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1

Failure Criteria for Evaluating Accidental Drops of Fuel Containers at INTEC  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a failure criterion that has been developed for use in evaluating fuel containers at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) for accidental drop events. The criterion would typically be used in dynamic finite element analyses using the ABA-QUS/Explicit program. The failure criterion used in the past is generally considered to substantially underestimate the strength and ductility of the materials involved. The new criterion is intended to be more realistic, allowing for more accurate impact analyses. The criterion is based on the distortion energy theory, which is considered to be appropriate for the ductile materials typically used in fuel containers. Also addressed in development of the criterion were the effects of strain rate and hydrostatic stress. The importance of these factors, however, is highly dependent on the material used. Three materials specifically addressed in this study were stainless steel, aluminum, and lead. The criterion is presented in the form of guidelines and recommendations that are based on material data obtained from the literature. The most significant difference between these and the previous criterion is that ductile materials are allowed to strain to much higher levels before they are considered to fail.

Miller, G. K.

1998-10-01

2

Preliminary Drop Testing Results to Validate an Analysis Methodology for Accidental Drop Events of Containers for Radioactive Materials  

SciTech Connect

The National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program, operating from the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), developed the standardized Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) canister. During the development of this canister, more than twenty drop tests were completed, evaluating high strain behavior, puncture resistance, maintenance of containment, and other canister responses. Computer analyses of these drop-test specimens/canisters employed the ABAQUS/Explicit software. A pre-drop analysis was performed for each test specimen to predict the deformed shape and resulting material straining. Typically, a postdrop analysis was also performed to better match actual test specifics (actual impact angle, test specimen material properties, etc.). The purpose for this analysis effort was to determine the capability of current analysis techniques to accurately predict the deformed shape of a standardized DOE SNF canister subjected to a defined drop event, without actually having to perform a drop test for every drop event of interest. Those analytical efforts yielded very accurate predictions for nearly all of the drop tests. However, it was noted, during one small-scale test, that the calculated deformed shape of the test specimen depended on the modeled frictional behavior as it impacted the essentially unyielding flat surface. In order to calculate the correct deformed shape, the modeled frictional behavior had to be changed to an unanticipated value. This paper will report the results of a preliminary investigation that determined the appropriate frictional modeling for a variety of impact angles. That investigation included drop testing performed at the INEEL from September 2000 to January 2001.

Snow, Spencer David; Morton, Dana Keith; Rahl, Tommy Ervin; Ware, Arthur Gates

2001-07-01

3

Drop by Drop  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students measure liquid capacity with standard units. The lesson is based on the book, Drip, Drop, by Sarah Meeks. This is lesson 3 of 5 in a unit from NCTM's Illuminations titled "Magnificent Measurement".

Math, Illuminations N.

2009-02-18

4

Drop Formation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the University of BristolâÂÂs Mathematics department contains an explanation of drop formation and its applications. A description of studies of drop separation and its applications in medicine and technology are provided. The site also contains photographs, including a series of images showing the formation of a satellite drop.

2010-03-25

5

Leidenfrost drops  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Leidenfrost drop forms when a volatile liquid is brought in contact with a very hot solid. Then, a vapor film comes in between the solid and the drop, giving to the latter the appearance of a liquid pearl. After a brief description of the shape of a Leidenfrost drop, we show that its size cannot exceed a certain value.

Anne-Laure Biance; Christophe Clanet; David Quéré

2003-01-01

6

Accidental HIV exposure.  

PubMed

This is a case presentation of an accidental contaminated needle stick injury from a patient known to be infected with both Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and hepatitis B. The patient was managed with prophylactic hepatitis B immune globulin, hepatitis B vaccination and the HIV retroviral drug zidovudine (AZT). At one year after treatment the patient was not infected with HIV or hepatitis B, and there was adequate immunity generated after vaccination for hepatitis B. PMID:9675972

Abayomi, E A; Mandisodza, M T

1998-02-01

7

Penny Drop  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this quick activity about the properties of water (page 1 of PDF), learners will use an eyedropper to slowly place one drop of water at a time onto a penny, counting the number of drops until the water spills over the edge. Besides searching for the greatest number drops a penny will hold, drops of milk or vegetable oil can be tested in addition to water, raising the question, "What property of water allows it to pile up this way?" Relates to the linked video, DragonflyTV: Malformed Frogs.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2005-01-01

8

Soft drop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a new jet substructure technique called "soft drop declustering", which recursively removes soft wide-angle radiation from a jet. The soft drop algorithm depends on two parameters — a soft threshold z cut and an angular exponent ? — with the ? = 0 limit corresponding roughly to the (modified) mass drop procedure. To gain an analytic understanding of soft drop and highlight the ? dependence, we perform resummed calculations for three observables on soft-dropped jets: the energy correlation functions, the groomed jet radius, and the energy loss due to soft drop. The ? = 0 limit of the energy loss is particularly interesting, since it is not only "Sudakov safe" but also largely insensitive to the value of the strong coupling constant. While our calculations are strictly accurate only to modified leading-logarithmic order, we also include a discussion of higher-order effects such as multiple emissions and (the absence of) non-global logarithms. We compare our analytic results to parton shower simulations and find good agreement, and we also estimate the impact of non-perturbative effects such as hadronization and the underlying event. Finally, we demonstrate how soft drop can be used for tagging boosted W bosons, and we speculate on the potential advantages of using soft drop for pileup mitigation.

Larkoski, Andrew J.; Marzani, Simone; Soyez, Gregory; Thaler, Jesse

2014-05-01

9

Drop dynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The drop dynamics module is a Spacelab-compatible acoustic positioning and control system for conducting drop dynamics experiments in space. It consists basically of a chamber, a drop injector system, an acoustic positioning system, and a data collection system. The principal means of collecting data is by a cinegraphic camera. The drop is positioned in the center of the chamber by forces created by standing acoustic waves generated in the nearly cubical chamber (about 12 cm on a side). The drop can be spun or oscillated up to fission by varying the phse and amplitude of the acoustic waves. The system is designed to perform its experiments unattended, except for start-up and shutdown events and other unique events that require the attention of the Spacelab payload specialist.

Elleman, D. D.

1981-01-01

10

[Accidental methyl alcohol poisoning].  

PubMed

An accidental poisoning due to drinking methyl alcohol in Chaoyang county is reported, analysing the accident. The poison came from the "retail white spirit" which was contaminated with methyl alcohol. Twenty-nine persons drank the wine, fourteen of them died, two of them became blind. After drinking this "retail white spirit" the drinkers showed symptoms of vertigo, headache, weakness, vomiting, night sweat, dyspnea and blurring of vision etc. within 6-120 hours. On examining the remaining spirit, we found the content of methyl alcohol to be between 16.6 and 40.69 g/100 ml. Some of the patients' urine and blood also contained methyl alcohol. We reckoned that each one of the twenty patients had taken more than 27 g of methyl alcohol and each of the ten dead drank more than 40 ml of the alcohol. PMID:2253526

Xiao, J H

1990-05-01

11

Foot Drop  

MedlinePLUS

... Exercise therapy to strengthen the muscles and maintain joint motion also helps to improve gait. Devices that electrically stimulate the peroneal nerve during footfall are appropriate for a small number of individuals with foot drop. In cases with ...

12

Epidemiology of accidental radiation exposures.  

PubMed Central

Much of the information on the health effects of radiation exposure available to date comes from long-term studies of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Accidental exposures, such as those resulting from the Chernobyl and Kyshtym accidents, have as yet provided little information concerning health effects of ionizing radiation. This paper will present the current state of our knowledge concerning radiation effects, review major large-scale accidental radiation exposures, and discuss information that could be obtained from studies of accidental exposures and the types of studies that are needed.

Cardis, E

1996-01-01

13

Coin Drop  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore refraction and viscosity as they try to drop five coins into a small glass of water. Although this seems like an easy task, learners will discover how refraction bends light and the viscosity of the water can alter the path of the coin.

Houston, Children'S M.

2013-05-15

14

Eye Drop Tips  

MedlinePLUS

... Putting in Eye Drops Prescription eye drops for glaucoma help maintain the pressure in your eye at ... a "Best Technique" for Putting in Eye Drops? Glaucoma Eye Drops: Suggestions on Use Glaucoma and the ...

15

Scenario Testing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This subset of the Black Box Software Testing collection includes resources to teach Scenario Testing. The scenario test involves a story about how the program is used, including information about the motivations of the people involved. The Soap Opera emphasizes the human issues, even beyond the traditional scenario. Resources include lecture videos, slides, activities, suggested readings, and study guide materials.

Kaner, Cem; Fiedler, Rebecca L.

2011-06-01

16

Drop impact reliability testing for lead-free and lead-based soldered IC packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Portable electronic products such as cellular phones, PDAs, and MP3 units are increasingly designed for accidental drop. Repeated drop events can lead to solder joint failure and malfunction of these products. Hence board-level reliability drop testing is a useful way to characterize the drop durability of the printed circuit board with different soldered assemblies. Lead-free (or Pb-free) solders are replacing

Desmond Y. R. Chong; F. X. Che; John H. L. Pang; Ng Kellin; Jane Y. N. Tan; Patrick T. H. Low

2006-01-01

17

Drop Impact Reliability Testing for Lead-Free and Leaded Soldered IC Packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Portable electronic products such as cellular phones, PDAs, and MP3 units are increasingly designed for accidental drop. Repeated drop events can lead to solder joint failure and malfunction of these products. Hence board-level reliability drop testing is a useful way to characterize the drop durability of the printed circuit board with different soldered assemblies. Lead-free (or Pb-free) solders are replacing

D. Y. R. Chong; Kellin Ng; J. Y. N. Tan; P. T. H. Low; J. H. L. Pang; F. X. Che; B. S. Xiong; L. H. Xu

2005-01-01

18

A Different Cone: Bursting Drops in Solids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drops in fluids tend to be spheres---a shape that minimizes surface energy. In thunderstorm clouds, drops can become unstable and emit thin jets when charged beyond certain limits. The instability of electrified drops in gases and liquids has been widely studied and used in applications including ink-jet printing, electrospinning nano-fibers, microfluidics and electrospray ionization. Here we report a different scenario: drops in solids become unstable and burst under sufficiently high electric fields. We find the instability of drops in solids morphologically resembles that in liquids, but the critical electric field for the instability follows a different scaling due to elasticity of solids. Our observations and theoretical models not only advance the fundamental understanding of electrified drops but also suggest a new failure mechanism of high-energy-density dielectric polymers, which have diverse applications ranging from capacitors for power grids and electric vehicles to muscle-like transducers for soft robots and energy harvesting.

Zhao, Xuanhe

2013-03-01

19

Scenario planning.  

PubMed

In facing future developments in health care, scenario planning offers a complementary approach to traditional strategic planning. Whereas traditional strategic planning typically consists of predicting the future at a single point on a chosen time horizon and mapping the preferred plans to address such a future, scenario planning creates stories about multiple likely potential futures on a given time horizon and maps the preferred plans to address the multiple described potential futures. Each scenario is purposefully different and specifically not a consensus worst-case, average, or best-case forecast; nor is scenario planning a process in probabilistic prediction. Scenario planning focuses on high-impact, uncertain driving forces that in the authors' example affect the field of radiology. Uncertainty is the key concept as these forces are mapped onto axes of uncertainty, the poles of which have opposed effects on radiology. One chosen axis was "market focus," with poles of centralized health care (government control) vs a decentralized private market. Another axis was "radiology's business model," with one pole being a unified, single specialty vs a splintered, disaggregated subspecialty. The third axis was "technology and science," with one pole representing technology enabling to radiology vs technology threatening to radiology. Selected poles of these axes were then combined to create 3 scenarios. One scenario, termed "entrepreneurialism," consisted of a decentralized private market, a disaggregated business model, and threatening technology and science. A second scenario, termed "socialized medicine," had a centralized market focus, a unified specialty business model, and enabling technology and science. A third scenario, termed "freefall," had a centralized market focus, a disaggregated business model, and threatening technology and science. These scenarios provide a range of futures that ultimately allow the identification of defined "signposts" that can suggest which basic features among the "possible futures" are playing out. Scenario planning provides for the implementation of appropriate constructed strategic responses. Scenarios allow for a pre-prepared game plan available for ready use as the future unfolds. They allow a deliberative response rather than a hastily constructed, urgent response. PMID:21371667

Enzmann, Dieter R; Beauchamp, Norman J; Norbash, Alexander

2011-03-01

20

[Accidental hanging during auto-erotic practices].  

PubMed

An unusual case of accidental hanging during autoerotic practices in a 25-year-old male student is described and the autoerotic asphyxia syndrome briefly discussed. The authors stressed the importance of a correct diagnostic of accidental death in these cases. PMID:2624150

Vieira, D N; da Silva, A G

1989-01-01

21

Is the tribimaximal mixing accidental?  

SciTech Connect

The tribimaximal (TBM) mixing is not accidental if structures of the corresponding leptonic mass matrices follow immediately from certain (residual or broken) flavor symmetry. We develop a simple formalism which allows one to analyze effects of deviations of the lepton mixing from TBM on the structure of the neutrino mass matrix and on the underlying flavor symmetry. We show that possible deviations from the TBM mixing can lead to strong modifications of the mass matrix and strong violation of the TBM-mass relations. As a result, the mass matrix may have an 'anarchical' structure with random values of elements or it may have some symmetry that differs from the TBM symmetry. Interesting examples include matrices with texture zeros, matrices with certain 'flavor alignment' as well as hierarchical matrices with a two-component structure, where the dominant and subdominant contributions have different symmetries. This opens up new approaches to understanding the lepton mixing.

Abbas, Mohammed [Ain Shams University, Faculty of Sciences, Abbassiyah 11566, Cairo (Egypt); Center for Theoretical Physics (CTP), British University in Egypt, BUE, El-Sherouk City, Cairo (Egypt); Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, I-34014 Trieste (Italy); Smirnov, A. Yu. [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, I-34014 Trieste (Italy); Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2010-07-01

22

Alternate drop pulse polarography  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The new technique of alternate drop pulse polarography is presented. An experimental evaluation of alternate drop pulse polarography shows complete compensation of the capacitative background due to drop expansion. The capillary response phenomenon was studied in the absence of faradaic reaction and the capillary response current was found to depend on the pulse width to the -0.72 power. Increased signal-to-noise ratios were obtained using alternate drop pulse polarography at shorter drop times.

Christie, J. H.; Jackson, L. L.; Osteryoung, R. A.

1976-01-01

23

21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. 1002.20 Section 1002...Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a)...

2013-04-01

24

Attracting Water Drops  

NASA Video Gallery

Astronauts Cady Coleman and Ron Garan perform the Attracting Water Drops experiment from Chabad Hebrew Academy in San Diego, Calif. This research determines if a free-floating water drop can be att...

25

Studies of Drop/Drop and Drop/Interface Impact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this talk, we will study the impact and coalescence of liquid drops using a physically-based numerical model that allows seamless transitions in interface topologies combined with adaptive mesh refinement. By using a mesh size that is adaptive to the length scales associated to the lubrication pressure generated by interfaces in near contact, we accurately describe the near contact motion and recover the predictions of asymptotic analyses. We compare simulation results to recent experiments performed by Mohamed-Kassim and Longmire. The effects of multiple drops, van der Waal forces and surfactants will also be considered.

Lowengrub, John; Cristini, Vittorio; Kim, Jun-Seok; Zheng, Xiaoming; Mohammed-Kassim, Zulfaa; Longmire, Ellen

2003-11-01

26

Analysis for SNF Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Drop into the Cask from the MCO Handling Machine (MHM) with Air Cushion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this report is to investigate the potential for damage to the MCO during impact from an accidental drop from the MHM into the shipping cask. The MCO is dropped from a height of 8.2 feet above the cask enters the cask concentrically and falls the additional 12.83 feet to the cask bottom. Because of the interface fit

2000-01-01

27

Solar scenarios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The employment of empirical observations of the sun and the coronal structure to form scenarios describing the characteristics of other stars is presented as a means to test theory against data. Convective surface forces are thought to be dominant in suns which are smaller than two solar masses, and the sun is noted to display a higher level of surface noise than most stars, with noise levels falling off in stars with larger or smaller masses. Ca II emission from the surface has become a standard for examining stellar coronal activity, and further aids in defining the age of a star in terms of evidence of rotation rates, with slower rotation attributed to older stars. The IUE spacecraft has provided stellar coronal data and the Einstein Observatory has allowed X-ray coverage of stars, with the finding that mass is not the sole indicator of coronal activity. There are stars the mass of the sun with more powerful X-ray emissions.

Rosner, R.

28

Eye drop neurology.  

PubMed

Eye drops can help to diagnose and prevent complications of neurological disorders. Guttae ophthalmicae (eye drops) are generally safe because the drugs rarely achieve significant systemic concentrations, although there are rare exceptions. This article covers contemporary pharmacological pupil testing; how to dilate a pupil safely; common reasons why pupils do not respond to drops; and corneal lubrication to prevent complications of weak eye closure. PMID:24520179

Bennetto, Luke; Guly, Catherine; Ormerod, Ian; Plant, Gordon T

2014-06-01

29

Accidental ligature strangulation due to electric grinder.  

PubMed

A young girl was accidentally strangled when her chunni (a piece of cloth worn around the neck by most Indian women) was caught in a moving electrical grinder. She was taken to the nearest hospital where she died within the next 9h, remaining unconscious throughout the hospital stay. Accidental strangulation of this kind due to household devices or machinery is extremely uncommon and to the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of its kind to be reported. The findings are presented. PMID:16442331

Shetty, Mahabalesh; Shetty, B Suresh

2006-04-01

30

Deep accidental hypothermia during the Queensland summer.  

PubMed

A 52-year-old woman presented with severe accidental hypothermia associated with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest after a polypharmacy overdose. Deep hypothermia developed while she lay unconscious, with a split-system air-conditioning unit rapidly cooling the confined area of her bedroom. Despite the need for lengthy resuscitative efforts at the scene and in hospital, she went on to a full neurological recovery. The neuroprotective role of accidental hypothermia is reviewed, as are the guidelines for resuscitation in this setting. We conclude that hypothermia must be considered even in unlikely circumstances, such as the Queensland summer, when ambient temperatures are high. PMID:18052898

Udy, Andrew A; Ziegenfuss, Marc D; Fraser, John F

2007-12-01

31

Accidental inflation from Kähler uplifting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the possibility of realizing inflation with a subsequent dS vacuum in the Käahler uplifting scenario. The inclusion of several quantum corrections to the 4d effective action evades previous no-go theorems and allows for construction of simple and successful models of string inflation. The predictions of several benchmark models are in accord with current observations, i.e., a red spectral index, negligible non-gaussianity, and spectral distortions similar to the simplest models of inflation. A particularly interesting subclass of models are ``left-rolling" ones, where the overall volume of the compactified dimensions shrinks during inflation. We call this phenomenon ``inflation by deflation" (IBD), where deflation refers to the internal manifold. This subclass has the appealing features of being insensitive to initial conditions, avoiding the overshooting problem, and allowing for observable running ? ~ 0.012 and enhanced tensor-to-scalar ratio r ~ 10?5. The latter results differ significantly from many string inflation models.

Ben-Dayan, Ido; Jing, Shenglin; Westphal, Alexander; Wieck, Clemens

2014-03-01

32

Drops on a Penny  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, challenge learners to predict and investigate how many water drops they can fit on one penny. Learners conduct the test three times to find the average number of drops they can fit on a penny. Learners then repeat this process using a nickel, dime, and quarter. Use this activity to demonstrate the principles of surface tension, adhesion/cohesion, and gravity.

Boston, Wgbh

2002-01-01

33

Axisymmetric Liquid Hanging Drops  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The geometry of drops hanging on a circular capillary can be determined by numerically solving a dimensionless differential equation that is independent on any material properties, which enables one to follow the change of the height, surface area, and contact angle of drops hanging on a particular capillary. The results show that the application…

Meister, Erich C.; Latychevskaia, Tatiana Yu

2006-01-01

34

Why Students Drop Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted by Macomb County Community College to determine the reasons that their students withdrew from classes. Questionnaires were sent to 3,568 students who had dropped a total of 6,081 courses. The 1,434 responding students (40.19%) answered questions about the 2,190 courses they had dropped, and gave their reasons for doing so.…

Thompson, J. Robert

35

Supercooled Water Drops  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners touch supercooled water drops with an ice crystal and trigger the water drops to freeze instantly. Learners discover that this process is used during candy making, when a single sugar crystal is used to crystallize an entire batch of sugar.

Exploratorium

2012-10-03

36

Liquid Drop Art  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection showcases the work of artist Corrie White, who has combined photographic techniques, use of different liquids, and precise production of drops to produce striking and original images of drops and soap films. Her work has been featured on the APS Division of Fluid Dynamics 2012 Image Gallery. The site includes a link to tutorials that present her methods.

White, Corrie

2013-01-25

37

Collision between an ethanol drop and a water drop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The collision between a water drop and an ethanol drop was studied. In a binary collision between unlike miscible drops with a large surface tension difference, an “unbalanced-surface-force” (USF) deformation on the drop of larger surface tension, i.e., the water drop, occurs during the first stage of the collision. This deformation may squeeze out small satellites from the water drop at low-impact-parameter collisions or split the water drop at high-impact-parameter collisions. The later stages of the collision behavior, namely, coalescence and separation, resemble those of the drops of the smaller surface tension, i.e., the ethanol drop.

Gao, T.-C.; Chen, R.-H.; Pu, J.-Y.; Lin, T.-H.

2005-06-01

38

Accidental tritium doses based on realistic modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

An early effective dose equivalent (EDE) to the most exposed individual of the public (MEI) at 1 km of 0.5 mSv per g tritium released in HTO form is presently used to quantify the environmental impact of accidental tritium releases from future fusion devices like NET (Next European Torus) or ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor). To quantify the uncertainty margin

W. Gulden; W. Raskob

1992-01-01

39

Accidental Head Injury: A Real Life Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The adult victim of accidental head injury as a result of an automobile accident recounts his experiences as a brain injured adult with such problems as poor balance, poor speech, spasticity, and lack of fine motor movement. He emphasizes his determination to get on with his life. (DB)

Blakely, Jim

1988-01-01

40

Accidental and planned weather modification in illinois  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weather modification, both planned by humans and accidentally produced by humans, is the focus of an Illinois study. Populations in Illinois and the Midwest are living in a climate that is now modified inadvertently from its natural state. State atmospheric scientists have tackled weather modification through a series of interrelated studies, experimental design studies, experimental field studies to verify changes

1977-01-01

41

Load drop evaluation for TWRS FSAR  

SciTech Connect

Operational or remediation activities associated with existing underground high-level waste storage tank structures at the Hanford Site often require the installation/removal of various equipment items. To gain tank access for installation or removal of this equipment, large concrete cover blocks must be removed and reinstalled in existing concrete pits above the tanks. An accidental drop of the equipment or cover blocks while being moved over the tanks that results in the release of contaminants to the air poses a potential risk to onsite workers or to the offsite public. To minimize this potential risk, the use of critical lift hoisting and rigging procedures and restrictions on lift height are being considered during development of the new tank farm Basis for Interim Operation and Final Safety Analysis Report. The analysis contained herein provides information for selecting the appropriate lift height restrictions for these activities.

Julyk, L.J.; Ralston, G.L.

1996-09-30

42

Modelling of accidental released toxic gases for emergency responders in Austria, Kosovo and Bulgaria.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the case of accidental release of hazardous gases in the atmosphere, the emergency responders need a reliable and fast tool to assess the possible consequences and apply the optimal countermeasures. A number of models for the prediction and simulation of hazard areas affected by accidental releases of toxic gases are available worldwide. Modelling accidental releases may be required for a variety of reasons: for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios"), for preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management (e.g. in the frame of the SEVESO directive). Depending on the demand and the particular purposes, the choice of the appropriate model is up to the authorities. The one year project was funded by the Austrian Science and research liaison Office (ASO, www.aso.zsi.at) as a part of the program: Research Cooperation and Networking between Austria, the public higher education institutions in Kosovo and South Eastern Europe. The project was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG, http://www.zamg.ac.at) in cooperation with the University of Prishtina (Kosovo, www.uni-pr.edu and the National Institute of meteorology and Hydrology (NIHM Bulgaria, www.meteo.bg). One of the main purposes of the project was to provide the both partners with basic knowledge in modelling with accidental release of toxic gases, based on the practical experience of the meteorologists from the ZAMG in the area. This knowledge can be used as scientific response to society driven current or upcoming problems especially in Kosovo. The activities involved know-how transfer on European standards and practice among the project partners, as well as joint efforts to adapt and disseminate the scientific methods and results in Kosovo. Within the project, the partners from Kosovo and Bulgaria were introduced to the atmospheric dispersion model (ALOHA - Areal Location of Hazardous atmosphere) and proceeded several model runs based on reference scenarios for chemicals of concern. ALOHA is one of the tools developed by EPA's Office of Emergency Management (OEM) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office of Response and Restoration (NOAA), to assist front-line chemical emergency planners and responders. In the frame of the project the partners in Kosovo and Bulgaria also undertook first steps in establishing cooperation connections with decision makers for emergency response planning, fire brigades and chemical plants. This presentation focuses on basic issues and problems in handling with accidental release of toxic gases, as well as on communication difficulties among the emergency responders, modellers and authorities in the three countries.

Stenzel, Sirma; Baumann-Stanzer, Kathrin; Gashi, Salih; Thaci, Bashkim; Batchvarova, Ekaterina; Spassova, Tatiana

2010-05-01

43

Bursting drops in solid dielectrics caused by high voltages.  

PubMed

Fluid drops tend to be spheres--a shape that minimizes surface energy. In thunderstorm clouds, drops can become unstable and emit thin jets when charged beyond certain limits. The instability of electrified drops in gases and liquids has been widely studied and used in applications including ink-jet printing, electrospinning nanofibers, microfluidics and electrospray ionization. Here we report a different scenario: drops in solids become unstable and burst under sufficiently high electric fields. We find the instability of drops in solids morphologically resembles that in liquids, but the critical electric field for the instability follows a different scaling due to elasticity of solids. Our observations and theoretical models not only advance the fundamental understanding of electrified drops, but also suggest a new failure mechanism of high energy density dielectric polymers, which have diverse applications ranging from capacitors for power grids and electric vehicles to muscle-like transducers for soft robots and energy harvesting. PMID:23093194

Wang, Qiming; Suo, Zhigang; Zhao, Xuanhe

2012-01-01

44

Bursting Drops in Solid Dielectrics Caused by High Voltages  

PubMed Central

Drops in fluids tend to be spheres—a shape that minimizes surface energy. In thunderstorm clouds, drops can become unstable and emit thin jets when charged beyond certain limits. The instability of electrified drops in gases and liquids has been widely studied and used in applications including ink-jet printing, electrospinning nano-fibers, microfluidics and electrospray ionization. Here we report a different scenario: drops in solids become unstable and burst under sufficiently high electric fields. We find the instability of drops in solids morphologically resembles that in liquids, but the critical electric field for the instability follows a different scaling due to elasticity of solids. Our observations and theoretical models not only advance the fundamental understanding of electrified drops but also suggest a new failure mechanism of high-energy-density dielectric polymers, which have diverse applications ranging from capacitors for power grids and electric vehicles to muscle-like transducers for soft robots and energy harvesting.

Wang, Qiming; Suo, Zhigang

2013-01-01

45

Bursting drops in solid dielectrics caused by high voltages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluid drops tend to be spheres—a shape that minimizes surface energy. In thunderstorm clouds, drops can become unstable and emit thin jets when charged beyond certain limits. The instability of electrified drops in gases and liquids has been widely studied and used in applications including ink-jet printing, electrospinning nanofibers, microfluidics and electrospray ionization. Here we report a different scenario: drops in solids become unstable and burst under sufficiently high electric fields. We find the instability of drops in solids morphologically resembles that in liquids, but the critical electric field for the instability follows a different scaling due to elasticity of solids. Our observations and theoretical models not only advance the fundamental understanding of electrified drops, but also suggest a new failure mechanism of high energy density dielectric polymers, which have diverse applications ranging from capacitors for power grids and electric vehicles to muscle-like transducers for soft robots and energy harvesting.

Wang, Qiming; Suo, Zhigang; Zhao, Xuanhe

2012-10-01

46

Analysis for Spent Nuclear Fuel Multi-Canister Overpack Drop into the Cask from the Multi-Canister Overpack-Handling Machine with Air Cushion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this report is to investigate the potential for damage to the MCO during impact from an accidental drop from the MHM into the shipping cask. The MCO is dropped from a height of 8 2 feet above the cask enters the cask concentrically and fall...

D. J. Rains

2002-01-01

47

Liquid metal drop ejection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aim of this project was to demonstrate the possibility of ejecting liquid metals using drop on demand printing technology. The plan was to make transducers for operation in the 100 MHz frequency range and to use these transducers to demonstrate the ability to eject drops of liquid metals such as gallium. Two transducers were made by indium bonding piezoelectric lithium niobate to quartz buffer rods. The lithium niobate plates were thinned by mechanical polishing to a thickness of 37 microns for operation at 100 MHz. Hemispherical lenses were polished in the opposite ends of the buffer rods. The lenses, which focus the sound waves in the liquid metal, had an F-number equals 1. A mechanical housing was made to hold the transducers and to allow precise control over the liquid level above the lens. We started by demonstrating the ability to eject drops of water on demand. The drops of water had a diameter of 15 microns which corresponds to the wavelength of the sound wave in the water. A videotape of this ejection was made. We then used a mixture of Gallium and Indium (used to lower the melting temperature of the Gallium) to demonstrate the ejection of liquid metal drops. This proved to be difficult because of the oxide skin which forms on the surface of the liquid. In some instances, we were able to eject metal drops, however, this was not consistent and reproducible. An experiment was set up at NASA-Lewis to stabilize the process of drop on demand liquid metal ejection. The object was to place the transducer and liquid metal in a vacuum station so that no oxide would form on the surface. We were successful in demonstrating that liquid metals could be ejected on demand and that this technology could be used for making sheet metal in space.

Khuri-Yakub, B. T.

1993-01-01

48

Computer code to assess accidental pollutant releases  

SciTech Connect

A computer code was developed to calculate the cumulative frequency distributions of relative concentrations of an air pollutant following an accidental release from a stack or from a building penetration such as a vent. The calculations of relative concentration are based on the Gaussian plume equations. The meteorological data used for the calculation are in the form of joint frequency distributions of wind and atmospheric stability.

Pendergast, M.M.; Huang, J.C.

1980-07-01

49

Comparative study of the PARK and ASTRAL post-accidental decision support software.  

PubMed

The French radioecological assessment model ASTRAL and the German model PARK have been developed to evaluate the radiological situation in the case of an accidental release of radionuclides and a widespread contamination of the environment. For decision makers it is of importance that the results on foodstuff contamination and on dose to humans are in fairly good agreement, when areas of the common border are affected. Therefore a comparative study has been done for two scenarios, assuming accidental releases on 1 June and 1 October. The study indicates that the models' structures and the transfer parameters are in good agreement. Only model principles for root vegetables are different in both models. Significant differences in results on the contamination of foodstuff and on dose to humans by ingestion are caused by different assumptions on dates of harvest and feeding methods of animals. A corresponding harmonization is essential with respect to decision making. PMID:10201563

Renaud, P; Stapel, R; Maubert, H; Bleher, M; Wirth, E

1999-05-01

50

Do-It-Yourself Device for Recovery of Cryopreserved Samples Accidentally Dropped into Cryogenic Storage Tanks  

PubMed Central

Liquid nitrogen is colorless, odorless, extremely cold (-196 °C) liquid kept under pressure. It is commonly used as a cryogenic fluid for long term storage of biological materials such as blood, cells and tissues 1,2. The cryogenic nature of liquid nitrogen, while ideal for sample preservation, can cause rapid freezing of live tissues on contact - known as 'cryogenic burn'2, which may lead to severe frostbite in persons closely involved in storage and retrieval of samples from Dewars. Additionally, as liquid nitrogen evaporates it reduces the oxygen concentration in the air and might cause asphyxia, especially in confined spaces2. In laboratories, biological samples are often stored in cryovials or cryoboxes stacked in stainless steel racks within the Dewar tanks1. These storage racks are provided with a long shaft to prevent boxes from slipping out from the racks and into the bottom of Dewars during routine handling. All too often, however, boxes or vials with precious samples slip out and sink to the bottom of liquid nitrogen filled tank. In such cases, samples could be tediously retrieved after transferring the liquid nitrogen into a spare container or discarding it. The boxes and vials can then be relatively safely recovered from emptied Dewar. However, the cryogenic nature of liquid nitrogen and its expansion rate makes sunken sample retrieval hazardous. It is commonly recommended by Safety Offices that sample retrieval be never carried out by a single person. Another alternative is to use commercially available cool grabbers or tongs to pull out the vials3. However, limited visibility within the dark liquid filled Dewars poses a major limitation in their use. In this article, we describe the construction of a Cryotolerant DIY retrieval device, which makes sample retrieval from Dewar containing cryogenic fluids both safe and easy.

Mehta, Rohini; Baranova, Ancha; Birerdinc, Aybike

2012-01-01

51

Natural Disaster Scenario Generator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this study, a computer system previously developed for generating nuclear damage scenarios (Dial-a-Scenario) was extended to produce natural disaster scenarios. The programs are implemented on both time-shared (remote terminal) and batch process modes....

J. Baca P. B. Bjorklund R. K. Laurino

1975-01-01

52

Drying drops of blood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The drying of a drop of human blood is fascinating by the complexity of the physical mechanisms that occur as well as the beauty of the phenomenon which has never been previously evidenced in the literature. The final stage of full blood evaporation reveals for a healthy person the same regular pattern with a good reproducibility. Other tests on anemia and hyperlipidemic persons were performed and presented different patterns. By means of digital camera, the influence of the motion of red blood cells (RBCs) which represent about 50% of the blood volume, is revealed as well as its consequences on the final stages of drying. The mechanisms which lead to the final pattern of dried blood drops are presented and explained on the basis of fluid and solid mechanics in conjunction with the principles of hematology. Our group is the first to evidence that the specific regular patterns characteristic of a healthy individual do not appear in a dried drop of blood from a person with blood disease. Blood is a complex colloidal suspension for which the flow motion is clearly non-Newtonian. When drops of blood evaporate, all the colloids are carried by the flow motion inside the drop and interact.

Brutin, David; Sobac, Benjamin; Loquet, Boris; Sampol, José.

2010-11-01

53

Drops on elastic tracks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fibrous media are ubiquitous functional materials, which often consist of flexible high aspect ratio fibers that can easily deform under capillary forces with many industrial and ecological consequences. We study the influence of a mist of droplets on an elastic array of fibers by considering a finite volume drop on a pair of two flexible fibers, clamped at one end and free to deflect at the other. The elastocapillary deformation of the fibers leads to the spontaneous motion of the drop toward the free ends. The drop either remains compact with minimal spreading or spreads into a long liquid column that coalesces the fibers. We find that there is a critical volume of liquid, hence a critical drop size, above which this coalescence does not occur, and we identify another drop size which maximizes spreading, thus liquid capture. Experimental results and mathematical models will be presented and compared. These ideas are applicable to a wide range of fibrous materials, as we illustrate with quantitative examples for feathers, beetle tarsi, sprays and microfabricated systems.

Duprat, Camille; Protiere, Suzie; Beebe, Alexander; Stone, Howard

2011-11-01

54

Coalescence of Crystalline Drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first experimental analysis of drop coalescence in a case where the dynamics is not governed by viscous dissipation in the bulk nor by the inertia of the fluid flow, only by the geometry and mobility of surfaces. We found such a situation in the physics of 3He crystals near 0.32K where the latent heat of crystallization vanishes. Two crystalline drops of 3He coalesce if their crystalline orientations are identical: a neck forms after the contact at time t=0, and the shape evolves towards that of one convex crystal by local growth and melting in a fraction of a second. We have found that the neck radius initially increases as t1/3, as predicted by Maris. This behavior is also expected for superfluid drops. It is clearly distinguished from the logarithmic behavior and from the t1/2 power law which have been predicted by Eggers et al. in more usual situations.

Ishiguro, R.; Graner, F.; Rolley, E.; Balibar, S.

2004-11-01

55

Drum drop test report  

SciTech Connect

Testing was performed to determine actual damage to drums when dropped from higher than currently stacked elevations. The drum configurations were the same as they are placed in storage; single drums and four drums banded to a pallet. Maximum drop weights were selected based on successful preliminary tests. Material was lost from each of the single drum tests while only a small amount of material was lost from one of the pelletized drums. The test results are presented in this report. This report also provides recommendations for further testing to determine the appropriate drum weight which can be stored on a fourth tier.

McBeath, R.S.

1995-02-28

56

Paramagnetic Leidenfrost Drops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid oxygen drops have two remarkable properties: 1) they undergo Leidenfrost effect on a substrate at room temperature because of their low boiling point (-183,oC): they levitate on a cushion of their own vapor which confers them extreme mobility and thermal insulation ; 2) they are paramagnetic hence subjected to a force in the presence of a magnetic field gradient.

Keyvan Piroird; Baptiste Darbois Texier; Christophe Clanet; David Quere

2010-01-01

57

Youth Versus Adult "Weightlifting" Injuries Presenting to United States Emergency Rooms: Accidental Versus Nonaccidental Injury Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Myer, GD, Quatman, CE, Khoury, J, Wall, EJ, and Hewett, TE. Youth versus adult “weightlifting” injuries presenting to united states emergency rooms: accidental versus nonaccidental injury mechanisms. J Strength Cond Res 23(7): 2054–2060, 2009—Resistance training has previously been purported to be unsafe and ineffective in children. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate resistance training-related injuries presenting to U.S. emergency rooms by age, type, and mechanism of injury. We hypothesized that older athletes would sustain greater percentages of joint sprains and muscle strains, whereas younger athletes would sustain a greater percentage of accidental injuries that would result in an increased percentage of fractures in youths. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) National Electronic Injury Surveillance System was queried from 2002 to 2005 using the CPSC code for “Weightlifting.” Subjects between the ages of 8 and 30 were grouped by age categories 8 to 13 (elementary/middle school age), 14 to 18 (high school), 19 to 22 (college), and 23 to 30 (adult). Injuries were classified as “accidental” if caused by dropped weight or improper equipment use. Multiple logistic regression was used to compare accidental injuries between age groups. The sample consisted of 4, 111 patients. Accidental injuries decreased (p < 0.05) with age: 8 to 13 > 14 to 18 > 19 to 22 years = 23 to 30 years. Conversely, sprain/strain injuries increased in each successive age group (p < 0.05). Evaluation of only the nonaccidental injuries (n = 2, 565) showed that the oldest categories (19–22 and 23–30 yr) demonstrated a greater percentage of sprains and strains relative to younger age categories (p < 0.001). Two thirds of the injuries sustained in the 8 to 13 group were to the hand and foot and were most often related to “dropping” and “pinching” in the injury descriptions, and there was an increased percentage of fractures in the 8 to 13 group relative to all other groups (p < 0.001). The study findings indicate that children have lower risk of resistance training-related joint sprains and muscle strains than adults. The majority of youth resistance training injuries are the result of accidents that are potentially preventable with increased supervision and stricter safety guidelines.

Myer, Gregory D.; Quatman, Carmen E.; Khoury, Jane; Wall, Eric J.; Hewett, Timothy E.

2014-01-01

58

Accidental electrocution during autoeroticism: a shocking case.  

PubMed

A case of atypical autoerotic death is described. An 18-year-old white man clad in two brassieres was found dead in his bedroom by his brother. Two wet green terry cloths were under the brassiere cups, connected to the house current via two metal washers and a bifid electrical cord. Literature depicting nude women was found near the victim. Autopsy revealed second-degree and third-degree burns of the mammary regions. Death was attributed to accidental self-electrocution. The authors will discuss typical and atypical forms of autoerotic death. PMID:12605007

Schott, Jennifer C; Davis, Gregory J; Hunsaker, John C

2003-03-01

59

Numerical Simulations of Drop Collisions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three-dimensional simulations of the off-axis collisions of two drops are presented. The full Navier-Stokes equations are solved by a Front-Tracking/Finite-Difference method that allows a fully deformable fluid interface and the inclusion of surface tension. The drops are accelerated towards each other by a body force that is turned off before the drops collide. Depending on whether the interface between the drops is ruptured or not, the drops either bounce or coalesce. For drops that coalesce, the impact parameter, which measures how far the drops are off the symmetry line, determines the eventual outcome of the collision. For low impact parameters, the drops coalesce permanently, but for higher impact parameters, a grazing collision, where the drops coalesce and then stretch apart again is observed. The results are in agreement with experimental observations.

Nobari, M. R. H.; Tryggvason, G.

1994-01-01

60

Drop tube technical tasks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Criteria, using fundamental thermochemical dynamics, were developed to assist a scientist using the Drop Tube Facility in designing a good experiment. The types of parameters involved in designing the experiments include the type of furnace, the type of atmosphere, and in general which materials are better behaved than others as determined by past experience in the facility. One of the major advantages of the facility lies in its ability to provide large undercoolings in the cooling curve during the drops. A beginning was to consider the effect of oxygen and other gases upon the amount of undercooling observed. The starting point of the thermochemistry was given by Ellingham and later transformed into what is known as the Richardson Chart. The effect of surface oxidations upon the nucleation phenomena can be observed in each specimen.

Workman, G. L.

1986-01-01

61

Egg Drop Lander  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is about collaborative design of a lander vehicle. Learners will design and build a descent and landing system for an egg. The students will also practice their writing skills by writing a letter or article about the success or failure of their spacecraft design. This is lesson 15 of 16 in the MarsBots learning module. This lesson is adapted from "Mars Pathfinder: Egg Drop and Landing" an activity in The Mars Activity Book (see related resources).

62

The role of environmental accidental risk assessment in the process of granting development consent.  

PubMed

Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is a procedure that must be followed for certain types of development before they are granted development consent. The procedure requires the developer to compile an environmental impact report (EIR) describing the likely significant effects of the project on the environment. A regulatory requirement in Slovenia is that an accidental risk assessment for a new installation should be a part of an EIR. The article shows how risk assessment (RA) related to accidental release of methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) or a polyvalent alcohol mixture from a new planned unit of a chemical factory in the Alpine region of Slovenia was performed in the framework of an EIA for the purpose of obtaining a construction permit. Two accidental scenarios were considered: (a) a spill of 20 m(3) of MDI or polyvalent alcohol mixture into the river Soca (the river runs close to the chemical factory) and (b) a fire in the warehouse storing the raw material, where emission of toxic gases HCN, NO(x), and CO is expected during combustion of MDI. One of the most important results of this case is the agreement among the developer, the competent authority, and a consultant in the field of EIA and RA to positively conclude the licensing process despite the absence of formal (regulatory) limit values for risk. It has been approved that transparent, reasonably uncertain, and semi-quantitative environmental risk assessment is an inevitable component of an EIA, and an essential factor in informed, licensing-related decision making. PMID:19732394

Kontic, Branko; Gerbec, Marko

2009-11-01

63

Phenomena of liquid drop impact on solid and liquid surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fluid dynamic phenomena of liquid drop impact are described and reviewed. These phenomena include bouncing, spreading and splashing on solid surfaces, and bouncing, coalescence and splashing on liquid surfaces. Further, cavitation and the entrainment of gas into an impacted liquid may be observed. In order to distinguish properly between the results of different experiments different impact scenarios are discussed.

