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Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

IMPACT ANALYSIS OF SPENT FUEL DRY CASKS UNDER ACCIDENTAL DROP SCENARIOS.  

SciTech Connect

A series of analyses were performed to assess the structural response of spent nuclear fuel dry casks subjected to various handling and on-site transfer events. The results of these analyses are being used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to perform a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). Although the PRA study is being performed for a specific nuclear plant, the PRA study is also intended to provide a framework for a general methodology that could also be applied to other dry cask systems at other nuclear plants. The dry cask system consists of a transfer cask, used for handling and moving the multi-purpose canister OLIIpC that contains the fuel, and a storage cask, used to store the MPC and fuel on a concrete pad at the site. This paper describes the analyses of the casks for two loading events. The first loading consists of dropping the transfer cask while it is lowered by a crane to a concrete floor at ground elevation. The second loading consists of dropping the storage cask while it is being transferred to the concrete storage pad outdoors. Three dimensional finite element models of the transfer cask and storage cask, containing the MPC and fuel, were utilized to perform the drop analyses. These models were combined with finite element models of the target structures being impacted. The transfer cask drop analyses considered various drop heights for the cask impacting the reinforced concrete floor at ground level. The finite element model of the target included a section of the concrete floor and concrete wall supporting the floor. The storage cask drop analyses evaluated a 30.5 cm (12 in.) drop of the cask impacting three different surfaces: reinforced concrete, asphalt, and gravel.

BRAVERMAN,J.I.; MORANTE,R.J.; XU,J.; HOFMAYER,C.H.; SHAUKAT,S.K.

2003-08-17

2

IMPACT ANALYSIS OF SPENT FUEL DRY CASKS UNDER ACCIDENTAL DROP SCENARIOS.  

SciTech Connect

A series of analyses were performed to assess the structural response of spent nuclear fuel dry casks subjected to various handling and on-site transfer events. The results of these analyses are being used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to perform a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). Although the PRA study is being performed for a specific nuclear plant, the PRA study is also intended to provide a framework for a general methodology that could also be applied to other dry cask systems at other nuclear plants. The dry cask system consists of a transfer cask, used for handling and moving the multi-purpose canister (MPC) that contains the fuel, and a storage cask, used to store the MPC and fuel on a concrete pad at the site. This paper describes the analyses of the casks for two loading events. The first loading consists of dropping the transfer cask while it is lowered by a crane to a concrete floor at ground elevation. The second loading consists of dropping the storage cask while it is being transferred to the concrete storage pad outdoors. Three dimensional finite element models of the transfer cask and storage cask, containing the MPC and fuel, were utilized to perform the drop analyses. These models were combined with finite element models of the target structures being impacted. The transfer cask drop analyses considered various drop heights for the cask impacting the reinforced concrete floor at ground level. The finite element model of the target included a section of the concrete floor and concrete wall supporting the floor. The storage cask drop analyses evaluated a 30.5 cm (12 in.) drop of the cask impacting three different surfaces: reinforced concrete, asphalt, and gravel.

BRAVERMAN,J.I.; MORANTE,R.J.; XU,J.; HOFMAYER,C.H.; SHAUKAT,S.K.

2003-03-17

3

Can Canister Containment Be Maintained After Accidental Drop Events?  

SciTech Connect

The National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP) has pursued a number of structural testing projects that are intended to provide data that can be used to substantiate the position that U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) canisters, made from austenitic stainless steels, can maintain containment after an accidental drop event and that plastic finite element methods can be used to accurately predict the structural response of canister configurations not specifically tested. In particular, drop tests of full-scale canisters and material impact testing at varying strain rates reflecting accidental drop conditions have been completed or are in progress. This paper provides insights to conclusions achieved to date and what efforts are planned to fully address the pertinent issues necessary to demonstrate the safety of DOE SNF canisters subjected to accidental drop events.

D. K. Morton; S. D. Snow; T. E. Rahl; R. K. Blandford; T. J. Hill

2006-05-01

4

An experimental study on the uptake factor of tungsten oxide particles resulting from an accidentally dropped storage container.  

PubMed

A test procedure was developed and verified to measure the airborne concentrations of particles of different sizes (0.5-20 ?m) within the vicinity of a dropped container when a significant portion of the tungsten oxide powder (simulating uranium oxide) is ejected from the container. Tests were carried out in a full-scale stainless steel environmental chamber with an interior volume of 24.1 m(3). Thirty-two drop tests were performed, covering variations in dropping height, room air movement, landing scenario, and lid condition. Assuming a breathing rate of 1.2 m(3)/hr, the uptake factor during the first 10 min was calculated to be between 1.13 × 10(-9) and 1.03 × 10(-7) in reference to the amount loaded; or between 6.44 × 10(-8) and 3.55 × 10(-4) in reference to the amount spilled. Results provide previously unavailable data for estimating the exposure and associated risk to building occupants in the case of an accidental dropping of heavy powder containers. The test data show that for spills larger than 0.004 g, the power-law correlation between the spill uptake factor and the spilled mass (i.e., SUF = 2.5 × 10(-5) × Spill_Mass(-0.667)) established from the test data is smaller and a more accurate estimate than the constant value of 10(-3) assumed in the Department of Energy Nuclear Material Packaging Manual. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene for the following free supplementary resource: an online supplementary table of all cumulative uptake amounts at 10 min for all test data.]. PMID:23679340

Gao, Zhi; Zhang, J S; Byington, Jerry G A

2013-01-01

5

Failure Criteria for Evaluating Accidental Drops of Fuel Containers at INTEC  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a failure criterion that has been developed for use in evaluating fuel containers at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) for accidental drop events. The criterion would typically be used in dynamic finite element analyses using the ABA-QUS/Explicit program. The failure criterion used in the past is generally considered to substantially underestimate the strength and ductility of the materials involved. The new criterion is intended to be more realistic, allowing for more accurate impact analyses. The criterion is based on the distortion energy theory, which is considered to be appropriate for the ductile materials typically used in fuel containers. Also addressed in development of the criterion were the effects of strain rate and hydrostatic stress. The importance of these factors, however, is highly dependent on the material used. Three materials specifically addressed in this study were stainless steel, aluminum, and lead. The criterion is presented in the form of guidelines and recommendations that are based on material data obtained from the literature. The most significant difference between these and the previous criterion is that ductile materials are allowed to strain to much higher levels before they are considered to fail.

Miller, G. K.

1998-10-01

6

Accidental Drop of a Carbon Steel/Lead Shipping Cask (HFEF 14) at Low Temperatures  

SciTech Connect

A shielded cask is used to transport radioactive materials between facilities at the Idaho National Laboratory. The cask was fabricated with an outer and inner shell of A36 carbon steel with lead poured in the annular space between the shells to provide radiation shielding. Carbon steel is known to be susceptible to low-temperature brittle fracture under impact loading. This paper will present the analysis results representing postulated transportation accidents during on-site transfers of the cask at subzero temperatures. The accident scenarios were based on a series of cask drops onto a rigid surface from a height of 1.83m (6 ft.) Finite element models of the cask and its contents were solved and post processed using the ABAQUS software. Each model was examined for failure to contain radioactive materials and/or significant loss of radiation shielding. Results of these analyses show that the body of the cask exhibits considerable ruggedness and will remain largely intact after the impact. There will be deformation of the main cask body with localized brittle failure of the cask outer shell and door structure. The cask payload outer waste can remains in the cask but will experience some permanent plastic deformation in each drop. It will not be deformed to the point where it will rupture, thus maintaining confinement of the can contents.

Brian D. Hawkes; Michael E. Nitzel

2007-08-01

7

ACCIDENTAL DROP OF A CARBON STEEL/LEAD SHIPPING CASK AT LOW TEMPERATURES  

SciTech Connect

A shielded cask is used to transport radioactive materials between facilities. The cask was fabricated with an outer and inner shell of hot rolled low carbon steel. Lead was poured in the annular space between the shells to provide radiation shielding. Carbon steel is known to be susceptible to lowtemperature brittle fracture under impact loading. This paper will present the analysis results representing postulated transportation accidents during on-site transfers of the cask. The accident scenarios were based on a series of cask drops onto a rigid surface from a height of 6 ft assuming brittle failure of the cask shell at subzero temperatures. Finite element models of the cask and its contents were solved and post processed using ABAQUS software. Each model was examined for failure to contain radioactive materials and/or significant loss of radiation shielding. Results of these analyses show that the body of the cask exhibits considerable ruggedness and will remain largely intact after the impact. There will be deformation of the main cask body with localized brittle failure of the cask outer shell and components and but no complete penetration of the cask shielding. The cask payload outer waste can will experience some permanent plastic deformation in each drop, but will not be deformed to the point where it will rupture, thus maintaining confinement of the can contents.

B. D. Hawkes; K. R. Durstine

2007-07-01

8

Preliminary Drop Testing Results to Validate an Analysis Methodology for Accidental Drop Events of Containers for Radioactive Materials  

SciTech Connect

The National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program, operating from the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), developed the standardized Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) canister. During the development of this canister, more than twenty drop tests were completed, evaluating high strain behavior, puncture resistance, maintenance of containment, and other canister responses. Computer analyses of these drop-test specimens/canisters employed the ABAQUS/Explicit software. A pre-drop analysis was performed for each test specimen to predict the deformed shape and resulting material straining. Typically, a postdrop analysis was also performed to better match actual test specifics (actual impact angle, test specimen material properties, etc.). The purpose for this analysis effort was to determine the capability of current analysis techniques to accurately predict the deformed shape of a standardized DOE SNF canister subjected to a defined drop event, without actually having to perform a drop test for every drop event of interest. Those analytical efforts yielded very accurate predictions for nearly all of the drop tests. However, it was noted, during one small-scale test, that the calculated deformed shape of the test specimen depended on the modeled frictional behavior as it impacted the essentially unyielding flat surface. In order to calculate the correct deformed shape, the modeled frictional behavior had to be changed to an unanticipated value. This paper will report the results of a preliminary investigation that determined the appropriate frictional modeling for a variety of impact angles. That investigation included drop testing performed at the INEEL from September 2000 to January 2001.

Snow, Spencer David; Morton, Dana Keith; Rahl, Tommy Ervin; Ware, Arthur Gates

2001-07-01

9

A simulation study of dispersion of air borne radionuclides from a nuclear power plant under a hypothetical accidental scenario at a tropical coastal site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meteorological condition in coastal regions is diurnally variable and spatially heterogeneous due to complex topography, land-sea interface, etc. A wide range of dispersion conditions is possible on a given day in the coastal regions. In case of inadvertent accidental situations, though unlikely, it would be necessary to examine the potentially severe case among different dynamically occurring local atmospheric conditions for dispersion and its range of impact around a nuclear power plant for safety analysis. In this context, dispersion of air borne radioactive effluents during a hypothetical accidental scenario from a proposed prototype fast breeder reactor (PFBR) at an Indian coastal site, Kalpakkam, is simulated using a 3-D meso-scale atmospheric model MM5 and a random walk particle dispersion model FLEXPART. A simulation carried out for a typical summer day predicted the development of land-sea breeze circulation and thermal internal boundary layer (TIBL) formation, which have been confirmed by meteorological observations. Analysis of dose distribution shows that the maximum dose for releases from a 100 m stack occurs at two places within 4 km distance during sea breeze/TIBL fumigation hours. Maximum dose also occurred during nighttime stable conditions. Results indicate that, on the day of present study, the highest concentrations occurred during periods of TIBL fumigation rather than during stable atmospheric conditions. Further, the area of impact (plume width at the surface) spreads up to a down wind distance of 4 km during fumigation condition. Simulation over a range of 25 km has shown turning of plume at the incidence of sea breeze circulation and two different dispersion patterns across the sea breeze front. These results are significant in comparison to the expected pattern shown by Gaussian plume model used for routine analysis.

Srinivas, C. V.; Venkatesan, R.

10

A simulation study of dispersion of air borne radionuclides from a nuclear power plant under a hypothetical accidental scenario at a tropical coastal site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meteorological condition in coastal regions is diurnally variable and spatially heterogeneous due to complex topography, land–sea interface, etc. A wide range of dispersion conditions is possible on a given day in the coastal regions. In case of inadvertent accidental situations, though unlikely, it would be necessary to examine the potentially severe case among different dynamically occurring local atmospheric conditions for

C. V. Srinivas; R. Venkatesan

2005-01-01

11

[Accidental hypothermia].  

PubMed

Uncertainty exists on how to treat patients suffering from accidental hypothermia and on the optimal transport decisions. The aim of this review is to provide an updated evidence-based reference for the pre-hospital and in-hospital management of patients with accidental hypothermia and for the transport decisions required to facilitate treatment. Advances in the efficiency and availability of rewarming techniques have improved the prognosis for patients presenting with hypothermia. For hypothermic patients with a core body temperature ??28?°C without cardiac instability there is increasing evidence to support the use of active external and minimally invasive rewarming techniques (e.g. chemical, electrical or forced air heating packs, blankets and warm parenteral fluids). Hypothermic patients with cardiac instability (i.e. systolic blood pressure

Brugger, H; Putzer, G; Paal, P

2013-08-09

12

Acute accidental phosgene poisoning.  

PubMed

Phosgene is a highly toxic gas to which accidental exposure may occur in occupational workers. This case report describes the clinical presentation and management of accidental phosgene poisoning happened after the leakage of phosgene gas from nearby pipeline. The need to suspect phosgene gas exposure and observe such patients is crucial for life saving, especially in view of the delay in clinical deterioration observed in some patients who subsequently develop adult respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:22602834

Gutch, Manish; Jain, Nirdesh; Agrawal, Avinash; Consul, Suchi

2012-04-02

13

[Accidental acetaminophen overdose].  

PubMed

Acetaminophen is an OTC medication and amongst the most used pain relievers. It is the analgesic of first choice in pregnancy. Because of its low therapeutic index, accidental and suicidal acetaminophen intoxication is one of the most common causes of acute liver failure. Thus, face-to-face counselling of patients on the proper use of acetaminophen is essential for drug safety. PMID:18661913

Hamwi, Iyas; Picksak, Gesine; Stichtenoth, Dirk O

2008-06-01

14

Supersymmetry and accidental degeneracy  

SciTech Connect

Accidental degeneracies are explained as arising from an underlying supersymmetry associated with the superalgebra osp(2/2,R) circle plus so (3) when the quantum-mechanical potential is a general superposition of a three-dimensional harmonic oscillator potential, a 1/r/sup 2/-potential and a constant one. Recent supersymmetric model hamiltonians are discussed within the general context.

Celka, P.; Hussin, V.

1987-06-01

15

Accidental firearm fatalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Out of a total of 624 consecutive gunshot autopsies from Münster and Hamburg, Germany, 32 cases (5.1%) were accidental. The accidents were self-inflicted in 3 cases while another person fired the gun in the remaining 29 cases. More than half of the victims were younger than 25 years and 75% were male. A single gunshot injury was present in all

B. Karger; E. Billeb; E. Koops

2002-01-01

16

ACCIDENTAL HYPOTHERMIA AMONG THE ELDERLY: AN EDUCATIONAL PREVENTION PROGRAM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accidental hypothermia, the unintentional drop in body temperature below 95 Fahrenheit from exposure to the cold, poses a significant health threat to people over 65. Faced with rising fuel costs and appeals to conserve energy, many older Americans may set their thermostats below 70 F and thus increase their risk of becoming hypothermia victims. This paper discusses the problem of

Marc B. Goldstein

1982-01-01

17

Penny Drop  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this quick activity about the properties of water (page 1 of PDF), learners will use an eyedropper to slowly place one drop of water at a time onto a penny, counting the number of drops until the water spills over the edge. Besides searching for the greatest number drops a penny will hold, drops of milk or vegetable oil can be tested in addition to water, raising the question, "What property of water allows it to pile up this way?" Relates to the linked video, DragonflyTV: Malformed Frogs.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2005-01-01

18

Voltage Drop  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first site with information on voltage drop is provided by Power and System Innovations on their Frequently Asked Questions: Voltage Drop (1) page. Visitors can read what voltage drop is, what causes it, what happens as a result of it, and what the maximum recommended voltage drop is. The second site, Basics of Electricity (2), is part of General Electric's Lighting for Business Web site. Through descriptions and illustrations, the site explains what voltage drop is and gives examples of how it is calculated using Ohm's law. The next site is a lab worksheet that is part of a class from the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department of Montana State University called Voltage Drop in Cables (3). The objective of the lesson is to determine the internal resistance of an extension cord and choose the proper wire size for a particular application. Students are given an explanation of the procedure and a number of questions to answer related to the exercise. The Oregon Building Congress offers the Lesson Plans (4) Web site and the downloadable Voltage Drop educational activity. The lesson, which is suggested to be contained within a unit on formulas and solving literal equations, explores the concept of voltage drop that is encountered in basic wiring. The fifth site entitled Explanation of Voltage Drop in a Series Circuit (5) is offered by the Horizons Electronic Lesson Plan Resource. The page describes voltage drop as an electronic concept, gives a formula determining voltage drop, provides a schematic that helps illustrate the concept, and offers a quiz and answer sheet. Next, from electrician.com, is the online Voltage Drop Calculator (6). Users input the type and size of wire being used, the voltage and phase, circuit length, and amp load to calculate voltage drop and several other parameters. The seventh site, entitled The Hazards of Voltage Drop (7), is provided within the Electrical Construction Maintenance Web site. The page describes how electrical equipment can overheat or even power down if it operates below its voltage rating. It also provides a thorough explanation of how to determine the load's operating voltage. The last site, maintained by Williamson Labs (8), is a comprehensive learning site called Elementary Electricity. Visitors will find a wealth of information here, including fun descriptions, graphics, and animations on all aspects of electricity including voltage drop.

19

The effects of response features on failure modes of board level drop impact test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Portable electronic products are getting popular during last decade. One of the most common failures for a mobile device is related to the accidental drop impact during daily usage. In this paper, responses data of PCB were measured during drop impact; loading features are analyzed with response data; actual drop tests were carried out to obtained actual drop failure data;

Y. Liu; F. L. Sun; F. J. H. D. Kessels; W. D. van Driel; G. Q. Zhang

2010-01-01

20

HAZDIG: a new software package for assessing the risks of accidental release of toxic chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

HAZDIG (HAZardous DIspersion of Gases) is a user-friendly PC- based software for generating scenarios for the emissions and gaseous dispersion of hazardous chemicals. It can simulate accidental as well as normal release but has been specifically developed as a tool for studying accidental release of hazardous chemicals and the consequences. HAZDIG is made-up of five main modules—data, release scenario generation,

Faisal I. Khan; S. A. Abbasi

1999-01-01

21

The Accidental Scientist: Cooking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Another great Web site from the Exploratorium in San Francisco (last mentioned in the August 16, 2002 NSDL MET Report), The Accidental Scientist: Cooking is the first in a series of "Web-based projects focusing on the science behind everyday life." Offering a mind-boggling array of food-related information and activities, foodies and science-lovers alike should find this Web site extremely engaging. Life science-related material includes an exploration of taste and smell; the biological properties of meat; microbe action in pickling, fermentation, and leavening; and much more. The site's other features not directly related to the life sciences shouldn't be missed. Users can find recipes and cooking tips, fun projects, and live Web casts starting in November 2002 that explore the science and culture of cooking, "just in time for picking up cooking tips for the holiday season."

1969-12-31

22

Drip Drop  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this water activity, learners explore how water drops behave on different surfaces. Learners will discover several important properties of water by squirting water on various surfaces like wax paper, a dry sponge, their arm, and a mirror. This activity is part of the curriculum Explore Water, related to Peep and the Big Wide World, a preschool science series on public television. The activity starts on page 44 of the PDF.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2005-01-01

23

Parachute Drop  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this hands-on activity, learners make model parachutes out of various materials such as thin plastic, paper, or gauze. Then, learners test drop their parachutes to compare how long each material takes to land on the ground. For an online extension, learners can enter their results into a database and see how their parachutes compares with other learners. Materials listed are only suggestions - experiment to create your own unique parachute!

Science, Lawrence H.

2009-01-01

24

Epidemiology of accidental radiation exposures  

SciTech Connect

Much of the information on the health effects of radiation exposure available to date comes from long-term studies of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Accidental exposures, such as those resulting from the Chernobyl and Kyshtym accidents, have as yet provided little information concerning health effects of ionizing radiation. This paper will present the current state of our knowledge concerning radiation effects, review major large-scale accidental exposures and the types of studies that are needed. 64 refs., 3 tabs.

Cardis, E. [International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon (France)

1996-05-01

25

When are burns not accidental?  

PubMed Central

One hundred and ninety five children aged up to 6 years with burns and scalds (30 non-accidental and 165 accidental) were studied retrospectively. The history, presentation, and other typical injuries assisted the diagnosis of abuse. Scalds accounted for 81% of accidents and 25% of the cases of abuse, and burns for 17% and 44%, respectively. Scalds usually followed spillage from kitchen containers in accidents and forced tap water immersion in cases of abuse. Burns in cases of both accidents and abuse resulted from contact with a wide range of household appliances, including room heaters. Attention is drawn to the back of the hand as an important site in cases of abuse, as well as the legs, buttocks, and feet. It is speculated that the low level of reporting of this form of child abuse reflects failure of diagnosis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4

Hobbs, C J

1986-01-01

26

Accidental intrathecal administration of vincristine.  

PubMed

We describe a case of accidental intrathecal administration of vincristine in a 33-year-old man with clinical diagnosis of acute lymphocytic leukemia. The patient died 20 days after receiving the drug. Clinically, the patient developed acute ascending paralysis with motor and sensory dysfunctions, and respiratory failure. Neuropathological investigation revealed lesions in spinal cord, roots, and cerebellum characterized by rarefaction of the neuropil, axonal, and myelin degeneration, accompanied by macrophagic infiltration. PMID:19935391

D'Addario, Adriana; Galuppo, Juan; Navari, Carlos; Schultz, Marcelo; Cuello, Nélida; Troncoso, Juan C; Riudavets, Miguel Angel

2010-03-01

27

Scenario planning.  

PubMed

In facing future developments in health care, scenario planning offers a complementary approach to traditional strategic planning. Whereas traditional strategic planning typically consists of predicting the future at a single point on a chosen time horizon and mapping the preferred plans to address such a future, scenario planning creates stories about multiple likely potential futures on a given time horizon and maps the preferred plans to address the multiple described potential futures. Each scenario is purposefully different and specifically not a consensus worst-case, average, or best-case forecast; nor is scenario planning a process in probabilistic prediction. Scenario planning focuses on high-impact, uncertain driving forces that in the authors' example affect the field of radiology. Uncertainty is the key concept as these forces are mapped onto axes of uncertainty, the poles of which have opposed effects on radiology. One chosen axis was "market focus," with poles of centralized health care (government control) vs a decentralized private market. Another axis was "radiology's business model," with one pole being a unified, single specialty vs a splintered, disaggregated subspecialty. The third axis was "technology and science," with one pole representing technology enabling to radiology vs technology threatening to radiology. Selected poles of these axes were then combined to create 3 scenarios. One scenario, termed "entrepreneurialism," consisted of a decentralized private market, a disaggregated business model, and threatening technology and science. A second scenario, termed "socialized medicine," had a centralized market focus, a unified specialty business model, and enabling technology and science. A third scenario, termed "freefall," had a centralized market focus, a disaggregated business model, and threatening technology and science. These scenarios provide a range of futures that ultimately allow the identification of defined "signposts" that can suggest which basic features among the "possible futures" are playing out. Scenario planning provides for the implementation of appropriate constructed strategic responses. Scenarios allow for a pre-prepared game plan available for ready use as the future unfolds. They allow a deliberative response rather than a hastily constructed, urgent response. PMID:21371667

Enzmann, Dieter R; Beauchamp, Norman J; Norbash, Alexander

2011-03-01

28

Modeling of solder joint failure due to PCB bending during drop impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliability of IC packages during drop impact is critical for portable electronic products. These packages are susceptible to solder joint failure when induced by mechanical shock and printed circuit board (PCB) bending during impact. Normally, portable products are designed to withstand a few accidental drops without resulting in major mechanical failure. In this study, we use the ABAQUS\\/EXPLICIT finite element

Gu Jie; C. T. Lim; A. A. O. Tay

2004-01-01

29

Effect of Thermal-Hydraulic Feedback on the BWR Rod Drop Accident.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An important design-basis accident for boiling water reactors (BWR's) is the rod drop accident (RDA). This accident is defined to be a rapid reactor transient caused by an accidental drop (out of the core) of the highest-worth control rod at various condi...

H. S. Cheng D. J. Diamond

1979-01-01

30

Numerical simulation of the drop impact response of a portable electronic product  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of portable electronic products like cellular phones and personal digital assistants to withstand accidental impacts and shock is a valuable attribute consumers expect and manufacturers desire. Usually, manufacturers conduct expensive experimental drop tests to determine the fragility of such products during the product design cycle. An alternative to conducting drop tests is to perform numerical simulation. This paper

Chwee-Teck Lim; Y. M. Teo; V. P. W. Shim

2002-01-01

31

Modeling downwind hazards after an accidental release of chlorine trifluoride  

SciTech Connect

A module simulating ClF{sub 3} chemical reactions with water vapor and thermodynamic processes in the atmosphere after an accidental release has been developed. This module was liked to the HGSYSTEM. Initial model runs simulate the rapid formation of HF and ClO{sub 2} after an atmospheric release of ClF{sub 3}. At distances beyond the first several meters from the release point, HF and ClO{sub 2} concentrations pose a greater threat to human health than do ClF{sub 3} concentrations. For most of the simulations, ClF{sub 3} concentrations rapidly fall below the IDLH. Fro releases occurring in ambient conditions with low relative humidity and/or ambient temperature, ClF{sub 3} concentrations exceed the IDLH up to almost 500 m. The performance of this model needs to be determined for potential release scenarios that will be considered. These release scenarios are currently being developed.

Lombardi, D.A.; Cheng, Meng-Dawn

1996-05-01

32

Scenarios and Analytical Methods for UF6 Releases at NRC-Licensed Fuel Cycle Facilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report identifies and discusses potential scenarios for the accidental release of UF6 at NRC-licensed UF6 production and fuel fabrication facilities based on a literature review, site visits, and DOE enrichment plant experience. Calculational methods...

D. D. Holt J. Dykstra M. Siman-Tov R. A. Just W. P. Huxtable

1984-01-01

33

Design for impact of dropped objects  

SciTech Connect

The piperack and wellhead areas of the platforms in the Statfjord field have been designed for protection against accidentally dropped objects. This paper deals specifically with the design effort for the ''B'' and ''C'' platform decks. Results from three series of full scale tests are reported. Drops of 9 1/2 inch drill collars from heights ranging from 8m to 42m were performed on plate thicknesses ranging from 12mm to 47mm. Stiffened, continuously welded plates were selected for the piperack areas and areas surrounding the wellheads, while simply supported loose hatch covers were used directly above each well head. Based on information from the tests, an experimentally correlated design approach has been developed for determining necessary plate thickness for steel decks. In addition some practical recommendations for design of impact resistant deck structures are presented.

Wenger, A.; Edvardsen, G.; Olafsson, S.

1983-05-01

34

Scenario Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This note introduces and describes scenario building, the strategic-thinking approach developed by Pierre Wack and associates at Royal Dutch\\/Shell in the 1970s and helped catapult the company from seventh to second in its industry. The note defines the concept, outlines who should use it and how it links to strategic planning, and illustrates it with models and verbal examples. The

James Clawson; Leslie Grayson

35

Drop Foot Corrective Device.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A drop foot corrective device to alleviate a plurality of difficulties encountered in walking by a victim suffering from a drop foot condition is presented. The invention consists essentially of an apparatus including a legband positionable to girdle the ...

B. C. Deis

1978-01-01

36

5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Accidental death and dismemberment. 870.206 Section 870...Amount of Insurance § 870.206 Accidental death and dismemberment. (a)(1) Accidental death and dismemberment coverage is an...

2013-01-01

37

21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. 1002.20 Section 1002...Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a)...

2013-04-01

38

Studies of Drop/Drop and Drop/Interface Impact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this talk, we will study the impact and coalescence of liquid drops using a physically-based numerical model that allows seamless transitions in interface topologies combined with adaptive mesh refinement. By using a mesh size that is adaptive to the length scales associated to the lubrication pressure generated by interfaces in near contact, we accurately describe the near contact motion and recover the predictions of asymptotic analyses. We compare simulation results to recent experiments performed by Mohamed-Kassim and Longmire. The effects of multiple drops, van der Waal forces and surfactants will also be considered.

Lowengrub, John; Cristini, Vittorio; Kim, Jun-Seok; Zheng, Xiaoming; Mohammed-Kassim, Zulfaa; Longmire, Ellen

2003-11-01

39

Simulations of accidental coal immersion.  

PubMed

Coal is currently becoming an increasingly interesting fossil energy resource and that is the reason why its maritime transport, and hence the risk of collier accidents, increase. In this work, the environmental impact of an accidental coal immersion at sea is studied: the physicochemical effects are estimated using innovative experimental setups--a laboratory seawater canal called "polludrome" is used to evaluate the behaviour of coal particles submitted to a seawater flow, and a specifically designed tub is used to study the physicochemical consequences induced when coal is introduced into continuously renewed seawater. When coal is introduced into seawater, the most easily visible consequences are physical: fine coal particles reduce the daylight penetration up to 100% and move along with the flow, and coal chunks accumulate on the floor. Chemical effects are also measured: humic matters are dissolved from coal into seawater (up to 2 mg L(-1)), but no release of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is evidenced. Some inorganic compounds are dissolved, among which manganese, whose concentrations can reach 1 microg L(-1). Fortunately, the results show that the environmental impact of this type of accident would remain limited. PMID:17964611

Jaffrennou, Cathy; Giamarchi, Philippe; Cabon, Jean-Yves; Stephan, Ludovic; Burel-Deschamps, Laure; Bautin, François; Thomas, Annabelle; Dumont, Julien; Le Floch, Stéphane

2007-10-26

40

Accidental firearm fatalities in North Carolina, 1976-80.  

PubMed

All accidental gunshot fatalities in North Carolina were reviewed for the years 1976-80. There were 210 cases, of which 94 were self-inflicted and 116 were inflicted by others. Young white males predominated as victims, 31 per cent under the age of 15. Sixty-five per cent of the accidents occurred in the home and 18 per cent occurred in rural, "hunting" locations. Forty-one per cent of the cases involved shotguns, 39 per cent involved handguns, and 16 per cent, rifles. Sixteen per cent of the accidents involved children playing with guns and 14 per cent involved dropped or mishandled weapons. During the same period, there were 2,553 suicides and 2,509 homicides by firearm. Gunshot fatalities are an important American public health problem. PMID:3740337

Morrow, P L; Hudson, P

1986-09-01

41

Accidental firearm fatalities in North Carolina, 1976-80.  

PubMed Central

All accidental gunshot fatalities in North Carolina were reviewed for the years 1976-80. There were 210 cases, of which 94 were self-inflicted and 116 were inflicted by others. Young white males predominated as victims, 31 per cent under the age of 15. Sixty-five per cent of the accidents occurred in the home and 18 per cent occurred in rural, "hunting" locations. Forty-one per cent of the cases involved shotguns, 39 per cent involved handguns, and 16 per cent, rifles. Sixteen per cent of the accidents involved children playing with guns and 14 per cent involved dropped or mishandled weapons. During the same period, there were 2,553 suicides and 2,509 homicides by firearm. Gunshot fatalities are an important American public health problem.

Morrow, P L; Hudson, P

1986-01-01

42

Ten Tips to Prevent an Accidental Overdose  

MedlinePLUS

... Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Ten Tips to Prevent an Accidental Overdose Search the Consumer Updates Section Always use the cup, syringe, or ...

43

Accidental Human Infection with 'Plasmodium cynomolgi bastianellii'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A 31-year-old Chinese female technician accidentally acquired Plasmodium cynomolgi bastianellii while working in the laboratory. She developed mild symptoms of sore throat, cough, occasional nightsweats, dizziness and fever. Her spleen was enlarged but th...

J. H. Cross M. Y. Hsu-Kuo J. C. Lien

1973-01-01

44

Drop Out Remediation Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During spring 1991, a study was conducted at San Diego City College (SDCC) in California to explore the various factors which motivate students to drop out, propose remediation strategies based on the research findings, and suggest further studies to identify and analyze problem areas more explicitly. To examine students' reasons for dropping out,…

Geddes, John; Golbetz, Thomas

45

Axisymmetric Liquid Hanging Drops  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The geometry of drops hanging on a circular capillary can be determined by numerically solving a dimensionless differential equation that is independent on any material properties, which enables one to follow the change of the height, surface area, and contact angle of drops hanging on a particular capillary. The results show that the application…

Meister, Erich C.; Latychevskaia, Tatiana Yu

2006-01-01

46

Five drops of blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five drops of blood examines the events leading to one of the most talked about murders in Australian history. The book details the subsequent trial and imprisonment of palmist and spiritualist Andrew Fitzherbet. No motive, exact time of death or murder weapon were presented as evidence - only DNA samples from five drops of blood. The conviction, based soley on

Paul Wilson; Dianne McInnes

2008-01-01

47

Youth Crime Drop. Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report examines the recent drop in violent crime in the United States, discussing how much of the decrease seen between 1995-99 is attributable to juveniles (under age 18 years) and older youth (18-24 years). Analysis of current FBI arrest data indicates that not only did America's violent crime drop continue through 1999, but falling youth…

Butts, Jeffrey A.

48

Evolution Towards Critical Fluctuations in a System of Accidental Pathogens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some time ago a model for accidental pathogens was developed to describe large fluctuations in the epidemiology of some diseases where the pathogen mostly lives with its host as a commensal and only rarely causes disease, leading to a disadvantage of the mutants which cause disease more often. By now the simplest version of this scenario is known as Stollenwerk-Jansen (SJ) model, showing that the critical exponents of the large fluctuations are of the type of the voter model (which by itself has an evolutionary biologists predecessor) but no further attempt was made there to investigate in more detail the mechanism leading the system to evolve towards small pathogenicity. We investigate an extended version of the SJ model, the SJ model version II in which we find the system to evolve to low pathogenicity causing large critical fluctuations without tuning the control parameter, a self-organization of criticality.

Ghaffari, Peyman; Jansen, Vincent; Stollenwerk, Nico

2011-09-01

49

Bursting drops in solid dielectrics caused by high voltages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluid drops tend to be spheres—a shape that minimizes surface energy. In thunderstorm clouds, drops can become unstable and emit thin jets when charged beyond certain limits. The instability of electrified drops in gases and liquids has been widely studied and used in applications including ink-jet printing, electrospinning nanofibers, microfluidics and electrospray ionization. Here we report a different scenario: drops in solids become unstable and burst under sufficiently high electric fields. We find the instability of drops in solids morphologically resembles that in liquids, but the critical electric field for the instability follows a different scaling due to elasticity of solids. Our observations and theoretical models not only advance the fundamental understanding of electrified drops, but also suggest a new failure mechanism of high energy density dielectric polymers, which have diverse applications ranging from capacitors for power grids and electric vehicles to muscle-like transducers for soft robots and energy harvesting.

Wang, Qiming; Suo, Zhigang; Zhao, Xuanhe

2012-10-01

50

Bursting Drops in Solid Dielectrics Caused by High Voltages  

PubMed Central

Drops in fluids tend to be spheres—a shape that minimizes surface energy. In thunderstorm clouds, drops can become unstable and emit thin jets when charged beyond certain limits. The instability of electrified drops in gases and liquids has been widely studied and used in applications including ink-jet printing, electrospinning nano-fibers, microfluidics and electrospray ionization. Here we report a different scenario: drops in solids become unstable and burst under sufficiently high electric fields. We find the instability of drops in solids morphologically resembles that in liquids, but the critical electric field for the instability follows a different scaling due to elasticity of solids. Our observations and theoretical models not only advance the fundamental understanding of electrified drops but also suggest a new failure mechanism of high-energy-density dielectric polymers, which have diverse applications ranging from capacitors for power grids and electric vehicles to muscle-like transducers for soft robots and energy harvesting.

Wang, Qiming; Suo, Zhigang

2013-01-01

51

Accidental inflation in string theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that inflation in type IIB string theory driven by the volume modulus can be realized in the context of the racetrack-based Kallosh-Linde model (KL) of moduli stabilization. Inflation here arises through the volume modulus slow-rolling down from a flat hilltop or inflection point of the scalar potential. This situation can be quite generic in the landscape, where by uplifting one of the two adjacent minima one can turn the barrier either into a flat saddle point or into an inflection point supporting eternal inflation. The resulting spectral index is tunable in the range of 0.93 \\lesssim n_{\\mathrm {s}} \\lesssim 1 , and there is only negligible production of primordial gravitational waves r<10-6. The flatness of the potential in this scenario requires fine-tuning, which may be justified taking into account the exponential reward by volume factors preferring the regions of the universe with the maximal amount of slow-roll inflation. This consideration leads to a tentative prediction of the spectral index ns?0.95 or 0.93, depending on whether the potential has a symmetry \\varphi \\to-\\varphi or not.

Linde, Andrei; Westphal, Alexander

2008-03-01

52

Accidental inflation in string theory  

SciTech Connect

We show that inflation in type IIB string theory driven by the volume modulus can be realized in the context of the racetrack-based Kallosh-Linde model (KL) of moduli stabilization. Inflation here arises through the volume modulus slow-rolling down from a flat hilltop or inflection point of the scalar potential. This situation can be quite generic in the landscape, where by uplifting one of the two adjacent minima one can turn the barrier either into a flat saddle point or into an inflection point supporting eternal inflation. The resulting spectral index is tunable in the range of 0.93{approx}scenario requires fine-tuning, which may be justified taking into account the exponential reward by volume factors preferring the regions of the universe with the maximal amount of slow-roll inflation. This consideration leads to a tentative prediction of the spectral index n{sub s} Almost-Equal-To 0.95 or 0.93, depending on whether the potential has a symmetry {phi}{yields}-{phi} or not.

Linde, Andrei; Westphal, Alexander, E-mail: alinde@stanford.edu, E-mail: awestpha@stanford.edu [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States)

2008-03-15

53

Accidental degeneracies in nonlinear quantum deformed systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We construct a multi-parameter nonlinear deformed algebra for quantum confined systems that includes many other deformed models as particular cases. We demonstrate that such systems exhibit the property of accidental pairwise energy level degeneracies. We also study, as a special case of our multi-parameter deformation formalism, the extension of the Tamm-Dancoff cutoff deformed oscillator and the occurrence of accidental pairwise degeneracy in the energy levels of the deformed system. As an application, we discuss the case of a trigonometric Rosen-Morse potential, which is successfully used in models for quantum confined systems, ranging from electrons in quantum dots to quarks in hadrons.

Aleixo, A. N. F.; Balantekin, A. B.

2011-09-01

54

Paramagnetic Leidenfrost Drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid oxygen drops have two remarkable properties: 1) they undergo Leidenfrost effect on a substrate at room temperature because of their low boiling point (-183,oC): they levitate on a cushion of their own vapor which confers them extreme mobility and thermal insulation ; 2) they are paramagnetic hence subjected to a force in the presence of a magnetic field gradient. --- We study the effect of such a gradient on liquid oxygen drops using rare-earth permanent magnets. By changing the distance between the magnet and the drop, this additional force can be tuned at will between zero and roughly ten times the gravitational force. We define a magneto-capillary length that takes into account the modification of the shape of an oxygen drop in a magnetic field gradient. --- We show that oxygen drops, usually moving on a horizontal substrate with almost no friction, can be stopped and captured by a local magnetic field, if slow enough. For high velocities, the drop is not captured but loses a certain amount of energy while crossing the field. We study this special dissipation occurring in the presence of a magnetic field.

Piroird, Keyvan; Darbois Texier, Baptiste; Clanet, Christophe; Quere, David

2010-11-01

55

Accidental Injury and Young Australian Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Details types and causes of accidental injury to young children. Notes that of the average 5,000 accidents per day nationwide, falls account for the greatest number. Concludes with four cautions: check for hazards in child's environs; think safety at home; lobby and advocate for safer toys, furniture, and equipment; and report defects and…

Juan, Stephen

1995-01-01

56

Noncommercial, accidental water transport (boating) fatalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of non-commercial accidental water transport (boating) fatalities was performed on the case files of the Office of the Medical Examiner of Metropolitan Dade County in Miami, Fla., during the years 1980–1984. A total of 23 cases were collected and analyzed as to the age, race, sex, and the cause of death of the victim along with the blood

Arthur R. Copeland

1986-01-01

57

Drying drops of blood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The drying of a drop of human blood is fascinating by the complexity of the physical mechanisms that occur as well as the beauty of the phenomenon which has never been previously evidenced in the literature. The final stage of full blood evaporation reveals for a healthy person the same regular pattern with a good reproducibility. Other tests on anemia and hyperlipidemic persons were performed and presented different patterns. By means of digital camera, the influence of the motion of red blood cells (RBCs) which represent about 50% of the blood volume, is revealed as well as its consequences on the final stages of drying. The mechanisms which lead to the final pattern of dried blood drops are presented and explained on the basis of fluid and solid mechanics in conjunction with the principles of hematology. Our group is the first to evidence that the specific regular patterns characteristic of a healthy individual do not appear in a dried drop of blood from a person with blood disease. Blood is a complex colloidal suspension for which the flow motion is clearly non-Newtonian. When drops of blood evaporate, all the colloids are carried by the flow motion inside the drop and interact.

Brutin, David; Sobac, Benjamin; Loquet, Boris; Sampol, José.

2010-11-01

58

Self Limiting Features of Accidental Criticality in a Solution System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experience with the SHEBA solution critical assembly during validation testing of accidental criticality alarm detectors provided several insights into the character of potential accidental excursions. Two observations were of particular interest. First, ...

R. E. Malenfant

1988-01-01

59

How do drops evaporate?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of evaporating drops with non-pinned contact line, although seemingly trivial, so far lacks satisfactory theoretical description. In particular, there has been much discussion regarding appropriate evaporative mass flux model. We make an attempt to resolve this issue by comparing our experimental data with the results of several mathematical models for evaporating drops. After describing experimental procedure, we propose several models for mass flux and develop a governing equation for evolution of drop's thickness. Two-dimensional numerical results are then compared to the experimental results, and the most appropriate mass flux model is identified. Finally, we propose the governing equation for the full 3D system and present some new numerical results related to curious phenomena, where so-called ``octopus-shaped'' instabilities appear ahead of the contact line of volatile dropsootnotetextY. Gotkis, I. Ivanov, N. Murisic, L. Kondic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 186101 (2006)..

Murisic, Nebojsa; Kondic, Lou

2007-11-01

60

Impact of granular drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the spreading and splashing of granular drops during impact with a solid target. The granular drops are formed from roughly spherical balls of sand mixed with water, which is used as a binder to hold the ball together during free-fall. We measure the instantaneous spread diameter for different impact speeds and find that the normalized spread diameter d/D grows as (tV/D)1/2. The speeds of the grains ejected during the “splash” are measured and they rarely exceed twice that of the impact speed.

Marston, J. O.; Mansoor, M. M.; Thoroddsen, S. T.

2013-07-01

61

Impact of granular drops.  

PubMed

We investigate the spreading and splashing of granular drops during impact with a solid target. The granular drops are formed from roughly spherical balls of sand mixed with water, which is used as a binder to hold the ball together during free-fall. We measure the instantaneous spread diameter for different impact speeds and find that the normalized spread diameter d/D grows as (tV/D)^{1/2}. The speeds of the grains ejected during the "splash" are measured and they rarely exceed twice that of the impact speed. PMID:23944390

Marston, J O; Mansoor, M M; Thoroddsen, S T

2013-07-15

62

Drum drop test report  

SciTech Connect

Testing was performed to determine actual damage to drums when dropped from higher than currently stacked elevations. The drum configurations were the same as they are placed in storage; single drums and four drums banded to a pallet. Maximum drop weights were selected based on successful preliminary tests. Material was lost from each of the single drum tests while only a small amount of material was lost from one of the pelletized drums. The test results are presented in this report. This report also provides recommendations for further testing to determine the appropriate drum weight which can be stored on a fourth tier.

