Sample records for accidental drop scenarios

  1. IMPACT ANALYSIS OF SPENT FUEL DRY CASKS UNDER ACCIDENTAL DROP SCENARIOS.

    SciTech Connect

    BRAVERMAN,J.I.; MORANTE,R.J.; XU,J.; HOFMAYER,C.H.; SHAUKAT,S.K.

    2003-08-17

    A series of analyses were performed to assess the structural response of spent nuclear fuel dry casks subjected to various handling and on-site transfer events. The results of these analyses are being used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to perform a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). Although the PRA study is being performed for a specific nuclear plant, the PRA study is also intended to provide a framework for a general methodology that could also be applied to other dry cask systems at other nuclear plants. The dry cask system consists of a transfer cask, used for handling and moving the multi-purpose canister OLIIpC that contains the fuel, and a storage cask, used to store the MPC and fuel on a concrete pad at the site. This paper describes the analyses of the casks for two loading events. The first loading consists of dropping the transfer cask while it is lowered by a crane to a concrete floor at ground elevation. The second loading consists of dropping the storage cask while it is being transferred to the concrete storage pad outdoors. Three dimensional finite element models of the transfer cask and storage cask, containing the MPC and fuel, were utilized to perform the drop analyses. These models were combined with finite element models of the target structures being impacted. The transfer cask drop analyses considered various drop heights for the cask impacting the reinforced concrete floor at ground level. The finite element model of the target included a section of the concrete floor and concrete wall supporting the floor. The storage cask drop analyses evaluated a 30.5 cm (12 in.) drop of the cask impacting three different surfaces: reinforced concrete, asphalt, and gravel.

  2. IMPACT ANALYSIS OF SPENT FUEL DRY CASKS UNDER ACCIDENTAL DROP SCENARIOS.

    SciTech Connect

    BRAVERMAN,J.I.; MORANTE,R.J.; XU,J.; HOFMAYER,C.H.; SHAUKAT,S.K.

    2003-03-17

    A series of analyses were performed to assess the structural response of spent nuclear fuel dry casks subjected to various handling and on-site transfer events. The results of these analyses are being used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to perform a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). Although the PRA study is being performed for a specific nuclear plant, the PRA study is also intended to provide a framework for a general methodology that could also be applied to other dry cask systems at other nuclear plants. The dry cask system consists of a transfer cask, used for handling and moving the multi-purpose canister (MPC) that contains the fuel, and a storage cask, used to store the MPC and fuel on a concrete pad at the site. This paper describes the analyses of the casks for two loading events. The first loading consists of dropping the transfer cask while it is lowered by a crane to a concrete floor at ground elevation. The second loading consists of dropping the storage cask while it is being transferred to the concrete storage pad outdoors. Three dimensional finite element models of the transfer cask and storage cask, containing the MPC and fuel, were utilized to perform the drop analyses. These models were combined with finite element models of the target structures being impacted. The transfer cask drop analyses considered various drop heights for the cask impacting the reinforced concrete floor at ground level. The finite element model of the target included a section of the concrete floor and concrete wall supporting the floor. The storage cask drop analyses evaluated a 30.5 cm (12 in.) drop of the cask impacting three different surfaces: reinforced concrete, asphalt, and gravel.

  3. Can Canister Containment Be Maintained After Accidental Drop Events?

    SciTech Connect

    D. K. Morton; S. D. Snow; T. E. Rahl; R. K. Blandford; T. J. Hill

    2006-05-01

    The National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP) has pursued a number of structural testing projects that are intended to provide data that can be used to substantiate the position that U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) canisters, made from austenitic stainless steels, can maintain containment after an accidental drop event and that plastic finite element methods can be used to accurately predict the structural response of canister configurations not specifically tested. In particular, drop tests of full-scale canisters and material impact testing at varying strain rates reflecting accidental drop conditions have been completed or are in progress. This paper provides insights to conclusions achieved to date and what efforts are planned to fully address the pertinent issues necessary to demonstrate the safety of DOE SNF canisters subjected to accidental drop events.

  4. An experimental study on the uptake factor of tungsten oxide particles resulting from an accidentally dropped storage container.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhi; Zhang, J S; Byington, Jerry G A

    2013-01-01

    A test procedure was developed and verified to measure the airborne concentrations of particles of different sizes (0.5-20 ?m) within the vicinity of a dropped container when a significant portion of the tungsten oxide powder (simulating uranium oxide) is ejected from the container. Tests were carried out in a full-scale stainless steel environmental chamber with an interior volume of 24.1 m(3). Thirty-two drop tests were performed, covering variations in dropping height, room air movement, landing scenario, and lid condition. Assuming a breathing rate of 1.2 m(3)/hr, the uptake factor during the first 10 min was calculated to be between 1.13 × 10(-9) and 1.03 × 10(-7) in reference to the amount loaded; or between 6.44 × 10(-8) and 3.55 × 10(-4) in reference to the amount spilled. Results provide previously unavailable data for estimating the exposure and associated risk to building occupants in the case of an accidental dropping of heavy powder containers. The test data show that for spills larger than 0.004 g, the power-law correlation between the spill uptake factor and the spilled mass (i.e., SUF = 2.5 × 10(-5) × Spill_Mass(-0.667)) established from the test data is smaller and a more accurate estimate than the constant value of 10(-3) assumed in the Department of Energy Nuclear Material Packaging Manual. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene for the following free supplementary resource: an online supplementary table of all cumulative uptake amounts at 10 min for all test data.]. PMID:23679340

  5. Failure Criteria for Evaluating Accidental Drops of Fuel Containers at INTEC

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G. K.

    1998-10-01

    This report presents a failure criterion that has been developed for use in evaluating fuel containers at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) for accidental drop events. The criterion would typically be used in dynamic finite element analyses using the ABA-QUS/Explicit program. The failure criterion used in the past is generally considered to substantially underestimate the strength and ductility of the materials involved. The new criterion is intended to be more realistic, allowing for more accurate impact analyses. The criterion is based on the distortion energy theory, which is considered to be appropriate for the ductile materials typically used in fuel containers. Also addressed in development of the criterion were the effects of strain rate and hydrostatic stress. The importance of these factors, however, is highly dependent on the material used. Three materials specifically addressed in this study were stainless steel, aluminum, and lead. The criterion is presented in the form of guidelines and recommendations that are based on material data obtained from the literature. The most significant difference between these and the previous criterion is that ductile materials are allowed to strain to much higher levels before they are considered to fail.

  6. Accidental Drop of a Carbon Steel/Lead Shipping Cask (HFEF 14) at Low Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Brian D. Hawkes; Michael E. Nitzel

    2007-08-01

    A shielded cask is used to transport radioactive materials between facilities at the Idaho National Laboratory. The cask was fabricated with an outer and inner shell of A36 carbon steel with lead poured in the annular space between the shells to provide radiation shielding. Carbon steel is known to be susceptible to low-temperature brittle fracture under impact loading. This paper will present the analysis results representing postulated transportation accidents during on-site transfers of the cask at subzero temperatures. The accident scenarios were based on a series of cask drops onto a rigid surface from a height of 1.83m (6 ft.) Finite element models of the cask and its contents were solved and post processed using the ABAQUS software. Each model was examined for failure to contain radioactive materials and/or significant loss of radiation shielding. Results of these analyses show that the body of the cask exhibits considerable ruggedness and will remain largely intact after the impact. There will be deformation of the main cask body with localized brittle failure of the cask outer shell and door structure. The cask payload outer waste can remains in the cask but will experience some permanent plastic deformation in each drop. It will not be deformed to the point where it will rupture, thus maintaining confinement of the can contents.

  7. ACCIDENTAL DROP OF A CARBON STEEL/LEAD SHIPPING CASK AT LOW TEMPERATURES

    SciTech Connect

    B. D. Hawkes; K. R. Durstine

    2007-07-01

    A shielded cask is used to transport radioactive materials between facilities. The cask was fabricated with an outer and inner shell of hot rolled low carbon steel. Lead was poured in the annular space between the shells to provide radiation shielding. Carbon steel is known to be susceptible to lowtemperature brittle fracture under impact loading. This paper will present the analysis results representing postulated transportation accidents during on-site transfers of the cask. The accident scenarios were based on a series of cask drops onto a rigid surface from a height of 6 ft assuming brittle failure of the cask shell at subzero temperatures. Finite element models of the cask and its contents were solved and post processed using ABAQUS software. Each model was examined for failure to contain radioactive materials and/or significant loss of radiation shielding. Results of these analyses show that the body of the cask exhibits considerable ruggedness and will remain largely intact after the impact. There will be deformation of the main cask body with localized brittle failure of the cask outer shell and components and but no complete penetration of the cask shielding. The cask payload outer waste can will experience some permanent plastic deformation in each drop, but will not be deformed to the point where it will rupture, thus maintaining confinement of the can contents.

  8. Collision broadening of rho meson in a dropping mass scenario

    E-print Network

    K. L. Haglin

    1996-04-24

    Vector mesons containing light quarks are thought to have their masses reduced in dense nuclear matter, sacrificing some of their energy to the scalar field which becomes appreciable at finite baryon density. Model calculations find masses which fall by a couple tens of percents in normal nuclear matter, and by several hundred MeV in dense matter. We estimate the collision rate for rho mesons in such a scenario and at finite temperature. Compared to its free-mass value, the collision rate changes by nearly a factor of two both above and below, depending on the density. This collision broadening effect could be important for estimates of low-mass dilepton production in heavy-ion collisions.

  9. A simulation study of dispersion of air borne radionuclides from a nuclear power plant under a hypothetical accidental scenario at a tropical coastal site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, C. V.; Venkatesan, R.

    Meteorological condition in coastal regions is diurnally variable and spatially heterogeneous due to complex topography, land-sea interface, etc. A wide range of dispersion conditions is possible on a given day in the coastal regions. In case of inadvertent accidental situations, though unlikely, it would be necessary to examine the potentially severe case among different dynamically occurring local atmospheric conditions for dispersion and its range of impact around a nuclear power plant for safety analysis. In this context, dispersion of air borne radioactive effluents during a hypothetical accidental scenario from a proposed prototype fast breeder reactor (PFBR) at an Indian coastal site, Kalpakkam, is simulated using a 3-D meso-scale atmospheric model MM5 and a random walk particle dispersion model FLEXPART. A simulation carried out for a typical summer day predicted the development of land-sea breeze circulation and thermal internal boundary layer (TIBL) formation, which have been confirmed by meteorological observations. Analysis of dose distribution shows that the maximum dose for releases from a 100 m stack occurs at two places within 4 km distance during sea breeze/TIBL fumigation hours. Maximum dose also occurred during nighttime stable conditions. Results indicate that, on the day of present study, the highest concentrations occurred during periods of TIBL fumigation rather than during stable atmospheric conditions. Further, the area of impact (plume width at the surface) spreads up to a down wind distance of 4 km during fumigation condition. Simulation over a range of 25 km has shown turning of plume at the incidence of sea breeze circulation and two different dispersion patterns across the sea breeze front. These results are significant in comparison to the expected pattern shown by Gaussian plume model used for routine analysis.

  10. Drop by Drop

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Illuminations National Council of Teachers of Math

    2009-02-18

    In this lesson, students measure liquid capacity with standard units. The lesson is based on the book, Drip, Drop, by Sarah Meeks. This is lesson 3 of 5 in a unit from NCTM's Illuminations titled "Magnificent Measurement".

  11. Severe Accidental Hypothermia Center.

    PubMed

    Darocha, Tomasz; Kosi?ski, Sylweriusz; Jarosz, Anna; Ga??zkowski, Robert; Sadowski, Jerzy; Drwi?a, Rafa?

    2015-08-01

    Hypothermic patients may be rewarmed using passive or active techniques. In case of severe accidental hypothermia (temperature<28°C) and stage III/IV according to the Swiss Staging System, standard methods might not be effective and aggressive treatment is needed. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has proved to be both effective and safe in such cases. The Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, John Paul II Hospital, Cracow, Poland, established the Severe Accidental Hypothermia Center, which provides 24?h on-call to consult and accept patients who need ECMO implantation for profound hypothermia rewarming. Our center is so far the only one in Poland and can accept patients from south-east Poland. Most importantly, it collaborates with all prehospital medical services, namely, with 115 Ambulances, Polish Medical Air Rescue, Mountain Rescue Services, and all 28 Emergency Departments in the area. Severe Accidental Hypothermia Center is a solution for advanced treatment of patients with accidental hypothermia requiring ECMO implantation. PMID:25304125

  12. Acute accidental phosgene poisoning.

    PubMed

    Gutch, Manish; Jain, Nirdesh; Agrawal, Avinash; Consul, Suchi

    2012-01-01

    Phosgene is a highly toxic gas to which accidental exposure may occur in occupational workers. This case report describes the clinical presentation and management of accidental phosgene poisoning happened after the leakage of phosgene gas from nearby pipeline. The need to suspect phosgene gas exposure and observe such patients is crucial for life saving, especially in view of the delay in clinical deterioration observed in some patients who subsequently develop adult respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:22602834

  13. Accidental Inflation in the Landscape

    E-print Network

    Jose J. Blanco-Pillado; Marta Gomez-Reino; Konstantinos Metallinos

    2012-09-04

    We study some aspects of fine tuning in inflationary scenarios within string theory flux compactifications and, in particular, in models of accidental inflation. We investigate the possibility that the apparent fine-tuning of the low energy parameters of the theory needed to have inflation can be generically obtained by scanning the values of the fluxes over the landscape. Furthermore, we find that the existence of a landscape of eternal inflation in this model provides us with a natural theory of initial conditions for the inflationary period in our vacuum. We demonstrate how these two effects work in a small corner of the landscape associated with the complex structure of the Calabi-Yau manifold P^4_[1,1,1,6,9] by numerically investigating the flux vacua of a reduced moduli space. This allows us to obtain the distribution of observable parameters for inflation in this mini-landscape directly from the fluxes.

  14. Accidental inflation in the landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco-Pillado, Jose J.; Metallinos, Konstantinos [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA (United States); Gomez-Reino, Marta, E-mail: jose@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu, E-mail: marta.gomez-reino.perez@cern.ch, E-mail: Konstantinos.Metallinos@tufts.edu [Department of Physics, University of Oviedo, Oviedo (Spain)

    2013-02-01

    We study some aspects of fine tuning in inflationary scenarios within string theory flux compactifications and, in particular, in models of accidental inflation. We investigate the possibility that the apparent fine-tuning of the low energy parameters of the theory needed to have inflation can be generically obtained by scanning the values of the fluxes over the landscape. Furthermore, we find that the existence of a landscape of eternal inflation in this model provides us with a natural theory of initial conditions for the inflationary period in our vacuum. We demonstrate how these two effects work in a small corner of the landscape associated with the complex structure of the Calabi-Yau manifold P{sup 4}{sub [1,1,1,6,9]} by numerically investigating the flux vacua of a reduced moduli space. This allows us to obtain the distribution of observable parameters for inflation in this mini-landscape directly from the fluxes.

  15. Doctor Ward's Accidental Terrarium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, David R.

    1996-01-01

    Presents the story of the accidental invention of the Wardian case, or terrarium, by Nathaniel Bagshaw Ward. Advocates the use of this story in teaching precollege biology as an illustration of how a chance event can lead to a major scientific advancement and as an example of the common occurrence of multiple discovery in botany. Contains 34…

  16. Soft drop

    E-print Network

    Marzani, Simone

    We introduce a new jet substructure technique called “soft drop declustering”, which recursively removes soft wide-angle radiation from a jet. The soft drop algorithm depends on two parameters — a soft threshold z [subscript ...

  17. Drop Formation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site from the University of Bristolâ??s Mathematics department contains an explanation of drop formation and its applications. A description of studies of drop separation and its applications in medicine and technology are provided. The site also contains photographs, including a series of images showing the formation of a satellite drop.

  18. Drop Impactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D. Spengler; Narayan R. Gokhale

    1973-01-01

    Recent attempts to understand the development of intense precipitation has led several investigators to speculate about the role of drop impactions. Working with a large vertical wind tunnel, investigations were carried out on the interactions of millimeter size drops. On the basis of these studies it is concluded that drop impactions produce a rapid increase in the number of precipitation

  19. Accidental intrathecal vincristine administration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Manelis; E. Freundlich; E. Ezekiel; J. Doron

    1982-01-01

    Summary  A case is described of accidental intrathecal administration of vincristine, with detailed clinical observations over a 17-day\\u000a period. The clinical picture resembled that seen with toxicity from intravenously administered vincristine, but was rapidly\\u000a progressive and resulted in death. The onset was characterised by opisthotonos, followed by ascending paralysis and finally\\u000a bulbar and cerebral involvement. The specific changes in the brain

  20. Penny Drop

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

    2005-01-01

    In this quick activity about the properties of water (page 1 of PDF), learners will use an eyedropper to slowly place one drop of water at a time onto a penny, counting the number of drops until the water spills over the edge. Besides searching for the greatest number drops a penny will hold, drops of milk or vegetable oil can be tested in addition to water, raising the question, "What property of water allows it to pile up this way?" Relates to the linked video, DragonflyTV: Malformed Frogs.

  1. Voltage Drop

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The first site with information on voltage drop is provided by Power and System Innovations on their Frequently Asked Questions: Voltage Drop (1) page. Visitors can read what voltage drop is, what causes it, what happens as a result of it, and what the maximum recommended voltage drop is. The second site, Basics of Electricity (2), is part of General Electric's Lighting for Business Web site. Through descriptions and illustrations, the site explains what voltage drop is and gives examples of how it is calculated using Ohm's law. The next site is a lab worksheet that is part of a class from the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department of Montana State University called Voltage Drop in Cables (3). The objective of the lesson is to determine the internal resistance of an extension cord and choose the proper wire size for a particular application. Students are given an explanation of the procedure and a number of questions to answer related to the exercise. The Oregon Building Congress offers the Lesson Plans (4) Web site and the downloadable Voltage Drop educational activity. The lesson, which is suggested to be contained within a unit on formulas and solving literal equations, explores the concept of voltage drop that is encountered in basic wiring. The fifth site entitled Explanation of Voltage Drop in a Series Circuit (5) is offered by the Horizons Electronic Lesson Plan Resource. The page describes voltage drop as an electronic concept, gives a formula determining voltage drop, provides a schematic that helps illustrate the concept, and offers a quiz and answer sheet. Next, from electrician.com, is the online Voltage Drop Calculator (6). Users input the type and size of wire being used, the voltage and phase, circuit length, and amp load to calculate voltage drop and several other parameters. The seventh site, entitled The Hazards of Voltage Drop (7), is provided within the Electrical Construction Maintenance Web site. The page describes how electrical equipment can overheat or even power down if it operates below its voltage rating. It also provides a thorough explanation of how to determine the load's operating voltage. The last site, maintained by Williamson Labs (8), is a comprehensive learning site called Elementary Electricity. Visitors will find a wealth of information here, including fun descriptions, graphics, and animations on all aspects of electricity including voltage drop.

  2. The Accidental Scientist: Cooking

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1969-12-31

    Another great Web site from the Exploratorium in San Francisco (last mentioned in the August 16, 2002 NSDL MET Report), The Accidental Scientist: Cooking is the first in a series of "Web-based projects focusing on the science behind everyday life." Offering a mind-boggling array of food-related information and activities, foodies and science-lovers alike should find this Web site extremely engaging. Life science-related material includes an exploration of taste and smell; the biological properties of meat; microbe action in pickling, fermentation, and leavening; and much more. The site's other features not directly related to the life sciences shouldn't be missed. Users can find recipes and cooking tips, fun projects, and live Web casts starting in November 2002 that explore the science and culture of cooking, "just in time for picking up cooking tips for the holiday season."

  3. Pearl drops

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Bico; C. Marzolin; D. Quéré

    1999-01-01

    If deposited on a hydrophobic rough substrate, a small drop of water can look like a pearl, with a contact angle close to 180°. We examine the conditions for observing such a phenomenon and show practical achievements where the contact angle can be predicted and thus quantitatively tuned by the design of the surface microstructure.

  4. Accidental supersymmetric dark matter and baryogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kozaczuk, Jonathan; Profumo, Stefano; Wainwright, Carroll L., E-mail: jkozaczu@ucsc.edu, E-mail: profumo@ucsc.edu, E-mail: cwainwri@ucsc.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, 1156 High St., Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2013-01-01

    We show that ''accidental'' supersymmetry is a beyond-the-Standard Model framework that naturally accommodates a thermal relic dark matter candidate and successful electroweak baryogenesis, including the needed strongly first-order character of the electroweak phase transition. We study the phenomenology of this setup from the standpoint of both dark matter and baryogenesis. For energies around the electroweak phase transition temperature, the low-energy effective theory is similar to the MSSM with light super-partners of the third-generation quarks and of the Higgs and gauge bosons. We calculate the dark matter relic abundance and the baryon asymmetry across the accidental supersymmetry parameter space, including resonant and non-resonant CP-violating sources. We find that there are regions of parameter space producing both the observed value of the baryon asymmetry and a dark matter candidate with the correct relic density and conforming to present-day constraints from dark matter searches. This scenario makes sharp predictions for the particle spectrum, predicting a lightest neutralino mass between 200 and 500 GeV, with all charginos and neutralinos within less than a factor 2 of the lightest neutralino mass and the heavy Higgs sector within 20–25% of that mass, making it an interesting target for collider searches. In addition, we demonstrate that successful accidental supersymmetric dark matter and baryogenesis will be conclusively tested with improvements smaller than one order of magnitude to the current performance of electron electric dipole moment searches and of direct dark matter searches, as well as with IceCube plus Deep Core neutrino telescope data.

  5. Parachute Drop

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lawrence Hall of Science

    2009-01-01

    In this hands-on activity, learners make model parachutes out of various materials such as thin plastic, paper, or gauze. Then, learners test drop their parachutes to compare how long each material takes to land on the ground. For an online extension, learners can enter their results into a database and see how their parachutes compares with other learners. Materials listed are only suggestions - experiment to create your own unique parachute!

  6. Drop Impact Reliability Testing for Lead-Free and Leaded Soldered IC Packages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Y. R. Chong; Kellin Ng; J. Y. N. Tan; P. T. H. Low; J. H. L. Pang; F. X. Che; B. S. Xiong; L. H. Xu

    2005-01-01

    Portable electronic products such as cellular phones, PDAs, and MP3 units are increasingly designed for accidental drop. Repeated drop events can lead to solder joint failure and malfunction of these products. Hence board-level reliability drop testing is a useful way to characterize the drop durability of the printed circuit board with different soldered assemblies. Lead-free (or Pb-free) solders are replacing

  7. Drop impact reliability testing for lead-free and lead-based soldered IC packages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Desmond Y. R. Chong; F. X. Che; John H. L. Pang; Ng Kellin; Jane Y. N. Tan; Patrick T. H. Low

    2006-01-01

    Portable electronic products such as cellular phones, PDAs, and MP3 units are increasingly designed for accidental drop. Repeated drop events can lead to solder joint failure and malfunction of these products. Hence board-level reliability drop testing is a useful way to characterize the drop durability of the printed circuit board with different soldered assemblies. Lead-free (or Pb-free) solders are replacing

  8. Accidental intrathecal administration of vincristine.

    PubMed

    D'Addario, Adriana; Galuppo, Juan; Navari, Carlos; Schultz, Marcelo; Cuello, Nélida; Troncoso, Juan C; Riudavets, Miguel Angel

    2010-03-01

    We describe a case of accidental intrathecal administration of vincristine in a 33-year-old man with clinical diagnosis of acute lymphocytic leukemia. The patient died 20 days after receiving the drug. Clinically, the patient developed acute ascending paralysis with motor and sensory dysfunctions, and respiratory failure. Neuropathological investigation revealed lesions in spinal cord, roots, and cerebellum characterized by rarefaction of the neuropil, axonal, and myelin degeneration, accompanied by macrophagic infiltration. PMID:19935391

  9. Eye Drop Tips

    MedlinePLUS

    ... next drop in. This will keep the first drop from being washed out by the second before it has had time to work. Store eye drops and all medicines out of the reach of children. Steps For Putting ...

  10. Cytogenetic research after accidental radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Bauchinger, M

    1995-05-01

    Currently, chromosome aberration analysis in peripheral lymphocytes is the most sensitive method to estimate individual doses in accidental radiation exposures. The assessment of dose is particularly reliable in cases with acute, uniform, whole-body exposure or after irradiation of large parts of the body. However, the scenarios of most radiation accidents largely result in partial-body exposures or a non-uniform dose distribution. This complicates dose estimation especially in cases with protracted or fractionated exposures. Problems exist also for the dose reconstruction of radiation exposures occurring a long time before sampling. To overcome these problems, the Qdr method or the "contaminated Poisson" method can be used to determine meaningful dose estimates from data based on conventional scoring of dicentrics. Scoring of so-called stable translocations by the newly developed technique of chromosome painting should be particularly useful for estimating doses of past exposures or of dose accumulation. After incorporation of radionuclides with largely localized depositions in certain organs or tissues, realistic individual dose estimates cannot be achieved. Exemplified by incidents involving larger groups of the population such as in Chernobyl and Goiania and by single cases with serious overexposures, chromosome dosimetry is evaluated in the present article. PMID:7488944

  11. Momentumless coalescence of drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anilkumar, A. V.; Lee, C. P.; Wang, Taylor G.

    1992-01-01

    The dynamics of mixing and satellite drop formation following the coalescence of initially stationary low-viscosity drops of the same liquid has been investigated using immiscible systems. The main parameters of interest are the drop sizes, the drop viscosity and the host viscosity. For drops of equal sizes there is no mixing following coalescence, which is consistent with that first demonstrated on the Skylab. However, for drops of unequal sizes there is considerable mixing with the smaller drop penetrating the larger drop as a vortex. In the extreme case of coalescence of a small drop with the bulk of the same liquid at a flat interface, the measured penetration depth is found to be proportional to the 5/4 th power of the drop diameter and inversely proportional to the square root of drop viscosity. When the drop and host viscosities are comparable, drop penetration is prematurely terminated by the formation of a satellite drop. However, when the drop diameter ratio (large to small) is below a critical number, satellite drop formation is inhibited and coalescence goes to completion. The influence of drop-host viscosity ratio on this critical diameter ratio has been examined.

  12. Is the tribimaximal mixing accidental?

    SciTech Connect

    Abbas, Mohammed [Ain Shams University, Faculty of Sciences, Abbassiyah 11566, Cairo (Egypt); Center for Theoretical Physics (CTP), British University in Egypt, BUE, El-Sherouk City, Cairo (Egypt); Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, I-34014 Trieste (Italy); Smirnov, A. Yu. [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, I-34014 Trieste (Italy); Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-01

    The tribimaximal (TBM) mixing is not accidental if structures of the corresponding leptonic mass matrices follow immediately from certain (residual or broken) flavor symmetry. We develop a simple formalism which allows one to analyze effects of deviations of the lepton mixing from TBM on the structure of the neutrino mass matrix and on the underlying flavor symmetry. We show that possible deviations from the TBM mixing can lead to strong modifications of the mass matrix and strong violation of the TBM-mass relations. As a result, the mass matrix may have an 'anarchical' structure with random values of elements or it may have some symmetry that differs from the TBM symmetry. Interesting examples include matrices with texture zeros, matrices with certain 'flavor alignment' as well as hierarchical matrices with a two-component structure, where the dominant and subdominant contributions have different symmetries. This opens up new approaches to understanding the lepton mixing.

  13. 5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Accidental death and dismemberment. 870.206 Section 870...Amount of Insurance § 870.206 Accidental death and dismemberment. (a)(1) Accidental death and dismemberment coverage is an...

  14. 5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Accidental death and dismemberment. 870.206 Section 870...Amount of Insurance § 870.206 Accidental death and dismemberment. (a)(1) Accidental death and dismemberment coverage is an...

  15. Example Scenarios

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Christopher Griffith

    This section explores several hypothetical scenarios of nuclear-weapon detonations on U.S. cities. These scenarios are meant to illustrate the possibilities of such events. Scenarios include a "what-if" scenario of a 150-kiloton nuclear explosion by terrorists on New York City, and the effects of a nuclear accident or "broken arrow" on board a nuclear submarine in San Francisco Bay.

  16. Modeling downwind hazards after an accidental release of chlorine trifluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardi, D.A.; Cheng, Meng-Dawn

    1996-05-01

    A module simulating ClF{sub 3} chemical reactions with water vapor and thermodynamic processes in the atmosphere after an accidental release has been developed. This module was liked to the HGSYSTEM. Initial model runs simulate the rapid formation of HF and ClO{sub 2} after an atmospheric release of ClF{sub 3}. At distances beyond the first several meters from the release point, HF and ClO{sub 2} concentrations pose a greater threat to human health than do ClF{sub 3} concentrations. For most of the simulations, ClF{sub 3} concentrations rapidly fall below the IDLH. Fro releases occurring in ambient conditions with low relative humidity and/or ambient temperature, ClF{sub 3} concentrations exceed the IDLH up to almost 500 m. The performance of this model needs to be determined for potential release scenarios that will be considered. These release scenarios are currently being developed.

  17. Reducing accidental injuries during surgery.

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F; Wind, Tyler C; Hill, Lisa G; Thacker, John G; McGregor, Walter

    2003-01-01

    Extensive clinical investigations have demonstrated that double-gloves and blunt-tipped surgical needles dramatically reduced the risk of accidental injuries during surgery. During the last decade, double-glove hole puncture indication systems have been developed that reduce the clinical risk of accidental needlestick injuries as well as detect the presence of glove hole puncture in the presence of fluids. When the outer glove is punctured, the colored underglove becomes apparent through the translucent outer glove, necessitating glove removal, hand washing, and donning of another double-glove hole puncture Indicator system. This article presents the first biomechanical performance study that documents the puncture resistance of blunt surgical needles in latex and nonlatex single gloves and double-glove hole puncture indication systems. The technique for measuring glove puncture resistance simulates the standard test for material resistance to puncture outlined by the American Society for Testing and Materials. The maximum puncture resistance force was measured by the compression load cell and recorded in grams with a strip chart recorder. Ten puncture resistance measurements for the taper point needle, blunt taper point needle, and blunt needle were taken from five samples of the Biogel Indicator underglove, Biogel Super-Sensitive glove, Biogel glove, Biogel Skinsense N Universal underglove, and Biogel Skinsense Polyisoprene glove; and the Biogel, Biogel Super-Sensitive, and Biogel Skinsense Polyisoprene double-glove hole puncture indication systems. The magnitude of puncture resistance forces recorded was influenced by several factors: glove material, number of glove layers, and type of surgical needle. For each type of curved surgical needle,the resistance to needle penetration by the nonlatex gloves was significantly greater than those encountered by the latex glove materials. The resistance to needle puncture of all three double-glove systems was significantly greater than that of either the nonlatex or latex underglove or outer glove. The taper point needle encountered the lowest puncture resistance forces in the five single gloves and the three double-glove systems. Blunting the sharp end of the taper point needle markedly increased its resistance to glove puncture in the five single gloves and five double-glove systems. The blunt-point surgical needle elicited the greatest needle penetration force in all of the single and double-glove systems. PMID:12825744

  18. The characterization and evaluation of accidental explosions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strehlow, R. A.; Baker, W. E.

    1975-01-01

    Accidental explosions are discussed from a number of viewpoints. First, all accidental explosions, intentional explosions and natural explosions are characterized by type. Second, the nature of the blast wave produced by an ideal (point source or HE) explosion is discussed to form a basis for describing how other explosion processes yield deviations from ideal blast wave behavior. The current status blast damage mechanism evaluation is also discussed. Third, the current status of our understanding of each different category of accidental explosions is discussed in some detail.

  19. Yield-stress drops 

    E-print Network

    German, Guy

    2010-01-01

    The behaviour of viscoplastic drops during formation and detachment from a capillary nozzle, free-fall, impact on a solid substrate and subsequent spreading are investigated experimentally by high-speed imaging. Drop ...

  20. Reducing accidental injuries during surgery.

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F; Long, William B; Gubler, K; Rodeheaver, George T; Thacker, John G; Wallis, Anne G; Dahlstrom, Jill J; Clark, Jamie J; Cantrell, Holly S; Rhoads, Samantha K; Lin, Kant Y

    2010-01-01

    All surgical healthcare professionals and their patients should be aware of exposure to blood from individuals infected with potentially transmissible disease. The site that was most susceptible to sharp injuries was the index finger of the surgeon's hand. It is also important to note that needles cause the vast majority of sharp injuries. During the last two decades, there have been two revolutionary advances in preventing accidental needlestick injuries during surgery that include the development of blunt tapering point needles as well as the double-glove hole indication systems. During the innovative development of blunt taper point needles, a glove manufacturer, Molnlycke, Inc., devised non-latex and latex double-glove hole puncture indication systems that are being used throughout the world. The reliability of these double-glove hole indication systems in detecting holes in the outer glove has been reliably documented by scientific studies that are published in peer-reviewed journals. On the basis of these extensive quantitative studies, the authors recommended that the double-glove hole indication system be used in all operative procedures to prevent the transmission of deadly bloodborne viral infections. PMID:21284595

  1. Accidental radiation exposure and azoospermia.

    PubMed

    Bezold, G; Gottlöber, P; Gall, H; Peter, R U

    2000-01-01

    Seven Georgian male soldiers (19-25 years old) had accidentally been exposed to radiation by Cs-137 between April 1996 and May 1997. No information about the exact time and duration of exposure was available. All patients presented with the subacute stage of Cutaneous Radiation Syndrome with deep painful ulcers on different body sites, predominantly on the legs. Semen analyses showed complete azoospermia in 4 patients, with elevated follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in 3 and elevated luteinizing hormone (LH) in 2 of them. One patient had severe oligozoospermia of 7 million sperm per mL, with normal sperm motility and morphology; his FSH and LH levels were elevated. One patient had complete normozoospermia, and the seventh patient had polyzoospermia of 340 million per mL; both of these patients had normal serum hormone levels. Only the patient with oligozoospermia reported a history of delayed testicular descent; his physical examination showed relatively soft and small testicles and a varicocele with considerable reflux. The physical andrological examinations were normal in the other 6 patients. It is very likely that the azoospermia in the 4 patients can be attributed to the radiation accident. In conclusion, it is essential to perform andrological examinations in patients who have been exposed to radiation even if there are only cutaneous injuries detectable, as a high percentage of them can show azoospermia. PMID:10819447

  2. An accidental poisoning with mitragynine.

    PubMed

    Karinen, Ritva; Fosen, Jan Toralf; Rogde, Sidsel; Vindenes, Vigdis

    2014-10-24

    An increasing number of drugs of abuse are sold word wide over the internet. Names like "legal highs", "herbal highs" etc. give the impression that these are safe products, although the risk of fatal reactions might be substantial. Leaves from the plant Mitragyna speciosa, contain active compounds like mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine. It has been reported that the potency of 7-hydroxymitragynine at the ?-opioid receptor is 30 times higher than that of mitragynine and 17 times higher than that of morphine. Case reports regarding poisoning with Kratom are reported, but the toxic or lethal ranges for the concentrations of the active substances have not been established, and concentrations of 7-hydroxymitragynine have not been reported previously. We present a case report where a middle aged man was found dead at home. The deceased had a history of drug abuse and mental illness for several years. At autopsy, there were no significant pathological findings. Post-mortem analysis of peripheral blood revealed: zopiclone 0.043mg/L, citalopram 0.36mg/L and lamotrigine 5.4mg/L, i.e. concentrations regularly seen after therapeutic ingestion of these drugs. Additionally mitragynine 1.06mg/L and 7-hydroxymitragynine 0.15mg/L were detected in blood and both also in urine. The high concentrations of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine indicate that the cause of death is intoxication by these substances; and the circumstances point toward the manner of death being accidental. We recommend that both mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine are analyzed for in cases with suspected Kratom intoxication. PMID:25453780

  3. Accidental dark matter: Case in the scale invariant local B -L model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jun; Kang, Zhaofeng; Ko, P.; Orikasa, Yuta

    2015-06-01

    We explore the idea of accidental dark matter (aDM) stability in the scale invariant local U (1 )B -L model, which is a theory for neutrino and at the same time radiatively breaks scale invariance via quantum mechanical dynamics in the U (1 )B-L sector. A real singlet scalar can be accidental DM with an accidental Z2, by virtue of both extended symmetries. A U (1 )B-L charged complex scalar can also be a viable accidental DM due to an accidental (or remanent) Z3. They can reproduce correct relic density via the annihilations through the conventional Higgs portal or dark Higgs portal. The dark Higgs portal scenario is in tension with the LHC bound on ZB -L, and only heavy DM of a few TeVs can have correct relic density. In particular, DM may trigger classical scale invariance spontaneous breaking. The situation is relaxed significantly in the Z3 case due to the effective semiannihilation mode, and then light DM can be accommodated easily. In addition, the Z3 model can accommodate the GeV scale ? -ray excess from the Galactic center via semiannihilation into pseudo-Goldstone boson. The best fit is achieved at a DM about 52 GeV, with an annihilation cross section consistent with the thermal relic density. The invisible Higgs branching ratio is negligible because the Higgs portal quartic coupling is very small ?h ??10-3.

  4. Drag on Sessile Drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, Andrew J. B.; Fleck, Brian; Nobes, David; Sen, Debjyoti; Amirfazli, Alidad; University of Alberta Mechanical Engineering Collaboration

    2013-11-01

    We present the first ever direct measurements of the coefficient of drag on sessile drops at Reynolds numbers from the creeping flow regime up to the point of incipient motion, made using a newly developed floating element differential drag sensor. Surfaces of different wettabilities (PMMA, Teflon, and a superhydrophobic surface (SHS)), wet by water, hexadecane, and various silicone oils, are used to study the effects of drop shape, and fluid properties on drag. The relation between drag coefficient and Reynolds number (scaled by drop height) varies slightly with liquid-solid system and drop volume with results suggesting the drop experiences increased drag compared to similar shaped solid bodies due to drop oscillation influencing the otherwise laminar flow. Drops adopting more spherical shapes are seen to experience the greatest force at any given airspeed. This indicates that the relative exposed areas of drops is an important consideration in terms of force, with implications for the shedding of drops in applications such as airfoil icing and fuel cell flooding. The measurement technique used in this work can be adapted to measure drag force on other deformable, lightly adhered objects such as dust, sand, snow, vesicles, foams, and biofilms. We present the first ever direct measurements of the coefficient of drag on sessile drops at Reynolds numbers from the creeping flow regime up to the point of incipient motion, made using a newly developed floating element differential drag sensor. Surfaces of different wettabilities (PMMA, Teflon, and a superhydrophobic surface (SHS)), wet by water, hexadecane, and various silicone oils, are used to study the effects of drop shape, and fluid properties on drag. The relation between drag coefficient and Reynolds number (scaled by drop height) varies slightly with liquid-solid system and drop volume with results suggesting the drop experiences increased drag compared to similar shaped solid bodies due to drop oscillation influencing the otherwise laminar flow. Drops adopting more spherical shapes are seen to experience the greatest force at any given airspeed. This indicates that the relative exposed areas of drops is an important consideration in terms of force, with implications for the shedding of drops in applications such as airfoil icing and fuel cell flooding. The measurement technique used in this work can be adapted to measure drag force on other deformable, lightly adhered objects such as dust, sand, snow, vesicles, foams, and biofilms. The authours acknowledge NSERC, Alberta Innovates Technology Futures, and the Killam Trusts.

  5. Piezoelectric Water Drop Energy Harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Ahmad, Mahmoud

    2014-02-01

    Piezoelectric materials convert mechanical deformation directly into electrical charges, which can be harvested and used to drive micropower electronic devices. The low power consumption of such systems on the scale of microwatts leads to the possibility of using harvested vibrational energy due to its almost universal nature. Vibrational energy harvested using piezoelectric cantilevers provides sufficient output for small-scale power applications. This work reports on vibrational energy harvesting from free-falling droplets at the tip of lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric-based cantilevers. The harvester incorporates a multimorph clamped-free cantilever made of lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric thick films. During the impact, the droplet's kinetic energy is transferred to the form of mechanical stress, forcing the piezoelectric structure to vibrate and thereby producing charges. Experimental results show an instantaneous drop-power of 2.15 mW cm-3 g-1. The scenario of a medium intensity of falling water drops, i.e., 200 drops per second, yielded a power of 0.48 W cm-3 g-1 per second.

  6. Drop Stability on Leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackmore, Will; Chen, Yongkang; Hinojosa, Chris; Jenson, Ryan; Nguyen, Duc; Wollman, Andrew; Weislogel, Mark

    2012-11-01

    The stability of drops on surfaces has implications to many natural and industrial processes. Critical configurational drop stability is defined herein as any change in a control parameter (i.e. drop volume) that leads to movement to a new location on the surface and/or detachment from the surface. The configurational stability of `wall-bound drops'' is enhanced by contact line pinning at sharp edges. In this work an extensive array of computations are performed for ``wall-edge-vertex bound drops'' (a.k.a. drops on blade tips or drops on leaf tips which they resemble). The numerical approach applies the Surface Evolver algorithm through implementation of a new file layer and a multi-parameter sweep function. As a consequence, thousands of critical drop configurations are efficiently computed as functions of contact angle, blade edge vertex half-angle, and g-orientation. Simple experiments are performed to benchmark the computations which are then correlated for ease of application. It is shown that sessile, pendent, and wall-edge bound drops are only limiting cases of the more generalized blade-bound drops, and that the ubiquitous ``dry leaf tip'' is observed for a range of the critical geometric and wetting parameters. NASA NNX09AP66A: GRC, NASA NNX10AK68H: Oregon Space Grant Consortium.

  7. Paramagnetic Leidenfrost Drops

    E-print Network

    Piroird, Keyvan; Clanet, Christophe; Quéré, David

    2010-01-01

    We present a fluid dynamics video showing the behavior of drops of liquid oxygen, at room temperature. Due to their low boiling point, these drops levitate on a cushion of their own vapour. This property gives them a high mobility, as known more generally in such Leidenfrost situations. But liquid oxygen is also paramagnetic, and thus likely to be manipulated using a magnet. It is first shown that the shape of the drop can be modified by changing the drop/magnet distance; approaching the magnet acts as reinforcing gravity, so that the drops get flattened by this action. The transformation is of course reversible: as the magnet is withdrawn, the liquid recovers its quasi-spherical shape. Magnets can also be used to trap the oxygen drops. As they pass above a magnet, they slow down significantly, a consequence of their deformation: despite a very low friction, the vibrations induced by the drop deformations represent an important source of dissipation: below a well-defined velocity, drops can even be stopped in...

  8. Magnetohydrodynamics of a Drop

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jai Prakash Narain; Mahinder S. Uberoi

    1972-01-01

    The nature of deformation and drag on a spherical drop of viscous, conducting and incompressible fluid under axisymmetric current distribution in a conducting, viscous, incompressible fluid of infinite extent is considered. The drop fluid and the ambient fluid phases are non-reacting and non-diffusive in nature. In low magnetic Reynolds' number approximation, the effects of space charge, either on the total

  9. Drops on a Penny

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGBH Boston

    2002-01-01

    In this activity, challenge learners to predict and investigate how many water drops they can fit on one penny. Learners conduct the test three times to find the average number of drops they can fit on a penny. Learners then repeat this process using a nickel, dime, and quarter. Use this activity to demonstrate the principles of surface tension, adhesion/cohesion, and gravity.

  10. Youth Crime Drop. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butts, Jeffrey A.

    This report examines the recent drop in violent crime in the United States, discussing how much of the decrease seen between 1995-99 is attributable to juveniles (under age 18 years) and older youth (18-24 years). Analysis of current FBI arrest data indicates that not only did America's violent crime drop continue through 1999, but falling youth…

  11. Influence of viscoelasticity on drop dynamics in shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renardy, Yuriko; Verhulst, K.; Moldenaers, P.; Cardinaels, R.; Afkhami, S.

    2008-11-01

    A computational and experimental study of drop dynamics under shear is conducted for fluid pairs in which one of the liquids is a Boger fluid. The drop to matrix viscosity ratio is either 0.75 or 1.5, Deborah numbers range to 2 and capillary numbers range to above breakup conditions. The results focus on three aspects: relaxation after cessation of shear, a novel viscoelastic drop breakup scenario, and the effect of shear flow history on drop breakup. Numerical simulations are performed with our in-house 3D volume-of-fluid PROST (Paraboloid Representation of the interface in the Surface Tension force) method.

  12. Formation Scenarios

    E-print Network

    Rosemary F. G. Wyse

    1999-11-18

    I discuss various proposed formation scenarios for the metal-poor components of the Milky Way Galaxy, emphasising the stellar halo and the thick disk. Interactions and accretion played a significant role in Galactic evolution, in particular at earlier epochs. The present observations favour a scenario by which the thick disk formed through the heating of a pre-existing thin stellar disk, with the heating mechanism being the merging of a satellite galaxy. A remnant `moving group' of the satellite would provide strong support for this scenario, and may have been detected. The field stars in the stellar halo probably formed in early small-scale star-forming regions, which subsequently disrupted. Late accretion is not important for the bulk of the stellar halo. The stellar initial mass function shows no evidence of variations, and indeed shows evidence of being invariant, even in companion satellite galaxies.

  13. Accidental inflation from Kähler uplifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Dayan, Ido; Jing, Shenglin; Westphal, Alexander; Wieck, Clemens

    2014-03-01

    We analyze the possibility of realizing inflation with a subsequent dS vacuum in the Käahler uplifting scenario. The inclusion of several quantum corrections to the 4d effective action evades previous no-go theorems and allows for construction of simple and successful models of string inflation. The predictions of several benchmark models are in accord with current observations, i.e., a red spectral index, negligible non-gaussianity, and spectral distortions similar to the simplest models of inflation. A particularly interesting subclass of models are ``left-rolling" ones, where the overall volume of the compactified dimensions shrinks during inflation. We call this phenomenon ``inflation by deflation" (IBD), where deflation refers to the internal manifold. This subclass has the appealing features of being insensitive to initial conditions, avoiding the overshooting problem, and allowing for observable running ? ~ 0.012 and enhanced tensor-to-scalar ratio r ~ 10-5. The latter results differ significantly from many string inflation models.

  14. Load drop evaluation for TWRS FSAR

    SciTech Connect

    Julyk, L.J.; Ralston, G.L.

    1996-09-30

    Operational or remediation activities associated with existing underground high-level waste storage tank structures at the Hanford Site often require the installation/removal of various equipment items. To gain tank access for installation or removal of this equipment, large concrete cover blocks must be removed and reinstalled in existing concrete pits above the tanks. An accidental drop of the equipment or cover blocks while being moved over the tanks that results in the release of contaminants to the air poses a potential risk to onsite workers or to the offsite public. To minimize this potential risk, the use of critical lift hoisting and rigging procedures and restrictions on lift height are being considered during development of the new tank farm Basis for Interim Operation and Final Safety Analysis Report. The analysis contained herein provides information for selecting the appropriate lift height restrictions for these activities.

  15. Accidental parabolics and relatively hyperbolic groups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    François Dahmani; Universitd P. Sabatier

    2006-01-01

    By constructing, in the relative case, objects analogous to Rips and Sela’s canonical representatives, we prove that the set\\u000a of conjugacy classes of images by morphisms without accidental parabolic, of a finitely presented group in a relatively hyperbolic\\u000a group, is finite.

  16. Millikan's Oil Drop Experiment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Tony DiMauro

    2009-01-12

    This is a Keynote Presentation exported as a clickable quicktime movie. This presentation develops Millikan's Oil Drop experiment. The presentation is animated and the learner or Instructor can click their way through the presenation. The mathematical theory is fully developed.

  17. 19 CFR 158.27 - Accidental fire or other casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Accidental fire or other casualty. 158...Custody § 158.27 Accidental fire or other casualty. In the...or destruction by accidental fire or other casualty, the following...vehicle, the proprietor of the warehouse, or other person...

  18. Drop Tower Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, David

    2013-01-01

    Ground based microgravity facilities are an important proving ground for space experiments, ground-based research and space hardware risk mitigation. An overview of existing platforms will be discussed with an emphasis on drop tower capabilities. The potential for extension to partial gravity conditions will be discussed. Input will be solicited from attendees for their potential to use drop towers in the future and the need for enhanced capabilities (e.g. partial gravity)

  19. Accidental release of chlorine and its impact on urban areas

    SciTech Connect

    El-Sheikh, H.A.; Badr, O.A.; El Kadi, H.M.; Hamoda, M.F. [United Arab Emirates Univ., Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Among the possible scenarios of accidental releases of chlorine from high pressure cylinders, this paper considers a typical one for the analysis. The calculated transient mass flow rate of chlorine released from a one-tonne cylinder showed that such an accident takes about 10 minutes to evacuate the cylinder. However, the toxic effect in the surrounding atmosphere continues for a longer period (about 20 minutes). The size and location of the toxic cloud at ground level were predicted as functions of time using an EPA-based dispersion model. The results showed a growth of the toxic cloud for some time beyond which it started to decay. For the typical scenario considered in this study, the most dangerous situation generated a toxic cloud with dimensions of 4000 m and 600 m in the downwind and crosswind directions, respectively. A study of the effects of some meteorological parameters on the size and location of the toxic cloud at ground level was also conducted. In general, it was observed that enhancing atmospheric mixing produced larger toxic zones during the early stages of the release and caused an opposite effect during the later ones. This dynamic data was linked to a GIS environment and the time variant was represented using an animation technique for Al-Ain City, United Arab Emirates. Data base information related to physical urban characteristics and population was immediately obtained for the affected areas.

  20. Modelling of accidental released toxic gases for emergency responders in Austria, Kosovo and Bulgaria.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenzel, Sirma; Baumann-Stanzer, Kathrin; Gashi, Salih; Thaci, Bashkim; Batchvarova, Ekaterina; Spassova, Tatiana

    2010-05-01

    In the case of accidental release of hazardous gases in the atmosphere, the emergency responders need a reliable and fast tool to assess the possible consequences and apply the optimal countermeasures. A number of models for the prediction and simulation of hazard areas affected by accidental releases of toxic gases are available worldwide. Modelling accidental releases may be required for a variety of reasons: for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios"), for preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management (e.g. in the frame of the SEVESO directive). Depending on the demand and the particular purposes, the choice of the appropriate model is up to the authorities. The one year project was funded by the Austrian Science and research liaison Office (ASO, www.aso.zsi.at) as a part of the program: Research Cooperation and Networking between Austria, the public higher education institutions in Kosovo and South Eastern Europe. The project was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG, http://www.zamg.ac.at) in cooperation with the University of Prishtina (Kosovo, www.uni-pr.edu and the National Institute of meteorology and Hydrology (NIHM Bulgaria, www.meteo.bg). One of the main purposes of the project was to provide the both partners with basic knowledge in modelling with accidental release of toxic gases, based on the practical experience of the meteorologists from the ZAMG in the area. This knowledge can be used as scientific response to society driven current or upcoming problems especially in Kosovo. The activities involved know-how transfer on European standards and practice among the project partners, as well as joint efforts to adapt and disseminate the scientific methods and results in Kosovo. Within the project, the partners from Kosovo and Bulgaria were introduced to the atmospheric dispersion model (ALOHA - Areal Location of Hazardous atmosphere) and proceeded several model runs based on reference scenarios for chemicals of concern. ALOHA is one of the tools developed by EPA's Office of Emergency Management (OEM) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office of Response and Restoration (NOAA), to assist front-line chemical emergency planners and responders. In the frame of the project the partners in Kosovo and Bulgaria also undertook first steps in establishing cooperation connections with decision makers for emergency response planning, fire brigades and chemical plants. This presentation focuses on basic issues and problems in handling with accidental release of toxic gases, as well as on communication difficulties among the emergency responders, modellers and authorities in the three countries.

