The question is, "How would a simple toy, like a pendulum, behave when it is suddenly exposed to a zero-g environment?" The student must then postulate a particular behavior, test the hypothesis against physical principles, and if the hypothesis conforms to these chosen physical laws, the student can formulate a final conclusion. At that point having access to a drop tower is very convenient, in that the student can then experimentally test his or her conclusion. The purpose of this discussion is to explain the response of these physical systems ("toys") when the transition is made to a zero-g environment and to provide video demonstrations of this behavior to support in-class discussions of Drop Tower Physics.

Dittrich, William A. Toby

2014-10-01

50

A case of accidental mydriasis.  

PubMed

A 42-year-old man presented with a three-day history of progressive bilateral blurred vision, photophobia and headaches. There was no history of trauma. He was emmetropic with visual acuity of 6/60 (pinhole 6/24) in both eyes, no ptosis and full range of eye movements. His pupils were in fixed mydriasis. The pupils were unreactive to light or accommodation. His optic discs and fundi were normal. Pilocarpine failed to constrict his pupils. Initially, he strongly denied using any topical ocular medications but later remembered that 10 days previously his eyes had felt 'gritty' and his wife had instilled their son's old atropine penalisation drops into both his eyes. His signs and symptoms had resolved over the next two days. PMID:17311576

Lewis, Gareth

2007-03-01

51

Millikan's Oil Drop Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a Keynote Presentation exported as a clickable quicktime movie. This presentation develops Millikan's Oil Drop experiment. The presentation is animated and the learner or Instructor can click their way through the presenation. The mathematical theory is fully developed.

Dimauro, Mr. T.

2009-01-12

52

Epidemiology of Munchausen syndrome by proxy, non-accidental poisoning, and non-accidental suffocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two year prospective study was performed to determine the epidemiology of Munchausen syndrome by proxy, non-accidental poisoning, and non-accidental suffocation in the UK and the Republic of Ireland. Cases were notified to the British Paediatric Association Surveillance Unit from September 1992 to August 1994 if a formal case conference had been held for the first time during that period

R J McClure; P M Davis; S R Meadow; J R Sibert

1996-01-01

53

Load drop evaluation for TWRS FSAR  

SciTech Connect

Operational or remediation activities associated with existing underground high-level waste storage tank structures at the Hanford Site often require the installation/removal of various equipment items. To gain tank access for installation or removal of this equipment, large concrete cover blocks must be removed and reinstalled in existing concrete pits above the tanks. An accidental drop of the equipment or cover blocks while being moved over the tanks that results in the release of contaminants to the air poses a potential risk to onsite workers or to the offsite public. To minimize this potential risk, the use of critical lift hoisting and rigging procedures and restrictions on lift height are being considered during development of the new tank farm Basis for Interim Operation and Final Safety Analysis Report. The analysis contained herein provides information for selecting the appropriate lift height restrictions for these activities.

Julyk, L.J.; Ralston, G.L.

1996-09-30

54

Rain Drop Charge Sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

begin{center} Large Large Rain Drop Charge Sensor Sreekanth T S*, Suby Symon*, G. Mohan Kumar (1) , S. Murali Das (2) *Atmospheric Sciences Division, Centre for Earth Science Studies, Thiruvananthapuram 695011 (1) D-330, Swathi Nagar, West Fort, Thiruvananthapuram 695023 (2) Kavyam, Manacaud, Thiruvananthapuram 695009 begin{center} ABSTRACT To study the inter-relations with precipitation electricity and precipitation microphysical parameters a rain drop charge sensor was designed and developed at CESS Electronics & Instrumentation Laboratory. Simultaneous measurement of electric charge and fall speed of rain drops could be done using this charge sensor. A cylindrical metal tube (sensor tube) of 30 cm length is placed inside another thick metal cover opened at top and bottom for electromagnetic shielding. Mouth of the sensor tube is exposed and bottom part is covered with metal net in the shielding cover. The instrument is designed in such a way that rain drops can pass only through unhindered inside the sensor tube. When electrically charged rain drops pass through the sensor tube, it is charged to the same magnitude of drop charge but with opposite polarity. The sensor tube is electrically connected the inverted input of a current to voltage converter operational amplifier using op-amp AD549. Since the sensor is electrically connected to the virtual ground of the op-amp, the charge flows to the ground and the generated current is converted to amplified voltage. This output voltage is recorded using a high frequency (1kHz) voltage recorder. From the recorded pulse, charge magnitude, polarity and fall speed of rain drop are calculated. From the fall speed drop diameter also can be calculated. The prototype is now under test running at CESS campus. As the magnitude of charge in rain drops is an indication of accumulated charge in clouds in lightning, this instrument has potential application in the field of risk and disaster management. By knowing the charge magnitude of initial drops from a precipitation event, gross cloud charge can be estimated and necessary precautions can be taken during convective cloud events. Being a site of high lightning incidence in tropics, Kerala state is affected in India and calls for much attention in lightning hazards mitigation. Installing this charge sensor and atmospheric electric field mill, an attempt to a better warning system can be attempted.

S, Sreekanth T.

55

Liquid metal drop ejection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aim of this project was to demonstrate the possibility of ejecting liquid metals using drop on demand printing technology. The plan was to make transducers for operation in the 100 MHz frequency range and to use these transducers to demonstrate the ability to eject drops of liquid metals such as gallium. Two transducers were made by indium bonding piezoelectric lithium niobate to quartz buffer rods. The lithium niobate plates were thinned by mechanical polishing to a thickness of 37 microns for operation at 100 MHz. Hemispherical lenses were polished in the opposite ends of the buffer rods. The lenses, which focus the sound waves in the liquid metal, had an F-number equals 1. A mechanical housing was made to hold the transducers and to allow precise control over the liquid level above the lens. We started by demonstrating the ability to eject drops of water on demand. The drops of water had a diameter of 15 microns which corresponds to the wavelength of the sound wave in the water. A videotape of this ejection was made. We then used a mixture of Gallium and Indium (used to lower the melting temperature of the Gallium) to demonstrate the ejection of liquid metal drops. This proved to be difficult because of the oxide skin which forms on the surface of the liquid. In some instances, we were able to eject metal drops, however, this was not consistent and reproducible. An experiment was set up at NASA-Lewis to stabilize the process of drop on demand liquid metal ejection. The object was to place the transducer and liquid metal in a vacuum station so that no oxide would form on the surface. We were successful in demonstrating that liquid metals could be ejected on demand and that this technology could be used for making sheet metal in space.

Khuri-Yakub, B. T.

1993-01-01

56

Drying drops of blood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The drying of a drop of human blood is fascinating by the complexity of the physical mechanisms that occur as well as the beauty of the phenomenon which has never been previously evidenced in the literature. The final stage of full blood evaporation reveals for a healthy person the same regular pattern with a good reproducibility. Other tests on anemia and hyperlipidemic persons were performed and presented different patterns. By means of digital camera, the influence of the motion of red blood cells (RBCs) which represent about 50% of the blood volume, is revealed as well as its consequences on the final stages of drying. The mechanisms which lead to the final pattern of dried blood drops are presented and explained on the basis of fluid and solid mechanics in conjunction with the principles of hematology. Our group is the first to evidence that the specific regular patterns characteristic of a healthy individual do not appear in a dried drop of blood from a person with blood disease. Blood is a complex colloidal suspension for which the flow motion is clearly non-Newtonian. When drops of blood evaporate, all the colloids are carried by the flow motion inside the drop and interact.

Brutin, David; Sobac, Benjamin; Loquet, Boris; Sampol, José.

2010-11-01

57

Accidental ligature strangulation due to electric grinder.  

PubMed

A young girl was accidentally strangled when her chunni (a piece of cloth worn around the neck by most Indian women) was caught in a moving electrical grinder. She was taken to the nearest hospital where she died within the next 9h, remaining unconscious throughout the hospital stay. Accidental strangulation of this kind due to household devices or machinery is extremely uncommon and to the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of its kind to be reported. The findings are presented. PMID:16442331

Shetty, Mahabalesh; Shetty, B Suresh

2006-04-01

58

?Health Education Policy and Accidental Child Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN THE last few months the topic of accidental child poisoning has been frequently discussed in the media. This has been primarily due to the Safety Packaging for Medi cines Bill which at time of writing is about to receive its second reading in the Commons. The Bill proposes to make it compulsory for all prescribed and non-prescribed medicines which

M. W. Calnan

1975-01-01

59

Accidental and planned weather modification in illinois  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weather modification, both planned by humans and accidentally produced by humans, is the focus of an Illinois study. Populations in Illinois and the Midwest are living in a climate that is now modified inadvertently from its natural state. State atmospheric scientists have tackled weather modification through a series of interrelated studies, experimental design studies, experimental field studies to verify changes

1977-01-01

60

A probabilistic model for accidental cargo oil outflow from product tankers in a ship-ship collision.  

PubMed

In risk assessment of maritime transportation, estimation of accidental oil outflow from tankers is important for assessing environmental impacts. However, there typically is limited data concerning the specific structural design and tank arrangement of ships operating in a given area. Moreover, there is uncertainty about the accident scenarios potentially emerging from ship encounters. This paper proposes a Bayesian network (BN) model for reasoning under uncertainty for the assessment of accidental cargo oil outflow in a ship-ship collision where a product tanker is struck. The BN combines a model linking impact scenarios to damage extent with a model for estimating the tank layouts based on limited information regarding the ship. The methodology for constructing the model is presented and output for two accident scenarios is shown. The discussion elaborates on the issue of model validation, both in terms of the BN and in light of the adopted uncertainty/bias-based risk perspective. PMID:24462237

Goerlandt, Floris; Montewka, Jakub

2014-02-15

61

Modelling of accidental released toxic gases for emergency responders in Austria, Kosovo and Bulgaria.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the case of accidental release of hazardous gases in the atmosphere, the emergency responders need a reliable and fast tool to assess the possible consequences and apply the optimal countermeasures. A number of models for the prediction and simulation of hazard areas affected by accidental releases of toxic gases are available worldwide. Modelling accidental releases may be required for a variety of reasons: for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios"), for preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management (e.g. in the frame of the SEVESO directive). Depending on the demand and the particular purposes, the choice of the appropriate model is up to the authorities. The one year project was funded by the Austrian Science and research liaison Office (ASO, www.aso.zsi.at) as a part of the program: Research Cooperation and Networking between Austria, the public higher education institutions in Kosovo and South Eastern Europe. The project was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG, http://www.zamg.ac.at) in cooperation with the University of Prishtina (Kosovo, www.uni-pr.edu and the National Institute of meteorology and Hydrology (NIHM Bulgaria, www.meteo.bg). One of the main purposes of the project was to provide the both partners with basic knowledge in modelling with accidental release of toxic gases, based on the practical experience of the meteorologists from the ZAMG in the area. This knowledge can be used as scientific response to society driven current or upcoming problems especially in Kosovo. The activities involved know-how transfer on European standards and practice among the project partners, as well as joint efforts to adapt and disseminate the scientific methods and results in Kosovo. Within the project, the partners from Kosovo and Bulgaria were introduced to the atmospheric dispersion model (ALOHA - Areal Location of Hazardous atmosphere) and proceeded several model runs based on reference scenarios for chemicals of concern. ALOHA is one of the tools developed by EPA's Office of Emergency Management (OEM) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office of Response and Restoration (NOAA), to assist front-line chemical emergency planners and responders. In the frame of the project the partners in Kosovo and Bulgaria also undertook first steps in establishing cooperation connections with decision makers for emergency response planning, fire brigades and chemical plants. This presentation focuses on basic issues and problems in handling with accidental release of toxic gases, as well as on communication difficulties among the emergency responders, modellers and authorities in the three countries.

Stenzel, Sirma; Baumann-Stanzer, Kathrin; Gashi, Salih; Thaci, Bashkim; Batchvarova, Ekaterina; Spassova, Tatiana

2010-05-01

62

Do-It-Yourself device for recovery of cryopreserved samples accidentally dropped into cryogenic storage tanks.  

PubMed

Liquid nitrogen is colorless, odorless, extremely cold (-196 °C) liquid kept under pressure. It is commonly used as a cryogenic fluid for long term storage of biological materials such as blood, cells and tissues (1,2). The cryogenic nature of liquid nitrogen, while ideal for sample preservation, can cause rapid freezing of live tissues on contact - known as 'cryogenic burn' (2), which may lead to severe frostbite in persons closely involved in storage and retrieval of samples from Dewars. Additionally, as liquid nitrogen evaporates it reduces the oxygen concentration in the air and might cause asphyxia, especially in confined spaces (2). In laboratories, biological samples are often stored in cryovials or cryoboxes stacked in stainless steel racks within the Dewar tanks (1). These storage racks are provided with a long shaft to prevent boxes from slipping out from the racks and into the bottom of Dewars during routine handling. All too often, however, boxes or vials with precious samples slip out and sink to the bottom of liquid nitrogen filled tank. In such cases, samples could be tediously retrieved after transferring the liquid nitrogen into a spare container or discarding it. The boxes and vials can then be relatively safely recovered from emptied Dewar. However, the cryogenic nature of liquid nitrogen and its expansion rate makes sunken sample retrieval hazardous. It is commonly recommended by Safety Offices that sample retrieval be never carried out by a single person. Another alternative is to use commercially available cool grabbers or tongs to pull out the vials (3). However, limited visibility within the dark liquid filled Dewars poses a major limitation in their use. In this article, we describe the construction of a Cryotolerant DIY retrieval device, which makes sample retrieval from Dewar containing cryogenic fluids both safe and easy. PMID:22617806

Mehta, Rohini; Baranova, Ancha; Birerdinc, Aybike

2012-01-01

63

10 CFR 70.52 - Reports of accidental criticality.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Reports of accidental criticality. 70.52 Section 70.52 Energy... § 70.52 Reports of accidental criticality. (a) Each licensee shall notify...after discovery of any case of accidental criticality. 1 Commercial telephone...

2010-01-01

64

Numerical Simulations of Drop Collisions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three-dimensional simulations of the off-axis collisions of two drops are presented. The full Navier-Stokes equations are solved by a Front-Tracking/Finite-Difference method that allows a fully deformable fluid interface and the inclusion of surface tension. The drops are accelerated towards each other by a body force that is turned off before the drops collide. Depending on whether the interface between the drops is ruptured or not, the drops either bounce or coalesce. For drops that coalesce, the impact parameter, which measures how far the drops are off the symmetry line, determines the eventual outcome of the collision. For low impact parameters, the drops coalesce permanently, but for higher impact parameters, a grazing collision, where the drops coalesce and then stretch apart again is observed. The results are in agreement with experimental observations.

Nobari, M. R. H.; Tryggvason, G.

1994-01-01

65

Assessment of hazard of chemical accidental releases triggered by floods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, the number of accidents happened, when floods trigger the releases of hazardous materials and following environment contamination. Baia Mare (Romania), Spolana Neratovice (Czech Republic) and hurricane Katrina (USA) are well known examples. The importance of this kind of phenomenon as a type of so called NATECH events is expressed among others in the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC, which reorganises water conservation in Europe. It requires programmes of protection measures to be drawn up not later than 2009, and in sub-article 11 (3) l b) to prevent and/or reduce the impact of accidental pollution incidents, for example as a result of floods. Effective measures demand the assessment of hazard and risk of accidental release triggered by floods and there is a need for the method which can be used for these purposes. Such a method is still missing and this is why the basic method for hazard assessment has been developed. Simple indexes-based method is composed of three segments (natural risks, technological risks and combined risk) and it has flexible, modular structure. First segment estimates the probability of flooding of installation, the second, based on the reference scenarios estimates the possibility of release of chemicals and the third classify consequences. The work on refining of parameters and method continues. Method can be used in prevention of major accidents in the framework of the Council Directive 96/82/EC on the control of major-accident hazards involving dangerous substances (Seveso II directive) and can help to complete the safety studies in classified establishments.

Simonova, M.; Danihelka, P.

2009-04-01

66

Drop tube technical tasks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Criteria, using fundamental thermochemical dynamics, were developed to assist a scientist using the Drop Tube Facility in designing a good experiment. The types of parameters involved in designing the experiments include the type of furnace, the type of atmosphere, and in general which materials are better behaved than others as determined by past experience in the facility. One of the major advantages of the facility lies in its ability to provide large undercoolings in the cooling curve during the drops. A beginning was to consider the effect of oxygen and other gases upon the amount of undercooling observed. The starting point of the thermochemistry was given by Ellingham and later transformed into what is known as the Richardson Chart. The effect of surface oxidations upon the nucleation phenomena can be observed in each specimen.

Workman, G. L.

1986-01-01

67

Carcinoid Tumor in Accidental, Asymptomatic Meckel's Diverticulum  

PubMed Central

Although Meckel's diverticulum is the most common congenital gastrointestinal disorder, it is controversial whether asymptomatic diverticula in adults should be respected. The authors report the case of a patient who was operated due to ileus caused by adhesions and a Meckel's diverticulum without any sign of inflammation was accidentally noted and removed. As a surprise, the pathological examination of the diverticulum proved carcinoid tumor, a neuroendocrine malignant tumor. The case raises the importance of the removal of asymptomatic Meckel's diverticulum. PMID:24470856

Baranyai, Zsolt; Josa, Valeria; Merkel, Keresztely; Zolnai, Zsofia

2013-01-01

68

Accidental exposure to sarin: vision effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two men were accidentally exposed to vapors of sarin, a cholinesterase inhibitor and extremely toxic nerve gas. Diagnosis\\u000a was confirmed by depressed cholinesterase activity, and fixed extremely miotic pupils. No other signs or symptoms developed\\u000a and neither man required treatment. Recovery to normal cholinesterase activity was gradual over a 90-day period. Pupillary\\u000a reflexes were not detectable until 11 days after

Roy H. Rengstorff

1985-01-01

69

Phenomena of liquid drop impact on solid and liquid surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fluid dynamic phenomena of liquid drop impact are described and reviewed. These phenomena include bouncing, spreading and splashing on solid surfaces, and bouncing, coalescence and splashing on liquid surfaces. Further, cavitation and the entrainment of gas into an impacted liquid may be observed. In order to distinguish properly between the results of different experiments different impact scenarios are discussed.

Martin Rein

1993-01-01

70

Youth Crime Drop  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report issued in December 2000 by the Urban Institute (see the September 9, 1999 Scout Report for Business and Economics presents and analyzes data on juvenile crime in the 1990s. The report examines the most recent FBI data about police arrests and considers how much of the recent drop in crime rates can be attributed to a decrease in juvenile crime and whether the decrease in crime rates continued through the later half of the 1990s. For the original FBI data analyzed in this report, go to the Uniform Crime Reports.

Butts, Jeffrey A.

2000-01-01

71

Dynamics of drops and fluid interfaces: A level set study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deformation and breakup of liquid drops is a problem of fundamental importance with application to a wide range of systems. We study this problem numerically using a level set method to follow the interface. The level set method has been applied to many problems involving interface motion but has yet to be used in a comprehensive study of drop deformation and breakup. We develop a numerical method that solves the Navier-Stokes equations (including interfacial tension) using a level set representation of the interface. For systems with three or more fluids we develop a projection method to treat the motion of multiple junctions (such as contact lines) in the level set formulation. This method is shown to reproduce expected results in various scenarios. Following this, we apply the method to a number of problems in interfacial dynamics. In the first problem, we examine the dynamics of a single phase drop under shear. We obtain results that are in good agreement with the literature for steady drop shapes as well as unsteady behavior, including breakup. We define a standard stretching protocol and used to compare drop deformation and breakup under varying flow conditions. We then apply the techniques used for the single phase drop to an encapsulated drop, consisting of a concentric core and shell. We first consider the effect of core interfacial tension on steady drops, and then turn to unsteady drop behavior. Using the standard stretching protocol, we observe a wide variety of behavior as the core interfacial tension is varied. We show that the core can alter both the elongation and breakup of the drop, often in surprising ways. This can lead to significant changes in the final morphology after shear is terminated. We also show that the shear-driven behavior of a drop lying on a fluid interface involves a new flow topology. Finally, we discuss aspects of the dynamic contact line and late stage coarsening in a fluid undergoing spinodal decomposition.

Smith, Kurt Allen

72

Poisoning from accidental ingestion of mushrooms.  

PubMed

Poisoning from the accidental ingestion of mushrooms is an uncommon cause of morbidity within Australia and unlike many other countries no deaths have yet been recorded. This review seeks to draw attention to the various syndromes associated with mushroom poisoning and their management, thereby helping to keep our good record intact. Although the number of toxic species is relatively small, the collection and ingestion of field varieties should be left to those absolutely certain of their quest. In cases of poisoning, identification of the offending mushroom is of paramount importance in the management. In suspected or known amatoxin poisoning prompt treatment favourably influences outcome. PMID:8326897

Barbato, M P

1993-06-21

73

Accidental and retrospective dosimetry using TL method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Retrospective dosimetry is one of the most important tools of accidental dosimetry for dose estimation when dose measurement was not planned. In the affected area many objects can be applied as natural dosimeters. The paper discusses our recent investigations on various electronic components and common salt (NaCl) having useful thermoluminescence (TL) properties. Among materials investigated the electronic components of cell phones seem promising for retrospective dosimetry purposes, having high TL responses, proper glow curve peaks and the intensity of TL peaks vs. gamma dose received provided nearly linear response in the dose range of 10 mGy-1.5 Gy.

Mesterházy, D.; Osvay, M.; Kovács, A.; Kelemen, A.

2012-09-01

74

Accidental poisoning with biodiesel preservative biocide  

PubMed Central

Although biodiesel fuels’ use is getting more and more popular, there are only few reports in the literature of poisoning with such agents, and none referring to their preservatives: biocides. We present the management of a 49-year-old Caucasian male who was admitted, after accidental ingestion of biocide solution, in the intensive care unit of a tertiary hospital. In spite of his devastating condition upon arrival to the hospital, he had a remarkable recovery with no local or systemic sequel due to multidisciplinary and early supportive approach of his care. PMID:25336882

Aslanidis, T; Ourailoglou, V; Boultoukas, E; Giannakou-Peftoulidou, M

2014-01-01

75

Drop tube research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report covers the activities performed in the Drop Tube Study which The University of Alabama in Huntsville designed, fabricated and performed various low gravity experiments in materials processing from November 1, 1991 through October 30, 1992. During the performance of this contract the utilization of these ground-based containerless processing facilities has been instrumental in providing the opportunity to determine the feasibility of performing a number of solidification experiments in a simulated space environment, without the expense of a space-based experiment. A number of periodic reports have been given to the TCOR during the course of this contract hence this final report is meant only to summarize the many activities performed and not redundantly cover materials already submitted.

Workman, Gary L.

1992-01-01

76

Drop dynamics on a thin film: Drop engulfment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a liquid drop spreads on a thin film of another immiscible liquid, the liquid drop and film deform to minimize the surface energy. We investigate the dynamics of the motion of a water drop that comes in contact with a thin film of a silicone oil. We first present the engulfment of a water drop by a silicone film. We identify that the drop engulfment is dominated by the drop size and is independent of the thin film thickness. The interface where water/oil/air meets deforms as a spreading event, where the radius evolves as a power-law in time. If the solid that supports the thin oil film is hydrophobic, the film between the drop and the solid remains stable even if it is thinned by gravity, making the drop ``float'' on the solid. In the presence of a gradient in solid surface energy, the floating water drop moves toward the parts of the solid surface that have the highest energy. We suggest that this motion is caused by the imbalance in surface forces at the front and rear of the droplet, where the driving force is believed to originate from the interface-solid substrate interaction and acts through the thin silicone film.

Kim, Pilnam; Carlson, Andreas; Stone, Howard A.

2011-11-01

77

Evaporative Deposition in Receding Drops  

E-print Network

We present a framework for calculating the surface density profile of a stain deposited by a drop with a receding contact line. Unlike a pinned drop, a receding drop pushes fluid towards its interior, continuously deposits mass across its substrate as it evaporates, and does not produce the usual "coffee ring." For a thin, circular drop with a constant evaporation rate, we find the surface density of the stain goes as $\\eta(r) \\propto \\left(\\left(r/a_0\\right)^{-1/2}-r/a_0\\right)$, where $r$ is the radius from the drop center and $a_0$ is the initial outer radius. Under these conditions, the deposited stain has a mountain-like morphology. Our framework can easily be extended to investigate new stain morphologies left by drying drops.

Julian Freed-Brown

2014-10-02

78

Evaporative deposition in receding drops.  

PubMed

We present a framework for calculating the surface density profile of a stain deposited by a drop with a receding contact line. Unlike a pinned drop, a receding drop pushes fluid towards its interior, continuously deposits mass across its substrate as it evaporates, and does not produce the usual "coffee ring." For a thin, circular drop with a uniform evaporation rate, we find the surface density of the stain goes as ?(r) ? ((r/a0)(-1/2)-r/a0), where r is the radius from the drop center and a0 is the initial outer radius. Under these conditions, the deposited stain has a mountain-like morphology. Our framework can easily be extended to investigate new stain morphologies left by drying drops. PMID:25350152

Freed-Brown, Julian

2014-12-21

79

Chloracne from the accidental production of tetrachlorodibenzodioxin  

PubMed Central

May, G. (1973).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,30, 276-283. Chloracne from the accidental production of tetrachlorodibenzodioxin. Following the accidental production of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (dioxin) as the result of an exothermic reaction at a chemical plant in Derbyshire, 79 cases of chloracne were recorded, many of them severe. Contrary to the usual experience they have responded very favourably to treatment and there were no cases of contact chloracne among relatives or domestic animals in the initial outbreak. However, two cases of contact chloracne were recorded three years later. Similar incidents are known to have occured in both Europe and the United States of America, almost invariably accompanied by widespread severe illness and with fatalities. Apart from one death due to an explosion which followed the exothermic reaction the more serious sequelae, which may range from depression and loss of weight to liver, kidney, and cardiac failure as well as malignant disease, have not occurred. A quick and reliable method of biological assay for the presence of dioxin in produced trichlorophenol was developed based on oral dosage to rabbits with assessment of liver function at fixed time intervals thereafter. This test has already been superseded by instantaneous gas-liquid chromatography. An entirely new plant with suitable modifications and multiple safety features has now been in satisfactory operation for three years. Images PMID:4269256

May, George

1973-01-01

80

Technology Forecasting Scenario Development  

E-print Network

Technology Forecasting and Scenario Development Newsletter No. 1 June 1998 Systems Analysis research programme (tenta- tively titled: Technology Forecasting and Scenario Development). The tentative objective of the research programme is 1) to contribute to the assessment of technological and scientific

81

Large amplitude drop shape oscillations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental study of large amplitude drop shape oscillation was conducted in immiscible liquids systems and with levitated free liquid drops in air. In liquid-liquid systems the results indicate the existence of familiar characteristics of nonlinear phenomena. The resonance frequency of the fundamental quadrupole mode of stationary, low viscosity Silicone oil drops acoustically levitated in water falls to noticeably low values as the amplitude of oscillation is increased. A typical, experimentally determined relative frequency decrease of a 0.5 cubic centimeters drop would be about 10% when the maximum deformed shape is characterized by a major to minor axial ratio of 1.9. On the other hand, no change in the fundamental mode frequency could be detected for 1 mm drops levitated in air. The experimental data for the decay constant of the quadrupole mode of drops immersed in a liquid host indicate a slight increase for larger oscillation amplitudes. A qualitative investigation of the internal fluid flows for such drops revealed the existence of steady internal circulation within drops oscillating in the fundamental and higher modes. The flow field configuration in the outer host liquid is also significantly altered when the drop oscillation amplitude becomes large.

Trinh, E. H.; Wang, T. G.

1982-01-01

82

Review of drop tube and drop tower facilities and research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Drop tubes and drop towers providing the capability for performing low-gravity materials experiments in an earth-based laboratory are described. Although processing times are short, the experiments can be reproduced easily and economically. These facilities can be used as precursors to space flight programs or can be self-sufficient, without the need for more advanced processing.

Robinson, Michael B.; Bayuzick, Robert J.; Hofmeister, William H.

1990-01-01

83

How Many Drops?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson and its associated activity, students conduct a simple test to determine how many drops of each of three liquids can be placed on a penny before spilling over. The three liquids are water, rubbing alcohol, and vegetable oil; because of their different surface tensions, more water can be piled on top of a penny than either of the other two liquids. However, this is not the main point of the activity. Instead, students are asked to come up with an explanation for their observations about the different amounts of liquids a penny can hold. In other words, they are asked to make hypotheses that explain their observations, and because middle school students are not likely to have prior knowledge of the property of surface tension, their hypotheses are not likely to include this idea. Then they are asked to come up with ways to test their hypotheses, although they do not need to actually test their hypotheses. The important points for students to realize are that 1) the tests they devise must fit their hypotheses, and 2) the hypotheses they come up with must be testable in order to be useful.

Engineering K-Phd Program

84

NanoDrop 3300 Fluorospectrometer  

E-print Network

NanoDrop 3300 Fluorospectrometer V2.7 User's Manual #12;The information in this publication are the property of Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc. and its subsidiaries. NanoDrop is a trademark of Thermo Fisher 19810 U.S.A. Telephone: 302-479-7707 Fax: 302-792-7155 E-mail: info@nanodrop.com www.nanodrop

Fygenson, Deborah Kuchnir

85

Gas Pressure-Drop Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most chemical engineering undergraduate laboratories have fluid mechanics experiments in which pressure drops through pipes are measured over a range of Reynolds numbers. The standard fluid is liquid water, which is essentially incompressible. Since density is constant, pressure drop does not depend on the pressure in the pipe. In addition, flow…

Luyben, William L.; Tuzla, Kemal

2010-01-01

86

Factors Related to Accidental Poisoning in Preschool Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accidental ingestion of medications by preschool children continues to be a public health problem. The possibility that an accidental ingestion of medicine by a child depends heavily on the behavior of the parents with regard to medication was investigated. (Author/BB)

Holden, Janet A.

1979-01-01

87

Rare retinal haemorrhages in translational accidental head trauma in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose The characteristic findings in accidental head injury consist of linear skull fracture, epidural haematoma, localized subdural haematoma, or cortical contusion because of a linear or translational impact force. Retinal haemorrhages have been found, although uncommon, in accidental head trauma.Methods We performed a retrospective study of 24 consecutive cases of children with severe head injuries caused by falls. Inclusion criteria

V Sturm; P B Knecht; K Landau; M N Menke

2009-01-01

88

Safe Storage Gun Laws: Accidental Deaths, Suicides and Crime  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is frequently assumed that safe storage gun laws reduce accidental gun deaths and total suicides, while the possible impact on crime rates are ignored. However, given existing work on the adverse impact of other safety laws, such as safety caps for storing medicine, even the very plausible assumption of reduced accidental gun deaths cannot be taken for granted. Our

John E. Whitley

2001-01-01

89

Safe Storage Gun Laws: Accidental Deaths, Suicides, and Crime  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is frequently assumed that safe storage gun laws reduce accidental gun deaths and total suicides, while the possible impact on crime rates are ignored. However, given existing work on the adverse impact of other safety laws, such as safety caps for storing medicine, even the very plausible assumption of reduced accidental gun deaths cannot be taken for granted. Our

John E. Whitley

2000-01-01

90

Experiences of Causing an Accidental Death: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accidentally killing or feeling responsible for another person's death constitutes an event that is different from many typical traumatic stressors in that the responsibility for causing the trauma is located in the person themselves, rather than another person or persons. Research exploring the perspective of those who have accidentally caused a…

Rassool, Sara B.; Nel, Pieter W.

2012-01-01

91

Subdural haematoma and non-accidental head injury in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients and methods. In this retrospective study, 36 children referred to paediatric neurology and neurosurgery during April 1995-June 1998 with a diagnosis of subdural haematoma (SDH) were studied. Nine were accidental secondary to witnessed trauma and 4 were iatrogenic. Non-accidental head injury (NAHI) was suspected in the remaining 23 children. Results. After a full clinical, radiological and social assessment, NAHI

Aparna Hoskote; Peter Richards; Philip Anslow; Tony McShane

2002-01-01

92

Youth versus adult "weightlifting" injuries presenting to United States emergency rooms: accidental versus nonaccidental injury mechanisms.  

PubMed

Resistance training has previously been purported to be unsafe and ineffective in children. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate resistance training-related injuries presenting to U.S. emergency rooms by age, type, and mechanism of injury. We hypothesized that older athletes would sustain greater percentages of joint sprains and muscle strains, whereas younger athletes would sustain a greater percentage of accidental injuries that would result in an increased percentage of fractures in youths. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) National Electronic Injury Surveillance System was queried from 2002 to 2005 using the CPSC code for "Weightlifting." Subjects between the ages of 8 and 30 were grouped by age categories 8 to 13 (elementary/middle school age), 14 to 18 (high school), 19 to 22 (college), and 23 to 30 (adult). Injuries were classified as "accidental" if caused by dropped weight or improper equipment use. Multiple logistic regression was used to compare accidental injuries between age groups. The sample consisted of 4,111 patients. Accidental injuries decreased (p < 0.05) with age: 8 to 13 > 14 to 18 > 19 to 22 years = 23 to 30 years. Conversely, sprain/strain injuries increased in each successive age group (p < 0.05). Evaluation of only the nonaccidental injuries (n = 2,565) showed that the oldest categories (19-22 and 23-30 yr) demonstrated a greater percentage of sprains and strains relative to younger age categories (p < 0.001). Two thirds of the injuries sustained in the 8 to 13 group were to the hand and foot and were most often related to "dropping" and "pinching" in the injury descriptions, and there was an increased percentage of fractures in the 8 to 13 group relative to all other groups (p < 0.001). The study findings indicate that children have lower risk of resistance training-related joint sprains and muscle strains than adults. The majority of youth resistance training injuries are the result of accidents that are potentially preventable with increased supervision and stricter safety guidelines. PMID:19855330

Myer, Gregory D; Quatman, Carmen E; Khoury, Jane; Wall, Eric J; Hewett, Timothy E

2009-10-01

93

Self-inflicted accidental gunshot wounds.  

PubMed

This presentation will demonstrate the dangers of using a loaded gun as a blunt force object and designing toy guns to mimic realistic weapons. The ultimate goals of this presentation are to increase public education by promoting strict adherence to standard guidelines for safe gun usage, and to re-evaluate the future of toy gun designs that realistically mirror designs of current weapons. In a review of firearm deaths in the Wayne County Medical Examiner's Office (Detroit, Michigan, USA) over 10-year period from 1990 to 2000, there was an average of 500 cases of firearm deaths per year. This figure includes homicides, suicides and accidents. Among the 500 cases, seven of the most unusual self-inflicted accidental gunshot deaths are selected for this presentation. PMID:12935602

Chung, Yung A

2003-03-01

94

Accidental etizolam ingestion in a child.  

PubMed

Etizolam (ETZ) is an antidepressive thienodiazepine drug that is used worldwide. The most frequent adverse effects in adults are drowsiness and muscle weakness, and this can rarely cause paradoxical excitation; however, no information exists on intoxication in children. Furthermore, evidence bearing on its safety in children is not available. We present a case of a child who accidentally took a single dose of ETZ, approximately the same as a therapeutic dose for adults, and who showed paradoxical excitation and muscle weakness. The case presented here suggests that pediatricians and emergency physicians should be aware of the possible adverse effects in children and therapeutic approaches in intoxication of ETZ and the necessity of further investigations on a specific therapeutic guideline for overdose management especially in children. PMID:17666930

Kato, Zenichiro; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Funato, Michinori; Kuwabara, Hideaki; Kondo, Naomi

2007-07-01

95

Techniques for preventing accidental damage to pipelines  

SciTech Connect

Following a survey of all of the techniques capable of preventing third-party damage to its gas transmission pipelines, Gaz de France has selected two of them, Electromagnetic Detection and Positioning by Satellite. The first technique is based on detection of the magnetic field existing around transmission pipes excited by a driving current. A receiver is mounted on the excavation equipment to detect the magnetic field, thereby preventing any risk of hitting the pipe. The second technique consists in locating excavators by satellite. Each excavator needs to be equipped with a GPS beacon to know its position. Using the map of the transmission network stored in data-base form, i.e., digitized, the system calculates the position of the excavator relative to the pipes buried in its vicinity so as to avoid any accidental contact. The main features, advantages and drawbacks of the two techniques are presented in this paper.

Lothon, A.; Akel, S. [Gaz de France, La Plaine Saint-Denis (France). Research and Development Div.

1996-12-31

96

DIME Students Witness Test Drop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Students watch a test run on their experiment before the actual drop. They designed and built their apparatus to fit within a NASA-provided drop structure. This was part of the second Dropping in a Microgravity Environment (DIME) competition held April 23-25, 2002, at NASA's Glenn Research Center. Competitors included two teams from Sycamore High School, Cincinnati, OH, and one each from Bay High School, Bay Village, OH, and COSI Academy, Columbus, OH. DIME is part of NASA's education and outreach activities. Details are on line at http://microgravity.grc.nasa.gov/DIME_2002.html.

2002-01-01

97

Variations in primer sequences are the origin of allele drop-out at loci D13S317 and CD4  

Microsoft Academic Search

STRs have become almost the exclusive tool of genetic scientists in forensic typing work. Consequently, large numbers of\\u000a samples are genotyped and the detection of rare abnormalities is to be expected. We found rare losses of alleles, also known\\u000a as drop-out, at the two STR loci D13S317 and CD4. Drop-out at D13S317 was accidentally found in typing of suspects in

L. Boutrand; B. Egyed; S. Füredi; N. Mommers; G. Mertens; A. Vandenberghe

2001-01-01

98

Orion Capsule Mockup is Dropped  

NASA Video Gallery

An Orion capsule mockup is dropped from a plane 25,000 feet above the Arizona desert to test its parachute design. Orion will return to Earth at speeds faster than previous human spacecraft, and wi...

99

Drop propulsion in tapered tubes  

E-print Network

We present the results of a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the motion of wetting droplets in tapered capillary tubes. We demonstrate that drops may move spontaneously towards the tapered end owing ...

Renvoise, P.

100

Technology Forecasting Scenario Development  

E-print Network

Technology Forecasting and Scenario Development Newsletter No. 2 October 1998 Systems Analysis was initiated on the establishment of a new research programme entitled Technology Forecasting and Scenario and commercial applica- tion of new technology. An international Scientific Advisory Panel has been set up

101

Exposure scenarios for workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new European chemicals legislation REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and restriction of Chemicals) requires the development of Exposure Scenarios describing the conditions and risk management measures needed for the safe use of chemicals. Such Exposure Scenarios should integrate considerations of both human health and the environment. Specific aspects are relevant for worker exposure. Gathering information on the uses of the

Hans Marquart; Christine Northage; Chris Money

2007-01-01

102

Controlling ITER Scenarios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The three principal ITER operational scenarios are the 15 MA, 5.3 T, Q=10 inductive scenario, the 1000 s, 10.5-13.5 MA, 5.3 T, Q>5 Hybrid scenario, and the 3000 s, 7.5-10 MA, 5.3 T, Q˜5 steady-state scenario. Extensive modeling of the inductive scenario indicates that the ITER baseline actuators should be capable of all of the required basic control and that the ITER diagnostic specifications should provide adequate measurements with which to carry out such control. Current ramp-up times as short as 50 s and ramp-down times as low as 60 s are within control limits. Expected plasma disturbances can also be controlled. More advanced control is required for the hybrid and steady-state scenarios. Depending on transport assumptions, some modeling indicates that the baseline actuators should also be capable of achieving the ITER performance goals in the hybrid scenario with modest confinement improvement (H98˜1.2). For steady-state scenarios, it is likely that substantial upgrades to the heating and current drive systems will be required to achieve the high performance and pulse length goals. High confinement (H98<=1.7) is also required to achieve these performance goals, challenging stability limits and requiring simultaneous control of multiple instabilities (e.g., ELMs, NTMs, RWMs) with limited shared actuators. The ITER Plasma Control System is being developed taking into account these challenging control requirements.

Snipes, J. A.; Campbell, D. J.; Casper, T.; Gribov, Y.; Kim, S.-H.; Winter, A.

2011-11-01

103

Quick management of accidental tritium exposure cases.  