McBeath, R.S.

1995-02-28

63

Assessment of hazard of chemical accidental releases triggered by floods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, the number of accidents happened, when floods trigger the releases of hazardous materials and following environment contamination. Baia Mare (Romania), Spolana Neratovice (Czech Republic) and hurricane Katrina (USA) are well known examples. The importance of this kind of phenomenon as a type of so called NATECH events is expressed among others in the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC, which reorganises water conservation in Europe. It requires programmes of protection measures to be drawn up not later than 2009, and in sub-article 11 (3) l b) to prevent and/or reduce the impact of accidental pollution incidents, for example as a result of floods. Effective measures demand the assessment of hazard and risk of accidental release triggered by floods and there is a need for the method which can be used for these purposes. Such a method is still missing and this is why the basic method for hazard assessment has been developed. Simple indexes-based method is composed of three segments (natural risks, technological risks and combined risk) and it has flexible, modular structure. First segment estimates the probability of flooding of installation, the second, based on the reference scenarios estimates the possibility of release of chemicals and the third classify consequences. The work on refining of parameters and method continues. Method can be used in prevention of major accidents in the framework of the Council Directive 96/82/EC on the control of major-accident hazards involving dangerous substances (Seveso II directive) and can help to complete the safety studies in classified establishments.

Simonova, M.; Danihelka, P.

2009-04-01

64

Experimental investigations of drops interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work the problem on influence of hydrodynamic instability of surfactant transfer through drops interfaces on interaction of the drops is experimentally investigated. As against the standard models, where the influence of surfactant on drops interaction on "far" distances is caused by interaction of double electric layers on a surface of drops, the " macroscopical hydrodynamic interaction '' is examined. The problem on stability of an emulsion was investigated experimentally in two statements. In the first problem an alcohol containing aniline drop is placed in water. Dissolution of alcohol is accompanied by allocation of heat and an establishment of concentration and temperature fields around the drop. A bit later a radial field of concentration of alcohol is formed around of the drop. The second drop of aniline (without alcohol) is located on some distance from the first drop. This drop gets in the non-uniform field of concentration of alcohol created by the first drop and, as a result, a non-uniform surface tension is arisen along a surface of a drop. Thus the liquid motion in the drop and in environmental liquid is caused by the Marangoni convection. Arising Marangoni stresses will move the drop along a direction connecting the centers of both drops. In the second problem the drop of aniline is located in an alcohol water solution. As well as earlier, water and aniline are in mutually sated condition; influence of gravity on position of a drop also is excluded with the help of Plateau technique. Around of a drop the radial field of alcohol concentration is formed. The second drop is located on some distance from the first one. In this variant the second drop should move from the first drop. The control of drops parameters and supervision was carried out in a plane-parallel beam of light on experimental setup, which was made on the basis of the schliren device. This assembled setup allowed observing the image of a drop and visualizing the concentration fields. The following basic results were received: 1). At addition of surfactant with negative adsorption in the environmental solution, the weighed drops miss. The distance between drops is proportional to their radius and has difficult dependence on surfactant concentration in solution; 2). At the presence in one of the drops the surfactant with negative adsorption the drops coagulate; 3). The possibilities of changing of emulsions stability by addition of surfactant with positive or negative adsorption in environmental solution or a in a drop is proved experimentally.

Reshetnikov, D. G.

65

Abbreviated Scenario Thinking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scenario development is a time- and resource-intensive process, one that not all companies are positioned to undertake at any given point in time. As such, this article will propose an Abbreviated Scenario Thinking process that uses published scenarios from government and industry sources to allow companies to make strategic decisions based on the results. Scenarios are narratives that describe the

Kathleen Wilburn; Ralph Wilburn

2011-01-01

66

Accidental Infection of Laboratory Worker with Vaccinia  

PubMed Central

We report the accidental needlestick inoculation of a laboratory worker with vaccinia virus. Although the patient had previously been vaccinated against smallpox, severe lesions appeared on the fingers. Western blot and polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism were used to analyze the virus recovered from the lesions. The vaccinia virus–specific immunoglobulin G levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our study supports the need for vaccination for laboratory workers that routinely handle orthopoxvirus.

Tuyama, Mari; Kato, Sayuri E.M.; Castro, Ana Paula V.; Njaine, Brian; Peralta, Regina H.; Peralta, M.; Damaso, Clarissa R.A.; Barroso, Paulo F.

2003-01-01

67

Fatal accidental inhalation of bromochlorodifluoromethane (Halon 1211).  

PubMed

Bromochlorodifluoromethane (Halon 1211) is a widely used fire extinguishing agent. Several cases of sudden death in teenagers associated with BCF abuse have been reported. BCF is used as a fire extinguisher in battle tanks. Two young previously healthy male soldiers were accidentally exposed to BCF in a battle tank. The tank driver died, but the gunner survived the event with no medial complications. It is concluded that BCF should be used in confined chambers only after the evacuation of all personnel. PMID:1675103

Lerman, Y; Winkler, E; Tirosh, M S; Danon, Y; Almog, S

1991-03-01

68

Macular pucker following accidental laser burn  

SciTech Connect

A case of an accidental exposure to a high intensity Q-switched infrared laser beam is described. A paramacular burn, splinter hemorrhages on the disc margin, and vitreous hemorrhage were the initial findings. Later, a paramacular pucker developed, causing reduction in visual acuity to 6/12. Microvascular accident on the disc margin is assumed to be the cause of a paracentral scotoma located fairly far from the image area.

Glovinsky, Y.; Regenbogen, L.; Bartov, E.; Blumenthal, M.; Moisseieve, Y.

1982-01-01

69

Accidental exposure to sarin: vision effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two men were accidentally exposed to vapors of sarin, a cholinesterase inhibitor and extremely toxic nerve gas. Diagnosis\\u000a was confirmed by depressed cholinesterase activity, and fixed extremely miotic pupils. No other signs or symptoms developed\\u000a and neither man required treatment. Recovery to normal cholinesterase activity was gradual over a 90-day period. Pupillary\\u000a reflexes were not detectable until 11 days after

Roy H. Rengstorff

1985-01-01

70

Forced Air Speeds Rewarming in Accidental Hypothermia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study objective: To compare the rates of rewarming of forced-air and passive insulation as a treatment for accidental hypothermia. Methods: We carried out a prospective, randomized clinical trial in two urban, university-affiliated emergency departments. Our subjects were 16 adult hypothermia victims with core temperatures less than 32°C. A convective cover inflated with air at about 43°C (forced-air group) or cotton

Mark T Steele; Michael J Nelson; Daniel I Sessler; Lesa Fraker; Brad Bunney; William A Watson; William A Robinson

1996-01-01

71

Digitizing of drop table output  

SciTech Connect

The method for monitoring and analyzing the drop pulses from the MTS1212 drop table system has been upgraded from a labor intensive manual system to an automatic digital system. The pulse from each drop is recorded, analyzed and printed out. The data printed out includes all product information, the drop parameters calculated and a plot of the drop pulse. Some of the advantages of this system, besides the replacement of old and obsolete equipment, include the dropping of the repeatability check requirement, ease of operation, complete automatic documentation of each drop, no need to take Polaroid pictures of a drop nor is it necessary to have a drop film read by the film analysis group. Data comparisons between the old method and the new digital method have been very favorable.

Muncy, K.

1984-01-01

72

Phenomena of liquid drop impact on solid and liquid surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fluid dynamic phenomena of liquid drop impact are described and reviewed. These phenomena include bouncing, spreading and splashing on solid surfaces, and bouncing, coalescence and splashing on liquid surfaces. Further, cavitation and the entrainment of gas into an impacted liquid may be observed. In order to distinguish properly between the results of different experiments different impact scenarios are discussed.

Martin Rein

1993-01-01

73

Example Exposure Scenarios.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Exposure scenarios are a tool to help the assessor develop estimates of exposure, dose, and risk. An exposure scenario generally includes facts, data, assumptions, inferences, and sometimes professional judgment about how the exposure takes place. The hum...

2004-01-01

74

Leidenfrost Drop on a Step  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When deposited on a hot plate, a water droplet evaporates quickly. However, a vapor film appears under the drop above a critical temperature, called Leidenfrost temperature, which insulates the drop from its substrate. Linke & al (2006) reported a spontaneous movement of such a drop, when deposited on a ratchet. We study here the case of a flat substrate decorated with a single micrometric step. The drop is deposited on the lower part of the plate and pushed towards the step at small constant velocity. If the kinetic energy of the drop is sufficient, it can climb up the step. In that case, depending on the substrate temperature, the drop can either be decelerated or accelerated by the step. We try to understand the dynamics of these drops, especially the regime where they accelerate. Taking advantage of this phenomenon, we could then build a multiple-step setup, making it possible for a Leidenfrost drop to climb stairs.

Lagubeau, Guillaume; Le Merrer, Marie; Clanet, Christophe; Quere, David

2008-11-01

75

Extended scenario analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scenario analysis, as proposed by Rockafellar and Wets, is a stochastic programming technique employing discrete scenarios with known probabilities, usually covering several time periods. The requirement of nonaticipativity (not using future information to make present decisions) is enforced during the computational solution by using Spingarn's method of partial inverses. The scenario analysis method as proposed relies on separability (with respect

Stephen M. Robinson

1991-01-01

76

The Undoing of Scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scenarios with dramatic outcomes often evoke counterfactual thinking, mentally undoing that outcome by mutating events in the causal scenario and thereby allowing for the mental simulation of new outcomes. In Experiment 1, we manipulated the order of four events in a scenario. Each of these events could be mutated to alter the outcome, and each event was described as having

Gary L. Wells; Brian R. Taylor; John W. Turtle

1987-01-01

77

Liquid drops impacting superamphiphobic coatings.  

PubMed

The dynamics of liquid drops impacting superamphiphobic coatings is studied by high-speed video microscopy. Superamphiphobic coatings repel water and oils. The coating consists of a fractal-like hydrophobized silica network. Mixtures of ethanol-water and glycerin-water are chosen to investigate the influence of interfacial tension and viscosity on spreading and retraction dynamics. Drop spreading is dominated by inertia. At low impact velocity, the drops completely rebound. However, the contact time increases with impact velocity, whereas the restitution coefficient decreases. We suggest that the drop temporarily impales the superamphiphobic coating, although the drop completely rebounds. From an estimate of the pressure, it can be concluded that impalement is dominated by depinning rather than sagging. With increasing velocity, the drops partially pin, and an increasing amount of liquid remains on the coating. A time-resolved study of the retraction dynamics reveals two well-separated phases: a fast inertia-dominated phase followed by a slow decrease of the contact diameter of the drop. The crossover occurs when the diameter of the retracting drop matches the diameter of the drop before impact. We suggest that the depth of impalement increases with impact velocity, where impalement is confined to the initial impact zone of the drop. If the drop partially pins on the coating, the depth of impalement exceeds a depth, preventing the whole drop from being removed during the retraction phase. PMID:23697383

Deng, Xu; Schellenberger, Frank; Papadopoulos, Periklis; Vollmer, Doris; Butt, Hans-Jürgen

2013-06-12

78

Sudden death following accidental ingestion of chlormequat.  

PubMed

A 59-year-old white male accidentally ingested a mouthful of a plant growth chemical, Cycocel, containing 11.8% of the active ingredient (2-chloroethyl)trimethylammonium chloride (chlormequat). He was seen by a family physician and then transferred to a hospital where he died as a result of ventricular fibrillation, which progressed to asystole. Postingestion symptoms were typical of cholinergic crisis and included salivation, diaphoresis, bradycardia, visual disturbances, and seizure. Autopsy findings showed marked pulmonary edema, coronary atherosclerosis, atheromata of aorta, and localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Toxicological analyses of biological samples showed the presence of chlormequat in the stomach contents and urine. PMID:2395350

Winek, C L; Wahba, W W; Edelstein, J M

79

Controlling charge on levitating drops.  

PubMed

Levitation technologies are used in containerless processing of materials, as microscale manipulators and reactors, and in the study of single drops and particles. Presented here is a method for controlling the amount and polarity of charge on a levitating drop. The method uses single-axis acoustic levitation to trap and levitate a single, initially neutral drop with a diameter between 400 microm and 2 mm. This drop is then charged in a controllable manner using discrete packets of charge in the form of charged drops produced by a piezoelectric drop-on-demand dispenser equipped with a charging electrode. The magnitude of the charge on the dispensed drops can be adjusted by varying the voltage applied to the charging electrode. The polarity of the charge on the added drops can be changed allowing removal of charge from the trapped drop (by neutralization) and polarity reversal. The maximum amount of added charge is limited by repulsion of like charges between the drops in the trap. This charging scheme can aid in micromanipulation and the study of charged drops and particles using levitation. PMID:17580951

Hilger, Ryan T; Westphall, Michael S; Smith, Lloyd M

2007-06-20

80

Scenario management and automated scenario generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The military planning process utilizes simulation to determine the appropriate course of action (COA) that will achieve a campaign end state. However, due to the difficulty in developing and generating simulation level COAs, only a few COAs are simulated. This may have been appropriate for traditional conflicts but the evolution of warfare from attrition based to effects based strategies, as well as the complexities of 4th generation warfare and asymmetric adversaries have placed additional demands on military planners and simulation. To keep pace with this dynamic, changing environment, planners must be able to perform continuous, multiple, "what-if" COA analysis. Scenario management and generation are critical elements to achieving this goal. An effects based scenario generation research project demonstrated the feasibility of automated scenario generation techniques which support multiple stove-pipe and emerging broad scope simulations. This paper will discuss a case study in which the scenario generation capability was employed to support COA simulations to identify plan effectiveness. The study demonstrated the effectiveness of using multiple simulation runs to evaluate the effectiveness of alternate COAs in achieving the overall campaign (metrics-based) objectives. The paper will discuss how scenario generation technology can be employed to allow military commanders and mission planning staff to understand the impact of command decisions on the battlespace of tomorrow.

McKeever, William; Gilmour, Duane; Lehman, Lynn; Stirtzinger, Anthony; Krause, Lee

2006-06-01

81

Looking Under a Leidenfrost Drop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Leidenfrost effect can be observed when small water drops move around effortlessly without sticking on a hot pan. The transition to a levitated state, where the drops rest on an insulating layer of vapor, occurs at the Leidenfrost temperature. Experiment [1] and theory [2] have examined the lifetime and maximum size of Leidenfrost drops. However, the liquid-vapor interface beneath the drop has not been fully charcterized. We report experiments using laser-light interference to measure the geometry of the liquid-vapor interface. By imaging the interference fringes produced between the bottom surface of the liquid and the hot substrate, we can measure the curvature of the vapor pocket beneath the drop as well as the azimuthal undulations along the neck that sits closest to the surface. From these measurements, we can extrapolate the shape of the bottom of the drop, which fluctuates in time with a period of a few milliseconds for millimeter-sized water drops. Our measurements of the azimuthal neck radius agree with predictions [2]: the difference between the drop and neck radii, (Rd-Rn) 0.53? in the limit of large drops where ? is the capillary length of the fluid. For small drops we recover the result found in [1] that RnRd^2/?. [1] A. Biance, C. Clanet, D. Quere, Phys. Fluids 15, 1632 (2003). [2] J. H. Snoeijer, P. Brunet, J. Eggers, Phys. Rev. E 79, 036307 (2009).

Burton, Justin; Sharpe, Aaron; van der Veen, Roeland; Franco, Andres; Nagel, Sidney

2011-11-01

82

EID Scenario I  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version“Exercise Only” Emerging Infection Scenario, Afternoon Session. FDA Workshop. ... “Exercise Only” Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Outbreak. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/newsevents

83

Experiences of Causing an Accidental Death: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Accidentally killing or feeling responsible for another person's death constitutes an event that is different from many typical traumatic stressors in that the responsibility for causing the trauma is located in the person themselves, rather than another person or persons. Research exploring the perspective of those who have accidentally caused a…

Rassool, Sara B.; Nel, Pieter W.

2012-01-01

84

CONTROL AND MITIGATION SYSTEMS FOR ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF TOXIC CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses control and mitigation systems for accidental releases of toxic chemicals. A review of the control/mitigation system data base developed during an EPA study reveals that the major control measure employed by industry for accidental releases is routine process ...

85

Control and mitigation systems for accidental releases of toxic chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses control and mitigation systems for accidental releases of toxic chemicals. A review of the control\\/mitigation system data base developed during an EPA study reveals that the major control measure employed by industry for accidental releases is routine process inspections. For control devices, flares and scrubbers were found to be the control systems of choice for handling such

E. R. Krishnan; P. W. Utrecht; J. C. Bare

1988-01-01

86

Circumstances of Accidental Poisoning in Childhood  

PubMed Central

Of 377 children with accidental poisoning, the commonest ages were 1, 2, and 3. The most important contributory factor was that the poison was kept in an inappropriate place. Most containers were closed, but the children found them easy to open. In some cases the container itself was unsuitable for the contents. The frequency of poisoning in childhood might be reduced in six main ways: (1) a reduction in the quantity of drugs kept in the home; (2) the provision of drug cupboards; (3) the provision of containers that are difficult for children to open, or individually foil-wrapping tablets; (4) making tablets less attractive to children; (5) clear identification of potential poisons; and (6) increasing parental awareness of the circumstances under which poisoning occurs. A plea is made for further sociomedical research into the prevention of poisoning.

Jackson, R. H.; Walker, J. H.; Wynne, N. A.

1968-01-01

87

Texas Energy Scenarios.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents four scenarios of the future of energy in the state of Texas. The first case is a Baseline Scenario which projects the future as it might have appeared during the relatively stable period from 1967 to 1970. This is then compared with ...

R. D. Finch H. Hahn

1975-01-01

88

Mars Base Buildup Scenarios.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two Mars surface based build-up scenarios are presented in order to help visualize the mission and to serve as a basis for trade studies. In the first scenario, direct manned landings on the Martian surface occur early in the missions and scientific inves...

J. D. Blacic

1986-01-01

89

How Many Drops?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson and its associated activity, students conduct a simple test to determine how many drops of each of three liquids can be placed on a penny before spilling over. The three liquids are water, rubbing alcohol, and vegetable oil; because of their different surface tensions, more water can be piled on top of a penny than either of the other two liquids. However, this is not the main point of the activity. Instead, students are asked to come up with an explanation for their observations about the different amounts of liquids a penny can hold. In other words, they are asked to make hypotheses that explain their observations, and because middle school students are not likely to have prior knowledge of the property of surface tension, their hypotheses are not likely to include this idea. Then they are asked to come up with ways to test their hypotheses, although they do not need to actually test their hypotheses. The important points for students to realize are that 1) the tests they devise must fit their hypotheses, and 2) the hypotheses they come up with must be testable in order to be useful.

Engineering K-Ph.d. Program

90

Apfel's superheated drop detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The introduction of new approaches for radiation dosimetry is rare. A similar breakthrough occurred in 1979, when Robert Apfel invented the superheated drop detector, a miniature relative of the bubble chamber. A fundamental in high-energy particle physics, the bubble chamber utilizes a liquid briefly brought to a transient, radiation-sensitive superheated state by reducing its pressure. Mass boiling of the liquid is prevented by cyclic pressurization, drastically limiting the detection efficiency. In Apfel's detector, the liquid is kept in a steady superheated state by fractionating it into droplets and dispersing them in an immiscible host fluid, a perfectly smooth and clean container. The approach extends the lifetime of the metastable droplets to the point that practical application in radiation dosimetry is possible. Bubble formation is measured from the volume of vapor or by detecting individual vaporizations acoustically. Various halocarbons are employed and this permits a wide range of applications. Moderately superheated halocarbons are used for neutron measurements, since they are only nucleated by energetic neutron recoil particles. Highly superheated halocarbons nucleate with much smaller energy deposition and are used to detect photons and electrons. This paper reviews the radiation physics of superheated emulsions and their manifold applications.

D'Errico, Francesco

2001-05-01

91

Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - Sensitivity study and optimization of the meteorological input  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several air dispersion models are available for prediction and simulation of the hazard areas associated with accidental releases of toxic gases. The most model packages (commercial or free of charge) include a chemical database, an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI) and automated graphical output for effective presentation of results. The models are designed especially for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios"), preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management. Uncertainties in the meteorological input together with incorrect estimates of the source play a critical role for the model results. The research project RETOMOD (reference scenarios calculations for toxic gas releases - model systems and their utility for the fire brigade) was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in cooperation with the Vienna fire brigade, OMV Refining & Marketing GmbH and Synex Ries & Greßlehner GmbH. RETOMOD was funded by the KIRAS safety research program at the Austrian Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology (www.kiras.at). The main tasks of this project were 1. Sensitivity study and optimization of the meteorological input for modeling of the hazard areas (human exposure) during the accidental toxic releases. 2. Comparison of several model packages (based on reference scenarios) in order to estimate the utility for the fire brigades. This presentation gives a short introduction to the project and presents the results of task 1 (meteorological input). The results of task 2 are presented by Stenzel and Baumann-Stanzer in this session. For the aim of this project, the observation-based analysis and forecasting system INCA, developed in the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) was used. INCA (Integrated Nowcasting through Comprehensive Analysis) data were calculated with 1 km horizontal resolution and based on the weather forecast model ALADIN. The meteorological field's analysis with INCA include: Temperature, Humidity, Wind, Precipitation and Cloudiness. In the frame of the project INCA data were compared with measurements conducted at traffic-near sites. INCA analysis and very short term forecast fields (up to 6 hours) are found to be an advanced possibility to provide on-line meteorological input for the model package used by the fire brigade. Nevertheless a high degree of caution in the interpretation of the model results is required - especially in the case of very slow wind speeds, very stable atmospheric condition, and flow deflection by buildings in the urban area or by complex topography.

Baumann-Stanzer, K.; Stenzel, S.

2009-04-01

92

40-wavelength add drop filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present in 40-wavelength, 100-GHz channel spacing, programmable, planar add-drop filter that has flattened passbands without excess loss. For TE polarized light, the insertion loss is 9-11 dB for the through channels, and the dropping extinction ratio is ⩾33 dB

C. R. Doerr; L. W. Stulz; M. Cappuzzo; E. Laskowski; A. Paunescu; L. Gomez; J. V. Gates; S. Shunk; A. E. White

1999-01-01

93

Gas Pressure-Drop Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Most chemical engineering undergraduate laboratories have fluid mechanics experiments in which pressure drops through pipes are measured over a range of Reynolds numbers. The standard fluid is liquid water, which is essentially incompressible. Since density is constant, pressure drop does not depend on the pressure in the pipe. In addition, flow…

Luyben, William L.; Tuzla, Kemal

2010-01-01

94

Mars base buildup scenarios  

SciTech Connect

Two surface base build-up scenarios are presented in order to help visualize the mission and to serve as a basis for trade studies. In the first scenario, direct manned landings on the Martian surface occur early in the missions and scientific investigation is the main driver and rationale. In the second scenario, early development of an infrastructure to exploite the volatile resources of the Martian moons for economic purposes is emphasized. Scientific exploration of the surface is delayed at first, but once begun develops rapidly aided by the presence of a permanently manned orbital station.

Blacic, J.D.

1985-01-01

95

Dynamic response of a one-degree-of-freedom linear system to a shock load during drop tests: Effect of viscous damping  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of viscous damping on the maximum displacement (“stopping distance”) and the maximum acceleration (deceleration) of a one-degree-of-freedom linear system subjected to a shock load during accidental drop or drop tests is evaluated in application to packaging of electronic products. We show that the dynamic response of such a system depends on the magnitude of the parameter ?=R\\/2?(KM), where

E. Suhir

1996-01-01

96

Quick management of accidental tritium exposure cases.  

PubMed

Removal half-life (RHL) of tritium is one of the best means for optimising medical treatment, reduction of committed effective dose (CED) and quick/easy handling of a large group of workers for medical treatment reference. The removal of tritium from the body depends on age, temperature, relative humidity and daily rainfall; so tritium removal rate, its follow-up and proper data analysis and recording are the best techniques for management of accidental acute tritium exposed cases. The decision of referring for medical treatment or medical intervention (MI) would be based on workers' tritium RHL history taken from their bodies at the facilities. The workers with tritium intake up to 1 ALI shall not be considered for medical treatment as it is a derived limit of annual total effective dose. The short-term MI may be considered for tritium intake of 1-10 ALI; however, if the results show intake ?100 ALI, extended strong medical/therapeutic intervention may be recommended based on the severity of exposure for maximum CED reduction requirements and annual total effective dose limit. The methodology is very useful for pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs) which are mainly operated by Canada and India and future fusion reactor technologies. Proper management will optimise the cases for medical treatment and enhance public acceptance of nuclear fission and fusion reactor technologies. PMID:22349318

Singh, Vishwanath P; Badiger, N M; Managanvi, S S; Bhat, H R

2012-02-20

97

[Psychological aspects of accidental poisoning in children].  

PubMed

The following points stand out from a semi-open questionnaire which was sent to the parents of 28 children hospitalized for accidental intoxication. Intoxications often occur in children who are hyperactive, curious, rebellious and have strong affective needs. Parents find it very difficult to set bans and limitations to their children, whose behaviour seems to be actively calling out for such restrictions. These children frequently put themselves in a situation of self-aggression, which shows the parents' inability to teach them to develop a vital self protective attitude from life's daily experience. Most often, the child is aware of transgressing a ban and in a few cases, intoxication seems to be a deliberate act on his part. It generally occurs when stress has been building up in the family, thus threatening the balance of the family. If it happens in a family where relationships are already deeply disturbed, it must be considered as a signal of alarm. It is then necessary to suggest that the family should undergo a psychotherapeutic course to help them to put an end to the deadly process in which they are involved. PMID:3448592

Trabach-Valadier, C; Floret, D

1987-01-01

98

Extension of drop experiments with the MIKROBA balloon drop facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The German balloon drop facility MIKROBA extends the worldwide available drop experiment opportunities to the presently highest usable experimentation time span of 55 s at microgravity conditions better than 0.001 g. The microgravity period is started with the typical quasi-deal step function from 1 to 0 g. MIKROBA allows flexible experiment design, short access time, and easy hands-on payload integration. The transport to the operational height is realized by soft energies and technologies compatible with the earth's environment. Balloon campaigns are not restricted to a certain test range, i.e., several suitable sites are available all over the world. MIKROBA combines negligible mechanical loads at the mission start, typical of all drop facilities, with extremely low drop deceleration loads (less than g), due to the implemented three-stage parachute and airbag recovery subsystem.

Sommer, K.; Kretzschmar, K.; Dorn, C.

1992-12-01

99

Automated scenario generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper will discuss automated scenario generation (Sgen) techniques to support the development of simulation scenarios. Current techniques for scenario generation are extremely labor intensive, often requiring manual adjustments to data from numerous sources to support increasingly complex simulations. Due to time constraints this process often prevents the simulation of a large numbers of data sets and the preferred level of "what if analysis". The simulation demands of future mission planning approaches, like Effects Based Operations (EBO), require the rapid development of simulation inputs and multiple simulation runs for those approaches to be effective. This paper will discuss an innovative approach to the automated creation of complete scenarios for mission planning simulation. We will discuss the results of our successful Phase I SBIR effort that validated our approach to scenario generation and refined how scenario generation technology can be directly applied to the types of problems facing EBO and mission planning. The current stovepipe architecture marries a scenario creation capability with each of the simulation tools. The EBO-Scenario generation toolset breaks that connection through an approach centered on a robust data model and the ability to tie mission-planning tools and data resources directly to an open Course Of Action (COA) analysis framework supporting a number of simulation tools. In this approach data sources are accessed through XML tools, proprietary DB structures or legacy tools using SQL and stored as an instance of Sgen Meta Data. The Sgen Meta Data can be mapped to a wide range of simulation tools using a Meta Data to simulation tools mapping editor that generates an XSLT template describing the required data translation. Once the mapping is created, Sgen will automatically convert the Meta Data instance, using XSLT, to the formats required by specific simulation tools. The research results presented in this paper will show how the complex demands of mission planning can be met with current simulation tools and technology.

Koziarz, Walter A.; Krause, Lee S.; Lehman, Lynn A.

2003-09-01

100

Strategic learning with scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the oil shocks upset the business world in the 1970s, the use of multiple scenario analysis has been increasingly propagated as an approach to deal effectively with the many long-run uncertainties that surround business organisations. Since its introduction, the scenario approach has undergone some considerable changes and it is now claimed fulfils a diverse range of functions. Newly-added functions

Theo Postma

1997-01-01

101

Drop-on-demand drop formation of polyethylene oxide solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of drop-on-demand (DOD) drop formation for solutions containing polyethylene oxide (PEO) have been studied experimentally. Using a piezoelectrical actuated inkjet printhead with the nozzle orifice diameter of 53 ?m, experiments were conducted for a series of PEO aqueous solutions with molecular weights ranging from 14 to 1000 kg/mol, polydispersity from 1.02 to 2.5, and concentrations from 0.005 to 10 wt. %. The addition of a small amount of PEO can have a significant effect on the DOD drop formation process, increasing breakup time, decreasing primary drop speed, and decreasing the number of satellite drops in some cases. The effects depend on both molecular weight and concentration. At lower molecular weights (14 and 35 kg/mol), the effect of PEO over the dilute solution regime is insignificant even at concentrations large enough that the solution does not fall in the dilute regime. As PEO molecular weight increased, the effects became significant. For monodispersed PEO solutions, breakup time and primary drop speed closely correlated with effective relaxation time but not for polydispersed PEO. Effective relaxation time depended greatly on molecular weight distribution. Viscosity-average molecular weight, used in calculating effective relaxation time for polydispersed PEO solutions, did not adequately account for high molecular fractions in the molecular weight distribution of the polydispersed PEOs. A mixture rule was developed to calculate the effective relaxation times for aqueous solutions containing mixtures of monodispersed PEO, and breakup times and primary drop speeds correlated well with effective relaxation times. For our experiments, DOD drop formation was limited to Deborah number <~ 23.

Yan, Xuejia; Carr, Wallace W.; Dong, Hongming

2011-10-01

102

Extension of drop experiments with the MIKROBA balloon drop facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The German balloon drop facility MIKROBA extends the worldwide available drop experiment opportunities to the presently highest usable experimentation time span of 55 s at microgravity conditions better than 0.001 g. The microgravity period is started with the typical quasi-deal step function from 1 to 0 g. MIKROBA allows flexible experiment design, short access time, and easy hands-on payload integration.

K. Sommer; K. Kretzschmar; C. Dorn

1992-01-01

103

Statistical discrimination of footwear: a method for the comparison of accidentals on shoe outsoles inspired by facial recognition techniques.  

PubMed

In the field of forensic footwear examination, it is a widely held belief that patterns of accidental marks found on footwear and footwear impressions possess a high degree of "uniqueness." This belief, however, has not been thoroughly studied in a numerical way using controlled experiments. As a result, this form of valuable physical evidence has been the subject of admissibility challenges. In this study, we apply statistical techniques used in facial pattern recognition, to a minimal set of information gleaned from accidental patterns. That is, in order to maximize the amount of potential similarity between patterns, we only use the coordinate locations of accidental marks (on the top portion of a footwear impression) to characterize the entire pattern. This allows us to numerically gauge how similar two patterns are to one another in a worst-case scenario, i.e., in the absence of a tremendous amount of information normally available to the footwear examiner such as accidental mark size and shape. The patterns were recorded from the top portion of the shoe soles (i.e., not the heel) of five shoe pairs. All shoes were the same make and model and all were worn by the same person for a period of 30 days. We found that in 20-30 dimensional principal component (PC) space (99.5% variance retained), patterns from the same shoe, even at different points in time, tended to cluster closer to each other than patterns from different shoes. Correct shoe identification rates using maximum likelihood linear classification analysis and the hold-one-out procedure ranged from 81% to 100%. Although low in variance, three-dimensional PC plots were made and generally corroborated the findings in the much higher dimensional PC-space. This study is intended to be a starting point for future research to build statistical models on the formation and evolution of accidental patterns. PMID:19895540

Petraco, Nicholas D K; Gambino, Carol; Kubic, Thomas A; Olivio, Dayhana; Petraco, Nicholas

2009-11-05

104

Free Fall Breakup of Large Drops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The breakup of large water drops during free fall is of importance to meteorologists. Theories of precipitation lean heavily on drop multiplication resulting from the shattering of large drops. An experiment is described in which the actual breakup of large drops is observed, and data obtained from which the mechanism of break may be inferred. Drops in the various stages

R. H. Magarvey; B. W. Taylor

1956-01-01

105

Accidental transection of flexometallic endotracheal tube during partial maxillectomy  

PubMed Central

We report a rare case of an 18-year-old female patient in whom accidental sectioning of flexometallic endotracheal tube occurred during partial maxillectomy for mass lesion under general anaesthesia. She was managed successfully by tracheostomy.

Ladi, Sushma D; Aphale, Shubhada

2011-01-01

106

Accidental transection of flexometallic endotracheal tube during partial maxillectomy.  

PubMed

We report a rare case of an 18-year-old female patient in whom accidental sectioning of flexometallic endotracheal tube occurred during partial maxillectomy for mass lesion under general anaesthesia. She was managed successfully by tracheostomy. PMID:21808404

Ladi, Sushma D; Aphale, Shubhada

2011-05-01

107

10 CFR 70.52 - Reports of accidental criticality.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear Material Control, Records, Reports and Inspections § 70.52 Reports of accidental criticality. (a)...

2013-01-01

108

Imitation of Intentional and Accidental Actions by Children with Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine whether children with autism (CWA) would selectively imitate intentional, as opposed to accidental actions, an\\u000a experimenter demonstrated either an “intentional” and an “accidental” action or two “intentional” actions on the same toy\\u000a [Carpenter, Akhtar, & Tomasello (1998a) Infant Behavior and Development, 21, 315–330]. CWA tended to imitate the experimenter exactly. Children with developmental delay and older typically developing

Barbara D’Entremont; Aimée Yazbek

2007-01-01

109

Infrasonic signals from an accidental chemical explosion  

SciTech Connect

A series of large accidental explosions occurred at a chemical plant in Henderson, Nevada on May 4, 1988. The explosions were produced by the ignition of stores of ammonium perchlorate produced for solid rocket fuel at the Pacific Engineering and Production Co. This material, prior to the incident, had been believed to be non- explosive. The blasts destroyed the plant and caused one death. There was a series of explosions over a period of time with two major explosions which we will identify as A at 18:53:34 (all times herein will be given in C.U.T.) and B at 18:57:35. Signals from events A and B as well as smaller events were detected by the infrasound arrays operated by the Los Alamos National Laboratory at St. George, Utah (distance 159 km) and at Los Alamos, N.M. (distance 774 km). The Henderson explosions present an interesting and challenging set of infrasound observations. The case may be unique in providing two very large sources separated in time by only four minutes. To fully understand the propagation details will require further analysis and probably a modeling effort. The understanding of the St. George signals in the context of Lamb waves would be valuable for a better understanding of this mode of propagation. The improved understanding of long range infrasonic propagation is now especially important in the context of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). A portion of the plan for CTBT monitoring includes a global distribution of sixty infrasound arrays to provide for the monitoring of signals in as uniform a way as possible. It is expected that under this global network many signals and interpretation questions of the type described here will be encountered. Investigations of propagation over the ranges of hundreds to thousands of kilometers will be highly desired.

Mutschlecner, J.P.; Whitaker, R.W.

1996-12-31

110

49 CFR 178.603 - Drop test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...non-resilient, flat and horizontal surface. (e) Drop height. Drop heights, measured as the vertical distance from the target...package, must be equal to or greater than the drop height determined as follows: (1) For solids and...

2011-10-01

111

49 CFR 178.603 - Drop test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...non-resilient, flat and horizontal surface. (e) Drop height. Drop heights, measured as the vertical distance from the target...package, must be equal to or greater than the drop height determined as follows: (1) For solids and...

2012-10-01

112

Scenarios and strategies: making the scenario about the business  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scenario development has traditionally been an outward looking process designed to enhance awareness of potential change in the external business environment. A set of techniques is presented here for bringing the business and its internal issues directly into the scenario development effort from the beginning. By casting strategies as scenarios, companies can gain many of the benefits of traditional scenario

David H. Mason; James Herman

2003-01-01

113

A screening tool to prioritize public health risk associated with accidental or deliberate release of chemicals into the atmosphere  

PubMed Central

The Chemical Events Working Group of the Global Health Security Initiative has developed a flexible screening tool for chemicals that present a risk when accidentally or deliberately released into the atmosphere. The tool is generic, semi-quantitative, independent of site, situation and scenario, encompasses all chemical hazards (toxicity, flammability and reactivity), and can be easily and quickly implemented by non-subject matter experts using freely available, authoritative information. Public health practitioners and planners can use the screening tool to assist them in directing their activities in each of the five stages of the disaster management cycle.

2013-01-01

114

A screening tool to prioritize public health risk associated with accidental or deliberate release of chemicals into the atmosphere.  

PubMed

The Chemical Events Working Group of the Global Health Security Initiative has developed a flexible screening tool for chemicals that present a risk when accidentally or deliberately released into the atmosphere. The tool is generic, semi-quantitative, independent of site, situation and scenario, encompasses all chemical hazards (toxicity, flammability and reactivity), and can be easily and quickly implemented by non-subject matter experts using freely available, authoritative information. Public health practitioners and planners can use the screening tool to assist them in directing their activities in each of the five stages of the disaster management cycle. PMID:23517410

Blakey, David H; Lafontaine, Marc; Lavigne, Jocelyn; Sokolowski, Danny; Philippe, Jean-Marc; Sapori, Jean-Marc; Biederbick, Walter; Horre, Regine; Marzi, Willi B; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Kuroki, Yumiko; Namera, Akira; Okumura, Tetsu; Yamamoto, Miyako; Yashiki, Mikio; Blain, Peter G; Russell, David R; Cibulsky, Susan M; Jett, David A

2013-03-21

115

IPCC SCENARIO DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

This Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has made available a consistent set of up-to-date scenarios of changes in climate and related environmental and socio-economic factors for use in climate impacts assessments. This is a link to this data through the Data Distr...

116

Light Gluino Scenario.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We investigate in detail the consequences of the supersymmetry scenario with a light (proportional 5 GeV) gluino and heavy (proportional 100 GeV) squarks, including gluino distribution and fragmentation effects, proposed to explain large missing psub(T) e...

V. Barger S. Jacobs J. Woodside K. Hagiwara

1985-01-01

117

Characterization of maritime scenarios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meteorological modules were developed to describe characteristic maritime scenarios in various oceanic areas for DREV complimentarity studies of shipboard defense. The best means of depicting the maritime atmospheric environment was found to be on the basis of air mass analysis. A methodology was developed whereby, through a mixture of man-machine objective analysis of upper air radiosonde measurements at the 850, 700, and 500 mb levels, typical airmasses could be identified. Characteristic scenarios were then defined based on physical considerations of air mass theory. Utilizing an extensive 10-year set of worldwide radiosonde, ozondesonde, and surface observations collected from a combination of land-based stations, oceanographic buoys, and weather ships, frequency and correlation statistics of various global and derived meteorological and oceanographic parameters were established for the CANLANT, NORLANT, WESTLANT, EASTLANT, IBERLANT, MARPAC regions, the ARCTIC OCEAN to 85 degree(s)N, the BALTIC SEA, MEDITERRANEAN SEA, PERSIAN GULF, RED SEA, GULF OF OMAN, and the INDIAN OCEAN. These descriptions included atmospheric profiles of pressure, temperature, dewpoint and relative humidity, wind speeds and direction, refractivity index, and ozone concentration from the surface to approximately 20 km., as well as associated surface visibility, clouds and weather, sea state, and duct height conditions. Many of the derived parameters were found to be a strong function of the defining airmass scenarios. The spatial distribution of these scenarios was also determined.

Low, Tom B.; Hudak, D. R.

1992-09-01

118

Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - Comparison of the models and their utility for the fire brigades.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - Comparison of the models and their utility for the fire brigades. Sirma Stenzel, Kathrin Baumann-Stanzer In the case of accidental release of hazardous gases in the atmosphere, the emergency responders need a reliable and fast tool to assess the possible consequences and apply the optimal countermeasures. For hazard prediction and simulation of the hazard zones a number of air dispersion models are available. The most model packages (commercial or free of charge) include a chemical database, an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI) and automated graphical output for display the results, they are easy to use and can operate fast and effective during stress situations. The models are designed especially for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios"), preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management. There are also possibilities for model direct coupling to automatic meteorological stations, in order to avoid uncertainties in the model output due to insufficient or incorrect meteorological data. Another key problem in coping with accidental toxic release is the relative width spectrum of regulations and values, like IDLH, ERPG, AEGL, MAK etc. and the different criteria for their application. Since the particulate emergency responders and organizations require for their purposes unequal regulations and values, it is quite difficult to predict the individual hazard areas. There are a quite number of research studies and investigations coping with the problem, anyway the end decision is up to the authorities. The research project RETOMOD (reference scenarios calculations for toxic gas releases - model systems and their utility for the fire brigade) was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in cooperation with the Vienna fire brigade, OMV Refining & Marketing GmbH and Synex Ries & Greßlehner GmbH. RETOMOD was funded by the KIRAS safety research program at the Austrian Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology (www.kiras.at). One of the main tasks of this project was 1. Sensitivity study and optimization of the meteorological input for modeling of the hazard areas (human exposure) during the accidental toxic releases. 2. Comparison of several model packages (based on reference scenarios) in order to estimate the utility for the fire brigades. This presentation introduces the project models used and presents the results of task 2. The results of task 1 are presented by Baumann-Stanzer and Stenzel in this session. For the purpose of this study the following models were tested and compared: ALOHA (Areal Location of Hazardous atmosphere, EPA), MEMPLEX (Keudel av-Technik GmbH), Breeze (Trinity Consulting), SAFER System, SAM (Engineering office Lohmeyer), COMPAS. A set of reference scenarios for Chlorine, Ammoniac, Butane and Petrol were proceed in order to reliably predict and estimate the human exposure during the event. The models simulated the accidental release from the mentioned above gases and estimates the potential toxic areas. Since the inputs requirement differ from model to model, and the outputs are based on different criteria for toxic areas and exposure, a high degree of caution in the interpretation of the model results is needed.

Stenzel, S.; Baumann-Stanzer, K.

2009-04-01

119

BOARD LEVEL DROP TESTS COMPARING LEAD-FREE AND EUTECTIC SOLDER INTERCONNECTS ON A BGA PACKAGE FOR MOBILE ICT APPLICATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is considerable reported evidence that a large percentage of failures which afflict portable electronic products are due to impact or shock during use. Failures of the external housing, internal electronic components, package-to-board interconnects, and liquid crystal display panels may occur as the result of accidental drops. Moreover, the introduction of lead-free solder to the electronics industry will bring additional

Greg M. Heaslip; Jeff M. Punch; Bryan A. Rodgers; Claire Ryan

120

Isoelectric Focusing in a Drop  

PubMed Central

A novel approach to molecular separations is investigated using a technique termed droplet-based isoelectric focusing. Drops are manipulated discretely on a superhydrophobic surface, subjected to low voltages for isoelectric focusing, and split—resulting in a preparative separation. A universal indicator dye demonstrates the generation of stable, reversible pH gradients (3–10) in ampholyte buffers and these gradients lead to protein focusing within the drop length. Focusing was visually characterized, spectroscopically verified, and assessed quantitatively by non-invasive light scattering measurements. It was found to correlate with a quantitative model based on 1D steady state theory. This work illustrates that molecular separations can be deployed within a single open drop and the differential fractions can be separated into new discrete liquid elements.