  1. A probabilistic model for accidental cargo oil outflow from product tankers in a ship-ship collision.

    PubMed

    Goerlandt, Floris; Montewka, Jakub

    2014-02-15

    In risk assessment of maritime transportation, estimation of accidental oil outflow from tankers is important for assessing environmental impacts. However, there typically is limited data concerning the specific structural design and tank arrangement of ships operating in a given area. Moreover, there is uncertainty about the accident scenarios potentially emerging from ship encounters. This paper proposes a Bayesian network (BN) model for reasoning under uncertainty for the assessment of accidental cargo oil outflow in a ship-ship collision where a product tanker is struck. The BN combines a model linking impact scenarios to damage extent with a model for estimating the tank layouts based on limited information regarding the ship. The methodology for constructing the model is presented and output for two accident scenarios is shown. The discussion elaborates on the issue of model validation, both in terms of the BN and in light of the adopted uncertainty/bias-based risk perspective. PMID:24462237

  2. Assessment of hazard of chemical accidental releases triggered by floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonova, M.; Danihelka, P.

    2009-04-01

    Recently, the number of accidents happened, when floods trigger the releases of hazardous materials and following environment contamination. Baia Mare (Romania), Spolana Neratovice (Czech Republic) and hurricane Katrina (USA) are well known examples. The importance of this kind of phenomenon as a type of so called NATECH events is expressed among others in the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC, which reorganises water conservation in Europe. It requires programmes of protection measures to be drawn up not later than 2009, and in sub-article 11 (3) l b) to prevent and/or reduce the impact of accidental pollution incidents, for example as a result of floods. Effective measures demand the assessment of hazard and risk of accidental release triggered by floods and there is a need for the method which can be used for these purposes. Such a method is still missing and this is why the basic method for hazard assessment has been developed. Simple indexes-based method is composed of three segments (natural risks, technological risks and combined risk) and it has flexible, modular structure. First segment estimates the probability of flooding of installation, the second, based on the reference scenarios estimates the possibility of release of chemicals and the third classify consequences. The work on refining of parameters and method continues. Method can be used in prevention of major accidents in the framework of the Council Directive 96/82/EC on the control of major-accident hazards involving dangerous substances (Seveso II directive) and can help to complete the safety studies in classified establishments.

  3. Drop interaction with solid boundaries in liquid/liquid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordoloi, Ankur Deep

    The present experimental work was motivated primarily by the CO 2 sequestration process. In a possible scenario during this process, gravity driven CO2 bubbles coalesce at an interface near the rock surface. In another scenario, trapped CO2 fluid may escape from a porous matrix overcoming interfacial force inside a pore. Based on these potential scenarios, the current research was divided into two broad experimental studies. In the first part, coalescence at a quiescent interface of two analogous fluids (silicone oil and water/glycerin mixture) was investigated for water/glycerin drops with Bond number (Bo) ~7 and Ohnesorge number ~ 0.01 using high-speed imaging and time-resolved tomographic PIV. Two perturbation cases with a solid particle wetted in oil and water/glycerin placed adjacent to the coalescing drop were considered. The results were compared with coalescence of a single drop and that of a drop neighBored by a second drop of equivalent size. Each perturbing object caused an initial tilting of the drop, influencing its rupture location, subsequent film retraction and eventual collapse behavior. Once tilted, drops typically ruptured near their lowest vertical position which was located either toward or away from the perturbing object depending on the case. The trends in local retraction speed of the ruptured film and the overall dynamics of the collapsing drops were discussed in detail. In the second part, the motion of gravity driven drops (B o~0.8-11) through a confining orifice d/D<1) was studied using high speed imaging and planar PIV. Drops of water/glycerin, surrounded by silicone oil, fall toward and encounter the orifice plate after reaching terminal speed. The effects of surface wettability were investigated for Both round-edged and sharp-edged orifices. For the round-edged case, a thin film of surrounding oil prevented the drop fluid from contacting the orifice surface, such that the flow outcomes of the drops were independent of surface wettability. For d/D<0.8, the Boundary between drop capture and release depended on a modified Bond number relating drop gravitational time scale to orifice surface tension time scale. For the sharp-edged case, contact was initiated at the orifice edge immediately upon impact, such that surface wettability influenced the drop outcome.

  4. Intermediate Scale Accidental Axion and ALPs

    E-print Network

    Alex G. Dias

    2014-09-28

    We discuss the problem of constructing models containing an axion and axion-like particles, motivated by astrophysical observations, with decay constants at the intermediate scale ranging from $10^9$GeV to $10^{13}$GeV. We present examples in which the axion and axion-like particles arise accidentally as pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons of automatic global chiral symmetries, in models having exact discrete symmetries.

  5. Computer code to assess accidental pollutant releases

    SciTech Connect

    Pendergast, M.M.; Huang, J.C.

    1980-07-01

    A computer code was developed to calculate the cumulative frequency distributions of relative concentrations of an air pollutant following an accidental release from a stack or from a building penetration such as a vent. The calculations of relative concentration are based on the Gaussian plume equations. The meteorological data used for the calculation are in the form of joint frequency distributions of wind and atmospheric stability.

  6. Reducing accidental complexity in domain models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colin Atkinson; Thomas Kühne

    2008-01-01

    A fundamental principle in engineering, including software engineering, is to minimize the amount of accidental complexity\\u000a which is introduced into engineering solutions due to mismatches between a problem and the technology used to represent the\\u000a problem. As model-driven development moves to the center stage of software engineering, it is particularly important that\\u000a this principle be applied to the technologies used

  7. Drying drops of blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brutin, David; Sobac, Benjamin; Loquet, Boris; Sampol, José.

    2010-11-01

    The drying of a drop of human blood is fascinating by the complexity of the physical mechanisms that occur as well as the beauty of the phenomenon which has never been previously evidenced in the literature. The final stage of full blood evaporation reveals for a healthy person the same regular pattern with a good reproducibility. Other tests on anemia and hyperlipidemic persons were performed and presented different patterns. By means of digital camera, the influence of the motion of red blood cells (RBCs) which represent about 50% of the blood volume, is revealed as well as its consequences on the final stages of drying. The mechanisms which lead to the final pattern of dried blood drops are presented and explained on the basis of fluid and solid mechanics in conjunction with the principles of hematology. Our group is the first to evidence that the specific regular patterns characteristic of a healthy individual do not appear in a dried drop of blood from a person with blood disease. Blood is a complex colloidal suspension for which the flow motion is clearly non-Newtonian. When drops of blood evaporate, all the colloids are carried by the flow motion inside the drop and interact.

  8. How do drops evaporate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murisic, Nebojsa; Kondic, Lou

    2007-11-01

    The problem of evaporating drops with non-pinned contact line, although seemingly trivial, so far lacks satisfactory theoretical description. In particular, there has been much discussion regarding appropriate evaporative mass flux model. We make an attempt to resolve this issue by comparing our experimental data with the results of several mathematical models for evaporating drops. After describing experimental procedure, we propose several models for mass flux and develop a governing equation for evolution of drop's thickness. Two-dimensional numerical results are then compared to the experimental results, and the most appropriate mass flux model is identified. Finally, we propose the governing equation for the full 3D system and present some new numerical results related to curious phenomena, where so-called ``octopus-shaped'' instabilities appear ahead of the contact line of volatile dropsootnotetextY. Gotkis, I. Ivanov, N. Murisic, L. Kondic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 186101 (2006)..

  9. Accidental Dark Matter: Case in the Scale Invariant Local $B-L$ Models

    E-print Network

    Jun Guo; Zhaofeng Kang; P. Ko; Yuta Orikasa

    2015-02-07

    We explore the idea of accidental dark matter (aDM) stability in the scale invariant local $U(1)_{B-L}$ model, which is a theory for neutrino and at the same time radiatively breaks scale invariance via quantum mechanical dynamics in the $U(1)_{B-L}$ sector. A real singlet scalar can be accidental DM with an accidental $Z_2$, by virtue of both extended symmetries. A $U(1)_{B-L}$ charged complex scalar can also be a viable accidental DM due to an accidental (or remanent) $Z_3$. They can reproduce correct relic density via the annihilations through the conventional Higgs portal or dark Higgs portal. The dark Higgs portal scenario is in tension with the LHC bound on $Z_{B-L}$, and only heavy DM of a few TeVs can have correct relic density. In particular, DM may trigger spontaneous breaking of scale Invariance (SISB). The situation is relaxed significantly in the $Z_3$ case due to the effective semi-annihilation mode and then light DM can be accommodated easily. In addition, the $Z_3$ model can accommodate the GeV scale $\\gamma-$ray excess from the galactic center (GC) via semi-annihilation into pseudo Goldstone boson (PGSB). The best fit is achieved at a DM about 52 GeV, with annihilation cross section consistent with the thermal relic density. The invisible Higgs branching ratio is negligible because the Higgs portal quartic coupling is very small $\\lambda_{h\\phi} \\lesssim 10^{-3}$.

  10. Anaphylaxis after accidental ingestion of kiwi fruit

    PubMed Central

    Ró?alska, Anna; Ukleja-Soko?owska, Natalia; ?bikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2013-01-01

    Numerous cases of anaphylaxis after ingestion of kiwi fruit, after the skin tests and during oral immunotherapy were described. The article describes the case of severe anaphylactic reaction that occurred in a 55-year-old patient after accidental ingestion of kiwi. Allergy to kiwi fruit was confirmed by a native test with fresh kiwi fruit. After the test, the patient experienced generalized organ response in the form of headache, general weakness and rashes on the neck and breast, and dyspnea. The patient had significantly elevated levels of total IgE and IgE specific to kiwi fruit. PMID:24278073

  11. Accidental poisoning with biodiesel preservative biocide

    PubMed Central

    Aslanidis, T; Ourailoglou, V; Boultoukas, E; Giannakou-Peftoulidou, M

    2014-01-01

    Although biodiesel fuels’ use is getting more and more popular, there are only few reports in the literature of poisoning with such agents, and none referring to their preservatives: biocides. We present the management of a 49-year-old Caucasian male who was admitted, after accidental ingestion of biocide solution, in the intensive care unit of a tertiary hospital. In spite of his devastating condition upon arrival to the hospital, he had a remarkable recovery with no local or systemic sequel due to multidisciplinary and early supportive approach of his care. PMID:25336882

  12. Drop tube technical tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, G. L.

    1986-01-01

    Criteria, using fundamental thermochemical dynamics, were developed to assist a scientist using the Drop Tube Facility in designing a good experiment. The types of parameters involved in designing the experiments include the type of furnace, the type of atmosphere, and in general which materials are better behaved than others as determined by past experience in the facility. One of the major advantages of the facility lies in its ability to provide large undercoolings in the cooling curve during the drops. A beginning was to consider the effect of oxygen and other gases upon the amount of undercooling observed. The starting point of the thermochemistry was given by Ellingham and later transformed into what is known as the Richardson Chart. The effect of surface oxidations upon the nucleation phenomena can be observed in each specimen.

  13. CAPILLARY DROPS: CONTACT ANGLE HYSTERESIS AND STICKING DROPS

    E-print Network

    Mellet, Antoine

    explains some simple phenomena observed in everyday life, such as the sticking drop on an inclined plane: If the support plane is inclined at angle to the horizontal in the y-direction, the potential can be written, the drop should always slide down the plane, no matter how small the inclination. However, a water drop

  14. Egg Drop Lander

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    This lesson is about collaborative design of a lander vehicle. Learners will design and build a descent and landing system for an egg. The students will also practice their writing skills by writing a letter or article about the success or failure of their spacecraft design. This is lesson 15 of 16 in the MarsBots learning module. This lesson is adapted from "Mars Pathfinder: Egg Drop and Landing" an activity in The Mars Activity Book (see related resources).

  15. Chloracne from the accidental production of tetrachlorodibenzodioxin

    PubMed Central

    May, George

    1973-01-01

    May, G. (1973).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,30, 276-283. Chloracne from the accidental production of tetrachlorodibenzodioxin. Following the accidental production of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (dioxin) as the result of an exothermic reaction at a chemical plant in Derbyshire, 79 cases of chloracne were recorded, many of them severe. Contrary to the usual experience they have responded very favourably to treatment and there were no cases of contact chloracne among relatives or domestic animals in the initial outbreak. However, two cases of contact chloracne were recorded three years later. Similar incidents are known to have occured in both Europe and the United States of America, almost invariably accompanied by widespread severe illness and with fatalities. Apart from one death due to an explosion which followed the exothermic reaction the more serious sequelae, which may range from depression and loss of weight to liver, kidney, and cardiac failure as well as malignant disease, have not occurred. A quick and reliable method of biological assay for the presence of dioxin in produced trichlorophenol was developed based on oral dosage to rabbits with assessment of liver function at fixed time intervals thereafter. This test has already been superseded by instantaneous gas-liquid chromatography. An entirely new plant with suitable modifications and multiple safety features has now been in satisfactory operation for three years. Images PMID:4269256

  16. Investigation on drop size distribution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. H. Zhao; M. H. Hou; X. Z. Kong; J. S. Chin

    1984-01-01

    Two types of atomizer, swirl atomizer and air blast atomizer, have been investigated. For swirl atomizer, the effect of pressure drop, air velocity, fuel viscosity on drop size distribution (as expressed by the drop size distribution parameter N in Rosin-Rammler distribution), and for air blast atomizer, the effect of atomization air velocity, air\\/liquid ratio, axial distance from the nozzle on

  17. Differential diagnosis of finger drop.

    PubMed

    Varatharaj, Aravinthan; Pinto, Ashwin; Manning, Mike

    2015-05-01

    Finger drop is a useful clinical sign which is easy to elicit. This article presents a logical approach for assessing patients with finger drop and outlines the important causes, and how to differentiate them. Patients with finger drop may present either to orthopedic surgeons or to neurologists, and both specialists should be aware of important diagnoses in their complementary fields. PMID:25970834

  18. Liquid drops impacting superamphiphobic coatings.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xu; Schellenberger, Frank; Papadopoulos, Periklis; Vollmer, Doris; Butt, Hans-Jürgen

    2013-06-25

    The dynamics of liquid drops impacting superamphiphobic coatings is studied by high-speed video microscopy. Superamphiphobic coatings repel water and oils. The coating consists of a fractal-like hydrophobized silica network. Mixtures of ethanol-water and glycerin-water are chosen to investigate the influence of interfacial tension and viscosity on spreading and retraction dynamics. Drop spreading is dominated by inertia. At low impact velocity, the drops completely rebound. However, the contact time increases with impact velocity, whereas the restitution coefficient decreases. We suggest that the drop temporarily impales the superamphiphobic coating, although the drop completely rebounds. From an estimate of the pressure, it can be concluded that impalement is dominated by depinning rather than sagging. With increasing velocity, the drops partially pin, and an increasing amount of liquid remains on the coating. A time-resolved study of the retraction dynamics reveals two well-separated phases: a fast inertia-dominated phase followed by a slow decrease of the contact diameter of the drop. The crossover occurs when the diameter of the retracting drop matches the diameter of the drop before impact. We suggest that the depth of impalement increases with impact velocity, where impalement is confined to the initial impact zone of the drop. If the drop partially pins on the coating, the depth of impalement exceeds a depth, preventing the whole drop from being removed during the retraction phase. PMID:23697383

  19. Admittance Diagrams of Accidental and Premeditated Optical Inhomogeneities in Coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Poitras

    2002-01-01

    Intuitive interpretation of the effect of inhomogeneous layers in optical coatings is often difficult. I use admittance diagrams to interpret some properties of accidental and premeditated optical inhomogeneities. The effect of accidental homogeneous and inhomogeneous transition layers on the spectral properties of a single film is presented. I show that such layers affect the envelope of the reflectance spectra of

  20. Experiences of Causing an Accidental Death: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rassool, Sara B.; Nel, Pieter W.

    2012-01-01

    Accidentally killing or feeling responsible for another person's death constitutes an event that is different from many typical traumatic stressors in that the responsibility for causing the trauma is located in the person themselves, rather than another person or persons. Research exploring the perspective of those who have accidentally caused a…

  1. Drop foot corrective device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deis, B. C. (inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A light weight, economical device to alleviate a plurality of difficulties encountered in walking by a victim suffering from a drop foot condition is discussed. A legband girdles the leg below the knee and above the calf providing an anchor point for the upper end of a ligament having its lower end attached to a toe of a shoe or a toe on the foot. The ligament is of such length that the foot is supported thereby and retained in a normal position during walking.

  2. Self-inflicted accidental gunshot wounds.

    PubMed

    Chung, Yung A

    2003-03-01

    This presentation will demonstrate the dangers of using a loaded gun as a blunt force object and designing toy guns to mimic realistic weapons. The ultimate goals of this presentation are to increase public education by promoting strict adherence to standard guidelines for safe gun usage, and to re-evaluate the future of toy gun designs that realistically mirror designs of current weapons. In a review of firearm deaths in the Wayne County Medical Examiner's Office (Detroit, Michigan, USA) over 10-year period from 1990 to 2000, there was an average of 500 cases of firearm deaths per year. This figure includes homicides, suicides and accidents. Among the 500 cases, seven of the most unusual self-inflicted accidental gunshot deaths are selected for this presentation. PMID:12935602

  3. Rickettsial infection caused by accidental conjunctival inoculation.

    PubMed

    Brissos, Joao; de Sousa, Rita; Santos, Ana Sofia; Gouveia, Catarina

    2015-01-01

    The most common transmission route of tick-borne Rickettsia is through tick bite; nevertheless, other transmission routes should also be considered. We report a case of rickettsial infection in a 15-year-old boy caused by accidental contamination of the conjunctiva through the infected fluid of a crushed engorged tick removed from a dog. Right eye pain, conjunctival hyperaemia with mucopurulent exudate, chemosis and eyelid oedema were the first signs and symptoms. Two days later, the boy developed fever, myalgia, headache, abdominal pain and was vomiting; physical examination showed multiple cervical adenopathies but no rash. He was treated with doxycycline (200?mg/day) for 7?days with progressive resolution of clinical signs. Rickettsial infection was confirmed by immunofluorescence assay with serological seroconversion in two consecutive samples. Rickettsia conorii or Rickettsia massiliae were the possible causal agents since they are the Rickettsia spp found in the Rhipicephalus sanguineus dog tick in Portugal. PMID:25568272

  4. Controlling charge on levitating drops.

    PubMed

    Hilger, Ryan T; Westphall, Michael S; Smith, Lloyd M

    2007-08-01

    Levitation technologies are used in containerless processing of materials, as microscale manipulators and reactors, and in the study of single drops and particles. Presented here is a method for controlling the amount and polarity of charge on a levitating drop. The method uses single-axis acoustic levitation to trap and levitate a single, initially neutral drop with a diameter between 400 microm and 2 mm. This drop is then charged in a controllable manner using discrete packets of charge in the form of charged drops produced by a piezoelectric drop-on-demand dispenser equipped with a charging electrode. The magnitude of the charge on the dispensed drops can be adjusted by varying the voltage applied to the charging electrode. The polarity of the charge on the added drops can be changed allowing removal of charge from the trapped drop (by neutralization) and polarity reversal. The maximum amount of added charge is limited by repulsion of like charges between the drops in the trap. This charging scheme can aid in micromanipulation and the study of charged drops and particles using levitation. PMID:17580951

  5. 40 CFR 63.95 - Additional approval criteria for accidental release prevention programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...criteria for accidental release prevention programs. 63.95 Section...criteria for accidental release prevention programs. (a) A State...approvable State Accidental Release Prevention program is regulating: ...State's part 68 program submit a Risk Management Plan...

  6. Analysis of an Extreme Scenario in the Vacuum Vessel in KTX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Zhiren; Yang, Qingxi; Song, Yuntao; Li, Hong; Liu, Wandong; Du, Shuangsong; Xu, Hao; Wang, Zhongwei; Yao, Yao; Hu, Huan

    2015-06-01

    The Vacuum Vessel (VV) system is a vital component of Keda Torus for eXperiment (KTX). Various accidental scenarios might occur on the VV. In this report, an extreme scenario is assumed and studied: plasma accidental termination during the flat-top stage. Numerical simulations based on finite element are performed as the major tool for analyses. The detailed distributions of eddy and the reaction forces on VV are extracted, and the total eddy current and the maximum reaction force due to electromagnetic load are figured out. In addition, according to the results, the VV can be approximately regarded as a centrally symmetric structure, even though its ports distribution is asymmetric.

  7. First drop dissimilarity in drop-on-demand inkjet devices

    SciTech Connect

    Famili, Amin; Palkar, Saurabh A.; Baldy, William J. Jr. [Cordis Corporation, a Johnson and Johnson Company, Welsh and McKean Roads, Spring House, Pennsylvania 19477 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    As inkjet printing technology is increasingly applied in a broader array of applications, careful characterization of its method of use is critical due to its inherent sensitivity. A common operational mode in inkjet technology known as drop-on-demand ejection is used as a way to deliver a controlled quantity of material to a precise location on a target. This method of operation allows ejection of individual or a sequence (burst) of drops based on a timed trigger event. This work presents an examination of sequences of drops as they are ejected, indicating a number of phenomena that must be considered when designing a drop-on-demand inkjet system. These phenomena appear to be driven by differences between the first ejected drop in a burst and those that follow it and result in a break-down of the linear relationship expected between driving amplitude and drop mass. This first drop, as quantified by high-speed videography and subsequent image analysis, can be different in morphology, trajectory, velocity, and volume from subsequent drops within a burst. These findings were confirmed orthogonally by both volume and mass measurement techniques which allowed quantitation down to single drops.

  8. [The abdominal drop flap].

    PubMed

    Bodin, F; Liverneaux, P; Seigle-Murandi, F; Facca, S; Bruant-Rodier, C; Dissaux, C; Chaput, B

    2015-08-01

    The skin between the mastectomy scar and the future infra-mammary fold may be managed in different ways in delayed breast reconstruction using a DIEP (deep inferior epigastric perforator). Conserving this skin and positioning the flap skin paddle in the middle of the breast usually highlights skin color disparity because of two visible transition zones. Resection of the entire skin under the scar may be more aesthetic but limits direct closure possibility in case of flap failure. In order to benefit from both aesthetic result and safe surgical method, we propose the abdominal drop flap. The inferior thoracic skin flap is detached from the thoracic wall beyond the future infra-mammary fold, preserved and pushed under the breast. PMID:25896871

  9. Accidental tritium release from solid breeding blankets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. F. Holland; B. J. Merrill

    1983-01-01

    Vulnerability of tritium in a solid breeding material has been determined for accidents involving failure of the barrier between the blanket and reactor building. Two breeding materials were analyzed, lithium aluminate and lithium oxide. Accident scenarios included either continuation or termination of the blanket cooling and helium purge flow. The results showed that with the purge flow continued, tritium in

  10. Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - Sensitivity study and optimization of the meteorological input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann-Stanzer, K.; Stenzel, S.

    2009-04-01

    Several air dispersion models are available for prediction and simulation of the hazard areas associated with accidental releases of toxic gases. The most model packages (commercial or free of charge) include a chemical database, an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI) and automated graphical output for effective presentation of results. The models are designed especially for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios"), preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management. Uncertainties in the meteorological input together with incorrect estimates of the source play a critical role for the model results. The research project RETOMOD (reference scenarios calculations for toxic gas releases - model systems and their utility for the fire brigade) was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in cooperation with the Vienna fire brigade, OMV Refining & Marketing GmbH and Synex Ries & Greßlehner GmbH. RETOMOD was funded by the KIRAS safety research program at the Austrian Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology (www.kiras.at). The main tasks of this project were 1. Sensitivity study and optimization of the meteorological input for modeling of the hazard areas (human exposure) during the accidental toxic releases. 2. Comparison of several model packages (based on reference scenarios) in order to estimate the utility for the fire brigades. This presentation gives a short introduction to the project and presents the results of task 1 (meteorological input). The results of task 2 are presented by Stenzel and Baumann-Stanzer in this session. For the aim of this project, the observation-based analysis and forecasting system INCA, developed in the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) was used. INCA (Integrated Nowcasting through Comprehensive Analysis) data were calculated with 1 km horizontal resolution and based on the weather forecast model ALADIN. The meteorological field's analysis with INCA include: Temperature, Humidity, Wind, Precipitation and Cloudiness. In the frame of the project INCA data were compared with measurements conducted at traffic-near sites. INCA analysis and very short term forecast fields (up to 6 hours) are found to be an advanced possibility to provide on-line meteorological input for the model package used by the fire brigade. Nevertheless a high degree of caution in the interpretation of the model results is required - especially in the case of very slow wind speeds, very stable atmospheric condition, and flow deflection by buildings in the urban area or by complex topography.

  11. Accidental death via intravaginal absorption of methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Jones, Prentiss; Mutsvunguma, Romeo; Prahlow, Joseph A

    2014-06-01

    In this paper a drug fatality that involved an unintended drug delivery route is described. The decedent, a 23-year-old female in custody in a county jail on suspicion of a felony drug offense, was discovered in a holding cell unconscious and unresponsive. Following unsuccessful cardiopulmonary resuscitation attempts she was pronounced dead at the scene. At autopsy a wad of multiple small loosely wrapped plastic packages held together with another layer of clear plastic was found in the decedent's vagina. The smaller plastic packages contained an off-white pasty substance that was later identified as methamphetamine. Toxicological testing of specimens collected during autopsy revealed methamphetamine in the decedent's subclavian blood, vitreous fluid, and urine at extremely high concentrations (42.6, 20.1, and 771 mg/L, respectively). Amphetamine, the active metabolite of methamphetamine, was also present in the subclavian blood, vitreous fluid, and urine at significant concentrations (1.3, 0.5, and 20.4 mg/L, respectively). The cause of death was attributed to toxic effects of methamphetamine and the manner of death was ruled accidental. This report suggests that lethal concentrations of methamphetamine may be distributed to the systemic circulation via intravaginal absorption. PMID:24515580

  12. Acute accidental overdosage of haloperidol in children.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, I; Sakaguchi, Y; Matsuishi, T; Yano, E; Yamashita, Y; Hayata, S; Hitoshi, T; Yamashita, F

    1993-10-01

    We report the details of an accidental overdosage of haloperidol in 24 children in one hospital in Kyushu, Japan. Evidence of acute toxicity included disturbances in consciousness (24/24), tremors in the extremities (16/24), an oculogyric or similar crisis (14/24), dysarthria (9/17), drooling (8/24), akathisia (6/20), hyperreflexia (6/24) and opisthotonos (3/24). Laboratory examinations revealed late-onset transient thrombocytosis (5/24), elevated AST and GPT (1/24) and abnormal ECG with prolonged QT interval in 2 of 8 children. We detected haloperidol in 11 of 18 children whose blood was specifically examined within four days after the final haloperidol administration. The maximum serum haloperidol level was 28.9 ng/ml. The mean half-life of haloperidol in the serum of five children (age range 2-10 years) was 18.6 +/- 12.2 h (mean +/- SD) (range 9.1-39.4 h). PMID:8241651

  13. Quick management of accidental tritium exposure cases.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vishwanath P; Badiger, N M; Managanvi, S S; Bhat, H R

    2012-07-01

    Removal half-life (RHL) of tritium is one of the best means for optimising medical treatment, reduction of committed effective dose (CED) and quick/easy handling of a large group of workers for medical treatment reference. The removal of tritium from the body depends on age, temperature, relative humidity and daily rainfall; so tritium removal rate, its follow-up and proper data analysis and recording are the best techniques for management of accidental acute tritium exposed cases. The decision of referring for medical treatment or medical intervention (MI) would be based on workers' tritium RHL history taken from their bodies at the facilities. The workers with tritium intake up to 1 ALI shall not be considered for medical treatment as it is a derived limit of annual total effective dose. The short-term MI may be considered for tritium intake of 1-10 ALI; however, if the results show intake ?100 ALI, extended strong medical/therapeutic intervention may be recommended based on the severity of exposure for maximum CED reduction requirements and annual total effective dose limit. The methodology is very useful for pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs) which are mainly operated by Canada and India and future fusion reactor technologies. Proper management will optimise the cases for medical treatment and enhance public acceptance of nuclear fission and fusion reactor technologies. PMID:22349318

  14. Hanging drop crystal growth apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, Robert J. (inventor); Witherow, William K. (inventor); Carter, Daniel C. (inventor); Bugg, Charles E. (inventor); Suddath, Fred L. (inventor)

    1990-01-01

    This invention relates generally to control systems for controlling crystal growth, and more particularly to such a system which uses a beam of light refracted by the fluid in which crystals are growing to detect concentration of solutes in the liquid. In a hanging drop apparatus, a laser beam is directed onto drop which refracts the laser light into primary and secondary bows, respectively, which in turn fall upon linear diode detector arrays. As concentration of solutes in drop increases due to solvent removal, these bows move farther apart on the arrays, with the relative separation being detected by arrays and used by a computer to adjust solvent vapor transport from the drop. A forward scattering detector is used to detect crystal nucleation in drop, and a humidity detector is used, in one embodiment, to detect relative humidity in the enclosure wherein drop is suspended. The novelty of this invention lies in utilizing angular variance of light refracted from drop to infer, by a computer algorithm, concentration of solutes therein. Additional novelty is believed to lie in using a forward scattering detector to detect nucleating crystallites in drop.

  15. Accidental Childhood Death and the Role of the Pathologist

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger W. Byard

    2000-01-01

    The following study provides an overview of accidental childhood death. This study is based on a review of 369 cases of fatal\\u000a childhood accidents taken from the records of the Department of Histopathology, Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide,\\u000a Australia, over a 34-year period from 1963 to 1996. Data provide information on deaths due to motor vehicle accidents, drownings,\\u000a accidental asphyxia,

  16. INCIDENTAL AND ACCIDENTAL POLLUTION IN ITALY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICHELE ARIENZO

    Three different scenarios of pollution of the environment in the Campania Region, south Italy, were studied. The first study\\u000a (a) deals with the spatial and temporal distribution of the radioactive levels of 134Cs, 137Cs, 103Ru in the unpolluted area of the Vesuvius National Park after the nuclear accident of Chernobyl in 1986. The effectiveness\\u000a of S. vesuvianus as biomonitor and

  17. Extension of drop experiments with the MIKROBA balloon drop facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, K.; Kretzschmar, K.; Dorn, C.

    1992-12-01

    The German balloon drop facility MIKROBA extends the worldwide available drop experiment opportunities to the presently highest usable experimentation time span of 55 s at microgravity conditions better than 0.001 g. The microgravity period is started with the typical quasi-deal step function from 1 to 0 g. MIKROBA allows flexible experiment design, short access time, and easy hands-on payload integration. The transport to the operational height is realized by soft energies and technologies compatible with the earth's environment. Balloon campaigns are not restricted to a certain test range, i.e., several suitable sites are available all over the world. MIKROBA combines negligible mechanical loads at the mission start, typical of all drop facilities, with extremely low drop deceleration loads (less than g), due to the implemented three-stage parachute and airbag recovery subsystem.

  18. Drop-on-demand drop formation of polyethylene oxide solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xuejia; Carr, Wallace W.; Dong, Hongming

    2011-10-01

    The dynamics of drop-on-demand (DOD) drop formation for solutions containing polyethylene oxide (PEO) have been studied experimentally. Using a piezoelectrical actuated inkjet printhead with the nozzle orifice diameter of 53 ?m, experiments were conducted for a series of PEO aqueous solutions with molecular weights ranging from 14 to 1000 kg/mol, polydispersity from 1.02 to 2.5, and concentrations from 0.005 to 10 wt. %. The addition of a small amount of PEO can have a significant effect on the DOD drop formation process, increasing breakup time, decreasing primary drop speed, and decreasing the number of satellite drops in some cases. The effects depend on both molecular weight and concentration. At lower molecular weights (14 and 35 kg/mol), the effect of PEO over the dilute solution regime is insignificant even at concentrations large enough that the solution does not fall in the dilute regime. As PEO molecular weight increased, the effects became significant. For monodispersed PEO solutions, breakup time and primary drop speed closely correlated with effective relaxation time but not for polydispersed PEO. Effective relaxation time depended greatly on molecular weight distribution. Viscosity-average molecular weight, used in calculating effective relaxation time for polydispersed PEO solutions, did not adequately account for high molecular fractions in the molecular weight distribution of the polydispersed PEOs. A mixture rule was developed to calculate the effective relaxation times for aqueous solutions containing mixtures of monodispersed PEO, and breakup times and primary drop speeds correlated well with effective relaxation times. For our experiments, DOD drop formation was limited to Deborah number ? 23.

  19. The rho meson in a scenario of pure chiral restoration

    E-print Network

    Thomas Hilger; Ronny Thomas; Burkhard Kampfer; Stefan Leupold

    2010-05-26

    Based on QCD sum rules we explore the consequences of a pure chiral restoration scenario for the rho meson, where all chiral symmetry breaking condensates are dropped whereas the chirally symmetric condensates remain at their vacuum values. This pure chiral restoration scenario causes the drop of the rho spectral moment by about 120 MeV. The complementarity of mass shift and broadening is discussed. A simple parametrization of the rho spectral function leads to a width of about 600 MeV if no shift of the peak position is assumed.

  20. Reducing the loss of vaccines from accidental freezing in the cold chain: The experience of continuous temperature monitoring in Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, John; Lydon, Patrick; Ouhichi, Ramzi; Zaffran, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Accidental freezing of vaccines is a growing threat and a real risk for national immunization programs when the potency of many vaccines can be compromised if these are exposed to sub-zero temperatures in the cold chain. In Tunisia, this issue is compounded by using sub-standard domestic cold chain equipment instead of equipping the program with medical refrigerators designed specifically for storing vaccines and temperature sensitive pharmaceuticals. Against this backdrop, this paper presents the findings of a demonstration project conducted in Tunisia in 2012 that tested the impact of introducing several freeze prevention solutions to mitigate the risk of accidental freezing of vaccines. The main finding is that, despite the continued use of underperforming domestic refrigerators, continuous temperature monitoring using new technologies combined with other technological interventions significantly reduced the prevalence of accidental exposure to freezing temperatures. These improvements were noticed for cold chain storage at regional, district and health center levels, and during the transport legs that were part of the demonstration conducted in the regions of Kasserine in the South-Eastern part of Tunisia. Subsequent to introducing these freeze prevention solutions, the incidence of freeze alarms was reduced and the percent of time the temperatures dropped below the 2 °C recommended threshold. The incidence of freeze alarms at health center level was reduced by 40%. Lastly, the solutions implemented reduced risk of freezing during transport from 13.8% to 1.7%. Although the solution implemented is not optimal in the longer term because domestic refrigerators are used extensively in district stores and health centers, the risk of accidental freezing is significantly reduced by introducing the practice of continuous temperature monitoring as a standard. The management of the cold chain equipment was strengthened as a result which helps protect the potency of vaccines to the areas of most difficult access. PMID:25444810

  1. Technology Forecasting Scenario Development

    E-print Network

    Technology Forecasting and Scenario Development Newsletter No. 1 June 1998 Systems Analysis research programme (tenta- tively titled: Technology Forecasting and Scenario Development). The tentative objective of the research programme is 1) to contribute to the assessment of technological and scientific

  2. COMMISSION SCENARIO ANALYSES OF

    E-print Network

    efficiency, renewable generation, solar photo voltaic, greenhouse gases, power generation, scenario analysis high penetrations of energy efficiency measures and renewable energy generation (both rooftop solar: · Two additional energy efficiency scenarios. · Carbon adder impact on coal plant dispatch. · Resource

  3. Leidenfrost drops: Effect of gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maquet, L.; Brandenbourger, M.; Sobac, B.; Biance, A.-L.; Colinet, P.; Dorbolo, S.

    2015-04-01

    A specific experimental set-up has been installed in a large centrifuge facility in order to study different aspects of Leidenfrost drops under high-gravity conditions (5, 10, 15 and 20 times the Earth gravity). In particular, the drop lifetime and more precisely the variations of drop diameter vs. time have shown to be in good agreement with previous experiments and scaling analysis (Biance A.-L. et al., Phys. Fluids, 15 (2003) 1632). Moreover, so-called chimneys are expectedly observed in the large puddles, the distance between two chimneys depending linearly on the capillary length. Finally, the Leidenfrost point, i.e. the temperature above which the Leidenfrost effect takes place, was unexpectedly found to increase slightly with gravity. A qualitative explanation based on a refined model (Sobac B. et al., Phys. Rev. E, 90 (2014) 053011) recognizing the non-trivial shape of the vapor film under the drop is proposed to explain this observation.

  4. Analysis for Eccentric Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Drops at the Canister Storage Building (CSB) (CSB-S-0073)

    SciTech Connect

    TU, K.C.

    1999-10-08

    Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) containing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) will be routinely handled at the Canister Storage Building (CSB) during fuel movement operations in the SNF Project. This analysis was performed to investigate the potential for damage from an eccentric accidental drop onto the standard storage tube, overpack tube, service station, or sample/weld station. Appendix D was added to the FDNW document to include the peer Review Comment Record & transmittal record.

  5. Analysis for SNF Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Drop into the Cask from the MCO Handling Machine (MHM) with Air Cushion

    SciTech Connect

    RAINS, D.J.

    2000-01-12

    The purpose of this report is to investigate the potential for damage to the MCO during impact from an accidental drop from the MHM into the shipping cask. The MCO is dropped from a height of 8.2 feet above the cask enters the cask concentrically and falls the additional 12.83 feet to the cask bottom. Because of the interface fit between the MCO and the cask and the air entrapment the MCO fall velocity is slowed. The shipping cask is resting on an impact absorber at the time of impact. The energy absorbing properties of the impact absorber are included in this analysis.

  6. Game theory of pre-emptive vaccination before bioterrorism or accidental release of smallpox.

    PubMed

    Molina, Chai; Earn, David J D

    2015-06-01

    Smallpox was eradicated in the 1970s, but new outbreaks could be seeded by bioterrorism or accidental release. Substantial vaccine-induced morbidity and mortality make pre-emptive mass vaccination controversial, and if vaccination is voluntary, then there is a conflict between self- and group interests. This conflict can be framed as a tragedy of the commons, in which herd immunity plays the role of the commons, and free-riding (i.e. not vaccinating pre-emptively) is analogous to exploiting the commons. This game has been analysed previously for a particular post-outbreak vaccination scenario. We consider several post-outbreak vaccination scenarios and compare the expected increase in mortality that results from voluntary versus imposed vaccination. Below a threshold level of post-outbreak vaccination effort, expected mortality is independent of the level of response effort. A lag between an outbreak starting and a response being initiated increases the post-outbreak vaccination effort necessary to reduce mortality. For some post-outbreak vaccination scenarios, even modest response lags make it impractical to reduce mortality by increasing post-outbreak vaccination effort. In such situations, if decreasing the response lag is impossible, the only practical way to reduce mortality is to make the vaccine safer (greater post-outbreak vaccination effort leads only to fewer people vaccinating pre-emptively). PMID:25926701

  7. Accidental tritium release from solid breeding blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, D.F.; Merrill, B.J.

    1983-01-01

    Vulnerability of tritium in a solid breeding material has been determined for accidents involving failure of the barrier between the blanket and reactor building. Two breeding materials were analyzed, lithium aluminate and lithium oxide. Accident scenarios included either continuation or termination of the blanket cooling and helium purge flow. The results showed that with the purge flow continued, tritium in lithium oxide is more vulnerable than in lithium aluminate. As the blanket cools after reactor shutdown, tritium is desorbed from the lithium oxide because of its temperature dependent solubility. In addition, the diffusion rate in the solid remains high enough for tritium release, even at the temperatures after shutdown. With the purge flow terminated, the rate of tritium release is limited by diffusion along purge channels to the blanket boundary.

  8. Accidental intradural injection during attempted epidural block -A case report-

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Joo Sun; Kang, Seung Youn; Cho, Jin Sun; Choi, Jong Bum

    2011-01-01

    Several cases of accidental subdural injection have been reported, but only few of them are known to be accidental intradural injection during epidural block. Therefore we would like to report our experience of accidental intradural injection. A 68-year-old female was referred to our pain clinic due to severe metastatic spinal pain. We performed a diagnostic epidural injection at T9/10 interspace under the C-arm guided X-ray view. Unlike the usual process of block, onset was delayed and sensory dermatomes were irregular range. We found out a dense collection of localized radio-opaque contrast media on the reviewed X-ray findings. These are characteristic of intradural injection and clearly different from the narrow wispy bands of contrast in the subdural space. PMID:21490823

  9. Aversions to bitterness and accidental poisonings among preschool children.

    PubMed

    Lawless, H T; Hammer, L D; Corina, M D

    1982-11-01

    Individual differences in responsiveness to bitterness were studied among children with and without histories of accidental ingestion of toxic substances. The oral behaviors of 56 children between the ages of 12 and 41 months were videotaped during two minute test periods with lollipops containing different concentrations of bitter sucrose octaacetate (SOA). Videotapes were scored for mouthing times, numbers of oral contacts and latencies to mouthing for each stimulus. Mouthing time was the most sensitive dependent measure examined. Both groups rejected pops with added SOA, decreasing mouthing times as SOA concentration increased. Mouthing times for children with histories of accidental ingestion were slightly lower overall. These results suggest that lowered reactivity to tastes is not a predisposing factor in accidental ingestions, and that bitter substances have some value as deterrents to ingestion for this age group. Rejection of bitter pops by children closely paralleled ratings of bitterness by adult judges. PMID:7182523

  10. Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - Comparison of the models and their utility for the fire brigades.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenzel, S.; Baumann-Stanzer, K.

    2009-04-01

    Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - Comparison of the models and their utility for the fire brigades. Sirma Stenzel, Kathrin Baumann-Stanzer In the case of accidental release of hazardous gases in the atmosphere, the emergency responders need a reliable and fast tool to assess the possible consequences and apply the optimal countermeasures. For hazard prediction and simulation of the hazard zones a number of air dispersion models are available. The most model packages (commercial or free of charge) include a chemical database, an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI) and automated graphical output for display the results, they are easy to use and can operate fast and effective during stress situations. The models are designed especially for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios"), preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management. There are also possibilities for model direct coupling to automatic meteorological stations, in order to avoid uncertainties in the model output due to insufficient or incorrect meteorological data. Another key problem in coping with accidental toxic release is the relative width spectrum of regulations and values, like IDLH, ERPG, AEGL, MAK etc. and the different criteria for their application. Since the particulate emergency responders and organizations require for their purposes unequal regulations and values, it is quite difficult to predict the individual hazard areas. There are a quite number of research studies and investigations coping with the problem, anyway the end decision is up to the authorities. The research project RETOMOD (reference scenarios calculations for toxic gas releases - model systems and their utility for the fire brigade) was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in cooperation with the Vienna fire brigade, OMV Refining & Marketing GmbH and Synex Ries & Greßlehner GmbH. RETOMOD was funded by the KIRAS safety research program at the Austrian Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology (www.kiras.at). One of the main tasks of this project was 1. Sensitivity study and optimization of the meteorological input for modeling of the hazard areas (human exposure) during the accidental toxic releases. 2. Comparison of several model packages (based on reference scenarios) in order to estimate the utility for the fire brigades. This presentation introduces the project models used and presents the results of task 2. The results of task 1 are presented by Baumann-Stanzer and Stenzel in this session. For the purpose of this study the following models were tested and compared: ALOHA (Areal Location of Hazardous atmosphere, EPA), MEMPLEX (Keudel av-Technik GmbH), Breeze (Trinity Consulting), SAFER System, SAM (Engineering office Lohmeyer), COMPAS. A set of reference scenarios for Chlorine, Ammoniac, Butane and Petrol were proceed in order to reliably predict and estimate the human exposure during the event. The models simulated the accidental release from the mentioned above gases and estimates the potential toxic areas. Since the inputs requirement differ from model to model, and the outputs are based on different criteria for toxic areas and exposure, a high degree of caution in the interpretation of the model results is needed.

  11. Accidental intrathecal vincristine administration. Report of a case.

    PubMed

    Manelis, J; Freudlich, E; Ezekiel, E; Doron, J

    1982-01-01

    A case is described of accidental intrathecal administration of vincristine, with detailed clinical observations over a 17-day period. The clinical picture resembled that seen with toxicity from intravenously administered vincristine, but was rapidly progressive and resulted in death. The onset was characterised by opisthotonos, followed by ascending paralysis and finally bulbar and cerebral involvement. The specific changes in the brain at autopsy were masked by those due to prolonged artificial respiration prior to death. The accidental drug administration occurred owing to procedural errors, which can be avoided by strict attention to rules. PMID:6186795

  12. Review on drop towers and long drop tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayuzick, R. J.; Hofmeister, W. H.; Robinson, M. B.

    1987-01-01

    A drop tube is an enclosure in which a molten sample can be solidified while falling; three such large tubes are currently in existence, all at NASA research facilities, and are engaged in combustion and fluid physics-related experiments rather than in materials research. JPL possesses smaller tubes, one of which can be cryogenically cooled to produce glass and metal microshells. A new small drop tube will soon begin operating at NASA Lewis that is equipped with four high-speed two-color pyrometers spaced equidistantly along the column.

  13. Shapes of running drops : corners and pearls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Podgorski; Jean-Marc Flesselles; Laurent Limat

    2000-01-01

    The formation and detachment of drops from a nozzle is a well known phenomenon. Provided that drops are sufficiently small, they are perfectly spherical except at breakup. In comparison, drops running over an inclined surface have received less attention. However, running drops can exhibit a rich variety of behaviors, involving singularities, coalescence and breakup. We performed well controlled experiments involving

  14. Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - utility for the fire brigades.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenzel, S.; Baumann-Stanzer, K.

    2009-09-01

    Several air dispersion models are available for prediction and simulation of the hazard areas associated with accidental releases of toxic gases. The most model packages (commercial or free of charge) include a chemical database, an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI) and automated graphical output for effective presentation of results. The models are designed especially for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios”), preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management. The research project RETOMOD (reference scenarios calculations for toxic gas releases - model systems and their utility for the fire brigade) was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in cooperation with the Viennese fire brigade, OMV Refining & Marketing GmbH and Synex Ries & Greßlehner GmbH. RETOMOD was funded by the KIRAS safety research program of the Austrian Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology (www.kiras.at). The main tasks of this project were 1. Sensitivity study and optimization of the meteorological input for modeling of the hazard areas (human exposure) during the accidental toxic releases. 2. Comparison of several model packages (based on reference scenarios) in order to estimate the utility for the fire brigades. For the purpose of our study the following models were tested and compared: ALOHA (Areal Location of Hazardous atmosphere, EPA), MEMPLEX (Keudel av-Technik GmbH), Trace (Safer System), Breeze (Trinity Consulting), SAM (Engineering office Lohmeyer). A set of reference scenarios for Chlorine, Ammoniac, Butane and Petrol were proceed, with the models above, in order to predict and estimate the human exposure during the event. Furthermore, the application of the observation-based analysis and forecasting system INCA, developed in the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in case of toxic release was investigated. INCA (Integrated Nowcasting through Comprehensive Analysis) data are calculated operationally with 1 km horizontal resolution and based on the weather forecast model ALADIN. The meteorological field's analysis with INCA include: Temperature, Humidity, Wind, Precipitation, Cloudiness and Global Radiation. In the frame of the project INCA data were compared with measurements from the meteorological observational network, conducted at traffic-near sites in Vienna. INCA analysis and very short term forecast fields (up to 6 hours) are found to be an advanced possibility to provide on-line meteorological input for the model package used by the fire brigade. Since the input requirements differ from model to model, and the outputs are based on unequal criteria for toxic area and exposure, a high degree of caution in the interpretation of the model results is required - especially in the case of slow wind speeds, stable atmospheric condition, and flow deflection by buildings in the urban area or by complex topography.

  15. Diversity against Accidental and Deliberate Faults Yves Deswarte1

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Diversity against Accidental and Deliberate Faults Yves Deswarte1 , Karama Kanoun and Jean that gave rise to this book: security, fault tolerance, and software assurance. Those three topics can for addressing the classes of faults that underlay all these topics, i.e., design faults and intrusion faults. 1

  16. Coping with Accidentally Killing Another Person: A Case Study Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesser, Barbara Jo

    1981-01-01

    Studied persons who had accidentally killed another person to explore factors that had helped these individuals cope with the ensuing stress. Ten case study summaries are presented. Results reinforce the important role family members, friends, and the community play in helping traumatized persons manage stress. (Author)

  17. Accidental injuries and blood exposure to cardiothoracic teams surgical

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. K. Kjaergard; J. Thiis; N. Wiinberg

    A survey was undertaken over a 15-week period (62 working days) to find out the incidence and common mechanism of accidental injuries and blood exposure in cardiothoracic surgical teams. Two hundred and seventy events were reported: 70% glove penetrations, 18% skin punctures, 4% non-bleeding skin lesions and 8% lacerations with bleeding. Eye splashes occurred in 14% of the cases. The

  18. Accidental entrapment of cats in front-loading washing machines

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Sarah A.; Gaunt, Matthew C.; Taylor, Susan M.; Snead, Elizabeth C.R.

    2010-01-01

    Two clinical cases of accidental entrapment of cats in front-loading washing machines are described. One cat died the day after presentation as a result of aspiration pneumonia and head trauma, despite supportive care. The second cat survived with supportive treatment, but developed dermatologic complications 10 d later. PMID:21119868

  19. ACCIDENTAL INJURY AND INCLEMENT WEATHER: DEFINING THE RELATIONSHIP AND ANTICIPATING THE EFFECTS OF A CHANGING CLIMATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this activity is to utilize a combination of existing scientific knowledge and professional expertise and experience to develop a research strategy for lessening the incidence and the impact of accidental injuries associated with inclement weather. Accidental inj...

  20. Simulation of Drop Dynamics in Complex Fluid: Shear-induced Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Pengtao; Feng, James J.; Liu, Chun; Shen, Jie

    2004-11-01

    This talk reports our recent simulations of drop deformation in steady and startup shear flows. At least one of the components is viscoelastic. The steady deformation depends on the viscoelasticity of the components in a complex way. If the drop phase is viscoelastic, then drop deformation decreases with increasing Deborah number. If the matrix is viscoelastic, however, the drop deformation decreases with De for small De, but increases with De for larger De. This reconciles conflicting experimental reports in the literature. In shear startup, drop deformation undergoes an overshoot and undershoot scenario, consistent with experimental observations. By analyzing the flow and nonlinear stress fields at the interface, we explain the above results by the rheology of the fluids.