Martin Rein

1993-01-01

64

Subdural haematoma and non-accidental head injury in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients and methods. In this retrospective study, 36 children referred to paediatric neurology and neurosurgery during April 1995-June 1998 with a diagnosis of subdural haematoma (SDH) were studied. Nine were accidental secondary to witnessed trauma and 4 were iatrogenic. Non-accidental head injury (NAHI) was suspected in the remaining 23 children. Results. After a full clinical, radiological and social assessment, NAHI

Aparna Hoskote; Peter Richards; Philip Anslow; Tony McShane

2002-01-01

65

Course Management Systems for Learning: Beyond Accidental Pedagogy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Course Management Systems for Learning: Beyond Accidental Pedagogy" is a comprehensive overview of standards, practices and possibilities of course management systems in higher education. "Course Management Systems for Learning: Beyond Accidental Pedagogy" focuses on what the current knowledge is (in best practices, research, standards and…

McGee, Patricia; Carmean, Colleen; Jafari, Ali

2005-01-01

66

Imitation of Intentional and Accidental Actions by Children with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To determine whether children with autism (CWA) would selectively imitate intentional, as opposed to accidental actions, an experimenter demonstrated either an "intentional" and an "accidental" action or two "intentional" actions on the same toy [Carpenter, Akhtar, & Tomasello ("1998a") "Infant Behavior and Development, 21," 315-330]. CWA tended…

D'Entremont, Barbara; Yazbek, Aimee

2007-01-01

67

Experiences of Causing an Accidental Death: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accidentally killing or feeling responsible for another person's death constitutes an event that is different from many typical traumatic stressors in that the responsibility for causing the trauma is located in the person themselves, rather than another person or persons. Research exploring the perspective of those who have accidentally caused a…

Rassool, Sara B.; Nel, Pieter W.

2012-01-01

68

CONTROL AND MITIGATION SYSTEMS FOR ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF TOXIC CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses control and mitigation systems for accidental releases of toxic chemicals. A review of the control/mitigation system data base developed during an EPA study reveals that the major control measure employed by industry for accidental releases is routine process ...

69

Drop foot corrective device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A light weight, economical device to alleviate a plurality of difficulties encountered in walking by a victim suffering from a drop foot condition is discussed. A legband girdles the leg below the knee and above the calf providing an anchor point for the upper end of a ligament having its lower end attached to a toe of a shoe or a toe on the foot. The ligament is of such length that the foot is supported thereby and retained in a normal position during walking.

Deis, B. C. (inventor)

1986-01-01

70

[Accidental myiasis by Ornidia obesa in humans].  

PubMed

Dipterous of the genus Ornidia are pollinator bugs, but immature stages can be found in organic matter in decomposition. This article refers to a found of larvae of Ornidia obesa in humans feces. An eight years old child was treated in a medical clinic due to the presence of two larvae and one pupae in the feces, hyperthermia, intestinal obstruction and strong abdominal pain. Medical therapy consisted of Mebendazol and Ivermectin in the indicated doses. 24 hours after the administration of the drugs, several larvae were expelled with diarrheic feces. The material was taken to the Parasitological Veterinary Lab, and the larvae were classified belonging to the genus Ornidia. According to the literature, this specie of Diptera is not incriminated to cause myiasis in vertebrates. We think that this study reports a case of accidental myiasis in humans, were the patient may have ingested food with immature stages of the fly (eggs or larvae). PMID:20059825

Monteiro, Silvia G; Faccio, Lucian; Otto, Mateus Anderson; Soares, João Fabio; Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Mazzanti, Alexandre

2008-09-01

71

Accidental etizolam ingestion in a child.  

PubMed

Etizolam (ETZ) is an antidepressive thienodiazepine drug that is used worldwide. The most frequent adverse effects in adults are drowsiness and muscle weakness, and this can rarely cause paradoxical excitation; however, no information exists on intoxication in children. Furthermore, evidence bearing on its safety in children is not available. We present a case of a child who accidentally took a single dose of ETZ, approximately the same as a therapeutic dose for adults, and who showed paradoxical excitation and muscle weakness. The case presented here suggests that pediatricians and emergency physicians should be aware of the possible adverse effects in children and therapeutic approaches in intoxication of ETZ and the necessity of further investigations on a specific therapeutic guideline for overdose management especially in children. PMID:17666930

Kato, Zenichiro; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Funato, Michinori; Kuwabara, Hideaki; Kondo, Naomi

2007-07-01

72

Clinical clues for head injuries amongst Malaysian infants: accidental or non-accidental?  

PubMed

Identifying the differences between infants with non-accidental head injuries (NAHI) and accidental head injuries (AHI) may help alert clinicians to recognize markers of abuse. A retrospective review of infants <1 year of age admitted to a tertiary referral centre in Malaysia over a two year period with a diagnosis of head injury or abnormal computed tomography head scans was conducted to identify the clinical features pointing towards a diagnosis of NAHI by comparing the socio-demographics, presenting complaints, clinical features and the extent of hospital investigations carried out. NAHI infants were more likely to be symptomatic, under a non-related caregiver's supervision, and presented with inconsistent or no known mechanism of injury. Subdural haemorrhages were more common in NAHI infants. The history, mechanism of injury, presenting signs and symptoms as well as the nature of the injuries sustained are all valuable clues as to whether a head injury sustained during infancy is likely to be accidental or not. PMID:22424957

Thalayasingam, M; Veerakumarasivam, A; Kulanthayan, S; Khairuddin, F; Cheah, I G S

2012-12-01

73

Analogies between a drop impacting a solid surface, an oscillating sessile drop, and two coalescing drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous industrial processes involve the formation of drops which then collide with a solid substrate or another drop. When a drop impacts a solid surface without splashing, it may spread on the surface and then recoil, much like an oscillating sessile drop whose contact line is free to move. Were the impacting drop to make a fixed contact angle of 90 degrees with a substrate that exerts negligible viscous drag on the drop, the situation approximates well the aftermath of what happens once two drops have just started coalescing. Given the aforementioned analogies between these apparently quite distinct physical problems, the dynamics of each process is analyzed by solving numerically the 3D axisymmetric or 2D Navier-Stokes system using a well-benchmarked ALE algorithm based on the Galerkin/Finite Element Method (G/FEM) for spatial discretization and adaptive finite differences for time integration.

Appathurai, Santosh; Harris, Michael; Basaran, Osman

2010-11-01

74

First drop dissimilarity in drop-on-demand inkjet devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As inkjet printing technology is increasingly applied in a broader array of applications, careful characterization of its method of use is critical due to its inherent sensitivity. A common operational mode in inkjet technology known as drop-on-demand ejection is used as a way to deliver a controlled quantity of material to a precise location on a target. This method of operation allows ejection of individual or a sequence (burst) of drops based on a timed trigger event. This work presents an examination of sequences of drops as they are ejected, indicating a number of phenomena that must be considered when designing a drop-on-demand inkjet system. These phenomena appear to be driven by differences between the first ejected drop in a burst and those that follow it and result in a break-down of the linear relationship expected between driving amplitude and drop mass. This first drop, as quantified by high-speed videography and subsequent image analysis, can be different in morphology, trajectory, velocity, and volume from subsequent drops within a burst. These findings were confirmed orthogonally by both volume and mass measurement techniques which allowed quantitation down to single drops.

Famili, Amin; Palkar, Saurabh A.; Baldy, William J.

2011-01-01

75

Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - Sensitivity study and optimization of the meteorological input  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several air dispersion models are available for prediction and simulation of the hazard areas associated with accidental releases of toxic gases. The most model packages (commercial or free of charge) include a chemical database, an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI) and automated graphical output for effective presentation of results. The models are designed especially for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios"), preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management. Uncertainties in the meteorological input together with incorrect estimates of the source play a critical role for the model results. The research project RETOMOD (reference scenarios calculations for toxic gas releases - model systems and their utility for the fire brigade) was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in cooperation with the Vienna fire brigade, OMV Refining & Marketing GmbH and Synex Ries & Greßlehner GmbH. RETOMOD was funded by the KIRAS safety research program at the Austrian Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology (www.kiras.at). The main tasks of this project were 1. Sensitivity study and optimization of the meteorological input for modeling of the hazard areas (human exposure) during the accidental toxic releases. 2. Comparison of several model packages (based on reference scenarios) in order to estimate the utility for the fire brigades. This presentation gives a short introduction to the project and presents the results of task 1 (meteorological input). The results of task 2 are presented by Stenzel and Baumann-Stanzer in this session. For the aim of this project, the observation-based analysis and forecasting system INCA, developed in the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) was used. INCA (Integrated Nowcasting through Comprehensive Analysis) data were calculated with 1 km horizontal resolution and based on the weather forecast model ALADIN. The meteorological field's analysis with INCA include: Temperature, Humidity, Wind, Precipitation and Cloudiness. In the frame of the project INCA data were compared with measurements conducted at traffic-near sites. INCA analysis and very short term forecast fields (up to 6 hours) are found to be an advanced possibility to provide on-line meteorological input for the model package used by the fire brigade. Nevertheless a high degree of caution in the interpretation of the model results is required - especially in the case of very slow wind speeds, very stable atmospheric condition, and flow deflection by buildings in the urban area or by complex topography.

Baumann-Stanzer, K.; Stenzel, S.

2009-04-01

76

Quick management of accidental tritium exposure cases.  

PubMed

Removal half-life (RHL) of tritium is one of the best means for optimising medical treatment, reduction of committed effective dose (CED) and quick/easy handling of a large group of workers for medical treatment reference. The removal of tritium from the body depends on age, temperature, relative humidity and daily rainfall; so tritium removal rate, its follow-up and proper data analysis and recording are the best techniques for management of accidental acute tritium exposed cases. The decision of referring for medical treatment or medical intervention (MI) would be based on workers' tritium RHL history taken from their bodies at the facilities. The workers with tritium intake up to 1 ALI shall not be considered for medical treatment as it is a derived limit of annual total effective dose. The short-term MI may be considered for tritium intake of 1-10 ALI; however, if the results show intake ?100 ALI, extended strong medical/therapeutic intervention may be recommended based on the severity of exposure for maximum CED reduction requirements and annual total effective dose limit. The methodology is very useful for pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs) which are mainly operated by Canada and India and future fusion reactor technologies. Proper management will optimise the cases for medical treatment and enhance public acceptance of nuclear fission and fusion reactor technologies. PMID:22349318

Singh, Vishwanath P; Badiger, N M; Managanvi, S S; Bhat, H R

2012-07-01

77

Large amplitude drop shape oscillations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental study of large amplitude drop shape oscillation was conducted in immiscible liquids systems and with levitated free liquid drops in air. In liquid-liquid systems the results indicate the existence of familiar characteristics of nonlinear phenomena. The resonance frequency of the fundamental quadrupole mode of stationary, low viscosity Silicone oil drops acoustically levitated in water falls to noticeably low values as the amplitude of oscillation is increased. A typical, experimentally determined relative frequency decrease of a 0.5 cubic centimeters drop would be about 10% when the maximum deformed shape is characterized by a major to minor axial ratio of 1.9. On the other hand, no change in the fundamental mode frequency could be detected for 1 mm drops levitated in air. The experimental data for the decay constant of the quadrupole mode of drops immersed in a liquid host indicate a slight increase for larger oscillation amplitudes. A qualitative investigation of the internal fluid flows for such drops revealed the existence of steady internal circulation within drops oscillating in the fundamental and higher modes. The flow field configuration in the outer host liquid is also significantly altered when the drop oscillation amplitude becomes large.

Trinh, E. H.; Wang, T. G.

1982-01-01

78

Results of an Accidental Explosion in a Propellant Process Building.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In January 1990, an accidental explosion occurred in a propellant process building in one of Israel Military Industries' plants. The building collapsed and debris was found beyond the surrounding barricades. The paper describes the building and its vicini...

A. Boimel

1990-01-01

79

Mars Base Buildup Scenarios.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two surface base build-up scenarios are presented in order to help visualize the mission and to serve as a basis for trade studies. In the first scenario, direct manned landings on the Martian surface occur early in the missions and scientific investigati...

J. D. Blacic

1985-01-01

80

Mars Base Buildup Scenarios.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two Mars surface based build-up scenarios are presented in order to help visualize the mission and to serve as a basis for trade studies. In the first scenario, direct manned landings on the Martian surface occur early in the missions and scientific inves...

J. D. Blacic

1986-01-01

81

Numerical simulation of industrial and accidental release formation and transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statement of work for contract 006 {open_quotes}Mathematical simulation of industrial and accidental release formation and transport{close_quotes} implies that the final result of the activity within this task will be VNIIEF developed techniques which will provide for the prediction of the post-accidental environment. Report [1] presents the description of physical models and calculation techniques which were chosen by VNIIEF to accomplish

V. N. Piskunov; A. A. Aloyan; V. M. Gerasimov; V. S. Pinaev; A. I. Golubev; Yu. V. Yanilkin; N. V. Ivanov; S. N. Nikonov; A. I. Kharchenko

1995-01-01

82

Accidental hanging with delayed death in a lift.  

PubMed

While hanging is a common method of committing suicide in India, accidental hanging is uncommon. However, it does occur when people are engaged in auto-erotic practices. An adult male who was helping passengers trapped in the lift of an outpatient department at a teaching hospital was accidentally hanged. He survived for 39 days. This case highlights a rare but serious hazard in the use of lifts. PMID:10581915

Verma, S K; Agarwal, B B

1999-10-01

83

Cyclodextrins in Eye Drop Formulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ideally, eye drop formulations are aqueous solutions. Many drugs that are useful in topical application to the eye are not sufficiently water soluble to be dissolved in simple aqueous solutions. This problem is approached through hydrophilic prodrugs, suspensions, lipid based solutions and excipients such as cyclodextrins. Cyclodextrins can be used to form aqueous eye drop solutions with lipophilic drugs, such

Einar Stefánsson; Thorsteinn Loftsson

2002-01-01

84

Gas Pressure-Drop Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most chemical engineering undergraduate laboratories have fluid mechanics experiments in which pressure drops through pipes are measured over a range of Reynolds numbers. The standard fluid is liquid water, which is essentially incompressible. Since density is constant, pressure drop does not depend on the pressure in the pipe. In addition, flow…

Luyben, William L.; Tuzla, Kemal

2010-01-01

85

Spacelab 3 drop dynamics experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Positioning techniques using the effects of acoustic-radiation pressure were used during the Spacelab 3 flight to carry out classical fluid dynamics experiments on liquid drops freely suspended in microgravity. Quantitative results dealing with the equilibrium shapes of acoustically rotated drops, with the response to the radiation pressure forces, and finally with the experimental measurement of surface tension have been obtained.

Trinh, E. H.; Wang, T. G.; Croonquist, A. P.; Elleman, D. D.

1986-01-01

86

Infrasonic signals from an accidental chemical explosion  

SciTech Connect

A series of large accidental explosions occurred at a chemical plant in Henderson, Nevada on May 4, 1988. The explosions were produced by the ignition of stores of ammonium perchlorate produced for solid rocket fuel at the Pacific Engineering and Production Co. This material, prior to the incident, had been believed to be non- explosive. The blasts destroyed the plant and caused one death. There was a series of explosions over a period of time with two major explosions which we will identify as A at 18:53:34 (all times herein will be given in C.U.T.) and B at 18:57:35. Signals from events A and B as well as smaller events were detected by the infrasound arrays operated by the Los Alamos National Laboratory at St. George, Utah (distance 159 km) and at Los Alamos, N.M. (distance 774 km). The Henderson explosions present an interesting and challenging set of infrasound observations. The case may be unique in providing two very large sources separated in time by only four minutes. To fully understand the propagation details will require further analysis and probably a modeling effort. The understanding of the St. George signals in the context of Lamb waves would be valuable for a better understanding of this mode of propagation. The improved understanding of long range infrasonic propagation is now especially important in the context of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). A portion of the plan for CTBT monitoring includes a global distribution of sixty infrasound arrays to provide for the monitoring of signals in as uniform a way as possible. It is expected that under this global network many signals and interpretation questions of the type described here will be encountered. Investigations of propagation over the ranges of hundreds to thousands of kilometers will be highly desired.

Mutschlecner, J.P.; Whitaker, R.W.

1996-12-31

87

The development of a detection system for seniors' accidental fall from bed using cameras  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many seniors, patients, and vulnerable people, an accidental fall could bear consequences serious enough to be life-threatening. Accordingly, increasing expenditure on the prevention of accidental fall has been a trend in the developed countries. One of the methods of preventing an accidental fall includes a quick notification to the caregiver. In order to detect and inform an accidental fall

Jinwook Shim; Myung-hoon Shim; Yoon-su Baek; Tack-don Han

2011-01-01

88

Magnetic control of Leidenfrost drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show how a magnetic field can influence the motion of a paramagnetic drop made of liquid oxygen in a Leidenfrost state on solids at room temperature. It is demonstrated that the trajectory can be modified in both direction and velocity and that the results can be interpreted in terms of classical mechanics as long as the drop does not get too close to the magnet. We study the deviation and report that it can easily overcome 180? and even diverge under certain conditions, leading to situations where a drop gets captured. In the vicinity of the magnet, another type of trapping is observed, due to the deformation of the drop in this region, which leads to a strong energy dissipation. Conversely, drops can be accelerated by moving magnets (slingshot effect).

Piroird, Keyvan; Clanet, Christophe; Quéré, David

2012-05-01

89

Magnetic control of Leidenfrost drops.  

PubMed

We show how a magnetic field can influence the motion of a paramagnetic drop made of liquid oxygen in a Leidenfrost state on solids at room temperature. It is demonstrated that the trajectory can be modified in both direction and velocity and that the results can be interpreted in terms of classical mechanics as long as the drop does not get too close to the magnet. We study the deviation and report that it can easily overcome 180? and even diverge under certain conditions, leading to situations where a drop gets captured. In the vicinity of the magnet, another type of trapping is observed, due to the deformation of the drop in this region, which leads to a strong energy dissipation. Conversely, drops can be accelerated by moving magnets (slingshot effect). PMID:23004866

Piroird, Keyvan; Clanet, Christophe; Quéré, David

2012-05-01

90

Mars base buildup scenarios  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two Mars surface based build-up scenarios are presented in order to help visualize the mission and to serve as a basis for trade studies. In the first scenario, direct manned landings on the Martian surface occur early in the missions and scientific investigation is the main driver and rationale. In the second senario, Earth development of an infrastructure to exploit the volatile resources of the Martian moons for economic purposes is emphasized. Scientific exploration of the surface is delayed at first in this scenario relative to the first, but once begun develops rapidly, aided by the presence of a permanently manned orbital station.

Blacic, J. D.

1986-01-01

91

Mars base buildup scenarios  

SciTech Connect

Two surface base build-up scenarios are presented in order to help visualize the mission and to serve as a basis for trade studies. In the first scenario, direct manned landings on the Martian surface occur early in the missions and scientific investigation is the main driver and rationale. In the second scenario, early development of an infrastructure to exploite the volatile resources of the Martian moons for economic purposes is emphasized. Scientific exploration of the surface is delayed at first, but once begun develops rapidly aided by the presence of a permanently manned orbital station.

Blacic, J.D.

1985-01-01

92

Evolving practices in environmental scenarios: a new scenario typology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach to scenarios focused on environmental concerns, changes and challenges, i.e. so-called 'environmental scenarios', is necessary if global environmental changes are to be more effectively appreciated and addressed through sustained and collaborative action. On the basis of a comparison of previous approaches to global environmental scenarios and a review of existing scenario typologies, we propose a new scenario

Angela Wilkinson; Esther Eidinow

2008-01-01

93

Drop deformation between parallel plates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studying the nature of flow in confined geometries has become increasingly important due to downsizing of equipment. Examples include microfluidic devices as lab-on-a-chip and flow through porous media. Here, we focus on the flow of a single drop in a matrix fluid confined between two parallel walls, where the distance between the walls is in the order of the drop diameter. To model this system a three-dimensional boundary integral method is used with the inclusion of the two parallel walls in the free-space kernels of the boundary integral method. The deformation of a drop in shear flow as function of the capillary number and the distance between the walls is studied. The drop shapes found in the presence of the walls substantially differ from the typical ellipsoidal shaped drops found in unbounded flows. Overall deformation, expressed in the Taylor deformation parameter, increases when reducing the distance between the walls. Furthermore, the angle of the major drop axis with the velocity direction also decreases. A detailed analysis decribing the dynamics of breakup of drops in confined geometries is discussed.

Anderson, Patrick; Janssen, Pieter

2007-11-01

94

Extension of drop experiments with the MIKROBA balloon drop facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The German balloon drop facility MIKROBA extends the worldwide available drop experiment opportunities to the presently highest usable experimentation time span of 55 s at microgravity conditions better than 0.001 g. The microgravity period is started with the typical quasi-deal step function from 1 to 0 g. MIKROBA allows flexible experiment design, short access time, and easy hands-on payload integration. The transport to the operational height is realized by soft energies and technologies compatible with the earth's environment. Balloon campaigns are not restricted to a certain test range, i.e., several suitable sites are available all over the world. MIKROBA combines negligible mechanical loads at the mission start, typical of all drop facilities, with extremely low drop deceleration loads (less than g), due to the implemented three-stage parachute and airbag recovery subsystem.

Sommer, K.; Kretzschmar, K.; Dorn, C.

1992-12-01

95

Hanford Groundwater Scenario Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents the results of two Hanford groundwater scenario studies. The first study examines the hydrologic impact of increased groundwater recharge resulting from agricultural development in the Cold Creek Valley located west of the Hanford Re...

R. C. Arnett R. E. Gephart R. A. Deju C. R. Cole S. W. Ahlstrom

1977-01-01

96

GLOBAL ALTERNATIVE FUTURE SCENARIOS  

EPA Science Inventory

One way to examine possible future outcomes for environmental protection is through the development and analysis of alternative future scenarios. This type of assessment postulates two or more different paths that social and environmental development might take, using correspond...

97

Trapping leidenfrost drops with crenelations.  

PubMed

Drops placed on very hot solids levitate on a cushion of their own vapor, as discovered by Leidenfrost. This confers to these drops a remarkable mobility, which makes problematic their control and manipulation. Here we show how crenelated surfaces can be used to increase the friction of Leidenfrost drops by a factor on the order of 100, making them decelerate and be trapped on centimetric distances instead of the usual metric ones. We measure and characterize the friction force as a function of the design of the crenelations. PMID:22026676

Dupeux, Guillaume; Le Merrer, Marie; Clanet, Christophe; Quéré, David

2011-09-01

98

Doses from accidental releases of tritium and activation products into the atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

In view of public acceptance and the licensing procedure of projected fusion reactors, the release of tritium and activation products during normal operation as well as after accidents is a significant safety aspect. Calculations have been performed under accidental conditions for unit releases of corrosion products from water coolant loops, of first wall erosion products including different coating materials, and of tritium in its chemical form of tritiated water (HTO). Dose assessments during normal operation have been performed for corrosion products from first wall primary coolant loop and for tritium in both chemical forms (HT/HTO). The two accident consequence assessment (ACA) codes UFOTRI and COSYMA have been applied for the deterministic dose calculations SYMA and NORMTRI have been applied for several radiologic source terms. Furthermore, COSYMA and NORMTRI have been applied for routine release scenarios. The paper analyzes the radiation doses to individuals and the population resulting from the different materials assumed to be released in the environment.

Raskob, W. (Institut fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik, Karlsruhe (Germany))

1993-06-01

99

Doses from accidental releases of tritium and activation products into the atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In view of public acceptance and the licensing procedure of projected fusion reactors, the release of tritium and activation products during normal operation as well as after accidents is a significant safety aspect. Calculations have been performed under accidental conditions for unit releases of corrosion products from water coolant loops, of first wall erosion products including different coating materials, and of tritium in its chemical form of tritiated water (HTO). Dose assessments during normal operation have been performed for corrosion products from first wall primary coolant loop and for tritium in both chemical forms (HT/HTO). The two accident consequence assessment (ACA) codes UFOTRI and COSYMA have been applied for the deterministic dose calculations with nearly the same input variables and for several radiological source terms. Furthermore, COSYMA and NORMTRI have been applied for routine release scenarios. The paper analyzes the radioation doses to individuals and the population resulting from the different materials assumed to be released in the environment.

Raskob, W.

1993-06-01

100

A screening tool to prioritize public health risk associated with accidental or deliberate release of chemicals into the atmosphere  

PubMed Central

The Chemical Events Working Group of the Global Health Security Initiative has developed a flexible screening tool for chemicals that present a risk when accidentally or deliberately released into the atmosphere. The tool is generic, semi-quantitative, independent of site, situation and scenario, encompasses all chemical hazards (toxicity, flammability and reactivity), and can be easily and quickly implemented by non-subject matter experts using freely available, authoritative information. Public health practitioners and planners can use the screening tool to assist them in directing their activities in each of the five stages of the disaster management cycle.

2013-01-01

101

Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - Comparison of the models and their utility for the fire brigades.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - Comparison of the models and their utility for the fire brigades. Sirma Stenzel, Kathrin Baumann-Stanzer In the case of accidental release of hazardous gases in the atmosphere, the emergency responders need a reliable and fast tool to assess the possible consequences and apply the optimal countermeasures. For hazard prediction and simulation of the hazard zones a number of air dispersion models are available. The most model packages (commercial or free of charge) include a chemical database, an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI) and automated graphical output for display the results, they are easy to use and can operate fast and effective during stress situations. The models are designed especially for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios"), preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management. There are also possibilities for model direct coupling to automatic meteorological stations, in order to avoid uncertainties in the model output due to insufficient or incorrect meteorological data. Another key problem in coping with accidental toxic release is the relative width spectrum of regulations and values, like IDLH, ERPG, AEGL, MAK etc. and the different criteria for their application. Since the particulate emergency responders and organizations require for their purposes unequal regulations and values, it is quite difficult to predict the individual hazard areas. There are a quite number of research studies and investigations coping with the problem, anyway the end decision is up to the authorities. The research project RETOMOD (reference scenarios calculations for toxic gas releases - model systems and their utility for the fire brigade) was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in cooperation with the Vienna fire brigade, OMV Refining & Marketing GmbH and Synex Ries & Greßlehner GmbH. RETOMOD was funded by the KIRAS safety research program at the Austrian Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology (www.kiras.at). One of the main tasks of this project was 1. Sensitivity study and optimization of the meteorological input for modeling of the hazard areas (human exposure) during the accidental toxic releases. 2. Comparison of several model packages (based on reference scenarios) in order to estimate the utility for the fire brigades. This presentation introduces the project models used and presents the results of task 2. The results of task 1 are presented by Baumann-Stanzer and Stenzel in this session. For the purpose of this study the following models were tested and compared: ALOHA (Areal Location of Hazardous atmosphere, EPA), MEMPLEX (Keudel av-Technik GmbH), Breeze (Trinity Consulting), SAFER System, SAM (Engineering office Lohmeyer), COMPAS. A set of reference scenarios for Chlorine, Ammoniac, Butane and Petrol were proceed in order to reliably predict and estimate the human exposure during the event. The models simulated the accidental release from the mentioned above gases and estimates the potential toxic areas. Since the inputs requirement differ from model to model, and the outputs are based on different criteria for toxic areas and exposure, a high degree of caution in the interpretation of the model results is needed.

Stenzel, S.; Baumann-Stanzer, K.

2009-04-01

102

Forced Oscillations of Supported Drops  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Oscillations of supported liquid drops are the subject of wide scientific interest, with applications in areas as diverse as liquid-liquid extraction, synthesis of ceramic powders, growing of pure crystals in low gravity, and measurement of dynamic surface tension. In this research, axisymmetric forced oscillations of arbitrary amplitude of viscous liquid drops of fixed volume which are pendant from or sessile on a rod with a fixed or moving contact line and surrounded by an inviscid ambient gas are induced by moving the rod in the vertical direction sinusiodally in time. In this paper, a preliminary report is made on the computational analysis of the oscillations of supported drops that have 'clean' interfaces and whose contact lines remain fixed throughout their motions. The relative importance of forcing to damping can be increased by either increasing the amplitude of rod motion A or Reynolds number Re. It is shown that as the ratio of forcing to damping rises, for drops starting from an initial rest state a sharp increase in deformation can occur when they are forced to oscillate in the vicinity of their resonance frequencies, indicating the incipience of hysteresis. However, it is also shown that the existence of a second stable limit cycle and the occurrence of hysteresis can be observed if the drop is subjected to a so-called frequency sweep, where the forcing frequency is first increased and then decreased over a suitable range. Because the change in drop deformation response is abrupt in the vicinity of the forcing frequencies where hysteresis occurs, it should be possible to exploit the phenomenon to accurately measure the viscosity and surface tension of the drop liquid.

Wilkes, Edward D.; Basaran, Osman A.

1996-01-01

103

Femur Fractures in the Pediatric Population: Abuse or Accidental Trauma?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Child abuse represents a serious threat to the health and well-being of the pediatric population. Orthopaedic specialists\\u000a will often become involved when child abuse is suspected as a result of the presence of bony injury. Distinguishing abuse\\u000a from accidental trauma can be difficult and is often based on clinical suspicion.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Questions\\/purposes  We sought to determine whether accidental femur fractures in pediatric

Keith Baldwin; Nirav K. Pandya; Hayley Wolfgruber; Denis S. Drummond; Harish S. Hosalkar

2011-01-01

104

Accidental pleural puncture by a thoracic epidural catheter.  

PubMed

We report the occurrence of an accidental pleural puncture by an epidural catheter that happened during the attempted induction of thoracic epidural anaesthesia using a paramedian approach in an awake patient. The incorrect placement of the catheter was recognised while the patient was undergoing thoracoscopic surgery. The possibility of accidental pleural puncture during attempted thoracic epidural catheter placement by either the paramedian or the midline approach should be borne in mind. A misplaced catheter may injure lung tissue and result in a potentially dangerous intra-operative tension pneumothorax. PMID:9505745

Zaugg, M; Stoehr, S; Weder, W; Zollinger, A

1998-01-01

105

Accidental Falls Among Geriatric Patients: Can More Be Prevented?  

PubMed Central

The potential for accidental falls among geriatric patients is of mounting concern. Two hundred forty-one accidental falls over a 12-month period at the VA Medical Center were analyzed retrospectively and the literature reviewed in order to highlight factors that have bearing on the incidence and severity of falls. If a patient's potential for falling could be identified through a grading system based on these premonitory features, preventive measures might be more clearly focused where needed to reduce this frequent hazard in our hospital population.

Johnson, Edwin T.

1985-01-01

106

Analysis for Eccentric Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Drops at the Canister Storage Building (CSB) (CSB-S-0073)  

SciTech Connect

Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) containing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) will be routinely handled at the Canister Storage Building (CSB) during fuel movement operations in the SNF Project. This analysis was performed to investigate the potential for damage from an eccentric accidental drop onto the standard storage tube, overpack tube, service station, or sample/weld station. Appendix D was added to the FDNW document to include the peer Review Comment Record & transmittal record.

TU, K.C.

1999-10-08

107

Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - utility for the fire brigades.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several air dispersion models are available for prediction and simulation of the hazard areas associated with accidental releases of toxic gases. The most model packages (commercial or free of charge) include a chemical database, an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI) and automated graphical output for effective presentation of results. The models are designed especially for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios”), preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management. The research project RETOMOD (reference scenarios calculations for toxic gas releases - model systems and their utility for the fire brigade) was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in cooperation with the Viennese fire brigade, OMV Refining & Marketing GmbH and Synex Ries & Greßlehner GmbH. RETOMOD was funded by the KIRAS safety research program of the Austrian Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology (www.kiras.at). The main tasks of this project were 1. Sensitivity study and optimization of the meteorological input for modeling of the hazard areas (human exposure) during the accidental toxic releases. 2. Comparison of several model packages (based on reference scenarios) in order to estimate the utility for the fire brigades. For the purpose of our study the following models were tested and compared: ALOHA (Areal Location of Hazardous atmosphere, EPA), MEMPLEX (Keudel av-Technik GmbH), Trace (Safer System), Breeze (Trinity Consulting), SAM (Engineering office Lohmeyer). A set of reference scenarios for Chlorine, Ammoniac, Butane and Petrol were proceed, with the models above, in order to predict and estimate the human exposure during the event. Furthermore, the application of the observation-based analysis and forecasting system INCA, developed in the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in case of toxic release was investigated. INCA (Integrated Nowcasting through Comprehensive Analysis) data are calculated operationally with 1 km horizontal resolution and based on the weather forecast model ALADIN. The meteorological field's analysis with INCA include: Temperature, Humidity, Wind, Precipitation, Cloudiness and Global Radiation. In the frame of the project INCA data were compared with measurements from the meteorological observational network, conducted at traffic-near sites in Vienna. INCA analysis and very short term forecast fields (up to 6 hours) are found to be an advanced possibility to provide on-line meteorological input for the model package used by the fire brigade. Since the input requirements differ from model to model, and the outputs are based on unequal criteria for toxic area and exposure, a high degree of caution in the interpretation of the model results is required - especially in the case of slow wind speeds, stable atmospheric condition, and flow deflection by buildings in the urban area or by complex topography.

Stenzel, S.; Baumann-Stanzer, K.

2009-09-01

108

Analysis for SNF Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Drop into the Cask from the MCO Handling Machine (MHM) with Air Cushion  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to investigate the potential for damage to the MCO during impact from an accidental drop from the MHM into the shipping cask. The MCO is dropped from a height of 8.2 feet above the cask enters the cask concentrically and falls the additional 12.83 feet to the cask bottom. Because of the interface fit between the MCO and the cask and the air entrapment the MCO fall velocity is slowed. The shipping cask is resting on an impact absorber at the time of impact. The energy absorbing properties of the impact absorber are included in this analysis.

RAINS, D.J.

2000-01-12

109

Hanford groundwater scenario studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report documents the results of two Hanford groundwater scenario studies. The first study examines the hydrologic impact of increased groundwater recharge resulting from agricultural development in the Cold Creek Valley located west of the Hanford Reservation. The second study involves recovering liquid radioactive waste which has leaked into the groundwater flow system from a hypothetical buried tank containing high-level

R. C. Arnett; R. E. Gephart; R. A. Deju; C. R. Cole; S. W. Ahlstrom

1977-01-01

110

Simulations of ITER scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

To improve the efficiency of operation of the tokamak reactor (International Thermonuclear Experi-mental Reactor, ITER) in future, it is highly desirable to perform a comprehensive validation by numerical simulation of newly-proposed scenarios or controllers before operation. This paper describes the results of the first stage in these simulations, performed for ITER [ITER Technical Basis. ITER EDA Documentation Series No. 24

V. Lukash; Y. Gribov; A. Kavin; R. Khayrutdinov; M. Cavinato

2005-01-01

111

The SAFRR Tsunami Scenario  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey and several partners operate a program called Science Application for Risk Reduction (SAFRR) that produces (among other things) emergency planning scenarios for natural disasters. The scenarios show how science can be used to enhance community resiliency. The SAFRR Tsunami Scenario describes potential impacts of a hypothetical, but realistic, tsunami affecting California (as well as the west coast of the United States, Alaska, and Hawaii) for the purpose of informing planning and mitigation decisions by a variety of stakeholders. The scenario begins with an Mw 9.1 earthquake off the Alaska Peninsula. With Pacific basin-wide modeling, we estimate up to 5m waves and 10 m/sec currents would strike California 5 hours later. In marinas and harbors, 13,000 small boats are damaged or sunk (1 in 3) at a cost of $350 million, causing navigation and environmental problems. Damage in the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach amount to $110 million, half of it water damage to vehicles and containerized cargo. Flooding of coastal communities affects 1800 city blocks, resulting in $640 million in damage. The tsunami damages 12 bridge abutments and 16 lane-miles of coastal roadway, costing $85 million to repair. Fire and business interruption losses will substantially add to direct losses. Flooding affects 170,000 residents and workers. A wide range of environmental impacts could occur. An extensive public education and outreach program is underway, as well as an evaluation of the overall effort.

Porter, K.; Jones, Lucile M.; Ross, Stephanie L.; Borrero, J.; Bwarie, J.; Dykstra, D.; Geist, Eric L.; Johnson, L.; Kirby, Stephen H.; Long, K.; Lynett, P.; Miller, K.; Mortensen, Carl E.; Perry, S.; Plumlee, G.; Real, C.; Ritchie, L.; Scawthorn, C.; Thio, H. K.; Wein, Anne; Whitmore, P.; Wilson, R.; Wood, Nathan J.

2013-01-01

112

IPCC SCENARIO DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

This Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has made available a consistent set of up-to-date scenarios of changes in climate and related environmental and socio-economic factors for use in climate impacts assessments. This is a link to this data through the Data Distr...

113

Isoelectric Focusing in a Drop  

PubMed Central

A novel approach to molecular separations is investigated using a technique termed droplet-based isoelectric focusing. Drops are manipulated discretely on a superhydrophobic surface, subjected to low voltages for isoelectric focusing, and split—resulting in a preparative separation. A universal indicator dye demonstrates the generation of stable, reversible pH gradients (3–10) in ampholyte buffers and these gradients lead to protein focusing within the drop length. Focusing was visually characterized, spectroscopically verified, and assessed quantitatively by non-invasive light scattering measurements. It was found to correlate with a quantitative model based on 1D steady state theory. This work illustrates that molecular separations can be deployed within a single open drop and the differential fractions can be separated into new discrete liquid elements.

Weiss, Noah G.; Hayes, Mark A.; Garcia, Antonio A.; Ansari, Rafat R.

2010-01-01

114

Drops that pull themselves up  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We relate different existing literature experimental findings of drop retraction in evaporating or in coffee ring systems as a unique physical phenomenon that is not related to evaporation, but rather to the presence of surfactant molecules in the drops. The retraction is induced by fluctuations of the drop's triple line that result in a net leakage of the surfactant molecules onto the solid-air interface right across the triple line. This net leakage can be induced by either nucleation and growth of a surface defect at the triple line or random triple line fluctuations analogous to spinodal process. Using this understanding, we can set a lower limit to the value of the, otherwise un-measurable, solid-vapor interfacial energy.

Tadmor, Rafael

2014-10-01

115

Non-accidental injury: a review of the radiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   There have been many descriptions of the radiological features of non-accidental injury since John Caffey introduced the\\u000a concept of inflicted injury and initially described some of the patterns of injury. Since then, our understanding of the radiologically\\u000a detectable injuries has increased. This article provides a review of our current understanding of the lesions.

H. Carty; Alder Hey

1997-01-01

116

The Emergence of the “Accidental Citizen”: Implications for Political Marketing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The central argument developed in this paper is premised on the belief that, in the life experiences of individuals, we find a messy interface between politics and consumption, where, often unintentionally, we take on citizenly roles and have civic experiences in market spaces as consumers. Flowing from this is the emergence of what the author calls the “accidental citizen,” where

Richard Scullion

2010-01-01

117

The Accidental Transgressor: Morally-Relevant Theory of Mind  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To test young children's false belief theory of mind in a morally relevant context, two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, children (N=162) at 3.5, 5.5, and 7.5 years of age were administered three tasks: prototypic moral transgression task, false belief theory of mind task (ToM), and an "accidental transgressor" task, which measured a…

Killen, Melanie; Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Richardson, Cameron; Jampol, Noah; Woodward, Amanda

2011-01-01

118

Accidental entrapment of cats in front-loading washing machines  

PubMed Central

Two clinical cases of accidental entrapment of cats in front-loading washing machines are described. One cat died the day after presentation as a result of aspiration pneumonia and head trauma, despite supportive care. The second cat survived with supportive treatment, but developed dermatologic complications 10 d later.

Stewart, Sarah A.; Gaunt, Matthew C.; Taylor, Susan M.; Snead, Elizabeth C.R.

2010-01-01

119

Pneumonitis and pneumatoceles following accidental hydrocarbon aspiration in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accidental ingestion and aspiration of hydrocarbons in children are common. Among the various clinical and pathological manifestations of hydrocarbon (HC) poisoning, pneumonitis is the most significant and occurs in up to 40% of children, whereas formation of pneumatoceles is believed to be a rare event. We report two children with HC pneumonitis and pneumatoceles as a reversible complication after ingestion

Gabriela H. Thalhammer; Ernst Eber; Maximilian S. Zach

2005-01-01

120

ACCIDENTAL POISONING : SELECTED ASPECTS OF ITS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND PREVENTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unintentional or accidental poisoning continues to be an important health threat throughout the world including Malaysia. It is particularly a problem among children under the age of 5 years, primarily due to developmental incompetencies and their dependence on adults for their care and well being. In the United States for every poisoning death among children under the age of 5,

John T Arokiasamy

1994-01-01

121

Modeling downwind hazards after an accidental release of chlorine trifluoride.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A module simulating ClF3 chemical reactions with water vapor and thermodynamic processes in the atmosphere after an accidental release has been developed. Initial model runs simulate the rapid formation of HF and ClO2 after an atmospheric release of ClF3....

D. A. Lombardi M. D. Cheng

1996-01-01

122

A rare complication of nasotracheal intubation: accidental middle turbinectomy.  

PubMed

In this paper, we are presenting a rare case of accidental middle turbinectomy, a complication of nasotracheal intubation. We have reviewed the literature and addressed important parameters on nasotracheal intubation to avoid damage to the turbinates and its possible serious complications. PMID:19305259

Cavusoglu, Tarik; Yazici, Ilker; Demirtas, Yener; Gunaydin, Berrin; Yavuzer, Reha

2009-03-01

123

Targeting of observations for accidental atmospheric release monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the event of an accidental atmospheric release of radionuclides from a nuclear power plant, accurate real-time forecasting of the activity concentrations of radionuclides is acutely required by the decision makers for the preparation of adequate countermeasures. Yet, the accuracy of the forecasted plume is highly dependent on the source term estimation. Inverse modelling and data assimilation techniques should help

Rachid Abida; Marc Bocquet

2009-01-01

124

ACCIDENTAL INJURY AND INCLEMENT WEATHER: DEFINING THE RELATIONSHIP AND ANTICIPATING THE EFFECTS OF A CHANGING CLIMATE  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this activity is to utilize a combination of existing scientific knowledge and professional expertise and experience to develop a research strategy for lessening the incidence and the impact of accidental injuries associated with inclement weather. Accidental inj...

125

Dispersion in Spherical Water Drops.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a laboratory exercise simulating the paths of light rays through spherical water drops by applying principles of ray optics and geometry. Describes four parts: determining the output angles, computer simulation, explorations, model testing, and solutions. Provides a computer program and some diagrams. (YP)

Eliason, John C., Jr.

1989-01-01

126

Analysis of Cyclone Pressure Drop  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method to analysis cyclone pressure drop is reported. The frictional pressure loss is the primary pressure loss in a cyclone. The air stream travel distance is a function of cyclone diameter. The frictional pressure loss is independent of a cyclone diameter, therefore cyclone total pressure loss is independent of cyclone diameter.

Lingjuan Wang; Calvin B. Parnell; Bryan W. Shaw

127

Getting the Drop on Sediment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this exercise, students examine Aristotle's weight hypothesis by testing variously shaped marble chips. These chips are weighed and dropped down a water tube. Average fall times and weights are recorded and graphed. Students are asked to apply this information to rock and soil deposition by streams. (MA)

Galindez, Peter

1977-01-01

128

Multicell spinning drop interfacial tensiometer.  

PubMed

The design and performance characteristics of a thermostated multicell spinning drop interfacial tensiometer are described. The instrument features simple and reliable commercial components, +/-1 degrees C thermostating, reduced operational vibration, cells designed to reduce problems associated with gyrostatic equilibrium, and the capability to measure interfacial tensions between six pairs of liquids simultaneously. PMID:18699057

Fink, T R; Hearn, D P

1978-02-01

129

Describing viable technicolor scenarios  

SciTech Connect

We construct an effective Lagrangian for new strong interactions at the LHC, including as a first step the two lightest triplets of spin-1 resonances. Our parametrization is general enough to allow for previously unstudied spectrum and couplings. Among available frameworks to describe the spin-1 sector, we rely on an extra-dimensional description. Our approach limits the number of parameters yet is versatile enough to describe the phenomenology of a wide range of new scenarios of strong electroweak symmetry breaking.

Hirn, Johannes; Martin, Adam; Sanz, Veronica [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Department of Physics, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 and Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, Ontario M3J 1P3 (Canada)

2008-10-01

130

Electrohydrodynamics of a compound drop.  

