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1

IMPACT ANALYSIS OF SPENT FUEL DRY CASKS UNDER ACCIDENTAL DROP SCENARIOS.  

SciTech Connect

A series of analyses were performed to assess the structural response of spent nuclear fuel dry casks subjected to various handling and on-site transfer events. The results of these analyses are being used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to perform a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). Although the PRA study is being performed for a specific nuclear plant, the PRA study is also intended to provide a framework for a general methodology that could also be applied to other dry cask systems at other nuclear plants. The dry cask system consists of a transfer cask, used for handling and moving the multi-purpose canister (MPC) that contains the fuel, and a storage cask, used to store the MPC and fuel on a concrete pad at the site. This paper describes the analyses of the casks for two loading events. The first loading consists of dropping the transfer cask while it is lowered by a crane to a concrete floor at ground elevation. The second loading consists of dropping the storage cask while it is being transferred to the concrete storage pad outdoors. Three dimensional finite element models of the transfer cask and storage cask, containing the MPC and fuel, were utilized to perform the drop analyses. These models were combined with finite element models of the target structures being impacted. The transfer cask drop analyses considered various drop heights for the cask impacting the reinforced concrete floor at ground level. The finite element model of the target included a section of the concrete floor and concrete wall supporting the floor. The storage cask drop analyses evaluated a 30.5 cm (12 in.) drop of the cask impacting three different surfaces: reinforced concrete, asphalt, and gravel.

BRAVERMAN,J.I.; MORANTE,R.J.; XU,J.; HOFMAYER,C.H.; SHAUKAT,S.K.

2003-03-17

2

IMPACT ANALYSIS OF SPENT FUEL DRY CASKS UNDER ACCIDENTAL DROP SCENARIOS.  

SciTech Connect

A series of analyses were performed to assess the structural response of spent nuclear fuel dry casks subjected to various handling and on-site transfer events. The results of these analyses are being used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to perform a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). Although the PRA study is being performed for a specific nuclear plant, the PRA study is also intended to provide a framework for a general methodology that could also be applied to other dry cask systems at other nuclear plants. The dry cask system consists of a transfer cask, used for handling and moving the multi-purpose canister OLIIpC that contains the fuel, and a storage cask, used to store the MPC and fuel on a concrete pad at the site. This paper describes the analyses of the casks for two loading events. The first loading consists of dropping the transfer cask while it is lowered by a crane to a concrete floor at ground elevation. The second loading consists of dropping the storage cask while it is being transferred to the concrete storage pad outdoors. Three dimensional finite element models of the transfer cask and storage cask, containing the MPC and fuel, were utilized to perform the drop analyses. These models were combined with finite element models of the target structures being impacted. The transfer cask drop analyses considered various drop heights for the cask impacting the reinforced concrete floor at ground level. The finite element model of the target included a section of the concrete floor and concrete wall supporting the floor. The storage cask drop analyses evaluated a 30.5 cm (12 in.) drop of the cask impacting three different surfaces: reinforced concrete, asphalt, and gravel.

BRAVERMAN,J.I.; MORANTE,R.J.; XU,J.; HOFMAYER,C.H.; SHAUKAT,S.K.

2003-08-17

3

Limiting the Accidental Pressure Drop in NIF Beam Tubes  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the use of a one-dimensional model of a time-dependent compressible flow condition to validate the results from a more sophisticated three-dimensional model. The flow conditions consist of the sudden decompression of a pressurized tube joined to an evacuated sphere, where the tube also has a leak to external atmosphere that is triggered open at a given pressure difference below sea-level pressure. This flow model is used to calculate conditions in a NIF beam tube if an internal vacuum barrier fails, and to calculate how the size and timing of an opening to external atmosphere changes tube pressure. Decompression of a NIF beam tube is a potential safety hazard since the tube could collapse if the tube pressure is reduced below the buckling limit. To prevent this from occurring, each pressurized section includes a rupture panel which is designed to open to external atmosphere at a given pressure difference. The inrush of external atmosphere through the rupture panel fills both the tube and the vacuum drawing on it, and in this way the pressure drop in the tube is quickly limited and reversed. In summary, the results from the 1D model indicate that the 3-D calculations are accurate and reasonable.

Garcia, M

2000-11-06

4

An experimental study on the uptake factor of tungsten oxide particles resulting from an accidentally dropped storage container.  

PubMed

A test procedure was developed and verified to measure the airborne concentrations of particles of different sizes (0.5-20 ?m) within the vicinity of a dropped container when a significant portion of the tungsten oxide powder (simulating uranium oxide) is ejected from the container. Tests were carried out in a full-scale stainless steel environmental chamber with an interior volume of 24.1 m(3). Thirty-two drop tests were performed, covering variations in dropping height, room air movement, landing scenario, and lid condition. Assuming a breathing rate of 1.2 m(3)/hr, the uptake factor during the first 10 min was calculated to be between 1.13 × 10(-9) and 1.03 × 10(-7) in reference to the amount loaded; or between 6.44 × 10(-8) and 3.55 × 10(-4) in reference to the amount spilled. Results provide previously unavailable data for estimating the exposure and associated risk to building occupants in the case of an accidental dropping of heavy powder containers. The test data show that for spills larger than 0.004 g, the power-law correlation between the spill uptake factor and the spilled mass (i.e., SUF = 2.5 × 10(-5) × Spill_Mass(-0.667)) established from the test data is smaller and a more accurate estimate than the constant value of 10(-3) assumed in the Department of Energy Nuclear Material Packaging Manual. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene for the following free supplementary resource: an online supplementary table of all cumulative uptake amounts at 10 min for all test data.]. PMID:23679340

Gao, Zhi; Zhang, J S; Byington, Jerry G A

2013-01-01

5

Failure Criteria for Evaluating Accidental Drops of Fuel Containers at INTEC  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a failure criterion that has been developed for use in evaluating fuel containers at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) for accidental drop events. The criterion would typically be used in dynamic finite element analyses using the ABA-QUS/Explicit program. The failure criterion used in the past is generally considered to substantially underestimate the strength and ductility of the materials involved. The new criterion is intended to be more realistic, allowing for more accurate impact analyses. The criterion is based on the distortion energy theory, which is considered to be appropriate for the ductile materials typically used in fuel containers. Also addressed in development of the criterion were the effects of strain rate and hydrostatic stress. The importance of these factors, however, is highly dependent on the material used. Three materials specifically addressed in this study were stainless steel, aluminum, and lead. The criterion is presented in the form of guidelines and recommendations that are based on material data obtained from the literature. The most significant difference between these and the previous criterion is that ductile materials are allowed to strain to much higher levels before they are considered to fail.

Miller, G. K.

1998-10-01

6

Accidental Drop of a Carbon Steel/Lead Shipping Cask (HFEF 14) at Low Temperatures  

SciTech Connect

A shielded cask is used to transport radioactive materials between facilities at the Idaho National Laboratory. The cask was fabricated with an outer and inner shell of A36 carbon steel with lead poured in the annular space between the shells to provide radiation shielding. Carbon steel is known to be susceptible to low-temperature brittle fracture under impact loading. This paper will present the analysis results representing postulated transportation accidents during on-site transfers of the cask at subzero temperatures. The accident scenarios were based on a series of cask drops onto a rigid surface from a height of 1.83m (6 ft.) Finite element models of the cask and its contents were solved and post processed using the ABAQUS software. Each model was examined for failure to contain radioactive materials and/or significant loss of radiation shielding. Results of these analyses show that the body of the cask exhibits considerable ruggedness and will remain largely intact after the impact. There will be deformation of the main cask body with localized brittle failure of the cask outer shell and door structure. The cask payload outer waste can remains in the cask but will experience some permanent plastic deformation in each drop. It will not be deformed to the point where it will rupture, thus maintaining confinement of the can contents.

Brian D. Hawkes; Michael E. Nitzel

2007-08-01

7

NAPL migration and ecotoxicity of conventional and renewable fuels in accidental spill scenarios.  

PubMed

Fuels derived from non-petroleum renewable resources have raised interest due to their potential in replacing petroleum-based fuels, but information on their fate and effects in the terrestrial and aquatic environments in accidental spill scenario is limited. In this study, migration of four fuels (conventional diesel, conventional gasoline, renewable diesel NExBTL, and ethanol-blended gasoline RE85 containing maximum 85% ethanol) as non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL) in soil was demonstrated in a laboratory-scale experiment. Ecotoxicity data was produced for the same fuels. There was no significant difference in migration of conventional and renewable diesel, but gasoline migrated 1.5 times deeper and 7-9 times faster in sand than diesel. RE85 spread horizontally wider but not as deep (p?

Malk, Vuokko; Barreto Tejera, Eduardo; Simpanen, Suvi; Dahl, Mari; Mäkelä, Riikka; Häkkinen, Jani; Kiiski, Anna; Penttinen, Olli-Pekka

2014-08-01

8

IMPACT ANALYSIS OF SPENT FUEL DRY CASKS UNDER ACCIDENTAL DROP SCENARIOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of analyses were performed to assess the structural response of spent nuclear fuel dry casks subjected to various handling and on-site transfer events. The results of these analyses are being used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to perform a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). Although the PRA study is being performed for a specific nuclear plant, the PRA

J. I. BRAVERMAN; R. J. MORANTE; J. XU; C. H. HOFMAYER; S. K. SHAUKAT

2003-01-01

9

IMPACT ANALYSIS OF SPENT FUEL DRY CASKS UNDER ACCIDENTAL DROP SCENARIOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of analyses were performed to assess the structural response of spent nuclear fuel dry casks subjected to various handling and on-site transfer events. The results of these analyses are being used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to perform a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). Although the PRA study is being performed for a specific nuclear plant, the PRA

J. I. BRAVERMAN; R. J. MORANTE; J. XU; C. H. HOFMAYER; S. K. SHAUKAT

2009-01-01

10

Accidental explosions  

SciTech Connect

This book presents a survey of accidental explosions, their nature and their causes. It covers the physical and chemical conditions governing accidental explosions, whether in the gas phase, or in the liquid or solid state. The theoretical background of the kinetics and thermochemistry of explosions is outlined, followed by a detailed study of the explosion and detonation properties of both gas and condensed explosives. The author surveys a wide variety of substances in daily use in industry which can give rise to accidental explosions. Their properties and hazards are spelt out in detail, the discussion drawing on a long history of sometimes catastrophic accidents. Includes case studies, tables of physical and chemical data.

Medard, L.A.

1989-01-01

11

Elastic/Plastic Drop Analysis Using Finite Element Techniques  

SciTech Connect

A Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) can, which is called the High Integrity Can (HIC), is being designed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Its intended use is to contain SNF sent to the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC). INTEC will then do the final work with the HIC to send it to the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for long-term storage. One portion of the analysis, which was required for the HIC, was accidental drop scenarios. This consisted of 19 simulated drops from a height of 30-feet with impact on a flat rigid surface. Elastic/plastic analyses were performed for the simulated drops. Additionally, two elastic/plastic analyses were performed for drops from a height of 17-feet with impact on a rigid surface having a narrow raised portion across its center. The purpose of the analyses was to determine if any breach occurred which opened a crack wider than 0.05-inches from these drop scenarios. Also some plastic deformations were needed from certain drop scenarios to support the Criticality Safety documentation. The analytical results for the simulated drop scenarios showed that, though the seal in the lid may be broken, no 0.05-inch breach occurred. Also, the deformations for Criticality Safety documentation were calculated and show on the applicable output plots.

R. E. Spears

1999-08-01

12

Drop by Drop  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students measure liquid capacity with standard units. The lesson is based on the book, Drip, Drop, by Sarah Meeks. This is lesson 3 of 5 in a unit from NCTM's Illuminations titled "Magnificent Measurement".

Illuminations National Council of Teachers of Math

2009-02-18

13

Accidental inflation in the landscape  

SciTech Connect

We study some aspects of fine tuning in inflationary scenarios within string theory flux compactifications and, in particular, in models of accidental inflation. We investigate the possibility that the apparent fine-tuning of the low energy parameters of the theory needed to have inflation can be generically obtained by scanning the values of the fluxes over the landscape. Furthermore, we find that the existence of a landscape of eternal inflation in this model provides us with a natural theory of initial conditions for the inflationary period in our vacuum. We demonstrate how these two effects work in a small corner of the landscape associated with the complex structure of the Calabi-Yau manifold P{sup 4}{sub [1,1,1,6,9]} by numerically investigating the flux vacua of a reduced moduli space. This allows us to obtain the distribution of observable parameters for inflation in this mini-landscape directly from the fluxes.

Blanco-Pillado, Jose J.; Metallinos, Konstantinos [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA (United States); Gomez-Reino, Marta, E-mail: jose@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu, E-mail: marta.gomez-reino.perez@cern.ch, E-mail: Konstantinos.Metallinos@tufts.edu [Department of Physics, University of Oviedo, Oviedo (Spain)

2013-02-01

14

Accidental Inflation in the Landscape  

E-print Network

We study some aspects of fine tuning in inflationary scenarios within string theory flux compactifications and, in particular, in models of accidental inflation. We investigate the possibility that the apparent fine-tuning of the low energy parameters of the theory needed to have inflation can be generically obtained by scanning the values of the fluxes over the landscape. Furthermore, we find that the existence of a landscape of eternal inflation in this model provides us with a natural theory of initial conditions for the inflationary period in our vacuum. We demonstrate how these two effects work in a small corner of the landscape associated with the complex structure of the Calabi-Yau manifold P^4_[1,1,1,6,9] by numerically investigating the flux vacua of a reduced moduli space. This allows us to obtain the distribution of observable parameters for inflation in this mini-landscape directly from the fluxes.

Jose J. Blanco-Pillado; Marta Gomez-Reino; Konstantinos Metallinos

2012-09-04

15

Preventing Accidental Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... six, and close to half of poisonings in children of this age group involve a misuse of medicines. Below are safety tips that every parent, caregiver, and grandparent should use to prevent accidental poisonings: Avoid taking medications in the presence of children, as they often ...

16

Gamma Ray Burst engine activity within the quark nova scenario: Prompt emission, X-ray Plateau, and sharp drop-off  

E-print Network

We present a three-stage model for a long GRB inner engine to explain the prompt gamma ray emission, and interpret recent Swift satellite observations of early X-ray afterglow plateaus followed by a sharp drop off or a shallow power law decay. The three stages involves a neutron star phase, a quark star (QS) and a black hole phase as described in Staff et al. (2007). We find that the QS stage allows for more energy to be extracted from neutron star to QS conversion as well as from ensuing accretion onto the QS. The QS accretion phase naturally extends the engine activity and can account for both the prompt emission and irregular early X-ray afterglow activity. Following the accretion phase, the QS can spin-down by emission of a baryon-free outflow. The magnetar-like magnetic field strengths resulting from the NS to QS transition provide enough spin-down energy, for the correct amount of time, to account for the plateau in the X-ray afterglow. In our model, a sharp drop-off following the plateau occurs when the QS collapses to a BH during the spin-down, thus shutting-off the secondary outflow. We applied our model to GRB 070110 and GRB 060607A and found that we can consistently account for the energetics and duration during the prompt and plateau phases.

Jan Staff; Brian Niebergal; Rachid Ouyed

2007-11-19

17

Foot Drop  

MedlinePLUS

... drop can be unilateral (affecting one foot) or bilateral (affecting both feet). Foot drop is a symptom ... fuses the foot and ankle joint or that transfers tendons from stronger leg muscles is occasionally performed. ...

18

Penny Drop  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this quick activity about the properties of water (page 1 of PDF), learners will use an eyedropper to slowly place one drop of water at a time onto a penny, counting the number of drops until the water spills over the edge. Besides searching for the greatest number drops a penny will hold, drops of milk or vegetable oil can be tested in addition to water, raising the question, "What property of water allows it to pile up this way?" Relates to the linked video, DragonflyTV: Malformed Frogs.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2005-01-01

19

Voltage Drop  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first site with information on voltage drop is provided by Power and System Innovations on their Frequently Asked Questions: Voltage Drop (1) page. Visitors can read what voltage drop is, what causes it, what happens as a result of it, and what the maximum recommended voltage drop is. The second site, Basics of Electricity (2), is part of General Electric's Lighting for Business Web site. Through descriptions and illustrations, the site explains what voltage drop is and gives examples of how it is calculated using Ohm's law. The next site is a lab worksheet that is part of a class from the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department of Montana State University called Voltage Drop in Cables (3). The objective of the lesson is to determine the internal resistance of an extension cord and choose the proper wire size for a particular application. Students are given an explanation of the procedure and a number of questions to answer related to the exercise. The Oregon Building Congress offers the Lesson Plans (4) Web site and the downloadable Voltage Drop educational activity. The lesson, which is suggested to be contained within a unit on formulas and solving literal equations, explores the concept of voltage drop that is encountered in basic wiring. The fifth site entitled Explanation of Voltage Drop in a Series Circuit (5) is offered by the Horizons Electronic Lesson Plan Resource. The page describes voltage drop as an electronic concept, gives a formula determining voltage drop, provides a schematic that helps illustrate the concept, and offers a quiz and answer sheet. Next, from electrician.com, is the online Voltage Drop Calculator (6). Users input the type and size of wire being used, the voltage and phase, circuit length, and amp load to calculate voltage drop and several other parameters. The seventh site, entitled The Hazards of Voltage Drop (7), is provided within the Electrical Construction Maintenance Web site. The page describes how electrical equipment can overheat or even power down if it operates below its voltage rating. It also provides a thorough explanation of how to determine the load's operating voltage. The last site, maintained by Williamson Labs (8), is a comprehensive learning site called Elementary Electricity. Visitors will find a wealth of information here, including fun descriptions, graphics, and animations on all aspects of electricity including voltage drop.

20

Soft Drop  

E-print Network

We introduce a new jet substructure technique called "soft drop declustering", which recursively removes soft wide-angle radiation from a jet. The soft drop algorithm depends on two parameters--a soft threshold $z_\\text{cut}$ and an angular exponent $\\beta$--with the $\\beta = 0$ limit corresponding roughly to the (modified) mass drop procedure. To gain an analytic understanding of soft drop and highlight the $\\beta$ dependence, we perform resummed calculations for three observables on soft-dropped jets: the energy correlation functions, the groomed jet radius, and the energy loss due to soft drop. The $\\beta = 0$ limit of the energy loss is particularly interesting, since it is not only "Sudakov safe" but also largely insensitive to the value of the strong coupling constant. While our calculations are strictly accurate only to modified leading-logarithmic order, we also include a discussion of higher-order effects such as multiple emissions and (the absence of) non-global logarithms. We compare our analytic results to parton shower simulations and find good agreement, and we also estimate the impact of non-perturbative effects such as hadronization and the underlying event. Finally, we demonstrate how soft drop can be used for tagging boosted W bosons, and we speculate on the potential advantages of using soft drop for pileup mitigation.

Andrew J. Larkoski; Simone Marzani; Gregory Soyez; Jesse Thaler

2014-05-13

21

The Accidental Scientist: Cooking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Another great Web site from the Exploratorium in San Francisco (last mentioned in the August 16, 2002 NSDL MET Report), The Accidental Scientist: Cooking is the first in a series of "Web-based projects focusing on the science behind everyday life." Offering a mind-boggling array of food-related information and activities, foodies and science-lovers alike should find this Web site extremely engaging. Life science-related material includes an exploration of taste and smell; the biological properties of meat; microbe action in pickling, fermentation, and leavening; and much more. The site's other features not directly related to the life sciences shouldn't be missed. Users can find recipes and cooking tips, fun projects, and live Web casts starting in November 2002 that explore the science and culture of cooking, "just in time for picking up cooking tips for the holiday season."

1969-12-31

22

Accidental Composite Dark Matter  

E-print Network

We build models where Dark Matter candidates arise as composite states of a new confining gauge force, stable thanks to accidental symmetries. Restricting to renormalizable theories compatible with SU(5) unification, we find 13 models based on SU(N) gauge theories and 9 based on SO(N). We also describe other models that require non-renormalizable interactions. The two gauge groups lead to distinctive phenomenologies: SU(N) theories give complex DM, with potentially observable electric and magnetic dipole moments that lead to peculiar spin-independent cross sections; SO(N) theories give real DM, with challenging spin-dependent cross sections or inelastic scatterings. Models with Yukawa couplings also give rise to spin-independent direct detection mediated by the Higgs boson and to electric dipole moments for the electron. In some models DM has higher spin. Each model predicts a specific set of lighter composite scalars, possibly observable at colliders.

Antipin, Oleg; Strumia, Alessandro; Vigiani, Elena

2015-01-01

23

Fatal accidental enflurane intoxication.  

PubMed

Among reported cases of abuse of volatile anesthetics there is only one of enflurane intoxication. We report another fatal enflurane intoxication. A 21-year-old man found dead seemed to have experimented with enflurane. Three and one-half days after death high amounts of enflurane were detected in blood, brain, and subcutaneous fat. Gas chromatographic quantification revealed the following high enflurane concentrations: blood: 130 mg/l-1, brain: 350 mg/l-1, and subcutaneous fat: 100 mg/l-1. Histologic signs of drug-induced damage were lacking. No suicide intentions became known. It was concluded that the young man died of an accidental intoxication while abusing enflurane. PMID:2584946

Jacob, B; Heller, C; Daldrup, T; Bürrig, K F; Barz, J; Bonte, W

1989-11-01

24

Epidemiology of accidental radiation exposures.  

PubMed Central

Much of the information on the health effects of radiation exposure available to date comes from long-term studies of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Accidental exposures, such as those resulting from the Chernobyl and Kyshtym accidents, have as yet provided little information concerning health effects of ionizing radiation. This paper will present the current state of our knowledge concerning radiation effects, review major large-scale accidental radiation exposures, and discuss information that could be obtained from studies of accidental exposures and the types of studies that are needed. PMID:8781398

Cardis, E

1996-01-01

25

Accidental intrathecal mercury application.  

PubMed

The authors present a case of accidental intrathecal mercury application. A 69-year-old white woman was admitted to our department with suspected meningitis following surgery for spinal stenosis at another hospital. Postoperatively, she had developed a cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) fistula with a subcutaneous cavity. Local wound irritation had been suspected and, unfortunately, mercury-containing disinfectant was injected into the cavity. Within 24 h the patient demonstrated acute neurological deterioration due to meningitis and encephalitis and was admitted to our clinic with suspected meningitis due to postoperative CSF fistula. Lumbar puncture revealed desinfectant-stained, non-bloody CSF, while lumbar MRI demonstrated the large lumbar subcutaneous cavity. Additionally, CSF fistula was visualized on MRI. Laboratory examination revealed extremely high mercury levels in CSF, blood and urine. Treatment consisted in insertion of a lumbar drainage to wash out the mercury. The patient underwent medical detoxication using chelating agents (DMPS: RS-2,3-dimercapto-1-propansulfonacid, DMSA: meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinatacid). Surgery was performed in order to close the cavity and the fistula. Postoperatively, the patient was admitted to the intensive care unit and remained intubated for 3 days. Within 4 weeks after surgery, she demonstrated good recovery. Eighteen months after intoxication, polyneuropathy and slight neuropsychological deficiencies were detectable. PMID:14586664

Stark, Andreas M; Barth, Harald; Grabner, Jean-Paul; Mehdorn, H Maximilian

2004-05-01

26

Accidental supersymmetric dark matter and baryogenesis  

SciTech Connect

We show that ''accidental'' supersymmetry is a beyond-the-Standard Model framework that naturally accommodates a thermal relic dark matter candidate and successful electroweak baryogenesis, including the needed strongly first-order character of the electroweak phase transition. We study the phenomenology of this setup from the standpoint of both dark matter and baryogenesis. For energies around the electroweak phase transition temperature, the low-energy effective theory is similar to the MSSM with light super-partners of the third-generation quarks and of the Higgs and gauge bosons. We calculate the dark matter relic abundance and the baryon asymmetry across the accidental supersymmetry parameter space, including resonant and non-resonant CP-violating sources. We find that there are regions of parameter space producing both the observed value of the baryon asymmetry and a dark matter candidate with the correct relic density and conforming to present-day constraints from dark matter searches. This scenario makes sharp predictions for the particle spectrum, predicting a lightest neutralino mass between 200 and 500 GeV, with all charginos and neutralinos within less than a factor 2 of the lightest neutralino mass and the heavy Higgs sector within 20–25% of that mass, making it an interesting target for collider searches. In addition, we demonstrate that successful accidental supersymmetric dark matter and baryogenesis will be conclusively tested with improvements smaller than one order of magnitude to the current performance of electron electric dipole moment searches and of direct dark matter searches, as well as with IceCube plus Deep Core neutrino telescope data.

Kozaczuk, Jonathan; Profumo, Stefano; Wainwright, Carroll L., E-mail: jkozaczu@ucsc.edu, E-mail: profumo@ucsc.edu, E-mail: cwainwri@ucsc.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, 1156 High St., Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

2013-01-01

27

Pearl drops  

Microsoft Academic Search

If deposited on a hydrophobic rough substrate, a small drop of water can look like a pearl, with a contact angle close to 180°. We examine the conditions for observing such a phenomenon and show practical achievements where the contact angle can be predicted and thus quantitatively tuned by the design of the surface microstructure.