  1. Microring resonator channel dropping filters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. E. Little; S. T. Chu; H. A. Haus; J. Foresi; J.-P. Laine

    1997-01-01

    Microring resonators side coupled to signal waveguides provide compact, narrow band, and large free spectral range optical channel dropping filters. Higher order filters with improved passband characteristics and larger out-of-band signal rejection are realized through the coupling of multiple rings. The analysis of these devices is approached by the novel method of coupling of modes in time. The response of

  2. Project: Drop In. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TIU Adult Education and Job Training Center, Lewistown, PA.

    A project developed and implemented a plan to retain those adult basic education students who are likely to be successful if they stay enrolled in the program but who are likely to drop out if program staff do not intervene. The plan involved use of an assessment instrument to identify these at-risk students, development of an individualized…

  3. Getting the Drop on Sediment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galindez, Peter

    1977-01-01

    In this exercise, students examine Aristotle's weight hypothesis by testing variously shaped marble chips. These chips are weighed and dropped down a water tube. Average fall times and weights are recorded and graphed. Students are asked to apply this information to rock and soil deposition by streams. (MA)

  4. Technology Forecasting Scenario Development

    E-print Network

    Technology Forecasting and Scenario Development Newsletter No. 2 October 1998 Systems Analysis was initiated on the establishment of a new research programme entitled Technology Forecasting and Scenario and commercial applica- tion of new technology. An international Scientific Advisory Panel has been set up

  5. Moon manned mission scenarios

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. de Angelis; R. K. Tripathi; J. W. Wilson; M. S. Clowdsley; J. E. Nealy; F. F. Badavi

    2004-01-01

    An analysis is performed on the radiation environment found around and on the surface of the Moon, and applied to different possible lunar mission scenarios. An optimization technique has been used to obtain mission scenarios minimizing the astronaut radiation exposure and at the same time controlling the effect of shielding, in terms of mass addition and material choice, as a

  6. LIFE INSURANCE AND ACCIDENTAL DEATH AND DISMEMBERMENT PLAN 01-01-2012

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Peter D.

    1 LIFE INSURANCE AND ACCIDENTAL DEATH AND DISMEMBERMENT PLAN 01-01-2012 The Life Insurance and Accidental Death and Dismemberment Plan (the "Plan") offers Basic and Supplemental Life Insurance coverage or terminate this Life Insurance and Accidental Death and Dismemberment Plan at any time and for any reason

  7. Modelling of accidental released toxic gases for emergency responders in Austria, Kosovo and Bulgaria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sirma Stenzel; Kathrin Baumann-Stanzer; Salih Gashi; Bashkim Thaci; Ekaterina Batchvarova; Tatiana Spassova

    2010-01-01

    In the case of accidental release of hazardous gases in the atmosphere, the emergency responders need a reliable and fast tool to assess the possible consequences and apply the optimal countermeasures. A number of models for the prediction and simulation of hazard areas affected by accidental releases of toxic gases are available worldwide. Modelling accidental releases may be required for

  8. Drop/drop collisions using a ternary fluid flow model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jun-Seok; Lowengrub, John; Longmire, Ellen

    2001-11-01

    The flows we consider are characterized by the presence of interfaces separating immiscible and miscible flow components. We investigate coalescence, rupture, reconnection of interfaces and the resulting mass transfer. Such flows are fundamental to many industrial processes. In this talk, we present numerical simulations of buoyant dilute emulsions using a three component fluid model. For example, we consider a case in which an inert substance (e.g. dye) is imbedded in only some of the dispersed phase (drops). Through coalescence, the dye is re-distributed. We then study the mass re-distribution of each component after collision, rupture and coalescence events. We investigate the effects of drop-size distribution, density and viscosity ratios and the Reynolds and Bond number on these flows. Our simulations use a diffuse interface model developed by Kim and Lowengrub 2001. In this model, interfaces have a small, but finite thickness and limited chemical diffusion allows topological changes to occur smoothly without explicit interface reconstruction.

  9. Correlations in -local scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Kaushiki; Paul, Biswajit; Sarkar, Debasis

    2015-06-01

    Recently Bell-type inequalities were introduced in Branciard et al. (Phys Rev A 85:032119, 2012) to analyze the correlations emerging in an entanglement swapping scenario characterized by independence of the two sources shared between three parties. The corresponding scenario was referred to as bilocal scenario. Here, we derive Bell-type inequalities in party scenario, i.e., in -local scenario. Considering the two different cases with several number of inputs and outputs, we derive local and -local bounds. The -local inequality studied for two cases are proved to be tight. Replacing the sources by maximally entangled states for two binary inputs and two binary outputs and also for the fixed input and four outputs, we observe quantum violations of -local bounds. But the resistance offered to noise cannot be increased as compared to the bilocal scenario. Thus increasing the number of parties in a linear fashion in source-independent scenario does not contribute in lowering down the requirements of revealing quantumness in a network in contrast to the star configuration (Tavakoli et al. in Phys Rev A 90:062109, 2014) of parties.

  10. Mars base buildup scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Blacic, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Two surface base build-up scenarios are presented in order to help visualize the mission and to serve as a basis for trade studies. In the first scenario, direct manned landings on the Martian surface occur early in the missions and scientific investigation is the main driver and rationale. In the second scenario, early development of an infrastructure to exploite the volatile resources of the Martian moons for economic purposes is emphasized. Scientific exploration of the surface is delayed at first, but once begun develops rapidly aided by the presence of a permanently manned orbital station.

  11. Dropped head syndrome in mitochondriopathy.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, J

    2004-11-01

    In a 63-year-old, 165-cm-tall woman with a history of repeated tick bites, dilative cardiomyopathy, osteoporosis, progressive head ptosis with neck stiffness and cervical pain developed. The family history was positive for thyroid dysfunction and neuromuscular disorders. Neurological examination revealed prominent forward head drop, weak anteflexion and retroflexion, nuchal rigidity, weakness of the shoulder girdle, cogwheel rigidity, and tetraspasticity. The lactate stress test was abnormal. Electromyograms of various muscles were myogenic. Muscle biopsy showed non-specific myogenic abnormalities and generally weak staining for cytochrome oxydase. Mitochondriopathy with multi-organ involvement was suspected. The response to anti-Parkinson medication was poor. In conclusion, dropped head syndrome (DHS) may be due to multi-organ mitochondriopathy, manifesting as Parkinsonism, tetraspasticity, dilative cardiomyopathy, osteoporosis, short stature, and myopathy. Anti-Parkinson medication is of limited effect. PMID:14762708

  12. Accidental degeneracy of double Dirac cones in a phononic crystal

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ze-Guo; Ni, Xu; Wu, Ying; He, Cheng; Sun, Xiao-Chen; Zheng, Li-Yang; Lu, Ming-Hui; Chen, Yan-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Artificial honeycomb lattices with Dirac cone dispersion provide a macroscopic platform to study the massless Dirac quasiparticles and their novel geometric phases. In this paper, a quadruple-degenerate state is achieved at the center of the Brillouin zone in a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice phononic crystal, which is a result of accidental degeneracy of two double-degenerate states. In the vicinity of the quadruple-degenerate state, the dispersion relation is linear. Such quadruple degeneracy is analyzed by rigorous representation theory of groups. Using method, a reduced Hamiltonian is obtained to describe the linear Dirac dispersion relations of this quadruple-degenerate state, which is well consistent with the simulation results. Near such accidental degeneracy, we observe some unique properties in wave propagating, such as defect-insensitive propagating character and the Talbot effect. PMID:24714512

  13. Parental substance abuse and accidental death in children.

    PubMed

    Palmiere, Cristian; Staub, Christian; La Harpe, Romano; Mangin, Patrice

    2010-05-01

    In this report, the authors present two cases of accidental death in children of addicted parents. In the first case, the child was left unattended at home while the mother went out to buy cocaine. She was arrested and detained with no mention of the unsupervised child. The cause of death in this case was determined to be starvation and dehydration. In the second case, a child mistakenly received a methadone suppository by her father instead of an antipyretic suppository. Toxicological analysis of the femoral blood revealed methadone at a concentration of 1.2 mg/L. The cause of death was determined to be methadone intoxication. The literature is reviewed and discussed. We report these cases to illustrate the risk of harm to children from illicit drugs and prescription medications at home and because there is no mention of accidental death in children following a methadone suppository administration in the current literature. PMID:20345788

  14. Accidental ligature strangulation by an ironing machine: an unusual case.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Kamil Hakan; Demirci, Serafettin; Gunaydin, Gursel; Buken, Bora

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a case of a 53-year-old woman who had her headscarf catch on the cylinder ironing machine in the laundry of the hospital where she worked. The hospital workers found the woman dead with her head stuck to the ironing machine. After the death scene investigation and autopsy were completed, it was determined that the death occurred as a result of accidental ligature strangulation. Accidental ligature strangulation in which an article of clothing is caught in such an electrical machine and strangles the wearer is very rare. This case highlights the fact that these kinds of machines can be hazardous to work around and that increased safety measures should be taken to insure worker safety; additionally, the people who use these machines should be educated on the potential hazards. PMID:20002258

  15. Analysis for Eccentric Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Drops at the Canister Storage Building (CSB) (CSB-S-0073)

    SciTech Connect

    HOLLENBECK, R.G.

    2000-06-07

    The purpose of this report is to investigate the potential for damage to the multi-canister overpack (MCO) during impact from an eccentric accidental drop onto the standard storage tube, overpack storage tube, service station or sampling/weld station. Damage to the storage tube and sample/weld station is beyond the scope of this report. The results of this analysis are required to show the following: (1) If a breach resulting in unacceptable release of contamination could occur in the MCO. (2) If the dropped MCO could become stuck in the storage tube after the drop. (3) Maximum deceleration of the spent nuclear fuel baskets. The model appropriate for the standard storage tubes with the smaller gap is the basis for the analysis and results reported herein in this SNF-5204, revision 2 report. Revision 1 of this report is based on a model that includes the larger gap appropriate for the overpack tubes.

  16. Sensitivity and Scenario Results

    E-print Network

    Yu, Winston

    Presents the results of various scenarios using models used to study water, climate, agriculture and the economy in Pakistan's Indus Basin, and discusses the policy and investment implications. The water allocations per ...

  17. Approaches for preventing and mitigating accidental gaseous chemical releases

    SciTech Connect

    Fthenakis, V.M.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a review of approaches to prevent and mitigate accidental releases of toxic and flammable gases. The prevention options are related to: choosing safer processes and materials, preventing initiating events, preventing or minimizing releases, and preventing human exposures. the mitigation options include: secondary confinement, de-inventory, vapor barriers, and water sprays/monitors. Guidelines for the design and operation of effective post-release mitigation systems are also presented.

  18. Chemical causes of the typical burnt smell after accidental fires

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katharina Heitmann; Hubertus Wichmann; Müfit Bahadir

    2009-01-01

    The components responsible for the typical burnt smell that occurs after accidental fires (e.g. in buildings) were identified.\\u000a For this purpose, samples of odorous materials were taken from different real fire sites. Their volatile fractions were analysed\\u000a by means of thermal desorption, headspace analysis and solid-phase microextraction (SPME) combined with gas chromatography–mass\\u000a spectrometry (GC\\/MS). Measurements performed with SPME gave the

  19. Attracting Water Drops - Duration: 88 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Astronauts Cady Coleman and Ron Garan perform the Attracting Water Drops experiment from Chabad Hebrew Academy in San Diego, Calif. This research determines if a free-floating water drop can be att...

  20. An alternative approach for computing seismic response with accidental eccentricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xuanhua; Yin, Jiacong; Sun, Shuli; Chen, Pu

    2014-09-01

    Accidental eccentricity is a non-standard assumption for seismic design of tall buildings. Taking it into consideration requires reanalysis of seismic resistance, which requires either time consuming computation of natural vibration of eccentric structures or finding a static displacement solution by applying an approximated equivalent torsional moment for each eccentric case. This study proposes an alternative modal response spectrum analysis (MRSA) approach to calculate seismic responses with accidental eccentricity. The proposed approach, called the Rayleigh Ritz Projection-MRSA (RRP-MRSA), is developed based on MRSA and two strategies: (a) a RRP method to obtain a fast calculation of approximate modes of eccentric structures; and (b) an approach to assemble mass matrices of eccentric structures. The efficiency of RRP-MRSA is tested via engineering examples and compared with the standard MRSA (ST-MRSA) and one approximate method, i.e., the equivalent torsional moment hybrid MRSA (ETM-MRSA). Numerical results show that RRP-MRSA not only achieves almost the same precision as ST-MRSA, and is much better than ETM-MRSA, but is also more economical. Thus, RRP-MRSA can be in place of current accidental eccentricity computations in seismic design.

  1. Tympanostomy tubes and otic drops.

    PubMed

    Meyerhoff, W L; Morizono, T; Wright, C G; Shaddock, L C; Shea, D A; Sikora, M A

    1983-08-01

    Otic drops have been proposed as a form of prophylaxis against the otitis media which follows middle ear contamination by water in patients with tympanostomy tubes. The potential adverse effects of this form of therapy were studied in chinchillas with tympanostomy tubes; 31 chinchillas underwent bilateral tympanostomy tube insertion. Seven animals had a mixture of green dye and Cortisporin otic suspension placed in both external auditory canals 24 hours following the placement of tympanostomy tubes and were sacrificed 30 minutes later for gross examination; 3 of these animals had previous eustachian tube obstruction with Silastic sponge. Twenty-one animals had Cortisporin otic suspension placed in the right external auditory canal on postoperative days 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7. No otic drops were placed in the left ear. Ten of these 20 animals had VIIIth nerve action potentials measured on postoperative day 17 and the other 11 animals had VIIIth nerve action potentials measured on postoperative day 42 followed by immediate sacrifice for histological examination and scanning electronmicroscopy. The remaining 3 animals had VIIIth nerve action potentials measured 21 days following tympanostomy tube insertion and served as electrophysiological controls. The 8 ears receiving Cortisporin otic drops mixed with green dye from animals with normal eustachian tubes showed staining of the round window membrane at sacrifice, while the 6 ears receiving Cortisporin otic suspension and green dye from animals with eustachian tube obstruction demonstrated no dye in the middle ear. All animals receiving Cortisporin otic drops in the right ear showed an intra-aural difference in action potentials with the right ear being attenuated by an average of 10.3 dB at 2,000 Hz, 12 dB at 4,000 Hz, 21 dB and 8,000 Hz, and 26 dB at 12,000 Hz. Morphological study revealed hair cell loss in the hook portion of the cochlea in those animals receiving Cortisporin otic drops. It was concluded from this study that, in patients with patent tympanostomy tubes in place, potentially ototoxic topical agents should be used with caution. PMID:6308368

  2. Drop impact test - mechanics & physics of failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. H. Wong; K. M. Lim; N. Lee; S. Seah; C. Hoe; J. Wang

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with the mechanics and physics of board-level drop test with the intention of providing the fundamental understanding required to design and analyse the results of a drop test. Three finite element analyses were performed to understand the physics of failure in board-level drop impact: (i) velocity impact of a PCB - modeled as a beam; (ii) velocity

  3. 49 CFR 178.603 - Drop test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...one sample each for the two drop orientations. These samples...samples used for conducting the drop test are subject to the approval...preparation of test samples for the drop test. (1) Testing of...solids or articles must be carried out when the temperature of the...

  4. Liquid Drops on an Inclined Plane: The Relation between Contact Angles, Drop Shape, and Retentive Force

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles W. Extrand; Y. Kumagai

    1995-01-01

    Contact angle hysteresis, drop shape, and drop retention were studied with a tiltable plane. Contact liquids were water and ethylene glycol. Four polymers and silicon wafers were used as substrates. When the plane was inclined, the shape of drops distorted, exhibiting advancing and receding contact angles. Drops remained stationary until a critical angle of tilt was exceeded, and then they

  5. Vortex flow in acoustically levitated drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Z. L.; Xie, W. J.; Wei, B.

    2011-08-01

    The internal flow of acoustically levitated water drops is investigated experimentally. This study reveals a kind of vortex flow which rotates in the meridional plane of the levitated drop. The magnitude of fluid velocity is nearly vanishing at the drop center, whereas it increases toward the free surface of a levitated drop until the maximum value of about 80 mm/s. A transition of streamline shapes from concentric circles to ellipses takes place at the distance of about 1.2 mm from the drop center. The fluid velocity distribution is plotted as a function of polar angle for seven characteristic streamlines.

  6. BCube Ocean Scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoro, Mattia; Schofield, Oscar; Pearlman, Jay; Nativi, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    To address complex Earth system issues such as climate change and water resources, geoscientists must work across disciplinary boundaries; this requires them to access data outside of their fields. Scientists are being called upon to find, access, and use diverse and voluminous data types that are described with semantics. Within the framework of the NSF EarthCube programme, the BCube project (A Broker Framework for Next Generation Geoscience) is addressing the need for effective and efficient multi-disciplinary collaboration and interoperability through the advancement of brokering technologies. BCube develops science scenarios as key elements in providing an environment for demonstrating capabilities, benefits, and challenges of the developed e-infrastructure. The initial focus is on hydrology, oceans, polar and weather, with the intent to make the technology applicable and available to all the geosciences. This presentation focuses on the BCube ocean scenario. The purpose of this scenario is to increase the understanding of the ocean dynamics through incorporation of a wide range of in-situ and satellite data into ocean models using net primary productivity as the initial variable. The science scenario aims to identify spatial and temporal domains in ocean models, and key ecological variables. Field data sets and remote observations data sets from distributed and heterogeneous systems are accessed through the broker and will be incorporated into the models. In this work we will present the achievements in the development of the BCube ocean scenario.

  7. Drag and drop display & builder

    SciTech Connect

    Bolshakov, Timofei B.; Petrov, Andrey D.; /Fermilab

    2007-12-01

    The Drag and Drop (DnD) Display & Builder is a component-oriented system that allows users to create visual representations of data received from data acquisition systems. It is an upgrade of a Synoptic Display mechanism used at Fermilab since 2002. Components can be graphically arranged and logically interconnected in the web-startable Project Builder. Projects can be either lightweight AJAX- and SVG-based web pages, or they can be started as Java applications. The new version was initiated as a response to discussions between the LHC Controls Group and Fermilab.

  8. Drop short control of electrode gap

    DOEpatents

    Fisher, Robert W. (Albuquerque, NM); Maroone, James P. (Albuquerque, NM); Tipping, Donald W. (Albuquerque, NM); Zanner, Frank J. (Sandia Park, NM)

    1986-01-01

    During vacuum consumable arc remelting the electrode gap between a consumable electrode and a pool of molten metal is difficult to control. The present invention monitors drop shorts by detecting a decrease in the voltage between the consumable electrode and molten pool. The drop shorts and their associated voltage reductions occur as repetitive pulses which are closely correlated to the electrode gap. Thus, the method and apparatus of the present invention controls electrode gap based upon drop shorts detected from the monitored anode-cathode voltage. The number of drop shorts are accumulated, and each time the number of drop shorts reach a predetermined number, the average period between drop shorts is calculated from this predetermined number and the time in which this number is accumulated. This average drop short period is used in a drop short period electrode gap model which determines the actual electrode gap from the drop short. The actual electrode gap is then compared with a desired electrode gap which is selected to produce optimum operating conditions and the velocity of the consumable error is varied based upon the gap error. The consumable electrode is driven according to any prior art system at this velocity. In the preferred embodiment, a microprocessor system is utilized to perform the necessary calculations and further to monitor the duration of each drop short. If any drop short exceeds a preset duration period, the consumable electrode is rapidly retracted a predetermined distance to prevent bonding of the consumable electrode to the molten remelt.

  9. Sandwiched drops and magnified substrate deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wexler, Jason S.; Stone, Howard A.

    2012-11-01

    The Laplace pressure and contact line force of a wetting sessile drop (radius R) are strong enough to deform the surface of a soft elastic media (~ 25 kPa) by distances on the order of microns. If the drop, instead of being sessile, is squeezed flat in a gap (h << R) between two elastic substrates, the resulting forces are much stronger (by a factor R / h >> 1). In fact, a similarly soft material will deform by distances that are orders of magnitude larger than in the sessile drop case. We present an analytical theory that predicts a relationship between drop volume and substrate displacement. In particular, unlike the sessile drop case, where larger deformations correspond to smaller drops, here we find that larger drops lead to greater displacements. We solve for the volume at which the two surfaces first come in contact, and test the predictions of our model with a series of experiments.

  10. Attractive scenario writing.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yuzo; Oku, Sachiko Alexandra

    2009-05-01

    This article describes the key steps of scenario writing to facilitate problem-based learning discussion to aid student learning of basic medical science in combination with clinical medicine. The scenario has to amplify and deepen the students' thinking so that they can correlate findings from the case and knowledge from textbooks. This can be achieved in three ways: (1) a comparison of cases; (2) demonstrating a scientific link between symptoms and basic medicine; and (3) introducing a personal and emotional aspect to the scenario. A comparison of two cases enables us to shed light on the pathological differences and think about the underlying biological mechanisms. These include: (a) a comparison of two cases with similar symptoms, but different diseases; (b) a comparison of two cases with different symptoms, but the same cause; and (c) a comparison of two cases, with an easy case, followed by a complicated case. The scenarios may be disclosed in a sequence to show a scientific link between symptoms of the patient and basic medicine, which may help to cultivate a physician with a scientific mind. Examples are given by the relationship between: (a) symptoms, pathology and morphology; and (b) symptoms, pathology and physiology. When the scenario is written in such a way that students are personally and/or emotionally involved in the case, they will be more motivated in learning as if involved in the case themselves. To facilitate this, the scenario can be written in the first-person perspective. Examples include "I had a very bad headache, and vomited several times...", and "I noticed that my father was screaming at night...". The description of the events may be in chronological order with actual time, which makes students feel as if they are really the primary responding person. PMID:19502145

  11. Two Dimensional Air Drop Model

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-04-16

    This interactive simulation shows an airplane flying at constant horizontal velocity preparing to drop relief supplies to a small island. Download Simulation Below As captain of the plane, you must determine when to release the package and activate the release button. The trajectory of the falling package is traced onscreen. If you were too far off, the package will drop in the ocean. The motion can be viewed from the perspective of a person standing on the island or an airplane flying nearby. Extend the learning by activating air friction to see how this variable affects the motion of the projectile. Editor's Note: Students may insist that there is a horizontal force acting upon the package since it has a horizontal motion. See Annotation for an editor-recommended tutorial that will explain what is happening (the horizontal motion of the package results from its inertia). This item was created with Easy Java Simulations (EJS), a modeling tool that allows users without formal programming experience to generate computer models and simulations.

  12. Why Chalk Breaks into Three Pieces When Dropped

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Rod

    2015-01-01

    It has been the author's experience over many years, no doubt shared by others, that a stick of chalk usually breaks into three pieces when accidentally dropped onto the floor. I rarely gave it any thought, apart from noting that the fundamental mode of vibration of a freely supported, rigid rod has two nodes at an equal distance from each end. For example, a baseball bat has a node in the barrel (the sweet spot) about 15 cm from the end and another node in the handle. However, chalk is not expected to break at the node points, since maximum stress arises at the antinode in the middle of the chalk where bending is a maximum. Richard Feynman described a similar problem with long sticks of spaghetti.1 He found that they always break into three or more pieces when bent slowly beyond their breaking point, rather than simply breaking in half. He was unable to figure out why, although the problem was solved many years later2 and is nicely illustrated by Vollmer and Mollmann.3

  13. Micro-explosion of compound drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chun-Kuei; Lin, Ta-Hui

    2014-08-01

    Introducing water into spray combustion systems, by either water-in-oil emulsification or supplementary water injection, is one of the major techniques for combustion improvement and NOx reduction. Plentiful researches are available on combustion of water-in-oil emulsion fuel drops. The emulsified liquid is a heterogeneous mixture of immiscible liquids. One component forms the continuous phase and the other component forms the discrete phase. The discrete phase consists of globules of the one fluid that are suspended in the continuous phase fluid. Water-in-oil emulsions are commonly considered for combustion applications because emulsions can result in micro-explosion, thereby reducing the average drop diameter to enhance liquid vaporization, and suppressing the formation of soot and NOx. However, the water addition generally does not exceed about 20% for smooth engine operations[!, 21. The combustion characteristics and micro-explosion of emulsion drop were studied by many researchers. The micro-explosion of water in fuel emulsion drops was caused by very fast growth of superheated water vapor bubbles, its superheat limits must be lower than the boiling point temperature of the fuel. These bubbles were primarily governed by the pressure difference between the superheated vapor and the liquid, and by the inertia imparted to the liquid by the motion of the bubble surface[3 6 In this study, we used a coaxial nozzle to generation the multi-component drop. The different type of water-in-oil fuel drops called the compound drops. Unlike an emulsion drop, a compound drop consists of a water core and a fuel shell, which can originate from the phase separation of emulsion[7, 81 or a water drop colliding with a fuel drop[9, 101 Burning and micro-explosion of compound drops have been found to be distinct from those of emulsion drops[9-111 Wang et al.[9 , 101 studied the combustion characteristics of collision merged alkane-water drops. The merged drops appeared in adhesive and inserted manners. The drop ignition delay time increased with increasing water content. The average burning rate of alkane-water drops decreased with increasing water content. In the burning process, hexadecane-water drops exhibited flash vaporization or flame extinction. Heterogeneous explosion was occasionally observed in drops with trapped air bubbles. The air bubbles were assumed to be the nucleation points of the heterogeneous explosions. Chen and Lin[11 studied the characteristics of water-in-dodecane compound drop with different water content, diameter of drop and environmental oxygen concentration. The vaporization rate increased with increasing environmental oxygen concentration. The compound drops micro-exploded during the burning process in a random way. The number of micro-explosions was majorly influenced by drop diameter, followed by environmental oxygen concentration. Water content had a weaker effect on micro-explosion. As available literature and research results of compound drop burning are scarce, their combustion and micro-explosion behaviors are still poorly understood. In this regard, we changed the drop nature as compound drops to study their combustion characteristics and micro-explosion phenomena.

  14. Numerical simulation of industrial and accidental release formation and transport

    SciTech Connect

    Piskunov, V.N.; Aloyan, A.A.; Gerasimov, V.M.; Pinaev, V.S.; Golubev, A.I.; Yanilkin, Yu.V.; Ivanov, N.V.; Nikonov, S.N.; Kharchenko, A.I. [and others

    1995-05-01

    Statement of work for contract 006 {open_quotes}Mathematical simulation of industrial and accidental release formation and transport{close_quotes} implies that the final result of the activity within this task will be VNIIEF developed techniques which will provide for the prediction of the post-accidental environment. Report [1] presents the description of physical models and calculation techniques which were chosen by VNIIEF to accomplish this task. These techniques were analysed for their capabilities, the areas of their application were defined, modifications within contract 006 were described, the results of test and methodical calculations were presented. Moreover, the experimental data were analysed over the source parameters and contamination measurements which can be used in the comparison with the calculation results. Based an these data this report compares the calculation results obtained with VNIIEF calculation techniques with the LANL-presented experimental results. The calculations which statements and results are given in section 1, included the following processes: explosion cloud ascent dynamics and jet release origin; aerosols kinetics in the release source including composite particle origin in the explosion cloud caused by radioactive substance sorption an the soil particles; contaminant transport in atmosphere and their in-site fallout due to the accidental explosions and fires; atmospheric flow dynamics and industrial contamination transfer over the complicated terrain. The calculated results were compared with the experimental data. Section 2 presents the parameters for a typical source in the explosion accidents based an the experimental results and calculated data from Section 1, as well as contamination patterns were calculated with basic technique {open_quotes}Prognosis{close_quotes}.

  15. Environmental gas displacement: three accidental deaths in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Gill, James R; Ely, Susan F; Hua, Zhongxue

    2002-03-01

    The authors describe three accidental deaths resulting from occupational hazards involving environmental gas alterations. One involved the displacement of oxygen caused by leakage of liquid nitrogen during the installation of a magnetic resonance imaging system. Two involved elevated environmental carbon dioxide concentrations: dry ice sublimation in a walk-in refrigerator in a research laboratory, and activation of a carbon dioxide fire alarm-extinguisher system by a woman locked in a bank vault. The autopsy findings, scene investigations, and certifications of these deaths, as related to the mechanisms of death, are discussed. PMID:11953489

  16. Accidental Sulfur Poisoning in a Group of Holstein Heifers

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, Moira F.; Baird, John D.; Wilkie, Judith S. Nimmo

    1987-01-01

    Fourteen animals died or were euthanized after toxic levels of elemental sulfur were accidentally fed to a group of 120 Holstein heifers. Dehydration, rumen stasis, tachycardia, and diarrhea were seen along with metabolic acidosis, hypokalemia, and hypochloremia. The majority of deaths occurred from 3 to 10 days after the sulfur was fed to the heifers. Postmortem examination showed rumenitis, acute alveolitis, and renal tubular necrosis. The toxicity of ingested sulfur was attributed to the conversion of sulfur to hydrogen sulfide in the rumen. ImagesFigure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10. PMID:17422758

  17. Timing, ``Accidentals'' and Other Artifacts in EPR Experiments

    E-print Network

    Caroline H. Thompson

    1997-11-25

    Subtraction of ``accidentals'' in Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen experiments frequently changes results compatible with local realism into ones that appear to demonstrate non-locality. The validity of the procedure depends on the unproven assumption of the independence of emission events. Other possible sources of bias include enhancement, imperfect synchronisation, over-reliance on rotational invariance, and the well-known detection loophole. Investigation of existing results may be more fruitful than attempts at loophole-free Bell tests, improving our understanding of light.

  18. Rewarming in accidental hypothermia: radio wave versus inhalation therapy.

    PubMed

    White, J D; Butterfield, A B; Nucci, R C; Johnson, C

    1987-01-01

    Anesthetized random-source dogs were cooled by refrigeration (3 C) to a stable core temperature of 25 C, and subsequently were rewarmed with warm, humidified inhalation (43 C, 450 mL of minute ventilation per kilogram) or radio frequency induction hyperthermia (4 to 6 watts/kg). The mean time required for core rewarming to 30 C was 231 +/- 3 minutes for warm, humidified ventilation and 106 +/- 32 minutes for radio wave therapy (P less than .01). These data suggest that radio wave heating is a more rapid noninvasive therapy for core rewarming of accidental hypothermia. PMID:3800077

  19. IPCC SCENARIO DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has made available a consistent set of up-to-date scenarios of changes in climate and related environmental and socio-economic factors for use in climate impacts assessments. This is a link to this data through the Data Distr...

  20. GRB Precursors in the Fallback Collapsar Scenario

    E-print Network

    Wang, X Y; Wang, Xiang-Yu; Meszaros, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Precursor emission has been observed in a non-negligible fraction of gamma-ray bursts, the time gap between the precursor and the main burst extending up to hundreds of seconds in some cases, such as in GRB041219A, GRB050820A and GRB060124. We have investigated the maximum possible time gaps arising from the jet propagation inside the progenitor star, in models which assume that the precursor is produced by the jet bow shock or the cocoon breaking out of the progenitor. Due to the pressure drop ahead of the jet head after it reaches the stellar surface, a rarefaction wave propagates back into the jet at the sound speed, which re-accelerates the jet to a relativistic velocity and therefore limits the gap period to within about ten seconds. This scenario therefore cannot explain gaps which are hundreds of seconds long. Instead, we ascribe such long time gaps to the behavior of the central engine, and suggest a fallback collapsar scenario for these bursts. In this scenario, the precursor is produced by a weak je...

  1. Experimental validation of a numerical model for predicting the trajectory of blood drops in typical crime scene conditions, including droplet deformation and breakup, with a study of the effect of indoor air currents and wind on typical spatter drop trajectories.

    PubMed

    Kabaliuk, N; Jermy, M C; Williams, E; Laber, T L; Taylor, M C

    2014-10-18

    Bloodstain Pattern Analysis (BPA) provides information about events during an assault, e.g. location of participants, weapon type and number of blows. To extract the maximum information from spatter stains, the size, velocity and direction of the drop that produces each stain, and forces acting during flight, must be known. A numerical scheme for accurate modeling of blood drop flight, in typical crime scene conditions, including droplet oscillation, deformation and in-flight disintegration, was developed and validated against analytical and experimental data including passive blood drop oscillations, deformation at terminal velocity, cast-off and impact drop deformation and breakup features. 4th order Runge-Kutta timestepping was used with the Taylor Analogy Breakup (TAB) model and Pilch and Erdman's (1987) expression for breakup time. Experimental data for terminal velocities, oscillations, and deformation was obtained via digital high-speed imaging. A single model was found to describe drop behavior accurately in passive, cast off and impact scenarios. Terminal velocities of typical passive drops falling up to 8m, distances and times required to reach them were predicted within 5%. Initial oscillations of passive blood drops with diameters of 1mmdrop aspect ratio were within 1.6% of experiment. Under typical crime scene conditions, the velocity of the drop within the first 1.5m of fall is affected little by drag, oscillation or deformation. Blood drops with diameter 0.4-4mm and velocity 1-15m/s cast-off from a rotating disk showed low deformation levels (Weber number<3). Drops formed by blunt impact 0.1-2mm in diameter at velocities of 14-25m/s were highly deformed (aspect ratios down to 0.4) and the larger impact blood drops (?1-1.5mm in diameter) broke up at critical Weber numbers of 12-14. Most break-ups occurred within 10-20cm of the impact point. The model predicted deformation levels of cast-off and impact blood drops within 5% of experiment. Under typical crime scene conditions, few cast-off drops will break up in flight. However some impact-generated drops were seen to break up, some by the vibration, others by bag breakup. The validated model can be used to gain deep understanding of the processes leading to spatter stains, and can be used to answer questions about proposed scenarios, e.g. how far blood drops may travel, or how stain patterns are affected by winds and draughts. PMID:25447183

  2. Drop Tower Experiments concerning Fluid Management under Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaulke, Diana; Dreyer, Michael

    2012-07-01

    Transport and positioning of liquid under microgravity is done utilizing capillary forces. Therefore, capillary transport processes have to be understood for a wide variety of space applications, ranging from propellant management in tanks of space transportation systems to eating and drinking devices for astronauts. There are two types of liquid transportation in microgravity using capillary forces. First, the driven liquid flow in open channels where the capillary forces at free surfaces ensure a gas and vapor free flow. Here it is important to know the limiting flow rate through such an open channel before the free surface collapses and gas is sucked into the channel. A number of different experiments at the drop tower Bremen, on sounding rockets and at the ISS have been conducted to analyse this phenomenon within different geometries. As result a geometry dependent theory for calculating the maximum flow rate has been found. On the other hand liquid positioning and transportation requires the capillary pressure of curved surfaces to achieve a liquid flow to a desired area. Especially for space applications the weight of structure has to be taken into account for development. For example liquid positioning in tanks can be achieved via a complicated set of structure filling the whole tank resulting in heavy devices not reasonable in space applications. Astrium developed in cooperation with ZARM a propellant management device much smaller than the tank volume and ensuring a gas and vapour free supply of propellant to the propulsion system. In the drop tower Bremen a model of this device was tested concerning different microgravity scenarios. To further decrease weight and ensure functionality within different scenarios structure elements are designed as perforated geometries. Capillary transport between perforated plates has been analyzed concerning the influence of geometrical pattern of perforations. The conducted experiments at the drop tower Bremen show the remarkable influence of perforations on the capillary transport capability.

  3. Magnetically focused liquid drop radiator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botts, T. E.; Powell, J. R.; Lenard, R.

    1984-12-01

    A magnetically focused liquid drop radiator for application in rejecting energy from a spacecraft is described. It is characterized by a magnetizable liquid or slurry disposed in operative relationship within the liquid droplet generator and its fluid delivery system, in combination with magnetic means disposed in operative relationship around a liquid droplet collector of the LDR. The magnetic means are effective to focus streams of droplets directed from the generator toward the collector, thereby to assure that essentially all of the droplets are directed into the collector, even though some of the streams may be misdirected as they leave the generator. The magnetic focusing means is also effective to suppress splashing of liquid when the droplets impinge on the collector.

  4. Accidental release analysis for chlorine gas: A comparison of CAMEO, HGSYSTEM and JET/DEGADIS

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, H.K.; Gratt, L.B. [IWG Corp., San Diego, CA (United States); McKinley, D. [NutraSweet Kelco Co., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Environmental regulation, such as the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, now require the preparation of risk management plans (RMP) for facilities that handle hazardous materials such as chlorine. Air dispersion models have been developed to predict the probable impact of an accidental release of such materials. For a specific release, the concentrations to reach various reference levels calculated by each model may vary. Guidance as to which model to use and the differences between models for specific chemicals and scenarios is lacking. This paper will present the results for three different models for high, moderate and low chlorine release rates for an actual facility on the coastline of San Diego, California. The CAMEO/ALOHA, JET/DEGADIS and HGSYSTEM air dispersion models were used to predict downwind ranges to the IHDL chlorine concentration (10 ppm) for all scenarios. The calculation of plume concentrations at low release rates is frequently limited. CAMEO/ALOHA and JET/DEGADIS use much the same calculations and predict similar concentrations following a release. All three models, particularly CAMEO/ALOHA and JET/DEGADIS, exhibit difficulty in predicting the consequence of a low level release. The minimum release rate that can be effectively analyzed by the CAMEO/ALOHA and DEGADIS models is approximately 1 g/s. Lower concentrations are predicted by the CAMEO/ALOHA model. Concentrations predicted by the HGSYSTEM models were found to be two to three times greater than those predicted by the CAMEO/ALOHA and JET/DEGADIS models. Further research is needed to establish the cause of these differences.

  5. System level drop reliability method research for netbook memory module

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minyi Lou; Jianwei Zhou; Long Wen; Weiwei Feng; Jaisung Lee

    2010-01-01

    Prevalence of portable devices such as netbook led to increased concerns on drop reliability of FBGA. In order to investigate drop reliability, board level drop test according to Jedec is done in assembly and SMT company, whereas system drop test such as netbook drop test is processed in final product company. In general, the lifetime of Jedec board level drop

  6. Trapping of drops by wetting defects.

    PubMed

    't Mannetje, Dieter; Ghosh, Somnath; Lagraauw, Rudy; Otten, Simon; Pit, Arjen; Berendsen, Christian; Zeegers, Jos; van den Ende, Dirk; Mugele, Frieder

    2014-01-01

    Controlling the motion of drops on solid surfaces is crucial in many natural phenomena and technological processes including the collection and removal of rain drops, cleaning technology and heat exchangers. Topographic and chemical heterogeneities on solid surfaces give rise to pinning forces that can capture and steer drops in desired directions. Here we determine general physical conditions required for capturing sliding drops on an inclined plane that is equipped with electrically tunable wetting defects. By mapping the drop dynamics on the one-dimensional motion of a point mass, we demonstrate that the trapping process is controlled by two dimensionless parameters, the trapping strength measured in units of the driving force and the ratio between a viscous and an inertial time scale. Complementary experiments involving superhydrophobic surfaces with wetting defects demonstrate the general applicability of the concept. Moreover, we show that electrically tunable defects can be used to guide sliding drops along actively switchable tracks-with potential applications in microfluidics. PMID:24721935

  7. Trapping of drops by wetting defects

    PubMed Central

    't Mannetje, Dieter; Ghosh, Somnath; Lagraauw, Rudy; Otten, Simon; Pit, Arjen; Berendsen, Christian; Zeegers, Jos; van den Ende, Dirk; Mugele, Frieder

    2014-01-01

    Controlling the motion of drops on solid surfaces is crucial in many natural phenomena and technological processes including the collection and removal of rain drops, cleaning technology and heat exchangers. Topographic and chemical heterogeneities on solid surfaces give rise to pinning forces that can capture and steer drops in desired directions. Here we determine general physical conditions required for capturing sliding drops on an inclined plane that is equipped with electrically tunable wetting defects. By mapping the drop dynamics on the one-dimensional motion of a point mass, we demonstrate that the trapping process is controlled by two dimensionless parameters, the trapping strength measured in units of the driving force and the ratio between a viscous and an inertial time scale. Complementary experiments involving superhydrophobic surfaces with wetting defects demonstrate the general applicability of the concept. Moreover, we show that electrically tunable defects can be used to guide sliding drops along actively switchable tracks—with potential applications in microfluidics. PMID:24721935

  8. Trapping of drops by wetting defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    't Mannetje, Dieter; Ghosh, Somnath; Lagraauw, Rudy; Otten, Simon; Pit, Arjen; Berendsen, Christian; Zeegers, Jos; van den Ende, Dirk; Mugele, Frieder

    2014-04-01

    Controlling the motion of drops on solid surfaces is crucial in many natural phenomena and technological processes including the collection and removal of rain drops, cleaning technology and heat exchangers. Topographic and chemical heterogeneities on solid surfaces give rise to pinning forces that can capture and steer drops in desired directions. Here we determine general physical conditions required for capturing sliding drops on an inclined plane that is equipped with electrically tunable wetting defects. By mapping the drop dynamics on the one-dimensional motion of a point mass, we demonstrate that the trapping process is controlled by two dimensionless parameters, the trapping strength measured in units of the driving force and the ratio between a viscous and an inertial time scale. Complementary experiments involving superhydrophobic surfaces with wetting defects demonstrate the general applicability of the concept. Moreover, we show that electrically tunable defects can be used to guide sliding drops along actively switchable tracks—with potential applications in microfluidics.

  9. Drop Shaping by Laser-Pulse Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Alexander L.; Bouwhuis, Wilco; Visser, Claas Willem; Lhuissier, Henri; Sun, Chao; Snoeijer, Jacco H.; Villermaux, Emmanuel; Lohse, Detlef; Gelderblom, Hanneke

    2015-04-01

    We show how the deposition of laser energy induces propulsion and strong deformation of an absorbing liquid body. Combining high speed with stroboscopic imaging, we observe that a millimeter-sized dyed water drop hit by a millijoule nanosecond laser pulse propels forward at several meters per second and deforms until it eventually fragments. The drop motion results from the recoil momentum imparted at the drop surface by water vaporization. We measure the propulsion speed and the time-deformation law of the drop, complemented by boundary-integral simulations. The drop propulsion and shaping are explained in terms of the laser-pulse energy, the drop size, and the liquid properties. These findings are, for instance, crucial for the generation of extreme ultraviolet light in nanolithography machines.

  10. Model Of Turbulent Gas Eddies Containing Drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellan, Josette

    1989-01-01

    Report proposes development of mathematical model of turbulent eddy of gas containing drops of liquid fuel. Closely related to those described in "Turbulence and Evaporation in Clusters of Drops" (NPO-17323) and "Effects of Turbulence on Ignition" (NPO-17335). Goal to initiate development of theory of interactions of several eddies containing drops during evaporation, ignition, and combustion of liquid fuels injected into combustors. Numerical results of analysis given as plot of nondimensionalized evaporation time versus initial ratio of air mass to fuel mass.

  11. Accidental fatal lung injury by compressed air: a case report.

    PubMed

    Rayamane, Anand Parashuram; Pradeepkumar, M V

    2015-03-01

    Compressed air is being used extensively as a source of energy at industries and in daily life. A variety of fatal injuries are caused by improper and ignorant use of compressed air equipments. Many types of injuries due to compressed air are reported in the literature such as colorectal injury, orbital injury, surgical emphysema, and so on. Most of these injuries are accidental in nature. It is documented that 40 pounds per square inch pressure causes fatal injuries to the ear, eyes, lungs, stomach, and intestine. Openings of body are vulnerable to injuries by compressed air. Death due to compressed air injuries is rarely reported. Many cases are treated successfully by conservative or surgical management. Extensive survey of literature revealed no reports of fatal injury to the upper respiratory tract and lungs caused by compressed air. Here, we are reporting a fatal event of accidental death after insertion of compressed air pipe into the mouth. The postmortem findings are corroborated with the history and discussed in detail. PMID:25354226

  12. Preventing Accidental Ignition of Upper-Stage Rocket Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickman, John; Morgan, Herbert; Cooper, Michael; Murbach, Marcus

    2005-01-01

    A report presents a proposal to reduce the risk of accidental ignition of certain upper-stage rocket motors or other high energy hazardous systems. At present, mechanically in-line initiators are used for initiation of many rocket motors and/or other high-energy hazardous systems. Electrical shorts and/or mechanical barriers, which are the basic safety devices in such systems, are typically removed as part of final arming or pad preparations while personnel are present. At this time, static discharge, test equipment malfunction, or incorrect arming techniques can cause premature firing. The proposal calls for a modular out-of-line ignition system incorporating detonating-cord elements, identified as the donor and the acceptor, separated by an air gap. In the safe configuration, the gap would be sealed with two shields, which would prevent an accidental firing of the donor from igniting the system. The shields would be removed to enable normal firing, in which shrapnel generated by the donor would reliably ignite the acceptor to continue the ordnance train. The acceptor would then ignite a through bulkhead initiator (or other similar device), which would ignite the motor or high-energy system. One shield would be remotely operated and would be moved to the armed position when a launch was imminent or conversely returned to the safe position if the launch were postponed. In the event of failure of the remotely operated shield, the other shield could be inserted manually to safe the system.

  13. Nonlinear oscillations of inviscid free drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patzek, T. W.; Benner, R. E., Jr.; Basaran, O. A.; Scriven, L. E.

    1991-01-01

    The present analysis of free liquid drops' inviscid oscillations proceeds through solution of Bernoulli's equation to obtain the free surface shape and of Laplace's equation for the velocity potential field. Results thus obtained encompass drop-shape sequences, pressure distributions, particle paths, and the temporal evolution of kinetic and surface energies; accuracy is verified by the near-constant drop volume and total energy, as well as the diminutiveness of mass and momentum fluxes across drop surfaces. Further insight into the nature of oscillations is provided by Fourier power spectrum analyses of mode interactions and frequency shifts.

  14. Charlie's Gumballs Scenario Video

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Suzanne Alejandre

    2012-04-06

    This page from the Math Forum blog of Suzanne Alejandre links to a one-minute video during which Max Ray acts out the "Charlie's Gumball" Problem of the Week. The page includes links to PDFs of the scenario, the PoW Packet with the solution and teaching suggestions, a scoring rubric and the "Notice/Wonder" strategy handout that can be used to introduce the problem.

  15. Describing viable technicolor scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Hirn, Johannes; Martin, Adam; Sanz, Veronica [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Department of Physics, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 and Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, Ontario M3J 1P3 (Canada)

    2008-10-01

    We construct an effective Lagrangian for new strong interactions at the LHC, including as a first step the two lightest triplets of spin-1 resonances. Our parametrization is general enough to allow for previously unstudied spectrum and couplings. Among available frameworks to describe the spin-1 sector, we rely on an extra-dimensional description. Our approach limits the number of parameters yet is versatile enough to describe the phenomenology of a wide range of new scenarios of strong electroweak symmetry breaking.

  16. The nation's first poison control center: taking a stand against accidental childhood poisoning in Chicago.

    PubMed

    Burda, A M; Burda, N M

    1997-04-01

    Prior to the 1950's, there existed no formal system for poison prevention or treatment in the US. Estimates place the number of pediatric poisoning fatalities at over 400/y at that time. After World War II, urbanization and modern technological methods brought forth over 250,000 different brand name products on the market. Health care professionals presented with cases of acute poisoning usually had little knowledge of what ingredients were contained in these new products, making it difficult to treat these patients. In the 1930's, pharmacist Louis Gdalman established a poison information service at St Luke's hospital. Because of Gdalman's training in pharmacy and chemistry, physicians throughout Chicago and the US called on him in search of assistance. In the late 1940's, Gdalman began recording information on small cards, and developed a standard data collection from. By the 1950's he had established an extensive library on the management of acute and chronic poisonings. In 1948, a national effort to reduce the number of accidents in children was started by the American Academy of Pediatrics, and a committee was formed in Chicago to address this public safety need. In November, 1953, the poison center at Presbyterian-St Luke's Hospital was formally recognized, and the poison program model spread nationwide. As the number of poison centers grew, coordination was achieved through the National Clearing House for Poison Control Centers, founded in 1957, and the American Association of Poison Control Centers, created in 1958. By 1970, the number of poison centers in the US was reported to be 597. The need for large and better centers led to regional poison control centers. Other outgrowths were the formation of the National Poison Prevention Week Council, the enactment of the Poison Prevention Packaging Act, development of "Mr. Yuk" and other symbols, and formation of the National Animal Poison Control Center. As a result, the number of children dying from accidental poisoning has dropped to under 50/y. PMID:9080638

  17. Cooperative breakups induced by drop-to-drop interactions in one-dimensional flows of drops against micro-obstacles.

    PubMed

    Schmit, Alexandre; Salkin, Louis; Courbin, Laurent; Panizza, Pascal

    2015-03-28

    Depending on the capillary number at play and the parameters of the flow geometry, a drop may or may not break when colliding with an obstacle in a microdevice. Modeling the flow of one-dimensional trains of monodisperse drops impacting a micro-obstacle, we show numerically that complex dynamics may arise through drop-to-drop hydrodynamic interactions: we observe sequences of breakup events in which the size of the daughter drops created upon breaking mother ones becomes a periodic function of time. We demonstrate the existence of numerous bifurcations between periodic breakup regimes and we establish diagrams mapping the possible breakup dynamics as a function of the governing (physicochemical, hydrodynamic, and geometric) parameters. Microfluidic experiments validate our model as they concur very well with predictions. PMID:25668310

  18. An Investigation of the Behaviour of Drops and Drop-Pairs Subjected to Strong Electrical Forces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. R. Brazier-Smith; S. G. Jennings; J. Latham

    1971-01-01

    A numerical model is described which simulates irrotational, incompressible flow on a computer. It has been applied to the problems of the deformation of uncharged drop-pairs separated in an electric field of critical strength and isolated drops charged to the Rayleigh limit in the absence of an electric field. In the case of pairs of drops of radius R, separated

  19. Acoustically levitated drops: drop oscillation and break-up driven by ultrasound modulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L. Yarin; D. A. Weiss; G. Brenn; D. Rensink

    2002-01-01

    The behaviour of drops in an acoustic levitator is simulated numerically. The ultrasound field is directed along the axis of gravity, the motion of the drop is supposed to be axisymmetric.The flow inside the drop is assumed inviscid (since the time intervals considered are short) and incompressible.First, as a test case, we consider a stationary ultrasound wave. We observe, as

  20. [Nasal drops addiction--the case report].

    PubMed

    Korzeniowska, Katarzyna; Simon, Karolina; Jab?ecka, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The article describes the case of 34-years old man, who has used nasal drops with xylomethazoline for three years. Health consequence of uncontrolled use of the drops and treatment were prescribed. Described problem confirms the need of physicians and pharmacists cooperation to limit the problem of drug-addiction. PMID:23421118

  1. Drop tower with no aerodynamic drag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, J. M., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Cooling air accelerated to match velocity of falling object eliminates drag. 3 meter drop tower with suction fan and specific geometry causes air to accelerate downward at 1 g. Although cooling of molten material released from top is slow because surrounding air moves with it, drop remains nearly spherical.

  2. More About Evaporation In Clusters Of Drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellan, Josette; Harstad, Kenneth G.