PubMed

Removal half-life (RHL) of tritium is one of the best means for optimising medical treatment, reduction of committed effective dose (CED) and quick/easy handling of a large group of workers for medical treatment reference. The removal of tritium from the body depends on age, temperature, relative humidity and daily rainfall; so tritium removal rate, its follow-up and proper data analysis and recording are the best techniques for management of accidental acute tritium exposed cases. The decision of referring for medical treatment or medical intervention (MI) would be based on workers' tritium RHL history taken from their bodies at the facilities. The workers with tritium intake up to 1 ALI shall not be considered for medical treatment as it is a derived limit of annual total effective dose. The short-term MI may be considered for tritium intake of 1-10 ALI; however, if the results show intake ?100 ALI, extended strong medical/therapeutic intervention may be recommended based on the severity of exposure for maximum CED reduction requirements and annual total effective dose limit. The methodology is very useful for pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs) which are mainly operated by Canada and India and future fusion reactor technologies. Proper management will optimise the cases for medical treatment and enhance public acceptance of nuclear fission and fusion reactor technologies. PMID:22349318

Singh, Vishwanath P; Badiger, N M; Managanvi, S S; Bhat, H R

2012-07-01

104

[Retinal haemorrhages in non-accidental head injury in childhood].  

PubMed

Retinal haemorrhages are one of the three cardinal manifestations of the "shaken baby syndrome" or "non-accidental head injury" in childhood. The role of an ophthalmologist in suspected non-accidental head injury has not only medical but also legal aspects and has been discussed controversially in the literature. The differential diagnosis and the specificity of retinal haemorrhages in childhood for an abusive head trauma will be pointed out in this paper. PMID:25181505

Oberacher-Velten, I M; Helbig, H

2014-09-01

105

Mars base buildup scenarios  

SciTech Connect

Two surface base build-up scenarios are presented in order to help visualize the mission and to serve as a basis for trade studies. In the first scenario, direct manned landings on the Martian surface occur early in the missions and scientific investigation is the main driver and rationale. In the second scenario, early development of an infrastructure to exploite the volatile resources of the Martian moons for economic purposes is emphasized. Scientific exploration of the surface is delayed at first, but once begun develops rapidly aided by the presence of a permanently manned orbital station.

Blacic, J.D.

1985-01-01

106

COMMISSION SCENARIO ANALYSES OF  

E-print Network

COMMISSION Michael R. Jaske, Ph.D. Lana Wong Principal Authors Michael R. Jaske, Ph.D. Scenario Project balance and planning reserve margin analysis. In the Results Report, California Energy Commission

107

Sensitivity and Scenario Results  

E-print Network

Presents the results of various scenarios using models used to study water, climate, agriculture and the economy in Pakistan's Indus Basin, and discusses the policy and investment implications. The water allocations per ...

Yu, Winston

108

Drops that pull themselves up  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We relate different existing literature experimental findings of drop retraction in evaporating or in coffee ring systems as a unique physical phenomenon that is not related to evaporation, but rather to the presence of surfactant molecules in the drops. The retraction is induced by fluctuations of the drop's triple line that result in a net leakage of the surfactant molecules onto the solid-air interface right across the triple line. This net leakage can be induced by either nucleation and growth of a surface defect at the triple line or random triple line fluctuations analogous to spinodal process. Using this understanding, we can set a lower limit to the value of the, otherwise un-measurable, solid-vapor interfacial energy.

Tadmor, Rafael

2014-10-01

109

Analysis for Eccentric Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Drops at the Canister Storage Building (CSB) (CSB-S-0073)  

SciTech Connect

Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) containing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) will be routinely handled at the Canister Storage Building (CSB) during fuel movement operations in the SNF Project. This analysis was performed to investigate the potential for damage from an eccentric accidental drop onto the standard storage tube, overpack tube, service station, or sample/weld station. Appendix D was added to the FDNW document to include the peer Review Comment Record & transmittal record.

TU, K.C.

1999-10-08

110

Analysis for SNF Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Drop into the Cask from the MCO Handling Machine (MHM) with Air Cushion  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to investigate the potential for damage to the MCO during impact from an accidental drop from the MHM into the shipping cask. The MCO is dropped from a height of 8.2 feet above the cask enters the cask concentrically and falls the additional 12.83 feet to the cask bottom. Because of the interface fit between the MCO and the cask and the air entrapment the MCO fall velocity is slowed. The shipping cask is resting on an impact absorber at the time of impact. The energy absorbing properties of the impact absorber are included in this analysis.

RAINS, D.J.

2000-01-12

111

Getting the Drop on Sediment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this exercise, students examine Aristotle's weight hypothesis by testing variously shaped marble chips. These chips are weighed and dropped down a water tube. Average fall times and weights are recorded and graphed. Students are asked to apply this information to rock and soil deposition by streams. (MA)

Galindez, Peter

1977-01-01

112

Drop Oscillations with Thermocapillary Effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work deals with surface and internal flows generated within an oscillating liquid drop due to variations of surface tension with temperature. Referred to as ``thermocapillary flows'' these may result in significant modifications in oscillations of a drop, which in turn may influence the inter-phase transfer of mass, momentum, and energy in two-phase systems. Here, these flows are simulated numerically by implementing a Galerkin finite element method with a spine-flux technique for tracking the motion of the surface. The formulation includes the incompressible forms of the Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the energy equation. Both surface and ambient temperature disturbances are considered in terms of the spherical harmonics. The strength of the convective heat transfer between the ambient gas and the drop is varied by assigning different values to the Biot number. In the absence of thermocapillary effects no internal circulation is observed. In non-isothermal cases, however, the behavior is more complex due to the presence of strong surface flows and internal circulations. These result in a final nonspherical stable shape for the drop which follows the thermal disturbance. An inspection of the temporal variations of the kinetic and surface energies show that, for in-phase surface and thermal disturbances, the energies oscillate slightly and damp out almost immediately. As the Biot number is increased, the kinetic energy increases to and remains at higher values compared to lower Biot number cases.

Lau, Brian S. C.; Mashayek, Farzad

1998-11-01

113

TE activity gum drop atoms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson has students building a model of lithium with gum drops and explaining where the model accurately represents the atom and where the model falls short. Enrichment exercises are included such as having groups of students play the parts of subatomic particles to model an atom in the gymnasium.

2006-01-01

114

Evaporating Drops of Alkane Mixtures  

E-print Network

Alkane mixtures are model systems where the influence of surface tension gradients during the spreading and the evaporation of wetting drops can be easily studied. The surface tension gradients are mainly induced by concentration gradients, mass diffusion being a stabilising process. Depending on the relative concentration of the mixture, a rich pattern of behaviours is obtained.

Gu'ena, G; Poulard, C; Cazabat, Anne-Marie; Gu\\'{e}na, Geoffroy; Poulard, Christophe

2005-01-01

115

Microring resonator channel dropping filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microring resonators side coupled to signal waveguides provide compact, narrow band, and large free spectral range optical channel dropping filters. Higher order filters with improved passband characteristics and larger out-of-band signal rejection are realized through the coupling of multiple rings. The analysis of these devices is approached by the novel method of coupling of modes in time. The response of

B. E. Little; S. T. Chu; H. A. Haus; J. Foresi; J.-P. Laine

1997-01-01

116

Doses from accidental releases of tritium and activation products into the atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

In view of public acceptance and the licensing procedure of projected fusion reactors, the release of tritium and activation products during normal operation as well as after accidents is a significant safety aspect. Calculations have been performed under accidental conditions for unit releases of corrosion products from water coolant loops, of first wall erosion products including different coating materials, and of tritium in its chemical form of tritiated water (HTO). Dose assessments during normal operation have been performed for corrosion products from first wall primary coolant loop and for tritium in both chemical forms (HT/HTO). The two accident consequence assessment (ACA) codes UFOTRI and COSYMA have been applied for the deterministic dose calculations SYMA and NORMTRI have been applied for several radiologic source terms. Furthermore, COSYMA and NORMTRI have been applied for routine release scenarios. The paper analyzes the radiation doses to individuals and the population resulting from the different materials assumed to be released in the environment.

Raskob, W. (Institut fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik, Karlsruhe (Germany))

1993-06-01

117

A screening tool to prioritize public health risk associated with accidental or deliberate release of chemicals into the atmosphere  

PubMed Central

The Chemical Events Working Group of the Global Health Security Initiative has developed a flexible screening tool for chemicals that present a risk when accidentally or deliberately released into the atmosphere. The tool is generic, semi-quantitative, independent of site, situation and scenario, encompasses all chemical hazards (toxicity, flammability and reactivity), and can be easily and quickly implemented by non-subject matter experts using freely available, authoritative information. Public health practitioners and planners can use the screening tool to assist them in directing their activities in each of the five stages of the disaster management cycle. PMID:23517410

2013-01-01

118

A screening tool to prioritize public health risk associated with accidental or deliberate release of chemicals into the atmosphere.  

PubMed

The Chemical Events Working Group of the Global Health Security Initiative has developed a flexible screening tool for chemicals that present a risk when accidentally or deliberately released into the atmosphere. The tool is generic, semi-quantitative, independent of site, situation and scenario, encompasses all chemical hazards (toxicity, flammability and reactivity), and can be easily and quickly implemented by non-subject matter experts using freely available, authoritative information. Public health practitioners and planners can use the screening tool to assist them in directing their activities in each of the five stages of the disaster management cycle. PMID:23517410

Blakey, David H; Lafontaine, Marc; Lavigne, Jocelyn; Sokolowski, Danny; Philippe, Jean-Marc; Sapori, Jean-Marc; Biederbick, Walter; Horre, Regine; Marzi, Willi B; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Kuroki, Yumiko; Namera, Akira; Okumura, Tetsu; Yamamoto, Miyako; Yashiki, Mikio; Blain, Peter G; Russell, David R; Cibulsky, Susan M; Jett, David A

2013-01-01

119

Probability and control cost effectiveness for accidental toxic chemical releases  

SciTech Connect

This paper is based on technical work performed in seeking better ways to deal with the economics of accidental chemical release prevention, protection, and mitigation. It is presented to illustrate a methodology. The accidental release of toxic chemicals has received increased attention since the Bhopal, India tragedy of December 1984 when air release of methyl isocyanate killed over 2,000 people. While this was a dramatic event of historical proportions, hazardous releases of a lesser scale occur frequently. The benefit of prevention measures can be expressed as a reduction in the probability or frequency of an accidental release. The cost can be estimated by standard engineering cost estimating techniques. A cost effectiveness can be determined for each hazard control measure if the benefits and costs are known. Cost effectiveness is simply a cost-to-benefit ratio. In this paper, the costs and benefits of example control measures for preventing accidental releases are examined for a simple system. The authors illustrate a technique which can be applied to more complex systems and might be used to better define cost effectiveness of various means of accidental release prevention.

DeWolf, G.B; Quass, J.D. (Radian Corp Austin, TX (US)); Bare, J.C. (US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (US))

1988-01-01

120

Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - Comparison of the models and their utility for the fire brigades.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - Comparison of the models and their utility for the fire brigades. Sirma Stenzel, Kathrin Baumann-Stanzer In the case of accidental release of hazardous gases in the atmosphere, the emergency responders need a reliable and fast tool to assess the possible consequences and apply the optimal countermeasures. For hazard prediction and simulation of the hazard zones a number of air dispersion models are available. The most model packages (commercial or free of charge) include a chemical database, an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI) and automated graphical output for display the results, they are easy to use and can operate fast and effective during stress situations. The models are designed especially for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios"), preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management. There are also possibilities for model direct coupling to automatic meteorological stations, in order to avoid uncertainties in the model output due to insufficient or incorrect meteorological data. Another key problem in coping with accidental toxic release is the relative width spectrum of regulations and values, like IDLH, ERPG, AEGL, MAK etc. and the different criteria for their application. Since the particulate emergency responders and organizations require for their purposes unequal regulations and values, it is quite difficult to predict the individual hazard areas. There are a quite number of research studies and investigations coping with the problem, anyway the end decision is up to the authorities. The research project RETOMOD (reference scenarios calculations for toxic gas releases - model systems and their utility for the fire brigade) was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in cooperation with the Vienna fire brigade, OMV Refining & Marketing GmbH and Synex Ries & Greßlehner GmbH. RETOMOD was funded by the KIRAS safety research program at the Austrian Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology (www.kiras.at). One of the main tasks of this project was 1. Sensitivity study and optimization of the meteorological input for modeling of the hazard areas (human exposure) during the accidental toxic releases. 2. Comparison of several model packages (based on reference scenarios) in order to estimate the utility for the fire brigades. This presentation introduces the project models used and presents the results of task 2. The results of task 1 are presented by Baumann-Stanzer and Stenzel in this session. For the purpose of this study the following models were tested and compared: ALOHA (Areal Location of Hazardous atmosphere, EPA), MEMPLEX (Keudel av-Technik GmbH), Breeze (Trinity Consulting), SAFER System, SAM (Engineering office Lohmeyer), COMPAS. A set of reference scenarios for Chlorine, Ammoniac, Butane and Petrol were proceed in order to reliably predict and estimate the human exposure during the event. The models simulated the accidental release from the mentioned above gases and estimates the potential toxic areas. Since the inputs requirement differ from model to model, and the outputs are based on different criteria for toxic areas and exposure, a high degree of caution in the interpretation of the model results is needed.

Stenzel, S.; Baumann-Stanzer, K.

2009-04-01

121

Early drop-outs, late drop-outs and completers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the differences between early and late drop-outs and completers in the continuation phase of a clinical trial. Methods: The authors studied 119 outpatients who were treatment responders in an 8-week open trial with fluoxetine 20 mg\\/day, and who were then enrolled in a 26-week clinical trial comparing the efficacy of fluoxetine

Shamsah B Sonawalla; Amy H Farabaugh; Vinita M Leslie; Joel A Pava; John D Matthews; Maurizio Fava

2002-01-01

122

Prediction of emulsion drop size distributions with population balance equation models of multiple drop breakage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most population balance equation (PBE) models of emulsion drop breakage are based on the assumption of binary drop breakage. We previously developed such a PBE model for high-pressure homogenizers with a daughter drop distribution function exhibiting a maximum probability for two equal sized drops. In this paper, we present a PBE model accounting for multiple drop breakage and show that

Neha B. Raikar; Surita R. Bhatia; Michael F. Malone; David Julian McClements; Cristhian Almeida-Rivera; Peter Bongers; Michael A. Henson

2010-01-01

123

IPCC SCENARIO DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

This Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has made available a consistent set of up-to-date scenarios of changes in climate and related environmental and socio-economic factors for use in climate impacts assessments. This is a link to this data through the Data Distr...

124

The SAFRR Tsunami Scenario  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey and several partners operate a program called Science Application for Risk Reduction (SAFRR) that produces (among other things) emergency planning scenarios for natural disasters. The scenarios show how science can be used to enhance community resiliency. The SAFRR Tsunami Scenario describes potential impacts of a hypothetical, but realistic, tsunami affecting California (as well as the west coast of the United States, Alaska, and Hawaii) for the purpose of informing planning and mitigation decisions by a variety of stakeholders. The scenario begins with an Mw 9.1 earthquake off the Alaska Peninsula. With Pacific basin-wide modeling, we estimate up to 5m waves and 10 m/sec currents would strike California 5 hours later. In marinas and harbors, 13,000 small boats are damaged or sunk (1 in 3) at a cost of $350 million, causing navigation and environmental problems. Damage in the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach amount to $110 million, half of it water damage to vehicles and containerized cargo. Flooding of coastal communities affects 1800 city blocks, resulting in $640 million in damage. The tsunami damages 12 bridge abutments and 16 lane-miles of coastal roadway, costing $85 million to repair. Fire and business interruption losses will substantially add to direct losses. Flooding affects 170,000 residents and workers. A wide range of environmental impacts could occur. An extensive public education and outreach program is underway, as well as an evaluation of the overall effort.

Porter, K.; Jones, Lucile M.; Ross, Stephanie L.; Borrero, J.; Bwarie, J.; Dykstra, D.; Geist, Eric L.; Johnson, L.; Kirby, Stephen H.; Long, K.; Lynett, P.; Miller, K.; Mortensen, Carl E.; Perry, S.; Plumlee, G.; Real, C.; Ritchie, L.; Scawthorn, C.; Thio, H.K.; Wein, Anne; Whitmore, P.; Wilson, R.; Wood, Nathan J.

2013-01-01

125

Drop profile under dynamic conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Capillary pressure tensiometry is the only method suitable for studies of short time adsorption phenomena at interfaces between two immiscible liquids. However, the transition from seconds of adsorption time to milliseconds entails a large number of problems connected with the over-lap of interfacial phenomena and hydrodynamics [1]. Therefore, a quantitative data analysis obtained by this methodology requires a detailed knowledge of the hydrodynamics phenomena, for example during growing and oscillating drops, and the expected impact on the interfacial phenomena. For this purpose simulation tools should be developed as well as development of experimental setup and protocols to achieve a solid basis for the practical application. The microgravity condition provides a particular environment in which the inertial effects and inter-facial deformations due to gravity can be excluded and provides simpler data analysis regarding hydrodynamics contribution. This work presents a set of experiments dedicated to the growth and oscillation of drops under ground conditions for finding out experimental protocols and conditions which should be considered for microgravity experiments in the next stage, for the mentioned purpose. The capability of CFD simulations for data analysis also will be discussed. The experiments are apart of an experimental program at the Drop Tower in Bremen [2] for investigating shapes of growing and oscillating drops under various flow rates and possible de-viation from Laplacian shape. The results represent the base line for studies with surfactant solutions. 1. A. Javadi, J. Krügel, P. Pandolfini, G. Loglio, V.I. Kovalchuk, E.V. Aksenenko, F. Ravera, L. a Liggieri and R. Miller, Colloids Surfaces A, in press 2. R. Miller and A. Javadi, Experimentelle und theoretische Untersuchungen zur Bildung und Deformation von Einzeltropfen als Modell für Schüume und Emulsionen, 50WM0941 a

Miller, Reinhard; Javadi, Aliyar; Kraegel, Juergen; Eigenbrod, Christian

126

Measuring Shapes of Acoustically Levitated Drops  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instrument records shadows of drops in acoustic field. Shapes of acoustically levitated liquid drops and gas bubbles examined by shadow projector. Although acoustic radiation pressure counterbalances gravitational force acting on levitated drops and bubbles, pressure usually not uniform over surfaces and causes them to assume nonspherical shapes. Shape of drop or bubble gives useful information about acoustic field and levitated material. Held aloft in laser beam by acoustic field, liquid drop casts shadow on photographic film. Changing shape of drop recorded in sequence of exposures.

Trinh, E. H.; Hsu, C. J.

1987-01-01

127

Fracture characteristics of entrapped head impacts versus controlled head drops in infant porcine specimens.  

PubMed

In many forensic cases, the job of forensic pathologists and anthropologists is to determine whether pediatric death is due to an abusive act or an accidental fall. The goal of this study was to compare the cranial fracture patterns generated on the parietal bone of a developing, infant porcine (pig, Sus scrofa) model by a controlled energy head drop onto a plate versus previous data generated by blunt force impact at the same energy onto the head constrained to a plate. The results showed that blunt force impacts on a head constrained to a rigid plate produces more fracture, but the same general pattern, as that for a head dropped onto the plate with the same level of impact energy. The study suggests that head constraint may be an important factor to consider in the evaluation of death causation for blunt force impacts to the pediatric skull. PMID:23488572

Powell, Brian J; Passalacqua, Nicholas V; Fenton, Todd W; Haut, Roger C

2013-05-01

128

Why students drop out CS1 course?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on CS minor students' decisions to drop out from the CS1 course. The high level of drop out percentage has been a problem at Helsinki University of Technology for many years. This course has yearly enrolment of 500-600 students and the drop out percentage has varied from 30-50 percents.Since we did not have clear picture of drop

Päivi Kinnunen; Lauri Malmi

2006-01-01

129

Accidental Ingestion of Endodontic File: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Ingestion of the endodontic instrument during root canal treatment is rare but can result in serious complications. The present paper reports a case in which endodontic file was accidentally swallowed by the patient undergoing root canal therapy, which entered digestive tract and passed uneventfully. PMID:22577586

Saraf, Hrushikesh P.; Nikhade, Pradnya P.; Chandak, Manoj G.

2012-01-01

130

`Accidental' Entrepreneur How Engineering Professor Eric Beckman's novel tissue adhesive  

E-print Network

1 `Accidental' Entrepreneur How Engineering Professor Eric Beckman's novel tissue adhesive gave Medicine, when he stumbled onto a bio-compatible adhesive that was developed during some of his experiments, saw potential in the adhesive itself as a post-surgical tool. "I said `No, it'll stick to everything

Benos, Panayiotis "Takis"

131

Accidental entrapment of cats in front-loading washing machines  

PubMed Central

Two clinical cases of accidental entrapment of cats in front-loading washing machines are described. One cat died the day after presentation as a result of aspiration pneumonia and head trauma, despite supportive care. The second cat survived with supportive treatment, but developed dermatologic complications 10 d later. PMID:21119868

Stewart, Sarah A.; Gaunt, Matthew C.; Taylor, Susan M.; Snead, Elizabeth C.R.

2010-01-01

132

Accidental displacement of impacted maxillary third molar: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unusual case of an impacted right maxillary third molar that was accidentally displaced into the maxillary sinus during exodontia and was surgically retrieved almost 2 years later is described. The tooth was removed under general anesthesia, after maxillary sinus exposure through Caldwell-Luc approach. Postoperative recovery was uneventful. Six months after the retrieval surgery, the maxillary sinus was completely healed

Cassio Edvard Sverzut; Alexandre Elias Trivellato; Luiz Marcel de Figueiredo; Emanuela Prado Ferraz; Alexander Tadeu Sverzut

2005-01-01

133

Witnessing an Accidental Shooting at the Police Training Academy  

Microsoft Academic Search

After an accidental shooting at a police training academy, outcomes of the class involved (n = 45) were compared with those of several comparison classes (n = 154) immediately and one year later. Results revealed a modest impact, but an increase in PTSD symptomology was observed from academy training to the one-year follow-up. Recruits in the affected class demonstrated more

Kimberly A. Lonsway; Susan Welch

2005-01-01

134

The Accidental Transgressor: Morally-Relevant Theory of Mind  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To test young children's false belief theory of mind in a morally relevant context, two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, children (N=162) at 3.5, 5.5, and 7.5 years of age were administered three tasks: prototypic moral transgression task, false belief theory of mind task (ToM), and an "accidental transgressor" task, which measured a…

Killen, Melanie; Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Richardson, Cameron; Jampol, Noah; Woodward, Amanda

2011-01-01

135

An Accidental Sect: How War Made Belief in Sierra Leone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Idealists consider beliefs cause wars. Realists consider wars cause beliefs. The war in Sierra Leone offers some scope to test between these two views. The main rebel faction, the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) was, sociologically speaking, an accidental sect. It lost its original ideologues at an early stage, and absorbed others with a different orientation as a result of military

Paul Richards

2006-01-01

136

ACCIDENTAL INJURY AND INCLEMENT WEATHER: DEFINING THE RELATIONSHIP AND ANTICIPATING THE EFFECTS OF A CHANGING CLIMATE  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this activity is to utilize a combination of existing scientific knowledge and professional expertise and experience to develop a research strategy for lessening the incidence and the impact of accidental injuries associated with inclement weather. Accidental inj...

137

Accidental pinhole and pinspeck cameras: Revealing the scene outside the picture  

E-print Network

We identify and study two types of “accidental” images that can be formed in scenes. The first is an accidental pinhole camera image. These images are often mistaken for shadows, but can reveal structures outside a room, ...

Torralba, Antonio

138

Experiment 1 Accidentally the young woman snubbed the acquaintance/*vinegar...  

E-print Network

Experiment 1 Accidentally the young woman snubbed the acquaintance/*vinegar... Accidentally the young woman packed the vinegar/*acquaintance... After clearing the table/*superintendent... After she had been married for five years the woman divorced the deadbeat

Kuperberg, Gina

139

Channel drop filter for CWDM systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a new design of channel drop filter (CDF) based on two-dimensional photonic crystal ring resonators (PCRRs) is provided by two-dimensional (2D) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations in triangular lattice photonic crystal (PC) silicon rods. 100% forward dropping efficiency and a quality factor of over 1000 can be achieved at maximum transfer efficiency while the operating wavelength is 1550 nm. Through this novel component, three channel drop operation with 100% dropping efficiencies at all output channels can be obtained. The proposed filter provides a possibility of channel drop filter and could be used in coarse wavelength division multiplexing (CWDM) systems.

Youcef Mahmoud, Mahmoud; Bassou, Ghaouti; de Fornel, Frédérique; Taalbi, Ahmed

2013-10-01

140

Analysis for Eccentric Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Drops at the Canister Storage Building (CSB) (CSB-S-0073)  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to investigate the potential for damage to the multi-canister overpack (MCO) during impact from an eccentric accidental drop onto the standard storage tube, overpack storage tube, service station or sampling/weld station. Damage to the storage tube and sample/weld station is beyond the scope of this report. The results of this analysis are required to show the following: (1) If a breach resulting in unacceptable release of contamination could occur in the MCO. (2) If the dropped MCO could become stuck in the storage tube after the drop. (3) Maximum deceleration of the spent nuclear fuel baskets. The model appropriate for the standard storage tubes with the smaller gap is the basis for the analysis and results reported herein in this SNF-5204, revision 2 report. Revision 1 of this report is based on a model that includes the larger gap appropriate for the overpack tubes.

HOLLENBECK, R.G.

2000-06-07

141

Electrocardiographic changes by accidental hypothermia in an urban and a tropical region  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundHypothermia is defined as a condition in which core temperature (rectal, esophageal, or tympanic) reaches values below 35°C. This may be accidental, metabolic, or therapeutic. The accidental form is frequent in cold-climate countries and rare in those with tropical or subtropical climate. The aim of this study was to evaluate electrocardiographic changes of patients with accidental hypothermia.

Dilma de Souza; Andrés Ricardo Pérez Riera; Maria Teresa Bombig; Yoná Afonso Francisco; Luigi Brollo; Bráulio Luna Filho; Sergio Dubner; Edgardo Schapachnik; Rui Povoa

2007-01-01

142

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 9. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF CHLORINE  

EPA Science Inventory

The manual discusses reducing the risk associated with an accidental release of chlorine. It identifies examples of potential causes of accidental releases that apply to processes that use chlorine, as well as measures that may be taken to reduce the accidental release risk. Such...

143

Drop short control of electrode gap  

DOEpatents

During vacuum consumable arc remelting the electrode gap between a consumable electrode and a pool of molten metal is difficult to control. The present invention monitors drop shorts by detecting a decrease in the voltage between the consumable electrode and molten pool. The drop shorts and their associated voltage reductions occur as repetitive pulses which are closely correlated to the electrode gap. Thus, the method and apparatus of the present invention controls electrode gap based upon drop shorts detected from the monitored anode-cathode voltage. The number of drop shorts are accumulated, and each time the number of drop shorts reach a predetermined number, the average period between drop shorts is calculated from this predetermined number and the time in which this number is accumulated. This average drop short period is used in a drop short period electrode gap model which determines the actual electrode gap from the drop short. The actual electrode gap is then compared with a desired electrode gap which is selected to produce optimum operating conditions and the velocity of the consumable error is varied based upon the gap error. The consumable electrode is driven according to any prior art system at this velocity. In the preferred embodiment, a microprocessor system is utilized to perform the necessary calculations and further to monitor the duration of each drop short. If any drop short exceeds a preset duration period, the consumable electrode is rapidly retracted a predetermined distance to prevent bonding of the consumable electrode to the molten remelt.

Fisher, Robert W. (Albuquerque, NM); Maroone, James P. (Albuquerque, NM); Tipping, Donald W. (Albuquerque, NM); Zanner, Frank J. (Sandia Park, NM)

1986-01-01

144

The effect of drop shape oscillations on particle scavenging by drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scavenging of particles by a falling water drop is complicated by the two-way coupling between the flow in the wake behind the drop, and the shape oscillations experienced by the drop. Anomalous particle scavenging results are often attributed to drop shape oscillations, the existence of vortices in the drop wake, or a combination of the two. However, conclusive studies showing how these phenomena affect particle scavenging do not exist. As a first step toward addressing this need, experiments were conducted to determine the effect of drop oscillations on the scavenging coefficient. Experiments were conducted using pure water drops, and drops consisting of a water/glycerol mixture having a reduced oscillation amplitude compared to the pure water case. Scavenging coefficients are presented for these two cases over a range of particle diameters and drop diameters. The application of this work is to the removal of particulate matter by rain, and the efficacy of drop scrubbers used in pollution control.

Saylor, J. R.

2005-11-01

145

EXAMPLE EXPOSURE SCENARIOS ASSESSMENT TOOL  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposure scenarios are a tool to help the assessor develop estimates of exposure, dose, and risk. An exposure scenario generally includes facts, data, assumptions, inferences, and sometimes professional judgment about how the exposure takes place. The human physiological and beh...

146

Electrostatic potential wells for on-demand drop manipulation in microchannels.  

PubMed

Precise control and manipulation of individual drops are crucial in many lab-on-a-chip applications. We present a novel hybrid concept for channel-based discrete microfluidics with integrated electrowetting functionality by incorporating co-planar electrodes (separated by a narrow gap) in one of the microchannel walls. By combining the high throughput of channel-based microfluidics with the individual drop control achieved using electrical actuation, we acquire the strengths of both worlds. The tunable strength of the electrostatic forces enables a wide range of drop manipulations, such as on-demand trapping and release, guiding, and sorting of drops in the microchannel. In each of these scenarios, the retaining electrostatic force competes with the hydrodynamic drag force. The conditions for trapping can be predicted using a simple model that balances these forces. PMID:24394887

de Ruiter, Riëlle; Pit, Arjen M; de Oliveira, Vitor Martins; Duits, Michèl H G; van den Ende, Dirk; Mugele, Frieder

2014-03-01

147

Knowledge based crime scenario modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A crucial concern in the evaluation of evidence related to a major crime is the formulation of sufficient alternative plausible scenarios that can explain the available evidence. However, software aimed at assisting human crime investigators by automatically constructing crime scenarios from evidence is difficult to develop because of the almost infinite variation of plausible crime scenarios. This paper introduces a

Jeroen Keppens; Burkhard Schafer

2006-01-01

148

Micro-explosion of compound drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introducing water into spray combustion systems, by either water-in-oil emulsification or supplementary water injection, is one of the major techniques for combustion improvement and NOx reduction. Plentiful researches are available on combustion of water-in-oil emulsion fuel drops. The emulsified liquid is a heterogeneous mixture of immiscible liquids. One component forms the continuous phase and the other component forms the discrete phase. The discrete phase consists of globules of the one fluid that are suspended in the continuous phase fluid. Water-in-oil emulsions are commonly considered for combustion applications because emulsions can result in micro-explosion, thereby reducing the average drop diameter to enhance liquid vaporization, and suppressing the formation of soot and NOx. However, the water addition generally does not exceed about 20% for smooth engine operations[!, 21. The combustion characteristics and micro-explosion of emulsion drop were studied by many researchers. The micro-explosion of water in fuel emulsion drops was caused by very fast growth of superheated water vapor bubbles, its superheat limits must be lower than the boiling point temperature of the fuel. These bubbles were primarily governed by the pressure difference between the superheated vapor and the liquid, and by the inertia imparted to the liquid by the motion of the bubble surface[3 6 In this study, we used a coaxial nozzle to generation the multi-component drop. The different type of water-in-oil fuel drops called the compound drops. Unlike an emulsion drop, a compound drop consists of a water core and a fuel shell, which can originate from the phase separation of emulsion[7, 81 or a water drop colliding with a fuel drop[9, 101 Burning and micro-explosion of compound drops have been found to be distinct from those of emulsion drops[9-111 Wang et al.[9 , 101 studied the combustion characteristics of collision merged alkane-water drops. The merged drops appeared in adhesive and inserted manners. The drop ignition delay time increased with increasing water content. The average burning rate of alkane-water drops decreased with increasing water content. In the burning process, hexadecane-water drops exhibited flash vaporization or flame extinction. Heterogeneous explosion was occasionally observed in drops with trapped air bubbles. The air bubbles were assumed to be the nucleation points of the heterogeneous explosions. Chen and Lin[11 studied the characteristics of water-in-dodecane compound drop with different water content, diameter of drop and environmental oxygen concentration. The vaporization rate increased with increasing environmental oxygen concentration. The compound drops micro-exploded during the burning process in a random way. The number of micro-explosions was majorly influenced by drop diameter, followed by environmental oxygen concentration. Water content had a weaker effect on micro-explosion. As available literature and research results of compound drop burning are scarce, their combustion and micro-explosion behaviors are still poorly understood. In this regard, we changed the drop nature as compound drops to study their combustion characteristics and micro-explosion phenomena.

Chen, Chun-Kuei; Lin, Ta-Hui

2014-08-01

149

Magnetically focused liquid drop radiator  

DOEpatents

A magnetically focused liquid drop radiator for application in rejecting energy from a spacecraft, characterized by a magnetizable liquid or slurry disposed in operative relationship within the liquid droplet generator and its fluid delivery system, in combination with magnetic means disposed in operative relationship around a liquid droplet collector of the LDR. The magnetic means are effective to focus streams of droplets directed from the generator toward the collector, thereby to assure that essentially all of the droplets are directed into the collector, even though some of the streams may be misdirected as they leave the generator. The magnetic focusing means is also effective to suppress splashing of liquid when the droplets impinge on the collector.

Botts, T.E.; Powell, J.R.; Lenard, R.

1984-12-10

150

Internal Flows in Free Drops (IFFD)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Within the framework of an Earth-based research task investigating the internal flows within freely levitated drops, a low-gravity technology development experiment has been designed and carried out within the NASA Glovebox facility during the STS-83 and STS-94 Shuttle flights (MSL-1 mission). The goal was narrowly defined as the assessment of the capabilities of a resonant single-axis ultrasonic levitator to stably position free drops in the Shuttle environment with a precision required for the detailed measurement of internal flows. The results of this entirely crew-operated investigation indicate that the approach is fundamentally sound, but also that the ultimate stability of the positioning is highly dependent on the residual acceleration characteristic of the Spacecraft, and to a certain extent, on the initial drop deployment of the drop. The principal results are: the measured dependence of the residual drop rotation and equilibrium drop shape on the ultrasonic power level, the experimental evaluation of the typical drop translational stability in a realistic low-gravity environment, and the semi-quantitative evaluation of background internal flows within quasi-isothermal drops. Based on these results, we conclude that the successful design of a full-scale Microgravity experiment is possible, and would allow accurate the measurement of thermocapillary flows within transparent drops. The need has been demonstrated, however, for the capability for accurately deploying the drop, for a quiescent environment, and for precise mechanical adjustments of the levitator.

Trinh, E. H.; Sadhal, Satwindar S.; Thomas, D. A.; Crouch, R. K.

1998-01-01

151

Drop Tower Experiments concerning Fluid Management under Microgravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transport and positioning of liquid under microgravity is done utilizing capillary forces. Therefore, capillary transport processes have to be understood for a wide variety of space applications, ranging from propellant management in tanks of space transportation systems to eating and drinking devices for astronauts. There are two types of liquid transportation in microgravity using capillary forces. First, the driven liquid flow in open channels where the capillary forces at free surfaces ensure a gas and vapor free flow. Here it is important to know the limiting flow rate through such an open channel before the free surface collapses and gas is sucked into the channel. A number of different experiments at the drop tower Bremen, on sounding rockets and at the ISS have been conducted to analyse this phenomenon within different geometries. As result a geometry dependent theory for calculating the maximum flow rate has been found. On the other hand liquid positioning and transportation requires the capillary pressure of curved surfaces to achieve a liquid flow to a desired area. Especially for space applications the weight of structure has to be taken into account for development. For example liquid positioning in tanks can be achieved via a complicated set of structure filling the whole tank resulting in heavy devices not reasonable in space applications. Astrium developed in cooperation with ZARM a propellant management device much smaller than the tank volume and ensuring a gas and vapour free supply of propellant to the propulsion system. In the drop tower Bremen a model of this device was tested concerning different microgravity scenarios. To further decrease weight and ensure functionality within different scenarios structure elements are designed as perforated geometries. Capillary transport between perforated plates has been analyzed concerning the influence of geometrical pattern of perforations. The conducted experiments at the drop tower Bremen show the remarkable influence of perforations on the capillary transport capability.

Gaulke, Diana; Dreyer, Michael

2012-07-01

152

Screening for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Children After Accidental Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE.Children who,have experienced,an accidental injury are at increased risk of developing posttraumatic stress disorder. It is, therefore, essential that strategies are developed,to aid in the early identification of children at risk of developing posttraumatic,stress disorder symptomatology,after an accident. The aim of this study was to examine,the ability of the Child Trauma Screening Questionnaire to predict children at risk of

Justin A. Kenardy; Susan H. Spence; Alexandra C. Macleod

2010-01-01

153

Fatal accidental hanging from a lanyard key chain in a 10-year-old boy.  

PubMed

Lanyard chains are commonly worn around the neck to hold keys and identification badges. A ten-year-old Black male child was home alone jumping and swinging of the raised crossbars on his mother's four-poster bed. He commonly did this. He also wore a lanyard around his neck with his house key, which he used to let himself in after school. His mother found him hanging on the corner of the bedpost by the lanyard when she returned from work. The death scene showed that he was jumping on the bed and the lanyard hooked over the top of the corner bedpost, causing first and second cervical vertebrae dislocation of an abrupt "drop-type" hanging with neck abrasion marks. Lanyards, or any loose rope material around the neck, are inherently dangerous due to their strength and ability to catch fixed or moving objects. Safety modifications to the lanyards are easily made with "breakaway" Velcro-type or plastic clip fasteners. This is the first reported case of an accidental hanging after review of the medical literature and files of the U.S. Consumer Products Safety Commission. PMID:12455662

Denton, J Scott

2002-11-01

154

An alternative approach for computing seismic response with accidental eccentricity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accidental eccentricity is a non-standard assumption for seismic design of tall buildings. Taking it into consideration requires reanalysis of seismic resistance, which requires either time consuming computation of natural vibration of eccentric structures or finding a static displacement solution by applying an approximated equivalent torsional moment for each eccentric case. This study proposes an alternative modal response spectrum analysis (MRSA) approach to calculate seismic responses with accidental eccentricity. The proposed approach, called the Rayleigh Ritz Projection-MRSA (RRP-MRSA), is developed based on MRSA and two strategies: (a) a RRP method to obtain a fast calculation of approximate modes of eccentric structures; and (b) an approach to assemble mass matrices of eccentric structures. The efficiency of RRP-MRSA is tested via engineering examples and compared with the standard MRSA (ST-MRSA) and one approximate method, i.e., the equivalent torsional moment hybrid MRSA (ETM-MRSA). Numerical results show that RRP-MRSA not only achieves almost the same precision as ST-MRSA, and is much better than ETM-MRSA, but is also more economical. Thus, RRP-MRSA can be in place of current accidental eccentricity computations in seismic design.

Fan, Xuanhua; Yin, Jiacong; Sun, Shuli; Chen, Pu

2014-09-01

155

Scenario-Based Tasks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page from The Experiential Learning Center provides a number of scenario-based tasks for use in the classroom or for professional development training. The materials are freely available for download and use and would be applicable to learners in a variety of subjects including software development, faculty professional development, office system applications/ICT, biology/bioinformatics, environmental studies, Python programming, engineering, network security/MIS, computational thinking and English writing. Instructor guides and other classroom instructional materials are provided. The project requests that educators let them know when these materials are used in order to track dissemination of the work and in order to inform the community about upcoming workshops and presentations.

2012-10-09

156

Computations of Drop Collision and Coalescence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computations of drops collisions, coalescence, and other problems involving drops are presented. The computations are made possible by a finite difference/front tracking technique that allows direct solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations for a multi-fluid system with complex, unsteady internal boundaries. This method has been used to examine the various collision modes for binary collisions of drops of equal size, mixing of two drops of unequal size, behavior of a suspension of drops in linear and parabolic shear flows, and the thermal migration of several drops. The key results from these simulations are reviewed. Extensions of the method to phase change problems and preliminary results for boiling are also shown.