J. Bico; C. Marzolin; D. Quéré

1999-01-01

28

Parachute Drop  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this hands-on activity, learners make model parachutes out of various materials such as thin plastic, paper, or gauze. Then, learners test drop their parachutes to compare how long each material takes to land on the ground. For an online extension, learners can enter their results into a database and see how their parachutes compares with other learners. Materials listed are only suggestions - experiment to create your own unique parachute!

Lawrence Hall of Science

2009-01-01

29

Accidental poisoning with "Chinese chalk".  

PubMed

We present a 1.5-year old, 11 kg, female infant with a history of bronchial hyper-responsiveness who accidentally ingested half of a "Chinese chalk". A day later, the infant showed vomiting, cough, fever, drowsiness, and irritability and her clinical conditions progressively worsened. She was admitted to the emergency department with cough, respiratory distress, and hepatomegaly. It has been reported that the chalk may contain deltamethrin and cypermethrin. The patient was successfully treated with supportive therapy. This report identifies "Chinese chalk" as a potential source of accidental poisoning in children and should be considered as part of the differential diagnoses in the emergency rooms since poisoning with these compounds may be misdiagnosed as organophosphate poisoning due to the presentation of similar symptoms. PMID:18551820

Martínez-Navarrete, Juan; Loria-Castellanos, Jorge; Nava-Ocampo, Alejandro A

2008-04-01

30

When are burns not accidental?  

PubMed Central

One hundred and ninety five children aged up to 6 years with burns and scalds (30 non-accidental and 165 accidental) were studied retrospectively. The history, presentation, and other typical injuries assisted the diagnosis of abuse. Scalds accounted for 81% of accidents and 25% of the cases of abuse, and burns for 17% and 44%, respectively. Scalds usually followed spillage from kitchen containers in accidents and forced tap water immersion in cases of abuse. Burns in cases of both accidents and abuse resulted from contact with a wide range of household appliances, including room heaters. Attention is drawn to the back of the hand as an important site in cases of abuse, as well as the legs, buttocks, and feet. It is speculated that the low level of reporting of this form of child abuse reflects failure of diagnosis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:3707186

Hobbs, C J

1986-01-01

31

Why Chalk Breaks into Three Pieces When Dropped  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has been the author's experience over many years, no doubt shared by others, that a stick of chalk usually breaks into three pieces when accidentally dropped onto the floor. I rarely gave it any thought, apart from noting that the fundamental mode of vibration of a freely supported, rigid rod has two nodes at an equal distance from each…

Cross, Rod

2015-01-01

32

Voltage Bursting Drops in Solids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Droplets in air or liquids under electrical voltages appear in diverse processes from thunderstorm cloud formation, ink-jet printing, electrospinning nanofibers to electrospray ionization. In these processes, the electrostatic energy competes with surface energy of the drops and causes sharp tips to form on the ends of the drops. Here, we report a physically distinct scenario for droplets in solid matrices under voltages. We show that water drops in elastic polymers can form sharp tips and surprisingly burst into long tubes under applied voltages. The new phenomenon is governed by the elasticity and fracture of the solids, instead of the drops' surface energy as in previous cases. A new scaling is derived for the critical electrical field of the voltage-induced instability of drops in solids. The observations and analyses have significant practical impacts, as they illustrate the mechanism of a major failure mode, defect-induced breakdown, of dielectric polymers, which are widely used as insulating cables and polymer capacitors and transducers.

Wang, Qiming; Suo, Zhigang; Zhao, Xuanhe

2012-02-01

33

Example Scenarios  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This section explores several hypothetical scenarios of nuclear-weapon detonations on U.S. cities. These scenarios are meant to illustrate the possibilities of such events. Scenarios include a "what-if" scenario of a 150-kiloton nuclear explosion by terrorists on New York City, and the effects of a nuclear accident or "broken arrow" on board a nuclear submarine in San Francisco Bay.

Christopher Griffith

34

Permanent neurological sequelae following accidental podophyllin ingestion.  

PubMed

Accidental podophyllin poisoning is rare, but it can be associated with high morbidity and mortality. The authors describe severe encephalopathy and cerebral atrophy caused by accidental podophyllin ingestion in a 3-year-old boy. This case illustrates the permanent neurological damage in a developmentally normal child from a preventable cause. PMID:21911415

Kumar, Manish; Shanmugham, Arumugasamy; Prabha, Sivaprakasam; Adhisivam, Bethou; Narayanan, Parameswaran; Biswal, Niranjan

2012-02-01

35

Scenario Testing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This subset of the Black Box Software Testing collection includes resources to teach Scenario Testing. The scenario test involves a story about how the program is used, including information about the motivations of the people involved. The Soap Opera emphasizes the human issues, even beyond the traditional scenario. Resources include lecture videos, slides, activities, suggested readings, and study guide materials.

Cem Kaner

2011-06-01

36

Is the tribimaximal mixing accidental?  

SciTech Connect

The tribimaximal (TBM) mixing is not accidental if structures of the corresponding leptonic mass matrices follow immediately from certain (residual or broken) flavor symmetry. We develop a simple formalism which allows one to analyze effects of deviations of the lepton mixing from TBM on the structure of the neutrino mass matrix and on the underlying flavor symmetry. We show that possible deviations from the TBM mixing can lead to strong modifications of the mass matrix and strong violation of the TBM-mass relations. As a result, the mass matrix may have an 'anarchical' structure with random values of elements or it may have some symmetry that differs from the TBM symmetry. Interesting examples include matrices with texture zeros, matrices with certain 'flavor alignment' as well as hierarchical matrices with a two-component structure, where the dominant and subdominant contributions have different symmetries. This opens up new approaches to understanding the lepton mixing.

Abbas, Mohammed [Ain Shams University, Faculty of Sciences, Abbassiyah 11566, Cairo (Egypt); Center for Theoretical Physics (CTP), British University in Egypt, BUE, El-Sherouk City, Cairo (Egypt); Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, I-34014 Trieste (Italy); Smirnov, A. Yu. [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, I-34014 Trieste (Italy); Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2010-07-01

37

5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Accidental death and dismemberment. 870.206 Section 870...Amount of Insurance § 870.206 Accidental death and dismemberment. (a)(1) Accidental death and dismemberment coverage is an...

2012-01-01

38

5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Accidental death and dismemberment. 870.206 Section 870...Amount of Insurance § 870.206 Accidental death and dismemberment. (a)(1) Accidental death and dismemberment coverage is an...

2014-01-01

39

21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. 1002.20 Section 1002...Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a)...

2012-04-01

40

21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. 1002.20 Section 1002...Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a)...

2010-04-01

41

21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. 1002.20 Section 1002...Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a)...

2013-04-01

42

21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. 1002.20 Section 1002...Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a)...

2011-04-01

43

21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. 1002.20 Section 1002...Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a)...

2014-04-01

44

Alternate drop pulse polarography  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The new technique of alternate drop pulse polarography is presented. An experimental evaluation of alternate drop pulse polarography shows complete compensation of the capacitative background due to drop expansion. The capillary response phenomenon was studied in the absence of faradaic reaction and the capillary response current was found to depend on the pulse width to the -0.72 power. Increased signal-to-noise ratios were obtained using alternate drop pulse polarography at shorter drop times.

Christie, J.H.; Jackson, L.L.; Osteryoung, R.A.

1976-01-01

45

The characterization and evaluation of accidental explosions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accidental explosions are discussed from a number of viewpoints. First, all accidental explosions, intentional explosions and natural explosions are characterized by type. Second, the nature of the blast wave produced by an ideal (point source or HE) explosion is discussed to form a basis for describing how other explosion processes yield deviations from ideal blast wave behavior. The current status blast damage mechanism evaluation is also discussed. Third, the current status of our understanding of each different category of accidental explosions is discussed in some detail.

Strehlow, R. A.; Baker, W. E.

1975-01-01

46

Simulations of accidental coal immersion.  

PubMed

Coal is currently becoming an increasingly interesting fossil energy resource and that is the reason why its maritime transport, and hence the risk of collier accidents, increase. In this work, the environmental impact of an accidental coal immersion at sea is studied: the physicochemical effects are estimated using innovative experimental setups--a laboratory seawater canal called "polludrome" is used to evaluate the behaviour of coal particles submitted to a seawater flow, and a specifically designed tub is used to study the physicochemical consequences induced when coal is introduced into continuously renewed seawater. When coal is introduced into seawater, the most easily visible consequences are physical: fine coal particles reduce the daylight penetration up to 100% and move along with the flow, and coal chunks accumulate on the floor. Chemical effects are also measured: humic matters are dissolved from coal into seawater (up to 2 mg L(-1)), but no release of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is evidenced. Some inorganic compounds are dissolved, among which manganese, whose concentrations can reach 1 microg L(-1). Fortunately, the results show that the environmental impact of this type of accident would remain limited. PMID:17964611

Jaffrennou, Cathy; Giamarchi, Philippe; Cabon, Jean-Yves; Stephan, Ludovic; Burel-Deschamps, Laure; Bautin, François; Thomas, Annabelle; Dumont, Julien; Le Floch, Stéphane

2007-12-01

47

Accidental death involving professional fireworks.  

PubMed

An interesting case of accidental death involving the explosion of professional fireworks in an apartment is described. The examination of the scene permitted to study several effects of the explosion on walls, ceiling, furniture and especially on a balcony where the victim was found. The external examination of the victim showed extensive thermal injuries, degloving injuries and extensive shrapnel wounds. The autopsy examination showed subarachnoid haemorrhage localized to the cerebellum, haemorrhage in the soft tissues of the neck and chest and fracture of one clavicle. Almost the entire surface of lungs showed blunt injuries and the liver showed tearing of parenchyma and multiple cavities. Histological analysis were carried out showing thickening of alveolar septae, enlargement of alveolar spaces and alveolar ruptures in lung sections while numerous, round, empty spaces were detected in the parenchyma of the liver. The examination of the scene and of the fragments found showed that at least eight pyrotechnical charges exploded on the balcony, in close proximity of the threshold with the living room of the apartment. According to the chemical findings, the charges were typical for professional use and were filled with a mixture of potassium perchlorate and aluminium. A conservative calculation results in more than 1.5 kg total mass of pyrotechnic composition exploding very close to the victim. PMID:24279979

Romolo, Francesco Saverio; Aromatario, Mariarosaria; Bottoni, Edoardo; Cappelletti, Simone; Fiore, Paola Antonella; Ciallella, Costantino

2014-01-01

48

PERSPECTIVES Scenarios &  

E-print Network

on alternative energy scenarios and strategies aimed at a clean, clever and competitive energy future" #122 0 0 6 ENERGY TECHNOLOGY PERSPECTIVES Scenarios & Strategies to 2050 Energy Technology/speech/2006/ramsay/etp_tokyo.pdf #12;INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY AGENCE INTERNATIONALE DE L'ENERGIE G8

49

Dilating Eye Drops  

MedlinePLUS

... Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) Pink eye (defined) Retinopathy of Prematurity Strabismus Stye (defined) Vision Screening Vision Screening Recommendations ... Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) Pink eye (defined) Retinopathy of Prematurity Strabismus Stye (defined) Vision Screening Vision Screening Recommendations ...

50

Eye Drop Tips  

MedlinePLUS

... in your eye. Having Trouble Holding Onto The Bottle? If the eye drop bottle feels too small to hold (in cases where ... used and the drop comes directly from the bottle), try wrapping something (like a paper towel) around ...

51

Yield-stress drops   

E-print Network

The behaviour of viscoplastic drops during formation and detachment from a capillary nozzle, free-fall, impact on a solid substrate and subsequent spreading are investigated experimentally by high-speed imaging. Drop ...

German, Guy

2010-01-01

52

An accidental poisoning with mitragynine.  

PubMed

An increasing number of drugs of abuse are sold word wide over the internet. Names like "legal highs", "herbal highs" etc. give the impression that these are safe products, although the risk of fatal reactions might be substantial. Leaves from the plant Mitragyna speciosa, contain active compounds like mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine. It has been reported that the potency of 7-hydroxymitragynine at the ?-opioid receptor is 30 times higher than that of mitragynine and 17 times higher than that of morphine. Case reports regarding poisoning with Kratom are reported, but the toxic or lethal ranges for the concentrations of the active substances have not been established, and concentrations of 7-hydroxymitragynine have not been reported previously. We present a case report where a middle aged man was found dead at home. The deceased had a history of drug abuse and mental illness for several years. At autopsy, there were no significant pathological findings. Post-mortem analysis of peripheral blood revealed: zopiclone 0.043mg/L, citalopram 0.36mg/L and lamotrigine 5.4mg/L, i.e. concentrations regularly seen after therapeutic ingestion of these drugs. Additionally mitragynine 1.06mg/L and 7-hydroxymitragynine 0.15mg/L were detected in blood and both also in urine. The high concentrations of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine indicate that the cause of death is intoxication by these substances; and the circumstances point toward the manner of death being accidental. We recommend that both mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine are analyzed for in cases with suspected Kratom intoxication. PMID:25453780

Karinen, Ritva; Fosen, Jan Toralf; Rogde, Sidsel; Vindenes, Vigdis

2014-10-24

53

Accidental Dark Matter: Case in the Scale Invariant Local $B-L$ Model  

E-print Network

We explore the idea of accidental dark matter (aDM) stability in the scale invariant local $U(1)_{B-L}$ model, which is a theory for neutrino and at the same time radiatively breaks scale invariance via quantum mechanical dynamics in the $U(1)_{B-L}$ sector. A real singlet scalar can be accidental DM with an accidental $Z_2$, by virtue of both extended symmetries. A $U(1)_{B-L}$ charged complex scalar can also be a viable accidental DM due to an accidental (or remanent) $Z_3$. They can reproduce correct relic density via the annihilations through the conventional Higgs portal or dark Higgs portal. The dark Higgs portal scenario is in tension with the LHC bound on $Z_{B-L}$, and only heavy DM of a few TeVs can have correct relic density. In particular, DM may trigger spontaneous breaking of scale Invariance (SISB). The situation is relaxed significantly in the $Z_3$ case due to the effective semi-annihilation mode and then light DM can be accommodated easily. In addition, the $Z_3$ model can accommodate the Ge...

Guo, Jun; Ko, P; Orikasa, Yuta

2015-01-01

54

Drop coalescence studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this experimental study is to understand the detailed mechanics of the coalescence of liquid drops. The experiments are being conducted in an immiscible acoustic levitator with degassed water as the host medium. Typically, a quasineutrally buoyant drop of silicon oil mixed with bromobenzene is levitated close to the velocity node of the levitator. A second drop of the same liquid is introduced, and as it slowly seeks levitation position, the drops coalesce. Coalescence is delayed until the host film between drops is completely drained. Following coalescence, the excess surface energy in the coalesced drop is dissipated through shape oscillations. The final events of film rupture followed by drop coalescence are rapid and are photographically studied with high-speed video (1000 fps). The laser-induced fluorescence technique is used to visualize the dynamics of host film drainage. The details of the coalescence mechanics are presented.

Anikumar, A. V.; Wang, T. G.

1990-01-01

55

Prescription of eye drops  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to assess whether patients have their ocular drops correctly prescribed during non-ophthalmic admissions to hospital. A retrospective review of notes of patients who were admitted to hospital for general medical or surgical care, while on regular eye drops at the time of admission was performed. Twenty two patients were on regular ocular medication when admitted. Only seven out of 22 patients had their eye drops correctly prescribed. Furthermore, six patients had been prescribed topical ?-blockers, yet suffered from medical conditions that may have been aggravated by these drops. These findings demonstrate that the majority of patients on drops do not have their medication correctly prescribed during non-ophthalmic admissions to hospital. Also topical ?-blockers continue to be inappropriately prescribed.???Keywords: eye drops; non-ophthalmic admissions PMID:11571373

O'Sullivan, E; Malhotra, R; Migdal, C

2001-01-01

56

Accidental inflation in string theory  

SciTech Connect

We show that inflation in type IIB string theory driven by the volume modulus can be realized in the context of the racetrack-based Kallosh-Linde model (KL) of moduli stabilization. Inflation here arises through the volume modulus slow-rolling down from a flat hilltop or inflection point of the scalar potential. This situation can be quite generic in the landscape, where by uplifting one of the two adjacent minima one can turn the barrier either into a flat saddle point or into an inflection point supporting eternal inflation. The resulting spectral index is tunable in the range of 0.93{approx}scenario requires fine-tuning, which may be justified taking into account the exponential reward by volume factors preferring the regions of the universe with the maximal amount of slow-roll inflation. This consideration leads to a tentative prediction of the spectral index n{sub s} Almost-Equal-To 0.95 or 0.93, depending on whether the potential has a symmetry {phi}{yields}-{phi} or not.

Linde, Andrei; Westphal, Alexander, E-mail: alinde@stanford.edu, E-mail: awestpha@stanford.edu [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States)

2008-03-15

57

Accidental inflation in string theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that inflation in type IIB string theory driven by the volume modulus can be realized in the context of the racetrack-based Kallosh-Linde model (KL) of moduli stabilization. Inflation here arises through the volume modulus slow-rolling down from a flat hilltop or inflection point of the scalar potential. This situation can be quite generic in the landscape, where by uplifting one of the two adjacent minima one can turn the barrier either into a flat saddle point or into an inflection point supporting eternal inflation. The resulting spectral index is tunable in the range of 0.93 \\lesssim n_{\\mathrm {s}} \\lesssim 1 , and there is only negligible production of primordial gravitational waves r<10-6. The flatness of the potential in this scenario requires fine-tuning, which may be justified taking into account the exponential reward by volume factors preferring the regions of the universe with the maximal amount of slow-roll inflation. This consideration leads to a tentative prediction of the spectral index ns?0.95 or 0.93, depending on whether the potential has a symmetry \\varphi \\to-\\varphi or not.

Linde, Andrei; Westphal, Alexander

2008-03-01

58

Axisymmetric Liquid Hanging Drops  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The geometry of drops hanging on a circular capillary can be determined by numerically solving a dimensionless differential equation that is independent on any material properties, which enables one to follow the change of the height, surface area, and contact angle of drops hanging on a particular capillary. The results show that the application…

Meister, Erich C.; Latychevskaia, Tatiana Yu

2006-01-01

59

Youth Crime Drop. Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report examines the recent drop in violent crime in the United States, discussing how much of the decrease seen between 1995-99 is attributable to juveniles (under age 18 years) and older youth (18-24 years). Analysis of current FBI arrest data indicates that not only did America's violent crime drop continue through 1999, but falling youth…

Butts, Jeffrey A.

60

Drops on a Penny  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, challenge learners to predict and investigate how many water drops they can fit on one penny. Learners conduct the test three times to find the average number of drops they can fit on a penny. Learners then repeat this process using a nickel, dime, and quarter. Use this activity to demonstrate the principles of surface tension, adhesion/cohesion, and gravity.

WGBH Boston

2002-01-01

61

Supercooled Water Drops  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners touch supercooled water drops with an ice crystal and trigger the water drops to freeze instantly. Learners discover that this process is used during candy making, when a single sugar crystal is used to crystallize an entire batch of sugar.

2012-10-03

62

Drop Tail (FIFO) FREDCBQ ......  

E-print Network

Drop Tail (FIFO) FREDCBQ ...... Class-Based Threshold (CBT) Dynamic-CBT Resource Reservation RED Active Queue Mgmt Dynamic-CBT ­ Better Performing Active Queue Management for Multimedia Networking Mark performance drop for multimedia flows that are well behaved. We extend Class-Based Threshold (CBT

Claypool, Mark

63

Accidental and planned weather modification in illinois  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weather modification, both planned by humans and accidentally produced by humans, is the focus of an Illinois study. Populations in Illinois and the Midwest are living in a climate that is now modified inadvertently from its natural state. State atmospheric scientists have tackled weather modification through a series of interrelated studies, experimental design studies, experimental field studies to verify changes

1977-01-01

64

Effect of Temperature on the Drop Reliability of Wafer-Level Chip Scale Packaged Electronics Assemblies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electronic products experience complex loadings in ordinary daily use where electrical, thermomechanical and mechanical loadings act concurrently. Moreover, portable equipment are exposed to mechanical shocks due to accidental dropping, and therefore their reliability should be studied with tests that simulate the real operational loading conditions as realistically as possible. The reliability of WL-CSP component boards was studied by executing mechanical

T. T. Mattila; R. J. James; L. Nguyen; J. K. Kivilahti

2007-01-01

65

Load drop evaluation for TWRS FSAR  

SciTech Connect

Operational or remediation activities associated with existing underground high-level waste storage tank structures at the Hanford Site often require the installation/removal of various equipment items. To gain tank access for installation or removal of this equipment, large concrete cover blocks must be removed and reinstalled in existing concrete pits above the tanks. An accidental drop of the equipment or cover blocks while being moved over the tanks that results in the release of contaminants to the air poses a potential risk to onsite workers or to the offsite public. To minimize this potential risk, the use of critical lift hoisting and rigging procedures and restrictions on lift height are being considered during development of the new tank farm Basis for Interim Operation and Final Safety Analysis Report. The analysis contained herein provides information for selecting the appropriate lift height restrictions for these activities.

Julyk, L.J.; Ralston, G.L.

1996-09-30

66

Drop Tower Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The drop towers of yesteryear were used to make lead shot for muskets, as described in The Physics Teacher1 in April 2012. However, modern drop towers are essentially elevators designed so that the cable can "break" on demand, creating an environment with microgravity for a short period of time, currently up to nine seconds at the drop tower in Bremen, Germany. Using these drop towers, one can briefly investigate various physical systems operating in this near zero-g environment. The resulting "Drop Tower Physics" is a new and exciting way to challenge students with a physical example that requires solid knowledge of many basic physics principles, and it forces them to practice the scientific method. The question is, "How would a simple toy, like a pendulum, behave when it is suddenly exposed to a zero-g environment?" The student must then postulate a particular behavior, test the hypothesis against physical principles, and if the hypothesis conforms to these chosen physical laws, the student can formulate a final conclusion. At that point having access to a drop tower is very convenient, in that the student can then experimentally test his or her conclusion. The purpose of this discussion is to explain the response of these physical systems ("toys") when the transition is made to a zero-g environment and to provide video demonstrations of this behavior to support in-class discussions of Drop Tower Physics.

Dittrich, William A. Toby

2014-10-01

67

Modelling of accidental released toxic gases for emergency responders in Austria, Kosovo and Bulgaria.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the case of accidental release of hazardous gases in the atmosphere, the emergency responders need a reliable and fast tool to assess the possible consequences and apply the optimal countermeasures. A number of models for the prediction and simulation of hazard areas affected by accidental releases of toxic gases are available worldwide. Modelling accidental releases may be required for a variety of reasons: for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios"), for preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management (e.g. in the frame of the SEVESO directive). Depending on the demand and the particular purposes, the choice of the appropriate model is up to the authorities. The one year project was funded by the Austrian Science and research liaison Office (ASO, www.aso.zsi.at) as a part of the program: Research Cooperation and Networking between Austria, the public higher education institutions in Kosovo and South Eastern Europe. The project was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG, http://www.zamg.ac.at) in cooperation with the University of Prishtina (Kosovo, www.uni-pr.edu and the National Institute of meteorology and Hydrology (NIHM Bulgaria, www.meteo.bg). One of the main purposes of the project was to provide the both partners with basic knowledge in modelling with accidental release of toxic gases, based on the practical experience of the meteorologists from the ZAMG in the area. This knowledge can be used as scientific response to society driven current or upcoming problems especially in Kosovo. The activities involved know-how transfer on European standards and practice among the project partners, as well as joint efforts to adapt and disseminate the scientific methods and results in Kosovo. Within the project, the partners from Kosovo and Bulgaria were introduced to the atmospheric dispersion model (ALOHA - Areal Location of Hazardous atmosphere) and proceeded several model runs based on reference scenarios for chemicals of concern. ALOHA is one of the tools developed by EPA's Office of Emergency Management (OEM) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office of Response and Restoration (NOAA), to assist front-line chemical emergency planners and responders. In the frame of the project the partners in Kosovo and Bulgaria also undertook first steps in establishing cooperation connections with decision makers for emergency response planning, fire brigades and chemical plants. This presentation focuses on basic issues and problems in handling with accidental release of toxic gases, as well as on communication difficulties among the emergency responders, modellers and authorities in the three countries.

Stenzel, Sirma; Baumann-Stanzer, Kathrin; Gashi, Salih; Thaci, Bashkim; Batchvarova, Ekaterina; Spassova, Tatiana

2010-05-01

68

A probabilistic model for accidental cargo oil outflow from product tankers in a ship-ship collision.  