    1990-01-01

    Report presents theoretical study of evaporation in clusters of spray drops in liquid fuel. Related to reports described in "Turbulence and Evaporation in Clusters of Drops" (NPO-17323) and "Effects of Turbulence on Ignition" (NPO-17335). Purpose of study to improve theoretical description of transport of molecular species, mass, and heat between cluster and its surroundings.

  3. 49 CFR 178.603 - Drop test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...For other than flat drops, the center of gravity of the test packaging must be vertically...anti-freeze solutions with a minimum specific gravity of 0.95 for testing at ?18 °C (0...materials to be carried have a specific gravity not exceeding 1.2, drop height...

  4. Effects of Marangoni Stresses on Drop Coalescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabachek, Sofya; Pirouz Kavehpour, H.

    2011-11-01

    In many applications involving drop-drop interactions, such as alcohol-based fuel cells and many microfluid devices, miscible fluids are not necessarily of the same kind. To better understand these phenomena, further insight into coalescence of different fluids is essential. When miscible drops of different liquids come in contact, coalescence often occurs and a surface tension difference may arise at the interface. This difference plays an important role in the process due to the Marangoni effect. To quantify the extent of this effect we conducted a parametric study on the effects of surface tension variation on drop coalescence (partial and full); in particular coalescence time and drop diameter ratios were investigated. A high speed digital camera with high resolution was utilized to study the evolution of drops during the coalescence process. We showed that coalescing drops with higher surface tension than the reservoir fluid, behave similarly to drops coalescing in a viscous environment. A new physical model was developed in good agreement with the experimental data.

  5. Drop Study/Attrition Rates, Fall 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summer, Pat

    This report describes the attrition rate at Johnson County Community College (JCCC) (Kansas). The overall attrition rate for classes starting in fall 2000 was nearly 12%--during the fall semester 4,652 students dropped classes. Useable drop surveys were completed for 93% of those classes. Findings indicated that: (1) the Science, Math, and Health…

  6. 49 CFR 178.603 - Drop test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...For other than flat drops, the center of gravity of the test packaging must be vertically...anti-freeze solutions with a minimum specific gravity of 0.95 for testing at ?18 °C (0...materials to be carried have a specific gravity not exceeding 1.2, drop height...

  7. 49 CFR 178.603 - Drop test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...For other than flat drops, the center of gravity of the test packaging must be vertically...anti-freeze solutions with a minimum specific gravity of 0.95 for testing at ?18 °C (0...materials to be carried have a specific gravity not exceeding 1.2, drop height...

  8. 49 CFR 178.603 - Drop test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...For other than flat drops, the center of gravity of the test packaging must be vertically...anti-freeze solutions with a minimum specific gravity of 0.95 for testing at ?18 °C (0...materials to be carried have a specific gravity not exceeding 1.2, drop height...

  9. University Drop-Out: An Italian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belloc, Filippo; Maruotti, Antonello; Petrella, Lea

    2010-01-01

    University students' drop-out is a crucial issue for the universities' efficiency evaluation and funding. In this paper, we analyze the drop-out rate of the Economics and Business faculty of Sapienza University of Rome. We use administrative data on 9,725 undergraduates students enrolled in three-years bachelor programs from 2001 to 2007 and…

  10. Spatial Distribution of Large Cloud Drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshak, A.; Knyazikhin, Y.; Larsen, M.; Wiscombe, W.

    2004-01-01

    By analyzing aircraft measurements of individual drop sizes in clouds, we have shown in a companion paper (Knyazikhin et al., 2004) that the probability of finding a drop of radius r at a linear scale l decreases as l(sup D(r)) where 0 less than or equal to D(r) less than or equal to 1. This paper shows striking examples of the spatial distribution of large cloud drops using models that simulate the observed power laws. In contrast to currently used models that assume homogeneity and therefore a Poisson distribution of cloud drops, these models show strong drop clustering, the more so the larger the drops. The degree of clustering is determined by the observed exponents D(r). The strong clustering of large drops arises naturally from the observed power-law statistics. This clustering has vital consequences for rain physics explaining how rain can form so fast. It also helps explain why remotely sensed cloud drop size is generally biased and why clouds absorb more sunlight than conventional radiative transfer models predict.

  11. Intercomparison of oil spill prediction models for accidental blowout scenarios with and without subsea chemical dispersant injection.

    PubMed

    Socolofsky, Scott A; Adams, E Eric; Boufadel, Michel C; Aman, Zachary M; Johansen, Øistein; Konkel, Wolfgang J; Lindo, David; Madsen, Mads N; North, Elizabeth W; Paris, Claire B; Rasmussen, Dorte; Reed, Mark; Rønningen, Petter; Sim, Lawrence H; Uhrenholdt, Thomas; Anderson, Karl G; Cooper, Cortis; Nedwed, Tim J

    2015-07-15

    We compare oil spill model predictions for a prototype subsea blowout with and without subsea injection of chemical dispersants in deep and shallow water, for high and low gas-oil ratio, and in weak to strong crossflows. Model results are compared for initial oil droplet size distribution, the nearfield plume, and the farfield Lagrangian particle tracking stage of hydrocarbon transport. For the conditions tested (a blowout with oil flow rate of 20,000 bbl/d, about 1/3 of the Deepwater Horizon), the models predict the volume median droplet diameter at the source to range from 0.3 to 6mm without dispersant and 0.01 to 0.8mm with dispersant. This reduced droplet size owing to reduced interfacial tension results in a one to two order of magnitude increase in the downstream displacement of the initial oil surfacing zone and may lead to a significant fraction of the spilled oil not reaching the sea surface. PMID:26021288

  12. The effects of gun control on the accidental death rate from firearms in Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antoon A. Leenaars; David Lester

    1997-01-01

    One factor that has been proposed as affecting accidental death rates is the availability of a lethal agent in the environment. The present study explores this hypothesis for the case of firearm availability and the accidental death rate from firearms. Data from Canada indicated that the passage of Canada's Criminal Law Amendment Act of 1977 (Bill C-51), enforced from 1978

  13. Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - utility for the fire brigades

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Stenzel; K. Baumann-Stanzer

    2009-01-01

    Several air dispersion models are available for prediction and simulation of the hazard areas associated with accidental releases of toxic gases. The most model packages (commercial or free of charge) include a chemical database, an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI) and automated graphical output for effective presentation of results. The models are designed especially for analyzing different accidental toxic release

  14. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 2. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF AMMONIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the control of accidental releases of ammonia to the atmosphere. Ammonia has an IDLH (immediately dangerous to life and health) concentration of 500 ppm, making it an acute toxic hazard. Reducing the risk associated with an accidental release of ammonia invol...

  15. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 10. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF HYDROGEN CYANIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the control of accidental releases of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) to the atmosphere. HCN has an IDLH (immediately dangerous to life and health) concentration of 50 ppm, making it an acute toxic hazard. Reducing the risk associated with an accidental release of HCN...

  16. Accidental Durotomy in Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion: Frequency, Risk Factors, and Management

    PubMed Central

    Volz, Florian; Krüger, Marie T.; Kogias, Evangelos; Rölz, Roland; Sircar, Ronen; Hubbe, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the frequency, risk factors, and management of accidental durotomy in minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS TLIF). Methods. This single-center study retrospectively investigates 372 patients who underwent MIS TLIF and were mobilized within 24 hours after surgery. The frequency of accidental durotomies, intraoperative closure technique, body mass index, and history of previous surgery was recorded. Results. We identified 32 accidental durotomies in 514 MIS TLIF levels (6.2%). Analysis showed a statistically significant relation of accidental durotomies to overweight patients (body mass index ?25?kg/m2; P = 0.0493). Patient age older than 65 years tended to be a positive predictor for accidental durotomies (P = 0.0657). Mobilizing patients on the first postoperative day, we observed no durotomy-associated complications. Conclusions. The frequency of accidental durotomies in MIS TLIF is low, with overweight being a risk factor for accidental durotomies. The minimally invasive approach seems to minimize durotomy-associated complications (CSF leakage, pseudomeningocele) because of the limited dead space in the soft tissue. Patients with accidental durotomy can usually be mobilized within 24 hours after MIS TLIF without increased risk. The minimally invasive TLIF technique might thus be beneficial in the prevention of postoperative immobilization-associated complications such as venous thromboembolism. This trial is registered with DRKS00006135.

  17. Planar microfluidic drop splitting and merging.

    PubMed

    Collignon, Sean; Friend, James; Yeo, Leslie

    2015-04-21

    Open droplet microfluidic platforms offer attractive alternatives to closed microchannel devices, including lower fabrication cost and complexity, significantly smaller sample and reagent volumes, reduced surface contact and adsorption, as well as drop scalability, reconfigurability, and individual addressability. For these platforms to be effective, however, they require efficient schemes for planar drop transport and manipulation. While there are many methods that have been reported for drop transport, it is far more difficult to carry out other drop operations such as dispensing, merging and splitting. In this work, we introduce a novel alternative to merge and, more crucially, split drops using laterally-offset modulated surface acoustic waves (SAWs). The energy delivery into the drop is divided into two components: a small modulation amplitude excitation to initiate weak rotational flow within the drop followed by a short burst in energy to induce it to stretch. Upon removal of the SAW energy, capillary forces at the center of the elongated drop cause the liquid in this capillary bridge region to drain towards both ends of the drop, resulting in its collapse and therefore the splitting of the drop. This however occurs only below a critical Ohnesorge number, which is a balance between the viscous forces that retard the drainage and the sufficiently large capillary forces that cause the liquid bridge to pinch. We show the possibility of reliably splitting drops into two equal sized droplets with an average deviation in their volumes of only around 4% and no greater than 10%, which is comparable to the 7% and below splitting deviation obtained with electrowetting drop splitting techniques. In addition, we also show that it is possible to split the drop asymmetrically to controllably and reliably produce droplets of different volumes. Such potential as well as the flexibility in tuning the device to operate on drops of different sizes without requiring electrode reconfiguration, i.e., the use of different devices, as is required in electrowetting-therefore makes the present method an attractive alternative to electrowetting schemes. PMID:25738425

  18. Head-dropping mechanism in traffic control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xintong; Yang, Oliver W.

    2004-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate the application of the head dropping policy as a partial solution to the problem of queue oscillation encountered by RED and its variants. With this method, instead of the tail dropping, which is currently used by RED and many other AQM schemes, the TCP source can be informed of the congestion occurring in the bottleneck router a time period earlier. Specifically, that is a time period of the queuing delay. We have compared DH-RED (drop head RED) and DH-BLUE (drop head BLUE) with the current RED and BLUE in a variety of situations and found that the performances such as the queue size stability as well as packet drop rate can be greatly improved.

  19. CPAS Preflight Drop Test Analysis Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englert, Megan E.; Bledsoe, Kristin J.; Romero, Leah M.

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) drop test program, the CPAS Analysis Team has developed a simulation and analysis process to support drop test planning and execution. This process includes multiple phases focused on developing test simulations and communicating results to all groups involved in the drop test. CPAS Engineering Development Unit (EDU) series drop test planning begins with the development of a basic operational concept for each test. Trajectory simulation tools include the Flight Analysis and Simulation Tool (FAST) for single bodies, and the Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems (ADAMS) simulation for the mated vehicle. Results are communicated to the team at the Test Configuration Review (TCR) and Test Readiness Review (TRR), as well as at Analysis Integrated Product Team (IPT) meetings in earlier and intermediate phases of the pre-test planning. The ability to plan and communicate efficiently with rapidly changing objectives and tight schedule constraints is a necessity for safe and successful drop tests.

  20. A natural little hierarchy for RS from accidental SUSY

    E-print Network

    Tony Gherghetta; Benedict von Harling; Nicholas Setzer

    2011-08-19

    We use supersymmetry to address the little hierarchy problem in Randall-Sundrum models by naturally generating a hierarchy between the IR scale and the electroweak scale. Supersymmetry is broken on the UV brane which triggers the stabilization of the warped extra dimension at an IR scale of order 10 TeV. The Higgs and top quark live near the IR brane whereas light fermion generations are localized towards the UV brane. Supersymmetry breaking causes the first two sparticle generations to decouple, thereby avoiding the supersymmetric flavour and CP problems, while an accidental R-symmetry protects the gaugino mass. The resulting low-energy sparticle spectrum consists of stops, gauginos and Higgsinos which are sufficient to stabilize the little hierarchy between the IR scale and the electroweak scale. Finally, the supersymmetric little hierarchy problem is ameliorated by introducing a singlet Higgs field on the IR brane.

  1. Delayed Upper-Airway Injury after Accidental Alkaline Ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Matthew F.

    2014-01-01

    A 62-year-old man presented to the emergency department one week after accidentally drinking an alkaline cleaning agent stored in unlabeled bottle. The day of the incident the patient presented to an outside hospital where he was admitted for an upper endoscopy of the esophagus which was found to be negative for acute injury. An initial chest X-ray taken the day of the incident was also found to be normal. After discharge the patient continued to have a sore throat and marked dysphagia which caused him to vomit repeatedly. Moreover, the patient began to develop chest pain with associated shortness of breath. We present a case of delayed airway injury and tracheal thickening and associated chest pain after alkaline ingestion and we discuss herein the pathophysiology and management of alkaline ingestions. PMID:25013732

  2. Accidental boric acid poisoning following the ingestion of household pesticide.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Rebecca A; Wolf, Barbara C

    2007-05-01

    Borate-containing compounds were formerly used as topical antiseptics and were components of many medicinal preparations including skin powders and ointments used for the treatment of burns and diaper rash. These compounds were also used as irrigants for body cavities, including the pleural, vaginal, and rectal cavities. These applications were subsequently discontinued by the medical community when the toxicity and potential lethality of borates were recognized. Although documented cases of borate poisoning are now rare, the chemical is still an active component commonly used in high concentrations in household disinfectants/cleaners, pesticides, and wood preservatives. While the majority of documented borate-related deaths have occurred in infants, the toddler population is currently at risk due to possible exposure to these household products. We present the case of an 18-month-old child who died following the accidental ingestion of a boric acid-containing, commercially available roach pesticide product. PMID:17456100

  3. Subtraction of ``accidentals'' and the validity of Bell tests

    E-print Network

    Caroline H. Thompson

    1999-04-21

    In some key Bell experiments, including two of the well-known ones by Alain Aspect, 1981-2, it is only after the subtraction of ``accidentals'' from the coincidence counts that we get violations of Bell tests. The data adjustment, producing increases of up to 60% in the test statistics, has never been adequately justified. Few published experiments give sufficient information for the reader to make a fair assessment. There is a straightforward and well known realist model that fits the unadjusted data very well. In this paper, the logic of this realist model and the reasoning used by experimenters in justification of the data adjustment are discussed. It is concluded that the evidence from all Bell experiments is in urgent need of re-assessment, in the light of all the known ``loopholes''. Invalid Bell tests have frequently been used, neglecting improved ones derived by Clauser and Horne in 1974. ``Local causal'' explanations for the observations have been wrongfully neglected.

  4. Accidental Intraoral Formalin Injection: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Dandriyal, Ramakant; Giri, Kolly Yada; Alam, Sarwar; Singh, Aishwarya Pratap

    2014-01-01

    Formalin is a hazardous chemical that needs cautious handling and special storage. Owing to its disinfectant and fixative (i.e. for preserving pathologic tissue specimens in histopathology) properties, it is widely used in dentistry. Although, the terms formaldehyde and formalin are often confused as being identical, these are different as to the concentrations of the primary component i.e. formaldehyde. In fact, the common fixative available as 10% neutral buffered formalin is actually a 4% solution of formaldehyde (i.e., a 10% solution made from a 37-40% commercially pure formaldehyde solution). This case report describes an unfortunate case of accidental injection instead of local anesthetic, of formalin into the pterygomandibular space in a 35-year old woman during inferior alveolar nerve block for surgical removal of impacted lower right third molar and its successful management by cautious debridement (under both local and general anesthesia) and empirical drug therapy (utilizing analgesics and antibiotics). PMID:25568771

  5. EXAMPLE EXPOSURE SCENARIOS ASSESSMENT TOOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure scenarios are a tool to help the assessor develop estimates of exposure, dose, and risk. An exposure scenario generally includes facts, data, assumptions, inferences, and sometimes professional judgment about how the exposure takes place. The human physiological and beh...

  6. Supercooled water drops impacting superhydrophobic textures.

    PubMed

    Maitra, Tanmoy; Antonini, Carlo; Tiwari, Manish K; Mularczyk, Adrian; Imeri, Zulkufli; Schoch, Philippe; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2014-09-16

    Understanding the interaction of supercooled metastable water with superhydrophobic surface textures is of fundamental significance for unraveling the mechanisms of icing as well as of practical importance for the rational development of surface treatment strategies to prevent icing. We investigate the problem of supercooled water drops impacting superhydrophobic textures for drop supercooling down to -17 °C and find that increased viscous effects significantly influence all stages of impact dynamics, in particular, the impact and meniscus impalement behavior, with severe implications to water retention by the textures (sticky versus rebounding drop) and possible icing. Viscous effects in water supercooling conditions cause a reduction of drop maximum spreading (?25% at an impact speed of 3 m/s for a millimetric drop) and can significantly decrease the drop recoil speed when the meniscus partially penetrates into the texture, leading to an increase of the contact time up to a factor of 2 in supercooling conditions compared to room temperature. We also show that meniscus penetration upon drop impact occurs with full penetration at the center, instead of ring shape, common to room temperature drop impact. To this end, we describe an unobserved mechanism for superhydrophobicity breakdown: unlike for room temperature drops, where transition from bouncing to sticky (impaled) behavior occurs sharply at the condition of full texture penetration, with a bubble captured at the point of impact, under supercooled conditions, the full penetration velocity threshold is increased markedly (increasing by ?25%, from 2.8 to 3.5 m/s) and no bubble is entrapped. However, even though only partial texture penetration takes place, failure to completely dewet because of viscous effects can still prohibit complete supercooled drop rebound. PMID:25157476

  7. Condensation on surface energy gradient shifts drop size distribution toward small drops.

    PubMed

    Macner, Ashley M; Daniel, Susan; Steen, Paul H

    2014-02-25

    During dropwise condensation from vapor onto a cooled surface, distributions of drops evolve by nucleation, growth, and coalescence. Drop surface coverage dictates the heat transfer characteristics and depends on both drop size and number of drops present on the surface at any given time. Thus, manipulating drop distributions is crucial to maximizing heat transfer. On earth, manipulation is achieved with gravity. However, in applications with small length scales or in low gravity environments, other methods of removal, such as a surface energy gradient, are required. This study examines how chemical modification of a cooled surface affects drop growth and coalescence, which in turn influences how a population of drops evolves. Steam is condensed onto a horizontally oriented surface that has been treated by silanization to deliver either a spatially uniform contact angle (hydrophilic, hydrophobic) or a continuous radial gradient of contact angles (hydrophobic to hydrophilic). The time evolution of number density and associated drop size distributions are measured. For a uniform surface, the shape of the drop size distribution is unique and can be used to identify the progress of condensation. In contrast, the drop size distribution for a gradient surface, relative to a uniform surface, shifts toward a population of small drops. The frequent sweeping of drops truncates maturation of the first generation of large drops and locks the distribution shape at the initial distribution. The absence of a shape change indicates that dropwise condensation has reached a steady state. Previous reports of heat transfer enhancement on chemical gradient surfaces can be explained by this shift toward smaller drops, from which the high heat transfer coefficients in dropwise condensation are attributed to. Terrestrial applications using gravity as the primary removal mechanism also stand to benefit from inclusion of gradient surfaces because the critical threshold size required for drop movement is reduced. PMID:24490757

  8. [Cutaneous radiation syndrome after accidental skin exposure to ionizing radiation].

    PubMed

    Peter, R U

    2013-12-01

    Accidental exposure of the human skin to single doses of ionizing radiation greater than 3 Gy results in a distinct clinical picture, which is characterized by a transient and faint erythema after a few hours, then followed by severe erythema, blistering and necrosis. Depending on severity of damage, the latter generally occurs 10-30 days after exposure, but in severe cases may appear within 48 hrs. Between three and 24 months after exposure, epidermal atrophy combined with progressive dermal and subcutaneous fibrosis is the predominant clinical feature. Even years and decades after exposure, atrophy of epidermis, sweat and sebaceous glands; telangiectases; and dermal and subcutaneous fibrosis may be found and even continue to progress. For this distinct pattern of deterministic effects following cutaneous accidental radiation exposure the term "cutaneous radiation syndrome (CRS)" was coined in 1993 and has been accepted by all international authorities including IAEA and WHO since 2000. In contrast to the classical concept that inhibition of epidermal stem cell proliferation accounts for the clinical symptomatology, research of the last three decades has demonstrated the additional crucial role of inflammatory processes in the etiology of both acute and chronic sequelae of the CRS. Therefore, therapeutic approaches should include topical and systemic anti-inflammatory measures at the earliest conceivable point, and should be maintained throughout the acute and subacute stages, as this reduces the need for surgical intervention, once necrosis has occurred. If surgical intervention is planned, it should be executed with a conservative approach; no safety margins are needed. Antifibrotic measures in the chronic stage should address the chronic inflammatory nature of this process, in which over-expression TGF beta-1 may be a target for therapeutic intervention. Life-long follow-up often is required for management of delayed effects and for early detection of secondary malignancies, which must be searched for especially in the borderline areas between clinically symptomatic and asymptomatic skin. PMID:24337304

  9. Environmental management scenarios: Ecological implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John C. Ogden; Joan A. Browder; John H. Gentile; Lance H. Gunderson; Robert Fennema; John Wang

    1999-01-01

    The measure of whether a management scenario is capable of establishing regional-scale ecosystem sustainability is the degree to which it recovers the historical characteristics of the regional landscape mosaic. This study examines the ability of alternate management scenarios to recover the defining ecological features of the Everglades and South Florida landscape. Five conceptual scenarios are evaluated for recovering and sustaining

  10. A $?$CDM bounce scenario

    E-print Network

    Yi-Fu Cai; Edward Wilson-Ewing

    2015-01-28

    We study a contracting universe composed of cold dark matter and radiation, and with a positive cosmological constant. As is well known from standard cosmological perturbation theory, under the assumption of initial quantum vacuum fluctuations the Fourier modes of the comoving curvature perturbation that exit the (sound) Hubble radius in such a contracting universe at a time of matter-domination will be nearly scale-invariant. Furthermore, the modes that exit the (sound) Hubble radius when the effective equation of state is slightly negative due to the cosmological constant will have a slight red tilt, in agreement with observations. We assume that loop quantum cosmology captures the correct high-curvature dynamics of the space-time, and this ensures that the big-bang singularity is resolved and is replaced by a bounce. We calculate the evolution of the perturbations through the bounce and find that they remain nearly scale-invariant. We also show that the amplitude of the scalar perturbations in this cosmology depends on a combination of the sound speed of cold dark matter, the Hubble rate in the contracting branch at the time of equality of the energy densities of cold dark matter and radiation, and the curvature scale that the loop quantum cosmology bounce occurs at. Importantly, as this scenario predicts a positive running of the scalar index, observations can potentially differentiate between it and inflationary models. Finally, for a small sound speed of cold dark matter, this scenario predicts a small tensor-to-scalar ratio.

  11. Conically shaped drops in electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Howard A.; Brenner, Michael P.; Lister, John R.

    1996-11-01

    When an electric field is applied to a dielectric liquid containing a suspended immiscible fluid drop, the drop deforms into a prolate ellipsoidal shape. Above a critical field strength the drop develops conical ends, as first observed by Zeleny [Phys. Rev. 10, 1 (1917)] and Wilson & Taylor [Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc. 22, 728 (1925)] for, respectively, the case of conducting drops and soap films in air. The case of two dielectric liquids was studied recently using a slender drop approximation by Li, Halsey & Lobkovsky [Europhys. Lett 27, 575 (1994)]. In this presentation we further develop the slender body approximation to obtain coupled ordinary differential equations for the electric field and the drop shape. Analytical formulae are derived which approximately give the cone angle as a function of the dielectric constant ratio between the two fluids, and the minimum applied electric field at which conical tips first form as a function of the dielectric constant ratio. Finally, drops shapes are calculated numerically and compared with the common prolate shape assumption.

  12. Dileptons from vector mesons with dropping masses in a nonequilibrium quantum field theoretical framework

    E-print Network

    C. Greiner; B. Schenke

    2006-06-02

    The influence of time dependent medium modifications of low mass vector mesons on dilepton production is investigated using nonequilibrium quantum field theory. By working in the two-time representation memory effects are fully taken into account. For different scenarios the resulting dilepton yields are compared to quasi-equilibrium calculations and remarkable differences are found leading to the conclusion that memory effects can not be neglected when calculating dilepton yields from heavy ion collisions. Emphasis is put on a dropping mass scenario since it was recently claimed to be ruled out by the NA60 data. Here the memory effects turn out to be particularly important.

  13. Contact time of a bouncing drop.

    PubMed

    Richard, Denis; Clanet, Christophe; Quéré, David

    2002-06-20

    When a liquid drop lands on a solid surface without wetting it, it bounces with remarkable elasticity. Here we measure how long the drop remains in contact with the solid during the shock, a problem that was considered by Hertz for a bouncing ball. Our findings could help to quantify the efficiency of water-repellent surfaces (super-hydrophobic solids) and to improve water-cooling of hot solids, which is limited by the rebounding of drops as well as by temperature effects. PMID:12075341

  14. Nanofluid Drop Evaporation: Experiment, Theory, and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerken, William James

    Nanofluids, stable colloidal suspensions of nanoparticles in a base fluid, have potential applications in the heat transfer, combustion and propulsion, manufacturing, and medical fields. Experiments were conducted to determine the evaporation rate of room temperature, millimeter-sized pendant drops of ethanol laden with varying amounts (0-3% by weight) of 40-60 nm aluminum nanoparticles (nAl). Time-resolved high-resolution drop images were collected for the determination of early-time evaporation rate (D2/D 02 > 0.75), shown to exhibit D-square law behavior, and surface tension. Results show an asymptotic decrease in pendant drop evaporation rate with increasing nAl loading. The evaporation rate decreases by approximately 15% at around 1% to 3% nAl loading relative to the evaporation rate of pure ethanol. Surface tension was observed to be unaffected by nAl loading up to 3% by weight. A model was developed to describe the evaporation of the nanofluid pendant drops based on D-square law analysis for the gas domain and a description of the reduction in liquid fraction available for evaporation due to nanoparticle agglomerate packing near the evaporating drop surface. Model predictions are in relatively good agreement with experiment, within a few percent of measured nanofluid pendant drop evaporation rate. The evaporation of pinned nanofluid sessile drops was also considered via modeling. It was found that the same mechanism for nanofluid evaporation rate reduction used to explain pendant drops could be used for sessile drops. That mechanism is a reduction in evaporation rate due to a reduction in available ethanol for evaporation at the drop surface caused by the packing of nanoparticle agglomerates near the drop surface. Comparisons of the present modeling predictions with sessile drop evaporation rate measurements reported for nAl/ethanol nanofluids by Sefiane and Bennacer [11] are in fairly good agreement. Portions of this abstract previously appeared as: W. J. Gerken, A. V. Thomas, N. Koratkar and M. A. Oehlschlaeger, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, vol. 74, no. 1, pp. 263-268, July 2014. W. J. Gerken, M. A. Oehlschlaeger, "Nanofluid Pendant Droplet Evaporation", in Proceedings of the ASME 2013 Summer Heat Transfer Conference, Minneapolis, MN, 2013, pp. V001T03A018.

  15. Turbulence And Evaporation In Clusters Of Drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellan, Josette; Harstad, Kenneth G.

    1989-01-01

    Report presents theoretical model of evaporation of cluster of drops of single-component liquid fuel in and of processes of exchange between cluster and gas surrounding it. Formulation of model has three components: description of conservation of mass, molecular species, and enthalpy in sphere of influence of each drop; description of conservation of mass, molecular species, and enthalpy in cluster volume; description of convective effects by use of differential equations expressing conservation of momentum for gases and drops. Results obtained from analysis show turbulence enhances evaporation and controlling factor in evaporation of very dense clusters. Practical implication of findings evaporation of fuel controlled more readily near fuel injector than farther along combustor.

  16. High temperature drop calorimetry and thermodynamic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Chandrasekhariah, M.S. [Houston Advanced Research Center, The Woodlands, TX (United States). Materials Science Research Center; Bautista, R.G. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering

    1995-04-01

    Experimental determination of thermodynamic properties (e.g. enthalpy of formation, heat capacity, Gibbs free energy, etc.) is still the recourse for accurate thermodynamic data for the condensed phases. Calorimetry is probably the best experimental method for their determination. Drop calorimetry in its various modifications is still the method of choice to determine the enthalpy functions for solids and liquids above 1,000 C. The conventional drop calorimeter for solids and a drop calorimeter coupled to an electromagnetic levitation coil useful for conductive samples in both the solid and molten phases are described. Experimental results obtained up to and above the melting point of rare earth metals are presented.

  17. Condensation-induced jumping water drops.

    PubMed

    Narhe, R D; Khandkar, M D; Shelke, P B; Limaye, A V; Beysens, D A

    2009-09-01

    Water droplets can jump during vapor condensation on solid benzene near its melting point. This phenomenon, which can be viewed as a kind of micro scale steam engine, is studied experimentally and numerically. The latent heat of condensation transferred at the drop three phase contact line melts the substrate during a time proportional to R (the drop radius). The wetting conditions change and a spontaneous jump of the drop results in random direction over length approximately 1.5R , a phenomenon that increases the coalescence events and accelerates the growth. Once properly rescaled by the jump length scale, the growth dynamics is, however, similar to that on a solid surface. PMID:19905120

  18. Condensation-induced jumping water drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narhe, R. D.; Khandkar, M. D.; Shelke, P. B.; Limaye, A. V.; Beysens, D. A.

    2009-09-01

    Water droplets can jump during vapor condensation on solid benzene near its melting point. This phenomenon, which can be viewed as a kind of micro scale steam engine, is studied experimentally and numerically. The latent heat of condensation transferred at the drop three phase contact line melts the substrate during a time proportional to R (the drop radius). The wetting conditions change and a spontaneous jump of the drop results in random direction over length ˜1.5R , a phenomenon that increases the coalescence events and accelerates the growth. Once properly rescaled by the jump length scale, the growth dynamics is, however, similar to that on a solid surface.

  19. Pattern formation in evaporating drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fang-I.

    The redistribution of organic solutes during drop evaporation is a nanoscale self assembly process with relevance to technologies ranging from inkjet printing of organic displays to synthesis of bio-smart interfaces for sensing and screening. Atomic force microscopy studies comparing the behavior of different generation dendrimers with different surface chemistry in two solvent alcohols on mica substrates confirm that the detailed morphologies of condensed dendrimer ring structures resulting from micro-droplet evaporation sensitively depend on the surface chemistry, the solute evaporation rate and the dendrimer generation. For the dilute concentration studied here the presence of periodically 'scalloped' molecular rings is ubiquitous. The instability wavelength of the scalloped rings is found to be proportional to the width of the ring, similar to observations of the rim instability in dewetting holes. The effect of the surface chemistry of the dendrimer molecules is obvious in the detailed structure of the self assembled rings. Varying the chain length of solvent alcohol leads to modification of ring patterns. The influence of dendrimer generation on ring structure primarily reflects the increase in dendrimer density with generation number. The evolution of G2-50%C12 -pentanol rings as a function of dendrimer concentration is also described. High surface mobility and phase transformation phenomena in condensed, micro-scale dendrimer structures are documented, again using atomic force microscopy. Stratified dendrimer rings undergo dramatic temperature, time and dendrimer generation dependent morphological changes associated with large-scale molecular rearrangements and partial melting. These transformations produce ring structures consisting of a highly stable first monolayer of the scalloped structure in equilibrium with spherical cap shaped dendrimer islands that form at the center of each pre-existing scallop (creating a 'pearl necklace' structure). Analysis of the dendrimer island shapes reveals a dependence of island contact angle on contact line curvature (island size) that varies systematically with dendrimer generation. The morphological transformations in this system indicate the potential for creating complex, dendrimer-based multilevel structures and macroscopic scale arrays using, for example, droplet-on-demand or dip pen nanolithography techniques, coupled with appropriate annealing and stabilizing treatments.

  20. GRB Precursors in the Fallback Collapsar Scenario

    E-print Network

    Xiang-Yu Wang; Peter Meszaros

    2007-08-27

    Precursor emission has been observed in a non-negligible fraction of gamma-ray bursts.The time gap between the precursor and the main burst extends in some case up to hundreds of seconds, such as in GRB041219A, GRB050820A and GRB060124. Both the origin of the precursor and the large value of the time gap are controversial. Here we investigate the maximum possible time gaps arising from the jet propagation inside the progenitor star, in models which assume that the precursor is produced by the jet bow shock or the cocoon breaking out of the progenitor. Due to the pressure drop ahead of the jet head after it reaches the stellar surface, a rarefaction wave propagates back into the jet at the sound speed, which re-accelerates the jet to a relativistic velocity and therefore limits the gap period to within about ten seconds. This scenario therefore cannot explain gaps which are hundreds of seconds long. Instead, we ascribe such long time gaps to the behavior of the central engine, and suggest a fallback collapsar scenario for these bursts. In this scenario, the precursor is produced by a weak jet formed during the initial core collapse, possibly related to MHD processes associated with a short-lived proto-neutron star, while the main burst is produced by a stronger jet fed by fallback accretion onto the black hole resulting from the collapse of the neutron star. We have examined the propagation times of the weak precursor jet through the stellar progenitor. We find that the initial weak jet can break out of the progenitor in a time less than ten seconds (a typical precursor duration) provided that it has a moderately high relativistic Lorentz factor \\Gamma>=10 (abridged).

  1. A Case Report: Cytogenetic Dosimetry after Accidental Radiation Exposure during (192)Ir Industrial Radiography Testing.

    PubMed

    Beinke, C; Ben-Shlomo, A; Abend, M; Port, M

    2015-07-01

    The accidental gamma radiation exposure of an industrial radiography worker and the cytogenetic examination of the worker's blood lymphocytes are described here. The exposure of the worker was due to a malfunction at the entrance into the depleted uranium-shielding device of a (192)Ir source during operation. Because the source was sealed no additional beta radiation exposure was assumed. The worker's thermoluminescent dosimeter indicated an absorbed dose of 0.078 Sv, which presumably took place in December 2013. No clinical symptoms were reported in the case history after the potential exposure to radiation. Four months after the incident it was decided that biological dosimetry using dicentric chromosome and micronucleus analysis would be performed to follow radiation protection aspects and to clarify the radiation dose uncertainties for the exposed worker. Micronucleus frequency was not increased above the laboratory's control value of micronucleus background frequency of unexposed individuals. However, the observed dicentric frequency (0.003 dicentric/cell) differs significantly from the laboratory's background level of dicentric chromosomes in unexposed individuals (0.0007 dicentric/cell). Dicentric analysis in 2,048 metaphase cells resulted in an estimated dose of no more than 0.181 Gy (95% upper confidence level), not less than 0.014 Gy (95% lower confidence level) and a mean dose of 0.066 Gy (photon-equivalent whole-body exposure) based on interpolation from the laboratory's calibration curve for (60)Co gamma radiation. Since overdispersion of dicentric chromosomes (u = 9.78) indicated a heterogeneous (partial-body) exposure, we applied the Dolphin method and estimated an exposure of 2.1 Sv affecting 21% of the body volume. Because the overdispersion of dicentric chromosomes was caused by only one heavily damaged cell containing two dicentrics, it is possible that this was an incidental finding. In summary, a radiation overexposure of the radiography worker must be assumed and this case considered as a potential partial-body exposure scenario. PMID:26151173

  2. Atmospheric dispersion of ammonia accidentally released from the 242-A Evaporator, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Daling, P.M.; Lavender, J.C.

    1997-11-01

    Two errors have been identified in the authorization basis for the 242-A Evaporator at the Hanford Site. These errors, which appear in the 242-A Evaporator/Crystallizer Final Safety Analysis Report analysis of ammonia gas concentrations accidentally released from the 242-A Evaporator, are: (1) the vessel ventilation system flow rate used in the previous calculations is a factor of ten higher than the actual flow rate, and (2) the previous calculations did not account for the ammonia source term reduction that would occur via condensation of ammonia vapors, which will remove a large fraction of the ammonia from the exhaust gas stream. The purpose of this document is to correct these errors and recalculate the maximum ground-level concentrations of ammonia released to the environment as a result of potential errors in blending Evaporator feed. The errors offset each other somewhat, so it is unlikely that the 242-A Evaporator has operated outside its current authorization basis. However, the errors must be corrected and the results incorporated into a revision of the 242-A Evaporator/Crystallizer Safety Analysis Report, WHC-SD-WM-SAR-023. An EPA-approved atmospheric dispersion model, SCREEN3, was used to recalculate the maximum ground-level concentrations of ammonia that would be released from the 242-A Evaporator as a result of a feed-blending error. The results of the re-analysis of the 242-A Evaporator`s ammonia release scenario are as follows. The onsite receptor 100 m away from the release point (242-A vessel vent stack) is projected to be exposed to a maximum ground-level concentration of ammonia of 8.3 ppm. The maximally-exposed offsite receptor, located at the nearest Hanford Site boundary 16 km away from the 242-A vessel vent stack, will be exposed to a maximum ground-level concentration of 0.11 ppm ammonia.

  3. Effects of Soluble Surfactant on Drop Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Ying-Chih

    2005-11-01

    Surfactants are routinely used to control the breakup of drops and jets in applications as diverse as emulsion and dispersion formation, ink jet printing, crop spraying, microarraying, and microencapsulation. Dynamics of formation of drops of incompressible Newtonian liquids containing a nonionic alkyl ethyleneoxide surfactant from a tube into air are studied experimentally using high-speed visualization and computationally using finite element analysis (FEA). Surfactant solutions at different concentrations below the critical micelle concentration (cmc) are formed by dissolving the surfactant in either water or mixtures of glycerol and water. In the absence of surfactant, computed results are shown to accord well with earlier predictions made with FEA. When surfactants are present, computed predictions are demonstrated to be in excellent agreement with the new experimental measurements. The effects of surfactant on volumes of primary drops and dynamics of satellite drops are also reported.

  4. Delinquency: Do the Dropouts Drop Back In?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kempf, Kimberly L.

    1989-01-01

    Analysis of data from the 1958 Philadelphia Birth Cohort Study indicates that individuals who dropped out from delinquency were less likely to renew their involvement with crime as adults regardless of race, socioeconomic status, gender, or particular dropout period. (FMW)

  5. 49 CFR 178.965 - Drop test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...or with a non-hazardous material having essentially the same physical characteristics. (3) The specific gravity and viscosity of a substituted non-hazardous material used in the drop test for liquids must be similar to the hazardous material...

  6. 49 CFR 178.810 - Drop test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...or with a non-hazardous material having essentially the same physical characteristics. (3) The specific gravity and viscosity of a substituted non-hazardous material used in the drop test for liquids must be similar to the hazardous material...

  7. 14 CFR 27.727 - Reserve energy absorption drop test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 false Reserve energy absorption drop test. 27.727 Section 27.727...Landing Gear § 27.727 Reserve energy absorption drop test. The reserve energy absorption drop test must be conducted as...

  8. 14 CFR 29.727 - Reserve energy absorption drop test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 false Reserve energy absorption drop test. 29.727 Section 29.727...Landing Gear § 29.727 Reserve energy absorption drop test. The reserve energy absorption drop test must be conducted as...

  9. 14 CFR 29.727 - Reserve energy absorption drop test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 false Reserve energy absorption drop test. 29.727 Section 29.727...Landing Gear § 29.727 Reserve energy absorption drop test. The reserve energy absorption drop test must be conducted as...

  10. 14 CFR 27.727 - Reserve energy absorption drop test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 false Reserve energy absorption drop test. 27.727 Section 27.727...Landing Gear § 27.727 Reserve energy absorption drop test. The reserve energy absorption drop test must be conducted as...

  11. 14 CFR 29.727 - Reserve energy absorption drop test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 false Reserve energy absorption drop test. 29.727 Section 29.727...Landing Gear § 29.727 Reserve energy absorption drop test. The reserve energy absorption drop test must be conducted as...

  12. 14 CFR 27.727 - Reserve energy absorption drop test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 false Reserve energy absorption drop test. 27.727 Section 27.727...Landing Gear § 27.727 Reserve energy absorption drop test. The reserve energy absorption drop test must be conducted as...

  13. Misuse of xylometazoline nasal drops by inhalation.

    PubMed

    Anand, Jacek Sein; Salamon, Marek; Habrat, Boguslaw; Scinska, Anna; Bienkowski, Przemyslaw

    2008-12-01

    Six male prisoners who misused xylometazoline nasal drops by inhalation were interviewed by a prison physician in 2006. The prisoners received xylometazoline drops during regular visits in the prison ambulatory service. In order to get the medication, the subjects reported false symptoms of rhinosinusitis and allergic reactions. Psychoactive effects of inhaled xylometazoline were described as "stimulation," "excitation," and "feeling of strength." Although preliminary, our findings suggest that topical adrenergic decongestants can produce rewarding effects when administered by inhalation. PMID:19085441

  14. Fluid Flower : Microliquid Patterning via Drop Impact

    E-print Network

    Lee, Minhee

    2008-01-01

    In microfluidic technologies, direct patterning of liquid without resorting to micromachined solid structures has various advantages including reduction of the frictional dissipation and the fabrication cost. This fluid dynamics video illustrates the method to micropattern a liquid on a solid surface with drop impact. We experimentally show that a water drop impacting with the wettability-patterned solid retracts fast on the hydrophobic regions while being arrested on the hydrophilic areas.

  15. Dropping out of treatment: A critical review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederick Baekeland; Lawrence Lundwall

    1975-01-01

    After a discussion of methodological issues, literature on dropping out of treatment is critically reviewed in 6 areas: hospital treatment of general psychiatric and tubercular patients, outpatient treatment of internal medical conditions, alcoholism, heroin addiction, general psychiatric outpatient psychotherapy, and double-blind drug studies. 15 factors were found to predict dropping out in 100%, 83-88%, and 60-75% of the relevant studies:

  16. Lemon aesthetics in hand dishwashing detergents do not influence reported accidental ingestion frequency and volume.

    PubMed

    Petersen, D W

    1989-06-01

    Accidental ingestion reports for 2 nationally distributed hand dishwashing detergents with similar formulations were compared to determine the possible effect of lemon aesthetics on ingestion frequency and volume. Data were compared over almost a 2-year period (May 1986 to April 1988), and a total of 2141 accidental ingestion reports for the 2 products were reviewed. There was no difference in the reported ingestion volume of lemon-scented versus nonlemon-scented product. Fewer accidental ingestion reports were received for lemon-scented than for nonlemon-scented products, even when data were normalized for market shipments of each product. PMID:2741316

  17. Experimental Investigation of Wind-Forced Drop Stability

    E-print Network

    Schmucker, Jason

    2012-10-19

    , as noted by motion of the rearmost point on the receding contact line. This is the point of incipient motion, after which the drop will continue to run. The most common types of forces experienced by drops are gravity and wind. When a drop is subjected... drop volume normalized by applied drop volume : : : 86 xii FIGURE Page 46 Contact angle distribution along the contact line for drops at incipient runback : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 86 47 The evolution of mean contact...

  18. Drop penetration into porous powder beds.

    PubMed

    Hapgood, Karen P; Litster, James D; Biggs, Simon R; Howes, Tony

    2002-09-15

    The kinetics of drop penetration were studied by filming single drops of several different fluids (water, PEG200, PEG600, and HPC solutions) as they penetrated into loosely packed beds of glass ballotini, lactose, zinc oxide, and titanium dioxide powders. Measured times ranged from 0.45 to 126 s and depended on the powder particle size, viscosity, surface tensions, and contact angle. The experimental drop penetration times were compared to existing theoretical predictions by M. Denesuk et al. (J. Colloid Interface Sci.158, 114, 1993) and S. Middleman ("Modeling Axisymmetric Flows: Dynamics of Films, Jets, and Drops," Academic Press, San Diego, 1995) but did not agree. Loosely packed powder beds tend to have a heterogeneous bed structure containing large macrovoids which do not participate in liquid flow but are included implicitly in the existing approach to estimating powder pore size. A new two-phase model was proposed where the total volume of the macrovoids was assumed to be the difference between the bed porosity and the tap porosity. A new parameter, the effective porosity epsilon(eff), was defined as the tap porosity multiplied by the fraction of pores that terminate at a macrovoid and are effectively blocked pores. The improved drop penetration model was much more successful at estimating the drop penetration time on all powders and the predicted times were generally within an order of magnitude of the experimental results. PMID:16290866

  19. Electrochemistry in an acoustically levitated drop.

    PubMed

    Chainani, Edward T; Ngo, Khanh T; Scheeline, Alexander

    2013-02-19

    Levitated drops show potential as microreactors, especially when radicals are present as reactants or products. Solid/liquid interfaces are absent or minimized, avoiding adsorption and interfacial reaction of conventional microfluidics. We report amperometric detection in an acoustically levitated drop with simultaneous ballistic addition of reactant. A gold microelectrode sensor was fabricated with a lithographic process; active electrode area was defined by a photosensitive polyimide mask. The microdisk gold working electrode of radius 19 ?m was characterized using ferrocenemethanol in aqueous buffer. Using cyclic voltammetry, the electrochemically active surface area was estimated by combining a recessed microdisk electrode model with the Randles-Sevcik equation. Computer-controlled ballistic introduction of reactant droplets into the levitated drop was developed. Chronoamperometric measurements of ferrocyanide added ballistically demonstrate electrochemical monitoring using the microfabricated electrode in a levitated drop. Although concentration increases with time due to drop evaporation, the extent of concentration is predictable with a linear evaporation model. Comparison of diffusion-limited currents in pendant and levitated drops show that convection arising from acoustic levitation causes an enhancement of diffusion-limited current on the order of 16%. PMID:23351154

  20. Source, dispersion and combustion modelling of an accidental release of hydrogen in an urban environment.

    PubMed

    Venetsanos, A G; Huld, T; Adams, P; Bartzis, J G

    2003-12-12

    Hydrogen is likely to be the most important future energy carrier, for many stationary and mobile applications, with the potential to make significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions especially if renewable primary energy sources are used to produce the hydrogen. A safe transition to the use of hydrogen by members of the general public requires that the safety issues associated with hydrogen applications have to be investigated and fully understood. In order to assess the risks associated with hydrogen applications, its behaviour in realistic accident scenarios has to be predicted, allowing mitigating measures to be developed where necessary. A key factor in this process is predicting the release, dispersion and combustion of hydrogen in appropriate scenarios. This paper illustrates an application of CFD methods to the simulation of an actual hydrogen explosion. The explosion occurred on 3 March 1983 in a built up area of central Stockholm, Sweden, after the accidental release of approximately 13.5 kg of hydrogen from a rack of 18 interconnected 50 l industrial pressure vessels (200 bar working pressure) being transported by a delivery truck. Modelling of the source term, dispersion and combustion were undertaken separately using three different numerical tools, due to the differences in physics and scales between the different phenomena. Results from the dispersion calculations together with the official accident report were used to identify a possible ignition source and estimate the time at which ignition could have occurred. Ignition was estimated to occur 10s after the start of the release, coinciding with the time at which the maximum flammable hydrogen mass and cloud volume were found to occur (4.5 kg and 600 m(3), respectively). The subsequent simulation of the combustion adopts initial conditions for mean flow and turbulence from the dispersion simulations, and calculates the development of a fireball. This provides physical values, e.g. maximum overpressure and far-field overpressure that may be used as a comparison with the known accident details to give an indication of the validity of the models. The simulation results are consistent with both the reported near-field damage to buildings and persons and with the far-field damage to windows. The work was undertaken as part of the European Integrated Hydrogen Project-Phase 2 (EIHP2) with partial funding from the European Commission via the Fifth Framework Programme. PMID:14623417

  1. Self-Diffusion of Drops in a Dilute Sheared Emulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenberg, Michael; Hinch, E. J.

    1996-01-01

    Self-diffusion coefficients that describe cross-flow migration of non-Brownian drops in a dilute sheared emulsion were obtained by trajectory calculations. A boundary integral formulation was used to describe pairwise interactions between deformable drops; interactions between undeformed drops were described with mobility functions for spherical drops. The results indicate that drops have large anisotropic self-diffusivities which depend strongly on the drop viscosity and modestly on the shear-rate. Pairwise interactions between drops in shear-flow do not appreciably promote drop breakup.

  2. Shape oscillation of a levitated drop in an acoustic field

    E-print Network

    Ran, Weiyu

    2013-01-01

    A `star drop' refers to the patterns created when a drop, flattened by some force, is excited into shape mode oscillations. These patterns are perhaps best understood as the two dimensional analog to the more common three dimensional shape mode oscillations. In this fluid dynamics video an ultrasonic standing wave was used to levitate a liquid drop. The drop was then flattened into a disk by increasing the field strength. This flattened drop was then excited to create star drop patterns by exciting the drop at its resonance frequency. Different oscillatory modes were induced by varying the drop radius, fluid properties, and frequency at which the field strength was modulated.

  3. Non-Accidental Health Impacts of Wildfire Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Youssouf, Hassani; Liousse, Catherine; Roblou, Laurent; Assamoi, Eric-Michel; Salonen, Raimo O.; Maesano, Cara; Banerjee, Soutrik; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2014-01-01

    Wildfires take a heavy toll on human health worldwide. Climate change may increase the risk of wildfire frequency. Therefore, in view of adapted preventive actions, there is an urgent need to further understand the health effects and public awareness of wildfires. We conducted a systematic review of non-accidental health impacts of wildfire and incorporated lessons learned from recent experiences. Based on the literature, various studies have established the relationship between one of the major components of wildfire, particulate matter (particles with diameter less than 10 µm (PM10) and less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5)) and cardiorespiratory symptoms in terms of Emergency Rooms visits and hospital admissions. Associations between wildfire emissions and various subclinical effects have also been established. However, few relationships between wildfire emissions and mortality have been observed. Certain segments of the population may be particularly vulnerable to smoke-related health risks. Among them, people with pre-existing cardiopulmonary conditions, the elderly, smokers and, for professional reasons, firefighters. Potential action mechanisms have been highlighted. Overall, more research is needed to better understand health impact of wildfire exposure. PMID:25405597

  4. Non-accidental health impacts of wildfire smoke.

    PubMed

    Youssouf, Hassani; Liousse, Catherine; Roblou, Laurent; Assamoi, Eric-Michel; Salonen, Raimo O; Maesano, Cara; Banerjee, Soutrik; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2014-11-01

    Wildfires take a heavy toll on human health worldwide. Climate change may increase the risk of wildfire frequency. Therefore, in view of adapted preventive actions, there is an urgent need to further understand the health effects and public awareness of wildfires. We conducted a systematic review of non-accidental health impacts of wildfire and incorporated lessons learned from recent experiences. Based on the literature, various studies have established the relationship between one of the major components of wildfire, particulate matter (particles with diameter less than 10 µm (PM10) and less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5)) and cardiorespiratory symptoms in terms of Emergency Rooms visits and hospital admissions. Associations between wildfire emissions and various subclinical effects have also been established. However, few relationships between wildfire emissions and mortality have been observed. Certain segments of the population may be particularly vulnerable to smoke-related health risks. Among them, people with pre-existing cardiopulmonary conditions, the elderly, smokers and, for professional reasons, firefighters. Potential action mechanisms have been highlighted. Overall, more research is needed to better understand health impact of wildfire exposure. PMID:25405597

  5. Assessment of accidental intakes of uranyl acetylacetonate (UAA)

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R.; Briant, J.K.