Tryggvason, Gretar; Juric, Damir; Nas, Selman; Mortazavi, Saeed

1996-01-01

157

Trapping of drops by wetting defects.  

PubMed

Controlling the motion of drops on solid surfaces is crucial in many natural phenomena and technological processes including the collection and removal of rain drops, cleaning technology and heat exchangers. Topographic and chemical heterogeneities on solid surfaces give rise to pinning forces that can capture and steer drops in desired directions. Here we determine general physical conditions required for capturing sliding drops on an inclined plane that is equipped with electrically tunable wetting defects. By mapping the drop dynamics on the one-dimensional motion of a point mass, we demonstrate that the trapping process is controlled by two dimensionless parameters, the trapping strength measured in units of the driving force and the ratio between a viscous and an inertial time scale. Complementary experiments involving superhydrophobic surfaces with wetting defects demonstrate the general applicability of the concept. Moreover, we show that electrically tunable defects can be used to guide sliding drops along actively switchable tracks-with potential applications in microfluidics. PMID:24721935

't Mannetje, Dieter; Ghosh, Somnath; Lagraauw, Rudy; Otten, Simon; Pit, Arjen; Berendsen, Christian; Zeegers, Jos; van den Ende, Dirk; Mugele, Frieder

2014-01-01

158

Trapping of drops by wetting defects  

PubMed Central

Controlling the motion of drops on solid surfaces is crucial in many natural phenomena and technological processes including the collection and removal of rain drops, cleaning technology and heat exchangers. Topographic and chemical heterogeneities on solid surfaces give rise to pinning forces that can capture and steer drops in desired directions. Here we determine general physical conditions required for capturing sliding drops on an inclined plane that is equipped with electrically tunable wetting defects. By mapping the drop dynamics on the one-dimensional motion of a point mass, we demonstrate that the trapping process is controlled by two dimensionless parameters, the trapping strength measured in units of the driving force and the ratio between a viscous and an inertial time scale. Complementary experiments involving superhydrophobic surfaces with wetting defects demonstrate the general applicability of the concept. Moreover, we show that electrically tunable defects can be used to guide sliding drops along actively switchable tracks—with potential applications in microfluidics. PMID:24721935

't Mannetje, Dieter; Ghosh, Somnath; Lagraauw, Rudy; Otten, Simon; Pit, Arjen; Berendsen, Christian; Zeegers, Jos; van den Ende, Dirk; Mugele, Frieder

2014-01-01

159

Ferrofluid drops in rotating magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drops of a ferrofluid floating in a non-magnetic liquid of the same density and spun by a rotating magnetic field are investigated experimentally and theoretically. The parameters for the experiment are chosen such that different stationary drop shapes including non-axis-symmetric configurations could be observed. Within an approximate theoretical analysis the character of the occurring shape bifurcations, the different stationary drop

Alexander V. Lebedev; Andreas Engel; Konstantin I. Morozov; Heiko Bauke

2003-01-01

160

Measuring Liquid Drops In Gas Flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nonintrusive optical technique enables measurement of drops of water ingested through aircraft-engine nacelle. Drops photographed by light of laser beam directed across nacelle inlet. Beam shaped by beam expander and slit into sheet 9 mm thick. Exposure time only 10 ns- length of laser pulse, and drop motion therefore frozen in each of series of photographs. Fluorescent dye added to water improves edge definition of photographic images of drops; scattered laser light and its interference effects filtered out and only light at fluorescence wavelength photographed. Technique used in research on ingestion of water from heavy rain or wheel spray, but adapts to any droplet-laden gas stream.

Parikh, Pradip G.; Hernan, Miguel A.; Sarohia, Virendra; Yavrouian, Andre H.

1988-01-01

161

Saving every drop of water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the beginning of 2011 there has been extremely low rainfall, which has resulted in drought conditions that have affected several provinces in China. The situation of the acute water shortage requires people to make many changes in the little things they do in their daily life. Saving every drop of water and forming good habits of using water is of the utmost importance. Based on this need, our students, organized by our teachers, reached out into to the communities. By visiting, observing and issuing questionnaires, the students identified unreasonable water usage in the communities. The results of the research showed that the ratio of secondary treatment of domestic waste is very low, especially the ratio of collecting wastewater from washing, greywater, to flush the toilet. In order to solve this problem, students themselves designed a set of water saving facilities by collecting greywater to flush the toilet. They successfully installed these facilities in residential houses in the XiYinLi community, which achieved satisfactory results regarding saving water.

Jinyu, J.

2012-04-01

162

How to Drop a Course: To drop a class, talk with your advisor and fill out a drop/add (course adjustment) form. Be sure to  

E-print Network

How to Drop a Course: To drop a class, talk with your advisor and fill out a drop/add (course adjustment) form. Be sure to have it signed by your professor and your advisor. Drop/add forms are available Dates Fall 2012 Spring 2013 Last day to add a course: Mon, Sep. 17 Wed., Jan 30 Last day to drop

Goldberg, Bennett

163

Genetic Scenarios and Toothpickase  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit is a modification of one written by Edward Kloza and Paula Haddow, published by GENESYStems and funded in part by the Foundation for Blood Research. The unit is a series of soap opera type scenarios that present various genetic defects as they are discovered in a make believe family. As each defect is discovered it is discussed and the pertinent information about that defect is given. The characters soon took on a life of their own. They moved to Texas, went to UT, and developed a whole new set of disorders and problems. As I moved into my next unit, the human genome, I found they came along. It seemed that no matter what we were discussing it could be tied into this family in some way. Toothpickase is an activity in which one member of a pair of students, the enzyme toothpickase, is blindfolded and asked to break toothpicks while the other team member records results. Reaction rates, substrate concentration, allosteric inhibition can all be modeled.

BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Betty Ann Wonderly N:Ann Wonderly;Betty ORG:The Hockaday School REV:2005-04-19 END:VCARD

1994-07-30

164

Dropped head syndrome in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

We determined the frequency of dropped head syndrome in Parkinson's disease (PD) in Japan and evaluated its clinical correlates. A total of 252 consecutive patients with PD who visited our hospital were studied. Dropped head syndrome was found in 15 patients (6.0%) (3 men, 12 women; mean age at onset of PD, 62.8 +/- 11.5 years). The interval before emergence of dropped head after disease onset was 5.4 +/- 4.3 years (-0.5 to 15 years). The Hoehn-Yahr score at the on stage was 3.2 +/- 0.7; at the off stage 3.5 +/- 0.8. Of those 15 patients, 8 had major symptoms of rigidity and akinesia. In 2 patients, administration of a dopamine agonist appeared to evoke dropped head syndrome. An increase in and/or the addition of antiparkinsonian drugs alleviated head drop in 4 patients and reduced head drop in 7 patients. Any medication was not effective for 4 patients. Dropped head syndrome in PD is not rare in Japan. It is more often observed in women and is associated with patients who primarily suffer rigidity and akinesia. Dropped head syndrome in these patients appears to be produced by disproportionate tonus of the neck muscles. It is modulated by antiparkinsonian drugs and is considered to be a type of dystonia. PMID:16703588

Kashihara, Kenichi; Ohno, Manabu; Tomita, Susumu

2006-08-01

165

Pressure Drop in a Pebble Bed Reactor  

E-print Network

Pressure drops over a packed bed of pebble bed reactor type are investigated. Measurement of porosity and pressure drop over the bed were carried out in a cylindrical packed bed facility. Air and water were used for working fluids. There are several...

Kang, Changwoo

2011-10-21

166

Elastohydrodynamic lubrication of ball bearings and drops  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been recently pointed out that liquids can be lubricated similarly to solids through the imposition of relative surface motion, e.g., using thermocapillarity or forced convection. Here we examine some aspects of drop lubrication that exhibit astonishing similarities, but also differences, with conventional ball bearings that undergo elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication. Despite the fact that a drop, considered as a bearing,

Pasquale dell'Aversana; Marcello Lappa; G. Paul Neitzel

2002-01-01

167

University Drop-Out: An Italian Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

University students' drop-out is a crucial issue for the universities' efficiency evaluation and funding. In this paper, we analyze the drop-out rate of the Economics and Business faculty of Sapienza University of Rome. We use administrative data on 9,725 undergraduates students enrolled in three-years bachelor programs from 2001 to 2007 and…

Belloc, Filippo; Maruotti, Antonello; Petrella, Lea

2010-01-01

168

Water drop friction on superhydrophobic surfaces.  

PubMed

To investigate water drop friction on superhydrophobic surfaces, the motion of water drops on three different superhydrophobic surfaces has been studied by allowing drops to slide down an incline and capturing their motion using high-speed video. Two surfaces were prepared using crystallization of an alkyl ketene dimer (AKD) wax, and the third surface was the leaf of a Lotus (Nelumbo Nucifera). The acceleration of the water droplets on these superhydrophobic surfaces was measured as a function of droplet size and inclination of the surface. For small capillary numbers, we propose that the energy dissipation is dominated by intermittent pinning-depinning transitions at microscopic pinning sites along the trailing contact line of the drop, while at capillary numbers exceeding a critical value, energy dissipation is dominated by circulatory flow in the vicinity of the contacting disc between the droplet and the surface. By combining the results of the droplet acceleration with a theoretical model based on energy dissipation, we have introduced a material-specific coefficient called the superhydrophobic sliding resistance, b(sh). Once determined, this parameter is sufficient for predicting the motion of water drops on superhydrophobic surfaces of a general macroscopic topography. This theory also infers the existence of an equilibrium sliding angle, ?(eq), at which the drop acceleration is zero. This angle is decreasing with the radius of the drop and is in quantitative agreement with the measured tilt angles required for a stationary drop to start sliding down an incline. PMID:23721176

Olin, Pontus; Lindström, Stefan B; Pettersson, Torbjörn; Wågberg, Lars

2013-07-23

169

Spatial Distribution of Large Cloud Drops  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

By analyzing aircraft measurements of individual drop sizes in clouds, we have shown in a companion paper (Knyazikhin et al., 2004) that the probability of finding a drop of radius r at a linear scale l decreases as l(sup D(r)) where 0 less than or equal to D(r) less than or equal to 1. This paper shows striking examples of the spatial distribution of large cloud drops using models that simulate the observed power laws. In contrast to currently used models that assume homogeneity and therefore a Poisson distribution of cloud drops, these models show strong drop clustering, the more so the larger the drops. The degree of clustering is determined by the observed exponents D(r). The strong clustering of large drops arises naturally from the observed power-law statistics. This clustering has vital consequences for rain physics explaining how rain can form so fast. It also helps explain why remotely sensed cloud drop size is generally biased and why clouds absorb more sunlight than conventional radiative transfer models predict.

Marshak, A.; Knyazikhin, Y.; Larsen, M.; Wiscombe, W.

2004-01-01

170

Why Do Eating Disorder Patients Drop Out?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Dropout from psychotherapy is an important problem that has received little systematic attention. Although previous research suggests that the number of patients who drop out is considerable, it is not clear why they drop out or what might be done to limit the problem. The present study attempted to examine the role of the patient-therapist relationship as well as

David N. Clinton

1996-01-01

171

DROP-OUTS IN SMALL SCHOOLS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A THREE YEAR STUDY, WHICH WAS MADE OF DROPOUTS IN 49 SMALL SCHOOLS PARTICIPATING IN THE TEXAS SMALL SCHOOLS PROJECT, WAS MADE TO DETERMINE THE NUMBER OF DROPOUTS, THEIR AGE, GRADE, SEX, AND REASON FOR DROPPING OUT. THREE FIGURES AND THREE CHARTS SUMMARIZE THE RESULTS. THE STUDY REVEALED THAT (1) MORE MALES DROPPED OUT THAN FEMALES, (2) THE AVERAGE…

Texas Small Schools Project, Austin.

172

More About Evaporation In Clusters Of Drops  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report presents theoretical study of evaporation in clusters of spray drops in liquid fuel. Related to reports described in "Turbulence and Evaporation in Clusters of Drops" (NPO-17323) and "Effects of Turbulence on Ignition" (NPO-17335). Purpose of study to improve theoretical description of transport of molecular species, mass, and heat between cluster and its surroundings.

Bellan, Josette; Harstad, Kenneth G.

1990-01-01

173

Drop orbiting in a circular hydraulic jump  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our experiment, a circular hydraulic jump is formed by a viscous jet impacting a horizontal or slightly tilted glass disk. A drop of the same liquid, deposited in the jump does not coalesce, and remains trapped at its periphery, because of the air entrainment linked to the high drop rotation speed. In this strange state of non-wetting, a gyroscopic

Luc Lebon; Antoine Fruleux; Clement Savaro; Christophe Pirat; Laurent Limat

2010-01-01

174

Condensation on Surface Energy Gradient Shifts Drop Size Distribution toward Small Drops  

E-print Network

Condensation on Surface Energy Gradient Shifts Drop Size Distribution toward Small Drops Ashley M condensation from vapor onto a cooled surface, distributions of drops evolve by nucleation, growth is condensed onto a horizontally oriented surface that has been treated by silanization to deliver either

Daniel, Susan

175

Handling emergency management training scenarios: The MUSTER SCENARIO MANAGER  

SciTech Connect

The SCENARIO MANAGER is a module within the MUSTER system: a prototype computer system supporting the multi-user training of emergency managers and their staff in coordinating activities to cope with emergencies. The SCENARIO MANAGER has been designed to meet the requirements of training supervisors, that is, the persons (including aides) who plan, execute and analyze training sessions for emergency management trainees.

Andersen, H.B.; Andersen, V.; Larsen, M.S. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

1995-12-31

176

The changing nutrition scenario  

PubMed Central

The past seven decades have seen remarkable shifts in the nutritional scenario in India. Even up to the 1950s severe forms of malnutrition such as kwashiorkar and pellagra were endemic. As nutritionists were finding home-grown and common-sense solutions for these widespread problems, the population was burgeoning and food was scarce. The threat of widespread household food insecurity and chronic undernutrition was very real. Then came the Green Revolution. Shortages of food grains disappeared within less than a decade and India became self-sufficient in food grain production. But more insidious problems arising from this revolution were looming, and cropping patterns giving low priority to coarse grains and pulses, and monocropping led to depletion of soil nutrients and ‘Green Revolution fatigue’. With improved household food security and better access to health care, clinical manifestations of severe malnutrition virtually disappeared. But the decline in chronic undernutrition and “hidden hunger” from micronutrient deficiencies was slow. On the cusp of the new century, an added factor appeared on the nutritional scene in India. With steady urban migration, upward mobility out of poverty, and an increasingly sedentary lifestyle because of improvements in technology and transport, obesity rates began to increase, resulting in a dual burden. Measured in terms of its performance in meeting its Millennium Development Goals, India has fallen short. Despite its continuing high levels of poverty and illiteracy, India has a huge demographic potential in the form of a young population. This advantage must be leveraged by investing in nutrition education, household access to nutritious diets, sanitary environment and a health-promoting lifestyle. This requires co-operation from all the stakeholders, including governments, non government organizations, scientists and the people at large. PMID:24135189

Gopalan, C.

2013-01-01

177

Accidental release analysis for chlorine gas: A comparison of CAMEO, HGSYSTEM and JET/DEGADIS  

SciTech Connect

Environmental regulation, such as the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, now require the preparation of risk management plans (RMP) for facilities that handle hazardous materials such as chlorine. Air dispersion models have been developed to predict the probable impact of an accidental release of such materials. For a specific release, the concentrations to reach various reference levels calculated by each model may vary. Guidance as to which model to use and the differences between models for specific chemicals and scenarios is lacking. This paper will present the results for three different models for high, moderate and low chlorine release rates for an actual facility on the coastline of San Diego, California. The CAMEO/ALOHA, JET/DEGADIS and HGSYSTEM air dispersion models were used to predict downwind ranges to the IHDL chlorine concentration (10 ppm) for all scenarios. The calculation of plume concentrations at low release rates is frequently limited. CAMEO/ALOHA and JET/DEGADIS use much the same calculations and predict similar concentrations following a release. All three models, particularly CAMEO/ALOHA and JET/DEGADIS, exhibit difficulty in predicting the consequence of a low level release. The minimum release rate that can be effectively analyzed by the CAMEO/ALOHA and DEGADIS models is approximately 1 g/s. Lower concentrations are predicted by the CAMEO/ALOHA model. Concentrations predicted by the HGSYSTEM models were found to be two to three times greater than those predicted by the CAMEO/ALOHA and JET/DEGADIS models. Further research is needed to establish the cause of these differences.

Bishop, H.K.; Gratt, L.B. [IWG Corp., San Diego, CA (United States); McKinley, D. [NutraSweet Kelco Co., San Diego, CA (United States)

1997-12-31

178

Accidental Chlorine Gas Intoxication: Evaluation of 39 Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Chlorine is a known pulmonary irritant gas that may cause acute damage in the respiratory system. In this paper, the socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of 39 accidentally exposed patients to chlorine gas are reported and different emergency treatment modalities are also discussed. Methods Two emergency departments applications were retrospectively analyzed for evaluation of accidental chlorine gas exposure for year 2007. Patients were classified into 3 groups according to severity of clinical and laboratory findings based on the literature and duration of land of stay in the emergency department. The first group was slightly exposed (discharged within 6 hours), second group moderately exposed (treated and observed for 24 hours), and third group was severely exposed (hospitalized). Most of the patients were initially treated with a combination of humidified oxygen, corticosteroids, and bronchodilators. Results The average age was 17.03 ± 16.01 years (95% CI). Seven (17.9%) of them were female and 29 (74.4%) were children. Twenty-four patients (61.5%) were included in the first, nine (23.1%) were in second and six (15.4%) were in the third group. The presenting symptoms were cough, nausea, and vomiting and conjunctiva hyperemia for the first group, first groups symptoms plus dyspnea for the second group. Second groups symptoms plus palpitation, weakness and chest tightness were for the third group. Cough and dyspnea were seen in 64.1% and 30.8% of the patients respectively. No patients died. Conclusions The authors recommend that non symptomatic or slightly exposed patients do not need any specific treatment or symptomatic treatment is sufficient. Keywords Accidental; Chlorine exposure; Chlorine gas; Chlorine intoxication; Emergency department PMID:22481989

Sever, Mustafa; Mordeniz, Cengiz; Sever, Fidan; Dokur, Mehmet

2009-01-01

179

Review of accidental safety studies for the European HCPB test blanket system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a review of safety studies for accidental sequences in the European solid breeder test blanket module (TBM) system. These studies are the starting point for the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report of ITER, under preparation to get the construction permit first and then later the operation licence. In general the reduced inventory of activation products and tritium associated with the TBM system makes the impact of this test system almost negligible on the overall safety risk of ITER. Nevertheless, the possibility of jeopardizing the ITER safety concept has been analysed in connection to the consequences of specific accident sequences, e.g. the pressurization of the vacuum vessel due to the He coolant blow-down, the hydrogen production from the Be-steam reaction, the possible interconnection between the port cell and the vacuum vessel causing air ingress and the necessity to assure heat removal in the short and long periods. In the frame of this assessment, three LOCA sequences have been selected as representative of accidents judged to cover all scenarios envisaged in Cat II to IV events involving the TBM, namely, in-vessel LOCA, ex-vessel LOCA and in-box LOCA.

Boccaccini, L. V.; Ciattaglia, S.; Meyder, R.; Jin, X.

2007-07-01

180

Condensation on surface energy gradient shifts drop size distribution toward small drops.  

PubMed

During dropwise condensation from vapor onto a cooled surface, distributions of drops evolve by nucleation, growth, and coalescence. Drop surface coverage dictates the heat transfer characteristics and depends on both drop size and number of drops present on the surface at any given time. Thus, manipulating drop distributions is crucial to maximizing heat transfer. On earth, manipulation is achieved with gravity. However, in applications with small length scales or in low gravity environments, other methods of removal, such as a surface energy gradient, are required. This study examines how chemical modification of a cooled surface affects drop growth and coalescence, which in turn influences how a population of drops evolves. Steam is condensed onto a horizontally oriented surface that has been treated by silanization to deliver either a spatially uniform contact angle (hydrophilic, hydrophobic) or a continuous radial gradient of contact angles (hydrophobic to hydrophilic). The time evolution of number density and associated drop size distributions are measured. For a uniform surface, the shape of the drop size distribution is unique and can be used to identify the progress of condensation. In contrast, the drop size distribution for a gradient surface, relative to a uniform surface, shifts toward a population of small drops. The frequent sweeping of drops truncates maturation of the first generation of large drops and locks the distribution shape at the initial distribution. The absence of a shape change indicates that dropwise condensation has reached a steady state. Previous reports of heat transfer enhancement on chemical gradient surfaces can be explained by this shift toward smaller drops, from which the high heat transfer coefficients in dropwise condensation are attributed to. Terrestrial applications using gravity as the primary removal mechanism also stand to benefit from inclusion of gradient surfaces because the critical threshold size required for drop movement is reduced. PMID:24490757

Macner, Ashley M; Daniel, Susan; Steen, Paul H

2014-02-25

181

Accidental dextromethorphan ingestions in children less than 5 years old  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical presentation of accidental dextromethorphan (DXM) ingestions in children\\u000a <5 years old. Two consecutive years of poison center patient encounters were reviewed. Data including age, outcomes, amount\\u000a of DXM ingested, co-ingestions, vital signs, clinical manifestations, hospital admissions, and mortality were abstracted.\\u000a Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Discussion  A total of 304

Frank LoVecchio; Anthony Pizon; Bradley Riley; Leslie Matesick; Sean O’Patry

2008-01-01

182

Accidental ingestion of an untethered instrument during implant surgery.  

PubMed

During dental treatment, patients can swallow or inhale a foreign object as a result of several patient- and clinician-related factors; however, several methods can be used to prevent this complication. A 65-year-old man was referred to the Oral Implantology Clinic at the University of Amsterdam (ACTA) for a fixed prosthesis in the maxilla. While placing the implants, the screwdriver accidentally slipped from the fingers of the surgeon and was ingested by the patient. Since the difference between swallowing and inhaling cannot be accurately diagnosed, patient follow-up is advisable. PMID:24905271

Pull Ter Gunne, Lotte; Wismeijer, Daniel

2014-01-01

183

Stable chromosome aberrations 25 years after severe accidental radiation exposure.  

PubMed

A thorough cytogenetic analysis using G-banding was performed on 100 peripheral blood lymphocytes from an individual who had been accidentally exposed to radiation more than 25 years previously. More than 60% of the analysed cells were found to possess one or more stable chromosome aberrations (e.g. reciprocal translocations). Chromosomes 1 and 11 were more involved in these aberrations than would be expected from the relative chromosome lengths. No identical stable aberrations were found, suggesting that, 25 years after near-lethal exposure, haemopoietic stem cells display substantial diversity. PMID:8310126

Maes, A; Hilali, A; Léonard, E D; Léonard, A; Verschaeve, L

1993-01-01

184

Self-Administered Ethanol Enema Causing Accidental Death  

PubMed Central

Excessive ethanol consumption is a leading preventable cause of death in the United States. Much of the harm from ethanol comes from those who engage in excessive or hazardous drinking. Rectal absorption of ethanol bypasses the first pass metabolic effect, allowing for a higher concentration of blood ethanol to occur for a given volume of solution and, consequently, greater potential for central nervous system depression. However, accidental death is extremely rare with rectal administration. This case report describes an individual with klismaphilia whose death resulted from acute ethanol intoxication by rectal absorption of a wine enema.

Peterson, Thomas; Rentmeester, Landen; Judge, Bryan S.; Cohle, Stephen D.; Jones, Jeffrey S.

2014-01-01

185

Method and apparatus for controlling accidental releases of tritium  

DOEpatents

An improvement in a tritium control system based on a catalytic oxidation reactor wherein accidental releases of tritium into room air are controlled by flooding the catalytic oxidation reactor with hydrogen when the tritium concentration in the room air exceeds a specified limit. The sudden flooding with hydrogen heats the catalyst to a high temperature within seconds, thereby greatly increasing the catalytic oxidation rate of tritium to tritiated water vapor. Thus, the catalyst is heated only when needed. In addition to the heating effect, the hydrogen flow also swamps the tritium and further reduces the tritium release.

Galloway, Terry R. [Berkeley, CA

1980-04-01

186

Method and apparatus for controlling accidental releases of tritium  

DOEpatents

An improvement is described in a tritium control system based on a catalytic oxidation reactor wherein accidental releases of tritium into room air are controlled by flooding the catalytic oxidation reactor with hydrogen when the tritium concentration in the room air exceeds a specified limit. The sudden flooding with hydrogen heats the catalyst to a high temperature within seconds, thereby greatly increasing the catalytic oxidation rate of tritium to tritiated water vapor. Thus, the catalyst is heated only when needed. In addition to the heating effect, the hydrogen flow also swamps the tritium and further reduces the tritium release. 1 fig.

Galloway, T.R.

1980-04-01

187

The Parkfield Stress Drop Controversy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nadeau et al. (1995) found that the seismicity on the San Andreas fault at Parkfield is highly clustered. Individual clusters consist of a sequence of near periodically repeating small earthquakes of similar seismic moment. Nadeau and Johnston (1998) compared the moments and timing of these repeating earthquakes (Mw < 2), and some larger events, with the surface creep rate on the fault to estimate the slip and stress drop (? ? ). They obtained conventional values (0.1 to 10 MPa) for the larger earthquakes, but ? ? increased with decreasing Mw to extremely high values (> 1000 MPa) for the small earthquakes (Mw < 2). Such values are just about physically possible, but they are much higher than those estimated by seismic methods for small earthquakes elsewhere (e. g. Abercrombie 1995). These controversial high ? ? estimates have sparked a number of theoretical and laboratory studies (e. g. Sammis & Rice 2000, Anooshepoor & Brune 2001, Beeler 2001) aimed at investigating whether the observations could result from earthquakes with more normal ? ? occurring within the unusual tectonic setting at Parkfield. Lane & Nadeau (2000, 2002) considered whether localized patches of high ? ? would be resolvable by standard seismic methods. However, to date nobody has used seismic methods to determine source parameters for these controversial small earthquakes at Parkfield. We use closely located earthquakes of different sizes (for example, the sub-clusters of cluster CL14, Nadeau et al., 1995, Mw-0.2 to 1), recorded on the HRSN borehole network to analyse the source parameters. The smaller earthquakes are used as empirical Green's functions to resolve source processes of the larger events. Preliminary results from the earthquakes in cluster CL14 result in a source dimension of about 25 m and ? ? of about 1 MPa for the Mw1 earthquakes, assuming that rupture velocity is the same as that for large earthquakes. We also resolve source-time functions for these earthquakes at most stations and so we can investigate the directivity and velocity of the rupture. Finally we compare the source parameter estimates from the seismic modeling, with those from recurrence and creep rate, and assess the validity of the various proposed models.

Abercrombie, R. E.; Nadeau, R. M.

2003-12-01

188

Pattern formation in evaporating drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The redistribution of organic solutes during drop evaporation is a nanoscale self assembly process with relevance to technologies ranging from inkjet printing of organic displays to synthesis of bio-smart interfaces for sensing and screening. Atomic force microscopy studies comparing the behavior of different generation dendrimers with different surface chemistry in two solvent alcohols on mica substrates confirm that the detailed morphologies of condensed dendrimer ring structures resulting from micro-droplet evaporation sensitively depend on the surface chemistry, the solute evaporation rate and the dendrimer generation. For the dilute concentration studied here the presence of periodically 'scalloped' molecular rings is ubiquitous. The instability wavelength of the scalloped rings is found to be proportional to the width of the ring, similar to observations of the rim instability in dewetting holes. The effect of the surface chemistry of the dendrimer molecules is obvious in the detailed structure of the self assembled rings. Varying the chain length of solvent alcohol leads to modification of ring patterns. The influence of dendrimer generation on ring structure primarily reflects the increase in dendrimer density with generation number. The evolution of G2-50%C12 -pentanol rings as a function of dendrimer concentration is also described. High surface mobility and phase transformation phenomena in condensed, micro-scale dendrimer structures are documented, again using atomic force microscopy. Stratified dendrimer rings undergo dramatic temperature, time and dendrimer generation dependent morphological changes associated with large-scale molecular rearrangements and partial melting. These transformations produce ring structures consisting of a highly stable first monolayer of the scalloped structure in equilibrium with spherical cap shaped dendrimer islands that form at the center of each pre-existing scallop (creating a 'pearl necklace' structure). Analysis of the dendrimer island shapes reveals a dependence of island contact angle on contact line curvature (island size) that varies systematically with dendrimer generation. The morphological transformations in this system indicate the potential for creating complex, dendrimer-based multilevel structures and macroscopic scale arrays using, for example, droplet-on-demand or dip pen nanolithography techniques, coupled with appropriate annealing and stabilizing treatments.

Li, Fang-I.

189

Biofuel and Bioenergy implementation scenarios  

E-print Network

Biofuel and Bioenergy implementation scenarios Final report of VIEWLS WP5, modelling studies #12;Biofuel and Bioenergy implementation scenarios Final report of VIEWLS WP5, modelling studies By André of this project are to provide structured and clear data on the availability and performance of biofuels

190

Mobile Social Media Service Scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile social media services are in a technology selection stage with no clear dominant design. Experimentation is very common, and many service concepts are failing to find a valid business model. We have studied current mobile social media services and categorized them into four distinct scenarios. One of the scenarios does not have any current commercial services, which is seen

O. Makinen; S. Luukkainen

2009-01-01

191

Futures Scenario in Science Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we describe our experiences in developing futures scenarios in two science contexts, space science and atmospheric science/climate change. Futures scenario writing can develop scientific literacy by connecting science learning to students' lifeworlds--past, present and future. They also provide a synthesising mechanism for…

Lloyd, David; Vanderhout, Annastasia; Lloyd, Lisa; Atkins, David

2010-01-01

192

Multi-scale Analysis of MEMS Sensors Subject to Drop Impacts  

PubMed Central

The effect of accidental drops on MEMS sensors are examined within the framework of a multi-scale finite element approach. With specific reference to a polysilicon MEMS accelerometer supported by a naked die, the analysis is decoupled into macro-scale (at die length-scale) and meso-scale (at MEMS length-scale) simulations, accounting for the very small inertial contribution of the sensor to the overall dynamics of the device. Macro-scale analyses are adopted to get insights into the link between shock waves caused by the impact against a target surface and propagating inside the die, and the displacement/acceleration histories at the MEMS anchor points. Meso-scale analyses are adopted to detect the most stressed details of the sensor and to assess whether the impact can lead to possible localized failures. Numerical results show that the acceleration at sensor anchors cannot be considered an objective indicator for drop severity. Instead, accurate analyses at sensor level are necessary to establish how MEMS can fail because of drops.

Mariani, Stefano; Ghisi, Aldo; Corigliano, Alberto; Zerbini, Sarah

2007-01-01

193

The Drop Tower Bremen -An Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity (ZARM) was founded in 1985 as an institute of the University of Bremen, which focuses on research on gravitational and space-related phenomena. In 1988, the construction of ZARM`s drop tower began. Since its inau-guration in September 1990, the eye-catching Drop Tower Bremen with a height of 146m and its characteristic glass roof has become twice a landmark on the campus of the University of Bremen and the emblem of the technology park Bremen. As such an outstanding symbol of space science in Bremen the drop tower provides an european unique facility for experiments under conditions of high-quality weightlessness with residual gravitational accelerations in the microgravity regime. The period of maximum 4.74s of each freely falling experiment at the Drop Tower Bremen is only limited by the height of the drop tower vacuum tube, which was fully manufactured of steal and enclosed by an outer concrete shell. Thus, the pure free fall height of each microgravity drop experiment is approximately 110m. By using the later in-stalled catapult system established in 2004 ZARM`s short-term microgravity laboratory is able to nearly double the time of free fall. This world-wide inimitable capsule catapult system meets scientists` demand of extending the period of weightlessness. During the catapult operation the experiment capsule performs a vertical parabolic flight within the drop tower vacuum tube. In this way the time of microgravity can be extended to slightly over 9s. Either in the drop or in the catapult operation routine the repetition rates of microgravity experiments at ZARM`s drop tower facility are the same, generally up to 3 times per day. In comparison to orbital platforms the ground-based laboratory Drop Tower Bremen represents an economic alternative with a permanent access to weightlessness on earth. Moreover, the exceptional high quality of weightlessness in order of 1e-6 g (in the frequency range below 100Hz) demonstrates a perfect experimental environment for unperturbed investigations of scientific phenomena. Motivated by these prospects many national and international groups have initialized research programs taking advantage of this drop tower facility. In respect thereof the spectrum of research fields and technologies in space-related conditions can be continuously enhanced at ZARM. In the first of our two talks we will give you an overview about the inner structure of ZARM, as well as the service and the operation offered by the ZARM Drop Tower Operation and Service Company (ZARM FAB mbH). The ZARM FAB mbH owned by the State Government of Bremen is a public company maintaining the drop tower facility and supporting experimentalists in scientific and technical questions before, during and after their drop or catapult campaigns. In detail, we will present you important technical drop tower informations, our support and the idea, how you can proceed with your microgravity-related experiment including all your requirements to successfully accomplish an entire drop or catapult campaign. In summary, we will illustrate the complete procedure, how to drop or to catapult an experiment capsule at the Drop Tower Bremen.

von Kampen, Peter; Könemann, Thorben; Rath, Hans J.

194

Investigation of drop motion through circular orifices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The motion of drops though porous media occurs in numerous science and engineering fields including multiphase fluid flow in the subsurface during groundwater flow, geothermal energy recovery, and geologic carbon dioxide sequestration. Here, we simplify the porous medium to a thin plate with an orifice to study the interactions between the drop and the solid medium. Drops of water/glycerin with diameter, D, are released in a tank of silicone oil with matched refractive index and allowed to fall downward by gravity. After reaching terminal speed, the drops encounter a thin plate with orifice diameter, d, placed horizontally within the surrounding tank. Drop deformation, contact with the orifice, and breakage are investigated using high-speed imaging, and velocity fields are determined by particle image velocimetry (PIV). Effects of diameter ratio d/D, drop Reynolds number, and drop offset with respect to the orifice center are examined. The experimental results are compared to results from numerical simulations using an immiscible, two-color BGK lattice-Boltzmann method performed under similar test conditions.

Deep Bordoloi, Ankur; Longmire, Ellen K.; Kong, Xiangzhao; Saar, Martin O.

2011-11-01

195

Superheated water drops in hot oil  

E-print Network

Drops of water at room temperature were released in hot oil, which had a temperature higher than that of the boiling point of water. Initially, the drop temperature increases slowly mainly due to heat transfer diffusion; convective heat transfer is small because the motion takes place at a small Reynolds number. Once the drop reaches the bottom of the container, it sticks to the surface with a certain contact angle. Then, a part of the drop vaporizes: the nucleation point may appear at the wall, the interface or the bulk of the drop. The vapor expands inside the drop and deforms its interface. The way in which the vapor expands, either smooth or violent, depends on the location of the nucleation point and oil temperature. Furthermore, for temperatures close to the boiling point of water, the drops are stable (overheated); the vaporization does not occur spontaneously but it may be triggered with an external perturbation. In this case the growth of the vapor bubble is rather violent. Many visualization for dif...

Soto, Enrique; Belmonte, Andrew

2009-01-01

196

Drop orbiting in a circular hydraulic jump  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our experiment, a circular hydraulic jump is formed by a viscous jet impacting a horizontal or slightly tilted glass disk. A drop of the same liquid, deposited in the jump does not coalesce, and remains trapped at its periphery, because of the air entrainment linked to the high drop rotation speed. In this strange state of non-wetting, a gyroscopic instability occurs that tends to induce orbital motions of the drop around the jump perimeter. For a slightly inclined substrate, the drop oscillates around the lowest equilibrium position, while for a rigorously horizontal disk, the drop exhibits two distinct motions depending on the ratio between drop and jump radius: (1) a orbital motion at constant speed, and (2) a irregular (chaotic?) motion involving random inversions of the velocity. A simple model in which the drop is treated as a rigid sphere sliding on the free surface of the liquid allows us to recover the orbital motion, but not the irregular phase, that seems to involve distorsions of the jump shape.

Lebon, Luc; Fruleux, Antoine; Savaro, Clement; Pirat, Christophe; Limat, Laurent

2010-11-01

197

Microjetting from wave focusing on oscillating drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present experimental observations of microjetting from an oscillating drop. The jet is generated by the focusing of axisymmetric capillary waves that overturn and collide at an apex of the drop. These jets are up to two orders of magnitude smaller than the original drops. We present two widely different configurations that produce such microjets. The first occurs on a satellite drop, produced by the pinch-off of a water drop from a vertical nozzle. The large oscillations following the contraction of the satellite bridge focus waves at the bottom, sending out a 30?m jet at 9.9m/s. The second jet arises when a water drop, containing surfactants, falls onto and passes through a hemispherical soap film. The gentle deformation of the drop creates a surface wave that focuses at its top, shooting out a tiny jet and entrapping a small bubble inside the drop. This jet is 16±5?m in diameter and emerges at 6.3m/s. In this configuration, the soap film wraps around the drop and acts as a sensor of the air flow, revealing that the liquid jet is preceded by a localized faster-moving air jet. The jetting in both configurations is quite robust and occurs even for slightly asymmetric conditions. These microjets appear for much lower values of the Reynolds and Weber numbers than previously observed, suggesting that free-surface jetting is not limited to the inviscid capillary-inertial regime, which has been the focus of much of the theoretical work.

Thoroddsen, S. T.; Etoh, T. G.; Takehara, K.

2007-05-01

198

High temperature drop calorimetry and thermodynamic properties  

SciTech Connect

Experimental determination of thermodynamic properties (e.g. enthalpy of formation, heat capacity, Gibbs free energy, etc.) is still the recourse for accurate thermodynamic data for the condensed phases. Calorimetry is probably the best experimental method for their determination. Drop calorimetry in its various modifications is still the method of choice to determine the enthalpy functions for solids and liquids above 1,000 C. The conventional drop calorimeter for solids and a drop calorimeter coupled to an electromagnetic levitation coil useful for conductive samples in both the solid and molten phases are described. Experimental results obtained up to and above the melting point of rare earth metals are presented.

Chandrasekhariah, M.S. [Houston Advanced Research Center, The Woodlands, TX (United States). Materials Science Research Center; Bautista, R.G. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering

1995-04-01

199

Analysis of the drop weight method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The drop weight method is an accurate yet simple technique for determining surface tension ?. It relies on dripping a liquid of density ? at a low flow rate Q˜ from a capillary of radius R into air and measuring the combined volumes of the primary and satellite drops that are formed. The method's origin can be traced to Tate, who postulated that the volume ?ideal of the drop that falls from the capillary should be given by ?g?ideal=2?R?, where g is the gravitational acceleration. Since Tate's law is only an approximation and the actual drop volume ?fdrop volume, ? ??f/?ideal, as a function of the dimensionless tube radius, ? ?R/?f1/3. Thus, once the actual drop volume ?f, and hence ?, is known, ? is readily calculated upon determining the value of ? from the master curve and that ? =?g?f/2?R?. Although HB proposed their master curve more than 80 years ago, a sound theoretical foundation for the drop weight method has heretofore been lacking. This weakness is remedied here by determining the dynamics of formation of many drops and their satellites in sequence by solving numerically the recently popularized one-dimensional (1-d) slender-jet equations. Computed solutions of the 1-d equations are shown to be in excellent agreement with HB's master curve when Q˜ is low. Moreover, a new theory of the drop weight method is developed using the computations and dimensional analysis. The latter reveals that there must exist a functional relationship between the parameter ?, where ?-3 is the dimensionless drop volume, and the gravitational Bond number G ??gR2/?, the Ohnesorge number Oh ??/(?R?)1/2, where ? is the viscosity, and the Weber number We ??Q˜2/?2R3?. When We ?0, the computed results show that ? depends solely on G. In this limit, a new correlation is deduced which has a simple functional form, G =3.60?2.81, and is more convenient to use than that of HB. The computed results are also used to show how the original drop weight method can be extended to situations where We is finite and resulting drop volumes are not independent of Oh.