PubMed

In risk assessment of maritime transportation, estimation of accidental oil outflow from tankers is important for assessing environmental impacts. However, there typically is limited data concerning the specific structural design and tank arrangement of ships operating in a given area. Moreover, there is uncertainty about the accident scenarios potentially emerging from ship encounters. This paper proposes a Bayesian network (BN) model for reasoning under uncertainty for the assessment of accidental cargo oil outflow in a ship-ship collision where a product tanker is struck. The BN combines a model linking impact scenarios to damage extent with a model for estimating the tank layouts based on limited information regarding the ship. The methodology for constructing the model is presented and output for two accident scenarios is shown. The discussion elaborates on the issue of model validation, both in terms of the BN and in light of the adopted uncertainty/bias-based risk perspective. PMID:24462237

Goerlandt, Floris; Montewka, Jakub

2014-02-15

69

Millikan's Oil Drop Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a Keynote Presentation exported as a clickable quicktime movie. This presentation develops Millikan's Oil Drop experiment. The presentation is animated and the learner or Instructor can click their way through the presenation. The mathematical theory is fully developed.

Mr. Tony DiMauro

2009-01-12

70

Drop Tower Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ground based microgravity facilities are an important proving ground for space experiments, ground-based research and space hardware risk mitigation. An overview of existing platforms will be discussed with an emphasis on drop tower capabilities. The potential for extension to partial gravity conditions will be discussed. Input will be solicited from attendees for their potential to use drop towers in the future and the need for enhanced capabilities (e.g. partial gravity)

Urban, David

2013-01-01

71

[Accidental genital myiasis by Eristalis tenax].  

PubMed

Myiasis is a parasitic infestation of human or animal skin, necrotic tissues and natural cavities by fly larvae or pupa. In this paper we will describe the case of a 27 years old woman, asymptomatic, that spontaneously eliminated from her vagina two Eristalis tenax larvae, a worldwide distributed fly specie, classified as an accidental myiasis agent. The patient lived in an urban area, she had low socioeconomic status and she had the antecedent record of use of intravaginal vegetables as sexual stimulator. Analyzing the case and the references, we concluded the patient had an accidental infestation by E. tenax, being the vaginal introduction of vegetables the most probable mechanism of transmission. This kind of infestation has not been communicated in the literature. Also, this is the first documented case of E. tenax myiasis in Chile. PMID:19621163

González M, Mauricio; Comte M, Greissy; Monárdez P, Javiera; Díaz de Valdés L, Marcelo; Matamala C, Iván

2009-06-01

72

Scenario Generation Using Differential Scenario Information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method of generating scenarios using differential scenaro information is presented. Behaviors of normal scenarios of similar purpose are quite similar each other, while actors and data in scenarios are different among these scenarios. We derive the differential information between them and apply the differential information to generate new alternative/exceptional scenarios. Our method will be illustrated with examples. This paper describes (1) a language for describing scenarios based on a simple case grammar of actions, (2) introduction of the differential scenario, and (3) method and examples of scenario generation using the differential scenario.

Makino, Masayuki; Ohnishi, Atsushi

73

Myelopathy and amnesia following accidental electrical injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Documentation of MRI and neurophysiological changes following accidental electrical injury.Setting: Tertiary care referral teaching hospital at Lucknow, India.Results: A 30-year-old lady developed amnesia and spastic paraparesis with loss of pin prick sensation below the second thoracic spinal segment following electrocution. Her spinal MRI was normal and cranial MRI revealed T2 hyperintensity in the right putamen. Peroneal, sural and electromyography

J Kalita; M Jose; UK Misra

2002-01-01

74

Accidental exposure to sarin: vision effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two men were accidentally exposed to vapors of sarin, a cholinesterase inhibitor and extremely toxic nerve gas. Diagnosis\\u000a was confirmed by depressed cholinesterase activity, and fixed extremely miotic pupils. No other signs or symptoms developed\\u000a and neither man required treatment. Recovery to normal cholinesterase activity was gradual over a 90-day period. Pupillary\\u000a reflexes were not detectable until 11 days after

Roy H. Rengstorff

1985-01-01

75

Rain Drop Charge Sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

begin{center} Large Large Rain Drop Charge Sensor Sreekanth T S*, Suby Symon*, G. Mohan Kumar (1) , S. Murali Das (2) *Atmospheric Sciences Division, Centre for Earth Science Studies, Thiruvananthapuram 695011 (1) D-330, Swathi Nagar, West Fort, Thiruvananthapuram 695023 (2) Kavyam, Manacaud, Thiruvananthapuram 695009 begin{center} ABSTRACT To study the inter-relations with precipitation electricity and precipitation microphysical parameters a rain drop charge sensor was designed and developed at CESS Electronics & Instrumentation Laboratory. Simultaneous measurement of electric charge and fall speed of rain drops could be done using this charge sensor. A cylindrical metal tube (sensor tube) of 30 cm length is placed inside another thick metal cover opened at top and bottom for electromagnetic shielding. Mouth of the sensor tube is exposed and bottom part is covered with metal net in the shielding cover. The instrument is designed in such a way that rain drops can pass only through unhindered inside the sensor tube. When electrically charged rain drops pass through the sensor tube, it is charged to the same magnitude of drop charge but with opposite polarity. The sensor tube is electrically connected the inverted input of a current to voltage converter operational amplifier using op-amp AD549. Since the sensor is electrically connected to the virtual ground of the op-amp, the charge flows to the ground and the generated current is converted to amplified voltage. This output voltage is recorded using a high frequency (1kHz) voltage recorder. From the recorded pulse, charge magnitude, polarity and fall speed of rain drop are calculated. From the fall speed drop diameter also can be calculated. The prototype is now under test running at CESS campus. As the magnitude of charge in rain drops is an indication of accumulated charge in clouds in lightning, this instrument has potential application in the field of risk and disaster management. By knowing the charge magnitude of initial drops from a precipitation event, gross cloud charge can be estimated and necessary precautions can be taken during convective cloud events. Being a site of high lightning incidence in tropics, Kerala state is affected in India and calls for much attention in lightning hazards mitigation. Installing this charge sensor and atmospheric electric field mill, an attempt to a better warning system can be attempted.

S, Sreekanth T.

76

Liquid metal drop ejection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aim of this project was to demonstrate the possibility of ejecting liquid metals using drop on demand printing technology. The plan was to make transducers for operation in the 100 MHz frequency range and to use these transducers to demonstrate the ability to eject drops of liquid metals such as gallium. Two transducers were made by indium bonding piezoelectric lithium niobate to quartz buffer rods. The lithium niobate plates were thinned by mechanical polishing to a thickness of 37 microns for operation at 100 MHz. Hemispherical lenses were polished in the opposite ends of the buffer rods. The lenses, which focus the sound waves in the liquid metal, had an F-number equals 1. A mechanical housing was made to hold the transducers and to allow precise control over the liquid level above the lens. We started by demonstrating the ability to eject drops of water on demand. The drops of water had a diameter of 15 microns which corresponds to the wavelength of the sound wave in the water. A videotape of this ejection was made. We then used a mixture of Gallium and Indium (used to lower the melting temperature of the Gallium) to demonstrate the ejection of liquid metal drops. This proved to be difficult because of the oxide skin which forms on the surface of the liquid. In some instances, we were able to eject metal drops, however, this was not consistent and reproducible. An experiment was set up at NASA-Lewis to stabilize the process of drop on demand liquid metal ejection. The object was to place the transducer and liquid metal in a vacuum station so that no oxide would form on the surface. We were successful in demonstrating that liquid metals could be ejected on demand and that this technology could be used for making sheet metal in space.

Khuri-Yakub, B. T.

1993-01-01

77

Youth Versus Adult “Weightlifting” Injuries Presenting to United States Emergency Rooms: Accidental Versus Nonaccidental Injury Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Myer, GD, Quatman, CE, Khoury, J, Wall, EJ, and Hewett, TE. Youth versus adult “weightlifting” injuries presenting to united states emergency rooms: accidental versus nonaccidental injury mechanisms. J Strength Cond Res 23(7): 2054–2060, 2009—Resistance training has previously been purported to be unsafe and ineffective in children. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate resistance training-related injuries presenting to U.S. emergency rooms by age, type, and mechanism of injury. We hypothesized that older athletes would sustain greater percentages of joint sprains and muscle strains, whereas younger athletes would sustain a greater percentage of accidental injuries that would result in an increased percentage of fractures in youths. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) National Electronic Injury Surveillance System was queried from 2002 to 2005 using the CPSC code for “Weightlifting.” Subjects between the ages of 8 and 30 were grouped by age categories 8 to 13 (elementary/middle school age), 14 to 18 (high school), 19 to 22 (college), and 23 to 30 (adult). Injuries were classified as “accidental” if caused by dropped weight or improper equipment use. Multiple logistic regression was used to compare accidental injuries between age groups. The sample consisted of 4, 111 patients. Accidental injuries decreased (p < 0.05) with age: 8 to 13 > 14 to 18 > 19 to 22 years = 23 to 30 years. Conversely, sprain/strain injuries increased in each successive age group (p < 0.05). Evaluation of only the nonaccidental injuries (n = 2, 565) showed that the oldest categories (19–22 and 23–30 yr) demonstrated a greater percentage of sprains and strains relative to younger age categories (p < 0.001). Two thirds of the injuries sustained in the 8 to 13 group were to the hand and foot and were most often related to “dropping” and “pinching” in the injury descriptions, and there was an increased percentage of fractures in the 8 to 13 group relative to all other groups (p < 0.001). The study findings indicate that children have lower risk of resistance training-related joint sprains and muscle strains than adults. The majority of youth resistance training injuries are the result of accidents that are potentially preventable with increased supervision and stricter safety guidelines. PMID:19855330

Myer, Gregory D.; Quatman, Carmen E.; Khoury, Jane; Wall, Eric J.; Hewett, Timothy E.

2014-01-01

78

Coalescence of Drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This review examines different stages of the coalescence process of liquid drops on a planar interface under different conditions. Depending on the application, drops coalescence under the influence of applied external shear stress. The focus of this review is on the effect of the viscous stress, Marangoni stress, and electric field stress on the outcome of this process, particularly on the time of coalescence and partial coalescence. Theoretical progress and experiments of this phenomenon are examined, and a future outlook of this area of research is given.

Kavehpour, H. Pirouz

2015-01-01

79

[Prevention and therapy of accidental radionuclide uptake].  

PubMed

After accidental incorporation of radionuclides in the organism uptake in the whole-body and in critical organs can be either reduced or blocked (prevention) by appropriate medication and behaviour. Effective half-lives after incorporation in critical organs can be shortened (therapy). For different fallout-radionuclides a variety of preparations exists for such purposes. For large-scale prevention only iodine administration seems appropriate to block the uptake of the generally occurring 131-I in the thyroid. Such an iodine prophylaxis, however, seems only necessary when drinking water concentrations exceed 5000 nCi/l. Excessive amounts of iodine can influence thyroid function significantly. PMID:3577639

Riccabona, G; Zechmann, W

1986-01-01

80

Sudden death following accidental ingestion of chlormequat.  

PubMed

A 59-year-old white male accidentally ingested a mouthful of a plant growth chemical, Cycocel, containing 11.8% of the active ingredient (2-chloroethyl)trimethylammonium chloride (chlormequat). He was seen by a family physician and then transferred to a hospital where he died as a result of ventricular fibrillation, which progressed to asystole. Postingestion symptoms were typical of cholinergic crisis and included salivation, diaphoresis, bradycardia, visual disturbances, and seizure. Autopsy findings showed marked pulmonary edema, coronary atherosclerosis, atheromata of aorta, and localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Toxicological analyses of biological samples showed the presence of chlormequat in the stomach contents and urine. PMID:2395350

Winek, C L; Wahba, W W; Edelstein, J M

1990-01-01

81

Anaphylaxis after accidental ingestion of kiwi fruit.  

PubMed

Numerous cases of anaphylaxis after ingestion of kiwi fruit, after the skin tests and during oral immunotherapy were described. The article describes the case of severe anaphylactic reaction that occurred in a 55-year-old patient after accidental ingestion of kiwi. Allergy to kiwi fruit was confirmed by a native test with fresh kiwi fruit. After the test, the patient experienced generalized organ response in the form of headache, general weakness and rashes on the neck and breast, and dyspnea. The patient had significantly elevated levels of total IgE and IgE specific to kiwi fruit. PMID:24278073

Gawro?ska-Ukleja, Ewa; Ró?alska, Anna; Ukleja-Soko?owska, Natalia; Zbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

2013-06-01

82

Drop-In Article  

Cancer.gov

Drop-In Article The Influence of Media on Tobacco Use The Role of the Media in Promoting and Reducing Tobacco Use, the 19th monograph published in the National Cancer Institute Tobacco Control Monograph series, finds that the mass media affects attitudes

83

Drop Tail (FIFO) FREDCBQ ......  

E-print Network

Drop Tail (FIFO) FREDCBQ ...... Class-Based Threshold (CBT) Dynamic-CBT ChIPS Resource Reservation RED Active Queue Mgmt Dynamic-CBT and ChIPS ­ Router Support for Improved Multimedia Performance that use flow control. We extend Class- Based Threshold (CBT) [4], and propose a new active queue

Claypool, Mark

84

Drop Tail (FIFO) FREDCBQ ......  

E-print Network

Drop Tail (FIFO) FREDCBQ ...... Class-Based Threshold (CBT) Dynamic-CBT ChIPS Resource Reservation RED Active Queue Mgmt Dynamic-CBT and ChIPS ­ Router Support for Improved Multimedia Performance for multimedia flows that use flow control. We extend Class-Based Threshold (CBT) [12], and propose a new active

Claypool, Mark

85

Chloracne from the accidental production of tetrachlorodibenzodioxin  

PubMed Central

May, G. (1973).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,30, 276-283. Chloracne from the accidental production of tetrachlorodibenzodioxin. Following the accidental production of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (dioxin) as the result of an exothermic reaction at a chemical plant in Derbyshire, 79 cases of chloracne were recorded, many of them severe. Contrary to the usual experience they have responded very favourably to treatment and there were no cases of contact chloracne among relatives or domestic animals in the initial outbreak. However, two cases of contact chloracne were recorded three years later. Similar incidents are known to have occured in both Europe and the United States of America, almost invariably accompanied by widespread severe illness and with fatalities. Apart from one death due to an explosion which followed the exothermic reaction the more serious sequelae, which may range from depression and loss of weight to liver, kidney, and cardiac failure as well as malignant disease, have not occurred. A quick and reliable method of biological assay for the presence of dioxin in produced trichlorophenol was developed based on oral dosage to rabbits with assessment of liver function at fixed time intervals thereafter. This test has already been superseded by instantaneous gas-liquid chromatography. An entirely new plant with suitable modifications and multiple safety features has now been in satisfactory operation for three years. Images PMID:4269256

May, George

1973-01-01

86

Holographic Measurement of Drop-on-Demand Drops in Flight  

E-print Network

G. D. Martin, J. R. Castrejon-Pita and I. M. Hutchings, in Proc 27th Int. Conf. on Digital Printing Technologies, NIP27, Minneapolis, MN, USA, 2011 620-623, 'Holographic Measurement of Drop-on-Demand Drops in Flight'. Holographic... Measurement of Drop-on-Demand Drops in Flight Journal: NIP and Digital Fabrication 2011 Manuscript ID: 74 Presentation Type: Oral Date Submitted by the Author: 05-Jul-2011 Complete List of Authors: Martin, Graham; University of Cambridge...

Martin, G. D.; Castrejon-Pita, J. R.; Hutchings, I. M.

2011-01-01

87

Course Management Systems for Learning: Beyond Accidental Pedagogy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Course Management Systems for Learning: Beyond Accidental Pedagogy" is a comprehensive overview of standards, practices and possibilities of course management systems in higher education. "Course Management Systems for Learning: Beyond Accidental Pedagogy" focuses on what the current knowledge is (in best practices, research, standards and…

McGee, Patricia; Carmean, Colleen; Jafari, Ali

2005-01-01

88

Experiences of Causing an Accidental Death: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accidentally killing or feeling responsible for another person's death constitutes an event that is different from many typical traumatic stressors in that the responsibility for causing the trauma is located in the person themselves, rather than another person or persons. Research exploring the perspective of those who have accidentally caused a…

Rassool, Sara B.; Nel, Pieter W.

2012-01-01

89

Accidental Deaths Among British Columbia Indians  

PubMed Central

A statistical and epidemiological review of British Columbia native Indian and non-Indian mortality revealed that accidents were the leading cause of death among Indians but ranked only fourth among non-Indians. Comparison of accidental death rates by age and sex showed that, without exception, the rates among Indians were considerably higher than the corressponding rates for non-Indians. While the Indians represented some 2% of the total population of British Columbia, they accounted for over 10% of the total accident fatalities, 29% of drownings, and 21% of fatal burns. Socioeconomic, environmental and psychosocial factors and excessive drinking are considered the chief causes responsible for this rather unusual epidemiological phenomenon. This study revealed certain hazardous conditions which are specific to the Indian's present way of life. In the authors' opinion the recognition of these specific hazards is imperative for the planning of effective preventive campaigns. PMID:5902238

Schmitt, N.; Hole, L. W.; Barclay, W. S.

1966-01-01

90

Throat-cutting of accidental origin.  

PubMed

Incised wounds of the neck can be accidental, homicidal, or suicidal. In this paper, a death case has been presented where a spinning circular saw of a cutting machine in a workshop came off its place and cut the throat of a 30-year-old male who was operating the machine. There was an incision (15 cm x 5 cm) that began in the middle of the neck down the thyroid cartilage, extended horizontally to the left of the neck and ended on the outer part of the neck in the outer left side of m. trapezius. Death occurred because of exsanguination caused by the cutting of carotis artery and jugular vein. In the case we presented, although the cut in the neck initially suggested homicide, it was found to have occurred as a result of an accident after the autopsy and death scene investigation. PMID:18489556

Demirci, Serafettin; Dogan, Kamil Hakan; Gunaydin, Gursel

2008-07-01

91

[Accidental myiasis by Ornidia obesa in humans].  

PubMed

Dipterous of the genus Ornidia are pollinator bugs, but immature stages can be found in organic matter in decomposition. This article refers to a found of larvae of Ornidia obesa in humans feces. An eight years old child was treated in a medical clinic due to the presence of two larvae and one pupae in the feces, hyperthermia, intestinal obstruction and strong abdominal pain. Medical therapy consisted of Mebendazol and Ivermectin in the indicated doses. 24 hours after the administration of the drugs, several larvae were expelled with diarrheic feces. The material was taken to the Parasitological Veterinary Lab, and the larvae were classified belonging to the genus Ornidia. According to the literature, this specie of Diptera is not incriminated to cause myiasis in vertebrates. We think that this study reports a case of accidental myiasis in humans, were the patient may have ingested food with immature stages of the fly (eggs or larvae). PMID:20059825

Monteiro, Silvia G; Faccio, Lucian; Otto, Mateus Anderson; Soares, João Fabio; Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Mazzanti, Alexandre

2008-09-01

92

Youth versus adult "weightlifting" injuries presenting to United States emergency rooms: accidental versus nonaccidental injury mechanisms.  

PubMed

Resistance training has previously been purported to be unsafe and ineffective in children. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate resistance training-related injuries presenting to U.S. emergency rooms by age, type, and mechanism of injury. We hypothesized that older athletes would sustain greater percentages of joint sprains and muscle strains, whereas younger athletes would sustain a greater percentage of accidental injuries that would result in an increased percentage of fractures in youths. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) National Electronic Injury Surveillance System was queried from 2002 to 2005 using the CPSC code for "Weightlifting." Subjects between the ages of 8 and 30 were grouped by age categories 8 to 13 (elementary/middle school age), 14 to 18 (high school), 19 to 22 (college), and 23 to 30 (adult). Injuries were classified as "accidental" if caused by dropped weight or improper equipment use. Multiple logistic regression was used to compare accidental injuries between age groups. The sample consisted of 4,111 patients. Accidental injuries decreased (p < 0.05) with age: 8 to 13 > 14 to 18 > 19 to 22 years = 23 to 30 years. Conversely, sprain/strain injuries increased in each successive age group (p < 0.05). Evaluation of only the nonaccidental injuries (n = 2,565) showed that the oldest categories (19-22 and 23-30 yr) demonstrated a greater percentage of sprains and strains relative to younger age categories (p < 0.001). Two thirds of the injuries sustained in the 8 to 13 group were to the hand and foot and were most often related to "dropping" and "pinching" in the injury descriptions, and there was an increased percentage of fractures in the 8 to 13 group relative to all other groups (p < 0.001). The study findings indicate that children have lower risk of resistance training-related joint sprains and muscle strains than adults. The majority of youth resistance training injuries are the result of accidents that are potentially preventable with increased supervision and stricter safety guidelines. PMID:19855330

Myer, Gregory D; Quatman, Carmen E; Khoury, Jane; Wall, Eric J; Hewett, Timothy E

2009-10-01

93

Foot drop following brain lesion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six cases of foot drop following brain lesions in patients suffering from parasagittal pathology are reported. In three of these cases, foot drop was the first clinical presentation. The commonly held view that foot drop is mainly due to peripheral or spinal pathology, though correct, may lead to unnecessary investigation and delayed diagnosis.

H. Eskandary; A. Hamzei; M. T. Yasamy

1995-01-01

94

Youth Crime Drop  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report issued in December 2000 by the Urban Institute (see the September 9, 1999 Scout Report for Business and Economics presents and analyzes data on juvenile crime in the 1990s. The report examines the most recent FBI data about police arrests and considers how much of the recent drop in crime rates can be attributed to a decrease in juvenile crime and whether the decrease in crime rates continued through the later half of the 1990s. For the original FBI data analyzed in this report, go to the Uniform Crime Reports.

Butts, Jeffrey A.

2000-01-01

95

COMMISSION SCENARIO ANALYSES OF  

E-print Network

staff uses a scenario analysis approach to examine the implications of resource plans featuring very efficiency, renewable generation, solar photo voltaic, greenhouse gases, power generation, scenario analysis

96

Controlling charge on levitating drops.  

PubMed

Levitation technologies are used in containerless processing of materials, as microscale manipulators and reactors, and in the study of single drops and particles. Presented here is a method for controlling the amount and polarity of charge on a levitating drop. The method uses single-axis acoustic levitation to trap and levitate a single, initially neutral drop with a diameter between 400 microm and 2 mm. This drop is then charged in a controllable manner using discrete packets of charge in the form of charged drops produced by a piezoelectric drop-on-demand dispenser equipped with a charging electrode. The magnitude of the charge on the dispensed drops can be adjusted by varying the voltage applied to the charging electrode. The polarity of the charge on the added drops can be changed allowing removal of charge from the trapped drop (by neutralization) and polarity reversal. The maximum amount of added charge is limited by repulsion of like charges between the drops in the trap. This charging scheme can aid in micromanipulation and the study of charged drops and particles using levitation. PMID:17580951

Hilger, Ryan T; Westphall, Michael S; Smith, Lloyd M

2007-08-01

97

Coalescence of Liquid Drops  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When two liquid drops come into contact, a neck forms between them and grows rapidly. We are interested in the very early stage of the coalescence process, which can be characterized by the time dependence of the radius of the neck. The functional dependence of the size of the neck on time depends on the properties of the liquid. Experimentally, we are investigating a liquid in Stokes flow regime where the viscosity provides the principal retarding force to the surface tension. Recently, it has been predicted that the neck radius should change as t ln|t| in this regime. Theoretically, we have studied the situation when the velocity at each point on the surface is proportional to the local curvature and directed normal to the surface. This is the case that should be applicable to superfluid helium at low temperature when the mean free path of the thermal excitations are comparable to the size of liquid drops. For this system, the radius of the neck is found to be proportional to t(sup 1/3). We are able to find a simple expression for the shape of the interface in the vicinity of the neck.

Yao, Wei-Jun

2003-01-01

98

Scenarios and task analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Critical Review of Carroll's book on scenario-based design is offered [Making Use: Scenario-Based Design of Human–Computer Interactions (2000)]. Carroll characterises scenarios as ‘stories about use’. The paper demonstrates that Carroll's proposals about scenarios and their use in software engineering can be fitted into the broader framework of task analysis in Human–Computer Interaction.

Dan Diaper

2002-01-01

99

[Accidental ingestion of cigarettes by children].  

PubMed

Accidental ingestion of cigarettes (and butts) is mainly seen in young children. Nicotine in tobacco products is easily absorbed by the oral mucosa and intestines; absorption depends on nicotine content and pH of tobacco. Symptoms are caused by the nicotine component and usually develop rapidly (< 4 hours). The most common symptom is vomiting. Although cigarettes are potentially toxic, their ingestion by children is generally benign. Decontamination of the mouth with water may be useful. Induction of emesis is not advised. Gastric lavage is not needed in asymptomatic patients (with an unreliable history) or after vomiting. Children who ingested cigarettes should receive medical observation for four hours after ingestion. Children with significant symptoms should be admitted and eventually treated by supportive care. In symptomatic children or children with a reliable history of ingestion of large quantities who have not vomited gastric lavage with administration of activated charcoal has to be performed. When after vomiting other symptoms persist activated charcoal can be given via a nasogastric tube. PMID:10028353

Hulzebos, C V; Walhof, C; de Vries, T W

1998-11-21

100

[Psychological aspects of accidental poisoning in children].  