PubMed

The behavior of a compound drop, comprising two concentric fluid spheres, in a uniform electric field is studied analytically. The governing electrohydrodynamic equations are solved for Newtonian and immiscible fluids in the framework of leaky-dielectric theory and in the limit of small electric field strength and fluid inertia. A detailed analysis of the electric and flow fields is presented and it is shown that there will be four possible flow patterns in and around the globule, in terms of the direction of the external flow (pole-to-equator vs equator-to-pole) and the number of vortices (single-vortex vs double vortices) in the shell, and that the senses of the net electric shear stresses at the surfaces of the inner and the outer drops and their relative importance are the key parameters in setting these patterns. A circulation map is constructed, which is used to infer about the likelihood of the flow patterns and transition from one pattern to another for representative fluid systems. For small distortion from the spherical shape, the deformations of the inner and the outer drops are found using normal stress balances at the corresponding surfaces. It is shown that there will be four possible modes for the deformation of the compound drop, which are determined by the net normal electric and hydrodynamic stresses at the pertinent surfaces. The dynamic responses of the inner and the outer drops for representative fluid systems are studied using a deformation map, which characterizes the possibilities of the deformation modes and transition from one mode to another as a function of the fluid properties. PMID:24125349

Behjatian, Ali; Esmaeeli, Asghar

2013-09-01

131

Modelling of accidental released toxic gases for emergency responders in Austria, Kosovo and Bulgaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the case of accidental release of hazardous gases in the atmosphere, the emergency responders need a reliable and fast tool to assess the possible consequences and apply the optimal countermeasures. A number of models for the prediction and simulation of hazard areas affected by accidental releases of toxic gases are available worldwide. Modelling accidental releases may be required for

Sirma Stenzel; Kathrin Baumann-Stanzer; Salih Gashi; Bashkim Thaci; Ekaterina Batchvarova; Tatiana Spassova

2010-01-01

132

Accidental Nuclear War: The Growing Peril. Part I [and] Part II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two volumes designed to increase awareness of accidental nuclear war dangers are presented. The first of 5 sections in volume I proposes that although accidental war is preventable, the current arms race and secrecy about accidents and false alarms increase the possibility of an accidental war. Section 2 posits that decreased decision-making time…

Newcombe, Alan, Ed.

1984-01-01

133

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 9. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF CHLORINE  

EPA Science Inventory

The manual discusses reducing the risk associated with an accidental release of chlorine. It identifies examples of potential causes of accidental releases that apply to processes that use chlorine, as well as measures that may be taken to reduce the accidental release risk. Such...

134

The Stability of Two Connected Pendant Drops  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The stability of an equilibrium system of two drops suspended from circular holes is examined. The drop surfaces are disconnected surfaces of a connected liquid body. For holes of equal radii and identical pendant drops axisymmetric perturbations are always the most dangerous. The stability region for two identical drops differs considerably from that for a single drop. Loss of stability leads to a transition from a critical system of identical drops to a stable system of axisymmetric non-identical. This system of non-identical drops reaches its own stability limit (to isochoric or non-isochoric paturbations). For non-identical drops, loss of stability results in dripping or streaming from the holes. Critical volumes for non-identical drops have been calculated as functions of the Bond number, B. For unequal hole radii, stability regions have been constructed for a set of hole radius, K. The dependence of critical volumes on K and B is analyzed.

Slobozhanin, Lev A.; Alexander, J. Iwan

2004-01-01

135

Accidental Electric Shock during Pregnancy: Reflection on a Case  

PubMed Central

Objectives Data on fetal effects following accidental electric shock during pregnancy are scarce. We report on a case of accidental maternal electric shock associated with benign fetal arrhythmia in a woman at 28 weeks' gestation. Study Design Case report. Results Although electrocution involving low-voltage, low-frequency current has been associated with fatal cardiac arrhythmias and conduction abnormalities, two protective parameters in the present case likely reduced the fetal injury: the dry skin at the site of current entry and the hand-to-hand pathway of current flow. Conclusion Because the pathophysiology of electric injury is altered during pregnancy, assessment of fetal well-being should be prompted no matter how trivial an incident may appear.

Awwad, Johnny; Hannoun, Antoine; Fares, Farah; Ghazeeri, Ghina

2013-01-01

136

Epidemiology of accidental drowning in Denmark 1989-1993.  

PubMed

Three hundred and forty-nine cases of accidental drowning or cooling in water occurring in Denmark from 1989 to 1993 have been studied. The incidence was highest in 0-4-year-old children, in middle-aged men, and in old people. A third of the children drowned in private pools. A quarter of all fatalities occurred during leisure boating. At least half of those that drowned in this way did not wear a life-jacket and could have been saved if they had been wearing one. Between a third and a half of the adult drownings were related to alcohol intake, and a large number of inebriated men fell into harbour basins and other water bodies. A few final remarks are made on the prospects for preventing accidental drowning in children, elderly people and adult males. PMID:9805518

Steensberg, J

1998-11-01

137

Modulating Accidental Fermi Resonance: What a Difference a Neutron Makes  

PubMed Central

Vibrational reporters have shown significant promise as sensitive probes of local environments in proteins and nucleic acids. The utility of two potential vibrational probes, the cyanate and azide groups in phenyl cyanate and 3-azidopyridine, respectively, has been hindered by accidental Fermi resonance. Anharmonic coupling, between the fundamental –OCN or –N3 asymmetric stretch vibration with a near resonant combination band, results in an extremely broad and complex absorption profile for each of these probes. A total of eight phenyl cyanate and six 3-azidopyridine isotopomers were synthesized and studied. Isotopic editing effectively modulated the accidental Fermi resonance — the absorption profiles of several isotopomers were greatly simplified while others remained complex. The origins of the observed profiles are discussed. Addition of a single neutron to the middle atom of the oscillator converted the absorption profile to essentially a single band resulting from either the cyanate or azide asymmetric stretch vibration.

Lipkin, Jacob S.; Song, Rui; Fenlon, Edward E.; Brewer, Scott H.

2011-01-01

138

Accidental degeneracy of double Dirac cones in a phononic crystal.  

PubMed

Artificial honeycomb lattices with Dirac cone dispersion provide a macroscopic platform to study the massless Dirac quasiparticles and their novel geometric phases. In this paper, a quadruple-degenerate state is achieved at the center of the Brillouin zone in a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice phononic crystal, which is a result of accidental degeneracy of two double-degenerate states. In the vicinity of the quadruple-degenerate state, the dispersion relation is linear. Such quadruple degeneracy is analyzed by rigorous representation theory of groups. Using k·p method, a reduced Hamiltonian is obtained to describe the linear Dirac dispersion relations of this quadruple-degenerate state, which is well consistent with the simulation results. Near such accidental degeneracy, we observe some unique properties in wave propagating, such as defect-insensitive propagating character and the Talbot effect. PMID:24714512

Chen, Ze-Guo; Ni, Xu; Wu, Ying; He, Cheng; Sun, Xiao-Chen; Zheng, Li-Yang; Lu, Ming-Hui; Chen, Yan-Feng

2014-01-01

139

Accidental Electric Shock during Pregnancy: Reflection on a Case.  

PubMed

Objectives Data on fetal effects following accidental electric shock during pregnancy are scarce. We report on a case of accidental maternal electric shock associated with benign fetal arrhythmia in a woman at 28 weeks' gestation. Study Design Case report. Results Although electrocution involving low-voltage, low-frequency current has been associated with fatal cardiac arrhythmias and conduction abnormalities, two protective parameters in the present case likely reduced the fetal injury: the dry skin at the site of current entry and the hand-to-hand pathway of current flow. Conclusion Because the pathophysiology of electric injury is altered during pregnancy, assessment of fetal well-being should be prompted no matter how trivial an incident may appear. PMID:24147245

Awwad, Johnny; Hannoun, Antoine; Fares, Farah; Ghazeeri, Ghina

2013-10-01

140

Fatal accidental asphyxia in a jack-knife position  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accidental death from postural or positional asphyxia takes place when the abnormal position of the victim’s body compromises the process of respiration. Diagnosis is largely made by circumstantial evidence supported by absence of any other significant pathology or trauma explaining death. This case report is about a 50-year-old male who had been drinking the previous night and was found dead

F. A. Benomran

2010-01-01

141

Accidental Degeneracy and Berry Phase of Resonant States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction Resonant States Resonant States in a Slowly Time Evolving Environment A Few Facts About Gamow Functions The Mixing Matrix Geometric Phase of a Resonant State Berry Phase Factors of Resonant States and Holonomy in a Complex - Line Bundle Resonant States as Elements of a Rigged Hilbert Space Adiabatic Evolution and Parallel Translation Accidental Degeneracy of Resonances Degeneracy of Two Resonances Computation of the Geometric Phase Results and Conclusions

Mondragón, A.; Hernández, E.

142

Fracture characteristics of entrapped head impacts versus controlled head drops in infant porcine specimens.  

PubMed

In many forensic cases, the job of forensic pathologists and anthropologists is to determine whether pediatric death is due to an abusive act or an accidental fall. The goal of this study was to compare the cranial fracture patterns generated on the parietal bone of a developing, infant porcine (pig, Sus scrofa) model by a controlled energy head drop onto a plate versus previous data generated by blunt force impact at the same energy onto the head constrained to a plate. The results showed that blunt force impacts on a head constrained to a rigid plate produces more fracture, but the same general pattern, as that for a head dropped onto the plate with the same level of impact energy. The study suggests that head constraint may be an important factor to consider in the evaluation of death causation for blunt force impacts to the pediatric skull. PMID:23488572

Powell, Brian J; Passalacqua, Nicholas V; Fenton, Todd W; Haut, Roger C

2013-05-01

143

Dropping the Bomb in CEDA.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given a choice of one argument, most Cross Examination Debate Association (CEDA) competitors would choose the nuclear war scenario, which attempts to capitalize on apocalyptism. A three-stage methodology can be applied to apocalyptic appeals. First is an application of the concept of universal audience, composed of all reasonable and competent…

Hubbard, Bryan K.

144

Cardiac arrhythmias during rewarming of patients with accidental hypothermia.  

PubMed Central

Accidental hypothermia has a high mortality and is associated with cardiac arrhythmias. To determine the incidence of arrhythmias and their importance 22 patients with accidental hypothermia (core temperature less than 35 degrees C) were studied by 12 lead electrocardiography and continuous recording of cardiac rhythm. Although 14 of the patients died (64%), only six died while hypothermic. Prolongation of the Q-T interval and the presence of J waves were related to the severity of the hypothermia. Supraventricular arrhythmias, including atrial fibrillation, were common (nine cases) and benign. Ventricular extrasystoles were also common (10 cases), but ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation did not occur during rewarming. In eight patients who died while being monitored the terminal rhythm was asystole. There was no correlation between the severity of hypothermia or the rate of rewarming and the clinical outcome. In the absence of malignant arrhythmias there is no indication for using prophylactic antiarrhythmic treatment in patients with accidental hypothermia. The presence or absence of severe underlying disease is the main determinant of prognosis.

Rankin, A C; Rae, A P

1984-01-01

145

An investigation of accidental ingestion during dental procedures.  

PubMed

Twenty-three cases of accidental ingestion during dental procedures, which occurred at the Center for Dental Clinics of Hokkaido University Hospital between 2006 and 2010, were analyzed retrospectively. We examined not only the objects ingested, but also details of the circumstances (treated teeth, types of treatment, professional experience of the practitioners). Except for two cases (an unidentified endodontic file and the tip of an ultrasonic scaler, which were recovered by vacuuming), the other 21 accidentally ingested objects were all found in the digestive tract, and none in the respiratory tract, by radiographic examination of the chest and abdomen. The ingested objects were mostly metal restorations (inlays or onlays) or prostheses (crowns or cores). Ingestion occurred more frequently during treatment of lower molars, and when procedures were being conducted by practitioners with less than 5 years of experience. No adverse events related to ingestion were reported. The present study found no cases of aspiration or complications related to the ingested objects. However, considering the risk of life-threatening emergencies related to accidental aspiration and ingestion, dentists must take meticulous precautions and be ready to deal with this kind of emergency during dental procedures. PMID:22167036

Obinata, Kenichi; Satoh, Takafumi; Towfik, Alam Mohammad; Nakamura, Motoyasu

2011-12-01

146

Population trajectories for accidental versus planned colonisation of islands.  

PubMed

We modify an existing model of the population trajectory on an island after the first arrival of a group of hominins to compare the potential success rates of accidental arrival (e.g., on vegetation rafts following major floods or a tsunami) against planned colonisation by watercraft. Our model predicts that colonisation through the accidental arrival of a group of individuals on an island should be around half as likely to be successful as colonisation through the arrival of a planned voyaging party of the same size, but that this difference could be entirely counteracted by the infrequent arrival of small numbers of individuals by similar accidental circumstances in the centuries after the initial colonisation. We argue that our model investigations strengthen the plausibility that especially early island colonisation (such as Homo erectus on Flores) may have occurred as a result of highly anomalous natural events (such as a tsunami), and thus hominin colonisation of islands outside swimming range of continents should not be seen as necessarily indicating the existences of seafaring technologies and skills. PMID:22748511

Ruxton, Graeme D; Wilkinson, David M

2012-09-01

147

The USGS Earthquake Scenario Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Earthquake Hazards Program (EHP) is producing a comprehensive suite of earthquake scenarios for planning, mitigation, loss estimation, and scientific investigations. The Earthquake Scenario Project (ESP), though lacking clairvoyance, is a forward-looking project, estimating earthquake hazard and loss outcomes as they may occur one day. For each scenario event, fundamental input includes i) the magnitude and

D. J. Wald; M. D. Petersen; L. A. Wald; A. D. Frankel; V. R. Quitoriano; K. Lin; N. Luco; S. Mathias; D. Bausch

2009-01-01

148

Production planning via scenario modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several Linear Programming (LP) and Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) models for the production and capacity planning problems with uncertainty in demand are proposed. In contrast to traditional mathematical programming approaches, we use scenarios to characterize the uncertainty in demand. Solutions are obtained for each scenario and then these individual scenario solutions are aggregated to yield a nonanticipative or implementable policy.

Laureano F. Escudero; Pasumarti V. Kamesam; Alan J. King; Roger J. B. Wets

1993-01-01

149

Curvature Inspired Cosmological Scenario  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using modified gravity with non-linear terms of curvature, R 2 and R (2+ r) (with r being a positive real number and R being the scalar curvature), cosmological scenario, beginning at the Planck scale, is obtained. Here a unified picture of cosmology is obtained from f( R)- gravity. In this scenario, universe begins with power-law inflation followed by deceleration and acceleration in the late universe as well as possible collapse of the universe in future. It is different from f( R)- dark energy models with non-linear curvature terms assumed as dark energy. Here, dark energy terms are induced by linear as well as non-linear terms of curvature in Friedmann equation being derived from modified gravity. It is also interesting to see that, in this model, dark radiation and dark matter terms emerge spontaneously from the gravitational sector. It is found that dark energy, obtained here, behaves as quintessence in the early universe and phantom in the late universe. Moreover, analogous to brane-tension in brane-gravity inspired Friedmann equation, a tension term ? arises here being called as cosmic tension, It is found that, in the late universe, Friedmann equation (obtained here) contains a term - ? 2/2 ? ( ? being the phantom energy density) analogous to a similar term in Friedmann equation with loop quantum effects, if ?>0 and brane-gravity correction when ?<0.

Srivastava, S. K.

2008-07-01

150

Pressure Drop Behaviour of the LOBI Installation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The actual results of steady state pressure drop measurements in liquid phase for the LOBI-installation are presented and relevant data from the pressure drop investigations at LOBI are summarized. (Atomindex citation 13:657007)

E. Ohlmer W. Schulze R . Schulz

1981-01-01

151

Impact of water drops on small targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The collision of water drops against small targets was studied experimentally by means of a high-speed photography technique. The drop impact velocity was about 3.5 m\\/s. Drop diameters were in the range of 2.8-4.0 mm. The target was a stainless steel disk of 3.9 mm diameter. The drop spread beyond the target like a central cap surrounded by a thin,

A. Rozhkov; B. Prunet-Foch; M. Vignes-Adler

2002-01-01

152

Analysis for Eccentric Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Drops at the Canister Storage Building (CSB) (CSB-S-0073)  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to investigate the potential for damage to the multi-canister overpack (MCO) during impact from an eccentric accidental drop onto the standard storage tube, overpack storage tube, service station or sampling/weld station. Damage to the storage tube and sample/weld station is beyond the scope of this report. The results of this analysis are required to show the following: (1) If a breach resulting in unacceptable release of contamination could occur in the MCO. (2) If the dropped MCO could become stuck in the storage tube after the drop. (3) Maximum deceleration of the spent nuclear fuel baskets. The model appropriate for the standard storage tubes with the smaller gap is the basis for the analysis and results reported herein in this SNF-5204, revision 2 report. Revision 1 of this report is based on a model that includes the larger gap appropriate for the overpack tubes.

HOLLENBECK, R.G.

2000-06-07

153

Pressure drop of internals for packed columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of their low pressure drop per equilibrium stage, random and particularly structured packings are frequently used in vacuum distillation. For applications requiring operation at absolute pressures below 100mbar usually the total allowable pressure drop is specified. Demanding separations require frequent collection and redistribution of liquid. This means dealing with an additional source of pressure drop which is usually ignored,

A. Rix; Z. Olujic

2008-01-01

154

Electrohydrodynamic Deformation and Burst of Liquid Drops  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 60 Hz electric fields, liquid drops suspended in a second immiscible liquid deformed into prolate spheroids oriented in the direction of the field in 22 drop\\/medium combinations studied experimentally. In steady fields, oblate or prolate spheroids were formed depending upon the dielectric constants and resistivities of the drop and medium. In systems yielding oblate spheroids, a critical frequency existed

S. Torza; R. G. Cox; S. G. Mason

1971-01-01

155

Scenario-Based Tasks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page from The Experiential Learning Center provides a number of scenario-based tasks for use in the classroom or for professional development training. The materials are freely available for download and use and would be applicable to learners in a variety of subjects including software development, faculty professional development, office system applications/ICT, biology/bioinformatics, environmental studies, Python programming, engineering, network security/MIS, computational thinking and English writing. Instructor guides and other classroom instructional materials are provided. The project requests that educators let them know when these materials are used in order to track dissemination of the work and in order to inform the community about upcoming workshops and presentations.

2012-10-09

156

Drop short control of electrode gap  

DOEpatents

During vacuum consumable arc remelting the electrode gap between a consumable electrode and a pool of molten metal is difficult to control. The present invention monitors drop shorts by detecting a decrease in the voltage between the consumable electrode and molten pool. The drop shorts and their associated voltage reductions occur as repetitive pulses which are closely correlated to the electrode gap. Thus, the method and apparatus of the present invention controls electrode gap based upon drop shorts detected from the monitored anode-cathode voltage. The number of drop shorts are accumulated, and each time the number of drop shorts reach a predetermined number, the average period between drop shorts is calculated from this predetermined number and the time in which this number is accumulated. This average drop short period is used in a drop short period electrode gap model which determines the actual electrode gap from the drop short. The actual electrode gap is then compared with a desired electrode gap which is selected to produce optimum operating conditions and the velocity of the consumable error is varied based upon the gap error. The consumable electrode is driven according to any prior art system at this velocity. In the preferred embodiment, a microprocessor system is utilized to perform the necessary calculations and further to monitor the duration of each drop short. If any drop short exceeds a preset duration period, the consumable electrode is rapidly retracted a predetermined distance to prevent bonding of the consumable electrode to the molten remelt.

Fisher, Robert W. (Albuquerque, NM) [Albuquerque, NM; Maroone, James P. (Albuquerque, NM) [Albuquerque, NM; Tipping, Donald W. (Albuquerque, NM) [Albuquerque, NM; Zanner, Frank J. (Sandia Park, NM) [Sandia Park, NM

1986-01-01

157

Spatial Distribution of Large Cloud Drops  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The analysis of aircraft measurements of individual drop sizes in clouds suggests that for sufficiently small volumes the mean number of cloud drops with a given radius is proportional to volume powered by a drop-size dependent exponent. For abundant small drops present, the exponent is 1 as assumed in conventional approach. However, for rarer large drops, the exponents fall below unity. We show striking examples of the spatial distribution of large cloud drops using models that simulate the observed power laws. In contrast to currently used models that assume homogeneity and therefore a Poisson distribution of cloud drops, these models show strong drop clustering, the more so the larger the drops. The degree of clustering is determined by the observed exponents. The strong clustering of large drops arises naturally from the observed power-law statistics. This clustering has vital consequences for rain physics explaining how rain can form so fast and also helps explain why remotely sensed cloud drop size is generally biased.

Marshak, Alexander; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Larsen, Michael; Wiscombe, Warren

2004-01-01

158

Surviving two hours of ventricular fibrillation in accidental hypothermia.  

PubMed

Abstract Background. Cardiac arrest as a consequence of deep accidental hypothermia is associated with high mortality. Standardized prehospital management as well as rewarming with extracorporeal circulation (ECC) are important factors to improve survival. The objective of this case report is to illustrate the importance of effective cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and ECC in a cardiac arrest following deep accidental hypothermia. Case report. A 42-year-old man was found unresponsive to external stimuli and pulseless at an outdoor temperature of 1°C. CPR was started at the scene by laypersons, and the emergency medical services (EMS) arrived 5 minutes after the emergency call. Resuscitation according to International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) guidelines was initiated by EMS. The first recorded rhythm was ventricular fibrillation (VF), which persisted, despite repeated defibrillation. The patient showed signs of severe hypothermia and, during ongoing CPR, was transported to hospital where on arrival the patient's rectal temperature was measured at 22°C. Resuscitation measures were continued and warming was started at the emergency room. Due to persistent VF and deep hypothermia, the patient was transferred to a cardiothoracic surgical unit for rewarming with ECC. At commencement of ECC, CPR had been going for approximately 130 minutes and a total of 38 defibrillations had been made. During this time interval the patients was pulseless. At a core temperature of 30°C, one defibrillation restored sinus rhythm and subsequently stable circulation was achieved. The patient received a further 24 hours of hypothermia treatment at 32-34°C. He was discharged to rehabilitation facilities after 3 weeks of hospital care. Three months after the cardiac arrest the patient was fully recovered, was back to work, and had resumed normal activities. Conclusions. We demonstrate a case of cardiac arrest due to deep accidental hypothermia that stresses the importance of effective CPR and early-stage consideration of the use of ECC for safe and effective rewarming. PMID:24670046

Nordberg, Per; Ivert, Torbjörn; Dalén, Magnus; Forsberg, Sune; Hedman, Anders

2014-01-01

159

Review of accidental safety studies for the European HCPB test blanket system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a review of safety studies for accidental sequences in the European solid breeder test blanket module (TBM) system. These studies are the starting point for the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report of ITER, under preparation to get the construction permit first and then later the operation licence. In general the reduced inventory of activation products and tritium associated with the TBM system makes the impact of this test system almost negligible on the overall safety risk of ITER. Nevertheless, the possibility of jeopardizing the ITER safety concept has been analysed in connection to the consequences of specific accident sequences, e.g. the pressurization of the vacuum vessel due to the He coolant blow-down, the hydrogen production from the Be-steam reaction, the possible interconnection between the port cell and the vacuum vessel causing air ingress and the necessity to assure heat removal in the short and long periods. In the frame of this assessment, three LOCA sequences have been selected as representative of accidents judged to cover all scenarios envisaged in Cat II to IV events involving the TBM, namely, in-vessel LOCA, ex-vessel LOCA and in-box LOCA.

Boccaccini, L. V.; Ciattaglia, S.; Meyder, R.; Jin, X.

2007-07-01

160

Reducing the risk of accidental death due to vehicle-related carbon monoxide poisoning.  

PubMed

Emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) from motor vehicles cause several hundred accidental fatal poisonings annually in the United States. The circumstances that could lead to fatal poisonings in residential settings with motor vehicles as the source of CO were explored. The risk of death in a garage (volume = 90 m3) and a single-family dwelling (400 m3) was evaluated using a Monte Carlo simulation with varying CO emission rates and ventilation rates. Information on emission rates was obtained from a survey of motor vehicle exhaust gas composition under warm idle conditions in California, and information on ventilation rates was obtained from a summary of published measurements in the U.S. housing stock. The risk of death ranged from 16 to 21% for a 3-hr exposure in a garage to 0% for a 1-hr exposure in a house. Older vehicles were associated with a disproportionately high risk of death. Removing all pre-1975 vehicles from the fleet would reduce the risk of death by one-fourth to two-thirds, depending on the exposure scenario. Significant efforts have been made to control CO emissions from motor vehicles with the goal of reducing CO concentrations in outdoor air. Substantial public health benefit could also be obtained if vehicle control measures were designed to take account of acute CO poisonings explicitly. PMID:9798430

Marr, L C; Morrison, G C; Nazaroff, W W; Harley, R A

1998-10-01

161

Atmospheric entry of Mars-return nuclear-powered vehicles due to accidental termination of operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The entry of nuclear reactors into Earth's atmosphere resulting from an accidental or inadvertent abort of a space vehicle powered by nuclear-thermal rockets is investigated. The study is made for a typical piloted Mars mission vehicle incapacitated by an accident or malfunction during the Earth-arrival phase of the Mars-return journey due to simultaneous, multiple failures of its component systems. A single accident/abort scenario resulting in three entry possibilities is considered for a nominal hyperbolic in-bound approach velocity of 8 km/sec. The most severe case involving a direct entry is then analyzed over a broad range of approach velocities extending to 12 km/sec to include sprint-type missions. The results indicate that the severe surface heating, stagnation pressures, and g-loads are greater than 150 kW/sq cm, 300 atm, and 800-g, respectively. The wall heat transfer rate exceeds the value that can be accommodated by a carbon heatshield through radiation equilibrium prior to sublimation at 5500 K. These conditions are beyond our previous experience in crew safety, structural design, and thermal protection.

Menees, Gene P.; Park, Chul

1993-01-01

162

Method and apparatus for controlling accidental releases of tritium  

DOEpatents

An improvement is described in a tritium control system based on a catalytic oxidation reactor wherein accidental releases of tritium into room air are controlled by flooding the catalytic oxidation reactor with hydrogen when the tritium concentration in the room air exceeds a specified limit. The sudden flooding with hydrogen heats the catalyst to a high temperature within seconds, thereby greatly increasing the catalytic oxidation rate of tritium to tritiated water vapor. Thus, the catalyst is heated only when needed. In addition to the heating effect, the hydrogen flow also swamps the tritium and further reduces the tritium release. 1 fig.

Galloway, T.R.

1980-04-01

163

[Biological effects and risks of accidental radionuclide uptake].  

PubMed

This review presents the actual state of knowledge about medical dangers of a radioactive fall-out. Concepts for the estimation of accidental incorporation, as well as effects and risks that are known to occur after incorporation of radionuclides are discussed. Special attention is paid to the following topics: effect of radioiodine on the thyroid gland, effect of radio-cesium on whole body burden, alpha-emitting particles (plutonium) with deposition in the airways, association of osteotrope radionuclides (strontium) with malignomas of the skeleton and finally prophylaxis with iodine to prevent damage of the thyroid. PMID:3554876

Fueger, G F

1986-01-01

164

Method and apparatus for controlling accidental releases of tritium  

DOEpatents

An improvement in a tritium control system based on a catalytic oxidation reactor wherein accidental releases of tritium into room air are controlled by flooding the catalytic oxidation reactor with hydrogen when the tritium concentration in the room air exceeds a specified limit. The sudden flooding with hydrogen heats the catalyst to a high temperature within seconds, thereby greatly increasing the catalytic oxidation rate of tritium to tritiated water vapor. Thus, the catalyst is heated only when needed. In addition to the heating effect, the hydrogen flow also swamps the tritium and further reduces the tritium release.

Galloway, Terry R. (Berkeley, CA)

1980-01-01

165

Accidental ingestion of an untethered instrument during implant surgery.  

PubMed

During dental treatment, patients can swallow or inhale a foreign object as a result of several patient- and clinician-related factors; however, several methods can be used to prevent this complication. A 65-year-old man was referred to the Oral Implantology Clinic at the University of Amsterdam (ACTA) for a fixed prosthesis in the maxilla. While placing the implants, the screwdriver accidentally slipped from the fingers of the surgeon and was ingested by the patient. Since the difference between swallowing and inhaling cannot be accurately diagnosed, patient follow-up is advisable. PMID:24905271

Pull Ter Gunne, Lotte; Wismeijer, Daniel

2014-01-01

166

Primary inoculation tuberculosis after an accidental scalpel injury.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis (TB) infection in healthcare personnel occurs mostly by mycobacteria inhalation and contact with infected material. Here, we report a case of primary inoculation TB in a surgeon resulting from an accidental scalpel injury. Standard anti-TB treatment produced a good result, and no relapses occurred in the 18-month follow-up period. Given the increased incidence of TB and the use of surgery to treat multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains, this report underscores the need to take special precautions during lesion excision in TB patients. PMID:23468222

Huang, D; Yin, H

2013-08-01

167

[Accidental staining of corneal nerves by methylene blue].  

PubMed

A 10-year-old child presented after accidental exposure of the left eye to a blue hair dye containing methylene blue. Mild ocular surface changes and a selective blue staining of the usually invisible corneal nerve fibre bundles were present. Corneal sensitivity was reduced. Despite copious lubrication a transient neurotrophic keratitis developed which did not resolve until corneal sensitivity became normal 2 weeks later. Association of mild chemical burns with neurotrophic keratitis is unusual but is of high clinical relevance as keratitis is a vision-threatening complication. PMID:23288315

Peter, S; Reichart, E; Poyntner, L; Mennel, S

2013-09-01

168

ECMO for Cardiac Rescue after Accidental Intravenous Mepivacaine Application  

PubMed Central

Mepivacaine is a potent local anaesthetic and used for infiltration and regional anaesthesia in adults and pediatric patients. Intoxications with mepivacaine affect mainly the CNS and the cardiovascular system. We present a case of accidental intravenous mepivacaine application and intoxication of an infant resulting in seizure, broad complex bradyarrhythmia, arterial hypotension and finally cardiac arrest. The patient could be rescued by prolonged resuscitations and a rapid initiation of ECMO and survived without neurological damage. The management strategies of this rare complication including promising other treatment options with lipid emulsions are discussed.

Froehle, Michael; Haas, Nikolaus A.; Kirchner, Guenther; Kececioglu, Deniz; Sandica, Eugen

2012-01-01

169

Mission Scenario Development Workbench  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mission Scenario Development Workbench (MSDW) is a multidisciplinary performance analysis software tool for planning and optimizing space missions. It provides a number of new capabilities that are particularly useful for planning the surface activities on other planets. MSDW enables rapid planning of a space mission and supports flight system and scientific-instrumentation trades. It also provides an estimate of the ability of flight, ground, and science systems to meet high-level mission goals and provides means of evaluating expected mission performance at an early stage of planning in the project life cycle. In MSDW, activity plans and equipment-list spreadsheets are integrated with validated parameterized simulation models of spacecraft systems. In contrast to traditional approaches involving worst-case estimates with large margins, the approach embodied in MSDW affords more flexibility and more credible results early in the lifecycle through the use of validated, variable- fidelity models of spacecraft systems. MSDW is expected to help maximize the scientific return on investment for space missions by understanding early the performance required to have a successful mission while reducing the risk of costly design changes made at late stages in the project life cycle.

Kordon, Mark; Baker, John; Gilbert, John; Hanks, David; Mandutianu, Dan; Hooper, David

2006-01-01

170

Drop Tower Experiments concerning Fluid Management under Microgravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transport and positioning of liquid under microgravity is done utilizing capillary forces. Therefore, capillary transport processes have to be understood for a wide variety of space applications, ranging from propellant management in tanks of space transportation systems to eating and drinking devices for astronauts. There are two types of liquid transportation in microgravity using capillary forces. First, the driven liquid flow in open channels where the capillary forces at free surfaces ensure a gas and vapor free flow. Here it is important to know the limiting flow rate through such an open channel before the free surface collapses and gas is sucked into the channel. A number of different experiments at the drop tower Bremen, on sounding rockets and at the ISS have been conducted to analyse this phenomenon within different geometries. As result a geometry dependent theory for calculating the maximum flow rate has been found. On the other hand liquid positioning and transportation requires the capillary pressure of curved surfaces to achieve a liquid flow to a desired area. Especially for space applications the weight of structure has to be taken into account for development. For example liquid positioning in tanks can be achieved via a complicated set of structure filling the whole tank resulting in heavy devices not reasonable in space applications. Astrium developed in cooperation with ZARM a propellant management device much smaller than the tank volume and ensuring a gas and vapour free supply of propellant to the propulsion system. In the drop tower Bremen a model of this device was tested concerning different microgravity scenarios. To further decrease weight and ensure functionality within different scenarios structure elements are designed as perforated geometries. Capillary transport between perforated plates has been analyzed concerning the influence of geometrical pattern of perforations. The conducted experiments at the drop tower Bremen show the remarkable influence of perforations on the capillary transport capability.

Gaulke, Diana; Dreyer, Michael

2012-07-01

171

Magnetically focused liquid drop radiator  

DOEpatents

A magnetically focused liquid drop radiator for application in rejecting rgy from a spacecraft, characterized by a magnetizable liquid or slurry disposed in operative relationship within the liquid droplet generator and its fluid delivery system, in combination with magnetic means disposed in operative relationship around a liquid droplet collector of the LDR. The magnetic means are effective to focus streams of droplets directed from the generator toward the collector, thereby to assure that essentially all of the droplets are directed into the collector, even though some of the streams may be misdirected as they leave the generator. The magnetic focusing means is also effective to suppress splashing of liquid when the droplets impinge on the collector.

Botts, Thomas E. (Fairfax, VA) [Fairfax, VA; Powell, James R. (Shoreham, NY) [Shoreham, NY; Lenard, Roger (Redondo Beach, CA) [Redondo Beach, CA

1986-01-01

172

Drop processes in natural clouds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model of the diffusive mixing of dry and cloudy air, a process considered to be fundamental to the development of natural clouds, is presented. Water drops are formed at the cloud base by condensation upon nuclei and as they rise they grow by vapor diffusion in the slightly supersaturated environment of the clouds. Turbulent mixing between cloudy air and undersaturated air entrained from outside produces fluctuations in supersaturation, not linked to changes in vertical velocity, which cause broadening of the condensate spectrum and the rapid production of droplets large enough to engage in growth by coalescence. The probabilities of permanent union or the production of satellite droplets following the collision of a pair of raindrops is a sensitive function of several parameters. In some circumstances electrohydrodynamic bursting may influence the properties of clouds.

Latham, J.

1982-01-01

173

Magnetically focused liquid drop radiator  

DOEpatents

A magnetically focused liquid drop radiator for application in rejecting energy from a spacecraft, characterized by a magnetizable liquid or slurry disposed in operative relationship within the liquid droplet generator and its fluid delivery system, in combination with magnetic means disposed in operative relationship around a liquid droplet collector of the LDR. The magnetic means are effective to focus streams of droplets directed from the generator toward the collector, thereby to assure that essentially all of the droplets are directed into the collector, even though some of the streams may be misdirected as they leave the generator. The magnetic focusing means is also effective to suppress splashing of liquid when the droplets impinge on the collector.

Botts, T.E.; Powell, J.R.; Lenard, R.

1984-12-10

174

Dynamics of Aqueous Foam Drops  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We develop a model for the nonlinear oscillations of spherical drops composed of aqueous foam. Beginning with a simple mixture law, and utilizing a mass-conserving bubble-in-cell scheme, we obtain a Rayleigh-Plesset-like equation for the dynamics of bubbles in a foam mixture. The dispersion relation for sound waves in a bubbly liquid is then coupled with a normal modes expansion to derive expressions for the frequencies of eigenmodal oscillations. These eigenmodal (breathing plus higher-order shape modes) frequencies are elicited as a function of the void fraction of the foam. A Mathieu-like equation is obtained for the dynamics of the higher-order shape modes and their parametric coupling to the breathing mode. The proposed model is used to explain recently obtained experimental data.

Akhatov, Iskander; McDaniel, J. Gregory; Holt, R. Glynn

2001-01-01

175

Internal Flows in Free Drops (IFFD)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Within the framework of an Earth-based research task investigating the internal flows within freely levitated drops, a low-gravity technology development experiment has been designed and carried out within the NASA Glovebox facility during the STS-83 and STS-94 Shuttle flights (MSL-1 mission). The goal was narrowly defined as the assessment of the capabilities of a resonant single-axis ultrasonic levitator to stably position free drops in the Shuttle environment with a precision required for the detailed measurement of internal flows. The results of this entirely crew-operated investigation indicate that the approach is fundamentally sound, but also that the ultimate stability of the positioning is highly dependent on the residual acceleration characteristic of the Spacecraft, and to a certain extent, on the initial drop deployment of the drop. The principal results are: the measured dependence of the residual drop rotation and equilibrium drop shape on the ultrasonic power level, the experimental evaluation of the typical drop translational stability in a realistic low-gravity environment, and the semi-quantitative evaluation of background internal flows within quasi-isothermal drops. Based on these results, we conclude that the successful design of a full-scale Microgravity experiment is possible, and would allow accurate the measurement of thermocapillary flows within transparent drops. The need has been demonstrated, however, for the capability for accurately deploying the drop, for a quiescent environment, and for precise mechanical adjustments of the levitator.

Trinh, E. H.; Sadhal, Satwindar S.; Thomas, D. A.; Crouch, R. K.

1998-01-01

176

The changing nutrition scenario  

PubMed Central

The past seven decades have seen remarkable shifts in the nutritional scenario in India. Even up to the 1950s severe forms of malnutrition such as kwashiorkar and pellagra were endemic. As nutritionists were finding home-grown and common-sense solutions for these widespread problems, the population was burgeoning and food was scarce. The threat of widespread household food insecurity and chronic undernutrition was very real. Then came the Green Revolution. Shortages of food grains disappeared within less than a decade and India became self-sufficient in food grain production. But more insidious problems arising from this revolution were looming, and cropping patterns giving low priority to coarse grains and pulses, and monocropping led to depletion of soil nutrients and ‘Green Revolution fatigue’. With improved household food security and better access to health care, clinical manifestations of severe malnutrition virtually disappeared. But the decline in chronic undernutrition and “hidden hunger” from micronutrient deficiencies was slow. On the cusp of the new century, an added factor appeared on the nutritional scene in India. With steady urban migration, upward mobility out of poverty, and an increasingly sedentary lifestyle because of improvements in technology and transport, obesity rates began to increase, resulting in a dual burden. Measured in terms of its performance in meeting its Millennium Development Goals, India has fallen short. Despite its continuing high levels of poverty and illiteracy, India has a huge demographic potential in the form of a young population. This advantage must be leveraged by investing in nutrition education, household access to nutritious diets, sanitary environment and a health-promoting lifestyle. This requires co-operation from all the stakeholders, including governments, non government organizations, scientists and the people at large.

Gopalan, C.

2013-01-01

177

Hemodialysis for the treatment of severe accidental hypothermia.  

PubMed

Severe hypothermia is defined as a core body temperature <28°C and is associated with in-hospital mortality rates of 50% or higher. Delays in rewarming and slower rates of rewarming are the most important prognostic factors associated with increased mortality. Arrhythmias are the most common cause of mortality in patients with severe accidental hypothermia. Electrolyte abnormalities such as hyperkalemia and hypocalcemia that may worsen when patients are rewarmed contribute to the risk of arrhythmias. Cardiopulmonary bypass (CBP) is considered the treatment of choice for active internal rewarming of patients with severe hypothermia, but it is not always available and is time consuming to initiate. We describe a case where hemodialysis (HD) was used to treat accidental hypothermia in a patient with an initial temperature of 23.5°C. Average rewarming rates of 1.5°C/hour were achieved. The advantages of HD when compared with CBP are that it is (1) more widely and readily available, (2) less invasive, (3) less expensive, and (4) can correct associated acidosis and electrolyte abnormalities commonly seen in patients with severe hypothermia. PMID:24118090

Singh, Tripti; Hallows, Kenneth R

2014-05-01

178

Preventing Accidental Ignition of Upper-Stage Rocket Motors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A report presents a proposal to reduce the risk of accidental ignition of certain upper-stage rocket motors or other high energy hazardous systems. At present, mechanically in-line initiators are used for initiation of many rocket motors and/or other high-energy hazardous systems. Electrical shorts and/or mechanical barriers, which are the basic safety devices in such systems, are typically removed as part of final arming or pad preparations while personnel are present. At this time, static discharge, test equipment malfunction, or incorrect arming techniques can cause premature firing. The proposal calls for a modular out-of-line ignition system incorporating detonating-cord elements, identified as the donor and the acceptor, separated by an air gap. In the safe configuration, the gap would be sealed with two shields, which would prevent an accidental firing of the donor from igniting the system. The shields would be removed to enable normal firing, in which shrapnel generated by the donor would reliably ignite the acceptor to continue the ordnance train. The acceptor would then ignite a through bulkhead initiator (or other similar device), which would ignite the motor or high-energy system. One shield would be remotely operated and would be moved to the armed position when a launch was imminent or conversely returned to the safe position if the launch were postponed. In the event of failure of the remotely operated shield, the other shield could be inserted manually to safe the system.

Hickman, John; Morgan, Herbert; Cooper, Michael; Murbach, Marcus

2005-01-01

179

Epidemiology of accidental home poisoning in Riyadh (Saudi Arabia).  

PubMed Central

In a prospective study on 178 cases of accidental home poisoning admitted to the main children's hospital in Riyadh poisoning was found to account for 5.6% of the total annual admissions--greater than any other developing country and approaching Western proportions. The commonest ages were between 1 and 5 years. Drugs accounted for 52% of cases and household products for 46%. This picture also differs from the pattern of poisoning in developing countries and is more akin to that of industrialised countries. The most important factors in aetiology, besides the age of the patient and the underprivileged social class, were the abundance of drugs and household chemicals in the Saudi home, none of them in child proof containers; inappropriate storage; and lack of supervision of children. Cultural factors also contributed. The frequency of poisoning in childhood may be decreased in the long run by improved housing, socioeconomic status, and education. The place and methods of health education, also a long term objective, is discussed. For immediate primary prevention two important legislative measures are proposed: (1) provision of childproof containers of drugs and other chemicals used in the home and (2) banning of over the counter sales of drugs. For more accurate epidemiological data collection, and thereby better preventative planning, a national register of accidental poisoning and other accidents is recommended. Poison information centres are also deemed necessary.

Mahdi, A H; Taha, S A; Al Rifai, M R

1983-01-01

180

Scenario Management: An Interdisciplinary Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scenario management (SM) means different things to different people, even though everyone seems to admit its current importance and its further potential. In this paper, we seek to provide an interdisciplinary framework for SM from three major disciplines that use scenarios - strategic management, human-computer interaction, and software and systems engineering - to deal with description of current and future

Matthias Jarke; Tung X. Bui; John M. Carroll

1998-01-01

181

Futures Scenario in Science Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we describe our experiences in developing futures scenarios in two science contexts, space science and atmospheric science/climate change. Futures scenario writing can develop scientific literacy by connecting science learning to students' lifeworlds--past, present and future. They also provide a synthesising mechanism for…

Lloyd, David; Vanderhout, Annastasia; Lloyd, Lisa; Atkins, David

2010-01-01

182

Student Rights and Responsibilities Scenarios.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To stimulate interest in student's rights and responsibilities, this resource contains incomplete scenarios dealing with the consequences of knowing and not knowing the law, as it is applied to modern practical situations. The scenarios can be used in high school courses such as government, social problems, history, psychology, and business law.…

Peterson, Ludwig A.; And Others

183

Trapping of drops by wetting defects  

PubMed Central

Controlling the motion of drops on solid surfaces is crucial in many natural phenomena and technological processes including the collection and removal of rain drops, cleaning technology and heat exchangers. Topographic and chemical heterogeneities on solid surfaces give rise to pinning forces that can capture and steer drops in desired directions. Here we determine general physical conditions required for capturing sliding drops on an inclined plane that is equipped with electrically tunable wetting defects. By mapping the drop dynamics on the one-dimensional motion of a point mass, we demonstrate that the trapping process is controlled by two dimensionless parameters, the trapping strength measured in units of the driving force and the ratio between a viscous and an inertial time scale. Complementary experiments involving superhydrophobic surfaces with wetting defects demonstrate the general applicability of the concept. Moreover, we show that electrically tunable defects can be used to guide sliding drops along actively switchable tracks—with potential applications in microfluidics.