Yildirim, Ozgur E.; Xu, Qi; Basaran, Osman A.

2005-06-01

200

Rotation of ultrasonically levitated glycerol drops  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ultrasonic levitation is used to suspend single millimeter-size glycerol drops in a rectangular chamber. Audio-frequency laterally standing waves set up in the chamber are used to torque the suspended drops. The shape evolution of the drop under the combined effect of centrifugal forces and the acoustic radiation stress, along with its angular velocity are monitored, using video imaging and light scattering techniques. The results show good qualitative agreement with the theoretically predicted shape evolution as a function of angular velocity.

Biswas, A.; Leung, E. W.; Trinh, E. H.

1991-01-01

201

Condensation-induced jumping water drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water droplets can jump during vapor condensation on solid benzene near its melting point. This phenomenon, which can be viewed as a kind of micro scale steam engine, is studied experimentally and numerically. The latent heat of condensation transferred at the drop three phase contact line melts the substrate during a time proportional to R (the drop radius). The wetting conditions change and a spontaneous jump of the drop results in random direction over length ˜1.5R , a phenomenon that increases the coalescence events and accelerates the growth. Once properly rescaled by the jump length scale, the growth dynamics is, however, similar to that on a solid surface.

Narhe, R. D.; Khandkar, M. D.; Shelke, P. B.; Limaye, A. V.; Beysens, D. A.

2009-09-01

202

Proceedings of the Second International Colloquium on Drops and Bubbles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Applications of bubble and drop technologies are discussed and include: low gravity manufacturing, containerless melts, microballoon fabrication, ink printers, laser fusion targets, generation of organic glass and metal shells, and space processing. The fluid dynamics of bubbles and drops were examined. Thermomigration, capillary flow, and interfacial tension are discussed. Techniques for drop control are presented and include drop size control and drop shape control.

Lecroissette, D. H. (editor)

1982-01-01

203

COURSE DROP PRACTICES IN TWO?YEAR COLLEGES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Course drop practices among two?year colleges were surveyed. Examined were deadlines by which courses were dropped, grades received when classes were dropped, who initiates drop procedures, and the extent to which policies related to the above stated practices have been recently changed. One fourth of the institutions reported a drop deadline of between four and six weeks from the end

Arthur R. Southerland; Patricia Kramer Lowry

1985-01-01

204

Dispersion Of Evaporating Drops In A Vortex  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report presents theoretical study of behavior of evaporating liquid drops entrained in annular cross section of long, coherent gas vortex. Dynamic and thermodynamic interactions described. Study contributes to understanding of evaporation and combustion of sprayed liquid fuels.

Bellan, Josette; Harstad, Kenneth G.

1992-01-01

205

How to Use Eye Drops Properly  

MedlinePLUS

... at least 5 minutes before instilling the next drop. 12 Replace and tighten the cap on the dropper bottle. Do not wipe or rinse the dropper tip. 13 Wash your hands to remove any medication. Print ...

206

Making Drop Off at Child Care Easier  

MedlinePLUS

... Easier Family Life Listen Making Drop Off at Child Care Easier Article Body Getting the day started can ... some suggestions to make your separation at the child care setting a little easier for both of you. ...

207

Electromyographic responses to aerodynamic vs. drop handlebars  

E-print Network

differences not revealed by metabolic testing. In this study the electromyography of the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, and low back were recorded during cycling with both aerodynamic handlebars and drop handlebars, Although...

Layne, Donald Jodel

2012-06-07

208

Shapes of Bubbles and Drops in Motion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the shape distortions that take place in fluid packets (bubbles or drops) with steady flow motion by using the laws of Archimedes, Pascal, and Bernoulli rather than advanced vector calculus. (WRM)

O'Connell, James

2000-01-01

209

Sensitivities for a Single Drop Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In process engineering, a single drop is investigated to better understand its physical and chemical behavior. Laboratory\\u000a experiments using the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) technology are prepared by numerical simulations aiming at finding\\u000a a suitable geometry of the measuring cell. In the underlying numerical optimization problem, derivatives of the flow field\\u000a around a single drop with respect to geometric parameters

Christian H. Bischof; H. Martin Bücker; Arno Rasch; Emil Slusanschi

2003-01-01

210

Dropping out of treatment: A critical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a discussion of methodological issues, literature on dropping out of treatment is critically reviewed in 6 areas: hospital treatment of general psychiatric and tubercular patients, outpatient treatment of internal medical conditions, alcoholism, heroin addiction, general psychiatric outpatient psychotherapy, and double-blind drug studies. 15 factors were found to predict dropping out in 100%, 83-88%, and 60-75% of the relevant studies:

Frederick Baekeland; Lawrence Lundwall

1975-01-01

211

Interpreting the IPCC emisions scenarios  

E-print Network

This paper discusses how two sets of emissions scenarios, generated using the Atmospheric Stabilization Framework, were used by the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). In particular it discusses ...

Margolis, Robert M.

1992-01-01

212

Procedures, placement, and risks of further abuse after Munchausen syndrome by proxy, non-accidental poisoning, and non-accidental suffocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESTo investigate outcome, management, and prevention in Munchausen syndrome by proxy, non-accidental poisoning, and non-accidental suffocation.DESIGNAscertainment through British Paediatric Surveillance Unit and questionnaires to responding paediatricians.SETTINGThe UK and Republic of Ireland, September 1992 to August 1994.SUBJECTSChildren under 14 years diagnosed with the above.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURESPlacement and child protection measures for victims and siblings; morbidity and reabuse rates for victims; abuse

P Davis; R J McClure; K Rolfe; N Chessman; S Pearson; J R Sibert; R Meadow

1998-01-01

213

Scenarios, targets, gaps, and costs  

SciTech Connect

This paper explores the connection between human activities and the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. t explores the implication of the wide range of emissions scenarios developed by the IPCC in the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios and concludes that a robust finding is that major changes will be required in the global energy system if the concentration of carbon dioxide is eventually to be stabilized.

Edmonds, James A.; Joos, Fortunat; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa; Richels, Richard G.; Sarmiento, Jorge L.

2005-03-30

214

Lifetime of oil drops pressed by buoyancy against a planar interface: Large drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a previous report [C. Rojas, G. Urbina-Villalba, and M. García-Sucre, Phys. Rev. E 81, 016302 (2010)10.1103/PhysRevE.81.016302] it was shown that emulsion stability simulations are able to reproduce the lifetime of micrometer-size drops of hexadecane pressed by buoyancy against a planar water-hexadecane interface. It was confirmed that small drops (ri<10?m) stabilized with ? -casein behave as nondeformable particles, moving with a combination of Stokes and Taylor tensors as they approach the interface. Here, a similar methodology is used to parametrize the potential of interaction of drops of soybean oil stabilized with bovine serum albumin. The potential obtained is then employed to study the lifetime of deformable drops in the range 10?ri?1000?m . It is established that the average lifetime of these drops can be adequately replicated using the model of truncated spheres. However, the results depend sensibly on the expressions of the initial distance of deformation and the maximum film radius used in the calculations. The set of equations adequate for large drops is not satisfactory for medium-size drops (10?ri?100?m) , and vice versa. In the case of large particles, the increase in the interfacial area as a consequence of the deformation of the drops generates a very large repulsive barrier which opposes coalescence. Nevertheless, the buoyancy force prevails. As a consequence, it is the hydrodynamic tensor of the drops which determine the characteristic behavior of the lifetime as a function of the particle size. While the average values of the coalescence time of the drops can be justified by the mechanism of film thinning, the scattering of the experimental data of large drops cannot be rationalized using the methodology previously described. A possible explanation of this phenomenon required elaborate simulations which combine deformable drops, capillary waves, repulsive interaction forces, and a time-dependent surfactant adsorption.

Rojas, Clara; García-Sucre, Máximo; Urbina-Villalba, Germán

2010-11-01

215

B-52B/DTV (Drop Test Vehicle) flight test results: Drop test missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA test airplane, B-52B-008, was a carrier for drop tests of the shuttle booster recovery parachute system. The purpose of the test support by Boeing was to monitor the vertical loads on the pylon hooks. The hooks hold the Drop Test Vehicle to the B-52 pylon during drop test missions. The loads were monitored to assure the successful completion of the flight and the safety of the crew.

Doty, L. J.

1985-01-01

216

Involving Parents in Indicated Early Intervention for Childhood PTSD Following Accidental Injury  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accidental injuries represent the most common type of traumatic event to which a youth is likely to be exposed. While the majority of youth who experience an accidental injury will recover spontaneously, a significant proportion will go on to develop Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). And yet, there is little published treatment outcome…

Cobham, Vanessa E.; March, Sonja; De Young, Alexandra; Leeson, Fiona; Nixon, Reginald; McDermott, Brett; Kenardy, Justin

2012-01-01

217

Accidental unilateral and incomplete strangulation injury in a patient while traveling on a bicycle.  

PubMed

Chunni (a piece of cloth worn around the neck by many Indian women) is a well recognized accidental ligature around the neck. We report a rare case of accidental strangulation with chunni where the patient was pillion rider on bicycle; in spite of very common of use of bicycle to best our knowledge this kind of injury has not been reported previously. PMID:19573848

Agrawal, Amit; Ninave, Sudhir; Srivastava, Tripti; Sunkara, Anil; Agrawal, Sachin

2009-08-01

218

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 12. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF SULFUR DIOXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses the control of accidental releases of sulfur dioxide (SO2) to the atmosphere. SO2 has an IDLH (immediately dangerous to life and health) concentration of 100 ppm, making it an acute toxic hazard. Reducing the risk associated with an accidental release of SO2 ...

219

The Drop Tower Bremen -Experiment Operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The idea behind the drop tower facility of the Center of Applied Space Technology and Micro-gravity (ZARM) in Bremen is to provide an inimitable technical opportunity of a daily access to short-term weightlessness on earth. In this way ZARM`s european unique ground-based microgravity laboratory displays an excellent economic alternative for research in space-related conditions at low costs comparable to orbital platforms. Many national and international ex-perimentalists motivated by these prospects decide to benefit from the high-quality and easy accessible microgravity environment only provided by the Drop Tower Bremen. Corresponding experiments in reduced gravity could open new perspectives of investigation methods and give scientists an impressive potential for a future technology and multidisciplinary applications on different research fields like Fundamental Physics, Astrophysics, Fluid Dynamics, Combus-tion, Material Science, Chemistry and Biology. Generally, realizing microgravity experiments at ZARM`s drop tower facility meet new requirements of the experimental hardware and may lead to some technical constraints in the setups. In any case the ZARM Drop Tower Operation and Service Company (ZARM FAB mbH) maintaining the drop tower facility is prepared to as-sist experimentalists by offering own air-conditioned laboratories, clean rooms, workshops and consulting engineers, as well as scientific personal. Furthermore, ZARM`s on-site apartment can be used for accommodations during the experiment campaigns. In terms of approaching drop tower experimenting, consulting of experimentalists is mandatory to successfully accomplish the pursued drop or catapult capsule experiment. For this purpose there will be a lot of expertise and help given by ZARM FAB mbH in strong cooperation to-gether with the experimentalists. However, in comparison to standard laboratory setups the drop or catapult capsule setup seems to be completely different at first view. While defining a microgravity project at the Drop Tower Bremen, interesting experimentalists should keep in mind generally reducing dimensions and masses of their common laboratory setups to meet the capsule constraints: overall payload height 980mm/1730mm (short/long drop capsule) and 950mm (catapult capsule); area of each capsule platform 0,359sqm; maximum payload mass 274kg/234kg (short/long drop capsule) and 163,8kg (catapult capsule). The base equipments of each capsule are the Capsule Control System (CCS) to remote control the experiment and the rechargeable battery pack (24V/40A) for the experiment operation. Moreover, the exper-iment components must be able to withstand maximum decelerations of 50g while the short capsule impact of about 200ms, and maximum accelerations of 30g while catapult launch with a duration of about 300ms. In our second talk concerning ZARM`s drop tower facility we will go on with detailed infor-mations about the technical base setups of the drop and the catapult capsule structure to completely handle a freely falling experiment. Furthermore, we will summarize interesting current drop tower projects as an outlook to present you the range of opportunities at the ground-based short-term microgravity laboratory of ZARM.

Könemann, Thorben; von Kampen, Peter; Rath, Hans J.

220

Dose assessment of an accidental exposure at IPNS  

SciTech Connect

Seven different methods were used to estimate the dose rate to a female worker who was accidentally exposed in the neutron PHOENIX beamline at the IPNS. Theoretical and measured entrance dose rates ranged from 550 mrem/min to 2,850 mrem/min. Theoretical estimates were based on a Monte Carlo simulation of a spectrum provided by IPNS (Crawford Spectrum). Dose measurements were made with TLDs on phantoms and with ionization chambers in a water phantom. Estimates of the whole body total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) rate ranged from 5.2 mrem/min to 840 mrem/min. Assumed and measured quality factors ranged from 2.6 to 11.8. Cytogenic analyses of blood samples detected no positive exposure. The recommended TEDE rate was 158 mrem/min. The TEDE was 750 mrem.

Torres, M.M.C.

1996-05-01

221

Dose assessment of an accidental exposure at the IPNS  

SciTech Connect

Seven different methods were used to estimate the dose rate to a female worker who was accidentally exposed in the neutron PHOENIX beamline at the IPNS. Theoretical and measured entrance dose ranged from 550 mrem/min to 2850 mrem/min. Theoretical estimates were based on a Monte Carlo simulation of a spectrum provided by IPNS (Crawford Spectrum). Dose measurements were made with TLDs on phantoms and with ionization chambers in a water phantom. Estimates of the whole body total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) rate ranged from 5.2 mrem/min to 840 mrem/min. Assumed and measured quality factors ranged from 2.6 to 11.8. Cytogenetic analyses of blood samples detected no positive exposure. The recommended TEDE rate was 158 mrem/min. The TEDE was 750 mrem.

Campos Torres, M.M.

1995-02-01

222

Geriatric assessment of a giant splenic artery aneurysm accidentally diagnosed.  

PubMed

Giant splenic artery aneurysms (GSAAs) larger than 8 cm in diameter have rarely been reported, particularly in older people. They are clinically important lesions, often asymptomatic and related to an increased risk of complications such as abrupt rupture, requiring emergency surgical treatment. Comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA), originally developed for multidimensional clinical evaluation in several geriatric settings, was recently proposed as a fundamental preoperative aid for treatment planning of older patients undergoing elective surgery and preventing adverse post-operative outcomes. We present the first case of an asymptomatic 9-cm partially thrombosed GSAA, accidentally diagnosed during abdominal ultrasound in a 63-year-old woman from the Apulia region in Southern Italy. She successfully underwent aneurysmectomy, highlighting the usefulness of CGA in elective surgical patients. PMID:22526082

Orsitto, Giuseppe; Fulvio, Francesco; Pinto, Antonio G; Turi, Vincenzo; Tria, Domenico; Venezia, Amedeo; Colucci, Clementina; Castellana, Roberto; Manca, Cosimo

2011-01-01

223

Accidental intrathecal injection of magnesium sulfate for cesarean section  

PubMed Central

Magnesium sulfate is used frequently in the operation room and risks of wrong injection should be considered. A woman with history of pseudocholinesterase enzyme deficiency in the previous surgery was referred for cesarean operation. Magnesium sulfate of 700 mg (3.5 ml of 20% solution) was accidentally administered in the subarachnoid space. First, the patient had warm sensation and cutaneous anesthesia, but due to deep tissue pain, general anesthesia was induced by thiopental and atracurium. After the surgery, muscle relaxation and lethargy remained. At 8-10 h later, muscle strength improved and train of four (TOF) reached over 0.85, and then the endotracheal tube was removed. The patient was evaluated during the hospital stay and on the anesthesia clinic. No neurological symptoms, headache or backache were reported. Due to availability of magnesium sulfate, we should be careful for inadvertent intravenous, spinal and epidural injection; therefore before injection must be double checked.

Gilani, Mehryar Taghavi; Zirak, Nahid; Razavi, Majid

2014-01-01

224

Heat gain in the treatment of accidental hypothermia.  

PubMed

In two cases of accidental hypothermia, heated humidification of the inspired gases and warming of fluids administered intravenously was associated with an increase in the deep body (core) temperatures at rates of 0-5 degrees to 1-0 degrees C per hour. The first case demonstrated that heat was transferred selectively to the body core, as temperatures here rose during the first three hours of treatment, while skin temperatures remained low. The second patient gained less than 0-1 degrees C per hour when treated "passively" by means of surface insulation with unheated blankets. The introduction of "active" measures was followed by a more rapid gain. It is suggested that heat supplied to the body core by these measures provides effective additions to metabolic production, particularly when the deep body and cardiac temperatures are at their lowest. PMID:1186557

Shanks, C A

1975-08-30

225

Delayed upper-airway injury after accidental alkaline ingestion.  

PubMed

A 62-year-old man presented to the emergency department one week after accidentally drinking an alkaline cleaning agent stored in unlabeled bottle. The day of the incident the patient presented to an outside hospital where he was admitted for an upper endoscopy of the esophagus which was found to be negative for acute injury. An initial chest X-ray taken the day of the incident was also found to be normal. After discharge the patient continued to have a sore throat and marked dysphagia which caused him to vomit repeatedly. Moreover, the patient began to develop chest pain with associated shortness of breath. We present a case of delayed airway injury and tracheal thickening and associated chest pain after alkaline ingestion and we discuss herein the pathophysiology and management of alkaline ingestions. PMID:25013732

Ryan, Matthew F; Fernandez, Mindy; Laauwe, Karen

2014-01-01

226

Reporting a sudden death due to accidental gasoline inhalation.  

PubMed

The investigation of uncertain fatalities requires accurate determination of the cause of death, with assessment of all factors that may have contributed to it. Gasoline is a complex and highly variable mixture of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons that can lead to cardiac arrhythmias due to sensitization of the myocardium to catecholamines or acts as a simple asphyxiant if the vapors displace sufficient oxygen from the breathing atmosphere. This work describes a sudden occupational fatality involving gasoline. The importance of this petroleum distillate detection and its quantitative toxicological significance is discussed using a validated analytical method. A 51 year-old Caucasian healthy man without significant medical history was supervising the repairs of the telephone lines in a manhole near to a gas station. He died suddenly after inhaling gasoline vapors from an accidental leak. Extensive blistering and peeling of skin were observed on the skin of the face, neck, anterior chest, upper and lower extremities, and back. The internal examination showed a strong odor of gasoline, specially detected in the respiratory tract. The toxicological screening and quantitation of gasoline was performed by means of gas chromatography with flame ionization detector and confirmation was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Disposition of gasoline in different tissues was as follows: heart blood, 35.7 mg/L; urine, not detected; vitreous humor, 1.9 mg/L; liver, 194.7 mg/kg; lung, 147.6 mg/kg; and gastric content, 116,6 mg/L (2.7 mg total). Based upon the toxicological data along with the autopsy findings, the cause of death was determined to be gasoline poisoning and the manner of death was accidental. We would like to alert on the importance of testing for gasoline, and in general for volatile hydrocarbons, in work-related sudden deaths involving inhalation of hydrocarbon vapors and/or exhaust fumes. PMID:21354726

Martínez, María Antonia; Ballesteros, Salomé; Alcaraz, Rafael

2012-02-10

227

Monitoring Volcanoes by Use of Air-Dropped Sensor Packages  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sensor packages that would be dropped from airplanes have been proposed for pre-eruption monitoring of physical conditions on the flanks of awakening volcanoes. The purpose of such monitoring is to gather data that could contribute to understanding and prediction of the evolution of volcanic systems. Each sensor package, denoted a volcano monitoring system (VMS), would include a housing with a parachute attached at its upper end and a crushable foam impact absorber at its lower end (see figure). The housing would contain survivable low-power instrumentation that would include a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, an inclinometer, a seismometer, a barometer, a thermometer, and CO2 and SO2 analyzers. The housing would also contain battery power, control, data-logging, and telecommunication subsystems. The proposal for the development of the VMS calls for the use of commercially available sensor, power, and telecommunication equipment, so that efforts could be focused on integrating all of the equipment into a system that could survive impact and operate thereafter for 30 days, transmitting data on the pre-eruptive state of a target volcano to a monitoring center. In a typical scenario, VMSs would be dropped at strategically chosen locations on the flanks of a volcano once the volcano had been identified as posing a hazard from any of a variety of observations that could include eyewitness reports, scientific observations from positions on the ground, synthetic-aperture-radar scans from aircraft, and/or remote sensing from aboard spacecraft. Once dropped, the VMSs would be operated as a network of in situ sensors that would transmit data to a local monitoring center. This network would provide observations as part of an integrated volcano-hazard assessment strategy that would involve both remote sensing and timely observations from the in situ sensors. A similar strategy that involves the use of portable sensors (but not dropping of sensors from aircraft) is already in use in the Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (VDAP), which was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance to respond to volcanic crises around the world. The VMSs would add a greatly needed capability that would enable VDAP response teams to deploy their volcano-monitoring equipment in a more timely manner with less risk to personnel in the field.

Kedar, Sharon; Rivellini, Tommaso; Webb, Frank; Blaes, Brent; Bracho, Caroline; Lockhart, Andrew; McGee, Ken

2003-01-01

228

Lifetime of oil drops pressed by buoyancy against a planar interface: Large drops  

E-print Network

In a previous report [10] it was shown that emulsion stability simulations are able to reproduce the lifetime of micrometer-size drops of hexadecane pressed by buoyancy against a planar water-hexadecane interface. It was confirmed that small drops (rioil stabilized with bovine serum albumin. The potential obtained is then employed to study the lifetime of deformable drops in the range 10 \\leq ri \\leq 1000 {\\mu}m. It is established that the average lifetime of these drops can be adequately replicated using the model of truncated spheres. However, the results depend sensibly on the expressions of the initial distance of deformation and the maximum film radius used in the calculations. The set of equations adequate for large drops is not satisfactory for medium-size drops (10 \\leq ri \\leq 100 {\\mu}m), and vice versa. In the case of large particles, the increase in the interfacial area as a consequence of the deformation of the drops generates a very large repulsive barrier which opposes coalescence. Nevertheless, the buoyancy force prevails. As a consequence, it is the hydrodynamic tensor of the drops which determine the characteristic behavior of the lifetime as a function of the particle size. While the average values of the coalescence time of the drops can be justified by the mechanism of film thinning, the scattering of the experimental data of large drops cannot be rationalized using the methodology previously described. A possible explanation of this phenomenon required elaborate simulations which combine deformable drops, capillary waves, repulsive interaction forces, and a time-dependent surfactant adsorption.

Clara Rojas; Máximo García-Sucre; Germán Urbina-Villalba

2010-12-15

229

Vibrations of Sessile Drops of Soft Hydrogels  

E-print Network

Sessile drops of soft hydrogels were vibrated vertically by subjecting them to a mechanically induced Gaussian white noise. Power spectra of the surface fluctuation of the gel allowed identification of its resonant frequency that decreases with their mass, but increases with its shear modulus. The principal resonant frequencies of the spheroidal modes of the gel of shear moduli ranging from 55 Pa to 290 Pa were closest to the lowest Rayleigh mode of vibration of a drop of pure water. These observations coupled with the fact that the resonance frequency varies inversely as the square root of the mass in all cases suggest that they primarily correspond to the capillary (or a pseudo-capillary) mode of drop vibration. The contact angles of the gel drops also increase with the modulus of the gel. When the resonance frequencies are corrected for the wetting angles, and plotted against the fundamental frequency scale (gamma/mu)^0.5, all the data collapse nicely on a single plot provided that the latter is shifted by a shear modulus dependent factor (1+mu.L/gamma). A length scale L, independent of both the modulus and the mass of the drop emerges from such a fit.

Aditi Chakrabarti; Manoj K. Chaudhury

2014-10-08

230

Queensland University of Technology Drop Tower Facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Queensland University of Technology (QUT) Drop Tower Facility provides access to an inexpensive high quality reduced gravity test environment. This facility is available to and has been used by number of nationally and internationally based organisations, along with researchers from QUT, for scientific and industry related research. The drop tower, located in Brisbane, Australia, allows 2.0 seconds of high quality reduced gravity (˜0.001 g). The cylindrical drop package has a maximum rating of 200 kg with dimensions of 0.8 m diameter and 0.9 m high, and experiences a maximum deceleration of ˜30 g. Current research projects being carried out at the QUT Drop Tower Facility include research in the areas of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis of materials, combustion and fire safety, flammability of metals, characterisation of combustion products, and sol-gel nanomaterials. Keywords: Reduced gravity, microgravity, drop tower, zero gravity, low gravity, combustion, combustion products, nanomaterials, sol-gel, flammability, high temperature synthesis.

Plagens, Owen; Hales, Matthew; Castillo, Martin; Steinberg, Theodore

2012-07-01

231

50 CFR 23.52 - What are the requirements for replacing a lost, damaged, stolen, or accidentally destroyed CITES...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the requirements for replacing a lost, damaged, stolen, or accidentally...POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION...requirements for replacing a lost, damaged, stolen, or accidentally...when a CITES document has been lost, damaged, stolen, or...

2010-10-01

232

50 CFR 23.52 - What are the requirements for replacing a lost, damaged, stolen, or accidentally destroyed CITES...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the requirements for replacing a lost, damaged, stolen, or accidentally...POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION...requirements for replacing a lost, damaged, stolen, or accidentally...when a CITES document has been lost, damaged, stolen, or...

2011-10-01

233

50 CFR 23.52 - What are the requirements for replacing a lost, damaged, stolen, or accidentally destroyed CITES...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the requirements for replacing a lost, damaged, stolen, or accidentally...POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION...requirements for replacing a lost, damaged, stolen, or accidentally...when a CITES document has been lost, damaged, stolen, or...

2013-10-01

234

50 CFR 23.52 - What are the requirements for replacing a lost, damaged, stolen, or accidentally destroyed CITES...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the requirements for replacing a lost, damaged, stolen, or accidentally...POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION...requirements for replacing a lost, damaged, stolen, or accidentally...when a CITES document has been lost, damaged, stolen, or...

2012-10-01

235

Scalable Heuristics for Stochastic Programming with Scenario ...  

E-print Network

Jul 3, 2008 ... Given a scenario index set S of size |S|, n decision variables, ... this formulation is the ability to select which scenarios are to be considered and which ...... Our work on scenario selection heuristics for stochastic programming ...

2008-07-03

236

Dropped head syndrome and Systemic sclerosis.  

PubMed

The prominent or isolated weakness of cervical extensor muscles is a relatively rare clinical sign. Commonly, this is known as "dropped-head syndrome". This abnormal flexion of the head may occur in a variety of neuromuscular diseases and in a few non-neurological disorders as well. Systemic sclerosis is a clinically heterogeneous disorder which affects small arteries, microvessels and connective tissue with the involvement of multiple organs such as lung, heart, kidney and gastrointestinal tract. There is no evidence in literature of association between dropped head syndrome and rheumatic diseases, particularly systemic sclerosis. The case we describe concerns a 74-year-old woman with dropped-head syndrome associated to Systemic sclerosis and pulmonary hypertension in absence of myositis signs. PMID:19321373

Rosato, Edoardo; Rossi, Carmelina; Salsano, Felice

2009-05-01

237

Ultrasonic characterization of single drops of liquids  

DOEpatents

Ultrasonic characterization of single drops of liquids. The present invention includes the use of two closely spaced transducers, or one transducer and a closely spaced reflector plate, to form an interferometer suitable for ultrasonic characterization of droplet-size and smaller samples without the need for a container. The droplet is held between the interferometer elements, whose distance apart may be adjusted, by surface tension. The surfaces of the interferometer elements may be readily cleansed by a stream of solvent followed by purified air when it is desired to change samples. A single drop of liquid is sufficient for high-quality measurement. Examples of samples which may be investigated using the apparatus and method of the present invention include biological specimens (tear drops; blood and other body fluid samples; samples from tumors, tissues, and organs; secretions from tissues and organs; snake and bee venom, etc.) for diagnostic evaluation, samples in forensic investigations, and detection of drugs in small quantities.

Sinha, Dipen N. (Los Alamos, NM)

1998-01-01

238

Drop interaction with the ejecta sheet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied experimentally and numerically the dynamics of the ejecta sheet produced by a drop impacting on a deep pool of the same liquid at high Reynolds and Weber numbers. Ultra-high speed imaging revealed a diversity of evolutions by using different mixtures of water and glycerine, and different impact velocities. We observed a transition from a smooth ejecta sheet to a more irregular splashing for a Reynolds number of 3500. In this transition regime, the ejecta sheet interacts with the impacting drop. This interaction can pull the ejecta sheet towards the centre of the drop at lower splash parameters, or generate a bumping on the ejecta sheet moving outwards at higher splash parameters. The volume of fluid (VOF) code Gerris was used to reproduce numerically this peculiar dynamics in axisymmetric conditions. Very good agreement with the experiments was reached by using adaptive refinement and parallelization of the calculations.

Thoraval, M.-J.; Thoroddsen, S. T.; Takehara, K.; Etoh, T. G.; Ray, P.; Josserand, C.; Zaleski, S.

2011-11-01

239

A Little Drop of Water: Cohesion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners explore water's property of cohesion through two investigations. In Drops on a Penny, they see how many drops of water or other fluids can fit on a penny before the drops run over, and in Filled to the Brim they fill a cup to the brim with water, then slowly add paperclips to observe what happens. In both activities, learners make predictions about what will happen and compare their predictions with observations. Learners also use marshmallows to become familiar with the atomic structure and behavior of water molecules, including the attraction between water molecules known as surface tension. The student journal includes a Science @ Home activity for experiencing how water molecules stick together when flowing from a can with holes.

Jersey, New; Center, Liberty S.; Coalition, New J.

2006-01-01

240

Profiles of electrified drops and bubbles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Axisymmetric equilibrium shapes of conducting drops and bubbles, (1) pendant or sessile on one face of a circular parallel-plate capacitor or (2) free and surface-charged, are found by solving simultaneously the free boundary problem consisting of the augmented Young-Laplace equation for surface shape and the Laplace equation for electrostatic field, given the surface potential. The problem is nonlinear and the method is a finite element algorithm employing Newton iteration, a modified frontal solver, and triangular as well as quadrilateral tessellations of the domain exterior to the drop in order to facilitate refined analysis of sharply curved drop tips seen in experiments. The stability limit predicted by this computer-aided theoretical analysis agrees well with experiments.

Basaran, O. A.; Scriven, L. E.

1982-01-01

241

Secondary breakup of coal water slurry drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate secondary atomization of coal water slurry (CWS), deformation and breakup of eight kinds of CWS drops are presented using high speed digital camera. Based on morphology, deformation and breakup regimes of CWS drops can be termed some different modes: deformation, multimode breakup (including two sub-modes: hole breakup and tensile breakup), and shear breakup. Correlations on the ranges of breakup modes are also obtained. The conventional Weber number and Ohnesorge number are found to be insufficient to classify all breakup modes of CWS drops, so two other non-dimensional numbers based on rheology of CWS are suggested to use in the deformation and breakup regime map. Finally, total breakup time is studied and correlated, which increases with Ohnesorge number.

Zhao, Hui; Liu, Hai-Feng; Xu, Jian-Liang; Li, Wei-Feng

2011-11-01

242

Water Drops Dancing on Ice: How Sublimation Leads to Drop Rebound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drop rebound is a spectacular event that appears after impact on hydrophobic or superhydrophobic surfaces but can also be induced through the so-called Leidenfrost effect. Here we demonstrate that drop rebound can also originate from another physical phenomenon, the solid substrate sublimation. Through drop impact experiments on a superhydrophobic surfaces, a hot plate, and solid carbon dioxide (commonly known as dry ice), we compare drop rebound based on three different physical mechanisms, which apparently share nothing in common (superhydrophobicity, evaporation, and sublimation), but lead to the same rebound phenomenon in an extremely wide temperature range, from 300°C down to even below -79°C. The formation and unprecedented visualization of an air vortex ring around an impacting drop are also reported.

Antonini, C.; Bernagozzi, I.; Jung, S.; Poulikakos, D.; Marengo, M.

2013-07-01

243

Alternative Geothermal Power Production Scenarios  

DOE Data Explorer

The information given in this file pertains to Argonne LCAs of the plant cycle stage for a set of ten new geothermal scenario pairs, each comprised of a reference and improved case. These analyses were conducted to compare environmental performances among the scenarios and cases. The types of plants evaluated are hydrothermal binary and flash and Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) binary and flash plants. Each scenario pair was developed by the LCOE group using GETEM as a way to identify plant operational and resource combinations that could reduce geothermal power plant LCOE values. Based on the specified plant and well field characteristics (plant type, capacity, capacity factor and lifetime, and well numbers and depths) for each case of each pair, Argonne generated a corresponding set of material to power ratios (MPRs) and greenhouse gas and fossil energy ratios.

John Sullivan

244

The new Drop Tower catapult system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity (ZARM) was founded in 1985 as an institute of the University Bremen, which focuses on research on gravitational and space-related phenomena. In 1988, the construction of the "Drop Tower" began. Since then, the eye-catching tower with a height of 146 m and its characteristic glass roof has become the emblem of the technology centre in Bremen. The Drop Tower Bremen provides a facility for experiments under conditions of weightlessness. Items are considered weightless, when they are in "free fall", i.e. moving without propulsion within the gravity field of the earth. The height of the tower limits the simple "free fall" experiment period to max. 4.74 s. With the inauguration of the catapult system in December 2004, the ZARM is entering a new dimension. This world novelty will meet scientists' demands of extending the experiment period up to 9.5 s. Since turning the first sod on May 3rd, 1988, the later installation of the catapult system has been taken into account by building the necessary chamber under the tower. The catapult system is located in a chamber 10 m below the base of the tower. This chamber is almost completely occupied by 12 huge pressure tanks. These tanks are placed around the elongation of the vacuum chamber of the drop tube. In its centre there is the pneumatic piston that accelerates the drop capsule by the pressure difference between the vacuum inside the drop tube and the pressure inside the tanks. The acceleration level is adjusted by means of a servo hydraulic breaking system controlling the piston velocity. After only a quarter of a second the drop capsule achieves its lift-off speed of 175 km/h. With this exact speed, the capsule will rise up to the top of the tower and afterwards fall down again into the deceleration unit which has been moved under the drop tube in the meantime. The scientific advantages of the doubled experiment time are obvious: during almost 10 s of high-quality weightlessness the range of compatible experiments amplifies even more and researchers can observe processes for a longer period of time. Thus, the new earth-bound laboratory of the ZARM offers unique conditions for scientific research. Moreover, it increases the attractiveness of the Drop Tower and contributes an important part to the establishment of the Bremen as an international centre for space technology.

von Kampen, Peter; Kaczmarczik, Ulrich; Rath, Hans J.

2006-07-01

245

Drop deployment system for crystal growth apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A crystal growth apparatus is presented. It utilizes a vapor diffusion method for growing protein crystals, and particularly such an apparatus wherein a ball mixer is used to mix the fluids that form a drop within which crystals are grown. Particular novelty of this invention lies in utilizing a ball mixer to completely mix the precipitate and protein solutions prior to forming the drop. Additional novelty lies in details of construction of the vials, the fluid deployment system, and the fluid storage system of the preferred embodiment.

Rhodes, Percy (inventor); Snyder, Robert S. (inventor); Pusey, Marc L. (inventor)

1990-01-01

246

2013-03-18 Camilla Hedberg Registration Study drop out  

E-print Network

2013-03-18 Camilla Hedberg Dnr Registration � Study drop out I hereby report that I wish to drop studies I must apply and be admitted again. Personal ID number: Date of drop out: Name: Address: E. Signature Date Reason for drop out The Faculty of Engineering (LTH) continously work for improving our

247

Experimental Investigation of Wind-Forced Drop Stability  

E-print Network

limits for 235 drops are measured as functions of drop volume and surface inclination. Drops experiencing airflow alone are found to shed at a Weber number of 8.0 +/- 0.5. From measurement sequences of reconstructed drop profiles, the evolution of contact...

Schmucker, Jason

2012-10-19

248

Best Measuring Time for a Millikan Oil Drop Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a Millikan oil drop experiment, there is a best measuring time for observing the drop, due to Brownian motion of the drop and the experimenter's reaction time. Derives an equation for the relative error in the measurement of the drop's excess charge, and obtains a formula for the best measuring time. (Author/MLH)

Kapusta, J. I.

1975-01-01

249

14 CFR 23.727 - Reserve energy absorption drop test.  

...2014-01-01 false Reserve energy absorption drop test. 23...Gear § 23.727 Reserve energy absorption drop test. (a) If compliance with the reserve energy absorption requirement in § 23.723(b) is shown by free drop tests, the drop...

2014-01-01

250

Pollination Drop in Juniperus communis: Response to Deposited Material  

Microsoft Academic Search

† Background and Aims The pollination drop is a liquid secretion produced by the ovule and exposed outside the micropyle. In many gymnosperms, pollen lands on the surface of the pollination drop, rehydrates and enters the ovule as the drop retracts. The objective of this work was to study the formation of the pollination drop in Juniperus communis, its carbohydrate

SERENA MUGNAINI; MASSIMO NEPI; MASSIMO GUARNIERI; BETI PIOTTO; ETTORE PACINI

2007-01-01

251

The USGS Earthquake Scenario Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Earthquake Hazards Program (EHP) is producing a comprehensive suite of earthquake scenarios for planning, mitigation, loss estimation, and scientific investigations. The Earthquake Scenario Project (ESP), though lacking clairvoyance, is a forward-looking project, estimating earthquake hazard and loss outcomes as they may occur one day. For each scenario event, fundamental input includes i) the magnitude and specified fault mechanism and dimensions, ii) regional Vs30 shear velocity values for site amplification, and iii) event metadata. A grid of standard ShakeMap ground motion parameters (PGA, PGV, and three spectral response periods) is then produced using the well-defined, regionally-specific approach developed by the USGS National Seismic Hazard Mapping Project (NHSMP), including recent advances in empirical ground motion predictions (e.g., the NGA relations). The framework also allows for numerical (3D) ground motion computations for specific, detailed scenario analyses. Unlike NSHMP ground motions, for ESP scenarios, local rock and soil site conditions and commensurate shaking amplifications are applied based on detailed Vs30 maps where available or based on topographic slope as a proxy. The scenario event set is comprised primarily by selection from the NSHMP events, though custom events are also allowed based on coordination of the ESP team with regional coordinators, seismic hazard experts, seismic network operators, and response coordinators. The event set will be harmonized with existing and future scenario earthquake events produced regionally or by other researchers. The event list includes approximate 200 earthquakes in CA, 100 in NV, dozens in each of NM, UT, WY, and a smaller number in other regions. Systematic output will include all standard ShakeMap products, including HAZUS input, GIS, KML, and XML files used for visualization, loss estimation, ShakeCast, PAGER, and for other systems. All products will be delivered via the EHP web pages in a user-searchable archive. In addition, we aim to duplicate most of the real-time earthquake event web page functionality for scenario drills and exercises, including all standard post-earthquake information tools. Hence, for each event, USGS PAGER runs will be produced, providing population exposure at current population levels, and Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) will produce HAZUS impact assessments. Anticipated users include FEMA, the loss modeling and insurance communities, emergency responders and mitigation planners (city, county, state, industry, utilities, corporate), the general public and the media. The Earthquake Scenario Project will also take on several pending scientific challenges related to scenario generation, including ways to include fault directivity, numerical ground motions, and ways to produce ground motion uncertainties (in addition to median peak ground motions). A parallel though less comprehensive effort is underway to produce scenarios for targeted regions and events around the globe.

Wald, D. J.; Petersen, M. D.; Wald, L. A.; Frankel, A. D.; Quitoriano, V. R.; Lin, K.; Luco, N.; Mathias, S.; Bausch, D.

2009-12-01

252

Primary amyloidosis presenting as "dropped head syndrome".  