PubMed

The following points stand out from a semi-open questionnaire which was sent to the parents of 28 children hospitalized for accidental intoxication. Intoxications often occur in children who are hyperactive, curious, rebellious and have strong affective needs. Parents find it very difficult to set bans and limitations to their children, whose behaviour seems to be actively calling out for such restrictions. These children frequently put themselves in a situation of self-aggression, which shows the parents' inability to teach them to develop a vital self protective attitude from life's daily experience. Most often, the child is aware of transgressing a ban and in a few cases, intoxication seems to be a deliberate act on his part. It generally occurs when stress has been building up in the family, thus threatening the balance of the family. If it happens in a family where relationships are already deeply disturbed, it must be considered as a signal of alarm. It is then necessary to suggest that the family should undergo a psychotherapeutic course to help them to put an end to the deadly process in which they are involved. PMID:3448592

Trabach-Valadier, C; Floret, D

1987-01-01

101

Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - Sensitivity study and optimization of the meteorological input  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several air dispersion models are available for prediction and simulation of the hazard areas associated with accidental releases of toxic gases. The most model packages (commercial or free of charge) include a chemical database, an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI) and automated graphical output for effective presentation of results. The models are designed especially for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios"), preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management. Uncertainties in the meteorological input together with incorrect estimates of the source play a critical role for the model results. The research project RETOMOD (reference scenarios calculations for toxic gas releases - model systems and their utility for the fire brigade) was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in cooperation with the Vienna fire brigade, OMV Refining & Marketing GmbH and Synex Ries & Greßlehner GmbH. RETOMOD was funded by the KIRAS safety research program at the Austrian Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology (www.kiras.at). The main tasks of this project were 1. Sensitivity study and optimization of the meteorological input for modeling of the hazard areas (human exposure) during the accidental toxic releases. 2. Comparison of several model packages (based on reference scenarios) in order to estimate the utility for the fire brigades. This presentation gives a short introduction to the project and presents the results of task 1 (meteorological input). The results of task 2 are presented by Stenzel and Baumann-Stanzer in this session. For the aim of this project, the observation-based analysis and forecasting system INCA, developed in the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) was used. INCA (Integrated Nowcasting through Comprehensive Analysis) data were calculated with 1 km horizontal resolution and based on the weather forecast model ALADIN. The meteorological field's analysis with INCA include: Temperature, Humidity, Wind, Precipitation and Cloudiness. In the frame of the project INCA data were compared with measurements conducted at traffic-near sites. INCA analysis and very short term forecast fields (up to 6 hours) are found to be an advanced possibility to provide on-line meteorological input for the model package used by the fire brigade. Nevertheless a high degree of caution in the interpretation of the model results is required - especially in the case of very slow wind speeds, very stable atmospheric condition, and flow deflection by buildings in the urban area or by complex topography.

Baumann-Stanzer, K.; Stenzel, S.

2009-04-01

102

Evaporative Deposition in Receding Drops  

E-print Network

We present a framework for calculating the surface density profile of a stain deposited by a drop with a receding contact line. Unlike a pinned drop, a receding drop pushes fluid towards its interior, continuously deposits mass across its substrate as it evaporates, and does not produce the usual "coffee ring." For a thin, circular drop with a constant evaporation rate, we find the surface density of the stain goes as $\\eta(r) \\propto \\left(\\left(r/a_0\\right)^{-1/2}-r/a_0\\right)$, where $r$ is the radius from the drop center and $a_0$ is the initial outer radius. Under these conditions, the deposited stain has a mountain-like morphology. Our framework can easily be extended to investigate new stain morphologies left by drying drops.

Julian Freed-Brown

2014-10-09

103

Accidental Implant Screwdriver Ingestion: A Rare Complication during Implant Placement  

PubMed Central

One of the complications during a routine dental implant placement is accidental ingestion of the implant instruments, which can happen when proper precautions are not taken. Appropriate radiographs should be taken to locate the correct position of foreign body; usually the foreign body passes asymptomatically from gastrointestinal tract but sometimes it may lead to intestinal obstruction, perforations and impactions. The aim of this article is to report accidental ingestion of 19 mm long screw driver by a senile patient. PMID:25628702

Jain, Anshul; Baliga, Shridhar D

2014-01-01

104

How Many Drops?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson and its associated activity, students conduct a simple test to determine how many drops of each of three liquids can be placed on a penny before spilling over. The three liquids are water, rubbing alcohol, and vegetable oil; because of their different surface tensions, more water can be piled on top of a penny than either of the other two liquids. However, this is not the main point of the activity. Instead, students are asked to come up with an explanation for their observations about the different amounts of liquids a penny can hold. In other words, they are asked to make hypotheses that explain their observations, and because middle school students are not likely to have prior knowledge of the property of surface tension, their hypotheses are not likely to include this idea. Then they are asked to come up with ways to test their hypotheses, although they do not need to actually test their hypotheses. The important points for students to realize are that 1) the tests they devise must fit their hypotheses, and 2) the hypotheses they come up with must be testable in order to be useful.

Engineering K-PhD Program,

105

NanoDrop 3300 Fluorospectrometer  

E-print Network

NanoDrop 3300 Fluorospectrometer V2.7 User's Manual #12;The information in this publication are the property of Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc. and its subsidiaries. NanoDrop is a trademark of Thermo Fisher 19810 U.S.A. Telephone: 302-479-7707 Fax: 302-792-7155 E-mail: info@nanodrop.com www.nanodrop

Fygenson, Deborah Kuchnir

106

ccsd00000707 GALACTIC HYDRAULIC DROP?  

E-print Network

). #12; Figure 1: The circular hydraulic jump, as observed in any kitchen sink. The water chooses oneccsd­00000707 (version 1) : 10 Oct 2003 GALACTIC HYDRAULIC DROP? STEEN H. HANSEN University a break at some characteristic radius, providing us with a galactic hydraulic drop. In the #12;eld

107

Gas Pressure-Drop Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most chemical engineering undergraduate laboratories have fluid mechanics experiments in which pressure drops through pipes are measured over a range of Reynolds numbers. The standard fluid is liquid water, which is essentially incompressible. Since density is constant, pressure drop does not depend on the pressure in the pipe. In addition, flow…

Luyben, William L.; Tuzla, Kemal

2010-01-01

108

Binary drop coalescence in liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments on binary drop collisions within an index-matched liquid were conducted for Weber numbers (We) of 1-50 and collision angles of 15-80° below the horizontal. Drop pairs of water/glycerin mixture were injected into silicone oil and, due to gravitational effects, traveled on downward trajectories before colliding. A dual-field high-speed PIV measurement system was employed to quantify drop trajectories and overall collision conditions while simultaneously examining detailed velocity fields near the collision interface. In the We range examined, for equal size drops, both rebounding and coalescing behavior occurred. The drops coalesced for We > 10 and rebounded for We < 10, and this boundary was found to be insensitive to collision angle. Coalescence was found to result from a combination of vortical flow within drops and strong drop deformation characteristic of higher We. Flow through the centers of opposing ring vortices, strengthened by drop deformation, enhanced drainage of the thin film in the impact region, leading to film rupture and coalescence. The collision angle affected the eventual location of film rupture, with the rupture location moving higher in the thin film region as the collision angle increased. The film rupture location correlated closely with the location of maximum downward velocity in the thin film. The time between collision and rupture increases with We until We = 30. For We > 30, the time decreases as We increases. Unequal size drop collisions with drop size ratios (Ds/D L) of 0.7 and 0.5 were also examined. Coalescence occurs above We* = 11 similar to equal size drops. As drop size ratio decreases, the intervening film deforms more. If the velocity ratio uL/u s < 1, the deformed interface becomes flat before coalescence. The rupture location varies due to the asymmetry of the drops. As collision offset increases (B > 0), the film rupture time is shortened and mixing of the fluid from both drops is enhanced after coalescence. The presence of tracer particles in the intervening film does not affect the minimum Weber number for coalescence, but the film ruptures earlier compared with cases lacking tracer particles.

Kim, Jungyong

109

Technology Forecasting Scenario Development  

E-print Network

Technology Forecasting and Scenario Development Newsletter No. 1 June 1998 Systems Analysis research programme (tenta- tively titled: Technology Forecasting and Scenario Development). The tentative objective of the research programme is 1) to contribute to the assessment of technological and scientific

110

Alternative scenarios for Ukraine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major trends and driving forces are analysed in four areas, i.e. polity, economy, society and international environment of Ukraine, as well as their inter-linkages, in order to define overall dynamics of Ukrainian society. It leads to three basic scenarios for the medium term: a pan-Slavic state centred scenario (example Belarus), a feudalisation\\/mercantilist scenario (example Pakistan) and a liberalisation scenario (example

Hans van Zon

2002-01-01

111

Imprecise probabilities and scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that imprecise probability can be used to describe uncertainty about scenarios. Scenarios are conceptualized as written descriptions of potential future worlds that are based on assessments of economic, political, social, technological, and environmental trends [This description of scenarios follows that provided by Peter Schwartz. P. Schwartz [9], The Art of the Long View, Doubleday, New York, 1991

Bruce Tonn

2005-01-01

112

Extended scenario analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scenario analysis, as proposed by Rockafellar and Wets, is a stochastic programming technique employing discrete scenarios with known probabilities, usually covering several time periods. The requirement of nonaticipativity (not using future information to make present decisions) is enforced during the computational solution by using Spingarn's method of partial inverses. The scenario analysis method as proposed relies on separability (with respect

Stephen M. Robinson

1991-01-01

113

Reducing the loss of vaccines from accidental freezing in the cold chain: the experience of continuous temperature monitoring in Tunisia.  

PubMed

Accidental freezing of vaccines is a growing threat and a real risk for national immunization programs when the potency of many vaccines can be compromised if these are exposed to sub-zero temperatures in the cold chain. In Tunisia, this issue is compounded by using sub-standard domestic cold chain equipment instead of equipping the program with medical refrigerators designed specifically for storing vaccines and temperature sensitive pharmaceuticals. Against this backdrop, this paper presents the findings of a demonstration project conducted in Tunisia in 2012 that tested the impact of introducing several freeze prevention solutions to mitigate the risk of accidental freezing of vaccines. The main finding is that, despite the continued use of underperforming domestic refrigerators, continuous temperature monitoring using new technologies combined with other technological interventions significantly reduced the prevalence of accidental exposure to freezing temperatures. These improvements were noticed for cold chain storage at regional, district and health center levels, and during the transport legs that were part of the demonstration conducted in the regions of Kasserine in the South-Eastern part of Tunisia. Subsequent to introducing these freeze prevention solutions, the incidence of freeze alarms was reduced and the percent of time the temperatures dropped below the 2 °C recommended threshold. The incidence of freeze alarms at health center level was reduced by 40%. Lastly, the solutions implemented reduced risk of freezing during transport from 13.8% to 1.7%. Although the solution implemented is not optimal in the longer term because domestic refrigerators are used extensively in district stores and health centers, the risk of accidental freezing is significantly reduced by introducing the practice of continuous temperature monitoring as a standard. The management of the cold chain equipment was strengthened as a result which helps protect the potency of vaccines to the areas of most difficult access. PMID:25444810

Lloyd, John; Lydon, Patrick; Ouhichi, Ramzi; Zaffran, Michel

2015-02-11

114

Coalescence of viscous liquid drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on studies of the early stage of coalescence of two liquid drops. The drops were high viscosity silicon oil immersed in a water-alcohol mixture of the same density in order to eliminate the effects of gravity. The viscosity was sufficiently large that measurements could be made under the conditions of Stokes flow. Measurements were made of the radius of the neck between the drops as a function of the time from the onset of coalescence, and the results compared with theoretical predictions.

Yao, W.; Maris, H. J.; Pennington, P.; Seidel, G. M.

2005-01-01

115

DIME Students Witness Test Drop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Students watch a test run on their experiment before the actual drop. They designed and built their apparatus to fit within a NASA-provided drop structure. This was part of the second Dropping in a Microgravity Environment (DIME) competition held April 23-25, 2002, at NASA's Glenn Research Center. Competitors included two teams from Sycamore High School, Cincinnati, OH, and one each from Bay High School, Bay Village, OH, and COSI Academy, Columbus, OH. DIME is part of NASA's education and outreach activities. Details are on line at http://microgravity.grc.nasa.gov/DIME_2002.html.

2002-01-01

116

A screening tool to prioritize public health risk associated with accidental or deliberate release of chemicals into the atmosphere  

PubMed Central

The Chemical Events Working Group of the Global Health Security Initiative has developed a flexible screening tool for chemicals that present a risk when accidentally or deliberately released into the atmosphere. The tool is generic, semi-quantitative, independent of site, situation and scenario, encompasses all chemical hazards (toxicity, flammability and reactivity), and can be easily and quickly implemented by non-subject matter experts using freely available, authoritative information. Public health practitioners and planners can use the screening tool to assist them in directing their activities in each of the five stages of the disaster management cycle. PMID:23517410

2013-01-01

117

Prevalence and predictors of posttraumatic growth in accidentally injured patients.  

PubMed

This study examined prevalence and predictors of posttraumatic growth in 180 accidentally injured patients of mainland China in their convalescence stage, investigating its relationships with demographic and accidental injury variables, personality, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and coping styles. Our results showed that posttraumatic growth (PTG) presented mostly in the domain of Relating to Others and indicated that PTG was significantly related to marital status, educational level, personality, coping styles, and PTSD symptoms. Avoidance of PTSD symptoms, Openness to experience, and positive coping were significant predictors of PTG. The findings emphasize that when promoting PTG of accidentally injured patients, healthcare providers should facilitate patients utilizing personal resources, understand PTG coexists with PTSD symptoms, and adjust interventions based on the coping styles the patients have adopted. PMID:22886703

Wang, Yanbo; Wang, Hongbiao; Wang, Ji; Wu, Jing; Liu, Xiaohong

2013-03-01

118

Mistakes in diagnosing non-accidental injury: 10 years' experience  

PubMed Central

Fifty children who were referred to the child abuse team in Leeds over the 10 years 1976-86 with suspected non-accidental injury were found to have conditions which mimicked non-accidental injury. These included impetigo (nine children) and blue spots (five children). Five children who presented with multiple bruising had haemostatic disorders. Eight children had disorders of the bone. Five children had been previously abused physically. Four showed evidence of neglect. One had evidence of non-accidental injury as well as the condition mimicking abuse. It is emphasised that when child abuse is suspected a sensitive and thorough assessment should be carried out by a paediatrician who is experienced in this. ImagesFIG 1 PMID:3133026

Wheeler, David M; Hobbs, Christopher J

1988-01-01

119

Scaling and gender behavior of road accidental dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The probability distribution of the time intervals between two consecutive accidents is investigated, based on the road accidental records of the Great Britain. A universal description is obtained for different roads, by rescaling the probability distribution and time intervals. The scaling curve is found to deviate from the Gaussian distribution, but it is well fitted by a stretched exponential function. Long-range time correlation is revealed for the interevent series. Moreover, gender similarity is found for the small accidental intervals, while for the large intervals, the female drivers are observed to present a higher probability than the male drivers.

Qiu, Tian; Zou, Xiang-Xiang; Chen, Guang; Jiang, Xiong-Fei; Zhong, Li-Xin

2014-12-01

120

Analysis for Eccentric Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Drops at the Canister Storage Building (CSB) (CSB-S-0073)  

SciTech Connect

Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) containing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) will be routinely handled at the Canister Storage Building (CSB) during fuel movement operations in the SNF Project. This analysis was performed to investigate the potential for damage from an eccentric accidental drop onto the standard storage tube, overpack tube, service station, or sample/weld station. Appendix D was added to the FDNW document to include the peer Review Comment Record & transmittal record.

TU, K.C.

1999-10-08

121

Analysis for SNF Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Drop into the Cask from the MCO Handling Machine (MHM) with Air Cushion  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to investigate the potential for damage to the MCO during impact from an accidental drop from the MHM into the shipping cask. The MCO is dropped from a height of 8.2 feet above the cask enters the cask concentrically and falls the additional 12.83 feet to the cask bottom. Because of the interface fit between the MCO and the cask and the air entrapment the MCO fall velocity is slowed. The shipping cask is resting on an impact absorber at the time of impact. The energy absorbing properties of the impact absorber are included in this analysis.

RAINS, D.J.

2000-01-12

122

Analytical Evaluation of Preliminary Drop Tests Performed to Develop a Robust Design for the Standardized DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel Canister  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a design concept for a set of standard canisters for the handling, interim storage, transportation, and disposal in the national repository, of DOE spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The standardized DOE SNF canister has to be capable of handling virtually all of the DOE SNF in a variety of potential storage and transportation systems. It must also be acceptable to the repository, based on current and anticipated future requirements. This expected usage mandates a robust design. The canister design has four unique geometries, with lengths of approximately 10 feet or 15 feet, and an outside nominal diameter of 18 inches or 24 inches. The canister has been developed to withstand a drop from 30 feet onto a rigid (flat) surface, sustaining only minor damage - but no rupture - to the pressure (containment) boundary. The majority of the end drop-induced damage is confined to the skirt and lifting/stiffening ring components, which can be removed if de sired after an accidental drop. A canister, with its skirt and stiffening ring removed after an accidental drop, can continue to be used in service with appropriate operational steps being taken. Features of the design concept have been proven through drop testing and finite element analyses of smaller test specimens. Finite element analyses also validated the canister design for drops onto a rigid (flat) surface for a variety of canister orientations at impact, from vertical to 45 degrees off vertical. Actual 30-foot drop testing has also been performed to verify the final design, though limited to just two full-scale test canister drops. In each case, the analytical models accurately predicted the canister response.

A.G. Ware; D.K. Morton; N.L. Smith; S.D. Snow; T.E. Rahl

1999-08-01

123

Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - utility for the fire brigades.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several air dispersion models are available for prediction and simulation of the hazard areas associated with accidental releases of toxic gases. The most model packages (commercial or free of charge) include a chemical database, an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI) and automated graphical output for effective presentation of results. The models are designed especially for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios”), preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management. The research project RETOMOD (reference scenarios calculations for toxic gas releases - model systems and their utility for the fire brigade) was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in cooperation with the Viennese fire brigade, OMV Refining & Marketing GmbH and Synex Ries & Greßlehner GmbH. RETOMOD was funded by the KIRAS safety research program of the Austrian Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology (www.kiras.at). The main tasks of this project were 1. Sensitivity study and optimization of the meteorological input for modeling of the hazard areas (human exposure) during the accidental toxic releases. 2. Comparison of several model packages (based on reference scenarios) in order to estimate the utility for the fire brigades. For the purpose of our study the following models were tested and compared: ALOHA (Areal Location of Hazardous atmosphere, EPA), MEMPLEX (Keudel av-Technik GmbH), Trace (Safer System), Breeze (Trinity Consulting), SAM (Engineering office Lohmeyer). A set of reference scenarios for Chlorine, Ammoniac, Butane and Petrol were proceed, with the models above, in order to predict and estimate the human exposure during the event. Furthermore, the application of the observation-based analysis and forecasting system INCA, developed in the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in case of toxic release was investigated. INCA (Integrated Nowcasting through Comprehensive Analysis) data are calculated operationally with 1 km horizontal resolution and based on the weather forecast model ALADIN. The meteorological field's analysis with INCA include: Temperature, Humidity, Wind, Precipitation, Cloudiness and Global Radiation. In the frame of the project INCA data were compared with measurements from the meteorological observational network, conducted at traffic-near sites in Vienna. INCA analysis and very short term forecast fields (up to 6 hours) are found to be an advanced possibility to provide on-line meteorological input for the model package used by the fire brigade. Since the input requirements differ from model to model, and the outputs are based on unequal criteria for toxic area and exposure, a high degree of caution in the interpretation of the model results is required - especially in the case of slow wind speeds, stable atmospheric condition, and flow deflection by buildings in the urban area or by complex topography.

Stenzel, S.; Baumann-Stanzer, K.

2009-09-01

124

GROUP LIFE AND ACCIDENTAL DEATH AND DISMEMBERMENT INSURANCE  

E-print Network

GROUP LIFE AND ACCIDENTAL DEATH AND DISMEMBERMENT INSURANCE PROGRAM University of California Regents #12;#12;GROUP LIFE INSURANCE #12;#12;LRS-6441 Ed. 11/84 CERTIFICATE OF INSURANCE We certify that you (provided you belong to a class described on the Schedule of Benefits) are insured

Mullins, Dyche

125

The Emergence of the “Accidental Citizen”: Implications for Political Marketing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The central argument developed in this paper is premised on the belief that, in the life experiences of individuals, we find a messy interface between politics and consumption, where, often unintentionally, we take on citizenly roles and have civic experiences in market spaces as consumers. Flowing from this is the emergence of what the author calls the “accidental citizen,” where

Richard Scullion

2010-01-01

126

Are diabetic foot lesions precipitated by accidental trauma?  

PubMed

Diabetic foot lesions may arise from frictional trauma due to tight or inappropriate footwear, repetitive stresses on parts of the foot, overlying bony prominence generated by walking and accidental trauma to the neuropathic foot. Many diabetics have been found to be unaware of their foot lesion, or know what the precipitating cause was. Based on the assumption that accidental trauma would affect the foot in a random fashion and result in lesions distributed evenly throughout the foot, a study was performed to determine whether foot lesions were distributed evenly or concentrated to certain areas of predilection. It was found that foot lesions were not evenly distributed but concentrated to certain areas of predilection. Even though relatively high proportion of the study population walked about in open slippers and barefeet, the study showed that accidental trauma was not a predominant precipitant of diabetic foot lesions. Diabetic foot lesions tend to occur as a result of cumulative, repetitive trauma to areas of prediliection rather than accidental trauma. PMID:14569763

Doshi, H K; Moissinac, K; Harwant, S

2001-12-01

127

Control and mitigation systems for accidental releases of toxic chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on an evaluation of the current usage in industry of control and mitigation systems for accidental releases of various toxic chemicals. The study goal was accomplished through a review of data obtainable from plant inspections for emergency preparedness conducted in the recent past by EPA, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the National Institute for Chemical

E. R. Krishnan; P. W. Utrecht; J. C. Bare

1988-01-01

128

The Accidental Transgressor: Morally-Relevant Theory of Mind  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To test young children's false belief theory of mind in a morally relevant context, two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, children (N=162) at 3.5, 5.5, and 7.5 years of age were administered three tasks: prototypic moral transgression task, false belief theory of mind task (ToM), and an "accidental transgressor" task, which measured a…

Killen, Melanie; Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Richardson, Cameron; Jampol, Noah; Woodward, Amanda

2011-01-01

129

49 CFR 192.751 - Prevention of accidental ignition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...minimize the danger of accidental ignition of gas in any structure or area where the presence of gas constitutes a hazard of fire or explosion...components that contain a combustible mixture of gas and air in the area of work. (c) Post warning...

2010-10-01

130

Technology Forecasting Scenario Development  

E-print Network

Technology Forecasting and Scenario Development Newsletter No. 2 October 1998 Systems Analysis was initiated on the establishment of a new research programme entitled Technology Forecasting and Scenario and commercial applica- tion of new technology. An international Scientific Advisory Panel has been set up

131

ACCIDENTAL INJURY AND INCLEMENT WEATHER: DEFINING THE RELATIONSHIP AND ANTICIPATING THE EFFECTS OF A CHANGING CLIMATE  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this activity is to utilize a combination of existing scientific knowledge and professional expertise and experience to develop a research strategy for lessening the incidence and the impact of accidental injuries associated with inclement weather. Accidental inj...

132

Accidentes en plantas nucleares de electricidad y el riesgo de cáncer  

Cancer.gov

Hoja informativa acerca de los riesgos del cáncer asociados con accidentes en plantas nucleares de electricidad. Incluye información para pacientes con cáncer que viven en una zona que puede haber sido afectada por un accidente en una planta nuclear.

133

Drops that pull themselves up  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We relate different existing literature experimental findings of drop retraction in evaporating or in coffee ring systems as a unique physical phenomenon that is not related to evaporation, but rather to the presence of surfactant molecules in the drops. The retraction is induced by fluctuations of the drop's triple line that result in a net leakage of the surfactant molecules onto the solid-air interface right across the triple line. This net leakage can be induced by either nucleation and growth of a surface defect at the triple line or random triple line fluctuations analogous to spinodal process. Using this understanding, we can set a lower limit to the value of the, otherwise un-measurable, solid-vapor interfacial energy.

Tadmor, Rafael

2014-10-01

134

Isoelectric Focusing in a Drop  

PubMed Central

A novel approach to molecular separations is investigated using a technique termed droplet-based isoelectric focusing. Drops are manipulated discretely on a superhydrophobic surface, subjected to low voltages for isoelectric focusing, and split—resulting in a preparative separation. A universal indicator dye demonstrates the generation of stable, reversible pH gradients (3–10) in ampholyte buffers and these gradients lead to protein focusing within the drop length. Focusing was visually characterized, spectroscopically verified, and assessed quantitatively by non-invasive light scattering measurements. It was found to correlate with a quantitative model based on 1D steady state theory. This work illustrates that molecular separations can be deployed within a single open drop and the differential fractions can be separated into new discrete liquid elements. PMID:21117663

Weiss, Noah G.; Hayes, Mark A.; Garcia, Antonio A.; Ansari, Rafat R.