    1993-12-01

    Uranyl acetylacetonate (UAA) is an organic complex of uranium used for military applications as a chemical catalyst in high explosives. It is prepared from depleted uranium metal (in lots of 5 kg to 7 kg) by dissolution in nitric acid, neutralization, and complexation with 2,4-pentanedione; the precipitate is dissolved in benzene and recrystallized, dried, ground, and packaged. About six workers at a small chemical company were exposed over a period of time to UAA powders during routine preparation and packaging of the uranium catalyst. The dissolution characteristics of the inhaled material were unknown and could not be determined from the published scientific literature. A 1.05-g sample of UAA powder was obtained from the responsible regulatory authority for further study to determine its chemical composition, and for dissolution in simulated lung fluid. We found the solubility of UAA to be equivalent to a mixture of 52% ICRP class D and 48% ICRP class W material. The annual limit on intake and the derived air concentration for radiological protection were estimated from this result for airborne exposure to UAA. A recycling biokinetic model was used to estimate both material-specific variations in urinary excretion rates and lung retention with time after accidental intakes. This study provides new information for evaluating future exposures to UAA.

  6. Comparative toxicology of intentional and accidental heroin overdose.

    PubMed

    Darke, Shane; Duflou, Johan; Torok, Michelle

    2010-07-01

    The demographic and toxicological characteristics of deliberate (SUI, n = 50) and accidental (ACC, n = 927) fatal heroin overdose cases were examined. SUI cases were more likely to be female, had lower body mass indices, were more likely to be enrolled in treatment and less likely to have hepatic pathology. The median blood morphine concentration of SUI cases was significantly higher than that of ACC cases (0.70 vs. 0.40 mg/L, p < 0.001). Blood morphine concentrations of >1 mg/L were seen among 38.0% of SUI cases compared to 13.9% of ACC cases. Being a member of the SUI group remained a significant independent predictor of higher morphine concentrations after controlling for the effects of potential confounders (p < 0.001), other significant predictors being the absence of alcohol (p < 0.001), the presence of methadone (p < 0.05), and the presence of cocaine (p < 0.05). The current data are consistent with the view that suicide forms a small, but distinct, category of heroin overdose cases, rather than overdose being a parasuicidal phenomenon per se. PMID:20384920

  7. High mortality due to accidental salinomycin intoxication in sheep

    PubMed Central

    Eisapour, Hamed; Erfani, Amir Mehdi; Kalantary, Amir Ali; Amoli, Jamileh Salar; Mozafari, Morteza

    2014-01-01

    In February 2012, 100% mortality was reported in a herd with 79 local sheep that were kept around of Abhar, Northwest of Iran. The ration for adult sheep was daily mixed (40 kg straw, 25 kg wheat and 2 kg Vit-C premix) and accidentally 1 500 g of salinomycin (Salinomycin 12% Premix; Aras Bazar Laboratories, Iran) had been added to the ration (22388 mg/kg = 22388 ppm) and overnight was fed to herd. At the morning, 78 sheep were founded dead and one of them showed convulsive seizures. Postmortem examination revealed pulmonary congestion and edema, hemorrhages in abomasum, large pale kidney and white streak lines in myocardium. Main histopathologic lesions were extensive subepicardial and intercardiomyofibers hemorrhages, extensive cardiomyolysis and myocarditis in heart, severe hyperemia and extensive acute tubular necrosis (ATN) in kidneys and focal necrosis and retention of bile cholangitis in the liver. In this study, on the basis of the history, observation of the ionophore remnant in the ration, clinical signs, gross and histopathological findings, acute salinomycin intoxication is definitely diagnosed.

  8. Mitigation of lung injury after accidental exposure to radiation.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, J; Jelveh, S; Calveley, V; Zaidi, A; Doctrow, S R; Hill, R P

    2011-12-01

    There is a serious need to develop effective mitigators against accidental radiation exposures. In radiation accidents, many people may receive nonuniform whole-body or partial-body irradiation. The lung is one of the more radiosensitive organs, demonstrating pneumonitis and fibrosis that are believed to develop at least partially because of radiation-induced chronic inflammation. Here we addressed the crucial questions of how damage to the lung can be mitigated and whether the response is affected by irradiation to the rest of the body. We examined the widely used dietary supplement genistein given at two dietary levels (750 or 3750 mg/kg) to Fischer rats irradiated with 12 Gy to the lung or 8 Gy to the lung + 4 Gy to the whole body excluding the head and tail (whole torso). We found that genistein had promising mitigating effects on oxidative damage, pneumonitis and fibrosis even at late times (36 weeks) when drug treatment was initiated 1 week after irradiation and stopped at 28 weeks postirradiation. The higher dose of genistein showed no greater beneficial effect. Combined lung and whole-torso irradiation caused more lung-related severe morbidity resulting in euthanasia of the animals than lung irradiation alone. PMID:22013884

  9. Role of the surgeon in non-accidental trauma.

    PubMed

    Naik-Mathuria, Bindi; Akinkuotu, Adesola; Wesson, David

    2015-07-01

    Non-accidental trauma (NAT) represents a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the pediatric population. The management of these patients often involves many care providers including the surgeon. Victims of NAT often present with multiple injuries and as such should be treated as trauma patients with complete trauma evaluation including primary, secondary and tertiary surveys. Common injury patterns in NAT include extremity fractures, closed head injury and intra-abdominal injury. Brain imaging is of importance to rule out acute or sub-acute intracranial hemorrhage. Children under the age of 5 years with acute intracranial pathology should also be evaluated by an ophthalmologist to rule out retinal hemorrhages, which are considered pathognomonic for child abuse from violent shaking. In instances when abdominal injury is suspected, prompt evaluation by a surgeon is recommended along with CT imaging. Finding of extremity fractures should prompt evaluation by an orthopedic surgeon. At our institution, all patients with suspected NAT are admitted to the pediatric surgery service for complete evaluation and management. We encourage other pediatric trauma centers to employ a similar approach so that these complicated patients are managed safely and effectively. PMID:25772160

  10. Including fathers in preventing non-accidental head injury.

    PubMed

    Coles, Lisa; Collins, Lynne

    2009-04-01

    Health visitors identified fathers as a marginalised, difficult-to-reach group when aiming for universal implementation of a public health programme to prevent non-accidental head injury (NAHI) in babies. Follow-on research with 30 fathers from disadvantaged backgrounds, including some in prison, explored barriers and facilitating factors to preventing NAHI through focus groups and interviews. Fathers expressed both responsibility and helplessness in managing a baby, but many felt excluded from gaining skills and knowledge by healthcare staff. Barriers to implementing a prevention programme included a lack of knowledge about head injuries in babies and poor understanding of prevention as a reduction of risk factors. Fear of blame for a head injury could lead to injury concealment, indicating a taboo subject. Facilitators for fathers to learn about preventing head injuries in babies included concerns of their masculinity being at odds with the frailty of the newborn, recognition of fathers' needs to be valued in their own right, and a need for individualised plans for gaining information and increasing confidence. The modifiable barriers to prevention, from the fathers' perspectives, add to the theoretical and applied evidence base for the prevention of NAHI. PMID:19397079

  11. Two types of Cassie-to-Wenzel wetting transitions on superhydrophobic surfaces during drop impact.

    PubMed

    Lee, Choongyeop; Nam, Youngsuk; Lastakowski, Henri; Hur, Janet I; Shin, Seungwon; Biance, Anne-Laure; Pirat, Christophe; Cj Kim, Chang-Jin; Ybert, Christophe

    2015-06-01

    Despite the fact that superhydrophobic surfaces possess useful and unique properties, their practical application has remained limited by durability issues. Among those, the wetting transition, whereby a surface gets impregnated by the liquid and permanently loses its superhydrophobicity, certainly constitutes the most limiting aspect under many realistic conditions. In this study, we revisit this so-called Cassie-to-Wenzel transition (CWT) under the broadly encountered situation of liquid drop impact. Using model hydrophobic micropillar surfaces of various geometrical characteristics and high speed imaging, we identify that CWT can occur through different mechanisms, and at different impact stages. At early impact stages, right after contact, CWT occurs through the well established dynamic pressure scenario of which we provide here a fully quantitative description. Comparing the critical wetting pressure of surfaces and the theoretical pressure distribution inside the liquid drop, we provide not only the CWT threshold but also the hardly reported wetted area which directly affects the surface spoiling. At a later stage, we report for the first time to our knowledge, a new CWT which occurs during the drop recoil toward bouncing. With the help of numerical simulations, we discuss the mechanism underlying this new transition and provide a simple model based on impulse conservation which successfully captures the transition threshold. By shedding light on the complex interaction between impacting water drops and surface structures, the present study will facilitate designing superhydrophobic surfaces with a desirable wetting state during drop impact. PMID:25959867

  12. Newsletter No.6 NovemberTechnologyScenarios The Technology Scenarios

    E-print Network

    in science and technology based organisations · Use of scientific advises in decision processes) and Aalborg University we are planning a Doctoral School on Technology Analysis and Environmental StrategiesNewsletter No.6 NovemberTechnologyScenarios The Technology Scenarios research programme

  13. Monitoring Volcanoes by Use of Air-Dropped Sensor Packages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kedar, Sharon; Rivellini, Tommaso; Webb, Frank; Blaes, Brent; Bracho, Caroline; Lockhart, Andrew; McGee, Ken

    2003-01-01

    Sensor packages that would be dropped from airplanes have been proposed for pre-eruption monitoring of physical conditions on the flanks of awakening volcanoes. The purpose of such monitoring is to gather data that could contribute to understanding and prediction of the evolution of volcanic systems. Each sensor package, denoted a volcano monitoring system (VMS), would include a housing with a parachute attached at its upper end and a crushable foam impact absorber at its lower end (see figure). The housing would contain survivable low-power instrumentation that would include a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, an inclinometer, a seismometer, a barometer, a thermometer, and CO2 and SO2 analyzers. The housing would also contain battery power, control, data-logging, and telecommunication subsystems. The proposal for the development of the VMS calls for the use of commercially available sensor, power, and telecommunication equipment, so that efforts could be focused on integrating all of the equipment into a system that could survive impact and operate thereafter for 30 days, transmitting data on the pre-eruptive state of a target volcano to a monitoring center. In a typical scenario, VMSs would be dropped at strategically chosen locations on the flanks of a volcano once the volcano had been identified as posing a hazard from any of a variety of observations that could include eyewitness reports, scientific observations from positions on the ground, synthetic-aperture-radar scans from aircraft, and/or remote sensing from aboard spacecraft. Once dropped, the VMSs would be operated as a network of in situ sensors that would transmit data to a local monitoring center. This network would provide observations as part of an integrated volcano-hazard assessment strategy that would involve both remote sensing and timely observations from the in situ sensors. A similar strategy that involves the use of portable sensors (but not dropping of sensors from aircraft) is already in use in the Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (VDAP), which was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance to respond to volcanic crises around the world. The VMSs would add a greatly needed capability that would enable VDAP response teams to deploy their volcano-monitoring equipment in a more timely manner with less risk to personnel in the field.

  14. A case of accidental intrathecal injection of a large dose of ropivacaine during cesarean section

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yan P; Chen, Hong F; Yang, Chen; Tian, Fu B; Huang, Shao Q

    2014-01-01

    Continuous spinal anesthesia may provide excellent labor analgesia. The incidence of accidental intrathecal injection of megadose of ropivacaine, as one of the possible complications during cesarean section, is very rare. Present case report provides reference to clinical practice. PMID:25232443

  15. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 8. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF HYDROGEN FLUORIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a chemical specific manual for hydrogen fluoride (HF). It summarizes information to aid regulators and industry personnel in identifying and controlling release hazards associated with HF. Reducing the risk associated with accidental release of HF involves identifyi...

  16. The changing nutrition scenario.

    PubMed

    Gopalan, C

    2013-09-01

    The past seven decades have seen remarkable shifts in the nutritional scenario in India. Even up to the 1950s severe forms of malnutrition such as kwashiorkar and pellagra were endemic. As nutritionists were finding home-grown and common-sense solutions for these widespread problems, the population was burgeoning and food was scarce. The threat of widespread household food insecurity and chronic undernutrition was very real. Then came the Green Revolution. Shortages of food grains disappeared within less than a decade and India became self-sufficient in food grain production. But more insidious problems arising from this revolution were looming, and cropping patterns giving low priority to coarse grains and pulses, and monocropping led to depletion of soil nutrients and 'Green Revolution fatigue'. With improved household food security and better access to health care, clinical manifestations of severe malnutrition virtually disappeared. But the decline in chronic undernutrition and "hidden hunger" from micronutrient deficiencies was slow. On the cusp of the new century, an added factor appeared on the nutritional scene in India. With steady urban migration, upward mobility out of poverty, and an increasingly sedentary lifestyle because of improvements in technology and transport, obesity rates began to increase, resulting in a dual burden. Measured in terms of its performance in meeting its Millennium Development Goals, India has fallen short. Despite its continuing high levels of poverty and illiteracy, India has a huge demographic potential in the form of a young population. This advantage must be leveraged by investing in nutrition education, household access to nutritious diets, sanitary environment and a health-promoting lifestyle. This requires co-operation from all the stakeholders, including governments, non government organizations, scientists and the people at large. PMID:24135189

  17. The changing nutrition scenario

    PubMed Central

    Gopalan, C.

    2013-01-01

    The past seven decades have seen remarkable shifts in the nutritional scenario in India. Even up to the 1950s severe forms of malnutrition such as kwashiorkar and pellagra were endemic. As nutritionists were finding home-grown and common-sense solutions for these widespread problems, the population was burgeoning and food was scarce. The threat of widespread household food insecurity and chronic undernutrition was very real. Then came the Green Revolution. Shortages of food grains disappeared within less than a decade and India became self-sufficient in food grain production. But more insidious problems arising from this revolution were looming, and cropping patterns giving low priority to coarse grains and pulses, and monocropping led to depletion of soil nutrients and ‘Green Revolution fatigue’. With improved household food security and better access to health care, clinical manifestations of severe malnutrition virtually disappeared. But the decline in chronic undernutrition and “hidden hunger” from micronutrient deficiencies was slow. On the cusp of the new century, an added factor appeared on the nutritional scene in India. With steady urban migration, upward mobility out of poverty, and an increasingly sedentary lifestyle because of improvements in technology and transport, obesity rates began to increase, resulting in a dual burden. Measured in terms of its performance in meeting its Millennium Development Goals, India has fallen short. Despite its continuing high levels of poverty and illiteracy, India has a huge demographic potential in the form of a young population. This advantage must be leveraged by investing in nutrition education, household access to nutritious diets, sanitary environment and a health-promoting lifestyle. This requires co-operation from all the stakeholders, including governments, non government organizations, scientists and the people at large. PMID:24135189

  18. Queensland University of Technology Drop Tower Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plagens, Owen; Hales, Matthew; Castillo, Martin; Steinberg, Theodore

    2012-07-01

    The Queensland University of Technology (QUT) Drop Tower Facility provides access to an inexpensive high quality reduced gravity test environment. This facility is available to and has been used by number of nationally and internationally based organisations, along with researchers from QUT, for scientific and industry related research. The drop tower, located in Brisbane, Australia, allows 2.0 seconds of high quality reduced gravity (˜0.001 g). The cylindrical drop package has a maximum rating of 200 kg with dimensions of 0.8 m diameter and 0.9 m high, and experiences a maximum deceleration of ˜30 g. Current research projects being carried out at the QUT Drop Tower Facility include research in the areas of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis of materials, combustion and fire safety, flammability of metals, characterisation of combustion products, and sol-gel nanomaterials. Keywords: Reduced gravity, microgravity, drop tower, zero gravity, low gravity, combustion, combustion products, nanomaterials, sol-gel, flammability, high temperature synthesis.

  19. Drop splash on a smooth, dry surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riboux, Guillaume; Gordillo, Jose Manuel; Korobkin, Alexander

    2013-11-01

    It is our purpose here to determine the conditions under which a drop of a given liquid with a known radius R impacting against a smooth impermeable surface at a velocity V, will either spread axisymmetrically onto the substrate or will create a splash, giving rise to usually undesired star-shaped patterns. In our experimental setup, drops are generated injecting low viscosity liquids falling under the action of gravity from a stainless steel hypodermic needle. The experimental observations using two high speed cameras operating simultaneously and placed perpendicularly to each other reveal that, initially, the drop deforms axisymmetrically, with A (T) the radius of the wetted area. For high enough values of the drop impact velocity, a thin sheet of liquid starts to be ejected from A (T) at a velocity Vjet > V for instants of time such that T >=Tc . If Vjet is above a certain threshold, which depends on the solid wetting properties as well as on the material properties of both the liquid and the atmospheric gas, the rim of the lamella dewets the solid to finally break into drops. Using Wagner's theory we demonstrate that A (T) =?{ 3 RVT } and our results also reveal that Tc We - 1 / 2 =(?V2 R / ?) - 1 / 2 and Vjet We 1 / 4 .

  20. Drop deployment system for crystal growth apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Percy H. (Inventor); Snyder, Robert S. (Inventor); Pusey, Marc L. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    This invention relates to a crystal growth apparatus (10) generally used for growing protein crystals wherein a vapor diffusion method is used for growing the crystals. In this apparatus, a precipitating solution and a solution containing dissolved crystalline material are stored in separate vials (12, 14), each having a resilient diaphragm (28) across one end and an opening (24) with a puncturable septum (26) thereacross at an opposite end. The vials are placed in receptacles (30) having a manifold (41) with a manifold diaphragm (42) in contact with the vial diaphragm at one end of the receptacle and a hollow needle (36) for puncturing the septum at the other end of the manifold. The needles of each vial communicate with a ball mixer (40) that mixes the precipitate and protein solutions and directs the mixed solution to a drop support (64) disposed in a crystal growth chamber (16), the drop support being a tube with an inner bevelled surface (66) that provides more support for the drop (68) than the tubes of the prior art. A sealable storage region (70) intermediate the drop support and mixer provides storage of the drop (68) and the grown crystals.

  1. Biofuel and Bioenergy implementation scenarios

    E-print Network

    Biofuel and Bioenergy implementation scenarios Final report of VIEWLS WP5, modelling studies #12;Biofuel and Bioenergy implementation scenarios Final report of VIEWLS WP5, modelling studies By André of this project are to provide structured and clear data on the availability and performance of biofuels

  2. Futures Scenario in Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, David; Vanderhout, Annastasia; Lloyd, Lisa; Atkins, David

    2010-01-01

    In this article we describe our experiences in developing futures scenarios in two science contexts, space science and atmospheric science/climate change. Futures scenario writing can develop scientific literacy by connecting science learning to students' lifeworlds--past, present and future. They also provide a synthesising mechanism for…

  3. Platform Support for Pedagogical Scenarios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Yvan; Vantroys, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with providing support for the execution of pedagogical scenarios in Learning Management Systems. It takes an engineering point of view to identifies actors, design and use processes. Next it defines the necessary capabilities of a platform so that actors can manage or use pedagogical scenarios. The second part of the article is…

  4. Persistent Seroconversion after Accidental Eye Exposure to Calcifying Nanoparticles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciftcioglu, Neva; Aho, Katja M.; McKay, David S.; Kajander, E. Olavi

    2007-01-01

    Biosafety of nanomaterials has attracted much attention recently. We report here a case where accidental human eye exposure to biogenic nanosized calcium phosphate in the form of calcifying nanoparticles (CNP) raised a strong IgG immune response against proteins carried by CNP. The antibody titer has persisted over ten years at the high level. The IgG was detected by ELISA using CNPs propagated in media containing bovine and human serum as antigen. The exposure incident occurred to a woman scientist (WS) at a research laboratory in Finland at 1993. CNP, also termed "nanobacteria", is a unique self-replicating agent that has not been fully characterized and no data on biohazards were available at that time. Before the accident, her serum samples were negative for both CNP antigen and anti-CNP antibody using specific ELISA tests (Nanobac Oy, Kuopio, Finland). The accident occurred while WS was harvesting CNP cultures. Due to a high pressure in pipetting, CNP pellet splashed into her right eye. Both eyes were immediately washed with water and saline. The following days there was irritation and redness in the right eye. These symptoms disappeared within two weeks without any treatment. Three months after the accident, blood and urine samples of WS were tested for CNP cultures (2), CNP-specific ELISA tests, and blood cell counts. Blood cell counts were normal, CNP antigen and culture tests were negative. A high IgG anti-CNP antibody titer was detected (see Figure). The antibodies of this person have been used thereafter as positive control and standard in ELISA manufacturing (Nano-Sero IgG ELISA, Nanobac Oy, Kuopio, Finland).

  5. Coalescing drops in microfluidic parking networks: A multifunctional platform for drop-based microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Bithi, Swastika S; Wang, William S; Sun, Meng; Blawzdziewicz, Jerzy; Vanapalli, Siva A

    2014-05-01

    Multiwell plate and pipette systems have revolutionized modern biological analysis; however, they have disadvantages because testing in the submicroliter range is challenging, and increasing the number of samples is expensive. We propose a new microfluidic methodology that delivers the functionality of multiwell plates and pipettes at the nanoliter scale by utilizing drop coalescence and confinement-guided breakup in microfluidic parking networks (MPNs). Highly monodisperse arrays of drops obtained using a hydrodynamic self-rectification process are parked at prescribed locations in the device, and our method allows subsequent drop manipulations such as fine-gradation dilutions, reactant addition, and fluid replacement while retaining microparticles contained in the sample. Our devices operate in a quasistatic regime where drop shapes are determined primarily by the channel geometry. Thus, the behavior of parked drops is insensitive to flow conditions. This insensitivity enables highly parallelized manipulation of drop arrays of different composition, without a need for fine-tuning the flow conditions and other system parameters. We also find that drop coalescence can be switched off above a critical capillary number, enabling individual addressability of drops in complex MPNs. The platform demonstrated here is a promising candidate for conducting multistep biological assays in a highly multiplexed manner, using thousands of submicroliter samples. PMID:25379078

  6. Best Measuring Time for a Millikan Oil Drop Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapusta, J. I.

    1975-01-01

    In a Millikan oil drop experiment, there is a best measuring time for observing the drop, due to Brownian motion of the drop and the experimenter's reaction time. Derives an equation for the relative error in the measurement of the drop's excess charge, and obtains a formula for the best measuring time. (Author/MLH)

  7. Spreading of Polydimethylsiloxane Drops on Solid Horizontal Surfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. A. Ogarev; T. N. Timonina; V. V. Arslanov; A. A. Trapeznikov

    1974-01-01

    Effect of the volume of drops, surface energy and roughness of substrate together with temperature and viscosity on the spreading velocity of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) drops on solid horizontal surfaces was studied. Spreading velocity was shown to grow with decreasing drop volume, the effect being more pronounced at high viscosities of polymer. The deviation of shape of the spreading drop from

  8. Pollination Drop in Juniperus communis: Response to Deposited Material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SERENA MUGNAINI; MASSIMO NEPI; MASSIMO GUARNIERI; BETI PIOTTO; ETTORE PACINI

    2007-01-01

    † Background and Aims The pollination drop is a liquid secretion produced by the ovule and exposed outside the micropyle. In many gymnosperms, pollen lands on the surface of the pollination drop, rehydrates and enters the ovule as the drop retracts. The objective of this work was to study the formation of the pollination drop in Juniperus communis, its carbohydrate

  9. Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) Contest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The first NASA Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) student competition pilot project came to a conclusion at the Glenn Research Center in April 2001. The competition involved high-school student teams who developed the concept for a microgravity experiment and prepared an experiment proposal. The two student teams - COSI Academy, sponsored by the Columbus Center of Science and Industry, and another team from Cincinnati, Ohio's Sycamore High School, designed a microgravity experiment, fabricated the experimental apparatus, and visited NASA Glenn to operate their experiment in the 2.2 Second Drop Tower. Meredith Mendenhall of Sycamore High School, Cincinnati, Ohio, flips on a tape recorder in preparation for a drop. This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

  10. Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) contest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The first NASA Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) student competition pilot project came to a conclusion at the Glenn Research Center in April 2001. The competition involved high-school student teams who developed the concept for a microgravity experiment and prepared an experiment proposal. The two student teams - COSI Academy, sponsored by the Columbus Center of Science and Industry, and another team from Cincinnati, Ohio's Sycamore High School, designed a microgravity experiment, fabricated the experimental apparatus, and visited NASA Glenn to operate their experiment in the 2.2 Second Drop Tower. Here students from Sycamore High School in Cincinnati, Ohio, talk with Dr. Dennis Stocker, one of Glenn's lead microgravity scientists, about the uses of the drop tower. This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

  11. Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) contest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The first NASA Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) student competition pilot project came to a conclusion at the Glenn Research Center in April 2001. The competition involved high-school student teams who developed the concept for a microgravity experiment and prepared an experiment proposal. The two student teams - COSI Academy, sponsored by the Columbus Center of Science and Industry, and another team from Cincinnati, Ohio's Sycamore High School, designed a microgravity experiment, fabricated the experimental apparatus, and visited NASA Glenn to operate their experiment in the 2.2 Second Drop Tower. Here, students are briefed by NASA engineer Daniel Dietrich at the top of the drop tower. This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

  12. Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) contest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The first NASA Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) student competition pilot project came to a conclusion at the Glenn Research Center in April 2001. The competition involved high-school student teams who developed the concept for a microgravity experiment and prepared an experiment proposal. The two student teams - COSI Academy, sponsored by the Columbus Center of Science and Industry, and another team from Cincinnati, Ohio's Sycamore High School, designed a microgravity experiment, fabricated the experimental apparatus, and visited NASA Glenn to operate their experiment in the 2.2 Second Drop Tower. Here Jose Carrion, a lab mechanic with AKAC, starts the orange-colored drag shield, and the experiment apparatus inside, on the hoist upward to the control station at the top of the drop tower. This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

  13. Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) Contest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The first NASA Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) student competition pilot project came to a conclusion at the Glenn Research Center in April 2001. The competition involved high-school student teams who developed the concept for a microgravity experiment and prepared an experiment proposal. The two student teams - COSI Academy, sponsored by the Columbus Center of Science and Industry, and another team from Cincinnati, Ohio's Sycamore High School, designed a microgravity experiment, fabricated the experimental apparatus, and visited NASA Glenn to operate their experiment in the 2.2 Second Drop Tower. Sandi Thompson of the National Center for Microgravity Research GRC makes a final adjustment to the drop package. This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

  14. Vibration of a flattened drop. I - Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, K.; Takaki, R.

    1984-12-01

    Vibration of a single drop of liquid nitrogen, oxygen or argon was observed by putting it on a horizontal plate at room temperature. The drop was in the shape of a flattened disk and floated on the plate due to rapid evaporation. It showed a characteristic mode of vibration; namely, a standing wave appeared along the periphery and the plane view showed a polygonal shape. As the radius of the drop was reduced through evaporation, sudden transitions to modes with smaller numbers of vertices occurred. The measured vibrational frequency was proportional to the 3/2 power of the wavenumber, and depended in a simple way on the surface tension and the density of the liquid.

  15. Ultrasonic characterization of single drops of liquids

    DOEpatents

    Sinha, Dipen N. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1998-01-01

    Ultrasonic characterization of single drops of liquids. The present invention includes the use of two closely spaced transducers, or one transducer and a closely spaced reflector plate, to form an interferometer suitable for ultrasonic characterization of droplet-size and smaller samples without the need for a container. The droplet is held between the interferometer elements, whose distance apart may be adjusted, by surface tension. The surfaces of the interferometer elements may be readily cleansed by a stream of solvent followed by purified air when it is desired to change samples. A single drop of liquid is sufficient for high-quality measurement. Examples of samples which may be investigated using the apparatus and method of the present invention include biological specimens (tear drops; blood and other body fluid samples; samples from tumors, tissues, and organs; secretions from tissues and organs; snake and bee venom, etc.) for diagnostic evaluation, samples in forensic investigations, and detection of drugs in small quantities.

  16. Drop deployment system for crystal growth apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Percy (inventor); Snyder, Robert S. (inventor); Pusey, Marc L. (inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A crystal growth apparatus is presented. It utilizes a vapor diffusion method for growing protein crystals, and particularly such an apparatus wherein a ball mixer is used to mix the fluids that form a drop within which crystals are grown. Particular novelty of this invention lies in utilizing a ball mixer to completely mix the precipitate and protein solutions prior to forming the drop. Additional novelty lies in details of construction of the vials, the fluid deployment system, and the fluid storage system of the preferred embodiment.

  17. Corners, Cusps, and Pearls in Running Drops

    SciTech Connect

    Podgorski, T.; Flesselles, J.-M.; Limat, L.

    2001-07-16

    Small drops sliding down a partially wetting substrate bifurcate between different shapes depending on their capillary number Ca . At low Ca , they are delimited by a rounded, smooth contact line. At intermediate values they develop a corner at the trailing edge, the angle of which evolves from flat to 60{sup o} with increasing velocity. Further up, they exhibit a cusped tail that emits smaller drops (''pearls''). These bifurcations may be qualitatively and quantitatively recovered by considering the dynamic contact angle along the contact line.

  18. Statistical Model of Evaporating Multicomponent Fuel Drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harstad, Kenneth; LeClercq, Patrick; Bellan, Josette

    2007-01-01

    An improved statistical model has been developed to describe the chemical composition of an evaporating multicomponent- liquid drop and of the mixture of gases surrounding the drop. The model is intended for use in computational simulations of the evaporation and combustion of sprayed liquid fuels, which are typically mixtures of as many as hundreds of different hydrocarbon compounds. The present statistical model is an approximation designed to afford results that are accurate enough to contribute to understanding of the simulated physical and chemical phenomena, without imposing an unduly large computational burden.

  19. Head-on collision of drops—A numerical investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Nobari; Y.-J. Jan; G. Tryggvason

    1996-01-01

    The head-on collision of equal sized drops is studied by full numerical simulations. The Navier–Stokes equations are solved for the fluid motion both inside and outside the drops using a front tracking\\/finite difference technique. The drops are accelerated toward each other by a body force that is turned off before the drops collide. When the drops collide, the fluid between

  20. A Qualitative Study of Fibre Drop Traces on Mechanically Excited Damped Vibrations of Drops of Pure Liquids Using Fft Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. D. McMillan; F. E. Feeney; M. J. P. Power; S. M. Kinsella; M. P. Kelly; C. Hammil; K. W. Thompson; J. P. ODea

    1994-01-01

    A qualitative investigation into the viscoelastic-surface properties of pendant drops has been conducted using a new instrumental technique, the fibre drop analyser (FDA), by means of measurement of the damped vibrations in mechanically excited pendant drop for a series of pure liquids. The study reveals a range of processes in the damped vibrations of pendant drops and could open up

  1. Analysis of a hypothetical dropped spent nuclear fuel shipping cask impacting a floor mounted crush pad

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkes, B.D.; Uldrich, E.D.

    1998-03-01

    A crush pad has been designed and analyzed to absorb the kinetic energy of a hypothetically dropped spent nuclear fuel shipping cask into a 44-ft. deep cask unloading pool at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The 110-ton Large Cell Cask was assumed to be accidentally dropped onto the parapet of the unloading pool, causing the cask to tumble through the pool water and impact the floor mounted crush pad with the cask`s top corner. The crush pad contains rigid polyurethane foam, which was modeled in a separate computer analysis to simulate the manufacturer`s testing of the foam and to determine the foam`s stress and strain characteristics. This computer analysis verified that the foam was accurately represented in the analysis to follow. A detailed non-linear, dynamic finite element analysis was then performed on the crush pad and adjacent pool structure to assure that a drop of this massive cask does not result in unacceptable damage to the storage facility. Additionally, verification was made that the crush pad adequately protects the cask from severe impact loading. At impact, the cask has significant vertical, horizontal and rotational velocities. The crush pad absorbs much of the energy of the cask through plastic deformation during primary and secondary impacts. After the primary impact with the crush pad, the cask still has sufficient energy to rebound and rotate until it impacts the pool wall. An assessment is made of the damage to the crush pad and pool wall and of the impact loading on the cask.

  2. Increase of Suicide and Accidental Death After Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Tichelli, André; Labopin, Myriam; Rovó, Alicia; Badoglio, Manuela; Arat, Mutlu; van Lint, Maria Teresa; Lawitschka, Anita; Schwarze, Carl Philipp; Passweg, Jakob; Socié, Gérard

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Relapse and transplant-related complications are leading causes of mortality after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Suicides and accidents have not been studied in these patients. This study sought to determine whether there is an excess of suicide and accidental deaths after HSCT, and to determine risk factors. METHODS The incidence of suicidal and accidental death in patients after undergoing HSCT, standardized mortality ratio (SMR), and absolute excess risk (AER) of suicide and accidental deaths was determined, compared with the general European population. A case-control analysis was done to define factors associated with suicide and accidental deaths. Data were derived from the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Registry, including 294,922 patients who underwent autologous or allogeneic HSCT from 1980 to 2009. RESULTS The 10-year cumulative incidence of suicide and accidental deaths was 101.8 and 55.6 per 100,000 patients, respectively. SMR and AER of suicide after HSCT were 2.12 (P < .001) and 10.91, higher than in the European general population for 100,000 deaths, respectively. SMR and AER of accidental death were 1.23 (P < .05) and 2.54, respectively. In the case-control study, relapses were more frequent among patients who committed suicide after autologous HSCT (37% versus 18%; P < .0001). Chronic graft-versus-host disease was higher among patients who committed suicide after allogeneic HSCT (64% versus 37%; P = .001). CONCLUSIONS There is an excess of deaths due to suicide and accidents in patients after undergoing HSCT as compared with the European general population. Relapse was associated with more suicide and accidental deaths after autologous HSCT, and chronic graft-versus-host disease was associated with more deaths by suicide after allogeneic HSCT. Cancer 2013;119:2012–2021. © 2013 American Cancer Society. PMID:23512286

  3. A volume-limited sample of X-ray galaxy groups and clusters - III. Central abundance drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagoulia, E. K.; Sanders, J. S.; Fabian, A. C.

    2015-02-01

    We present the results of a search and study of central abundance drops in a volume-limited sample (z ? 0.071) of 101 X-ray galaxy groups and clusters. These are best observed in nearby, and so best resolved, groups and clusters, making our sample ideal for their detection. Out of the 65 groups and clusters in our sample for which we have abundance profiles, 8 of them have certain central abundance drops, with possible central abundance drops in another 6. All sources with central abundance drops have X-ray cavities, and all bar one exception have a central cooling time of ?1 Gyr. These central abundance drops can be generated if the iron injected by stellar mass-loss processes in the core of these sources is in grains, which then become incorporated in the central dusty filaments. These, in turn, are dragged outwards by the bubbling feedback process in these sources. We find that data quality significantly affects the detection of central abundance drops, inasmuch as a higher number of counts in the central 20 kpc of a source makes it easier to detect a central abundance drop, as long as these counts are more than ˜13 000. On the other hand, the magnitude of the central abundance drop does not depend on the number of these counts, though the statistical significance of the measured drop does. Finally, in line with the scenario briefly outlined above, we find that, for most sources, the location of X-ray cavities acts as an upper limit to the location of the peak in the radial metallicity distribution.

  4. Removal of seeds from Neotropical frugivore droppings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Kaspari; Tucson Arizona

    1993-01-01

    In a Costa Rican rain forest, the majority of tree and shrub species have their seeds dispersed by vertebrates. Over a third of the species' seeds are of a size accessible to, and primarily carried away by, ants. Frugivorous bird droppings come in sizes from a few seeds to over a thousand, with number of seeds isometric with bird body

  5. Viscosity Measurement Using Drop Coalescence in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antar, Basil N.; Ethridge, Edwin C.; Maxwell, Daniel; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present in here validation studies of a new method for application in microgravity environment which measures the viscosity of highly viscous undercooled liquids using drop coalescence. The method has the advantage of avoiding heterogeneous nucleation at container walls caused by crystallization of undercooled liquids during processing. Homogeneous nucleation can also be avoided due to the rapidity of the measurement using this method. The technique relies on measurements from experiments conducted in near zero gravity environment as well as highly accurate analytical formulation for the coalescence process. The viscosity of the liquid is determined by allowing the computed free surface shape relaxation time to be adjusted in response to the measured free surface velocity for two coalescing drops. Results are presented from two sets of validation experiments for the method which were conducted on board aircraft flying parabolic trajectories. In these tests the viscosity of a highly viscous liquid, namely glycerin, was determined at different temperatures using the drop coalescence method described in here. The experiments measured the free surface velocity of two glycerin drops coalescing under the action of surface tension alone in low gravity environment using high speed photography. The liquid viscosity was determined by adjusting the computed free surface velocity values to the measured experimental data. The results of these experiments were found to agree reasonably well with the known viscosity for the test liquid used.

  6. Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) contest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The first NASA Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) student competition pilot project came to a conclusion at the Glenn Research Center in April 2001. The competition involved high-school student teams who developed the concept for a microgravity experiment and prepared an experiment proposal. The two student teams - COSI Academy, sponsored by the Columbus Center of Science and Industry, and another team from Cincinnati, Ohio's Sycamore High School, designed a microgravity experiment, fabricated the experimental apparatus, and visited NASA Glenn to operate their experiment in the 2.2 Second Drop Tower. NASA and contractor personnel who conducted the DIME activity with the students. Shown (L-R) are: Eric Baumann (NASA, 2.2-second Drop Tower Facility manager), Daniel Dietrich (NASA) mentor for Sycamore High School team), Carol Hodanbosi (National Center for Microgravity Research; DIME staff), Richard DeLombard (NASA; DIME staff), Jose Carrion (GRC Akima, drop tower technician), Dennis Stocker (NASA; DIME staff), Peter Sunderland (NCMR, mentor for COSI Academy student team), Sandi Thompson (NSMR sabbatical teacher; DIME staff), Dan Woodard (MASA Microgravity Outreach Program Manager), Adam Malcolm (NASA co-op student; DIME staff), Carla Rosenberg (NCMR; DIME staff), and Twila Schneider (Infinity Technology; NASA Microgravity Research program contractor). This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

  7. Acoustic forcing of a liquid drop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyell, M. J.

    1992-01-01

    The development of systems such as acoustic levitation chambers will allow for the positioning and manipulation of material samples (drops) in a microgravity environment. This provides the capability for fundamental studies in droplet dynamics as well as containerless processing work. Such systems use acoustic radiation pressure forces to position or to further manipulate (e.g., oscillate) the sample. The primary objective was to determine the effect of a viscous acoustic field/tangential radiation pressure forcing on drop oscillations. To this end, the viscous acoustic field is determined. Modified (forced) hydrodynamic field equations which result from a consistent perturbation expansion scheme are solved. This is done in the separate cases of an unmodulated and a modulated acoustic field. The effect of the tangential radiation stress on the hydrodynamic field (drop oscillations) is found to manifest as a correction to the velocity field in a sublayer region near the drop/host interface. Moreover, the forcing due to the radiation pressure vector at the interface is modified by inclusion of tangential stresses.

  8. Lightweight, Economical Device Alleviates Drop Foot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deis, B. C.

    1983-01-01

    Corrective apparatus alleviates difficulties in walking for victims of drop foot. Elastic line attached to legband provides flexible support to toe of shoe. Device used with flat (heelless) shoes, sneakers, crepe-soled shoes, canvas shoes, and many other types of shoes not usable with short leg brace.

  9. Drop Test at Lunar Landing Research Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The Langley drop test facility where aircraft crashes can be simulated. The grid screen at the left of the facility is used as a backdrop for the impacts to allow engineers to measure angles and impact speeds. This facility was originally built to test a lunar lander simulator.

  10. A bilateral foot drop due to neuroschistosomiasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joyce Wilbers; Albert Idema; Anja Gijtenbeek

    2010-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease, uncommon in Europe and the USA. We present an unusual case of intracerebral schistosomiasis,\\u000a presenting with a bilateral foot drop. We describe unique magnetic resonance spectroscopy characteristics that can contribute\\u000a to diagnosis and follow up of a neuroschistosomiasis infection.

  11. A bilateral foot drop due to neuroschistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Wilbers, Joyce; Idema, Albert; Gijtenbeek, Anja

    2010-05-01

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease, uncommon in Europe and the USA. We present an unusual case of intracerebral schistosomiasis, presenting with a bilateral foot drop. We describe unique magnetic resonance spectroscopy characteristics that can contribute to diagnosis and follow up of a neuroschistosomiasis infection. PMID:20127348

  12. Complementizer Drop And IP Complementation in Japanese

    E-print Network

    Fukuda, Minoru

    2000-01-01

    The main purpose of the present paper is to provide a principled account for a phenomenon called "Complementizer Drop" in the dialects of Japanese and its related phenomena in teens of the head-raising approach without recourse to the ECP or GB...

  13. Dropping Two Balls Near the Earth's Surface

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David M. Harrison

    The representation depicts two balls being dropped near the Earth's surface in an interactive simulation. The user can control the initial horizontal speed of one ball and observe the path and acceleration of both balls as they fall and hit the Earth's surface at the same time.

  14. Sessile drop deformations under an impinging jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, James Q.

    2015-06-01

    The problem of steady axisymmetric deformations of a liquid sessile drop on a flat solid surface under an impinging gas jet is of interest for understanding the fundamental behavior of free surface flows as well as for establishing the theoretical basis in process design for the Aerosol {Jet^{circledR}} direct-write technology. It is studied here numerically using a Galerkin finite-element method, by computing solutions of Navier-Stokes equations. For effective material deposition in Aerosol {Jet^{circledR}} printing, the desired value of Reynolds number for the laminar gas jet is found to be greater than 500. The sessile drop can be severely deformed by an impinging gas jet when the capillary number is approaching a critical value beyond which no steady axisymmetric free surface deformation can exist. Solution branches in a parameter space show turning points at the critical values of capillary number, which typically indicate the onset of free surface shape instability. By tracking solution branches around turning points with an arc-length continuation algorithm, critical values of capillary number can be accurately determined. Near turning points, all the free surface profiles in various parameter settings take a common shape with a dimple at the center and bulge near the contact line. An empirical formula for the critical capillary number for sessile drops with 45° contact angle is derived for typical ranges of jet Reynolds number and relative drop sizes especially pertinent to Aerosol {Jet^{circledR}} printing.

  15. Drop-Out Challenges: Pathways to Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conner, Evguenia; McKee, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an action research at an alternative high school which explores drop-out prevention strategies with first-year students. Student retention is extremely challenging for alternative schools. Because their mission is to provide a second chance to students who could not succeed in a regular setting, those schools regularly must…

  16. Inverted drop testing and neck injury potential.

    PubMed

    Forrest, Stephen; Herbst, Brian; Meyer, Steve; Sances, Anthony; Kumaresan, Srirangam

    2003-01-01

    Inverted drop testing of vehicles is a methodology that has long been used by the automotive industry and researchers to test roof integrity and is currently being considered by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration as a roof strength test. In 1990 a study was reported which involved 8 dolly rollover tests and 5 inverted drop tests. These studies were conducted with restrained Hybrid III instrumented Anthropometric Test Devices (ATD) in production and rollcaged vehicles to investigate the relationship between roof strength and occupant injury potential. The 5 inverted drop tests included in the study provided a methodology producing "repeatable roof impacts" exposing the ATDs to the similar impact environment as those seen in the dolly rollover tests. Authors have conducted two inverted drop test sets as part of an investigation of two real world rollover accidents. Hybrid-III ATD's were used in each test with instrumented head and necks. Both test sets confirm that reduction of roof intrusion and increased headroom can significantly enhance occupant protection. In both test pairs, the neck force of the dummy in the vehicle with less crush and more survival space was significantly lower. Reduced roof crush and dynamic preservation of the occupant survival space resulted in only minor occupant contact and minimal occupant loading, establishing a clear causal relationship between roof crush and neck injuries. PMID:12724903

  17. A kinematic wave theory of capacity drop

    E-print Network

    Wen-Long Jin; Qi-Jian Gan; Jean-Patrick Lebacque

    2013-10-09

    Capacity drop at active bottlenecks is one of the most puzzling traffic phenomena, but a thorough understanding is practically important for designing variable speed limit and ramp metering strategies. In this study, we attempt to develop a simple model of capacity drop within the framework of kinematic wave theory based on the observation that capacity drop occurs when an upstream queue forms at an active bottleneck. In addition, we assume that the fundamental diagrams are continuous in steady states. This assumption is consistent with observations and can avoid unrealistic infinite characteristic wave speeds in discontinuous fundamental diagrams. A core component of the new model is an entropy condition defined by a discontinuous boundary flux function. For a lane-drop area, we demonstrate that the model is well-defined, and its Riemann problem can be uniquely solved. We theoretically discuss traffic stability with this model subject to perturbations in density, upstream demand, and downstream supply. We clarify that discontinuous flow-density relations, or so-called "discontinuous" fundamental diagrams, are caused by incomplete observations of traffic states. Theoretical results are consistent with observations in the literature and are verified by numerical simulations and empirical observations. We finally discuss potential applications and future studies.

  18. Drop spreading at the impact in the Leidenfrost boiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castanet, G.; Caballina, O.; Lemoine, F.

    2015-06-01

    Although the Leidenfrost effect has been extensively studied in the past, one challenge for the modeling of this phenomenon remains, namely, how to determine the effect induced by the presence of a vapor film on the frictions exerted on the drop. To address this issue, experiments are carried out on liquids with very different viscosities including water, ethanol, and several mixtures of water and glycerol. The deformation of droplets of a few hundred micrometers, impinging a perfectly smooth solid surface heated above the Leidenfrost temperature, is observed by shadowgraphy using a high-speed camera. Experimental results are compared to a theoretical model which is based on an inviscid asymptotic solution for the flow inside the lamella. This model also considers a lamella thickness which does not depend on the viscosity, the surface tension, and thus on the Reynolds and Weber numbers. This description of the lamella is valid if Weber and Reynolds numbers are high enough. Mass and momentum balances applied to the rim bounding the spreading lamella yield an equation for the rim motion which is then solved numerically. This equation accounts for the momentum transferred to the rim by the liquid coming from the lamella, the capillary forces, and the viscous stress at the separation between the lamella and the rim. The comparison between the model and the experiments suggests that the liquid at the bottom edge of the lamella is dragged by the vapor film given that the vapor velocity in the vapor film is significantly larger than that of the liquid. This process significantly increases the drop spreading for the low viscosity liquids. An analysis of the viscous boundary layer which develops at the bottom edge of the lamella is found to confirm this scenario.

  19. Instabilities of volatile films and drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murisic, Nebojsa

    2008-12-01

    We report on instabilities during spreading of volatile liquids, with emphasis on the novel instability observed when isopropyl alcohol (IPA) is deposited on a monocrystalline silicon (Si) wafer. This instability is characterized by emission of drops ahead of the expanding front, with each drop followed by smaller, satellite droplets, forming the structures which we nickname "octopi" due to their appearance. A less volatile liquid, or a substrate of larger heat conductivity, suppress this instability. In addition, we examine the spreading of drops of water (DIW)-IPA mixtures on both Si wafers and plain glass slides, and describe the variety of contact line instabilities which appear. We find that the decrease of IPA concentration in mixtures leads to transition from "octopi" to mushroom-like instabilities. Through manipulation of our experimental set up, we also find that the mechanism responsible for these instabilities appears to be mostly insensitive to both the external application of convection to the gas phase, and the doping of the gas phase with vapor in order to create the saturated environment. In order to better understand the "octopi" instability, we develop a theoretical model for evaporation of a pure liquid drop on a thermally conductive solid substrate. This model includes all relevant physical effects, including evaporation, thermal conductivity in both liquid and solid, (thermocapillary) Marangoni effect, vapor recoil, disjoining pressure, and gravity. The crucial ingredient in this problem is the evaporation model, since it influences both the motion of the drop contact line, and the temperature profiles along the liquid-solid and liquid-gas interfaces. We consider two evaporation models: the equilibrium "lens" model and the non-equilibrium one-sided (NEOS) model. Along with the assumption of equilibrium at the liquid-gas interface, the "lens" model also assumes that evaporation proceeds in a (vapor) diffusion-limited regime, therefore bringing the focus to the gas phase, where the problem of vapor mass diffusion is to be solved, which invokes analogy with the problem of lens-shaped conductor from electrostatics. On the other hand, NEOS model assumes non-equilibrium at the liquid-gas interface and a reaction-limited regime of evaporation; the liquid and gas phases are decoupled using the one-sided assumption, and hence, the problem is to be solved in the liquid phase only. We use lubrication approximation and derive a single governing equation for the evolution of drop thickness, which includes both models. An experimental procedure is described next, which we use in order to estimate the volatility parameter corresponding to each model. We also describe the numerical code, which we use to solve the governing equation for drop thickness, and show how this equation can be used to predict which evaporation model is more appropriate for a particular physical problem. Next, we perform linear stability analysis (LSA) of perturbed thin film configuration. We find excellent agreement between our numerical results and LSA predictions. Furthermore, these results indicate that the IPA/Si configuration is the most unstable one, in direct agreement with experimental results. We perform numerical simulations in the simplified 2d geometry (cross section of the drop) for both planar and radial symmetry and show that our theoretical model reproduces the main features of the experiment, namely, the formation of "octopus"-like features ahead of the contact line of an evaporating drop. Finally, we perform quasi-3d numerical simulations of evaporating drops, where stability to azimuthal perturbations of the contact line is examined. We recover the "octopi" instability for IPA/Si configuration, similarly as seen in the experiments.

  20. Simulations of Evaporating Multicomponent Fuel Drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellan, Josette; Le Clercq, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    A paper presents additional information on the subject matter of Model of Mixing Layer With Multicomponent Evaporating Drops (NPO-30505), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 3 (March 2004), page 55. To recapitulate: A mathematical model of a three-dimensional mixing layer laden with evaporating fuel drops composed of many chemical species has been derived. The model is used to perform direct numerical simulations in continuing studies directed toward understanding the behaviors of sprays of liquid petroleum fuels in furnaces, industrial combustors, and engines. The model includes governing equations formulated in an Eulerian and a Lagrangian reference frame for the gas and drops, respectively, and incorporates a concept of continuous thermodynamics, according to which the chemical composition of a fuel is described by use of a distribution function. In this investigation, the distribution function depends solely on the species molar weight. The present paper reiterates the description of the model and discusses further in-depth analysis of the previous results as well as results of additional numerical simulations assessing the effect of the mass loading. The paper reiterates the conclusions reported in the cited previous article, and states some new conclusions. Some new conclusions are: 1. The slower evaporation and the evaporation/ condensation process for multicomponent-fuel drops resulted in a reduced drop-size polydispersity compared to their single-component counterpart. 2. The inhomogeneity in the spatial distribution of the species in the layer increases with the initial mass loading. 3. As evaporation becomes faster, the assumed invariant form of the molecular- weight distribution during evaporation becomes inaccurate.