PubMed

A 77-year-old man, with a history of lymphoma, presented with isolated neck extensor weakness and a 2-year history of bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Needle electromyography showed myopathic changes, and biopsy of cervical paraspinal muscles showed amyloid deposition in blood vessels. Amyloidosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of dropped head syndrome. PMID:21607974

Chuquilin, Miguel; Al-Lozi, Muhammad

2011-06-01

253

Acoustic forcing of a liquid drop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of systems such as acoustic levitation chambers will allow for the positioning and manipulation of material samples (drops) in a microgravity environment. This provides the capability for fundamental studies in droplet dynamics as well as containerless processing work. Such systems use acoustic radiation pressure forces to position or to further manipulate (e.g., oscillate) the sample. The primary objective was to determine the effect of a viscous acoustic field/tangential radiation pressure forcing on drop oscillations. To this end, the viscous acoustic field is determined. Modified (forced) hydrodynamic field equations which result from a consistent perturbation expansion scheme are solved. This is done in the separate cases of an unmodulated and a modulated acoustic field. The effect of the tangential radiation stress on the hydrodynamic field (drop oscillations) is found to manifest as a correction to the velocity field in a sublayer region near the drop/host interface. Moreover, the forcing due to the radiation pressure vector at the interface is modified by inclusion of tangential stresses.

Lyell, M. J.

1992-01-01

254

Orion Parachute Drop Test, July 18  

NASA Video Gallery

A C-17 plane dropped a test version of Orion from an altitude of 25,000 feet above the U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground in southwestern Arizona on July 18, 2012. This test was the second to use an Ori...

255

Inverted drop testing and neck injury potential.  

PubMed

Inverted drop testing of vehicles is a methodology that has long been used by the automotive industry and researchers to test roof integrity and is currently being considered by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration as a roof strength test. In 1990 a study was reported which involved 8 dolly rollover tests and 5 inverted drop tests. These studies were conducted with restrained Hybrid III instrumented Anthropometric Test Devices (ATD) in production and rollcaged vehicles to investigate the relationship between roof strength and occupant injury potential. The 5 inverted drop tests included in the study provided a methodology producing "repeatable roof impacts" exposing the ATDs to the similar impact environment as those seen in the dolly rollover tests. Authors have conducted two inverted drop test sets as part of an investigation of two real world rollover accidents. Hybrid-III ATD's were used in each test with instrumented head and necks. Both test sets confirm that reduction of roof intrusion and increased headroom can significantly enhance occupant protection. In both test pairs, the neck force of the dummy in the vehicle with less crush and more survival space was significantly lower. Reduced roof crush and dynamic preservation of the occupant survival space resulted in only minor occupant contact and minimal occupant loading, establishing a clear causal relationship between roof crush and neck injuries. PMID:12724903

Forrest, Stephen; Herbst, Brian; Meyer, Steve; Sances, Anthony; Kumaresan, Srirangam

2003-01-01

256

An evaporation model of multicomponent solution drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solutions of polymers are widely used in the pharmaceutical industry as tablets coatings. These allow controlling the rate at which the drug is delivered, taste or appearance. The coating is performed by spraying and drying the tablets at moderate temperatures. The wetting of the coating solution on the pill's surface depends on the droplet Webber and Re numbers, angle of impact and on the rheological properties of the droplet. We present a model for the evaporation of multicomponent solutions droplets in a hot air environment with temperatures substantially lower than the boiling temperature of the solvent. As the liquid vaporizes from the surface the fluid in the drop increases in concentration, until reaching its saturation point. After saturation, precipitation occurs uniformly within the drop. As the surface regresses, a compacting front formed by the precipitate at its maximum packing density advances into the drop, while the solute continues precipitating uniformly. This porous shell grows fast due to the double effect of surface regression and precipitation. The evaporation rate is determined by the rates at which heat is transported to the droplet surface and at which liquid vapor diffuses away from it. When the drop is fully compacted, the evaporation is drastically reduced.

Sartori, Silvana; Liñán, Amable; Lasheras, Juan C.

2010-11-01

257

49 CFR 178.965 - Drop test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...960(d). (d) Test method. (1) Samples of all Large Packaging design types must be dropped onto a rigid, non-resilient, smooth, flat and horizontal surface. The point of impact must be the most vulnerable part of the base of the Large...

2010-10-01

258

49 CFR 178.810 - Drop test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...accordance with § 178.802. (c) Test method. (1) Samples of all IBC design types must be dropped onto a rigid, non-resilient, smooth, flat and horizontal surface. The point of impact must be the most vulnerable part of the base of the IBC...

2010-10-01

259

Conical tip in frozen water drops  

E-print Network

A theory is presented for the formation of a conical tip in water drops that are frozen on a flat surface below freezing temperature. For the known ice to water density ratio r = .917, the angle of aperture of this cone is found to be {\\theta} = 33.550, consistent with observations.

Nauenberg, Michael

2014-01-01

260

Containerless undercooling and solidification in drop tubes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A containerless low-gravity environment, produced within a 32 m drop tube apparatus, has been used to undercool and solidify metals, alloys or glasses by eliminating crucible induced nucleation processes. Niobium droplets with diameters in the range of 2 to 5 mm have been undercooled by 525 K which corresponds to the maximum undercooling reported by Turnbull and others on fine dispersions of low melting point metals. Solidification at large undercooling resulted in single crystalline spheres with the formation of interdendritic shrinkage channels on the sample surface rather than interior shrinkage cavities. The grain refinement as observed for Ni samples undercooled and solidified in fused silica crucibles does not occur in free-falling drops of Nb. A calculated solidification speed of undercooled Nb is compared to Ni. A solidification speed of 320 m/s is found for the Nb drops. This solidification speed is greater than or comparable to the solidification speeds calculated in splat cooled samples. Thus, a drop tube apparatus can be useful in the preparation and study of high temperature metastable compounds or alloys in bulk form.

Lacy, L. L.; Robinson, M. B.; Rathz, T. J.

1981-01-01

261

Ninth Grade Course Enrollment and Dropping Out.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An informal study was conducted of the courses selected by ninth grade students who later dropped out of high school. Longitudinal data were available for high school students in the Austin (Texas) Independent School District, from 1978-79 to 1982-83. The courses selected by high-risk students in ninth grade, including extracurricular activities…

Doss, David A.

262

Ultrasonic characterization of single drops of liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrasonic characterization of single drops of liquids. The present invention includes the use of two closely spaced transducers, or one transducer and a closely spaced reflector plate, to form an interferometer suitable for ultrasonic characterization of droplet-size and smaller samples without the need for a container. The droplet is held between the interferometer elements, whose distance apart may be adjusted,

Sinha; Dipen N

1998-01-01

263

Ultrasonic characterization of single drops of liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrasonic characterization of single drops of liquids is disclosed. The present invention includes the use of two closely spaced transducers, or one transducer and a closely spaced reflector plate, to form an interferometer suitable for ultrasonic characterization of droplet-size and smaller samples without the need for a container. The droplet is held between the interferometer elements, whose distance apart may

Sinha

1998-01-01

264

Predicting Students Drop Out: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The monitoring and support of university freshmen is considered very important at many educational institutions. In this paper we describe the results of the educational data mining case study aimed at predicting the Electrical Engineering (EE) students drop out after the first semester of their studies or even before they enter the study program…

Dekker, Gerben W.; Pechenizkiy, Mykola; Vleeshouwers, Jan M.

2009-01-01

265

Drop-Out Challenges: Pathways to Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes an action research at an alternative high school which explores drop-out prevention strategies with first-year students. Student retention is extremely challenging for alternative schools. Because their mission is to provide a second chance to students who could not succeed in a regular setting, those schools regularly must…

Conner, Evguenia; McKee, Jan

2008-01-01

266

Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) contest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first NASA Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) student competition pilot project came to a conclusion at the Glenn Research Center in April 2001. The competition involved high-school student teams who developed the concept for a microgravity experiment and prepared an experiment proposal. The two student teams - COSI Academy, sponsored by the Columbus Center of Science and Industry, and another team from Cincinnati, Ohio's Sycamore High School, designed a microgravity experiment, fabricated the experimental apparatus, and visited NASA Glenn to operate their experiment in the 2.2 Second Drop Tower. NASA and contractor personnel who conducted the DIME activity with the students. Shown (L-R) are: Eric Baumann (NASA, 2.2-second Drop Tower Facility manager), Daniel Dietrich (NASA) mentor for Sycamore High School team), Carol Hodanbosi (National Center for Microgravity Research; DIME staff), Richard DeLombard (NASA; DIME staff), Jose Carrion (GRC Akima, drop tower technician), Dennis Stocker (NASA; DIME staff), Peter Sunderland (NCMR, mentor for COSI Academy student team), Sandi Thompson (NSMR sabbatical teacher; DIME staff), Dan Woodard (MASA Microgravity Outreach Program Manager), Adam Malcolm (NASA co-op student; DIME staff), Carla Rosenberg (NCMR; DIME staff), and Twila Schneider (Infinity Technology; NASA Microgravity Research program contractor). This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

2001-01-01

267

Water-Drop-Surface-Wave Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Splashes of water drops on liquid surfaces are important phenomena in several fields, notably the geosciences where they determine some transport rates and atmospheric-electrification processes. Splashes on smooth liquid surfaces have been well described, but in actual field situations splashes usually oc'cur on disturbed surfaces. This report describes two new types of splashes that occur in the presence of surface

G. L. Siscoe; Zev Levin

1971-01-01

268

Utah Drop-Out Drug Use Questionnaire.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This questionnaire assesses drug use practices in high school drop-outs. The 79 items (multiple choice or apply/not apply) are concerned with demographic data and use, use history, reasons for use/nonuse, attitudes toward drugs, availability of drugs, and drug information with respect to narcotics, amphetamines, LSD, Marijuana, and barbiturates.…

Governor's Citizen Advisory Committee on Drugs, Salt Lake City, UT.

269

Investigation of the Coalescence of Water Drops.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experimental techniques have been developed for producing uniform water drops from 25 to 500 microns in diameter. The droplets are formed from a pressure-modulated water jet as it passes through a tiny orifice. Orifices with diameters as small as 20 micro...

G. J. Woffinden

1966-01-01

270

Future Scenarios and Environmental Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores a number of questions about visions of the future and their implications for environmental education (EE). If the future were known, what kind of actions would be needed to maintain the positive aspects and reverse the negative ones? How could these actions be translated into the aims of EE? Three future scenarios are…

Kopnina, Helen

2014-01-01

271

Description of the Scenario Machine  

E-print Network

We present here an updated description of the "Scenario Machine" code. This tool is used to carry out a population synthesis of binary stars. Previous version of the description can be found at http://xray.sai.msu.ru/~mystery//articles/review/contents.html

V. M. Lipunov; K. A. Postnov; M. E. Prokhorov; A. I. Bogomazov

2007-04-11

272

Transportation scenarios for risk analysis.  

SciTech Connect

Transportation risk, like any risk, is defined by the risk triplet: what can happen (the scenario), how likely it is (the probability), and the resulting consequences. This paper evaluates the development of transportation scenarios, the associated probabilities, and the consequences. The most likely radioactive materials transportation scenario is routine, incident-free transportation, which has a probability indistinguishable from unity. Accident scenarios in radioactive materials transportation are of three different types: accidents in which there is no impact on the radioactive cargo, accidents in which some gamma shielding may be lost but there is no release of radioactive material, and accident in which radioactive material may potentially be released. Accident frequencies, obtainable from recorded data validated by the U.S. Department of Transportation, are considered equivalent to accident probabilities in this study. Probabilities of different types of accidents are conditional probabilities, conditional on an accident occurring, and are developed from event trees. Development of all of these probabilities and the associated highway and rail accident event trees are discussed in this paper.

Weiner, Ruth F.

2010-09-01

273

Space resources. Volume 1: Scenarios  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of possible future paths for space exploration and development are presented. The topics covered include the following: (1) the baseline program; (2) alternative scenarios utilizing nonterrestrial resources; (3) impacts of sociopolitical conditions; (4) common technologies; and issues for further study.

Mckay, Mary Fae (editor); Mckay, David S. (editor); Duke, Michael B. (editor)

1992-01-01

274

Drop size-dependent chemical composition in clouds and fogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cloud drop composition can be size-dependent. Size-dependent drop composition is important because it impacts the fate of some atmospheric species. Two new cloud water collectors were developed to provide improved resolution of drop size-dependent composition. Both collectors are active, multi-stage, rectangular jet cascade impactors designed to separate drops into three or more fractions across the expected drop size spectrum. The

Katharine Foster Moore

2002-01-01

275

Simulations of Evaporating Multicomponent Fuel Drops  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A paper presents additional information on the subject matter of Model of Mixing Layer With Multicomponent Evaporating Drops (NPO-30505), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 3 (March 2004), page 55. To recapitulate: A mathematical model of a three-dimensional mixing layer laden with evaporating fuel drops composed of many chemical species has been derived. The model is used to perform direct numerical simulations in continuing studies directed toward understanding the behaviors of sprays of liquid petroleum fuels in furnaces, industrial combustors, and engines. The model includes governing equations formulated in an Eulerian and a Lagrangian reference frame for the gas and drops, respectively, and incorporates a concept of continuous thermodynamics, according to which the chemical composition of a fuel is described by use of a distribution function. In this investigation, the distribution function depends solely on the species molar weight. The present paper reiterates the description of the model and discusses further in-depth analysis of the previous results as well as results of additional numerical simulations assessing the effect of the mass loading. The paper reiterates the conclusions reported in the cited previous article, and states some new conclusions. Some new conclusions are: 1. The slower evaporation and the evaporation/ condensation process for multicomponent-fuel drops resulted in a reduced drop-size polydispersity compared to their single-component counterpart. 2. The inhomogeneity in the spatial distribution of the species in the layer increases with the initial mass loading. 3. As evaporation becomes faster, the assumed invariant form of the molecular- weight distribution during evaporation becomes inaccurate.

Bellan, Josette; Le Clercq, Patrick

2005-01-01

276

Inverse Modeling of Accidental Releases of Atmospheric Pollutants: New Developments.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An account is given on new data assimilation techniques that have recently been used to identify the source of an accidental release of pollutant into the atmosphere, and forecast (possibly in real time) the subsequent dispersion plume. It could be a chemical cloud from an industrial site or a release of radionuclides from a nuclear power plant (from minor accident to core meltdown). These methods are not necessarily based on Gaussian hypotheses, for instance the source may be given as positive or bounded. In particular, the usual least squares cost function (4D-Var) is replaced with purposely devised functionals that are not necessarily quadratic. These methods have been applied successfully to the reconstruction of the Chernobyl accident, the Algeciras incident or the ETEX experiment, and outperform previous approaches. As far as state assimilation is concerned, the techniques have been applied a posteriori to the reconstruction of the ETEX plume, after all observations are acquired. The method has also been applied to the reconstruction of the dispersion plume, in the context of an emergency situation: the data have been assimilated sequentially as they arrived and a forecast is performed after each analysis. This provides with a picture of what could be achieved (forecast, risk assessment) in case of a real emergency with a Chemistry Transport Model and advanced data assimilation techniques. A second-order sensitivity study that applies to the possibly non- quadratic cost functions has also been carried out in the context of these reconstructions.

Bocquet, M.

2007-12-01

277

Accidental contamination from uranium compounds through contact with ceramic dinnerware.  

PubMed

Examination of orange-colored dinnerware samples purchased in antique stores and flea markets has revealed the occasional presence of surface uranium compounds that are readily transferred to the hands and clothing. We have further been able to produce soluble uranium compounds on the surfaces of clean dishes by exposing them to household vinegar or bleach. We estimate that handling of a contaminated dish can transfer up to 1-2 becquerels or more of uranium compounds to the hands. Uranium contamination is of concern because the element is not only an alpha emitter but also a chemical nephrotoxin. Although the amount of uranium likely to be ingested as a result of casual handling may be small, it could still exceed by several times the amount occurring in the average diet (about 40 mBq/day). Furthermore, since fresh surface compounds are readily formed, it is possible that a person who regularly handles or eats from uranium-glazed dinnerware can accidentally ingest significant amounts of uranium. PMID:8560240

Sheets, R W; Thompson, C C

1995-12-01

278

Orthopaedic aspects of paediatric non-accidental injury.  

PubMed

Non-accidental injury (NAI) in children includes orthopaedic trauma throughout the skeleton. Fractures with soft-tissue injuries constitute the majority of manifestations of physical abuse in children. Fracture and injury patterns vary with age and development, and NAI is intrinsically related to the mobility of the child. No fracture in isolation is pathognomonic of NAI, but specific abuse-related injuries include multiple fractures, particularly at various stages of healing, metaphyseal corner and bucket-handle fractures and fractures of ribs. Isolated or multiple rib fractures, irrespective of location, have the highest specificity for NAI. Other fractures with a high specificity for abuse include those of the scapula, lateral end of the clavicle, vertebrae and complex skull fractures. Injuries caused by NAI constitute a relatively small proportion of childhood fractures. They may be associated with significant physical and psychological morbidity, with wide- ranging effects from deviations in normal developmental progression to death. Orthopaedic surgeons must systematically assess, recognise and act on the indicators for NAI in conjunction with the paediatric multidisciplinary team. PMID:20130307

Jayakumar, P; Barry, M; Ramachandran, M

2010-02-01

279

Analysis of a hypothetical dropped spent nuclear fuel shipping cask impacting a floor mounted crush pad  

SciTech Connect

A crush pad has been designed and analyzed to absorb the kinetic energy of a hypothetically dropped spent nuclear fuel shipping cask into a 44-ft. deep cask unloading pool at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The 110-ton Large Cell Cask was assumed to be accidentally dropped onto the parapet of the unloading pool, causing the cask to tumble through the pool water and impact the floor mounted crush pad with the cask`s top corner. The crush pad contains rigid polyurethane foam, which was modeled in a separate computer analysis to simulate the manufacturer`s testing of the foam and to determine the foam`s stress and strain characteristics. This computer analysis verified that the foam was accurately represented in the analysis to follow. A detailed non-linear, dynamic finite element analysis was then performed on the crush pad and adjacent pool structure to assure that a drop of this massive cask does not result in unacceptable damage to the storage facility. Additionally, verification was made that the crush pad adequately protects the cask from severe impact loading. At impact, the cask has significant vertical, horizontal and rotational velocities. The crush pad absorbs much of the energy of the cask through plastic deformation during primary and secondary impacts. After the primary impact with the crush pad, the cask still has sufficient energy to rebound and rotate until it impacts the pool wall. An assessment is made of the damage to the crush pad and pool wall and of the impact loading on the cask.

Hawkes, B.D.; Uldrich, E.D.

1998-03-01

280

40 CFR 63.95 - Additional approval criteria for accidental release prevention programs.  

...criteria for accidental release prevention programs. 63.95 Section 63.95 Protection...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS...SOURCE CATEGORIES Approval of State Programs and Delegation of Federal...

2014-07-01

281

A case of accidental intrathecal injection of a large dose of ropivacaine during cesarean section  

PubMed Central

Continuous spinal anesthesia may provide excellent labor analgesia. The incidence of accidental intrathecal injection of megadose of ropivacaine, as one of the possible complications during cesarean section, is very rare. Present case report provides reference to clinical practice.

Yuan, Yan P; Chen, Hong F; Yang, Chen; Tian, Fu B; Huang, Shao Q

2014-01-01

282

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 8. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF HYDROGEN FLUORIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report is a chemical specific manual for hydrogen fluoride (HF). It summarizes information to aid regulators and industry personnel in identifying and controlling release hazards associated with HF. Reducing the risk associated with accidental release of HF involves identifyi...

283

Head-on collision of drops: A numerical investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The head-on collision of equal sized drops is studied by full numerical simulations. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved for fluid motion both inside and outside the drops using a front tracking/finite difference technique. The drops are accelerated toward each other by a body force that is turned off before the drops collide. When the drops collide, the fluid between them is pushed outward leaving a thin later bounded by the drop surface. This layer gets progressively thinner as the drops continue to deform and in several of the calculations this double layer is artificially removed once it is thin enough, thus modeling rupture. If no rupture takes place, the drops always rebound, but if the film is ruptured the drops may coalesce permanently or coalesce temporarily and then split again.

Nobari, M. R.; Jan, Y.-J.; Tryggvason, G.

1993-01-01

284

Pollination Drop in Juniperus communis: Response to Deposited Material  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The pollination drop is a liquid secretion produced by the ovule and exposed outside the micropyle. In many gymnosperms, pollen lands on the surface of the pollination drop, rehydrates and enters the ovule as the drop retracts. The objective of this work was to study the formation of the pollination drop in Juniperus communis, its carbohydrate composition and the response to deposition of conspecific pollen, foreign pollen and other particulate material, in an attempt to clarify the mechanism of pollination drop retraction. Method Branches with female cones close to pollination drop secretion were collected. On the first day of pollination drop exposure, an eyelash mounted on a wooden stick with paraffin was used to collect pollen or silica gel particles, which were then deposited by contact with the drop. Volume changes in pollination drops were measured by using a stereomicroscope with a micrometer eyepiece 3 h after deposition. The volume of non-pollinated control drops was also recorded. On the first day of secretion, drops were also collected for sugar analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography. Key Results The pollination drop persisted for about 12 d if not pollinated, and formed again after removal for up to four consecutive days. After pollination with viable conspecific pollen, the drop retracted quickly and did not form again. Partial withdrawal occurred after deposition of other biological and non-biological material. Fructose was the dominant sugar; glucose was also present but at a much lower percentage. Conclusions Sugar analysis confirmed the general trend of fructose dominance in gymnosperm pollination drops. Complete pollination drop withdrawal appears to be triggered by a biochemical mechanism resulting from interaction between pollen and drop constituents. The results of particle deposition suggest the existence of a non-specific, particle-size-dependent mechanism that induces partial pollination drop withdrawal. These results suggest that the non-specific response may decrease the probability of pollen landing on the drop, reducing pollination efficiency. PMID:17942592

Mugnaini, Serena; Nepi, Massimo; Guarnieri, Massimo; Piotto, Beti; Pacini, Ettore

2007-01-01

285

Dynamically reconfigurable optical packet switch (DROPS).  

PubMed

A novel Dynamically Reconfigurable Optical Packet Switch (DROPS) that combines both spectral and spatial switching capabilities is proposed and experimentally demonstrated for the first time. Compared with an Arrayed Waveguide Grating Router (AWGR), the added spatial switching capability provided by the microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) enables dynamically reconfigurable routing that is not possible with an AWGR alone. This methodology has several advantages over an AWGR including scalability, additional degrees of freedom in routing a packet from an ingress port to an egress port and more flexibility in path or line card recovery. The experimental demonstration implemented with 10-Gb/s packets shows that the added spatial switching does not degrade the bit-error-rate performance, indicating the promising potential of DROPS as a versatile and ultra-high capacity switch for optical packet-switched networks. PMID:19529627

Huang, Chi-Heng; Chou, Hsu-Feng; Bowers, John E; Toudeh-Fallah, Farzam; Gyurek, Russ

2006-12-11

286

Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) Contest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first NASA Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) student competition pilot project came to a conclusion at the Glenn Research Center in April 2001. The competition involved high-school student teams who developed the concept for a microgravity experiment and prepared an experiment proposal. The two student teams - COSI Academy, sponsored by the Columbus Center of Science and Industry, and another team from Cincinnati, Ohio's Sycamore High School, designed a microgravity experiment, fabricated the experimental apparatus, and visited NASA Glenn to operate their experiment in the 2.2 Second Drop Tower. Students from Sycamore High School in Cincinnati, Ohio (girls), and the COSI Academy, Columbus, Ohio (boys), participated. This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

2001-01-01

287

Persistent Seroconversion after Accidental Eye Exposure to Calcifying Nanoparticles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biosafety of nanomaterials has attracted much attention recently. We report here a case where accidental human eye exposure to biogenic nanosized calcium phosphate in the form of calcifying nanoparticles (CNP) raised a strong IgG immune response against proteins carried by CNP. The antibody titer has persisted over ten years at the high level. The IgG was detected by ELISA using CNPs propagated in media containing bovine and human serum as antigen. The exposure incident occurred to a woman scientist (WS) at a research laboratory in Finland at 1993. CNP, also termed "nanobacteria", is a unique self-replicating agent that has not been fully characterized and no data on biohazards were available at that time. Before the accident, her serum samples were negative for both CNP antigen and anti-CNP antibody using specific ELISA tests (Nanobac Oy, Kuopio, Finland). The accident occurred while WS was harvesting CNP cultures. Due to a high pressure in pipetting, CNP pellet splashed into her right eye. Both eyes were immediately washed with water and saline. The following days there was irritation and redness in the right eye. These symptoms disappeared within two weeks without any treatment. Three months after the accident, blood and urine samples of WS were tested for CNP cultures (2), CNP-specific ELISA tests, and blood cell counts. Blood cell counts were normal, CNP antigen and culture tests were negative. A high IgG anti-CNP antibody titer was detected (see Figure). The antibodies of this person have been used thereafter as positive control and standard in ELISA manufacturing (Nano-Sero IgG ELISA, Nanobac Oy, Kuopio, Finland).

Ciftcioglu, Neva; Aho, Katja M.; McKay, David S.; Kajander, E. Olavi

2007-01-01

288

Modeling Evaporation of Drops of Different Kerosenes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mathematical model describes the evaporation of drops of a hydrocarbon liquid composed of as many as hundreds of chemical species. The model is intended especially for application to any of several types of kerosenes commonly used as fuels. The concept of continuous thermodynamics, according to which the chemical composition of the evaporating multicomponent liquid is described by use of a probability distribution function (PDF). However, the present model is more generally applicable than is its immediate predecessor.

Bellan, Josette; Harstad, Kenneth

2007-01-01

289

Ultrasonic characterization of single drops of liquids  

DOEpatents

Ultrasonic characterization of single drops of liquids is disclosed. The present invention includes the use of two closely spaced transducers, or one transducer and a closely spaced reflector plate, to form an interferometer suitable for ultrasonic characterization of droplet-size and smaller samples without the need for a container. The droplet is held between the interferometer elements, whose distance apart may be adjusted, by surface tension. The surfaces of the interferometer elements may be readily cleansed by a stream of solvent followed by purified air when it is desired to change samples. A single drop of liquid is sufficient for high-quality measurement. Examples of samples which may be investigated using the apparatus and method of the present invention include biological specimens (tear drops; blood and other body fluid samples; samples from tumors, tissues, and organs; secretions from tissues and organs; snake and bee venom, etc.) for diagnostic evaluation, samples in forensic investigations, and detection of drugs in small quantities. 5 figs.

Sinha, D.N.

1998-04-14

290

Leaf drop affects herbivory in oaks.  

PubMed

Leaf phenology is important to herbivores, but the timing and extent of leaf drop has not played an important role in our understanding of herbivore interactions with deciduous plants. Using phylogenetic general least squares regression, we compared the phenology of leaves of 55 oak species in a common garden with the abundance of leaf miners on those trees. Mine abundance was highest on trees with an intermediate leaf retention index, i.e. trees that lost most, but not all, of their leaves for 2-3 months. The leaves of more evergreen species were more heavily sclerotized, and sclerotized leaves accumulated fewer mines in the summer. Leaves of more deciduous species also accumulated fewer mines in the summer, and this was consistent with the idea that trees reduce overwintering herbivores by shedding leaves. Trees with a later leaf set and slower leaf maturation accumulated fewer herbivores. We propose that both leaf drop and early leaf phenology strongly affect herbivore abundance and select for differences in plant defense. Leaf drop may allow trees to dispose of their herbivores so that the herbivores must recolonize in spring, but trees with the longest leaf retention also have the greatest direct defenses against herbivores. PMID:23774946

Pearse, Ian S; Karban, Richard

2013-11-01

291

Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) Contest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first NASA Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) student competition pilot project came to a conclusion at the Glenn Research Center in April 2001. The competition involved high-school student teams who developed the concept for a microgravity experiment and prepared an experiment proposal. The two student teams - COSI Academy, sponsored by the Columbus Center of Science and Industry, and another team from Cincinnati, Ohio's Sycamore High School, designed a microgravity experiment, fabricated the experimental apparatus, and visited NASA Glenn to operate their experiment in the 2.2 Second Drop Tower. NASA and contractor personnel who conducted the DIME activity with the students. Shown (L-R) are: Daniel Dietrich (NASA) mentor for Sycamore High School team), Carol Hodanbosi (National Center for Microgravity Research; DIME staff), Jose Carrion (GRC Akima, drop tower technician), Dennis Stocker (NASA; DIME staff), Richard DeLombard (NASA; DIME staff), Sandi Thompson (NSMR sabbatical teacher; DIME staff), Peter Sunderland (NCMR, mentor for COSI Academy student team), Adam Malcolm (NASA co-op student; DIME staff). This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

2001-01-01

292

Flow visualization and characterization of evaporating liquid drops  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An optical system, consisting of drop-reflection image, reflection-refracted shadowgraphy and top-view photography, is used to measure the spreading and instant dynamic contact angle of a volatile-liquid drop on a non-transparent substrate. The drop-reflection image and the shadowgraphy is shown by projecting the images of a collimated laser beam partially reflected by the drop and partially passing through the drop onto a screen while the top view photograph is separately viewed by use of a camera video recorder and monitor. For a transparent liquid on a reflective solid surface, thermocapillary convection in the drop, induced by evaporation, can be viewed nonintrusively, and the drop real-time profile data are synchronously recorded by video recording systems. Experimental results obtained from this technique clearly reveal that evaporation and thermocapillary convection greatly affect the spreading process and the characteristics of dynamic contact angle of the drop.

Chao, David F. (Inventor); Zhang, Nengli (Inventor)

2004-01-01

293

Properties of a Liquid-Drop Variable Lens  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This student project describes an investigation of how a drop of water acts as a lens. The curvature of a drop of water is varied, and its focal length is measured. Diagrams, photographs, and a graph help present the results.

2007-07-19

294

HMT Hospitality Management KEY: # = new course * = course changed = course dropped  

E-print Network

HMT Hospitality Management KEY: # = new course * = course changed = course dropped University of instructor. #12;HMT Hospitality Management KEY: # = new course * = course changed = course droppedHumanEnvironmentalSciences HMT 120 INTRODUCTION TO HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT AND TOURISM. (3

MacAdam, Keith

295

Evaluation of pressure response in the Los Alamos controlled air incinerator during three incident scenarios  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos Controlled Air Incinerator (CAI) is a system designed to accept radioactive mixed waste containing alpha-emitting radionuclides. A mathematical model was developed to predict the pressure response throughout the offgas treatment system of the CAI during three hypothetical incident scenarios. The scenarios examined included: (1) loss of burner flame and failure of the flame safeguard system with subsequent reignition of fuel gas in the primary chamber, (2) pyrolytic gas buildup from a waste package due to loss of induced draft and subsequent restoration of induced draft, and (3) accidental charging of propellant spray cans in a solid waste package to the primary chamber during a normal feed cycle. For each of the three scenarios, the finite element computer model was able to determine the transient pressure surge and decay response throughout the system. Of particular interest were the maximum absolute pressures attainable at critical points in the system as well as maximum differential pressures across the high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. Modeling results indicated that all three of the scenarios resulted in maximum HEPA filter differential pressures well below the maximum allowable levels.

Vavruska, J.S. [Equinox, Ltd., Santa Fe, NM (United States); Elsberry, K. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Thompson, T.K.; Pendergrass, J.A. [T.K. Thompson, Inc., White Rock, NM (United States)

1996-05-01

296

Spent fuel receipt scenarios study  

SciTech Connect

This study reports on the results of an assignment from the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management to evaluate of the effects of different scenarios for receipt of spent fuel on the potential performance of the waste packages in the proposed Yucca Mountain high-level waste repository. The initial evaluations were performed and an interim letter report was prepared during the fall of 1988. Subsequently, the scope of work was expanded and additional analyses were conducted in 1989. This report combines the results of the two phases of the activity. This study is a part of a broader effort to investigate the options available to the DOE and the nuclear utilities for selection of spent fuel for acceptance into the Federal Waste Management System for disposal. Each major element of the system has evaluated the effects of various options on its own operations, with the objective of providing the basis for performing system-wide trade-offs and determining an optimum acceptance scenario. Therefore, this study considers different scenarios for receipt of spent fuel by the repository only from the narrow perspective of their effect on the very-near-field temperatures in the repository following permanent closure. This report is organized into three main sections. The balance of this section is devoted to a statement of the study objective, a summary of the assumptions. The second section of the report contains a discussion of the major elements of the study. The third section summarizes the results of the study and draws some conclusions from them. The appendices include copies of the waste acceptance schedule and the existing and projected spent fuel inventory that were used in the study. 10 refs., 27 figs.

Ballou, L.B.; Montan, D.N.; Revelli, M.A.

1990-09-01

297

The quest for an intermediate-scale accidental axion and further ALPs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent detection of the cosmic microwave background polarimeter experiment BICEP2 of tensor fluctuations in the B-mode power spectrum basically excludes all plausible axion models where its decay constant is above 1013 GeV. Moreover, there are strong theoretical, astrophysical, and cosmological motivations for models involving, in addition to the axion, also axion-like particles (ALPs), with decay constants in the intermediate scale range, between 109 GeV and 1013 GeV. Here, we present a general analysis of models with an axion and further ALPs and derive bounds on the relative size of the axion and ALP photon (and electron) coupling. We discuss what we can learn from measurements of the axion and ALP photon couplings about the fundamental parameters of the underlying ultraviolet completion of the theory. For the latter we consider extensions of the Standard Model in which the axion and the ALP(s) appear as pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons from the breaking of global chiral U(1) (Peccei-Quinn (PQ)) symmetries, occurring accidentally as low energy remnants from exact discrete symmetries. In such models, the axion and the further ALP are protected from disastrous explicit symmetry breaking effects due to Planck-scale suppressed operators. The scenarios considered exploit heavy right handed neutrinos getting their mass via PQ symmetry breaking and thus explain the small mass of the active neutrinos via a seesaw relation between the electroweak and an intermediate PQ symmetry breaking scale. For a number of explicit models, we determine the parameters of the low-energy effective field theory describing the axion, the ALPs, and their interactions with photons and electrons, in terms of the input parameters, in particular the PQ symmetry breaking scales. We show that these models can accommodate simultaneously an axion dark matter candidate, an ALP explaining the anomalous transparency of the universe for ?-rays, and an ALP explaining the recently reported 3.55 keV gamma line from galaxies and clusters of galaxies, if the respective decay constants are of intermediate scale. Moreover, they do not suffer severely from the domain wall problem.

Dias, A. G.; Machado, A. C. B.; Nishi, C. C.; Ringwald, A.; Vaudrevange, P.

2014-06-01

298

Estimation of vulnerable zones due to accidental release of toxic materials resulting in dense gas clouds.  

PubMed

Heavy gas dispersion models have been developed at IIT (hereinafter referred as IIT heavy gas models I and II) with a view to estimate vulnerable zones due to accidental (both instantaneous and continuous, respectively) release of dense toxic material in the atmosphere. The results obtained from IIT heavy gas models have been compared with those obtained from the DEGADIS model [Dense Gas Dispersion Model, developed by Havens and Spicer (1985) for the U.S. Coast Guard] as well as with the observed data collected during the Burro Series, Maplin Sands, and Thorney Island field trials. Both of these models include relevant features of dense gas dispersion, viz., gravity slumping, air entrainment, cloud heating, and transition to the passive phase, etc. The DEGADIS model has been considered for comparing the performance of IIT heavy gas models in this study because it incorporates most of the physical processes of dense gas dispersion in an elaborate manner, and has also been satisfactorily tested against field observations. The predictions from IIT heavy gas models indicate a fairly similar trend to the observed values from Thorney Island, Burro Series, and Maplin experiments with a tendency toward overprediction. There is a good agreement between the prediction of IIT Heavy Gas models I and II with those from DEGADIS, except for the simulations of IIT heavy gas model-I pertaining to very large release quantities under highly stable atmospheric conditions. In summary, the performance of IIT heavy gas models have been found to be reasonably good both with respect to the limited field data available and various simulations (selected on the basis of relevant storages in the industries and prevalent meteorological conditions performed with DEGADIS). However, there is a scope of improvement in the IIT heavy gas models (viz., better formulation for entrainment, modification of coefficients, transition criteria, etc.). Further, isotons (nomograms) have been prepared by using IIT heavy gas models for chlorine, which provide safe distance for various storage amounts for 24 meteorological scenarios prevalent in the entire year. These nomograms are prepared such that a nonspecialist can use them easily for control and management in case of an emergency requiring the evacuation of people in the affected region. These results can also be useful for siting and limiting the storage quantities. PMID:1947349

Singh, M P; Mohan, M; Panwar, T S; Chopra, H V

1991-09-01

299

Knowledge Based Crime Scenario Modelling Jeroen Keppens  

E-print Network

Knowledge Based Crime Scenario Modelling Jeroen Keppens Department of Computer Science University to a major crime is the formulation of sufficient alternative plausible scenarios that can explain the available evidence. However, software aimed at assisting human crime investigators by automatically

Keppens, Jeroen

300

Bringing Scenario Planning Home to KU  

E-print Network

Energized by the immersive learning process at the ARL scenario-planning workshop in March 2011, the University of Kansas (KU) Libraries decided to introduce scenario planning to library staff later that spring, to support ...

Church-Duran, Jennifer; Ludwig, Deborah

2012-03-01

301

Thermocapillary Migration and Interactions of Bubbles and Drops  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When a drop or bubble is placed in another fluid and subjected to the action of a temperature gradient, the drop will move. Such motion is a direct consequence of the variation of interfacial tension with temperature, and is termed thermocapillary migration. This paper discusses results from experiments conducted in reduced gravity on the thermocapillary motion of bubbles and drops.

Balasubramaniam, R.; Lacy, Claud E.; Wozniak, Guenter; Subramanian, R. Shankar

1996-01-01

302

Drop Testing of DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel Canisters  

SciTech Connect

The National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory INEEL) prepared four representative Department of Energy DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) canisters for the purpose of drop testing. The first two canisters represented a modified 24- inch diameter standardized DOE SNF canister and the second two canisters represented the Hanford Multi-Canister Overpack MCO). The modified canisters and internals were constructed and assembled at the INEEL. The MCO internal weights were fabricated at the INEEL and assembled into two MCOs at Hanford and later shipped to the INEEL for drop test preparation. Drop testing of these four canisters was completed in August 2004 at Sandia National Laboratories. The modified canisters were dropped from 30 feet onto a flat, essentially unyielding surface, with the canisters oriented at 45 degrees and 70 degrees off-vertical at impact. One representative MCO was dropped from 23 feet onto the same flat surface, oriented vertically at impact. The second representative MCO was dropped onto the flat surface from 2 feet oriented at 60 degrees off-vertical. These drop heights and orientations were chosen to meet or exceed the Yucca Mountain repository drop criteria. This paper discusses the comparison of deformations between the actual dropped canisters and those predicted by pre-drop and limited post-drop finite element evaluations performed using ABAQUS/Explicit. Post-drop containment of all four canisters, demonstrated by way of helium leak testing, is also discussed.

S. D. Snow; D. K. Morton; T. E. Rahl; R. K. Blandford; T. J. Hill

2005-07-01

303

Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Bounding Drop Support Calculations  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates different drop heights, concrete and other impact media to which the transport package and/or the MCO is dropped. A prediction method is derived for estimating the resultant impact factor for determining the bounding drop case for the SNF Project.

CHENAULT, D.M.

1999-11-16

304

Single drop behaviour in a high shear granulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wet granulation process starts when a liquid drop makes contact with the powder bed. In a powder bed, drops are subjected to centripetal and gravitational forces. These forces may affect the size and shape of the drop as it is incorporated into the bed. The majority of experiments studying droplet behaviour have been performed on static bed surfaces. This

Vishal Chouk; Gavin Reynolds; Mike Hounslow; Agba Salman

2009-01-01

305

Multiple inappropriate rate drop responses triggered by ventricular premature beats.  