Weiss, Noah G.; Hayes, Mark A.; Garcia, Antonio A.; Ansari, Rafat R.

2010-01-01

121

Drop size measurements in Venturi scrubbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Venturi scrubbers are high efficiency gas cleaners in which suspended particles are removed from gas streams by drops formed by liquid atomisation, usually in the Venturi throat. The size of the drops formed are of fundamental importance to the performance of the equipment, both in terms of pressure drop and dust removal efficiency. In this study, drop sizes in a

D Fernández Alonso; J. A. S Gonçalves; B. J Azzopardi; J. R Coury

2001-01-01

122

Analytical Evaluation of Preliminary Drop Tests Performed to Develop a Robust Design for the Standardized DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel Canister  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a design concept for a set of standard canisters for the handling, interim storage, transportation, and disposal in the national repository, of DOE spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The standardized DOE SNF canister has to be capable of handling virtually all of the DOE SNF in a variety of potential storage and transportation systems. It must also be acceptable to the repository, based on current and anticipated future requirements. This expected usage mandates a robust design. The canister design has four unique geometries, with lengths of approximately 10 feet or 15 feet, and an outside nominal diameter of 18 inches or 24 inches. The canister has been developed to withstand a drop from 30 feet onto a rigid (flat) surface, sustaining only minor damage - but no rupture - to the pressure (containment) boundary. The majority of the end drop-induced damage is confined to the skirt and lifting/stiffening ring components, which can be removed if de sired after an accidental drop. A canister, with its skirt and stiffening ring removed after an accidental drop, can continue to be used in service with appropriate operational steps being taken. Features of the design concept have been proven through drop testing and finite element analyses of smaller test specimens. Finite element analyses also validated the canister design for drops onto a rigid (flat) surface for a variety of canister orientations at impact, from vertical to 45 degrees off vertical. Actual 30-foot drop testing has also been performed to verify the final design, though limited to just two full-scale test canister drops. In each case, the analytical models accurately predicted the canister response.

A.G. Ware; D.K. Morton; N.L. Smith; S.D. Snow; T.E. Rahl

1999-08-01

123

Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - utility for the fire brigades.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several air dispersion models are available for prediction and simulation of the hazard areas associated with accidental releases of toxic gases. The most model packages (commercial or free of charge) include a chemical database, an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI) and automated graphical output for effective presentation of results. The models are designed especially for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios”), preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management. The research project RETOMOD (reference scenarios calculations for toxic gas releases - model systems and their utility for the fire brigade) was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in cooperation with the Viennese fire brigade, OMV Refining & Marketing GmbH and Synex Ries & Greßlehner GmbH. RETOMOD was funded by the KIRAS safety research program of the Austrian Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology (www.kiras.at). The main tasks of this project were 1. Sensitivity study and optimization of the meteorological input for modeling of the hazard areas (human exposure) during the accidental toxic releases. 2. Comparison of several model packages (based on reference scenarios) in order to estimate the utility for the fire brigades. For the purpose of our study the following models were tested and compared: ALOHA (Areal Location of Hazardous atmosphere, EPA), MEMPLEX (Keudel av-Technik GmbH), Trace (Safer System), Breeze (Trinity Consulting), SAM (Engineering office Lohmeyer). A set of reference scenarios for Chlorine, Ammoniac, Butane and Petrol were proceed, with the models above, in order to predict and estimate the human exposure during the event. Furthermore, the application of the observation-based analysis and forecasting system INCA, developed in the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in case of toxic release was investigated. INCA (Integrated Nowcasting through Comprehensive Analysis) data are calculated operationally with 1 km horizontal resolution and based on the weather forecast model ALADIN. The meteorological field's analysis with INCA include: Temperature, Humidity, Wind, Precipitation, Cloudiness and Global Radiation. In the frame of the project INCA data were compared with measurements from the meteorological observational network, conducted at traffic-near sites in Vienna. INCA analysis and very short term forecast fields (up to 6 hours) are found to be an advanced possibility to provide on-line meteorological input for the model package used by the fire brigade. Since the input requirements differ from model to model, and the outputs are based on unequal criteria for toxic area and exposure, a high degree of caution in the interpretation of the model results is required - especially in the case of slow wind speeds, stable atmospheric condition, and flow deflection by buildings in the urban area or by complex topography.

Stenzel, S.; Baumann-Stanzer, K.

2009-09-01

124

An unusual cause of accidental hanging in a toddler.  

PubMed

Accidental hanging in children, although uncommon, has been reported worldwide. We report a case of a toddler who was brought to our hospital with an alleged history of hanging with his head trapped in-between the railings of a balcony. He became unconscious and developed seizures secondary to asphyxial injury and survived. Hanging is an important cause of homicidal and suicidal injury in adults, but in children, it is usually accidental, leading to death because of asphyxia as a result of partial or complete hanging. There is paucity of data in Indian literature regarding accidental hanging injuries in children. According to available data from western countries, strangulation ranks fourth among the causes of unintentional injury in children younger than 1 year after roadside accidents, drowning, and burns. The unique mode of hanging in this child has prompted us to report this case. PMID:22940895

Muthukrishnan, Lakshmi; Raman, Radhika; Nagaraju, Kuravi

2012-09-01

125

Drop Impingement Erosion of Metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The object of the work has been to investigate experimentally the mechanisms of erosion in metals and alloys under drop impingement attack. For this purpose an apparatus of the wheel and jet type has been used to erode aluminium, copper, iron, cobalt and alloys of these metals. The various stages in the process from the first detectable microplastic deformation to

G. P. Thomas; J. H. Brunton

1970-01-01

126

TE activity gum drop atoms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson has students building a model of lithium with gum drops and explaining where the model accurately represents the atom and where the model falls short. Enrichment exercises are included such as having groups of students play the parts of subatomic particles to model an atom in the gymnasium.

2006-01-01

127

Grade Dropping: An Empirical Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is a popular practice among college professors to drop the lowest component grade in computing the course grade. A benefit of this practice is the elimination of the need to evaluate excuses or administer make-up exams. The author uses data from a controlled experiment to examine the impact of such a policy on student behavior and course…

Sewell, Ellen

2004-01-01

128

Electrohydrodynamics of a compound drop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The behavior of a compound drop, comprising two concentric fluid spheres, in a uniform electric field is studied analytically. The governing electrohydrodynamic equations are solved for Newtonian and immiscible fluids in the framework of leaky-dielectric theory and in the limit of small electric field strength and fluid inertia. A detailed analysis of the electric and flow fields is presented and it is shown that there will be four possible flow patterns in and around the globule, in terms of the direction of the external flow (pole-to-equator vs equator-to-pole) and the number of vortices (single-vortex vs double vortices) in the shell, and that the senses of the net electric shear stresses at the surfaces of the inner and the outer drops and their relative importance are the key parameters in setting these patterns. A circulation map is constructed, which is used to infer about the likelihood of the flow patterns and transition from one pattern to another for representative fluid systems. For small distortion from the spherical shape, the deformations of the inner and the outer drops are found using normal stress balances at the corresponding surfaces. It is shown that there will be four possible modes for the deformation of the compound drop, which are determined by the net normal electric and hydrodynamic stresses at the pertinent surfaces. The dynamic responses of the inner and the outer drops for representative fluid systems are studied using a deformation map, which characterizes the possibilities of the deformation modes and transition from one mode to another as a function of the fluid properties.

Behjatian, Ali; Esmaeeli, Asghar

2013-09-01

129

Accidental ingestion of a fractured Twin-block appliance.  

PubMed

Orthodontic appliances that become dislodged can cause problems in the airway or the gastrointestinal tract. Accidental ingestion of an appliance during a chair-side procedure or because of inadequate retention of the appliance can create a medical emergency with potentially serious complications, including death from aspiration of the foreign body. This article reports the accidental ingestion of a fractured Twin-block appliance. The ease with which removable appliances can become dislodged if retention is inadequate is discussed, and some serious complications that can arise are described. Precautions the orthodontist can take to prevent such accidents are presented. PMID:21195285

Rohida, Neeraj S; Bhad, Wasundhara A

2011-01-01

130

Evolving practices in environmental scenarios: a new scenario typology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new approach to scenarios focused on environmental concerns, changes and challenges, i.e. so-called 'environmental scenarios', is necessary if global environmental changes are to be more effectively appreciated and addressed through sustained and collaborative action. On the basis of a comparison of previous approaches to global environmental scenarios and a review of existing scenario typologies, we propose a new scenario typology to help guide scenario-based interventions. This typology makes explicit the types of and/or the approaches to knowledge ('the epistemologies') which underpin a scenario approach. Drawing on previous environmental scenario projects, we distinguish and describe two main types in this new typology: 'problem-focused' and 'actor-centric'. This leads in turn to our suggestion for a third type, which we call 'RIMA'—'reflexive interventionist or multi-agent based'. This approach to scenarios emphasizes the importance of the involvement of different epistemologies in a scenario-based process of action learning in the public interest. We suggest that, by combining the epistemologies apparent in the previous two types, this approach can create a more effective bridge between longer-term thinking and more immediate actions. Our description is aimed at scenario practitioners in general, as well as those who work with (environmental) scenarios that address global challenges.

Wilkinson, Angela; Eidinow, Esther

2008-10-01

131

EXAMPLE EXPOSURE SCENARIOS ASSESSMENT TOOL  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposure scenarios are a tool to help the assessor develop estimates of exposure, dose, and risk. An exposure scenario generally includes facts, data, assumptions, inferences, and sometimes professional judgment about how the exposure takes place. The human physiological and beh...

132

Alternative Scenarios Utilizing Nonterrestrial Resources.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A collection of alternative scenarios that are enabled or substantially enhanced by the utilization of nonterrestrial resources is provided. We take a generalized approach to scenario building so that our report will have value in the context of whatever ...

C. H. Eldred B. B. Roberts

1992-01-01

133

Scenario-based requirements analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for scenario-based requirements engineering is described. The method uses two types of scenario: structure models\\u000a of the system context and scripts of system usage. A modelling language is reported for describing scenarios, and heuristics\\u000a are given to cross-check dependencies between scenario models and the requirements specification. Heuristics are grouped into\\u000a several analytic treatments that investigate correspondences between users’

Alistair Sutcliffe

1998-01-01

134

Fireshell versus Fireball scenarios  

SciTech Connect

We revisit Cavallo and Rees classification based on the analysis of initial conditions in electron-positron-photon plasma which appears suddenly around compact astrophysical objects and gives origin to GRBs. These initial conditions were recently studied in [1,2] by numerical integration of relativistic Boltzmann equations with collision integrals, including binary and triple interactions between particles. The main conclusion is that the pair plasma in GRB sources quickly reaches thermal equilibrium well before its expansion starts. In light of this work we comment on each of the four scenarios proposed by Cavallo and Rees and discuss their applicability to describe evolution of GRB sources.

De Barros, G.; Aksenov, A.; Bianco, C. L.; Ruffini, R. [Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Vereshchagin, G. [Piazzale delta Repubblica 10, 65100 Pescara (Italy)

2008-10-22

135

Critical limb ischemia after accidental subcutaneous infusion of sulprostone  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 34-year-old patient was treated with constant intravenous infusion of sulprostone because of postpartum hemorrhage from a hypotonic uterus. The arm in which sulprostone had been infused was painful 23 h after infusion. A day later, the arm was found to be blueish, edematous and extremely painful as a result of arterial spasm. The vasospasm was probably caused by accidental

Yvonne W. C. M. de Koning; Peter W. Plaisier; I. Leng Tan; Fred K. Lotgering

1995-01-01

136

Non-accidental injury: a review of the radiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   There have been many descriptions of the radiological features of non-accidental injury since John Caffey introduced the\\u000a concept of inflicted injury and initially described some of the patterns of injury. Since then, our understanding of the radiologically\\u000a detectable injuries has increased. This article provides a review of our current understanding of the lesions.

H. Carty; Alder Hey

1997-01-01

137

An Accidental Sect: How War Made Belief in Sierra Leone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Idealists consider beliefs cause wars. Realists consider wars cause beliefs. The war in Sierra Leone offers some scope to test between these two views. The main rebel faction, the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) was, sociologically speaking, an accidental sect. It lost its original ideologues at an early stage, and absorbed others with a different orientation as a result of military

Paul Richards

2006-01-01

138

Accidental salinomycin intoxication of Angora goats in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports for the first time accidental intoxication of Angora goats with salinomycin contaminated feed in Turkey. Clinical, laboratory and postmortem findings are described. Angora goats were examined clinically and biochemical analysis of blood, electrocardiogram and histopathological examinations were carried out. The feed was shown to contain 680ppm\\/kg of salinomycin.

Z. T Agaoglu; Y Akgul; I Keles; S Ugras; A Aksoy; A Cinar

2002-01-01

139

The accidental transgressor: morally-relevant theory of mind.  

PubMed

To test young children's false belief theory of mind in a morally relevant context, two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, children (N = 162) at 3.5, 5.5, and 7.5 years of age were administered three tasks: prototypic moral transgression task, false belief theory of mind task (ToM), and an "accidental transgressor" task, which measured a morally-relevant false belief theory of mind (MoToM). Children who did not pass false belief ToM were more likely to attribute negative intentions to an accidental transgressor than children who passed false belief ToM, and to use moral reasons when blaming the accidental transgressor. In Experiment 2, children (N = 46) who did not pass false belief ToM viewed it as more acceptable to punish the accidental transgressor than did participants who passed false belief ToM. Findings are discussed in light of research on the emergence of moral judgment and theory of mind. PMID:21377148

Killen, Melanie; Lynn Mulvey, Kelly; Richardson, Cameron; Jampol, Noah; Woodward, Amanda

2011-03-04

140

Resilience Assessment of Critical Infrastructures: From Accidental to Malicious Threats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interdependencies within and between critical infrastructures are also widely recognized as an important vulnerability source of these infrastructures as they give rise to multiple error propagation channels that make them more prone to exposure to accidental as well as to malicious threats. Consequently the impact of infrastructure components failures and their severity can be exacerbated and are generally much

Mohamed Kaâniche

2011-01-01

141

Dropped head syndrome in mitochondriopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a 63-year-old, 165-cm-tall woman with a history of repeated tick bites, dilative cardiomyopathy, osteoporosis, progressive head ptosis with neck stiffness and cervical pain developed. The family history was positive for thyroid dysfunction and neuromuscular disorders. Neurological examination revealed prominent forward head drop, weak anteflexion and retroflexion, nuchal rigidity, weakness of the shoulder girdle, cogwheel rigidity, and tetraspasticity. The lactate

J. Finsterer

2004-01-01

142

Knowledge based crime scenario modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A crucial concern in the evaluation of evidence related to a major crime is the formulation of sufficient alternative plausible scenarios that can explain the available evidence. However, software aimed at assisting human crime investigators by automatically constructing crime scenarios from evidence is difficult to develop because of the almost infinite variation of plausible crime scenarios. This paper introduces a

Jeroen Keppens; Burkhard Schafer

2006-01-01

143

49 CFR 572.102 - Drop test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Free Motion Headform § 572.102 Drop test. (a) When the headform is dropped from a height of 14.8 inches in...

2011-10-01

144

How to Use Ear Drops Properly  

MedlinePLUS

How to Use Ear Drops Properly (Having someone else give you the ear drops may make this procedure easier.) 1 Wash your hands ... with soap and water. 2 Gently clean your ear with a damp facecloth and then dry your ...

145

Nonlinear Oscillations of Two-Dimensional Drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nonlinear oscillations of 2-D liquid drops are examined theoretically, numerically, and experimentally. For small oscillations of weakly viscous drops immersed in another fluid, perturbation methods are used to obtain the frequency shift and damping rate of each shape mode. Moderate deformations of an inviscid 2-D drop are analyzed numerically using the boundary integral method for potential flow. In that case, Bernoulli's equation for pressure is combined with the normal stress balance at the interface and the boundary integral equation to produce a coupled set of nonlinear equations that allow the time evolution of drop shapes to be followed. Shape oscillations of a quasi-2-D drop are examined experimentally using a flattened drop of mercury. Large amplitude excitations are obtained by submerging the drop in an electrolyte while varying its surface charge distribution and surface tension with an alternating voltage. Oscillatory shape modes of the flattened drop are controlled by adjusting the frequency and amplitude of the voltage.

Rush, B. M.; Nadim, A.; Azuma, H.

1996-11-01

146

Effect of drop breakup on fuel sprays  

SciTech Connect

Recently developed computer models are being applied to calculate complex interactions between sprays and gas motions. The three-dimensional KIVA code was modified to address drop breakup and was used to study fuel sprays. The results show that drop breakup influences spray penetration, vaporization and mixing in high pressure sprays. The spray drop size is the outcome of a competition between drop breakup and drop coalescence phenomena, and the atomization details at the injector are lost during these size rearrangements. Drop breakup dominates in hollow-cone sprays because coalescence is minimized by the expanding spray geometry. The results imply that it may be possible to use a simple injector and still control spray drop size and vaporization if the flow details are modified so as to enhance drop breakup and coalescence.

Reitz, R.D.; Diwaker, R.

1986-01-01

147

Scenario-Based Tasks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page from The Experiential Learning Center provides a number of scenario-based tasks for use in the classroom or for professional development training. The materials are freely available for download and use and would be applicable to learners in a variety of subjects including software development, faculty professional development, office system applications/ICT, biology/bioinformatics, environmental studies, Python programming, engineering, network security/MIS, computational thinking and English writing. Instructor guides and other classroom instructional materials are provided. The project requests that educators let them know when these materials are used in order to track dissemination of the work and in order to inform the community about upcoming workshops and presentations.

2012-10-09

148

DROP SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS FOR IRRIGATION SPRINKLERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of drop size distribution data is presented covering a wide range of sprinkler types including single nozzle impact sprinklers with straight bore and square nozzles, and sprayheads with various types of deflector plates. Drop sizes were measured by the laser-optical method and comparisons with other types of drop size measurement techniques are presented. Distributions are parameterized with an

D. C. Kincaid; K. H. Solomon; J. C. Oliphant

149

Microjetting from wave focusing on oscillating drops  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present experimental observations of microjetting from an oscillating drop. The jet is generated by the focusing of axisymmetric capillary waves that overturn and collide at an apex of the drop. These jets are up to two orders of magnitude smaller than the original drops. We present two widely different configurations that produce such microjets. The first occurs on a

S. T. Thoroddsen; T. G. Etoh; K. Takehara

2007-01-01

150

Drop impact test - mechanics & physics of failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the mechanics and physics of board-level drop test with the intention of providing the fundamental understanding required to design and analyse the results of a drop test. Three finite element analyses were performed to understand the physics of failure in board-level drop impact: (i) velocity impact of a PCB - modeled as a beam; (ii) velocity

E. H. Wong; K. M. Lim; N. Lee; S. Seah; C. Hoe; J. Wang

2002-01-01

151

Wetting dynamics of living drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tissue spreading is a fundamental process in embryonic development, wound healing, and cancer invasion. We study the spreading dynamics of cell aggregates on solid substrates by means of an analogy with the wetting of a viscoelastic drop. At long times, a precursor film of cells spreads around the aggregate with two possible states: either a liquid state (cohesive migration) or a 2D gas state (where cells escape individually) depending on the cell-cell adhesion. These results provide insight into the progression of a non-invasive tumor into a metastatic malignant carcinoma.

Douezan, Stephane; Guevorkian, Karine; Dufour, Sylvie; Cuvelier, Damien; Brochard-Wyart, Francoise

2011-11-01

152

Vortex flow in acoustically levitated drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The internal flow of acoustically levitated water drops is investigated experimentally. This study reveals a kind of vortex flow which rotates in the meridional plane of the levitated drop. The magnitude of fluid velocity is nearly vanishing at the drop center, whereas it increases toward the free surface of a levitated drop until the maximum value of about 80 mm/s. A transition of streamline shapes from concentric circles to ellipses takes place at the distance of about 1.2 mm from the drop center. The fluid velocity distribution is plotted as a function of polar angle for seven characteristic streamlines.

Yan, Z. L.; Xie, W. J.; Wei, B.

2011-08-01

153

Channel drop filter for CWDM systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a new design of channel drop filter (CDF) based on two-dimensional photonic crystal ring resonators (PCRRs) is provided by two-dimensional (2D) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations in triangular lattice photonic crystal (PC) silicon rods. 100% forward dropping efficiency and a quality factor of over 1000 can be achieved at maximum transfer efficiency while the operating wavelength is 1550 nm. Through this novel component, three channel drop operation with 100% dropping efficiencies at all output channels can be obtained. The proposed filter provides a possibility of channel drop filter and could be used in coarse wavelength division multiplexing (CWDM) systems.

Youcef Mahmoud, Mahmoud; Bassou, Ghaouti; de Fornel, Frédérique; Taalbi, Ahmed

2013-10-01

154

Buoyancy-driven viscous interaction of a rising drop with a smaller trailing drop  

Microsoft Academic Search

An axisymmetric boundary-integral method was developed and used to study the interaction of two deformable drops (or bubbles) rising (or settling) due to gravity in a viscous medium under conditions of small Reynolds number. The focus is on cases where the smaller drop trails behind the larger drop. When the Bond number is small, interfacial tension keeps the drops nearly

Robert H. Davis

1999-01-01

155

Modulating Accidental Fermi Resonance: What a Difference a Neutron Makes.  

PubMed

Vibrational reporters have shown significant promise as sensitive probes of local environments in proteins and nucleic acids. The utility of two potential vibrational probes, the cyanate and azide groups in phenyl cyanate and 3-azidopyridine, respectively, has been hindered by accidental Fermi resonance. Anharmonic coupling, between the fundamental -OCN or -N(3) asymmetric stretch vibration with a near resonant combination band, results in an extremely broad and complex absorption profile for each of these probes. A total of eight phenyl cyanate and six 3-azidopyridine isotopomers were synthesized and studied. Isotopic editing effectively modulated the accidental Fermi resonance - the absorption profiles of several isotopomers were greatly simplified while others remained complex. The origins of the observed profiles are discussed. Addition of a single neutron to the middle atom of the oscillator converted the absorption profile to essentially a single band resulting from either the cyanate or azide asymmetric stretch vibration. PMID:21769311

Lipkin, Jacob S; Song, Rui; Fenlon, Edward E; Brewer, Scott H

2011-06-27

156

Modulating Accidental Fermi Resonance: What a Difference a Neutron Makes  

PubMed Central

Vibrational reporters have shown significant promise as sensitive probes of local environments in proteins and nucleic acids. The utility of two potential vibrational probes, the cyanate and azide groups in phenyl cyanate and 3-azidopyridine, respectively, has been hindered by accidental Fermi resonance. Anharmonic coupling, between the fundamental –OCN or –N3 asymmetric stretch vibration with a near resonant combination band, results in an extremely broad and complex absorption profile for each of these probes. A total of eight phenyl cyanate and six 3-azidopyridine isotopomers were synthesized and studied. Isotopic editing effectively modulated the accidental Fermi resonance — the absorption profiles of several isotopomers were greatly simplified while others remained complex. The origins of the observed profiles are discussed. Addition of a single neutron to the middle atom of the oscillator converted the absorption profile to essentially a single band resulting from either the cyanate or azide asymmetric stretch vibration.

Lipkin, Jacob S.; Song, Rui; Fenlon, Edward E.; Brewer, Scott H.

2011-01-01

157

Accidental Electric Shock during Pregnancy: Reflection on a Case  

PubMed Central

Objectives Data on fetal effects following accidental electric shock during pregnancy are scarce. We report on a case of accidental maternal electric shock associated with benign fetal arrhythmia in a woman at 28 weeks' gestation. Study Design Case report. Results Although electrocution involving low-voltage, low-frequency current has been associated with fatal cardiac arrhythmias and conduction abnormalities, two protective parameters in the present case likely reduced the fetal injury: the dry skin at the site of current entry and the hand-to-hand pathway of current flow. Conclusion Because the pathophysiology of electric injury is altered during pregnancy, assessment of fetal well-being should be prompted no matter how trivial an incident may appear.

Awwad, Johnny; Hannoun, Antoine; Fares, Farah; Ghazeeri, Ghina

2013-01-01

158

Parental substance abuse and accidental death in children.  

PubMed

In this report, the authors present two cases of accidental death in children of addicted parents. In the first case, the child was left unattended at home while the mother went out to buy cocaine. She was arrested and detained with no mention of the unsupervised child. The cause of death in this case was determined to be starvation and dehydration. In the second case, a child mistakenly received a methadone suppository by her father instead of an antipyretic suppository. Toxicological analysis of the femoral blood revealed methadone at a concentration of 1.2 mg/L. The cause of death was determined to be methadone intoxication. The literature is reviewed and discussed. We report these cases to illustrate the risk of harm to children from illicit drugs and prescription medications at home and because there is no mention of accidental death in children following a methadone suppository administration in the current literature. PMID:20345788

Palmiere, Cristian; Staub, Christian; La Harpe, Romano; Mangin, Patrice

2010-03-15

159

Manipulating a Bouncing Drop by the Use of Virtual Drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coalescence of a droplet with a fluid bath can be inhibited by oscillating the bath vertically. We propose a form of transport for this system that is non-destructive, reprogrammable, and near-frictionless. Below the Faraday threshold, stable bouncers can be moved using a pulsed infrared laser impinging on the fluid surface. The motion is similar to the interaction of two stable bouncing drops except it is repulsive at short range. The pulsed laser deformation, a virtual bouncer, can form a bound state with a single bouncing droplet. Near the Faraday threshold, walkers can be redirected using selective heating of the substrate. Laser pulses act as singular sources of waves; virtual bouncers. Through this wave interaction, non-trivial trajectories are observed. The transport of these nanoliter sized droplets is quite fast when compared to other forms of transport, on the order of centimeters per second.

Caballero, Marcos; Schatz, Michael

2007-11-01

160

Neurological diseases and accidental falls of the aged  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the influence of central and peripheral neurological diseases on the incidence of accidental falls of the aged. Design: 1. Case-control study with cross-section at two years and 2. prospective study in a follow-up up to seven years thereafter. Setting: Sample of a population study including all 589 inhabitants older than 70 years in three rural communities. Participants:

Pirjo Syrjälä; Heikki Luukinen; Juhani Pyhtinen; Uolevi Tolonen

2003-01-01

161

Assessment of accidental refinery wastewater discharge: a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physicochemical qualities of an accidental discharge of refinery liquid waste, water, and soil sediment of that effluent-receiving\\u000a water body (canal) were investigated. Analyses of the discharge, qualities of water, and sediment of the canal showed high\\u000a parametric concentrations. Investigations revealed that the discharge took place form the spent caustic that was generated\\u000a from the caustic wash tower of Fluidized

Amitava Bandyopadhyay

2011-01-01

162

Accidental laboratory infection with Treponema pallidum, Nichols strain.  

PubMed

This case report describes a laboratory-acquired infection with Treponema pallidum, Nichols strain. The specific details of the accidental exposure are presented, along with a description of the clinical observations. This infection indicates that the rabbit adapted Nichols strain of T pallidum retains its capability to infect humans. In addition, aerosols of concentrated preparations of these organisms, generated within the laboratory, represent a definite biohazard. PMID:1010772

Fitzgerald, J J; Johnson, R C; Smith, M

1976-12-01

163

[Accidental retinectomy in block excision for cystic epithelial ingrowth].  

PubMed

A 3.5-year-old girl suffered from a penetrating injury of the left eye. One and a half years later epithelial ingrowth was detected. Although block-excision was performed in the usual manner without technical problems the retina was excised accidentally. Histology revealed that the retina had been massively displaced in anterior direction prior to surgery because of fibrovascular proliferations. PMID:9235397

Rohrbach, J M; Derse, M; Wohlrab, T M

1997-04-01

164

Learning from global emissions scenarios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scenarios of global greenhouse gas emissions have played a key role in climate change analysis for over twenty years. Currently, several research communities are organizing to undertake a new round of scenario development in the lead-up to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). To help inform this process, we assess a number of past efforts to develop and learn from sets of global greenhouse gas emissions scenarios. We conclude that while emissions scenario exercises have likely had substantial benefits for participating modeling teams and produced insights from individual models, learning from the exercises taken as a whole has been more limited. Model comparison exercises have typically focused on the production of large numbers of scenarios while investing little in assessing the results or the production process, perhaps on the assumption that later assessment efforts could play this role. However, much of this assessment potential remains untapped. Efforts such as scenario-related chapters of IPCC reports have been most informative when they have gone to extra lengths to carry out more specific comparison exercises, but in general these assessments do not have the remit or resources to carry out the kind of detailed analysis of scenario results necessary for drawing the most useful conclusions. We recommend that scenario comparison exercises build-in time and resources for assessing scenario results in more detail at the time when they are produced, that these exercises focus on more specific questions to improve the prospects for learning, and that additional scenario assessments are carried out separately from production exercises. We also discuss the obstacles to better assessment that might exist, and how they might be overcome. Finally, we recommend that future work include much greater emphasis on understanding how scenarios are actually used, as a guide to improving scenario production.

O'Neill, Brian C.; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa

2008-10-01

165

"Dead in hot bathtub" phenomenon: accidental drowning or natural disease?  

PubMed

Sudden death in a hot bathtub occurs frequently in Japan, particularly among elderly people. This retrospective report describes the epidemiologic circumstances and physical findings at autopsy. In total, 268 victims were found unconscious or dead during tub bathing. After postmortem examination, the manner of death was judged as natural cause in 191 (71.2%) and accidental drowning in 63 (23.5%) cases. Mean age (SD) was 72.1 (15.2) years with no significant difference between males and females. A seasonal difference was evident: the winter displayed the highest frequency. Drowning water inhalation, which was confirmed in 72% of victims, was absent in the others. The most common observations on postmortem examination were cardiac ischemic changes and cardiomegaly. Water inhalation signs were evident in a significantly fewer victims exhibiting these factors. In contrast, inhalational findings were observed more frequently in victims with other backgrounds such as alcohol intake, mobility disturbance, and history of epilepsy. Annual mortality in Japan from accidental drowning in persons aged older than 75 years is 33 deaths per 100,000 population. However, this number may be considerably underestimated as pathologists tend to regard lack of water inhalation as indicating a natural cause of death. Confusion in diagnosis remains consequent to the accidental and natural aspects of "dead in hot bathtub" phenomenon. PMID:23629407

Satoh, Fumiko; Osawa, Motoki; Hasegawa, Iwao; Seto, Yoshihisa; Tsuboi, Akio

2013-06-01

166

Investigation on Drop Formation Process by CaBER `Hanging Drop' Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use a commercial apparatus, the Capillary Breakup Extensional Rheometer (CaBER from ThermoFisher Scientific), in an unconventional way, and present the CaBER ``hanging drop'' experiment as a possible tool for studying drop formation process. In the CaBER `hanging drop' experiments a microsyringe is used to place a drop of liquid onto the upper plate to create a drop hanging in

Jaroslav Katona; Frank Ruttens

2008-01-01

167

Making use: scenarios and scenario-based design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scenarios of human-computer interaction help us to understand and to create computer systems and applications as artifacts of human activity of human activity as things to learn from, as tools to use in ones work, as media for interacting with other people. Scenario-based design offers significant and unique leverage on some of the most characteristic and vexing challenges of design

John M. Carroll

2000-01-01

168

The changing nutrition scenario.  

PubMed

The past seven decades have seen remarkable shifts in the nutritional scenario in India. Even up to the 1950s severe forms of malnutrition such as kwashiorkar and pellagra were endemic. As nutritionists were finding home-grown and common-sense solutions for these widespread problems, the population was burgeoning and food was scarce. The threat of widespread household food insecurity and chronic undernutrition was very real. Then came the Green Revolution. Shortages of food grains disappeared within less than a decade and India became self-sufficient in food grain production. But more insidious problems arising from this revolution were looming, and cropping patterns giving low priority to coarse grains and pulses, and monocropping led to depletion of soil nutrients and 'Green Revolution fatigue'. With improved household food security and better access to health care, clinical manifestations of severe malnutrition virtually disappeared. But the decline in chronic undernutrition and "hidden hunger" from micronutrient deficiencies was slow. On the cusp of the new century, an added factor appeared on the nutritional scene in India. With steady urban migration, upward mobility out of poverty, and an increasingly sedentary lifestyle because of improvements in technology and transport, obesity rates began to increase, resulting in a dual burden. Measured in terms of its performance in meeting its Millennium Development Goals, India has fallen short. Despite its continuing high levels of poverty and illiteracy, India has a huge demographic potential in the form of a young population. This advantage must be leveraged by investing in nutrition education, household access to nutritious diets, sanitary environment and a health-promoting lifestyle. This requires co-operation from all the stakeholders, including governments, non government organizations, scientists and the people at large. PMID:24135189

Gopalan, C

2013-09-01

169

Futures Scenario in Science Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article we describe our experiences in developing futures scenarios in two science contexts, space science and atmospheric science/climate change. Futures scenario writing can develop scientific literacy by connecting science learning to students' lifeworlds--past, present and future. They also provide a synthesising mechanism for…

Lloyd, David; Vanderhout, Annastasia; Lloyd, Lisa; Atkins, David

2010-01-01

170

Scenarios for future service encounters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article develops research-based scenarios of future service encounters. Views from senior customer service directors in 14 major service companies regarding future service encounters and future roles and capabilities of customer service professionals were gathered. This was considered in the light of secondary data regarding technology and socio-economic projections. Short scenarios of future service encounters around key dimensions of technology,

Julia Kiely; Neal Beamish; Colin Armistead

2004-01-01

171

Mobile Social Media Service Scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile social media services are in a technology selection stage with no clear dominant design. Experimentation is very common, and many service concepts are failing to find a valid business model. We have studied current mobile social media services and categorized them into four distinct scenarios. One of the scenarios does not have any current commercial services, which is seen

O. Makinen; S. Luukkainen

2009-01-01

172

Formal Approach to Scenario Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scenarios offer promise as a way to tame requirements analysis, but progress has been impeded by the lack of a systematic way to analyze, generate, and validate them. The authors propose such a method and apply it to a simple PBX system. Their method has a formal mathematical base, generates precise scenarios, accommodates change, and keeps users involved in the

Pei Hsia; Jayarajan Samuel; Jerry Gao; David Chenho Kung; Yasufumi Toyoshima; Cris Chen

1994-01-01

173

Variations in primer sequences are the origin of allele drop-out at loci D13S317 and CD4.  

PubMed

STRs have become almost the exclusive tool of genetic scientists in forensic typing work. Consequently, large numbers of samples are genotyped and the detection of rare abnormalities is to be expected. We found rare losses of alleles, also known as drop-out, at the two STR loci D13S317 and CD4. Drop-out at D13S317 was accidentally found in typing of suspects in a murder case and three other examples of drop-out were found at locus CD4 during paternity testing. The lost alleles reappeared when alternative PCR primer pairs were used. Sequences of lost alleles were characterised at the molecular level after cloning. Variations were found in the primer sequences and these are believed to prevent amplification or to reduce amplification yield and to be the origin of the allele drop-out. PMID:11355416

Boutrand, L; Egyed, B; Füredi, S; Mommers, N; Mertens, G; Vandenberghe, A

2001-01-01

174

Discriminating between the film drops and jet drops produced by a simulated whitecap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Film drops and jet drops, generated when whitecap bubbles burst, have long been regarded as the origin of most of the seasalt aerosol. Nevertheless, the contribution of each drop type, throughout the aerosol size spectrum, has remained in doubt. Four properties that distinguish film and jet drops are (1) elapsed time from wave breaking to drop production; (2) site of production of the drops relative to the active whitecap plume; (3) electrostatic charge per drop, and (4) dependence on seawater temperature of the number of drops produced. Interpreting the aerosol measurements made in the whitecap simulation tank at University College, Galway, in light of properties 1, 3, and 4, leads to the conclusion that the bulk of the aerosol produced, during the decay of a whitecap throughout the radius (at 80% RH) range 0.25-2 ?m is film drops, while the majority of the drops produced with radii greater than 2 ?m is jet drops. The crossover from a predominantly film-drop aerosol to a mainly jet-drop aerosol is a gradual one, with both mechanisms contributing equally to the 2-?m-radius (4-?m-radius as a seawater drop) droplet population.

Woolf, David K.; Bowyer, Peter A.; Monahan, Edward C.

1987-05-01

175

14 CFR 23.727 - Reserve energy absorption drop test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Reserve energy absorption drop test. 23.727 Section 23.727...727 Reserve energy absorption drop test. (a) If compliance with the...23.723(b) is shown by free drop tests, the drop height may not be...

2010-01-01

176

Hydrodynamic instability and drop fragmentation modes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A linear analysis of the stability of the drop surface is employed to evaluate the dispersion parameters and to propose mechanisms for several types of degradation. The calculations show that in the Weber number range from 5 to 60 the drop is subjected to periodic perturbations whose wavelengths are larger than the initial drop diameter and comparable to the diameter of the deformed drop. The case where half-wavelength is approximately equal to the drop diameter corresponds to the formation of a parachute shape of the deformed drop; larger Weber numbers (and, correspondingly, smaller wavelengths) lead to the formation of a 'claviform'. A similar approach can be assumed to study the interphase interaction leading to degradation in other systems, such as bubble and film systems.

Girin, A. G.

1985-05-01

177

Investigation of drop coalescence using tomographic PIV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-speed tomographic PIV was used to obtain evolving volumetric velocity fields of the coalescence of single drops and two side-by-side drops through liquid/liquid interfaces. Reynolds numbers (Re=?sU?D/?s) based on surface tension velocity (U?=D/t?) and surrounding ambient fluid were 8-10, and the viscosity ratio between the fluid drop and surrounding fluid was 0.14. The coalescence process investigated is driven by gravity and thus the initial drops are non-spherical and the interface is deformed by the drops. Previously, Mohamed-Kassim & Longmire (2004) showed that under these conditions, the film rupture typically occurs off-axis, and therefore the flow is three-dimensional. For a single drop, volumetric velocity vector fields are used to characterize the asymmetric film rupture occurring for 0drop into a vortex ring are relatively axisymmetric. For two side-by-side drops, the first drop to coalesce ruptures off-axis on the side closest to the second drop. The volumetric velocity and vorticity fields indicate an asymmetric collapse of the drop for 0.1drop while the capillary waves are axisymmetric.

Ortiz-Duenas, Cecilia; Kim, Jungyong; Longmire, Ellen

2008-11-01

178

Atmospheric entry of Mars-return nuclear-powered vehicles due to accidental termination of operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The entry of nuclear reactors into Earth's atmosphere resulting from an accidental or inadvertent abort of a space vehicle powered by nuclear-thermal rockets is investigated. The study is made for a typical piloted Mars mission vehicle incapacitated by an accident or malfunction during the Earth-arrival phase of the Mars-return journey due to simultaneous, multiple failures of its component systems. A single accident/abort scenario resulting in three entry possibilities is considered for a nominal hyperbolic in-bound approach velocity of 8 km/sec. The most severe case involving a direct entry is then analyzed over a broad range of approach velocities extending to 12 km/sec to include sprint-type missions. The results indicate that the severe surface heating, stagnation pressures, and g-loads are greater than 150 kW/sq cm, 300 atm, and 800-g, respectively. The wall heat transfer rate exceeds the value that can be accommodated by a carbon heatshield through radiation equilibrium prior to sublimation at 5500 K. These conditions are beyond our previous experience in crew safety, structural design, and thermal protection.

Menees, Gene P.; Park, Chul

1993-06-01

179

Parametric resonance in acoustically levitated water drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid drops can be suspended in air with acoustic levitation method. When the sound pressure is periodically modulated, the levitated drop is usually forced into an axisymmetric oscillation. However, a transition from axisymmetric oscillation into sectorial oscillation occurs when the modulation frequency approaches some specific values. The frequency of the sectorial oscillation is almost exactly half of the modulation frequency. It is demonstrated that this transition is induced by the parametric resonance of levitated drop. The natural frequency of sectorial oscillation is found to decrease with the increase of drop distortion extent.

Shen, C. L.; Xie, W. J.; Wei, B.

2010-05-01

180

Chaos in a Water Drop.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nature is chaotic. It appears to be more disorderly and random than orderly and regular. The path of a leaf in a rocky stream can appear as complex as the smoke from a cigarette or the outline of a cloud. In trying to model the path of a leaf in a rocky stream, the dynamical equations become rapidly complicated. A branch of scientific analysis know as Chaos has sprung up in the last few decades with techniques that can be applied to most of the physical sciences in an attempt to describe or categorize the various non-linear phenomena found in Nature. The aim of this paper is to provide an introduction to the study of chaotic behavior, with an emphasis on the potential teaching possibilities contained in some of the analysis. An appropriate beginning would be motion that is regular and "easy" to understand--stable motion. Along the way, various graphical representations will be developed that enable a clear viewing of the motion of the system under study. Next, the Logistic model will be used to gain an understanding of the nature of chaos; it is very comprehensive in representing the characteristics of chaos that will be studied in other systems. Another system studied is the three-dimensional Rossler model. In the study of the "dripping faucet", a time series of the periods between drips of water is recorded. Various techniques (collected from the introductory systems) are applied in an attempt to model the mechanism behind the water drops, or at least to characterize the graphical "animals" that we find. The water drop "attractor" is found to be chaotic, exhibiting many of the chaotic characteristics seen in other models. It is hoped that this work can be used as a primer for those students beginning a journey into Chaos, or as a reference tool for those already familiar with the topics enclosed. Many areas in this work were touched lightly; there is a rich un-tapped complexity still waiting future study. The waters here have only begun to be charted.

Schneider, Scott Dudley

181

Numerical simulation of industrial and accidental release formation and transport  

SciTech Connect

Statement of work for contract 006 {open_quotes}Mathematical simulation of industrial and accidental release formation and transport{close_quotes} implies that the final result of the activity within this task will be VNIIEF developed techniques which will provide for the prediction of the post-accidental environment. Report [1] presents the description of physical models and calculation techniques which were chosen by VNIIEF to accomplish this task. These techniques were analysed for their capabilities, the areas of their application were defined, modifications within contract 006 were described, the results of test and methodical calculations were presented. Moreover, the experimental data were analysed over the source parameters and contamination measurements which can be used in the comparison with the calculation results. Based an these data this report compares the calculation results obtained with VNIIEF calculation techniques with the LANL-presented experimental results. The calculations which statements and results are given in section 1, included the following processes: explosion cloud ascent dynamics and jet release origin; aerosols kinetics in the release source including composite particle origin in the explosion cloud caused by radioactive substance sorption an the soil particles; contaminant transport in atmosphere and their in-site fallout due to the accidental explosions and fires; atmospheric flow dynamics and industrial contamination transfer over the complicated terrain. The calculated results were compared with the experimental data. Section 2 presents the parameters for a typical source in the explosion accidents based an the experimental results and calculated data from Section 1, as well as contamination patterns were calculated with basic technique {open_quotes}Prognosis{close_quotes}.

Piskunov, V.N.; Aloyan, A.A.; Gerasimov, V.M.; Pinaev, V.S.; Golubev, A.I.; Yanilkin, Yu.V.; Ivanov, N.V.; Nikonov, S.N.; Kharchenko, A.I. [and others

1995-05-01

182

The Practices of Scenario Study to Home Scenario Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Home is where human living in, and can be relaxed and entertained. Scenario control is a man-machine system integrate audio\\/video\\u000a equipment, light, curtain, air conditioner by using wireless LAN technology, defines common using scenarios, makes user interactive\\u000a with product, handle all equipment quickly, enjoy smart home lifestyle. This research using the method of practice design,\\u000a verifies how user-oriented design (UOD)

Yung Hsing Hu; Yuan Tsing Huang; You Zhao Liang; Wen Ko Chiou

2007-01-01

183

[Accidental staining of corneal nerves by methylene blue].  