  1. Scenarios, targets, gaps, and costs

    SciTech Connect

    Edmonds, James A.; Joos, Fortunat; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa; Richels, Richard G.; Sarmiento, Jorge L.

    2005-03-30

    This paper explores the connection between human activities and the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. t explores the implication of the wide range of emissions scenarios developed by the IPCC in the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios and concludes that a robust finding is that major changes will be required in the global energy system if the concentration of carbon dioxide is eventually to be stabilized.

  2. Alternative scenarios utilizing nonterrestrial resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldred, Charles H.; Roberts, Barney B.

    1992-01-01

    A collection of alternative scenarios that are enabled or substantially enhanced by the utilization of nonterrestrial resources is provided. We take a generalized approach to scenario building so that our report will have value in the context of whatever goals are eventually chosen. Some of the topics covered include the following: lunar materials processing; asteroid mining; lunar resources; construction of a large solar power station; solar dynamic power for the space station; reduced gravity; mission characteristics and options; and tourism.

  3. Causes of accidental childhood deaths in China in 2010: A systematic review and analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kit Yee; Yu, Xin–wei; Lu, Jia–peng; Demaio, Alessandro Rhyll; Bowman, Kirsty; Theodoratou, Evropi

    2015-01-01

    Background Infectious causes of childhood deaths in the world have decreased substantially in the 21st century. This trend has exposed accidental deaths as an increasingly important future challenge. Presently, little is known about the cause structure of accidental childhood deaths in low– and middle–income country (LMIC) settings. In this paper, we aim to establish cause structure for accidental deaths in children aged 0–4 years in China in the year 2010. Methods In this paper, we explored the database of 208 multi–cause child mortality studies in Chinese that formed a basis for the first published estimate of the causes of child deaths in China (for the year 2008). Only five of those studies identified specific causes of accidental deaths. Because of this, we searched the Chinese medical literature databases CNKI and WanFang for single–cause mortality studies that were focused on accidental deaths. We identified 71 further studies that provided specific causes for accidental deaths. We used epidemiological modeling to estimate the number of accidental child deaths in China in 2010 and to assign those deaths to specific causes. Results In 2010, we estimated 314?581 deaths in children 0–4 years in China, of which 31?633 (10.1%) were accidental. Accidental deaths contributed 7240 (4.0%) of all deaths in neonatal period, 8838 (10.5%) among all post–neonatal infant deaths, and 15?554 (31.7%) among children with 1–4 years of age. Among four tested models, the most predictive was used to establish the likely cause structure of accidental deaths in China. We estimated that asphyxia caused 9490 (95% confidence interval (CI) 8224–11?072), drowning 5694 (95% CI 5061–6327), traffic accidents 3796 (95% CI 3163–4745), poisoning 3163 (95% CI 2531–3796) and falls 2531 (95% CI 2214–3163) deaths. Based on medians from a few rare studies, we also predict 633 (95% CI 316–1265) deaths to be due to burns and 316 (95% CI 0–633) due to falling objects. Together, these 7 causes explain more than 80% of all accidental deaths when modeling is primarily used, and more than 95% when the analysis is based purely on medians from the 76 available studies. Conclusions Reduction in global child mortality is a leading political priority and accidental deaths will soon emerge as one of the main challenges. In this paper we provided a detailed breakdown of causes of these deaths in a large middle–income country. We noted that, wherever the share of accidental deaths among all child deaths is increased, drowning is more likely to be the leading cause; asphyxia seems to be equally important in all contexts, while traffic accidents, poisoning and falls are relatively more important in contexts where the overall share of accidents to all child deaths is low.

  4. Accidental Release of Chlorine from a Storage Facility and an On-Site Emergency Mock Drill: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Soman, Ambalathumpara Raman; Sundararaj, Gopalswamy

    2015-01-01

    In the current industrial scenario there is a serious need for formulating strategies to handle hazardous substances in the safest way. Manufacture, storage, and use of hazardous substances pose a serious risk to industry, people, and the environment. Accidental release of toxic chemicals can lead to emergencies. An emergency response plan (ERP) is inevitable to minimize the adverse effects of such releases. The on-site emergency plan is an integral component of any process safety and risk management system. This paper deals with an on-site emergency response plan for a chlorine manufacturing industry. It was developed on the basis of a previous study on chlorine release and a full scale mock drill has been conducted for testing the plan. Results indicated that properly trained personnel can effectively handle each level of incidents occurring in the process plant. As an extensive guideline to the district level government authorities for off-site emergency planning, risk zone has also been estimated with reference to a chlorine exposure threshold of 3?ppm. PMID:26171416

  5. Tracing the Scenarios in Scenario-Based Product Design: a study to support scenario generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irene Anggreeni; Mascha van der Voort

    2007-01-01

    Scenario-based design originates from the human-computer interaction and\\u000asoftware engineering disciplines, and continues to be adapted for product development.\\u000aProduct development differs from software development in the former’s more varied\\u000acontext of use, broader characteristics of users and more tangible solutions. The possible\\u000ause of scenarios in product design is therefore broader and more challenging. Existing\\u000adesign methods that involve

  6. Acute effects of nitrogen dioxide after accidental release.

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, U; Berg, D; Kohn, M A; Meriwether, R A; Nickle, R A

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Following an accidental release of nitrogen dioxide from a railroad tank car containing nitrous tetroxide, the authors undertook a study of the health effects of the release, measuring the association between acute low level exposure and pulmonary symptoms. METHODS: The authors reviewed the records of three emergency departments, surveyed 80 emergency department patients, 552 community residents, 21 chemical plant workers, and 29 emergency workers, and conducted a case-control study. Pulmonary case status was defined as having an objective pulmonary finding noted on the emergency department record, reporting that the onset of symptoms was subsequent to the release, and being within the city limits at the time of the release. Self-reported case status was defined as reporting one or more symptoms consistent with exposure to nitrogen dioxide in the week after the release and having been within the city limits at the time of the release. Control subjects were survey respondents who reported no symptoms in the week after the release and had been within the city limits at the time of the release. Chemical exposure was characterized by proximity to, direction from, and being outdoors within one hour after the release. Duration of potential exposure was not measured. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence interval for symptoms by exposure level, adjusted for age, sex, smoking, and preexisting pulmonary conditions. RESULTS: Local emergency department visits increased fivefold in the week after the release. The most common complaints recorded in a systematic sample of 528 visits in the first 30 hours after the release were headache (31%), burning eyes (30%), and sore throat (24%). Objective pulmonary findings were recorded for 41 (5%) patients in the week before and 165 (4%) in the week after the release. The odds of being a pulmonary case increased by 40% for each quarter-mile increment in proximity to the release (odds ratio [OR] 1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1, 1.7), while the odds of being a self-reported case increased by 20% for each quarter-mile increment in proximity (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1, 1.4). People who met the pulmonary case definition were 2.5 times (CI 1.3, 4.8) more likely than control subjects to have been outdoors and 6.4 times (CI 3.2, 12.6) more likely to report a preexisting pulmonary condition. Self-reported cases were 2.6 times (95% CI 1.8, 3.8) more likely than control subjects to have been outdoors and 1.9 times (95% CI 1.1, 3.1) more likely to report a preexisting pulmonary condition. CONCLUSIONS: Emergency department visits increased five-fold, but serious acute health effects were uncommon. People who met the pulmonary case definition were six times more likely to report pulmonary symptoms than those without preexisting conditions. This study was not designed to determine any potential long-term effects of exposure. PMID:9475936

  7. Laplacian drop shapes and effect of random perturbations on accuracy of surface tension measurement for different drop constellations.

    PubMed

    Saad, Sameh M I; Neumann, A Wilhelm

    2014-11-13

    Theoretical drop shapes are calculated for three drop constellations: pendant drops, constrained sessile drops, and unconstrained sessile drops. Based on total Gaussian curvature, shape parameter and critical shape parameter are discussed as a function of different drop sizes and surface tensions. The shape parameter is linked to physical parameters for every drop constellation. The as yet unavailable detailed dimensional analysis for the unconstrained sessile drop is presented. Results show that the unconstrained sessile drop shape depends on a dimensionless volume term and the contact angle. Random perturbations are introduced and the accuracy of surface tension measurement is assessed for precise and perturbed profiles of the three drop constellations. It is concluded that pendant drops are the best method for accurate surface tension measurement, followed by constrained sessile drops. The unconstrained sessile drops come last because they tend to be more spherical at low and moderate contact angles. Of course, unconstrained sessile drops are the only option if contact angles are to be measured. PMID:25466689

  8. Accidental Coverage of Both Renal Arteries during Infrarenal Aortic Stent-Graft Implantation: Cause and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bracale, Umberto Marcello; Giribono, Anna Maria; Vitale, Gaetano; Narese, Donatella; Santini, Gianpaolo; del Guercio, Luca

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report a salvage maneuver for accidental coverage of both renal arteries during endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) of an infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). A 72-year-old female with a 6?cm infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm was treated by endovascular means with a standard bifurcated graft. Upon completing an angiogram, both renal arteries were found to be accidentally occluded. Through a left percutaneous brachial approach, the right renal artery was catheterized and a chimney stent was deployed; however this was not possible for the left renal artery. A retroperitoneal surgical approach was therefore carried out with a retrograde chimney stent implanted to restore blood flow. After three months, both renal arteries were patent and renal function was not different from the baseline. Both endovascular with percutaneous access via the brachial artery and open retroperitoneal approaches with retrograde catheterization are feasible rescue techniques to recanalize the accidentally occluded renal arteries during EVAR. PMID:25544930

  9. Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) contest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The first NASA Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) student competition pilot project came to a conclusion at the Glenn Research Center in April 2001. The competition involved high-school student teams who developed the concept for a microgravity experiment and prepared an experiment proposal. The two student teams - COSI Academy, sponsored by the Columbus Center of Science and Industry, and another team from Cincinnati, Ohio's Sycamore High School, designed a microgravity experiment, fabricated the experimental apparatus, and visited NASA Glenn to operate their experiment in the 2.2 Second Drop Tower. This is the interior of the Sycamore High School (Cincinnati, Ohio) students' experiment to observe the flame spreading on a 100 percent cotton T-shirt under low-g. This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

  10. Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) contest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The first NASA Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) student competition pilot project came to a conclusion at the Glenn Research Center in April 2001. The competition involved high-school student teams who developed the concept for a microgravity experiment and prepared an experiment proposal. The two student teams - COSI Academy, sponsored by the Columbus Center of Science and Industry, and another team from Cincinnati, Ohio's Sycamore High School, designed a microgravity experiment, fabricated the experimental apparatus, and visited NASA Glenn to operate their experiment in the 2.2 Second Drop Tower. Here, students from Sycamore High School in Cincinnati, Ohio, help a NASA technician prepare their experiment. This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

  11. Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) contest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The first NASA Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) student competition pilot project came to a conclusion at the Glenn Research Center in April 2001. The competition involved high-school student teams who developed the concept for a microgravity experiment and prepared an experiment proposal. The two student teams - COSI Academy, sponsored by the Columbus Center of Science and Industry, and another team from Cincinnati, Ohio's Sycamore High School, designed a microgravity experiment, fabricated the experimental apparatus, and visited NASA Glenn to operate their experiment in the 2.2 Second Drop Tower. Here Carol Hodanbosi of the National Center for Microgravity Research and Jose Carrion, a lab mechanic with AKAC, prepare a student experiment package (inside the silver-colored frame) inside the orange-colored drag shield that encloses all experiment hardware. This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

  12. Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) Contest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The first NASA Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) student competition pilot project came to a conclusion at the Glenn Research Center in April 2001. The competition involved high-school student teams who developed the concept for a microgravity experiment and prepared an experiment proposal. The two student teams - COSI Academy, sponsored by the Columbus Center of Science and Industry, and another team from Cincinnati, Ohio's Sycamore High School, designed a microgravity experiment, fabricated the experimental apparatus, and visited NASA Glenn to operate their experiment in the 2.2 Second Drop Tower. Pictured are students from COSI Academy, Columbus, Ohio and their teacher. The other team was from Sycamore High School in Cincinnati, Ohio. This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

  13. Medical Scenarios Relevant to Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacal, Kira; Hurs, Victor; Doerr, Harold

    2004-01-01

    The Medical Operational Support Team (MOST) was tasked by the JSC Space Medicine and Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD) to incorporate medical simulation into 1) medical training for astronaut-crew medical officers (CMO) and medical flight control teams and 2) evaluations of procedures and resources required for medical care aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Development of evidence-based medical scenarios that mimic the physiology observed during spaceflight will be needed for the MOST to complete these two tasks. The MOST used a human patient simulator, the ISS-like resources in the Medical Simulation Laboratory (MSL), and evidence from space operations, military operations and medical literature to develop space relevant medical scenarios. These scenarios include conditions concerning airway management, Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) and mitigating anaphylactic symptoms. The MOST has used these space relevant medical scenarios to develop a preliminary space medical training regimen for NASA flight surgeons, Biomedical Flight Controllers (Biomedical Engineers; BME) and CMO-analogs. This regimen is conducted by the MOST in the MSL. The MOST has the capability to develop evidence-based space-relevant medical scenarios that can help SLSD I) demonstrate the proficiency of medical flight control teams to mitigate space-relevant medical events and 2) validate nextgeneration medical equipment and procedures for space medicine applications.

  14. Influence of gas properties in drop splashing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josserand, Christophe; Jian, Zhen; Popinet, Stephane; Ray, Pascal; Zaleski, Stephane; FCIH Collaboration

    2011-11-01

    We study numerically the influence of the surrounding gas in the drop impact dynamics. We observe that when super-hydrophobic boundary conditions are taken, splashing is always present, that we explain through a lubrication argument. On the other hand, when partial wetting is allowed, a splashing/spreading transition is observed. This transition is strongly influenced by the viscosity ratio but shows also a slight dependence with the gas pressure in qualitative agreement with experimental results.

  15. Tendon transfers for the drop foot.

    PubMed

    Schweitzer, Karl M; Jones, Carroll P

    2014-03-01

    The paralytic drop foot represents a challenging problem for even the most experienced orthopedic surgeon. Careful patient selection, thorough preoperative examination and planning, and application of tendon transfer biomechanical and physiologic principles outlined in this article can lead to successful results, either through a posterior tibialis tendon transfer, Bridle transfer, or variations on these procedures. Achilles lengthening or gastrocnemius recession may also be needed at the time of tendon transfer. PMID:24548510

  16. Modeling Evaporation of Drops of Different Kerosenes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellan, Josette; Harstad, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    A mathematical model describes the evaporation of drops of a hydrocarbon liquid composed of as many as hundreds of chemical species. The model is intended especially for application to any of several types of kerosenes commonly used as fuels. The concept of continuous thermodynamics, according to which the chemical composition of the evaporating multicomponent liquid is described by use of a probability distribution function (PDF). However, the present model is more generally applicable than is its immediate predecessor.

  17. Accidental ingestion of plastic from takeaway containers--food for thought.

    PubMed

    Guirgis, Marianne; Nguyen, Robert; Pokorny, Christopher

    2011-03-01

    Foreign body oesophageal obstruction is a medical emergency. It may be accidental, particularly in children, or deliberate, for example with suicide attempts. We present two cases illustrating accidental oesophageal foreign body impaction occurring after consumption of food that had been heated in a plastic container in a microwave oven, then cut and eaten directly from the softened container. To date, we are not aware of any similar reports. In view of potential complications, care needs to be taken when food is eaten directly from plastic takeaway containers. PMID:21381997

  18. Cryptogenic Drop Attacks: An Affliction of Women

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, D. L.; Matthews, W. B.

    1973-01-01

    A drop attack was defined as falling without warning, not apparently due to any malfunction of the legs, not induced by change of posture or movement of the head, and not accompanied by vertigo or other cephalic sensation. All 33 patients attending a neurological clinic with a primary complaint fulfilling these criteria were women, and a further seven examples were found by questioning 200 consecutive patients at a gynaecological clinic. No affected male was found. In all but one patient, falls occurred only when walking. They were not due to wearing high-heeled shoes. The average age at onset was 44·5 years and in younger women onset was often during pregnancy. The accepted causes of drop attacks were not found with certainty in any of these patients. The sex incidence and the circumstances of the falls suggest that the cause may lie in differences between the two sexes in the mechanism of walking rather than in any central disturbance. Drop attacks in women commonly occur as an isolated symptom for many years, and although distressing have no serious prognostic implications. PMID:4689829

  19. Organization of microbeads in Leidenfrost drops.

    PubMed

    Maquet, Laurent; Colinet, Pierre; Dorbolo, Stéphane

    2014-06-21

    We investigated the organization of micrometric hydrophilic beads (glass or basalt) immersed in Leidenfrost drops. Starting from a large volume of water compared to the volume of the beads, while the liquid evaporates, we observed that the grains are eventually trapped at the interface of the droplet and accumulate. At a moment, the grains entirely cover the droplet. We measured the surface area at this moment as a function of the total mass of particles inserted in the droplet. We concluded that the grains form a monolayer around the droplet assuming (i) that the packing of the beads at the surface is a random close packing and (ii) that the initial surface of the drop is larger than the maximum surface that the beads can cover. Regarding the evaporation dynamics, the beads are found to reduce the evaporation rate of the drop. The slowdown of the evaporation is interpreted as being the consequence of the dewetting of the particles located at the droplet interface which makes the effective surface of evaporation smaller. As a matter of fact, contact angles of the beads with the water deduced from the evaporation rates are consistent with contact angles of beads directly measured at a flat air-water interface of water in a container. PMID:24705688

  20. Cusp formation in drops inside Taylor cones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin, Alvaro G.; Loscertales, Ignacio G.; Barrero, Antonio

    2005-11-01

    Here, we report the formation of cusp in insulating drops inside compound Taylor cones. The action of the electrical shear stress acting on the outer interface, which is transmitted by viscous forces inside the Taylor cone, tends to deform the drop of insulating liquid placed inside. For appropriate values of the capillary number, the insulating drop develops a steady cusp angle which depends on both the capillary number and the conducting to insulating viscosity ratio. A self-similar analysis has been developed to qualitatively describe the flow inside these compounds Taylor cones. Any perturbation of the cusp gives rise to an intermittent emission of tiny droplets; this effect may recall the tip-streaming observed by G.I. Taylor in his four-roll mill device. This emission can be stabilized by an appropriate control of the injected flow rate of the insulating liquid. When the capillary number increases, the cusped interface turns into a spout which flows coated by the conducting liquid forming the electrified coaxial jet which has been successfully employed for the production of nanocapsules, coaxial nanofibers and nanotubes (Science 295, n. 5560, 1695, 2002; JACS 126, 5376, 2004).

  1. Viscosity Measurement using Drop Coalescence in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antar, Basil N.; Ethridge, Edwin; Maxwell, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    We present in here details of a new method, using drop coalescence, for application in microgravity environment for determining the viscosity of highly viscous undercooled liquids. The method has the advantage of eliminating heterogeneous nucleation at container walls caused by crystallization of undercooled liquids during processing. Also, due to the rapidity of the measurement, homogeneous nucleation would be avoided. The technique relies on both a highly accurate solution to the Navier-Stokes equations as well as on data gathered from experiments conducted in near zero gravity environment. The liquid viscosity is determined by allowing the computed free surface shape relaxation time to be adjusted in response to the measured free surface velocity of two coalescing drops. Results are presented from two validation experiments of the method which were conducted recently on board the NASA KC-135 aircraft. In these tests the viscosity of a highly viscous liquid, such as glycerine at different temperatures, was determined to reasonable accuracy using the liquid coalescence method. The experiments measured the free surface velocity of two glycerine drops coalescing under the action of surface tension alone in low gravity environment using high speed photography. The free surface velocity was then compared with the computed values obtained from different viscosity values. The results of these experiments were found to agree reasonably well with the calculated values.

  2. Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) Contest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The first NASA Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) student competition pilot project came to a conclusion at the Glenn Research Center in April 2001. The competition involved high-school student teams who developed the concept for a microgravity experiment and prepared an experiment proposal. The two student teams - COSI Academy, sponsored by the Columbus Center of Science and Industry, and another team from Cincinnati, Ohio's Sycamore High School, designed a microgravity experiment, fabricated the experimental apparatus, and visited NASA Glenn to operate their experiment in the 2.2 Second Drop Tower. NASA and contractor personnel who conducted the DIME activity with the students. Shown (L-R) are: Daniel Dietrich (NASA) mentor for Sycamore High School team), Carol Hodanbosi (National Center for Microgravity Research; DIME staff), Jose Carrion (GRC Akima, drop tower technician), Dennis Stocker (NASA; DIME staff), Richard DeLombard (NASA; DIME staff), Sandi Thompson (NSMR sabbatical teacher; DIME staff), Peter Sunderland (NCMR, mentor for COSI Academy student team), Adam Malcolm (NASA co-op student; DIME staff). This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

  3. Controlling drop coalescence using nano-engineered surfaces

    E-print Network

    Corral, Manuel, Jr

    2011-01-01

    The dynamics of drop coalescence are explored on micro-scale surface features for the first time. Drop coalescence is defined as a process by which two or more droplets, bubbles or particles merge during contact to form a ...

  4. Sessile drop studies on polybromide/zinc-bromine battery electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, K.; Leach, S. C.

    1982-08-01

    The sessile drop method was employed to examine the interfacial tension and contact angle of polybromide oil drops. Bromine in equilibrium with an aqueous phase and a polybromide oil phase were added to a battery cell with a ruthenized titanium electrode with the electrode surface facing up. A polybromide oil drop was placed on the electrode surface while the height of the drop was measured with a cathetometer and 35 mm photographs were taken of the drop profiles. The sessile drop was analyzed to find the interfacial tension and contact angle of the drop. Interfacial tensions were calculated which were lower than reported for two-phase systems having organic and aqueous phases. The results are regarded as significant for applications of zinc-bromine batteries, indicating that small polybromide oil phase drops can enhance the mass transfer of bromine from a polybromide to the electrode.

  5. Flow visualization and characterization of evaporating liquid drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, David F. (Inventor); Zhang, Nengli (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    An optical system, consisting of drop-reflection image, reflection-refracted shadowgraphy and top-view photography, is used to measure the spreading and instant dynamic contact angle of a volatile-liquid drop on a non-transparent substrate. The drop-reflection image and the shadowgraphy is shown by projecting the images of a collimated laser beam partially reflected by the drop and partially passing through the drop onto a screen while the top view photograph is separately viewed by use of a camera video recorder and monitor. For a transparent liquid on a reflective solid surface, thermocapillary convection in the drop, induced by evaporation, can be viewed nonintrusively, and the drop real-time profile data are synchronously recorded by video recording systems. Experimental results obtained from this technique clearly reveal that evaporation and thermocapillary convection greatly affect the spreading process and the characteristics of dynamic contact angle of the drop.

  6. 14 CFR 23.727 - Reserve energy absorption drop test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Reserve energy absorption drop test. 23.727 Section 23...Gear § 23.727 Reserve energy absorption drop test. (a) If compliance with the reserve energy absorption requirement in §...

  7. 14 CFR 23.727 - Reserve energy absorption drop test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Reserve energy absorption drop test. 23.727 Section 23...Gear § 23.727 Reserve energy absorption drop test. (a) If compliance with the reserve energy absorption requirement in §...

  8. 14 CFR 23.727 - Reserve energy absorption drop test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Reserve energy absorption drop test. 23.727 Section 23...Gear § 23.727 Reserve energy absorption drop test. (a) If compliance with the reserve energy absorption requirement in §...

  9. Tandem wheel drop-legs for standard truck trailer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantwell, W.; Selstad, R.

    1970-01-01

    Tandem wheel drop-leg device provides a semitrailer with fore and aft mobility that allows it to be moved without a prime mover. The modified drop-legs have trunnion dual wheels and an adjustable brace.

  10. 49 CFR 236.758 - Lock, electric, forced drop.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Lock, electric, forced drop. 236.758 Section 236.758...Definitions § 236.758 Lock, electric, forced drop. An electric lock in which the locking member is mechanically forced down to the locked...

  11. 49 CFR 236.758 - Lock, electric, forced drop.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Lock, electric, forced drop. 236.758 Section 236.758...Definitions § 236.758 Lock, electric, forced drop. An electric lock in which the locking member is mechanically forced down to the locked...

  12. 49 CFR 236.758 - Lock, electric, forced drop.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Lock, electric, forced drop. 236.758 Section 236.758...Definitions § 236.758 Lock, electric, forced drop. An electric lock in which the locking member is mechanically forced down to the locked...

  13. 49 CFR 236.758 - Lock, electric, forced drop.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Lock, electric, forced drop. 236.758 Section 236.758...Definitions § 236.758 Lock, electric, forced drop. An electric lock in which the locking member is mechanically forced down to the locked...

  14. 49 CFR 236.758 - Lock, electric, forced drop.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Lock, electric, forced drop. 236.758 Section 236.758...Definitions § 236.758 Lock, electric, forced drop. An electric lock in which the locking member is mechanically forced down to the locked...

  15. Effects of surfactants on the deformation of microfluidic drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordero, Maria Luisa; Ulloa, Camilo

    2013-11-01

    A microfluidic analog of the four-roll-mill experiment is used to study the deformation and breakup of microfluidic drops. The behavior of water drops flowing in mineral oil is quantified as a function of the capillary number, Ca , which is based on the oil viscosity, drop radius, flow shear rate and equilibrium interfacial tension, both in the presence and absence of surfactants. In the absence of surfactants the deformation of the drops increases linearly with Ca . If surfactants are added to the carrier oil then, for the same value of Ca , drops deform less if the flow velocity is larger. Moreover, for a given drop size in the presence of surfactants, drops begin to split at a threshold shear rate but stop breaking if the shear rate is increased beyond a second threshold. These observations are explained by a decrease in the surfactant concentration at the surface of the drop due to advection of surfactant molecules by the oil flow. This increases the interfacial tension, thus making the drop less deformable for higher flow velocities. We use the deformation of the drops to infer the mean interfacial tension and from this we quantify the surface concentration of surfactants at the drop interface. A microfluidic analog of the four-roll-mill experiment is used to study the deformation and breakup of microfluidic drops. The behavior of water drops flowing in mineral oil is quantified as a function of the capillary number, Ca , which is based on the oil viscosity, drop radius, flow shear rate and equilibrium interfacial tension, both in the presence and absence of surfactants. In the absence of surfactants the deformation of the drops increases linearly with Ca . If surfactants are added to the carrier oil then, for the same value of Ca , drops deform less if the flow velocity is larger. Moreover, for a given drop size in the presence of surfactants, drops begin to split at a threshold shear rate but stop breaking if the shear rate is increased beyond a second threshold. These observations are explained by a decrease in the surfactant concentration at the surface of the drop due to advection of surfactant molecules by the oil flow. This increases the interfacial tension, thus making the drop less deformable for higher flow velocities. We use the deformation of the drops to infer the mean interfacial tension and from this we quantify the surface concentration of surfactants at the drop interface. Work supported by FONDECYT 11100204.

  16. Drop\\/impact simulation and test validation of telecommunication products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason Wu; Guoshu Song; Chao-pin Yeh; Karl Wyatt

    1998-01-01

    Portable communication devices suffer impact-induced failure in usage. The products must pass drop\\/impact tests before shipment. The drop\\/impact performance is an important concern in product design. Due to the small size of this kind of electronic products, it is very expensive, time-consuming, and difficult to conduct drop tests to detect the failure mechanism and identify the drop behaviour. Finite element

  17. Dynamics of the vapor layer below a Leidenfrost drop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caswell, Thomas A.

    2014-07-01

    In the Leidenfrost effect a small drop of fluid is levitated, above a sufficiently hot surface, on a persistent vapor layer generated by evaporation from the drop. The vapor layer thermally insulates the drop from the surface leading to extraordinarily long drop lifetimes. The top-view shape of the levitated drops can exhibit persistent starlike vibrations. I extend recent work [Burton et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 074301 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.074301] to study the bottom surface of the drop using interference imaging. In this work I use a high-speed camera and automated image analysis to image, locate, and classify the interference fringes. From the interference fringes I reconstruct the shape and height profile of the rim where the drop is closest to the surface. I measure the drop-size dependence of the planar vibrational mode frequencies, which agree well with previous work. I observe a distinct breathing mode in the average radius of the drop, the frequency of which scales differently with drop size than the other modes. This breathing mode can be tightly coupled to a vertical motion of the drop. I further observe a qualitative difference in the structure and dynamics of the vertical profile of the rim between large and small drops.

  18. Delayed Frost Growth on Jumping-Drop Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Boreyko, Jonathan B [ORNL; Collier, Pat [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Self-propelled jumping drops are continuously removed from a condensing superhydrophobic surface to enable a micrometric steady-state drop size. Here, we report that subcooled condensate on a chilled superhydrophobic surface are able to repeatedly jump off the surface before heterogeneous ice nucleation occurs. Frost still forms on the superhydrophobic surface due to ice nucleation at neighboring edge defects, which eventually spreads over the entire surface via an inter-drop frost wave. The growth of this inter-drop frost front is shown to be up to three times slower on the superhydrophobic surface compared to a control hydrophobic surface, due to the jumping-drop effect dynamically minimizing the average drop size and surface coverage of the condensate. A simple scaling model is developed to relate the success and speed of inter-drop ice bridging to the drop size distribution. While other reports of condensation frosting on superhydrophobic surfaces have focused exclusively on liquid-solid ice nucleation for isolated drops, these findings reveal that the growth of frost is an inter-drop phenomenon that is strongly coupled to the wettability and drop size distribution of the surface. A jumping-drop superhydrophobic condenser was found to be superior to a conventional dropwise condenser in two respects: preventing heterogeneous ice nucleation by continuously removing subcooled condensate, and delaying frost growth by minimizing the success of interdrop ice bridge formation.

  19. Data-link packet dropping models for wireless local communications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michele Zorzi

    2002-01-01

    Packet dropping statistics is studied for three data-link retransmission schemes, where packets are dropped at the transmitter due to: (1) buffer overflow; (2) too many transmission attempts; and (3) excessive delay. An analytical framework for the computation of the complete statistics of the dropping process and of the delay is presented and some numerical results are discussed. In particular, the

  20. Drop Testing of DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel Canisters

    SciTech Connect

    S. D. Snow; D. K. Morton; T. E. Rahl; R. K. Blandford; T. J. Hill

    2005-07-01

    The National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory INEEL) prepared four representative Department of Energy DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) canisters for the purpose of drop testing. The first two canisters represented a modified 24- inch diameter standardized DOE SNF canister and the second two canisters represented the Hanford Multi-Canister Overpack MCO). The modified canisters and internals were constructed and assembled at the INEEL. The MCO internal weights were fabricated at the INEEL and assembled into two MCOs at Hanford and later shipped to the INEEL for drop test preparation. Drop testing of these four canisters was completed in August 2004 at Sandia National Laboratories. The modified canisters were dropped from 30 feet onto a flat, essentially unyielding surface, with the canisters oriented at 45 degrees and 70 degrees off-vertical at impact. One representative MCO was dropped from 23 feet onto the same flat surface, oriented vertically at impact. The second representative MCO was dropped onto the flat surface from 2 feet oriented at 60 degrees off-vertical. These drop heights and orientations were chosen to meet or exceed the Yucca Mountain repository drop criteria. This paper discusses the comparison of deformations between the actual dropped canisters and those predicted by pre-drop and limited post-drop finite element evaluations performed using ABAQUS/Explicit. Post-drop containment of all four canisters, demonstrated by way of helium leak testing, is also discussed.

  1. Experimental Investigation of Gravity- and Wind-Forced Drop Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmucker, Jason; White, Edward

    2012-11-01

    The stability of drops on surfaces subject to forcing by wind and gravity is relevant to heat exchangers, fuel cells, and aircraft icing. To investigate this phenomenon, drops were placed on the rough aluminum floor of a tiltable wind tunnel and brought to critical conditions over a range of drop size, inclination angle, and flow speed. A technique capable of measuring full 3D drop profiles was used to investigate the drops' evolution toward runback. The measurement uses a comparison of the surface speckle pattern captured in an overhead drop image with a corresponding image of the dry surface to measure drop shape. Drops forced by airflow alone are found to shed at a Weber number of 8 . 0 +/- 0 . 5 for this system with advancing and receding contact angles of ?a = 63 .5° +/- 3 .7° and ?r = 8 .2° +/- 1 .5° . Drops at larger surface inclinations shed at lower Weber number. From reconstructed drop profile sequences, the evolution of contact lines, drop profiles, and contact angle distributions are detailed. Contact line adhesion forces are integrated and related to the forcing air velocity. Drops whose stability limits are dominated by gravity are found to exhibit significantly different evolution toward runback than those dominated by airflow. Supported by NSF Grant CBET-0828469.

  2. The Illustrated Topology of Liquid Drops during Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libii, Josue Njock

    2004-01-01

    High-speed photography can show that the shape often used for a newly forming drop is wrong. Knowledge of drop behaviour is important for inkjet printers, and a close look at the formation of drops as given here can enhance critical observation, thinking and analysis.

  3. MSE Egg Drop Contest Offical Rules Sponsored by

    E-print Network

    Tennessee, University of

    MSE Egg Drop Contest Offical Rules Sponsored by: The competition is sponsored by the Department on the materials used that will protect a "free range" grade A egg from breaking when dropped. Scoring: The score = Number of parts DZ = Drop Zone EIF = Egg Integrity Factor (1 is not cracked or 0 if cracked) · As can

  4. IR-Thermography of Evaporating Acoustically Levitated Drops

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Tuckermann; S. Bauerecker; H. K. Cammenga

    2005-01-01

    The surface temperature of evaporating acoustically levitated drops has been monitored by IR-thermography. The thermography system has been calibrated by simultaneous measurements with a thin thermocouple. The integral IR-emission coefficients of a few pure liquids have been derived. Evaporation processes of pure liquids and of binary mixtures of liquids have been studied with levitated drops. Using drop surface temperatures, we

  5. Optical add-drop multiplexers based on autocloned photonic crystals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masayuki Shirane; Akiko Gomyo; Kenta Miura; Yasuo Ohtera; Hirohito Yamada; Shojiro Kawakami

    2005-01-01

    We describe and demonstrate the operation of optical add-drop multiplexers (OADMs) based on photonic crystal (PC) structures fabricated by autocloning technology. In these OADMs, a three-dimensional PC structure was utilized as a Bragg reflector. We obtained a drop bandwidth of 2 nm at a wavelength of 1560 nm. We also demonstrate for the first time add and drop operations of

  6. Dropping out from School. Policy Brief Number 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Frances

    2009-01-01

    While initial access to education is increasing in many countries, drop out rates continue to be high. This seriously affects MDG and EFA goals around educational access. This briefing paper looks at the issue of dropping out from school. It is based on the CREATE Pathways to Access Research Monograph, "Dropping out from school: a cross country…

  7. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES. VOLUME 1. PREVENTION AND PROTECTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR CONTROLLING ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF AIR TOXICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volume discusses prevention and protection measures for controlling accidental releases of air toxics. The probability of accidental releases depends on the extent to which deviations (in magnitude and duration) in the process can be tolerated before a loss of chemical contai...

  8. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES, VOL. 2. POST-RELEASE MITIGATION MEASURES FOR CONTROLLING ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF AIR TOXICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volume discusses prevention and protection measures for controlling accidental releases of air toxics. The probability of accidental releases depends on the extent to which deviations (in magnitude and duration) in the process can be tolerated before a loss of chemical contai...

  9. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES, VOLUME 2: POST-RELEASE MITIGATION MEASURES FOR CONTROLLING ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF AIR TOXICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volume discusses prevention and protection measures for controlling accidental releases of air toxics. The probability of accidental releases depends on the extent to which deviations (in magnitude and duration) in the process can be tolerated before a loss of chemical contai...

  10. Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - Comparison of the models and their utility for the fire brigades

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Stenzel; K. Baumann-Stanzer

    2009-01-01

    Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - Comparison of the models and their utility for the fire brigades. Sirma Stenzel, Kathrin Baumann-Stanzer In the case of accidental release of hazardous gases in the atmosphere, the emergency responders need a reliable and fast tool to assess the possible consequences and apply the optimal countermeasures. For hazard prediction and simulation

  11. 36 CFR 1230.16 - How does NARA handle allegations of unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does NARA handle allegations of unlawful or accidental...DESTRUCTION OF RECORDS § 1230.16 How does NARA handle allegations of unlawful or accidental...alienation, or unauthorized destruction, NARA will contact the agency as follows:...

  12. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 2. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF CHLORINE (SCAQMD) (SOUTH COAST AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT DISTRICT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The manual discusses reducing the risk associated with an accidental release of chlorine. It identifies some of the potential causes of accidental releases that apply to the processes that use chlorine. It also identifies examples of potential causes, as well as measures that may...

  13. Drop-by-drop chemical reaction and sample introduction for capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fengming; Rang, Ying; Weng, Ying; Lin, Luyao; Zeng, Hulie; Nakajim, Hizuru; Lin, Jin-Ming; Uchiyama, Katsumi

    2015-06-21

    In this paper, we report a novel sample introduction and chemical reaction strategy by drop-by-drop inkjet injection for an electrophoretically mediated microanalysis (EMMA). This method makes it possible to achieve an on-line introduction of reactant solutions by alternately ejecting small plugs, with an overlapping region of the plugs for mixing the reactants by electrophoresis, supporting chemical reactions, followed by electrophoretic separation of the final compounds. As a proof-of-concept of the method, the EMMA of an inkjetted mixture of 4-fluoro-7-nitrobenzofurazan (NBD-F) and amino acids was carried out as a model chemical reaction. The product NBD-amino acids were quantified by detection with laser induced fluorescence. The optimal conditions for the procedure were: inkjet driving voltage: +40-44 V; pulse width: 20-24 ?s; drop-by-drop injection of reactant solutions: alternately 2 drops × 25 times for the amino acid solution and the NBD-F solution; zone overlapping voltage and time: 3 kV and 2 s; incubation time after overlapping: 5 min; separation voltage: 18 kV. Under the optimized conditions, a significant enhancement in sensitivity and a sensitive quantitative analysis were realized. The results obtained were comparable with those using the off-line labeling method. This method is rapid, cost-effective, and readily automated for EMMA. PMID:25728632

  14. Future Scenarios and Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopnina, Helen

    2014-01-01

    This article explores a number of questions about visions of the future and their implications for environmental education (EE). If the future were known, what kind of actions would be needed to maintain the positive aspects and reverse the negative ones? How could these actions be translated into the aims of EE? Three future scenarios are…

  15. Space resources. Volume 1: Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Mary Fae (editor); Mckay, David S. (editor); Duke, Michael B. (editor)

    1992-01-01

    A number of possible future paths for space exploration and development are presented. The topics covered include the following: (1) the baseline program; (2) alternative scenarios utilizing nonterrestrial resources; (3) impacts of sociopolitical conditions; (4) common technologies; and issues for further study.

  16. Clean energy scenarios for Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hugh Saddler; Mark Diesendorf; Richard Denniss

    2007-01-01

    Australia, a major producer and user of coal, has the highest per capita greenhouse gas emissions in the industrialised world. This study investigates whether in theory such a ‘fossil-fuel dependent’ country could achieve a 50% reduction in CO2 emissions from stationary energy by 2040, compared with its 2001 emissions. To do this scenarios are developed, using a combination of forecasting

  17. Transportation scenarios for risk analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, Ruth F.

    2010-09-01

    Transportation risk, like any risk, is defined by the risk triplet: what can happen (the scenario), how likely it is (the probability), and the resulting consequences. This paper evaluates the development of transportation scenarios, the associated probabilities, and the consequences. The most likely radioactive materials transportation scenario is routine, incident-free transportation, which has a probability indistinguishable from unity. Accident scenarios in radioactive materials transportation are of three different types: accidents in which there is no impact on the radioactive cargo, accidents in which some gamma shielding may be lost but there is no release of radioactive material, and accident in which radioactive material may potentially be released. Accident frequencies, obtainable from recorded data validated by the U.S. Department of Transportation, are considered equivalent to accident probabilities in this study. Probabilities of different types of accidents are conditional probabilities, conditional on an accident occurring, and are developed from event trees. Development of all of these probabilities and the associated highway and rail accident event trees are discussed in this paper.

  18. Aluminum: Principled Scenario Exploration through Minimality

    E-print Network

    Dougherty, Daniel J.

    Aluminum: Principled Scenario Exploration through Minimality Tim Nelson1, Salman Saghafi1, Daniel J. We present Aluminum, a modification of Alloy that presents only minimal scenarios: those that contain no more than is necessary. Aluminum lets users explore the scenario space by adding to scenarios

  19. Aluminum: Principled Scenario Exploration through Minimality

    E-print Network

    Krishnamurthi, Shriram

    Aluminum: Principled Scenario Exploration through Minimality Tim Nelson1, Salman Saghafi1, Daniel J Aluminum, a modification of Alloy that presents only minimal scenarios: those that contain no more than is necessary. Aluminum lets users explore the scenario space by adding to scenarios and backtracking. It also

  20. Sheltering--a protective measure following an accidental atmospheric release from a nuclear power plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean Koch; Jacob Tadmor

    1988-01-01

    The effectiveness of sheltering the population for reducing radiological effects following an accidental release of radioactivity at a nuclear power plant was investigated. Different levels of respiratory protection and the administration of a thyroid blocking agent were also studied as possible complements to sheltering. Specific conditions were assumed, concerning the high protection factors of regular buildings and the high availability

  1. New Tracers Identify Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids and Accidental Releases from Oil and Gas Operations

    E-print Network

    Jackson, Robert B.

    New Tracers Identify Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids and Accidental Releases from Oil and Gas fingerprints of fluids that return to the surface after high volume hydraulic fracturing of unconventional oil elemental and isotopic signatures (B/Cl, Li/Cl, 11 B, and 7 Li) useful for characterizing hydraulic

  2. Effectiveness of water spray mitigation systems for accidental releases of hydrogen fluoride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. W. Schatz; R. P. Koopman

    1989-01-01

    Accidental releases of pressurized, superheated hydrogen fluoride (HF) can result in initially dense clouds which will typically contain a mixture of HF vapor, aerosol, and droplets. Previous experiments were performed by Amoco Oil Company and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (the Goldfish series in 1986) to study atmospheric dispersion of these HF clouds. The present study examines the effect of water

  3. Effectiveness of water spray mitigation systems for accidental releases of hydrogen fluoride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Holve; T. L. Harvill

    1989-01-01

    Accidental release of pressurized, superheated hydrogen fluoride (HF) can result in initially dense clouds which will typically contain a mixture of HF vapor, aerosol, and droplets. Previous experiments were performed by Amoco Oil Company and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (the Goldfish series in 1986) to study atmospheric dispersion of these HF clouds. The present study examines the effect of water

  4. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOL. 15: CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF SULFUR TRIOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report, discussing sulfur trioxide (SO3), is one of a series addressing the prevention of accidental releases of toxic chemicals. SO3, a clear oily liquid or solid at typical ambient conditions, has an Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) concentration of 20 ppm, w...

  5. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC, VOLUME 15: CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF SULFUR TRIOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report, discussing sulfur trioxide (SO3), is one of a series addressing the prevention of accidental releases of toxic chemicals. SO3, a clear oily liquid or solid at typical ambient conditions, has an Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) concentration of 20 ppm, w...

  6. Non-accidental injury in children: what we do in Derby

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L J Arthur; W M Moncrieff; W Milburn; P S Bayliss; J Heath

    1976-01-01

    A scheme for dealing with cases of non-accidental injury in children in the Derby clinical area has been operating since 1971. A stable team of doctors, policemen, and social workers deal with each case. The parents are told at once that battering is suspected, and the police and social services department co-operate closely in establishing the facts, supporting the family,

  7. Feedback information of an accidental ammonia dispersion: use of phyto-references

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aurélia Dandrieux; Gilles Dusserre; James Ollivier; Dominique Manzone

    2001-01-01

    The data from accidental releases of toxic gas to the atmosphere are incomplete because of the lack of information concerning the measurement of the concentrations emitted. Their estimation based on plants' responses to toxic gas exposure would provide an interesting tool to improve feedback from the incidents. With this in mind, preliminary studies on the response of plants to several

  8. [Cardiotoxic and neurotoxic effects after accidental intravascular bupivacaine administration. Therapy with lidocaine propofol and lipid emulsion].

    PubMed

    Zimmer, C; Piepenbrink, K; Riest, G; Peters, J

    2007-05-01

    Accidental intravascular administration of bupivacaine can cause severe neurotoxic and cardiotoxic effects. We report a case of suspected bupivacaine intoxication due to intravascular injection via an epidural catheter and treatment with lidocaine, propofol, and a 20% lipid emulsion resulting in fast resolution of cardiotoxic and neurotoxic effects. Possible mechanisms of action of the medications used are discussed. PMID:17277955

  9. Vibration behavior and response to an accidental collision of SFT prototype in Qiandao Lake (China)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuangyin Zhang; Lei Wang; Youshi Hong

    2010-01-01

    This article presents free vibration analysis of the submerged floating tunnel (SFT) prototype, which has been designed to be built in Qiandao Lake (China). As an approximation the supporting effect of the tethers is omitted in the calculation of beam-like bending vibrations. As a case study, the response of the SFT prototype to an accidental collision by an object like

  10. Accidental Federated Searching: Implementing Federated Searching in the Smaller Academic Library

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nina McHale

    2007-01-01

    Borrowing its title from and continuing in the vein of Rachel Gordon Singer's book, The Accidental Systems Librarian, this article explores issues raised during implementation of federated search in the smaller academic library. Smaller academic libraries have smaller budgets and are less likely to have the levels of information technology support required to undertake large scale electronic projects; however, these

  11. Framework for preventing accidental falls in hospitals - management plan for ADL, medication and medical conditions.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shogo; Tsuru, Satoko; Iizuka, Yoshinori

    2009-01-01

    Prevention and reduction of medical accidents is essential. Among medical accidents, accidental falls remain a serious problem. While "assessment score sheets" have already been used in hospitals to prevent accidental falls, satisfactory results have not actually been achieved. In this study, we aim to establish a methodology for preventing accidental falls. We consider that the 'management plan' for each patient includes three factors. A plan of instructions for patients on actions they can take for safety in their ADL (Activities of Daily Living) is essential as a base. Second, a plan to keep up with any short term change in a patient's state is needed, because the state of a hospitalized patient will usually be temporarily affected by medication and changing medical conditions. We develop a model for preventing accidental falls, which enable us to design appropriate management plan for each patient. Then, we develop a prototype system based on the designed model. Finally, we address the result of verification of the model, by applying the prototype system into actual cases in hospitals. PMID:19592884

  12. The Woodstruck Deed The Documentation of Accidental Defloration among the Jews of Early Modern Italy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Malkiel

    2006-01-01

    The “woodstruck” (mukat ets) deed, a Hebrew document that officially records the accidental defloration of a young girl, appears in sixteenth-century Italy, in a block of deeds recorded by Jewish notaries in Rome, in a rabbinic responsum and in the record book of the Padua community. Prior to that, there is no record of such an instrument anywhere in Jewish

  13. Treatment of accidental digital injection of adrenaline from an auto-injector device.

    PubMed Central

    McGovern, S J

    1997-01-01

    Following an increase in the number of patients attending the accident and emergency department because of accidental injection of adrenaline from autoinjector devices prescribed for patients with severe allergic reactions, a review of published reports was undertaken to identify the best form of treatment. Local injection of phentolamine is effective for up to 13 hours after the inadvertent digital instillation of adrenaline. PMID:9413778

  14. Treatment of accidental digital injection of adrenaline from an auto-injector device.

    PubMed

    McGovern, S J

    1997-11-01

    Following an increase in the number of patients attending the accident and emergency department because of accidental injection of adrenaline from autoinjector devices prescribed for patients with severe allergic reactions, a review of published reports was undertaken to identify the best form of treatment. Local injection of phentolamine is effective for up to 13 hours after the inadvertent digital instillation of adrenaline. PMID:9413778

  15. Treatment of accidental digital injection of adrenaline from an auto-injector device

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S J McGovern

    1997-01-01

    Following an increase in the number of patients attending the accident and emergency department because of accidental injection of adrenaline from autoinjector devices prescribed for patients with severe allergic reactions, a review of published reports was undertaken to identify the best form of treatment. Local injection of phentolamine is effective for up to 13 hours after the inadvertent digital instillation

  16. Accidental pinhole and pinspeck cameras: revealing the scene outside the picture Antonio Torralba, William T. Freeman

    E-print Network

    Freeman, William T.

    of a building, etc.). Accidental cameras can reveal information about the scene outside the image, the lighting by intentionally building a particular arrangement of surfaces that will result in a cam- era. However, similar-1-4673-1228-8/12/$31.00 ©2012 IEEE 374 IEEE Computer Vision and Pattern Recogniti

  17. Accidental Entry of Fish into Throat While Bathing in a Pond

    PubMed Central

    Parida, Pradipta Kumar; Surianarayanan, Gopalakrishnan

    2013-01-01

    While fish bones are common foreign bodies in the throat, a whole live fish in the pharynx is very rare. We report a case where a whole fish accidentally entered the throat of a 52-year-old male, where it became lodged causing throat pain and dysphagia. The fish was removed as an emergency procedure. PMID:24371443

  18. Multiple scattering and accidental coincidences in the J-PET detector simulated using GATE package

    E-print Network

    Kowalski, P; Wi?licki, W; Raczy?ski, L; Bednarski, T; Bia?as, P; Bu?ka, J; Czerwi?ski, E; Gajos, A; Gruntowski, A; Kami?ska, D; Kap?on, ?; Kochanowski, A; Korcyl, G; Kowal, J; Kozik, T; Krzemie?, W; Kubicz, E; Nied?wiecki, Sz; Pa?ka, M; Rudy, Z; Salabura, P; Sharma, N G; Silarski, M; S?omski, A; Smyrski, J; Strzelecki, A; Wieczorek, A; Wochlik, I; Zieli?ski, M; Zo?, N

    2015-01-01

    Novel Positron Emission Tomography system, based on plastic scintillators, is developed by the J-PET collaboration. In order to optimize geometrical configuration of built device, advanced computer simulations are performed. Detailed study is presented of background given by accidental coincidences and multiple scattering of gamma quanta.

  19. [Accidental asymptomatic infections with hephatitis B virus and testing on HBV markers of healthcare personnel].

    PubMed

    Saci?, Enes; Saci?, Dzana

    2008-01-01

    Healthcare personnel is being highly exposed to the professional risk of Hephatitis B virus infection by accidental professional injuries, where direct contact with patients blood occurs. Number of researches indicate significance and role of accidental injuries, especially over injection needles, which is leading cause for professional HBV infections occurence. HBsAg has capability to provoke imune system if applied to a man, to HBs anti-bodies production achieving thus protection from Hephatitis B Virus. Recombinant vaccine against viruse Hephatitis B achieves high imunology protection. It is considered that appereance of anti-HBs titre >10 mlU/ml upon received three doses of vaccine provides reliable protection from HBV infection. Aim of the work is to prove rates of asymptomatic HBV infection amongst healthcare personnel and other employees in Sarajevo Healthcare Institution, and to research occurence and rate of anti-HBs titre at vaccinated Healthcare personnel in Sarajevo Healthcare Institution one month upon received third dose of vaccine. Out of 980 examinees 4, or 0.41%, had acute HBV infection within research period, 10 or 1.02% examinees had chronical accidental HBV infection, 18 or 1.83 % out of 980 examinees had previous asymptomatic HBV infection, as the consequence of accidental injury. Results of these researches indicated that 82.76 % or 96 healthcare workers has had reliable protection from HB virus infection one month upon third vaccine dose against HBV, since achieved titres where higher than 10 mlU/ml. PMID:18669231

  20. [Factors associated with the danger of accidental falls among institutionalized elderly individuals: an integrative review].