PubMed

We report the case of a 70-year-old patient presenting with palpitations who was found to have recurrent inappropriate rate drop responses on interrogation of his pacemaker. These were found to be triggered by interpolated premature ventricular complexes (PVCs). We discuss the drop detect algorithm and how interpolated PVCs triggered the rate drop response. PMID:21273193

Babu, Ezhumalai; George, Geofi; Balachander, Jayaraman; Selvaraj, Raja

2011-07-01

306

Dynamics of the vapor layer below a Leidenfrost drop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Leidenfrost effect a small drop of fluid is levitated, above a sufficiently hot surface, on a persistent vapor layer generated by evaporation from the drop. The vapor layer thermally insulates the drop from the surface leading to extraordinarily long drop lifetimes. The top-view shape of the levitated drops can exhibit persistent starlike vibrations. I extend recent work [Burton et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 074301 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.074301] to study the bottom surface of the drop using interference imaging. In this work I use a high-speed camera and automated image analysis to image, locate, and classify the interference fringes. From the interference fringes I reconstruct the shape and height profile of the rim where the drop is closest to the surface. I measure the drop-size dependence of the planar vibrational mode frequencies, which agree well with previous work. I observe a distinct breathing mode in the average radius of the drop, the frequency of which scales differently with drop size than the other modes. This breathing mode can be tightly coupled to a vertical motion of the drop. I further observe a qualitative difference in the structure and dynamics of the vertical profile of the rim between large and small drops.

Caswell, Thomas A.

2014-07-01

307

Reducing Pressure Drop in a Baghouse Using Flow Distributors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pressure drop of ladder vanes in a baghouse could be reduced by decreasing the vane number and adjusting the inclined angle of the vane. Two types of flow distributors were utilized to test pressure drop caused by the structure of a baghouse. The pressure drops were measured by an inclined manometer under various filtration velocities. The purpose of this

Chi-Jen Chen

2001-01-01

308

Pressure drop effects in packed capillary column supercritical fluid chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subject of column pressure drop has generated much controversy when using packed columns in supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC), since packed columns usually exhibit a ssignificant pressure drop along the column. In this paper, the effect of pressure drop on the chromatographic behavior of capillary columns packed with small spherical silica particles in SFC was studied using neat carbon dioxide

Wenbao Li; Abdul Malik; Milton L. Lee

1997-01-01

309

Adjusting for Nonignorable Drop-Out Using Semiparametric Nonresponse Models  

E-print Network

Adjusting for Nonignorable Drop-Out Using Semiparametric Nonresponse Models Daniel O. SCHARFSTEIN the marginal mean µ0 of Y when some subjects drop out of the study at random times Q prior to the common fixed the continuous drop-out time Q is modeled semiparametrically and no restrictions are placed on the joint

310

Dropping out from School. Policy Brief Number 8  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While initial access to education is increasing in many countries, drop out rates continue to be high. This seriously affects MDG and EFA goals around educational access. This briefing paper looks at the issue of dropping out from school. It is based on the CREATE Pathways to Access Research Monograph, "Dropping out from school: a cross country…

Hunt, Frances

2009-01-01

311

Administrative Policy: Drop/Add Policy Page 1 of 1  

E-print Network

Administrative Policy: Drop/Add Policy Page 1 of 1 Governance & Policies Effective: October 1997 Administrative Policy DROP/ADD POLICY Approved: October 1997 Revised: 2002; 2004; June 8, 2011 Deans' Council. There is no automatic drop policy for nonattendance. PASSHE universities are expected to adhere to the System

Hardy, Christopher R.

312

HLB related fruit drop Fall 2013 PGR trials  

E-print Network

for fruit thinning Gibberellic acid � delays peel color change & retains firmness (delays senescenceHLB related fruit drop � Fall 2013 PGR trials L.G. Albrigo Professor Emeritus Citrus Research & Education Center #12;#12;Background � Fruit Drop Fruit drop very high in 2012-13 Weak trees (HLB?) more loss

Florida, University of

313

Drop formation dynamics of constant low-viscosity, elastic fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics of drop formation under gravity has been investigated as a function of elasticity using a set of low-viscosity, ideal elastic fluids and an equivalent Newtonian glycerol–water solution. All solutions had the same shear viscosity, equilibrium surface tension, and density, but differed greatly in elasticity. The minimum drop radius in the early stages of drop formation (necking) was found

J. J. Cooper-White; J. E. Fagan; V. Tirtaatmadja; D. R. Lester; D. V. Boger

2002-01-01

314

Interaction of Nonequilibrium Plasma with an Evaporating Metal Drop1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theoretical model of process of metal drop evaporation in plasma vacuum arc was cre- ated. The model predicts a new mode of drop heat- ing when the drop temperature and its evaporation rate increase as a result of ionization of the evapo- rated material. It is shown, that the given mode exists for substances with high melting tempera- ture

A. G. Sitnikov; A. V. Kozyrev

315

Improved Refractometer for Measuring Temperatures of Drops  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Dual Rainbow refractometer is an enhanced version of the Rainbow refractometer, which is added to, and extends the capabilities of, a phase Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA). A PDPA utilizes pairs of laser beams to measure individual components of velocity and sizes of drops in a spray. The Rainbow-refractometer addition measures the temperatures of individual drops. The designs of prior versions of the Rainbow refractometer have required substantial modifications of PDPA transmitting optics, plus dedicated lasers as sources of illumination separate from, and in addition to, those needed for PDPA measurements. The enhancement embodied in the Dual Rainbow refractometer eliminates the need for a dedicated laser and confers other advantages as described below. A dedicated laser is no longer needed because the Dual Rainbow refractometer utilizes one of the pairs of laser beams already present in a PDPA. Hence, the design of the Dual Rainbow refractometer simplifies the task of upgrading PDPA hardware to enable measurement of temperature. Furthermore, in a PDPA/Dual Rainbow refractometer system, a single argon-ion laser with three main wavelengths can be used to measure the temperatures, sizes, and all three components of velocity (in contradistinction to only two components of velocity in a prior PDPA/Rainbow refractometer system). In order to enable the Dual Rainbow refractometer to utilize a pair of PDPA laser beams, it was necessary to (1) find a location for the refractometer receiver, such that the combined rainbow patterns of two laser beams amount to a pattern identical to that of a single beam, (2) adjust the polarization of the two beams to obtain the strongest rainbow pattern, and (3) find a location for the PDPA receiver to obtain a linear relationship between the measured phase shift and drop size.

Naqwi, Amir A.

2004-01-01

316

Scenarios for coastal vulnerability assessment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coastal vulnerability assessments tend to focus mainly on climate change and especially on sea-level rise. Assessment of the influence of nonclimatic environmental change or socioeconomic change is less well developed and these drivers are often completely ignored. Given that the most profound coastal changes of the twentieth century due to nonclimate drivers are likely to continue through the twenty-first century, this is a major omission. It may result in not only overstating the importance of climate change but also overlooking significant interactions of climate change and other drivers. To support the development of policies relating to climate change and coastal management, integrated assessments of climatic change in coastal areas are required, including the effects of all the relevant drivers. This chapter explores the development of scenarios (or "plausible futures") of relevant climate and nonclimate drivers that can be used for coastal analysis, with an emphasis on the nonclimate drivers. It shows the importance of analyzing the impacts of climate change and sea-level rise in a broader context of coastal change and all its drivers. This will improve the analysis of impacts, key vulnerabilities, and adaptation needs and, hence, inform climate and coastal policy. Stakeholder engagement is important in the development of scenarios, and the underlying assumptions need to be explicit, transparent, and open to scientific debate concerning their uncertainties/realism and likelihood.

Nicholls, Robert J.; Woodroffe, Colin D.; Burkett, Virginia; Hay, John; Wong, Poh Poh; Nurse, Leonard

2011-01-01

317

Nuclear power for the future: Implications of some crisis scenarios  

SciTech Connect

As energy issues have dropped from public awareness, electricity demand growth has remained low, deregulation has destabilized the utility decision process, and least-cost regulation has pointed utilities to gas-fired plants for those additions that are coming on-line, the nuclear power industry has begun to ask the question: What will cause nuclear energy to again compete as an option in new, domestic generating capacity additions? Since virtually all of today`s corporate and societal decisions are driven by short-term factors, the preceding question can be translated into: What crisis might occur that would project nuclear as the solution to an immediately perceived problem? Thus, an examination of scenarios that would project nuclear power into the country`s immediate consciousness is in order, along with an analysis of the implications for and challenges to the nuclear industry resulting therefrom. This paper undertakes such an analysis.

Turner, K.H. [McCallum-Turner, Evergreen, CO (United States)

1996-12-31

318

Naval Waste Package Drop With Emplacement Pallet  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this calculation was to determine the structural responses of the Emplacement Pallet and Naval Long Waste Package (WP) to drops from their highest possible lift heights. The scope of this document was limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of maximum stress intensities. The Naval Long WP is classified as Quality Level 1 (Ref 12, page 7, Table 1). The Emplacement Pallet is classified as Quality Level 2 (Ref. 19, page 7, Table 1). Therefore, this calculation is subject to the requirements of the Quality Assurance Requirements and Description (Ref. 11). AP-3.12Q, Calculations, was used to perform the calculation and develop the document (Ref. 3).

D.G. McLenzie

2005-08-04

319

La Niña caused global sea level drop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2011 La Niña was so strong that it caused global mean sea level to drop by 5 millimeters, a new study shows. Since the early 1990s, sea level has been rising by about 3 millimeters per year, satellite data show. But between the beginning of 2010 and the middle of 2011, sea level fell by 5 millimeters. This occurred concurrently with the La Niña phase of the El Niño- Southern Oscillation (ENSO). ENSO involves a shift in ocean surface temperatures in the tropical Pacific and changes in precipitation patterns around the world. Previous studies have shown that strong El Niño events can increase sea level temporarily.

Balcerak, Ernie

2012-12-01

320

Chimpanzee Droppings Lead Scientists to Evolutionary Discovery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interrupted case study focuses on the research of Dr. Beatrice Hahn, who investigates DNA sequences in chimpanzee droppings in order to explore the origins of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Students first consider the types of data that can be gained through collecting chimpanzee feces and studying the behavior of these animals. Students then apply this information to learn more about microevolution when they compare DNA sequences. Finally, students learn about ELISA tests and consider the role of basic and applied science. This case study is appropriate for an introductory biology course for non-majors or majors.

Kosal, Erica F.

2008-01-01

321

Scenario Writing: A Vision of the Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Scenario Writing component of the Future Problem Solving Program calls for students to write a short-short story exploring variables in the future. This article describes the scenario writing process, presents samples of award-winning scenarios, and offers tips for student-authors and for coaches. (JDD)

Shewach, Dawn L.

1991-01-01

322

Conservation of Combinatorial Structures in Evolution Scenarios  

E-print Network

and human X chromosomes. 1 Introduction The reconstruction of evolution scenarios based on genomeConservation of Combinatorial Structures in Evolution Scenarios Anne Bergeron, Cedric Chauve La in Evolution Scenarios Sâ??everine Bâ??erard 1 , Anne Bergeron 2 , and Cedric Chauve 2 1 LIRMM, Montpellier, France

Chauve, Cedric

323

Using normative scenarios in landscape ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The normative landscape scenario is one of many types of scenario methods that are used by landscape ecologists. We describe how normative landscape scenarios are different from other types and how these differences create special potential for engaging science to build landscape policy and for exploring scientific questions in realistic simulated landscapes. We describe criteria and a method for generating

Joan Iverson Nassauer; Robert C. Corry

2004-01-01

324

DEVELOPMENT OF IMPACT ORIENTED CLIMATE SCENARIOS  

EPA Science Inventory

Appropriate scenarios of future climate must be developed prior to any assessment of the impacts of climate change. he information needed by impact assessors was examined in consultation with those having experience in scenario use. ost assessors require regional scenarios with a...

325

Building Scenarios from a Heterogeneous Alert Stream  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a realtime algorithm for combining the alerts produced by several heterogeneous intrusion detection sensors into sce- narios. Each scenario represents a sequence of actions performed by a single actor or organization. Our algorithm, which is probabilistic in na- ture, can determine the scenario membership of a new alert in time pro- portional to the number of candidate scenarios.

Oliver M. Dain; Robert K. Cunningham

2001-01-01

326

Small-Scale Drop-Size Variability: Empirical Models for Drop-Size-Dependent Clustering in Clouds  

E-print Network

used models that assume homogeneity and a Poisson distribution of cloud drops, these models illustrate, it has been shown in a companion paper that the probability of finding a drop of radius r at a linear distribution of large cloud drops using models that simulate the observed power laws. In contrast to currently

Myneni, Ranga B.

327

Numerical Simulation of Thermocapillary Drop Motion with Internal Circulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thermocapillary motion of drops in zero gravity is analyzed numerically. When convective transport is important, the internal circulation in the drop has a profound effect on the temperature distribution in its vicinity and hence on its migration speed. For sufficiently large values of the Marangoni number number Ma, for steady motion of the drop, the temperature difference on the drop surface and its scaled speed increase with Ma. This is in contrast to (1) existing computational results for liquid drops whose scaled speed decreases with Ma and (2) asymptotic results for gas bubbles whose scaled speed is independent of Ma when it is large.

Ma, Xiangjiang; Balasubramaniam, R.; Subramanian, R. Shankar

1999-01-01

328

Vertical vibration and shape oscillation of acoustically levitated water drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the vertical harmonic vibration of levitated water drops within ultrasound field. The restoring force to maintain such a vibration mode is provided by the resultant force of acoustic radiation force and drop gravity. Experiments reveal that the vibration frequency increases with the aspect ratio for drops with the same volume, which agrees with the theoretical prediction for those cases of nearly equiaxed drops. During the vertical vibration, the floating drops undergo the second order shape oscillation. The shape oscillation frequency is determined to be twice the vibration frequency.

Geng, D. L.; Xie, W. J.; Yan, N.; Wei, B.

2014-09-01

329

Thermocapillary Migration and Interactions of Bubbles and Drops  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments were performed aboard the LMS mission of the Space Shuttle in summer 1996 in the BDPU on isolated air bubbles and Fluorinert FC-75 drops as well as on interacting bubbles/drops migrating in a temperature gradient in a Dow-Corning DC-200 series silicone oil of nominal viscosity 10 centistokes. The data, recorded in the form of videotape images as well as cine images in selected runs, have been analyzed. The behavior of the isolated objects is consistent with earlier observations made aboard the IML-2 mission while the range of Reynolds and Marangoni numbers has been extended substantially over that in the IML-2 experiments. Large bubbles were found to be slightly deformed to an oblate shape while no deformation could be detected in the case of similarly large drops. Results on interacting drops and bubbles display interesting and unanticipated features. In some experiments, drops are found to follow a three-dimensional trajectory. In others, trailing drops and bubbles are found to move off the axis of the cell when migrating behind a leading drop or bubble which moves along the axis. In this type of run, if the trailing drop is sufficiently large, it is found to pass the leading drop. Finally, behavior similar to that observed in IML-2, namely that a small leading drop slows the movement of a larger trailing drop moving along the cell axis, was observed as well.

Subramaniam, R. Shankar; Balasubramaniam, R.; Wozniak, G.; Hadland, P. H.

1999-01-01

330

Industrial research for transmutation scenarios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents the results of research scenarios for americium transmutation in a 22nd century French nuclear fleet, using sodium fast breeder reactors. We benchmark the americium transmutation benefits and drawbacks with a reference case consisting of a hypothetical 60 GWe fleet of pure plutonium breeders. The fluxes in the various parts of the cycle (reactors, fabrication plants, reprocessing plants and underground disposals) are calculated using EDF's suite of codes, comparable in capabilities to those of other research facilities. We study underground thermal heat load reduction due to americium partitioning and repository area minimization. We endeavor to estimate the increased technical complexity of surface facilities to handle the americium fluxes in special fuel fabrication plants, americium fast burners, special reprocessing shops, handling equipments and transport casks between those facilities.

Camarcat, Noel; Garzenne, Claude; Le Mer, Joël; Leroyer, Hadrien; Desroches, Estelle; Delbecq, Jean-Michel

2011-04-01

331

Nonlocality in sequential correlation scenarios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As first shown by Popescu (1995 Phys. Rev. Lett. 74 2619), some quantum states only reveal their nonlocality when subjected to a sequence of measurements while giving rise to local correlations in standard Bell tests. Motivated by this manifestation of ‘hidden nonlocality’ we set out to develop a general framework for the study of nonlocality when sequences of measurements are performed. Similar to Gallego et al (2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 109 070401) our approach is operational, i.e. the task is to identify the set of allowed operations in sequential correlation scenarios and define nonlocality as the resource that cannot be created by these operations. This leads to a characterization of sequential nonlocality that contains as particular cases standard nonlocality and hidden nonlocality.

Gallego, Rodrigo; Würflinger, Lars Erik; Chaves, Rafael; Acín, Antonio; Navascués, Miguel

2014-03-01

332

Cancer care scenario in Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Bangladesh is a developing country that is facing many challenges, especially in the health sector. Cancer management is a priority due to the current trend of increased incidence in this region. In this article, the current scenario of cancer in Bangladesh and its management with brief history is outlined. The combined effort of government and private sector is highlighted with the gradual progress in cancer management. Recent introduction of the state-of-the-art facilities and the training facilities for human resource development are also outlined. The existing challenges and cooperation from local NGOs and other overseas sources are also highlighted to provide an insight regarding possible ways to tackle these challenges to ensure a better future. PMID:24455570

Uddin, A. F. M. Kamal; Khan, Zohora Jameela; Islam, Johirul; Mahmud, AM

2013-01-01

333

Radiation Detection Computational Benchmark Scenarios  

SciTech Connect

Modeling forms an important component of radiation detection development, allowing for testing of new detector designs, evaluation of existing equipment against a wide variety of potential threat sources, and assessing operation performance of radiation detection systems. This can, however, result in large and complex scenarios which are time consuming to model. A variety of approaches to radiation transport modeling exist with complementary strengths and weaknesses for different problems. This variety of approaches, and the development of promising new tools (such as ORNL’s ADVANTG) which combine benefits of multiple approaches, illustrates the need for a means of evaluating or comparing different techniques for radiation detection problems. This report presents a set of 9 benchmark problems for comparing different types of radiation transport calculations, identifying appropriate tools for classes of problems, and testing and guiding the development of new methods. The benchmarks were drawn primarily from existing or previous calculations with a preference for scenarios which include experimental data, or otherwise have results with a high level of confidence, are non-sensitive, and represent problem sets of interest to NA-22. From a technical perspective, the benchmarks were chosen to span a range of difficulty and to include gamma transport, neutron transport, or both and represent different important physical processes and a range of sensitivity to angular or energy fidelity. Following benchmark identification, existing information about geometry, measurements, and previous calculations were assembled. Monte Carlo results (MCNP decks) were reviewed or created and re-run in order to attain accurate computational times and to verify agreement with experimental data, when present. Benchmark information was then conveyed to ORNL in order to guide testing and development of hybrid calculations. The results of those ADVANTG calculations were then sent to PNNL for compilation. This is a report describing the details of the selected Benchmarks and results from various transport codes.

Shaver, Mark W.; Casella, Andrew M.; Wittman, Richard S.; McDonald, Ben S.

2013-09-24

334

Drop breakage in liquid–liquid stirred dispersions: Modelling of single drop breakage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new experimental approach has been developed for the identification of reasonable break-up mechanisms in stirred dispersions and of a physically based model for the daughter drop size distribution. In the experiments, breakage of a single organic droplet and the subsequent fragments formation are analyzed by image processing techniques. The experimental data are then fitted by means of a daughter

Alessio Zaccone; Ansor Gäbler; Sebastian Maaß; Daniele Marchisio; Matthias Kraume

2007-01-01

335

A high-drop hole-type photonic crystal add-drop filter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the effect of total internal reflection (TIR) and photonic band gap, a new type of hexagonal-lattice hole-type silicon photonic crystal add-drop filter is proposed with a large circular hole as inner ring. The single mode operation is realized by compressing the two rows of photonic crystal above and below the line defect waveguide. Two-dimensional (2D) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is then applied to investigate the impacts of side length of inner ring and coupling strength on its drop efficiency. It is also fairly compared with the traditional inner ring structure composed of hexagonal-lattice holes. The results show that the proposed structure can offer higher spectral selectivity than the traditional one. Two channel wavelengths of 1.425 ?m and 1.45 ?m can be simultaneously dropped at corresponding ports with drop efficiency of more than 90% and quality factor of 900 in the proposed configuration when the width of bus waveguide, the side length of inner ring and the coupling strength are 0.8 ?3 a, 4 a and 0, respectively, where a is the lattice constant.

Jiang, Jun-zhen; Qiang, Ze-xuan; Zhang, Hao; Zheng, Yan-min; Qiu, Yi-shen

2014-01-01

336

Community Mental Health Services: Dropping-In and Dropping-Out.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of studies have examined variables that discriminate individuals who drop out of mental health programs. However, relatively little attention has been focused on determining characteristics of individuals who fail to follow through after their initial contact with mental health services. This study was designed to provide a profile of…

Lonigan, Christopher J.; Muzekari, Louis H.

337

The Oil Drop Experiment: How Did Millikan Decide What Was an Appropriate Drop?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The oil drop experiment is considered an important contribution to the understanding of modern physics and chemistry. The objective of this investigation is to study and contrast the views and understanding with respect to the experiment of physicists or philosophers of science with those of authors of physics or chemistry textbooks and…

Niaz, Mansoor

2003-01-01

338

Evolution of epileptic encephalopathy in an infant with non-accidental head injury.  

PubMed

A 5-month-old child, previously healthy, was hospitalized with frequent episodes of tonic seizures. The seizures were controlled with antiepileptic medication. However, the parents did not continue medications after discharge from the hospital. The child was admitted several times with breakthrough seizures. Over time the seizures became refractory to treatment. Neurometabolic work up and imaging studies for uncontrolled seizures revealed non-accidental head injury (shaken baby syndrome) as the underlying cause. His first EEG was normal and changed from normal to an epileptic encephalopathy pattern during his several admissions for uncontrolled seizures. From a normal child at the first admission, the child was severely regressed at the last admission. The present paper highlights the evolution of EEG changes in a child with non-accidental head injuries. This report also highlights considering non-accidental head injury as the underlying cause in younger children presenting with unexplained epileptic encephalopathy. PMID:23887218

Koul, Roshan; Poothrikovil, Rajesh; Al-Azri, Faisal; Al-Sadoon, Muna

2013-07-01

339

Sessile drops: spreading versus evaporation-condensation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The equations that govern the dynamics of the liquid-vapor interface and contact line of a sessile drop in the spreading and evaporation-condensation regimes are derived. During spreading, the liquid-vapor interface and contact line convect with the liquid and are therefore material. In contrast, when evaporation or condensation occurs, the liquid-vapor interface and contact line migrate relative to the liquid and are therefore nonmaterial. For spreading, the evolution equations consist of kinematical constraints on the normal velocities of the liquid-vapor interface and contact line along with the normal and tangential components of the constitutively augmented standard force balances on the liquid-vapor interface and along the contact line. The tangential components of the standard force balances on the liquid-vapor interface and at the contact line, being solely dissipative, are automatically satisfied at equilibrium. The normal component of the standard force balance on the liquid-vapor interface reduces to the Young-Laplace equation, whereas its counterpart along the contact line simplifies to the generalization, accounting for line energy, of the Young equation mentioned by Gibbs. In the presence of evaporation or condensation, the kinematical constraints are no longer valid. Their absence is compensated for by the normal components of the configurational force balances on the liquid-vapor interface and along the contact line. Hence, away from equilibrium and in the presence of dissipation, a complete description of the liquid-vapor interface and contact line of a volatile drop involves the normal and tangential components of the standard force balances along with the normal components of the configurational force balances. At equilibrium, the normal component of the configurational force balance on the liquid-vapor interface simplifies to the condition for chemical equilibrium requiring the continuity of the chemical potential, whereas its counterpart along the contact line, being entirely dissipative, holds trivially. Comparison with recently proposed kinetic laws for the liquid-vapor interface and contact line of a drop is provided.

Fried, Eliot; Jabbour, Michel

2014-04-01

340

Robust accidental nodes and zeros and critical quasiparticle scaling in iron-based multiband superconductors.  

SciTech Connect

We study multigap superconductivity, with strong angular variations of one of the gaps, as appropriate for certain iron-based high-temperature superconductors. We solve the gap equations of this model and find that the nodes or zeros in the gap function present at T{sub c} - although purely accidental - typically survive down to T = 0. Based on this result, we investigate the line of quantum transitions at which gap zeros first appear. The peculiar 'zero-point' quantum critical scaling emanating from this line dominates quasiparticle thermodynamics and transport properties over much of the phase diagram and supplants more familiar forms of scaling associated with the accidental nodes.

Stanev, V.; Alexandrov, B. S.; Nikolic, P.; Tesanovic, Z. (Materials Science Division); (Los Alamos Nat. Lab.); (George Mason Univ.); (Johns Hopkins Univ.)

2011-07-19

341

Dropped head syndrome: etiology and management.  

PubMed

Dropped head syndrome (DHS) is characterized by severe weakness of the cervical paraspinal muscles that results in the passively correctable chin-on-chest deformity. DHS is most commonly associated with neuromuscular disorders. However, it is not always accompanied by electromyographic findings or noticeable changes on muscle biopsy. In such cases, the term isolated neck extensory myopathy (INEM) is used instead. The literature on the management of INEM is limited. Most reports suggest that nonsurgical interventions help to stabilize the deformity. The literature on surgical management of INEM is limited and mixed, with outcomes ranging from poor to excellent. The prevalence of DHS likely will increase as life expectancy increases. Recent advances in our understanding of sagittal malalignment and surgical techniques have improved our ability to provide better quality of life for patients with cervical deformity. PMID:23203936

Sharan, Alok D; Kaye, David; Charles Malveaux, Wilsa M S; Riew, K Daniel

2012-12-01

342

Dropped head syndrome: diagnosis and management.  

PubMed

Dropped head syndrome (DHS) is a relatively rare condition, with a broad differential diagnosis. This deformity has significant implications on the health and quality of life of affected individuals. While surgery seems to be an obvious therapeutic option, there is a paucity of information on surgical intervention with no clear consensus on an optimal approach or timing. We present a case of DHS in a young woman to illustrate this condition, and review the current literature. Although at present the only definitive solution for correction and stabilization of DHS is surgical intervention involving multilevel instrumented fixation and fusion, this condition requires a persistent medical workup and treatment of reversible causes before surgical intervention is contemplated. PMID:23637681

Martin, Allan R; Reddy, Rajesh; Fehlings, Michael G

2011-05-01

343

The dynamics of free liquid drops  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The behavior of rotating and oscillating free liquid drops was studied by many investigators theoretically for many years. More recent numerical treatments have yielded predictions which are yet to be verified experimentally. The purpose is to report the results of laboratory work as well as that of the experiments carried out in space during the flight of Spacelab 3, and to compare it with the existing theoretical studies. Ground-based experiments were attempted as a first approximation to the ideal boundary conditions used by the theoretical treatments by neutralizing the overwhelming effects of the Earth's gravitational field with an outside supporting liquid and with the use of levitation technology. The viscous and inertial loading of such a suspending fluid was found to profoundly effect the results, but the information thus gathered has emphasized the uniqueness of the experimental data obtained in the low-gravity environment of space.

Wang, T. G.; Trinh, E. H.; Croonquist, A. P.; Elleman, D. D.

1988-01-01

344

Crime Drops for Eighth Straight Year  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In October 2000, the FBI issued its annual report on crime, a 422-page tome, which shows crime down in the United States for the eighth straight year. The report found a total of 11.6 million criminal offenses in 1999, or 4,267 crimes per 100,000 people, a 7.6 percent decrease and the largest drop in a single year in the last two decades. The nation's murder total of 15,533 victims represented an eight percent drop and a thirty-three year low, while rates of robbery, assault, burglary, forcible rape, and motor vehicle theft all fell between four and ten percent. The downward trend applied to virtually all types of crime in all areas of the country. While the news was considered to be good, criminologists warned that the declines were lower in the largest cities and that these numbers may be harbingers of an upswing in crime in the next decade. These same experts disagree over the causes of the decline in crime that has marked the decade of the 1990s. Many point to more police officers, tougher sentencing laws, and more prisons as primary factors, while others focus on good economic times, a greater focus on drug treatment, and the graying of the population. One curious fact to be gleaned from the data is that the person least likely to be murdered in America today would be a white, single woman living in Iowa or New Hampshire who does not have a male partner.

Charbonneau, David D.

345

Buoyancy-driven drop squeezing through a constriction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emulsion flow through a granular material is of fundamental importance to many applications (e.g., oil filtration through underground reservoirs). To understand these complex flow systems, the effect of drop squeezing on the emulsion flow rate and the critical conditions when the drops become trapped must be determined. As a related model problem, the buoyancy-driven axisymmetric motion of an emulsion drop through a torus is considered by experiments and by theory using a boundary-integral method. For the latter, the problem is reduced to a system of well-behaved second-kind integral equations for the fluid velocity on the drop and the Hebeker density on the solid surfaces (Zinchenko & Davis, 2006, J. Fluid Mech. vol. 564, pp. 227-266). During squeezing through the constriction, the trends for the drop-solid spacing (as small as 0.1-1% of the drop size) and the drop's velocity deceleration (up to 10^4 times) are explored in detail. A critical Bond number for trapping to occur is found for different squeezing conditions (drop-to-torus size ratio, drop-to-opening size ratio, and drop-to-surrounding fluid viscosity ratio). In experiments, our focus is to verify the predictions and to determine when surface roughness neglected in the theory has an effect on the squeezing process.

Ratcliffe, Thomas; Zinchenko, Alexander; Davis, Robert

2007-11-01

346

Effect of neighboring perturbations on drop coalescence at an interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coalescence at a quiescent silicone oil/water glycerine interface was investigated for water/glycerine drops with Bond number ˜7 and Ohnesorge number = 0.01 using high-speed imaging and time-resolved tomographic particle image velocimetry. In addition to a single drop case, three perturbation cases were considered corresponding with a second drop, a solid particle wetted in oil, and a solid particle wetted in water/glycerine placed adjacent to the coalescing drop. Each perturbing object caused an initial tilting of the drop, influencing its rupture location and eventual collapse behavior. Once tilted, drops typically ruptured near their lowest vertical position which was located either toward or away from the perturbing object depending on the case. The initial retraction speed of the ruptured film was higher for drops initially tilted at significant angles, and the local variations in retraction speed correlated well with the expected variations in local film thickness. The drop fluid always collapsed away from the drop axis in the direction of the rupture location in all unperturbed or perturbed cases. In the case of a drop next to a particle wetted in water/glycerine, the collapsing fluid travelled away from the particle, and the downward propagating vortex ring which developed was similar to that resulting from an unperturbed drop rupture. By contrast, the drop fluid collapsed toward either a second drop or a particle wetted in oil. The resulting vortex rings were more asymmetric, and viscous interaction between the particle and collapsing fluid hindered the downward motion of the associated ring.

Bordoloi, Ankur Deep; Longmire, Ellen K.

2012-06-01

347

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 2. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF CHLORINE (SCAQMD) (SOUTH COAST AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT DISTRICT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The manual discusses reducing the risk associated with an accidental release of chlorine. It identifies some of the potential causes of accidental releases that apply to the processes that use chlorine. It also identifies examples of potential causes, as well as measures that may...

348

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES, VOLUME 2: POST-RELEASE MITIGATION MEASURES FOR CONTROLLING ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF AIR TOXICS  

EPA Science Inventory

The volume discusses prevention and protection measures for controlling accidental releases of air toxics. The probability of accidental releases depends on the extent to which deviations (in magnitude and duration) in the process can be tolerated before a loss of chemical contai...

349

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES, VOL. 2. POST-RELEASE MITIGATION MEASURES FOR CONTROLLING ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF AIR TOXICS  

EPA Science Inventory

The volume discusses prevention and protection measures for controlling accidental releases of air toxics. The probability of accidental releases depends on the extent to which deviations (in magnitude and duration) in the process can be tolerated before a loss of chemical contai...

350

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES. VOLUME 1. PREVENTION AND PROTECTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR CONTROLLING ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF AIR TOXICS  

EPA Science Inventory

The volume discusses prevention and protection measures for controlling accidental releases of air toxics. The probability of accidental releases depends on the extent to which deviations (in magnitude and duration) in the process can be tolerated before a loss of chemical contai...

351

Coalescence of bubbles and drops in an outer fluid  

E-print Network

When two liquid drops touch, a microscopic connecting liquid bridge forms and rapidly grows as the two drops merge into one. Whereas coalescence has been thoroughly studied when drops coalesce in vacuum or air, many important situations involve coalescence in a dense surrounding fluid, such as oil coalescence in brine. Here we study the merging of gas bubbles and liquid drops in an external fluid. Our data indicate that the flows occur over much larger length scales in the outer fluid than inside the drops themselves. Thus we find that the asymptotic early regime is always dominated by the viscosity of the drops, independent of the external fluid. A phase diagram showing the crossovers into the different possible late-time dynamics identifies a dimensionless number that signifies when the external viscosity can be important.

Joseph D. Paulsen; Rémi Carmigniani; Anerudh Kannan; Justin C. Burton; Sidney R. Nagel

2014-07-24

352

Heat loss and drag of spherical drop tube samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis techniques for three aspects of the performance of the NASA/MSFC 32 meter drop tube are considered. Heat loss through the support wire in a pendant drop sample, temperature history of a drop falling through the drop tube when the tube is filled with helium gas at various pressures, and drag and resulting g-levels experienced by a drop falling through the tube when the tube is filled with helium gas at various pressures are addressed. The developed methods apply to systems with sufficiently small Knudsen numbers for which continuum theory may be applied. Sample results are presented, using niobium drops, to indicate the magnitudes of the effects. Helium gas at one atmosphere pressure can approximately double the amount of possible undercooling but it results in an apparent gravity levels of up to 0.1 g.

Wallace, D. B.

1982-01-01

353

Coalescence of bubbles and drops in an outer fluid  

E-print Network

When two liquid drops touch, a microscopic connecting liquid bridge forms and rapidly grows as the two drops merge into one. Whereas coalescence has been thoroughly studied when drops coalesce in vacuum or air, many important situations involve coalescence in a dense surrounding fluid, such as oil coalescence in brine. Here we study the merging of gas bubbles and liquid drops in an external fluid. Our data indicate that the flows occur over much larger length scales in the outer fluid than inside the drops themselves. Thus we find that the asymptotic early regime is always dominated by the viscosity of the drops, independent of the external fluid. A phase diagram showing the crossovers into the different possible late-time dynamics identifies a dimensionless number that signifies when the external viscosity can be important.

Paulsen, Joseph D; Kannan, Anerudh; Burton, Justin C; Nagel, Sidney R

2014-01-01

354

Development and application of innovational drop impact modeling techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to demand for short time-to-market, drop testing has become a bottleneck for semiconductor and telecommunication industry. Therefore, there is a need for a faster and cheaper solution, i.e. validated drop impact model, which is accurate, reliable, and enables understanding of physics-of-failure for design improvement. Currently, there has been increasing interest and effort by researchers on board level drop test

Tong Yan Tee; Jing-en Luan; Hun Shen Ng

2005-01-01

355

Drop impact and rebound dynamics on an inclined superhydrophobic surface.  

PubMed

Due to its potential in water-repelling applications, the impact and rebound dynamics of a water drop impinging perpendicular to a horizontal superhydrophobic surface have undergone extensive study. However, drops tend to strike a surface at an angle in applications. In such cases, the physics governing the effects of oblique impact are not well studied or understood. Therefore, the objective of this study was to conduct an experiment to investigate the impact and rebound dynamics of a drop at various liquid viscosities, in an isothermal environment, and on a nanocomposite superhydrophobic surface at normal and oblique impact conditions (tilted at 15°, 30°, 45°, and 60°). This study considered drops falling from various heights to create normal impact Weber numbers ranging from 6 to 110. In addition, drop viscosity was varied by decreasing the temperature for water drops and by utilizing water-glycerol mixtures, which have similar surface tension to water but higher viscosities. Results revealed that oblique and normal drop impact behaved similarly (in terms of maximum drop spread as well as rebound dynamics) at low normal Weber numbers. However, at higher Weber numbers, normal and oblique impact results diverged in terms of maximum spread, which could be related to asymmetry and more complex outcomes. These asymmetry effects became more pronounced as the inclination angle increased, to the point where they dominated the drop impact and rebound characteristics when the surface was inclined at 60°. The drop rebound characteristics on inclined surfaces could be classified into eight different outcomes driven primarily by normal Weber number and drop Ohnesorge numbers. However, it was found that these outcomes were also a function of the receding contact angle, whereby reduced receding angles yielded tail-like structures. Nevertheless, the contact times of the drops with the coating were found to be generally independent of surface inclination. PMID:25216298

Yeong, Yong Han; Burton, James; Loth, Eric; Bayer, Ilker S

2014-10-14

356

Drop-out from a psychodynamic group psychotherapy outpatient unit.  

PubMed

Abstract Background. Drop-out from psychotherapy is common and represents a considerable problem in clinical practice and research. Aim. To explore pre-treatment predictors of early and late drop-out from psychodynamic group therapy in a public outpatient unit for non-psychotic disorders in Denmark. Methods. Naturalistic design including 329 patients, the majority with mood, neurotic and personality disorders referred to 39-session group therapy. Predictors were socio-demographic and clinical variables, self-reported symptoms (Symptom Check List-90-Revised) and personality style (Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II). Drop-out was classified into early and late premature termination excluding patients who dropped out for external reasons. Results. Drop-out comprised 20.6% (68 patients) of the sample. Logistic regression revealed social functioning, vocational training, alcohol problems and antisocial behavior to be related to drop-out. However, early drop-outs had prominent agoraphobic symptoms, lower interpersonal sensitivity and compulsive personality features, and late drop-outs cognitive and somatic anxiety symptoms and antisocial personality features. Clinical and psychological variables accounted for the major part of variance in predictions of drop-out, which ranged from 15.6% to 19.5% (Nagelkerke Pseudo R-Square). Conclusion. Social functioning was consistently associated with drop-out, but personality characteristics and anxiety symptoms differentiated between early and late drop-out. Failure to discriminate between stages of premature termination may explain some of the inconsistencies in the drop-out literature. Clinical implications. Before selection of patients to time-limited psychodynamic groups, self-reported symptoms should be thoroughly considered. Patients with agoraphobic symptoms should be offered alternative treatment. Awareness of and motivation to work with interpersonal issues may be essential for compliance with group therapy. PMID:24754466

Jensen, Hans Henrik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Lotz, Martin

2014-11-01

357

Prevention reference manual: chemical specific. Volume 2. Control of accidental releases of ammonia. Final report, November 1986-June 1987  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the control of accidental releases of ammonia to the atmosphere. Ammonia has an IDLH (immediately dangerous to life and health) concentration of 500 ppm, making it an acute toxic hazard. Reducing the risk associated with an accidental release of ammonia involves identifying some of the potential causes of accidental releases that apply to process facilities that use ammonia. This manual identifies examples of potential causes and measures that may be taken to reduce the accidental-release risk. Such measures include recommendations on: plant design practices; prevention, protection, and mitigation technologies; and operation and maintenance practices. Conceptual cost estimates of example prevention, protection, and mitigation measures are provided. The accidental release of a toxic chemical at Bhopal, India, in 1984 was a milestone in creating increased public awareness of toxic release problems. As a result of other, perhaps less dramatic, incidents in the past, portions of the chemical industry were aware of the problem long before Bhopal.

Davis, D.S.; DeWolf, G.B.; Quass, J.D.; Stohs, M.

1987-08-01

358

Prevention reference manual: chemical specific. Volume 10. Control of accidental releases of hydrogen cyanide. Final report, November 1986-June 1987  

SciTech Connect

The report discusses the control of accidental releases of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) to the atmosphere. HCN has an IDLH (immediately dangerous to life and health) concentration of 50 ppm, making it an acute toxic hazard. Reducing the risk associated with an accidental release of HCN involves identifying some of the potential causes of accidental releases that apply to the process facilities that use HCN. The manual identifies examples of potential causes and measures that may be taken to reduce the accidental release risk. Such measures include recommendations on: plant design practices; prevention, protection, and mitigation technologies; and operation and maintenance practices. Conceptual cost estimates of example prevention, protection, and mitigation measures are provided. The accidental release of a toxic chemical at Bhopal, India, in 1984 was a milestone in creating an increased public awareness of toxic release problems. As a result of other, perhaps less dramatic, incidents in the past, portions of the chemical industry were aware of this problem long before Bhopal.