2010-01-01

135

LIFE INSURANCE AND ACCIDENTAL DEATH AND DISMEMBERMENT PLAN 01-01-2012  

E-print Network

1 LIFE INSURANCE AND ACCIDENTAL DEATH AND DISMEMBERMENT PLAN 01-01-2012 The Life Insurance and Accidental Death and Dismemberment Plan (the "Plan") offers Basic and Supplemental Life Insurance coverage or terminate this Life Insurance and Accidental Death and Dismemberment Plan at any time and for any reason

Johnson, Peter D.

136

Accidental Nuclear War: The Growing Peril. Part I [and] Part II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two volumes designed to increase awareness of accidental nuclear war dangers are presented. The first of 5 sections in volume I proposes that although accidental war is preventable, the current arms race and secrecy about accidents and false alarms increase the possibility of an accidental war. Section 2 posits that decreased decision-making time…

Newcombe, Alan, Ed.

1984-01-01

137

Mars base buildup scenarios  

SciTech Connect

Two surface base build-up scenarios are presented in order to help visualize the mission and to serve as a basis for trade studies. In the first scenario, direct manned landings on the Martian surface occur early in the missions and scientific investigation is the main driver and rationale. In the second scenario, early development of an infrastructure to exploite the volatile resources of the Martian moons for economic purposes is emphasized. Scientific exploration of the surface is delayed at first, but once begun develops rapidly aided by the presence of a permanently manned orbital station.

Blacic, J.D.

1985-01-01

138

Mars base buildup scenarios  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two Mars surface based build-up scenarios are presented in order to help visualize the mission and to serve as a basis for trade studies. In the first scenario, direct manned landings on the Martian surface occur early in the missions and scientific investigation is the main driver and rationale. In the second senario, Earth development of an infrastructure to exploit the volatile resources of the Martian moons for economic purposes is emphasized. Scientific exploration of the surface is delayed at first in this scenario relative to the first, but once begun develops rapidly, aided by the presence of a permanently manned orbital station.

Blacic, J. D.

1986-01-01

139

TE activity gum drop atoms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson has students building a model of lithium with gum drops and explaining where the model accurately represents the atom and where the model falls short. Enrichment exercises are included such as having groups of students play the parts of subatomic particles to model an atom in the gymnasium.

2006-01-01

140

Turning off drop break-up: surface-tension driven traveling wave solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a long-wavelength model of surface-tension driven dynamics of a drop of low viscosity in a more viscous exterior fluid. The governing equation for the simplified dynamics supports traveling wave solutions in the form of a conical portion of the drop moving at a constant velocity and drawing out a cylindrical thread behind it [1]. These traveling waves correspond to the following scenario: the drop evolves due to surface tension towards a shape of two drops connected by a cylinder which thins and extends indefinitely. The drop never breaks. We show a continous spectrum of wave speeds are possible for these traveling waves, even after the effect of the higher order axial curvature are taken into account. Possible reasons for why these solutions have not been observed in experiments are suggested. [1] First noted by Zhang & Lister, unpublished results.

Zhang, Wendy W.; Siegel, Michael

2003-11-01

141

Clinical Scenario Clinical Challenge  

E-print Network

Clinical Scenario 1 #12;Clinical Challenge VINCI ­ VA Informatics and Computing Infrastructure #12Phone 4S and 5 2011 may well be the year that AI finally gets real traction in the medical informatics

142

Sensitivity and Scenario Results  

E-print Network

Presents the results of various scenarios using models used to study water, climate, agriculture and the economy in Pakistan's Indus Basin, and discusses the policy and investment implications. The water allocations per ...

Yu, Winston

143

Strategic learning with scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the oil shocks upset the business world in the 1970s, the use of multiple scenario analysis has been increasingly propagated as an approach to deal effectively with the many long-run uncertainties that surround business organisations. Since its introduction, the scenario approach has undergone some considerable changes and it is now claimed fulfils a diverse range of functions. Newly-added functions

Theo Postma

1997-01-01

144

Accidental degeneracy of double Dirac cones in a phononic crystal  

PubMed Central

Artificial honeycomb lattices with Dirac cone dispersion provide a macroscopic platform to study the massless Dirac quasiparticles and their novel geometric phases. In this paper, a quadruple-degenerate state is achieved at the center of the Brillouin zone in a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice phononic crystal, which is a result of accidental degeneracy of two double-degenerate states. In the vicinity of the quadruple-degenerate state, the dispersion relation is linear. Such quadruple degeneracy is analyzed by rigorous representation theory of groups. Using method, a reduced Hamiltonian is obtained to describe the linear Dirac dispersion relations of this quadruple-degenerate state, which is well consistent with the simulation results. Near such accidental degeneracy, we observe some unique properties in wave propagating, such as defect-insensitive propagating character and the Talbot effect. PMID:24714512

Chen, Ze-Guo; Ni, Xu; Wu, Ying; He, Cheng; Sun, Xiao-Chen; Zheng, Li-Yang; Lu, Ming-Hui; Chen, Yan-Feng

2014-01-01

145

Accidental Electric Shock during Pregnancy: Reflection on a Case  

PubMed Central

Objectives Data on fetal effects following accidental electric shock during pregnancy are scarce. We report on a case of accidental maternal electric shock associated with benign fetal arrhythmia in a woman at 28 weeks' gestation. Study Design Case report. Results Although electrocution involving low-voltage, low-frequency current has been associated with fatal cardiac arrhythmias and conduction abnormalities, two protective parameters in the present case likely reduced the fetal injury: the dry skin at the site of current entry and the hand-to-hand pathway of current flow. Conclusion Because the pathophysiology of electric injury is altered during pregnancy, assessment of fetal well-being should be prompted no matter how trivial an incident may appear. PMID:24147245

Awwad, Johnny; Hannoun, Antoine; Fares, Farah; Ghazeeri, Ghina

2013-01-01

146

Approaches for preventing and mitigating accidental gaseous chemical releases  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a review of approaches to prevent and mitigate accidental releases of toxic and flammable gases. The prevention options are related to: choosing safer processes and materials, preventing initiating events, preventing or minimizing releases, and preventing human exposures. the mitigation options include: secondary confinement, de-inventory, vapor barriers, and water sprays/monitors. Guidelines for the design and operation of effective post-release mitigation systems are also presented.

Fthenakis, V.M.

1996-12-31

147

Accidental Degeneracy and Berry Phase of Resonant States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction Resonant States Resonant States in a Slowly Time Evolving Environment A Few Facts About Gamow Functions The Mixing Matrix Geometric Phase of a Resonant State Berry Phase Factors of Resonant States and Holonomy in a Complex - Line Bundle Resonant States as Elements of a Rigged Hilbert Space Adiabatic Evolution and Parallel Translation Accidental Degeneracy of Resonances Degeneracy of Two Resonances Computation of the Geometric Phase Results and Conclusions

Mondragón, A.; Hernández, E.

148

Conservative management of accidental gall bladder puncture during percutaneous nephrolithotomy  

PubMed Central

Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) has been an excellent option for the management of kidney stones. There have been many complications in regards to solid organ injury during PCNL. Here we discuss an interesting case of 45-year-old woman, who underwent PCNL for right renal staghorn calculus, and had an accidental puncture of the gall bladder. Post operatively, the patient was conservatively managed and recovered well. A small number of cases has been reported until now in literature. PMID:25140237

Patil, Nikhil A.; Patil, Siddangouda B.; Biradar, Ashok N.; Desai, Anup S.

2014-01-01

149

An alternative approach for computing seismic response with accidental eccentricity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accidental eccentricity is a non-standard assumption for seismic design of tall buildings. Taking it into consideration requires reanalysis of seismic resistance, which requires either time consuming computation of natural vibration of eccentric structures or finding a static displacement solution by applying an approximated equivalent torsional moment for each eccentric case. This study proposes an alternative modal response spectrum analysis (MRSA) approach to calculate seismic responses with accidental eccentricity. The proposed approach, called the Rayleigh Ritz Projection-MRSA (RRP-MRSA), is developed based on MRSA and two strategies: (a) a RRP method to obtain a fast calculation of approximate modes of eccentric structures; and (b) an approach to assemble mass matrices of eccentric structures. The efficiency of RRP-MRSA is tested via engineering examples and compared with the standard MRSA (ST-MRSA) and one approximate method, i.e., the equivalent torsional moment hybrid MRSA (ETM-MRSA). Numerical results show that RRP-MRSA not only achieves almost the same precision as ST-MRSA, and is much better than ETM-MRSA, but is also more economical. Thus, RRP-MRSA can be in place of current accidental eccentricity computations in seismic design.

Fan, Xuanhua; Yin, Jiacong; Sun, Shuli; Chen, Pu

2014-09-01

150

Thermocapillary motion of deformable drops  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thermocapillary motion of initially spherical drops/bubbles driven by a constant temperature gradient in an unbounded liquid medium is simulated numerically. Effects of convection of momentum and energy, as well as shape deformations, are addressed. The method used is based on interface tracking on a base cartesian grid, and uses a smeared color or indicator function for the determination of the surface topology. Quad-tree adaptive refinement of the cartesian grid is implemented to enhance the fidelity of the surface tracking. It is shown that convection of energy results in a slowing of the drop, as the isotherms get wrapped around the front of the drop. Shape deformation resulting from inertial effects affect the migration velocity. The physical results obtained are in agreement with the existing literature. Furthermore, remarks are made on the sensitivity of the calculated solutions to the smearing of the fluid properties. Analysis and simulations show that the migration velocity depends very strongly on the smearing of the interfacial force whereas it is rather insensitive to the smearing of other properties, hence the adaptive grid.

Haj-Hariri, Hossein; Shi, Qingping; Borhan, Ali

1994-01-01

151

How to Use Ear Drops Properly  

MedlinePLUS

How to Use Ear Drops Properly (Having someone else give you the ear drops may make this procedure easier.) 1 Wash your hands ... with soap and water. 2 Gently clean your ear with a damp facecloth and then dry your ...

152

Attracting Water Drops - Duration: 1:28.  

NASA Video Gallery

Astronauts Cady Coleman and Ron Garan perform the Attracting Water Drops experiment from Chabad Hebrew Academy in San Diego, Calif. This research determines if a free-floating water drop can be att...

153

The SAFRR Tsunami Scenario  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey and several partners operate a program called Science Application for Risk Reduction (SAFRR) that produces (among other things) emergency planning scenarios for natural disasters. The scenarios show how science can be used to enhance community resiliency. The SAFRR Tsunami Scenario describes potential impacts of a hypothetical, but realistic, tsunami affecting California (as well as the west coast of the United States, Alaska, and Hawaii) for the purpose of informing planning and mitigation decisions by a variety of stakeholders. The scenario begins with an Mw 9.1 earthquake off the Alaska Peninsula. With Pacific basin-wide modeling, we estimate up to 5m waves and 10 m/sec currents would strike California 5 hours later. In marinas and harbors, 13,000 small boats are damaged or sunk (1 in 3) at a cost of $350 million, causing navigation and environmental problems. Damage in the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach amount to $110 million, half of it water damage to vehicles and containerized cargo. Flooding of coastal communities affects 1800 city blocks, resulting in $640 million in damage. The tsunami damages 12 bridge abutments and 16 lane-miles of coastal roadway, costing $85 million to repair. Fire and business interruption losses will substantially add to direct losses. Flooding affects 170,000 residents and workers. A wide range of environmental impacts could occur. An extensive public education and outreach program is underway, as well as an evaluation of the overall effort.

Porter, K.; Jones, Lucile M.; Ross, Stephanie L.; Borrero, J.; Bwarie, J.; Dykstra, D.; Geist, Eric L.; Johnson, L.; Kirby, Stephen H.; Long, K.; Lynett, P.; Miller, K.; Mortensen, Carl E.; Perry, S.; Plumlee, G.; Real, C.; Ritchie, L.; Scawthorn, C.; Thio, H.K.; Wein, Anne; Whitmore, P.; Wilson, R.; Wood, Nathan J.

2013-01-01

154

Smoldering - The Fire Scenario   

E-print Network

of upholstered furniture and the mechanisms that control the process that transforms the weak smolder reaction occurring in the cigarette to a fire are still mostly unknown. A general description of this fire scenario and a discussion of its threats is provided...

Torero, Jose L

2000-01-01

155

IPCC SCENARIO DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

This Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has made available a consistent set of up-to-date scenarios of changes in climate and related environmental and socio-economic factors for use in climate impacts assessments. This is a link to this data through the Data Distr...

156

Drag and drop display & builder  

SciTech Connect

The Drag and Drop (DnD) Display & Builder is a component-oriented system that allows users to create visual representations of data received from data acquisition systems. It is an upgrade of a Synoptic Display mechanism used at Fermilab since 2002. Components can be graphically arranged and logically interconnected in the web-startable Project Builder. Projects can be either lightweight AJAX- and SVG-based web pages, or they can be started as Java applications. The new version was initiated as a response to discussions between the LHC Controls Group and Fermilab.

Bolshakov, Timofei B.; Petrov, Andrey D.; /Fermilab

2007-12-01

157

Channel drop filter for CWDM systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a new design of channel drop filter (CDF) based on two-dimensional photonic crystal ring resonators (PCRRs) is provided by two-dimensional (2D) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations in triangular lattice photonic crystal (PC) silicon rods. 100% forward dropping efficiency and a quality factor of over 1000 can be achieved at maximum transfer efficiency while the operating wavelength is 1550 nm. Through this novel component, three channel drop operation with 100% dropping efficiencies at all output channels can be obtained. The proposed filter provides a possibility of channel drop filter and could be used in coarse wavelength division multiplexing (CWDM) systems.

Youcef Mahmoud, Mahmoud; Bassou, Ghaouti; de Fornel, Frédérique; Taalbi, Ahmed

2013-10-01

158

Vortex flow in acoustically levitated drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The internal flow of acoustically levitated water drops is investigated experimentally. This study reveals a kind of vortex flow which rotates in the meridional plane of the levitated drop. The magnitude of fluid velocity is nearly vanishing at the drop center, whereas it increases toward the free surface of a levitated drop until the maximum value of about 80 mm/s. A transition of streamline shapes from concentric circles to ellipses takes place at the distance of about 1.2 mm from the drop center. The fluid velocity distribution is plotted as a function of polar angle for seven characteristic streamlines.

Yan, Z. L.; Xie, W. J.; Wei, B.

2011-08-01

159

Numerical simulation of industrial and accidental release formation and transport  

SciTech Connect

Statement of work for contract 006 {open_quotes}Mathematical simulation of industrial and accidental release formation and transport{close_quotes} implies that the final result of the activity within this task will be VNIIEF developed techniques which will provide for the prediction of the post-accidental environment. Report [1] presents the description of physical models and calculation techniques which were chosen by VNIIEF to accomplish this task. These techniques were analysed for their capabilities, the areas of their application were defined, modifications within contract 006 were described, the results of test and methodical calculations were presented. Moreover, the experimental data were analysed over the source parameters and contamination measurements which can be used in the comparison with the calculation results. Based an these data this report compares the calculation results obtained with VNIIEF calculation techniques with the LANL-presented experimental results. The calculations which statements and results are given in section 1, included the following processes: explosion cloud ascent dynamics and jet release origin; aerosols kinetics in the release source including composite particle origin in the explosion cloud caused by radioactive substance sorption an the soil particles; contaminant transport in atmosphere and their in-site fallout due to the accidental explosions and fires; atmospheric flow dynamics and industrial contamination transfer over the complicated terrain. The calculated results were compared with the experimental data. Section 2 presents the parameters for a typical source in the explosion accidents based an the experimental results and calculated data from Section 1, as well as contamination patterns were calculated with basic technique {open_quotes}Prognosis{close_quotes}.

Piskunov, V.N.; Aloyan, A.A.; Gerasimov, V.M.; Pinaev, V.S.; Golubev, A.I.; Yanilkin, Yu.V.; Ivanov, N.V.; Nikonov, S.N.; Kharchenko, A.I. [and others

1995-05-01

160

Accidental Outcomes Guide Punishment in a “Trembling Hand” Game  

PubMed Central

How do people respond to others' accidental behaviors? Reward and punishment for an accident might depend on the actor's intentions, or instead on the unintended outcomes she brings about. Yet, existing paradigms in experimental economics do not include the possibility of accidental monetary allocations. We explore the balance of outcomes and intentions in a two-player economic game where monetary allocations are made with a “trembling hand”: that is, intentions and outcomes are sometimes mismatched. Player 1 allocates $10 between herself and Player 2 by rolling one of three dice. One die has a high probability of a selfish outcome, another has a high probability of a fair outcome, and the third has a high probability of a generous outcome. Based on Player 1's choice of die, Player 2 can infer her intentions. However, any of the three die can yield any of the three possible outcomes. Player 2 is given the opportunity to respond to Player 1's allocation by adding to or subtracting from Player 1's payoff. We find that Player 2's responses are influenced substantially by the accidental outcome of Player 1's roll of the die. Comparison to control conditions suggests that in contexts where the allocation is at least partially under the control of Player 1, Player 2 will punish Player 1 accountable for unintentional negative outcomes. In addition, Player 2's responses are influenced by Player 1's intention. However, Player 2 tends to modulate his responses substantially more for selfish intentions than for generous intentions. This novel economic game provides new insight into the psychological mechanisms underlying social preferences for fairness and retribution. PMID:19707578

Cushman, Fiery; Dreber, Anna; Wang, Ying; Costa, Jay

2009-01-01

161

Method and apparatus for controlling accidental releases of tritium  

DOEpatents

An improvement in a tritium control system based on a catalytic oxidation reactor wherein accidental releases of tritium into room air are controlled by flooding the catalytic oxidation reactor with hydrogen when the tritium concentration in the room air exceeds a specified limit. The sudden flooding with hydrogen heats the catalyst to a high temperature within seconds, thereby greatly increasing the catalytic oxidation rate of tritium to tritiated water vapor. Thus, the catalyst is heated only when needed. In addition to the heating effect, the hydrogen flow also swamps the tritium and further reduces the tritium release.

Galloway, Terry R. [Berkeley, CA

1980-04-01

162

Method and apparatus for controlling accidental releases of tritium  

DOEpatents

An improvement is described in a tritium control system based on a catalytic oxidation reactor wherein accidental releases of tritium into room air are controlled by flooding the catalytic oxidation reactor with hydrogen when the tritium concentration in the room air exceeds a specified limit. The sudden flooding with hydrogen heats the catalyst to a high temperature within seconds, thereby greatly increasing the catalytic oxidation rate of tritium to tritiated water vapor. Thus, the catalyst is heated only when needed. In addition to the heating effect, the hydrogen flow also swamps the tritium and further reduces the tritium release. 1 fig.

Galloway, T.R.

1980-04-01

163

Self-Administered Ethanol Enema Causing Accidental Death  

PubMed Central

Excessive ethanol consumption is a leading preventable cause of death in the United States. Much of the harm from ethanol comes from those who engage in excessive or hazardous drinking. Rectal absorption of ethanol bypasses the first pass metabolic effect, allowing for a higher concentration of blood ethanol to occur for a given volume of solution and, consequently, greater potential for central nervous system depression. However, accidental death is extremely rare with rectal administration. This case report describes an individual with klismaphilia whose death resulted from acute ethanol intoxication by rectal absorption of a wine enema. PMID:25436159

Peterson, Thomas; Rentmeester, Landen; Judge, Bryan S.; Cohle, Stephen D.; Jones, Jeffrey S.

2014-01-01

164

Clinical effects of accidental levothyroxine ingestion in children.  

PubMed

Forty-one children, aged 1 to 5 years, who accidentally ingested levothyroxine sodium were studied. Symptoms possibly associated with the ingestion occurred in 11 patients (27%). These symptoms (tachycardia, hyperactive behavior, fever, vomiting, diarrhea, diaphoresis, and flushing) were categorized as minor and all resolved without treatment. Because observed effects were generally mild and often unrelated to either estimated amounts of hormone consumed or serum thyroxine levels, a conservative approach to patient treatment is recommended in cases of levothyroxine ingestion in children. PMID:2887106

Golightly, L K; Smolinske, S C; Kulig, K W; Wruk, K M; Gelman, C J; Rumack, B H; Linden, C H

1987-09-01

165

Watching the Ps & Qs: editorial treatment of accidentals  

E-print Network

Senator, Bentley (the editor of Temple on Books and Bibliography 1 Bar) punctuated it, adding about 4,500 commas and other marks in proportion.18 Some writers leave the choice of accidentals to their readers. Perhaps no one ever did so... after dim," "dele comma").3" Tennyson was also particular with his proofs, and once wrote to Moxon, his publisher, saying "I think it would be better to send me every proof twice over—I should like the text to be as correct as possible."''1 Mark...

Thorpe, James Ernest

1971-01-01

166

Accidental Degeneracy and Berry Phase of Resonant States  

E-print Network

We study the complex geometric phase acquired by the resonant states of an open quantum system which evolves irreversibly in a slowly time dependent environment. In analogy with the case of bound states, the Berry phase factors of resonant states are holonomy group elements of a complex line bundle with structure group C*. In sharp contrast with bound states, accidental degeneracies of resonances produce a continuous closed line of singularities formally equivalent to a continuous distribution of "magnetic" charge on a "diabolical" circle, in consequence, we find different classes of topologically inequivalent non-trivial closed paths in parameter space.

A. Mondragon; E. Hernandez

1997-10-04

167

Drop short control of electrode gap  

DOEpatents

During vacuum consumable arc remelting the electrode gap between a consumable electrode and a pool of molten metal is difficult to control. The present invention monitors drop shorts by detecting a decrease in the voltage between the consumable electrode and molten pool. The drop shorts and their associated voltage reductions occur as repetitive pulses which are closely correlated to the electrode gap. Thus, the method and apparatus of the present invention controls electrode gap based upon drop shorts detected from the monitored anode-cathode voltage. The number of drop shorts are accumulated, and each time the number of drop shorts reach a predetermined number, the average period between drop shorts is calculated from this predetermined number and the time in which this number is accumulated. This average drop short period is used in a drop short period electrode gap model which determines the actual electrode gap from the drop short. The actual electrode gap is then compared with a desired electrode gap which is selected to produce optimum operating conditions and the velocity of the consumable error is varied based upon the gap error. The consumable electrode is driven according to any prior art system at this velocity. In the preferred embodiment, a microprocessor system is utilized to perform the necessary calculations and further to monitor the duration of each drop short. If any drop short exceeds a preset duration period, the consumable electrode is rapidly retracted a predetermined distance to prevent bonding of the consumable electrode to the molten remelt.

Fisher, Robert W. (Albuquerque, NM); Maroone, James P. (Albuquerque, NM); Tipping, Donald W. (Albuquerque, NM); Zanner, Frank J. (Sandia Park, NM)

1986-01-01

168

Drop shaping by laser-pulse impact  

E-print Network

We study the hydrodynamic response of a falling drop hit by a laser pulse. Combining high-speed with stroboscopic imaging we report that a millimeter-sized dyed water drop hit by a milli-Joule nanosecond laser-pulse deforms and propels forward at several meters per second, until it eventually fragments. We show that the drop motion results from the recoil momentum imparted at the drop surface by water vaporization. We measure the propulsion speed and the time-deformation law of the drop, complemented by boundary integral simulations. We explain the drop propulsion and shaping in terms of the laser pulse energy and drop surface tension. These findings are crucial for the generation of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light in lithography machines.

Klein, Alexander L; Visser, Claas Willem; Lhuissier, Henri; Sun, Chao; Snoeijer, Jacco H; Villermaux, Emmanuel; Lohse, Detlef; Gelderblom, Hanneke

2015-01-01

169

Large charged drop levitation against gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hybrid electrostatic-acoustic levitator that can levitate and manipulate a large liquid drop in one gravity is presented. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first time such large drops (up to 4 mm in diameter in the case of water) have been levitated against 1-gravity. This makes possible, for the first time, many new experiments both in space and in ground-based laboratories, such as 1)supercooling and superheating, 2) containerless crystal growth from various salt solutions or melts, 3) drop dynamics of oscillating or rotating liquid drops, 4) drop evaporation and Rayleigh bursting, and 5) containerless material processing in space. The digital control system, liquid drop launch process, principles of electrode design, and design of a multipurpose room temperature levitation chamber are described. Preliminary results that demonstrate drop oscillation and rotation, and crystal growth from supersaturated salt solutions are presented.

Rhim, Won-Kyu; Chung, Sang Kun; Hyson, Michael T.; Trinh, Eugene H.; Elleman, Daniel D.

1987-01-01

170

Two Dimensional Air Drop Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive simulation shows an airplane flying at constant horizontal velocity preparing to drop relief supplies to a small island. Download Simulation Below As captain of the plane, you must determine when to release the package and activate the release button. The trajectory of the falling package is traced onscreen. If you were too far off, the package will drop in the ocean. The motion can be viewed from the perspective of a person standing on the island or an airplane flying nearby. Extend the learning by activating air friction to see how this variable affects the motion of the projectile. Editor's Note: Students may insist that there is a horizontal force acting upon the package since it has a horizontal motion. See Annotation for an editor-recommended tutorial that will explain what is happening (the horizontal motion of the package results from its inertia). This item was created with Easy Java Simulations (EJS), a modeling tool that allows users without formal programming experience to generate computer models and simulations.