PubMed

A 10-year-old child presented after accidental exposure of the left eye to a blue hair dye containing methylene blue. Mild ocular surface changes and a selective blue staining of the usually invisible corneal nerve fibre bundles were present. Corneal sensitivity was reduced. Despite copious lubrication a transient neurotrophic keratitis developed which did not resolve until corneal sensitivity became normal 2 weeks later. Association of mild chemical burns with neurotrophic keratitis is unusual but is of high clinical relevance as keratitis is a vision-threatening complication. PMID:23288315

Peter, S; Reichart, E; Poyntner, L; Mennel, S

2013-09-01

184

Accidental poisoning of children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

There were 7142 cases of accidental poisoning in children admitted to all Riyadh Governmental Hospitals during the five years period (1983-87). Household products were the most common poisoning agent, accounting for 59% of all cases. This was followed by drugs (39%), and plants (2%). Children aged one to two years were the most affected. The fatality rate was 0.1%. This study indicates that improved living conditions, proper storage of the drugs and chemicals as well as health education of parents will help in reducing the incidence of poisoning. PMID:2513406

Al-Sekait, M A

1989-12-01

185

Accidental asphyxial deaths involving infants and young children.  

PubMed

Forty-five cases of accidental asphyxial deaths in infants and young children below 2 years of age are described. The mechanism involved, the available historical information, and the possible preventive measures are discussed. Dangers such as bed- and tub-sharing, diaper and cleaning pails, plastic wrappers, balloons, small beds, toys on strings, broken or poorly designed cribs, and poorly positioned adult beds must be brought to the attention of the parent as consumer. The public heatlh considerations and the educational aspects relating to the community at large are cornerstones in the effort to reduce these tragic and untimely deaths. PMID:956739

Sturner, W Q; Spruill, F G; Smith, R A; Lene, W J

1976-07-01

186

Environmental gas displacement: three accidental deaths in the workplace.  

PubMed

The authors describe three accidental deaths resulting from occupational hazards involving environmental gas alterations. One involved the displacement of oxygen caused by leakage of liquid nitrogen during the installation of a magnetic resonance imaging system. Two involved elevated environmental carbon dioxide concentrations: dry ice sublimation in a walk-in refrigerator in a research laboratory, and activation of a carbon dioxide fire alarm-extinguisher system by a woman locked in a bank vault. The autopsy findings, scene investigations, and certifications of these deaths, as related to the mechanisms of death, are discussed. PMID:11953489

Gill, James R; Ely, Susan F; Hua, Zhongxue

2002-03-01

187

[Biological effects and risks of accidental radionuclide uptake].  

PubMed

This review presents the actual state of knowledge about medical dangers of a radioactive fall-out. Concepts for the estimation of accidental incorporation, as well as effects and risks that are known to occur after incorporation of radionuclides are discussed. Special attention is paid to the following topics: effect of radioiodine on the thyroid gland, effect of radio-cesium on whole body burden, alpha-emitting particles (plutonium) with deposition in the airways, association of osteotrope radionuclides (strontium) with malignomas of the skeleton and finally prophylaxis with iodine to prevent damage of the thyroid. PMID:3554876

Fueger, G F

1986-01-01

188

Method and apparatus for controlling accidental releases of tritium  

DOEpatents

An improvement is described in a tritium control system based on a catalytic oxidation reactor wherein accidental releases of tritium into room air are controlled by flooding the catalytic oxidation reactor with hydrogen when the tritium concentration in the room air exceeds a specified limit. The sudden flooding with hydrogen heats the catalyst to a high temperature within seconds, thereby greatly increasing the catalytic oxidation rate of tritium to tritiated water vapor. Thus, the catalyst is heated only when needed. In addition to the heating effect, the hydrogen flow also swamps the tritium and further reduces the tritium release. 1 fig.

Galloway, T.R.

1980-04-01

189

Critical point wetting drop tower experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments with the wetting behavior of immiscible fluids against the container below the critical temperature are being performed in the MSFC Drop Tower Facility. Microgravity conditions extending up to three seconds (of the 4.5 second drop) are generated for the experiment. Specimens consist of glass cylindrical ampoules partially filled with fluid phases. How the fluids develop the meniscus geometry as

William F. Kaulker

1988-01-01

190

Equilibrium shapes of acoustically levitated drops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantitative determination of the shape of liquid drops levitated in an ultrasonic standing wave has provided experimental data on the radiation pressure-induced deformations of freely suspended liquids. Within the limits of small deviations from the spherical shape and small drop diameter relative to the acoustic wavelength, an existing approximate theory yields a good agreement with experimental evidence. The data

E. H. Trinh; C.-J. Hsu

1986-01-01

191

Could shock tests adequately replace drop tests?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drop tests are often replaced in qualification evaluations of microelectronic and optoelectronic products by shock tests. The objective of the study is to develop simple analytical models for the evaluation of the dynamic response of a vulnerable structural element in a microelectronic or optoelectronic product\\/package to an impact load occurring as a result of drop or shock tests. We use

E. Suhir

2002-01-01

192

Nonlinear oscillations of drops with internal circulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nonlinear oscillations of viscous liquid drops with and without initial internal circulation are investigated. The full Navier-Stokes equations are solved for a liquid drop surrounded by a dynamically inactive ambient gas. The Galerkin/finite element technique along with the spine-flux method for the advection of the free boundaries are used. Internal circulations are generated by imposing a constant velocity at the surface of the drop and obtaining the steady state velocity field for a fixed drop shape. Oscillations of drops subject to small to large amplitude, and for the second-, third-, fourth-, and fifth-mode disturbances are considered. New data on the period and the decay factor of the oscillations are reported. The internal circulation in a drop released from an even-mode shape results in the transfer of energy mainly between the even modes. The internal circulation in a drop released from an odd-mode shape results in the transfer of energy between both odd and even modes. In general, the internal circulations generated by a constant surface velocity tend to transfer energy from any mode of drop oscillations to the second mode. This tendency increases as the strength of the internal circulation increases.

Mashayek, F.; Ashgriz, N.

1998-05-01

193

Secondary breakup of coal water slurry drops  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate secondary atomization of coal water slurry (CWS), deformation and breakup of eight kinds of CWS drops are presented using high speed digital camera. Based on morphology, deformation and breakup regimes of CWS drops can be termed some different modes: deformation, multimode breakup (including two sub-modes: hole breakup and tensile breakup), and shear breakup. Correlations on the ranges of

Hui Zhao; Hai-Feng Liu; Jian-Liang Xu; Wei-Feng Li

2011-01-01

194

University Drop-Out: An Italian Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|University students' drop-out is a crucial issue for the universities' efficiency evaluation and funding. In this paper, we analyze the drop-out rate of the Economics and Business faculty of Sapienza University of Rome. We use administrative data on 9,725 undergraduates students enrolled in three-years bachelor programs from 2001 to 2007 and…

Belloc, Filippo; Maruotti, Antonello; Petrella, Lea

2010-01-01

195

Puerto Rican Youth: Dropping Out and Delinquency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 3-year longitudinal study of Puerto Rican youth (who were tenth graders during the first year of the study) in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, sought to identify determinants of decisions to remain in school or drop out, and to investigate delinquency among this population. Among girls, the study found no correlation between delinquency and dropping

Gutierrez, Manuel J.; Montalvo, Braulio

196

Dropped head syndrome in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

We determined the frequency of dropped head syndrome in Parkinson's disease (PD) in Japan and evaluated its clinical correlates. A total of 252 consecutive patients with PD who visited our hospital were studied. Dropped head syndrome was found in 15 patients (6.0%) (3 men, 12 women; mean age at onset of PD, 62.8 +/- 11.5 years). The interval before emergence of dropped head after disease onset was 5.4 +/- 4.3 years (-0.5 to 15 years). The Hoehn-Yahr score at the on stage was 3.2 +/- 0.7; at the off stage 3.5 +/- 0.8. Of those 15 patients, 8 had major symptoms of rigidity and akinesia. In 2 patients, administration of a dopamine agonist appeared to evoke dropped head syndrome. An increase in and/or the addition of antiparkinsonian drugs alleviated head drop in 4 patients and reduced head drop in 7 patients. Any medication was not effective for 4 patients. Dropped head syndrome in PD is not rare in Japan. It is more often observed in women and is associated with patients who primarily suffer rigidity and akinesia. Dropped head syndrome in these patients appears to be produced by disproportionate tonus of the neck muscles. It is modulated by antiparkinsonian drugs and is considered to be a type of dystonia. PMID:16703588

Kashihara, Kenichi; Ohno, Manabu; Tomita, Susumu

2006-08-01

197

Scenario Analysis Via Bundle Decomposition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper, we show how the bundle decomposition method can be applied to linear or convex scenario analysis problems that are loosely coupled. We illustrate its effectiveness by presenting computational results for military force planning problems and...

B. J. Chun S. M. Robinson

1995-01-01

198

Acoustically levitated drops: drop oscillation and break-up driven by ultrasound modulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behaviour of drops in an acoustic levitator is simulated numerically. The ultrasound field is directed along the axis of gravity, the motion of the drop is supposed to be axisymmetric.The flow inside the drop is assumed inviscid (since the time intervals considered are short) and incompressible.First, as a test case, we consider a stationary ultrasound wave. We observe, as

A. L. Yarin; D. A. Weiss; G. Brenn; D. Rensink

2002-01-01

199

Equilibrium of drops on inclined hydrophilic surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Why does not gravity make drops slip down the inclined surfaces, e.g., plant leaves? The current explanation is based on the existence of surface inhomogeneities, which cause a sustaining force that pins the contact line. Following this theory, the drop remains in equilibrium until a critical value of the sustaining force is reached. We propose an alternative analysis, from the point of view of energy balance, for the particular case in which the drop leaves a liquid film behind. The critical angle of the inclined surface at which the drop slips down is predicted. This result does not depend explicitly on surface inhomogeneities, but only on the drop size and surface tensions. There is good agreement with experiments for contact angles below 90° where the formation of the film is expected, whereas for greater contact angles great discrepancies arise.

Roura, Pere; Fort, Joaquim

2001-07-01

200

Head-dropping mechanism in traffic control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we investigate the application of the head dropping policy as a partial solution to the problem of queue oscillation encountered by RED and its variants. With this method, instead of the tail dropping, which is currently used by RED and many other AQM schemes, the TCP source can be informed of the congestion occurring in the bottleneck router a time period earlier. Specifically, that is a time period of the queuing delay. We have compared DH-RED (drop head RED) and DH-BLUE (drop head BLUE) with the current RED and BLUE in a variety of situations and found that the performances such as the queue size stability as well as packet drop rate can be greatly improved.

Liu, Xintong; Yang, Oliver W.

2004-10-01

201

Accidental systemic exposure to sodium hypochlorite (Chlorox) during hemodialysis.  

PubMed

A case of accidental exposure of a patient undergoing hemodialysis to a sodium hypochlorite solution is reported. A 61-year-old woman was completing a hemodialysis treatment when routine cleaning of the hemodialysis machine was started. Approximately two liters of undiluted sodium hypochlorite cleaning solution (Chlorox) was added to the dialysis bath, soaking the membrane fibers. For less than two minutes the Chlorox-soaked membrane was in contact with the blood returning to the patient. This accident led to massive hemolysis, hyperkalemia, cyanosis, and cardiopulmonary arrest. Hemolysis may have been caused by the hypertonic solution, rapid exothermic protein degradation, alkaline degradation, or another mechanism. The sudden rise and fall in the concentrations of serum electrolytes and subsequent hyperkalemia was the most probable cause for the cardiac arrest. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was started, the patient was intubated, given oxygen, sodium bicarbonate, atropine, dopamine, and isoproterenol. Sodium thiosulfate 5 g was administered by a nasogastric tube approximately 25 minutes after the cardiac arrest as a neutralizing reducing agent. The patient's condition stabilized, and she recovered after a week of hospitalization. Cleaning solutions used in the routine cleaning of hemodialysis machinery represent potentially toxic agents. Hemodialysis procedures should ensure that cleaning and sterilizing solutions cannot accidentally come into contact with a dialysis machine that is still connected to the patient. PMID:7294048

Hoy, R H

1981-10-01

202

Forensic aspects of 40 accidental autoerotic deaths in Northern Germany.  

PubMed

Between 1983 and 2003, 40 accidental autoerotic fatalities have been investigated. in the Institute of Legal Medicine in Hamburg. Only 50% (n=20) were autopsied (13 legal autopsies, 6 for scientific purposes and 1 for an insurance company). All the victims were males, aged between 13 and 79 years (among them five children and adolescents, the deceased mainly between 20 and 40 years). The paraphiliacs utilized a great range of devices and props as fetishism, sexual aids or pain-stimulating agents, like intimate feminine garments, ropes, chains, bondages, locks, pornographic magazines, condoms, rubber items, and chemical anaesthetics. The cause of death was strangulation in 20 cases (17 x hanging, 3 x ligature strangulation), 11 x suffocation (8 x under plastic bags, 3 x with face-masks, 2 x thoracic compression, 1 x positional asphyxia, and 1 x cocaine intoxication). Five cases without autopsy remained unclear because of missing morphological and toxicological findings; it could not be differentiated between asphyxiation/intoxication/natural disease, although the scene characteristics seemed to be typical for autoerotic deaths. It is emphasized that the findings at the scene, the morphological and toxicological examination of the dead body (full autopsy as prerequisite) by experienced investigators and the personal history of the deceased have to be evaluated very carefully and intensely to reconstruct the accidental fatal autoerotic course accurately and undoubtedly (to exclude the possibility of sexual homicide, neglected killing, or suicide). PMID:15694733

Janssen, W; Koops, E; Anders, S; Kuhn, S; Püschel, K

2005-01-17

203

Accidental Beam Losses and Protection in the LHC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At top energy (proton momentum 7 TeV/c) with nominal beam parameters, each of the two LHC proton beams has a stored energy of 350 MJ threatening to damage accelerator equipment in case of accidental beam loss. It is essential that the beams are properly extracted onto the dump blocks in case of failure since these are the only elements that can withstand full beam impact. Although the energy stored in the beams at injection (450 GeV/c) is about 15 times smaller compared to top energy, the beams must still be properly extracted in case of large accidental beam losses. Failures must be detected at a sufficiently early stage and initiate a beam dump. Quenches and power converter failures will be detected by monitoring the correct functioning of the hardware systems. In addition, safe operation throughout the cycle requires the use of beam loss monitors, collimators and absorbers. Ideas of detection of fast beam current decay, monitoring of fast beam position changes and monitoring of fast magnet current changes are discussed, to provide the required redundancy for machine protection.

Schmidt, R.; Working Group On Machine Protection

2005-06-01

204

Interactions between drops of a molten aluminum-lithium alloy and liquid water  

Microsoft Academic Search

In certain hypothesized nuclear reactor accident scenarios, 1- to 10-g drops of molten aluminum-lithium alloys might contact liquid water. Because vigorous steam explosions have occurred when large amounts of molten aluminum-lithium alloys were released into water or other coolants, it becomes important to know whether there will be explosions if smaller amounts of these molten alloys similarly come into contact

Lloyd S. Nelson; Patricia M. Duda; David A. Hyndman

1994-01-01

205

Visualization of polymer blending and drop breakup  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymer blends are attractive because they provide improved performance and enhanced properties over homopolymers. The final blend properties depend on morphology, and the morphology, in turn, is controlled by the blending process. Therefore, it is vital to understand how one polymer drop incorporates into a second kind of polymer and how the final particle distribution is obtained. Accordingly, this thesis focuses on visualization of one polymer drop melting, deforming and breaking up inside another polymer melt under shear flow. Two kinds of visualization geometries were used: parallel plate and Couette. It was found that drop breakup in polymer systems can occur at all viscosity ratios even when the viscosity ratio is greater than 3.5. This has been proven to be impossible for Newtonian systems in simple shear flows. At least four kinds of distinct drop breakup mechanisms were observed in uncompatibilized polymer systems subject to simple shear: "erosion", "parallel breakup", "vorticity alignment and breakup" and "tip streaming". The first three mechanisms are unique to viscoelastic systems. In Newtonian systems, drop breakup can be well described with Capillary number and viscosity ratio. For polymer systems, besides interfacial tension, viscosity ratio and shear rate, there are other important governing factors, such as shear history, normal stresses and relaxation time. The stress ratio and the drop Deborah number are two important dimensionless parameters that were used to describe drop breakup in polymer systems. In compatibilized systems, the copolymer may promote drop breakup if the copolymer is saturated and distributes homogeneously across the interface; conversely, it may stabilize the drop if there is a concentration gradient and insufficient coverage at the interface in which case a tiny tip develops. Fast in-situ reaction assists drop breakup by stretching the drop into a thin sheet, whereas slow reaction delays drop breakup since newly formed copolymer product accumulates at the drop tips. Finally, this thesis shows that deformation, melting and mixing mechanisms affect the morphology of compatibilized polymers blends. By controlling melting and mixing sequences, it is possible to control the final mean particle size and particle size distribution and thereby influence final properties.

Lin, Bin

206

Baseline scenario(s) for muon collider proton driver  

SciTech Connect

This paper gives an overview of the various muon collider scenarios and the requirements they put on the Proton Driver. The required proton power is about 4-6MW in all the scenarios, but the bunch repetition rate varies between 12 and 65Hz. Since none of the muon collider scenarios have been simulated end-to-end, it would be advisable to plan for an upgrade path to around 10MW. Although the proton driver energy is flexible, cost arguments seems to favor a relatively low energy. In particular, at Fermilab 8GeV seems most attractive, partly due to the possibility of reusing the three existing fixed energy storage rings for bunch manipulations.

Jansson, Andreas; /Fermilab

2008-07-01

207

The Drop Tower Bremen -An Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity (ZARM) was founded in 1985 as an institute of the University of Bremen, which focuses on research on gravitational and space-related phenomena. In 1988, the construction of ZARM`s drop tower began. Since its inau-guration in September 1990, the eye-catching Drop Tower Bremen with a height of 146m and its characteristic glass roof has become twice a landmark on the campus of the University of Bremen and the emblem of the technology park Bremen. As such an outstanding symbol of space science in Bremen the drop tower provides an european unique facility for experiments under conditions of high-quality weightlessness with residual gravitational accelerations in the microgravity regime. The period of maximum 4.74s of each freely falling experiment at the Drop Tower Bremen is only limited by the height of the drop tower vacuum tube, which was fully manufactured of steal and enclosed by an outer concrete shell. Thus, the pure free fall height of each microgravity drop experiment is approximately 110m. By using the later in-stalled catapult system established in 2004 ZARM`s short-term microgravity laboratory is able to nearly double the time of free fall. This world-wide inimitable capsule catapult system meets scientists` demand of extending the period of weightlessness. During the catapult operation the experiment capsule performs a vertical parabolic flight within the drop tower vacuum tube. In this way the time of microgravity can be extended to slightly over 9s. Either in the drop or in the catapult operation routine the repetition rates of microgravity experiments at ZARM`s drop tower facility are the same, generally up to 3 times per day. In comparison to orbital platforms the ground-based laboratory Drop Tower Bremen represents an economic alternative with a permanent access to weightlessness on earth. Moreover, the exceptional high quality of weightlessness in order of 1e-6 g (in the frequency range below 100Hz) demonstrates a perfect experimental environment for unperturbed investigations of scientific phenomena. Motivated by these prospects many national and international groups have initialized research programs taking advantage of this drop tower facility. In respect thereof the spectrum of research fields and technologies in space-related conditions can be continuously enhanced at ZARM. In the first of our two talks we will give you an overview about the inner structure of ZARM, as well as the service and the operation offered by the ZARM Drop Tower Operation and Service Company (ZARM FAB mbH). The ZARM FAB mbH owned by the State Government of Bremen is a public company maintaining the drop tower facility and supporting experimentalists in scientific and technical questions before, during and after their drop or catapult campaigns. In detail, we will present you important technical drop tower informations, our support and the idea, how you can proceed with your microgravity-related experiment including all your requirements to successfully accomplish an entire drop or catapult campaign. In summary, we will illustrate the complete procedure, how to drop or to catapult an experiment capsule at the Drop Tower Bremen.

von Kampen, Peter; Könemann, Thorben; Rath, Hans J.

208

Generation of 100-year geomagnetically induced current scenarios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of 100-year extreme geoelectric field and geomagnetically induced current (GIC) scenarios are explored by taking into account the key geophysical factors associated with the geomagnetic induction process. More specifically, we derive explicit geoelectric field temporal profiles as a function of ground conductivity structures and geomagnetic latitudes. We also demonstrate how the extreme geoelectric field scenarios can be mapped into GIC. Generated statistics indicate 20 V/km and 5 V/km 100-year maximum 10-s geoelectric field amplitudes at high-latitude locations with poorly conducting and well-conducting ground structures, respectively. We show that there is an indication that geoelectric field magnitudes may experience a dramatic drop across a boundary at about 40°-60° of geomagnetic latitude. We identify this as a threshold at about 50° of geomagnetic latitude. The sub-threshold geoelectric field magnitudes are about an order of magnitude smaller than those at super-threshold geomagnetic latitudes. Further analyses are required to confirm the existence and location of the possible latitude threshold. The computed extreme GIC scenarios can be used in further engineering analyses that are needed to quantify the geomagnetic storm impact on conductor systems such as high-voltage power transmission systems. To facilitate further work on the topic, the digital data for generated geoelectric field scenarios are made publicly available.

Pulkkinen, A.; Bernabeu, E.; Eichner, J.; Beggan, C.; Thomson, A. W. P.

2012-04-01

209

Drop on demand in a microfluidic chip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we introduce the novel technique of in-chip drop on demand, which consists in dispensing picoliter to nanoliter drops on demand directly in the liquid-filled channels of a polymer microfluidic chip, at frequencies up to 2.5 kHz and with precise volume control. The technique involves a PDMS chip with one or several microliter-size chambers driven by piezoelectric actuators. Individual aqueous microdrops are dispensed from the chamber to a main transport channel filled with an immiscible fluid, in a process analogous to atmospheric drop on demand dispensing. In this paper, the drop formation process is characterized with respect to critical dispense parameters such as the shape and duration of the driving pulse, and the size of both the fluid chamber and the nozzle. Several features of the in-chip drop on demand technique with direct relevance to lab-on-a-chip applications are presented and discussed, such as the precise control of the dispensed volume, the ability to merge drops of different reagents and the ability to move a drop from the shooting area of one nozzle to another for multistep reactions. The possibility to drive the microfluidic chip with inexpensive audio electronics instead of research-grade equipment is also examined and verified. Finally, we show that the same piezoelectric technique can be used to generate a single gas bubble on demand in a microfluidic chip.

Xu, Jie; Attinger, Daniel

2008-06-01

210

Drop orbiting in a circular hydraulic jump  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our experiment, a circular hydraulic jump is formed by a viscous jet impacting a horizontal or slightly tilted glass disk. A drop of the same liquid, deposited in the jump does not coalesce, and remains trapped at its periphery, because of the air entrainment linked to the high drop rotation speed. In this strange state of non-wetting, a gyroscopic instability occurs that tends to induce orbital motions of the drop around the jump perimeter. For a slightly inclined substrate, the drop oscillates around the lowest equilibrium position, while for a rigorously horizontal disk, the drop exhibits two distinct motions depending on the ratio between drop and jump radius: (1) a orbital motion at constant speed, and (2) a irregular (chaotic?) motion involving random inversions of the velocity. A simple model in which the drop is treated as a rigid sphere sliding on the free surface of the liquid allows us to recover the orbital motion, but not the irregular phase, that seems to involve distorsions of the jump shape.

Lebon, Luc; Fruleux, Antoine; Savaro, Clement; Pirat, Christophe; Limat, Laurent

2010-11-01

211

[Treatment of foot drop in orthopaedic practice].  

PubMed

Foot drop is a symptom of many diseases and leads to an unaesthetic limping gait, falls and injuries. The most common cause of foot drop is injury to the common peroneal nerve, which innervates ankle joint and foot extensors. Other causes of foot drop include: sciatic nerve injury, lumbar plexopathies, L4/L5 radiculopathy, central nervous system related neuropathies (anterior horn cell disease, brain tumor). Also compartment syndromes of the lower leg can lead to foot drop deformity. Ankle-foot orthoses (AFO) are helpful in the treatment of paralyzed extensor muscles of the foot. The surgical treatment should be connected with the etiology of the foot drop and can include: neurolysis of the nerve, "end to end" repair, autogenous nerve graft procedures, nerve transfers, direct neuromuscular neurotization and tendon transfers. In proximal sciatic nerve lesions, nerve transfers and one-stage nerve repair with concomitant tendon transfer are valuable methods of the treatment of drop foot. The aim of the paper is to present pathogenesis and modes of treatment of foot drop deformity encountered in any orthopedic unit. PMID:23289258

Bielecki, Marek; Zebrowski, Pawe?; Kuryliszyn-Moskal, Anna

2012-01-01

212

Surface tension effects in levitated helium drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report our investigations of surface tension driven flows in magnetically levitated 4He drops. By levitating helium drops in a magnetic trap we are able to observe the free surface of drops as they undergo shape oscillations. We also study the dynamics of the free surface during the process of coalescence. Our experimental method allows us to excite shape oscillations in the levitated helium drops and measure their normal mode frequencies. By measuring the frequency of the fundamental (l = 2) mode, we obtain new measurements of the surface tension of helium for temperatures between 1.5 and 0.5 K. Our measurements extrapolate to a value of 0.375 erg cm -2 at T = 0 K. Our results agree with the capillary wave measurements of Roche et al., and Atkins and Narahra. We study how the shape of the trap used to levitate the drops influences the resonant frequency of the l = 2 mode. Measurements of the frequency spectrum were performed using different trap potentials. We have calculated the resonant frequencies for the trap shapes produced by different magnet coil currents. We compare our measurements of the resonant frequencies at various magnet currents with these theoretical predictions and find good agreement. We describe experiments to study the coalescence of He II drops levitated in a magnetic trap. Using a high speed CCD camera, we have produced movies of drops coalescing at temperatures as low as 0.7 K. We examine some interesting features of the motion during and following coalescence.

Vicente, Carlos Luis

213

Microjetting from wave focusing on oscillating drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present experimental observations of microjetting from an oscillating drop. The jet is generated by the focusing of axisymmetric capillary waves that overturn and collide at an apex of the drop. These jets are up to two orders of magnitude smaller than the original drops. We present two widely different configurations that produce such microjets. The first occurs on a satellite drop, produced by the pinch-off of a water drop from a vertical nozzle. The large oscillations following the contraction of the satellite bridge focus waves at the bottom, sending out a 30 ?m jet at 9.9 m/s. The second jet arises when a water drop, containing surfactants, falls onto and passes through a hemispherical soap film. The gentle deformation of the drop creates a surface wave that focuses at its top, shooting out a tiny jet and entrapping a small bubble inside the drop. This jet is 16+/-5 ?m in diameter and emerges at 6.3 m/s. In this configuration, the soap film wraps around the drop and acts as a sensor of the air flow, revealing that the liquid jet is preceded by a localized faster-moving air jet. The jetting in both configurations is quite robust and occurs even for slightly asymmetric conditions. These microjets appear for much lower values of the Reynolds and Weber numbers than previously observed, suggesting that free-surface jetting is not limited to the inviscid capillary-inertial regime, which has been the focus of much of the theoretical work.

Thoroddsen, S. T.; Etoh, T. G.; Takehara, K.

2007-05-01

214

Electrically assisted drop sliding on inclined planes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate that electrowetting using alternating current (ac) voltage can be used to overcome pinning of small drops due to omnipresent heterogeneities on solid surfaces. By balancing contact angle hysteresis with gravity on inclined planes, we find that the critical electrowetting number for mobilizing drops is consistent with the voltage-dependent reduction in contact angle hysteresis in ac electrowetting. Moreover, the terminal velocity of sliding drops under ac electrowetting is found to increase linearly with the electrowetting number. Based on this effect, we present a prototype of a wiper-free windscreen.

't Mannetje, D. J. C. M.; Murade, C. U.; van den Ende, D.; Mugele, F.

2011-01-01

215

Electrohydrodynamic ``drop-and-place'' particle deployment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ``drop-and-place'' paradigm aims at delivering and positioning liquid drops using a pulsed electrohydrodynamic jet. On-demand drops much smaller than the diameter of the delivery nozzle may also contain particles. We report proof-of-concept experiments on the delivery of single 2 ?m diameter particles using a 50 ?m nozzle and identify the control parameters for dosing and positioning accuracies. A positioning accuracy at the micrometer level is achieved by eliminating contact line pinning on a hydrophobic surface and minimizing impingement-induced motion. The dosing statistics follow the random Poisson distribution, indicating that single-particle accuracy can be achieved using a gating mechanism.

Chen, C.-H.; Saville, D. A.; Aksay, I. A.

2006-04-01

216

Stretching and colliding surfactant-coated drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Equilibrium and kinetic properties of interfacial tension govern the structure, dynamics, stability and performance of immiscible fluids, such as polymer blends, detergents and reaction and separation media. These properties also play a substantial role in microcapillary devices. Using extension flow to stretch drops, we develop a microfluidic approach to probe equilibrium and kinetic surfactant adsorption. We also monitor drop population dynamics in simple shear (over a wide range of capillary number) and identify surfactant properties and mechanisms that regulate the coalescence of drops in emulsions.

Hudson, Steven

2005-03-01

217

High temperature drop calorimetry and thermodynamic properties  

SciTech Connect

Experimental determination of thermodynamic properties (e.g. enthalpy of formation, heat capacity, Gibbs free energy, etc.) is still the recourse for accurate thermodynamic data for the condensed phases. Calorimetry is probably the best experimental method for their determination. Drop calorimetry in its various modifications is still the method of choice to determine the enthalpy functions for solids and liquids above 1,000 C. The conventional drop calorimeter for solids and a drop calorimeter coupled to an electromagnetic levitation coil useful for conductive samples in both the solid and molten phases are described. Experimental results obtained up to and above the melting point of rare earth metals are presented.

Chandrasekhariah, M.S. [Houston Advanced Research Center, The Woodlands, TX (United States). Materials Science Research Center; Bautista, R.G. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering

1995-04-01

218

[Dropped head syndrome in motor neuron disease].  

PubMed

Dropped head is a syndrome caused by weakness of the neck extensor muscles found in different kinds of neuromuscular disorders and also in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. This is a cases report of three women with motor neuron disease with beginning of dysphagia and cervical weakness that it evolved with dropped head. The investigation showed normal magnetic resonance imaging of brain and cervical column. Needle electromyography showed active and chronic denervation in bulbar muscles and cervical, thoracic and lumbosacral segments. We discuss the characteristic of disease, specially the clinical manifestations and electromyography features, with emphasis at the clinical evaluation of dropped head in the suspicion of motor neuron disease. PMID:16622566

Lorenzoni, Paulo José; Lange, Marcos Christiano; Kay, Cláudia S K; Almeida, Luiz G M P de; Teive, Hélio A G; Scola, Rosana H; Werneck, Lineu C

2006-04-05

219

Procedures, placement, and risks of further abuse after Munchausen syndrome by proxy, non-accidental poisoning, and non-accidental suffocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESTo investigate outcome, management, and prevention in Munchausen syndrome by proxy, non-accidental poisoning, and non-accidental suffocation.DESIGNAscertainment through British Paediatric Surveillance Unit and questionnaires to responding paediatricians.SETTINGThe UK and Republic of Ireland, September 1992 to August 1994.SUBJECTSChildren under 14 years diagnosed with the above.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURESPlacement and child protection measures for victims and siblings; morbidity and reabuse rates for victims; abuse

P Davis; R J McClure; K Rolfe; N Chessman; S Pearson; J R Sibert; R Meadow

1998-01-01

220

Involving Parents in Indicated Early Intervention for Childhood PTSD Following Accidental Injury  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Accidental injuries represent the most common type of traumatic event to which a youth is likely to be exposed. While the majority of youth who experience an accidental injury will recover spontaneously, a significant proportion will go on to develop Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). And yet, there is little published treatment outcome…

Cobham, Vanessa E.; March, Sonja; De Young, Alexandra; Leeson, Fiona; Nixon, Reginald; McDermott, Brett; Kenardy, Justin

2012-01-01

221

Two Cases of Accidental Injection of Epinephrine into a Digit Treated with Subcutaneous Phentolamine Injections  

PubMed Central

Accidental injection into the digit from an epinephrine autoinjection device can cause discoloration, pain, and paresthesias. Although loss of digit is rare, treatment in the emergency department is commonly aimed at vasodilation of the affected tissue. We report two cases of accidental injection of epinephrine into the digits that were successfully treated with subcutaneous phentolamine injection with no adverse events.

Bodkin, Ryan P.; Acquisto, Nicole M.; Wiegand, Timothy J.

2013-01-01

222

Accidental unilateral and incomplete strangulation injury in a patient while traveling on a bicycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chunni (a piece of cloth worn around the neck by many Indian women) is a well recognized accidental ligature around the neck. We report a rare case of accidental strangulation with chunni where the patient was pillion rider on bicycle; in spite of very common of use of bicycle to best our knowledge this kind of injury has not been

Amit Agrawal; Sudhir Ninave; Tripti Srivastava; Anil Sunkara; Sachin Agrawal

2009-01-01

223

[Spontaneous breathing and stable hemodynamics during severe accidental hypothermia (22 degrees C)].  

PubMed

We present a case of severe accidental hypothermia (core temperature 22 degrees C) after a suicide attempt. The initial symptoms and the pre-hospital and hospital treatment are discussed. Additionally, different rewarming strategies for patients with severe accidental hypothermia are compared. PMID:15645385

Radke, O; Bräuer, A; Mielck, F; Hanekop, G G; Baryalei, M; Kettler, D; Quintel, M

2005-01-01

224

Accidental blood exposure: risk and prevention in interventional radiology  

PubMed Central

There is a growing concern about the transmission of bloodborne pathogens during medical procedures among health care workers and patients. Over the last three decades, radiological services have undergone many changes with the introduction of new modalities. One of these new disciplines is interventional radiology (IR) which deals with procedures such as arteriography, image-guided biopsies, intravascular catheter insertions, angioplasty and stent placements. Despite these developments, the potential for accidental blood exposure and exposure to other infectious material continues to exist. Therefore, it is important for all radiologists who perform invasive procedures to observe specific recommendations for infection control. In this review, we look at the different policies for protection and universal standards on infection control.

Vijayananthan, A; Tan, LH; Owen, A; Bhat, R; Edwards, R; Robertson, I; Moss, JG; Nicholls, R

2006-01-01

225

Accidental low velocity atypical missile injury to the head.  

PubMed

Missile injuries on the head are mostly due to firearms. Atypical missiles may be encountered in case of shrapnel of bomb explosions but rarely because of stones. The present case is a rare case where a stone propelled by the pressure from the rear wheel of a speeding truck on the highway, struck the head of a 7-year-old girl resulting in fatality. Reconstruction of the incident on the basis of history and postmortem findings throws some light on the mechanism. The case is unique as it is the first reported case of an accidental missile injury to the head resulting in fatality without any direct human involvement for propulsion of the projectile. PMID:19259020

Chattopadhyay, Saurabh

2008-12-01

226

An analysis of aircraft exhaust plumes form accidental encounters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis of data obtained during the second Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (AASE-II) was made with emphasis on aircraft exhaust plumes accidentally encountered during the mission. Twenty spikes were found with peak NO(y) increments greater than or equal to 1 ppbv. The examination of CO and CO2 indicated that there was only one NO(y) spike having clearly corresponding spikes of both CO and CO2 and another four with unambigious CO2 spikes. No significant increases were found for CH4 and N2O for these 5 spikes. The ratio of the excess CO2 and NO(y) compares well with the ratio of published subsonic aircraft emission indices. The study of the selected spikes from the DC-8 and another two spikes observed during other missions shows that the odd nitrogen other than NO(x) accounts for a very small percentage of the NO(y) increase associated with the observed spikes.

Zheng, J.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Ridley, B. A.; Liu, S. C.; Sachse, G. W.; Anderson, B. E.; Collins, J. E., Jr.

1994-11-01

227

Dose assessment of an accidental exposure at the IPNS  

SciTech Connect

Seven different methods were used to estimate the dose rate to a female worker who was accidentally exposed in the neutron PHOENIX beamline at the IPNS. Theoretical and measured entrance dose ranged from 550 mrem/min to 2850 mrem/min. Theoretical estimates were based on a Monte Carlo simulation of a spectrum provided by IPNS (Crawford Spectrum). Dose measurements were made with TLDs on phantoms and with ionization chambers in a water phantom. Estimates of the whole body total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) rate ranged from 5.2 mrem/min to 840 mrem/min. Assumed and measured quality factors ranged from 2.6 to 11.8. Cytogenetic analyses of blood samples detected no positive exposure. The recommended TEDE rate was 158 mrem/min. The TEDE was 750 mrem.

Campos Torres, M.M.

1995-02-01

228

Dose assessment of an accidental exposure at IPNS  

SciTech Connect

Seven different methods were used to estimate the dose rate to a female worker who was accidentally exposed in the neutron PHOENIX beamline at the IPNS. Theoretical and measured entrance dose rates ranged from 550 mrem/min to 2,850 mrem/min. Theoretical estimates were based on a Monte Carlo simulation of a spectrum provided by IPNS (Crawford Spectrum). Dose measurements were made with TLDs on phantoms and with ionization chambers in a water phantom. Estimates of the whole body total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) rate ranged from 5.2 mrem/min to 840 mrem/min. Assumed and measured quality factors ranged from 2.6 to 11.8. Cytogenic analyses of blood samples detected no positive exposure. The recommended TEDE rate was 158 mrem/min. The TEDE was 750 mrem.

Torres, M.M.C.

1996-05-01

229

Accidental firearm fatalities and injuries among recreational hunters.  

PubMed

Injuries and fatalities from recreational hunting accidents have been studied much less than firearm accidents occurring in urban populations. The available data indicate that hunting accidents may account for a significant number of unintentional firearm accidents in areas outside commonly studied urban settings. Legislative efforts to control handgun availability can be expected to have little impact on hunting accident statistics. The development of automatic firearm safety devices, promotion of hunter safety programs, and greater participation by the medical community in preventive measures may impact the problem. Similar efforts have already been influential in reducing other forms of accidental injury through promotion of seat-belt use, local motorcycle helmet laws, use of infant car seats, and, most recently, regulations regarding all-terrain vehicles. PMID:2650592

Carter, G L

1989-04-01

230

Detection of non-accidental injuries presenting at emergency departments  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To investigate whether cases of possible non-accidental injury as identified using five risk indicators give rise to any subjective concerns of child abuse. Methods: Questionnaires were completed by the triage nurse and attending doctor for every child attending the general hospitals of the North Western Health Board, with an injury, during a six month period. The questionnaires included an assessment of subjective concerns about the injury occurrence and five risk indicators of child abuse. Results: Children presenting with an injury who had two or more positive indicators failed to raise subjective concerns in the attending emergency department staff. Conclusions: The introduction of a policy of identifying positive indicators from the five risk indicators of child abuse needs additional computer support within emergency departments.

McKinney, A; Lane, G; Hickey, F

2004-01-01

231

[Emergency measures in accidental exposure to ionizing radiation].  

PubMed

The present paper is intended to provide any physician with a basic information and recommendations on how to behave with individuals who have been irradiated and/or contaminated (or believed to have been exposed), either in the case of a broad nuclear accident or a limited accidental exposure (e.g. occupational). Emphasis is put on the emergency measures to be taken as well as on their relative priority. Information is also provided in order to allow any physician to assess the magnitude and the severity of the exposure on the basis of early clinical symptoms and reactions. This would enable him to sort out the patients and to orientate them towards the appropriate specialized centre, or on the other hand, to reassure the patients. The information and recommendations are presented, purposely, in a concise and schematic way in order to facilitate, when needed, a quick and easy reading. PMID:8570985

Smeesters, P; Frühling, J; Wambersie, A

1995-12-01

232

[Lethal bleeding after accidental swallowing of a wooden meat skewer].  

PubMed

Fistulas into the large vessels are a rare cause of intestinal bleeding. In some cases they are caused by transmural perforation after the accidental swallowing of a sharp foreign body like a bone or a fish bone. We report about a 79-year-old patient who had swallowed a fragment of a wooden meat skewer which induced a perforation of the oesophagus and aorta walls. The patient was admitted to the hospital with signs of severe gastrointestinal bleeding. The emergency endoscopic examination confirmed the cause of the bleeding, but the patient died during the intervention from haemorrhagic shock. The forensic autopsy confirmed the clinical suspicion of an aorto-oesophageal fistula. PMID:19662587

Sauer, B M; Staritz, M; Perdekamp, M Grosse

2009-08-06

233

Experimental study on thermocapillary motion of isolated drop and coalescence problems of drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermocapillay migrations of drops under temperature gradient were studied through ground-based experiment, experiment using drop tower and space experiment in microgravity. The motion of isolated drop at moderate to large Marangoni numbers (Ma) and the interaction of drops were investigated. Experimental data show that the scaled migration velocity of isolated drop, V/VYGB, appears an obvious decrease trend with the increase of Maragoni number up to 5500. This result does not agree with some theoretical predictions. Interferometry was applied in our space experiment to visualize the whole temperature field and to get detailed informations of temperature variation around a moving drop and the thermal wake behind it. Interferometric images indicate that drop's migration very sensitively follows the direction of temperature gradient because of slow migration velocity and microgravity condition. The temperature disturbance around a leading drop and the thermal wake behind it would exist for a quite long time in the real case. The variation of temperature field would substantially affect the migration velocity of a trailing drop in both direction and value, and this would bring about coalescence problems of two or multiple drops.

Xie, Jingchang; Lin, Hai

2011-11-01

234

Transient electrohydrodynamics of a liquid drop.  

PubMed

The transient behavior of a leaky dielectric liquid drop under a uniform electric field of small strength is investigated. It is shown that for small distortion from a spherical shape, the drop deforms to an ellipsoid, and the deformation time history is represented by D=D(?)[1-exp(-t/?)], where D(?) is the steady-state deformation and ?=(a?(o)/?)(19?+16)(2?+3)/(40?+40)is the characteristic time, a, ?, ?(o) and ? being the drop radius, the surface tension, the viscosity of ambient fluid, and ratio of the drop viscosity to that of the ambient fluid, respectively. The contributions of the net normal and tangential electrical stresses in the degree of deformation and fluid flow strength are also determined. PMID:22060493

Esmaeeli, Asghar; Sharifi, Payam

2011-09-09

235

The evaporation of a drop of mercury  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evaporative rates of two drops of mercury at room temperature are determined experimentally and theoretically. The resulting mercury vapor levels are estimated and measured, compared with the OSHA permissible exposure limit, and found to be small by comparison.

Winter, Thomas G.

2003-08-01

236

Sound field inside acoustically levitated spherical drop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sound field inside an acoustically levitated small spherical water drop (radius of 1 mm) is studied under different incident sound pressures (amplitude p0=2735-5643 Pa). The transmitted pressure ptr in the drop shows a plane standing wave, which varies mainly in the vertical direction, and distributes almost uniformly in the horizontal direction. The maximum of ptr is always located at the lowermost point of the levitated drop. Whereas the secondary maximum appears at the uppermost point if the incident pressure amplitude p0 is higher than an intermediate value (3044 Pa), in which there exists a pressure nodal surface in the drop interior. The value of the maximum ptr lies in a narrow range of 2489-3173 Pa, which has a lower limit of 2489 Pa when p0=3044 Pa. The secondary maximum of ptr is rather small and only remarkable at high incident pressures.

Xie, W. J.; Wei, B.

2007-05-01

237

Shapes of Bubbles and Drops in Motion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explains the shape distortions that take place in fluid packets (bubbles or drops) with steady flow motion by using the laws of Archimedes, Pascal, and Bernoulli rather than advanced vector calculus. (WRM)|

O'Connell, James

2000-01-01

238

Evaluation of wheelchair drop seat crashworthiness.  