't Mannetje, Dieter; Ghosh, Somnath; Lagraauw, Rudy; Otten, Simon; Pit, Arjen; Berendsen, Christian; Zeegers, Jos; van den Ende, Dirk; Mugele, Frieder

2014-01-01

184

Bubbles and drops on curved surfaces.  

PubMed

Surface curvature affects the shape, stability, and apparent contact angle of sessile and pendant drops. Here, we develop an approximate analytical solution for non-axisymmetric perturbations to small spherical drops on a flat substrate, assuming a fixed contact angle and fixed drop volume. The analytical model is validated using numerical solutions of the Laplace equation from the Surface Evolver software. We investigate the effects of surface curvature on drop shape, pressure, and surface energy, ascertaining the energy-gradient force that drives lateral drop migration. By balancing this force with the viscous resistance/drag force, in the lubrication approximation, we predict velocities of the order of 0.1 mm s(-1) for 1 mm diameter drops of water with a 30° contact angle on a substrate with a curvature gradient of 0.01 mm(-2), achieved, for example, on a harmonic surface with a wavelength of 4 cm and an amplitude of 4 mm. PMID:24093829

Soleimani, Majid; Hill, Reghan J; van de Ven, Theo G M

2013-11-19

185

Breakup of a pendant magnetic drop.  

PubMed

We report experiments on a millimeter-sized pendant drop of ferrofluid in a horizontal magnetic field. The initial drop size is chosen just below the breakup threshold under gravity. As the magnetic field is increased, the drop tilts in order to align with the direction of the total volume force that is exerted on it: weight plus magnetic force. The breakup is controlled by a generalized Bond number based on this total force and on the radius of the neck of the drop. The evolution of drop shape turns out to be a complex process governed by many parameters such as the angle between the total force and the needle, the drop size relative to the needle radius, and the wettability of the liquid on the needle material. This suggests a certain universality, that a single value of the critical Bond number is found regardless of magnetic fluid properties and whether the force is inclined or not. PMID:23944556

Havard, N; Risso, F; Tordjeman, Ph

2013-07-01

186

Investigation of drop coalescence using tomographic PIV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-speed tomographic PIV was used to obtain evolving volumetric velocity fields of the coalescence of single drops and two side-by-side drops through liquid/liquid interfaces. Reynolds numbers (Re=?sU?D/?s) based on surface tension velocity (U?=D/t?) and surrounding ambient fluid were 8-10, and the viscosity ratio between the fluid drop and surrounding fluid was 0.14. The coalescence process investigated is driven by gravity and thus the initial drops are non-spherical and the interface is deformed by the drops. Previously, Mohamed-Kassim & Longmire (2004) showed that under these conditions, the film rupture typically occurs off-axis, and therefore the flow is three-dimensional. For a single drop, volumetric velocity vector fields are used to characterize the asymmetric film rupture occurring for 0drop into a vortex ring are relatively axisymmetric. For two side-by-side drops, the first drop to coalesce ruptures off-axis on the side closest to the second drop. The volumetric velocity and vorticity fields indicate an asymmetric collapse of the drop for 0.1drop while the capillary waves are axisymmetric.

Ortiz-Duenas, Cecilia; Kim, Jungyong; Longmire, Ellen

2008-11-01

187

Saving every drop of water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the beginning of 2011 there has been extremely low rainfall, which has resulted in drought conditions that have affected several provinces in China. The situation of the acute water shortage requires people to make many changes in the little things they do in their daily life. Saving every drop of water and forming good habits of using water is of the utmost importance. Based on this need, our students, organized by our teachers, reached out into to the communities. By visiting, observing and issuing questionnaires, the students identified unreasonable water usage in the communities. The results of the research showed that the ratio of secondary treatment of domestic waste is very low, especially the ratio of collecting wastewater from washing, greywater, to flush the toilet. In order to solve this problem, students themselves designed a set of water saving facilities by collecting greywater to flush the toilet. They successfully installed these facilities in residential houses in the XiYinLi community, which achieved satisfactory results regarding saving water.

Jinyu, J.

2012-04-01

188

Involving Parents in Indicated Early Intervention for Childhood PTSD Following Accidental Injury  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accidental injuries represent the most common type of traumatic event to which a youth is likely to be exposed. While the majority of youth who experience an accidental injury will recover spontaneously, a significant proportion will go on to develop Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). And yet, there is little published treatment outcome…

Cobham, Vanessa E.; March, Sonja; De Young, Alexandra; Leeson, Fiona; Nixon, Reginald; McDermott, Brett; Kenardy, Justin

2012-01-01

189

Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - utility for the fire brigades  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several air dispersion models are available for prediction and simulation of the hazard areas associated with accidental releases of toxic gases. The most model packages (commercial or free of charge) include a chemical database, an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI) and automated graphical output for effective presentation of results. The models are designed especially for analyzing different accidental toxic release

S. Stenzel; K. Baumann-Stanzer

2009-01-01

190

Accidental Contaminant Detection Method Based on One-Tailed U Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accidental environmental pollution threatens people's health and life badly, it becomes more and more significant to develop a method to identify an accidental source and predict its hazard accurately and quickly. An effective source identification method should be composed of contaminant detection, source location and strength estimation, meanwhile, contaminant detection is a key. The performance of source detection could determine

Liping Pang; Yu Zhang; Hongquan Qu

2011-01-01

191

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 12. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF SULFUR DIOXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses the control of accidental releases of sulfur dioxide (SO2) to the atmosphere. SO2 has an IDLH (immediately dangerous to life and health) concentration of 100 ppm, making it an acute toxic hazard. Reducing the risk associated with an accidental release of SO2 ...

192

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 10. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF HYDROGEN CYANIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses the control of accidental releases of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) to the atmosphere. HCN has an IDLH (immediately dangerous to life and health) concentration of 50 ppm, making it an acute toxic hazard. Reducing the risk associated with an accidental release of HCN...

193

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 2. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF AMMONIA  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses the control of accidental releases of ammonia to the atmosphere. Ammonia has an IDLH (immediately dangerous to life and health) concentration of 500 ppm, making it an acute toxic hazard. Reducing the risk associated with an accidental release of ammonia invol...

194

The effects of gun control on the accidental death rate from firearms in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

One factor that has been proposed as affecting accidental death rates is the availability of a lethal agent in the environment. The present study explores this hypothesis for the case of firearm availability and the accidental death rate from firearms. Data from Canada indicated that the passage of Canada's Criminal Law Amendment Act of 1977 (Bill C-51), enforced from 1978

Antoon A. Leenaars; David Lester

1997-01-01

195

Accidental blood exposure: risk and prevention in interventional radiology  

PubMed Central

There is a growing concern about the transmission of bloodborne pathogens during medical procedures among health care workers and patients. Over the last three decades, radiological services have undergone many changes with the introduction of new modalities. One of these new disciplines is interventional radiology (IR) which deals with procedures such as arteriography, image-guided biopsies, intravascular catheter insertions, angioplasty and stent placements. Despite these developments, the potential for accidental blood exposure and exposure to other infectious material continues to exist. Therefore, it is important for all radiologists who perform invasive procedures to observe specific recommendations for infection control. In this review, we look at the different policies for protection and universal standards on infection control.

Vijayananthan, A; Tan, LH; Owen, A; Bhat, R; Edwards, R; Robertson, I; Moss, JG; Nicholls, R

2006-01-01

196

Delayed Upper-Airway Injury after Accidental Alkaline Ingestion  

PubMed Central

A 62-year-old man presented to the emergency department one week after accidentally drinking an alkaline cleaning agent stored in unlabeled bottle. The day of the incident the patient presented to an outside hospital where he was admitted for an upper endoscopy of the esophagus which was found to be negative for acute injury. An initial chest X-ray taken the day of the incident was also found to be normal. After discharge the patient continued to have a sore throat and marked dysphagia which caused him to vomit repeatedly. Moreover, the patient began to develop chest pain with associated shortness of breath. We present a case of delayed airway injury and tracheal thickening and associated chest pain after alkaline ingestion and we discuss herein the pathophysiology and management of alkaline ingestions.

Ryan, Matthew F.

2014-01-01

197

Dose assessment of an accidental exposure at the IPNS  

SciTech Connect

Seven different methods were used to estimate the dose rate to a female worker who was accidentally exposed in the neutron PHOENIX beamline at the IPNS. Theoretical and measured entrance dose ranged from 550 mrem/min to 2850 mrem/min. Theoretical estimates were based on a Monte Carlo simulation of a spectrum provided by IPNS (Crawford Spectrum). Dose measurements were made with TLDs on phantoms and with ionization chambers in a water phantom. Estimates of the whole body total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) rate ranged from 5.2 mrem/min to 840 mrem/min. Assumed and measured quality factors ranged from 2.6 to 11.8. Cytogenetic analyses of blood samples detected no positive exposure. The recommended TEDE rate was 158 mrem/min. The TEDE was 750 mrem.

Campos Torres, M.M.

1995-02-01

198

Accidental low velocity atypical missile injury to the head.  

PubMed

Missile injuries on the head are mostly due to firearms. Atypical missiles may be encountered in case of shrapnel of bomb explosions but rarely because of stones. The present case is a rare case where a stone propelled by the pressure from the rear wheel of a speeding truck on the highway, struck the head of a 7-year-old girl resulting in fatality. Reconstruction of the incident on the basis of history and postmortem findings throws some light on the mechanism. The case is unique as it is the first reported case of an accidental missile injury to the head resulting in fatality without any direct human involvement for propulsion of the projectile. PMID:19259020

Chattopadhyay, Saurabh

2008-12-01

199

Electrohydrodynamic removal of particles from drop surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A uniform electric field is used for cleaning drops of the particles they often carry on their surface. In a first step, particles migrate to either the drop's poles or equator. This is due to the presence of an electrostatic force for which an analytical expression is derived. In a second step, particles concentrated near the poles are released into

S. Nudurupati; M. Janjua; P. Singh; N. Aubry

2009-01-01

200

Drop Study/Attrition Rates, Fall 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes the attrition rate at Johnson County Community College (JCCC) (Kansas). The overall attrition rate for classes starting in fall 2000 was nearly 12%--during the fall semester 4,652 students dropped classes. Useable drop surveys were completed for 93% of those classes. Findings indicated that: (1) the Science, Math, and Health…

Summer, Pat

201

49 CFR 178.965 - Drop test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...all Large Packagings, drop heights are specified as follows: (i) Packing group I: 1.8 m (5.9 feet) (ii) Packing group II: 1.2 m (3.9 feet) (iii) Packing group III: 0.8 m (2.6 feet) (2) Drop tests are to be...

2013-10-01

202

Water Drop/Bow Shock Interactions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The interaction of water drops of diameters in the range of 20 to 200 micrometers with reentry vehicle bow shocks was investigated with a microscope/Q-spoiled laser camera system. A single stream of water drops was generated on the trajectory of a Mach 12...

A. K. Hopkins E. S. Grood H. R. Taylor J. P. Barber

1975-01-01

203

Drops and Bubble in Materials Science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The formation of extended p-n junctions in semiconductors by drop migration, mechanisms and morphologies of migrating drops and bubbles in solids and nucleation and corrections to the Volmer-Weber equations are discussed. Bubble shrinkage in the processing of glass, the formation of glass microshells as laser-fusion targets, and radiation-induced voids in nuclear reactors were examined.

Doremus, R. H.

1982-01-01

204

Spatial Distribution of Large Cloud Drops  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

By analyzing aircraft measurements of individual drop sizes in clouds, we have shown in a companion paper (Knyazikhin et al., 2004) that the probability of finding a drop of radius r at a linear scale l decreases as l(sup D(r)) where 0 less than or equal to D(r) less than or equal to 1. This paper shows striking examples of the spatial distribution of large cloud drops using models that simulate the observed power laws. In contrast to currently used models that assume homogeneity and therefore a Poisson distribution of cloud drops, these models show strong drop clustering, the more so the larger the drops. The degree of clustering is determined by the observed exponents D(r). The strong clustering of large drops arises naturally from the observed power-law statistics. This clustering has vital consequences for rain physics explaining how rain can form so fast. It also helps explain why remotely sensed cloud drop size is generally biased and why clouds absorb more sunlight than conventional radiative transfer models predict.

Marshak, A.; Knyazikhin, Y.; Larsen, M.; Wiscombe, W.

2004-01-01

205

Electrostatic collection of jet and film drops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jet and film drops from bubbles bursting in the presence of an electric field will be charged by electrostatic induction. If the field is sufficiently high, the drops move rapidly upward under the influence of an electrical force to impact on any suitable collecting surface. Mag- nesium oxide-coated glass slides make an excellent collector for determination of the size distribution

DUNCAN C. BLANCHARD; LAWRENCE D. SYZDEK

1975-01-01

206

University Drop-Out: An Italian Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

University students' drop-out is a crucial issue for the universities' efficiency evaluation and funding. In this paper, we analyze the drop-out rate of the Economics and Business faculty of Sapienza University of Rome. We use administrative data on 9,725 undergraduates students enrolled in three-years bachelor programs from 2001 to 2007 and…

Belloc, Filippo; Maruotti, Antonello; Petrella, Lea

2010-01-01

207

Effects of Marangoni Stresses on Drop Coalescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many applications involving drop-drop interactions, such as alcohol-based fuel cells and many microfluid devices, miscible fluids are not necessarily of the same kind. To better understand these phenomena, further insight into coalescence of different fluids is essential. When miscible drops of different liquids come in contact, coalescence often occurs and a surface tension difference may arise at the interface. This difference plays an important role in the process due to the Marangoni effect. To quantify the extent of this effect we conducted a parametric study on the effects of surface tension variation on drop coalescence (partial and full); in particular coalescence time and drop diameter ratios were investigated. A high speed digital camera with high resolution was utilized to study the evolution of drops during the coalescence process. We showed that coalescing drops with higher surface tension than the reservoir fluid, behave similarly to drops coalescing in a viscous environment. A new physical model was developed in good agreement with the experimental data.

Kabachek, Sofya; Pirouz Kavehpour, H.

2011-11-01

208

Mixing in colliding, ultrasonically levitated drops.  

PubMed

Lab-in-a-drop, using ultrasonic levitation, has been actively investigated for the last two decades. Benefits include lack of contact between solutions and an apparatus and a lack of sample cross-contamination. Understanding and controlling mixing in the levitated drop is necessary for using an acoustically levitated drop as a microreactor, particularly for studying kinetics. A pulsed electrostatic delivery system enables addition and mixing of a desired-volume droplet with the levitated drop. Measurement of mixing kinetics is obtained by high-speed video monitoring of a titration reaction. Drop heterogeneity is visualized as 370 nl of 0.25 M KOH (pH: 13.4) was added to 3.7 ?L of 0.058 M HCl (pH: 1.24). Spontaneous mixing time is about 2 s. Following droplet impact, the mixed drop orbits the levitator axis at about 5 Hz during homogenization. The video's green channel (maximum response near 540 nm) shows the color change due to phenolphthalein absorption. While mixing is at least an order of magnitude faster in the levitated drop compared with three-dimensional diffusion, modulation of the acoustic waveform near the surface acoustic wave resonance frequency of the levitated drop does not substantially reduce mixing time. PMID:24460103

Chainani, Edward T; Choi, Woo-Hyuck; Ngo, Khanh T; Scheeline, Alexander

2014-02-18

209

Equilibrium of drops on inclined hydrophilic surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Why does not gravity make drops slip down the inclined surfaces, e.g., plant leaves? The current explanation is based on the existence of surface inhomogeneities, which cause a sustaining force that pins the contact line. Following this theory, the drop remains in equilibrium until a critical value of the sustaining force is reached. We propose an alternative analysis, from the point of view of energy balance, for the particular case in which the drop leaves a liquid film behind. The critical angle of the inclined surface at which the drop slips down is predicted. This result does not depend explicitly on surface inhomogeneities, but only on the drop size and surface tensions. There is good agreement with experiments for contact angles below 90° where the formation of the film is expected, whereas for greater contact angles great discrepancies arise.

Roura, Pere; Fort, Joaquim

2001-07-01

210

Multi-scale Analysis of MEMS Sensors Subject to Drop Impacts  

PubMed Central

The effect of accidental drops on MEMS sensors are examined within the framework of a multi-scale finite element approach. With specific reference to a polysilicon MEMS accelerometer supported by a naked die, the analysis is decoupled into macro-scale (at die length-scale) and meso-scale (at MEMS length-scale) simulations, accounting for the very small inertial contribution of the sensor to the overall dynamics of the device. Macro-scale analyses are adopted to get insights into the link between shock waves caused by the impact against a target surface and propagating inside the die, and the displacement/acceleration histories at the MEMS anchor points. Meso-scale analyses are adopted to detect the most stressed details of the sensor and to assess whether the impact can lead to possible localized failures. Numerical results show that the acceleration at sensor anchors cannot be considered an objective indicator for drop severity. Instead, accurate analyses at sensor level are necessary to establish how MEMS can fail because of drops.

Mariani, Stefano; Ghisi, Aldo; Corigliano, Alberto; Zerbini, Sarah

2007-01-01

211

Scenarios, targets, gaps, and costs  

SciTech Connect

This paper explores the connection between human activities and the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. t explores the implication of the wide range of emissions scenarios developed by the IPCC in the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios and concludes that a robust finding is that major changes will be required in the global energy system if the concentration of carbon dioxide is eventually to be stabilized.

Edmonds, James A.; Joos, Fortunat; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa; Richels, Richard G.; Sarmiento, Jorge L.

2005-03-30

212

Effects of drop freezing on microphysics of an ascending cloud parcel under biomass burning conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is some evidence that the initiation of warm rain is suppressed in clouds over regions with vegetation fires. Thus, the ice phase becomes important as another possibility to initiate precipitation. Numerical simulations were performed to investigate heterogeneous drop freezing for a biomass-burning situation. An air parcel model with a sectional two-dimensional description of the cloud microphysics was employed with parameterizations for immersion and contact freezing which consider the different ice nucleating efficiencies of various ice nuclei. Three scenarios were simulated resulting to mixed-phase or completely glaciated clouds. According to the high insoluble fraction of the biomass-burning particles drop freezing via immersion and contact modes was very efficient. The preferential freezing of large drops followed by riming (i.e. the deposition of liquid drops on ice particles) and the evaporation of the liquid drops (Bergeron-Findeisen process) caused a further decrease of the liquid drops' effective radius in higher altitudes. In turn ice particle sizes increased so that they could serve as germs for graupel or hailstone formation. The effects of ice initiation on the vertical cloud dynamics were fairly significant leading to a development of the cloud to much higher altitudes than in a warm cloud without ice formation.

Diehl, K.; Simmel, M.; Wurzler, S.

213

Atmospheric dispersion of ammonia accidentally released from the 242-A Evaporator, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington  

SciTech Connect

Two errors have been identified in the authorization basis for the 242-A Evaporator at the Hanford Site. These errors, which appear in the 242-A Evaporator/Crystallizer Final Safety Analysis Report analysis of ammonia gas concentrations accidentally released from the 242-A Evaporator, are: (1) the vessel ventilation system flow rate used in the previous calculations is a factor of ten higher than the actual flow rate, and (2) the previous calculations did not account for the ammonia source term reduction that would occur via condensation of ammonia vapors, which will remove a large fraction of the ammonia from the exhaust gas stream. The purpose of this document is to correct these errors and recalculate the maximum ground-level concentrations of ammonia released to the environment as a result of potential errors in blending Evaporator feed. The errors offset each other somewhat, so it is unlikely that the 242-A Evaporator has operated outside its current authorization basis. However, the errors must be corrected and the results incorporated into a revision of the 242-A Evaporator/Crystallizer Safety Analysis Report, WHC-SD-WM-SAR-023. An EPA-approved atmospheric dispersion model, SCREEN3, was used to recalculate the maximum ground-level concentrations of ammonia that would be released from the 242-A Evaporator as a result of a feed-blending error. The results of the re-analysis of the 242-A Evaporator`s ammonia release scenario are as follows. The onsite receptor 100 m away from the release point (242-A vessel vent stack) is projected to be exposed to a maximum ground-level concentration of ammonia of 8.3 ppm. The maximally-exposed offsite receptor, located at the nearest Hanford Site boundary 16 km away from the 242-A vessel vent stack, will be exposed to a maximum ground-level concentration of 0.11 ppm ammonia.

Daling, P.M.; Lavender, J.C.

1997-11-01

214

The Drop Tower Bremen -An Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity (ZARM) was founded in 1985 as an institute of the University of Bremen, which focuses on research on gravitational and space-related phenomena. In 1988, the construction of ZARM`s drop tower began. Since its inau-guration in September 1990, the eye-catching Drop Tower Bremen with a height of 146m and its characteristic glass roof has become twice a landmark on the campus of the University of Bremen and the emblem of the technology park Bremen. As such an outstanding symbol of space science in Bremen the drop tower provides an european unique facility for experiments under conditions of high-quality weightlessness with residual gravitational accelerations in the microgravity regime. The period of maximum 4.74s of each freely falling experiment at the Drop Tower Bremen is only limited by the height of the drop tower vacuum tube, which was fully manufactured of steal and enclosed by an outer concrete shell. Thus, the pure free fall height of each microgravity drop experiment is approximately 110m. By using the later in-stalled catapult system established in 2004 ZARM`s short-term microgravity laboratory is able to nearly double the time of free fall. This world-wide inimitable capsule catapult system meets scientists` demand of extending the period of weightlessness. During the catapult operation the experiment capsule performs a vertical parabolic flight within the drop tower vacuum tube. In this way the time of microgravity can be extended to slightly over 9s. Either in the drop or in the catapult operation routine the repetition rates of microgravity experiments at ZARM`s drop tower facility are the same, generally up to 3 times per day. In comparison to orbital platforms the ground-based laboratory Drop Tower Bremen represents an economic alternative with a permanent access to weightlessness on earth. Moreover, the exceptional high quality of weightlessness in order of 1e-6 g (in the frequency range below 100Hz) demonstrates a perfect experimental environment for unperturbed investigations of scientific phenomena. Motivated by these prospects many national and international groups have initialized research programs taking advantage of this drop tower facility. In respect thereof the spectrum of research fields and technologies in space-related conditions can be continuously enhanced at ZARM. In the first of our two talks we will give you an overview about the inner structure of ZARM, as well as the service and the operation offered by the ZARM Drop Tower Operation and Service Company (ZARM FAB mbH). The ZARM FAB mbH owned by the State Government of Bremen is a public company maintaining the drop tower facility and supporting experimentalists in scientific and technical questions before, during and after their drop or catapult campaigns. In detail, we will present you important technical drop tower informations, our support and the idea, how you can proceed with your microgravity-related experiment including all your requirements to successfully accomplish an entire drop or catapult campaign. In summary, we will illustrate the complete procedure, how to drop or to catapult an experiment capsule at the Drop Tower Bremen.

von Kampen, Peter; Könemann, Thorben; Rath, Hans J.

215

Drops and emulsions with complex interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the behavior of emulsion drops in external flow fields, focusing on recent experimental work involving liquid interfaces covered with surface-active species, in particular adsorbed proteins and particles. Three different length scales are considered: (i) the rheology of complex interfaces is discussed for adsorbed polyelectrolyte surfactants with different molecular structure (compact and globular vs. random coil); (ii) the flow of single drops with macromolecular adsorption layers is studied in optical flow cells; (iii) dilute emulsions of drops are investigated using rheo-small angle light scattering (rheo-SALS). We discuss the results in the context of emulsion and drop models accounting for interfacial viscoelasticity, as well as with capsule suspension models for the case of rigid interfacial layers. Drops stabilized by adsorbed particles or globular proteins can be understood as capsules surrounded by a soft shell; their behavior on the single drop level is in many ways reminiscent of phenomena observed with red blood cells or vesicles, including non-linear drop shape fluctuations under creeping flow conditions. References: [1] Fischer P, Erni P. Curr Opin Colloid Interface Sci (2007, accepted) [2] Erni P et al., Appl Phys Lett 87, 244104 (2007)

Erni, Philipp; Windhab, Erich J.; Fischer, Peter

2007-11-01

216

Surface tension effects in levitated helium drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report our investigations of surface tension driven flows in magnetically levitated 4He drops. By levitating helium drops in a magnetic trap we are able to observe the free surface of drops as they undergo shape oscillations. We also study the dynamics of the free surface during the process of coalescence. Our experimental method allows us to excite shape oscillations in the levitated helium drops and measure their normal mode frequencies. By measuring the frequency of the fundamental (l = 2) mode, we obtain new measurements of the surface tension of helium for temperatures between 1.5 and 0.5 K. Our measurements extrapolate to a value of 0.375 erg cm -2 at T = 0 K. Our results agree with the capillary wave measurements of Roche et al., and Atkins and Narahra. We study how the shape of the trap used to levitate the drops influences the resonant frequency of the l = 2 mode. Measurements of the frequency spectrum were performed using different trap potentials. We have calculated the resonant frequencies for the trap shapes produced by different magnet coil currents. We compare our measurements of the resonant frequencies at various magnet currents with these theoretical predictions and find good agreement. We describe experiments to study the coalescence of He II drops levitated in a magnetic trap. Using a high speed CCD camera, we have produced movies of drops coalescing at temperatures as low as 0.7 K. We examine some interesting features of the motion during and following coalescence.

Vicente, Carlos Luis

217

Microjetting from wave focusing on oscillating drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present experimental observations of microjetting from an oscillating drop. The jet is generated by the focusing of axisymmetric capillary waves that overturn and collide at an apex of the drop. These jets are up to two orders of magnitude smaller than the original drops. We present two widely different configurations that produce such microjets. The first occurs on a satellite drop, produced by the pinch-off of a water drop from a vertical nozzle. The large oscillations following the contraction of the satellite bridge focus waves at the bottom, sending out a 30 ?m jet at 9.9 m/s. The second jet arises when a water drop, containing surfactants, falls onto and passes through a hemispherical soap film. The gentle deformation of the drop creates a surface wave that focuses at its top, shooting out a tiny jet and entrapping a small bubble inside the drop. This jet is 16+/-5 ?m in diameter and emerges at 6.3 m/s. In this configuration, the soap film wraps around the drop and acts as a sensor of the air flow, revealing that the liquid jet is preceded by a localized faster-moving air jet. The jetting in both configurations is quite robust and occurs even for slightly asymmetric conditions. These microjets appear for much lower values of the Reynolds and Weber numbers than previously observed, suggesting that free-surface jetting is not limited to the inviscid capillary-inertial regime, which has been the focus of much of the theoretical work.

Thoroddsen, S. T.; Etoh, T. G.; Takehara, K.

2007-05-01

218

Baseline scenario(s) for muon collider proton driver  

SciTech Connect

This paper gives an overview of the various muon collider scenarios and the requirements they put on the Proton Driver. The required proton power is about 4-6MW in all the scenarios, but the bunch repetition rate varies between 12 and 65Hz. Since none of the muon collider scenarios have been simulated end-to-end, it would be advisable to plan for an upgrade path to around 10MW. Although the proton driver energy is flexible, cost arguments seems to favor a relatively low energy. In particular, at Fermilab 8GeV seems most attractive, partly due to the possibility of reusing the three existing fixed energy storage rings for bunch manipulations.

Jansson, Andreas; /Fermilab

2008-07-01

219

Electrically assisted drop sliding on inclined planes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate that electrowetting using alternating current (ac) voltage can be used to overcome pinning of small drops due to omnipresent heterogeneities on solid surfaces. By balancing contact angle hysteresis with gravity on inclined planes, we find that the critical electrowetting number for mobilizing drops is consistent with the voltage-dependent reduction in contact angle hysteresis in ac electrowetting. Moreover, the terminal velocity of sliding drops under ac electrowetting is found to increase linearly with the electrowetting number. Based on this effect, we present a prototype of a wiper-free windscreen.

't Mannetje, D. J. C. M.; Murade, C. U.; van den Ende, D.; Mugele, F.

2011-01-01

220

High temperature drop calorimetry and thermodynamic properties  

SciTech Connect

Experimental determination of thermodynamic properties (e.g. enthalpy of formation, heat capacity, Gibbs free energy, etc.) is still the recourse for accurate thermodynamic data for the condensed phases. Calorimetry is probably the best experimental method for their determination. Drop calorimetry in its various modifications is still the method of choice to determine the enthalpy functions for solids and liquids above 1,000 C. The conventional drop calorimeter for solids and a drop calorimeter coupled to an electromagnetic levitation coil useful for conductive samples in both the solid and molten phases are described. Experimental results obtained up to and above the melting point of rare earth metals are presented.

Chandrasekhariah, M.S. [Houston Advanced Research Center, The Woodlands, TX (United States). Materials Science Research Center; Bautista, R.G. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering

1995-04-01

221

Medical Scenarios Relevant to Spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Medical Operational Support Team (MOST) was tasked by the JSC Space Medicine and Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD) to incorporate medical simulation into 1) medical training for astronaut-crew medical officers (CMO) and medical flight control teams and 2) evaluations of procedures and resources required for medical care aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Development of evidence-based medical scenarios that mimic the physiology observed during spaceflight will be needed for the MOST to complete these two tasks. The MOST used a human patient simulator, the ISS-like resources in the Medical Simulation Laboratory (MSL), and evidence from space operations, military operations and medical literature to develop space relevant medical scenarios. These scenarios include conditions concerning airway management, Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) and mitigating anaphylactic symptoms. The MOST has used these space relevant medical scenarios to develop a preliminary space medical training regimen for NASA flight surgeons, Biomedical Flight Controllers (Biomedical Engineers; BME) and CMO-analogs. This regimen is conducted by the MOST in the MSL. The MOST has the capability to develop evidence-based space-relevant medical scenarios that can help SLSD I) demonstrate the proficiency of medical flight control teams to mitigate space-relevant medical events and 2) validate nextgeneration medical equipment and procedures for space medicine applications.

Bacal, Kira; Hurs, Victor; Doerr, Harold

2004-01-01

222

Proceedings of the Second International Colloquium on Drops and Bubbles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Applications of bubble and drop technologies are discussed and include: low gravity manufacturing, containerless melts, microballoon fabrication, ink printers, laser fusion targets, generation of organic glass and metal shells, and space processing. The fluid dynamics of bubbles and drops were examined. Thermomigration, capillary flow, and interfacial tension are discussed. Techniques for drop control are presented and include drop size control and drop shape control.

Lecroissette, D. H. (editor)

1982-01-01

223

Lemon aesthetics in hand dishwashing detergents do not influence reported accidental ingestion frequency and volume.  

PubMed

Accidental ingestion reports for 2 nationally distributed hand dishwashing detergents with similar formulations were compared to determine the possible effect of lemon aesthetics on ingestion frequency and volume. Data were compared over almost a 2-year period (May 1986 to April 1988), and a total of 2141 accidental ingestion reports for the 2 products were reviewed. There was no difference in the reported ingestion volume of lemon-scented versus nonlemon-scented product. Fewer accidental ingestion reports were received for lemon-scented than for nonlemon-scented products, even when data were normalized for market shipments of each product. PMID:2741316

Petersen, D W

1989-06-01

224

Total Gaussian curvature, drop shapes and the range of applicability of drop shape techniques.  

PubMed

Drop shape techniques are used extensively for surface tension measurement. It is well-documented that, as the drop/bubble shape becomes close to spherical, the performance of all drop shape techniques deteriorates. There have been efforts quantifying the range of applicability of drop techniques by studying the deviation of Laplacian drops from the spherical shape. A shape parameter was introduced in the literature and was modified several times to accommodate different drop constellations. However, new problems arise every time a new configuration is considered. Therefore, there is a need for a universal shape parameter applicable to pendant drops, sessile drops, liquid bridges as well as captive bubbles. In this work, the use of the total Gaussian curvature in a unified approach for the shape parameter is introduced for that purpose. The total Gaussian curvature is a dimensionless quantity that is commonly used in differential geometry and surface thermodynamics, and can be easily calculated for different Laplacian drop shapes. The new definition of the shape parameter using the total Gaussian curvature is applied here to both pendant and constrained sessile drops as an illustration. The analysis showed that the new definition is superior and reflects experimental results better than previous definitions, especially at extreme values of the Bond number. PMID:24373931

Saad, Sameh M I; Neumann, A Wilhelm

2014-02-01

225

Maximal deformation of an impacting drop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We first study the impact of a liquid drop of low viscosity on a super-hydrophobic surface. Denoting the drop size and speed as D_{0} and U_{0}, we find that the maximal spreading D_{scriptsizemax} scales as D_{0}We(1/4) where We is the Weber number associated with the shock (We {equiv} rho U_{0}(2) D_{0}/sigma, where rho and sigma are the liquid density and surface tension). This law is also observed to hold on partially wettable surfaces, provided that liquids of low viscosity (such as water) are used. The law is interpreted as resulting from the effective acceleration experienced by the drop during its impact. Viscous drops are also analysed, allowing us to propose a criterion for predicting if the spreading is limited by capillarity, or by viscosity.

Clanet, Christophe; Béguin, Cédric; Richard, Denis; Quéré, David

2004-10-01

226

Transient electrohydrodynamics of a liquid drop.  

PubMed

The transient behavior of a leaky dielectric liquid drop under a uniform electric field of small strength is investigated. It is shown that for small distortion from a spherical shape, the drop deforms to an ellipsoid, and the deformation time history is represented by D=D(?)[1-exp(-t/?)], where D(?) is the steady-state deformation and ?=(a?(o)/?)(19?+16)(2?+3)/(40?+40)is the characteristic time, a, ?, ?(o) and ? being the drop radius, the surface tension, the viscosity of ambient fluid, and ratio of the drop viscosity to that of the ambient fluid, respectively. The contributions of the net normal and tangential electrical stresses in the degree of deformation and fluid flow strength are also determined. PMID:22060493

Esmaeeli, Asghar; Sharifi, Payam

2011-09-01

227

The evaporation of a drop of mercury  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evaporative rates of two drops of mercury at room temperature are determined experimentally and theoretically. The resulting mercury vapor levels are estimated and measured, compared with the OSHA permissible exposure limit, and found to be small by comparison.

Winter, Thomas G.

2003-08-01

228

Making Drop Off at Child Care Easier  

MedlinePLUS

... Easier Family Life Listen Making Drop Off at Child Care Easier Article Body Getting the day started can ... some suggestions to make your separation at the child care setting a little easier for both of you. ...

229

Computations of Drop Collision and Coalescence.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Computations of drops collision and coalescence are presented. The computations are made possible by a recently developed finite difference/front tracking technique that allows direct solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations for a multi-fluid system with ...

G. Tryggvason, D. Juric, M. H. R. Nobari, S. Nas

1994-01-01

230

Bullying Rates Drop Among American Teens  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bullying Rates Drop Among American Teens: Study Surveys taken ... 2014) Thursday, April 24, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Bullying Health Disparities Teen Health THURSDAY, April 24, 2014 ( ...

231

PS foams at high pressure drop rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we report data on PS foamed at 100 °C after CO2 saturation at 10 MPa in a new physical foaming batch that achieves pressure drop rates up to 120 MPa/s. Results show how average cell size of the foam nicely fit a linear behavior with the pressure drop rate in a double logarithmic plot. Furthermore, foam density initially decreases with the pressure drop rate, attaining a constant value at pressure drop rates higher than 40 MPa/s. Interestingly, furthermore, we observed that the shape of the pressure release curve has a large effect on the final foam morphology, as observed in tests in which the maximum pressure release rate was kept constant but the shape of the curve changed. These results allow for a fine tuning of the foam density and morphology for specific applications.

Tammaro, Daniele; De Maio, Attilio; Carbone, Maria Giovanna Pastore; Di Maio, Ernesto; Iannace, Salvatore

2014-05-01

232

Aligner for Elastic Collisions of Dropped Balls.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses an aligner that permits dropping a stack of any number of balls of different sizes, elasticities, hardnesses, or types to observe the rebound of the top ball. Experimental results allow a reasonable comparison with theory. (MVL)

Mellen, Walter Roy

1995-01-01

233

Shapes of Bubbles and Drops in Motion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the shape distortions that take place in fluid packets (bubbles or drops) with steady flow motion by using the laws of Archimedes, Pascal, and Bernoulli rather than advanced vector calculus. (WRM)

O'Connell, James

2000-01-01

234

Drop on demand in a microfluidic chip  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we introduce the novel technique of in-chip drop on demand, which consists in dispensing picoliter to nanoliter drops on demand directly in the liquid-filled channels of a polymer microfluidic chip, at frequencies up to 2.5 kHz and with precise volume control. The technique involves a PDMS chip with one or several microliter-size chambers driven by piezoelectric actuators.

Jie Xu; Daniel Attinger

2008-01-01

235

La Gocciolina (The Little Drop of Water).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This primary level reader in Italian intended for use in a bilingual education setting, is about the life cycle of a drop of water. The drop of water is personified and the story tells of its adventures as it travels from the top of the lake to the bottom, its meeting with the inhabitants of the lake, and its trip to the clouds. After deciding not…

Palandra, Maria

236

Bubble, Drop and Particle Unit (BDPU)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This section of the Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS) publication includes the following articles entitled: (1) Oscillatory Thermocapillary Instability; (2) Thermocapillary Convection in Multilayer Systems; (3) Bubble and Drop Interaction with Solidification Front; (4) A Liquid Electrohydrodynamics Experiment; (5) Boiling on Small Plate Heaters under Microgravity and a Comparison with Earth Gravity; (6) Thermocapillary Migration and Interactions of Bubbles and Drops; and (7) Nonlinear Surface Tension Driven Bubble Migration

1998-01-01

237

Modular WDM add\\/drop multiplexers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ann add\\/drop multiplexer\\/demultiplexer using volumetric holographic crystal Bragg gratings and without use of circulators has been demonstrated. Multiplexed gratings with angle multiplexed reflection filters provide wavelength- selective reflection of one or more channels into or out of the fiber without disturbing the through channels. Overall channel add\\/drop losses of less than 3 dB and through channel losses of less than

Koichi Sayano; Harold E. Miller; Boris L. Volodin; Feng Zhao; Neven Karlovac

1998-01-01

238

Assessment of accidental intakes of uranyl acetylacetonate (UAA)  

SciTech Connect

Uranyl acetylacetonate (UAA) is an organic complex of uranium used for military applications as a chemical catalyst in high explosives. It is prepared from depleted uranium metal (in lots of 5 kg to 7 kg) by dissolution in nitric acid, neutralization, and complexation with 2,4-pentanedione; the precipitate is dissolved in benzene and recrystallized, dried, ground, and packaged. About six workers at a small chemical company were exposed over a period of time to UAA powders during routine preparation and packaging of the uranium catalyst. The dissolution characteristics of the inhaled material were unknown and could not be determined from the published scientific literature. A 1.05-g sample of UAA powder was obtained from the responsible regulatory authority for further study to determine its chemical composition, and for dissolution in simulated lung fluid. We found the solubility of UAA to be equivalent to a mixture of 52% ICRP class D and 48% ICRP class W material. The annual limit on intake and the derived air concentration for radiological protection were estimated from this result for airborne exposure to UAA. A recycling biokinetic model was used to estimate both material-specific variations in urinary excretion rates and lung retention with time after accidental intakes. This study provides new information for evaluating future exposures to UAA.

Fisher, D.R.; Briant, J.K.

1993-12-01

239

Prolonged Toxic Encephalopathy following Accidental 4-Aminopyridine Overdose  

PubMed Central

Background. 4-Aminopyridine (4-AP) is a drug that is used to improve motor fatigue in patients suffering from multiple sclerosis (MS). Medication error can occur, as commercial preparation may not be available in some countries. Case Presentation. A 58-year-old woman with progressive MS presented with status epilepticus. She was receiving 4-AP for more than 3 years. The symptoms started soon after the ingestion of a single pill that was supposed to contain 10?mg 4-AP, but further investigations revealed that each pill had been inadvertently prepared with an 100?mg 4-AP concentration. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for appropriate management (orotracheal intubation, sedation, and antiepileptic drugs). The first electroencephalogram (EEG) showed abundant irregular spike-waves on the left central regions. Neurological condition gradually improved from day 7, while the EEG did not reveal any more electrical seizures but was still consistent with toxic encephalopathy. The patient stayed in the ICU until day 13. At discharge from the rehabilitation ward (2.5 months later), the patient had not yet recovered her previous cognitive and functional condition. Conclusion. A single 100?mg 4-AP accidental overdose may cause serious immediate complications, with a slow and incomplete neurological recovery.

Ballesta Mendez, Maria; van Pesch, Vincent; Capron, Arnaud; Hantson, Philippe

2014-01-01

240

Accidental blood exposures among medical residents in Paris, France.  

PubMed

Accidental blood exposure (ABE) exposes healthcare workers, including medical residents, to the risk of occupational infection. We aimed to determine the characteristics of ABEs in residents with an anonymous self-reporting electronic questionnaire. A total of 350 residents (33% from surgical disciplines) entered this survey. One hundred and eighty-five residents (52%) reported at least one ABE during their residency (median, 2; range, 1-25), 53% of which occurred in operating theatres. Sixty-nine per cent of residents followed the current procedures for local disinfection. ABEs were notified to the hospital administration by 62% of residents, but only 51% of residents were referred to the occupational medicine department. The most frequently reported concerns following ABEs were human immunodeficiency virus (52%) and hepatitis C virus infection (39%). In 74% of cases, the serological status of the index patient was investigated. Only 54% of residents were aware of their hepatitis B surface antibody titres. Medical residents behaved inappropriately in 33% of cases in this survey. Further educational programmes should include residents, and not only senior healthcare workers, in order to improve individual behaviours. PMID:20673268

Mir, O; Adam, J; Veyrie, N; Chousterman, B; Gaillard, R; Gregory, T; Yordanov, Y; Berveiller, P; Loulergue, P

2011-03-01

241

Management of profound accidental hypothermia with cardiorespiratory arrest.  

PubMed Central

Complete recovery following rapid rewarming is described in three tourists who were admitted in a state of profound hypothermia with total cardiorespiratory arrest (rectal temperature ranging from 19 to 24 C). In all three patients, respiration and circulation had ceased during the rescue operation. Rapid core rewarming was achieved by thoracotomy and continuous irrigation of the pericardial cavity with warm fluids in one patient, whereas in the other two patients rewarming was accomplished with extracorporeal circulation using femoro-femoral bypass. In the first patient, the heart could not be defibrillated earlier than 90 minutes following thoracotomy; in the other patients rewarming was attained very rapidly, and within half an hour after institution of bypass, resuscitation of the heart was successful. The patients fully recovered their intellectual and physical abilities, despite the prolonged periods of circulatory arrest lasting from 2 1/2 to 4 hours. We conclude that rapid core rewarming is the adequate therapy for profound accidental hypothermia with circulatory arrest or low cardiac output. If feasible extracorporeal circulation represents the method of choice because it combines the advantage of immediate central rewarming with the benefit of efficient circulatory support, the heart is rewarmed before the shell, thus preventing the "rewarming shock" due to peripheral vasodilatation. Resuscitative efforts should be promptly initiated and vigorously pursued, even in the state of clinical death; in profound hypothermia neurologic examination is inconclusive regarding prognosis.