2010-04-16

171

Electrostatic potential wells for on-demand drop manipulation in microchannels.  

PubMed

Precise control and manipulation of individual drops are crucial in many lab-on-a-chip applications. We present a novel hybrid concept for channel-based discrete microfluidics with integrated electrowetting functionality by incorporating co-planar electrodes (separated by a narrow gap) in one of the microchannel walls. By combining the high throughput of channel-based microfluidics with the individual drop control achieved using electrical actuation, we acquire the strengths of both worlds. The tunable strength of the electrostatic forces enables a wide range of drop manipulations, such as on-demand trapping and release, guiding, and sorting of drops in the microchannel. In each of these scenarios, the retaining electrostatic force competes with the hydrodynamic drag force. The conditions for trapping can be predicted using a simple model that balances these forces. PMID:24394887

de Ruiter, Riëlle; Pit, Arjen M; de Oliveira, Vitor Martins; Duits, Michèl H G; van den Ende, Dirk; Mugele, Frieder

2014-03-01

172

Atmospheric entry of Mars-return nuclear-powered vehicles due to accidental termination of operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The entry of nuclear reactors into Earth's atmosphere resulting from an accidental or inadvertent abort of a space vehicle powered by nuclear-thermal rockets is investigated. The study is made for a typical piloted Mars mission vehicle incapacitated by an accident or malfunction during the Earth-arrival phase of the Mars-return journey due to simultaneous, multiple failures of its component systems. A single accident/abort scenario resulting in three entry possibilities is considered for a nominal hyperbolic in-bound approach velocity of 8 km/sec. The most severe case involving a direct entry is then analyzed over a broad range of approach velocities extending to 12 km/sec to include sprint-type missions. The results indicate that the severe surface heating, stagnation pressures, and g-loads are greater than 150 kW/sq cm, 300 atm, and 800-g, respectively. The wall heat transfer rate exceeds the value that can be accommodated by a carbon heatshield through radiation equilibrium prior to sublimation at 5500 K. These conditions are beyond our previous experience in crew safety, structural design, and thermal protection.

Menees, Gene P.; Park, Chul

1993-01-01

173

Why Chalk Breaks into Three Pieces When Dropped  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been the author's experience over many years, no doubt shared by others, that a stick of chalk usually breaks into three pieces when accidentally dropped onto the floor. I rarely gave it any thought, apart from noting that the fundamental mode of vibration of a freely supported, rigid rod has two nodes at an equal distance from each end. For example, a baseball bat has a node in the barrel (the sweet spot) about 15 cm from the end and another node in the handle. However, chalk is not expected to break at the node points, since maximum stress arises at the antinode in the middle of the chalk where bending is a maximum. Richard Feynman described a similar problem with long sticks of spaghetti.1 He found that they always break into three or more pieces when bent slowly beyond their breaking point, rather than simply breaking in half. He was unable to figure out why, although the problem was solved many years later2 and is nicely illustrated by Vollmer and Mollmann.3

Cross, Rod

2015-01-01

174

Scenario of baryogenesis  

E-print Network

Scenario of baryogenesis is considered in which primordial plasma starting from the Planck scale consists of primordial particles being the precursors of electrons and clusters of particles being the precursors of protons. Equilibrium between the precursors of protons and the precursors of electrons is defined by the proton-electron mass difference. At the temperature equal to the mass of electron, primordial particles transit into protons, electrons, photons.

D. L. Khokhlov

1999-01-26

175

Psychosocial aspects of accidental injuries--an overview.  

PubMed

This paper reviews the current "state of the art" with regard to psycho-traumatological issues in accidentally injured patients. A MEDLINE search (1985-1995) yielded a total of 135 references, out of which 60 publications were selected and reviewed. The body of knowledge about the psycho-social effects of serious injuries caused by accidents seems to be still limited. There are indications that accidents leave many patients suffering from not only the physical consequences but also considerable psychological problems. A frequent clinical manifestation of such problems is post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but depression, anxiety and the somatoform disorder have also been observed, possibly even more frequently. There have been substantial discrepancies in epidemiological data in the literature, partially because the samples analyzed so far have not been homogeneous enough. It is also obvious that studies have been devoted almost exclusively to disorders and handicaps following (and occasionally prior to) the traumatic event. Seldom has the study focused on patient resources: practically no studies exist on the effects of protective psycho-social factors on the healing process following accidental injuries. More research is needed in order to be able to make predictions on the expected healing of patients during the acute stage of treatment following an accident. These future studies should deliver information on identifying high-risk patients who would require specific psycho-social intervention. PMID:8767371

Schnyder, U; Buddeberg, C

1996-01-01

176

Accidental fatal lung injury by compressed air: a case report.  

PubMed

Compressed air is being used extensively as a source of energy at industries and in daily life. A variety of fatal injuries are caused by improper and ignorant use of compressed air equipments. Many types of injuries due to compressed air are reported in the literature such as colorectal injury, orbital injury, surgical emphysema, and so on. Most of these injuries are accidental in nature. It is documented that 40 pounds per square inch pressure causes fatal injuries to the ear, eyes, lungs, stomach, and intestine. Openings of body are vulnerable to injuries by compressed air. Death due to compressed air injuries is rarely reported. Many cases are treated successfully by conservative or surgical management. Extensive survey of literature revealed no reports of fatal injury to the upper respiratory tract and lungs caused by compressed air. Here, we are reporting a fatal event of accidental death after insertion of compressed air pipe into the mouth. The postmortem findings are corroborated with the history and discussed in detail. PMID:25354226

Rayamane, Anand Parashuram; Pradeepkumar, M V

2015-03-01

177

Accidental Beam Losses and Protection in the LHC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At top energy (proton momentum 7 TeV/c) with nominal beam parameters, each of the two LHC proton beams has a stored energy of 350 MJ threatening to damage accelerator equipment in case of accidental beam loss. It is essential that the beams are properly extracted onto the dump blocks in case of failure since these are the only elements that can withstand full beam impact. Although the energy stored in the beams at injection (450 GeV/c) is about 15 times smaller compared to top energy, the beams must still be properly extracted in case of large accidental beam losses. Failures must be detected at a sufficiently early stage and initiate a beam dump. Quenches and power converter failures will be detected by monitoring the correct functioning of the hardware systems. In addition, safe operation throughout the cycle requires the use of beam loss monitors, collimators and absorbers. Ideas of detection of fast beam current decay, monitoring of fast beam position changes and monitoring of fast magnet current changes are discussed, to provide the required redundancy for machine protection.

Schmidt, R.; Working Group On Machine Protection

2005-06-01

178

Pediatric case of accidental oral overdose of methotrexate.  

PubMed

Methotrexate is a chemotherapy antimetabolite, folic acid antagonist, that inhibits the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase resulting in decreased levels of tetrahydrofolate in the cells. This in turn blocks synthesis of thymidylate, a nucleotide necessary for DNA synthesis. It is readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Toxicity from overdose can affect multiple organ systems including bone marrow, liver, intestinal tract, kidneys, lungs, skin, and blood vessels, resulting in death in severe cases. Methotrexate is widely used to treat neoplastic disease, dermatologic disorders (psoriasis), and rheumatologic disorders (severe rheumatoid arthritis). As its indications for use increase, more accidental overdoses can be expected. We present the treatment and clinical course of one such case, that of a 2-year-old who accidentally took her grandmother's arthritis pills. Her initial serum level was 10 times greater than that needed to cause toxicity. She was treated with gastric lavage, activated charcoal, leucovorin rescue, and ICU admission. Her clinical course was unremarkable, and the only evidence of toxicity was a mild elevation in a liver-associated enzyme that resolved without any clinical sequela. Leucovorin at a dose equal to or greater than the possible ingestion should be given as soon as possible in methotrexate overdoses. PMID:10382002

Gibbon, B N; Manthey, D E

1999-07-01

179

Preventing Accidental Ignition of Upper-Stage Rocket Motors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A report presents a proposal to reduce the risk of accidental ignition of certain upper-stage rocket motors or other high energy hazardous systems. At present, mechanically in-line initiators are used for initiation of many rocket motors and/or other high-energy hazardous systems. Electrical shorts and/or mechanical barriers, which are the basic safety devices in such systems, are typically removed as part of final arming or pad preparations while personnel are present. At this time, static discharge, test equipment malfunction, or incorrect arming techniques can cause premature firing. The proposal calls for a modular out-of-line ignition system incorporating detonating-cord elements, identified as the donor and the acceptor, separated by an air gap. In the safe configuration, the gap would be sealed with two shields, which would prevent an accidental firing of the donor from igniting the system. The shields would be removed to enable normal firing, in which shrapnel generated by the donor would reliably ignite the acceptor to continue the ordnance train. The acceptor would then ignite a through bulkhead initiator (or other similar device), which would ignite the motor or high-energy system. One shield would be remotely operated and would be moved to the armed position when a launch was imminent or conversely returned to the safe position if the launch were postponed. In the event of failure of the remotely operated shield, the other shield could be inserted manually to safe the system.

Hickman, John; Morgan, Herbert; Cooper, Michael; Murbach, Marcus

2005-01-01

180

Micro-explosion of compound drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introducing water into spray combustion systems, by either water-in-oil emulsification or supplementary water injection, is one of the major techniques for combustion improvement and NOx reduction. Plentiful researches are available on combustion of water-in-oil emulsion fuel drops. The emulsified liquid is a heterogeneous mixture of immiscible liquids. One component forms the continuous phase and the other component forms the discrete phase. The discrete phase consists of globules of the one fluid that are suspended in the continuous phase fluid. Water-in-oil emulsions are commonly considered for combustion applications because emulsions can result in micro-explosion, thereby reducing the average drop diameter to enhance liquid vaporization, and suppressing the formation of soot and NOx. However, the water addition generally does not exceed about 20% for smooth engine operations[!, 21. The combustion characteristics and micro-explosion of emulsion drop were studied by many researchers. The micro-explosion of water in fuel emulsion drops was caused by very fast growth of superheated water vapor bubbles, its superheat limits must be lower than the boiling point temperature of the fuel. These bubbles were primarily governed by the pressure difference between the superheated vapor and the liquid, and by the inertia imparted to the liquid by the motion of the bubble surface[3 6 In this study, we used a coaxial nozzle to generation the multi-component drop. The different type of water-in-oil fuel drops called the compound drops. Unlike an emulsion drop, a compound drop consists of a water core and a fuel shell, which can originate from the phase separation of emulsion[7, 81 or a water drop colliding with a fuel drop[9, 101 Burning and micro-explosion of compound drops have been found to be distinct from those of emulsion drops[9-111 Wang et al.[9 , 101 studied the combustion characteristics of collision merged alkane-water drops. The merged drops appeared in adhesive and inserted manners. The drop ignition delay time increased with increasing water content. The average burning rate of alkane-water drops decreased with increasing water content. In the burning process, hexadecane-water drops exhibited flash vaporization or flame extinction. Heterogeneous explosion was occasionally observed in drops with trapped air bubbles. The air bubbles were assumed to be the nucleation points of the heterogeneous explosions. Chen and Lin[11 studied the characteristics of water-in-dodecane compound drop with different water content, diameter of drop and environmental oxygen concentration. The vaporization rate increased with increasing environmental oxygen concentration. The compound drops micro-exploded during the burning process in a random way. The number of micro-explosions was majorly influenced by drop diameter, followed by environmental oxygen concentration. Water content had a weaker effect on micro-explosion. As available literature and research results of compound drop burning are scarce, their combustion and micro-explosion behaviors are still poorly understood. In this regard, we changed the drop nature as compound drops to study their combustion characteristics and micro-explosion phenomena.

Chen, Chun-Kuei; Lin, Ta-Hui

2014-08-01

181

Characteristics of Unequal Size Drop Collisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pairs of water/glycerin drops were injected into silicone oil and traveled on downward trajectories before colliding. Unequal size drop collisions with drop size ratios (Ds/DL) of 0.7 and 0.5 were investigated. Simultaneous dual-field PIV measurements were obtained to characterize coalescence and rebounding behavior. The initial injection angle and tube height were adjusted to access appropriate impact parameters. In the current study, the collision angle of the large drop was, in general, shallower than that of the small drop, and a range of velocity ratios and impact parameters was examined. Coalescence occurs above We* = 11 similar to collision outcomes for equal size drops. As drop size ratio decreases, the intervening film deforms more. If the velocity ratio uL/us < 1, the interface remains deformed at coalescence, but if uL/us > 1, the interface flattens before coalescence. The rupture location varies due to the asymmetry of the drops. As collision offset increases (B > 0), the film rupture time is shortened and mixing of the fluid within the drops is enhanced after coalescence. These results will be compared with the behavior observed previously for equal size drop collisions.

Kim, Jungyong; Longmire, Ellen; Kim, Man Sik

2009-11-01

182

Drop Tower Experiments concerning Fluid Management under Microgravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transport and positioning of liquid under microgravity is done utilizing capillary forces. Therefore, capillary transport processes have to be understood for a wide variety of space applications, ranging from propellant management in tanks of space transportation systems to eating and drinking devices for astronauts. There are two types of liquid transportation in microgravity using capillary forces. First, the driven liquid flow in open channels where the capillary forces at free surfaces ensure a gas and vapor free flow. Here it is important to know the limiting flow rate through such an open channel before the free surface collapses and gas is sucked into the channel. A number of different experiments at the drop tower Bremen, on sounding rockets and at the ISS have been conducted to analyse this phenomenon within different geometries. As result a geometry dependent theory for calculating the maximum flow rate has been found. On the other hand liquid positioning and transportation requires the capillary pressure of curved surfaces to achieve a liquid flow to a desired area. Especially for space applications the weight of structure has to be taken into account for development. For example liquid positioning in tanks can be achieved via a complicated set of structure filling the whole tank resulting in heavy devices not reasonable in space applications. Astrium developed in cooperation with ZARM a propellant management device much smaller than the tank volume and ensuring a gas and vapour free supply of propellant to the propulsion system. In the drop tower Bremen a model of this device was tested concerning different microgravity scenarios. To further decrease weight and ensure functionality within different scenarios structure elements are designed as perforated geometries. Capillary transport between perforated plates has been analyzed concerning the influence of geometrical pattern of perforations. The conducted experiments at the drop tower Bremen show the remarkable influence of perforations on the capillary transport capability.

Gaulke, Diana; Dreyer, Michael

2012-07-01

183

Dynamics of Aqueous Foam Drops  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We develop a model for the nonlinear oscillations of spherical drops composed of aqueous foam. Beginning with a simple mixture law, and utilizing a mass-conserving bubble-in-cell scheme, we obtain a Rayleigh-Plesset-like equation for the dynamics of bubbles in a foam mixture. The dispersion relation for sound waves in a bubbly liquid is then coupled with a normal modes expansion to derive expressions for the frequencies of eigenmodal oscillations. These eigenmodal (breathing plus higher-order shape modes) frequencies are elicited as a function of the void fraction of the foam. A Mathieu-like equation is obtained for the dynamics of the higher-order shape modes and their parametric coupling to the breathing mode. The proposed model is used to explain recently obtained experimental data.

Akhatov, Iskander; McDaniel, J. Gregory; Holt, R. Glynn

2001-01-01

184

Experimental validation of a numerical model for predicting the trajectory of blood drops in typical crime scene conditions, including droplet deformation and breakup, with a study of the effect of indoor air currents and wind on typical spatter drop trajectories.  

PubMed

Bloodstain Pattern Analysis (BPA) provides information about events during an assault, e.g. location of participants, weapon type and number of blows. To extract the maximum information from spatter stains, the size, velocity and direction of the drop that produces each stain, and forces acting during flight, must be known. A numerical scheme for accurate modeling of blood drop flight, in typical crime scene conditions, including droplet oscillation, deformation and in-flight disintegration, was developed and validated against analytical and experimental data including passive blood drop oscillations, deformation at terminal velocity, cast-off and impact drop deformation and breakup features. 4th order Runge-Kutta timestepping was used with the Taylor Analogy Breakup (TAB) model and Pilch and Erdman's (1987) expression for breakup time. Experimental data for terminal velocities, oscillations, and deformation was obtained via digital high-speed imaging. A single model was found to describe drop behavior accurately in passive, cast off and impact scenarios. Terminal velocities of typical passive drops falling up to 8m, distances and times required to reach them were predicted within 5%. Initial oscillations of passive blood drops with diameters of 1mmdrop aspect ratio were within 1.6% of experiment. Under typical crime scene conditions, the velocity of the drop within the first 1.5m of fall is affected little by drag, oscillation or deformation. Blood drops with diameter 0.4-4mm and velocity 1-15m/s cast-off from a rotating disk showed low deformation levels (Weber number<3). Drops formed by blunt impact 0.1-2mm in diameter at velocities of 14-25m/s were highly deformed (aspect ratios down to 0.4) and the larger impact blood drops (?1-1.5mm in diameter) broke up at critical Weber numbers of 12-14. Most break-ups occurred within 10-20cm of the impact point. The model predicted deformation levels of cast-off and impact blood drops within 5% of experiment. Under typical crime scene conditions, few cast-off drops will break up in flight. However some impact-generated drops were seen to break up, some by the vibration, others by bag breakup. The validated model can be used to gain deep understanding of the processes leading to spatter stains, and can be used to answer questions about proposed scenarios, e.g. how far blood drops may travel, or how stain patterns are affected by winds and draughts. PMID:25447183

Kabaliuk, N; Jermy, M C; Williams, E; Laber, T L; Taylor, M C

2014-10-18

185

Trapping of drops by wetting defects  

PubMed Central

Controlling the motion of drops on solid surfaces is crucial in many natural phenomena and technological processes including the collection and removal of rain drops, cleaning technology and heat exchangers. Topographic and chemical heterogeneities on solid surfaces give rise to pinning forces that can capture and steer drops in desired directions. Here we determine general physical conditions required for capturing sliding drops on an inclined plane that is equipped with electrically tunable wetting defects. By mapping the drop dynamics on the one-dimensional motion of a point mass, we demonstrate that the trapping process is controlled by two dimensionless parameters, the trapping strength measured in units of the driving force and the ratio between a viscous and an inertial time scale. Complementary experiments involving superhydrophobic surfaces with wetting defects demonstrate the general applicability of the concept. Moreover, we show that electrically tunable defects can be used to guide sliding drops along actively switchable tracks—with potential applications in microfluidics. PMID:24721935

't Mannetje, Dieter; Ghosh, Somnath; Lagraauw, Rudy; Otten, Simon; Pit, Arjen; Berendsen, Christian; Zeegers, Jos; van den Ende, Dirk; Mugele, Frieder

2014-01-01

186

Trapping of drops by wetting defects.  

PubMed

Controlling the motion of drops on solid surfaces is crucial in many natural phenomena and technological processes including the collection and removal of rain drops, cleaning technology and heat exchangers. Topographic and chemical heterogeneities on solid surfaces give rise to pinning forces that can capture and steer drops in desired directions. Here we determine general physical conditions required for capturing sliding drops on an inclined plane that is equipped with electrically tunable wetting defects. By mapping the drop dynamics on the one-dimensional motion of a point mass, we demonstrate that the trapping process is controlled by two dimensionless parameters, the trapping strength measured in units of the driving force and the ratio between a viscous and an inertial time scale. Complementary experiments involving superhydrophobic surfaces with wetting defects demonstrate the general applicability of the concept. Moreover, we show that electrically tunable defects can be used to guide sliding drops along actively switchable tracks-with potential applications in microfluidics. PMID:24721935

't Mannetje, Dieter; Ghosh, Somnath; Lagraauw, Rudy; Otten, Simon; Pit, Arjen; Berendsen, Christian; Zeegers, Jos; van den Ende, Dirk; Mugele, Frieder

2014-01-01

187

Trapping of drops by wetting defects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Controlling the motion of drops on solid surfaces is crucial in many natural phenomena and technological processes including the collection and removal of rain drops, cleaning technology and heat exchangers. Topographic and chemical heterogeneities on solid surfaces give rise to pinning forces that can capture and steer drops in desired directions. Here we determine general physical conditions required for capturing sliding drops on an inclined plane that is equipped with electrically tunable wetting defects. By mapping the drop dynamics on the one-dimensional motion of a point mass, we demonstrate that the trapping process is controlled by two dimensionless parameters, the trapping strength measured in units of the driving force and the ratio between a viscous and an inertial time scale. Complementary experiments involving superhydrophobic surfaces with wetting defects demonstrate the general applicability of the concept. Moreover, we show that electrically tunable defects can be used to guide sliding drops along actively switchable tracks—with potential applications in microfluidics.

't Mannetje, Dieter; Ghosh, Somnath; Lagraauw, Rudy; Otten, Simon; Pit, Arjen; Berendsen, Christian; Zeegers, Jos; van den Ende, Dirk; Mugele, Frieder

2014-04-01

188

Breakup of a pendant magnetic drop.  

PubMed

We report experiments on a millimeter-sized pendant drop of ferrofluid in a horizontal magnetic field. The initial drop size is chosen just below the breakup threshold under gravity. As the magnetic field is increased, the drop tilts in order to align with the direction of the total volume force that is exerted on it: weight plus magnetic force. The breakup is controlled by a generalized Bond number based on this total force and on the radius of the neck of the drop. The evolution of drop shape turns out to be a complex process governed by many parameters such as the angle between the total force and the needle, the drop size relative to the needle radius, and the wettability of the liquid on the needle material. This suggests a certain universality, that a single value of the critical Bond number is found regardless of magnetic fluid properties and whether the force is inclined or not. PMID:23944556

Havard, N; Risso, F; Tordjeman, Ph

2013-07-01

189

Accidental death of elderly persons under the influence of chlorpheniramine.  

PubMed

Older individuals are susceptible to accident, such as falls, some of which are fatal. In such cases, autopsies and toxicological analysis may be deemed unnecessary, especially if the critical injuries and manner of death can be determined conclusively based on information at the scene and an external investigation. Here, we report the results of two autopsies performed on elderly individuals who died accidentally under the influence of chlorpheniramine. These autopsies revealed valuable additional information. Case 1: A woman in her 70s, who was living alone, was found dead under the stairs in her house. She had no history of a condition that could have led to sudden death. The autopsy revealed a neck fracture, multiple rib fractures, and a coccyx fracture. The histopathological findings showed fat embolisms in numerous small vessels of the interalveolar septum. Toxicological analysis of blood samples revealed the presence of chlorpheniramine (0.41?g/ml). Case 2: A woman in her 70s, who was living alone, was found dead in the bathtub in her house. There was no past medical history other than diabetes mellitus and vertigo. The autopsy revealed hyper-inflated lungs and brown-red fluids in the trachea, but there was no evidence of a pathology or injury that could have induced a loss of consciousness. Toxicological analysis of the fluids in the right thoracic cavity revealed the presence of chlorpheniramine (0.57?g/ml). In both cases, re-examination of the scene after the autopsy revealed the presence of common cold medicine containing chlorpheniramine. The victim may have accidentally overdosed on common cold medicine. This overdose would have been compounded by anti-histamine-induced drowsiness. The present cases suggest that forensic pathologists should always notify physicians/pharmacists of findings pertaining to unexpected drug side effects. Such intervention would prevent many accidental deaths. In addition, each autopsy must be performed in conjunction with a detailed postmortem investigation. Such efforts would also increase the accuracy of the public health record's mortality statistics. PMID:23747192

Suzuki, Hideto; Shigeta, Akio; Fukunaga, Tatsushige

2013-09-01

190

Technology of eye drops containing metronidazole.  

PubMed

The aim of the studies was to determine the stability of metronidazole using UV spectrophotometric method in 0.5% w/w eye drops which were prepared under aseptic conditions and thermally sterilized. 0.9% solution of NaCl, 5% glucose and phosphate buffers of pH 6.97 and 6.81 were used as the solvents of metronidazole in the drops. Thiomersal and phenylmercuric borate were used to preserve the drops. The viscosity of the eye drops was increased using the solution of polyvinyl alcohol. The drops were stored in tightly closed glass infusion bottles, protected from light. For the stability of analysis a long-term assay was used under controlled conditions following the requirements of ICH, i.e., the time of storage was 24 months at the constant temperature of 25 +/- 2 degrees C and constant humidity of 60% +/- 2% RH. The eye drops containing metronidazole were significantly physically and chemically stable: after 24 months of storage the metronidazole concentration in the drops was close to 100% of the initial concentration. The drops were colorless and transparent. Physical and chemical properties such as pH, osmotic pressure and viscosity underwent insignificant changes during the storage. The preservation test showed that the degree of reduction of the pharmacopeal strains of micro-organisms in freshly prepared drops and in those stored for 24 months at the temperature of 25 +/- 20 degrees C was in agreement with the requirements of Ph. Eur. 6. PMID:21485708

Kodym, Anna; Kaczy?ska-Dyba, Ewelina; Kubiak, Bart?omiej; Kuku?a, Helena

2011-01-01

191

Non-coalescence of oppositely charged drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrically induced droplet motion manifests itself in processes as diverse as storm cloud formation, commercial ink-jet printing, petroleum and vegetable oil dehydration, electrospray ionization in mass spectrometry, electrowetting and lab-on-a-chip manipulations. An important issue in practical applications is the tendency for adjacent drops to coalesce, and oppositely charged drops have long been assumed to experience an attractive force that favors their coalescence. Here we report the existence of a critical field strength above which oppositely charged drops do not coalesce. We observe that appropriately positioned and oppositely charged drops migrate towards one another in an applied electric field; but whereas the drops coalesce as expected at low field strengths, they are repelled from one another after contact at higher field strengths. Qualitatively, the drops appear to ``bounce'' off one another. We directly image the transient formation of a meniscus bridge between the bouncing drops, and propose that this temporary bridge is unstable with respect to capillary pressure when it forms in an electric field exceeding a critical strength. The observation of oppositely charged drops bouncing in strong electric fields should affect our understanding of any process involving charged liquid drops, including de-emulsification, electrospray ionization and atmospheric conduction.