PubMed

Wheelchair seating crash performance is critical to protecting wheelchair users who remain seated in their wheelchairs during transportation. Relying upon computer simulation and sled testing seat loads associated with a 20 g/48 kph (20 g/30 mph) frontal impact and 50th percentile male occupant were estimated to develop test criteria. Using a static test setup we evaluated the performance of various types of commercially available drop seats against the loading test criteria. Five different types of drop seats (two specimens each) constructed of various materials (i.e. plastics, plywood, metal) were evaluated. Two types of drop seats (three of the total 10 specimens) met the 16650 N (3750 lb) frontal impact test criteria. While additional validation of the test protocol is necessary, this study suggests that some drop seat designs may be incapable of withstanding crash level loads. PMID:11427362

Bertocci, G; Ha, D; van Roosmalen, L; Karg, P; Deemer, E

2001-05-01

239

Drop Test - Cessna Golden Eagle 421B.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of two airplane vertical impact tests conducted at the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Technical Center, Atlantic City International Airport, New Jersey. These tests entailed dropping a low wing, twin engine Cessna 4...

R. McGuire W. Nissley A. Wilson

1992-01-01

240

Drop Test: Cessna Golden Eagle 421B.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of two airplane vertical impact tests conducted at the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Technical Center, Atlantic City International Airport, New Jersey are presented. These tests entailed dropping a low wing, twin engine Cessna 421B air...

R. Mcguire W. Nissley A. Wilson

1992-01-01

241

Aligner for Elastic Collisions of Dropped Balls.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses an aligner that permits dropping a stack of any number of balls of different sizes, elasticities, hardnesses, or types to observe the rebound of the top ball. Experimental results allow a reasonable comparison with theory. (MVL)

Mellen, Walter Roy

1995-01-01

242

Making Drop Off at Child Care Easier  

MedlinePLUS

... Easier Family Life Listen Making Drop Off at Child Care Easier Article Body Getting the day started can ... some suggestions to make your separation at the child care setting a little easier for both of you. ...

243

Aligner for Elastic Collisions of Dropped Balls.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses an aligner that permits dropping a stack of any number of balls of different sizes, elasticities, hardnesses, or types to observe the rebound of the top ball. Experimental results allow a reasonable comparison with theory. (MVL)|

Mellen, Walter Roy

1995-01-01

244

La Gocciolina (The Little Drop of Water).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This primary level reader in Italian intended for use in a bilingual education setting, is about the life cycle of a drop of water. The drop of water is personified and the story tells of its adventures as it travels from the top of the lake to the bottom, its meeting with the inhabitants of the lake, and its trip to the clouds. After deciding…

Palandra, Maria

245

La Gocciolina (The Little Drop of Water).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This primary level reader in Italian intended for use in a bilingual education setting, is about the life cycle of a drop of water. The drop of water is personified and the story tells of its adventures as it travels from the top of the lake to the bottom, its meeting with the inhabitants of the lake, and its trip to the clouds. After deciding not…

Palandra, Maria

246

Drop on demand in a microfluidic chip  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we introduce the novel technique of in-chip drop on demand, which consists in dispensing picoliter to nanoliter drops on demand directly in the liquid-filled channels of a polymer microfluidic chip, at frequencies up to 2.5 kHz and with precise volume control. The technique involves a PDMS chip with one or several microliter-size chambers driven by piezoelectric actuators.

Jie Xu; Daniel Attinger

2008-01-01

247

The USGS Earthquake Scenario Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Earthquake Hazards Program (EHP) is producing a comprehensive suite of earthquake scenarios for planning, mitigation, loss estimation, and scientific investigations. The Earthquake Scenario Project (ESP), though lacking clairvoyance, is a forward-looking project, estimating earthquake hazard and loss outcomes as they may occur one day. For each scenario event, fundamental input includes i) the magnitude and specified fault mechanism and dimensions, ii) regional Vs30 shear velocity values for site amplification, and iii) event metadata. A grid of standard ShakeMap ground motion parameters (PGA, PGV, and three spectral response periods) is then produced using the well-defined, regionally-specific approach developed by the USGS National Seismic Hazard Mapping Project (NHSMP), including recent advances in empirical ground motion predictions (e.g., the NGA relations). The framework also allows for numerical (3D) ground motion computations for specific, detailed scenario analyses. Unlike NSHMP ground motions, for ESP scenarios, local rock and soil site conditions and commensurate shaking amplifications are applied based on detailed Vs30 maps where available or based on topographic slope as a proxy. The scenario event set is comprised primarily by selection from the NSHMP events, though custom events are also allowed based on coordination of the ESP team with regional coordinators, seismic hazard experts, seismic network operators, and response coordinators. The event set will be harmonized with existing and future scenario earthquake events produced regionally or by other researchers. The event list includes approximate 200 earthquakes in CA, 100 in NV, dozens in each of NM, UT, WY, and a smaller number in other regions. Systematic output will include all standard ShakeMap products, including HAZUS input, GIS, KML, and XML files used for visualization, loss estimation, ShakeCast, PAGER, and for other systems. All products will be delivered via the EHP web pages in a user-searchable archive. In addition, we aim to duplicate most of the real-time earthquake event web page functionality for scenario drills and exercises, including all standard post-earthquake information tools. Hence, for each event, USGS PAGER runs will be produced, providing population exposure at current population levels, and Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) will produce HAZUS impact assessments. Anticipated users include FEMA, the loss modeling and insurance communities, emergency responders and mitigation planners (city, county, state, industry, utilities, corporate), the general public and the media. The Earthquake Scenario Project will also take on several pending scientific challenges related to scenario generation, including ways to include fault directivity, numerical ground motions, and ways to produce ground motion uncertainties (in addition to median peak ground motions). A parallel though less comprehensive effort is underway to produce scenarios for targeted regions and events around the globe.

Wald, D. J.; Petersen, M. D.; Wald, L. A.; Frankel, A. D.; Quitoriano, V. R.; Lin, K.; Luco, N.; Mathias, S.; Bausch, D.

2009-12-01

248

Electrochemistry in an acoustically levitated drop.  

PubMed

Levitated drops show potential as microreactors, especially when radicals are present as reactants or products. Solid/liquid interfaces are absent or minimized, avoiding adsorption and interfacial reaction of conventional microfluidics. We report amperometric detection in an acoustically levitated drop with simultaneous ballistic addition of reactant. A gold microelectrode sensor was fabricated with a lithographic process; active electrode area was defined by a photosensitive polyimide mask. The microdisk gold working electrode of radius 19 ?m was characterized using ferrocenemethanol in aqueous buffer. Using cyclic voltammetry, the electrochemically active surface area was estimated by combining a recessed microdisk electrode model with the Randles-Sevcik equation. Computer-controlled ballistic introduction of reactant droplets into the levitated drop was developed. Chronoamperometric measurements of ferrocyanide added ballistically demonstrate electrochemical monitoring using the microfabricated electrode in a levitated drop. Although concentration increases with time due to drop evaporation, the extent of concentration is predictable with a linear evaporation model. Comparison of diffusion-limited currents in pendant and levitated drops show that convection arising from acoustic levitation causes an enhancement of diffusion-limited current on the order of 16%. PMID:23351154

Chainani, Edward T; Ngo, Khanh T; Scheeline, Alexander

2013-02-06

249

Prevention Reference Manual: Control Technologies. Volume 1. Prevention and Protection Technologies for Controlling Accidental Releases of Air Toxics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The volume discusses prevention and protection measures for controlling accidental releases of air toxics. The probability of accidental releases depends on the extent to which deviations (in magnitude and duration) in the process can be tolerated before ...

D. S. Davis G. B. DeWolf J. D. Quass

1987-01-01

250

14 CFR 27.727 - Reserve energy absorption drop test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Reserve energy absorption drop test. 27.727 Section 27.727...Landing Gear § 27.727 Reserve energy absorption drop test. The reserve energy absorption drop test must be conducted as...

2013-01-01

251

14 CFR 29.727 - Reserve energy absorption drop test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Reserve energy absorption drop test. 29.727 Section 29.727...Landing Gear § 29.727 Reserve energy absorption drop test. The reserve energy absorption drop test must be conducted as...

2013-01-01

252

14 CFR 27.727 - Reserve energy absorption drop test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Reserve energy absorption drop test. 27.727 Section 27.727...Landing Gear § 27.727 Reserve energy absorption drop test. The reserve energy absorption drop test must be conducted as...

2010-01-01

253

Consumer strategies for the internet: four scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article outlines a scenario planning process for building successful World Wide Web related businesses. In addition to outlining five tips for Internet content providers, the article describes four alternative scenarios for the future of the Internet and identifies the 16 most relevant drivers of those scenarios. The scenarios—written as though it is the year 2000—describe alternative views of how

Doug Randall

1997-01-01

254

Scenario-Based Requirement Analysis 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for scenario based requirements engineering is described. T he method uses two types of scenario, structure models of the system context and s cripts of system usage. A modelling language is reported for describing scenarios, a nd heuristics are given to cross check dependencies between scenario models and the require ments specification. Heuristics are grouped into several analytic

Alistair Sutcliffe

1998-01-01

255

Environmental scenarios and requirements stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper recognizes the gap in research and practice that exists in addressing the evolution of E-Type systems that result from changes in the operating environment of the system over very long lifecycles. Through the fusion of a Goal Directed approach to requirements and the use of techniques drawn from Scenario Planning as used in the business community, this paper

David Bush; Anthony Finkelstein

2002-01-01

256

Scenario Analysis: Applications and Extensions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary aim of this work was to enhance the method of scenario analysis for decision-making under uncertainty. An effect of such enhancement could be to help the Army make better decisions in situations involving resource allocation under uncertainty,...

S. M. Robinson

1993-01-01

257

Hydroclimate Scenarios of Amazon Deforestation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The regional and global implications of the replacement of natural forest by degraded vegetation in the Amazon on the regional and global hydroclimate have yet to be fully understood and quantified. In this study, regional and global climate models are used in conjunction with scenarios of land-cover change resulting from socio-economic and ecological analyses for the coming decades, to estimate potential hydroclimate changes in and outside of the Amazon basin. Four ensembles of six realizations, twelve years each, are produced with the NASA-GISS GCM II: (1) a "control" ensemble that simulates the land cover in the Amazon basin before massive deforestation started; (2) a "current land cover" ensemble; (3) a "scenario for 2030" ensemble; and (4) a "scenario for 2050" ensemble. In addition, The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) is used at a high resolution (20 km grid size) over the Amazon Basin and using the same four land-cover scenarios but with the NCEP reanalysis for three different years (wet, dry, and typical) forcing its lateral boundaries. The combination of these different simulations reveals significant impact of deforestation on the regional and global hydroclimate.

Avissar, R.; Ramos da Silva, R.; Werth, D.

2004-12-01

258

Spent fuel receipt scenarios study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports on the results of an assignment from the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management to evaluate of the effects of different scenarios for receipt of spent fuel on the potential performance of the waste packages in the proposed Yucca Mountain high-level waste repository. The initial evaluations were performed and an interim letter report was prepared during

L. B. Ballou; D. N. Montan; M. A. Revelli

1990-01-01

259

Lifetime of oil drops pressed by buoyancy against a planar interface: large drops.  

PubMed

In a previous report [C. Rojas, G. Urbina-Villalba, and M. García-Sucre, Phys. Rev. E 81, 016302 (2010)] it was shown that emulsion stability simulations are able to reproduce the lifetime of micrometer-size drops of hexadecane pressed by buoyancy against a planar water-hexadecane interface. It was confirmed that small drops (r(i)< 10 ?m) stabilized with ? -casein behave as nondeformable particles, moving with a combination of Stokes and Taylor tensors as they approach the interface. Here, a similar methodology is used to parametrize the potential of interaction of drops of soybean oil stabilized with bovine serum albumin. The potential obtained is then employed to study the lifetime of deformable drops in the range 10 ? r(i) ? 1000 ?m . It is established that the average lifetime of these drops can be adequately replicated using the model of truncated spheres. However, the results depend sensibly on the expressions of the initial distance of deformation and the maximum film radius used in the calculations. The set of equations adequate for large drops is not satisfactory for medium-size drops (10 ? r(i) ? 100 ?m) , and vice versa. In the case of large particles, the increase in the interfacial area as a consequence of the deformation of the drops generates a very large repulsive barrier which opposes coalescence. Nevertheless, the buoyancy force prevails. As a consequence, it is the hydrodynamic tensor of the drops which determine the characteristic behavior of the lifetime as a function of the particle size. While the average values of the coalescence time of the drops can be justified by the mechanism of film thinning, the scattering of the experimental data of large drops cannot be rationalized using the methodology previously described. A possible explanation of this phenomenon required elaborate simulations which combine deformable drops, capillary waves, repulsive interaction forces, and a time-dependent surfactant adsorption. PMID:21230586

Rojas, Clara; García-Sucre, Máximo; Urbina-Villalba, Germán

2010-11-16

260

Source, dispersion and combustion modelling of an accidental release of hydrogen in an urban environment.  

PubMed

Hydrogen is likely to be the most important future energy carrier, for many stationary and mobile applications, with the potential to make significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions especially if renewable primary energy sources are used to produce the hydrogen. A safe transition to the use of hydrogen by members of the general public requires that the safety issues associated with hydrogen applications have to be investigated and fully understood. In order to assess the risks associated with hydrogen applications, its behaviour in realistic accident scenarios has to be predicted, allowing mitigating measures to be developed where necessary. A key factor in this process is predicting the release, dispersion and combustion of hydrogen in appropriate scenarios. This paper illustrates an application of CFD methods to the simulation of an actual hydrogen explosion. The explosion occurred on 3 March 1983 in a built up area of central Stockholm, Sweden, after the accidental release of approximately 13.5 kg of hydrogen from a rack of 18 interconnected 50 l industrial pressure vessels (200 bar working pressure) being transported by a delivery truck. Modelling of the source term, dispersion and combustion were undertaken separately using three different numerical tools, due to the differences in physics and scales between the different phenomena. Results from the dispersion calculations together with the official accident report were used to identify a possible ignition source and estimate the time at which ignition could have occurred. Ignition was estimated to occur 10s after the start of the release, coinciding with the time at which the maximum flammable hydrogen mass and cloud volume were found to occur (4.5 kg and 600 m(3), respectively). The subsequent simulation of the combustion adopts initial conditions for mean flow and turbulence from the dispersion simulations, and calculates the development of a fireball. This provides physical values, e.g. maximum overpressure and far-field overpressure that may be used as a comparison with the known accident details to give an indication of the validity of the models. The simulation results are consistent with both the reported near-field damage to buildings and persons and with the far-field damage to windows. The work was undertaken as part of the European Integrated Hydrogen Project-Phase 2 (EIHP2) with partial funding from the European Commission via the Fifth Framework Programme. PMID:14623417

Venetsanos, A G; Huld, T; Adams, P; Bartzis, J G

2003-12-12

261

Charge and Size Distributions of Electrospray Drops  

PubMed

The distributions of charge q and diameter d of drops emitted from electrified liquid cones in the cone-jet mode are investigated with two aerosol instruments. A differential mobility analyzer (DMA, Vienna type) first samples the spray drops, selects those with electrical mobilities within a narrow band, and either measures the associated current or passes them to a second instrument. The drops may also be individually counted optically and sized by sampling them into an aerodynamic size spectrometer (API's Aerosizer). For a given cone-jet, the distribution of charge q for the main electrospray drops is some 2.5 times broader than their distribution of diameters d, with qmax/qmin approximately 4. But mobility-selected drops have relative standard deviations of only 5% for both d and q, showing that the support of the (q, d) distribution is a narrow band centered around a curve q(d). The approximate one-dimensionality of this support region is explained through the mechanism of jet breakup, which is a random process with only one degree of freedom: the wavelength of axial modulation of the jet. The observed near constancy of the charge over volume ratio (q approximately d3) shows that the charge is frozen in the liquid surface at the time scale of the breakup process. The charge over volume ratio of the primary drops varies between 98 and 55% of the ratio of spray current I over liquid flow rate Q, and decreases at increasing Q. I/Q is therefore an unreliable measure of the charge density of these drops. PMID:9056353

de Juan L; de la Mora JF

1997-02-15

262

A subsequent movement alters lower extremity muscle activity and kinetics in drop jumps vs. drop landings.  

PubMed

Drop landings and drop jumps are common training exercises and injury research model tasks. Drop landings have a single landing, whereas drop jumps include a subsequent jump after initial landing. With the expected ground impact, instant and landing surface suggested to modulate landing neuromechanics, muscle activity, and kinetics should be the same in both tasks when landing from the same height onto the same surface. Although previous researchers have noted some differences between these tasks across separate studies, little research has compared these tasks in the same study. Thus, we examined whether a subsequent movement after initial landing alters muscle activity and kinetics between drop landings and jumps. Fifteen women performed 10 drop landings and drop jumps each from 45 cm. Muscle onsets and integrated muscle activation amplitudes 150 milliseconds before (preactivity) and after landing (postactivity) in the medial and lateral quadriceps, hamstrings, and lateral gastrocnemius and peak and time-to-peak vertical ground reaction forces were examined across tasks (p ? 0.05). When performing drop jumps, subjects demonstrated later (p = 0.02) gastrocnemius and lesser lateral gastrocnemius (p = 0.002) and medial quadriceps (p = 0.02) preactivity followed by increased postactivity in all muscles (p = 0.006), with higher peak vertical ground reaction forces (p = 0.04) but no differences in times to these peaks (p = 0.60) than drop landings. The later gastrocnemius activation, higher gastrocnemius and quadriceps postlanding amplitudes, and higher ground reaction forces in drop jumps may allow subjects to propel the body vertically after the initial landing vs. simply absorbing impact in drop landings. Our results indicate that in addition to landing surface and height, anticipation of a subsequent task changes landing neuromechanics. Generalizations of results from landing-only studies should not be made with landing followed-by-subsequent-activity studies. Landing exercises should be incorporated based on sport-specific demands. PMID:21873898

Ambegaonkar, Jatin P; Shultz, Sandra J; Perrin, David H

2011-10-01

263

Elastic wave effects in viscoelastic drop deformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flow induced drop deformation critically affects the behavior of emulsions. Moreover, single drop dynamics assumes importance in microfluidic applications, liposome based targeted drug delivery, and contrast agents for medical imaging. We have been engaged in a computational study of the deformation history of a single drop in imposed time-periodic viscous flows. Previously, we reported a small Reynolds number simulation using front-tracking and finite difference methods that displayed a resonance phenomenon with varying interfacial tension and frequency. For a viscoelastic drop with a UCM constitutive relation we found that the drop dynamics changed character significantly, in that the deformation varies non-monotonically with relaxation time. Finally, we found that elasticity generates a system of shear waves that affects the deformation. We will present a perturbative analysis of the wave phenomenon. The effect will be explained with the help of a simple demonstrative example of a layer of viscoelatic fluid underlying another layer of viscous fluid. The importance of the phenomenon in different situations will be investigated.

Sarkar, Kausik

2002-11-01

264

Noncontact temperature measurement of a falling drop  

SciTech Connect

The 105-m drop tube at the Marshall Space Flight Center has been used in a number of experiments to determine the effects of containerless, microgravity processing on the undercooling and solidification behavior of metals and alloys. These experiments have been limited, however, because direct temperature measurement of the falling drops has not been available. Undercooling and nucleation temperatures are calculated from thermophysical properties based on droplet cooling models. In most cases these properties are not well known, particularly in the undercooled state. This results in a large amount of uncertainty in the determination of nucleation temperatures. If temperature measurement can be accomplished, then the thermal history of the drops could be well documented. This would lead to a better understanding of the thermophysicial and thermal radiative properties of undercooled melts. An effort to measure the temperature of a falling drop is under way at Vanderbilt and Marshall Space Flight Center. The technique uses two-color pyrometry and high-speed data acquisition. The approach is presented along with some preliminary data from drop tube experiments. The results from droplet cooling models are compared with noncontact temperature measurements.

Hofmeister, W.J.; Bayuzick, R.J.; Robinson, M.B.

1989-01-01

265

A Native American exposure scenario.  

PubMed

EPA's Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS) and later documents provide guidance for estimating exposures received from suburban and agricultural activity patterns and lifestyles. However, these methods are not suitable for typical tribal communities whose members pursue, at least in part, traditional lifestyles. These lifestyles are derived from a long association with all of the resources in a particular region. We interviewed 35 members of a Columbia River Basin tribe to develop a lifestyle-based subsistence exposure scenario that represents a midrange exposure that a traditional tribal member would receive. This scenario provides a way to partially satisfy Executive Order 12,898 on environmental justice, which requires a specific evaluation of impacts from federal actions to peoples with subsistence diets. Because a subsistence diet is only a portion of what is important to a traditional lifestyle, we also used information obtained from the interviews to identify parameters for evaluating impacts to environmental and sociocultural quality of life. PMID:9463932

Harris, S G; Harper, B L

1997-12-01

266

B-52B/Dtv (Drop Test Vehicle) Flight Test Results: Drop Test Missions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The NASA test airplane, B-52B-008, was a carrier for drop tests of the shuttle booster recovery parachute system. The purpose of the test support by Boeing was to monitor the vertical loads on the pylon hooks. The hooks hold the Drop Test Vehicle to the B...

L. J. Doty

1985-01-01

267

Effects of rod worth and drop speed on the BWR off-center rod drop accident  

SciTech Connect

BWR off-center RDA calculations have been performed for selected rod worths and drop speeds. While in all cases the peak fuel enthalpy was well below the 280 cal/g fuel criterion, a substantial sensitivity to control rod worth and rod drop speed was observed.

Cokinos, D.M.; Carew, J.F.

1985-01-01

268

Computer simulations of nematic drops: Coupling between drop shape and nematic order  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We perform Monte Carlo computer simulations of nematic drops in equilibrium with their vapor using a Gay-Berne interaction between the rod-like molecules. To generate the drops, we initially perform NPT simulations close to the nematic-vapor coexistence region, allow the system to equilibrate and subsequently induce a sudden volume expansion, followed with NVT simulations. The resultant drops coexist with their vapor and are generally not spherical but elongated, have the rod-like particles tangentially aligned at the surface and an overall nematic orientation along the main axis of the drop. We find that the drop eccentricity increases with increasing molecular elongation, ?. For small ? the nematic texture in the drop is bipolar with two surface defects, or boojums, maximizing their distance along this same axis. For sufficiently high ?, the shape of the drop becomes singular in the vicinity of the defects, and there is a crossover to an almost homogeneous texture; this reflects a transition from a spheroidal to a spindle-like drop.

Rull, L. F.; Romero-Enrique, J. M.; Fernandez-Nieves, A.

2012-07-01

269

Hydrogen and transportation: alternative scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

If hydrogen (H2) is to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions and oil use, it needs to displace conventional transport fuels and be\\u000a produced in ways that do not generate significant greenhouse gas emissions. This paper analyses alternative ways H2 can be produced, transported and used to achieve these goals. Several H2 scenarios are developed and compared to each other. In

Carmen Difiglio; Dolf Gielen

2007-01-01

270

A Little Drop of Water: Cohesion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners explore water's property of cohesion through two investigations. In Drops on a Penny, they see how many drops of water or other fluids can fit on a penny before the drops run over, and in Filled to the Brim they fill a cup to the brim with water, then slowly add paperclips to observe what happens. In both activities, learners make predictions about what will happen and compare their predictions with observations. Learners also use marshmallows to become familiar with the atomic structure and behavior of water molecules, including the attraction between water molecules known as surface tension. The student journal includes a Science @ Home activity for experiencing how water molecules stick together when flowing from a can with holes.

Jersey, New; Center, Liberty S.; Coalition, New J.

2006-01-01

271

Secondary breakup of coal water slurry drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate secondary atomization of coal water slurry (CWS), deformation and breakup of eight kinds of CWS drops are presented using high speed digital camera. Based on morphology, deformation and breakup regimes of CWS drops can be termed some different modes: deformation, multimode breakup (including two sub-modes: hole breakup and tensile breakup), and shear breakup. Correlations on the ranges of breakup modes are also obtained. The conventional Weber number and Ohnesorge number are found to be insufficient to classify all breakup modes of CWS drops, so two other non-dimensional numbers based on rheology of CWS are suggested to use in the deformation and breakup regime map. Finally, total breakup time is studied and correlated, which increases with Ohnesorge number.

Zhao, Hui; Liu, Hai-Feng; Xu, Jian-Liang; Li, Wei-Feng

2011-11-01

272

Dropped head syndrome and Systemic sclerosis.  

PubMed

The prominent or isolated weakness of cervical extensor muscles is a relatively rare clinical sign. Commonly, this is known as "dropped-head syndrome". This abnormal flexion of the head may occur in a variety of neuromuscular diseases and in a few non-neurological disorders as well. Systemic sclerosis is a clinically heterogeneous disorder which affects small arteries, microvessels and connective tissue with the involvement of multiple organs such as lung, heart, kidney and gastrointestinal tract. There is no evidence in literature of association between dropped head syndrome and rheumatic diseases, particularly systemic sclerosis. The case we describe concerns a 74-year-old woman with dropped-head syndrome associated to Systemic sclerosis and pulmonary hypertension in absence of myositis signs. PMID:19321373

Rosato, Edoardo; Rossi, Carmelina; Salsano, Felice

2009-03-24

273

Accidental deaths caused by electricity in Sweden, 1975-2000.  

PubMed

This study analyzes accidental fatalities caused by electricity--at work and during leisure time--to evaluate risk factors, the role of alcohol, and to identify possible preventive strategies. In Sweden, data on fatalities by electrocution from 1975 through 2000 were collected from the National Cause-of-Death Register. Additional cases were found in the archives of The Swedish National Electrical Safety Board. Suicides and deaths by lightning were excluded. Two hundred and eighty-five deaths were found, including occupational (n=132), leisure time (n=151), and unknown (n=2). Most deaths were caused by aerial power lines, and the most common place for an electrical injury was a railway area or residential property. Postmortem blood from 20% (n=47) of the tested cases was found positive for alcohol, and these persons were killed mainly during leisure time. During the study period, the overall incidence of electricity-related fatalities has decreased, in spite of increased use of electricity. This indicates that safety improvements have been successful. PMID:17199625

Lindström, Richard; Bylund, Per-Olof; Eriksson, Anders

2006-11-01

274

Chemical causes of the typical burnt smell after accidental fires.  

PubMed

The components responsible for the typical burnt smell that occurs after accidental fires (e.g. in buildings) were identified. For this purpose, samples of odorous materials were taken from different real fire sites. Their volatile fractions were analysed by means of thermal desorption, headspace analysis and solid-phase microextraction (SPME) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Measurements performed with SPME gave the highest number of analytes as well as the highest signal intensities. A divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane SPME fibre was found to be the most suitable for this task. To distinguish the odour-active compounds from the ca. 1,400 identified volatiles concentrated by SPME, an olfactory detection port was attached to the GC/MS and the column effluent was assessed by panellists. The results revealed that eleven odorous compounds were present in most of the investigated samples: acetophenone, benzyl alcohol, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol, 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 2-hydroxy-5-methylbenzldehyde, 2-methoxyphenol, 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol, 2-methylphenol, 3-methylphenol, 4-methylphenol and naphthalene. Their odour activities were confirmed in additional olfactory experiments, and the relative ratios of these eleven compounds were determined. Based on these ratios, standard solutions that presented an intense odour with typical characteristics of the burnt smell were produced. PMID:19730832

Heitmann, Katharina; Wichmann, Hubertus; Bahadir, Müfit

2009-11-01

275

[Gonococcal vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls: sexual abuse or accidental transmission?].  

PubMed

Vulvovaginitis is the most frequent gynecologic pathology among prepubertal females. An infectious cause is found in 30% of cases and is highly associated with the presence of vaginal discharge upon examination. Neisseria gonorrhoeae may be one of the causative agents. Since N. gonorrhoeae is a common sexually transmitted disease, sexual abuse should be considered in the pediatric setting. We report the case of a 5-year-old girl with N. gonorrhoeae vulvovaginitis. Her previous history, multiple interviews with the patient and her parents, and clinical examination showed no evidence or signs of sexual abuse. Both parents presented gonorrhea, urethritis for the father and vaginitis for the mother. The discrepancy between pediatric evaluation and the presence of a bacterium associated with sexually transmitted disease led us to consider other means of contamination. Previous studies have shown that other routes of transmission are possible but are often neglected. Hence, contamination can be transmitted by the hands or mostly through passive means (towels, rectal thermometer, etc.). Many epidemics have been noted in group settings with young girls with no evidence of sexual transmission. Therefore, we concluded that this patient's infection was likely an accidental transmission within her family. The acknowledgement of these transmission routes is very important in order to avoid misguided suspicion of sexual abuse and the possible traumatic family and psychosocial consequences. PMID:23219271

Daval-Cote, M; Liberas, S; Tristan, A; Vandenesch, F; Gillet, Y

2012-12-04

276

Assessment of accidental intakes of uranyl acetylacetonate (UAA)  

SciTech Connect

Uranyl acetylacetonate (UAA) is an organic complex of uranium used for military applications as a chemical catalyst in high explosives. It is prepared from depleted uranium metal (in lots of 5 kg to 7 kg) by dissolution in nitric acid, neutralization, and complexation with 2,4-pentanedione; the precipitate is dissolved in benzene and recrystallized, dried, ground, and packaged. About six workers at a small chemical company were exposed over a period of time to UAA powders during routine preparation and packaging of the uranium catalyst. The dissolution characteristics of the inhaled material were unknown and could not be determined from the published scientific literature. A 1.05-g sample of UAA powder was obtained from the responsible regulatory authority for further study to determine its chemical composition, and for dissolution in simulated lung fluid. We found the solubility of UAA to be equivalent to a mixture of 52% ICRP class D and 48% ICRP class W material. The annual limit on intake and the derived air concentration for radiological protection were estimated from this result for airborne exposure to UAA. A recycling biokinetic model was used to estimate both material-specific variations in urinary excretion rates and lung retention with time after accidental intakes. This study provides new information for evaluating future exposures to UAA.

Fisher, D.R.; Briant, J.K.

1993-12-01

277

[Arachnoid cyst and tension headache: symptom or accidental finding?].  

PubMed

We report a 34 year old male patient presenting with occipital headache and bilateral shoulder and neck pain. Cranial MRT discloses a large arachnoid cyst ventral to the medulla oblongata. The cyst displaces the caudal medulla oblongata dorsally to an angle of almost 90 degrees without causing myelopathy. Physical examination reveals normal neurological findings without any sign of brainstem lesions or lesions of the medulla oblongata. Orthopedic evaluation shows mild functional abnormalities as expected in tension headache. Multiple electrophysiologic investigations such as motor-, somatosensory-, and acoustic-evoked potentials, masseter and brain stem reflexes, and electromyography of the left M. trapezius were performed and reveal normal results. MR-angiography discloses displacement of the left vertebral artery to the right without stenosis.We discuss the possibility of a causal connection between the cystic lesion and the reported symptoms. Considering the findings based on a review of the available literature we conclude that the pain syndrome is very likely unrelated to the arachnoid cyst. The latter is herewith an accidental finding in a patient with tension headache, and underlines the importance of thoroughfull clinical examination to avoid unnecessary diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. PMID:12192439

Lorenz, M; Niedermaier, N; Lowitzsch, K

2002-08-01

278

Management of profound accidental hypothermia with cardiorespiratory arrest.  

PubMed Central

Complete recovery following rapid rewarming is described in three tourists who were admitted in a state of profound hypothermia with total cardiorespiratory arrest (rectal temperature ranging from 19 to 24 C). In all three patients, respiration and circulation had ceased during the rescue operation. Rapid core rewarming was achieved by thoracotomy and continuous irrigation of the pericardial cavity with warm fluids in one patient, whereas in the other two patients rewarming was accomplished with extracorporeal circulation using femoro-femoral bypass. In the first patient, the heart could not be defibrillated earlier than 90 minutes following thoracotomy; in the other patients rewarming was attained very rapidly, and within half an hour after institution of bypass, resuscitation of the heart was successful. The patients fully recovered their intellectual and physical abilities, despite the prolonged periods of circulatory arrest lasting from 2 1/2 to 4 hours. We conclude that rapid core rewarming is the adequate therapy for profound accidental hypothermia with circulatory arrest or low cardiac output. If feasible extracorporeal circulation represents the method of choice because it combines the advantage of immediate central rewarming with the benefit of efficient circulatory support, the heart is rewarmed before the shell, thus preventing the "rewarming shock" due to peripheral vasodilatation. Resuscitative efforts should be promptly initiated and vigorously pursued, even in the state of clinical death; in profound hypothermia neurologic examination is inconclusive regarding prognosis.

Althaus, U; Aeberhard, P; Schupbach, P; Nachbur, B H; Muhlemann, W

1982-01-01

279

Mitigation of Lung Injury after Accidental Exposure to Radiation  

PubMed Central

There is a serious need to develop effective mitigators against accidental radiation exposures. In radiation accidents, many people may receive nonuniform whole-body or partial-body irradiation. The lung is one of the more radiosensitive organs, demonstrating pneumonitis and fibrosis that are believed to develop at least partially because of radiation-induced chronic inflammation. Here we addressed the crucial questions of how damage to the lung can be mitigated and whether the response is affected by irradiation to the rest of the body. We examined the widely used dietary supplement genistein given at two dietary levels (750 or 3750 mg/kg) to Fischer rats irradiated with 12 Gy to the lung or 8 Gy to the lung + 4 Gy to the whole body excluding the head and tail (whole torso). We found that genistein had promising mitigating effects on oxidative damage, pneumonitis and fibrosis even at late times (36 weeks) when drug treatment was initiated 1 week after irradiation and stopped at 28 weeks postirradiation. The higher dose of genistein showed no greater beneficial effect. Combined lung and whole-torso irradiation caused more lung-related severe morbidity resulting in euthanasia of the animals than lung irradiation alone.

Mahmood, J.; Jelveh, S.; Calveley, V.; Zaidi, A.; Doctrow, S. R.; Hill, R. P.

2011-01-01

280

Accidental hanging by a sweater: an unusual case.  

PubMed

An accidental atypical hanging with the collar of a sweater is reported. A 67-year-old man was found dead in the sitting position with the collar of his sweater hanging off the brake handle of a motorcycle. Autopsy findings revealed a ligature mark on the surface of the neck; hemorrhages in the sternohyoid muscles; submucosal hemorrhages in the left greater horn of the hyoid bone; a large degree of submucosal petechial hemorrhages in the larynx, oral mucosa, and palpebral conjunctivae; and dark-red liquid blood with little clotting in the heart cavities. The alcohol levels in the blood and urine were 2.84 mg/ml and 3.52 mg/ml, respectively. It was concluded that the man had died from hanging by the sweater, and it was speculated that when he became inebriated, he might have lost consciousness and then fell with the collar of his sweater hanging from the brake handle of the motorcycle. PMID:12040269

Nurhantari, Yudha; Asano, Migiwa; Nushida, Hideyuki; Nagasaki, Yasushi; Kudo, Risa; Nakagawa, Kanako; Adachi, Junko; Ueno, Yasuhiro

2002-06-01

281

Postobstructive pulmonary edema following accidental near-hanging  

PubMed Central

Patient: Female, 14 Final Diagnosis: Postobstructive pulmonary edenma Symptoms: Chest indrawing • bilateral pulmonary crepitations • tachypnea Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Controlled ventilatory support • positive end expiratory pressure Specialty: Intensive care Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Postobstructive pulmonary edema (POPE) is a life-threatening complication that occurs after the relief of an upper airway obstruction. POPE occurs rarely in children, primarily after non-lethal hanging. Case Report: We report the case of a 14-year-old girl who developed POPE after accidental near hanging. She had chest in-drawing, the SpO2 was 81% on room air, and pulmonary auscultation revealed bilateral crepitations. The chest x-ray showed bilateral diffuse infiltrates consistent with pulmonary edema. The intensive care management consisted of controlled ventilatory support with high-level positive end expiratory pressure. On the third day of hospitalization, the patient was weaned from the ventilator and extubated with a full recovery. Conclusions: This case confirms the importance of early recognition of POPE and the value of adapted treatment, which can lead to a favorable outcome and full recovery in cases of near hanging.

Berdai, Adnane Mohamed; Labib, Smael; Harandou, Mustapha

2013-01-01

282

Water Drops Dancing on Ice: How Sublimation Leads to Drop Rebound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drop rebound is a spectacular event that appears after impact on hydrophobic or superhydrophobic surfaces but can also be induced through the so-called Leidenfrost effect. Here we demonstrate that drop rebound can also originate from another physical phenomenon, the solid substrate sublimation. Through drop impact experiments on a superhydrophobic surfaces, a hot plate, and solid carbon dioxide (commonly known as dry ice), we compare drop rebound based on three different physical mechanisms, which apparently share nothing in common (superhydrophobicity, evaporation, and sublimation), but lead to the same rebound phenomenon in an extremely wide temperature range, from 300°C down to even below -79°C. The formation and unprecedented visualization of an air vortex ring around an impacting drop are also reported.

Antonini, C.; Bernagozzi, I.; Jung, S.; Poulikakos, D.; Marengo, M.

2013-07-01

283

Water drops dancing on ice: how sublimation leads to drop rebound.  

PubMed

Drop rebound is a spectacular event that appears after impact on hydrophobic or superhydrophobic surfaces but can also be induced through the so-called Leidenfrost effect. Here we demonstrate that drop rebound can also originate from another physical phenomenon, the solid substrate sublimation. Through drop impact experiments on a superhydrophobic surface, a hot plate, and solid carbon dioxide (commonly known as dry ice), we compare drop rebound based on three different physical mechanisms, which apparently share nothing in common (superhydrophobicity, evaporation, and sublimation), but lead to the same rebound phenomenon in an extremely wide temperature range, from 300?°C down to even below -79?°C. The formation and unprecedented visualization of an air vortex ring around an impacting drop are also reported. PMID:23863003

Antonini, C; Bernagozzi, I; Jung, S; Poulikakos, D; Marengo, M

2013-07-02

284

Development of revolving drop surface tensiometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A revolving drop surface tensiometer, which measures the surface tension of a small amount of liquid, is proposed. A remarkable feature of this device is that while using the pendant drop method, it employs a centrifugal force to deform the liquid droplet. The centrifugal force induces a large distortion of the droplet, which enables an accurate measurement of the surface tension to be made. In our experimental setup, the centrifugal force can be increased so that the apparent acceleration becomes up to 100 times larger than that due to gravity, and the capability of this method to measure surface tensions was demonstrated with ethylene glycol.

Mitani, S.; Sakai, K.

2012-01-01

285

The new Drop Tower catapult system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity (ZARM) was founded in 1985 as an institute of the University Bremen, which focuses on research on gravitational and space-related phenomena. In 1988, the construction of the "Drop Tower" began. Since then, the eye-catching tower with a height of 146 m and its characteristic glass roof has become the emblem of the technology centre in Bremen. The Drop Tower Bremen provides a facility for experiments under conditions of weightlessness. Items are considered weightless, when they are in "free fall", i.e. moving without propulsion within the gravity field of the earth. The height of the tower limits the simple "free fall" experiment period to max. 4.74 s. With the inauguration of the catapult system in December 2004, the ZARM is entering a new dimension. This world novelty will meet scientists' demands of extending the experiment period up to 9.5 s. Since turning the first sod on May 3rd, 1988, the later installation of the catapult system has been taken into account by building the necessary chamber under the tower. The catapult system is located in a chamber 10 m below the base of the tower. This chamber is almost completely occupied by 12 huge pressure tanks. These tanks are placed around the elongation of the vacuum chamber of the drop tube. In its centre there is the pneumatic piston that accelerates the drop capsule by the pressure difference between the vacuum inside the drop tube and the pressure inside the tanks. The acceleration level is adjusted by means of a servo hydraulic breaking system controlling the piston velocity. After only a quarter of a second the drop capsule achieves its lift-off speed of 175 km/h. With this exact speed, the capsule will rise up to the top of the tower and afterwards fall down again into the deceleration unit which has been moved under the drop tube in the meantime. The scientific advantages of the doubled experiment time are obvious: during almost 10 s of high-quality weightlessness the range of compatible experiments amplifies even more and researchers can observe processes for a longer period of time. Thus, the new earth-bound laboratory of the ZARM offers unique conditions for scientific research. Moreover, it increases the attractiveness of the Drop Tower and contributes an important part to the establishment of the Bremen as an international centre for space technology.

von Kampen, Peter; Kaczmarczik, Ulrich; Rath, Hans J.

2006-07-01

286

Spreading of Polydimethylsiloxane Drops on Solid Horizontal Surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of the volume of drops, surface energy and roughness of substrate together with temperature and viscosity on the spreading velocity of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) drops on solid horizontal surfaces was studied. Spreading velocity was shown to grow with decreasing drop volume, the effect being more pronounced at high viscosities of polymer. The deviation of shape of the spreading drop from

V. A. Ogarev; T. N. Timonina; V. V. Arslanov; A. A. Trapeznikov

1974-01-01

287

Pollination Drop in Juniperus communis: Response to Deposited Material  

Microsoft Academic Search

† Background and Aims The pollination drop is a liquid secretion produced by the ovule and exposed outside the micropyle. In many gymnosperms, pollen lands on the surface of the pollination drop, rehydrates and enters the ovule as the drop retracts. The objective of this work was to study the formation of the pollination drop in Juniperus communis, its carbohydrate

SERENA MUGNAINI; MASSIMO NEPI; MASSIMO GUARNIERI; BETI PIOTTO; ETTORE PACINI

2007-01-01

288

Successful treatment of severe accidental hypothermia with cardiac arrest for a long time using cardiopulmonary bypass - report of a case  

PubMed Central

Accidental hypothermia is defined as an unintentional decrease in body temperature to below 35°C, and cases in which temperatures drop below 28°C are considered severe and have a high mortality rate. This study presents the case of a 57-year-old man discovered drifting at sea who was admitted to our hospital suffering from cardiac arrest. Upon admittance, an electrocardiogram indicated asystole, and the patient's temperature was 22°C. Thirty minutes of standard CPR and external rewarming were ineffective in raising his temperature. However, although he had been in cardiac arrest for nearly 2 h, it was decided to continue resuscitation, and a cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) was initiated. CPB was successful in gradually rewarming the patient and restoring spontaneous circulation. After approximately 1 month of rehabilitation, the patient was subsequently discharged, displaying no neurological deficits. The successful recovery in this case suggests that CPB can be considered a useful way to treat severe hypothermia, particularly in those suffering from cardiac arrest.

2012-01-01

289

Drops climbing uphill on a slowly oscillating substrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the dynamics of a two-dimensional drop on an inclined substrate vibrating vertically. The drop is assumed to be driven by its contact lines, while its shape is determined by a quasistatic balance of surface tension, gravity, and vibration-induced inertial force. It is shown that, if the dependence of the inertial force on time involves narrow/deep “troughs” and wide/low “plateaus,” the drop can climb uphill. For thin drops, this conclusion is obtained analytically, whereas the general case is treated numerically. It is demonstrated that the nonlinear effects (associated with the large thickness of the drop) dramatically strengthen the drop’s uphill motion.

Benilov, E. S.

2010-08-01

290

TECHNICAL SUPPORT TO THE SOUTH COAST AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT DISTRICT TOXIC CHEMICAL ACCIDENTAL AIR RELEASES  

EPA Science Inventory

The South Coast Air Quality Management District requested technical support toward developing a regulatory approach for controlling potential accidental air releases of toxic chemicals. The report provides some of the technical input and describes other support efforts. These eff...

291

10 CFR 72.74 - Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material. 72.74 Section 72.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ...REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE...

2013-01-01

292

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 8. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF HYDROGEN FLUORIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report is a chemical specific manual for hydrogen fluoride (HF). It summarizes information to aid regulators and industry personnel in identifying and controlling release hazards associated with HF. Reducing the risk associated with accidental release of HF involves identifyi...