Althaus, U; Aeberhard, P; Schupbach, P; Nachbur, B H; Muhlemann, W

1982-01-01

242

Accidental radiation exposure leading to non-healing ulcers.  

PubMed

Two patients with accidental radiation injury presented at the Sir Ganga Ram Hospital. The first patient, a 41-year-old male, presented with a large necrotic patch on his right gluteal region, which was debrided. Due to the progressive nature of the injury, he developed further necrosis and a non-healing ulcer over the right gluteal region, which was further debrided and covered with a tensor fascia lata flap. Further necrosis over the ischial region was debrided and covered with a pedicled gracilis muscle flap, following which he again required debridement and flap cover for the residual area, which then finally healed. The second patient had a history of radiation exposure followed by a non-healing ulcer on right arm. He was managed by debridement and flap coverage in a single sitting. These two cases suggest that wide excision, thorough debridement and coverage with vascularised tissue are effective in treating radiation ulcers and emphasise that all radiation sources and their management should be strictly controlled. PMID:23103484

Gambhir, S; Mangal, M; Gupta, A; Shah, A

2012-10-01

243

Viscoelastic drop falling through a viscous medium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deformation and sedimentation velocities of a viscoelastic drop falling through a Newtonian medium are numerically investigated using a front-tracking finite difference method. In contrast to a viscous drop, viscoelasticity deforms an initially spherical drop into an oblate shape and decreases its sedimentation velocity. Further increase of elasticity results in a dimple at the rear end, as the viscoelastic stress at the trailing end of the drop pulls the drop interface inward. The dimple becomes more prominent with increasing Deborah number, amount of polymeric viscosity, and capillary number. An approximate analysis is performed to model the stress development along the axis of symmetry, specifically its increase at the rear end that governs the dimple formation. For even higher values of Deborah number, the interfacial tension cannot balance the viscoelastic stresses leading to an unstable situation toward a toroidal shape. We numerically find the critical Deborah number for the transition. It shows an approximate inverse scaling with capillary number. For unstable cases, downward progressing dimple develops a globular end. Development of the globular end results in a sudden increase in the cross-sectional area of the drop and a sharp decrease of the settling velocity.

Mukherjee, Swarnajay; Sarkar, Kausik

2011-01-01

244

NMR velocity imaging of single liquid drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid-liquid extraction processes are often found in industrial applications when a bulk phase needs to be purified from dissolved components. The extraction strategy consists of dissolving the impurities into a second, carrier phase, with optimal performance being guaranteed by maximizing both contact interface area and mass transfer rate, in the shape of a swarm of dispersed droplets. Their buoyancy-driven flow within the continuous medium induces internal fluid motion driven by momentum transfer at the drop surface. This convective transport enhances mass transfer and the efficiency of an extraction column. However, understanding mass transfer depends on a proper description of the flow field inside and outside the drops. For that purpose, a cell was built that enables the levitation of a single drop within a counterstream of water. NMR velocity imaging was then applied to drops of different fluids to monitor the internal dynamics as a function of drop size, age, and interface tension. Vortex-type patterns in at least part of the drop were observed where their size and velocity magnitude depended on the system impurity concentration.

Amar, A.; Stapf, S.; Bluemich, B.

2007-03-01

245

Epileptic seizures induced by cycloplegic eye drops.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: To assess the incidence of seizures induced by cycloplegic ophthalmic drops. Materials and methods: A survey among members of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus yielded five patients who received cycloplegic eye drops between 1998 and 2010 and who consequently developed a seizure. Results: The median age of the patients was 5 years (range 3 months to 12 years). Cyclopentolate hydrochloride 1% was the only causative agent. The seizure happened on average 12?min after the instillation of dilating eye drops. Three were generalized convulsions, and two patients had a focal seizure. Past medical history was unremarkable in four cases. In total, 16 previous cases of seizures induced by cycloplegic drugs were identified in reports published between 1890 and 2004, implicating atropine in nine reports, tropicamide and phenylephrine eye drops in one and cyclopentolate in six. Discussion: A small amount of cyclopentolate drops could induce convulsions in young children after only minutes to less than an hour, while a larger dosage of atropine over the span of several hours could cause this rare and unpredictable complication. Predisposing factors were rare and those developing the seizures were healthy subjects. Generalized seizures were much more frequent than focal convulsions. Conclusions: Seizures after instillation of cycloplegic drops are extremely rare. PMID:23815170

Wygnanski-Jaffe, Tamara; Nucci, Paolo; Goldchmit, Mauro; Mezer, Eedy

2014-06-01

246

The USGS Earthquake Scenario Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Earthquake Hazards Program (EHP) is producing a comprehensive suite of earthquake scenarios for planning, mitigation, loss estimation, and scientific investigations. The Earthquake Scenario Project (ESP), though lacking clairvoyance, is a forward-looking project, estimating earthquake hazard and loss outcomes as they may occur one day. For each scenario event, fundamental input includes i) the magnitude and specified fault mechanism and dimensions, ii) regional Vs30 shear velocity values for site amplification, and iii) event metadata. A grid of standard ShakeMap ground motion parameters (PGA, PGV, and three spectral response periods) is then produced using the well-defined, regionally-specific approach developed by the USGS National Seismic Hazard Mapping Project (NHSMP), including recent advances in empirical ground motion predictions (e.g., the NGA relations). The framework also allows for numerical (3D) ground motion computations for specific, detailed scenario analyses. Unlike NSHMP ground motions, for ESP scenarios, local rock and soil site conditions and commensurate shaking amplifications are applied based on detailed Vs30 maps where available or based on topographic slope as a proxy. The scenario event set is comprised primarily by selection from the NSHMP events, though custom events are also allowed based on coordination of the ESP team with regional coordinators, seismic hazard experts, seismic network operators, and response coordinators. The event set will be harmonized with existing and future scenario earthquake events produced regionally or by other researchers. The event list includes approximate 200 earthquakes in CA, 100 in NV, dozens in each of NM, UT, WY, and a smaller number in other regions. Systematic output will include all standard ShakeMap products, including HAZUS input, GIS, KML, and XML files used for visualization, loss estimation, ShakeCast, PAGER, and for other systems. All products will be delivered via the EHP web pages in a user-searchable archive. In addition, we aim to duplicate most of the real-time earthquake event web page functionality for scenario drills and exercises, including all standard post-earthquake information tools. Hence, for each event, USGS PAGER runs will be produced, providing population exposure at current population levels, and Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) will produce HAZUS impact assessments. Anticipated users include FEMA, the loss modeling and insurance communities, emergency responders and mitigation planners (city, county, state, industry, utilities, corporate), the general public and the media. The Earthquake Scenario Project will also take on several pending scientific challenges related to scenario generation, including ways to include fault directivity, numerical ground motions, and ways to produce ground motion uncertainties (in addition to median peak ground motions). A parallel though less comprehensive effort is underway to produce scenarios for targeted regions and events around the globe.

Wald, D. J.; Petersen, M. D.; Wald, L. A.; Frankel, A. D.; Quitoriano, V. R.; Lin, K.; Luco, N.; Mathias, S.; Bausch, D.

2009-12-01

247

Lifetime of oil drops pressed by buoyancy against a planar interface: Large drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a previous report [C. Rojas, G. Urbina-Villalba, and M. García-Sucre, Phys. Rev. E 81, 016302 (2010)10.1103/PhysRevE.81.016302] it was shown that emulsion stability simulations are able to reproduce the lifetime of micrometer-size drops of hexadecane pressed by buoyancy against a planar water-hexadecane interface. It was confirmed that small drops (ri<10?m) stabilized with ? -casein behave as nondeformable particles, moving with a combination of Stokes and Taylor tensors as they approach the interface. Here, a similar methodology is used to parametrize the potential of interaction of drops of soybean oil stabilized with bovine serum albumin. The potential obtained is then employed to study the lifetime of deformable drops in the range 10?ri?1000?m . It is established that the average lifetime of these drops can be adequately replicated using the model of truncated spheres. However, the results depend sensibly on the expressions of the initial distance of deformation and the maximum film radius used in the calculations. The set of equations adequate for large drops is not satisfactory for medium-size drops (10?ri?100?m) , and vice versa. In the case of large particles, the increase in the interfacial area as a consequence of the deformation of the drops generates a very large repulsive barrier which opposes coalescence. Nevertheless, the buoyancy force prevails. As a consequence, it is the hydrodynamic tensor of the drops which determine the characteristic behavior of the lifetime as a function of the particle size. While the average values of the coalescence time of the drops can be justified by the mechanism of film thinning, the scattering of the experimental data of large drops cannot be rationalized using the methodology previously described. A possible explanation of this phenomenon required elaborate simulations which combine deformable drops, capillary waves, repulsive interaction forces, and a time-dependent surfactant adsorption.

Rojas, Clara; García-Sucre, Máximo; Urbina-Villalba, Germán

2010-11-01

248

http://digiref.scenarios.issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses issues raised by the development of remote reference. Two scenarios are proposed: (1) how Internet users and their information-seeking behavior challenge the traditional reference service model, its value system, and the librarian role in that model, and (2) a model of close linkages between librarians and users engaged as partners along…

Koyama, Janice T.

1998-01-01

249

Clean energy scenarios for Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Australia, a major producer and user of coal, has the highest per capita greenhouse gas emissions in the industrialised world. This study investigates whether in theory such a ‘fossil-fuel dependent’ country could achieve a 50% reduction in CO2 emissions from stationary energy by 2040, compared with its 2001 emissions. To do this scenarios are developed, using a combination of forecasting

Hugh Saddler; Mark Diesendorf; Richard Denniss

2007-01-01

250

Space resources. Volume 1: Scenarios  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of possible future paths for space exploration and development are presented. The topics covered include the following: (1) the baseline program; (2) alternative scenarios utilizing nonterrestrial resources; (3) impacts of sociopolitical conditions; (4) common technologies; and issues for further study.

Mckay, Mary Fae (editor); Mckay, David S. (editor); Duke, Michael B. (editor)

1992-01-01

251

Transportation scenarios for risk analysis.  

SciTech Connect

Transportation risk, like any risk, is defined by the risk triplet: what can happen (the scenario), how likely it is (the probability), and the resulting consequences. This paper evaluates the development of transportation scenarios, the associated probabilities, and the consequences. The most likely radioactive materials transportation scenario is routine, incident-free transportation, which has a probability indistinguishable from unity. Accident scenarios in radioactive materials transportation are of three different types: accidents in which there is no impact on the radioactive cargo, accidents in which some gamma shielding may be lost but there is no release of radioactive material, and accident in which radioactive material may potentially be released. Accident frequencies, obtainable from recorded data validated by the U.S. Department of Transportation, are considered equivalent to accident probabilities in this study. Probabilities of different types of accidents are conditional probabilities, conditional on an accident occurring, and are developed from event trees. Development of all of these probabilities and the associated highway and rail accident event trees are discussed in this paper.

Weiner, Ruth F.

2010-09-01

252

Monitoring Volcanoes by Use of Air-Dropped Sensor Packages  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sensor packages that would be dropped from airplanes have been proposed for pre-eruption monitoring of physical conditions on the flanks of awakening volcanoes. The purpose of such monitoring is to gather data that could contribute to understanding and prediction of the evolution of volcanic systems. Each sensor package, denoted a volcano monitoring system (VMS), would include a housing with a parachute attached at its upper end and a crushable foam impact absorber at its lower end (see figure). The housing would contain survivable low-power instrumentation that would include a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, an inclinometer, a seismometer, a barometer, a thermometer, and CO2 and SO2 analyzers. The housing would also contain battery power, control, data-logging, and telecommunication subsystems. The proposal for the development of the VMS calls for the use of commercially available sensor, power, and telecommunication equipment, so that efforts could be focused on integrating all of the equipment into a system that could survive impact and operate thereafter for 30 days, transmitting data on the pre-eruptive state of a target volcano to a monitoring center. In a typical scenario, VMSs would be dropped at strategically chosen locations on the flanks of a volcano once the volcano had been identified as posing a hazard from any of a variety of observations that could include eyewitness reports, scientific observations from positions on the ground, synthetic-aperture-radar scans from aircraft, and/or remote sensing from aboard spacecraft. Once dropped, the VMSs would be operated as a network of in situ sensors that would transmit data to a local monitoring center. This network would provide observations as part of an integrated volcano-hazard assessment strategy that would involve both remote sensing and timely observations from the in situ sensors. A similar strategy that involves the use of portable sensors (but not dropping of sensors from aircraft) is already in use in the Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (VDAP), which was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance to respond to volcanic crises around the world. The VMSs would add a greatly needed capability that would enable VDAP response teams to deploy their volcano-monitoring equipment in a more timely manner with less risk to personnel in the field.

Kedar, Sharon; Rivellini, Tommaso; Webb, Frank; Blaes, Brent; Bracho, Caroline; Lockhart, Andrew; McGee, Ken

2003-01-01

253

Accidental hanging deaths in children in Konya, Turkey between 1998 and 2007.  

PubMed

In general, hanging cases are the result of suicide, and accidental and homicidal hanging cases are rarely seen. This study retrospectively investigated 4571 death examinations and autopsies that were performed at The Konya Branch of the Forensic Medicine Council (Turkey) between 1998 and 2007; hanging was involved in 201 (6.5%) of the cases. There were a total of 13 accidental hanging cases, where 12 of these involved children. In seven of the cases, the accidental hanging involved a scarf that wraps around swing-like cradles and is intended to prevent infants from falling down. It was concluded that accidental hanging deaths can be reduced by replacing swing-like cradles with cribs that are designed for children, removing ropes in and around the house, and preventing children from reaching and/or playing with rope-like objects. PMID:20202070

Dogan, Kamil H; Demirci, Serafettin; Erkol, Zerrin; Gulmen, Mete K

2010-05-01

254

Structures to Resist the Effects of Accidental Explosions. Volume 2. Blast, Fragment, and Shock Loads.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report details design procedures for structures which are subjected to the effects of accidental explosions. The procedures over the determination of the blast environment and structural design. This volume contains procedures for determining the eff...

H. Ayvazyan M. Dede M. Whitney N. Dobbs P. Bowles

1986-01-01

255

Evaluation of Health Effects in Sequoyah Fuels Corporation Workers from Accidental Exposure to Uranium Hexafluoride.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Uranium urinalyses and medical laboratory results were studied to determine whether there were any health effects from uranium intake among a group of 31 workers exposed to uranium hexafluoride (UF6) and hydrolysis products following the accidental ruptur...

D. R. Fisher M. J. Swint R. L. Kathren

1990-01-01

256

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 8. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF HYDROGEN FLUORIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report is a chemical specific manual for hydrogen fluoride (HF). It summarizes information to aid regulators and industry personnel in identifying and controlling release hazards associated with HF. Reducing the risk associated with accidental release of HF involves identifyi...

257

Self-Diffusion of Drops in a Dilute Sheared Emulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Self-diffusion coefficients that describe cross-flow migration of non-Brownian drops in a dilute sheared emulsion were obtained by trajectory calculations. A boundary integral formulation was used to describe pairwise interactions between deformable drops; interactions between undeformed drops were described with mobility functions for spherical drops. The results indicate that drops have large anisotropic self-diffusivities which depend strongly on the drop viscosity and modestly on the shear-rate. Pairwise interactions between drops in shear-flow do not appreciably promote drop breakup.

Loewenberg, Michael; Hinch, E. J.

1996-01-01

258

Inferring Declarative Requirements Specifications from Operational Scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scenarios are increasingly recognized as an effective means for eliciting, validating, and documenting software requirements. This paper concentrates on the use of scenarios for requirements elicitation and explores the process of inferring formal specifications of goals and requirements from scenario descriptions. Scenarios are considered here as typical examples of system usage; they are provided in terms of sequences of interaction

Axel Van Lamsweerde; Laurent Willemet

1998-01-01

259

Successful treatment of severe accidental hypothermia with cardiac arrest for a long time using cardiopulmonary bypass - report of a case  

PubMed Central

Accidental hypothermia is defined as an unintentional decrease in body temperature to below 35°C, and cases in which temperatures drop below 28°C are considered severe and have a high mortality rate. This study presents the case of a 57-year-old man discovered drifting at sea who was admitted to our hospital suffering from cardiac arrest. Upon admittance, an electrocardiogram indicated asystole, and the patient's temperature was 22°C. Thirty minutes of standard CPR and external rewarming were ineffective in raising his temperature. However, although he had been in cardiac arrest for nearly 2 h, it was decided to continue resuscitation, and a cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) was initiated. CPB was successful in gradually rewarming the patient and restoring spontaneous circulation. After approximately 1 month of rehabilitation, the patient was subsequently discharged, displaying no neurological deficits. The successful recovery in this case suggests that CPB can be considered a useful way to treat severe hypothermia, particularly in those suffering from cardiac arrest.

2012-01-01

260

Too close for comfort: accidental burn following subcutaneous mastectomy and immediate implant reconstruction*  

PubMed Central

We report a case of an accidental burn from a self-applied heat pack following subcutaneous mastectomy and implant reconstruction. Such patients are at increased risk of accidental burns not only due to loss of protective sensation, but also because of the thinner, less vascular overlying skin. We have changed our practice so that all patients undergoing breast reconstructive surgery are warned postoperatively to protect the skin from externally applied heat sources.

Seth, R; Lamyman, MJ; Athanassopoulos, A; Tyler, M

2008-01-01

261

Increasing U.S. Mortality Due to Accidental Poisoning: The Role of the Baby Boom Cohort  

PubMed Central

Aims In this study we examine whether the recent, sharp increase in mortality due to accidental poisoning since the year 2000 is the result of the aging of the baby boom cohort, or instead, a historical trend apparent among decedents of all ages. Design We conduct an age-period-cohort analysis using data from the U.S. Vital Statistics and the U.S. Census covering the period 1968–2007. Setting and Participants The United States population aged 15–64. Findings The increase in mortality due to accidental poisoning since the year 2000 stems primarily from a historical period effect across all ages for whites, but results in large part from a rate spike in the baby boom cohort among blacks. For all demographic groups baby boomers had higher odds of death due to accidental poisoning than the cohorts that came before them and after them. Historical influences acting across all ages led to an increase in accidental poisoning mortality that was almost tenfold for whites and threefold for blacks over the study period. Conclusions While the recent, sharp increase in accidental poisoning mortality stems in part from the aging of the baby boom cohort, substantially more of the increase results from influences unique to recent years that have affected all age groups. These results point to the need to bolster overdose prevention programs and policies as the historical increase in accidental poisoning mortality appears to continue unabated.

Miech, Richard; Koester, Steve; Dorsey-Holliman, Brook

2014-01-01

262

Laboratory-Acquired Parasitic Infections from Accidental Exposures  

PubMed Central

Parasitic diseases are receiving increasing attention in developed countries in part because of their importance in travelers, immigrants, and immunocompromised persons. The main purpose of this review is to educate laboratorians, the primary readership, and health care workers, the secondary readership, about the potential hazards of handling specimens that contain viable parasites and about the diseases that can result. This is accomplished partly through discussion of the occupationally acquired cases of parasitic infections that have been reported, focusing for each case on the type of accident that resulted in infection, the length of the incubation period, the clinical manifestations that developed, and the means by which infection was detected. The article focuses on the cases of infection with the protozoa that cause leishmaniasis, malaria, toxoplasmosis, Chagas' disease (American trypanosomiasis), and African trypanosomiasis. Data about 164 such cases are discussed, as are data about cases caused by intestinal protozoa and by helminths. Of the 105 case-patients infected with blood and tissue protozoa who either recalled an accident or for whom the likely route of transmission could be presumed, 47 (44.8%) had percutaneous exposure via a contaminated needle or other sharp object. Some accidents were directly linked to poor laboratory practices (e.g., recapping a needle or working barehanded). To decrease the likelihood of accidental exposures, persons who could be exposed to pathogenic parasites must be thoroughly instructed in safety precautions before they begin to work and through ongoing training programs. Protocols should be provided for handling specimens that could contain viable organisms, using protective clothing and equipment, dealing with spills of infectious organisms, and responding to accidents. Special care should be exercised when using needles and other sharp objects.

Herwaldt, Barbara L.

2001-01-01

263

Queensland University of Technology Drop Tower Facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Queensland University of Technology (QUT) Drop Tower Facility provides access to an inexpensive high quality reduced gravity test environment. This facility is available to and has been used by number of nationally and internationally based organisations, along with researchers from QUT, for scientific and industry related research. The drop tower, located in Brisbane, Australia, allows 2.0 seconds of high quality reduced gravity (˜0.001 g). The cylindrical drop package has a maximum rating of 200 kg with dimensions of 0.8 m diameter and 0.9 m high, and experiences a maximum deceleration of ˜30 g. Current research projects being carried out at the QUT Drop Tower Facility include research in the areas of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis of materials, combustion and fire safety, flammability of metals, characterisation of combustion products, and sol-gel nanomaterials. Keywords: Reduced gravity, microgravity, drop tower, zero gravity, low gravity, combustion, combustion products, nanomaterials, sol-gel, flammability, high temperature synthesis.

Plagens, Owen; Hales, Matthew; Castillo, Martin; Steinberg, Theodore

2012-07-01

264

Bubble and Drop Nonlinear Dynamics (BDND)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Free drops and bubbles are weakly nonlinear mechanical systems that are relatively simple to characterize experimentally in 1-G as well as in microgravity. The understanding of the details of their motion contributes to the fundamental study of nonlinear phenomena and to the measurement of the thermophysical properties of freely levitated melts. The goal of this Glovebox-based experimental investigation is the low-gravity assessment of the capabilities of a modular apparatus based on ultrasonic resonators and on the pseudo- extinction optical method. The required experimental task is the accurate measurements of the large-amplitude dynamics of free drops and bubbles in the absence of large biasing influences such as gravity and levitation fields. A single-axis levitator used for the positioning of drops in air, and an ultrasonic water-filled resonator for the trapping of air bubbles have been evaluated in low-gravity and in 1-G. The basic feasibility of drop positioning and shape oscillations measurements has been verified by using a laptop-interfaced automated data acquisition and the optical extinction technique. The major purpose of the investigation was to identify the salient technical issues associated with the development of a full-scale Microgravity experiment on single drop and bubble dynamics.

Trinh, E. H.; Leal, L. Gary; Thomas, D. A.; Crouch, R. K.

1998-01-01

265

Ultrasonic characterization of single drops of liquids  

DOEpatents

Ultrasonic characterization of single drops of liquids. The present invention includes the use of two closely spaced transducers, or one transducer and a closely spaced reflector plate, to form an interferometer suitable for ultrasonic characterization of droplet-size and smaller samples without the need for a container. The droplet is held between the interferometer elements, whose distance apart may be adjusted, by surface tension. The surfaces of the interferometer elements may be readily cleansed by a stream of solvent followed by purified air when it is desired to change samples. A single drop of liquid is sufficient for high-quality measurement. Examples of samples which may be investigated using the apparatus and method of the present invention include biological specimens (tear drops; blood and other body fluid samples; samples from tumors, tissues, and organs; secretions from tissues and organs; snake and bee venom, etc.) for diagnostic evaluation, samples in forensic investigations, and detection of drugs in small quantities.

Sinha, Dipen N. (Los Alamos, NM) [Los Alamos, NM

1998-01-01

266

Dropped head syndrome and Systemic sclerosis.  

PubMed

The prominent or isolated weakness of cervical extensor muscles is a relatively rare clinical sign. Commonly, this is known as "dropped-head syndrome". This abnormal flexion of the head may occur in a variety of neuromuscular diseases and in a few non-neurological disorders as well. Systemic sclerosis is a clinically heterogeneous disorder which affects small arteries, microvessels and connective tissue with the involvement of multiple organs such as lung, heart, kidney and gastrointestinal tract. There is no evidence in literature of association between dropped head syndrome and rheumatic diseases, particularly systemic sclerosis. The case we describe concerns a 74-year-old woman with dropped-head syndrome associated to Systemic sclerosis and pulmonary hypertension in absence of myositis signs. PMID:19321373

Rosato, Edoardo; Rossi, Carmelina; Salsano, Felice

2009-05-01

267

Drop impacting on a hydrophobic elastic beam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plant suraces found in nature often exhibit hydrophobic wetting properties; in particular, the surface of leaves are an example. When a water drop impacts a leaf a unique system of coupled solid and fluid mechanics is observed. By replacing the leaf as as simple thin polycarbonate cantilever beam it is possible to create a workable model for the system. A high-speed camera allows detailed observation of the dynamics of the beam and drop at the moment of impact. Through image analysis, the position and shape of the beam and drop are analyzed to calculate bending energy and kinetic energy. Experiments show that the available energy in the system is close to 0.1 mJ. The results of this experiment provide insight into energy harvesting from raindrops using a piezo cantilever.

Chique Canache, Daniel; Jung, Sunghwan

2011-11-01

268

A Native American exposure scenario.  

PubMed

EPA's Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS) and later documents provide guidance for estimating exposures received from suburban and agricultural activity patterns and lifestyles. However, these methods are not suitable for typical tribal communities whose members pursue, at least in part, traditional lifestyles. These lifestyles are derived from a long association with all of the resources in a particular region. We interviewed 35 members of a Columbia River Basin tribe to develop a lifestyle-based subsistence exposure scenario that represents a midrange exposure that a traditional tribal member would receive. This scenario provides a way to partially satisfy Executive Order 12,898 on environmental justice, which requires a specific evaluation of impacts from federal actions to peoples with subsistence diets. Because a subsistence diet is only a portion of what is important to a traditional lifestyle, we also used information obtained from the interviews to identify parameters for evaluating impacts to environmental and sociocultural quality of life. PMID:9463932

Harris, S G; Harper, B L

1997-12-01

269

Advanced scenarios for ITER operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In thermonuclear fusion research using magnetic confinement, the tokamak is the leading candidate for achieving the conditions required for a reactor. An international experiment, ITER, is proposed as the next essential and critical step on the path to demonstrating the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion energy. ITER is to produce and study plasmas dominated by self-heating. This would give unique opportunities to explore, in reactor relevant conditions, the physics of ?-particle heating, plasma turbulence and turbulent transport, stability limits to the plasma pressure and exhaust of power and particles. Important new results obtained in experiments, theory and modelling, enable an improved understanding of the physical processes occurring in tokamak plasmas and give enhanced confidence that ITER will achieve its goals. In particular, progress has been made in research to raise the performance of tokamaks, aimed to extend the discharge pulse length towards steady-state operation (advanced scenarios). Standard tokamak discharges have a current density increasing monotonically towards the centre of the plasma. Advanced scenarios, on the other hand, use a modified current density profile. Different advanced scenarios range from (i) plasmas that sustain a central region with a flat current density profile (zero magnetic shear), capable of operating stationary at high plasma pressure, to (ii) discharges with an off-axis maximum of the current density profile (reversed magnetic shear in the core), able to form internal transport barriers, to increase the confinement of the plasma. The physics of advanced tokamak discharges is described, together with an overview of recent results from different tokamak experiments. International collaboration between experiments aims to provide a better understanding, control and optimization of these plasmas. The ability to explore advanced scenarios in ITER is very desirable, in order to verify the results obtained in experiments today and to demonstrate the potential to significantly increase the economic attractiveness of the tokamak.

Sips, A. C. C.; Steady State Operation for the Transport Physics topical Groups of International Tokamak Physics Activity

2005-05-01

270

Water drops dancing on ice: how sublimation leads to drop rebound.  

PubMed

Drop rebound is a spectacular event that appears after impact on hydrophobic or superhydrophobic surfaces but can also be induced through the so-called Leidenfrost effect. Here we demonstrate that drop rebound can also originate from another physical phenomenon, the solid substrate sublimation. Through drop impact experiments on a superhydrophobic surface, a hot plate, and solid carbon dioxide (commonly known as dry ice), we compare drop rebound based on three different physical mechanisms, which apparently share nothing in common (superhydrophobicity, evaporation, and sublimation), but lead to the same rebound phenomenon in an extremely wide temperature range, from 300?°C down to even below -79?°C. The formation and unprecedented visualization of an air vortex ring around an impacting drop are also reported. PMID:23863003

Antonini, C; Bernagozzi, I; Jung, S; Poulikakos, D; Marengo, M

2013-07-01

271

Water Drops Dancing on Ice: How Sublimation Leads to Drop Rebound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drop rebound is a spectacular event that appears after impact on hydrophobic or superhydrophobic surfaces but can also be induced through the so-called Leidenfrost effect. Here we demonstrate that drop rebound can also originate from another physical phenomenon, the solid substrate sublimation. Through drop impact experiments on a superhydrophobic surfaces, a hot plate, and solid carbon dioxide (commonly known as dry ice), we compare drop rebound based on three different physical mechanisms, which apparently share nothing in common (superhydrophobicity, evaporation, and sublimation), but lead to the same rebound phenomenon in an extremely wide temperature range, from 300°C down to even below -79°C. The formation and unprecedented visualization of an air vortex ring around an impacting drop are also reported.

Antonini, C.; Bernagozzi, I.; Jung, S.; Poulikakos, D.; Marengo, M.

2013-07-01

272

Instrumented drop ball tester for percussion primers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The drop ball tester has historically been used for determining the threshold characteristics of percussion primers. Typically, the data obtained from such a tester show a wide variation with significantly large standard deviations. This requires that the acceptance specifications for primers be fairly lax. To determine how much of the data scatter was due to the tester alone, a drop ball tester was instrumented with a force monitoring gage, velocity capabilities, deflection gages, and a pressure time output measuring system. This paper deals with the basic fundamental physics involved with the tester and presents results of improvements to the tester geometry. Threshold test results are presented, correlating all of the variables measured.

Woods, C. M.; Robinson, M. A.; Merten, C. W.; Robbins, V. E.; Begeal, D. R.

273

Monitoring of interfacial tensions by drop counting  

SciTech Connect

A capillary tube device was shown to provide a rapid means of measuring the interfacial tension between water and Freon-113. The measurement technique is based on counting the number of drops that form when a fixed volume of water passes through the capillary tube into the bulk Freon. The interfacial tension is predicted to be proportional to the number of drops to the negative 2/3 power. Calibration curves were obtained for Freon-water samples containing known concentrations of a surfactant. A standard Gibbs adsorption curve was obtained. 5 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Duerksen, W.K.; Boring, C.P.; McLaughlin, J.F.; Harless, D.P.

1988-11-01

274

Best Measuring Time for a Millikan Oil Drop Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a Millikan oil drop experiment, there is a best measuring time for observing the drop, due to Brownian motion of the drop and the experimenter's reaction time. Derives an equation for the relative error in the measurement of the drop's excess charge, and obtains a formula for the best measuring time. (Author/MLH)

Kapusta, J. I.

1975-01-01

275

Long slender drops in a simple shear flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study theoretically the slow viscous motion of a long slender drop placed in a simple shear flow, the drop having a low viscosity compared with that of the suspending fluid. As a simplifying approximation, the cross-section of the drop is taken to be circular. An equilibrium shape with the drop nearly aligned with the flow is found for all

E. J. Hinch; A. Acrivos

1980-01-01

276

Increase of Suicide and Accidental Death After Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Relapse and transplant-related complications are leading causes of mortality after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Suicides and accidents have not been studied in these patients. This study sought to determine whether there is an excess of suicide and accidental deaths after HSCT, and to determine risk factors. METHODS The incidence of suicidal and accidental death in patients after undergoing HSCT, standardized mortality ratio (SMR), and absolute excess risk (AER) of suicide and accidental deaths was determined, compared with the general European population. A case-control analysis was done to define factors associated with suicide and accidental deaths. Data were derived from the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Registry, including 294,922 patients who underwent autologous or allogeneic HSCT from 1980 to 2009. RESULTS The 10-year cumulative incidence of suicide and accidental deaths was 101.8 and 55.6 per 100,000 patients, respectively. SMR and AER of suicide after HSCT were 2.12 (P < .001) and 10.91, higher than in the European general population for 100,000 deaths, respectively. SMR and AER of accidental death were 1.23 (P < .05) and 2.54, respectively. In the case-control study, relapses were more frequent among patients who committed suicide after autologous HSCT (37% versus 18%; P < .0001). Chronic graft-versus-host disease was higher among patients who committed suicide after allogeneic HSCT (64% versus 37%; P = .001). CONCLUSIONS There is an excess of deaths due to suicide and accidents in patients after undergoing HSCT as compared with the European general population. Relapse was associated with more suicide and accidental deaths after autologous HSCT, and chronic graft-versus-host disease was associated with more deaths by suicide after allogeneic HSCT. Cancer 2013;119:2012–2021. © 2013 American Cancer Society.

Tichelli, Andre; Labopin, Myriam; Rovo, Alicia; Badoglio, Manuela; Arat, Mutlu; van Lint, Maria Teresa; Lawitschka, Anita; Schwarze, Carl Philipp; Passweg, Jakob; Socie, Gerard

2013-01-01

277

The quest for an intermediate-scale accidental axion and further ALPs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent detection of the cosmic microwave background polarimeter experiment BICEP2 of tensor fluctuations in the B-mode power spectrum basically excludes all plausible axion models where its decay constant is above 1013 GeV. Moreover, there are strong theoretical, astrophysical, and cosmological motivations for models involving, in addition to the axion, also axion-like particles (ALPs), with decay constants in the intermediate scale range, between 109 GeV and 1013 GeV. Here, we present a general analysis of models with an axion and further ALPs and derive bounds on the relative size of the axion and ALP photon (and electron) coupling. We discuss what we can learn from measurements of the axion and ALP photon couplings about the fundamental parameters of the underlying ultraviolet completion of the theory. For the latter we consider extensions of the Standard Model in which the axion and the ALP(s) appear as pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons from the breaking of global chiral U(1) (Peccei-Quinn (PQ)) symmetries, occurring accidentally as low energy remnants from exact discrete symmetries. In such models, the axion and the further ALP are protected from disastrous explicit symmetry breaking effects due to Planck-scale suppressed operators. The scenarios considered exploit heavy right handed neutrinos getting their mass via PQ symmetry breaking and thus explain the small mass of the active neutrinos via a seesaw relation between the electroweak and an intermediate PQ symmetry breaking scale. For a number of explicit models, we determine the parameters of the low-energy effective field theory describing the axion, the ALPs, and their interactions with photons and electrons, in terms of the input parameters, in particular the PQ symmetry breaking scales. We show that these models can accommodate simultaneously an axion dark matter candidate, an ALP explaining the anomalous transparency of the universe for ?-rays, and an ALP explaining the recently reported 3.55 keV gamma line from galaxies and clusters of galaxies, if the respective decay constants are of intermediate scale. Moreover, they do not suffer severely from the domain wall problem.

Dias, A. G.; Machado, A. C. B.; Nishi, C. C.; Ringwald, A.; Vaudrevange, P.

2014-06-01

278

Stop the Drop - An Engineering Design Challenge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Engineering Design Challenge is intended to help students apply the concept that gravity is a force that can be overcome from SC.3.E.5.4 as they build devices to "Stop the Drop." This challenge includes concepts beyond the benchmark.

Mentillo, Holly

2012-08-01

279

Viscosity Measurement Using Drop Coalescence in Microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present in here validation studies of a new method for application in microgravity environment which measures the viscosity of highly viscous undercooled liquids using drop coalescence. The method has the advantage of avoiding heterogeneous nucleation at container walls caused by crystallization of undercooled liquids during processing. Homogeneous nucleation can also be avoided due to the rapidity of the measurement using this method. The technique relies on measurements from experiments conducted in near zero gravity environment as well as highly accurate analytical formulation for the coalescence process. The viscosity of the liquid is determined by allowing the computed free surface shape relaxation time to be adjusted in response to the measured free surface velocity for two coalescing drops. Results are presented from two sets of validation experiments for the method which were conducted on board aircraft flying parabolic trajectories. In these tests the viscosity of a highly viscous liquid, namely glycerin, was determined at different temperatures using the drop coalescence method described in here. The experiments measured the free surface velocity of two glycerin drops coalescing under the action of surface tension alone in low gravity environment using high speed photography. The liquid viscosity was determined by adjusting the computed free surface velocity values to the measured experimental data. The results of these experiments were found to agree reasonably well with the known viscosity for the test liquid used.

Antar, Basil N.; Ethridge, Edwin C.; Maxwell, Daniel; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

280

Predicting Students Drop Out: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The monitoring and support of university freshmen is considered very important at many educational institutions. In this paper we describe the results of the educational data mining case study aimed at predicting the Electrical Engineering (EE) students drop out after the first semester of their studies or even before they enter the study program…

Dekker, Gerben W.; Pechenizkiy, Mykola; Vleeshouwers, Jan M.

2009-01-01

281

High Altitude Platform Air Drop System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An improved device for the air dropping of platform-mounted cargo is presented wherein a multi-staged parachute system allows for a rapid descent during the initial phase of the trajectory and then reduces the rate of descent during the terminal stage to ...

A. L. Farinacci

1980-01-01

282

Orion Parachute Drop Test, July 18  

NASA Video Gallery

A C-17 plane dropped a test version of Orion from an altitude of 25,000 feet above the U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground in southwestern Arizona on July 18, 2012. This test was the second to use an Ori...

283

49 CFR 178.603 - Drop test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...physical characteristic, the drop height must be determined according to packing group, as follows: (i) Packing Group I: 1.8 m (5.9 feet). (ii) Packing Group II: 1.2 m (3.9 feet). (iii) Packing Group III: 0.8...

2013-10-01

284

From jet to drops via jets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the dynamics of the impact of two liquid jets at an angle, paying a particular attention to the atomization process. The drops mean diameter and velocity produced by the break up of the resultant jet for different impacting jets diameters and velocities is documented. We show that the impact conserves the momentum flux and we characterize this continuous

N. Bremond; C. Clanet; E. Villermaux

2002-01-01

285

Inverted drop testing and neck injury potential.  

PubMed

Inverted drop testing of vehicles is a methodology that has long been used by the automotive industry and researchers to test roof integrity and is currently being considered by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration as a roof strength test. In 1990 a study was reported which involved 8 dolly rollover tests and 5 inverted drop tests. These studies were conducted with restrained Hybrid III instrumented Anthropometric Test Devices (ATD) in production and rollcaged vehicles to investigate the relationship between roof strength and occupant injury potential. The 5 inverted drop tests included in the study provided a methodology producing "repeatable roof impacts" exposing the ATDs to the similar impact environment as those seen in the dolly rollover tests. Authors have conducted two inverted drop test sets as part of an investigation of two real world rollover accidents. Hybrid-III ATD's were used in each test with instrumented head and necks. Both test sets confirm that reduction of roof intrusion and increased headroom can significantly enhance occupant protection. In both test pairs, the neck force of the dummy in the vehicle with less crush and more survival space was significantly lower. Reduced roof crush and dynamic preservation of the occupant survival space resulted in only minor occupant contact and minimal occupant loading, establishing a clear causal relationship between roof crush and neck injuries. PMID:12724903

Forrest, Stephen; Herbst, Brian; Meyer, Steve; Sances, Anthony; Kumaresan, Srirangam

2003-01-01

286

Primary amyloidosis presenting as "dropped head syndrome".  

PubMed

A 77-year-old man, with a history of lymphoma, presented with isolated neck extensor weakness and a 2-year history of bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Needle electromyography showed myopathic changes, and biopsy of cervical paraspinal muscles showed amyloid deposition in blood vessels. Amyloidosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of dropped head syndrome. PMID:21607974

Chuquilin, Miguel; Al-Lozi, Muhammad

2011-06-01

287

Asymptotic Behavior in Liquid Drop Coalescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During coalescence, two drops first touch and then merge, as a liquid bridge grows from initially microscopic scales to a macroscopic size comparable to the drop diameter. The initial dynamics of coalescence are expected to be universal, owing to a singularity in the Laplace pressure, which diverges when the curvature of the liquid interface is infinite at the point where the drops first touch. Conventionally, this process has been thought to have just two regimes: a highly viscous one dominated by macroscopic flows pulling the two drops together and an inertial one described by local deformations near the growing neck. We use high-speed imaging, electrical measurements and full Navier-Stokes simulations to reveal a new regime that dominates the asymptotic dynamics of coalescence for any finite viscosity. The character of this new regime improves our understanding of the unexpectedly late viscous-to-inertial crossover [1]. An argument based on force balance and an appropriate choice of length-scales allow the construction of a new phase diagram of coalescence.[4pt] [1] J. D. Paulsen, J. C. Burton, S. R. Nagel, PRL 106, 114501 (2011).

Paulsen, Joseph; Burton, Justin; Nagel, Sidney; Appathurai, Santosh; Harris, Michael; Basaran, Osman

2012-02-01

288

How to Handle Drop-in Visitors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although interruptions are an unavoidable part of the principal's job, a completely open-door policy for drop-in visitors could divert attention from planning and other priorities. This article suggests ways for principals to minimize the number of visitors and the length of visits, including keeping people standing, providing uncomfortable…

Partin, Ronald L.

1988-01-01

289

Lightweight, Economical Device Alleviates Drop Foot  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Corrective apparatus alleviates difficulties in walking for victims of drop foot. Elastic line attached to legband provides flexible support to toe of shoe. Device used with flat (heelless) shoes, sneakers, crepe-soled shoes, canvas shoes, and many other types of shoes not usable with short leg brace.

Deis, B. C.

1983-01-01

290

Utah Drop-Out Drug Use Questionnaire.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This questionnaire assesses drug use practices in high school drop-outs. The 79 items (multiple choice or apply/not apply) are concerned with demographic data and use, use history, reasons for use/nonuse, attitudes toward drugs, availability of drugs, and drug information with respect to narcotics, amphetamines, LSD, Marijuana, and barbiturates.…

Governor's Citizen Advisory Committee on Drugs, Salt Lake City, UT.

291

Behavior Of Evaporating Liquid Drops In Clusters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report presents critical analysis of methods, developed for calculating behavior of evaporating liquid drops in dense and dilute clusters. Essential to understanding variety of physical and chemical phenomena occurring in combustion of sprayed fuels and in sprays used in agriculture, food industry, and painting. Presents insights on important aspects of two-phase flow.

Bellan, Josette

1990-01-01

292

Drop Test at Lunar Landing Research Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Langley drop test facility where aircraft crashes can be simulated. The grid screen at the left of the facility is used as a backdrop for the impacts to allow engineers to measure angles and impact speeds. This facility was originally built to test a lunar lander simulator.

1974-01-01

293

Dropping Two Balls Near the Earth's Surface  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation depicts two balls being dropped near the Earth's surface in an interactive simulation. The user can control the initial horizontal speed of one ball and observe the path and acceleration of both balls as they fall and hit the Earth's surface at the same time.

Harrison, David M.

294

Developments in single-drop microextraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continuous quest for novel sample preparation procedures has led to the development of new methods, whose main advantages are their speed and negligible volume of solvents used. The most recent trends include solvent microextraction, a miniaturisation of the traditional liquid–liquid extraction method, where the solvent to aqueous ratio is greatly reduced. Single-drop microextraction is a methodology that evolved from

E Psillakis; N Kalogerakis

2002-01-01

295

Sliding drops on an inclined plane  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evolution equation for the film thickness was derived recently combining diffuse interface theory and long-wave approximation (Phys. Rev. E 62 (2000) 2480). Based on results for the structure formation in a thin liquid film on a horizontal plane, we study one-dimensional periodic drop profiles sliding down an inclined plane. The analysis of the dependence of their amplitude, velocity, advancing

Uwe Thiele; Kai Neuffer; Michael Bestehorn; Yves Pomeau; Manuel G. Velarde

2002-01-01

296

ARAMIS project: a comprehensive methodology for the identification of reference accident scenarios in process industries.  