Ristenpart, W. D.; Bird, J. C.; Belmonte, A.; Dollar, F.; Stone, H. A.

2009-11-01

192

Parametric resonance in acoustically levitated water drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid drops can be suspended in air with acoustic levitation method. When the sound pressure is periodically modulated, the levitated drop is usually forced into an axisymmetric oscillation. However, a transition from axisymmetric oscillation into sectorial oscillation occurs when the modulation frequency approaches some specific values. The frequency of the sectorial oscillation is almost exactly half of the modulation frequency. It is demonstrated that this transition is induced by the parametric resonance of levitated drop. The natural frequency of sectorial oscillation is found to decrease with the increase of drop distortion extent.

Shen, C. L.; Xie, W. J.; Wei, B.

2010-05-01

193

EXAMPLE EXPOSURE SCENARIOS ASSESSMENT TOOL  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposure scenarios are a tool to help the assessor develop estimates of exposure, dose, and risk. An exposure scenario generally includes facts, data, assumptions, inferences, and sometimes professional judgment about how the exposure takes place. The human physiological and beh...

194

Scenario-based requirements analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for scenario-based requirements engineering is described. The method uses two types of scenario: structure models\\u000a of the system context and scripts of system usage. A modelling language is reported for describing scenarios, and heuristics\\u000a are given to cross-check dependencies between scenario models and the requirements specification. Heuristics are grouped into\\u000a several analytic treatments that investigate correspondences between users’

Alistair Sutcliffe

1998-01-01

195

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 12. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF SULFUR DIOXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses the control of accidental releases of sulfur dioxide (SO2) to the atmosphere. SO2 has an IDLH (immediately dangerous to life and health) concentration of 100 ppm, making it an acute toxic hazard. Reducing the risk associated with an accidental release of SO2 ...

196

Two Cases of Accidental Injection of Epinephrine into a Digit Treated with Subcutaneous Phentolamine Injections  

PubMed Central

Accidental injection into the digit from an epinephrine autoinjection device can cause discoloration, pain, and paresthesias. Although loss of digit is rare, treatment in the emergency department is commonly aimed at vasodilation of the affected tissue. We report two cases of accidental injection of epinephrine into the digits that were successfully treated with subcutaneous phentolamine injection with no adverse events. PMID:24024046

Bodkin, Ryan P.; Acquisto, Nicole M.; Wiegand, Timothy J.

2013-01-01

197

Management options for accidental injection of epinephrine from an autoinjector: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Epinephrine autoinjector devices are used with increasing frequency to treat severe anaphylactic reactions. Accidental injection, usually involving a finger, is a potential complication. CASE PRESENTATION: A physician in a Family Practice training program accidentally injected epinephrine into his left thumb while reading the operating instructions of an autoinjector (Epipen®). He developed swelling, pallor, and pain in the thumb. Treatment

Christian Mathez; Bernard Favrat; Philippe Staeger

2009-01-01

198

The effects of gun control on the accidental death rate from firearms in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

One factor that has been proposed as affecting accidental death rates is the availability of a lethal agent in the environment. The present study explores this hypothesis for the case of firearm availability and the accidental death rate from firearms. Data from Canada indicated that the passage of Canada's Criminal Law Amendment Act of 1977 (Bill C-51), enforced from 1978

Antoon A. Leenaars; David Lester

1997-01-01

199

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 10. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF HYDROGEN CYANIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses the control of accidental releases of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) to the atmosphere. HCN has an IDLH (immediately dangerous to life and health) concentration of 50 ppm, making it an acute toxic hazard. Reducing the risk associated with an accidental release of HCN...

200

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 2. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF AMMONIA  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses the control of accidental releases of ammonia to the atmosphere. Ammonia has an IDLH (immediately dangerous to life and health) concentration of 500 ppm, making it an acute toxic hazard. Reducing the risk associated with an accidental release of ammonia invol...

201

Involving Parents in Indicated Early Intervention for Childhood PTSD Following Accidental Injury  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accidental injuries represent the most common type of traumatic event to which a youth is likely to be exposed. While the majority of youth who experience an accidental injury will recover spontaneously, a significant proportion will go on to develop Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). And yet, there is little published treatment outcome…

Cobham, Vanessa E.; March, Sonja; De Young, Alexandra; Leeson, Fiona; Nixon, Reginald; McDermott, Brett; Kenardy, Justin

2012-01-01

202

A ?CDM bounce scenario  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study a contracting universe composed of cold dark matter and radiation, and with a positive cosmological constant. As is well known from standard cosmological perturbation theory, under the assumption of initial quantum vacuum fluctuations the Fourier modes of the comoving curvature perturbation that exit the (sound) Hubble radius in such a contracting universe at a time of matter-domination will be nearly scale-invariant. Furthermore, the modes that exit the (sound) Hubble radius when the effective equation of state is slightly negative due to the cosmological constant will have a slight red tilt, in agreement with observations. We assume that loop quantum cosmology captures the correct high-curvature dynamics of the space-time, and this ensures that the big-bang singularity is resolved and is replaced by a bounce. We calculate the evolution of the perturbations through the bounce and find that they remain nearly scale-invariant. We also show that the amplitude of the scalar perturbations in this cosmology depends on a combination of the sound speed of cold dark matter, the Hubble rate in the contracting branch at the time of equality of the energy densities of cold dark matter and radiation, and the curvature scale that the loop quantum cosmology bounce occurs at. Importantly, as this scenario predicts a positive running of the scalar index, observations can potentially differentiate between it and inflationary models. Finally, for a small sound speed of cold dark matter, this scenario predicts a small tensor-to-scalar ratio.

Cai, Yi-Fu; Wilson-Ewing, Edward

2015-03-01

203

The degenerate gravitino scenario  

E-print Network

In this work, we explore the "degenerate gravitino" scenario where the mass difference between the gravitino and the lightest MSSM particle is much smaller than the gravitino mass itself. In this case, the energy released in the decay of the next to lightest sypersymmetric particle (NLSP) is reduced. Consequently the cosmological and astrophysical constraints on the gravitino abundance, and hence on the reheating temperature, become softer than in the usual case. On the other hand, such small mass splittings generically imply a much longer lifetime for the NLSP. We find that, in the constrained MSSM (CMSSM), for neutralino LSP or NLSP, reheating temperatures compatible with thermal leptogenesis are reached for small splittings of order 10^{-2} GeV. While for stau NLSP, temperatures of 4x10^9 GeV can be obtained even for splittings of order of tens of GeVs. This "degenerate gravitino" scenario offers a possible way out to the gravitino problem for thermal leptogenesis in supersymmetric theories.

Lotfi Boubekeur; Ki Young Choi; Roberto Ruiz de Austri; Oscar Vives

2010-04-07

204

A $?$CDM bounce scenario  

E-print Network

We study a contracting universe composed of cold dark matter and radiation, and with a positive cosmological constant. As is well known from standard cosmological perturbation theory, under the assumption of initial quantum vacuum fluctuations the Fourier modes of the comoving curvature perturbation that exit the (sound) Hubble radius in such a contracting universe at a time of matter-domination will be nearly scale-invariant. Furthermore, the modes that exit the (sound) Hubble radius when the effective equation of state is slightly negative due to the cosmological constant will have a slight red tilt, in agreement with observations. We assume that loop quantum cosmology captures the correct high-curvature dynamics of the space-time, and this ensures that the big-bang singularity is resolved and is replaced by a bounce. We calculate the evolution of the perturbations through the bounce and find that they remain nearly scale-invariant. We also show that the amplitude of the scalar perturbations in this cosmology depends on a combination of the sound speed of cold dark matter, the Hubble rate in the contracting branch at the time of equality of the energy densities of cold dark matter and radiation, and the curvature scale that the loop quantum cosmology bounce occurs at. Importantly, as this scenario predicts a positive running of the scalar index, observations can potentially differentiate between it and inflationary models. Finally, for a small sound speed of cold dark matter, this scenario predicts a small tensor-to-scalar ratio.

Yi-Fu Cai; Edward Wilson-Ewing

2015-01-28

205

Dose assessment of an accidental exposure at the IPNS  

SciTech Connect

Seven different methods were used to estimate the dose rate to a female worker who was accidentally exposed in the neutron PHOENIX beamline at the IPNS. Theoretical and measured entrance dose ranged from 550 mrem/min to 2850 mrem/min. Theoretical estimates were based on a Monte Carlo simulation of a spectrum provided by IPNS (Crawford Spectrum). Dose measurements were made with TLDs on phantoms and with ionization chambers in a water phantom. Estimates of the whole body total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) rate ranged from 5.2 mrem/min to 840 mrem/min. Assumed and measured quality factors ranged from 2.6 to 11.8. Cytogenetic analyses of blood samples detected no positive exposure. The recommended TEDE rate was 158 mrem/min. The TEDE was 750 mrem.

Campos Torres, M.M.

1995-02-01

206

Delayed Upper-Airway Injury after Accidental Alkaline Ingestion  

PubMed Central

A 62-year-old man presented to the emergency department one week after accidentally drinking an alkaline cleaning agent stored in unlabeled bottle. The day of the incident the patient presented to an outside hospital where he was admitted for an upper endoscopy of the esophagus which was found to be negative for acute injury. An initial chest X-ray taken the day of the incident was also found to be normal. After discharge the patient continued to have a sore throat and marked dysphagia which caused him to vomit repeatedly. Moreover, the patient began to develop chest pain with associated shortness of breath. We present a case of delayed airway injury and tracheal thickening and associated chest pain after alkaline ingestion and we discuss herein the pathophysiology and management of alkaline ingestions. PMID:25013732

Ryan, Matthew F.

2014-01-01

207

Accidental Intraoral Formalin Injection: A Rare Case Report  

PubMed Central

Formalin is a hazardous chemical that needs cautious handling and special storage. Owing to its disinfectant and fixative (i.e. for preserving pathologic tissue specimens in histopathology) properties, it is widely used in dentistry. Although, the terms formaldehyde and formalin are often confused as being identical, these are different as to the concentrations of the primary component i.e. formaldehyde. In fact, the common fixative available as 10% neutral buffered formalin is actually a 4% solution of formaldehyde (i.e., a 10% solution made from a 37-40% commercially pure formaldehyde solution). This case report describes an unfortunate case of accidental injection instead of local anesthetic, of formalin into the pterygomandibular space in a 35-year old woman during inferior alveolar nerve block for surgical removal of impacted lower right third molar and its successful management by cautious debridement (under both local and general anesthesia) and empirical drug therapy (utilizing analgesics and antibiotics). PMID:25568771

Dandriyal, Ramakant; Giri, Kolly Yada; Alam, Sarwar; Singh, Aishwarya Pratap

2014-01-01

208

Successful outcome of accidental ethylene glycol poisoning despite delayed presentation  

PubMed Central

A 69-year-old man presented to the emergency department after being found unconscious by his son. He had experienced headache the previous day but had been otherwise well. Investigations revealed a severe metabolic acidosis, raised lactate and acute kidney injury. The calculated anion and osmolar gap were both elevated at 37.7 and 39.3, respectively. Due to his reduced Glasgow coma score (GCS) he was intubated and a CT scan performed: only a small, mature pontine infarct was found of uncertain significance. Further questioning of the family revealed accidental ingestion of 150 ml of a ‘blue liquid’ 24 h earlier (later identified as car screenwash). With ethylene glycol (EG) poisoning suspected, he was given intravenous ethanol, fomepizole (a competitive inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase) and haemofiltration. Despite the delayed presentation, prompt recognition and treatment of EG poisoning led to a successful discharge in this case. PMID:22767560

Mangera, Zaheer; Isse, Said; Winnett, Georgia; Lal, Aroon; Cafferkey, Michele

2010-01-01

209

Heat gain in the treatment of accidental hypothermia.  

PubMed

In two cases of accidental hypothermia, heated humidification of the inspired gases and warming of fluids administered intravenously was associated with an increase in the deep body (core) temperatures at rates of 0-5 degrees to 1-0 degrees C per hour. The first case demonstrated that heat was transferred selectively to the body core, as temperatures here rose during the first three hours of treatment, while skin temperatures remained low. The second patient gained less than 0-1 degrees C per hour when treated "passively" by means of surface insulation with unheated blankets. The introduction of "active" measures was followed by a more rapid gain. It is suggested that heat supplied to the body core by these measures provides effective additions to metabolic production, particularly when the deep body and cardiac temperatures are at their lowest. PMID:1186557

Shanks, C A

1975-08-30

210

Siquieros accidental painting technique: a fluid mechanics point of view  

E-print Network

This is an entry for the Gallery of Fluid Motion of the 65th Annual Meeting of the APS-DFD (fluid dynamics video). This video shows an analysis of the 'accidental painting' technique developed by D.A. Siqueiros, a famous Mexican muralist. We reproduced the technique that he used: pouring layers of paint of different colors on top of each other. We found that the layers mix, creating aesthetically pleasing patterns, as a result of a Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Due to the pigments used to give paints their color, they can have different densities. When poured on top of each other, if the top layer is denser than the lower one, the viscous gravity current undergoes unstable as it spread radially. We photograph the process and produced slowed-down video to visualize the process.

Zetina, Sandra

2012-01-01

211

Biomass Scenario Model Scenario Library: Definitions, Construction, and Description  

SciTech Connect

Understanding the development of the biofuels industry in the United States is important to policymakers and industry. The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a system dynamics model of the biomass-to-biofuels system that can be used to explore policy effects on biofuels development. Because of the complexity of the model, as well as the wide range of possible future conditions that affect biofuels industry development, we have not developed a single reference case but instead developed a set of specific scenarios that provide various contexts for our analyses. The purpose of this report is to describe the scenarios that comprise the BSM scenario library. At present, we have the following policy-focused scenarios in our library: minimal policies, ethanol-focused policies, equal access to policies, output-focused policies, technological diversity focused, and the point-of-production- focused. This report describes each scenario, its policy settings, and general insights gained through use of the scenarios in analytic studies.

Inman, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Bush, B.; Peterson, S.

2014-04-01

212

DROP SIZE AND DROP SIZE DISTRIBUTION IN A PULSED SIEVE-PLATE EXTRACTION COLUMN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drop size and drop size distribution in a pulsed sieve-plate extraction column for the system acetic acid-water-ethyl acetate were studied. Different pulsation intensities were maintained for the same flow rates of dispersed and continuous phases. Mean drop size and distribution of drop size were significantly affected by the variation in pulsation intensity. Height of transfer units were observed to be

M. R. Usman; L. Rehman; M. Bashir

213

Saving every drop of water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the beginning of 2011 there has been extremely low rainfall, which has resulted in drought conditions that have affected several provinces in China. The situation of the acute water shortage requires people to make many changes in the little things they do in their daily life. Saving every drop of water and forming good habits of using water is of the utmost importance. Based on this need, our students, organized by our teachers, reached out into to the communities. By visiting, observing and issuing questionnaires, the students identified unreasonable water usage in the communities. The results of the research showed that the ratio of secondary treatment of domestic waste is very low, especially the ratio of collecting wastewater from washing, greywater, to flush the toilet. In order to solve this problem, students themselves designed a set of water saving facilities by collecting greywater to flush the toilet. They successfully installed these facilities in residential houses in the XiYinLi community, which achieved satisfactory results regarding saving water.

Jinyu, J.

2012-04-01

214

75 FR 8411 - Office of New Reactors: Interim Staff Guidance on Assessing the Consequences of an Accidental...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Consequences of an Accidental Release of Radioactive Materials From Liquid Waste Tanks; Reopening of Comment Period AGENCY...Consequences of an Accidental Release of Radioactive Materials from Liquid Waste Tanks'' (Agencywide Documents...

2010-02-24

215

Electrostatic collection of jet and film drops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jet and film drops from bubbles bursting in the presence of an electric field will be charged by electrostatic induction. If the field is sufficiently high, the drops move rapidly upward under the influence of an electrical force to impact on any suitable collecting surface. Mag- nesium oxide-coated glass slides make an excellent collector for determination of the size distribution

DUNCAN C. BLANCHARD; LAWRENCE D. SYZDEK

1975-01-01

216

Water drop friction on superhydrophobic surfaces.  

PubMed

To investigate water drop friction on superhydrophobic surfaces, the motion of water drops on three different superhydrophobic surfaces has been studied by allowing drops to slide down an incline and capturing their motion using high-speed video. Two surfaces were prepared using crystallization of an alkyl ketene dimer (AKD) wax, and the third surface was the leaf of a Lotus (Nelumbo Nucifera). The acceleration of the water droplets on these superhydrophobic surfaces was measured as a function of droplet size and inclination of the surface. For small capillary numbers, we propose that the energy dissipation is dominated by intermittent pinning-depinning transitions at microscopic pinning sites along the trailing contact line of the drop, while at capillary numbers exceeding a critical value, energy dissipation is dominated by circulatory flow in the vicinity of the contacting disc between the droplet and the surface. By combining the results of the droplet acceleration with a theoretical model based on energy dissipation, we have introduced a material-specific coefficient called the superhydrophobic sliding resistance, b(sh). Once determined, this parameter is sufficient for predicting the motion of water drops on superhydrophobic surfaces of a general macroscopic topography. This theory also infers the existence of an equilibrium sliding angle, ?(eq), at which the drop acceleration is zero. This angle is decreasing with the radius of the drop and is in quantitative agreement with the measured tilt angles required for a stationary drop to start sliding down an incline. PMID:23721176

Olin, Pontus; Lindström, Stefan B; Pettersson, Torbjörn; Wågberg, Lars

2013-07-23

217

Drop test facility available to private industry  

SciTech Connect

In 1978, a virtually unyielding drop test impact pad was constructed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) Tower Shielding Facility (TSF) for the testing of heavy shipping containers designed for transporting radioactive materials. Because of the facility's unique capability for drop-testing large, massive shipping packages, it has been identified as a facility which can be made available for non-DOE users.

Shappert, L.B.; Box, W.D.

1983-01-01

218

Drops and Bubble in Materials Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of extended p-n junctions in semiconductors by drop migration, mechanisms and morphologies of migrating drops and bubbles in solids and nucleation and corrections to the Volmer-Weber equations are discussed. Bubble shrinkage in the processing of glass, the formation of glass microshells as laser-fusion targets, and radiation-induced voids in nuclear reactors were examined.

Doremus, R. H.

1982-03-01

219

Drops and Bubble in Materials Science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The formation of extended p-n junctions in semiconductors by drop migration, mechanisms and morphologies of migrating drops and bubbles in solids and nucleation and corrections to the Volmer-Weber equations are discussed. Bubble shrinkage in the processing of glass, the formation of glass microshells as laser-fusion targets, and radiation-induced voids in nuclear reactors were examined.

Doremus, R. H.

1982-01-01

220

Thick drops on a slowly oscillating substrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the evolution of a liquid drop on an inclined substrate oscillating vertically. The oscillations are weak and slow, which makes the liquid's inertia and viscosity negligible (so that the drop's shape is determined by a balance of surface tension, gravity, and vibration-induced inertial force). No assumptions are made about the drop's thickness, which extends our previous results on thin drops [Benilov, Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.84.066301 84, 066301 (2011)] to more realistic situations. It is shown that, if the amplitude of the substrate's oscillations exceeds a certain threshold value ?*, the drop climbs uphill. ?*, however, strongly depends on the thickness of the drop, which, in turn, depends on the liquid's equilibrium contact angle ?¯. In particular, there is a dramatic decrease in ?* when ?¯ exceeds a certain threshold, which means that thick drops climb uphill for a much weaker vibration of the substrate. At the same time, the frequency range of the substrate's vibration within which drops climb uphill becomes much narrower.

Benilov, E. S.; Cummins, C. P.

2013-08-01

221

Mixing in colliding, ultrasonically levitated drops.  

PubMed

Lab-in-a-drop, using ultrasonic levitation, has been actively investigated for the last two decades. Benefits include lack of contact between solutions and an apparatus and a lack of sample cross-contamination. Understanding and controlling mixing in the levitated drop is necessary for using an acoustically levitated drop as a microreactor, particularly for studying kinetics. A pulsed electrostatic delivery system enables addition and mixing of a desired-volume droplet with the levitated drop. Measurement of mixing kinetics is obtained by high-speed video monitoring of a titration reaction. Drop heterogeneity is visualized as 370 nl of 0.25 M KOH (pH: 13.4) was added to 3.7 ?L of 0.058 M HCl (pH: 1.24). Spontaneous mixing time is about 2 s. Following droplet impact, the mixed drop orbits the levitator axis at about 5 Hz during homogenization. The video's green channel (maximum response near 540 nm) shows the color change due to phenolphthalein absorption. While mixing is at least an order of magnitude faster in the levitated drop compared with three-dimensional diffusion, modulation of the acoustic waveform near the surface acoustic wave resonance frequency of the levitated drop does not substantially reduce mixing time. PMID:24460103

Chainani, Edward T; Choi, Woo-Hyuck; Ngo, Khanh T; Scheeline, Alexander

2014-02-18

222

Flexible transfer lines. Pressure drop analysis.  

E-print Network

Flexible transfer lines. Pressure drop analysis. Yury Ivanyushenkov, RAL #12;Proposed flexible transfer lines Flow in Flow return #12;Pressure drop in a flexible line · Friction factor for a flexible nitrogen cooling system: Diagram Drawn by Peter Titus Fill pipe Cold vent pipe #12;Flexible transfer line

McDonald, Kirk

223

Acoustically levitated drops: drop oscillation and break-up driven by ultrasound modulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behaviour of drops in an acoustic levitator is simulated numerically. The ultrasound field is directed along the axis of gravity, the motion of the drop is supposed to be axisymmetric.The flow inside the drop is assumed inviscid (since the time intervals considered are short) and incompressible.First, as a test case, we consider a stationary ultrasound wave. We observe, as

A. L. Yarin; D. A. Weiss; G. Brenn; D. Rensink

2002-01-01

224

Employee training: Eight scenarios  

SciTech Connect

This chapter addresses training issues in a comprehensive environmental management program. Obviously the needs of each company may vary to some degree; but the requirements, in terms of both legal mandate and good business sense, are often applicable across the board. The intent of this chapter is to discuss the levels of training that may be required by an industrial organization. Wherever possible information is provided concerning the ``how to`s`` of an environmental training program (how to set up a training support program, how to implement training to meet specific training needs, etc.). The scenarios and case studies used in this chapter are hypothetical but are based on real incidents experienced by this author.

Busch, M.G.

1994-12-31

225

Scenario-Based Tasks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page from The Experiential Learning Center provides a number of scenario-based tasks for use in the classroom or for professional development training. The materials are freely available for download and use and would be applicable to learners in a variety of subjects including software development, faculty professional development, office system applications/ICT, biology/bioinformatics, environmental studies, Python programming, engineering, network security/MIS, computational thinking and English writing. Instructor guides and other classroom instructional materials are provided. The project requests that educators let them know when these materials are used in order to track dissemination of the work and in order to inform the community about upcoming workshops and presentations.

226

Planar microfluidic drop splitting and merging.  