293

Dosimetric Properties of Textile Fibers: Application of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Dosimetry to an Accidental gamma Irradiation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The dosimetric properties of some twenty textile fibers have been studied in order to develop a method for determining the dose received in the case of an accidental gamma irradiation. Three textile fibers having properties most closely satisfying our nee...

V. Kamenopoulou

1987-01-01

294

Modeling the atmospheric dispersion of accidentally released heavy gases from photovoltaic cell manufacturing facilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many hazardous gases used in the photovoltaic cell industry are heavier than air. Following an accidental release, their dispersion in air, differs from the dispersion of a neutrally buoyant gas and, as such, it requires special consideration. This report...

V. M. Fthenakis

1986-01-01

295

Analysis for Plasma Protein Biomarkers Following an Accidental Human Exposure to Sulfur Mustard.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Following an accidental human exposure to a vesicating agent, plasma samples were analyzed for specific biomarkers of sulfur mustard. One individual suffered chemical burns over 6.5% of the body surface area and required hospitalization; the second indivi...

A. R. Woolfitt B. R. Capacio J. R. Barr J. R. Smith W. D. Korte

2008-01-01

296

Secondary atomization of electrostatically charged drops  

Microsoft Academic Search

When a drop is subjected to a surrounding dispersed phase that is moving at an initial relative velocity, aerodynamic forces may cause it to deform and fragment. This is referred to as secondary atomization and has been studied for nearly 100 years. ^ In electrostatic atomization a charge is applied to the fluid to be atomized. The repulsive effects of

Daniel R Guildenbecher

2009-01-01

297

Inverted drop testing and neck injury potential.  

PubMed

Inverted drop testing of vehicles is a methodology that has long been used by the automotive industry and researchers to test roof integrity and is currently being considered by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration as a roof strength test. In 1990 a study was reported which involved 8 dolly rollover tests and 5 inverted drop tests. These studies were conducted with restrained Hybrid III instrumented Anthropometric Test Devices (ATD) in production and rollcaged vehicles to investigate the relationship between roof strength and occupant injury potential. The 5 inverted drop tests included in the study provided a methodology producing "repeatable roof impacts" exposing the ATDs to the similar impact environment as those seen in the dolly rollover tests. Authors have conducted two inverted drop test sets as part of an investigation of two real world rollover accidents. Hybrid-III ATD's were used in each test with instrumented head and necks. Both test sets confirm that reduction of roof intrusion and increased headroom can significantly enhance occupant protection. In both test pairs, the neck force of the dummy in the vehicle with less crush and more survival space was significantly lower. Reduced roof crush and dynamic preservation of the occupant survival space resulted in only minor occupant contact and minimal occupant loading, establishing a clear causal relationship between roof crush and neck injuries. PMID:12724903

Forrest, Stephen; Herbst, Brian; Meyer, Steve; Sances, Anthony; Kumaresan, Srirangam

2003-01-01

298

Streaming, Absenteeism, and Dropping-Out.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Crosstabular analysis tends to show that the streaming system is inversely related to absenteeism and dropping-out, even when intelligence, age, academic performance, and type of school are considered separately. A path analytic model conforms to the crosstabular analysis. The streaming system remains associated with both absenteeism and…

Crespo, Manual; Michelena, Justo

1981-01-01

299

Uniform versus Priority Dropping for Layered Video  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we analyze the relative merits of uniform versus priority dropping for the transmission of layered video. We first present our original intuitions about these two approaches, and then investigate the issue more thoroughly through simulations and analysis in which we explicitly model the performance of layered video applications. We compare both their performance characteristics and incentive properties,

Sandeep Bajaj; Lee Breslau; Scott Shenker

1998-01-01

300

The Pressure Drop Across Curved Interfaces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The analysis of a general mathematical equation derived for the pressure drop across a curved interface indicates a valid result as long as the thickness of the interfacial region is small compared to its radius of curvature. However, if the interfacial r...

P. F. Low

1967-01-01

301

Configurational quasidegeneracy and the liquid drop model  

SciTech Connect

Zamick {ital et} {ital al}. recently reported on a series of Hartree-Fock calculations of light nuclei with Skyrme interaction in which they observed a near degeneracy of states corresponding to different fillings of the single-particle levels. We will present here a possible explanation for these facts using very simple arguments based on the liquid drop model.

Bulgac, A. (Department of Physics and Astronomy and National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (US))

1989-08-01

302

How to Handle Drop-in Visitors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although interruptions are an unavoidable part of the principal's job, a completely open-door policy for drop-in visitors could divert attention from planning and other priorities. This article suggests ways for principals to minimize the number of visitors and the length of visits, including keeping people standing, providing uncomfortable…

Partin, Ronald L.

1988-01-01

303

Spreading of liquid drops over porous substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spreading of small liquid drops over thin and thick porous layers (dry or saturated with the same liquid) has been investigated in the case of both complete wetting (silicone oils of different viscosities) and partial wetting (aqueous SDS solutions of different concentrations). Nitrocellulose membranes of different porosity and different average pore size have been used as a model of

V. M. Starov; S. A. Zhdanov; S. R. Kosvintsev; V. D. Sobolev; M. G. Velarde

2003-01-01

304

Predicting Students Drop Out: A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The monitoring and support of university freshmen is considered very important at many educational institutions. In this paper we describe the results of the educational data mining case study aimed at predicting the Electrical Engineering (EE) students drop out after the first semester of their studies or even before they enter the study program as well as identifying success-factors specific

Gerben Dekker; Mykola Pechenizkiy; Jan Vleeshouwers

2009-01-01

305

Cluster Energies as a Liquid Drop Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The minimum energy configurations for homonuclear clusters from two to twenty-two atoms of Ni, Pd, Pt, Cu, Ag, and Au have been calculated using the Embedded Atom Method (EAM). The average energy per atom as a function of the number of atoms in the cluster has been fit to a liquid drop model. This yields estimates of the surface and

C. W. Finley; P. B. Abel; J. Ferrante

1997-01-01

306

An evaporation model of multicomponent solution drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solutions of polymers are widely used in the pharmaceutical industry as tablets coatings. These allow controlling the rate at which the drug is delivered, taste or appearance. The coating is performed by spraying and drying the tablets at moderate temperatures. The wetting of the coating solution on the pill's surface depends on the droplet Webber and Re numbers, angle of impact and on the rheological properties of the droplet. We present a model for the evaporation of multicomponent solutions droplets in a hot air environment with temperatures substantially lower than the boiling temperature of the solvent. As the liquid vaporizes from the surface the fluid in the drop increases in concentration, until reaching its saturation point. After saturation, precipitation occurs uniformly within the drop. As the surface regresses, a compacting front formed by the precipitate at its maximum packing density advances into the drop, while the solute continues precipitating uniformly. This porous shell grows fast due to the double effect of surface regression and precipitation. The evaporation rate is determined by the rates at which heat is transported to the droplet surface and at which liquid vapor diffuses away from it. When the drop is fully compacted, the evaporation is drastically reduced.

Sartori, Silvana; Liñán, Amable; Lasheras, Juan C.

2010-11-01

307

How to Handle Drop-in Visitors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although interruptions are an unavoidable part of the principal's job, a completely open-door policy for drop-in visitors could divert attention from planning and other priorities. This article suggests ways for principals to minimize the number of visitors and the length of visits, including keeping people standing, providing uncomfortable…

Partin, Ronald L.

1988-01-01

308

The new Drop Tower catapult system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity (ZARM) was founded in 1985 as an institute of the University Bremen, which focuses on research on gravitational and space-related phenomena. In 1988, the construction of the ``Drop Tower'' began. Since then, the eye-catching tower with a height of 146 m and its characteristic glass roof has become the emblem of the

Peter von Kampen; Ulrich Kaczmarczik; Hans J. Rath

2006-01-01

309

Suppressing Viscous Drop Splashing with Surface Roughness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The splashing of a liquid drop on a smooth, dry surface depends on a host of factors: the speed, surface tension, viscosity and size of the drop, but also, surprisingly, the pressure and molecular weight of the surrounding gas.footnotetext L. Xu, W.W. Zhang, S.R. Nagel, PRL 94, 184505 (2005).^,footnotetext L. Xu, PRE 75, 056316 (2007). In the case of a viscous drop splashing on a smooth surface, a thin sheet of fluid is first ejected from the rim of the expanding drop and then breaks up into droplets to form a splash.footnotetextM. Driscoll et al., BAPS DFD AG.00005 (2008). When the surface is rough, different behavior, known as prompt splashing, may also be observed.^2,footnotetext L. Xu, L. Barcos, and S.R. Nagel, PRE 76 066311 (2007). Here we explore the splashing of a viscous liquid as the surface roughness, Ra, is varied. We find that a small degree of roughness, Ra< 1 ?m, can completely suppress the thin-sheet ejection occurring on smooth surfaces. The degree of roughness necessary for this suppression decreases with increasing viscosity. In some cases, the roughness is great enough to suppress the thin sheet, but insufficient to produce a prompt splash, thus suppressing the splash entirely.

Strandburg-Peshkin, Ariana; Driscoll, Michelle; Nagel, Sidney

2009-11-01

310

Effect of drop size on sprinkler performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the water discharged by today’s standard sprinkler is wasted as a result of improper drop size. A new dual nozzle\\u000a sprinkler holds promise of providing better protection at lower cost and with less water damage.

C. Yao; A. S. Kalelkar

1970-01-01

311

Primary amyloidosis presenting as "dropped head syndrome".  

PubMed

A 77-year-old man, with a history of lymphoma, presented with isolated neck extensor weakness and a 2-year history of bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Needle electromyography showed myopathic changes, and biopsy of cervical paraspinal muscles showed amyloid deposition in blood vessels. Amyloidosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of dropped head syndrome. PMID:21607974

Chuquilin, Miguel; Al-Lozi, Muhammad

2011-06-01

312

Dropped head syndrome and Systemic sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prominent or isolated weakness of cervical extensor muscles is a relatively rare clinical sign. Commonly, this is known as “dropped-head syndrome”. This abnormal flexion of the head may occur in a variety of neuromuscular diseases and in a few non-neurological disorders as well. Systemic sclerosis is a clinically heterogeneous disorder which affects small arteries, microvessels and connective tissue with

Edoardo Rosato; Carmelina Rossi; Felice Salsano

2009-01-01

313

Biomechanical analysis of drop and countermovement jumps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  For 13 subjects the performance of drop jumps from a height of 40 cm (DJ) and of countermovement jumps (CMJ) was analysed and compared. From force plate and cine data biomechanical variables including forces, moments, power output and amount of work done were calculated for hip, knee and ankle joints. In addition, electromyograms were recorded from five muscles in the

M. F. Bobbert; M. Mackay; D. Schinkelshoek; P. A. Huijing; G. J. van Ingen Schenau

1986-01-01

314

Inherited Neuropathy Can Cause Postpartum Foot Drop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postpartum neurological complications occur in up to 1% of deliveries. Often prior anesthetic procedures are blamed, with medicolegal implications. We de- scribe a young woman who presented with postpar- tum foot drop diagnosed as an iatrogenic L5 root le- sion after uncomplicated epidural anesthesia. After neurological assessment some 5 mo later she tested positive for the common hereditary neuropathy with

DAVID J. BIRNBACH

315

Transient lower limb pain following accidental thoracic subarachnoid insertion of an epidural catheter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transient sensory disturbances, including dysesthesia or neurologic deficits in the lower extremities or buttocks have been\\u000a described as complications of neuraxial anesthesia. We report a case of transient lower limb pain following the accidental\\u000a placement of an epidural catheter into the thoracic subarachnoid space. A 31-year-old woman was scheduled to undergo laparoscopic\\u000a myomectomy. An epidural catheter was accidentally inserted subarachnoid

Masaki Fuyuta; Yoshihiro Takasugi; Masahiro Morimoto; Toru Shirai; Mitsuo Morimoto; Yoshihisa Koga

2009-01-01

316

ARAMIS project: a comprehensive methodology for the identification of reference accident scenarios in process industries.  

PubMed

In the frame of the Accidental Risk Assessment Methodology for Industries (ARAMIS) project, this paper aims at presenting the work carried out in the part of the project devoted to the definition of accident scenarios. This topic is a key-point in risk assessment and serves as basis for the whole risk quantification. The first result of the work is the building of a methodology for the identification of major accident hazards (MIMAH), which is carried out with the development of generic fault and event trees based on a typology of equipment and substances. The term "major accidents" must be understood as the worst accidents likely to occur on the equipment, assuming that no safety systems are installed. A second methodology, called methodology for the identification of reference accident scenarios (MIRAS) takes into account the influence of safety systems on both the frequencies and possible consequences of accidents. This methodology leads to identify more realistic accident scenarios. The reference accident scenarios are chosen with the help of a tool called "risk matrix", crossing the frequency and the consequences of accidents. This paper presents both methodologies and an application on an ethylene oxide storage. PMID:16126337

Delvosalle, Christian; Fievez, Cécile; Pipart, Aurore; Debray, Bruno

2005-08-26

317

Proceedings of the second international colloquium on drops and bubbles  

SciTech Connect

Applications of bubble and drop technologies are discussed and include: low gravity manufacturing, containerless melts, microballoon fabrication, ink printers, laser fusion targets, generation of organic glass and metal shells, and space processing. The fluid dynamics of bubbles and drops were examined. Thermomigration, capillary flow, and interfacial tension are discussed. Techniques for drop control are presented and include drop size control and drop shape control. For individual titles, see N82-23419 through N82-23469.

Lecroissette, D.H.

1982-03-01

318

Experiment on Graph Analysis Methodologies for Scenarios.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Visual graph representations are increasingly used to represent, display, and explore scenarios and the structure of organizations. The graph representations of scenarios are readily understood, and commercial software is available to create and manage th...

A. J. Brothers P. D. Whitney K. E. Wolf O. A. Kuchar G. Chin

2005-01-01

319

Scenario Analysis Tool Suite: A User's Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document is a user guide for the software product, the Scenario Analysis Tool Suite (version 1.5). The tool suite implements several scenario analysis techniques, Morphological analysis, Field Anomaly Relaxation analysis, Battelle approach, Bayesian ...

C. Dilek

2009-01-01

320

Instabilities of volatile films and drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on instabilities during spreading of volatile liquids, with emphasis on the novel instability observed when isopropyl alcohol (IPA) is deposited on a monocrystalline silicon (Si) wafer. This instability is characterized by emission of drops ahead of the expanding front, with each drop followed by smaller, satellite droplets, forming the structures which we nickname "octopi" due to their appearance. A less volatile liquid, or a substrate of larger heat conductivity, suppress this instability. In addition, we examine the spreading of drops of water (DIW)-IPA mixtures on both Si wafers and plain glass slides, and describe the variety of contact line instabilities which appear. We find that the decrease of IPA concentration in mixtures leads to transition from "octopi" to mushroom-like instabilities. Through manipulation of our experimental set up, we also find that the mechanism responsible for these instabilities appears to be mostly insensitive to both the external application of convection to the gas phase, and the doping of the gas phase with vapor in order to create the saturated environment. In order to better understand the "octopi" instability, we develop a theoretical model for evaporation of a pure liquid drop on a thermally conductive solid substrate. This model includes all relevant physical effects, including evaporation, thermal conductivity in both liquid and solid, (thermocapillary) Marangoni effect, vapor recoil, disjoining pressure, and gravity. The crucial ingredient in this problem is the evaporation model, since it influences both the motion of the drop contact line, and the temperature profiles along the liquid-solid and liquid-gas interfaces. We consider two evaporation models: the equilibrium "lens" model and the non-equilibrium one-sided (NEOS) model. Along with the assumption of equilibrium at the liquid-gas interface, the "lens" model also assumes that evaporation proceeds in a (vapor) diffusion-limited regime, therefore bringing the focus to the gas phase, where the problem of vapor mass diffusion is to be solved, which invokes analogy with the problem of lens-shaped conductor from electrostatics. On the other hand, NEOS model assumes non-equilibrium at the liquid-gas interface and a reaction-limited regime of evaporation; the liquid and gas phases are decoupled using the one-sided assumption, and hence, the problem is to be solved in the liquid phase only. We use lubrication approximation and derive a single governing equation for the evolution of drop thickness, which includes both models. An experimental procedure is described next, which we use in order to estimate the volatility parameter corresponding to each model. We also describe the numerical code, which we use to solve the governing equation for drop thickness, and show how this equation can be used to predict which evaporation model is more appropriate for a particular physical problem. Next, we perform linear stability analysis (LSA) of perturbed thin film configuration. We find excellent agreement between our numerical results and LSA predictions. Furthermore, these results indicate that the IPA/Si configuration is the most unstable one, in direct agreement with experimental results. We perform numerical simulations in the simplified 2d geometry (cross section of the drop) for both planar and radial symmetry and show that our theoretical model reproduces the main features of the experiment, namely, the formation of "octopus"-like features ahead of the contact line of an evaporating drop. Finally, we perform quasi-3d numerical simulations of evaporating drops, where stability to azimuthal perturbations of the contact line is examined. We recover the "octopi" instability for IPA/Si configuration, similarly as seen in the experiments.

Murisic, Nebojsa

321

Laboratory-acquired parasitic infections from accidental exposures.  

PubMed

Parasitic diseases are receiving increasing attention in developed countries in part because of their importance in travelers, immigrants, and immunocompromised persons. The main purpose of this review is to educate laboratorians, the primary readership, and health care workers, the secondary readership, about the potential hazards of handling specimens that contain viable parasites and about the diseases that can result. This is accomplished partly through discussion of the occupationally acquired cases of parasitic infections that have been reported, focusing for each case on the type of accident that resulted in infection, the length of the incubation period, the clinical manifestations that developed, and the means by which infection was detected. The article focuses on the cases of infection with the protozoa that cause leishmaniasis, malaria, toxoplasmosis, Chagas' disease (American trypanosomiasis), and African trypanosomiasis. Data about 164 such cases are discussed, as are data about cases caused by intestinal protozoa and by helminths. Of the 105 case-patients infected with blood and tissue protozoa who either recalled an accident or for whom the likely route of transmission could be presumed, 47 (44.8%) had percutaneous exposure via a contaminated needle or other sharp object. Some accidents were directly linked to poor laboratory practices (e.g., recapping a needle or working barehanded). To decrease the likelihood of accidental exposures, persons who could be exposed to pathogenic parasites must be thoroughly instructed in safety precautions before they begin to work and through ongoing training programs. Protocols should be provided for handling specimens that could contain viable organisms, using protective clothing and equipment, dealing with spills of infectious organisms, and responding to accidents. Special care should be exercised when using needles and other sharp objects. PMID:11585780

Herwaldt, B L

2001-10-01

322

Laboratory-Acquired Parasitic Infections from Accidental Exposures  

PubMed Central

Parasitic diseases are receiving increasing attention in developed countries in part because of their importance in travelers, immigrants, and immunocompromised persons. The main purpose of this review is to educate laboratorians, the primary readership, and health care workers, the secondary readership, about the potential hazards of handling specimens that contain viable parasites and about the diseases that can result. This is accomplished partly through discussion of the occupationally acquired cases of parasitic infections that have been reported, focusing for each case on the type of accident that resulted in infection, the length of the incubation period, the clinical manifestations that developed, and the means by which infection was detected. The article focuses on the cases of infection with the protozoa that cause leishmaniasis, malaria, toxoplasmosis, Chagas' disease (American trypanosomiasis), and African trypanosomiasis. Data about 164 such cases are discussed, as are data about cases caused by intestinal protozoa and by helminths. Of the 105 case-patients infected with blood and tissue protozoa who either recalled an accident or for whom the likely route of transmission could be presumed, 47 (44.8%) had percutaneous exposure via a contaminated needle or other sharp object. Some accidents were directly linked to poor laboratory practices (e.g., recapping a needle or working barehanded). To decrease the likelihood of accidental exposures, persons who could be exposed to pathogenic parasites must be thoroughly instructed in safety precautions before they begin to work and through ongoing training programs. Protocols should be provided for handling specimens that could contain viable organisms, using protective clothing and equipment, dealing with spills of infectious organisms, and responding to accidents. Special care should be exercised when using needles and other sharp objects.

Herwaldt, Barbara L.

2001-01-01

323

Supply chain network scenario design and evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A supply chain can involve different scenarios with different products, co-ordination structures, production strategies and locations. Enterprises need to model supply chain scenario complexities and evaluate the performance of scenarios before implementing them. This paper reviews the research in inter-firm network, organisation co-ordination structure and performance measurement, and proposes a new method for designing supply chain scenario by considering multiple

Zhengping Li; Arun Kumar

2005-01-01

324

Visualizing inter-dependencies between scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the main challenges in understanding a scenario- based speciflcation of a reactive system is rooted in the inter-dependencies between the scenarios. These are inher- ently implicit in the very idea of scenario-based program- ming. We introduce a graph-based visualization of such inter-dependencies, and implement it in a tool we call SIV (for Scenario Inter-dependency Visualization), which sup- plies

David Harel; Itai Segall

2008-01-01

325

The minimal scenario of leptogenesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review the main features and results of thermal leptogenesis within the type I seesaw mechanism, the minimal extension of the Standard Model explaining neutrino masses and mixing. After presenting the simplest approach, the vanilla scenario, we discuss various important developments of recent years, such as the inclusion of lepton and heavy neutrino flavour effects, a description beyond a hierarchical heavy neutrino mass spectrum and an improved kinetic description within the density matrix and the closed-time-path formalisms. We also discuss how leptogenesis can ultimately represent an important phenomenological tool to test the seesaw mechanism and the underlying model of new physics.

Blanchet, Steve; Di Bari, Pasquale

2012-12-01

326

Software performance models from system scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

The earliest definition of a software system may be in the form of Use Cases, which may be elaborated as scenarios. In this work, performance models are created from scenarios, to permit the earliest possible analysis of potential performance issues. Suitable forms of scenario models include Unified Modeling Language (UML) Activity or Sequence Diagrams (SD), and Use Case Maps (UCM)

Dorin Bogdan Petriu; C. Murray Woodside

2005-01-01

327

Scenarios, Real Options and Integrated Risk Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 1970s, scenario planning gained prominence as a strategic management tool. Scenario planning encourages managers to envision plausible future states of the world and consider how to take advantage of opportunities and avoid potential threats. In the last decade, finance researchers have developed real option analysis as a way to value investments under uncertainty. Scenario planning and real option

Kent D. Miller; H. Gregory Waller

2003-01-01

328

Enhancing a Requirements Baseline with Scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scenarios are well reconized as an important strat-egy towards understanding the interface between theenvironment and the system as well as a means toelicit and specify software behavior. We have a broaderunderstanding of scenarios. For us a scenario is anevolving description of situations in the environment.Our proposal is framed by Leite's work on a client orientedrequirements baseline, which aims to model

Julio Cesar Sampaio Do Prado Leite; Gustavo Rossi; Federico Balaguer; Vanesa Maiorana; Gladys N. Kaplan; Graciela D. S. Hadad; Alejandro Oliveros

1997-01-01

329

DEVELOPMENT OF IMPACT ORIENTED CLIMATE SCENARIOS  

EPA Science Inventory

Appropriate scenarios of future climate must be developed prior to any assessment of the impacts of climate change. he information needed by impact assessors was examined in consultation with those having experience in scenario use. ost assessors require regional scenarios with a...

330

Software for emission rate modeling of accidental toxic releases  

SciTech Connect

This book fulfills the need for Section 112(r) of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. This software is based on the guidelines released by the USEPA. It includes manual and proprietary software on CDROM. Contents include release scenario description (two-phase and single-phase choked/unchoked gas release, two-phase pressurized and refrigerated liquid release, single-phase high and low volatility liquid release); emission rate model development for each release class; software design and software evaluation and application.

Kumar, A.; Vashisth, S.

1999-08-01

331

Interactions between drops of a molten aluminum-lithium alloy and liquid water  

SciTech Connect

In certain hypothesized nuclear reactor accident scenarios, 1- to 10-g drops of molten aluminum-lithium alloys might contact liquid water. Because vigorous steam explosions have occurred when large amounts of molten aluminum-lithium alloys were released into water or other coolants, it becomes important to know whether there will be explosions if smaller amounts of these molten alloys similarly come into contact with water. Therefore, the authors released drops of molten Al-3.1 wt pct Li alloy into deionized water at room temperature. The experiments were performed at local atmospheric pressure (0.085 MPa) without pressure transient triggers applied to the water. The absence of these triggers allowed them to (a) investigate whether spontaneous initiation of steam explosions would occur with these drops and (b) study the alloy-water chemical reactions. The drop sizes and melt temperatures were chosen to simulate melt globules that might form during the hypothesized melting of the aluminum-lithium alloy components.

Nelson, L.S. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics); Duda, P.M.; Hyndman, D.A. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1994-08-01

332

Analysis of a hypothetical dropped spent nuclear fuel shipping cask impacting a floor mounted crush pad  

SciTech Connect

A crush pad has been designed and analyzed to absorb the kinetic energy of a hypothetically dropped spent nuclear fuel shipping cask into a 44-ft. deep cask unloading pool at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The 110-ton Large Cell Cask was assumed to be accidentally dropped onto the parapet of the unloading pool, causing the cask to tumble through the pool water and impact the floor mounted crush pad with the cask`s top corner. The crush pad contains rigid polyurethane foam, which was modeled in a separate computer analysis to simulate the manufacturer`s testing of the foam and to determine the foam`s stress and strain characteristics. This computer analysis verified that the foam was accurately represented in the analysis to follow. A detailed non-linear, dynamic finite element analysis was then performed on the crush pad and adjacent pool structure to assure that a drop of this massive cask does not result in unacceptable damage to the storage facility. Additionally, verification was made that the crush pad adequately protects the cask from severe impact loading. At impact, the cask has significant vertical, horizontal and rotational velocities. The crush pad absorbs much of the energy of the cask through plastic deformation during primary and secondary impacts. After the primary impact with the crush pad, the cask still has sufficient energy to rebound and rotate until it impacts the pool wall. An assessment is made of the damage to the crush pad and pool wall and of the impact loading on the cask.

Hawkes, B.D.; Uldrich, E.D.

1998-03-01

333

Ischemic preconditioning and clinical scenarios  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is gaining attention as a novel neuroprotective therapy and could provide an improved mechanistic understanding of tolerance to cerebral ischemia. The purpose of this article is to review the recent work in the field of IPC and its applications to clinical scenarios. Recent findings The cellular signaling pathways that are activated following IPC are now better understood and have enabled investigators to identify several IPC mimetics. Most of these studies were performed in rodents, and efficacy of these mimetics remains to be evaluated in human patients. Additionally, remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) may have higher translational value than IPC. Repeated cycles of temporary ischemia in a remote organ can activate protective pathways in the target organ, including the heart and brain. Clinical trials are underway to test the efficacy of RIPC in protecting brain against subarachnoid hemorrhage. Summary IPC, RIPC, and IPC mimetics have the potential to be therapeutic in various clinical scenarios. Further understanding of IPC-induced neuroprotection pathways and utilization of clinically relevant animal models are necessary to increase the translational potential of IPC in the near future.

Narayanan, Srinivasan V.; Dave, Kunjan R.; Perez-Pinzon, Miguel A.

2013-01-01

334

Nuclear power for the future: Implications of some crisis scenarios  

SciTech Connect

As energy issues have dropped from public awareness, electricity demand growth has remained low, deregulation has destabilized the utility decision process, and least-cost regulation has pointed utilities to gas-fired plants for those additions that are coming on-line, the nuclear power industry has begun to ask the question: What will cause nuclear energy to again compete as an option in new, domestic generating capacity additions? Since virtually all of today`s corporate and societal decisions are driven by short-term factors, the preceding question can be translated into: What crisis might occur that would project nuclear as the solution to an immediately perceived problem? Thus, an examination of scenarios that would project nuclear power into the country`s immediate consciousness is in order, along with an analysis of the implications for and challenges to the nuclear industry resulting therefrom. This paper undertakes such an analysis.

Turner, K.H. [McCallum-Turner, Evergreen, CO (United States)

1996-12-31

335

Effects of rod worth and drop speed on the BWR off-center rod drop accident  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, several multidimensional coupled neutronic/thermal-hydraulic calculations of the boiling water reactor (BWR) control rod drop accident (RDA) have been performed. Typically, two-dimensional (r, z) RDA calculations require that the dropped rod be a center rod, as a result of geometric limitations; while in three-dimensional calculations, the dropped rod is generally taken to be the center rod in order to allow a quarter-core representation and limit computer running times. For typical BWR core loadings, however, the center rod is not necessarily the highest worth rod. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of increasing the control rod worth and the rod drop speed on the off-center RDA. An increase in either of these parameters results in an increase in peak core power and fuel enthalpy, and the objective of this study is to determine the margin to the fuel damage threshold.

Cokinos, D.M.; Carew, J.F.

1986-01-01

336

Dehydration by Successive Pressure Drops for Drying Paddy Rice Treated by Instant Controlled Pressure Drop  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present work was to study the application of the dehydration by successive pressure drops (DDS) process to different varieties of paddy rice initially treated by the instantaneous controlled pressure drop (DIC), which is a high-temperature, short time postharvest treatment (moisture content about 20–25% dry basis) and takes less than 30 s. DIC paddy rice is dried by

Duong Thai Cong; Mazen Al Haddad; Zoulikha Rezzoug; Laurent Lefevre; Karim Allaf

2008-01-01

337

Estimation of vulnerable zones due to accidental release of toxic materials resulting in dense gas clouds.  

PubMed

Heavy gas dispersion models have been developed at IIT (hereinafter referred as IIT heavy gas models I and II) with a view to estimate vulnerable zones due to accidental (both instantaneous and continuous, respectively) release of dense toxic material in the atmosphere. The results obtained from IIT heavy gas models have been compared with those obtained from the DEGADIS model [Dense Gas Dispersion Model, developed by Havens and Spicer (1985) for the U.S. Coast Guard] as well as with the observed data collected during the Burro Series, Maplin Sands, and Thorney Island field trials. Both of these models include relevant features of dense gas dispersion, viz., gravity slumping, air entrainment, cloud heating, and transition to the passive phase, etc. The DEGADIS model has been considered for comparing the performance of IIT heavy gas models in this study because it incorporates most of the physical processes of dense gas dispersion in an elaborate manner, and has also been satisfactorily tested against field observations. The predictions from IIT heavy gas models indicate a fairly similar trend to the observed values from Thorney Island, Burro Series, and Maplin experiments with a tendency toward overprediction. There is a good agreement between the prediction of IIT Heavy Gas models I and II with those from DEGADIS, except for the simulations of IIT heavy gas model-I pertaining to very large release quantities under highly stable atmospheric conditions. In summary, the performance of IIT heavy gas models have been found to be reasonably good both with respect to the limited field data available and various simulations (selected on the basis of relevant storages in the industries and prevalent meteorological conditions performed with DEGADIS). However, there is a scope of improvement in the IIT heavy gas models (viz., better formulation for entrainment, modification of coefficients, transition criteria, etc.). Further, isotons (nomograms) have been prepared by using IIT heavy gas models for chlorine, which provide safe distance for various storage amounts for 24 meteorological scenarios prevalent in the entire year. These nomograms are prepared such that a nonspecialist can use them easily for control and management in case of an emergency requiring the evacuation of people in the affected region. These results can also be useful for siting and limiting the storage quantities. PMID:1947349

Singh, M P; Mohan, M; Panwar, T S; Chopra, H V

1991-09-01

338

Dynamically reconfigurable optical packet switch (DROPS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel Dynamically Reconfigurable Optical Packet Switch (DROPS) that combines both spectral and spatial switching capabilities is proposed and experimentally demonstrated for the first time. Compared with an Arrayed Waveguide Grating Router (AWGR), the added spatial switching capability provided by the microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) enables dynamically reconfigurable routing that is not possible with an AWGR alone. This methodology has several advantages over an AWGR including scalability, additional degrees of freedom in routing a packet from an ingress port to an egress port and more flexibility in path or line card recovery. The experimental demonstration implemented with 10-Gb/s packets shows that the added spatial switching does not degrade the bit-error-rate performance, indicating the promising potential of DROPS as a versatile and ultra-high capacity switch for optical packet-switched networks.

Huang, Chi-Heng; Chou, Hsu-Feng; Bowers, John E.; Toudeh-Fallah, Farzam; Gyurek, Russ

2006-12-01

339

Cluster Energies as a Liquid Drop Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The minimum energy configurations for homonuclear clusters from two to twenty-two atoms of Ni, Pd, Pt, Cu, Ag, and Au have been calculated using the Embedded Atom Method (EAM). The average energy per atom as a function of the number of atoms in the cluster has been fit to a liquid drop model. This yields estimates of the surface and curvature energies. The liquid drop model gives good representations of the relationship between average energy and cluster size. As a test the resulting surface energies are compared to EAM surface energy calculations for various low-index crystal faces with reasonable agreement. Finley, Abel, and Ferrante

Finley, C. W.; Abel, P. B.; Ferrante, J.

1997-04-01

340

Dynamically reconfigurable optical packet switch (DROPS).  

PubMed

A novel Dynamically Reconfigurable Optical Packet Switch (DROPS) that combines both spectral and spatial switching capabilities is proposed and experimentally demonstrated for the first time. Compared with an Arrayed Waveguide Grating Router (AWGR), the added spatial switching capability provided by the microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) enables dynamically reconfigurable routing that is not possible with an AWGR alone. This methodology has several advantages over an AWGR including scalability, additional degrees of freedom in routing a packet from an ingress port to an egress port and more flexibility in path or line card recovery. The experimental demonstration implemented with 10-Gb/s packets shows that the added spatial switching does not degrade the bit-error-rate performance, indicating the promising potential of DROPS as a versatile and ultra-high capacity switch for optical packet-switched networks. PMID:19529627

Huang, Chi-Heng; Chou, Hsu-Feng; Bowers, John E; Toudeh-Fallah, Farzam; Gyurek, Russ

2006-12-11

341

Pressure Drops Due to Silica Scaling  

SciTech Connect

Experience with reinjection returns in many geothermal fields has prompted a move towards injecting waste fluids at some distance from the production field. This means that often, reinjection pipelines cover very long distances. If the waste water in the pipelines is supersaturated with respect to amorphous silica, then the deposition of silica in these pipelines is almost certain. Although the deposit may be of negligible thickness, the inner surface characteristics of the pipe will be different to those of clean mild steel. During a silica scaling experiment. geothermal brine was passed through a series of pipes of different sizes and over a period of three weeks, silica scale formed on the inner surface. The pressure drop along a distance of approximately 5m was measured by a water manometer in all test pipe sections. Significant pressure drop was observed during this time and can be correlated with the increase in the friction factor of the pipe walls due to silica scaling.

Brown, K.L.; Freeston, D.H.; Dimas, Z.O.; Slatter, A.

1995-01-01

342

PRESSURE DROPS IN PACKED BUBBLE COLUMNS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pressure drops were measured for air-water system in a cocurrent, upflow bubble column containing each of four types of packing: Raschig rings, Intalox saddle, open-end screen cylinder and solid cylinder. The ranges of variables studied vary from 0 to0.09m\\/s for gas flow rate, 0 to 0.094 m\\/s for liquid flow rate and 0.475 to 0.976 for bed porosity. The experimental

Q. M. ZHANG; B. H. CHEN

1995-01-01

343

The new Drop Tower catapult system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity (ZARM) was founded in 1985 as an institute of the University Bremen, which focuses on research on gravitational and space-related phenomena. In 1988, the construction of the “Drop Tower” began. Since then, the eye-catching tower with a height of 146m and its characteristic glass roof has become the emblem of the technology

Peter von Kampen; Ulrich Kaczmarczik; Hans J. Rath

2006-01-01

344

Management of keratoconus: current scenario.  

PubMed

Keratoconus is an ectatic corneal dystrophy and is a leading indication for corneal transplantation surgery worldwide. The disease was first described in detail more than 150 years ago by Dr John Nottingham, but the understanding of the disease and its management have undergone significant changes over the last few decades. Corneal specialists have adopted new techniques and technologies for the effective management of keratoconus, while adhering to the age-old concepts of contact lens fitting and penetrating keratoplasty. Lamellar keratoplasty has been revived with improved outcomes and devices such as intracorneal ring segments are being used to treat cases of early keratoconus effectively. This review article discusses the current scenario on the surgical as well as non-surgical management of keratoconus with a focus on the established, novel and emerging treatment modalities. PMID:20693553

Jhanji, Vishal; Sharma, Namrata; Vajpayee, Rasik B

2010-08-07

345

Cusp formation in drops inside Taylor cones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here, we report the formation of cusp in insulating drops inside compound Taylor cones. The action of the electrical shear stress acting on the outer interface, which is transmitted by viscous forces inside the Taylor cone, tends to deform the drop of insulating liquid placed inside. For appropriate values of the capillary number, the insulating drop develops a steady cusp angle which depends on both the capillary number and the conducting to insulating viscosity ratio. A self-similar analysis has been developed to qualitatively describe the flow inside these compounds Taylor cones. Any perturbation of the cusp gives rise to an intermittent emission of tiny droplets; this effect may recall the tip-streaming observed by G.I. Taylor in his four-roll mill device. This emission can be stabilized by an appropriate control of the injected flow rate of the insulating liquid. When the capillary number increases, the cusped interface turns into a spout which flows coated by the conducting liquid forming the electrified coaxial jet which has been successfully employed for the production of nanocapsules, coaxial nanofibers and nanotubes (Science 295, n. 5560, 1695, 2002; JACS 126, 5376, 2004).

Marin, Alvaro G.; Loscertales, Ignacio G.; Barrero, Antonio

2005-11-01

346

Excess equimolar radius of liquid drops.  

PubMed

The curvature dependence of the surface tension is related to the excess equimolar radius of liquid drops, i.e., the deviation of the equimolar radius from the radius defined by the macroscopic capillarity approximation. Based on the Tolman [J. Chem. Phys. 17, 333 (1949)] approach and its interpretation by Nijmeijer et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 96, 565 (1991)], the surface tension of spherical interfaces is analyzed in terms of the pressure difference due to curvature. In the present study, the excess equimolar radius, which can be obtained directly from the density profile, is used instead of the Tolman length. Liquid drops of the truncated and shifted Lennard-Jones fluid are investigated by molecular dynamics simulation in the canonical ensemble, with equimolar radii ranging from 4 to 33 times the Lennard-Jones size parameter ?. In these simulations, the magnitude of the excess equimolar radius is shown to be smaller than ?/2. This suggests that the surface tension of liquid drops at the nanometer length scale is much closer to that of the planar vapor-liquid interface than reported in studies based on the mechanical route. PMID:22587106

Horsch, Martin; Hasse, Hans; Shchekin, Alexander K; Agarwal, Animesh; Eckelsbach, Stefan; Vrabec, Jadran; Müller, Erich A; Jackson, George

2012-03-26

347

Oxygen transfer at low drop weirs.  

SciTech Connect

Oxygen transfer into water at low-drop weirs was studied by using a prototype-scale, recirculating hydraulic flume with a weir width of 0.61 m, and a downstream channel width of 1.22 m. An enhanced-oxygen environment was used to maintain sufficient difference between saturation and upstream dissolved oxygen concentrations to reduce the experimental uncertainty. The variation in the deficit ratio r as a function of tailwater depth H was evaluated by using unit discharges q of 167, 334, and 502 m{sup 3}/hr{center_dot}m and weir heights W of 0.54, 1.04, and 1.36 m. A semitheoretical equation for predicting r as a function of jet Froude number F{sub J}, drop height h, and H was fitted to observed values by nonlinear regression analysis. An assumed value of 0.667 for maximum H/h (found in the literature) proved acceptable. We concluded that tailwater depths are important to predict oxygen transfer at low-drop weirs, but that designing for optimum tailwater depth to maximize oxygen transfer may not be as important as was previously thought, because large optimum ranges for H/h were observed in this study.

Kim, J.; Walters, R. W.; Environmental Research; Gonzaga Univ.

2001-07-01

348

Stokes flow past a compound drop in a circular tube  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microfluidics could generate drops or bubbles with controllable size and frequency at this stage. However, analytical work on such problem is less reported in the literature. In this study, we study the motion of a compound drop, consisting of a fluid drop engulfed in a larger drop, confined in a circular tube. The analysis is based on the low Reynolds number Stokes flow theory. Interfaces are assumed to be spherical due to large surface tension. Stream functions in one bipolar and two cylindrical coordinate systems are developed in series form. Our new contribution is the transformation between cylindrical and bipolar coordinate systems. Flow patterns are mainly dependent on the relative motion and the size of the inner drop. Four types of flow patterns are identified. Drag force on the inner or outer drops is in proportion to the product of the drop radius and viscosity of the phase encapsulating the drop. Drag force on the inner or outer spheres is finally expressed as linear combinations of velocities of the three phases (i.e., the inner drop, the outer drop, and the continuous flow), respectively. Our results show that those coefficients of the linear combinations for the drag forces depend on several parameters: eccentricity of the compound drop, viscosity ratio of two neighboring phases, radius ratio of the inner drop to the outer drop, and the radius ratio of the outer drop to the tube. The two radius ratios have largest effects on the coefficients of the inner or outer drop, respectively. Stability of the compound drop in a circular tube is analyzed. It is found that though the compound drop cannot reach an absolutely steady state, it will enter a quasisteady state where the inner sphere is adjacent to the shell of the outer sphere in practice.

Song, Yanxi; Xu, Jinliang; Yang, Yongping

2010-07-01

349

Measurement of dynamic surface tension by a growing drop technique  

SciTech Connect

The recently developed growing drop technique for measuring dynamic surface tension in which a drop is grown at the end of a fine capillary into another immiscible fluid has been improved by the use of an ultra-high-speed video camera and motion analysis system. Because the new apparatus described in this paper is capable of measuring transient drop shapes and pressures in 1/6 to 1 ms, it permits detailed observation of profiles of growing drops and pressures inside them virtually from zero surface age and thereby allows exploration of the limitations of the growing drop method. In contrast to related work, the results demonstrate that the present technique can determine the surface tension of an interface with a surface age as low as 20 ms. Although the present technique is capable of measuring tension prior to the hemispherical stage, measurements in the very early stages of drop growth are rendered impossible due to oscillations of the newly forming drop. The high speed of data acquisition that is possible with the new system has resulted in the discovery of a disparity between the extremum in drop pressure and that in drop radius in surfactant-laden drops, which can be attributed to the changing of tension with time. The effect of drop viscosity on the measurement of dynamic surface tension with the growing drop technique is also studied for the first time by forming drops of mixtures of water and glycerol into air.

Zhang, X. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Harris, M.T.; Basaran, O.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical Technology Division)

1994-11-01

350

Surfactant and nonlinear drop dynamics in microgravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large amplitude drop dynamics in microgravity were conducted during the second United States Microgravity Laboratory mission carried onboard the Space Shuttle Columbia (20 October-5 November 1995). Centimeter- sized drops were statically deformed by acoustic radiation pressure and released to oscillate freely about a spherical equilibrium. Initial aspect ratios of up to 2.0 were achieved. Experiments using pure water and varying aqueous concentrations of Triton-X 100 and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were performed. The axisymmetric drop shape oscillations were fit using the degenerate spherical shape modes. The frequency and decay values of the fundamental quadrupole and fourth order shape mode were analyzed. Several large amplitude nonlinear oscillation dynamics were observed. Shape entrainment of the higher modes by the fundamental quadrupole mode occurred. Amplitude- dependent effects were observed. The nonlinear frequency shift, where the oscillation frequency is found to decrease with larger amplitudes, was largely unaffected by the presence of surfactants. The percentage of time spent in the prolate shape over one oscillation cycle was found to increase with oscillation amplitude. This prolate shape bias was also unaffected by the addition of surfactants. These amplitude-dependent effects indicate that the nonlinearities are a function of the bulk properties and not the surface properties. BSA was found to greatly enhance the surface viscoelastic properties by increasing the total damping of the oscillation, while Triton had only a small influence on damping. The surface concentration of BSA was found to be diffusion-controlled over the time of the experiments, while the Triton diffusion rate was very rapid. Using the experimental frequency and decay values, the suface viscoelastic properties of surface dilatational viscosity ( ks ) and surface shear viscosity ( ms ) were found for varying surfactant concentrations using the transcendental equation of Lu & Apfel (1991) and Tian et al. (1997). Values for Triton for concentrations of 0.017 to 2 CMC range from 0.01 to 0.05 surface poise (sp) for ks . For BSA, the fitting of the experimental data was highly sensitive to ms over a wide range of ks . Setting ks = 1 sp for 1 CMC drops ms , was found to increase from 0.07 to 0.28 sp linearly with the square root of time, indicating that surface shear viscosity is proportional to the surface concentration in the diffusion-controlled regime. The same time dependence was found for 2 CMC drops. However, the fitted shear viscosity was nearly half that of the 1 CMC concentration over the same time frame.