    PubMed

    Gomes, Erika Carla Cavalcanti; Marques, Ana Paula de Oliveira; Leal, Márcia Carréra Campos; Barros, Benvinda Pereira de

    2014-08-01

    The scope of this research is to identify the major risk factors associated with accidental falls among the elderly. It involves an integrative review of the literature between 2002 and 2012 in English and Portuguese. The selection of articles was based on the following key words in the Lilacs, Medline and BDENF databases: accidental falls, homes for the elderly and health services. In the final sample 19 articles were selected, of which 11 were national and 8 were international. They indicate that the major factors related to the risk of accidental falls in Homes for the Elderly are: being female, being diagnosed with chronic disease, treatment with benzodiazepine, earlier cases of accident falls, and mobility restriction. The research reveals that architectonic and furniture inadequacies in Homes for the Elderly may be predisposing factors for accidental falls. Analysis of the articles reveals the need for further longitudinal studies and, consequently, enhanced monitoring of the conditions of the functional capacity of the elderly, especially the risks related to falls, considered one of the leading causes of death among institutionalized elderly individuals. PMID:25119093

  1. Colchicine poisoning by accidental ingestion of meadow saffron ( Colchicum autumnale): pathological and medicolegal aspects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Klintschar; Christine Beham-Schmidt; Herbert Radner; Gerald Henning; Peter Roll

    1999-01-01

    Although intoxications with colchicine, the alkaloid of Colchicum autumnale (meadow saffron), are well known, in most cases the intoxications are evoked by oral or parenteral preparations traditionally used as medication against gout. The accidental ingestion of Colchicum autumnale, on the other hand, is a rare event and has to our knowledge only twice been described in detail. We report a

  2. Modelling dispersion processes of hypothetical nuclear accidental release on different scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mészáros, R.; Lagzi, I.; Molnár, F., Jr.; Vincze, Cs.; Leel?ssy, Á.; Kovács, T.

    2010-09-01

    An increased attention of anthropogenic effects on the environment was observable in the last decades. As more nuclear, biological and industrial accidents occurred in the different part of the world, there is an increased demand both on the part of population and scientific society for the understanding and effective prediction of the environmental, social or economical effects of continuous or a possible accidental release. On the basis of sophisticated dispersion model calculations, the decision makers could make important arrangements, which can save human lives. For this purpose, accidental release models for different spatial and time scales were developed. Model estimations of radionuclide dispersions from the Paks Nuclear Power Plant (Hungary) were also carried out from regional to local scales. With the TREX-Euler, multi-layered, Eulerian passive tracer dispersion model, the transport and deposition of air pollutants over the Central European region were simulated under different weather conditions. For mesoscale simulation of accidental release, the stochastic TREX-Lagrangian particle model was chosen and developed. Both hypothetical accidental releases and continuous environmental loads were simulated. Additionally, near the point source, CFD simulations with A2C model were evaluated. Model estimations on different scales and their sensitivity analyses are presented in this study.

  3. SUMMARY OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF RADIOACTIVITY DETECTED OFF THE NEVADA TEST SITE, 1963-1986

    EPA Science Inventory

    Of the more than 450 underground nuclear explosives tests conducted at the Nevada Test Site from August 1963 (signing of the Limited Test Ban Treaty) through the end of 1986, only 23 accidentally released radioactivity that was detectable beyond the boundary of the NTS. Of these ...

  4. Non-Accidental Head Injury in New Zealand: The Outcome of Referral to Statutory Authorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Patrick; MacCormick, Judith; Strange, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the outcome of referral to the statutory authorities for infants under 2 years with non-accidental head injury (NAHI), and to establish whether the authorities held sufficient information to develop a risk profile for these cases. Methods: Retrospective review of cases admitted to hospital in Auckland, New Zealand from 1988…

  5. The persistence of chromosome translocations in a radiation worker accidentally exposed to tritium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. N. Lucas; M. Poggensee; T. Straume

    1992-01-01

    The chromosome translocation frequency in lymphocytes of an individual accidentally exposed to tritium six years previously was measured using chromosome painting, Comparisons with results from cytogenetic studies shortly after the accident indicate that the translocation frequency has remained unaltered in this individual for six years.Copyright © 1992 S. Karger AG, Basel

  6. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC, VOLUME 14: CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF PHOSGENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report, discussing phosgene, is one of a series addressing the prevention of accidental releases of toxic chemicals. Phosgene, a highly reactive and corrosive liquid that boils at room temperature has an Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (lDLH) conctntration of 2 ppm, ...

  7. Vertical vibration and shape oscillation of acoustically levitated water drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, D. L.; Xie, W. J.; Yan, N.; Wei, B.

    2014-09-01

    We present the vertical harmonic vibration of levitated water drops within ultrasound field. The restoring force to maintain such a vibration mode is provided by the resultant force of acoustic radiation force and drop gravity. Experiments reveal that the vibration frequency increases with the aspect ratio for drops with the same volume, which agrees with the theoretical prediction for those cases of nearly equiaxed drops. During the vertical vibration, the floating drops undergo the second order shape oscillation. The shape oscillation frequency is determined to be twice the vibration frequency.

  8. Improved Refractometer for Measuring Temperatures of Drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naqwi, Amir A.

    2004-01-01

    The Dual Rainbow refractometer is an enhanced version of the Rainbow refractometer, which is added to, and extends the capabilities of, a phase Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA). A PDPA utilizes pairs of laser beams to measure individual components of velocity and sizes of drops in a spray. The Rainbow-refractometer addition measures the temperatures of individual drops. The designs of prior versions of the Rainbow refractometer have required substantial modifications of PDPA transmitting optics, plus dedicated lasers as sources of illumination separate from, and in addition to, those needed for PDPA measurements. The enhancement embodied in the Dual Rainbow refractometer eliminates the need for a dedicated laser and confers other advantages as described below. A dedicated laser is no longer needed because the Dual Rainbow refractometer utilizes one of the pairs of laser beams already present in a PDPA. Hence, the design of the Dual Rainbow refractometer simplifies the task of upgrading PDPA hardware to enable measurement of temperature. Furthermore, in a PDPA/Dual Rainbow refractometer system, a single argon-ion laser with three main wavelengths can be used to measure the temperatures, sizes, and all three components of velocity (in contradistinction to only two components of velocity in a prior PDPA/Rainbow refractometer system). In order to enable the Dual Rainbow refractometer to utilize a pair of PDPA laser beams, it was necessary to (1) find a location for the refractometer receiver, such that the combined rainbow patterns of two laser beams amount to a pattern identical to that of a single beam, (2) adjust the polarization of the two beams to obtain the strongest rainbow pattern, and (3) find a location for the PDPA receiver to obtain a linear relationship between the measured phase shift and drop size.

  9. A ballistic gravimeter with dropping holographic grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitriev, A. L.; Kotova, E. I.; Nikushchenko, E. M.; Smirnova, A. L.; Prokopenko, V. T.

    2014-11-01

    The principle of operation of a ballistic laser gravimeter based on a dropping holographic diffraction grating is described. The free-fall acceleration of the grating is determined from a change in the frequency of beats that arise during the interference of light beams diffracted on the hologram in the zeroth and first orders of diffraction. An experiment demonstrating this principle of measurement is described. The main distinctive features of the proposed gravimeter are simple design, compact size, and the possibility of using this device for analysis of high-frequency fluctuations in the gravitational-field strength.

  10. Drop Drawers 1.5.8

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This nifty shareware program from Sig Software places pull-out/ snap-shut "drawers" on the sides of users' screens, which can store items for easy access. In addition to storing text (which can be inserted into any program via keyboard shortcuts), users can store email addresses, URLs, thumbnails, sounds, movies, aliases to frequently used files, and more. The help documentation is easy to understand, and earlier versions of the program are available in Japanese, Italian, French, German, and Traditional Chinese. Drop Drawers is shareware, and a license costs $20. Very handy.

  11. Thermocapillary Migration and Interactions of Bubbles and Drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subramaniam, R. Shankar; Balasubramaniam, R.; Wozniak, G.; Hadland, P. H.

    1999-01-01

    Experiments were performed aboard the LMS mission of the Space Shuttle in summer 1996 in the BDPU on isolated air bubbles and Fluorinert FC-75 drops as well as on interacting bubbles/drops migrating in a temperature gradient in a Dow-Corning DC-200 series silicone oil of nominal viscosity 10 centistokes. The data, recorded in the form of videotape images as well as cine images in selected runs, have been analyzed. The behavior of the isolated objects is consistent with earlier observations made aboard the IML-2 mission while the range of Reynolds and Marangoni numbers has been extended substantially over that in the IML-2 experiments. Large bubbles were found to be slightly deformed to an oblate shape while no deformation could be detected in the case of similarly large drops. Results on interacting drops and bubbles display interesting and unanticipated features. In some experiments, drops are found to follow a three-dimensional trajectory. In others, trailing drops and bubbles are found to move off the axis of the cell when migrating behind a leading drop or bubble which moves along the axis. In this type of run, if the trailing drop is sufficiently large, it is found to pass the leading drop. Finally, behavior similar to that observed in IML-2, namely that a small leading drop slows the movement of a larger trailing drop moving along the cell axis, was observed as well.

  12. Evolution of vapor into a Leidenfrost layer during drop impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang Jun; Lee, Ji San; Kwon, Namseop; Weon, Byung Mook; Fezzaa, Kamel; Je, Jung Ho

    2013-11-01

    When a liquid drop impacts a solid surface heated above the Leidenfrost temperature, the drop rebounds, known as Leidenfrost effect. This phenomenon plays an important role in many cooling and transfer processes involved in fuel combustion or spray cooling. In this study, we investigated the evolution of vapor into a Leidenfrost layer during drop impact using ultrafast X-ray phase-contrast imaging that allowed us to directly visualize the dynamic profiles of drop impact at 150 - 550C. Initially, we find that nucleation of vapor occurs during drop spreading, forming vapor bubbles. We then reveal that vapor bubbles collapse on the solid surface during drop recoiling, contributing to the formation of a Leidenfrost layer. Furthermore, we studied the effects of temperature and impact velocity on the bouncing dynamics of the drop.

  13. Electrowetting-driven spreading and jumping of drops in oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jiwoo; Lee, Sang Joon

    2013-11-01

    Electrowetting-based practical applications include digital microfluidics, liquid lenses, and reflective displays. Most of them are performed in water/oil system, because oil medium reduces the contact-angle hysteresis and prevents drop evaporation. In this study, the effects of drop volume, oil viscosity, and applied voltage on the dynamic behaviors of spreading drops, such as transition of spreading pattern and response time, are investigated. Interestingly, jumping phenomena of drops are observed in oil when the applied voltage is turned off after reaching the electrowetted equilibrium radius of drops. A numerical model to predict the transient behavior of jumping drops is formulated based on the phase-field method. The numerical results for the transient deformation of jumping drops show quantitative agreement with the experimental results.

  14. Ab Initio Neutron Drops with Chiral Hamiltonians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, Hugh; Maris, Pieter; Vary, James

    2015-04-01

    Ab initio calculations for neutron drops are of interest for insights into neutron-rich nuclei and neutron star matter, and for examining the neutron-only sector of nucleon-nucleon and 3-nucleon interactions. I present ab initio results calculated using the no-core shell model with 2- and 3-body chiral Hamiltonians for neutron drops up to 20 neutrons confined in a 10 MeV harmonic trap. I discuss ground state energies, internal energies, radii, and evidence for pairing. In addition, excitation energies can be used to investigate the spin-orbit splittings in the p-shell and sd -shell. Prior Green's Function Monte Carlo calculations using the Argonne v8' potential with added 3-nucleon forces serve as a comparison. Supported by DOE Grants DESC0008485 (SciDAC/NUCLEI), DE-FG02-87ER40371, and NSF Grant 0904782; computational resources provided by the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (DOE Office of Science Contract DE-AC05-00OR22725) under an INCITE award.

  15. Scenario of a dirty bomb in an urban environment and acute management of radiation poisoning and injuries.

    PubMed

    Chin, F K C

    2007-10-01

    In the new security environment, there is a clear and present danger of terrorists using non-conventional weapons to inflict maximum psychological and economic damage on their targets. This article examines two scenarios of radiation contamination and injury, one accidental in nature leading to environmental contamination, and another of deliberate intent resulting in injury and death. This article also discusses the management of injury from radiological dispersion devices or dirty bombs, with emphasis on the immediate aftermath as well as strategy recommendations. PMID:17909684

  16. Hydrogen and transportation: alternative scenarios

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carmen Difiglio; Dolf Gielen

    2007-01-01

    If hydrogen (H2) is to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions and oil use, it needs to displace conventional transport fuels and be\\u000a produced in ways that do not generate significant greenhouse gas emissions. This paper analyses alternative ways H2 can be produced, transported and used to achieve these goals. Several H2 scenarios are developed and compared to each other. In

  17. Drops on hydrophilic conical fibers: gravity effect and coexistent states.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yu-En; Tsao, Heng-Kwong; Sheng, Yu-Jane

    2015-02-10

    Controlling the droplet equilibrium location and shape on a conical fiber is essential to industrial applications such as dip-pen nanolithography. In this work, the equilibrium conformations of a drop on a vertical, conical fiber has been investigated by the finite element method, Surface Evolver simulations. Similar to the morphology of a drop on a cylinder, two different types (barrel shape and clam-shell shape) can be obtained. In the absence of gravity, the droplet moves upward (lower curvature) and the total surface energy decays as the drop ascends. Whatever the initial conformation of the drop on a conical fiber, the rising drop exhibits the clam-shell shape eventually and there is no equilibrium location. However, in the presence of gravity, the drop can stop at the equilibrium location stably. For a given contact angle, the clam-shell shape is generally favored for smaller drops but the barrel shape is dominant for larger drops. In a certain range of drop volume, the coexistence of both barrel and clam-shell shapes is observed. For large enough drops, the falling-off state is seen. PMID:25595207

  18. Buoyancy-driven drop squeezing through a constriction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratcliffe, Thomas; Zinchenko, Alexander; Davis, Robert

    2007-11-01

    Emulsion flow through a granular material is of fundamental importance to many applications (e.g., oil filtration through underground reservoirs). To understand these complex flow systems, the effect of drop squeezing on the emulsion flow rate and the critical conditions when the drops become trapped must be determined. As a related model problem, the buoyancy-driven axisymmetric motion of an emulsion drop through a torus is considered by experiments and by theory using a boundary-integral method. For the latter, the problem is reduced to a system of well-behaved second-kind integral equations for the fluid velocity on the drop and the Hebeker density on the solid surfaces (Zinchenko & Davis, 2006, J. Fluid Mech. vol. 564, pp. 227-266). During squeezing through the constriction, the trends for the drop-solid spacing (as small as 0.1-1% of the drop size) and the drop's velocity deceleration (up to 10^4 times) are explored in detail. A critical Bond number for trapping to occur is found for different squeezing conditions (drop-to-torus size ratio, drop-to-opening size ratio, and drop-to-surrounding fluid viscosity ratio). In experiments, our focus is to verify the predictions and to determine when surface roughness neglected in the theory has an effect on the squeezing process.

  19. Acute bilateral isolated foot drop: Report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Kertmen, H; Gürer, B; Yimaz, E R; Sekerci, Z

    2015-01-01

    Foot drop is defined as the weakness of the foot and ankle dorsiflexion. Acute unilateral foot drop is a well-documented entity, whereas bilateral foot drop is rarely documented. Slowly progressing bilateral foot drop may occur with various metabolic causes, parasagittal intracranial pathologies, and cauda equina syndrome. Acute onset of bilateral foot drop due to disc herniation is extremely rare. Here we present two cases of acute bilateral foot drop due to disc herniation. The first patient was a 45-year-old man presented with acute bilateral foot drop, without any sign of the cauda equina syndrome. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging of the patient revealed L4-5 disc herniation. To our knowledge, this is the first presented case of acute bilateral foot drop without any signs of cauda equina syndrome caused by L4-5 disc herniation. The second patient was a 50-year-old man who was also presented with acute bilateral foot drop, and had T12-L1 disc herniation with intradural extension. Also this is the first presented case of T12-L1 disc herniation with intradural extension causing acute bilateral foot drop. We performed emergent decompressive laminectomy to both of the patients and extrude disc materials were excised. Both of the patients were recovered with favorable outcome. PMID:25972945

  20. Sessile drops: spreading versus evaporation-condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, Eliot; Jabbour, Michel

    2015-06-01

    The equations that govern the dynamics of the liquid-vapor interface and contact line of a sessile drop in the spreading and evaporation-condensation regimes are derived. During spreading, the liquid-vapor interface and contact line convect with the liquid and are therefore material. In contrast, when evaporation or condensation occurs, the liquid-vapor interface and contact line migrate relative to the liquid and are therefore nonmaterial. For spreading, the evolution equations consist of kinematical constraints on the normal velocities of the liquid-vapor interface and contact line along with the normal and tangential components of the constitutively augmented standard force balances on the liquid-vapor interface and along the contact line. The tangential components of the standard force balances on the liquid-vapor interface and at the contact line, being solely dissipative, are automatically satisfied at equilibrium. The normal component of the standard force balance on the liquid-vapor interface reduces to the Young-Laplace equation, whereas its counterpart along the contact line simplifies to the generalization, accounting for line energy, of the Young equation mentioned by Gibbs. In the presence of evaporation or condensation, the kinematical constraints are no longer valid. Their absence is compensated for by the normal components of the configurational force balances on the liquid-vapor interface and along the contact line. Hence, away from equilibrium and in the presence of dissipation, a complete description of the liquid-vapor interface and contact line of a volatile drop involves the normal and tangential components of the standard force balances along with the normal components of the configurational force balances. At equilibrium, the normal component of the configurational force balance on the liquid-vapor interface simplifies to the condition for chemical equilibrium requiring the continuity of the chemical potential, whereas its counterpart along the contact line, being entirely dissipative, holds trivially. Comparison with recently proposed kinetic laws for the liquid-vapor interface and contact line of a drop is provided.

  1. The dynamics of free liquid drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, T. G.; Trinh, E. H.; Croonquist, A. P.; Elleman, D. D.

    1988-01-01

    The behavior of rotating and oscillating free liquid drops was studied by many investigators theoretically for many years. More recent numerical treatments have yielded predictions which are yet to be verified experimentally. The purpose is to report the results of laboratory work as well as that of the experiments carried out in space during the flight of Spacelab 3, and to compare it with the existing theoretical studies. Ground-based experiments were attempted as a first approximation to the ideal boundary conditions used by the theoretical treatments by neutralizing the overwhelming effects of the Earth's gravitational field with an outside supporting liquid and with the use of levitation technology. The viscous and inertial loading of such a suspending fluid was found to profoundly effect the results, but the information thus gathered has emphasized the uniqueness of the experimental data obtained in the low-gravity environment of space.

  2. The IFSI Experimental Gravitation Group drop tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iafolla, Valerio; Fiorenza, Emiliano; Lefevre, Carlo; Nozzoli, Sergio; Peron, Roberto; Reale, Andrea; Santoli, Francesco

    The Experimental Gravitation Group of Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario (IFSI-INAF) has recently completed the development of a drop tower in its laboratories. This new facility is used in the context of the wide range of activities of the Group, in particular for testing high-sensitivity accelerometers and gradiometers. These instruments will be mainly operated in free fall conditions and this facility will be used for simulating these conditions. The tower has an height of 10 m (7-8 m effective fall height). Its capabilities include a magnetic release mechanism, a (variable acceleration) recovery system and will include a telemetry system. Following a description of the facility, the main foreseen uses will be discussed, among them: tests of accelerometer working position stability, release transient effects, capability of test mass initial attitude and angular velocity control, repeatability.

  3. Periodic Pattern Formation in Evaporating Drops

    E-print Network

    Vladimir A. Belyi; D. Kaya; M. Muthukumar

    2006-12-21

    Solute deposits from evaporating drops with pinned contact line are usually concentrated near the contact line. The stain, or pattern, left on the substrate then consists of a single ring, commonly known as a coffee ring. Here we report on a variation of this phenomenon when periodic patterns emerge. We attribute these to phase transitions in certain solutes as solute concentration increases. Examples may include dissolved to crystalline transition in salt or order-disorder transition in liquid crystals. Activated nature of the phase transitions, along with the newly imposed boundaries between phases, may then invert solute density profile and lead to periodic deposits. Hereby we develop a general theoretical model and report on experimental observations on salt in water.

  4. Dropped head syndrome: diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Allan R.; Reddy, Rajesh; Fehlings, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Dropped head syndrome (DHS) is a relatively rare condition, with a broad differential diagnosis. This deformity has significant implications on the health and quality of life of affected individuals. While surgery seems to be an obvious therapeutic option, there is a paucity of information on surgical intervention with no clear consensus on an optimal approach or timing. We present a case of DHS in a young woman to illustrate this condition, and review the current literature. Although at present the only definitive solution for correction and stabilization of DHS is surgical intervention involving multilevel instrumented fixation and fusion, this condition requires a persistent medical workup and treatment of reversible causes before surgical intervention is contemplated. PMID:23637681

  5. Crime Drops for Eighth Straight Year

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Charbonneau, David D.

    In October 2000, the FBI issued its annual report on crime, a 422-page tome, which shows crime down in the United States for the eighth straight year. The report found a total of 11.6 million criminal offenses in 1999, or 4,267 crimes per 100,000 people, a 7.6 percent decrease and the largest drop in a single year in the last two decades. The nation's murder total of 15,533 victims represented an eight percent drop and a thirty-three year low, while rates of robbery, assault, burglary, forcible rape, and motor vehicle theft all fell between four and ten percent. The downward trend applied to virtually all types of crime in all areas of the country. While the news was considered to be good, criminologists warned that the declines were lower in the largest cities and that these numbers may be harbingers of an upswing in crime in the next decade. These same experts disagree over the causes of the decline in crime that has marked the decade of the 1990s. Many point to more police officers, tougher sentencing laws, and more prisons as primary factors, while others focus on good economic times, a greater focus on drug treatment, and the graying of the population. One curious fact to be gleaned from the data is that the person least likely to be murdered in America today would be a white, single woman living in Iowa or New Hampshire who does not have a male partner.

  6. Coalescence of bubbles and drops in an outer fluid.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, Joseph D; Carmigniani, Rémi; Kannan, Anerudh; Burton, Justin C; Nagel, Sidney R

    2014-01-01

    When two liquid drops touch, a microscopic connecting liquid bridge forms and rapidly grows as the two drops merge into one. Whereas coalescence has been thoroughly studied when drops coalesce in vacuum or air, many important situations involve coalescence in a dense surrounding fluid, such as oil coalescence in brine. Here we study the merging of gas bubbles and liquid drops in an external fluid. Our data indicate that the flows occur over much larger length scales in the outer fluid than inside the drops themselves. Thus, we find that the asymptotic early regime is always dominated by the viscosity of the drops, independent of the external fluid. A phase diagram showing the crossovers into the different possible late-time dynamics identifies a dimensionless number that signifies when the external viscosity can be important. PMID:24458225

  7. Coalescence of bubbles and drops in an outer fluid

    E-print Network

    Joseph D. Paulsen; Rémi Carmigniani; Anerudh Kannan; Justin C. Burton; Sidney R. Nagel

    2014-07-24

    When two liquid drops touch, a microscopic connecting liquid bridge forms and rapidly grows as the two drops merge into one. Whereas coalescence has been thoroughly studied when drops coalesce in vacuum or air, many important situations involve coalescence in a dense surrounding fluid, such as oil coalescence in brine. Here we study the merging of gas bubbles and liquid drops in an external fluid. Our data indicate that the flows occur over much larger length scales in the outer fluid than inside the drops themselves. Thus we find that the asymptotic early regime is always dominated by the viscosity of the drops, independent of the external fluid. A phase diagram showing the crossovers into the different possible late-time dynamics identifies a dimensionless number that signifies when the external viscosity can be important.

  8. Microwave Dielectric Heating of Drops in Microfluidic Devices

    E-print Network

    Issadore, David; Brown, Keith A; Sandberg, Lori; Weitz, David; Westervelt, Robert M

    2009-01-01

    We present a technique to locally and rapidly heat water drops in microfluidic devices with microwave dielectric heating. Water absorbs microwave power more efficiently than polymers, glass, and oils due to its permanent molecular dipole moment that has a large dielectric loss at GHz frequencies. The relevant heat capacity of the system is a single thermally isolated picoliter drop of water and this enables very fast thermal cycling. We demonstrate microwave dielectric heating in a microfluidic device that integrates a flow-focusing drop maker, drop splitters, and metal electrodes to locally deliver microwave power from an inexpensive, commercially available 3.0 GHz source and amplifier. The temperature of the drops is measured by observing the temperature dependent fluorescence intensity of cadmium selenide nanocrystals suspended in the water drops. We demonstrate characteristic heating times as short as 15 ms to steady-state temperatures as large as 30 degrees C above the base temperature of the microfluidi...

  9. Evaporation, ignition, and combustion of nondilute clusters of drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellan, J.; Harstad, K.

    1990-01-01

    A theory of evaporation, ignition, and burning of moderately dense spherical drop clusters has been developed. The theory takes into account burning of premixed air and fuel internal to the cluster at ignition and subsequent burning of fuel emitted from the cluster by a flame sheet surrounding it. The model considers interdrop interaction, momentum exchange between drops and gas, and turbulent exchange processes between the cluster and its surroundings. Calculations are performed for varying initial air-to-fuel-mass ratios, initial cluster radii, ambient gas temperatures and initial drop temperatures. Results are presented for ratios of fuel mass burned to fuel mass lost from the cluster between drop ignition and drop disappearance, fuel burned fractions at ignition and at the moment of drop disappearance, and jump conditions at ignition.

  10. Spent fuel receipt scenarios study

    SciTech Connect

    Ballou, L.B.; Montan, D.N.; Revelli, M.A.

    1990-09-01

    This study reports on the results of an assignment from the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management to evaluate of the effects of different scenarios for receipt of spent fuel on the potential performance of the waste packages in the proposed Yucca Mountain high-level waste repository. The initial evaluations were performed and an interim letter report was prepared during the fall of 1988. Subsequently, the scope of work was expanded and additional analyses were conducted in 1989. This report combines the results of the two phases of the activity. This study is a part of a broader effort to investigate the options available to the DOE and the nuclear utilities for selection of spent fuel for acceptance into the Federal Waste Management System for disposal. Each major element of the system has evaluated the effects of various options on its own operations, with the objective of providing the basis for performing system-wide trade-offs and determining an optimum acceptance scenario. Therefore, this study considers different scenarios for receipt of spent fuel by the repository only from the narrow perspective of their effect on the very-near-field temperatures in the repository following permanent closure. This report is organized into three main sections. The balance of this section is devoted to a statement of the study objective, a summary of the assumptions. The second section of the report contains a discussion of the major elements of the study. The third section summarizes the results of the study and draws some conclusions from them. The appendices include copies of the waste acceptance schedule and the existing and projected spent fuel inventory that were used in the study. 10 refs., 27 figs.

  11. Confined thermocapillary motion of a three-dimensional deformable drop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, P. T.; Herrmann, M.; Lopez, J. M.

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, simulations are performed of the thermocapillary motion of three-dimensional and axisymmetric drops in a confined apparatus. The refined level-set grid method is used to track the interface and resolve very small deformations. We compare our results to theoretically predicted thermocapillary migration velocities of drops and to experimentally measured migration velocities in microgravity experiments. The motivation of the present work is to address four important questions surrounding thermocapillary migration. These are as follows. (1) What is the impact of initial conditions on both the initial transient and steady state drop behavior? (2) What is the impact of the domain geometry on drop behavior? (3) Do drops deform for intermediate Marangoni numbers and are those deformations axisymmetric? (4) Can the assumption of constant temperature fluid properties be used when simulating physical experiments? To answer the first question, we explore the parameter space of initial drop temperature distribution and drop holding time. We find that in lower Marangoni number regimes, the drop rapidly settles to a quasisteady state. For larger Marangoni numbers, the initial conditions dominate the drop behavior. To address the second and third questions, we look at the spatial distribution of tangential temperature gradients on the surface of the drop as well as drop deformations and migration velocities. The domain geometry induces nonaxisymmetric deformations and temperature distributions. The results of several axisymmetric runs with realistic physical properties are examined to answer the fourth question. It is found that the variation of material properties influences the drop migration behavior in a nontrivial way.

  12. Simulation of drop testing at extremely high accelerations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Douglas; M. Al-Bassyiouni; A. Dasgupta

    2010-01-01

    Advances in drop tower technology have extended the range of obtainable accelerations in drop testing from 5,000 Gs to as much as 100,000 Gs. To achieve excitations in excess of the conventional 5,000 Gs, a mechanical accelerator, called the Dual Mass Shock Amplifier (DMSA), is mounted on the drop table. This device produces extremely high, short duration shock amplitudes, by

  13. Evaporation rates of alkanes and alkanols from acoustically levitated drops

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rudolf Tuckermann; Sigurd Bauerecker; Bernd Neidhart

    2002-01-01

    Evaporation constants of acoustically levitated drops from the homologue series of n-alkanes and 1-alkanols in ambient air have been evaluated by size and temperature measurements. The size of the pure liquid drops, within a diameter range of 0.1 to 2.5 mm, was monitored using a CCD camera, while temperature measurements were carried out by IR thermography. During drop evaporation, water

  14. Drop-out from a psychodynamic group psychotherapy outpatient unit.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Hans Henrik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Lotz, Martin

    2014-11-01

    BACKGROUND. Drop-out from psychotherapy is common and represents a considerable problem in clinical practice and research. Aim. To explore pre-treatment predictors of early and late drop-out from psychodynamic group therapy in a public outpatient unit for non-psychotic disorders in Denmark. Methods. Naturalistic design including 329 patients, the majority with mood, neurotic and personality disorders referred to 39-session group therapy. Predictors were socio-demographic and clinical variables, self-reported symptoms (Symptom Check List-90-Revised) and personality style (Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II). Drop-out was classified into early and late premature termination excluding patients who dropped out for external reasons. Results. Drop-out comprised 20.6% (68 patients) of the sample. Logistic regression revealed social functioning, vocational training, alcohol problems and antisocial behavior to be related to drop-out. However, early drop-outs had prominent agoraphobic symptoms, lower interpersonal sensitivity and compulsive personality features, and late drop-outs cognitive and somatic anxiety symptoms and antisocial personality features. Clinical and psychological variables accounted for the major part of variance in predictions of drop-out, which ranged from 15.6% to 19.5% (Nagelkerke Pseudo R-Square). Conclusion. Social functioning was consistently associated with drop-out, but personality characteristics and anxiety symptoms differentiated between early and late drop-out. Failure to discriminate between stages of premature termination may explain some of the inconsistencies in the drop-out literature. Clinical implications. Before selection of patients to time-limited psychodynamic groups, self-reported symptoms should be thoroughly considered. Patients with agoraphobic symptoms should be offered alternative treatment. Awareness of and motivation to work with interpersonal issues may be essential for compliance with group therapy. PMID:24754466

  15. Drop impact and rebound dynamics on an inclined superhydrophobic surface.

    PubMed

    Yeong, Yong Han; Burton, James; Loth, Eric; Bayer, Ilker S

    2014-10-14

    Due to its potential in water-repelling applications, the impact and rebound dynamics of a water drop impinging perpendicular to a horizontal superhydrophobic surface have undergone extensive study. However, drops tend to strike a surface at an angle in applications. In such cases, the physics governing the effects of oblique impact are not well studied or understood. Therefore, the objective of this study was to conduct an experiment to investigate the impact and rebound dynamics of a drop at various liquid viscosities, in an isothermal environment, and on a nanocomposite superhydrophobic surface at normal and oblique impact conditions (tilted at 15°, 30°, 45°, and 60°). This study considered drops falling from various heights to create normal impact Weber numbers ranging from 6 to 110. In addition, drop viscosity was varied by decreasing the temperature for water drops and by utilizing water-glycerol mixtures, which have similar surface tension to water but higher viscosities. Results revealed that oblique and normal drop impact behaved similarly (in terms of maximum drop spread as well as rebound dynamics) at low normal Weber numbers. However, at higher Weber numbers, normal and oblique impact results diverged in terms of maximum spread, which could be related to asymmetry and more complex outcomes. These asymmetry effects became more pronounced as the inclination angle increased, to the point where they dominated the drop impact and rebound characteristics when the surface was inclined at 60°. The drop rebound characteristics on inclined surfaces could be classified into eight different outcomes driven primarily by normal Weber number and drop Ohnesorge numbers. However, it was found that these outcomes were also a function of the receding contact angle, whereby reduced receding angles yielded tail-like structures. Nevertheless, the contact times of the drops with the coating were found to be generally independent of surface inclination. PMID:25216298

  16. Photonic crystal surface-emitting lasers enabled by an accidental Dirac point

    DOEpatents

    Chua, Song Liang; Lu, Ling; Soljacic, Marin

    2014-12-02

    A photonic-crystal surface-emitting laser (PCSEL) includes a gain medium electromagnetically coupled to a photonic crystal whose energy band structure exhibits a Dirac cone of linear dispersion at the center of the photonic crystal's Brillouin zone. This Dirac cone's vertex is called a Dirac point; because it is at the Brillouin zone center, it is called an accidental Dirac point. Tuning the photonic crystal's band structure (e.g., by changing the photonic crystal's dimensions or refractive index) to exhibit an accidental Dirac point increases the photonic crystal's mode spacing by orders of magnitudes and reduces or eliminates the photonic crystal's distributed in-plane feedback. Thus, the photonic crystal can act as a resonator that supports single-mode output from the PCSEL over a larger area than is possible with conventional PCSELs, which have quadratic band edge dispersion. Because output power generally scales with output area, this increase in output area results in higher possible output powers.

  17. Marine oil spill risk mapping for accidental pollution and its application in a coastal city.

    PubMed

    Lan, Dongdong; Liang, Bin; Bao, Chenguang; Ma, Minghui; Xu, Yan; Yu, Chunyan

    2015-07-15

    Accidental marine oil spill pollution can result in severe environmental, ecological, economic and other consequences. This paper discussed the model of Marine Oil Spill Risk Mapping (MOSRM), which was constructed as follows: (1) proposing a marine oil spill risk system based on the typical marine oil spill pollution accidents and prevailing risk theories; (2) identifying suitable indexes that are supported by quantitative sub-indexes; (3) constructing the risk measuring models according to the actual interactions between the factors in the risk system; and (4) assessing marine oil spill risk on coastal city scale with GIS to map the overall risk. The case study of accidental marine oil spill pollution in the coastal area of Dalian, China was used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the model. The coastal areas of Dalian were divided into three zones with risk degrees of high, medium, and low. And detailed countermeasures were proposed for specific risk zones. PMID:26003383

  18. Accidental Displacement of Third Molar into the Sublingual Space: a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Robson Rodrigues; Botelho, Tessa Lucena; Franco, Ademir; Silva, Rhonan Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Successful extraction of third molars depends on preoperative diagnosis and planning. Gold standard preoperative examinations are performed through computed tomography, decreasing risks and avoiding potential accidents. The present report highlights the value of preoperative examinations in face of accidentally displaced third molars. Methods An 18-years-old female patient underwent a third mandibular molar extraction with a general dentist. Accidentally, the mandibular left third molar was displaced into the sublingual space, making necessary a second surgical step. The surgery was interrupted and the patient was referred to an expert in maxillofacial surgery. Results After 21 days awaiting an asymptomatic health status, the second surgical step was successfully performed using multislice computed tomography as preoperative imaging guide. Conclusions The present case report highlights the clinical usefulness of imaging planning and informed consents in face of legal and ethic potential complaints. PMID:25386232

  19. Accidental epinephrine auto-injector-induced digital ischemia reversed by phentolamine digital block.

    PubMed

    Hardy, S J; Agostini, D E

    1995-06-01

    The use of epinephrine-containing auto-injectors as a prescription medication for treating routine to severe anaphylactic reactions is now widely accepted. Associated with this trend is an increasing number of accidental injections of epinephrine into digits, causing severe vasoconstriction and the risk of ischemic necrosis. When epinephrine is accidentally discharged into a digit, ischemic skin necrosis resulting from the alpha-adrenergic blocking effects of this agent can lead to the need for multiple operations, wound infection, and even loss of the digit. The alpha-adrenergic blocking characteristics of phentolamine administered by a variety of methods have proved effective in reversing the effects of epinephrine in these cases. The authors urge that the described treatment protocol become more widely disseminated among primary care and emergency physicians. PMID:7615410

  20. A case of accidental ingestion of a salbutamol sulfate inhalant, Venetlin®.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Shin-ichi; Shikada, Masahiro; Sakai, Tadakazu; Nakano, Takako; Oh, Yasumasa

    2009-09-01

    Pediatricians examine increasing numbers of children with bronchial asthma every year. In Japan, medical institutions can provide standardized therapies according to the Japanese Pediatric Guideline for the Treatment and Management of Asthma 2005. Inhalation therapy is highly beneficial, and a substantial proportion of patients choose to purchase inhalators and practice inhalation therapy at home. Recently, we experienced a case of accidental ingestion of a salbutamol sulfate inhalant by a non-asthmatic child, which reminded us anew of the importance of managing the medicines for asthma. We also recognized the need to educate patients and their families on the knowledge of these medicines. In this report, we analyze the case and discuss measures that pediatricians can implement to avoid accidental inhalant ingestion by children. PMID:21319003

  1. Substrate constraint modifies the Rayleigh spectrum of vibrating sessile drops.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chun-Ti; Bostwick, Joshua B; Steen, Paul H; Daniel, Susan

    2013-08-01

    In this work, we study the resonance behavior of mechanically oscillated, sessile water drops. By mechanically oscillating sessile drops vertically and within prescribed ranges of frequencies and amplitudes, a rich collection of resonance modes are observed and their dynamics subsequently investigated. We first present our method of identifying each mode uniquely, through association with spherical harmonics and according to their geometric patterns. Next, we compare our measured resonance frequencies of drops to theoretical predictions using both the classical theory of Lord Rayleigh and Lamb for free, oscillating drops, and a prediction by Bostwick and Steen that explicitly considers the effect of the solid substrate on drop dynamics. Finally, we report observations and analysis of drop mode mixing, or the simultaneous coexistence of multiple mode shapes within the resonating sessile drop driven by one sinusoidal signal of a single frequency. The dynamic response of a deformable liquid drop constrained by the substrate it is in contact with is of interest in a number of applications, such as drop atomization and ink jet printing, switchable electronically controlled capillary adhesion, optical microlens devices, as well as digital microfluidic applications where control of droplet motion is induced by means of a harmonically driven substrate. PMID:24032932

  2. Reducing pressure drop in a baghouse using flow distributors.

    PubMed

    Chen, C J

    2001-10-01

    The pressure drop of ladder vanes in a baghouse could be reduced by decreasing the vane number and adjusting the inclined angle of the vane. Two types of flow distributors were utilized to test pressure drop caused by the structure of a baghouse. The pressure drops were measured by an inclined manometer under various filtration velocities. The purpose of this study is to understand the improvement effect of pressure drop saving for the traditional ladder vanes. Experimental results showed that the pressure drop of the Vane 3-1 configuration (flow distributor with three vanes perpendicular to the inlet flow) was higher than that of the Empty configuration (without flow distributors). The Vane 3-1 configuration could not reduce the pressure drop because of the barrier effect. By reducing the number and adjusting the angle of the vanes, the barrier effect was decreased, and the pressure drop of the Vane 2-1 configuration was much lower than that of the Vane 3-1 configuration. The largest difference in pressure drop between Vane 2-1 and Vane 3-1 was 1.702 cm w.g. at a filtration velocity of 4.17 cm/sec and, in terms of percentage, is 18.52% corresponding to a filtration velocity of 2.25 cm/sec. The improvement effect on the pressure drop saving for Vane 3-1 was significant. PMID:11686252

  3. Evaporation, ignition and combustion of nondilute clusters of drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellan, J.; Harstad, K.

    1988-01-01

    A theory of evaporation, ignition, and burning of moderately dense spherical drop clusters has been developed. The theory takes into account burning of premixed air and fuel internal to the cluster at ignition and subsequent burning of fuel emitted from the cluster by a flame sheet surrounding it. The model considers interdrop interaction, momentum exchange between drops and gas, and turbulent exchange processes between the cluster and its surroundings. Calcualtions are performed for varying initial air to fuel mass ratios, initial cluster radii, ambient gas temperatures, and initial drop temperatures. Results are presented for fuel burn fractions at ignition and at the moment of drop disappearance, as well as jump conditions at ignition.

  4. Oscillating and star-shaped drops levitated by an airflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouwhuis, Wilco; Winkels, Koen G.; Peters, Ivo R.; Brunet, Philippe; van der Meer, Devaraj; Snoeijer, Jacco H.

    2013-08-01

    We investigate the spontaneous oscillations of drops levitated above an air cushion, eventually inducing a breaking of axisymmetry and the appearance of “star drops”. This is strongly reminiscent of the Leidenfrost stars that are observed for drops floating above a hot substrate. The key advantage of this work is that we inject the airflow at a constant rate below the drop, thus eliminating thermal effects and allowing for a better control of the flow rate. We perform experiments with drops of different viscosities and observe stable states, oscillations, and chimney instabilities. We find that for a given drop size the instability appears above a critical flow rate, where the latter is largest for small drops. All these observations are reproduced by numerical simulations, where we treat the drop using potential flow and the gas as a viscous lubrication layer. Qualitatively, the onset of instability agrees with the experimental results, although the typical flow rates are too large by a factor 10. Our results demonstrate that thermal effects are not important for the formation of star drops and strongly suggest a purely hydrodynamic mechanism for the formation of Leidenfrost stars.

  5. Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster decelerator subsystem drop test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moog, R. D.; Sheppard, J. D.; Kross, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    An air drop test program was conducted as part of the development of a decelerator subsystem for recovering the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster. This development test program consisted of six drops performed over the period from June 1977 to September 1978 at a parachute test center in California. The testing concerned a 48,000-lb drop test vehicle released from the B-52 mothership. The drop test program is described and pertinent test results are discussed. Data include snatch loads, inflation characteristics, peak inflation and disreef loads, and drag performance. Performance characteristics of the drogue parachute and the main parachute are established.

  6. Electrohydrodynamic deformation and interaction of a pair of emulsion drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baygents, James C.

    1994-01-01

    The response of a pair of emulsion drops to the imposition of a uniform electric field is examined. The case studied is that of equal-sized drops whose line of centers is parallel to the axis of the applied field. A new boundary integral solution to the governing equations of the leaky dielectric model is developed; the formulation accounts for the electrostatic and hydrodynamic interactions between the drops, as well as their deformations. Numerical calculations show that, after an initial transient during which the drops primarily deform, the pair drift slowly together due to their electrostatic interactions.

  7. Reducing the contact time of a bouncing drop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, James C.; Dhiman, Rajeev; Kwon, Hyuk-Min; Varanasi, Kripa K.

    2013-11-01

    Surfaces designed so that drops do not adhere to them but instead bounce off have received substantial attention because of their ability to stay dry, self-clean and resist icing. A drop striking a non-wetting surface of this type will spread out to a maximum diameter and then recoil to such an extent that it completely rebounds and leaves the solid material. The amount of time that the drop is in contact with the solid--the `contact time'--depends on the inertia and capillarity of the drop, internal dissipation and surface-liquid interactions. And because contact time controls the extent to which mass, momentum and energy are exchanged between drop and surface, it is often advantageous to minimize it. The conventional approach has been to minimize surface-liquid interactions that can lead to contact line pinning; but even in the absence of any surface interactions, drop hydrodynamics imposes a minimum contact time that was conventionally assumed to be attained with axisymmetrically spreading and recoiling drops. Here we demonstrate that it is possible to reduce the contact time below this theoretical limit by using superhydrophobic surfaces with a morphology that redistributes the liquid mass and thereby alters the drop hydrodynamics. We show theoretically and experimentally that this approach allows us to reduce the overall contact time between a bouncing drop and a surface below what was previously thought possible.

  8. Serologic markers for hepatitis B among Marshallese accidentally exposed to fallout radiation in 1954

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, W.H.; Fields, H.A.; Engle, J.R.; Hadler, S.C.

    1986-10-01

    At least one serologic marker of prior hepatitis B infection (hepatitis B surface antigen, antibody to surface antigen, or antibody to core antigen) was found in 91.7% of 314 Marshallese tested. The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigenemia (3.3%) in a subpopulation that had resided on Rongelap Atoll at the time of accidental exposure to radioactive fallout from a thermonuclear test in 1954 did not differ significantly from the prevalence in a selected unexposed population (10.5%).

  9. Positive income shocks and accidental deaths among Cherokee Indians: a natural experiment

    PubMed Central

    Bruckner, Tim A; Brown, Ryan A; Margerison-Zilko, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Background Several studies in low-income populations report the somewhat counterintuitive finding that positive income gains adversely affect adult health. The literature posits that receipt of a large portion of annual income increases, in the short term, risk-taking behaviour and/or the consumption of health-damaging goods. This work implies the hypothesis that persons with an unexpected gain in income will exhibit an elevated risk of accidental death—the fifth leading cause of death in the USA. We test this hypothesis directly by capitalizing on a natural experiment in which Cherokee Indians in rural North Carolina received discrete lump sum payments from a new casino. Methods We applied Poisson regression to the monthly count of accidental deaths among Cherokee Indians over 204 months spanning 1990–2006. We controlled for temporal patterns in accidental deaths (e.g. seasonality and trend) as well as changes in population size. Results As hypothesized, the risk of accidental death rises above expected levels during months of the large casino payments (relative risk?=?2.62; 95% confidence interval?=?1.54–4.47). Exploratory analyses of ethnographic interviews and behavioural surveys support that increased vehicular travel and consumption of health-damaging goods may account for the rise in accident proneness. Conclusions Although long-term income gains may improve health in this population, our findings indicate that acute responses to large income gains, in the short term, increase risk-taking and accident proneness. We encourage further investigation of natural experiments to identify causal economic antecedents of population health. PMID:21527447

  10. Accidental inhalation injury of phosgene gas leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anand; Chaudhari, Sudhir; Kush, Luv; Kumar, Suraj; Garg, Atul; Shukla, Anurag

    2012-05-01

    Irritant gas exposure may lead to significant respiratory distress as is seen in the present case of 25 year old male worker who suffered accidental phosgene inhalation. He remained asymptomatic for six hours but later landed up in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in the hospital and required ventilatory support. No investigative feature is diagnostic of the nature of irritant gas. Similarly there is no antidote available to the phosgene. Only timely administered supportive management may lead to successful outcome. PMID:23580841

  11. Visualizing inter-dependencies between scenarios

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Harel; Itai Segall

    2008-01-01

    One of the main challenges in understanding a scenario- based speciflcation of a reactive system is rooted in the inter-dependencies between the scenarios. These are inher- ently implicit in the very idea of scenario-based program- ming. We introduce a graph-based visualization of such inter-dependencies, and implement it in a tool we call SIV (for Scenario Inter-dependency Visualization), which sup- plies

  12. Method for reducing pressure drop through filters, and filter exhibiting reduced pressure drop

    SciTech Connect

    Sappok, Alexander; Wong, Victor

    2014-11-18

    Methods for generating and applying coatings to filters with porous material in order to reduce large pressure drop increases as material accumulates in a filter, as well as the filter exhibiting reduced and/or more uniform pressure drop. The filter can be a diesel particulate trap for removing particulate matter such as soot from the exhaust of a diesel engine. Porous material such as ash is loaded on the surface of the substrate or filter walls, such as by coating, depositing, distributing or layering the porous material along the channel walls of the filter in an amount effective for minimizing or preventing depth filtration during use of the filter. Efficient filtration at acceptable flow rates is achieved.

  13. Viability of the Matter Bounce Scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Haro, Jaume; Amorós, Jaume

    2015-04-01

    It is shown that teleparallel F(T) theories of gravity combined with Loop Quantum Cosmology support a Matter Bounce Scenario which is an alternative to the inflation scenario in the Big Bang paradigm. It is checked that these bouncing models provide theoretical data that fits well with the current observational data, allowing the viability of the Matter Bounce Scenario.

  14. Scenarios for coastal vulnerability assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nicholls, Robert J.; Woodroffe, Colin D.; Burkett, Virginia; Hay, John; Wong, Poh Poh; Nurse, Leonard

    2011-01-01

    Coastal vulnerability assessments tend to focus mainly on climate change and especially on sea-level rise. Assessment of the influence of nonclimatic environmental change or socioeconomic change is less well developed and these drivers are often completely ignored. Given that the most profound coastal changes of the twentieth century due to nonclimate drivers are likely to continue through the twenty-first century, this is a major omission. It may result in not only overstating the importance of climate change but also overlooking significant interactions of climate change and other drivers. To support the development of policies relating to climate change and coastal management, integrated assessments of climatic change in coastal areas are required, including the effects of all the relevant drivers. This chapter explores the development of scenarios (or "plausible futures") of relevant climate and nonclimate drivers that can be used for coastal analysis, with an emphasis on the nonclimate drivers. It shows the importance of analyzing the impacts of climate change and sea-level rise in a broader context of coastal change and all its drivers. This will improve the analysis of impacts, key vulnerabilities, and adaptation needs and, hence, inform climate and coastal policy. Stakeholder engagement is important in the development of scenarios, and the underlying assumptions need to be explicit, transparent, and open to scientific debate concerning their uncertainties/realism and likelihood.

  15. Student Drop Tower Competitions: Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) and What If No Gravity? (WING)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Nancy R.; Stocker, Dennis P.; DeLombard, Richard

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes two student competition programs that allow student teams to conceive a science or engineering experiment for a microgravity environment. Selected teams design and build their experimental hardware, conduct baseline tests, and ship their experiment to NASA where it is operated in the 2.2 Second Drop Tower. The hardware and acquired data is provided to the teams after the tests are conducted so that the teams can prepare their final reports about their findings.

  16. Dependence of drop speed on nozzle diameter, viscosity and drive amplitude in drop-on-demand ink-jet printing

    E-print Network

    Hoath, S.D.; Hsiao, W.-K.; Jung, S.; Martin, G.D.; Hutchings, I.M.

    2011-01-01

    outwards speed. The existence of a finite threshold value is clearly inconsistent with equation (3). The drop that does form is typically as wide as the nozzle exit diameter 2R for DoD model fluids [5]: can simple models based on equation (3) ever... , but are often Page 1 of 4 neglected as they are expected to be smallest for the slowest drops. The extra surface energy (constant k ~ 1) for the DoD drop diameter D reduces the kinetic energy of the main drop according to equation (5): 2...