PubMed

In the frame of the Accidental Risk Assessment Methodology for Industries (ARAMIS) project, this paper aims at presenting the work carried out in the part of the project devoted to the definition of accident scenarios. This topic is a key-point in risk assessment and serves as basis for the whole risk quantification. The first result of the work is the building of a methodology for the identification of major accident hazards (MIMAH), which is carried out with the development of generic fault and event trees based on a typology of equipment and substances. The term "major accidents" must be understood as the worst accidents likely to occur on the equipment, assuming that no safety systems are installed. A second methodology, called methodology for the identification of reference accident scenarios (MIRAS) takes into account the influence of safety systems on both the frequencies and possible consequences of accidents. This methodology leads to identify more realistic accident scenarios. The reference accident scenarios are chosen with the help of a tool called "risk matrix", crossing the frequency and the consequences of accidents. This paper presents both methodologies and an application on an ethylene oxide storage. PMID:16126337

Delvosalle, Christian; Fievez, Cécile; Pipart, Aurore; Debray, Bruno

2006-03-31

297

Biomechanical comparisons of single- and double-legged drop jumps with changes in drop height.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare the biomechanics of single- and double-legged drop jumps (SDJ vs. DDJ) with changes in drop height. Jumping height, ground contact time, reactive strength index, ground reaction force, loading rate of ground reaction force, joint power and stiffness were measured in 12 male college students during SDJ from 20-, 30-, 40-, and 50-cm heights and DDJ from of 20- and 40-cm heights. The peak impact force was increased with the incremental drop height during SDJs. The jumping height and leg and ankle stiffness of SDJ30 were greater than those of SDJ40 and SDJ50. The knee and hip stiffnesses of SDJ30 were greater than those of SDJ50. The impact forces of SDJ30-50 were greater than those of DDJ40. The leg, ankle, knee and hip joint stiffnesses of SDJ20-30 were greater than those of DDJ20 and DDJ40. The propulsive forces of SDJ20-50 were greater than those of DDJ20 and DDJ40. The jumping height of SDJ30 was greater than that of DDJ20. Drop height of 30?cm was recommended during single-legged drop jump with the best biomechanical benefit. Single-legged drop jump from 20-30?cm could provide comparable intensity to double-legged drop jump from 40?cm. PMID:23771829

Wang, L-I; Peng, H-T

2014-06-01

298

Deposition of bacteria from sessile drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation reports on the discovery of a new method of patterning bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1) on a surface using a drying sessile drop. This work identifies bacterial suspension age and the length of time mica is exposed to the laboratory atmosphere as the key parameters which impact the behavior of the sessile drop and the resulting residue. Possible origins of mica aging and bacterial suspension aging are discussed in light of the literature and the experimental conditions. The residue area and the fraction of the residue area on which substantial bacteria and salt deposits remained after the drying of the drop (fill-in fraction) were measured via analysis of optical micrographs. In general, smaller residues are more filled in. For fresh bacterial suspensions, and short mica exposure times, the residue covers the largest area and is characterized by rings formed during discrete depinning events as the solvent evaporates. As the exposure time increases and the mica surface slowly picks up contaminants from the atmosphere, the drop residue shrinks in size and bacteria are deposited in a regular cellular film in the interior of the drop residue. The fraction of the interior area covered by the cellular film is well correlated with the mica exposure time. For sufficiently aged bacterial suspensions, residues are small and more filled-in than residues formed from fresh suspensions on similarly aged mica. In addition, the interior deposition pattern transitions from a cellular film characteristic of fresh suspensions to a cracked carpet pattern for aged suspensions. Suspension aging related changes in the residues are attributed to accumulation of organic materials such as DNA, RNA, proteins, and other bacterial components in the suspension. The suspension aging process is also observed to be at least partially dependent on ventilation of the suspension during aging.

Baughman, Kyle Fisher

299

Spent fuel receipt scenarios study  

SciTech Connect

This study reports on the results of an assignment from the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management to evaluate of the effects of different scenarios for receipt of spent fuel on the potential performance of the waste packages in the proposed Yucca Mountain high-level waste repository. The initial evaluations were performed and an interim letter report was prepared during the fall of 1988. Subsequently, the scope of work was expanded and additional analyses were conducted in 1989. This report combines the results of the two phases of the activity. This study is a part of a broader effort to investigate the options available to the DOE and the nuclear utilities for selection of spent fuel for acceptance into the Federal Waste Management System for disposal. Each major element of the system has evaluated the effects of various options on its own operations, with the objective of providing the basis for performing system-wide trade-offs and determining an optimum acceptance scenario. Therefore, this study considers different scenarios for receipt of spent fuel by the repository only from the narrow perspective of their effect on the very-near-field temperatures in the repository following permanent closure. This report is organized into three main sections. The balance of this section is devoted to a statement of the study objective, a summary of the assumptions. The second section of the report contains a discussion of the major elements of the study. The third section summarizes the results of the study and draws some conclusions from them. The appendices include copies of the waste acceptance schedule and the existing and projected spent fuel inventory that were used in the study. 10 refs., 27 figs.

Ballou, L.B.; Montan, D.N.; Revelli, M.A.

1990-09-01

300

TMI-2 accident scenario update  

SciTech Connect

Estimates of the end-state core configuration have been developed from recent inspection of the lower regions of the TMI-2 core, core support assembly, and lower plenum regions. The inspection data have provided a basis for estimating the extent of damage to the core and core support structures and have confirmed that the migration pathway of the molten core material to the lower plenum occurred in the east quadrant of the reactor vessel. This paper integrates the core inspection data with other TMI-2 data and supporting analysis to update the best-estimate core damage progression scenario.

Tolman, E.L.; Kuan, P.; Broughton, J.M.

1986-01-01

301

Acute effects of nitrogen dioxide after accidental release.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: Following an accidental release of nitrogen dioxide from a railroad tank car containing nitrous tetroxide, the authors undertook a study of the health effects of the release, measuring the association between acute low level exposure and pulmonary symptoms. METHODS: The authors reviewed the records of three emergency departments, surveyed 80 emergency department patients, 552 community residents, 21 chemical plant workers, and 29 emergency workers, and conducted a case-control study. Pulmonary case status was defined as having an objective pulmonary finding noted on the emergency department record, reporting that the onset of symptoms was subsequent to the release, and being within the city limits at the time of the release. Self-reported case status was defined as reporting one or more symptoms consistent with exposure to nitrogen dioxide in the week after the release and having been within the city limits at the time of the release. Control subjects were survey respondents who reported no symptoms in the week after the release and had been within the city limits at the time of the release. Chemical exposure was characterized by proximity to, direction from, and being outdoors within one hour after the release. Duration of potential exposure was not measured. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence interval for symptoms by exposure level, adjusted for age, sex, smoking, and preexisting pulmonary conditions. RESULTS: Local emergency department visits increased fivefold in the week after the release. The most common complaints recorded in a systematic sample of 528 visits in the first 30 hours after the release were headache (31%), burning eyes (30%), and sore throat (24%). Objective pulmonary findings were recorded for 41 (5%) patients in the week before and 165 (4%) in the week after the release. The odds of being a pulmonary case increased by 40% for each quarter-mile increment in proximity to the release (odds ratio [OR] 1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1, 1.7), while the odds of being a self-reported case increased by 20% for each quarter-mile increment in proximity (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1, 1.4). People who met the pulmonary case definition were 2.5 times (CI 1.3, 4.8) more likely than control subjects to have been outdoors and 6.4 times (CI 3.2, 12.6) more likely to report a preexisting pulmonary condition. Self-reported cases were 2.6 times (95% CI 1.8, 3.8) more likely than control subjects to have been outdoors and 1.9 times (95% CI 1.1, 3.1) more likely to report a preexisting pulmonary condition. CONCLUSIONS: Emergency department visits increased five-fold, but serious acute health effects were uncommon. People who met the pulmonary case definition were six times more likely to report pulmonary symptoms than those without preexisting conditions. This study was not designed to determine any potential long-term effects of exposure.

Bauer, U; Berg, D; Kohn, M A; Meriwether, R A; Nickle, R A

1998-01-01

302

Building Scenarios from a Heterogeneous Alert Stream  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a realtime algorithm for combining the alerts produced by several heterogeneous intrusion detection sensors into sce- narios. Each scenario represents a sequence of actions performed by a single actor or organization. Our algorithm, which is probabilistic in na- ture, can determine the scenario membership of a new alert in time pro- portional to the number of candidate scenarios.

Oliver M. Dain; Robert K. Cunningham

2001-01-01

303

Scenarios in System Development: Current Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scenario based approaches are becoming ubiquitous in systems analysis and design but remain vague in definition and scope. A survey of current practices indicates we must offer better means for structuring, managing, and developing their use in diverse contexts. The European Esprit project Crews (Cooperative Requirements Engineering with Scenarios) are seeking a deeper understanding of scenario diversity, necessary to improve

Klaus Weidenhaupt; Klaus Pohl; Matthias Jarke; Peter Haumer

1998-01-01

304

Scenarios for coastal vulnerability assessment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coastal vulnerability assessments tend to focus mainly on climate change and especially on sea-level rise. Assessment of the influence of nonclimatic environmental change or socioeconomic change is less well developed and these drivers are often completely ignored. Given that the most profound coastal changes of the twentieth century due to nonclimate drivers are likely to continue through the twenty-first century, this is a major omission. It may result in not only overstating the importance of climate change but also overlooking significant interactions of climate change and other drivers. To support the development of policies relating to climate change and coastal management, integrated assessments of climatic change in coastal areas are required, including the effects of all the relevant drivers. This chapter explores the development of scenarios (or "plausible futures") of relevant climate and nonclimate drivers that can be used for coastal analysis, with an emphasis on the nonclimate drivers. It shows the importance of analyzing the impacts of climate change and sea-level rise in a broader context of coastal change and all its drivers. This will improve the analysis of impacts, key vulnerabilities, and adaptation needs and, hence, inform climate and coastal policy. Stakeholder engagement is important in the development of scenarios, and the underlying assumptions need to be explicit, transparent, and open to scientific debate concerning their uncertainties/realism and likelihood.

Nicholls, Robert J.; Woodroffe, Colin D.; Burkett, Virginia; Hay, John; Wong, Poh Poh; Nurse, Leonard

2011-01-01

305

Head-on collision of drops: A numerical investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The head-on collision of equal sized drops is studied by full numerical simulations. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved for fluid motion both inside and outside the drops using a front tracking/finite difference technique. The drops are accelerated toward each other by a body force that is turned off before the drops collide. When the drops collide, the fluid between them is pushed outward leaving a thin later bounded by the drop surface. This layer gets progressively thinner as the drops continue to deform and in several of the calculations this double layer is artificially removed once it is thin enough, thus modeling rupture. If no rupture takes place, the drops always rebound, but if the film is ruptured the drops may coalesce permanently or coalesce temporarily and then split again.

Nobari, M. R.; Jan, Y.-J.; Tryggvason, G.

1993-01-01

306

COD measurement based on the integrated liquid drop sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study on Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) measuring method is reported, in which the COD value is measured by an integrated liquid drop monitor sensor without any reagent and chemical treatment. The integrated drop sensor consists of a liquid head, an integrated fiber sensor and a capacitor sensor. The capacitor sensor is composed of a drop head and a ring electrode. As the part of the drop head, the outline of the drop will be changed during the drop forming, which result in the variation of the capacitance. The fiber sensor is composed of two fibers that are positioned into the liquid drop. The light signal goes into the liquid drop from one fiber and out from the other one. A unique fingerprint of the liquid drop can be got by the data processing. The matching between the COD value of a liquid and the codes of the fingerprints in the database are presented and discussed.

Qiu, Zurong; Zhang, Guoxiong; Song, Qing; Xu, Jian

2005-02-01

307

Evolution of epileptic encephalopathy in an infant with non-accidental head injury.  

PubMed

A 5-month-old child, previously healthy, was hospitalized with frequent episodes of tonic seizures. The seizures were controlled with antiepileptic medication. However, the parents did not continue medications after discharge from the hospital. The child was admitted several times with breakthrough seizures. Over time the seizures became refractory to treatment. Neurometabolic work up and imaging studies for uncontrolled seizures revealed non-accidental head injury (shaken baby syndrome) as the underlying cause. His first EEG was normal and changed from normal to an epileptic encephalopathy pattern during his several admissions for uncontrolled seizures. From a normal child at the first admission, the child was severely regressed at the last admission. The present paper highlights the evolution of EEG changes in a child with non-accidental head injuries. This report also highlights considering non-accidental head injury as the underlying cause in younger children presenting with unexplained epileptic encephalopathy. PMID:23887218

Koul, Roshan; Poothrikovil, Rajesh; Al-Azri, Faisal; Al-Sadoon, Muna

2013-07-01

308

Elevation of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Upon Accidental Hypothermia in an Elderly Man.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Background: Although 'polar triiodothyronine (T3) syndrome' in chronic dwellers/workers in Antarctica has been established, alteration of the pituitary thyroid-axis upon accidental hypothermia is not well recognized. We report here a rare case of elevation of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) upon accidental hypothermia. Patient Findings: A 75-yr-old man was admitted because of consciousness disturbance. The mean outside temperature was approximately -2.0ºC but his house was inadequately heated. His rectal temperature was 29.5ºC. Goiter was not palpable and pitting edema, not myxedema, was present. Serum TSH was elevated (28.3 mU/l, reference range 0.27-4.2), and free T3 (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) lowered (FT3, 3.25 pmol/l with a reference range of 4.00-7.85, and FT4, 9.18 pmol/l with a reference range of 12.87-23.179), but thyroid-related autoantibodies were all negative. By the next morning, body temperature had risen to >36ºC and there was no further recurrence of hypothermia. Serum TSH decreased exponentially and the patient's condition had become normal by Day 22. FT3 and FT4 were found to be slightly lowered and elevated, respectively, during the same period, in the subnormal range. At the end of the observation period, the patient settled into the state known as "non-thyroidal illness syndrome". Summary: Elevation of TSH in an elderly patient with accidental hypothermia was normalized after restoration of normal body temperature. Elevation of TSH upon accidental hypothermia was probably an adaptive response. Conclusions: In patients with accidental hypothermia, the possibility of an adaptive elevation of TSH should be born in mind. There is a clear warrant for further studies of the adaptation of the pituitary-thyroid axis in patients with accidental hypothermia. PMID:22866965

Yamashita, Koh; Suganuma, Kazuki; Funase, Yoshiko; Yamauchi, Keishi; Aizawa, Toru

2012-08-01

309

From jet to drops via jets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the dynamics of the impact of two liquid jets at an angle, paying a particular attention to the atomization process. The drops mean diameter and velocity produced by the break up of the resultant jet for different impacting jets diameters and velocities is documented. We show that the impact conserves the momentum flux and we characterize this continuous inelastic shock of coalescing fluid by the associated energy loss. We further suggest that this mechanism might be relevant to liquid atomization as it represents an elementary process of liquid sheets atomization. This is, for instance, the case for a plane liquid sheet and also for the radially expanding sheet resulting from the impact of a jet perpendicular to a solid rod. In this second configuration, the sheet is circular and exhibits cusps, or indentations at its periphery. Most of the drops are formed at the focal point of the cusps, a situation very similar to the jets impact configuration.

Bremond, N.; Clanet, C.; Villermaux, E.

2002-11-01

310

Pressure Drops Due to Silica Scaling  

SciTech Connect

Experience with reinjection returns in many geothermal fields has prompted a move towards injecting waste fluids at some distance from the production field. This means that often, reinjection pipelines cover very long distances. If the waste water in the pipelines is supersaturated with respect to amorphous silica, then the deposition of silica in these pipelines is almost certain. Although the deposit may be of negligible thickness, the inner surface characteristics of the pipe will be different to those of clean mild steel. During a silica scaling experiment. geothermal brine was passed through a series of pipes of different sizes and over a period of three weeks, silica scale formed on the inner surface. The pressure drop along a distance of approximately 5m was measured by a water manometer in all test pipe sections. Significant pressure drop was observed during this time and can be correlated with the increase in the friction factor of the pipe walls due to silica scaling.

Brown, K.L.; Freeston, D.H.; Dimas, Z.O.; Slatter, A.

1995-01-01

311

Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) Contest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first NASA Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) student competition pilot project came to a conclusion at the Glenn Research Center in April 2001. The competition involved high-school student teams who developed the concept for a microgravity experiment and prepared an experiment proposal. The two student teams - COSI Academy, sponsored by the Columbus Center of Science and Industry, and another team from Cincinnati, Ohio's Sycamore High School, designed a microgravity experiment, fabricated the experimental apparatus, and visited NASA Glenn to operate their experiment in the 2.2 Second Drop Tower. Students from Sycamore High School in Cincinnati, Ohio (girls), and the COSI Academy, Columbus, Ohio (boys), participated. This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

2001-01-01

312

Instrumented drop ball tester for percussion primers  

SciTech Connect

The drop ball tester has historically been used for determining the threshold characteristics of percussion primers. Typically, the data obtained from such a tester show a wide variation with significantly large standard deviations. This requires that the acceptance specifications for primers be fairly lax. To determine how much of the data scatter was due to the tester alone, a drop ball tester was instrumented with a force monitoring gage, velocity capabilities, deflection gages, and a pressure time output measuring system. This paper deals with the basic fundamental physics involved with the tester and presents results of improvements to the tester geometry. Threshold test results are presented, correlating all of the variables measured. 8 refs., 10 figs.

Woods, C.M.; Robinson, M.A.; Merten, C.W.; Robbins, V.E. (EG and G Mound Applied Technologies, Miamisburg, OH (United States)); Begeal, D.R. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1991-01-01

313

Dynamically reconfigurable optical packet switch (DROPS).  

PubMed

A novel Dynamically Reconfigurable Optical Packet Switch (DROPS) that combines both spectral and spatial switching capabilities is proposed and experimentally demonstrated for the first time. Compared with an Arrayed Waveguide Grating Router (AWGR), the added spatial switching capability provided by the microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) enables dynamically reconfigurable routing that is not possible with an AWGR alone. This methodology has several advantages over an AWGR including scalability, additional degrees of freedom in routing a packet from an ingress port to an egress port and more flexibility in path or line card recovery. The experimental demonstration implemented with 10-Gb/s packets shows that the added spatial switching does not degrade the bit-error-rate performance, indicating the promising potential of DROPS as a versatile and ultra-high capacity switch for optical packet-switched networks. PMID:19529627

Huang, Chi-Heng; Chou, Hsu-Feng; Bowers, John E; Toudeh-Fallah, Farzam; Gyurek, Russ

2006-12-11

314

Initial predictive factors of outcome in severe non-accidental head trauma in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Object  The aim of this study is to evaluate the outcome of young children hospitalized for non-accidental head trauma in our PICU,\\u000a to evaluate PRISM II score in this sub-population of pediatric trauma and to identify factors that might influence the short-term\\u000a outcome.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Files of all children less than 2 years old with the diagnosis of non-accidental head trauma

Didier Scavarda; Charline Gabaudan; Fabrice Ughetto; Frederic Lamy; Vanessa Imada; Gabriel Lena; Olivier Paut

2010-01-01

315

Resuscitation from cardiopulmonary arrest during accidental hypothermia due to exhaustion and exposure.  

PubMed

A 16-year-old boy with accidental hypothermia and cardiopulmonary arrest due to exhaustion and exposure was resuscitated after warming measures -- hot wet towels, hot water bottles, and hot water enemas and gastric lavage -- had increased his rectal temperature from 25.2 to 28.0 degrees C. Despite prolonged cardiopulmonary arrest, recovery was almost complete, with no evident cerebral damage. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation procedures should not be abandoned until the body temperature is more than 30 degrees C, because the prognosis in cases of accidental hypothermia without associated disease is excellent if cardiac function can be re-established. PMID:880528

Bristow, G; Smith, R; Lee, J; Auty, A; Tweed, W A

1977-08-01

316

Resuscitation from cardiopulmonary arrest during accidental hypothermia due to exhaustion and exposure.  

PubMed Central

A 16-year-old boy with accidental hypothermia and cardiopulmonary arrest due to exhaustion and exposure was resuscitated after warming measures -- hot wet towels, hot water bottles, and hot water enemas and gastric lavage -- had increased his rectal temperature from 25.2 to 28.0 degrees C. Despite prolonged cardiopulmonary arrest, recovery was almost complete, with no evident cerebral damage. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation procedures should not be abandoned until the body temperature is more than 30 degrees C, because the prognosis in cases of accidental hypothermia without associated disease is excellent if cardiac function can be re-established. Images FIG. 1

Bristow, G.; Smith, R.; Lee, J.; Auty, A.; Tweed, W. A.

1977-01-01

317

Bittering agents in the prevention of accidental poisoning: children's reactions to denatonium benzoate (Bitrex).  

PubMed Central

The responses of young children to Denatonium Benzoate (Bitrex) were observed, in order to assess the potential of this bittering agent in the prevention of accidental poisoning. Thirty-three children aged 17-36 months were offered orange juice containing Bitrex (in a concentration of 10 parts per million). Of the 30 children who took some of this juice, only seven were willing to take more than 10 gm. A variety of negative verbal and non-verbal responses were noted. It is suggested that the highly unpalatable nature of Bitrex makes this compound a useful additive that could well prevent accidental poisoning from household products of mild to moderate toxicity.

Sibert, J R; Frude, N

1991-01-01

318

Was the rocket invented or accidentally discovered? Some new observations on its origins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The history of spaceflight would not have been possible without a single object, the rocket—one of the most complex engineering feats in human history. However, a closer examination of the earliest history of the basic rocket, a gunpowder-propelled device developed in China around 900 years ago, suggests that it originated as an accidental discovery rather than as a deliberately planned invention. This paper will examine the evidence in support of the idea of accidental discovery, including new observations on the earliest concepts of rocket motion, not only in China but also in the West.

Winter, Frank H.; Neufeld, Michael J.; Dougherty, Kerrie

2012-08-01

319

The potential for damage from the accidental release of conductive carbon fibers from aircraft composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper considers the potential for damage from the accidental release of conductive carbon fibers from aircraft composites. The electrical conductivity of carbon and graphite fibers has led to electrical equipment damage from the inadvertent release of virgin fibers into the atmosphere; an accidental release of carbon fibers from filamentary composites from the burning of crashed commercial airliners could damage electrical and electronic equipment. The experimental and analytical results by NASA of the methods of assessing the extent of potential damage in terms of costs is presented; the NASA materials research program to provide alternate or modified composites to overcome electrical hazards of carbon composites in aircraft structures is described.

Bell, V. L.

1980-01-01

320

Robust accidental nodes and zeros and critical quasiparticle scaling in iron-based multiband superconductors.  

SciTech Connect

We study multigap superconductivity, with strong angular variations of one of the gaps, as appropriate for certain iron-based high-temperature superconductors. We solve the gap equations of this model and find that the nodes or zeros in the gap function present at T{sub c} - although purely accidental - typically survive down to T = 0. Based on this result, we investigate the line of quantum transitions at which gap zeros first appear. The peculiar 'zero-point' quantum critical scaling emanating from this line dominates quasiparticle thermodynamics and transport properties over much of the phase diagram and supplants more familiar forms of scaling associated with the accidental nodes.

Stanev, V.; Alexandrov, B. S.; Nikolic, P.; Tesanovic, Z. (Materials Science Division); (Los Alamos Nat. Lab.); (George Mason Univ.); (Johns Hopkins Univ.)

2011-07-19

321

Diffusion Of Mass In Evaporating Multicomponent Drops  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report summarizes study of diffusion of mass and related phenomena occurring in evaporation of dense and dilute clusters of drops of multicomponent liquids intended to represent fuels as oil, kerosene, and gasoline. Cluster represented by simplified mathematical model, including global conservation equations for entire cluster and conditions on boundary between cluster and ambient gas. Differential equations of model integrated numerically. One of series of reports by same authors discussing evaporation and combustion of sprayed liquid fuels.

Bellan, Josette; Harstad, Kenneth G.

1992-01-01

322

Poiseuille flow and drop circulation in microchannels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microfluidics aims to control precisely the transport of fluids and suspended particles or drops. Two characteristics of such\\u000a transport in rectangular microchannels are addressed here, as a function of the cross-sectional aspect ratio. First, we highlight\\u000a a convenient expression for the ratio of the centerline to bulk flow velocities, which is relevant for controlling the flow\\u000a of suspended or flow-focused

Steven D. Hudson

2010-01-01

323

Modeling Evaporation of Drops of Different Kerosenes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mathematical model describes the evaporation of drops of a hydrocarbon liquid composed of as many as hundreds of chemical species. The model is intended especially for application to any of several types of kerosenes commonly used as fuels. The concept of continuous thermodynamics, according to which the chemical composition of the evaporating multicomponent liquid is described by use of a probability distribution function (PDF). However, the present model is more generally applicable than is its immediate predecessor.

Bellan, Josette; Harstad, Kenneth

2007-01-01

324

Chimpanzee Droppings Lead Scientists to Evolutionary Discovery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This case study looks at the research of Dr. Beatrice Hahn, who used DNA sequences in chimpanzee droppings to find the origins of HIV. The material is appropriate for introductory biology courses for both science and health majors and non majors. The lesson is intended for high school and lower level undergraduate students. The case study and teaching notes may be downloaded in PDF format. The site also includes a section for instructor feedback where general comments may be read and contributed.

Kosal, Erica F.

2011-01-14

325

Viscosity Measurement using Drop Coalescence in Microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present in here details of a new method, using drop coalescence, for application in microgravity environment for determining the viscosity of highly viscous undercooled liquids. The method has the advantage of eliminating heterogeneous nucleation at container walls caused by crystallization of undercooled liquids during processing. Also, due to the rapidity of the measurement, homogeneous nucleation would be avoided. The technique relies on both a highly accurate solution to the Navier-Stokes equations as well as on data gathered from experiments conducted in near zero gravity environment. The liquid viscosity is determined by allowing the computed free surface shape relaxation time to be adjusted in response to the measured free surface velocity of two coalescing drops. Results are presented from two validation experiments of the method which were conducted recently on board the NASA KC-135 aircraft. In these tests the viscosity of a highly viscous liquid, such as glycerine at different temperatures, was determined to reasonable accuracy using the liquid coalescence method. The experiments measured the free surface velocity of two glycerine drops coalescing under the action of surface tension alone in low gravity environment using high speed photography. The free surface velocity was then compared with the computed values obtained from different viscosity values. The results of these experiments were found to agree reasonably well with the calculated values.

Antar, Basil N.; Ethridge, Edwin; Maxwell, Daniel

1999-01-01

326

Organization of microbeads in Leidenfrost drops.  

PubMed

We investigated the organization of micrometric hydrophilic beads (glass or basalt) immersed in Leidenfrost drops. Starting from a large volume of water compared to the volume of the beads, while the liquid evaporates, we observed that the grains are eventually trapped at the interface of the droplet and accumulate. At a moment, the grains entirely cover the droplet. We measured the surface area at this moment as a function of the total mass of particles inserted in the droplet. We concluded that the grains form a monolayer around the droplet assuming (i) that the packing of the beads at the surface is a random close packing and (ii) that the initial surface of the drop is larger than the maximum surface that the beads can cover. Regarding the evaporation dynamics, the beads are found to reduce the evaporation rate of the drop. The slowdown of the evaporation is interpreted as being the consequence of the dewetting of the particles located at the droplet interface which makes the effective surface of evaporation smaller. As a matter of fact, contact angles of the beads with the water deduced from the evaporation rates are consistent with contact angles of beads directly measured at a flat air-water interface of water in a container. PMID:24705688

Maquet, Laurent; Colinet, Pierre; Dorbolo, Stéphane

2014-05-21

327

Practical neutron dosimetry with superheated drops  

SciTech Connect

The Superheated Drop Detector (SDD) is a new kind of neutron detector based on the same principle as that of the bubble chamber, except the superheated material is in drop form suspended by a gel or polymer as first described by Apfel. Previously, we have developed a theoretical model for the prediction of the threshold neutron energy to nucleate bubbles in our superheated materials and a model for the calculation of the energy dependent response function of SDD. The results of the theoretical calculations agree with the experimental measurements reasonably well. We found the measured response curve of one of our SDDs follows the same trend as the ideal ICRP dose equivalent response curve within 40% for neutrons of energy above 100 keV and within a factor of 10 below 100 keV. Therefore, it is possible to make a rem-response Superheated Drop Detector. We have further calibrated our SDD with /sup 252/Cf neutron sources (both bare and D/sub 2/O moderated). The results are in reasonable agreement with our theoretical predictions, which proves that our model is valid not only for monoenergetic neutrons but also for neutrons from a radioactive source. The principles of operation of our detector, which can be used in neutron dosimetry, area monitoring, and neutron spectrometry, are discussed.

Apfel, R.E.; Lo, Y.C.

1989-01-01

328

Industrial research for transmutation scenarios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents the results of research scenarios for americium transmutation in a 22nd century French nuclear fleet, using sodium fast breeder reactors. We benchmark the americium transmutation benefits and drawbacks with a reference case consisting of a hypothetical 60 GWe fleet of pure plutonium breeders. The fluxes in the various parts of the cycle (reactors, fabrication plants, reprocessing plants and underground disposals) are calculated using EDF's suite of codes, comparable in capabilities to those of other research facilities. We study underground thermal heat load reduction due to americium partitioning and repository area minimization. We endeavor to estimate the increased technical complexity of surface facilities to handle the americium fluxes in special fuel fabrication plants, americium fast burners, special reprocessing shops, handling equipments and transport casks between those facilities.

Camarcat, Noel; Garzenne, Claude; Le Mer, Joël; Leroyer, Hadrien; Desroches, Estelle; Delbecq, Jean-Michel

2011-04-01

329

The ShakeOut Scenario  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This is the initial publication of the results of a cooperative project to examine the implications of a major earthquake in southern California. The study comprised eight counties: Imperial, Kern, Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, and Ventura. Its results will be used as the basis of an emergency response and preparedness exercise, the Great Southern California ShakeOut, and for this purpose we defined our earthquake as occurring at 10:00 a.m. on November 13, 2008. As members of the southern California community use the ShakeOut Scenario to plan and execute the exercise, we anticipate discussion and feedback. This community input will be used to refine our assessment and will lead to a formal publication in early 2009. Our goal in the ShakeOut Scenario is to identify the physical, social and economic consequences of a major earthquake in southern California and in so doing, enable the users of our results to identify what they can change now?before the earthquake?to avoid catastrophic impact after the inevitable earthquake occurs. To do so, we had to determine the physical damages (casualties and losses) caused by the earthquake and the impact of those damages on the region?s social and economic systems. To do this, we needed to know about the earthquake ground shaking and fault rupture. So we first constructed an earthquake, taking all available earthquake research information, from trenching and exposed evidence of prehistoric earthquakes, to analysis of instrumental recordings of large earthquakes and the latest theory in earthquake source physics. We modeled a magnitude (M) 7.8 earthquake on the southern San Andreas Fault, a plausible event on the fault most likely to produce a major earthquake. This information was then fed forward into the rest of the ShakeOut Scenario. The damage impacts of the scenario earthquake were estimated using both HAZUS-MH and expert opinion through 13 special studies and 6 expert panels, and fall into four categories: building damages, non-structural damages, damage to lifelines and infrastructure, and fire losses. The magnitude 7.8 ShakeOut earthquake is modeled to cause about 1800 deaths and $213 billion of economic losses. These numbers are as low as they are because of aggressive retrofitting programs that have increased the seismic resistance of buildings, highways and lifelines, and economic resiliency. These numbers are as large as they are because much more retrofitting could still be done. The earthquake modeled here may never happen. Big earthquakes on the San Andreas Fault are inevitable, and by geologic standards extremely common, but probably will not be exactly like this one. The next very damaging earthquake could easily be on another fault. However, lessons learned from this particular event apply to many other events and could provide benefits in many possible future events.

Jones, Lucile M.; Bernknopf, Richard; Cox, Dale; Goltz, James; Hudnut, Kenneth; Mileti, Dennis; Perry, Suzanne; Ponti, Daniel; Porter, Keith; Reichle, Michael; Seligson, Hope; Shoaf, Kimberley; Treiman, Jerry; Wein, Anne

2008-01-01

330

Entanglement cost in practical scenarios.  

PubMed

We quantify the one-shot entanglement cost of an arbitrary bipartite state, that is, the minimum number of singlets needed by two distant parties to create a single copy of the state up to a finite accuracy, by using local operations and classical communication only. This analysis, in contrast to the traditional one, pertains to scenarios of practical relevance, in which resources are finite and transformations can be achieved only approximately. Moreover, it unveils a fundamental relation between two well-known entanglement measures, namely, the Schmidt number and the entanglement of formation. Using this relation, we are able to recover the usual expression of the entanglement cost as a special case. PMID:21517364

Buscemi, Francesco; Datta, Nilanjana

2011-04-01

331

Dome It Challenge Scenario Cards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Student teams find solutions to hypothetical challenge scenarios that require them to sustainably manage both resources and wastes. They begin by creating a card representing themselves and the resources (inputs) they need and wastes (outputs) they produce. Then they incorporate additional cards for food and energy components and associated necessary resources and waste products. They draw connections between outputs that provide inputs for other needs, and explore the problem of using linear solutions in resource-limited environments. Then students incorporate cards based on biorecycling technologies, such as algae photobioreactors and anaerobic digesters in order to make circular connections. Finally, the student teams present their complete biorecycling engineering solutions to their scenariosâin poster formatâby connecting outputs to inputs, and showing the cycles of how wastes become resources.

Membrane Biotechnology Laboratory, College of Engineering,

332

Superclustering in the explosion scenario  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simple toy model is used to study the spatial distribution of rich clusters in a generic type of explosion scenario. The model, parameterized by the distribution of shell radii and the filling factor, places spherical shells at random and identifies each 'knot' as a cluster. The resulting cluster correlation function is close to a power law extending to the diameter of the largest spheres. Richer clusters form at the intersections of bigger shells and so have stronger correlations. Typical shell radii and filling factors are required to produce the observed number density of clusters. Models with a power-law radius distribution also reproduce the richness distribution of clusters in the Abell catalog. Supercluster multiplicity functions, void probabilities, number counts, topology statistics, and velocity correlations confirm the presence of strong superclustering and quantify the non-Gaussian nature of the model.

Weinberg, David H.; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Dekel, Avishai

1989-01-01

333

Cancer care scenario in Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Bangladesh is a developing country that is facing many challenges, especially in the health sector. Cancer management is a priority due to the current trend of increased incidence in this region. In this article, the current scenario of cancer in Bangladesh and its management with brief history is outlined. The combined effort of government and private sector is highlighted with the gradual progress in cancer management. Recent introduction of the state-of-the-art facilities and the training facilities for human resource development are also outlined. The existing challenges and cooperation from local NGOs and other overseas sources are also highlighted to provide an insight regarding possible ways to tackle these challenges to ensure a better future.

Uddin, A. F. M. Kamal; Khan, Zohora Jameela; Islam, Johirul; Mahmud, AM

2013-01-01

334

Drop Accidents in the Canister Storage Building (CSB) Addressed by Design Features and or Design Calculations  

SciTech Connect

A variety of drop shear or impact scenarios have been identified for the Canister Storage Building. Some of these are being addressed by new calculations or require no specific action. This document describes five of them which are addressed by design features and/or existing design calculations. For each of the five a position is stated indicating the reason for assurance that the safety functions of the MCO will not be jeopardized by the accident. Following the position is a description of the basis for that position.

SEXTON, R.A.

2000-01-06

335

Stokes flow past a compound drop in a circular tube  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microfluidics could generate drops or bubbles with controllable size and frequency at this stage. However, analytical work on such problem is less reported in the literature. In this study, we study the motion of a compound drop, consisting of a fluid drop engulfed in a larger drop, confined in a circular tube. The analysis is based on the low Reynolds number Stokes flow theory. Interfaces are assumed to be spherical due to large surface tension. Stream functions in one bipolar and two cylindrical coordinate systems are developed in series form. Our new contribution is the transformation between cylindrical and bipolar coordinate systems. Flow patterns are mainly dependent on the relative motion and the size of the inner drop. Four types of flow patterns are identified. Drag force on the inner or outer drops is in proportion to the product of the drop radius and viscosity of the phase encapsulating the drop. Drag force on the inner or outer spheres is finally expressed as linear combinations of velocities of the three phases (i.e., the inner drop, the outer drop, and the continuous flow), respectively. Our results show that those coefficients of the linear combinations for the drag forces depend on several parameters: eccentricity of the compound drop, viscosity ratio of two neighboring phases, radius ratio of the inner drop to the outer drop, and the radius ratio of the outer drop to the tube. The two radius ratios have largest effects on the coefficients of the inner or outer drop, respectively. Stability of the compound drop in a circular tube is analyzed. It is found that though the compound drop cannot reach an absolutely steady state, it will enter a quasisteady state where the inner sphere is adjacent to the shell of the outer sphere in practice.

Song, Yanxi; Xu, Jinliang; Yang, Yongping

2010-07-01

336

Hydrodynamic resistance of single confined moving drops in rectangular microchannels.  

PubMed

We integrate a sensitive microfluidic comparator into a T-junction device and report measurements of the excess pressure drop due to a single moving droplet confined in a rectangular microchannel. We specifically focus on drops that are not coated with surfactants and study the effects of drop size, droplet viscosity and capillary number on their hydrodynamic resistance. In the capillary number range of approximately 10(-3)-10(-2), we find two distinct regimes for hydrodynamic resistance behavior based on drop size. In regime I associated with small drops (drop length/channel width approximately <4), we find that the pressure drop is independent of the drop size and the capillary number, and depends weakly on the ratio of the viscosities of the two immiscible phases. In regime II, associated with large drops (drop length/channel width > approximately 4), depending on the viscosity ratio of the two phases, the hydrodynamic resistance could increase, decrease or remain unchanged with drop size. We present a simple model that qualitatively captures these experimental trends. This model reveals that the pressure drop in regime I is dominated by the dissipation due to the end caps, and in regime II by both the end caps and the central body of the droplet. Such fundamental understanding will enable the design of large-scale energy-efficient fluidic circuits by minimizing the overall pressure drop in a network and may also provide insights into controlling droplet traffic to build functional passively-driven two-phase microfluidic technologies. PMID:19294311

Vanapalli, Siva A; Banpurkar, Arun G; van den Ende, Dirk; Duits, Michel H G; Mugele, Frieder

2009-04-01

337

Influence of arterial wall compliance on the pressure drop across coronary artery stenoses under hyperemic flow condition.  

PubMed

Hemodynamic endpoints such as flow and pressure drop are often measured during angioplasty procedures to determine the functional severity of a coronary artery stenosis. There is a lack of knowledge regarding the influence of compliance of the arterial wall-stenosis on the pressure drop under hyperemic flows across coronary lesions. This study evaluates the influence in flow and pressure drop caused by variation in arterial-stenosis compliance for a wide range of stenosis severities. The flow and pressure drop were evaluated for three different severities of stenosis and tested for limiting scenarios of compliant models. The Mooney-Rivlin model defined the non-linear material properties of the arterial wall and the plaque regions. The non-Newtonian Carreau model was used to model the blood flow viscosity. The fluid (blood)-structure (arterial wall) interaction equations were solved numerically using the finite element method. Irrespective of the stenosis severity, the compliant models produced a lower pressure drop than the rigid artery due to compliance of the plaque region. A wide variation in the pressure drop was observed between different compliant models for significant (90% area occlusion) stenosis with 41.0, 32.1, and 29.8 mmHg for the rigid artery, compliant artery with calcified plaque, and compliant artery with smooth muscle cell proliferation, respectively. When compared with the rigid artery for significant stenosis the pressure drop decreased by 27.7% and 37.6% for the calcified plaque and for the smooth muscle cell proliferation case, respectively. These significant variations in pressure drop for the higher stenosis may lead to misinterpretation and misdiagnosis of the stenosis severity. PMID:21391325

Konala, Bhaskar Chandra; Das, Ashish; Banerjee, Rupak K

2011-03-01

338

Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - Comparison of the models and their utility for the fire brigades  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - Comparison of the models and their utility for the fire brigades. Sirma Stenzel, Kathrin Baumann-Stanzer In the case of accidental release of hazardous gases in the atmosphere, the emergency responders need a reliable and fast tool to assess the possible consequences and apply the optimal countermeasures. For hazard prediction and simulation

S. Stenzel; K. Baumann-Stanzer

2009-01-01

339

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 2. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF CHLORINE (SCAQMD) (SOUTH COAST AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT DISTRICT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The manual discusses reducing the risk associated with an accidental release of chlorine. It identifies some of the potential causes of accidental releases that apply to the processes that use chlorine. It also identifies examples of potential causes, as well as measures that may...

340

Modeling of drop breakup in the bag breakup regime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several analytic models for predicting the drop deformation and breakup have been developed over the last three decades, but modeling drop breakup in the bag-type regime is less reported. In this Letter, a breakup model has been proposed to predict the drop deformation length and breakup time in the bag-type breakup regime in a more accurate manner. In the present model, the drop deformation which is approximately as the displacement of the centre of mass (c. m.) along the axis located at the centre of the drop, and the movement of c. m. is obtained by solving the pressure balance equation. The effects of the drop deformation on the drop external aerodynamic force are considered in this model. Drop breakup occurs when the deformation length reaches the maximum value and the maximum deformation length is a function of Weber number. The performance and applicability of the proposed breakup model are tested against the published experimental data.

Wang, C.; Chang, S.; Wu, H.; Xu, J.

2014-04-01

341

Tandem wheel drop-legs for standard truck trailer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tandem wheel drop-leg device provides a semitrailer with fore and aft mobility that allows it to be moved without a prime mover. The modified drop-legs have trunnion dual wheels and an adjustable brace.

Cantwell, W.; Selstad, R.

1970-01-01

342

Drop size dependence of contact angles on two fluoropolymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young’s equation predicts that the contact angle of a liquid drop is independent of its size. Nevertheless, large drop size\\u000a dependences of contact angles have been observed, especially for millimetre-sized drops, on a variety of solid surfaces. We\\u000a report new measurements of drop size dependence of contact angles for several liquids on two fluoropolymer surfaces, Teflon\\u000a AF 1600 and EGC-1700.

Robert David; Michelle K. Park; Ali Kalantarian; A. Wilhelm Neumann

2009-01-01

343

Effect of Conformation and Drop Properties on Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy of Dried Biopolymer Drops  

PubMed Central

Biofluids are complex solutions consisting of small ions and large biopolymers such as DNA, proteins or proteoglycans. Biopolymers affect fluid properties but their effect on drop deposition has not been examined. Hyaluronic acid (HA), an important component in synovial fluid, was chosen as a model biopolymer, and examined using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Nanoliter volumes of HA solutions were dried onto a patterned SERS substrate and spectra were collected from the dried hyaluronic acid drops with a near-infrared Raman microscope. Characteristic hyaluronic acid bands were examined. Capillary viscometry measured properties of HA solutions and entanglement behavior was also modeled using scaling theory principles. Viscosity measurements were incorporated into models of suspended particle droplets to account for the effect of inter-chain attraction on droplet formation. Microscope images were used to evaluate shape of the dried drop. Relative drop thickness was estimated from concentric rings found at drop edges using established models of light interference by thin films. We found SERS spectra were sensitive not only to polymer conformation, but also to type of deposition (ring versus uniform), and the thickness of the resulting deposition. These data suggest an approach to elucidate the effects of biopolymers and dehydrated biofluids on SERS analysis.

Esmonde-White, Karen A.; Le Clair, Stephanie V.; Roessler, Blake J.; Morris, Michael D.

2011-01-01

344

Infantile Herpes Simplex Encephalitis: Diagnostic Features and Differentiation from Non-accidental Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis is rare, but associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. After a baby, subsequently proven to have HSE, had initially been diagnosed as non-accidental injury (NAI), we reviewed the clinical features and radiology of infants with HSE recently diagnosed by our laboratory.Methods: Screening of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples sent to Oxford for HSV polymerase

J. Kurtz; P. Anslow

2003-01-01

345

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC, VOLUME 14: CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF PHOSGENE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report, discussing phosgene, is one of a series addressing the prevention of accidental releases of toxic chemicals. Phosgene, a highly reactive and corrosive liquid that boils at room temperature has an Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (lDLH) conctntration of 2 ppm, ...