Jankovsky, Joseph Charles

2000-11-01

351

Temporal and regional variations in accidental deaths of elderly people in Japan.  

PubMed

To ascertain the characteristics of accidental deaths of elderly people in urban and rural areas, we analyzed the deaths of elderly people over the 10-year period from 2000 to 2009, in three geographic areas: nationwide, in the 23 wards of the metropolis of Tokyo, and in Saga prefecture. In addition, to assess the regional variation in accidental deaths of the elderly, we aggregated the numbers of accidental deaths of elderly people for each of Japan's prefectures in the year 2009 and categorized the deaths by accident type. The results showed that nationwide, deaths due to threats to breathing, falls, and drowning and submersion are increasing, while deaths due to transport accidents are decreasing, indicating a need for measures to prevent deaths from accidents other than transport accidents. In the urban areas of Tokyo's 23 wards, there is an increasing incidence of deaths due to falls, which is likely due to the high number of structures such as buildings and railway stations that elderly people need to negotiate. In urban areas, measures to reduce the incidence of accidental deaths need to focus on improving the physical environment to help prevent falls. In the rural locality of Saga prefecture, increasing numbers of elderly people are dying by drowning and submersion. The results of analysis of accidents in all prefectures of Japan by accident type show that the causes of accidental deaths of elderly people vary regionally, suggesting that accident prevention measures for elderly people need to consider the characteristics of the locality. PMID:23812406

Kibayashi, Kazuhiko; Shimada, Ryo; Nakao, Ken-Ichiro

2013-06-28

352

14 CFR 23.727 - Reserve energy absorption drop test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Reserve energy absorption drop test. 23.727 Section 23...Gear § 23.727 Reserve energy absorption drop test. (a) If compliance with the reserve energy absorption requirement in §...

2013-01-01

353

Sessile drop studies on polybromide/zinc-bromine battery electrolyte  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sessile drop method was employed to examine the interfacial tension and contact angle of polybromide oil drops. Bromine in equilibrium with an aqueous phase and a polybromide oil phase were added to a battery cell with a ruthenized titanium electrode with the electrode surface facing up. A polybromide oil drop was placed on the electrode surface while the height of the drop was measured with a cathetometer and 35 mm photographs were taken of the drop profiles. The sessile drop was analyzed to find the interfacial tension and contact angle of the drop. Interfacial tensions were calculated which were lower than reported for two-phase systems having organic and aqueous phases. The results are regarded as significant for applications of zinc-bromine batteries, indicating that small polybromide oil phase drops can enhance the mass transfer of bromine from a polybromide to the electrode.

Kinoshita, K.; Leach, S. C.

1982-08-01

354

Transport and Storage Cask Safety Assessment - Drop Tests and Numerical Calculations -  

SciTech Connect

BAM (the German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing) has been performing cask design testing for more than 30 years with a large number of prototype casks of original dimensions and of 1:2 or 1:3 scales. In 2004 a brand new drop test facility was built at the new BAM test facility at Horstwalde about 80 km to the south of Berlin. In September 2004 first demonstration tests with 2 different cask designs were performed in connection with the PATRAM 2004 conference held in Berlin. The dropped prototype casks had gross masses of 141 and 181 metric tons. Since that time BAM has been performing a lot of more drop tests with new cask designs developed by different international cask manufacturers for getting German Type B(U) transport licenses. Current safety assessments especially for mechanical accident scenarios require a combination of experimental and analytical/numerical proofs commonly, because both methods offer specific options and advantages with respect to more and more detailed structural analyses. That again is a consequence of the permanent cask design optimisation for commercial reasons leading to higher stress levels in general. For that reason BAM also improves its numerical analyses capacities including the operation of different software codes. A general BAM guideline describing basic requirements for numerical safety assessment reports gives a good orientation for both applicants and inspectors. But different details of any cask design and safety assessment have to be taken into account and lead to specific questions, investigations and experiences. This paper gives an overview about the new BAM drop test facility and the ongoing drop testing there and it presents current experiences and results of numerical cask analyses and the specific methods developed and used by BAM. In this context special attention is turned to the correlation between experimental and numerical results and an outlook to future developments is given. (authors)

Voelzke, H.; Wille, F.; Wieser, G.; Quercetti, Th. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany)

2006-07-01

355

Validation of a DNA mixture statistics tool incorporating allelic drop-out and drop-in.  

PubMed

DNA mixture analysis is a current topic of discussion in the forensics literature. Of particular interest is how to approach mixtures where allelic drop-out and/or drop-in may have occurred. The Office of Chief Medical Examiner (OCME) of The City of New York has developed and validated the Forensic Statistical Tool (FST), a software tool for likelihood ratio analysis of forensic DNA samples, allowing for allelic drop-out and drop-in. FST can be used for single source samples and for mixtures of DNA from two or three contributors, with or without known contributors. Drop-out and drop-in probabilities were estimated empirically through analysis of over 2000 amplifications of more than 700 mixtures and single source samples. Drop-out rates used by FST are a function of the Identifiler(®) locus, the quantity of template DNA amplified, the number of amplification cycles, the number of contributors to the sample, and the approximate mixture ratio (either unequal or approximately equal). Drop-out rates were estimated separately for heterozygous and homozygous genotypes. Drop-in rates used by FST are a function of number of amplification cycles only. FST was validated using 454 mock evidence samples generated from DNA mixtures and from items handled by one to four persons. For each sample, likelihood ratios (LRs) were computed for each true contributor and for each profile in a database of over 1200 non-contributors. A wide range of LRs for true contributors was obtained, as true contributors' alleles may be labeled at some or all of the tested loci. However, the LRs were consistent with OCME's qualitative assessments of the results. The second set of data was used to evaluate FST LR results when the test sample in the prosecution hypothesis of the LR is not a contributor to the mixture. With this validation, we demonstrate that LRs generated using FST are consistent with, but more informative than, OCME's qualitative sample assessments and that LRs for non-contributors are appropriately assigned. PMID:22999739

Mitchell, Adele A; Tamariz, Jeannie; O'Connell, Kathleen; Ducasse, Nubia; Budimlija, Zoran; Prinz, Mechthild; Caragine, Theresa

2012-09-20

356

Optimal Generator Scheduling using Probabilistic Demand Scenarios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a new method to determine an optimal generator scheduling using probabilistic demand scenarios. The demand scenarios are created statistically as a set of load curves by the past demand data. Covariance matrix is used to reconstruct the distribution of the demand scenarios. Unit commitment calculation is executed for each demand scenario and the operation cost is estimated. Optimal generator scheduling is selected by the expected value of the unit price with including the additional cost to compensate the demand variation. The risk of the scenarios is also estimated to select the optimal generation scenario. The advantage of this method is that the optimum generator scheduling can be calculated in the present load dispatching system since the existing scheduling algorism can be easily adopted with a minimum modification.

Murakami, Yoshiki; Kobayashi, Takenori; Omata, Kazuya; Takahashi, Hirofumi; Kusano, Hideo

357

Note On Scenario Planning: An Abridged Version  

Microsoft Academic Search

This note describes one of the major long-range planning tools developed and used during the past three decades--scenario planning. Scenarios were developed as alternatives to single-line and range forecasts, because those techniques often proved to be ineffective and inaccurate tools for developing strategic plans, especially during times of economic turbulence. Scenarios present several plausible but contrasting futures, which forces managers

Charles Kennedy; Leslie Grayson; John Bristow

358

Drop Testing of DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel Canisters  

SciTech Connect

The National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory INEEL) prepared four representative Department of Energy DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) canisters for the purpose of drop testing. The first two canisters represented a modified 24- inch diameter standardized DOE SNF canister and the second two canisters represented the Hanford Multi-Canister Overpack MCO). The modified canisters and internals were constructed and assembled at the INEEL. The MCO internal weights were fabricated at the INEEL and assembled into two MCOs at Hanford and later shipped to the INEEL for drop test preparation. Drop testing of these four canisters was completed in August 2004 at Sandia National Laboratories. The modified canisters were dropped from 30 feet onto a flat, essentially unyielding surface, with the canisters oriented at 45 degrees and 70 degrees off-vertical at impact. One representative MCO was dropped from 23 feet onto the same flat surface, oriented vertically at impact. The second representative MCO was dropped onto the flat surface from 2 feet oriented at 60 degrees off-vertical. These drop heights and orientations were chosen to meet or exceed the Yucca Mountain repository drop criteria. This paper discusses the comparison of deformations between the actual dropped canisters and those predicted by pre-drop and limited post-drop finite element evaluations performed using ABAQUS/Explicit. Post-drop containment of all four canisters, demonstrated by way of helium leak testing, is also discussed.

S. D. Snow; D. K. Morton; T. E. Rahl; R. K. Blandford; T. J. Hill

2005-07-01

359

The Illustrated Topology of Liquid Drops during Formation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|High-speed photography can show that the shape often used for a newly forming drop is wrong. Knowledge of drop behaviour is important for inkjet printers, and a close look at the formation of drops as given here can enhance critical observation, thinking and analysis.|

Libii, Josue Njock

2004-01-01

360

Eight-wavelength add-drop filter with true reconfigurability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors demonstrate an integrated add-drop filter with true reconfigurability. It can drop any combination of eight wavelengths to any of eight drop ports, with less than 7 dB loss. Its features are suitable for mass production: use of standard silica waveguide technology, double-rejection switching and filtering for all paths, compactness, and power-efficient thermooptic switching.

C. R. Doerr; L. W. Stulz; D. S. Levy; L. Gomez; M. Cappuzzo; J. Bailey; R. Long; A. Wong-Foy; E. Laskowski; E. Chen; S. Patel; T. Murphy

2003-01-01

361

The examination of the drop impact test method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to establish an experimental method of drop impact reliability for solder joints and an assessment method. The drop impact problem is composed by various factors. Such as, a drop impact induced flexural vibration of PCB (Printed Circuit Board), collision attitude, and dynamic fracture of solder joints. There are many methods examine impact reliability of

Qiang Yu; K. Watanabe; T. Tsurusawa; M. Shiratori; M. Kakino; N. Fujiwara

2004-01-01

362

14 CFR 29.725 - Limit drop test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Limit drop test. 29.725 Section 29.725 Aeronautics and...Construction Landing Gear § 29.725 Limit drop test. The limit drop test must be conducted as follows: (a) The...

2013-01-01

363

Sessile drop studies on polybromide\\/zinc-bromine battery electrolyte  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sessile drop method was employed to examine the interfacial tension and contact angle of polybromide oil drops. Bromine in equilibrium with an aqueous phase and a polybromide oil phase were added to a battery cell with a ruthenized titanium electrode with the electrode surface facing up. A polybromide oil drop was placed on the electrode surface while the height

K. Kinoshita; S. C. Leach

1982-01-01

364

IR-Thermography of Evaporating Acoustically Levitated Drops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface temperature of evaporating acoustically levitated drops has been monitored by IR-thermography. The thermography system has been calibrated by simultaneous measurements with a thin thermocouple. The integral IR-emission coefficients of a few pure liquids have been derived. Evaporation processes of pure liquids and of binary mixtures of liquids have been studied with levitated drops. Using drop surface temperatures, we

R. Tuckermann; S. Bauerecker; H. K. Cammenga

2005-01-01

365

Delayed Frost Growth on Jumping-Drop Superhydrophobic Surfaces  

SciTech Connect

Self-propelled jumping drops are continuously removed from a condensing superhydrophobic surface to enable a micrometric steady-state drop size. Here, we report that subcooled condensate on a chilled superhydrophobic surface are able to repeatedly jump off the surface before heterogeneous ice nucleation occurs. Frost still forms on the superhydrophobic surface due to ice nucleation at neighboring edge defects, which eventually spreads over the entire surface via an inter-drop frost wave. The growth of this inter-drop frost front is shown to be up to three times slower on the superhydrophobic surface compared to a control hydrophobic surface, due to the jumping-drop effect dynamically minimizing the average drop size and surface coverage of the condensate. A simple scaling model is developed to relate the success and speed of inter-drop ice bridging to the drop size distribution. While other reports of condensation frosting on superhydrophobic surfaces have focused exclusively on liquid-solid ice nucleation for isolated drops, these findings reveal that the growth of frost is an inter-drop phenomenon that is strongly coupled to the wettability and drop size distribution of the surface. A jumping-drop superhydrophobic condenser was found to be superior to a conventional dropwise condenser in two respects: preventing heterogeneous ice nucleation by continuously removing subcooled condensate, and delaying frost growth by minimizing the success of interdrop ice bridge formation.

Boreyko, Jonathan B [ORNL; Collier, Pat [ORNL

2013-01-01

366

Dynamics of drop or bubble breakup in a turbulent flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deformation of a drop (or bubble) in a turbulent flow combines two complex physical mechanisms: turbulence and interfacial-tension driven flows (1). Our purpose is to determine the minimal description of these two mechanisms required to predict the occurrence of drop breakup. The first major step was achieved by Kolmogorov (2) and Hinze (3) who considered a drop immersed in

Frederic Risso

367

Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Bounding Drop Support Calculations  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates different drop heights, concrete and other impact media to which the transport package and/or the MCO is dropped. A prediction method is derived for estimating the resultant impact factor for determining the bounding drop case for the SNF Project.

CHENAULT, D.M.

1999-11-16

368

Drops on functional fibers: from barrels to clamshells and back  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drops on cylindrical fibers are a familiar sight, for instance in the form of dew drops on spider webs. They can exist in two competing morphologies, a cylindrically symmetric barrel state completely engulfing the fiber and an asymmetric clamshell state, in which the drop touches the fiber only sideways. Despite their omnipresence and their practical relevance, e.g. for the adherence

H. B. Eral; Ruiter de Jolet; Ruiter de Rielle; Jung Min Oh; Ciro Semprebon; Martin Brinkmann; Frieder Mugele

2011-01-01

369

Isolation of Indonesian Cananga Oil by Instantaneous Controlled Pressure Drop  

Microsoft Academic Search

The isolation of cananga oil by a new process, Instantaneous Controlled Pressure Drop (DIC), was investigated. This process consists in heating the dry cananga (Cananga odorata Hook. fil. et Thomson, forma macrophylla) flowers for a short time period by steam, followed by an abrupt pressure drop into a vacuum (about 5 kPa). This pressure drop provokes auto-vaporization of the volatile

Magdalena Kristiawan; Vaclav Sobolik; Karim Allaf

2008-01-01

370

Evolution of epileptic encephalopathy in an infant with non-accidental head injury.  

PubMed

A 5-month-old child, previously healthy, was hospitalized with frequent episodes of tonic seizures. The seizures were controlled with antiepileptic medication. However, the parents did not continue medications after discharge from the hospital. The child was admitted several times with breakthrough seizures. Over time the seizures became refractory to treatment. Neurometabolic work up and imaging studies for uncontrolled seizures revealed non-accidental head injury (shaken baby syndrome) as the underlying cause. His first EEG was normal and changed from normal to an epileptic encephalopathy pattern during his several admissions for uncontrolled seizures. From a normal child at the first admission, the child was severely regressed at the last admission. The present paper highlights the evolution of EEG changes in a child with non-accidental head injuries. This report also highlights considering non-accidental head injury as the underlying cause in younger children presenting with unexplained epileptic encephalopathy. PMID:23887218

Koul, Roshan; Poothrikovil, Rajesh; Al-Azri, Faisal; Al-Sadoon, Muna

2013-07-01

371

Innocent intentions: a correlation between forgiveness for accidental harm and neural activity.  

PubMed

Contemporary moral psychology often emphasizes the universality of moral judgments. Across age, gender, religion and ethnicity, people's judgments on classic dilemmas are sensitive to the same moral principles. In many cases, moral judgments depend not only on the outcome of the action, but on the agent's beliefs and intentions at the time of action. For example, we blame agents who attempt but fail to harm others, while generally forgiving agents who harm others accidentally and unknowingly. Nevertheless, as we report here, there are individual differences in the extent to which observers exculpate agents for accidental harms. Furthermore, we find that the extent to which innocent intentions are taken to mitigate blame for accidental harms is correlated with activation in a specific brain region during moral judgment. This brain region, the right temporo-parietal junction, has been previously implicated in reasoning about other people's thoughts, beliefs, and intentions in moral and non-moral contexts. PMID:19467357

Young, Liane; Saxe, Rebecca

2009-04-05

372

Impact dynamics of oxidized liquid metal drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With exposure to air, many liquid metals spontaneously generate an oxide layer on their surface. In oscillatory rheological tests, this skin is found to introduce a yield stress that typically dominates the elastic response but can be tuned by exposing the metal to hydrochloric acid solutions of different concentration. We systematically studied the normal impact of eutectic gallium-indium (eGaIn) drops under different oxidation conditions and show how this leads to two different dynamical regimes. At low impact velocity (or low Weber number), eGaIn droplets display strong recoil and rebound from the impacted surface when the oxide layer is removed. In addition, the degree of drop deformation or spreading during impact is controlled by the oxide skin. We show that the scaling law known from ordinary liquids for the maximum spreading radius as a function of impact velocity can still be applied to the case of oxidized eGaIn if an effective Weber number We is employed that uses an effective surface tension factoring in the yield stress. In contrast, no influence on spreading from different oxidations conditions is observed for high impact velocity. This suggests that the initial kinetic energy is mostly damped by bulk viscous dissipation. Results from both regimes can be collapsed in an impact phase diagram controlled by two variables, the maximum spreading factor Pm=R0/Rm, given by the ratio of initial to maximum drop radius, and the impact number K=We/Re4/5, which scales with the effective Weber number We as well as the Reynolds number Re. The data exhibit a transition from capillary to viscous behavior at a critical impact number Kc?0.1.

Xu, Qin; Brown, Eric; Jaeger, Heinrich M.

2013-04-01

373

Naval Waste Package Drop With Emplacement Pallet  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this calculation was to determine the structural responses of the Emplacement Pallet and Naval Long Waste Package (WP) to drops from their highest possible lift heights. The scope of this document was limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of maximum stress intensities. The Naval Long WP is classified as Quality Level 1 (Ref 12, page 7, Table 1). The Emplacement Pallet is classified as Quality Level 2 (Ref. 19, page 7, Table 1). Therefore, this calculation is subject to the requirements of the Quality Assurance Requirements and Description (Ref. 11). AP-3.12Q, Calculations, was used to perform the calculation and develop the document (Ref. 3).

D.G. McLenzie

2005-08-04

374

Drop Drawers 1.5.8  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This nifty shareware program from Sig Software places pull-out/ snap-shut "drawers" on the sides of users' screens, which can store items for easy access. In addition to storing text (which can be inserted into any program via keyboard shortcuts), users can store email addresses, URLs, thumbnails, sounds, movies, aliases to frequently used files, and more. The help documentation is easy to understand, and earlier versions of the program are available in Japanese, Italian, French, German, and Traditional Chinese. Drop Drawers is shareware, and a license costs $20. Very handy.

2001-01-01

375

Potential Drop Mapping for Corrosion Monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study evaluates the accuracy with which the depth of defects due to corrosion/erosion on the far surface can be estimated by means of low-frequency Potential Drop measurements, as a function of defect size and probe geometry. A novel array probe configuration, in which the injecting and measuring electrodes are adjacent to each other, is suggested and its performance compared with that of the electrode arrangement most commonly used in commercial systems. The results of the Finite Element model are validated experimentally.

Sposito, G.; Cawley, P.; Nagy, P. B.

2009-03-01

376

Chimpanzee Droppings Lead Scientists to Evolutionary Discovery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interrupted case study focuses on the research of Dr. Beatrice Hahn, who investigates DNA sequences in chimpanzee droppings in order to explore the origins of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Students first consider the types of data that can be gained through collecting chimpanzee feces and studying the behavior of these animals. Students then apply this information to learn more about microevolution when they compare DNA sequences. Finally, students learn about ELISA tests and consider the role of basic and applied science. This case study is appropriate for an introductory biology course for non-majors or majors.

Kosal, Erica F.

2008-01-01

377

Electric power system with line drop compensation  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an electric power system having line drop compensation. It comprises a controllable electric power source having an output for supplying voltage to a power bus; a local voltage regulator; a remote voltage regulator for sensing voltage on the power bus; a pulse width to trim bias converter for receiving the pulse width modulated signal and for producing a trim signal having a magnitude representative of the duty cycle of the pulse width modulated signal; and means for combining the control signal with the trim signal to produce a modified control signal for controlling the output voltage of the power source to produce a predetermined voltage at the point of regulation.

Kessler, L.L.

1992-05-26

378

PROGRAM DROP: A computer program for prediction of evaporation from freely falling multicomponent drops  

SciTech Connect

PROGRAM DROP consists of a series of FORTRAN routine which together are used to model the evaporation of a freely falling, multicomponent drop composed of an arbitrary number of volatile species and a single nonvolatile, inert component. The physics underlying the model are clearly identified, and the model`s relationship to previous work in the literature is described. Test cases are used to illustrate the viability of the model and to highlight its potential usefulness in the accurate prediction of multicomponent droplet vaporization in a variety of applications.

Gavin, P.M. [Gavin Consulting, Newark, OH (United States)

1996-12-01

379

Robust accidental nodes and zeros and critical quasiparticle scaling in iron-based multiband superconductors.  

SciTech Connect

We study multigap superconductivity, with strong angular variations of one of the gaps, as appropriate for certain iron-based high-temperature superconductors. We solve the gap equations of this model and find that the nodes or zeros in the gap function present at T{sub c} - although purely accidental - typically survive down to T = 0. Based on this result, we investigate the line of quantum transitions at which gap zeros first appear. The peculiar 'zero-point' quantum critical scaling emanating from this line dominates quasiparticle thermodynamics and transport properties over much of the phase diagram and supplants more familiar forms of scaling associated with the accidental nodes.

Stanev, V.; Alexandrov, B. S.; Nikolic, P.; Tesanovic, Z. (Materials Science Division); (Los Alamos Nat. Lab.); (George Mason Univ.); (Johns Hopkins Univ.)

2011-07-19

380

The current state of non-accidental head injury in Arkansas.  

PubMed

Child maltreatment syndrome (CMS) and non-accidental head injury (NAHI) are frequent causes of death and disability with national incidences reported as high as 24.6 per 100,000 children. At this time the true incidence of CMS is unknown in Arkansas. The purpose of this review is to illustrate the severity of non-accidental head injury and increase awareness in the state of Arkansas. This paper is the first in a planned series to determine the incidence, risk factors, presentation, best effective treatment strategies and outcomes of CMS and NAHI in Arkansas. PMID:23451407

Phillips, Blake C; Farst, Karen; Aitken, Mary E; Albert, Gregory

2013-02-01

381

Dynamics of a drop trapped inside a circular hydraulic jump  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the dynamics of a drop trapped inside a circular hydraulic jump : in our experiment, a circular hydraulic jump is formed by a viscous jet impacting a horizontal glass disk. A drop of the same liquid, deposited in the jump does not coalesce, and remains trapped at its periphery, because of the air entrainment linked to the high drop rotation speed. Depending on the flow rate, the drop can exhibit complex dynamics, from regular rotation along the jump to ``chaotic'' behaviour. We also studied in detail hydrodynamics of the liquid drop and its interaction with the jump. Our investigations show that hydrodynamics of the jump is still not fixed.

Lebon, Luc; Duschene, Alexis; Limat, Laurent

2011-11-01

382

Testing SN IA progenitor scenarios: SNR 1006  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For Type Ia supernovae several progenitor scenarios have been proposed: 1) Roche lobe overflow from main sequence stars onto white dwarfs, 2) Roche lobe overflow from subgiants onto white dwarfs, 3) Wind accretion from a giant companion 4) Merging white dwarf pairs. So far, none of these scenarios have been clearly demonstrated to occur in nature, and only for scenario 1 we know potential observed counterparts, the supersoft X-ray sources. We have computed detailed evolutionary model grids for scenarios 1 and 2, and relied on literature data for scenario 3, in order to determine the properties of the white dwarf companion star at the time of the supernova explosion. E.g., we found that the companions in scenario 1 stem from 1.7 dots 2.3 M_odot main sequence stars and are underluminous stars of more than 1 M_odot, out of thermal equilibrium, with luminosities in the range 1 dots 10 L_odot, devoid of Li, Be, and B, and partly enriched in carbon. Scenarios 2 and 3 are found to leave low mass O or B subdwarfs. From Scenarios 1 and 2, we expect large space velocities for the companions after the white dwarf explosion (100 dots 1000 km/s). The remnant of the historical Type Ia supernova SN 1006 is close enough to unambiguously identify the former companion star of the white dwarf and, according to its properties, distinguish between scenarios 1, 2 and 3. We propose a detailed observational strategy to find the companion star. The sdO star near the center of SN 1006 has already been investigated in part. A failure of finding any suitable star in SNR 1006 would support scenario 4. In any case, a distinctive test of Type Ia supernova progenitor scenarios appears to be possible with SNR 1006.

Wellstein, S.; Langer, N.; Gehren, T.; Burleigh, M.; Heber, U.

383

The Spreading Behavior of Viscous Drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spreading behavior of initially spherical, stagnant, viscous droplets on a planar interface is studied numerically. The droplet stability, equilibrium shape, and the fluid motion within the drop are examined. For a droplet spreading on a solid surface, either a no-slip or a partial-slip boundary condition is enforced at the contact point. In addition, a droplet in contact with an identical droplet without a solid surface (i.e., a two-drop problem) is modeled to remove the contact point singularity. The numerical scheme is based on a Generalized Eulerian Lagrangian formulation. Computations are performed for capillary numbers ranging from 0.01 to 100 and for Reynolds numbers from 0.001 to 50, where the velocity scale is based on the droplet radius and the gravitational acceleration. For the droplet spreading on a solid surface, three different behaviors are observed. For sufficiently low Reynolds number and high capillary number, droplets deform to reach a stable, equilibrium shape. For higher Reynolds numbers and/or lower capillary numbers, an oscillatory droplet behavior occurs. At still higher Reynolds numbers, the droplets undergo a shattering-type of breakup. In many cases, droplet deformation is associated with recirculation patterns that arise in the vicinity of the contact point.

Hermanson, James C.; Kotikalapudi, Krishna; Alexandrou, Andreas N.

2000-11-01

384

MIOSAT Mission Scenario and Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MIOSAT ("Mssione Ottica su microSATellite") is a low-cost technological / scientific microsatellite mission for Earth Observation, funded by Italian Space Agency (ASI) and managed by a Group Agreement between Rheinmetall Italia - B.U. Spazio - Contraves as leader and Carlo Gavazzi Space as satellite manufacturer. Several others Italians Companies, SME and Universities are involved in the development team with crucial roles. MIOSAT is a microsatellite weighting around 120 kg and placed in a 525 km altitude sun-synchronuos circular LEO orbit. The microsatellite embarks three innovative optical payloads: Sagnac multi spectral radiometer (IFAC-CNR), Mach Zehender spectrometer (IMM-CNR), high resolution pancromatic camera (Selex Galileo). In addition three technological experiments will be tested in-flight. The first one is an heat pipe based on Marangoni effect with high efficiency. The second is a high accuracy Sun Sensor using COTS components and the last is a GNSS SW receiver that utilizes a Leon2 processor. Finally a new generation of 28% efficiency solar cells will be adopted for the power generation. The platform is highly agile and can tilt along and cross flight direction. The pointing accuracy is in the order of 0,1° for each axe. The pointing determination during images acquisition is <0,02° for the axis normal to the boresight and 0,04° for the boresight. This paper deals with MIOSAT mission scenario and definition, highlighting trade-offs for mission implementation. MIOSAT mission design has been constrained from challenging requirements in terms of satellite mass, mission lifetime, instrument performance, that have implied the utilization of satellite agility capability to improve instruments performance in terms of S/N and resolution. The instruments provide complementary measurements that can be combined in effective ways to exploit new applications in the fields of atmosphere composition analysis, Earth emissions, antropic phenomena, etc. The Mission is currently in phase B and the launch is planned for 2011.

Agostara, C.; Dionisio, C.; Sgroi, G.; di Salvo, A.

2008-08-01

385

EDITORIAL: Where next with global environmental scenarios? Where next with global environmental scenarios?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scenarios have become a standard tool in the portfolio of techniques that scientists and policy-makers use to envision and plan for the future. Defined as plausible, challenging and relevant stories about how the future might unfold that integrate quantitative models with qualitative assessments of social and political trends, scenarios are a central component in assessment processes for a range of global issues, including climate change, biodiversity, agriculture, and energy. Yet, despite their prevalence, systematic analysis of scenarios is in its beginning stages. Fundamental questions remain about both the epistemology and scientific credibility of scenarios and their roles in policymaking and social change. Answers to these questions have the potential to determine the future of scenario analyses. Is scenario analysis moving in the direction of earth system governance informed by global scenarios generated through increasingly complex and comprehensive models integrating socio-economic and earth systems? Or will global environmental scenario analyses lose favour compared to more focused, policy-driven, regionally specific modelling? These questions come at an important time for the climate change issue, given that the scenario community, catalyzed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), is currently preparing to embark on a new round of scenario development processes aimed at coordinating research and assessment, and informing policy, over the next five to ten years. These and related questions about where next to go with global environmental scenarios animated a workshop held at Brown University (Note1) that brought together leading practitioners and scholars of global environmental change scenarios from research, policy-making, advocacy, and business settings. The workshop aimed to provide an overview of current practices/best practices in scenario production and scenario use across a range of global environmental change arenas. Participants worked to bring the experience generated from over four decades of scenario development in other issue domains, including energy and security, to bear on environmental scenarios, and to bring into dialogue scenario practitioners, both producers and users, with social science scholars. The set of contributions to this focus issue of Environmental Research Letters arose out of this workshop and collectively examines key challenges facing the scenario community, synthesizes lessons, and offers recommendations for new research and practice in this field. One theme that emerged in many of the discussions at the workshop revolved around the distinction between two broad perspectives on the goals of scenario exercises: scenarios as products and scenarios as processes. Most global environmental change scenario exercises are product-oriented; the content of the scenarios developed is the main goal of many participants and those who commission or organize the scenario development process. Typically, what is of most interest are the environmental outcomes produced, how they relate to the various factors driving them, and what the results tell us about the prospects for future environmental change, for impacts, and for mitigation. A product-oriented perspective assumes that once produced, scenario products have lives of their own, divorced from the processes that generated them and able to serve multiple, often unspecified purposes. Thus, it is often assumed that the scenario products can be 'taken up' by a variety of users in a variety of fora. A contrasting scenario approach is process-oriented and self-consciously privileges the process of scenario development as the primary goal, for example as a means to motivate organizational learning, find commonalities across different perspectives, achieve consensus on goals, or come to a shared understanding of challenges. Focusing on scenarios as processes highlights the social contexts in which scenarios are created and used. Process-oriented scenario exercises also generate scenario products, but such products are recognized

O'Neill, Brian; Pulver, Simone; Van Deveer, Stacy; Garb, Yaakov

2008-12-01

386

Multimedia Scenario in a Primary School  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multimedia as an educational technology tool is used throughout the educational system. In this article we present a research project where multimedia scenario was used to initiate a discussion about Internet use among students and teachers at a primary school. Multimedia scenario is the use of large screen multimedia to initiate and facilitate discussion in a group of learners. Multimedia

Urban Nulden; Bodil Ward

2002-01-01

387

Architectures for Developing Multiuser, Immersive Learning Scenarios  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Multiuser immersive learning scenarios hold strong potential for lifelong learning as they can support the acquisition of higher order skills in an effective, efficient, and attractive way. Existing virtual worlds, game development platforms, and game engines only partly cater for the proliferation of such learning scenarios as they are often…

Nadolski, Rob J.; Hummel, Hans G. K.; Slootmaker, Aad; van der Vegt, Wim

2012-01-01

388

Learning With Scenarios: Summary and Critical Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

This issue of Advances in Developing Human Resources has discussed scenario planning as a contemporary business approach to support the strategic roles of human resource departments in organizations. Scenario planning is usually situated in the domain of strategic and business planning, yet it is increasingly considered a major organizational intervention approach to overcome organizational defensive routines and bring about learning

George Burt; Thomas J. Chermack

2008-01-01

389

Scenario Planning at College of Marin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article reviews the scenario planning process implemented at the College of Marin (California). Scenario planning is a creative process in which a group of people who share a common fate develop stories about different ways their future might unfold, and use these stories to make decisions about what path to take. The Global Business Network…

College of Marin, Kentfield, CA.

390

Definitions and Outcome Variables of Scenario Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scenario planning has been receiving increased attention as a tool for considering the future in the midst of a rapidly changing business environment. This article examines available definitions of scenario planning, analyzes the espoused dependent variables of the process, sets forth an integrative definition, and supports the further development of the process as a useful and relevant tool for strategic

Thomas J. Chermack; Susan A. Lynham

2002-01-01

391

Scenario Planning as a Networking Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scenario planning implies the collective participation of a variety of people—experts, strategists, managers—organized in networks to create alternative representations of the future. As a networking process, scenario planning has a sensemaking function to challenge strategic paradigms of organizations and to rethink their internal and external borders. From a longitudinal case study, this article reviews the rise of future studies or

Fabrice Roubelat

2000-01-01

392

The Case Study Approach to Scenario Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scenario planning is a strategic planning method that organizations use to develop flexible long-term plans. The authors, experienced in case study design, development, and method for teaching in an MBA program, used the case study approach to create a scenario planning strategy to analyze a company's product and move the company through its decision-making dilemmas. The case study is a

A. Gregory Stone

2006-01-01

393

Offshore information systems outsourcing: strategies and scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the findings of an ongoing research study into offshore information technology and systems outsourcing. Fieldwork was conducted in India and the United Kingdom to identify different strategies and scenarios. Based on the premise that offshore outsourcing poses greater risks than using suppliers from the home country, the research develops a risk assessment matrix comprising four scenarios: body

Naureen Khan; Wendy L. Currie; Vishanth Weerakkody

2003-01-01

394

Global Biodiversity Scenarios for the Year 2100  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scenarios of changes in biodiversity for the year 2100 can now be developed based on scenarios of changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide, climate, vegetation, and land use and the known sensitivity of biodiversity to these changes. This study identified a ranking of the importance of drivers of change, a ranking of the biomes with respect to expected changes, and the

Osvaldo E. Sala; F. Stuart Chapin III; Juan J. Armesto; Eric Berlow; Janine Bloomfield; Rodolfo Dirzo; Elisabeth Huber-Sanwald; Laura F. Huenneke; Robert B. Jackson; David M. Lodge; Harold A. Mooney; N. LeRoy Poff; Martin T. Sykes; Brian H. Walker; Diana H. Wall

2000-01-01

395

Social assessment of waste energy utilization scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Center of Technology Assessment in Stuttgart (Germany) constructed four energy scenarios for the year 2005 and 2020 referring to the German State of Baden-Württemberg. All these scenarios are based on the promise of the German government to reduce Carbon dioxide emissions by 25% in the year 2005, and there is a commitment of a 45% reduction for the year

Ortwin Renn

2003-01-01

396

A Temporal Model for Interactive Multimedia Scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the main issues in temporal models of scenarios is the flexibility the model has to express different temporal relationships. In this paper, we a re mainly concerned with the temporal behavior of scenarios; other attributes of the document including its layout, quality, and playback speed are not the primary focus of our investigation. Of main issue to us

Na'el Hirzalla; Benjamin Falchuk; Ahmed Karmouch

1995-01-01

397

USING SERVICE SCENARIOS TO MODEL BUSINESS SERVICES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the paper is to present and evaluate the notion of service scenarios. A service is work done by a service executor in interaction with a service consumer. A service scenario is a model of a service system and the roles that are played by the actors participating and interacting during the execution of a service. The model

Lars Bækgaard

398

Component ecological footprint: developing sustainable scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

The component ecological footprint is presented and its value as a regional planning tool is demonstrated. The component ecological footprint of waste, transport, energy, water, bio-resources is calculated for Guernsey (Channel Islands). This tool also has the ability to be used to develop scenarios for a sustainable future. A detailed scenario for passenger transport on Guernsey is presented demonstrating that

John Barrett

2001-01-01

399

Molecular Diagnostic Analysis of Outbreak Scenarios  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the current laboratory assignment, technical aspects of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are integrated in the context of six different bacterial outbreak scenarios. The "Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus Sequence" (ERIC) PCR was used to analyze different outbreak scenarios. First, groups of 2-4 students determined optimal…

Morsink, M. C.; Dekter, H. E.; Dirks-Mulder, A.; van Leeuwen, W. B.

2012-01-01

400

Community Mental Health Services: Dropping-In and Dropping-Out.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of studies have examined variables that discriminate individuals who drop out of mental health programs. However, relatively little attention has been focused on determining characteristics of individuals who fail to follow through after their initial contact with mental health services. This study was designed to provide a profile of…

Lonigan, Christopher J.; Muzekari, Louis H.

401

Effects of rod worth and drop speed on the BWR off-center rod drop accident  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of increasing the control rod worth and the rod drop speed on the off-center RDA. An increase in either of these parameters results in an increase in peak core power and fuel enthalpy, and the objective of this study is to determine the margin to the fuel damage threshold.

Cokinos, D.M.; Carew, J.F.

1986-01-01

402

The Oil Drop Experiment: How Did Millikan Decide What Was an Appropriate Drop?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The oil drop experiment is considered an important contribution to the understanding of modern physics and chemistry. The objective of this investigation is to study and contrast the views and understanding with respect to the experiment of physicists or philosophers of science with those of authors of physics or chemistry textbooks and…

Niaz, Mansoor

2003-01-01

403

Empirical Studies in Information Visualization: Seven Scenarios.  

PubMed

We take a new, scenario based look at evaluation in information visualization. Our seven scenarios, evaluating visual data analysis and reasoning, evaluating user performance, evaluating user experience, evaluating environments and work practices, evaluating communication through visualization, evaluating visualization algorithms, and evaluating collaborative data analysis were derived through an extensive literature review of over 800 visualization publications. These scenarios distinguish different study goals and types of research questions and are illustrated through example studies. Through this broad survey and the distillation of these scenarios we make two contributions. One, we encapsulate the current practices in the information visualization research community and, two, we provide a different approach to reaching decisions about what might be the most effective evaluation of a given information visualization. Scenarios can be used to choose appropriate research questions and goals and the provided examples can be consulted for guidance on how to design one's own study. PMID:22144529

Lam, Heidi; Bertini, Enrico; Isenberg, Petra; Plaisant, Catherine; Carpendale, Sheelagh

2011-11-30

404

Scenario analysis of the future of medicines.  

PubMed

Planning future policy for medicines poses difficult problems. The main players in the drug business have their own views as to how the world around them functions and how the future of medicines should be shaped. In this paper we show how a scenario analysis can provide a powerful teaching device to readjust peoples' preconceptions. Scenarios are plausible, not probable or preferable, portraits of alternative futures. A series of four of alternative scenarios were constructed: "sobriety in sufficiency," "risk avoidance," "technology on demand," and "free market unfettered." Each scenario was drawn as a narrative, documented quantitatively wherever possible, that described the world as it might be if particular trends were to dominate development. The medical community and health policy markers may use scenarios to take a long term view in order to be prepared adequately for the future. PMID:7987110

Leufkens, H; Haaijer-Ruskamp, F; Bakker, A; Dukes, G

1994-10-29

405

36 CFR 1230.16 - How does NARA handle allegations of unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How does NARA handle allegations of unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration...ALTERATION, OR DESTRUCTION OF RECORDS § 1230.16 How does NARA handle allegations of unlawful or accidental removal, defacing,...

2011-07-01

406

36 CFR 1230.16 - How does NARA handle allegations of unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How does NARA handle allegations of unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration...ALTERATION, OR DESTRUCTION OF RECORDS § 1230.16 How does NARA handle allegations of unlawful or accidental removal, defacing,...

2012-07-01

407

Social and Temperamental Influences on Children's Overestimation of Their Physical Abilities: Links to Accidental Injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined social and temperamental influences on children's judgments about their physical abilities and relations between temperamental characteristics, ability overestimation, and accidental injuries. Six- and 8-year-olds first observed a peer succeed or fail on a set of physical tasks and then made judgments about their ability to perform those same physical tasks. At both ages, children who first watched

Jodie M. Plumert; David C. Schwebel

1997-01-01

408

Hollywood piracy in China: An accidental case of US public diplomacy in the globalization age?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Challenging existing approaches and assumptions, this essay identifies the phenomenon of Hollywood piracy in China as an agent of American expansion in the region, amplifying the distribution of US popular culture artifacts. This accidental, yet relevant public diplomacy occurrence thrives outside the control of central governments, driven by transnational profit oriented entities, both legal (Hollywood studios producing and distributing entertainment

Paolo Sigismondi

2009-01-01

409

A probabilistic risk assessment for accidental releases from nuclear power plants in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1986 accident with the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl has shown that severe accidents with a nuclear power plant can lead to a large scale contamination of Europe. At present, over 200 nuclear power reactors for commercial electricity production are operational in Europe. An integrated assessment of probabilistic cancer mortality risks due to possible accidental releases from the European

Harry Slaper; Roelf Blaauboer

1998-01-01

410

Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning presenting without a history of exposure: A case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Carbon monoxide poisoning is easy to diagnose when there is a history of exposure. When the exposure history is absent, or delayed, the diagnosis is more difficult and relies on recognising the importance of multi-system disease. We present a case of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning. CASE PRESENTATION: A middle-aged man, who lived alone in his mobile home was found

Luke Bennetto; Louise Powter; Neil J Scolding

2008-01-01

411

Back from the dead: extracorporeal rewarming of severe accidental hypothermia victims in accident and emergency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Severe accidental hypothermia in an urban environment is usually associated with drug or alcohol abuse or serious illness in elderly or debilitated patients. In the presence of cardiovascular instability, extracorporeal rewarming by cardiopulmonary bypass is the gold standard of treatment of such patients. Three cases of profound hypothermia with circulatory collapse are presented. Each was successfully resuscitated to a full

A J Ireland; V L Pathi; R Crawford; I W Colquhoun

1997-01-01

412

Framework for preventing accidental falls in hospitals - management plan for ADL, medication and medical conditions.  