  17. Small-Scale Drop-Size Variability: Empirical Models for Drop-Size-Dependent Clustering in Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshak, Alexander; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Larsen, Michael L.; Wiscombe, Warren J.

    2005-01-01

    By analyzing aircraft measurements of individual drop sizes in clouds, it has been shown in a companion paper that the probability of finding a drop of radius r at a linear scale l decreases as l(sup D(r)), where 0 less than or equals D(r) less than or equals 1. This paper shows striking examples of the spatial distribution of large cloud drops using models that simulate the observed power laws. In contrast to currently used models that assume homogeneity and a Poisson distribution of cloud drops, these models illustrate strong drop clustering, especially with larger drops. The degree of clustering is determined by the observed exponents D(r). The strong clustering of large drops arises naturally from the observed power-law statistics. This clustering has vital consequences for rain physics, including how fast rain can form. For radiative transfer theory, clustering of large drops enhances their impact on the cloud optical path. The clustering phenomenon also helps explain why remotely sensed cloud drop size is generally larger than that measured in situ.

  18. Validation of an All-Pressure Fluid Drop Model: Heptane Fluid Drops in Nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harstad, K.; Bellan, J.; Bulzan, Daniel L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Despite the fact that supercritical fluids occur both in nature and in industrial situations, the fundamentals of their behavior is poorly understood because supercritical fluids combine the characteristics of both liquids and gases, and therefore their behavior is not intuitive. There are several specific reasons for the lack of understanding: First, data from (mostly optical) measurements can be very misleading because regions of high density thus observed are frequently identified with liquids. A common misconception is that if in an experiment one can optically identify "drops" and "ligaments", the observed fluid must be in a liquid state. This inference is incorrect because in fact optical measurements detect any large change (i.e. gradients) in density. Thus, the density ratio may be well below Omicron(10(exp 3)) that characterizes its liquid/gas value, but the measurement will still identify a change in the index of refraction providing that the change is sudden (steep gradients). As shown by simulations of supercritical fluids, under certain conditions the density gradients may remain large during the supercritical binary fluids mixing, thus making them optically identifiable. Therefore, there is no inconsistency between the optical observation of high density regions and the fluids being in a supercritical state. A second misconception is that because a fluid has a liquid-like density, it is appropriate to model it as a liquid. However, such fluids may have liquid-like densities while their transport properties differ from those of a liquid. Considering that the critical pressure of most fuel hydrocarbons used in Diesel and gas turbine engines is in the range of 1.5 - 3 MPa, and the fact that the maximum pressure attained in these engines is about 6 Mps, it is clear that the fuel in the combustion chamber will experience both subcritical and supercritical conditions. Studies of drop behavior over a wide range of pressures were performed in the past, however none of these studies identified the crucial differences between the subcritical and supercritical behavior. In fact, in two of these studies, it was found that the subcritical and supercritical behavior is similar as the drop diameter decreased according to the classical d(exp 2)-law over a wide range of pressures and drop diameters. The present study is devoted to the exploration of differences in fluid-behavior characteristics under subcritical and supercritical conditions in the particular case of heptane fluid drops in nitrogen; these substances were selected because of the availability of experimental observations for model validation.

  19. BunchBunch RecombinerRecombiner for afor a ++--Collider Cooling ScenarioCollider Cooling Scenario

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Kirk

    1 BunchBunch RecombinerRecombiner for afor a ++-- Collider Cooling ScenarioCollider Cooling/MC Concepts developed during study 2A Extend to Collider need bunch recombiner Use See MuCOOL Note 548 (March 2010) #12;3 Collider ScenarioCollider Scenario Scenario requires bunch recombiner half

  20. Clinical evaluation of twice-daily emedastine 0.05% eye drops (emadine eye drops) versus levocabastine 0.05% eye drops in patients with allergic conjunctivitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ph Verin; D. L Easty; A Secchi; G Ciprandi; P Partouche; G Nemeth-Wasmer; R Brancato; C. J Harrisberg; C Estivin-Ebrardt; D. J Coster; A. J. G Apel; M. T Coroneo; M Knorr; T. R Carmichael; B. T Kent-Smith; P Abrantes; A Leonardi; P. M Cerqueti; G Modorati; M Martinez

    2001-01-01

    PURPOSE: The efficacy and safety of emedastine 0.05% eye drops (Emadine; Alcon Laboratories, Inc, Fort Worth, Texas), a new H1 antagonist, were studied in comparison to levocabastine 0.05% eye drops (Livostin; Janssen-Cilag N V, Berchem, Belgium) during a twice-daily treatment schedule for 6 weeks in adult and pediatric patients with seasonal allergic conjunctivitis.METHODS: In a prospective, multicenter, randomized, double-masked, parallel

  1. Industrial research for transmutation scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camarcat, Noel; Garzenne, Claude; Le Mer, Joël; Leroyer, Hadrien; Desroches, Estelle; Delbecq, Jean-Michel

    2011-04-01

    This article presents the results of research scenarios for americium transmutation in a 22nd century French nuclear fleet, using sodium fast breeder reactors. We benchmark the americium transmutation benefits and drawbacks with a reference case consisting of a hypothetical 60 GWe fleet of pure plutonium breeders. The fluxes in the various parts of the cycle (reactors, fabrication plants, reprocessing plants and underground disposals) are calculated using EDF's suite of codes, comparable in capabilities to those of other research facilities. We study underground thermal heat load reduction due to americium partitioning and repository area minimization. We endeavor to estimate the increased technical complexity of surface facilities to handle the americium fluxes in special fuel fabrication plants, americium fast burners, special reprocessing shops, handling equipments and transport casks between those facilities.

  2. STRESS CORROSION CRACKING IN TEAR DROP SPECIMENS

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, P; Philip Zapp, P; Jonathan Duffey, J; Kerry Dunn, K

    2009-05-01

    Laboratory tests were conducted to investigate the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of 304L stainless steel used to construct the containment vessels for the storage of plutonium-bearing materials. The tear drop corrosion specimens each with an autogenous weld in the center were placed in contact with moist plutonium oxide and chloride salt mixtures. Cracking was found in two of the specimens in the heat affected zone (HAZ) at the apex area. Finite element analysis was performed to simulate the specimen fabrication for determining the internal stress which caused SCC to occur. It was found that the tensile stress at the crack initiation site was about 30% lower than the highest stress which had been shifted to the shoulders of the specimen due to the specimen fabrication process. This finding appears to indicate that the SCC initiation took place in favor of the possibly weaker weld/base metal interface at a sufficiently high level of background stress. The base material, even subject to a higher tensile stress, was not cracked. The relieving of tensile stress due to SCC initiation and growth in the HAZ and the weld might have foreclosed the potential for cracking at the specimen shoulders where higher stress was found.

  3. Endeavour Back Dropped By the Earth's Horizon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This STS-113 photograph shows an incredible view of the Space Shuttle Endeavour's payload bay. The blackness of space, Earth's moon (upper right frame), and a thin slice of Earth's horizon which runs vertically across the photograph, form the back drop for this photograph. The remote manipulator system (RMS) robotic arm is visible in lower right frame. The 16th American assembly flight and 112th overall American flight to the International Space Station (ISS) launched on November 23, 2002 from Kennedy's launch pad 39A aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour STS-113. Mission objectives included the installation and activation of the Port 1 Integrated Truss Assembly (P1). The first major component installed on the left side of the Station, the P1 truss provides three additional External Thermal Control System radiators. Weighing in at 27,506 pounds, the P1 truss is 45 feet (13.7 meters) long, 15 feet (4.6 meters) wide, and 13 feet (4 meters) high. Three space walks, aided by the use of the Robotic Manipulator Systems of both the Shuttle and the Station, were performed in the installation of P1.

  4. Routines for Computing Pressure Drops in Venturis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    de Quay, Laurence

    2004-01-01

    A set of computer-program routines has been developed for calculating pressure drops and recoveries of flows through standard venturis, nozzle venturis, and orifices. Relative to prior methods used for such calculations, the method implemented by these routines offers greater accuracy because it involves fewer simplifying assumptions and is more generally applicable to wide ranges of flow conditions. These routines are based on conservation of momentum and energy equations for real nonideal fluids, the properties of which are calculated by curve-fitting subroutines based on empirical properties data. These routines are capable of representing cavitating, choked, non-cavitating, and unchoked flow conditions for liquids, gases, and supercritical fluids. For a computation of flow through a given venturi, nozzle venturi, or orifice, the routines determine which flow condition occurs: First, they calculate a throat pressure under the assumption that the flow is unchoked or non-cavitating, then they calculate the throat pressure under the assumption that the flow is choked or cavitating. The assumption that yields the higher throat pressure is selected as the correct one.

  5. Critical point wetting drop tower experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaukler, William F.

    1990-01-01

    The 100 m Drop Tower at NASA-Marshall was used to provide the step change in acceleration from 1.0 to 0.0005 g. An inter-fluid meniscus oscillates vertically within a cylindrical container when suddenly released from earth's gravity and taken into a microgravity environment. Oscillations damp out from energy dissipative mechanisms such as viscosity and interfacial friction. Damping of the oscillations by the later mechanism is affected by the nature of the interfacial junction between the fluid-fluid interface and the container wall. In earlier stages of the project, the meniscus shape which developed during microgravity conditions was applied to evaluations of wetting phenomena near the critical temperature. Variations in equilibrium contact angle against the container wall were expected to occur under critical wetting conditions. However, it became apparent that the meaningful phenomenon was the damping of interfacial oscillations. This latter concept makes up the bulk of this report. Perfluoromethyl cyclohexane and isopropanol in glass were the materials used for the experiment. The wetting condition of the fluids against the wall changes at the critical wetting transition temperature. This change in wetting causes a change in the damping characteristics of the interfacial excursions during oscillation and no measurable change in contact angle. The effect of contact line friction measured above and below the wetting transition temperature was to increase the period of vertical oscillation for the vapor-liquid interface when below the wetting transition temperature.

  6. The Viruses of Wild Pigeon Droppings

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Tung Gia; Vo, Nguyen Phung; Boros, Ákos; Pankovics, Péter; Reuter, Gábor; Li, Olive T. W.; Wang, Chunling; Deng, Xutao; Poon, Leo L. M.; Delwart, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Birds are frequent sources of emerging human infectious diseases. Viral particles were enriched from the feces of 51 wild urban pigeons (Columba livia) from Hong Kong and Hungary, their nucleic acids randomly amplified and then sequenced. We identified sequences from known and novel species from the viral families Circoviridae, Parvoviridae, Picornaviridae, Reoviridae, Adenovirus, Astroviridae, and Caliciviridae (listed in decreasing number of reads), as well as plant and insect viruses likely originating from consumed food. The near full genome of a new species of a proposed parvovirus genus provisionally called Aviparvovirus contained an unusually long middle ORF showing weak similarity to an ORF of unknown function from a fowl adenovirus. Picornaviruses found in both Asia and Europe that are distantly related to the turkey megrivirus and contained a highly divergent 2A1 region were named mesiviruses. All eleven segments of a novel rotavirus subgroup related to a chicken rotavirus in group G were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. This study provides an initial assessment of the enteric virome in the droppings of pigeons, a feral urban species with frequent human contact. PMID:24023772

  7. GENDER, DEBT, AND DROPPING OUT OF COLLEGE

    PubMed Central

    DWYER, RACHEL E.; HODSON, RANDY; MCLOUD, LAURA

    2012-01-01

    For many young Americans, access to credit has become critical to completing a college education and embarking on a successful career path. Young people increasingly face the trade-off of taking on debt to complete college or foregoing college and taking their chances in the labor market without a college degree. These trade-offs are gendered by differences in college preparation and support and by the different labor market opportunities women and men face that affect the value of a college degree and future difficulties they may face in repaying college debt. We examine these new realities by studying gender differences in the role of debt in the pivotal event of graduating from college using the 1997 cohort of the national longitudinal Survey of youth. In this article, we find that women and men both experience slowing and even diminishing probabilities of graduating when carrying high levels of debt, but that men drop out at lower levels of debt than do women. We conclude by theorizing that high levels of debt are one of the mechanisms that sort women and men into different positions in the social stratification system. PMID:23626403

  8. Why Did They Not Drop Out? Narratives from Resilient Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lessard, Anne; Fortin, Laurier; Marcotte, Diane; Potvin, Pierre; Royer, Egide

    2009-01-01

    There is much to be learned from students who were at-risk for dropping out of school but persevered and graduated. The purpose of the study on which this article is based, was to describe how students who were at-risk for dropping out of school persevered and graduated. The voices of two students are introduced, highlighting the challenges they…

  9. Variations in the Cataphoretic Mobilities of Oil Drops in Water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melvin Mooney

    1924-01-01

    Cataphoretic mobilities of oil drops in water and weak electrolytes.-The cell used was a thin walled glass tube 20 cm in length and 6 mm in diam., with gold electrodes sealed into the ends, held in a vertical position. By means of a microscope, velocity measurements were made on suspended drops both along the axis and in the stationary layer

  10. Liquid Drops sliding down an inclined plane and Antoine Mellet

    E-print Network

    Mellet, Antoine

    Liquid Drops sliding down an inclined plane Inwon Kim and Antoine Mellet March 16, 2012 Abstract-static approximation Consider a liquid drop lying on an inclined plane. We introduce a coordinate system and the solid. If the support plane is inclined at an angle to the horizontal in the x

  11. Millikan Oil-Drop Experiment in the Introductory Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heald, Mark A.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses a simplified Millikan oil-drop experiment which emphasizes the enplanation of basic concepts in mechanics and electrostatics, the use of home-made apparatus, the request for an individual's observation of his own drop, and the application of statistical analysis in data interpretation. (CC)

  12. 14 CFR 29.725 - Limit drop test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...tailwheel assuming that the mass of the rotorcraft acts at the...inches) relative to the drop mass. n =limit inertia load...developed, during impact, on the mass used in the drop test (i.e., the acceleration dv/dt in g 's...

  13. 14 CFR 29.725 - Limit drop test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...tailwheel assuming that the mass of the rotorcraft acts at the...inches) relative to the drop mass. n =limit inertia load...developed, during impact, on the mass used in the drop test (i.e., the acceleration dv/dt in g 's...

  14. 14 CFR 29.725 - Limit drop test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...tailwheel assuming that the mass of the rotorcraft acts at the...inches) relative to the drop mass. n =limit inertia load...developed, during impact, on the mass used in the drop test (i.e., the acceleration dv/dt in g 's...

  15. Segregation in desiccated sessile drops of biological fluids

    E-print Network

    Yuri Yu. Tarasevich; Dina M. Pravoslavnova

    2006-09-22

    It is shown here that concurrence between advection and diffusion in a drying sessile drop of a biological fluid can produce spatial redistribution of albumen and salt. The result gives an explanation for the patterns observed in the dried drops of the biological fluids.

  16. The simplified determination of drop-weight-test NDT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mei Yao

    1996-01-01

    As a continuation of the authors' earlier paper [The physical nature of drop-weight-test NDT. Engng Fracture Mech.53, 645–652 (1996)], this paper reports the experimental results in determination of the nil-ductility transition temperature, NDT, by impact tests of a precracked Charpy specimen with sufficient geometrical constraint rather than by drop-weight tests.

  17. 14 CFR 23.725 - Limit drop tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...is shown by free drop tests, these tests must be made on the complete airplane, or on units consisting of wheel, tire, and shock absorber, in their proper relation, from free drop heights not less than those determined by the following formula: h...

  18. 14 CFR 23.725 - Limit drop tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...is shown by free drop tests, these tests must be made on the complete airplane, or on units consisting of wheel, tire, and shock absorber, in their proper relation, from free drop heights not less than those determined by the following formula: h...

  19. 14 CFR 23.725 - Limit drop tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...is shown by free drop tests, these tests must be made on the complete airplane, or on units consisting of wheel, tire, and shock absorber, in their proper relation, from free drop heights not less than those determined by the following formula: h...

  20. Simulation Evaluation of Call Dropping Policies for Stochastic Capacity Networks

    E-print Network

    Williamson, Carey

    , Simula- tion, Call Blocking, Call Dropping, Wireless CDMA 1 Introduction In many network environments Mode (ATM) networks use Connection Ad- mission Control (CAC) to determine which calls are allowedSimulation Evaluation of Call Dropping Policies for Stochastic Capacity Networks Hongxia Sun Carey

  1. BIONic WalkAide for correcting foot drop

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas J. Weber; Richard B. Stein; K. Ming Chan; Gerald Loeb; Frances Richmond; Robert Rolf; Kelly James; Su Ling Chong

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this study was to test the feasibility and efficacy of using microstimulators (BIONs) to correct foot drop, the first human application of BIONs in functional electrical stimulation (FES). A prototype BIONic foot drop stimulator was developed by modifying a WalkAide2 stimulator to control BION stimulation of the ankle dorsiflexor muscles. BION stimulation was compared with surface stimulation

  2. Damping of Shape Oscillations in Magnetically Levitated He II Drops

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Whitaker; M. A. Weilert; C. Kim; C. L. Vicente; G. M. Seidel; H. J. Maris

    1998-01-01

    We report on an investigation of the damping of shape oscillations of charged helium II drops levitated with a static magnetic field. The shape oscillations are driven by applying an oscillating electric field. Quantitative measurements of the amplitude of shape oscillations are made by using a laser beam focused through the drop. Here we present results of the damping of

  3. Drop tests and impact simulation for cell phones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chung-Li Hwan; Meng-Ju Lin; Chih-Ching Lo; Wen-Liang Chen

    2011-01-01

    This study conducts drop tests on cell phones according to related test standards. It is shown experimentally that damage to the inner LCD modules of cell phones occurs mostly when the cell phone drops with its front or back facing up. The probability of the aforementioned damage can be effectively reduced using the Taguchi method to modify design. Using Taguchi

  4. (abstract) Production and Levitation of Free Drops of Liquid Helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paine, C. G.; Petrac, D.; Rhim, W. K.

    1995-01-01

    We are interested in the nucleation and behavior of quantized vorticies and surface excitations in free drops of superfluid helium. We have constructed an apparatus to maintain liquid helium drops isolated from any material container in the Earth's gravitational field, and have investigated two techniques for generating and introducing liquid drops into the region of confinement. The levitation apparatus utilizes the electrostatic force acting upon a charged liquid drop to counteract the gravitational force, with drop position stability provided by a static magnetic field acting upon the helium diamagnetic moment. Electrically neutral superfluid drops have been produced with a miniature thermomechanical pump; for a given configuration the liquid initial velocity has been varied up to several centimeters per second. Liquid drops carrying either net positive or negative charge are produced by an electrode which generates a flow of ionized liquid from the bulk liquid surface. Potentials of less than one thousand volts to several thousand volts are required. The mass flow is controlled by varying duration of the ionizing voltage pulse; drops as small as 30 micrometers diameter, charged to near the Rayleigh limit, have been observed.

  5. Predicting pressure drop in venturi scrubbers with artificial neural networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Nasseh; A. Mohebbi; Z. Jeirani; A. Sarrafi

    2007-01-01

    In this study a new approach based on artificial neural networks (ANNs) has been used to predict pressure drop in venturi scrubbers. The main parameters affecting the pressure drop are mainly the gas velocity in the throat of venturi scrubber (Vgth), liquid to gas flow rate ratio (L\\/G), and axial distance of the venturi scrubber (z). Three sets of experimental

  6. Internal flow of acoustically levitated drops undergoing sectorial oscillations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. L. Shen; W. J. Xie; Z. L. Yan; B. Wei

    2010-01-01

    We present the experimental observation and theoretical analysis of fluid flow in acoustically levitated water drop undergoing sectorial oscillations. The fluid always flows between the extended sections and the compressed sections. The magnitude of fluid velocity decreases from the equatorial fringe to the centre of levitated drop. The maximum fluid velocity is 60–160 mm\\/s and the Reynolds number of the

  7. Evaporation Of Clustered Drops Of Binary-Liquid Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellan, Josette; Harstad, Kenneth G.

    1993-01-01

    Report repeats and elaborates upon information presented in "Diffusion Of Mass In Evaporating Multicomponent Drops" (NPO-18206). Presents details of mathematical model of evaporation of binary liquid from both dense and dilute clusters of drops. Interactions among evaporation, diffusion in liquids, slip velocity, and other phenomena modeled.

  8. Understanding (sessile/constrained) bubble and drop oscillations.

    PubMed

    Milne, A J B; Defez, B; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, M; Amirfazli, A

    2014-01-01

    The diffuse literature on drop oscillation is reviewed, with an emphasis on capillary wave oscillations of constrained drops. Based on the review, a unifying conceptual framework is presented for drop and bubble oscillations, which considers free and constrained drops/bubbles, oscillation of the surface or the bulk (i.e. center of mass) of the drop/bubble, as well as different types of restoring forces (surface tension, gravity, electromagnetic, etc). Experimental results (both from literature and from a new set of experiments studying sessile drops in cross flowing air) are used to test mathematical models from literature, using a novel whole profile analysis technique for the new experiments. The cause of oscillation (cross flowing air, vibrated surface, etc.) is seen not to affect oscillation frequency. In terms of models, simplified models are seen to poorly predict oscillation frequencies. The most advanced literature models are found to be relatively accurate at predicting frequency. However it is seen that no existing models are reliably accurate across a wide range of contact angles, indicating the need for advanced models/empirical relations especially for drops undergoing the lowest frequency mode of oscillation (the order 1 degree 1 non-axisymmetric 'bending' mode that corresponds to a lateral 'rocking' motion of the drop). PMID:24359696

  9. A 2D electrohydrodynamic model for electrorotation of fluid drops.

    PubMed

    Feng, James Q

    2002-02-01

    A theoretical analysis of spontaneous electrorotation of deformable fluid drops in a DC electric field is presented with a 2D electrohydrodynamic model. The fluids in the system are assumed to be leaky dielectric and Newtonian. If the rotating flow is dominant over the cellular convection type of electrohydrodynamic flow, closed-form solutions for drops of small deformations can be obtained. Because the governing equations are in general nonlinear even when drop deformations are ignored, the general solution for even undeformed drop takes a form of infinite series and can only be evaluated by numerical means. Both closed-form solutions for special cases and numerical solutions for more general cases are obtained here to describe steady-state field variables and first-order drop deformations. In a DC electric field of strength beyond the threshold value, spontaneous electrorotation of a drop is shown to occur when charge relaxation in the surrounding fluid is faster than the fluid inside the drop. With increasing the strength of the applied electric field from the threshold for onset of electrorotation, the axis of drop contraction deviates from from that of the applied electric field in the direction of the rotating flow with an angle increasing with the field strength. PMID:16290391

  10. JCC Drop Study/Attrition Rates, Fall 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumner, Pat

    The report details the results of an annual survey conducted to determine the reasons that students at Kansas' Johnson County Community College (JCCC) drop classes. The overall JCCC attrition rate for classes starting on or before the 20th day of the fall 1999 semester was 12%. During the fall semester, students dropped 4,846 classes. The Science,…

  11. Physics 1, 38 (2008) The many shapes of spinning drops

    E-print Network

    Podgornik, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    December 1, 2008 From the nucleus to black holes, the model of a spinning liquid drop can describe movies. Because liquid drop models are used to describe systems like atomic nuclei and black holes, which brought on a choroid inflammation and total blindness in 1843). Plateau suspended olive oil

  12. Student Drop-Out from German Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heublein, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    28% of students of any one year currently give up their studies in bachelor degree programmes at German higher education institutions. Drop-out is to be understood as the definite termination in the higher education system without obtaining an academic degree. The drop-out rate is thereby calculated with the help of statistical estimation…

  13. Drop Out Patterns in the East Los Angeles Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waktola, Daniel K.

    2014-01-01

    This study attempted to analyze the drop out problem from spatial perspectives within the context of East Los Angeles Community College, California. Selected urban land-use types, which positively and negatively influence the propensity to drop out or persist-in colleges, were selected and captured during a global positioning system (GPS)-based…

  14. Ground Based Studies of Thermocapillary Flows in Levitated Drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadhal, Satwindar Singh; Trinh, Eugene H.

    1996-01-01

    Ground-based experiments together with analytical studies are presently being conducted for levitated drops. Both acoustic and electrostatic techniques are being employed to achieve levitation of drops in a gaseous environment. The scientific effort is principally on the thermal and the fluid phenomena associated with the local heating of levitated drops, both at 1-g and at low-g. In particular, the thermocapillary flow associated with local spot heating is being studied. Fairly stable acoustic levitation of drops has been achieved with some exceptions when random rotational motion of the drop persists. The flow visualization has been carried out by light scattering from smoke particles for the exterior flow and fluorescent tracer particles in the drop. The results indicate a lack of axial symmetry in the internal flow even though the apparatus and the heating are symmetric. The theoretical studies for the past year have included fundamental analyses of acoustically levitated spherical drops. The flow associated with a particle near the velocity antinode is being investigated by the singular perturbation technique. As a first step towards understanding the effect of the particle displacement from the antinode, the flow field about the node has been calculated for the first time. The effect of the acoustic field on the interior of a liquid drop has also been investigated. The results predict that the internal flow field is very weak.

  15. Square wave voltammetry at the dropping mercury electrode: Theory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christie, J.H.; Turner, J.A.; Osteryoung, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    The theoretical aspects of square wave voltammetry at the dropping mercury electrode are presented. The technique involves scanning the entire potential range of interest on a single drop of a DME. Asymmetries in the waveform as well as variations in current measurement parameters are discussed. Indications are that previous uses of the waveform may not have utilized all its capabilities.

  16. Radiation Detection Computational Benchmark Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Shaver, Mark W.; Casella, Andrew M.; Wittman, Richard S.; McDonald, Ben S.

    2013-09-24

    Modeling forms an important component of radiation detection development, allowing for testing of new detector designs, evaluation of existing equipment against a wide variety of potential threat sources, and assessing operation performance of radiation detection systems. This can, however, result in large and complex scenarios which are time consuming to model. A variety of approaches to radiation transport modeling exist with complementary strengths and weaknesses for different problems. This variety of approaches, and the development of promising new tools (such as ORNL’s ADVANTG) which combine benefits of multiple approaches, illustrates the need for a means of evaluating or comparing different techniques for radiation detection problems. This report presents a set of 9 benchmark problems for comparing different types of radiation transport calculations, identifying appropriate tools for classes of problems, and testing and guiding the development of new methods. The benchmarks were drawn primarily from existing or previous calculations with a preference for scenarios which include experimental data, or otherwise have results with a high level of confidence, are non-sensitive, and represent problem sets of interest to NA-22. From a technical perspective, the benchmarks were chosen to span a range of difficulty and to include gamma transport, neutron transport, or both and represent different important physical processes and a range of sensitivity to angular or energy fidelity. Following benchmark identification, existing information about geometry, measurements, and previous calculations were assembled. Monte Carlo results (MCNP decks) were reviewed or created and re-run in order to attain accurate computational times and to verify agreement with experimental data, when present. Benchmark information was then conveyed to ORNL in order to guide testing and development of hybrid calculations. The results of those ADVANTG calculations were then sent to PNNL for compilation. This is a report describing the details of the selected Benchmarks and results from various transport codes.

  17. Emulsification in turbulent flow: 3. Daughter drop-size distribution.

    PubMed

    Tcholakova, Slavka; Vankova, Nina; Denkov, Nikolai D; Danner, Thomas

    2007-06-15

    Systematic set of experiments is performed to clarify the effects of several factors on the size distribution of the daughter drops, which are formed as a result of drop breakage during emulsification in turbulent flow. The effects of oil viscosity, etaD, interfacial tension, sigma, and rate of energy dissipation in the turbulent flow, epsilon, are studied. As starting oil-water premixes we use emulsions containing monodisperse oil drops, which have been generated by membrane emulsification. By passing these premixes through a narrow-gap homogenizer, working in turbulent regime of emulsification, we monitor the changes in the drop-size distribution with the emulsification time. The experimental data are analyzed by using a new numerical procedure, which is based on the assumption (supported by the experimental data) that the probability for formation of daughter drops with diameter smaller than the maximum diameter of the stable drops, ddrop number concentrations in the final emulsions, which are obtained after a long emulsification time. We found that the breakage of a single "mother" drop leads to the formation of multiple daughter drops, and that the number and size distribution of these daughter drops depend strongly on the viscosity of the dispersed phase. Different scaling laws are found to describe the experimental results for the oils of low and high viscosity. The obtained results for the daughter drop-size distribution are in a reasonably good agreement with the experimental results reported by other authors. In contrast, the comparison with several basic model functions, proposed in the literature, does not show good agreement and the possible reasons are discussed. The proposed numerical procedure allows us to describe accurately the evolution of all main characteristics of the drop-size distribution during emulsification, such as the number and volume averaged diameters, and the distributive and cumulative functions by number and by volume. The procedure allowed us to clarify the relative importance of the drop breakage rate constant and of the daughter drop-size distribution for the evolution of the various mean diameters. PMID:17376472

  18. Simulations of Coulombic Fission of Charged Inviscid Drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, J. C.; Taborek, P.

    2011-04-01

    We present boundary-integral simulations of the evolution of critically charged droplets. For such droplets, small perturbations are unstable and eventually lead to the formation of a lemon-shaped drop with very sharp tips. For perfectly conducting drops, the tip forms a self-similar cone shape with a subtended angle identical to that of a Taylor cone, and quantities such as pressure and velocity diverge in time with power-law scaling. In contrast, when charge transport is described by a finite conductivity, we find that small progeny drops are formed at the tips, whose size decreases as the conductivity is increased. These small progeny drops are of nearly critical charge, and are precursors to the emission of a sustained flow of liquid from the tips as observed in experiments of isolated charged drops.

  19. Dewetting Transitions on Superhydrophobic Surfaces: When are Wenzel Drops Reversible?

    SciTech Connect

    Boreyko, Jonathan B [ORNL; Collier, Pat [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    On superhydrophobic surfaces, drops in theWenzel state can be switched to the suspended Cassie state in some cases, but in other cases are irreversibly impaled in the surface roughness. To date, the question of when dewetting transitions are possible for Wenzel drops has not been resolved. Here, we show that pinned Wenzel drops being stretched out-of-plane cannot reduce their contact angle below a critical value where unstable pinch-off occurs, preventing dewetting for Wenzel drops which exhibit receding contact angles beneath this critical pinchoff angle. Dewetting transitions are therefore only possible for Wenzel drops with moderately large receding contact angles, which requires low surface roughness for one-tier surfaces or a Partial Wenzel wetting state for two-tier surfaces.

  20. Solidification Dynamics of Metal Drops in a Free Fall Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, R. N.; Brush, L. N.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Comparison of experimental observations were made with numerical solutions to a model of the heat transfer and solidification kinetics associated with the cooling of a molten drop during free fall, particularly with regard to the fraction of liquid transformed. Experimentally, silver drops (99.9%, 4-9 mm diameter) were levitated, melted, and released to fall through Marshall Space Flight Center's 105m drop tube in helium - 6% hydrogen and argon atmospheres. By systematically varying the drops initial superheat the extent of solidification prior to impact ranged from complete to none during the approximately 4.6s of free fall time. Analysis reveals the relative importance of the initial parameters affecting the cooling and solidification rates within the drop. A discussion of the conditions under which the actual observations deviate from the assumptions used in the model is presented.

  1. Solidification Dynamics of Silver Drops in a Free Fall Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N.; Brush, Lucien N.

    1999-01-01

    Silver drops (99.9%, 4, 5, 7, and 9 mm diameter) were levitated, melted, and released to fall through Marshall Space Flight Center's 105m drop tube in helium - 6% hydrogen and pure argon atmospheres. By systematically varying the initial superheat condition of the drop the extent of solidification prior to impact ranged from complete to none during the approximately 4.6s of free fall time. Comparison of the experimental observations is made with numerical solutions to a model of the heat transfer and solidification kinetics associated with cooling of the drop during free fall, particularly with regard to the fraction of liquid transformed. Analysis reveals the relative importance of the initial parameters affecting the cooling and solidification rates within the drop. A discussion of the conditions under which the actual observations deviate from the assumptions used in the model is presented.

  2. Experimental study of the oscillating interface of a falling drop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Suhwan; Ward, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    The drop interface oscillation generated from detachment from a nozzle due to gravity are experimentally studied. The fluids used in the experiments are glycerol-water mixtures with viscosities ranging from 0.005 to 0.410 Pa s, mineral oil having a viscosity of 0.0270 Pa s, and DI water with viscosity of 0.0009 Pa s. The drop oscillating is taken by fast camera to make observations. For large drops, where the interface relative to a polar angle may be measured, the periodic deformation is plotted as a function of time. For smaller drops we measure the deformation as switching between an oblate and prolate drop as a function of time. The phenomenon is clearly a function of the fluid viscosity but we seek to propose a pinch-off mechanism for understanding the source of the observed oscillations.

  3. Solidification Dynamics of Spherical Drops in a Free Fall Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N.; Brush, Lucien N.

    2006-01-01

    Silver drops (99.9%, 4, 5, 7, and 9 mm diameter) were levitated, melted, and released to fall through Marshall Space Flight Center's 105 meter drop tube in helium - 6% hydrogen and pure argon atmospheres. By varying a drop s initial superheat the extent of solidification prior to impact ranged from complete to none during the approx. 4.6s of free fall time. Comparison of the experimental observations is made with numerical solutions to a model of the heat transfer and solidification kinetics associated with cooling of the drop during free fall, particularly with regard to the fraction of liquid transformed. Analysis reveals the relative importance ,of the initial parameters affecting the cooling and solidification rates within the drop. A discussion of the conditions under which the actual observations deviate from the assumptions used in the model is presented.

  4. Thermally driven oscillations and wave motion of a liquid drop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, K. J.; Hendricks, R. C.; Schoessow, G. J.

    1977-01-01

    In the state of Leidenfrost boiling, liquid drops are observed to vibrate in a variety of modal patterns. Theories are presented which predict the frequency of oscillation and show that the observed modal patterns of drops correspond to the minimum energy oscillatory excitation state. High-speed photographic techniques were used to record these motions and substantiate the theories. An incipient temperature was also found for water drops in film boiling below which free oscillations do not exist. In addition to these oscillations, photographic sequences are presented which show that wave motion can exist along the circumference of the drop. Following the study of free oscillations, the system was mounted on a shaker table and the drop subjected to a range of forced frequencies and accelerations.

  5. Thermally Driven Oscillations and Wave Motion of a Liquid Drop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, K. J.; Hendricks, R. C.; Schoessow, G. J.

    1977-01-01

    In the state of Leidenfrost boiling, liquid drops are observed to vibrate in a variety of modal patterns. Theories are presented which predict the frequency of oscillation and show that the observed model patterns of drops correspond to the minimum energy oscillatory excitation state. High-speed photographic techniques were used to record these motions and substantiate the theories. An incipient temperature was also found for water drops in film boiling below which free oscillations do not exist. In addition to these oscillations, photographic sequences are presented which show that wave motion can exist along the circumference of the drop. Following the study of free oscillations, the system was mounted on a shaker table and the drop subjected to a range of forced frequencies and accelerations.

  6. Building micro-soccer-balls with evaporating colloidal fakir drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelderblom, Hanneke; Marín, Álvaro G.; Susarrey-Arce, Arturo; van Housselt, Arie; Lefferts, Leon; Gardeniers, Han; Lohse, Detlef; Snoeijer, Jacco H.

    2013-11-01

    Drop evaporation can be used to self-assemble particles into three-dimensional microstructures on a scale where direct manipulation is impossible. We present a unique method to create highly-ordered colloidal microstructures in which we can control the amount of particles and their packing fraction. To this end, we evaporate colloidal dispersion drops from a special type of superhydrophobic microstructured surface, on which the drop remains in Cassie-Baxter state during the entire evaporative process. The remainders of the drop consist of a massive spherical cluster of the microspheres, with diameters ranging from a few tens up to several hundreds of microns. We present scaling arguments to show how the final particle packing fraction of these balls depends on the drop evaporation dynamics, particle size, and number of particles in the system.

  7. On the collapse pressure of armored bubbles and drops.

    PubMed

    Pitois, O; Buisson, M; Chateau, X

    2015-05-01

    Drops and bubbles wrapped in dense monolayers of hydrophobic particles are known to sustain a significant decrease of their internal pressure. Through dedicated experiments we investigate the collapse behavior of such armored water drops as a function of the particle-to-drop size ratio in the range 0.02-0.2. We show that this parameter controls the behavior of the armor during the deflation: at small size ratios the drop shrinkage proceeds through the soft crumpling of the monolayer, at intermediate ratios the drop becomes faceted, and for the largest studied ratios the armor behaves like a granular arch. The results show that each of the three morphological regimes is characterized by an increasing magnitude of the collapse pressure. This increase is qualitatively modeled thanks to a mechanism involving out-of-plane deformations and particle disentanglement in the armor. PMID:26002529

  8. Optofluidic ultrahigh-throughput detection of fluorescent drops.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minkyu; Pan, Ming; Gai, Ya; Pang, Shuo; Han, Chao; Yang, Changhuei; Tang, Sindy K Y

    2015-03-21

    This paper describes an optofluidic droplet interrogation device capable of counting fluorescent drops at a throughput of 254,000 drops per second. To our knowledge, this rate is the highest interrogation rate published thus far. Our device consists of 16 parallel microfluidic channels bonded directly to a filter-coated two-dimensional Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) sensor array. Fluorescence signals emitted from the drops are collected by the sensor that forms the bottom of the channel. The proximity of the drops to the sensor facilitates efficient collection of fluorescence emission from the drops, and overcomes the trade-off between light collection efficiency and field of view in conventional microscopy. The interrogation rate of our device is currently limited by the acquisition speed of CMOS sensor, and is expected to increase further as high-speed sensors become increasingly available. PMID:25588522

  9. Model of Mixing Layer With Multicomponent Evaporating Drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellan, Josette; Le Clercq, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    A mathematical model of a three-dimensional mixing layer laden with evaporating fuel drops composed of many chemical species has been derived. The study is motivated by the fact that typical real petroleum fuels contain hundreds of chemical species. Previously, for the sake of computational efficiency, spray studies were performed using either models based on a single representative species or models based on surrogate fuels of at most 15 species. The present multicomponent model makes it possible to perform more realistic simulations by accounting for hundreds of chemical species in a computationally efficient manner. The model is used to perform Direct Numerical Simulations in continuing studies directed toward understanding the behavior of liquid petroleum fuel sprays. The model includes governing equations formulated in an Eulerian and a Lagrangian reference frame for the gas and the drops, respectively. This representation is consistent with the expected volumetrically small loading of the drops in gas (of the order of 10 3), although the mass loading can be substantial because of the high ratio (of the order of 103) between the densities of liquid and gas. The drops are treated as point sources of mass, momentum, and energy; this representation is consistent with the drop size being smaller than the Kolmogorov scale. Unsteady drag, added-mass effects, Basset history forces, and collisions between the drops are neglected, and the gas is assumed calorically perfect. The model incorporates the concept of continuous thermodynamics, according to which the chemical composition of a fuel is described probabilistically, by use of a distribution function. Distribution functions generally depend on many parameters. However, for mixtures of homologous species, the distribution can be approximated with acceptable accuracy as a sole function of the molecular weight. The mixing layer is initially laden with drops in its lower stream, and the drops are colder than the gas. Drop evaporation leads to a change in the gas-phase composition, which, like the composition of the drops, is described in a probabilistic manner

  10. 5th National Audit Project (NAP5) on accidental awareness during general anaesthesia: summary of main findings and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Pandit, J J; Andrade, J; Bogod, D G; Hitchman, J M; Jonker, W R; Lucas, N; Mackay, J H; Nimmo, A F; O'Connor, K; O'Sullivan, E P; Paul, R G; Palmer, J H M G; Plaat, F; Radcliffe, J J; Sury, M R J; Torevell, H E; Wang, M; Hainsworth, J; Cook, T M

    2014-10-01

    We present the main findings of the 5th National Audit Project (NAP5) on accidental awareness during general anaesthesia (AAGA). Incidences were estimated using reports of accidental awareness as the numerator, and a parallel national anaesthetic activity survey to provide denominator data. The incidence of certain/probable and possible accidental awareness cases was ~1:19,600 anaesthetics (95% confidence interval 1:16,700-23,450). However, there was considerable variation across subtypes of techniques or subspecialities. The incidence with neuromuscular block (NMB) was ~1:8200 (1:7030-9700), and without, it was ~1:135,900 (1:78,600-299,000). The cases of AAGA reported to NAP5 were overwhelmingly cases of unintended awareness during NMB. The incidence of accidental awareness during Caesarean section was ~1:670 (1:380-1300). Two-thirds (82, 66%) of cases of accidental awareness experiences arose in the dynamic phases of anaesthesia, namely induction of and emergence from anaesthesia. During induction of anaesthesia, contributory factors included: use of thiopental, rapid sequence induction, obesity, difficult airway management, NMB, and interruptions of anaesthetic delivery during movement from anaesthetic room to theatre. During emergence from anaesthesia, residual paralysis was perceived by patients as accidental awareness, and commonly related to a failure to ensure full return of motor capacity. One-third (43, 33%) of accidental awareness events arose during the maintenance phase of anaesthesia, mostly due to problems at induction or towards the end of anaesthesia. Factors increasing the risk of accidental awareness included: female sex, age (younger adults, but not children), obesity, anaesthetist seniority (junior trainees), previous awareness, out-of-hours operating, emergencies, type of surgery (obstetric, cardiac, thoracic), and use of NMB. The following factors were not risk factors for accidental awareness: ASA physical status, race, and use or omission of nitrous oxide. We recommend that an anaesthetic checklist, to be an integral part of the World Health Organization Safer Surgery checklist, is introduced as an aid to preventing accidental awareness. This paper is a shortened version describing the main findings from NAP5--the full report can be found at http://www.nationalauditprojects.org.uk/NAP5_home. PMID:25204697

  11. Dendrimer pattern formation in evaporating drops.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang-I; Thaler, Sean M; Leo, Perry H; Barnard, John A

    2006-12-28

    The redistribution of organic solutes during drop evaporation is a nanoscale self-assembly process with relevance to technologies ranging from inkjet printing of organic displays to synthesis of biosmart interfaces for sensing and screening. We have used solutions of dendrimer molecules with incrementally varying terminal site chemistry to explore whether the condensed dendrimer patterns resulting from microdroplet evaporation sensitively depend on, and are characteristic of, the surface chemistry of the solute molecules. This hypothesis has been experimentally confirmed by comparing the behavior of microdroplets of G4, G4-25%C12, and G4-50%C12 dendrimers dissolved in pentanol and deposited on mica substrates. For the dilute concentration studied here, the presence of periodically 'scalloped' dendrimer rings is ubiquitous. The instability wavelength of the scalloped rings is found to be proportional to the width of the ring, similar to observations of the rim instability in dewetting holes. The effect of dendrimer surface chemistry is obvious in the detailed structure of the self-assembled rings. G4 rings are diffuse and disordered with no evidence for layered growth. G4-25%C12 exhibits highly ordered ring structures and the onset of monomolecular terracing. G4-50%C12 exhibits highly periodic scallops and very distinct monomolecular height terraced growth of the rings with flat terraces and sharply defined steps. On the basis of these results, it is likely that the morphology of condensed molecule-based ring patterns formed by evaporation of microdroplets on surfaces can be used as a 'fingerprint' to identify, for example, solute molecule surface chemistry and concentration and function as a sensor for a variety of biochemical events. PMID:17181229

  12. Ares I Upper Stage Parachute Drop Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. In this HD video image, the first stage reentry parachute drop test is conducted at the Yuma, Arizona proving ground. The parachute tests demonstrated a three-stage deployment sequence that included the use of an Orbiter drag chute to properly stage the unfurling of the main chute. The parachute recovery system for Orion will be similar to the system used for Apollo command module landings and include two drogue, three pilot, and three main parachutes. (Highest resolution available)

  13. Ares I Upper Stage Parachute Drop Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. In this HD video image, the first stage reentry parachute drop test is conducted at the Yuma, Arizona proving ground. The parachute tests demonstrated a three-stage deployment sequence that included the use of an Orbiter drag chute to properly stage the unfurling of the main chute. The parachute recovery system for Orion will be similar to the system used for Apollo command module landings and include two drogue, three pilot, and three main parachutes. (Highest resolution available)

  14. Accidental Discoveries

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    In this activity, students research scientific discoveries that happened by accident in the past, and learn how gamma-rays were discovered by 20th century scientists. In the process, students develop an understanding that science theories change in the face of new evidence. This acitivity is part of the "Swift: Eyes Through Time" collection that is available on the Teacher's Domain website.

  15. Optimal Generator Scheduling using Probabilistic Demand Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Yoshiki; Kobayashi, Takenori; Omata, Kazuya; Takahashi, Hirofumi; Kusano, Hideo

    We have developed a new method to determine an optimal generator scheduling using probabilistic demand scenarios. The demand scenarios are created statistically as a set of load curves by the past demand data. Covariance matrix is used to reconstruct the distribution of the demand scenarios. Unit commitment calculation is executed for each demand scenario and the operation cost is estimated. Optimal generator scheduling is selected by the expected value of the unit price with including the additional cost to compensate the demand variation. The risk of the scenarios is also estimated to select the optimal generation scenario. The advantage of this method is that the optimum generator scheduling can be calculated in the present load dispatching system since the existing scheduling algorism can be easily adopted with a minimum modification.

  16. Throughfall Drop Size Distribution in relation to Leaf Canopy State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, S.; Nanko, K.; Levia, D. F., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    The partitioning of incident precipitation by a forest canopy into throughfall and stemflow varies as a function of meteorological conditions, tree species, leaf morphology and surface roughness. Little work quantified the throughfall drop size signature of precipitation events relative to changes in leaf canopy state of deciduous forests. This is the first study to compare throughfall drop size distributions in the presence and absence of foliage. To quantify individual throughfall drops, a laser disdrometer gauge was deployed below an observed drip point under a Liriodendron tulipifera L. (yellow poplar) tree, in northeastern Maryland, USA. More than 750,000 individual throughfall droplets have been counted and measured from precipitation events generating more than 5 mm gross rainfall over a period of 12 months. Throughfall during leafless events had significantly larger maximum drop diameters (6.74mm leafless, 5.55mm leafed) and median volume diameter of drops (5.44mm leafless, 3.31mm leafed) than throughfall generated when leaves were present. Statistical techniques have demonstrated the substantial influence of canopy state over the drop size spectra. Principal component analysis and factor analysis both resulted in canopy state loading positively with increases in maximum drop diameter while loading negatively with air temperature. Boosted regression trees analysis corroborated these findings. Our findings correspond with the physical conditions of a leafless canopy, and illustrated the greater extent of surface adhesion of intercepted water films on woody surfaces as opposed to foliar surfaces, thereby underscoring the importance of canopy state on throughfall inputs.

  17. Study of drop coalescence using the Lattice-Boltzmann Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falla Avila, Ricardo; Gonzalez-Mancera, Andres

    2010-11-01

    Drop coalescence in an emulsion is studied using the Lattice-Boltzmann Method (LBM) to simulate multicomponent fluid flow in 3D. Two cases are considered, drop interaction under shear flow and interaction during gravity induced sedimentation. Several experimental results on the topic have already been published and computational studies using the Boundary Element Method (BEM) are also available, however, it is of interest to investigate how well does the LBM behaves in comparison with other methods. For shear flow, drop size ratios, interfacial properties and flow regimes, which favor coalescence, are identified and discussed. Multiple drops interactions under shear flow are demonstrated and characterized. The interaction of drops under gravity-induced sedimentation is also considered. In this case, the effects of drop size ratio, surface tension, gravitational pull and viscosity ratio on drop interaction and coalescence are studied. The results are then compared to those obtained using the traditional BEM and experimental data from the literature. Discussion on code implementation, as well as advantages and disadvantages of each method are highlighted.

  18. Drop impact dynamics on oil-infused nanostructured surfaces.

    PubMed

    Lee, Choongyeop; Kim, Hyunsik; Nam, Youngsuk

    2014-07-22

    We experimentally investigated the impact dynamics of a water drop on oil-infused nanostructured surfaces using high-speed microscopy and scalable metal oxide nano surfaces. The effects of physical properties of the oil and impact velocity on complex fluid dynamics during drop impact were investigated. We show that the oil viscosity does not have significant effects on the maximal spreading radius of the water drop, while it moderately affects the retraction dynamics. The oil viscosity also determines the stability of the infused lubricant oil during the drop impact; i.e., the low viscosity oil layer is easily displaced by the impacting drop, which is manifested by a residual mark on the impact region and earlier initiation of prompt splashing. Also, because of the liquid (water)-liquid (oil) interaction on oil-infused surfaces, various instabilities are developed at the rim during impact under certain conditions, resulting in the flower-like pattern during retraction or elongated filaments during spreading. We believe that our findings will contribute to the rational design of oil-infused surfaces under drop impact conditions by illuminating the complex fluid phenomena on oil-infused surfaces during drop impact. PMID:24976266

  19. Measurement of an Evaporating Drop on a Reflective Substrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, David F.; Zhang, Nengli

    2004-01-01

    A figure depicts an apparatus that simultaneously records magnified ordinary top-view video images and laser shadowgraph video images of a sessile drop on a flat, horizontal substrate that can be opaque or translucent and is at least partially specularly reflective. The diameter, contact angle, and rate of evaporation of the drop as functions of time can be calculated from the apparent diameters of the drop in sequences of the images acquired at known time intervals, and the shadowgrams that contain flow patterns indicative of thermocapillary convection (if any) within the drop. These time-dependent parameters and flow patterns are important for understanding the physical processes involved in the spreading and evaporation of drops. The apparatus includes a source of white light and a laser (both omitted from the figure), which are used to form the ordinary image and the shadowgram, respectively. Charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera 1 (with zoom) acquires the ordinary video images, while CCD camera 2 acquires the shadowgrams. With respect to the portion of laser light specularly reflected from the substrate, the drop acts as a plano-convex lens, focusing the laser beam to a shadowgram on the projection screen in front of CCD camera 2. The equations for calculating the diameter, contact angle, and rate of evaporation of the drop are readily derived on the basis of Snell s law of refraction and the geometry of the optics.

  20. Pressure Drop Across Finned Cylinders Enclosed in a Jacket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rollin, Vern G; Ellerbrock, Herman H

    1937-01-01

    The pressure drop across finned cylinders in a jacket for a range of air speeds from approximately 13 to 230 miles per hour has been investigated. Tests were made to determine the effect on the pressure drop of changes in fin space, fin width, jacket entrance and exit areas, skirt-approach radius, and the use of fillets and a separator plate at the rear of the cylinder. The pressure drop across the cylinder increased as the fin space decreased, the increase being very rapid at fin spaces smaller than approximately 0.20 inch. Fin width had little effect on the pressure drop for the range of widths tested. The pressure drop across the cylinder was nearly halved by increasing the skirt-approach radius from 3/4 inch to 1-1/4 inches, but fillets and a separator plate at the rear of the cylinder had little effect on the pressure drop. The pressure drop across a cylinder with tapered fins was greater than that for a cylinder having rectangular fins with the same effective fin spacing.