346

Accidental ingestion of Ecstasy by a toddler: unusual cause for convulsion in a febrile child.  

PubMed Central

The case is reported of a toddler who presented with an apparent febrile convulsion. The final diagnosis was that of accidental ingestion of Ecstasy. The child made an uneventful recovery. Ecstasy toxicity should be added to the list of differential diagnoses in a child presenting with fever and an unexplained seizure.

Cooper, A J; Egleston, C V

1997-01-01

347

Osteogenesis Imperfecta and non-accidental injury: problems in diagnosis and management.  

PubMed

It has been noted in the literature that Osteogenesis Imperfecta is frequently mistaken for non-accidental injury. This article serves to illustrate the difficulty in differentiating between the two conditions and that they can occur concomitantly in one patient. PMID:7565189

Kasim, M S; Cheah, I; Sameon, H

1995-06-01

348

Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) Report for Nebraska: Cattleman Dies Due to Accidental Injection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A 38-year-old cattleman died as a result of an accidental injection of an animal antibiotic known as Micotil which has no known antidote. On March 8, 2003, the victim was preparing to vaccinate a heifer inside a barn. He was carrying a 12cc plastic dispos...

2003-01-01

349

Non-Accidental Head Injury in New Zealand: The Outcome of Referral to Statutory Authorities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To describe the outcome of referral to the statutory authorities for infants under 2 years with non-accidental head injury (NAHI), and to establish whether the authorities held sufficient information to develop a risk profile for these cases. Methods: Retrospective review of cases admitted to hospital in Auckland, New Zealand from 1988…

Kelly, Patrick; MacCormick, Judith; Strange, Rebecca

2009-01-01

350

An accidental case of aconite poisoning due to Kampo herbal medicine ingestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

An accidental case of aconite intoxication occurred after a patient took a therapeutic dose of Kampo herbal medicine containing Aconiti tuber, Uzu but had used the wrong decoction procedure. The poisoning was likely caused by an increased level of Aconitum alkaloids in the decoction; the patient developed aconite intoxication due to incomplete decoction. Aconitum alkaloid levels in the leftover solution

Takiyoshi Ono; Makiko Hayashida; Kyoko Uekusa; Cui Fan Lai; Hideyuki Hayakawa; Makoto Nihira; Youkichi Ohno

2009-01-01

351

Effectiveness of water spray mitigation systems for accidental releases of hydrogen fluoride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accidental releases of pressurized, superheated hydrogen fluoride (HF) can result in initially dense clouds which will typically contain a mixture of HF vapor, aerosol, and droplets. Previous experiments were performed by Amoco Oil Company and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (the Goldfish series in 1986) to study atmospheric dispersion of these HF clouds. The present study examines the effect of water

Neff

1989-01-01

352

Confiding in others and illness rate among spouses of suicide and accidental-death victims  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveyed 19 spouses (mean age 37.5 yrs) of suicide and accidental death victims (representing a 61.3% response rate of all relevant cases that occurred in 1982 in a metropolitan county) concerning their health and coping strategies approximately 1 yr after their spouse's death. Results show that the more Ss discussed their spouse's death with friends and the less that they

James W. Pennebaker; Robin C. OHeeron

1984-01-01

353

Accidental Federated Searching: Implementing Federated Searching in the Smaller Academic Library  

Microsoft Academic Search

Borrowing its title from and continuing in the vein of Rachel Gordon Singer's book, The Accidental Systems Librarian, this article explores issues raised during implementation of federated search in the smaller academic library. Smaller academic libraries have smaller budgets and are less likely to have the levels of information technology support required to undertake large scale electronic projects; however, these

Nina McHale

2007-01-01

354

Psychosocial factors and safety behaviour as predictors of accidental work injuries in farming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Farming is one of the most hazardous occupations in terms of the incidence and seriousness of accidental injuries. Research with other occupational groups has drawn attention to the role of psychosocial factors and stress. Such research needs to be extended to agriculture. Since stress may be a problem faced by farmers, there is a particular need to investigate the associations

David J. Glasscock; Kurt Rasmussen; Ole Carstensen; Ole N. Hansen

2006-01-01

355

Frequency and outcomes of accidental ingestion of tobacco products in young children.  

PubMed

This review assesses published literature related to frequency and outcomes associated with accidental ingestion of tobacco and pharmaceutical nicotine products among young children. Twenty-seven years of annual reports by American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) were analyzed for occurrence and outcomes associated with accidental ingestion events involving tobacco and pharmaceutical nicotine products among young children. Over a 27-year period, and of >50 million contacts for all categories combined, 217,340 contacts involving ingestion of tobacco products were reported. Approximately 89% involved children <6 years old. One fatality was reported, however the co-ingestion of both cigarettes and diazepam complicates an assessment of a contributory role of tobacco. The rate of major, non-fatal, outcomes was <0.1%. Data from AAPCC reports and other sources indicate the frequency of accidental poisoning events is relatively low for tobacco products compared with other products such as drugs, dietary supplements, cleaning products, and personal care products. These findings, along with those for pharmaceutical nicotine products, are consistent with published case reports and reviews, indicating that the frequency and severity of outcomes associated with accidental ingestion of tobacco products by young children appear to be relatively low. However, adults should keep tobacco products out of the reach of children. PMID:21821089

Appleton, Scott

2011-11-01

356

A retrospective case series of skeletal surveys in children with suspected non-accidental injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionThe skeletal survey is widely used as the principal radiological investigation in suspected physical abuse of infants and young children. However, the evidence on which current guidelines are based is limited, especially for siblings of index cases. We conducted a retrospective study to describe the characteristics of children who underwent skeletal surveys for suspected non-accidental injury (NAI) in the Edinburgh

Fiona Day; Sarah Clegg; Maeve McPhillips; Jacqueline Mok

2006-01-01

357

Accidental ingestion of foreign object: Systematic review, recommendations and report of a case  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the serious complications during a routine endodontic procedure is accidental ingestion\\/aspiration of the endodontic instruments, which can happen when proper isolation is not done. There are at present no clear guidelines whether foreign body ingestion in the gastrointestinal tract should be managed conservatively, endoscopically or surgically. A 5year old boy reported to the Department of Pediatric and Preventive

Karthik Venkataraghavan; A. Anantharaj; P. Praveen; S. Prathibha Rani; B. Murali Krishnan

2011-01-01

358

Fatal morphine poisoning in a child due to accidental oral ingestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of fatal intoxication of an 8 year old child due to accidental oral ingestion of morphine is presented. Following a tonsillectomy and release from the hospital the decedent was prescribed meperidine syrup 50 mg per teaspoon (tsp) to be taken 2 tsps every 4 h. A pharmacist when filling her prescription mistakenly dispensed Roxanol ® which contained 20

Alphonse Poklis; Leslie E. Edinboro; A. Shannon Wohler; Faruk Presswalla; David Barron

1995-01-01

359

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC, VOLUME 13: CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF METHYL ISOCYANATE  

EPA Science Inventory

This is one of a series of manuals addressing accidental releases of toxic chemicals. Methyl isocyanite (MIC) has an Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) concentration of 20 ppm, making it a substantially acute toxic hazard. Reducing the risk associated with an acciden...

360

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC, VOLUME 13: CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF METHYL ISOCYANATE  

EPA Science Inventory

This is one of a series of manuals addressing accidental releases of toxic chemicals. ethyl isocyanite (MIC) has an Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) concentration of 20 ppm, making it a substantially acute toxic hazard. Reducing the risk associated with an accident...

361

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC, VOLUME 15: CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF SULFUR TRIOXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report, discussing sulfur trioxide (SO3), is one of a series addressing the prevention of accidental releases of toxic chemicals. SO3, a clear oily liquid or solid at typical ambient conditions, has an Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) concentration of 20 ppm, w...

362

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOL. 15: CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF SULFUR TRIOXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report, discussing sulfur trioxide (SO3), is one of a series addressing the prevention of accidental releases of toxic chemicals. SO3, a clear oily liquid or solid at typical ambient conditions, has an Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) concentration of 20 ppm, w...

363

Assessment of methodologies for analysis of the dungeness B accidental aircraft crash risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) has requested Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to review the aircraft crash methodology for nuclear facilities that are being used in the United Kingdom (UK). The scope of the work included a review of one method utilized in the UK for assessing the potential for accidental airplane crashes into nuclear facilities (Task 1) and a

Jeffrey L. LaChance; Clifford W. Hansen

2010-01-01

364

Reducing the Risk of Accidental Death Due to Vehicle-Related Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) from motor vehicles cause several hundred accidental fatal poisonings annually in the United States. The circumstances that could lead to fatal poisonings in residential settings with motor vehicles as the source of CO were explored. The risk of death in a garage (volume = 90 m) and a single-family dwelling (400 m) was evaluated using

Linsey C. Marr; Glenn C. Morrison; William W. Nazaroff; Robert A. Harley

1998-01-01

365

A probabilistic risk assessment for accidental releases from nuclear power plants in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1986 accident with the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl has shown that severe accidents with a nuclear power plant can lead to a large scale contamination of Europe. At present, over 200 nuclear power reactors for commercial electricity production are operational in Europe. An integrated assessment of probabilistic cancer mortality risks due to possible accidental releases from the European

Harry Slaper; Roelf Blaauboer

1998-01-01

366

Recent developments in modelling mitigation of accidental releases of hazardous gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Process safety management guidelines suggest that a facility operator should investigate and document a plan for installing systems to detect, contain or mitigate accidental releases if such systems are not already in place. In addition, proposed EPA 112(r) regulations would require such investigation. This paper illustrates how mathematical modelling can aid such an evaluation. It describes how the HGSPRAY and

V. M. Fthenakis; D. N. Blewitt

1995-01-01

367

Water-spray systems for mitigating accidental indoor releases of water-soluble gasesq  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water-spray systems have been designed for mitigating accidental outdoor releases of water-soluble gases. This paper describes the new application of water systems to mitigating indoor releases. The performance of spray systems is studied by using models of atmospheric release and spray mitigation, having adjusted them for the indoor environment. A case study is presented of a mitigation system for a

Vasilis M. Fthenakis

368

Peripheral Zonal Hepatic Necrosis Caused by Accidental Ingestion of Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatal massive peripheral zonal hepatic necrosis developed in a 47-year-old man who accidentally ingested a solution of methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP) in dimethyl phtalate. Such solutions contain about 10% active oxygen. The clinical course was characterized by temporary cardiac arrest, abdominal burns, severe metabolic acidosis, rapid hepatic failure, rhabdomyolysis and respiratory insufficiency. A fatal outcome resulted 4 d afterwards

P. J. Karhunen; I. Ojanperä; K. Lalu; E. Vuori

1990-01-01

369

Vibration behavior and response to an accidental collision of SFT prototype in Qiandao Lake (China)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents free vibration analysis of the submerged floating tunnel (SFT) prototype, which has been designed to be built in Qiandao Lake (China). As an approximation the supporting effect of the tethers is omitted in the calculation of beam-like bending vibrations. As a case study, the response of the SFT prototype to an accidental collision by an object like

Shuangyin Zhang; Lei Wang; Youshi Hong

2010-01-01

370

Summary of accidental releases of radioactivity detected off the Nevada Test Site, 1963--1986  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the more than 450 underground nuclear explosives tests conducted at the Nevada Test Site from August 1963 (signing of the Limited Test Ban Treaty) through the end of 1986, only 23 accidentally released radioactivity that was detectable beyond the boundary of the NTS. Of these 23, 4 were detectable off the NTS only by aircraft while the remainder were

R. G. Patzer; W. G. Phillips; R. F. Grossman; S. C. Black; C. F. Costa

1988-01-01

371

Optical strength of weakly absorbing drops in intense light fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper considers possible mechanisms for the destruction (vaporization) of weakly absorbing water drops in intense laser radiation fields. Consideration is given to the effects of such processes as optical breakdown and stimulated Mandelstam-Brillouin scattering on drop vaporization parameters and to the effect of nonuniformity of optical field distribution in drops with radii up to 60 microns. It is shown

A. A. Zemlianov; V. A. Pogodaev; V. N. Pozhidaev; L. K. Chistiakova

1977-01-01

372

Timing analysis considering IR drop waveforms in power gating designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

IR drop noise has become a critical issue in advanced process technologies. Traditionally, timing analysis in which the IR drop noise is considered assumes a worst-case IR drop for each gate; however, using this assumption provides unduly pessimistic results. In this paper, we describe a timing analysis approach for power gating designs. To improve the accuracy of the gate delay

Shih-hung Weng; Yu-min Kuo; Shih-chieh Chang; Malgorzata Marek-sadowska

2008-01-01

373

Packet Dropping Policies for ATM and IP Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selective packet dropping policies have been used to reduce congestion and transmission of traffic that would inevitably be retransmitted. For data applications using best-effort services, packet dropping policies (PDPs) are congestion management mechanisms implemented at each intermediate node that decide, reactively or proactively, to drop packets to reduce congestion and free up precious buffer space. While the primary goal of

Miguel A. Labrador; Sujata Banerjee

1999-01-01

374

Reducing Pressure Drop in a Baghouse Using Flow Distributors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pressure drop of ladder vanes in a baghouse could be reduced by decreasing the vane number and adjusting the inclined angle of the vane. Two types of flow distributors were utilized to test pressure drop caused by the structure of a baghouse. The pressure drops were measured by an inclined manometer under various filtration velocities. The purpose of this

Chi-Jen Chen

2001-01-01

375

Dropping out from School. Policy Brief Number 8  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While initial access to education is increasing in many countries, drop out rates continue to be high. This seriously affects MDG and EFA goals around educational access. This briefing paper looks at the issue of dropping out from school. It is based on the CREATE Pathways to Access Research Monograph, "Dropping out from school: a cross country…

Hunt, Frances

2009-01-01

376

Terminal Velocity and Shape of Cloud and Precipitation Drops Aloft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The terminal velocity of cloud and precipitation size drops has been analyzed for three physically distinct flow regimes: 1) slip flow about a water drop treated as rigid sphere at negligible Reynolds numbers, 2) continuum flow past a water drop treated as a rigid sphere with a steady wake at low and intermediate Reynolds numbers, and 3) continuum flow around

K. V. Beard

1976-01-01

377

IR-Thermography of Evaporating Acoustically Levitated Drops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface temperature of evaporating acoustically levitated drops has been monitored by IR-thermography. The thermography system has been calibrated by simultaneous measurements with a thin thermocouple. The integral IR-emission coefficients of a few pure liquids have been derived. Evaporation processes of pure liquids and of binary mixtures of liquids have been studied with levitated drops. Using drop surface temperatures, we

R. Tuckermann; S. Bauerecker; H. K. Cammenga

2005-01-01

378

Jet drop enrichment of bacteria, virus, and dissolved organic material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four parameters that control the enrichment of bacteria in jet drops are bubble scavenging, drop size, drop position in the jet set, and the type of bacteria. Without the scavenging of bacteria as a bubble rises through the water it is doubtful that the observed enrichment factors, EF, greater than 1000 could be obtained. There is a maximum in EF

Duncan C. Blanchard

1978-01-01

379

Comparison of Polarimetric Radar Drop Size Distribution Retrieval Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, two physically based algorithms, the ''beta'' ( ) method and the ''constrained-gamma'' method, have been proposed for retrieving the governing parameters of the gamma drop size distribution (DSD) from polarimetric radar measurements. The method treats the drop axis ratio as a variable and computes drop shape and DSD parameters from radar reflectivity (Z), differential reflectivity ( ZDR), and specific

Edward A. Brandes; Guifu Zhang; J. Vivekanandan

2004-01-01

380

Optimal Generator Scheduling using Probabilistic Demand Scenarios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a new method to determine an optimal generator scheduling using probabilistic demand scenarios. The demand scenarios are created statistically as a set of load curves by the past demand data. Covariance matrix is used to reconstruct the distribution of the demand scenarios. Unit commitment calculation is executed for each demand scenario and the operation cost is estimated. Optimal generator scheduling is selected by the expected value of the unit price with including the additional cost to compensate the demand variation. The risk of the scenarios is also estimated to select the optimal generation scenario. The advantage of this method is that the optimum generator scheduling can be calculated in the present load dispatching system since the existing scheduling algorism can be easily adopted with a minimum modification.

Murakami, Yoshiki; Kobayashi, Takenori; Omata, Kazuya; Takahashi, Hirofumi; Kusano, Hideo

381

Improved Refractometer for Measuring Temperatures of Drops  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Dual Rainbow refractometer is an enhanced version of the Rainbow refractometer, which is added to, and extends the capabilities of, a phase Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA). A PDPA utilizes pairs of laser beams to measure individual components of velocity and sizes of drops in a spray. The Rainbow-refractometer addition measures the temperatures of individual drops. The designs of prior versions of the Rainbow refractometer have required substantial modifications of PDPA transmitting optics, plus dedicated lasers as sources of illumination separate from, and in addition to, those needed for PDPA measurements. The enhancement embodied in the Dual Rainbow refractometer eliminates the need for a dedicated laser and confers other advantages as described below. A dedicated laser is no longer needed because the Dual Rainbow refractometer utilizes one of the pairs of laser beams already present in a PDPA. Hence, the design of the Dual Rainbow refractometer simplifies the task of upgrading PDPA hardware to enable measurement of temperature. Furthermore, in a PDPA/Dual Rainbow refractometer system, a single argon-ion laser with three main wavelengths can be used to measure the temperatures, sizes, and all three components of velocity (in contradistinction to only two components of velocity in a prior PDPA/Rainbow refractometer system). In order to enable the Dual Rainbow refractometer to utilize a pair of PDPA laser beams, it was necessary to (1) find a location for the refractometer receiver, such that the combined rainbow patterns of two laser beams amount to a pattern identical to that of a single beam, (2) adjust the polarization of the two beams to obtain the strongest rainbow pattern, and (3) find a location for the PDPA receiver to obtain a linear relationship between the measured phase shift and drop size.

Naqwi, Amir A.

2004-01-01

382

Dark radiation and interacting scenarios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An extra dark radiation component can be present in the universe in the form of sterile neutrinos, axions or other very light degrees of freedom which may interact with the dark matter sector. We derive here the cosmological constraints on the dark radiation abundance, on its effective velocity and on its viscosity parameter from current data in dark radiation-dark matter coupled models. The cosmological bounds on the number of extra dark radiation species do not change significantly when considering interacting schemes. We also find that the constraints on the dark radiation effective velocity are degraded by an order of magnitude while the errors on the viscosity parameter are a factor of two larger when considering interacting scenarios. If future Cosmic Microwave Background data are analyzed assuming a noninteracting model but the dark radiation and the dark matter sectors interact in nature, the reconstructed values for the effective velocity and for the viscosity parameter will be shifted from their standard 1/3 expectation, namely ceff2=0.34-0.003+0.006 and cvis2=0.29-0.001+0.002 at 95% C.L. for the future COrE mission data.

Diamanti, Roberta; Giusarma, Elena; Mena, Olga; Archidiacono, Maria; Melchiorri, Alessandro

2013-03-01

383

Normal modes of a compound drop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The modes are characterized by their frequency, the attendant displacement of fluid boundaries, and the flow pressure fields within the fluids. The drops consist of three fluids; a core fluid, a fluid shell surrounding the core, and a host fluid surrounding the shell. These fluids are assumed to be inviscid and incompressible, and the core and the shell to be concentric. The theory is obtained by linearization of the equations of fluid motion to the lowest order of nonlinearity that yields the normal modes. Numerical values of mode frequencies and the associated relative displacements of the fluid boundaries are presented for several specific systems, and the results compared with observations.

Saffren, M.; Elleman, D. D.; Rhim, W. K.

1982-01-01

384

Drop Drawers 1.5.8  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This nifty shareware program from Sig Software places pull-out/ snap-shut "drawers" on the sides of users' screens, which can store items for easy access. In addition to storing text (which can be inserted into any program via keyboard shortcuts), users can store email addresses, URLs, thumbnails, sounds, movies, aliases to frequently used files, and more. The help documentation is easy to understand, and earlier versions of the program are available in Japanese, Italian, French, German, and Traditional Chinese. Drop Drawers is shareware, and a license costs $20. Very handy.

2001-01-01

385

Naval Waste Package Drop With Emplacement Pallet  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this calculation was to determine the structural responses of the Emplacement Pallet and Naval Long Waste Package (WP) to drops from their highest possible lift heights. The scope of this document was limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of maximum stress intensities. The Naval Long WP is classified as Quality Level 1 (Ref 12, page 7, Table 1). The Emplacement Pallet is classified as Quality Level 2 (Ref. 19, page 7, Table 1). Therefore, this calculation is subject to the requirements of the Quality Assurance Requirements and Description (Ref. 11). AP-3.12Q, Calculations, was used to perform the calculation and develop the document (Ref. 3).

D.G. McLenzie

2005-08-04

386

Potential Drop Mapping for Corrosion Monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study evaluates the accuracy with which the depth of defects due to corrosion/erosion on the far surface can be estimated by means of low-frequency Potential Drop measurements, as a function of defect size and probe geometry. A novel array probe configuration, in which the injecting and measuring electrodes are adjacent to each other, is suggested and its performance compared with that of the electrode arrangement most commonly used in commercial systems. The results of the Finite Element model are validated experimentally.

Sposito, G.; Cawley, P.; Nagy, P. B.

2009-03-01

387

Chimpanzee Droppings Lead Scientists to Evolutionary Discovery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interrupted case study focuses on the research of Dr. Beatrice Hahn, who investigates DNA sequences in chimpanzee droppings in order to explore the origins of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Students first consider the types of data that can be gained through collecting chimpanzee feces and studying the behavior of these animals. Students then apply this information to learn more about microevolution when they compare DNA sequences. Finally, students learn about ELISA tests and consider the role of basic and applied science. This case study is appropriate for an introductory biology course for non-majors or majors.

Kosal, Erica F.

2008-01-01

388

Equilibrium of an elastically confined liquid drop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a liquid drop is confined between an elastic plate and a rigid substrate, it spreads spontaneously due to the effects of interfacial forces, eventually reaching an equilibrium shape determined by the balance between elastic and capillary effects. We provide an analytical theory for the static shape of the sheet and the extent of liquid spreading and show that our experiments are quantitatively consistent with the theory. The theory is relevant for the first step of painting when a brush is brought down on to canvas. More mundanely, it allows us to understand the stiction of microcantilevers to wafer substrates occurring in microelectromechanical fabrication processes.

Kwon, Hyuk-Min; Kim, Ho-Young; Puëll, Jérôme; Mahadevan, L.

2008-05-01

389

Predicting Pressure Drop In Porous Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Theory developed to predict drop in pressure based on drag of individual fibers. Simple correlation method for data also developed. Helps in predicting flow characteristics of many strain-isolation pad (SIP) glow geometries in Shuttle Orbiter tile system. Also helps in predicting venting characteristics of tile assemblies during ascent and leakage of hot gas under tiles during descent. Useful in study of mechanics of flows through fibrous and porous media, and procedures applicable to purged fiberglass insulation, dialysis filters, and other fibrous and porous media.

Lawing, Pierce L.

1990-01-01

390

The unfolding: scenario planning in nursing.  

PubMed

An interdisciplinary consortium organized a group to explore the meaning and the future of nursing in South Dakota using scenario planning. This column provides a general description of the four scenarios that emerged, some observations about how they might evolve, comments on their implications, and first-person stories, as told by fictitious residents. The process of scenario planning is connected to nursing science by explicating how five lessons of scenario planning are linked with Parse's human becoming concepts of creative imagining, glimpsing the paradoxical, and affirming personal becoming. PMID:12593311

Woude, Diana Vander; Damgaard, Gloria; Hegge, Margaret J; Soholt, Deb; Bunkers, Sandra Schmidt

2003-01-01

391

PROGRAM DROP: A computer program for prediction of evaporation from freely falling multicomponent drops  

SciTech Connect

PROGRAM DROP consists of a series of FORTRAN routine which together are used to model the evaporation of a freely falling, multicomponent drop composed of an arbitrary number of volatile species and a single nonvolatile, inert component. The physics underlying the model are clearly identified, and the model`s relationship to previous work in the literature is described. Test cases are used to illustrate the viability of the model and to highlight its potential usefulness in the accurate prediction of multicomponent droplet vaporization in a variety of applications.

Gavin, P.M. [Gavin Consulting, Newark, OH (United States)

1996-12-01

392

Electrohydrodynamic Interaction of a Pair of Spherical Drops  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The axisymmetric electrohydrodynamic interaction between two spherical emulsion drops has been examined, using the leaky dielectric model to represent the constitutive behavior of the liquid phases. The results follow from the general solutions in bispherical coordinates to the Laplace equation for the electric potential and the Stokes equations for the velocity field. For drops of similar composition, the electrical interactions induced between the drops by the imposition of the electric field are always attractive, meaning they favor coalescence of the drop pair. The hydrodynamic interactions, however, are not always favorable and, indeed, are shown in certain circumstances to drive the drops apart.

Erker, J. A.; Baygents, J. C.

1996-01-01

393

A case against the term consider the IR drop  

SciTech Connect

The term IR drop is a part of everyday vocabulary of cathodic protection personnel. The term consider the IR drop has been a source of controversy concerning the inclusion or exclusion of the IR drop component of pipe to soil potential measurements in the determination of effective cathodic protection. Throughout the controversy, the concept of IR drop has been assumed to be valid and this has been the assumption during past years. However, the case presented in this paper indicates that a technically valid Ohmic IR drop can exist only in the metallic portion of the cathodic protection system.

Riordan, M.A. (Corrosion Control Technologists, Houston, TX (US))

1990-04-01

394

Quantitative Urine Culture by Surface Drop Method  

PubMed Central

A simple drop method for quantitative urine culture was developed and tested in comparison with standard methods for bacterial urinary counts. In a group of 452 urines all yielding Escherichia coli, 74 showed counts of more than 100,000 colonies, and 16 showed counts between 10,000 and 100,000 colonies per ml. Of these 90 urines, 3 of the 16 in the doubtful group were false negative with the drop method. Another 7 urines in the total number of 452 showed discrepancies, but, because all would have been repeated, the second urine sample would have corrected the primary result. The ease and cleanliness of the method render it a suitable technique for screening normal and patient populations. The method was applied on a population sample of 1,330 persons from whom unwashed mid-stream urine was collected and yielded figures comparable with results published in the literature. The method discriminates between steps of 10-fold difference, whereas more accurate count methods show a standard error of ±25% and are reliable in a double dilution series. Images

Lorrier, Johanna C.; Valkenburg, Hans A.

1969-01-01

395

Photoinduced Capillary Motion of Drops and Bubbles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bubbles and drops are inhering in many liquid processes on Earth (microfluidics, MEMS technology, flows through porous media etc.) and in space laboratory under microgram conditions (preparation composite materials, degassing of liquefied matter, recycling of waste material). They could have affected these processes significantly. Therefore the study of behavior these capillary objects is necessary in order to develop the efficient methods of manipulation of them in situ. The best solution of such problem is the use of surface forces, which are aroused when the surface tension locally is departed from its equilibrium value as a result of thermal, concentration or electrical perturbations at interface. Among the known methods of control of surface tension the most promising is the thermal one. However, the generation of motion of capillary objects by the thermal gradients imposed in liquid bulk (or along solid substrate) by conduction is a passive method, which requires large amount of energy. In this paper the new method of generation of motion of bubbles and drops in microchannels or Hele-Show cells are reported. This method based on photoinduced solutocapillary convection discovered by Bezuglyi.

Bezuglyi, B. A.; Ivanova, N. A.

2002-11-01

396

MIOSAT Mission Scenario and Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MIOSAT ("Mssione Ottica su microSATellite") is a low-cost technological / scientific microsatellite mission for Earth Observation, funded by Italian Space Agency (ASI) and managed by a Group Agreement between Rheinmetall Italia - B.U. Spazio - Contraves as leader and Carlo Gavazzi Space as satellite manufacturer. Several others Italians Companies, SME and Universities are involved in the development team with crucial roles. MIOSAT is a microsatellite weighting around 120 kg and placed in a 525 km altitude sun-synchronuos circular LEO orbit. The microsatellite embarks three innovative optical payloads: Sagnac multi spectral radiometer (IFAC-CNR), Mach Zehender spectrometer (IMM-CNR), high resolution pancromatic camera (Selex Galileo). In addition three technological experiments will be tested in-flight. The first one is an heat pipe based on Marangoni effect with high efficiency. The second is a high accuracy Sun Sensor using COTS components and the last is a GNSS SW receiver that utilizes a Leon2 processor. Finally a new generation of 28% efficiency solar cells will be adopted for the power generation. The platform is highly agile and can tilt along and cross flight direction. The pointing accuracy is in the order of 0,1° for each axe. The pointing determination during images acquisition is <0,02° for the axis normal to the boresight and 0,04° for the boresight. This paper deals with MIOSAT mission scenario and definition, highlighting trade-offs for mission implementation. MIOSAT mission design has been constrained from challenging requirements in terms of satellite mass, mission lifetime, instrument performance, that have implied the utilization of satellite agility capability to improve instruments performance in terms of S/N and resolution. The instruments provide complementary measurements that can be combined in effective ways to exploit new applications in the fields of atmosphere composition analysis, Earth emissions, antropic phenomena, etc. The Mission is currently in phase B and the launch is planned for 2011.

Agostara, C.; Dionisio, C.; Sgroi, G.; di Salvo, A.

2008-08-01

397

Characterization of biofluids prepared by sessile drop formation.  

PubMed

Sessile drop formation, also called drop deposition, has been studied as a potential medical diagnostic, but the effects of complex biofluid rheology on the final deposition pattern are not well understood. We studied two model biofluids, blood plasma and synovial fluid, when deposited onto slightly hydrophilic substrates forming a contact angle of 50-90°. Drops were imaged during the evaporation process and geometric properties of the drop, such as contact angle and drop height, were calculated from the images. The resulting dried biofluid drops were then examined using light microscopy and Raman spectroscopy to assess morphological and chemical composition of the dried drop. The effect of substrate contact angle (surface wetting) and fluid concentration was examined. We found that when biofluids are deposited onto slightly hydrophilic surfaces, with a contact angle of 50-90°, a ring-shaped deposit was formed. Analysis of the drying drop's geometric properties indicates that biofluid dynamics follow the piling model of drop formation, as proposed by Deegan et al. The final deposition pattern varied with substrate surface and concentration, as shown by light microscopy photos of dried drops. The chemical composition of the outer ring was minimally affected by substrate surface, but the spatial heterogeneity of protein distribution within the ring varied with concentration. These results indicate that biofluid drop deposition produces ring-shaped deposits which can be examined by multiple analytical techniques. PMID:24757707

Esmonde-White, Karen A; Esmonde-White, Francis W L; Morris, Michael D; Roessler, Blake J

2014-05-01

398

Thermocapillary Migration and Interactions of Bubbles and Drops  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments were performed aboard the LMS mission of the Space Shuttle in summer 1996 in the BDPU on isolated air bubbles and Fluorinert FC-75 drops as well as on interacting bubbles/drops migrating in a temperature gradient in a Dow-Corning DC-200 series silicone oil of nominal viscosity 10 centistokes. The data, recorded in the form of videotape images as well as cine images in selected runs, have been analyzed. The behavior of the isolated objects is consistent with earlier observations made aboard the IML-2 mission while the range of Reynolds and Marangoni numbers has been extended substantially over that in the IML-2 experiments. Large bubbles were found to be slightly deformed to an oblate shape while no deformation could be detected in the case of similarly large drops. Results on interacting drops and bubbles display interesting and unanticipated features. In some experiments, drops are found to follow a three-dimensional trajectory. In others, trailing drops and bubbles are found to move off the axis of the cell when migrating behind a leading drop or bubble which moves along the axis. In this type of run, if the trailing drop is sufficiently large, it is found to pass the leading drop. Finally, behavior similar to that observed in IML-2, namely that a small leading drop slows the movement of a larger trailing drop moving along the cell axis, was observed as well.

Subramaniam, R. Shankar; Balasubramaniam, R.; Wozniak, G.; Hadland, P. H.

1999-01-01

399

Investigation of liquid-liquid drop coalescence using tomographic PIV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-speed tomographic PIV was used to investigate the coalescence of drops placed on a liquid/liquid interface; the coalescence of a single drop and of a drop in the presence of an adjacent drop (side-by-side drops) was investigated. The viscosity ratio between the drop and surrounding fluids was 0.14, the Ohnesorge number (Oh = ?d/(?d?D)1/2) was 0.011, and Bond numbers (Bo = ( ? d - ? s ) gD 2/ ?) were 3.1-7.5. Evolving volumetric velocity fields of the full coalescence process allowed for quantification of the velocity scales occurring over different time scales. For both single and side-by-side drops, the coalescence initiates with an off-axis film rupture and film retraction speeds an order of magnitude larger than the collapse speed of the drop fluid. This is followed by the formation and propagation of an outward surface wave along the coalescing interface with wavelength of approximately 2D. For side-by-side drops, the collapse of the first drop is asymmetric due to the presence of the second drop and associated interface deformation. Overall, tomographic PIV provides insight into the flow physics and inherent three-dimensionalities in the coalescence process that would not be achievable with flow visualization or planar PIV only.

Ortiz-Dueñas, Cecilia; Kim, Jungyong; Longmire, Ellen K.

2010-07-01

400

The Oil Drop Experiment: How Did Millikan Decide What Was an Appropriate Drop?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The oil drop experiment is considered an important contribution to the understanding of modern physics and chemistry. The objective of this investigation is to study and contrast the views and understanding with respect to the experiment of physicists or philosophers of science with those of authors of physics or chemistry textbooks and…

Niaz, Mansoor

2003-01-01

401

A high-drop hole-type photonic crystal add-drop filter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the effect of total internal reflection (TIR) and photonic band gap, a new type of hexagonal-lattice hole-type silicon photonic crystal add-drop filter is proposed with a large circular hole as inner ring. The single mode operation is realized by compressing the two rows of photonic crystal above and below the line defect waveguide. Two-dimensional (2D) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is then applied to investigate the impacts of side length of inner ring and coupling strength on its drop efficiency. It is also fairly compared with the traditional inner ring structure composed of hexagonal-lattice holes. The results show that the proposed structure can offer higher spectral selectivity than the traditional one. Two channel wavelengths of 1.425 ?m and 1.45 ?m can be simultaneously dropped at corresponding ports with drop efficiency of more than 90% and quality factor of 900 in the proposed configuration when the width of bus waveguide, the side length of inner ring and the coupling strength are 0.8 ?3 a, 4 a and 0, respectively, where a is the lattice constant.

Jiang, Jun-zhen; Qiang, Ze-xuan; Zhang, Hao; Zheng, Yan-min; Qiu, Yi-shen

2014-01-01

402

Community Mental Health Services: Dropping-In and Dropping-Out.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of studies have examined variables that discriminate individuals who drop out of mental health programs. However, relatively little attention has been focused on determining characteristics of individuals who fail to follow through after their initial contact with mental health services. This study was designed to provide a profile of…

Lonigan, Christopher J.; Muzekari, Louis H.

403

The evolution of the IPCC's emissions scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

The IPCC's emissions scenarios form the basis for the majority of long-term climate change projections, including those of the current Fourth Assessment Report. The main characteristics of the IPCC's three scenario series – published in 1990, 1992 and 2000 – have changed significantly over time: titles, classification, assumptions and methods have all changed. This article analyses the evolution of the

Bastien Girod; Arnim Wiek; Harald Mieg; Mike Hulme

2009-01-01

404

Mobility Modeling of Outdoor Scenarios for MANETs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobility of users significantly impacts performance of a mobile ad-hoc network. Most existing simulation tools offer only a few random mobility models, which poorly reflect user movements in outdoor scenarios. For example, they do not consider restrictions of a spatial environment. In this paper, we describe a comprehensive and extensible approach to model mobility of users in outdoor scenarios. It

Illya Stepanov; Pedro Jose Marron; Kurt Rothermel

2005-01-01

405

Layering Social Interaction Scenarios on Environmental Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

For an integrated simulation such as the natural environment affected by human society, it is indispensable to provide an integrated simulator that incorporates multiple computational models. We proposed a multi-layer socio-environmental simulation by layering the social interaction scenario on environmental simulation. For this simulation, we connect two different systems. One is a scenario description language Q, which is suitable for

Daisuke Torii; Toru Ishida; Stéphane Bonneaud; Alexis Drogoul

2004-01-01

406

Fusing a Heterogeneous Alert Stream into Scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algorithm for fusing the alerts produced by multiple heterogeneous intrusion detection systems is pre- sented. The algorithm runs in realtime, combining the alerts into scenarios; each is composed of a sequence of alerts produced by a single actor or organization. The software is capable of discovering scenarios even if stealthy attack methods, such as forged IP addresses or long

Oliver Dain; Robert K. Cunningham

2001-01-01

407

Adaptation Scenarios for New Media Artworks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artists in new media arts explore the possibilities offered by digital technologies to create adaptive and interactive new media artworks integrating audio and video. In this paper, we are interested in adaptation mechanisms for such artworks and we focus on the design and implementation of adaptation scenarios. We formalize adaptation scenarios by using the event-condition-action paradigm and we introduce the

Anis Ouali; Brigitte Kerhervé; Odile Marcotte; Paul Landon

2006-01-01

408

Global Biodiversity Scenarios for the Year 2100  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scenarios of changes in biodiversity for the year 2100 can now be developed based on scenarios of changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide, climate, vegetation, and land use and the known sensitivity of biodiversity to these changes. This study identified a ranking of the importance of drivers of change, a ranking of the biomes with respect to expected changes, and the

Osvaldo E. Sala; F. Stuart Chapin III; Juan J. Armesto; Eric Berlow; Janine Bloomfield; Rodolfo Dirzo; Elisabeth Huber-Sanwald; Laura F. Huenneke; Robert B. Jackson; David M. Lodge; Harold A. Mooney; N. LeRoy Poff; Martin T. Sykes; Brian H. Walker; Diana H. Wall

2000-01-01

409

Molecular Diagnostic Analysis of Outbreak Scenarios  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the current laboratory assignment, technical aspects of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are integrated in the context of six different bacterial outbreak scenarios. The "Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus Sequence" (ERIC) PCR was used to analyze different outbreak scenarios. First, groups of 2-4 students determined optimal…

Morsink, M. C.; Dekter, H. E.; Dirks-Mulder, A.; van Leeuwen, W. B.

2012-01-01

410

Architectures for Developing Multiuser, Immersive Learning Scenarios  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiuser immersive learning scenarios hold strong potential for lifelong learning as they can support the acquisition of higher order skills in an effective, efficient, and attractive way. Existing virtual worlds, game development platforms, and game engines only partly cater for the proliferation of such learning scenarios as they are often…

Nadolski, Rob J.; Hummel, Hans G. K.; Slootmaker, Aad; van der Vegt, Wim

2012-01-01

411

Sessile drops: spreading versus evaporation-condensation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The equations that govern the dynamics of the liquid-vapor interface and contact line of a sessile drop in the spreading and evaporation-condensation regimes are derived. During spreading, the liquid-vapor interface and contact line convect with the liquid and are therefore material. In contrast, when evaporation or condensation occurs, the liquid-vapor interface and contact line migrate relative to the liquid and are therefore nonmaterial. For spreading, the evolution equations consist of kinematical constraints on the normal velocities of the liquid-vapor interface and contact line along with the normal and tangential components of the constitutively augmented standard force balances on the liquid-vapor interface and along the contact line. The tangential components of the standard force balances on the liquid-vapor interface and at the contact line, being solely dissipative, are automatically satisfied at equilibrium. The normal component of the standard force balance on the liquid-vapor interface reduces to the Young-Laplace equation, whereas its counterpart along the contact line simplifies to the generalization, accounting for line energy, of the Young equation mentioned by Gibbs. In the presence of evaporation or condensation, the kinematical constraints are no longer valid. Their absence is compensated for by the normal components of the configurational force balances on the liquid-vapor interface and along the contact line. Hence, away from equilibrium and in the presence of dissipation, a complete description of the liquid-vapor interface and contact line of a volatile drop involves the normal and tangential components of the standard force balances along with the normal components of the configurational force balances. At equilibrium, the normal component of the configurational force balance on the liquid-vapor interface simplifies to the condition for chemical equilibrium requiring the continuity of the chemical potential, whereas its counterpart along the contact line, being entirely dissipative, holds trivially. Comparison with recently proposed kinetic laws for the liquid-vapor interface and contact line of a drop is provided.

Fried, Eliot; Jabbour, Michel

2014-04-01

412

Stress drop and strength drop: faulting dynamics of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seismic stress drop (EG) was estimated by dynamic wave inversion of slip produced by the September 21, 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan earthquake (Mw 7.6) at large slip region (10 m) of northern part of the fault [Ma et al., 2001], which show a large value around 40 MJ/m2. On the other hand, two data sets of temperature loggings both from shallow borehole in 2000 [Tanaka et al., 2002, 2006] and deep borehole in 2005 [Kano et al., 2006] penetrating Chelung-pu fault zone show positive thermal anomaly right on the slip zones. Considering the thermal conductivity directly measured from the retrieved core of the TCDP, we suggest that the temperature anomaly observed in the deeper hole might be resulted from the thermal conductivity fluctuation [Tanaka et al., in submission]. Thus, only the temperature logs from shallow hole was used to estimate dynamic friction during faulting [Tanaka et al., 2006]. Strength drop during faulting is estimated by thermal pressurization modeling of the slip zone materials recovered from deep borehole. Most of the parameters necessary for thermal pressurization calculations are obtained directory from recovered core and geophysical logging. Assuming some parameters, complete strength drop is estimated at the slip distance of 5 m, implying dynamic friction is close to zero after 5 m slip. In most of the calculation, dynamic energy for friction (Edf) is estimated to be extremely low, 1 to 10 MJ/m2 at the slip zone of 1 km depth. The amounts of stress drop from seismic wave inversion and strength drop from thermal pressurization is almost identical, around 12 MPa. Comparison between the two dynamic models lead to a conclusion that, if we consider the real value of fracture energy is presented as EG - Edf, more than 70 percent of the energy was consumed by fracturing in the slip zone at the depth of 1 km.

Hidemi, T.; Kuo-Fong, M.

2006-12-01

413

Dropped head syndrome: diagnosis and management  

PubMed Central

Dropped head syndrome (DHS) is a relatively rare condition, with a broad differential diagnosis. This deformity has significant implications on the health and quality of life of affected individuals. While surgery seems to be an obvious therapeutic option, there is a paucity of information on surgical intervention with no clear consensus on an optimal approach or timing. We present a case of DHS in a young woman to illustrate this condition, and review the current literature. Although at present the only definitive solution for correction and stabilization of DHS is surgical intervention involving multilevel instrumented fixation and fusion, this condition requires a persistent medical workup and treatment of reversible causes before surgical intervention is contemplated.

Martin, Allan R.; Reddy, Rajesh; Fehlings, Michael G.

2011-01-01

414

Capture of cenospheres by evaporating drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capture efficiency of evaporating cloud drops between 60 and 100 ?m radius has been measured for 2 ?m radius lithium carbonate hollow particles (cenospheres). Since the effective particle density is low compared to a 2-?m solid particle the cenospheres have reduced sedimentation speeds and a negligible inertial capture efficiency. The particles are sufficiently large ( Kn = 0.03) so that the phoretic theory in the slip regime ( Kn < 0.1) should apply. The measured capture efficiencies are significantly above the theoretical computations. There is some evidence to suggest that thermophoresis may be underestimated in the computations. This assessment is contigent on attributing the discrepancy between theory and experiment to the theoretical description of phoresis or its application to our experiment.

Leong, K. H.; Ochs, Harry T.; Beard, K. V.