Davis, D.S.; DeWolf, G.B.; Quass, J.D.

1987-09-01

359

Student Drop Tower Competitions: Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) and What If No Gravity? (WING)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes two student competition programs that allow student teams to conceive a science or engineering experiment for a microgravity environment. Selected teams design and build their experimental hardware, conduct baseline tests, and ship their experiment to NASA where it is operated in the 2.2 Second Drop Tower. The hardware and acquired data is provided to the teams after the tests are conducted so that the teams can prepare their final reports about their findings.

Hall, Nancy R.; Stocker, Dennis P.; DeLombard, Richard

2011-01-01

360

Vibration behavior and response to an accidental collision of SFT prototype in Qiandao Lake (China)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents free vibration analysis of the submerged floating tunnel (SFT) prototype, which has been designed to be built in Qiandao Lake (China). As an approximation the supporting effect of the tethers is omitted in the calculation of beam-like bending vibrations. As a case study, the response of the SFT prototype to an accidental collision by an object like

Shuangyin Zhang; Lei Wang; Youshi Hong

2010-01-01

361

Feedback information of an accidental ammonia dispersion: use of phyto-references  

Microsoft Academic Search

The data from accidental releases of toxic gas to the atmosphere are incomplete because of the lack of information concerning the measurement of the concentrations emitted. Their estimation based on plants' responses to toxic gas exposure would provide an interesting tool to improve feedback from the incidents. With this in mind, preliminary studies on the response of plants to several

Aurélia Dandrieux; Gilles Dusserre; James Ollivier; Dominique Manzone

2001-01-01

362

A probabilistic risk assessment for accidental releases from nuclear power plants in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1986 accident with the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl has shown that severe accidents with a nuclear power plant can lead to a large scale contamination of Europe. At present, over 200 nuclear power reactors for commercial electricity production are operational in Europe. An integrated assessment of probabilistic cancer mortality risks due to possible accidental releases from the European

Harry Slaper; Roelf Blaauboer

1998-01-01

363

Natural animal shaking: a model for non-accidental head injury in children?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Non-accidental head injury (NAHI) is a form of child abuse where a perpetrator may violently subject an infant to repeated acceleration–deceleration forces with or without head impact, producing injuries including retinal haemorrhages in most cases. Animal models have included laboratory shaking of mice and rats, but only a small fraction develop retinal haemorrhages presumably due to the small eyes,

I Serbanescu; S M Brown; D Ramsay; A V Levin

2008-01-01

364

A management system for accidental water pollution risk in a harbour: The Barcelona case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water quality degradation in harbour domains can have an important negative impact from an economic, touristic and environmental point of view. In that sense, water quality management is becoming a main concern for harbour managers. In this paper, we present the research behind the initiative started in Spanish harbours to control water quality degradation due to accidental pollution. This management

Manel Grifoll; Gabriel Jordà; Manuel Espino; Javier Romo; Marcos García-Sotillo

2011-01-01

365

Biodosimetry for high dose accidental exposures by drug induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conventional dicentric assay does not provide an accurate dose estimate in the case of accidental exposure to ionizing radiation above 6Gy due to mitotic delay and poor mitotic index. The present study aims to establish a simple and rapid dose assessment technique based on scoring of rings and fragments in PCC spreads of stimulated lymphocytes. Human peripheral blood lymphocytes

Sreedevi Balakrishnan; kapil Shirsath; Nagesh Bhat; Kshiti Anjaria

2010-01-01

366

Infantile Herpes Simplex Encephalitis: Diagnostic Features and Differentiation from Non-accidental Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis is rare, but associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. After a baby, subsequently proven to have HSE, had initially been diagnosed as non-accidental injury (NAI), we reviewed the clinical features and radiology of infants with HSE recently diagnosed by our laboratory.Methods: Screening of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples sent to Oxford for HSV polymerase

J. Kurtz; P. Anslow

2003-01-01

367

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC, VOLUME 13: CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF METHYL ISOCYANATE  

EPA Science Inventory

This is one of a series of manuals addressing accidental releases of toxic chemicals. ethyl isocyanite (MIC) has an Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) concentration of 20 ppm, making it a substantially acute toxic hazard. Reducing the risk associated with an accident...

368

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC, VOLUME 13: CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF METHYL ISOCYANATE  

EPA Science Inventory

This is one of a series of manuals addressing accidental releases of toxic chemicals. Methyl isocyanite (MIC) has an Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) concentration of 20 ppm, making it a substantially acute toxic hazard. Reducing the risk associated with an acciden...

369

Confiding in others and illness rate among spouses of suicide and accidental-death victims  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveyed 19 spouses (mean age 37.5 yrs) of suicide and accidental death victims (representing a 61.3% response rate of all relevant cases that occurred in 1982 in a metropolitan county) concerning their health and coping strategies approximately 1 yr after their spouse's death. Results show that the more Ss discussed their spouse's death with friends and the less that they

James W. Pennebaker; Robin C. OHeeron

1984-01-01

370

Effect of accidental fire on soil mite density in a forest reserve in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mite populations in a forest reserve, where accidental fire swept through almost half of the total area covered by the forest, were enumerated at one, three, and six months after burning. Mite densities in both burnt and unburnt plots were extremely low immediately after burning. Six months after burning, the density of juvenile cryptostigmatid mites were higher in the burnt

M. A. Badejo

1994-01-01

371

Accidental Discovery of Information on the User-Defined Social Web: A Mixed-Method Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Frequently interacting with other people or working in an information-rich environment can foster the "accidental discovery of information" (ADI) (Erdelez, 2000; McCay-Peet & Toms, 2010). With the increasing adoption of social web technologies, online user-participation communities and user-generated content have provided users the…

Lu, Chi-Jung

2012-01-01

372

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC, VOLUME 14: CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF PHOSGENE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report, discussing phosgene, is one of a series addressing the prevention of accidental releases of toxic chemicals. Phosgene, a highly reactive and corrosive liquid that boils at room temperature has an Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (lDLH) conctntration of 2 ppm, ...

373

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOL. 15: CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF SULFUR TRIOXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report, discussing sulfur trioxide (SO3), is one of a series addressing the prevention of accidental releases of toxic chemicals. SO3, a clear oily liquid or solid at typical ambient conditions, has an Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) concentration of 20 ppm, w...

374

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC, VOLUME 15: CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF SULFUR TRIOXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report, discussing sulfur trioxide (SO3), is one of a series addressing the prevention of accidental releases of toxic chemicals. SO3, a clear oily liquid or solid at typical ambient conditions, has an Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) concentration of 20 ppm, w...

375

SUMMARY OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF RADIOACTIVITY DETECTED OFF THE NEVADA TEST SITE, 1963-1986  

EPA Science Inventory

Of the more than 450 underground nuclear explosives tests conducted at the Nevada Test Site from August 1963 (signing of the Limited Test Ban Treaty) through the end of 1986, only 23 accidentally released radioactivity that was detectable beyond the boundary of the NTS. Of these ...

376

Substrate constraint modifies the Rayleigh spectrum of vibrating sessile drops.  

PubMed

In this work, we study the resonance behavior of mechanically oscillated, sessile water drops. By mechanically oscillating sessile drops vertically and within prescribed ranges of frequencies and amplitudes, a rich collection of resonance modes are observed and their dynamics subsequently investigated. We first present our method of identifying each mode uniquely, through association with spherical harmonics and according to their geometric patterns. Next, we compare our measured resonance frequencies of drops to theoretical predictions using both the classical theory of Lord Rayleigh and Lamb for free, oscillating drops, and a prediction by Bostwick and Steen that explicitly considers the effect of the solid substrate on drop dynamics. Finally, we report observations and analysis of drop mode mixing, or the simultaneous coexistence of multiple mode shapes within the resonating sessile drop driven by one sinusoidal signal of a single frequency. The dynamic response of a deformable liquid drop constrained by the substrate it is in contact with is of interest in a number of applications, such as drop atomization and ink jet printing, switchable electronically controlled capillary adhesion, optical microlens devices, as well as digital microfluidic applications where control of droplet motion is induced by means of a harmonically driven substrate. PMID:24032932

Chang, Chun-Ti; Bostwick, Joshua B; Steen, Paul H; Daniel, Susan

2013-08-01

377

Mixing in Sessile Drops Merging on a Surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the mixing of two sessile drops that merge on a surface. The drops consist of low viscosity glycerol-water mixtures deposited on a silicone elastomer surface with contact angle near 90^o. We observe the shape of the drops and the location of their intersection by placing a fluorescent dye in one drop and using a laser light sheet to image a plane perpendicular to the surface. The initial healing of the meniscus bridge between the merging drops, and the damping of capillary waves appearing on their surfaces occur on timescales comparable to the inertio-capillary relaxation time. However, the interface between the two fluids remains sharp, broadening diffusively over several minutes. The shape of the merged drops and the boundary between them also continues to evolve on a timescale of minutes. This later motion is controlled by gravity, capillary pressure, and viscous stresses. Images of the 3D drop shape indicate that small contact line motions are correlated to the slow relaxation. Although the two drops contain identical liquids except for the presence of the dye, the shape of the interface consistently evolves asymmetrically, assuming a characteristic crescent shape. We note that very tiny surface tension gradients can produce an asymmetric flow like the one observed here. We characterize the long timescale flow as a function of the drop sizes, and we use numerical simulations to aid in elucidating the essential physics.

Anna, Shelley; Zhang, Ying; Oberdick, Samuel; Garoff, Stephen

2011-11-01

378

Reducing pressure drop in a baghouse using flow distributors.  

PubMed

The pressure drop of ladder vanes in a baghouse could be reduced by decreasing the vane number and adjusting the inclined angle of the vane. Two types of flow distributors were utilized to test pressure drop caused by the structure of a baghouse. The pressure drops were measured by an inclined manometer under various filtration velocities. The purpose of this study is to understand the improvement effect of pressure drop saving for the traditional ladder vanes. Experimental results showed that the pressure drop of the Vane 3-1 configuration (flow distributor with three vanes perpendicular to the inlet flow) was higher than that of the Empty configuration (without flow distributors). The Vane 3-1 configuration could not reduce the pressure drop because of the barrier effect. By reducing the number and adjusting the angle of the vanes, the barrier effect was decreased, and the pressure drop of the Vane 2-1 configuration was much lower than that of the Vane 3-1 configuration. The largest difference in pressure drop between Vane 2-1 and Vane 3-1 was 1.702 cm w.g. at a filtration velocity of 4.17 cm/sec and, in terms of percentage, is 18.52% corresponding to a filtration velocity of 2.25 cm/sec. The improvement effect on the pressure drop saving for Vane 3-1 was significant. PMID:11686252

Chen, C J

2001-10-01

379

Destabilization mechanisms in a triple emulsion with Janus drops.  

PubMed

The destabilization mechanism was investigated of a triple Janus emulsion. The inner part of the emulsion consisted of Janus drops of a vegetable oil (VO) and a silicone oil (SO) in an aqueous (W) drop, (VO+SO)/W. This drop, in turn was dispersed in a VO drop forming a double emulsion (VO+SO)/W/VO. Finally, these complex drops generated a complex Janus (SO+VO)/W/VO/SO triple emulsion by being dispersed in a continuous SO phase. The observations were limited to the time dependence of the over-all creaming/sedimentation processes, to the separation of layers of the compounds and to optical microscopy of the drop configuration with time. In the destabilization process the rise of the complex drops, (SO+VO)/W/VO, caused crowding in the upper part of the emulsion, which in turn led to enhanced coalescence, inversion and separation of a dilute vegetable oil emulsion. As a consequence of the separation of VO in the process, the remaining drops contained a greater W fraction and greater density. This change, in turn, resulted in sedimentation of the complex drops to form several high internal ratio morphologies in an SO continuous emulsion in the lower part of the test tube, among them a W/VO/SO emulsion. Finally, an inversion took place into an SO/VO/W double emulsion forming a separate bottom layer. PMID:21705010

Hasinovic, Hida; Friberg, Stig E

2011-09-15

380

Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster decelerator subsystem drop test results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An air drop test program was conducted as part of the development of a decelerator subsystem for recovering the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster. This development test program consisted of six drops performed over the period from June 1977 to September 1978 at a parachute test center in California. The testing concerned a 48,000-lb drop test vehicle released from the B-52 mothership. The drop test program is described and pertinent test results are discussed. Data include snatch loads, inflation characteristics, peak inflation and disreef loads, and drag performance. Performance characteristics of the drogue parachute and the main parachute are established.

Moog, R. D.; Sheppard, J. D.; Kross, D. A.

1979-01-01

381

Oscillating and star-shaped drops levitated by an airflow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the spontaneous oscillations of drops levitated above an air cushion, eventually inducing a breaking of axisymmetry and the appearance of “star drops”. This is strongly reminiscent of the Leidenfrost stars that are observed for drops floating above a hot substrate. The key advantage of this work is that we inject the airflow at a constant rate below the drop, thus eliminating thermal effects and allowing for a better control of the flow rate. We perform experiments with drops of different viscosities and observe stable states, oscillations, and chimney instabilities. We find that for a given drop size the instability appears above a critical flow rate, where the latter is largest for small drops. All these observations are reproduced by numerical simulations, where we treat the drop using potential flow and the gas as a viscous lubrication layer. Qualitatively, the onset of instability agrees with the experimental results, although the typical flow rates are too large by a factor 10. Our results demonstrate that thermal effects are not important for the formation of star drops and strongly suggest a purely hydrodynamic mechanism for the formation of Leidenfrost stars.

Bouwhuis, Wilco; Winkels, Koen G.; Peters, Ivo R.; Brunet, Philippe; van der Meer, Devaraj; Snoeijer, Jacco H.

2013-08-01

382

Oscillating and star-shaped drops levitated by an airflow.  

PubMed

We investigate the spontaneous oscillations of drops levitated above an air cushion, eventually inducing a breaking of axisymmetry and the appearance of "star drops". This is strongly reminiscent of the Leidenfrost stars that are observed for drops floating above a hot substrate. The key advantage of this work is that we inject the airflow at a constant rate below the drop, thus eliminating thermal effects and allowing for a better control of the flow rate. We perform experiments with drops of different viscosities and observe stable states, oscillations, and chimney instabilities. We find that for a given drop size the instability appears above a critical flow rate, where the latter is largest for small drops. All these observations are reproduced by numerical simulations, where we treat the drop using potential flow and the gas as a viscous lubrication layer. Qualitatively, the onset of instability agrees with the experimental results, although the typical flow rates are too large by a factor 10. Our results demonstrate that thermal effects are not important for the formation of star drops and strongly suggest a purely hydrodynamic mechanism for the formation of Leidenfrost stars. PMID:24032934

Bouwhuis, Wilco; Winkels, Koen G; Peters, Ivo R; Brunet, Philippe; van der Meer, Devaraj; Snoeijer, Jacco H

2013-08-01

383

The Geometry of the Vapor Layer Under a Leidenfrost Drop  

E-print Network

In the Leidenfrost effect, liquid drops deposited on a hot surface levitate on a thin vapor cushion fed by evaporation of the liquid. This vapor layer forms a concave depression in the drop interface. Using laser-light interference coupled to high-speed imaging, we measured the radius, curvature, and height of the vapor pocket, as well as non-axisymmetric fluctuations of the interface for water drops at different temperatures. The geometry of the vapor pocket depends primarily on the drop size and not on the substrate temperature.

J. C. Burton; A. L. Sharpe; R. C. A. van der Veen; A. Franco; S. R. Nagel

2012-02-10

384

Formation and Combustion of Unconfined Drop Clusters in Microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Single-drop and droplet array studies have become common methods to isolate and investigate the effects of any of the complexities that enter into the drop combustion process. Microgravity environments are required to allow larger drops to be studied while minimizing or eliminating the confounding effects of buoyancy. Based on the results from current isolated drop, drop array, and spray studies funded through the Microgravity Science and Applications Division, it has become clear that even with the effects of buoyancy removed, the extrapolation of results from droplet array studies to spray flames is difficult. The problem occurs because even the simplest spray systems introduce complexities of multi-disperse drop sizes and drop-drop interactions, coupled with more complicated fluid dynamics. Not only do these features make the interpretation of experimental data difficult, they also make the problem very difficult to analyze computationally. Group combustion models, in which the interaction between droplets is treated on a statistical manner, have become a popular method to investigate the behavior of large numbers of interacting droplets, particularly through the work of Ryan et al. and Bellan and co-workers. While these models idealize the actual spray systems to a point where they can be treated computationally, the experimental analogy to these models is difficult to achieve because it requires the formation and Combustion of drop clusters without the effects of buoyancy. Therefore, even though these models have provided useful and insightful information, the verification of the results by direct comparison with experimental data is still lacking.

Liu, S.; Craig, G.; Zhang, Y.; Ruff, G. A.

1997-01-01

385

Substrate constraint modifies the Rayleigh spectrum of vibrating sessile drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we study the resonance behavior of mechanically oscillated, sessile water drops. By mechanically oscillating sessile drops vertically and within prescribed ranges of frequencies and amplitudes, a rich collection of resonance modes are observed and their dynamics subsequently investigated. We first present our method of identifying each mode uniquely, through association with spherical harmonics and according to their geometric patterns. Next, we compare our measured resonance frequencies of drops to theoretical predictions using both the classical theory of Lord Rayleigh and Lamb for free, oscillating drops, and a prediction by Bostwick and Steen that explicitly considers the effect of the solid substrate on drop dynamics. Finally, we report observations and analysis of drop mode mixing, or the simultaneous coexistence of multiple mode shapes within the resonating sessile drop driven by one sinusoidal signal of a single frequency. The dynamic response of a deformable liquid drop constrained by the substrate it is in contact with is of interest in a number of applications, such as drop atomization and ink jet printing, switchable electronically controlled capillary adhesion, optical microlens devices, as well as digital microfluidic applications where control of droplet motion is induced by means of a harmonically driven substrate.

Chang, Chun-Ti; Bostwick, Joshua B.; Steen, Paul H.; Daniel, Susan

2013-08-01

386

How should indicators be found for scenario monitoring ?  

E-print Network

Scenario planning is a widely used approach for developing long-term strategies. The typical scenario process involves developing scenarios, identifying strategies whose success is contingent on the scenario, and monitoring ...

He, Zheng, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-01-01

387

GENDER, DEBT, AND DROPPING OUT OF COLLEGE  

PubMed Central

For many young Americans, access to credit has become critical to completing a college education and embarking on a successful career path. Young people increasingly face the trade-off of taking on debt to complete college or foregoing college and taking their chances in the labor market without a college degree. These trade-offs are gendered by differences in college preparation and support and by the different labor market opportunities women and men face that affect the value of a college degree and future difficulties they may face in repaying college debt. We examine these new realities by studying gender differences in the role of debt in the pivotal event of graduating from college using the 1997 cohort of the national longitudinal Survey of youth. In this article, we find that women and men both experience slowing and even diminishing probabilities of graduating when carrying high levels of debt, but that men drop out at lower levels of debt than do women. We conclude by theorizing that high levels of debt are one of the mechanisms that sort women and men into different positions in the social stratification system. PMID:23626403

DWYER, RACHEL E.; HODSON, RANDY; MCLOUD, LAURA

2012-01-01

388

Routines for Computing Pressure Drops in Venturis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A set of computer-program routines has been developed for calculating pressure drops and recoveries of flows through standard venturis, nozzle venturis, and orifices. Relative to prior methods used for such calculations, the method implemented by these routines offers greater accuracy because it involves fewer simplifying assumptions and is more generally applicable to wide ranges of flow conditions. These routines are based on conservation of momentum and energy equations for real nonideal fluids, the properties of which are calculated by curve-fitting subroutines based on empirical properties data. These routines are capable of representing cavitating, choked, non-cavitating, and unchoked flow conditions for liquids, gases, and supercritical fluids. For a computation of flow through a given venturi, nozzle venturi, or orifice, the routines determine which flow condition occurs: First, they calculate a throat pressure under the assumption that the flow is unchoked or non-cavitating, then they calculate the throat pressure under the assumption that the flow is choked or cavitating. The assumption that yields the higher throat pressure is selected as the correct one.

de Quay, Laurence

2004-01-01

389

STRESS CORROSION CRACKING IN TEAR DROP SPECIMENS  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory tests were conducted to investigate the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of 304L stainless steel used to construct the containment vessels for the storage of plutonium-bearing materials. The tear drop corrosion specimens each with an autogenous weld in the center were placed in contact with moist plutonium oxide and chloride salt mixtures. Cracking was found in two of the specimens in the heat affected zone (HAZ) at the apex area. Finite element analysis was performed to simulate the specimen fabrication for determining the internal stress which caused SCC to occur. It was found that the tensile stress at the crack initiation site was about 30% lower than the highest stress which had been shifted to the shoulders of the specimen due to the specimen fabrication process. This finding appears to indicate that the SCC initiation took place in favor of the possibly weaker weld/base metal interface at a sufficiently high level of background stress. The base material, even subject to a higher tensile stress, was not cracked. The relieving of tensile stress due to SCC initiation and growth in the HAZ and the weld might have foreclosed the potential for cracking at the specimen shoulders where higher stress was found.

Lam, P; Philip Zapp, P; Jonathan Duffey, J; Kerry Dunn, K

2009-05-01

390

The Viruses of Wild Pigeon Droppings  

PubMed Central

Birds are frequent sources of emerging human infectious diseases. Viral particles were enriched from the feces of 51 wild urban pigeons (Columba livia) from Hong Kong and Hungary, their nucleic acids randomly amplified and then sequenced. We identified sequences from known and novel species from the viral families Circoviridae, Parvoviridae, Picornaviridae, Reoviridae, Adenovirus, Astroviridae, and Caliciviridae (listed in decreasing number of reads), as well as plant and insect viruses likely originating from consumed food. The near full genome of a new species of a proposed parvovirus genus provisionally called Aviparvovirus contained an unusually long middle ORF showing weak similarity to an ORF of unknown function from a fowl adenovirus. Picornaviruses found in both Asia and Europe that are distantly related to the turkey megrivirus and contained a highly divergent 2A1 region were named mesiviruses. All eleven segments of a novel rotavirus subgroup related to a chicken rotavirus in group G were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. This study provides an initial assessment of the enteric virome in the droppings of pigeons, a feral urban species with frequent human contact. PMID:24023772

Phan, Tung Gia; Vo, Nguyen Phung; Boros, Ákos; Pankovics, Péter; Reuter, Gábor; Li, Olive T. W.; Wang, Chunling; Deng, Xutao; Poon, Leo L. M.; Delwart, Eric

2013-01-01

391

GENDER, DEBT, AND DROPPING OUT OF COLLEGE.  

PubMed

For many young Americans, access to credit has become critical to completing a college education and embarking on a successful career path. Young people increasingly face the trade-off of taking on debt to complete college or foregoing college and taking their chances in the labor market without a college degree. These trade-offs are gendered by differences in college preparation and support and by the different labor market opportunities women and men face that affect the value of a college degree and future difficulties they may face in repaying college debt. We examine these new realities by studying gender differences in the role of debt in the pivotal event of graduating from college using the 1997 cohort of the national longitudinal Survey of youth. In this article, we find that women and men both experience slowing and even diminishing probabilities of graduating when carrying high levels of debt, but that men drop out at lower levels of debt than do women. We conclude by theorizing that high levels of debt are one of the mechanisms that sort women and men into different positions in the social stratification system. PMID:23626403

Dwyer, Rachel E; Hodson, Randy; McLoud, Laura

2013-02-01

392

EDITORIAL: Where next with global environmental scenarios? Where next with global environmental scenarios?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scenarios have become a standard tool in the portfolio of techniques that scientists and policy-makers use to envision and plan for the future. Defined as plausible, challenging and relevant stories about how the future might unfold that integrate quantitative models with qualitative assessments of social and political trends, scenarios are a central component in assessment processes for a range of global issues, including climate change, biodiversity, agriculture, and energy. Yet, despite their prevalence, systematic analysis of scenarios is in its beginning stages. Fundamental questions remain about both the epistemology and scientific credibility of scenarios and their roles in policymaking and social change. Answers to these questions have the potential to determine the future of scenario analyses. Is scenario analysis moving in the direction of earth system governance informed by global scenarios generated through increasingly complex and comprehensive models integrating socio-economic and earth systems? Or will global environmental scenario analyses lose favour compared to more focused, policy-driven, regionally specific modelling? These questions come at an important time for the climate change issue, given that the scenario community, catalyzed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), is currently preparing to embark on a new round of scenario development processes aimed at coordinating research and assessment, and informing policy, over the next five to ten years. These and related questions about where next to go with global environmental scenarios animated a workshop held at Brown University (Note1) that brought together leading practitioners and scholars of global environmental change scenarios from research, policy-making, advocacy, and business settings. The workshop aimed to provide an overview of current practices/best practices in scenario production and scenario use across a range of global environmental change arenas. Participants worked to bring the experience generated from over four decades of scenario development in other issue domains, including energy and security, to bear on environmental scenarios, and to bring into dialogue scenario practitioners, both producers and users, with social science scholars. The set of contributions to this focus issue of Environmental Research Letters arose out of this workshop and collectively examines key challenges facing the scenario community, synthesizes lessons, and offers recommendations for new research and practice in this field. One theme that emerged in many of the discussions at the workshop revolved around the distinction between two broad perspectives on the goals of scenario exercises: scenarios as products and scenarios as processes. Most global environmental change scenario exercises are product-oriented; the content of the scenarios developed is the main goal of many participants and those who commission or organize the scenario development process. Typically, what is of most interest are the environmental outcomes produced, how they relate to the various factors driving them, and what the results tell us about the prospects for future environmental change, for impacts, and for mitigation. A product-oriented perspective assumes that once produced, scenario products have lives of their own, divorced from the processes that generated them and able to serve multiple, often unspecified purposes. Thus, it is often assumed that the scenario products can be 'taken up' by a variety of users in a variety of fora. A contrasting scenario approach is process-oriented and self-consciously privileges the process of scenario development as the primary goal, for example as a means to motivate organizational learning, find commonalities across different perspectives, achieve consensus on goals, or come to a shared understanding of challenges. Focusing on scenarios as processes highlights the social contexts in which scenarios are created and used. Process-oriented scenario exercises also generate scenario products, but such products are recognized

O'Neill, Brian; Pulver, Simone; Van Deveer, Stacy; Garb, Yaakov

2008-12-01

393

Global Biodiversity Scenarios for the Year 2100  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scenarios of changes in biodiversity for the year 2100 can now be developed based on scenarios of changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide, climate, vegetation, and land use and the known sensitivity of biodiversity to these changes. This study identified a ranking of the importance of drivers of change, a ranking of the biomes with respect to expected changes, and the

Osvaldo E. Sala; F. Stuart Chapin III; Juan J. Armesto; Eric Berlow; Janine Bloomfield; Rodolfo Dirzo; Elisabeth Huber-Sanwald; Laura F. Huenneke; Robert B. Jackson; David M. Lodge; Harold A. Mooney; N. LeRoy Poff; Martin T. Sykes; Brian H. Walker; Diana H. Wall

2000-01-01

394

Alternative future scenarios for marine ecosystems  

E-print Network

were the AFMEC scenarios created? 6 Visions of 2020 ­ summaries of four scenarios 8 Shocks is an important output of the Defra Horizon Scanning and Futures research programme. The programme was established for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs) 'Horizon Scanning' programme. The Horizon Scanning programme

395

Freight Transportation Modal Shares: Scenarios for a  

E-print Network

DEMAND Freight Transportation Modal Shares: Scenarios for a Low-Carbon Future #12;#12;TRANSPORTATION ENERGY FUTURES SERIES: Freight Transportation Modal Shares: Scenarios for a Low-Carbon Future Government or any agency thereof. #12;iv ABOUT THE TRANSPORTATION ENERGY FUTURES PROJECT This is one

396

Molecular Diagnostic Analysis of Outbreak Scenarios  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the current laboratory assignment, technical aspects of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are integrated in the context of six different bacterial outbreak scenarios. The "Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus Sequence" (ERIC) PCR was used to analyze different outbreak scenarios. First, groups of 2-4 students determined optimal…

Morsink, M. C.; Dekter, H. E.; Dirks-Mulder, A.; van Leeuwen, W. B.

2012-01-01

397

Mobility Modeling of Outdoor Scenarios for MANETs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobility of users significantly impacts performance of a mobile ad-hoc network. Most existing simulation tools offer only a few random mobility models, which poorly reflect user movements in outdoor scenarios. For example, they do not consider restrictions of a spatial environment. In this paper, we describe a comprehensive and extensible approach to model mobility of users in outdoor scenarios. It

Illya Stepanov; Pedro Jose Marron; Kurt Rothermel

2005-01-01

398

UAS Reference Scenarios for MANET Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

After autonomous flight for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) has been accomplished, research was stipulated to look into application related challenges in connection with Un- manned Aerial Systems (UAS). As one possible scenario, swarms of collaborating UAVs can be envisioned and allow for more complex missions and scenarios. One essential building block in simultaneously operating several UAVs is the UAS inter-

H. Claus Christmann; Eric N. Johnson

399

Scenario Authoring for Virtual Environments Michael Booth  

E-print Network

­ ulation technology. The IDS provides a safe, #12; Figure 1: The Iowa Driving Simulator virtual environmentScenario Authoring for Virtual Environments Michael Booth James Cremer Joseph Kearney Computer scenarios for virtual environments. This effort grew out of our work in two areas --- creating experiment

Cremer, James

400

Emission Scenario Document on Antifouling Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

This OECD Emission Scenario Document (ESD) describes emission scenarios for three parts of the life cycle for antifouling products used on ship and boat hulls: (1) application; (2) service life; and (3) removal. The primary aim of this ESD is for use in risk assessments in notification and authorisation procedures in regulatory frameworks used in OECD countries. The ESD is

2005-01-01

401

Fusing a Heterogeneous Alert Stream into Scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algorithm for fusing the alerts produced by multiple heterogeneous intrusion detection systems is pre- sented. The algorithm runs in realtime, combining the alerts into scenarios; each is composed of a sequence of alerts produced by a single actor or organization. The software is capable of discovering scenarios even if stealthy attack methods, such as forged IP addresses or long

Oliver Dain; Robert K. Cunningham

2001-01-01

402

Social assessment of waste energy utilization scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Center of Technology Assessment in Stuttgart (Germany) constructed four energy scenarios for the year 2005 and 2020 referring to the German State of Baden-Württemberg. All these scenarios are based on the promise of the German government to reduce Carbon dioxide emissions by 25% in the year 2005, and there is a commitment of a 45% reduction for the year

Ortwin Renn

2003-01-01

403

Subsistence Exposure Scenarios for Tribal Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper provides an overview of methods that can be used to develop exposure scenarios for unique tribal natural resource usage patterns. Exposure scenarios are used to evaluate the degree of environmental contact experienced by people with different patterns of lifestyle activities, such as residence, recreation, or work. In 1994, Executive Order 12898 recognized that disproportionately high exposures could be

Barbara Harper; Anna Harding; Stuart Harris; Patricia Berger

2012-01-01

404

SCENARIO RECOGNITION IN MODERN BUILDING AUTOMATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern building automation has to deal with very different types of demands, depending on the use of the building and therefore the persons acting within this building. To meet the demands of situation awareness in modern building automation, scenario recognition becomes more and more important to detect such demands and react to them. Two concepts of scenario recognition and their

R. Lang; D. Bruckner; G. Pratl; R. Velik; T. Deutsch

2009-01-01

405

Scenario Development for Water Resources Planning and Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objective of scenario development for water resources is to inform policy-makers about the implications of various policies to inform decision-making. Although there have been a number of studies conducted in the relatively-new and recent field of scenario analysis and development, very few of those have been explicitly applied to water resource issues. More evident is the absence of an established formal approach to develop and apply scenarios. Scenario development is a process that evaluates possible future states of the world by examining several feasible scenarios. A scenario is a projection of various physical and socioeconomic conditions that describe change from the current state to a future state. In this paper, a general framework for scenario development with special emphasis on applications to water resources is considered. The process comprises several progressive and reiterative phases: scenario definition, scenario construction, scenario analysis, scenario assessment, and risk management. Several characteristics of scenarios that are important in describing scenarios are also taken into account; these include scenario types, scenario themes, scenario likelihoods and scenario categories. A hindrance to the adoption of a unified framework for scenario development is inconsistency in the terminology used by scenario developers. To address this problem, we propose a consistent terminology of basic and frequent terms. Outreach for this formal approach is partially maintained through an interactive community website that seeks to educate potential scenario developers about the scenario development process, share and exchange information and resources on scenarios to foster a multidisciplinary community of scenario developers, and establish a unified framework for scenario development with regards to terminology and guidelines. The website provides information on scenario development, current scenario-related activities, key water resources scenario studies, links to other scenario studies, a forum for discussion on scenarios, a depository on scenario development publications, and a suggested scenario glossary.

Stewart, S.; Mahmoud, M.; Liu, Y.; Hartman, H.; Wagener, T.; Gupta, H.

2006-12-01

406

Cellular automata-based forecasting of the impact of accidental fire and toxic dispersion in process industries.  

PubMed

The strategies to prevent accidents from occurring in a process industry, or to minimize the harm if an accident does take place, always revolve around forecasting the likely accidents and their impacts. Based on the likely frequency and severity of the accidents, resources are committed towards preventing the accidents. Nearly all techniques of ranking hazardous units, be it the hazard and operability studies, fault tree analysis, hazard indice, etc.--qualitative as well as quantitative--depend essentially on the assessment of the likely frequency and the likely harm accidents in different units may cause. This fact makes it exceedingly important that the forecasting the accidents and their likely impact is done as accurately as possible. In the present study we introduce a new approach to accident forecasting based on the discrete modeling paradigm of cellular automata. In this treatment an accident is modeled as a self-evolving phenomena, the impact of which is strongly influenced by the size, nature, and position of the environmental components which lie in the vicinity of the accident site. The outward propagation of the mass, energy and momentum from the accident epicenter is modeled as a fast diffusion process occurring in discrete space-time coordinates. The quantum of energy and material that would flow into each discrete space element (cell) due to the accidental release is evaluated and the degree of vulnerability posed to the receptors if present in the cell is measured at the end of each time element. This approach is able to effectively take into account the modifications in the flux of energy and material which occur as a result of the heterogeneous environment prevailing between the accident epicenter and the receptor. Consequently, more realistic accident scenarios are generated than possible with the prevailing techniques. The efficacy of the approach has been illustrated with case studies. PMID:16713088

Sarkar, Chinmoy; Abbasi, S A

2006-09-01

407

Tank waste remediation system operational scenario  

SciTech Connect

The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) mission is to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford waste (current and future tank waste and the strontium and cesium capsules) in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner (DOE 1993). This operational scenario is a description of the facilities that are necessary to remediate the Hanford Site tank wastes. The TWRS Program is developing technologies, conducting engineering analyses, and preparing for design and construction of facilities necessary to remediate the Hanford Site tank wastes. An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is being prepared to evaluate proposed actions of the TWRS. This operational scenario is only one of many plausible scenarios that would result from the completion of TWRS technology development, engineering analyses, design and construction activities and the TWRS EIS. This operational scenario will be updated as the development of the TWRS proceeds and will be used as a benchmark by which to evaluate alternative scenarios.

Johnson, M.E.

1995-05-01

408

SAFRR Tsunami Scenario: Economic Impacts and Resilience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Business interruption (BI) losses for the SAFRR tsunami scenario are derived from the forecasted physical damages of about 100 million at the Ports of Los Angeles (LA) and Long Beach (LB), and 700 million in marina damages, and 2 billion in inundated property damages along the California coast. Economic impacts are measured by the reduction in California's gross domestic product (GDP). The analysis involves several steps. First, estimates are made of immediate business interruption losses due to physical damage to facilities or to disruption of production. Second, total economic impacts (consisting of both direct and indirect effects) are measured by a general equilibrium (quantity and price multiplier effects) of lost production in other sectors through ripple effects upstream and downstream along the supply chain. Third, many types of resilience are applied to demonstrate their potential reductions of the impacts. At the Ports of LA and LB, a two-day port shutdown, cargo losses, and additional terminal downtimes would expose 1.2 billion of trade (import and export) value associated with over 4 billion of BI losses. The sectors potentially most affected by trade disruptions are leather, metal, and motor vehicle manufacturing. Excess capacity, inventories, export conversion, and conservation could reduce the direct trade impacts by 85%. Production recapture alone (including clearing the backlog of waiting ships) could reduce BI losses by 85%. The Port of LA commercial fishing would be subject to damages to the fleet, perished fish that cannot be landed, and lost fishing days. Although BI losses are relatively small, the southern Californian fishing sector could incur a 4% drop in output. The impacts would depend on the speed at which boats are repaired and whether lost fishing days can be made up. Ship-building and repair could also be negatively affected, but these impacts would be offset somewhat by reconstruction. Effects on commercial fishing in other locations were not closely examined to assess the impacts. Extensive damages to marinas along the California coast could result in 30 million BI losses in terms of GDP. Interestingly, the service sectors including and relating to marinas (recreation, food services, and retail) indicate possible gains (of .02-1%) from price increases greater than the losses from quantity decreases. Sectors associated with development (residential construction, water and sewage, and health care) could suffer the most with losses of .03% or less. However, these sectors will likely also be bolstered by reconstruction. Economic hardships would be localized and the resilience of the marina sector would depend on alternative moorings and excess capacity elsewhere. Inundated coastal property damages could generate 1.7 billion of BI losses. Application of sector recapture factors (e.g., using overtime) alone could reduce these losses by 80%. For the overall set of loss categories, BI losses amount to 6 billion, and resilience strategies indicate the potential to reduce these economic impacts by 80-90%.

Wein, A. M.; Rose, A.; Sue Wing, I.; Wei, D.

2013-12-01

409

Open Learning Service Scenarios on GRIDs Open Learning Service Scenarios on GRIDs  

E-print Network

Open Learning Service Scenarios on GRIDs Open Learning Service Scenarios on GRIDs Stefano A. Cerri Learning GRID's services for very large numbers of potential users. Keywords: e-Learning, Grid, Social@lirmm.fr The position paper focuses on the concepts of Service Elicitation and Evaluation/Exploitation Scenarios (SEES

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

410

Isolated inflammatory myopathy with rimmed vacuoles presenting with dropped head.  

PubMed

We describe an unusual case of inflammatory myopathy with rimmed vacuoles associated with dropped head syndrome. Muscle biopsy in our patient revealed variations in fiber size with fiber necrosis and regeneration, accompanied by many rimmed vacuoles and areas of endomysial cell infiltration. Electron microscopy demonstrated autophagic vacuoles and tubulofilamentous inclusions. This myopathy can cause dropped head syndrome in a subgroup of patients. PMID:19773169

Kataoka, Hiroshi; Sugie, Kazuma; Terashima, Mari; Koizumi, Munehisa; Horikawa, Hirosei; Nishino, Ichizo; Nonaka, Ikuya; Ueno, Satoshi

2009-12-01

411

Drop It Like It's Hott... the Healthy "Weigh"  

E-print Network

: Food Labels, Grocery Shopping, & Fast Food February 21st: Most Bang for Your Buck Navigating OnDrop It Like It's Hott... the Healthy "Weigh" Student Health Services Weight Management Program Place in the Health Sciences Building Room 2000 12:30-1:30pm Last year the "Drop It Like It's Hott

412

DropTests of 325 Pound 6M Packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many factors which affect the performance of a drum closure during drop tests. Important test conditions are: weight of package, height of drop, and angle of impact. Structural characteristics of the package determine its ability to withstand the test conditions imposed. These characteristics include: package diameter, shell material and thickness, strength of internal fill material (e.g., fiberboard), and

2004-01-01

413

Delayed frost growth on jumping-drop superhydrophobic surfaces.  