PubMed

Prevention and reduction of medical accidents is essential. Among medical accidents, accidental falls remain a serious problem. While "assessment score sheets" have already been used in hospitals to prevent accidental falls, satisfactory results have not actually been achieved. In this study, we aim to establish a methodology for preventing accidental falls. We consider that the 'management plan' for each patient includes three factors. A plan of instructions for patients on actions they can take for safety in their ADL (Activities of Daily Living) is essential as a base. Second, a plan to keep up with any short term change in a patient's state is needed, because the state of a hospitalized patient will usually be temporarily affected by medication and changing medical conditions. We develop a model for preventing accidental falls, which enable us to design appropriate management plan for each patient. Then, we develop a prototype system based on the designed model. Finally, we address the result of verification of the model, by applying the prototype system into actual cases in hospitals. PMID:19592884

Kato, Shogo; Tsuru, Satoko; Iizuka, Yoshinori

2009-01-01

413

The Woodstruck Deed The Documentation of Accidental Defloration among the Jews of Early Modern Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The “woodstruck” (mukat ets) deed, a Hebrew document that officially records the accidental defloration of a young girl, appears in sixteenth-century Italy, in a block of deeds recorded by Jewish notaries in Rome, in a rabbinic responsum and in the record book of the Padua community. Prior to that, there is no record of such an instrument anywhere in Jewish

David Malkiel

2006-01-01

414

Recent developments in modelling mitigation of accidental releases of hazardous gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Process safety management guidelines suggest that a facility operator should investigate and document a plan for installing systems to detect, contain or mitigate accidental releases if such systems are not already in place. In addition, proposed EPA 112(r) regulations would require such investigation. This paper illustrates how mathematical modelling can aid such an evaluation. It describes how the HGSPRAY and

V. M. Fthenakis; D. N. Blewitt

1995-01-01

415

Water-spray systems for mitigating accidental indoor releases of water-soluble gasesq  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water-spray systems have been designed for mitigating accidental outdoor releases of water-soluble gases. This paper describes the new application of water systems to mitigating indoor releases. The performance of spray systems is studied by using models of atmospheric release and spray mitigation, having adjusted them for the indoor environment. A case study is presented of a mitigation system for a

Vasilis M. Fthenakis

416

Asthma-like syndrome in school children after accidental exposure to xylene and methylene diphenyl diisocyanate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose: We assessed the signs and symptoms, pulmonary function changes and residual chemical body burden of school children in the vicinity of an accidental exposure to volatile xylene and methyl- ene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI). Methods: After the exposure episode, children with significant symptoms after MDI exposure (e.g., dizziness, nausea, sore throat, and breathing difficulties) were sent to nearby

Ren-Long Jan; Shin-Hong Chen; Ho-Yuan Chang; Hui-Jung Yeh; Chi-Chang Shieh; Jiu-Yao Wang

417

Presence of periorbital and conjunctival petechial hemorrhages in accidental pediatric drowning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathological findings of drowning are variable and non-specific. Petechial hemorrhages involving the periorbital region and the conjunctiva have been described in many causes of death, but are thought to be exceedingly uncommon in cases of drowning. However, such studies have not specifically addressed the pediatric population. The current study retrospectively examined 79 cases of accidental pediatric drowning for the

Gino R. Somers; David A. Chiasson; Glenn P. Taylor

2008-01-01

418

Coincidence-counting corrections for accidental coincidences, set dead time and intrinsic dead time.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An equation is derived for calculating the radioactivity of a source from the results of coincidence counting, taking into account dead-time losses and accidental coincidences. The corrections allow for the extension of the set dead time in the (beta) cha...

H. A. Wyllie

1991-01-01

419

Peripheral Zonal Hepatic Necrosis Caused by Accidental Ingestion of Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatal massive peripheral zonal hepatic necrosis developed in a 47-year-old man who accidentally ingested a solution of methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP) in dimethyl phtalate. Such solutions contain about 10% active oxygen. The clinical course was characterized by temporary cardiac arrest, abdominal burns, severe metabolic acidosis, rapid hepatic failure, rhabdomyolysis and respiratory insufficiency. A fatal outcome resulted 4 d afterwards

P. J. Karhunen; I. Ojanperä; K. Lalu; E. Vuori

1990-01-01

420

Assessment of structures subjected to accidental actions using crisp and uncertain fragility functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

An application of fragility functions to the assessment of potential damage due to an accidental action is analysed. The assessment is carried out as an estimation of the probability of a foreseeable damage event (damage probability). This probability is expressed as a mean value of a fragility function developed for the damage event under study. A Bayesian prior (posterior) distribution

Egidijus R. Vaidogas; Virmantas Juocevi?ius

2009-01-01

421

Modeling the atmospheric dispersion of accidentally released heavy gases from photovoltaic cell manufacturing facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many hazardous gases used in the photovoltaic cell industry are heavier than air. Following an accidental release, their dispersion in air, differs from the dispersion of a neutrally buoyant gas and, as such, it requires special consideration. This report reviews and evaluates basic theoretical models and selected computer codes. Model results also are compared with experimental data. Dispersion of selected

Fthenakis

1986-01-01

422

Accidental beam loss in superconducting accelerators: Simulations, consequences of accidents and protective measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The consequences of an accidental beam loss in superconducting accelerators and colliders of the next generation range from the mundane to rather dramatic, i.e., from superconducting magnet quench, to overheating of critical components, to a total destruction of some units via explosion. Specific measures are required to minimize and eliminate such events as much as practical. In this paper we

A. Drozhdin; N. Mokhov; B. Parker

1994-01-01

423

Infantile Herpes Simplex Encephalitis: Diagnostic Features and Differentiation from Non-accidental Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis is rare, but associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. After a baby, subsequently proven to have HSE, had initially been diagnosed as non-accidental injury (NAI), we reviewed the clinical features and radiology of infants with HSE recently diagnosed by our laboratory.Methods: Screening of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples sent to Oxford for HSV polymerase

J. Kurtz; P. Anslow

2003-01-01

424

Adverse events in humans associated with accidental exposure to the livestock brucellosis vaccine RB51  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine, is an attenuated live bacterial vaccine that was licensed conditionally by the Center for Veterinary Biologics, Veterinary Services, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA, on 23 February 1996, for vaccination of cattle in the United States. Accidental human inoculations can occur during vaccination of cattle, and previous live Brucella vaccines designed for cattle have

David A Ashford; Jennifer di Pietra; Jairam Lingappa; Christopher Woods; Heather Noll; Bridget Neville; Robbin Weyant; Sandra L Bragg; Richard A Spiegel; Jordan Tappero; Bradley A Perkins

2004-01-01

425

[Accidental asymptomatic infections with hephatitis B virus and testing on HBV markers of healthcare personnel].  

PubMed

Healthcare personnel is being highly exposed to the professional risk of Hephatitis B virus infection by accidental professional injuries, where direct contact with patients blood occurs. Number of researches indicate significance and role of accidental injuries, especially over injection needles, which is leading cause for professional HBV infections occurence. HBsAg has capability to provoke imune system if applied to a man, to HBs anti-bodies production achieving thus protection from Hephatitis B Virus. Recombinant vaccine against viruse Hephatitis B achieves high imunology protection. It is considered that appereance of anti-HBs titre >10 mlU/ml upon received three doses of vaccine provides reliable protection from HBV infection. Aim of the work is to prove rates of asymptomatic HBV infection amongst healthcare personnel and other employees in Sarajevo Healthcare Institution, and to research occurence and rate of anti-HBs titre at vaccinated Healthcare personnel in Sarajevo Healthcare Institution one month upon received third dose of vaccine. Out of 980 examinees 4, or 0.41%, had acute HBV infection within research period, 10 or 1.02% examinees had chronical accidental HBV infection, 18 or 1.83 % out of 980 examinees had previous asymptomatic HBV infection, as the consequence of accidental injury. Results of these researches indicated that 82.76 % or 96 healthcare workers has had reliable protection from HB virus infection one month upon third vaccine dose against HBV, since achieved titres where higher than 10 mlU/ml. PMID:18669231

Saci?, Enes; Saci?, Dzana

2008-01-01

426

Reducing the Risk of Accidental Death Due to Vehicle-Related Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) from motor vehicles cause several hundred accidental fatal poisonings annually in the United States. The circumstances that could lead to fatal poisonings in residential settings with motor vehicles as the source of CO were explored. The risk of death in a garage (volume = 90 m) and a single-family dwelling (400 m) was evaluated using

Linsey C. Marr; Glenn C. Morrison; William W. Nazaroff; Robert A. Harley

1998-01-01

427

Forensic significance of conduction system abnormalities as a precise cause of accidental death  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the pathology findings of the cardiac conduction system in 42 human autopsies who were considered to have died an accidental death. Abnormalities in serial sections of the conduction system were found in seven and of these three had an accessory pathway in the conduction system. In one of these there was mild Ebstein's anomaly (ME), two had fibromuscular

N. Nishida; N. Ikeda; K. Kudo; A. Tsuji; A. Kiyoshima

2002-01-01

428

Infant homicide and accidental death in the United States, 1940–2005: ethics and epidemiological classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential ethical issues can arise during the process of epidemiological classification. For example, unnatural infant deaths are classified as accidental deaths or homicides. Societal sensitivity to the physical abuse and neglect of children has increased over recent decades. This enhanced sensitivity could impact reported infant homicide rates. Infant homicide and accident mortality rates in boys and girls in the USA

Jack E Riggs; Gerald R Hobbs

2011-01-01

429

Accidental Jorge Lobo's disease in a worker dealing with Lacazia loboi infected mice: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Jorge Lobo's disease (Lacaziosis) is a subcutaneous infection of humans living in the Amazon region of Latin America, and in dolphins inhabiting the east coastal areas of the United States. The disease mainly affects people from rural areas living or working in close contact with vegetation and aquatic environments. Most patients refer having developed lesions after accidental trauma with plant thorns or insect bites. Inter-human transmission has never been confirmed suggesting that Lacazia loboi is acquired from environmental propagules. Case presentation We report the case of a 41-year-old woman from São Paulo, Brazil, a non-endemic area of Jorge Lobo's disease, with L. loboi skin infection most likely accidentally acquired while manipulating experimentally infected mice in the laboratory. Conclusion Because many patients with Jorge Lobo's disease do not recall accidental skin trauma before their infections, the possibility of accidentally acquired Jorge Lobo's disease through unnoticed broken skin should be considered during the clinical investigation of nodular skin diseases in people who have contact with the fungus or who live in endemic areas. This is the second report of animal to human transmission of this disease.

2009-01-01

430

Simulation of Accidental UF sub 6 Releases in Support of the Safety Analysis Effort.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The safety analysis of the US uranium enrichment facilities requires that postulated accidental releases of UF sub 6 be simulated. In order to predict the human health consequences of a postulated UF sub 6 release, two types of information are needed: (1)...

R. A. Just

1986-01-01

431

Dropped head syndrome: diagnosis and management  

PubMed Central

Dropped head syndrome (DHS) is a relatively rare condition, with a broad differential diagnosis. This deformity has significant implications on the health and quality of life of affected individuals. While surgery seems to be an obvious therapeutic option, there is a paucity of information on surgical intervention with no clear consensus on an optimal approach or timing. We present a case of DHS in a young woman to illustrate this condition, and review the current literature. Although at present the only definitive solution for correction and stabilization of DHS is surgical intervention involving multilevel instrumented fixation and fusion, this condition requires a persistent medical workup and treatment of reversible causes before surgical intervention is contemplated.

Martin, Allan R.; Reddy, Rajesh; Fehlings, Michael G.

2011-01-01

432

Horizontal Drop of 21- PWR Waste Package  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this calculation is to determine the structural response of the waste package (WP) dropped horizontally from a specified height. The WP used for that purpose is the 21-Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) WP. The scope of this document is limited to reporting the calculation results in-terms of stress intensities. This calculation is associated with the WP design and was performed by the Waste Package Design group in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for: Waste Package Design Description for LA'' (Ref. 16). AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'' (Ref. 1 1) is used to perform the calculation and develop the document. The sketches attached to this calculation provide the potential dimensions and materials for the 21-PWR WP design.

A.K. Scheider

2007-01-31

433

Dropped head syndrome: etiology and management.  

PubMed

Dropped head syndrome (DHS) is characterized by severe weakness of the cervical paraspinal muscles that results in the passively correctable chin-on-chest deformity. DHS is most commonly associated with neuromuscular disorders. However, it is not always accompanied by electromyographic findings or noticeable changes on muscle biopsy. In such cases, the term isolated neck extensory myopathy (INEM) is used instead. The literature on the management of INEM is limited. Most reports suggest that nonsurgical interventions help to stabilize the deformity. The literature on surgical management of INEM is limited and mixed, with outcomes ranging from poor to excellent. The prevalence of DHS likely will increase as life expectancy increases. Recent advances in our understanding of sagittal malalignment and surgical techniques have improved our ability to provide better quality of life for patients with cervical deformity. PMID:23203936

Sharan, Alok D; Kaye, David; Charles Malveaux, Wilsa M S; Riew, K Daniel

2012-12-01

434

Dropped head syndrome: diagnosis and management.  

PubMed

Dropped head syndrome (DHS) is a relatively rare condition, with a broad differential diagnosis. This deformity has significant implications on the health and quality of life of affected individuals. While surgery seems to be an obvious therapeutic option, there is a paucity of information on surgical intervention with no clear consensus on an optimal approach or timing. We present a case of DHS in a young woman to illustrate this condition, and review the current literature. Although at present the only definitive solution for correction and stabilization of DHS is surgical intervention involving multilevel instrumented fixation and fusion, this condition requires a persistent medical workup and treatment of reversible causes before surgical intervention is contemplated. PMID:23637681

Martin, Allan R; Reddy, Rajesh; Fehlings, Michael G

2011-05-01

435

Film drop distributions from bubbles bursting in seawater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The liquid droplets produced from the breaking up of the film cap of oceanic bubbles have long been considered as constituting a significant fraction of the marine aerosol. The size and number distributions of these film drops are investigated for single bubbles that burst in seawater under laboratory conditions. Optical particle detection and counting techniques are used to size the droplets generated from bubbles varying in diameter from about 1 to 6 mm. Parallel measurements are also made using a laser holographic setup for bubbles up to about 10 mm in diameter. Taken together, a film drop size spectrum extending from 0.8 to 500 ?m is covered. From these results, an experimental correlation between the number of film drops generated and the parent bubble diameter is proposed. Based on this correlation and published data concerning the number of jet drops produced per bubble, a crossover point for bubbles that produce predominantly either film drops or jet drops is located at a bubble diameter of about 1.8 mm. In other words, bubbles larger than this threshold diameter produce more film drops than jet drops, while smaller bubbles generate more jet drops. A couple of film drops as large as 500 ?m for a 10 mm bubble are detected. Although these maximum sizes diminish with decreasing bubble diameter, they happen to be much larger than previously thought.

Resch, FrançOis; Afeti, George

1991-06-01

436

Buoyancy-driven drop squeezing through a constriction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emulsion flow through a granular material is of fundamental importance to many applications (e.g., oil filtration through underground reservoirs). To understand these complex flow systems, the effect of drop squeezing on the emulsion flow rate and the critical conditions when the drops become trapped must be determined. As a related model problem, the buoyancy-driven axisymmetric motion of an emulsion drop through a torus is considered by experiments and by theory using a boundary-integral method. For the latter, the problem is reduced to a system of well-behaved second-kind integral equations for the fluid velocity on the drop and the Hebeker density on the solid surfaces (Zinchenko & Davis, 2006, J. Fluid Mech. vol. 564, pp. 227-266). During squeezing through the constriction, the trends for the drop-solid spacing (as small as 0.1-1% of the drop size) and the drop's velocity deceleration (up to 10^4 times) are explored in detail. A critical Bond number for trapping to occur is found for different squeezing conditions (drop-to-torus size ratio, drop-to-opening size ratio, and drop-to-surrounding fluid viscosity ratio). In experiments, our focus is to verify the predictions and to determine when surface roughness neglected in the theory has an effect on the squeezing process.

Ratcliffe, Thomas; Zinchenko, Alexander; Davis, Robert

2007-11-01

437

Acceleration from field-aligned potential drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unstable field-aligned currents are seen as the origin of field-aligned potential drops. They convert energy stored in magnetic shear stresses into kinetic energy. A good fraction of this energy is carried by runaway electrons and ions out of the acceleration region. The paper emphasizes the analogy with mechanical fractures. Simple expressions for the energy conversion rate and the parallel potential drop are derived, the two being linked by the critical current density needed for instability. The origin of the currents (generator) lies mostly in a region remote from that of energy conversion (fracture zone). The transmission of shear stresses and energy from the generator plasma, where the primary forces are applied to the fracture zone is also considered. A closed set of relations allows quantitative evaluation of the energetic particle production efficiency . The decoupling of the plasma on either side of the fracture zone which allows fast stress relief is described in detail, as well as a stationary model of the Alfven wave interaction between fracture zone and generator plasma. A simple concept of the nature of the anomalous resistivity generated by the unstable current leads to an expression for the magnetic diffusivity inside the fracture zone and an estimate of the latter's extent parallel to the magnetic field, whereas its width and length transverse to B follow from the macroscopic relations. Finally and as an example, the theory is applied to the problem of fast electron (and ion) acceleration well above 1 MeV seen to occur in many solar flares. It is obvious that this process belongs to the most powerful production processes of high-energy particles in stellar magnetic fields.

Haerendel, Gerhard

1994-02-01

438

Cellular automata-based forecasting of the impact of accidental fire and toxic dispersion in process industries.  

PubMed

The strategies to prevent accidents from occurring in a process industry, or to minimize the harm if an accident does take place, always revolve around forecasting the likely accidents and their impacts. Based on the likely frequency and severity of the accidents, resources are committed towards preventing the accidents. Nearly all techniques of ranking hazardous units, be it the hazard and operability studies, fault tree analysis, hazard indice, etc.--qualitative as well as quantitative--depend essentially on the assessment of the likely frequency and the likely harm accidents in different units may cause. This fact makes it exceedingly important that the forecasting the accidents and their likely impact is done as accurately as possible. In the present study we introduce a new approach to accident forecasting based on the discrete modeling paradigm of cellular automata. In this treatment an accident is modeled as a self-evolving phenomena, the impact of which is strongly influenced by the size, nature, and position of the environmental components which lie in the vicinity of the accident site. The outward propagation of the mass, energy and momentum from the accident epicenter is modeled as a fast diffusion process occurring in discrete space-time coordinates. The quantum of energy and material that would flow into each discrete space element (cell) due to the accidental release is evaluated and the degree of vulnerability posed to the receptors if present in the cell is measured at the end of each time element. This approach is able to effectively take into account the modifications in the flux of energy and material which occur as a result of the heterogeneous environment prevailing between the accident epicenter and the receptor. Consequently, more realistic accident scenarios are generated than possible with the prevailing techniques. The efficacy of the approach has been illustrated with case studies. PMID:16713088

Sarkar, Chinmoy; Abbasi, S A

2006-04-19

439

A photographic method for drop characterization in agricultural sprinklers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characterization of drops resulting from impact sprinkler irrigation has been addressed by a number of techniques. In\\u000a this article, a new technique based on low-speed photography (1\\/100 s) is presented and validated. The technique permits to\\u000a directly measure drop diameter, velocity and angle. The photographic technique was applied to the characterization of drops\\u000a resulting from an isolated sprinkler equipped with

Raquel Salvador; C. Bautista-Capetillo; J. Burguete; N. Zapata; A. Serreta; E. Playán

2009-01-01

440

Burning Behavior of Gas-in-Oil Compound Drops  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a gas-in-oil compound-drop stream was produced by the breaking up of an oil jet with gas core, and its burning characteristics were observed. The compound jet broke up into stable compound drops if the spacing between bubbles was greater than the circumference of the compound jet. The outer diameter of the compound drops was about 1.8 times

Wei-Dong Hsieh; Shy-Yea Lin; Rong-Horng Chen; Ta-Hui Lin

2010-01-01

441

Development and application of innovational drop impact modeling techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to demand for short time-to-market, drop testing has become a bottleneck for semiconductor and telecommunication industry. Therefore, there is a need for a faster and cheaper solution, i.e. validated drop impact model, which is accurate, reliable, and enables understanding of physics-of-failure for design improvement. Currently, there has been increasing interest and effort by researchers on board level drop test

Tong Yan Tee; Jing-en Luan; Hun Shen Ng

2005-01-01

442

Evaporation rates of alkanes and alkanols from acoustically levitated drops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaporation constants of acoustically levitated drops from the homologue series of n-alkanes and 1-alkanols in ambient air have been evaluated by size and temperature measurements. The size of the pure liquid drops, within a diameter range of 0.1 to 2.5 mm, was monitored using a CCD camera, while temperature measurements were carried out by IR thermography. During drop evaporation, water

Rudolf Tuckermann; Sigurd Bauerecker; Bernd Neidhart

2002-01-01

443

Correlations for the pressure drop for flow through metal foam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steady-state unidirectional pressure-drop measurements for incompressible airflow through nine open-cell aluminum foam samples, having different porosities and pore densities, were undertaken. The pressure drop increased with increasing Darcian velocity following the quadratic Forchheimer equation. The lower-porosity foam produced significantly higher pressure drop. Both the permeability and the form drag coefficient correlated well with the porosity. The correlations predicted the results

N. Dukhan

2006-01-01

444

A multi-layered display with water drops  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a multi-layered display that uses water drops as voxels. Water drops refract most incident light, making them excellent wide-angle lenses. Each 2D layer of our display can exhibit arbitrary visual content, creating a layered-depth (2.5D) display. Our system consists of a single projector-camera system and a set of linear drop generator manifolds that are tightly synchronized and controlled

Peter C. Barnum; Srinivasa G. Narasimhan; Takeo Kanade

2010-01-01

445

[Preliminary exploration on knockout drops (Meng Han Agents)].  

PubMed

This author points out, based on relevant materials, that knockout drops were vertigo powder. Due to homophonic reasons in Chinese language, the term "mingxuan" was transliterated into the former Chinese term (menghan). Knockout drops for medicinal use were merely made up of compound recipes containing stramonium flowers. The knockout drops in old fictions and opera books were powder of stramonium flower. The ingredients and application of such recipes are discussed here, the anti-remedies for such recipes are also mentioned. PMID:11613350

Zhang, Z

1996-05-01

446

Dynamic behaviour of drops in oil\\/water\\/oil dispersions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamic behaviour of drops of oil\\/water\\/oil (O\\/W\\/O) and water\\/oil (W\\/O) in abnormal polymer\\/water\\/surfactant systems was investigated. The size of internal oil droplets continuously decreased with time until it reached a steady-state value. Whereas the size of multiple water drops showed a minimum. After the minimum, the size of multiple water drops either reached a steady-state value or continued enlarging

S Sajjadi; M Zerfa; B W. Brooks

2002-01-01

447

The behavior of drop-containing turbulent eddies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of turbulent entrainment and mixing at the boundary of a cluster of evaporating drops has been studied. The results obtained by solving the model equations show that for dense clusters turbulence exchange processes are crucial in determining the lifetime of the drops in the clusters. The results also show that turbulence helps evaporate larger clusters of drops faster when the clusters are dense.

Bellan, Josette

1987-11-01

448

Drop size dependence of contact angles of oil drops on a solid surface in water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contact angle is a fundamental quantity in colloid and surface science. Of all the methods employed to measure the contact angles, direct measurement from sessile drops is probably the most popular approach. However, it has long been found that the measured contact angle is not unique for a given solid–liquid–fluid system. There are two types of contact angle multiple-value phenomena

Yongan Gu

2001-01-01

449

Drop-and-drag: easier drag & drop on large touchscreen displays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large displays have been found to offer a number of benefits over average-sized desktop displays: They increase productivity in office settings, improve performance on spatial tasks and offer increased user satisfaction in several contexts. However, their physical dimensions can complicate drag & drop interactions for users, especially when touch or pen input is used. Existing approaches (e.g. push-and-pop) have addressed

Sebastian Doeweling; Urs Glaubitt

2010-01-01

450

Type Ia Supernovae and the DD Scenario  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Type Ia supernovae are thought to be the outcome of the thermonuclear explosion of a white dwarf in a close binary system. Two possible scenarios, not necessarily incompatible, have been advanced. One assumes a white dwarf that accretes matter from a nondegenerate companion (the single degenerate scenario), the other assumes two white dwarfs that merge as a consequence of the emission of gravitational waves (the double degenerate scenario). The delay time distribution of star formation bursts strongly suggests that the DD scenario should be responsible of the late time explosions, but this contradicts the common wisdom that the outcome of the merging of two white dwarfs is an accretion induced collapse to a neutron star. In this contribution we review some of the most controversial issues of this problem.

Isern, J.; García-Berro, E.; Lorén-Aguilar, P.

2012-07-01

451

IPCC Scenarios for the Year 2100  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The figure summarizes some of the key variations amongst the six illustrative scenarios used by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in considering possible future emissions of greenhouse gases during the 21st century.

Rhode, Robert A.; Art, Globalwarming

452

Oscillating and star-shaped drops levitated by an airflow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the spontaneous oscillations of drops levitated above an air cushion, eventually inducing a breaking of axisymmetry and the appearance of “star drops”. This is strongly reminiscent of the Leidenfrost stars that are observed for drops floating above a hot substrate. The key advantage of this work is that we inject the airflow at a constant rate below the drop, thus eliminating thermal effects and allowing for a better control of the flow rate. We perform experiments with drops of different viscosities and observe stable states, oscillations, and chimney instabilities. We find that for a given drop size the instability appears above a critical flow rate, where the latter is largest for small drops. All these observations are reproduced by numerical simulations, where we treat the drop using potential flow and the gas as a viscous lubrication layer. Qualitatively, the onset of instability agrees with the experimental results, although the typical flow rates are too large by a factor 10. Our results demonstrate that thermal effects are not important for the formation of star drops and strongly suggest a purely hydrodynamic mechanism for the formation of Leidenfrost stars.

Bouwhuis, Wilco; Winkels, Koen G.; Peters, Ivo R.; Brunet, Philippe; van der Meer, Devaraj; Snoeijer, Jacco H.

2013-08-01

453

Effect on mydriasis of modifying the volume of phenylephrine drops.  

PubMed Central

The cardiovascular effects of topically administered phenylephrine 10% are well known and can be minimised by reducing the concentration of drops administered. By modifying the dimensions of the dropper tip we reduced the volume of the drops administered, and therefore the total dose of phenylephrine, without altering the concentration. No difference in the mydriasis produced by drops of small and normal volume could be detected. Since a smaller dose of phenylephrine is administered with smaller drops, the risk of systemic side effects could be reduced by modifying the tips of eyedroppers. Images

Craig, E W; Griffiths, P G

1991-01-01

454

Substrate constraint modifies the Rayleigh spectrum of vibrating sessile drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we study the resonance behavior of mechanically oscillated, sessile water drops. By mechanically oscillating sessile drops vertically and within prescribed ranges of frequencies and amplitudes, a rich collection of resonance modes are observed and their dynamics subsequently investigated. We first present our method of identifying each mode uniquely, through association with spherical harmonics and according to their geometric patterns. Next, we compare our measured resonance frequencies of drops to theoretical predictions using both the classical theory of Lord Rayleigh and Lamb for free, oscillating drops, and a prediction by Bostwick and Steen that explicitly considers the effect of the solid substrate on drop dynamics. Finally, we report observations and analysis of drop mode mixing, or the simultaneous coexistence of multiple mode shapes within the resonating sessile drop driven by one sinusoidal signal of a single frequency. The dynamic response of a deformable liquid drop constrained by the substrate it is in contact with is of interest in a number of applications, such as drop atomization and ink jet printing, switchable electronically controlled capillary adhesion, optical microlens devices, as well as digital microfluidic applications where control of droplet motion is induced by means of a harmonically driven substrate.

Chang, Chun-Ti; Bostwick, Joshua B.; Steen, Paul H.; Daniel, Susan

2013-08-01

455

Pressure drop during condensation of refrigerants in pipe minichannels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper describes results of experimental investigations of pressure drop during the condensation of R134a, R404a and R407C refrigerants in pipe minichannels with internal diameter 0.31-3.30 mm. The results concern investigations of the mean and local pressure drop in single minichannels. The results of experimental investigations were compared with the calculations according to the correlations proposed by other authors. A pressure drop during the condensation of refrigerants is described in a satisfactory manner with Friedel and Garimella correlations. On the basis of the experimental investigations, the authors proposed their own correlation for calculation of local pressure drop during condensation in single minichannels.

Bohdal, Tadeusz; Charun, Henryk; Sikora, Ma?gorzata

2012-08-01

456

Mixing in Sessile Drops Merging on a Surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the mixing of two sessile drops that merge on a surface. The drops consist of low viscosity glycerol-water mixtures deposited on a silicone elastomer surface with contact angle near 90^o. We observe the shape of the drops and the location of their intersection by placing a fluorescent dye in one drop and using a laser light sheet to image a plane perpendicular to the surface. The initial healing of the meniscus bridge between the merging drops, and the damping of capillary waves appearing on their surfaces occur on timescales comparable to the inertio-capillary relaxation time. However, the interface between the two fluids remains sharp, broadening diffusively over several minutes. The shape of the merged drops and the boundary between them also continues to evolve on a timescale of minutes. This later motion is controlled by gravity, capillary pressure, and viscous stresses. Images of the 3D drop shape indicate that small contact line motions are correlated to the slow relaxation. Although the two drops contain identical liquids except for the presence of the dye, the shape of the interface consistently evolves asymmetrically, assuming a characteristic crescent shape. We note that very tiny surface tension gradients can produce an asymmetric flow like the one observed here. We characterize the long timescale flow as a function of the drop sizes, and we use numerical simulations to aid in elucidating the essential physics.

Anna, Shelley; Zhang, Ying; Oberdick, Samuel; Garoff, Stephen

2011-11-01

457

Effects of matrix viscoelasticity on drop deformation in steady shear  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate a viscous/Oldroyd-B drop in an Oldroyd-B matrix. We compare simulated drop deformation and inclination with experimental observations by other groups. A non-monotonic change in the steady state drop deformation is observed with increasing Deborah number (De) and explained in terms of the competition between increased localized polymer stretching at the drop tips and the decreasing effects due to change in drop orientation angle. The transient drop orientation angle is found to evolve on the polymer relaxation time scale for high . The breakup of a viscous drop in a viscoelastic matrix is inhibited for small De, and promoted at higher De. The effect of polymeric to total viscosity ratio ? was seen to affect through the parameter ? De indicating a dominant role of the first normal stress difference. A viscoelastic drop in a viscoelastic matrix with matched relaxation time experiences less deformation compared to the case when one of the phases is viscous. But the inclination angle assumes an intermediate value between two extreme cases. Increased drop phase viscoelasticity compared to matrix phase leads to decreased deformation.

Sarkar, Kausik; Aggarwal, Nishith

2007-11-01

458

Substrate constraint modifies the Rayleigh spectrum of vibrating sessile drops.  

PubMed

In this work, we study the resonance behavior of mechanically oscillated, sessile water drops. By mechanically oscillating sessile drops vertically and within prescribed ranges of frequencies and amplitudes, a rich collection of resonance modes are observed and their dynamics subsequently investigated. We first present our method of identifying each mode uniquely, through association with spherical harmonics and according to their geometric patterns. Next, we compare our measured resonance frequencies of drops to theoretical predictions using both the classical theory of Lord Rayleigh and Lamb for free, oscillating drops, and a prediction by Bostwick and Steen that explicitly considers the effect of the solid substrate on drop dynamics. Finally, we report observations and analysis of drop mode mixing, or the simultaneous coexistence of multiple mode shapes within the resonating sessile drop driven by one sinusoidal signal of a single frequency. The dynamic response of a deformable liquid drop constrained by the substrate it is in contact with is of interest in a number of applications, such as drop atomization and ink jet printing, switchable electronically controlled capillary adhesion, optical microlens devices, as well as digital microfluidic applications where control of droplet motion is induced by means of a harmonically driven substrate. PMID:24032932

Chang, Chun-Ti; Bostwick, Joshua B; Steen, Paul H; Daniel, Susan

2013-08-14

459

Drop-delay measurement using enzyme-coated particles.  

PubMed

A simple technique is suggested for the measurement of drop delay for flow sorting. While the flow cytometer was set to sort a fixed number of particles, the drop-delay setting was changed step by step, and at each step the HRP-coupled particles were sorted into a well of an immunoassay strip. Then the HRP activity of the sorted samples was revealed by routine methods. The maximum level of the enzyme activity shows the proper drop-delay setting. Determination of the drop-delay setting takes only a few minutes. The technique is independent of the type of flow cytometer and does not require any additional equipment. PMID:1451596

Lazebnik, Y A; Poletaev, A I; Zenin, V V

1992-01-01

460

Vimentin networks at tunable ion-concentration in microfluidic drops  

PubMed Central

The structure and function of biological systems, for example, cells and proteins, depend strongly on their chemical environment. To investigate such dependence, we design a polydimethylsiloxane-based microfluidic device to encapsulate biological systems in picoliter-sized drops. The content of each individual drop is tuned in a defined manner. As a key feature of our method, the individual chemical composition is determined and related to the drop content. In our case, the drop content is imaged using microscopy methods, while the drops are immobilized to allow for long-time studies. As an application of our device, we study the influence of divalent ions on vimentin intermediate filament networks in a quantitative way by tuning the magnesium concentration from drop to drop. This way we are able to directly image the effect of magnesium on the fluorescently tagged protein in a few hundreds of drops. Our study shows that with increasing magnesium concentration in the drops, the compaction of the networks becomes more pronounced. The degree of compaction is characterized by different morphologies; freely fluctuating networks are observed at comparatively low magnesium concentrations of 5–10?mM, while with increasing magnesium concentration reaching 16?mM they develop into fully aggregated networks. Our approach demonstrates how a systematic study of interactions in biological systems can benefit from the exceptional controllability of microfluidic methods.

Dammann, Christian; Noding, Bernd; Koster, Sarah

2012-01-01

461

How to optimize the drop plate method for enumerating bacteria.  

PubMed

The drop plate (DP) method can be used to determine the number of viable suspended bacteria in a known beaker volume. The drop plate method has some advantages over the spread plate (SP) method. Less time and effort are required to dispense the drops onto an agar plate than to spread an equivalent total sample volume into the agar. By distributing the sample in drops, colony counting can be done faster and perhaps more accurately. Even though it has been present in the laboratory for many years, the drop plate method has not been standardized. Some technicians use 10-fold dilutions, others use twofold. Some technicians plate a total volume of 0.1 ml, others plate 0.2 ml. The optimal combination of such factors would be useful to know when performing the drop plate method. This investigation was conducted to determine (i) the standard deviation of the bacterial density estimate, (ii) the cost of performing the drop plate procedure, (iii) the optimal drop plate design, and (iv) the advantages of the drop plate method in comparison to the standard spread plate method. The optimal design is the combination of factor settings that achieves the smallest standard deviation for a fixed cost. Computer simulation techniques and regression analysis were used to express the standard deviation as a function of the beaker volume, dilution factor, and volume plated. The standard deviation expression is also applicable to the spread plate method. PMID:11165341

Herigstad, B; Hamilton, M; Heersink, J

2001-03-01

462

Oscillating and star-shaped drops levitated by an airflow.  

PubMed

We investigate the spontaneous oscillations of drops levitated above an air cushion, eventually inducing a breaking of axisymmetry and the appearance of "star drops". This is strongly reminiscent of the Leidenfrost stars that are observed for drops floating above a hot substrate. The key advantage of this work is that we inject the airflow at a constant rate below the drop, thus eliminating thermal effects and allowing for a better control of the flow rate. We perform experiments with drops of different viscosities and observe stable states, oscillations, and chimney instabilities. We find that for a given drop size the instability appears above a critical flow rate, where the latter is largest for small drops. All these observations are reproduced by numerical simulations, where we treat the drop using potential flow and the gas as a viscous lubrication layer. Qualitatively, the onset of instability agrees with the experimental results, although the typical flow rates are too large by a factor 10. Our results demonstrate that thermal effects are not important for the formation of star drops and strongly suggest a purely hydrodynamic mechanism for the formation of Leidenfrost stars. PMID:24032934

Bouwhuis, Wilco; Winkels, Koen G; Peters, Ivo R; Brunet, Philippe; van der Meer, Devaraj; Snoeijer, Jacco H

2013-08-19

463

Emergent universe scenario via Quintom matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emergent universe scenario provides a possible alternative to bouncing cosmology to avoid the Big Bang singularity problem. In this Letter we study the realization of the emergent universe scenario by making use of Quintom matter with an equation of state across the cosmological constant boundary. We will show explicitly the analytic and numerical solutions of emergent universe in two Quintom models, which are a phenomenological fluid and a nonconventional spinor field, respectively.

Cai, Yi-Fu; Li, Mingzhe; Zhang, Xinmin

2012-12-01

464

Climate change scenarios for the California region  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate possible future climate changes in California, a set of climate change model simulations was selected and evaluated.\\u000a From the IPCC Fourth Assessment, simulations of twenty-first century climates under a B1 (low emissions) and an A2 (a medium-high\\u000a emissions) emissions scenarios were evaluated, along with occasional comparisons to the A1fi (high emissions) scenario. The\\u000a climate models whose simulations were

Daniel R. Cayan; Edwin P. Maurer; Michael D. Dettinger; Mary Tyree; Katharine Hayhoe

2008-01-01

465

Framework for scenario development in LCA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is based on the work of the SETAC-Europe LCA Working Group ‘Scenario Development in LCA’, which has started its\\u000a work in April 1998. The goal of the Working Group is to focus on the use of scenarios in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This\\u000a article presents the results of the first phase of the Working Group. The previous definitions

Hanna-Leena Pesonen; Tomas Ekvall; Giinter Fleischer; Gjalt Huppes; Christina Jahn; Zbigniew S. Klos; Gerald Rebitzer; Guido W. Sonnemann; Alberto Tintinelli; Bo P. Weidema; Henrik Wenzel

2000-01-01

466

String GUT scenarios with stabilized moduli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taking into account the recently proposed poly-instanton corrections to the superpotential and combining the racetrack with a Kachru-Kallosh-Linde-Trivedi, respectively, large volume scenario in an intricate manner, we show that we gain exponential control over the parameters in an effective superpotential. This allows us to dynamically stabilize moduli such that a conventional minimal supersymmetric standard model scenario with the string scale

Ralph Blumenhagen; Sebastian Moster; Erik Plauschinn

2008-01-01

467

A proposal for a scenario classification framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

The requirements engineering, information systems and software engineering communities recently advocated scenario-based approaches\\u000a which emphasise the user\\/system interaction perspective in developing computer systems. Use of examples, scenes, narrative\\u000a descriptions of contexts, mock-ups and prototypes-all these ideas can be called scenario-based approaches, although exact\\u000a definitions are not easy beyond stating that these approaches emphasise some description of the real world. Experience

C. Rolland; C. Ben Achour; C. Cauvet; J. Ralyté; A. Sutcliffe; N. Maiden; M. Jarke; P. Haumer; K. Pohl; E. Dubois; P. Heymans

1998-01-01

468

Scenario planning for sustainable tourism: an introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces the development of scenario planning for sustainable tourism, from the 1970s to the present day. It outlines the links between scenario planning and forecasting, its role as a business-planning tool generally, and its use in tourism for destination planning and advocacy. The prominent role of models is shown and the evolution from the first generation of forecast-focused

Stefan Gössling; Daniel Scott

2012-01-01

469

FAST plasma scenarios and equilibrium configurations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present the fusion advanced studies torus (FAST) plasma scenarios and equilibrium configurations, designed to reproduce the ITER ones (with scaled plasma current) and suitable to fulfil plasma conditions for integrated studies of plasma-wall interaction, burning plasma physics, ITER relevant operation problems and steady state scenarios. The attention is focused on FAST flexibility in terms of both performance and physics that can be investigated: operations are foreseen in a wide range of parameters from high performance H-mode (toroidal field, BT, up to 8.5 T; plasma current, IP, up to 8 MA) to advanced tokamak (AT) operation (IP = 3 MA) as well as full non-inductive current scenario (IP = 2 MA). The coupled heating power is provided with 30 MW delivered by an ion cyclotron resonance heating system (30-90 MHz), 6 MW by a lower hybrid system (3.7 or 5 GHz) for the long pulse AT scenario, 4 MW by an electron cyclotron resonant heating system (170 GHz - BT = 6 T) for MHD and localized electron heating control and, eventually, with 10 MW by a negative neutral ion beam (NNBI), which the ports are designed to accommodate. In the reference H-mode scenario FAST preserves (with respect to ITER) fast ion induced as well as turbulence fluctuation spectra, thus addressing the cross-scale couplings issue of micro- to meso-scale physics. The non-inductive scenario at IP = 2 MA is obtained with 60-70% of bootstrap current and the remaining by LHCD. Predictive simulations of the H-mode scenarios have been performed by means of the JETTO code, using a semi-empirical mixed Bohm/gyro-Bohm transport model. Plasma position and shape control studies are also presented for the reference scenario.

Calabrò, G.; Crisanti, F.; Ramogida, G.; Albanese, R.; Cardinali, A.; Cucchiaro, A.; Granucci, G.; Maddaluno, G.; Marinucci, M.; Nowak, S.; Pizzuto, A.; Pericoli Ridolfini, V.; Pironti, A.; Tuccillo, A. A.; Zonca, F.

2009-05-01

470

Scenario Analysis of Chinese Passenger Vehicle Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on a simulation and scenario analysis of Chinese passenger vehicle growth and resulting energy demand and CO2<\\/sub> emissions. The model includes provincial level logistic growth functions with saturation levels representative of neighboring Asian economies, income growth measured in international dollars, and both estimated and literature-based income elasticities. Scenarios explore variation in key parameters, including income and population

Peter H. Kobos; Jon D. Erickson; Thomas E. Drennen

2003-01-01

471

Workforce management strategies in a disaster scenario.  

SciTech Connect

A model of the repair operations of the voice telecommunications network is used to study labor management strategies under a disaster scenario where the workforce is overwhelmed. The model incorporates overtime and fatigue functions and optimizes the deployment of the workforce based on the cost of the recovery and the time it takes to recover. The analysis shows that the current practices employed in workforce management in a disaster scenario are not optimal and more strategic deployment of that workforce is beneficial.

Kelic, Andjelka; Turk, Adam L.

2008-08-01

472

MODELING OF 2LIBH4 PLUS MGH2 HYDROGEN STORAGE SYSTEM ACCIDENT SCENARIOS USING EMPIRICAL AND THEORETICAL THERMODYNAMICS  

SciTech Connect

It is important to understand and quantify the potential risk resulting from accidental environmental exposure of condensed phase hydrogen storage materials under differing environmental exposure scenarios. This paper describes a modeling and experimental study with the aim of predicting consequences of the accidental release of 2LiBH{sub 4}+MgH{sub 2} from hydrogen storage systems. The methodology and results developed in this work are directly applicable to any solid hydride material and/or accident scenario using appropriate boundary conditions and empirical data. The ability to predict hydride behavior for hypothesized accident scenarios facilitates an assessment of the of risk associated with the utilization of a particular hydride. To this end, an idealized finite volume model was developed to represent the behavior of dispersed hydride from a breached system. Semiempirical thermodynamic calculations and substantiating calorimetric experiments were performed in order to quantify the energy released, energy release rates and to quantify the reaction products resulting from water and air exposure of a lithium borohydride and magnesium hydride combination. The hydrides, LiBH{sub 4} and MgH{sub 2}, were studied individually in the as-received form and in the 2:1 'destabilized' mixture. Liquid water hydrolysis reactions were performed in a Calvet calorimeter equipped with a mixing cell using neutral water. Water vapor and oxygen gas phase reactivity measurements were performed at varying relative humidities and temperatures by modifying the calorimeter and utilizing a gas circulating flow cell apparatus. The results of these calorimetric measurements were compared with standardized United Nations (UN) based test results for air and water reactivity and used to develop quantitative kinetic expressions for hydrolysis and air oxidation in these systems. Thermodynamic parameters obtained from these tests were then inputted into a computational fluid dynamics model to predict both the hydrogen generation rates and concentrations along with localized temperature distributions. The results of these numerical simulations can be used to predict ignition events and the resultant conclusions will be discussed.

James, C; David Tamburello, D; Joshua Gray, J; Kyle Brinkman, K; Bruce Hardy, B; Donald Anton, D