415

The dynamics of free liquid drops  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The behavior of rotating and oscillating free liquid drops was studied by many investigators theoretically for many years. More recent numerical treatments have yielded predictions which are yet to be verified experimentally. The purpose is to report the results of laboratory work as well as that of the experiments carried out in space during the flight of Spacelab 3, and to compare it with the existing theoretical studies. Ground-based experiments were attempted as a first approximation to the ideal boundary conditions used by the theoretical treatments by neutralizing the overwhelming effects of the Earth's gravitational field with an outside supporting liquid and with the use of levitation technology. The viscous and inertial loading of such a suspending fluid was found to profoundly effect the results, but the information thus gathered has emphasized the uniqueness of the experimental data obtained in the low-gravity environment of space.

Wang, T. G.; Trinh, E. H.; Croonquist, A. P.; Elleman, D. D.

1988-01-01

416

Picoinjection of microfluidic drops without metal electrodes.  

PubMed

Existing methods for picoinjecting reagents into microfluidic drops require metal electrodes integrated into the microfluidic chip. The integration of these electrodes adds cumbersome and error-prone steps to the device fabrication process. We have developed a technique that obviates the needs for metal electrodes during picoinjection. Instead, it uses the injection fluid itself as an electrode, since most biological reagents contain dissolved electrolytes and are conductive. By eliminating the electrodes, we reduce device fabrication time and complexity, and make the devices more robust. In addition, with our approach, the injection volume depends on the voltage applied to the picoinjection solution; this allows us to rapidly adjust the volume injected by modulating the applied voltage. We demonstrate that our technique is compatible with reagents incorporating common biological compounds, including buffers, enzymes, and nucleic acids. PMID:24797680

O'Donovan, Brian; Tran, Tuan; Sciambi, Adam; Abate, Adam

2014-01-01

417

Gelatinous drop-like corneal dystrophy.  

PubMed

Gelatinous drop-like corneal dystrophy (GDLD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, clinically characterized by grayish corneal deposits of amyloid and by severely impaired visual acuity. Most patients require corneal transplantation. We identified the gene responsible for GDLD, tumor-associated calcium signal transducer 2 (TACSTD2), by positional cloning and detected 4 disease-causing mutations in Japanese patients with GDLD. During the positional cloning process, strong linkage disequilibrium was observed between GDLD and some markers in the critical region. More than 90% of GDLD patients possessed the same haplotype with a Q118X mutation in TACSTD2. This may be the result of a founder effect and reflects that most GDLD patients are Japanese. TACSTD2 deleterious mutations resulted in destabilized tight junction proteins, including claudins, ZO-1, and occludin. These findings may explain why the corneal epithelium barrier function is impaired in GDLD patients. PMID:23038033

Tsujikawa, Motokazu

2012-11-01

418

Bubble and Drop Nonlinear Dynamics experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Bubble and Drop Nonlinear Dynamics (BDND) experiment was designed to improve understanding of how the shape and behavior of bubbles respond to ultrasound pressure. By understanding this behavior, it may be possible to counteract complications bubbles cause during materials processing on the ground. This 12-second sequence came from video downlinked from STS-94, July 5 1997, MET:3/19:15 (approximate). The BDND guest investigator was Gary Leal of the University of California, Santa Barbara. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced fluid dynamics experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (189KB JPEG, 1293 x 1460 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) The MPG from which this composite was made is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300163.html.

2003-01-01

419

Gibbs free energy of liquid drops on conical fibers.  

PubMed

Small drops can move spontaneously on conical fibers. As a drop moves along the cone, it must change shape to maintain a constant volume, and thus, it must change its surface energy. Simultaneously, the exposed surface area of the underlying cone must also change. The associated surface energies should balance each other, and the drop should stop moving when it reaches a location where the free energy is a minimum. In this paper, a minimum Gibbs free energy analysis has been performed to predict where a drop will stop on a conical fiber. To obtain the Gibbs free energies of a drop at different locations of a conical fiber, the theoretical expressions for the shape of a droplet on a conical fiber are derived by extending Carroll's equations for a drop on a cylindrical fiber. The predicted Gibbs free energy exhibits a minimum along the length of the cone. For a constant cone angle, as the contact angle between the liquid and the cone increases, the drop will move toward the apex of the cone. Likewise, for a constant contact angle, as the cone angle increases, the drop moves toward the apex. Experiments in which water and dodecane were placed on glass cones verify these dependencies. Thus, the final location of a drop on a conical fiber can be predicted on the basis of the geometry and surface energy of the cone, the surface tension and volume of the liquid, and the original location where the drop was deposited. PMID:21863839

Michielsen, Stephen; Zhang, Jinlin; Du, Jinmei; Lee, Hoon Joo

2011-10-01

420

Effect of neighboring perturbations on drop coalescence at an interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coalescence at a quiescent silicone oil/water glycerine interface was investigated for water/glycerine drops with Bond number ~7 and Ohnesorge number = 0.01 using high-speed imaging and time-resolved tomographic particle image velocimetry. In addition to a single drop case, three perturbation cases were considered corresponding with a second drop, a solid particle wetted in oil, and a solid particle wetted in water/glycerine placed adjacent to the coalescing drop. Each perturbing object caused an initial tilting of the drop, influencing its rupture location and eventual collapse behavior. Once tilted, drops typically ruptured near their lowest vertical position which was located either toward or away from the perturbing object depending on the case. The initial retraction speed of the ruptured film was higher for drops initially tilted at significant angles, and the local variations in retraction speed correlated well with the expected variations in local film thickness. The drop fluid always collapsed away from the drop axis in the direction of the rupture location in all unperturbed or perturbed cases. In the case of a drop next to a particle wetted in water/glycerine, the collapsing fluid travelled away from the particle, and the downward propagating vortex ring which developed was similar to that resulting from an unperturbed drop rupture. By contrast, the drop fluid collapsed toward either a second drop or a particle wetted in oil. The resulting vortex rings were more asymmetric, and viscous interaction between the particle and collapsing fluid hindered the downward motion of the associated ring.

Bordoloi, Ankur Deep; Longmire, Ellen K.

2012-06-01

421

SAFRR Tsunami Scenario: Economic Impacts and Resilience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Business interruption (BI) losses for the SAFRR tsunami scenario are derived from the forecasted physical damages of about 100 million at the Ports of Los Angeles (LA) and Long Beach (LB), and 700 million in marina damages, and 2 billion in inundated property damages along the California coast. Economic impacts are measured by the reduction in California's gross domestic product (GDP). The analysis involves several steps. First, estimates are made of immediate business interruption losses due to physical damage to facilities or to disruption of production. Second, total economic impacts (consisting of both direct and indirect effects) are measured by a general equilibrium (quantity and price multiplier effects) of lost production in other sectors through ripple effects upstream and downstream along the supply chain. Third, many types of resilience are applied to demonstrate their potential reductions of the impacts. At the Ports of LA and LB, a two-day port shutdown, cargo losses, and additional terminal downtimes would expose 1.2 billion of trade (import and export) value associated with over 4 billion of BI losses. The sectors potentially most affected by trade disruptions are leather, metal, and motor vehicle manufacturing. Excess capacity, inventories, export conversion, and conservation could reduce the direct trade impacts by 85%. Production recapture alone (including clearing the backlog of waiting ships) could reduce BI losses by 85%. The Port of LA commercial fishing would be subject to damages to the fleet, perished fish that cannot be landed, and lost fishing days. Although BI losses are relatively small, the southern Californian fishing sector could incur a 4% drop in output. The impacts would depend on the speed at which boats are repaired and whether lost fishing days can be made up. Ship-building and repair could also be negatively affected, but these impacts would be offset somewhat by reconstruction. Effects on commercial fishing in other locations were not closely examined to assess the impacts. Extensive damages to marinas along the California coast could result in 30 million BI losses in terms of GDP. Interestingly, the service sectors including and relating to marinas (recreation, food services, and retail) indicate possible gains (of .02-1%) from price increases greater than the losses from quantity decreases. Sectors associated with development (residential construction, water and sewage, and health care) could suffer the most with losses of .03% or less. However, these sectors will likely also be bolstered by reconstruction. Economic hardships would be localized and the resilience of the marina sector would depend on alternative moorings and excess capacity elsewhere. Inundated coastal property damages could generate 1.7 billion of BI losses. Application of sector recapture factors (e.g., using overtime) alone could reduce these losses by 80%. For the overall set of loss categories, BI losses amount to 6 billion, and resilience strategies indicate the potential to reduce these economic impacts by 80-90%.

Wein, A. M.; Rose, A.; Sue Wing, I.; Wei, D.

2013-12-01

422

Estudio de la distribucion de plutonio en el ecosistema marino de Palomares despues de una descarga accidental de un aerosol de transuranidos. (Study on plutonium distribution in Palomares ecosystem after an accidental aerosol release of transuranic radionuclides).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A discharge of plutonium and transuranic elements accidentally ocurred near Palomares (Almeria, Spain) in 1966. After decontamining operations, about 10 g of finely dispersed plutonium remained on the soil and was spreaded on the sorroundings and into Med...

L. Gasco Sanchez

1990-01-01

423

Estudio de la distribucion de plutinio en el ecosistema marino de Palomares despues de una descarga accidental de un aerosol de transuranidos. (Study on plutonium distribution in Palomares ecosystem after an accidental aerosol release of transuranic radionuclides).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A discharge of plutonium and transuranic elements accidentally ocurred near Palomares (Almeria, Spain) in 1966. After decontaminating operations, about 10 g of finely dispersed plutonium remained on the soil and was spreaded on the surroundings and into M...

C. Gasco

1991-01-01

424

Multifocal inflammatory leukoencephalopathy induced by accidental consumption of levamisole: A case report  

PubMed Central

Levamisole is an anthelmintic agent and also immunostimulant drug which is used to treat colorectal cancer. The present study aimed to show accidental consumption of levamisole alone induced multifocal inflammatory leukoencephalopathy. A 53-year-old male was admitted to the Neurology Department of Farabi Hospital (Kermanshah, Iran) with walking inability and recognition disorder. Following clinical examinations, the patient diagnosed as multifocal inflammatory leukoencephalopathy following levamisole consumption.The patient was treated with intravenous methylprednisolone followed by prednisolone. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was done 1 month later and did not show a reduction or remission in the lesions. History of the patient showed that he had accidentally consumed levamisole 8 months ago. It seems that the consumption of levamisole can induce multifocal inflammatory leukoencephalopathy and delayed treatment of the patient with corticosteroid cannot diminish the neurotoxicity of levamisole. In addition, the cytotoxic dose of levamisole induces irreversible multifocal inflammatory leukoencephalopathy.

Sariaslani, Payam; Ghanbari, Parvin

2012-01-01

425

Accidental ingestion of foreign object: Systematic review, recommendations and report of a case  

PubMed Central

One of the serious complications during a routine endodontic procedure is accidental ingestion/aspiration of the endodontic instruments, which can happen when proper isolation is not done. There are at present no clear guidelines whether foreign body ingestion in the gastrointestinal tract should be managed conservatively, endoscopically or surgically. A 5 year old boy reported to the Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, D.A. Pandu Memorial R.V. Dental College, Bangalore, India, with a complaint of pain and swelling in the lower right back teeth region. Endodontic therapy was planned for the affected tooth. During the course of treatment the child accidentally swallowed a 21 mm 15 size K file. Endoscopy was performed immediately but the instrument could not be retrieved. The instrument passed out uneventfully along with the stools 48 h after ingestion. Careful evaluation of the patient immediately after the accident helps in managing the patient effectively along with following the recommended guidelines.

Venkataraghavan, Karthik; Anantharaj, A.; Praveen, P.; Rani, S. Prathibha; Krishnan, B. Murali

2010-01-01

426

[Accidental intraartrial injection of diacethylmorphine (heroin) in drug addicts -- three case reports].  

PubMed

Accidental intrarterial injections are not uncommon in medical treatments. This is also true for uncontrolled injections by drug-addicts. Since 2002 a number of 600 heavy opiate addicts in Germany are substituted in a country-wide study with pure diacetylmorphine (Heroine). We report the course and outcome of three cases of accidental intraarterial injections of pure diacetylmorphine under controlled conditions. After initial symptoms of vasospasms, all cases were without symptoms within one hour and no obvious loss of tissue was observed. After discussing the literature about medical literature and treatment options in intraarterial injections it is concluded, that the cause of major complications after intraarterial injections may not be the pure diacetylmorphine but additional substances in impure "street-heroin" samples. PMID:16001321

Passie, T; Metzner, C; Seifert, J; Zedler, M; Schneider, U; Emrich, H M; Karst, M

2005-07-01

427

Death scene evaluation in a case of fatal accidental carbon monoxide toxicity.  

PubMed

Exposure of humans to high concentrations of carbon monoxide can result in death, due to the formation of carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb), which impairs the oxygen carrying capacity of the haemoglobin. Carbon monoxide is responsible of a great number of accidental domestic poisonings and deaths throughout the world, particularly in homes that have faulty or poorly vented combustion appliances. A case is reported, in which a 21-year-old woman was found dead, due to carbon monoxide poisoning from a gas water heater, despite the puzzling evidence that the heater has been used for more than 10 years without any problem. An evaluation of the exposure to CO was performed, by measuiring the rate of production of CO from the heater, and using the Coburn-Forster-Kane equation to describe the kinetics of the poisoning process. The death was attributed to an accidental poisoning from carbon monoxide due to a sum of unfortunate circumstances. PMID:16439085

Sedda, Antioco Franco; Rossi, Gabriele

2006-12-20

428

Costochondral junction fractures and intra-abdominal trauma in non-accidental injury (child abuse)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rib fractures are a common skeletal manifestation of non-accidental injury (NAI) in infants and young children and are generally\\u000a considered to be highly specific for abuse. There are, however, relatively few descriptions of fractures involving the costochondral\\u000a junctions in NAI. We present three children (two boys, one girl; 7, 18, and 36 months of age) with anterior rib fractures\\u000a which

Chaan S. Ng; Christine M. Hall

1998-01-01

429

Genotypic and Phenotypic Modifications of Neisseria meningitidis after an Accidental Human Passage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A scientist in our laboratory was accidentally infected while working with Z5463, a Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A strain. She developed severe symptoms (fever, meningism, purpuric lesions) that fortunately evolved with antibiotic treatment to complete recovery. Pulse-field gel electrophoresis confirmed that the isolate obtained from the blood culture (Z5463BC) was identical to Z5463, more precisely to a fourth subculture of this

Hélène Omer; Graham Rose; Keith A. Jolley; Eric Frapy; Jean-Ralph Zahar; Martin C. J. Maiden; Stephen D. Bentley; Colin R. Tinsley; Xavier Nassif; Emmanuelle Bille; Olivier Neyrolles

2011-01-01

430

Atmospheric entry of Mars-return nuclear-powered vehicles due to accidental termination of operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The entry of nuclear reactors into Earth's atmosphere resulting from an accidental or inadvertent abort of a space vehicle powered by nuclear-thermal rockets is investigated. The study is made for a typical piloted Mars mission vehicle incapacitated by an accident or malfunction during the Earth-arrival phase of the Mars-return journey due to simultaneous, multiple failures of its component systems. A

Gene P. Menees; Chul Park

1993-01-01

431

Multiple metallic foreign bodies accidentally detected in different body cavities: a case report.  

PubMed

We accidentally found an unusual case of a middle aged Tibetan woman who had eight metallic foreign bodies (eight needles) in her head, chest and abdomen. These needles were not related to any surgical intervention or trauma. The diagnosis "metallic foreign bodies" cannot usually be made in an acute setting. Some patients may present chronic symptoms, such as infection or pain. However, in some cases, the patients do not have any symptoms. PMID:24889982

Ma, Hu-Sai; Cai, Yi-Xin; Zhang, Ni; Gao, Jun-Lin; Zhao, Dong; Liu, Gang; Fu, Xiang-Ning

2014-06-01

432

Bitter pill to swallow: a case of accidental poisoning with digitalis purpurea  

Microsoft Academic Search

While digitoxicity secondary to therapeutic use is frequent, due to its distinctive appearance and unpleasant taste accidental ingestion of digitalis purpurea (foxglove) is uncommon. This report relates the case of two previously healthy individuals who inadvertently consumed significant quantities of digitalis in its plant form. Both men presented in first-degree atrioventricular block and had digoxin levels of 4.9 ?g\\/litre, but

Andrew Mitchell

2010-01-01

433

Atmospheric dispersion modeling for an accidental release from the Pakistan Research Reactor1 (PARR1)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric dispersion modeling and radiation dose calculations have been performed for a postulated accidental airborne radionuclide release from the Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1) appropriate to a power upgrade to 10MW. Estimates of releases for various radionuclide groups are based upon US-NRC regulatory guide 1.183. Committed Effective Doses (CEDs) to the public at various downwind distances were calculated using a health

S. Shoaib Raza; M. Iqbal

2005-01-01

434

[Cardiac arrest and secondary pulmonary oedema following accidental intramucosal injection of naphazoline in an adult].  

PubMed

During neurosurgery for hypophysary adenoma under general anaesthesia in a prone position, a 34 year-old-women received accidental 6 ml intramucosal injection of lidocaine with naphazoline. The patient presented a severe bradycardia associated with a major increase in arterial blood pression followed by a brief cardiac arrest. She also presented a prolonged awakening and a pulmonary oedema, which lead to mechanical ventilation. The patient rapidly recovered a normal clinical state. PMID:12831977

Villeret, I; Tellier, A C; Erhmann, S; Réa, D; Delalande, J P

2003-05-01

435

Serologic markers for hepatitis B among Marshallese accidentally exposed to fallout radiation in 1954  

SciTech Connect

At least one serologic marker of prior hepatitis B infection (hepatitis B surface antigen, antibody to surface antigen, or antibody to core antigen) was found in 91.7% of 314 Marshallese tested. The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigenemia (3.3%) in a subpopulation that had resided on Rongelap Atoll at the time of accidental exposure to radioactive fallout from a thermonuclear test in 1954 did not differ significantly from the prevalence in a selected unexposed population (10.5%).

Adams, W.H.; Fields, H.A.; Engle, J.R.; Hadler, S.C.

1986-10-01

436

Rewarming a patient with accidental hypothermia and cardiac arrest using thoracic lavage.  

PubMed

The optimal treatment for severe accidental hypothermia is cardiopulmonary bypass because this offers the most rapid rate of rewarming. However, cardiopulmonary bypass therapy is not available in every hospital. In these circumstances, rewarming has to be achieved with other methods. We present a patient who was successfully rewarmed with thoracic lavage after he had been found with a core temperature of 21°C and asystole. PMID:24882294

Turtiainen, Johanna; Halonen, Jari; Syväoja, Sakari; Hakala, Tapio

2014-06-01

437

A risk assessment method for accidental releases from nuclear power plants in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present over 200 nuclear power reactors are operational. The question\\u000araised is to what extent possible accidents with nuclear power reactors\\u000apose a risk for the European population. In this report a method is\\u000adescribed for evaluating the probability of death due to stochastic\\u000aeffects, combining the probability of accidental releases with the\\u000aconsequences in terms of the excess

Slaper H; Blaauboer RO; Eggink GJ

2007-01-01

438

Vortex-mediated bouncing drops on an oscillating liquid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the behavior of bouncing drops on a liquid surface by using particle image velocimetry analysis. A drop on an oscillating liquid surface is observed to not coalesce with the liquid and to travel along the surface if the oscillation is strong enough. A streaming vortex pair, induced by the alternatively distorted liquid surface, shows up below a bouncing drop. The time-averaged flow fields of the vortices are measured. In our quasi-one-dimensional setup, there are three stable distances for the drops, which can be characterized by the Faraday wavelength. The interactions of the vortex-mediated bouncing drops are deduced from the streamlines in the liquid bulk. We further show that a three-dimensional vortex ring is induced by a bouncing drop in a square cell.

Chu, Hong-Yu; Fei, Hsiang-Ting

2014-06-01

439

Heat loss and drag of spherical drop tube samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis techniques for three aspects of the performance of the NASA/MSFC 32 meter drop tube are considered. Heat loss through the support wire in a pendant drop sample, temperature history of a drop falling through the drop tube when the tube is filled with helium gas at various pressures, and drag and resulting g-levels experienced by a drop falling through the tube when the tube is filled with helium gas at various pressures are addressed. The developed methods apply to systems with sufficiently small Knudsen numbers for which continuum theory may be applied. Sample results are presented, using niobium drops, to indicate the magnitudes of the effects. Helium gas at one atmosphere pressure can approximately double the amount of possible undercooling but it results in an apparent gravity levels of up to 0.1 g.

Wallace, D. B.

1982-01-01

440

The EPA's process safety management program for preventing accidental chemical releases (40 CFR 68)  

SciTech Connect

Section 304, Chemical Process Safety Management,'' of the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1990 required the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) to develop a complete integrated process safety management program regulation. In February 1992, OSHA published rule 29 CFR 1910.119, Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals''. The 1990 CAA Amendment section 112(r), Prevention of Accidental Releases'', required the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to establish measures for owners and operators of facilities processing or handling hazardous materials to prevent accidental releases of regulated substances and other extremely hazardous substances to the air. Additionally, it required the consequence of releases to be minimized by focusing preventative measures on those chemicals that pose the greatest risk. Section 112(r) begins with a general duty clause requiring owners and operators to: identify hazards that may result from releases; design and maintain a safe facility; and minimize the consequences of releases when they occur. The major difference between the two regulations concerns the areas affected by the potential release of a regulated substance. The OSHA 29 CFR 1910.119 regulation limits the concern to incidents that could result in an exposure to employees within the boundaries of the facility. The proposed EPA 40 CFR regulation will address significant accidental releases that have a potential for off-site effects on humans and the environment. The provisions of the new EPA regulation would require additional resources and increase the formal documentation and record keeping requirements beyond those of the older OSHA regulation.

Brown, C.A.; Sharma, P. (Brown and Root Petroleum and Chemicals Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

1994-04-01

441

Pre-hospital core temperature measurement in accidental and therapeutic hypothermia.  

PubMed

Abstract Strapazzon, Giacomo, Emily Procter, Peter Paal, and Hermann Brugger. Pre-hospital core temperature measurement in accidental and therapeutic hypothermia. High Alt Med Biol. 15:104-111, 2014.-Core temperature (Tcore) measurement is the only diagnostic tool to accurately assess the severity of hypothermia. International recommendations for management of accidental hypothermia encourage Tcore measurement for triage, treatment, and transport decisions, but they also recognize that lack of equipment may be a limiting factor, particularly in the field. The aim of this nonsystematic review is to highlight the importance of field measurement of Tcore and to provide practical guidance for clinicians on pre-hospital temperature measurement in accidental and therapeutic hypothermia. Clinicians should recognize the difference between alternative measurement locations and available thermometers, tailoring their decision to the purpose of the measurement (i.e., intermittent vs. continual measurement), and the impact on management decisions. The importance of Tcore measurement in therapeutic hypothermia protocols during early cooling and monitoring of target temperature is discussed. PMID:24950388

Strapazzon, Giacomo; Procter, Emily; Paal, Peter; Brugger, Hermann

2014-06-01

442

Infant homicide and accidental death in the United States, 1940-2005: ethics and epidemiological classification.  

PubMed

Potential ethical issues can arise during the process of epidemiological classification. For example, unnatural infant deaths are classified as accidental deaths or homicides. Societal sensitivity to the physical abuse and neglect of children has increased over recent decades. This enhanced sensitivity could impact reported infant homicide rates. Infant homicide and accident mortality rates in boys and girls in the USA from 1940 to 2005 were analysed. In 1940, infant accident mortality rates were over 20 times greater than infant homicide rates in both boys and girls. After about 1980, when the ratio of infant accident mortality rates to infant homicide rates decreased to less than five, and the sum of infant accident and homicide rates became relatively constant, further decreases in infant accident mortality rates were associated with increases in reported infant homicide rates. These findings suggest that the dramatic decline of accidental infant mortality and recent increased societal sensitivity to child abuse may be related to the increased infant homicide rates observed in the USA since 1980 rather than an actual increase in societal violence directed against infants. Ethical consequences of epidemiological classification, involving the principles of beneficence, non-maleficence and justice, are suggested by observed patterns in infant accidental deaths and homicides in the USA from 1940 to 2005. PMID:21450748

Riggs, Jack E; Hobbs, Gerald R

2011-07-01

443

Common Criteria Based Security Scenario Verification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Software is required to comply with the laws and standards of software security. However, stakeholders with less concern regarding security can neither describe the behaviour of the system with regard to security nor validate the system’s behaviour when the security function conflicts with usability. Scenarios or use-case specifications are common in requirements elicitation and are useful to analyze the usability of the system from a behavioural point of view. In this paper, the authors propose both (1) a scenario language based on a simple case grammar and (2) a method to verify a scenario with rules based on security evaluation criteria.

Ohnishi, Atsushi

444

Non-isothermal spreading of liquid drops on horizontal plates  

Microsoft Academic Search

A viscous-liquid drop spreads on a smooth horizontal surface, which is uniformly heated or cooled. Lubrication theory is used to study thin drops subject to capillary, thermocapillary and gravity forces, and a variety of contact-angle-versus-speed conditions. It is found for isothermal drops that gravity is very important at large times and determines the power law for unlimited spreading. Predictions compare

Peter Ehrhard; Stephen H. Davis

1991-01-01

445

Pressure Drop Experiments using Tight-Lattice 37Rod Bundles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to design a Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor (RMWR) core from a thermal-hydraulic point of view, an evaluation method on the pressure drop in a tight-lattice rod bundle is required. In this study, axial pressure drops in tight-lattice 37-rod bundles were measured under conditions of 2-9 MPa in exit pressure and 200-1,000 kg\\/(m·s) in mass velocity. The measured pressure drops

Hidesada TAMAI; Masatoshi KURETA; Akira OHNUKI; Takashi SATO; Hajime AKIMOTO

2006-01-01

446

Correlations for the pressure drop for flow through metal foam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steady-state unidirectional pressure-drop measurements for incompressible airflow through nine open-cell aluminum foam samples, having different porosities and pore densities, were undertaken. The pressure drop increased with increasing Darcian velocity following the quadratic Forchheimer equation. The lower-porosity foam produced significantly higher pressure drop. Both the permeability and the form drag coefficient correlated well with the porosity. The correlations predicted the results

N. Dukhan

2006-01-01

447

Prevention Reference Manual: Control Technologies. Volume 2. Post-Release Mitigation Measures for Controlling Accidental Releases of Air Toxics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report covers post-release mitigation measures to control accidental releases of air toxics. This can be accomplished by a variety of mitigation measures that can contain, capture, destroy, divert, or disperse the released chemical. Mitigation measure...

D. S. Davis G. B. DeWolf K. A. Ferland D. L. Harper R. C. Keeney

1989-01-01

448

Integrated Simulation of Atmospheric Pressures and Dynamic Forces During Accidental Decompression and Subsequent Emergency Descent of High Altitude Transport Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

These experiments exposed for the first time human subjects simultaneously to decompression events and to mechanical forces. The selected profiles simulated an accidental decompression and subsequent emergency descent of a high altitude/multi Mach transpo...

H. J. vonBeckh W. P. Baas

1975-01-01

449

Dynamic rupture scenarios for strong ground motion prediction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spontaneous rupture models provide physically reasonable rupture processes under presumed fault geometry and stress field. We propose that dynamic rupture models based on geological or geomorphological data are used as earthquake scenarios for strong ground motion prediction. We apply our method to possible sources of earthquake occurring on the Uemachi fault systems. The Uemachi fault system runs just underneath the western part of Osaka plain, extends about 45 km, and dips 60 degrees to the east. We model the fault geometry from the surface traces and the shape of the Osaka basin-floor. The stress condition is presumed based on slip distributions on the fault. Spatially varied cumulative slip distribution along the strike of the Uemachi fault system was obtained by reflection surveys, borehole data, etc. The borehole data at a site along the fault showed that the vertical slip on the earth's surface due to the last event was between 1.6 to 2.4 m (Sugiyama et al., 2003). Combining these data, we presume an prototype of the slip distribution along strike. The slip distribution along dip is modeled through simulations of spontaneous ruptures under vertically depth-dependent stress conditions to realize spontaneously stopping rupture near the bottom of the seismogeneic zone. Onto this large-scale heterogeneous slip distribution model, we add fractal heterogeneities in small-scale created from different random numbers. These slip distributions are converted to the distributions of static stress drop. For each stress drop model, some hypocenter locations are assumed. We calculate dynamic rupture processes by the finite-difference method (Kase, 2010), assuming the slip-weakening friction law. Rupture area and rupture time on each point depend on stress model and hypocenter location. Based on these rupture scenarios, we simulate lower frequency components of ground motion by the finite-difference method (Pitarka, 1999) excluding the shallow sediment above the engineering basement. Higher frequency components are computed by the stochastic Green's function method (Onishi and Horike, 2000). Effects of the shallow alluvium layers are calculated by 1D multi-reflection theory considering nonlinear effect by equivalent linear technique using a computer code DYNEQ (Yoshida and Suetomi, 1996).

Kase, Y.; Sekiguchi, H.

2011-12-01

450

Morphologic Similarity of Vortex Transformation/Drop Transformation and Vortex Jet/Drop Jet Morphologische Aehnlichkeit von Wirbelumbildung/Tropfenumbildung und Wirbelstrahl/Tropfenstrahl.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following processes are shown to have a morphologic similarity: formation of single vortex/single drop and vortex/drop jet, relaxation process of perturbations leading to vortices/drops jet, oscillation of single vortex/single drop and vortex/drop jet...

P. E. M. Schneider

1975-01-01

451

Student Drop Tower Competitions: Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) and What If No Gravity? (WING)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes two student competition programs that allow student teams to conceive a science or engineering experiment for a microgravity environment. Selected teams design and build their experimental hardware, conduct baseline tests, and ship their experiment to NASA where it is operated in the 2.2 Second Drop Tower. The hardware and acquired data is provided to the teams after the tests are conducted so that the teams can prepare their final reports about their findings.

Hall, Nancy R.; Stocker, Dennis P.; DeLombard, Richard

2011-01-01

452

Substrate constraint modifies the Rayleigh spectrum of vibrating sessile drops.  

PubMed

In this work, we study the resonance behavior of mechanically oscillated, sessile water drops. By mechanically oscillating sessile drops vertically and within prescribed ranges of frequencies and amplitudes, a rich collection of resonance modes are observed and their dynamics subsequently investigated. We first present our method of identifying each mode uniquely, through association with spherical harmonics and according to their geometric patterns. Next, we compare our measured resonance frequencies of drops to theoretical predictions using both the classical theory of Lord Rayleigh and Lamb for free, oscillating drops, and a prediction by Bostwick and Steen that explicitly considers the effect of the solid substrate on drop dynamics. Finally, we report observations and analysis of drop mode mixing, or the simultaneous coexistence of multiple mode shapes within the resonating sessile drop driven by one sinusoidal signal of a single frequency. The dynamic response of a deformable liquid drop constrained by the substrate it is in contact with is of interest in a number of applications, such as drop atomization and ink jet printing, switchable electronically controlled capillary adhesion, optical microlens devices, as well as digital microfluidic applications where control of droplet motion is induced by means of a harmonically driven substrate. PMID:24032932

Chang, Chun-Ti; Bostwick, Joshua B; Steen, Paul H; Daniel, Susan

2013-08-01

453

Reducing pressure drop in a baghouse using flow distributors.  

PubMed

The pressure drop of ladder vanes in a baghouse could be reduced by decreasing the vane number and adjusting the inclined angle of the vane. Two types of flow distributors were utilized to test pressure drop caused by the structure of a baghouse. The pressure drops were measured by an inclined manometer under various filtration velocities. The purpose of this study is to understand the improvement effect of pressure drop saving for the traditional ladder vanes. Experimental results showed that the pressure drop of the Vane 3-1 configuration (flow distributor with three vanes perpendicular to the inlet flow) was higher than that of the Empty configuration (without flow distributors). The Vane 3-1 configuration could not reduce the pressure drop because of the barrier effect. By reducing the number and adjusting the angle of the vanes, the barrier effect was decreased, and the pressure drop of the Vane 2-1 configuration was much lower than that of the Vane 3-1 configuration. The largest difference in pressure drop between Vane 2-1 and Vane 3-1 was 1.702 cm w.g. at a filtration velocity of 4.17 cm/sec and, in terms of percentage, is 18.52% corresponding to a filtration velocity of 2.25 cm/sec. The improvement effect on the pressure drop saving for Vane 3-1 was significant. PMID:11686252

Chen, C J

2001-10-01

454

Vimentin networks at tunable ion-concentration in microfluidic drops  

PubMed Central

The structure and function of biological systems, for example, cells and proteins, depend strongly on their chemical environment. To investigate such dependence, we design a polydimethylsiloxane-based microfluidic device to encapsulate biological systems in picoliter-sized drops. The content of each individual drop is tuned in a defined manner. As a key feature of our method, the individual chemical composition is determined and related to the drop content. In our case, the drop content is imaged using microscopy methods, while the drops are immobilized to allow for long-time studies. As an application of our device, we study the influence of divalent ions on vimentin intermediate filament networks in a quantitative way by tuning the magnesium concentration from drop to drop. This way we are able to directly image the effect of magnesium on the fluorescently tagged protein in a few hundreds of drops. Our study shows that with increasing magnesium concentration in the drops, the compaction of the networks becomes more pronounced. The degree of compaction is characterized by different morphologies; freely fluctuating networks are observed at comparatively low magnesium concentrations of 5–10?mM, while with increasing magnesium concentration reaching 16?mM they develop into fully aggregated networks. Our approach demonstrates how a systematic study of interactions in biological systems can benefit from the exceptional controllability of microfluidic methods.

Dammann, Christian; Noding, Bernd; Koster, Sarah

2012-01-01

455

Dynamics of a Janus drop in an external flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The steady motion of a Janus drop under a uniform external flow is considered. First, we analyze the equilibrium shape of a Janus-like drop in a motionless ambient fluid, i.e., the special case of a nearly spherical compound drop with a nearly flat internal interface. This configuration is realizable when the liquids comprising the drop have close interfacial tensions with the ambient fluid, but a small interfacial tension between each other. Then, we consider the flow past a perfect Janus drop composed of two hemispherical domains each occupied by a different fluid. For the sake of simplicity, all the interfaces are assumed nondeformable. The problem is solved both analytically, by means of the Lamb expansion, and numerically. The relation between the flow velocity and the force imposed on the drop, which is a generalization of the classical Hadamard-Rybczynski formula, is found. A torque is also imposed on the drop in the general case. The stable regime of motion of a torque-free drop is found to be axisymmetric, with the less viscous fluid at the upstream face. For this particular configuration, the deformation of the internal interface is also found employing a perturbation technique, whereas the distortion of the drop surface can be safely neglected.

Shklyaev, S.; Ivantsov, A. O.; Díaz-Maldonado, M.; Córdova-Figueroa, U. M.

2013-08-01

456

Pressure drop during condensation of refrigerants in pipe minichannels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper describes results of experimental investigations of pressure drop during the condensation of R134a, R404a and R407C refrigerants in pipe minichannels with internal diameter 0.31-3.30 mm. The results concern investigations of the mean and local pressure drop in single minichannels. The results of experimental investigations were compared with the calculations according to the correlations proposed by other authors. A pressure drop during the condensation of refrigerants is described in a satisfactory manner with Friedel and Garimella correlations. On the basis of the experimental investigations, the authors proposed their own correlation for calculation of local pressure drop during condensation in single minichannels.

Bohdal, Tadeusz; Charun, Henryk; Sikora, Ma?gorzata

2012-08-01

457

Oscillating and star-shaped drops levitated by an airflow.  

PubMed

We investigate the spontaneous oscillations of drops levitated above an air cushion, eventually inducing a breaking of axisymmetry and the appearance of "star drops". This is strongly reminiscent of the Leidenfrost stars that are observed for drops floating above a hot substrate. The key advantage of this work is that we inject the airflow at a constant rate below the drop, thus eliminating thermal effects and allowing for a better control of the flow rate. We perform experiments with drops of different viscosities and observe stable states, oscillations, and chimney instabilities. We find that for a given drop size the instability appears above a critical flow rate, where the latter is largest for small drops. All these observations are reproduced by numerical simulations, where we treat the drop using potential flow and the gas as a viscous lubrication layer. Qualitatively, the onset of instability agrees with the experimental results, although the typical flow rates are too large by a factor 10. Our results demonstrate that thermal effects are not important for the formation of star drops and strongly suggest a purely hydrodynamic mechanism for the formation of Leidenfrost stars. PMID:24032934

Bouwhuis, Wilco; Winkels, Koen G; Peters, Ivo R; Brunet, Philippe; van der Meer, Devaraj; Snoeijer, Jacco H

2013-08-01

458

Geometry of the vapor layer under a leidenfrost drop.  

PubMed

In the Leidenfrost effect, liquid drops deposited on a hot surface levitate on a thin vapor cushion fed by evaporation of the liquid. This vapor layer forms a concave depression in the drop interface. Using laser-light interference coupled to high-speed imaging, we measured the radius, curvature, and height of the vapor pocket, as well as nonaxisymmetric fluctuations of the interface for water drops at different temperatures. The geometry of the vapor pocket depends primarily on the drop size and not on the substrate temperature. PMID:23006372

Burton, J C; Sharpe, A L; van der Veen, R C A; Franco, A; Nagel, S R

2012-08-17

459

Electrohydrodynamic deformation and interaction of a pair of emulsion drops  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The response of a pair of emulsion drops to the imposition of a uniform electric field is examined. The case studied is that of equal-sized drops whose line of centers is parallel to the axis of the applied field. A new boundary integral solution to the governing equations of the leaky dielectric model is developed; the formulation accounts for the electrostatic and hydrodynamic interactions between the drops, as well as their deformations. Numerical calculations show that, after an initial transient during which the drops primarily deform, the pair drift slowly together due to their electrostatic interactions.

Baygents, James C.

1994-01-01

460

Studies of the Stability and Dynamics of Levitated Drops  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a review of our experimental and theoretical studies relating to equilibrium and stability of liquid drops, typically of low viscosity, levitated in air by a sound field. The major emphasis here is on the physical principles and understanding behind the stability of levitated drops. A comparison with experimental data is also given, along with some fascinating pictures from high-speed photography. One of the aspects we shall deal with is how a drop can suddenly burst in an intense sound field; a phenomenon which can find applications in atomization technology. Also, we are currently investigating the phenomenon of suppression of coalescence between drops levitated in intense acoustic fields.

Anikumar, A.; Lee, Chun Ping; Wang, T. G.

1996-01-01

461

"Drop in" gastroscopy outpatient clinic - experience after 9 months  

PubMed Central

Background Logistics handling referrals for gastroscopy may be more time consuming than the examination itself. For the patient, "drop in" gastroscopy may reduce uncertainty, inadequate therapy and time off work. Methods After an 8-9 month run-in period we asked patients, hospital staff and GPs to fill in a questionnaire to evaluate their experience with "drop in" gastroscopy and gastroscopy by appointment, respectively. The diagnostic gain was evaluated. Results 112 patients had "drop in" gastroscopy and 101 gastroscopy by appointment. The number of "drop in" patients varied between 3 and 12 per day (mean 6.5). Mean time from first GP consultation to gastroscopy was 3.6 weeks in the "drop in" group and 14 weeks in the appointment group. The half-yearly number of outpatient gastroscopies increased from 696 before introducing "drop in" to 1022 after (47% increase) and the proportion of examinations with pathological findings increased from 42% to 58%. Patients and GPs expressed great satisfaction with "drop in". Hospital staff also acclaimed although it caused more unpredictable working days with no additional staff. Conclusions "Drop in" gastroscopy was introduced without increase in staff. The observed increase in gastroscopies was paralleled by a similar increase in pathological findings without any apparent disadvantages for other groups of patients. This should legitimise "drop in" outpatient gastroscopies, but it requires meticulous observation of possible unwanted effects when implemented.

2012-01-01

462

Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster decelerator subsystem drop test results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An air drop test program was conducted as part of the development of a decelerator subsystem for recovering the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster. This development test program consisted of six drops performed over the period from June 1977 to September 1978 at a parachute test center in California. The testing concerned a 48,000-lb drop test vehicle released from the B-52 mothership. The drop test program is described and pertinent test results are discussed. Data include snatch loads, inflation characteristics, peak inflation and disreef loads, and drag performance. Performance characteristics of the drogue parachute and the main parachute are established.

Moog, R. D.; Sheppard, J. D.; Kross, D. A.

1979-01-01

463

Bronchial impaction of an implant screwdriver after accidental aspiration: report of a case and revision of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Adverse outcomes resulting from aspiration or ingestion of instruments and materials can occur in any dental procedure. Clinical\\u000a manifestation depends on the location, the obstructive potential of the foreign body, and the temporal factor since the accidental\\u000a incident. Accidental inhalation of dental appliances can be an even more serious event than ingestion and must always be treated\\u000a as an emergency

Lorena Pingarrón Martín; María José Morán Soto; Rocío Sánchez Burgos; Miguel Burgueño García

2010-01-01

464

In-depth analysis of accidental oil spills from tankers in the context of global spill trends from all sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study gives a global overview of accidental oil spills from all sources (?700t) for the period 1970–2004, followed by a detailed examination of trends in accidental tanker spills. The present analysis of the number and volume of tanker spills includes temporal and spatial spill trends, aspects of spill size distribution as well as trends of key factors (i.e., flag

Peter Burgherr

2007-01-01

465

MODELING OF 2LIBH4 PLUS MGH2 HYDROGEN STORAGE SYSTEM ACCIDENT SCENARIOS USING EMPIRICAL AND THEORETICAL THERMODYNAMICS  

SciTech Connect

It is important to understand and quantify the potential risk resulting from accidental environmental exposure of condensed phase hydrogen storage materials under differing environmental exposure scenarios. This paper describes a modeling and experimental study with the aim of predicting consequences of the accidental release of 2LiBH{sub 4}+MgH{sub 2} from hydrogen storage systems. The methodology and results developed in this work are directly applicable to any solid hydride material and/or accident scenario using appropriate boundary conditions and empirical data. The ability to predict hydride behavior for hypothesized accident scenarios facilitates an assessment of the of risk associated with the utilization of a particular hydride. To this end, an idealized finite volume model was developed to represent the behavior of dispersed hydride from a breached system. Semiempirical thermodynamic calculations and substantiating calorimetric experiments were performed in order to quantify the energy released, energy release rates and to quantify the reaction products resulting from water and air exposure of a lithium borohydride and magnesium hydride combination. The hydrides, LiBH{sub 4} and MgH{sub 2}, were studied individually in the as-received form and in the 2:1 'destabilized' mixture. Liquid water hydrolysis reactions were performed in a Calvet calorimeter equipped with a mixing cell using neutral water. Water vapor and oxygen gas phase reactivity measurements were performed at varying relative humidities and temperatures by modifying the calorimeter and utilizing a gas circulating flow cell apparatus. The results of these calorimetric measurements were compared with standardized United Nations (UN) based test results for air and water reactivity and used to develop quantitative kinetic expressions for hydrolysis and air oxidation in these systems. Thermodynamic parameters obtained from these tests were then inputted into a computational fluid dynamics model to predict both the hydrogen generation rates and concentrations along with localized temperature distributions. The results of these numerical simulations can be used to predict ignition events and the resultant conclusions will be discussed.

James, C; David Tamburello, D; Joshua Gray, J; Kyle Brinkman, K; Bruce Hardy, B; Donald Anton, D

2009-04-01

466

FUTURE SCENARIOS OF CHANGE IN WILDLIFE HABITAT  

EPA Science Inventory

Studies in Pennsylvania, Iowa, California, and Oregon show varying losses of terrestrial wildlife habitat in scenarios based on different assumptions about future human land use patterns. Retrospective estimates of losses of habitat since Euro-American settlement in several stud...

467

Linguistic Evaluation of Terrorist Scenarios: Example Application.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 2005, a group of international decision makers developed a manual process for evaluating terrorist scenarios. That process has been implemented in the approximate reasoning Java software tool, LinguisticBelief, released in FY2007. One purpose of this r...

2007-01-01