PubMed

Self-propelled jumping drops are continuously removed from a condensing superhydrophobic surface to enable a micrometric steady-state drop size. Here, we report that subcooled condensate on a chilled superhydrophobic surface are able to repeatedly jump off the surface before heterogeneous ice nucleation occurs. Frost still forms on the superhydrophobic surface due to ice nucleation at neighboring edge defects, which eventually spreads over the entire surface via an interdrop frost wave. The growth of this interdrop frost front is shown to be up to 3 times slower on the superhydrophobic surface compared to a control hydrophobic surface, due to the jumping-drop effect dynamically minimizing the average drop size and surface coverage of the condensate. A simple scaling model is developed to relate the success and speed of interdrop ice bridging to the drop size distribution. While other reports of condensation frosting on superhydrophobic surfaces have focused exclusively on liquid-solid ice nucleation for isolated drops, these findings reveal that the growth of frost is an interdrop phenomenon that is strongly coupled to the wettability and drop size distribution of the surface. A jumping-drop superhydrophobic condenser minimized frost formation relative to a conventional dropwise condenser in two respects: preventing heterogeneous ice nucleation by continuously removing subcooled condensate, and delaying frost growth by limiting the success of interdrop ice bridge formation. PMID:23286736

Boreyko, Jonathan B; Collier, C Patrick

2013-02-26

414

Estimating Arrival Rates from the RED Packet Drop History  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines efficient mechanisms to estimate the ar- rival rate of high-bandwidth flows for a router implement- ing RED active queue management. For such a router, the RED packet drop history constitutes a random sampling of the arriving packets; a flow with a significant fraction of the dropped packets is likely to have a correspondingly- significant fraction of the

Sally Floyd; Kevin Fall; Kinh Tieu

415

Fixing Antenna Problem by Dynamic Diode Dropping and Jumper Insertion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes three ways to fix antenna problems: (1) diode dropping, (2) jumper insertion, and (3) diode dropping with extension wires. Basic principles of these methods are compared and results are presented. Diode structures, SPIC simulation, and diode slicing are also discussed in this paper

Peter H. Chen; Sunil Malkani; Chun-mou Peng; James Lin

2000-01-01

416

Drops of Energy Conserving Urban Water in California  

E-print Network

Drops of Energy Conserving Urban Water in California to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions May 2011;1Berkeley Law \\ UCLA Law Drops of Energy: Conserving Urban Water in California to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions Executive Summary: Expanding Water Conservation in California Water use means energy use

Kammen, Daniel M.

417

College of Law KEY: # = new course * = course changed = course dropped  

E-print Network

College of Law LAW Law KEY: # = new course * = course changed = course dropped University: the existence of offenses based on racial status (crimes such as rape, capital murder;personalandinremjurisdiction;serviceorprocessandnotice;subjectmatterjurisdiction;venue;choice of law; pleading. #12;College of Law LAW Law KEY: # = new course * = course changed = course dropped

MacAdam, Keith

418

Nonisothermal drop impact and evaporation on polymer nanofiber mats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work describes the experimental and theoretical investigation of water drop impact onto electrospun polymer nanofiber mats deposited on heated stainless-steel foils. The measurements encompass water spreading over and inside the mat, as well as the corresponding thermal field. The results show that the presence of polymer nanofiber mats prevents receding motion of drops after their complete spreading and promotes

Christina M. Weickgenannt; Yiyun Zhang; Andreas N. Lembach; Ilia V. Roisman; Tatiana Gambaryan-Roisman; Alexander L. Yarin; Cameron Tropea

2011-01-01

419

Drop Tests of the Closure Ring for the 9975 Package  

SciTech Connect

The drop tests of the closure ring for 9975 packages, described here, were performed to answer questions raised by the regulatory authority as a result of deformation of the closure ring and drum rim observed during drop tests conducted in September 1998.

Smith, A.C

1999-09-29

420

(abstract) Production and Levitation of Free Drops of Liquid Helium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We are interested in the nucleation and behavior of quantized vorticies and surface excitations in free drops of superfluid helium. We have constructed an apparatus to maintain liquid helium drops isolated from any material container in the Earth's gravitational field, and have investigated two techniques for generating and introducing liquid drops into the region of confinement. The levitation apparatus utilizes the electrostatic force acting upon a charged liquid drop to counteract the gravitational force, with drop position stability provided by a static magnetic field acting upon the helium diamagnetic moment. Electrically neutral superfluid drops have been produced with a miniature thermomechanical pump; for a given configuration the liquid initial velocity has been varied up to several centimeters per second. Liquid drops carrying either net positive or negative charge are produced by an electrode which generates a flow of ionized liquid from the bulk liquid surface. Potentials of less than one thousand volts to several thousand volts are required. The mass flow is controlled by varying duration of the ionizing voltage pulse; drops as small as 30 micrometers diameter, charged to near the Rayleigh limit, have been observed.

Paine, C. G.; Petrac, D.; Rhim, W. K.

1995-01-01

421

Avian prey-dropping behavior. II. American crows and walnuts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex and energetically expensive foraging tasks should be shaped by natural selection to be efficient. Many species of birds open hard-shelled prey by dropping the prey repeatedly onto the ground from considerable heights. Urban-dwelling American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) forage in this way on two species of walnuts in central California, USA. As predicted from a theoretical model, crows dropped nuts

Daniel A. Cristola; Paul V. Switzer

422

BIONic WalkAide for correcting foot drop  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to test the feasibility and efficacy of using microstimulators (BIONs) to correct foot drop, the first human application of BIONs in functional electrical stimulation (FES). A prototype BIONic foot drop stimulator was developed by modifying a WalkAide2 stimulator to control BION stimulation of the ankle dorsiflexor muscles. BION stimulation was compared with surface stimulation

Douglas J. Weber; Richard B. Stein; K. Ming Chan; Gerald Loeb; Frances Richmond; Robert Rolf; Kelly James; Su Ling Chong

2005-01-01

423

Why Did They Not Drop Out? Narratives from Resilient Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is much to be learned from students who were at-risk for dropping out of school but persevered and graduated. The purpose of the study on which this article is based, was to describe how students who were at-risk for dropping out of school persevered and graduated. The voices of two students are introduced, highlighting the challenges they…

Lessard, Anne; Fortin, Laurier; Marcotte, Diane; Potvin, Pierre; Royer, Egide

2009-01-01

424

Instant fabrication and selection of folded structures using drop impact  

E-print Network

to wrinkle thin polymer sheets (3). Elastocapillary interactions are abundant in nature and are responsible for phenomena such as lung airway collapse (4) and the clustering of insect bristles (5, 6). They are relevant on a superhydrophobic surface, which by repelling water confines the drop onto the target. A water drop of con- trolled

Neukirch, Sébastien

425

Effect of confinement on the deformation of microfluidic drops.  

PubMed

We study the deformation of drops squeezed between the floor and ceiling of a microchannel and subjected to a hyperbolic flow. We observe that the maximum deformation of drops depends on both the drop size and the rate of strain of the external flow and can be described with power laws with exponents 2.59±0.28 and 0.91±0.05, respectively. We develop a theoretical model to describe the deformation of squeezed drops based on the Darcy approximation for shallow geometries and the use of complex potentials. The model describes the steady-state deformation of the drops as a function of a nondimensional parameter Ca?2, where Ca is the capillary number (proportional to the strain rate and the drop size) and ? is a confinement parameter equal to the drop size divided by the channel height. For small deformations, the theoretical model predicts a linear relationship between the deformation of drops and this parameter, in good agreement with the experimental observations. PMID:24730934

Ulloa, Camilo; Ahumada, Alberto; Cordero, María Luisa

2014-03-01

426

PRESCRIPTION DRUG DROP-OFF Saturday, May 12, 2012  

E-print Network

PRESCRIPTION DRUG DROP-OFF Saturday, May 12, 2012 I wanted to take some time after our first successful Prescription Drug Drop-Off to say thank you!!! Thank you so very, very much for generously of prescription pharmaceuticals, especially narcotics that we collected, including Dr. Andrea Feller

Haykin, Simon

427

Model of field aligned potential drops near Io  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Galileo spacecraft passed through an unexpectedly dense plasma and mass loading region near Io closest approach. This paper shows how the prodigious mass loading observed in this region can produce field-aligned potential drops. For parameters appropriate to Io and consistent with Galileo measurements, this mechanism is shown to support up to two hundred volt, field-aligned potential drops near Io

A. F. Cheng; C. Paranicas

1998-01-01

428

Drop Out Patterns in the East Los Angeles Community College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study attempted to analyze the drop out problem from spatial perspectives within the context of East Los Angeles Community College, California. Selected urban land-use types, which positively and negatively influence the propensity to drop out or persist-in colleges, were selected and captured during a global positioning system (GPS)-based…

Waktola, Daniel K.

2014-01-01

429

Three-Lobed Shape Bifurcation of Rotating Liquid Drops  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The evolution of axisymmetric equilibrium shapes of a rotating liquid drop can be extended beyond the 2-lobed shape bifurcation point if the rotating drop is driven in the n=2 axisymmetric shape oscillation (perturbation), where n is the mode of oscillation.

Ohsaka, K.; Trinh, E.

1999-01-01

430

Oscillations of captured spherical drop of viscous liquid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complex frequencies of a viscous spherical drop where part of the free surface is embedded in a rigid spherical cap of the same radius have been determined as a function of the cap angle and the free surface tension parameter. With increasing cap angle ?, the oscillation frequencies and decay magnitudes increase. This is also true for liquid drops

H. F. Bauer; M. Chiba

2005-01-01

431

Update on the Purdue University 2-second Drop Tower  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small drop tower of approximately one second drop duration was built in the School of Aero-nautics and Astronautics at Purdue University beginning in 1998 and operated until summer 2007. This inexpensive tower in an old airplane hanger, was built largely by Yongkang Chen, now a Research Professor at Portland State University in Oregon, USA. In about 7 years of

Steven Collicott

2010-01-01

432

IR-drop Reduction Through Combinational Circuit Partitioning  

E-print Network

IR-drop Reduction Through Combinational Circuit Partitioning Hai Lin, Yu Wang, Rong Luo, Huazhong {linhai99, wangyuu99}@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn, {luorong, yanghz, wangh}@tsinghua.edu.cn Abstract. IR cur- rent reduction to reduce the IR-drop problem only focus on synchronous sequential logic circuits

Wang, Yu

433

Drop and Spray Formation from a Liquid Jet  

Microsoft Academic Search

A liquid jet emanating from a nozzle into an ambient gas is inherently unstable. It may break up into drops of diameters comparable to the jet diameter or into droplets of diameters several orders of magnitude smaller. The sizes of the drops formed from a liquid jet without external control are in general not uniform. The sizes as well as

S. P. Lin; R. D. Reitz

1998-01-01

434

DROP AND SPRAY FORMATION FROM A LIQUID JET  

Microsoft Academic Search

A liquid jet emanating from a nozzle into an ambient gas is inherently unstable. It may break up into drops of diameters comparable to the jet diameter or into droplets of diameters several orders of magnitude smaller. The sizes of the drops formed from a liquid jet without external control are in general not uniform. The sizes as well as

S. P. Lin; R. D. Reitz

1998-01-01

435

Drop tests and impact simulation for cell phones  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study conducts drop tests on cell phones according to related test standards. It is shown experimentally that damage to the inner LCD modules of cell phones occurs mostly when the cell phone drops with its front or back facing up. The probability of the aforementioned damage can be effectively reduced using the Taguchi method to modify design. Using Taguchi

Chung-Li Hwan; Meng-Ju Lin; Chih-Ching Lo; Wen-Liang Chen

2011-01-01

436

Surface cooling by an impinging water drop  

SciTech Connect

Widespread use of spray cooling in industrial applications such as cooling of turbine blades, fire suppression by sprinkler systems, and quenching of metal castings has motivated many experimental and analytical studies of droplets and sprays impinging on a hot surface. The authors studied, using both experiments and a numerical model, the impact of water droplets on a hot stainless steel surface. Initial substrate temperatures were varied from 50 C to 120 C (low enough to prevent boiling in the drop) and impact velocities from 0.5 m/s to 4 m/s. Fluid mechanics and heat transfer during droplet impact were modeled using a Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) code. Numerical calculations of droplet shape and substrate temperature during impact agreed well with experimental results. Both simulations and experiments show that increasing impact velocity enhances heat flux from the substrate by only a small amount. The principal effect of raising droplet velocity is that it makes the droplet spread more during impact, increasing the wetted area across which heat transfer takes place. The authors also developed a simple model of heat transfer into the droplet by one-dimensional conduction across a thin boundary layer which gives estimates of droplet cooling effectiveness that agree well with results from the numerical model. The analytical model predicts that for fixed Reynolds number (RE) cooling effectiveness increases with Weber number (WE). However, for large Weber numbers, when WE {much{underscore}gt} {radical}RE, cooling effectiveness is independent of droplet velocity or size and depends only on the Prandtl number.

Pasandideh-Fard, M.; Aziz, S.D.; Chandra, S.; Mostaghimi, J.

1999-07-01

437

Ares I Upper Stage Parachute Drop Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. In this HD video image, the first stage reentry parachute drop test is conducted at the Yuma, Arizona proving ground. The parachute tests demonstrated a three-stage deployment sequence that included the use of an Orbiter drag chute to properly stage the unfurling of the main chute. The parachute recovery system for Orion will be similar to the system used for Apollo command module landings and include two drogue, three pilot, and three main parachutes. (Highest resolution available)

2006-01-01

438

Ares I Upper Stage Parachute Drop Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. In this HD video image, the first stage reentry parachute drop test is conducted at the Yuma, Arizona proving ground. The parachute tests demonstrated a three-stage deployment sequence that included the use of an Orbiter drag chute to properly stage the unfurling of the main chute. The parachute recovery system for Orion will be similar to the system used for Apollo command module landings and include two drogue, three pilot, and three main parachutes. (Highest resolution available)

2007-01-01

439

Total Sleep Time Severely Drops during Adolescence  

PubMed Central

Restricted sleep duration among young adults and adolescents has been shown to increase the risk of morbidities such as obesity, diabetes or accidents. However there are few epidemiological studies on normal total sleep time (TST) in representative groups of teen-agers which allow to get normative data. Purpose To explore perceived total sleep time on schooldays (TSTS) and non schooldays (TSTN) and the prevalence of sleep initiating insomnia among a nationally representative sample of teenagers. Methods Data from 9,251 children aged 11 to 15 years-old, 50.7% of which were boys, as part of the cross-national study 2011 HBSC were analyzed. Self-completion questionnaires were administered in classrooms. An estimate of TSTS and TSTN (week-ends and vacations) was calculated based on specifically designed sleep habits report. Sleep deprivation was estimated by a TSTN – TSTS difference >2 hours. Sleep initiating nsomnia was assessed according to International classification of sleep disorders (ICSD 2). Children who reported sleeping 7 hours or less per night were considered as short sleepers. Results A serious drop of TST was observed between 11 yo and 15 yo, both during the schooldays (9 hours 26 minutes vs. 7 h 55 min.; p<0.001) and at a lesser extent during week-ends (10 h 17 min. vs. 9 h 44 min.; p<0.001). Sleep deprivation concerned 16.0% of chidren aged of 11 yo vs. 40.5% of those of 15 yo (p<0.001). Too short sleep was reported by 2.6% of the 11 yo vs. 24.6% of the 15 yo (p<0.001). Conclusion Despite the obvious need for sleep in adolescence, TST drastically decreases with age among children from 11 to 15 yo which creates significant sleep debt increasing with age. PMID:23082111

Leger, Damien; Beck, Francois; Richard, Jean-Baptiste; Godeau, Emmanuelle

2012-01-01

440

Dropped head syndrome as a presenting sign of scleromyositis.  

PubMed

The isolated or prominent weakness of cervical extensor muscles is a relatively rare clinical sign known as "dropped head syndrome". It occurs in a variety of neuromuscular diseases. Here, we report the case of a 53 year old woman whose main symptom was a dropped head syndrome that led to the diagnosis of scleromyositis. Scleromyositis is a rare idiopathic inflammatory myopathy, which combines polymyositis and scleroderma symptoms. Although idiopathic inflammatory myopathies are listed as causes of dropped head syndrome, very few cases are reported in the literature. Furthermore, scleromyositis revealed by a dropped head syndrome has never been described. As this condition was totally reversed by a regiment of corticosteroids, it is thus of a diagnostic interest for neurologists to be aware of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, including scleromyositis, as a potentially treatable aetiology of dropped head syndrome. PMID:20236664

Garcin, Beatrice; Lenglet, Timothée; Dubourg, Odile; Mesnage, Valérie; Levy, Richard

2010-05-15

441

Solidification Dynamics of Spherical Drops in a Free Fall Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Silver drops (99.9%, 4, 5, 7, and 9 mm diameter) were levitated, melted, and released to fall through Marshall Space Flight Center's 105 meter drop tube in helium - 6% hydrogen and pure argon atmospheres. By varying a drop s initial superheat the extent of solidification prior to impact ranged from complete to none during the approx. 4.6s of free fall time. Comparison of the experimental observations is made with numerical solutions to a model of the heat transfer and solidification kinetics associated with cooling of the drop during free fall, particularly with regard to the fraction of liquid transformed. Analysis reveals the relative importance ,of the initial parameters affecting the cooling and solidification rates within the drop. A discussion of the conditions under which the actual observations deviate from the assumptions used in the model is presented.

Grugel, Richard N.; Brush, Lucien N.

2006-01-01

442

Solidification Dynamics of Silver Drops in a Free Fall Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Silver drops (99.9%, 4, 5, 7, and 9 mm diameter) were levitated, melted, and released to fall through Marshall Space Flight Center's 105m drop tube in helium - 6% hydrogen and pure argon atmospheres. By systematically varying the initial superheat condition of the drop the extent of solidification prior to impact ranged from complete to none during the approximately 4.6s of free fall time. Comparison of the experimental observations is made with numerical solutions to a model of the heat transfer and solidification kinetics associated with cooling of the drop during free fall, particularly with regard to the fraction of liquid transformed. Analysis reveals the relative importance of the initial parameters affecting the cooling and solidification rates within the drop. A discussion of the conditions under which the actual observations deviate from the assumptions used in the model is presented.

Grugel, Richard N.; Brush, Lucien N.

1999-01-01

443

Solidification Dynamics of Metal Drops in a Free Fall Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Comparison of experimental observations were made with numerical solutions to a model of the heat transfer and solidification kinetics associated with the cooling of a molten drop during free fall, particularly with regard to the fraction of liquid transformed. Experimentally, silver drops (99.9%, 4-9 mm diameter) were levitated, melted, and released to fall through Marshall Space Flight Center's 105m drop tube in helium - 6% hydrogen and argon atmospheres. By systematically varying the drops initial superheat the extent of solidification prior to impact ranged from complete to none during the approximately 4.6s of free fall time. Analysis reveals the relative importance of the initial parameters affecting the cooling and solidification rates within the drop. A discussion of the conditions under which the actual observations deviate from the assumptions used in the model is presented.

Grugel, R. N.; Brush, L. N.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

444

Thermally driven oscillations and wave motion of a liquid drop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the state of Leidenfrost boiling, liquid drops are observed to vibrate in a variety of modal patterns. Theories are presented which predict the frequency of oscillation and show that the observed modal patterns of drops correspond to the minimum energy oscillatory excitation state. High-speed photographic techniques were used to record these motions and substantiate the theories. An incipient temperature was also found for water drops in film boiling below which free oscillations do not exist. In addition to these oscillations, photographic sequences are presented which show that wave motion can exist along the circumference of the drop. Following the study of free oscillations, the system was mounted on a shaker table and the drop subjected to a range of forced frequencies and accelerations.

Baumeister, K. J.; Hendricks, R. C.; Schoessow, G. J.

1977-01-01

445

Mosquitoes actively remove drops deposited by fog and dew.  

PubMed

We report mosquito behaviors for removing accumulated drops of water which would otherwise increase the energy expended during takeoff and free flight. These techniques take advantage of the insect's small size and great structural strength. To dry their wings before takeoff, mosquitoes employ a flutter stroke, at double the wingbeat frequency of normal flight, generating nearly 2500 gravities of acceleration. Mosquitoes may also remove drops by the respective accelerations associated with takeoff and collision with the ground. We correlate the accelerations and size of drops ejected using a simple model involving the drop's inertial force and surface tension. We note mosquitoes may use similar techniques to remove synthetic drops, making our observations applicable for understanding the resistance of insects to insecticides. PMID:24876192

Dickerson, Andrew K; Hu, David L

2014-12-01

446

Drop trapping in axisymmetric constrictions with arbitrary contact angle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The differential Young-Laplace equations are solved numerically with an iterative solution using the method of steepest descent to determine the shape of a drop trapped under gravity in an axisymmetric ring constriction. Prior work for non-wetting drops with a contact angle of ? is extended to arbitrary values of the contact angle at the three-phase contact lines. The critical Bond number, representing a dimensionless ratio of gravitational and interfacial forces, and separating static trapping at lower Bond numbers from dynamic squeezing at higher Bond numbers, decreases with decreasing contact angle, indicating that drop squeezing occurs more easily at smaller contact angle. Indeed, a critical contact angle, which depends only on the drop-to-hole and ring-cross-section-to-hole size ratios, is found, below which all drops squeeze through the hole.

Ratcliffe, Thomas; Davis, Robert H.

2012-06-01

447

Sheathless hydrodynamic positioning of buoyant drops and bubbles inside microchannels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particles, bubbles, and drops carried by a fluid in a confined environment such as a pipe can be subjected to hydrodynamic lift forces, i.e., forces that are perpendicular to the direction of the flow. We investigated the positioning effect of lift forces acting on buoyant drops and bubbles suspended in a carrier fluid and flowing in a horizontal microchannel. We report experiments on drops of water in fluorocarbon liquid, and on bubbles of nitrogen in hydrocarbon liquid and silicone oil, inside microchannels with widths on the order of 0.1-1 mm. Despite their buoyancy, drops and bubbles could travel without contacting with the walls of channels; the most important parameters for reaching this flow regime in our experiments were the viscosity and the velocity of the carrier fluid, and the sizes of drops and bubbles. The dependencies of the transverse position of drops and bubbles on these parameters were investigated. At steady state, the trajectories of drops and bubbles approached the center of the channel for drops and bubbles almost as large as the channel, carried by rapidly flowing viscous liquids; among our experiments, these flow conditions were characterized by larger capillary numbers and smaller Reynolds numbers. Analytical models of lift forces developed for the flow of drops much smaller than the width of the channel failed to predict their transverse position, while computational fluid dynamic simulations of the experiments agreed better with the experimental measurements. The degrees of success of these predictions indicate the importance of confinement on generating strong hydrodynamic lift forces. We conclude that, inside microfluidic channels, it is possible to support and position buoyant drops and bubbles simply by flowing a single-stream (i.e., “sheathless”) carrier liquid that has appropriate velocity and hydrodynamic properties.

Stan, Claudiu A.; Guglielmini, Laura; Ellerbee, Audrey K.; Caviezel, Daniel; Stone, Howard A.; Whitesides, George M.

2011-09-01

448

Model of Mixing Layer With Multicomponent Evaporating Drops  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mathematical model of a three-dimensional mixing layer laden with evaporating fuel drops composed of many chemical species has been derived. The study is motivated by the fact that typical real petroleum fuels contain hundreds of chemical species. Previously, for the sake of computational efficiency, spray studies were performed using either models based on a single representative species or models based on surrogate fuels of at most 15 species. The present multicomponent model makes it possible to perform more realistic simulations by accounting for hundreds of chemical species in a computationally efficient manner. The model is used to perform Direct Numerical Simulations in continuing studies directed toward understanding the behavior of liquid petroleum fuel sprays. The model includes governing equations formulated in an Eulerian and a Lagrangian reference frame for the gas and the drops, respectively. This representation is consistent with the expected volumetrically small loading of the drops in gas (of the order of 10 3), although the mass loading can be substantial because of the high ratio (of the order of 103) between the densities of liquid and gas. The drops are treated as point sources of mass, momentum, and energy; this representation is consistent with the drop size being smaller than the Kolmogorov scale. Unsteady drag, added-mass effects, Basset history forces, and collisions between the drops are neglected, and the gas is assumed calorically perfect. The model incorporates the concept of continuous thermodynamics, according to which the chemical composition of a fuel is described probabilistically, by use of a distribution function. Distribution functions generally depend on many parameters. However, for mixtures of homologous species, the distribution can be approximated with acceptable accuracy as a sole function of the molecular weight. The mixing layer is initially laden with drops in its lower stream, and the drops are colder than the gas. Drop evaporation leads to a change in the gas-phase composition, which, like the composition of the drops, is described in a probabilistic manner

Bellan, Josette; Le Clercq, Patrick

2004-01-01

449

Determinants of Suicide and Accidental or Violent Death in the Australian HIV Observational Database  

PubMed Central

Background Rates of suicide and accidental or violent death remain high in HIV-positive populations despite significantly improved prognosis since the introduction of cART. Methods We conducted a nested case-control study of suicide and accidental or violent death in the Australian HIV Observational Database (AHOD) between January 1999 and March 2012. For each case, 2 controls were matched by clinic, age, sex, mode of exposure and HIV-positive date to adjust for potential confounding by these covariates. Risk of suicide and accidental or violent death was estimated using conditional logistic regression. Results We included 27 cases (17 suicide and 10 violent/accidental death) and 54 controls. All cases were men who have sex with men (MSM) or MSM/ injecting drug use (IDU) mode of exposure. Increased risk was associated with unemployment (Odds Ratio (OR) 5.86, 95% CI: 1.69–20.37), living alone (OR 3.26, 95% CI: 1.06–10.07), suicidal ideation (OR 6.55, 95% CI: 1.70–25.21), and >2 psychiatric/cognitive risk factors (OR 4.99, 95% CI: 1.17–30.65). CD4 cell count of >500 cells/µL (OR 0.25, 95% CI: 0.07–0.87) and HIV-positive date ?1990 (1990–1999 (OR 0.31, 95% CI: 0.11–0.89), post-2000 (OR 0.08, 95% CI: 0.01–0.84)) were associated with decreased risk. CD4 cell count ?500 cells/µL remained a significant predictor of reduced risk (OR 0.15, 95% CI: 0.03–0.70) in a multivariate model adjusted for employment status, accommodation status and HIV-positive date. Conclusions After adjustment for psychosocial factors, the immunological status of HIV-positive patients contributed to the risk of suicide and accidental or violent death. The number of psychiatric/cognitive diagnoses contributed to the level of risk but many psychosocial factors were not individually significant. These findings indicate a complex interplay of factors associated with risk of suicide and accidental or violent death. PMID:24586519

McManus, Hamish; Petoumenos, Kathy; Franic, Teo; Kelly, Mark D.; Watson, Jo; O'Connor, Catherine C.; Jeanes, Mark; Hoy, Jennifer; Cooper, David A.; Law, Matthew G.

2014-01-01

450

Scripting Scenarios for the Human Patient Simulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Human Patient Simulator (HPS) is particularly useful in providing scenario-based learning which can be tailored to fit specific scenarios and which can be modified in realtime to enhance the teaching environment. Scripting these scenarios so as to maximize learning requires certain skills, in order to ensure that a change in student performance, understanding, critical thinking, and/or communication skills results. Methods: A "good" scenario can be defined in terms of applicability, learning opportunities, student interest, and clearly associated metrics. Obstacles to such a scenario include a lack of understanding of the applicable environment by the scenario author(s), a desire (common among novices) to cover too many topics, failure to define learning objectives, mutually exclusive or confusing learning objectives, unskilled instructors, poor preparation , disorganized approach, or an inappropriate teaching philosophy (such as "trial by fire" or education through humiliation). Results: Descriptions of several successful teaching programs, used in the military, civilian, and NASA medical environments , will be provided, along with sample scenarios. Discussion: Simulator-based lessons have proven to be a time- and cost-efficient manner by which to educate medical personnel. Particularly when training for medical care in austere environments (pre-hospital, aeromedical transport, International Space Station, military operations), the HPS can enhance the learning experience.

Bacal, Kira; Miller, Robert; Doerr, Harold

2004-01-01

451

Scenarios of forestry carbon sequestration measures in the Russian Federation and priorities for action plan  

SciTech Connect

Development of forestry mitigation strategy under Russian transition economy conditions has many difficulties and specific features. The most important factors are: shortage in funds; absence of well defined legislation, rules and standards; absence of adequate control systems; weak transport infrastructure and export problems. Assessment of economic possibilities, potential, short- and middle-term measures show that strategies have to be focused on improvement and promotion of current carbon sequestration activity. Five baseline forestry scenario (No. 1) and four other scenarios (No. 2 - No. 5) for 2000-2040 were developed. Each scenario covers all forested area but provides separate analysis of 30 `forestry ecoregions`. Three types of forestry management were included in scenarios: clear-cut logging and reforestation (by scenarios No. 2 and No. 3); selective logging and thinning (No. 4); measures to prevent and manage fires (No. 5). The baseline scenario results in a constant net-sink of about 150 MtC/yr. An increase in clear-cut logging on the basis of current forestry practice will cause a rapid drop of net-sink. Implementation of a modest increase in clear-cut logging with active forest fire and selective logging measures could provide with a slight increase of net-sink. Consideration of scenarios helps identify regional forestry priorities for Russian Climate Change Action Plan. The priorities by region include: European-Ural: (1) creation of economy mechanism to increase forestry effectiveness on the same cutting areas, (2) assistance to natural reforestation. Central and North-East Siberia: promotion of forest fire protection system. South Siberia and Primorie and Priamurie: limit of clear-cut logging and creation market situation for better forestry efficiency. The proposed Joint Implementation Vologda reforestation project which is being considered now by special bodies of the USA and the Russian Federation is in good agreement with these priorities.

Kokorin, A.O. [Institute of Global Climate and Ecology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1996-12-31

452

Electrowetting-on-dielectrics for manipulation of oil drops and gas bubbles in aqueous-shell compound drops.  

PubMed

We present the manipulation of oil, organic and gaseous chemicals by electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) technology using aqueous-shell compound drops. We demonstrate that the transport and coalescence of viscous oil drops, the reaction of bromine with styrene in benzene solution, and the reaction of red blood cells with carbon monoxide bubbles can be accomplished using this method. PMID:25236507

Li, Jiang; Wang, Yixuan; Chen, Haosheng; Wan, Jiandi

2014-10-14

453

Fast and reliable protein microarray production by a new drop-in-drop technique.  

PubMed

In contrast to DNA microarrays, production of protein microarrays is an immense technological challenge due to high complexity and diversity of proteins. In this paper we investigate three essential aspects of protein microarray fabrication based on the highly parallel and non-contact TopSpot technology: evaporation of probes during long lasting production times, optimization of protein immobilization and improvement of protein microarray reproducibility. Evaporation out of the printhead reservoirs was reduced to a minimum by sealing the reservoirs with gas permeable foils or PDMS frames. This led to dramatically lowered setup times through the possibility of long-term, ready-to-print storage of filled printheads. To optimize immobilization efficiency 128 printing buffers were tested by printing two different proteins onto seven different microarray slide types. This way we were able to reduce the CV of spot diameter on the microarray slide below 1.14%. To remarkably increase protein immobilization efficiency on microarray slides the commonly used EDC-NHS system (a laboratory method for immobilization of proteins) was miniaturized by using a new drop-in-drop printing technique. Additionally the very fast UV cross-linking was used to immobilize antibodies. The optimized system was used to produce antibody microarrays and with it microarray ELISA experiments were performed successfully. PMID:15915261

Gutmann, Oliver; Kuehlewein, Ruben; Reinbold, Stefanie; Niekrawietz, Remigius; Steinert, Chris P; de Heij, Bas; Zengerle, Roland; Daub, Martina

2005-06-01

454

Accidental versus operational oil spills from shipping in the Baltic Sea: risk governance and management strategies.  

PubMed

Marine governance of oil transportation is complex. Due to difficulties in effectively monitoring procedures on vessels en voyage, incentives to save costs by not following established regulations on issues such as cleaning of tanks, crew size, and safe navigation may be substantial. The issue of problem structure is placed in focus, that is, to what degree the specific characteristics and complexity of intentional versus accidental oil spill risks affect institutional responses. It is shown that whereas the risk of accidental oil spills primarily has been met by technical requirements on the vessels in combination with Port State control, attempts have been made to curb intentional pollution by for example increased surveillance and smart governance mechanisms such as the No-Special-Fee system. It is suggested that environmental safety could be improved by increased use of smart governance mechanisms tightly adapted to key actors' incentives to alter behavior in preferable directions. PMID:21446395

Hassler, Björn

2011-03-01

455

Accidental Displacement of Third Molar into the Sublingual Space: a Case Report  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Background Successful extraction of third molars depends on preoperative diagnosis and planning. Gold standard preoperative examinations are performed through computed tomography, decreasing risks and avoiding potential accidents. The present report highlights the value of preoperative examinations in face of accidentally displaced third molars. Methods An 18-years-old female patient underwent a third mandibular molar extraction with a general dentist. Accidentally, the mandibular left third molar was displaced into the sublingual space, making necessary a second surgical step. The surgery was interrupted and the patient was referred to an expert in maxillofacial surgery. Results After 21 days awaiting an asymptomatic health status, the second surgical step was successfully performed using multislice computed tomography as preoperative imaging guide. Conclusions The present case report highlights the clinical usefulness of imaging planning and informed consents in face of legal and ethic potential complaints. PMID:25386232

Garcia, Robson Rodrigues; Botelho, Tessa Lucena; Franco, Ademir; Silva, Rhonan Ferreira

2014-01-01

456

Liquid drop impact cratering on a granular layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Granular impact cratering has been studied both in terms of planetary science and fundamental granular physics. Recent studies have revealed morphological scaling and dynamics of the granular impact cratering phenomenon. In all these studies, solid impactors have been used. However, the actual geophysical scale impactors might be melt. To mimic what happens when the impactor is melt, we performed simple drop granular impact experiment. A small (millimeter scale) water drop was dropped onto a granular layer (abrasives of micrometer grain size) at low impact speed (about meter/second). Then, various kinds of novel crater shapes were discovered depending on the experimental conditions. For instance, "sink type", "flat type", "ring type", and "bump type" craters were observed. We measured the characteristic time scale and length scale of the cratering, using a high speed camera and a laser profilometry system. From the experimental data, a simple scaling of the crater radius is proposed. The obtained scaling exponent is same as that of usual solid impact cratering. In the solid impactor case, the scaling exponent is derived from energy balance between impactor and ejecta. However, we found that the liquid drop deformation determines the scaling exponent in this experiment. We have also used glycerol and ethanol and their aqueous solutions, in order to examine the effect of viscosity and capillary force of liquid drops. A picture of the impacting drop is shown below. A water drop impacting onto a layer of abrasive.

Katsuragi, H.

2010-12-01

457

A growing-drop technique for measuring dynamic interfacial tension  

SciTech Connect

A novel, growing-drop technique is described for measuring dynamic interfacial tension due to sorption of surface-active solutes. The proposed method relates the instantaneous pressure and size of expanding liquid drops to interfacial tension and is useful for measuring both liquid/gas and liquid/liquid tensions over a wide range of time scales, currently from 10 ms to several hours. Growing-drop measurements on surfactant-free water/air and water/octanol interfaces yield constant tensions equal to their known literature values. For surfactant-laden, liquid drops, the growing-drop technique captures the actual transient tension evolution of a single interface, rather than interval times as with the classic maximum-drop-pressure and drop.-volume tension measurements. Dynamic tensions measured for 0.25 mM aqueous 1-decanol solution/air and 0.02 kg/m{sup 3} aqueous Triton X-100 solution/dodecane interfaces show nonmonotonic behavior, indicating slow surfactant transport relative to the imposed rates of interfacial dilatation. The dynamic tension of a purified and fresh 6 mM aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solution/air interface shows only a monotonic decrease, indicating rapid surfactant transport relative to the imposed rates of dilatation. ConverselY, an aged SDS solution, naturally containing trace dodecanol impurities, exhibits dynamic tensions which reflect a superposition of the rapidly equilibrating SDS and the slowly adsorbing dodecanol.

MacLeod, C.A.; Radke, C.J.

1993-10-01

458

Application of proteomics to the study of pollination drops1  

PubMed Central

• Premise of the study: Pollination drops are a formative component in gymnosperm pollen-ovule interactions. Proteomics offers a direct method for the discovery of proteins associated with this early stage of sexual reproduction. • Methods: Pollination drops were sampled from eight gymnosperm species: Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (Port Orford cedar), Ephedra monosperma, Ginkgo biloba, Juniperus oxycedrus (prickly juniper), Larix ×marschlinsii, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir), Taxus ×media, and Welwitschia mirabilis. Drops were collected by micropipette using techniques focused on preventing sample contamination. Drop proteins were separated using both gel and gel-free methods. Tandem mass spectrometric methods were used including a triple quadrupole and an Orbitrap. • Results: Proteins are present in all pollination drops. Consistency in the protein complement over time was shown in L. ×marschlinsii. Representative mass spectra from W. mirabilis chitinase peptide and E. monosperma serine carboxypeptidase peptide demonstrated high quality results. We provide a summary of gymnosperm pollination drop proteins that have been discovered to date via proteomics. • Discussion: Using proteomic methods, a dozen classes of proteins have been identified to date. Proteomics presents a way forward in deepening our understanding of the biological function of pollination drops. PMID:25202539

Prior, Natalie; Little, Stefan A.; Pirone, Cary; Gill, Julia E.; Smith, Derek; Han, Jun; Hardie, Darryl; O'Leary, Stephen J. B.; Wagner, Rebecca E.; Cross, Tyra; Coulter, Andrea; Borchers, Christoph; Olafson, Robert W.; von Aderkas, Patrick

2013-01-01

459

The Drop during Less than 300 Days of a Dusty White Dwarf's Infrared Luminosity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera photometry of WD J0959-0200, a white dwarf that displays excess infrared radiation from a disk, likely produced by a tidally disrupted planetesimal. We find that in 2010, the fluxes in both 3.6 ?m and 4.5 ?m decreased by ~35% in less than 300 days. The drop in the infrared luminosity is likely due to an increase of the inner disk radius from one of two scenarios: (1) a recent planetesimal impact; (2) instability in the circumstellar disk. The current situation is tantalizing; high-sensitivity, high-cadence infrared studies will be a new tool to study the interplay between a disk and its host white dwarf star.

Xu, S.; Jura, M.

2014-09-01

460

Bitter pill to swallow: a case of accidental poisoning with digitalis purpurea.  

PubMed

While digitoxicity secondary to therapeutic use is frequent, due to its distinctive appearance and unpleasant taste accidental ingestion of digitalis purpurea (foxglove) is uncommon. This report relates the case of two previously healthy individuals who inadvertently consumed significant quantities of digitalis in its plant form. Both men presented in first-degree atrioventricular block and had digoxin levels of 4.9 ?g/litre, but were otherwise stable and made unremarkable recoveries with repeated dose activated charcoal. PMID:22791473

Mitchell, Andrew

2010-01-01

461

Bitter pill to swallow: a case of accidental poisoning with digitalis purpurea  

PubMed Central

While digitoxicity secondary to therapeutic use is frequent, due to its distinctive appearance and unpleasant taste accidental ingestion of digitalis purpurea (foxglove) is uncommon. This report relates the case of two previously healthy individuals who inadvertently consumed significant quantities of digitalis in its plant form. Both men presented in first-degree atrioventricular block and had digoxin levels of 4.9 ?g/litre, but were otherwise stable and made unremarkable recoveries with repeated dose activated charcoal. PMID:22791473

Mitchell, Andrew

2010-01-01

462

Rewarming a patient with accidental hypothermia and cardiac arrest using thoracic lavage.  

PubMed

The optimal treatment for severe accidental hypothermia is cardiopulmonary bypass because this offers the most rapid rate of rewarming. However, cardiopulmonary bypass therapy is not available in every hospital. In these circumstances, rewarming has to be achieved with other methods. We present a patient who was successfully rewarmed with thoracic lavage after he had been found with a core temperature of 21°C and asystole. PMID:24882294

Turtiainen, Johanna; Halonen, Jari; Syväoja, Sakari; Hakala, Tapio

2014-06-01