PubMed

Open droplet microfluidic platforms offer attractive alternatives to closed microchannel devices, including lower fabrication cost and complexity, significantly smaller sample and reagent volumes, reduced surface contact and adsorption, as well as drop scalability, reconfigurability, and individual addressability. For these platforms to be effective, however, they require efficient schemes for planar drop transport and manipulation. While there are many methods that have been reported for drop transport, it is far more difficult to carry out other drop operations such as dispensing, merging and splitting. In this work, we introduce a novel alternative to merge and, more crucially, split drops using laterally-offset modulated surface acoustic waves (SAWs). The energy delivery into the drop is divided into two components: a small modulation amplitude excitation to initiate weak rotational flow within the drop followed by a short burst in energy to induce it to stretch. Upon removal of the SAW energy, capillary forces at the center of the elongated drop cause the liquid in this capillary bridge region to drain towards both ends of the drop, resulting in its collapse and therefore the splitting of the drop. This however occurs only below a critical Ohnesorge number, which is a balance between the viscous forces that retard the drainage and the sufficiently large capillary forces that cause the liquid bridge to pinch. We show the possibility of reliably splitting drops into two equal sized droplets with an average deviation in their volumes of only around 4% and no greater than 10%, which is comparable to the 7% and below splitting deviation obtained with electrowetting drop splitting techniques. In addition, we also show that it is possible to split the drop asymmetrically to controllably and reliably produce droplets of different volumes. Such potential as well as the flexibility in tuning the device to operate on drops of different sizes without requiring electrode reconfiguration, i.e., the use of different devices, as is required in electrowetting-therefore makes the present method an attractive alternative to electrowetting schemes. PMID:25738425

Collignon, Sean; Friend, James; Yeo, Leslie

2015-03-31

227

CPAS Preflight Drop Test Analysis Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Throughout the Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) drop test program, the CPAS Analysis Team has developed a simulation and analysis process to support drop test planning and execution. This process includes multiple phases focused on developing test simulations and communicating results to all groups involved in the drop test. CPAS Engineering Development Unit (EDU) series drop test planning begins with the development of a basic operational concept for each test. Trajectory simulation tools include the Flight Analysis and Simulation Tool (FAST) for single bodies, and the Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems (ADAMS) simulation for the mated vehicle. Results are communicated to the team at the Test Configuration Review (TCR) and Test Readiness Review (TRR), as well as at Analysis Integrated Product Team (IPT) meetings in earlier and intermediate phases of the pre-test planning. The ability to plan and communicate efficiently with rapidly changing objectives and tight schedule constraints is a necessity for safe and successful drop tests.

Englert, Megan E.; Bledsoe, Kristin J.; Romero, Leah M.

2015-01-01

228

GRB Precursors in the Fallback Collapsar Scenario  

E-print Network

Precursor emission has been observed in a non-negligible fraction of gamma-ray bursts.The time gap between the precursor and the main burst extends in some case up to hundreds of seconds, such as in GRB041219A, GRB050820A and GRB060124. Both the origin of the precursor and the large value of the time gap are controversial. Here we investigate the maximum possible time gaps arising from the jet propagation inside the progenitor star, in models which assume that the precursor is produced by the jet bow shock or the cocoon breaking out of the progenitor. Due to the pressure drop ahead of the jet head after it reaches the stellar surface, a rarefaction wave propagates back into the jet at the sound speed, which re-accelerates the jet to a relativistic velocity and therefore limits the gap period to within about ten seconds. This scenario therefore cannot explain gaps which are hundreds of seconds long. Instead, we ascribe such long time gaps to the behavior of the central engine, and suggest a fallback collapsar scenario for these bursts. In this scenario, the precursor is produced by a weak jet formed during the initial core collapse, possibly related to MHD processes associated with a short-lived proto-neutron star, while the main burst is produced by a stronger jet fed by fallback accretion onto the black hole resulting from the collapse of the neutron star. We have examined the propagation times of the weak precursor jet through the stellar progenitor. We find that the initial weak jet can break out of the progenitor in a time less than ten seconds (a typical precursor duration) provided that it has a moderately high relativistic Lorentz factor \\Gamma>=10 (abridged).

Xiang-Yu Wang; Peter Meszaros

2007-08-27

229

Severe Nuclear Accident Program (SNAP) - a real time model for accidental releases  

SciTech Connect

The model: Several Nuclear Accident Program (SNAP) has been developed at the Norwegian Meteorological Institute (DNMI) in Oslo to provide decision makers and Government officials with real-time tool for simulating large accidental releases of radioactivity from nuclear power plants or other sources. SNAP is developed in the Lagrangian framework in which atmospheric transport of radioactive pollutants is simulated by emitting a large number of particles from the source. The main advantage of the Lagrangian approach is a possibility of precise parameterization of advection processes, especially close to the source. SNAP can be used to predict the transport and deposition of a radioactive cloud in e future (up to 48 hours, in the present version) or to analyze the behavior of the cloud in the past. It is also possible to run the model in the mixed mode (partly analysis and partly forecast). In the routine run we assume unit (1 g s{sup -1}) emission in each of three classes. This assumption is very convenient for the main user of the model output in case of emergency: Norwegian Radiation Protection Agency. Due to linearity of the model equations, user can test different emission scenarios as a post processing task by assigning different weights to concentration and deposition fields corresponding to each of three emission classes. SNAP is fully operational and can be run by the meteorologist on duty at any time. The output from SNAP has two forms: First on the maps of Europe, or selected parts of Europe, individual particles are shown during the simulation period. Second, immediately after the simulation, concentration/deposition fields can be shown every three hours of the simulation period as isoline maps for each emission class. In addition, concentration and deposition maps, as well as some meteorological data, are stored on a public accessible disk for further processing by the model users.

Saltbones, J.; Foss, A.; Bartnicki, J. [Norwegian Meteorological Institute (DNMI), Oslo (Norway)

1996-12-31

230

Genetic Scenarios and Toothpickase  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit is a modification of one written by Edward Kloza and Paula Haddow, published by GENESYStems and funded in part by the Foundation for Blood Research. The unit is a series of soap opera type scenarios that present various genetic defects as they are discovered in a make believe family. As each defect is discovered it is discussed and the pertinent information about that defect is given. The characters soon took on a life of their own. They moved to Texas, went to UT, and developed a whole new set of disorders and problems. As I moved into my next unit, the human genome, I found they came along. It seemed that no matter what we were discussing it could be tied into this family in some way. Toothpickase is an activity in which one member of a pair of students, the enzyme toothpickase, is blindfolded and asked to break toothpicks while the other team member records results. Reaction rates, substrate concentration, allosteric inhibition can all be modeled.

BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Betty Ann Wonderly N:Ann Wonderly; Betty ORG:The Hockaday School REV:2005-04-19 END:VCARD

1994-07-30

231

Modeling of Drop Coalescence in Isotropic Turbulent Flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coalescence of drops in fully developed turbulent flow depends on the size of drops and the properties of the flow. By comparing the size of drops with the Kolmogoroff length scale, collision frequencies of drops have been determined. If ?>?0, then the collision frequency of drops in a gaseous medium is given as ?c?(?R\\/a) and for ?

Gudret Kelbaliyev; Ayse Sarimeseli

2006-01-01

232

Proceedings of the Second International Colloquium on Drops and Bubbles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Applications of bubble and drop technologies are discussed and include: low gravity manufacturing, containerless melts, microballoon fabrication, ink printers, laser fusion targets, generation of organic glass and metal shells, and space processing. The fluid dynamics of bubbles and drops were examined. Thermomigration, capillary flow, and interfacial tension are discussed. Techniques for drop control are presented and include drop size control and drop shape control.

Lecroissette, D. H. (editor)

1982-01-01

233

The Parkfield Stress Drop Controversy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nadeau et al. (1995) found that the seismicity on the San Andreas fault at Parkfield is highly clustered. Individual clusters consist of a sequence of near periodically repeating small earthquakes of similar seismic moment. Nadeau and Johnston (1998) compared the moments and timing of these repeating earthquakes (Mw < 2), and some larger events, with the surface creep rate on the fault to estimate the slip and stress drop (? ? ). They obtained conventional values (0.1 to 10 MPa) for the larger earthquakes, but ? ? increased with decreasing Mw to extremely high values (> 1000 MPa) for the small earthquakes (Mw < 2). Such values are just about physically possible, but they are much higher than those estimated by seismic methods for small earthquakes elsewhere (e. g. Abercrombie 1995). These controversial high ? ? estimates have sparked a number of theoretical and laboratory studies (e. g. Sammis & Rice 2000, Anooshepoor & Brune 2001, Beeler 2001) aimed at investigating whether the observations could result from earthquakes with more normal ? ? occurring within the unusual tectonic setting at Parkfield. Lane & Nadeau (2000, 2002) considered whether localized patches of high ? ? would be resolvable by standard seismic methods. However, to date nobody has used seismic methods to determine source parameters for these controversial small earthquakes at Parkfield. We use closely located earthquakes of different sizes (for example, the sub-clusters of cluster CL14, Nadeau et al., 1995, Mw-0.2 to 1), recorded on the HRSN borehole network to analyse the source parameters. The smaller earthquakes are used as empirical Green's functions to resolve source processes of the larger events. Preliminary results from the earthquakes in cluster CL14 result in a source dimension of about 25 m and ? ? of about 1 MPa for the Mw1 earthquakes, assuming that rupture velocity is the same as that for large earthquakes. We also resolve source-time functions for these earthquakes at most stations and so we can investigate the directivity and velocity of the rupture. Finally we compare the source parameter estimates from the seismic modeling, with those from recurrence and creep rate, and assess the validity of the various proposed models.

Abercrombie, R. E.; Nadeau, R. M.

2003-12-01

234

Pattern formation in evaporating drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The redistribution of organic solutes during drop evaporation is a nanoscale self assembly process with relevance to technologies ranging from inkjet printing of organic displays to synthesis of bio-smart interfaces for sensing and screening. Atomic force microscopy studies comparing the behavior of different generation dendrimers with different surface chemistry in two solvent alcohols on mica substrates confirm that the detailed morphologies of condensed dendrimer ring structures resulting from micro-droplet evaporation sensitively depend on the surface chemistry, the solute evaporation rate and the dendrimer generation. For the dilute concentration studied here the presence of periodically 'scalloped' molecular rings is ubiquitous. The instability wavelength of the scalloped rings is found to be proportional to the width of the ring, similar to observations of the rim instability in dewetting holes. The effect of the surface chemistry of the dendrimer molecules is obvious in the detailed structure of the self assembled rings. Varying the chain length of solvent alcohol leads to modification of ring patterns. The influence of dendrimer generation on ring structure primarily reflects the increase in dendrimer density with generation number. The evolution of G2-50%C12 -pentanol rings as a function of dendrimer concentration is also described. High surface mobility and phase transformation phenomena in condensed, micro-scale dendrimer structures are documented, again using atomic force microscopy. Stratified dendrimer rings undergo dramatic temperature, time and dendrimer generation dependent morphological changes associated with large-scale molecular rearrangements and partial melting. These transformations produce ring structures consisting of a highly stable first monolayer of the scalloped structure in equilibrium with spherical cap shaped dendrimer islands that form at the center of each pre-existing scallop (creating a 'pearl necklace' structure). Analysis of the dendrimer island shapes reveals a dependence of island contact angle on contact line curvature (island size) that varies systematically with dendrimer generation. The morphological transformations in this system indicate the potential for creating complex, dendrimer-based multilevel structures and macroscopic scale arrays using, for example, droplet-on-demand or dip pen nanolithography techniques, coupled with appropriate annealing and stabilizing treatments.

Li, Fang-I.

235

Nanofluid Drop Evaporation: Experiment, Theory, and Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanofluids, stable colloidal suspensions of nanoparticles in a base fluid, have potential applications in the heat transfer, combustion and propulsion, manufacturing, and medical fields. Experiments were conducted to determine the evaporation rate of room temperature, millimeter-sized pendant drops of ethanol laden with varying amounts (0-3% by weight) of 40-60 nm aluminum nanoparticles (nAl). Time-resolved high-resolution drop images were collected for the determination of early-time evaporation rate (D2/D 02 > 0.75), shown to exhibit D-square law behavior, and surface tension. Results show an asymptotic decrease in pendant drop evaporation rate with increasing nAl loading. The evaporation rate decreases by approximately 15% at around 1% to 3% nAl loading relative to the evaporation rate of pure ethanol. Surface tension was observed to be unaffected by nAl loading up to 3% by weight. A model was developed to describe the evaporation of the nanofluid pendant drops based on D-square law analysis for the gas domain and a description of the reduction in liquid fraction available for evaporation due to nanoparticle agglomerate packing near the evaporating drop surface. Model predictions are in relatively good agreement with experiment, within a few percent of measured nanofluid pendant drop evaporation rate. The evaporation of pinned nanofluid sessile drops was also considered via modeling. It was found that the same mechanism for nanofluid evaporation rate reduction used to explain pendant drops could be used for sessile drops. That mechanism is a reduction in evaporation rate due to a reduction in available ethanol for evaporation at the drop surface caused by the packing of nanoparticle agglomerates near the drop surface. Comparisons of the present modeling predictions with sessile drop evaporation rate measurements reported for nAl/ethanol nanofluids by Sefiane and Bennacer [11] are in fairly good agreement. Portions of this abstract previously appeared as: W. J. Gerken, A. V. Thomas, N. Koratkar and M. A. Oehlschlaeger, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, vol. 74, no. 1, pp. 263-268, July 2014. W. J. Gerken, M. A. Oehlschlaeger, "Nanofluid Pendant Droplet Evaporation", in Proceedings of the ASME 2013 Summer Heat Transfer Conference, Minneapolis, MN, 2013, pp. V001T03A018.

Gerken, William James

236

High temperature drop calorimetry and thermodynamic properties  

SciTech Connect

Experimental determination of thermodynamic properties (e.g. enthalpy of formation, heat capacity, Gibbs free energy, etc.) is still the recourse for accurate thermodynamic data for the condensed phases. Calorimetry is probably the best experimental method for their determination. Drop calorimetry in its various modifications is still the method of choice to determine the enthalpy functions for solids and liquids above 1,000 C. The conventional drop calorimeter for solids and a drop calorimeter coupled to an electromagnetic levitation coil useful for conductive samples in both the solid and molten phases are described. Experimental results obtained up to and above the melting point of rare earth metals are presented.

Chandrasekhariah, M.S. [Houston Advanced Research Center, The Woodlands, TX (United States). Materials Science Research Center; Bautista, R.G. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering

1995-04-01

237

Condensation-induced jumping water drops.  

PubMed

Water droplets can jump during vapor condensation on solid benzene near its melting point. This phenomenon, which can be viewed as a kind of micro scale steam engine, is studied experimentally and numerically. The latent heat of condensation transferred at the drop three phase contact line melts the substrate during a time proportional to R (the drop radius). The wetting conditions change and a spontaneous jump of the drop results in random direction over length approximately 1.5R , a phenomenon that increases the coalescence events and accelerates the growth. Once properly rescaled by the jump length scale, the growth dynamics is, however, similar to that on a solid surface. PMID:19905120

Narhe, R D; Khandkar, M D; Shelke, P B; Limaye, A V; Beysens, D A

2009-09-01

238

Condensation-induced jumping water drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water droplets can jump during vapor condensation on solid benzene near its melting point. This phenomenon, which can be viewed as a kind of micro scale steam engine, is studied experimentally and numerically. The latent heat of condensation transferred at the drop three phase contact line melts the substrate during a time proportional to R (the drop radius). The wetting conditions change and a spontaneous jump of the drop results in random direction over length ˜1.5R , a phenomenon that increases the coalescence events and accelerates the growth. Once properly rescaled by the jump length scale, the growth dynamics is, however, similar to that on a solid surface.

Narhe, R. D.; Khandkar, M. D.; Shelke, P. B.; Limaye, A. V.; Beysens, D. A.

2009-09-01

239

Rotation of ultrasonically levitated glycerol drops  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ultrasonic levitation is used to suspend single millimeter-size glycerol drops in a rectangular chamber. Audio-frequency laterally standing waves set up in the chamber are used to torque the suspended drops. The shape evolution of the drop under the combined effect of centrifugal forces and the acoustic radiation stress, along with its angular velocity are monitored, using video imaging and light scattering techniques. The results show good qualitative agreement with the theoretically predicted shape evolution as a function of angular velocity.

Biswas, A.; Leung, E. W.; Trinh, E. H.

1991-01-01

240

Assessment of accidental intakes of uranyl acetylacetonate (UAA)  

SciTech Connect

Uranyl acetylacetonate (UAA) is an organic complex of uranium used for military applications as a chemical catalyst in high explosives. It is prepared from depleted uranium metal (in lots of 5 kg to 7 kg) by dissolution in nitric acid, neutralization, and complexation with 2,4-pentanedione; the precipitate is dissolved in benzene and recrystallized, dried, ground, and packaged. About six workers at a small chemical company were exposed over a period of time to UAA powders during routine preparation and packaging of the uranium catalyst. The dissolution characteristics of the inhaled material were unknown and could not be determined from the published scientific literature. A 1.05-g sample of UAA powder was obtained from the responsible regulatory authority for further study to determine its chemical composition, and for dissolution in simulated lung fluid. We found the solubility of UAA to be equivalent to a mixture of 52% ICRP class D and 48% ICRP class W material. The annual limit on intake and the derived air concentration for radiological protection were estimated from this result for airborne exposure to UAA. A recycling biokinetic model was used to estimate both material-specific variations in urinary excretion rates and lung retention with time after accidental intakes. This study provides new information for evaluating future exposures to UAA.

Fisher, D.R.; Briant, J.K.

1993-12-01

241

Non-Accidental Health Impacts of Wildfire Smoke  

PubMed Central

Wildfires take a heavy toll on human health worldwide. Climate change may increase the risk of wildfire frequency. Therefore, in view of adapted preventive actions, there is an urgent need to further understand the health effects and public awareness of wildfires. We conducted a systematic review of non-accidental health impacts of wildfire and incorporated lessons learned from recent experiences. Based on the literature, various studies have established the relationship between one of the major components of wildfire, particulate matter (particles with diameter less than 10 µm (PM10) and less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5)) and cardiorespiratory symptoms in terms of Emergency Rooms visits and hospital admissions. Associations between wildfire emissions and various subclinical effects have also been established. However, few relationships between wildfire emissions and mortality have been observed. Certain segments of the population may be particularly vulnerable to smoke-related health risks. Among them, people with pre-existing cardiopulmonary conditions, the elderly, smokers and, for professional reasons, firefighters. Potential action mechanisms have been highlighted. Overall, more research is needed to better understand health impact of wildfire exposure. PMID:25405597

Youssouf, Hassani; Liousse, Catherine; Roblou, Laurent; Assamoi, Eric-Michel; Salonen, Raimo O.; Maesano, Cara; Banerjee, Soutrik; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

2014-01-01

242

Non-accidental health impacts of wildfire smoke.  

PubMed

Wildfires take a heavy toll on human health worldwide. Climate change may increase the risk of wildfire frequency. Therefore, in view of adapted preventive actions, there is an urgent need to further understand the health effects and public awareness of wildfires. We conducted a systematic review of non-accidental health impacts of wildfire and incorporated lessons learned from recent experiences. Based on the literature, various studies have established the relationship between one of the major components of wildfire, particulate matter (particles with diameter less than 10 µm (PM10) and less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5)) and cardiorespiratory symptoms in terms of Emergency Rooms visits and hospital admissions. Associations between wildfire emissions and various subclinical effects have also been established. However, few relationships between wildfire emissions and mortality have been observed. Certain segments of the population may be particularly vulnerable to smoke-related health risks. Among them, people with pre-existing cardiopulmonary conditions, the elderly, smokers and, for professional reasons, firefighters. Potential action mechanisms have been highlighted. Overall, more research is needed to better understand health impact of wildfire exposure. PMID:25405597

Youssouf, Hassani; Liousse, Catherine; Roblou, Laurent; Assamoi, Eric-Michel; Salonen, Raimo O; Maesano, Cara; Banerjee, Soutrik; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

2014-11-01

243

Postobstructive pulmonary edema following accidental near-hanging  

PubMed Central

Patient: Female, 14 Final Diagnosis: Postobstructive pulmonary edenma Symptoms: Chest indrawing • bilateral pulmonary crepitations • tachypnea Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Controlled ventilatory support • positive end expiratory pressure Specialty: Intensive care Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Postobstructive pulmonary edema (POPE) is a life-threatening complication that occurs after the relief of an upper airway obstruction. POPE occurs rarely in children, primarily after non-lethal hanging. Case Report: We report the case of a 14-year-old girl who developed POPE after accidental near hanging. She had chest in-drawing, the SpO2 was 81% on room air, and pulmonary auscultation revealed bilateral crepitations. The chest x-ray showed bilateral diffuse infiltrates consistent with pulmonary edema. The intensive care management consisted of controlled ventilatory support with high-level positive end expiratory pressure. On the third day of hospitalization, the patient was weaned from the ventilator and extubated with a full recovery. Conclusions: This case confirms the importance of early recognition of POPE and the value of adapted treatment, which can lead to a favorable outcome and full recovery in cases of near hanging. PMID:24023977

Berdai, Adnane Mohamed; Labib, Smael; Harandou, Mustapha

2013-01-01

244

Accidental intoxication with hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid mixture.  

PubMed

The paper describes a fatal case of accidental ingestion of a mixture of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid. The man was admitted to hospital, where appropriate treatment, adequate to his condition, was instituted. Numerous ventricular fibrillation episodes, for which the patient was defibrillated repeatedly, were observed during the period of hospitalization. The patient was in a critical condition, with progressive symptoms of hypovolemic shock and multiorgan failure. On the next day after admission, signs of electromechanical dissociation progressing to asystole were noted. The instituted resuscitation procedure proved ineffective and the patient died. Autopsy revealed brownish discoloration of the esophageal, gastric, and small intestinal mucous membranes. Numerous ulcerations without signs of perforation were found both in the esophagus and in the stomach. The mucous membrane of the small intestine demonstrated focal rubefactions, whereas no focal lesions of the large intestinal mucosa were seen. Microscopic investigation of the biopsy specimens collected from the stomach, duodenum and small intestine revealed mucous membrane necrosis foci, reaching the deeper layers of the wall of these organs. The mucous membrane of the large intestine was congested. Bioptates obtained from the lungs indicated the presence of hemorrhagic infarcts and focal extravasations. Poisoning with the aforementioned acids with consequent necrosis of the esophageal, gastric, duodenal and small intestinal walls with hemorrhages to the gastrointestinal tract, as well as extravasations and hemorrhagic infarcts in the lungs was considered to be the cause of death. PMID:25184427

Sm?dra-Ka?mirska, A; K?dzierski, M; Barzdo, M; Jurczyk, Ap; Szram, S; Berent, J

2014-01-01

245

Accidental radiation exposure leading to non-healing ulcers.  

PubMed

Two patients with accidental radiation injury presented at the Sir Ganga Ram Hospital. The first patient, a 41-year-old male, presented with a large necrotic patch on his right gluteal region, which was debrided. Due to the progressive nature of the injury, he developed further necrosis and a non-healing ulcer over the right gluteal region, which was further debrided and covered with a tensor fascia lata flap. Further necrosis over the ischial region was debrided and covered with a pedicled gracilis muscle flap, following which he again required debridement and flap cover for the residual area, which then finally healed. The second patient had a history of radiation exposure followed by a non-healing ulcer on right arm. He was managed by debridement and flap coverage in a single sitting. These two cases suggest that wide excision, thorough debridement and coverage with vascularised tissue are effective in treating radiation ulcers and emphasise that all radiation sources and their management should be strictly controlled. PMID:23103484

Gambhir, S; Mangal, M; Gupta, A; Shah, A

2012-10-01

246

Inverse Modeling of Accidental Releases of Atmospheric Pollutants: New Developments.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An account is given on new data assimilation techniques that have recently been used to identify the source of an accidental release of pollutant into the atmosphere, and forecast (possibly in real time) the subsequent dispersion plume. It could be a chemical cloud from an industrial site or a release of radionuclides from a nuclear power plant (from minor accident to core meltdown). These methods are not necessarily based on Gaussian hypotheses, for instance the source may be given as positive or bounded. In particular, the usual least squares cost function (4D-Var) is replaced with purposely devised functionals that are not necessarily quadratic. These methods have been applied successfully to the reconstruction of the Chernobyl accident, the Algeciras incident or the ETEX experiment, and outperform previous approaches. As far as state assimilation is concerned, the techniques have been applied a posteriori to the reconstruction of the ETEX plume, after all observations are acquired. The method has also been applied to the reconstruction of the dispersion plume, in the context of an emergency situation: the data have been assimilated sequentially as they arrived and a forecast is performed after each analysis. This provides with a picture of what could be achieved (forecast, risk assessment) in case of a real emergency with a Chemistry Transport Model and advanced data assimilation techniques. A second-order sensitivity study that applies to the possibly non- quadratic cost functions has also been carried out in the context of these reconstructions.

Bocquet, M.

2007-12-01

247

Accidental Intra-Arterial Injection of Diclofenac –Case Report  

PubMed Central

Diclofenac sodium is a very common drug used in medical practice for analgesia and is freely available over the counter without any medical prescription. The drug is also the most commonly used or misused by quacks working all over India. Many case reports have been published on upper limb catastrophe of unintentional intra-arterial injection of barbiturates, thiopental sodium, narcotics, and tranquilizers but only two cases of inadvertent intra-arterial injection of diclofenac have been reported till date. Potential serious complication of inadvertent intra-arterial injection of diclofenac sodium leading to gangrene has been recently reported in medical literature. It is a medical emergency and literature has shown that timely diagnosis with early intervention can salvage the limb. We hereby report a case of accidental intra-arterial injection of diclofenac sodium in the ulnar artery by a quack for pain abdomen leading to gangrene of the distal part of affected little, ring and part of middle finger of right hand. PMID:25738031

Singh, Jasdeep; Sharma, Pratibha; Khera, Aadhar; Singh, Puneet

2015-01-01

248

Accidental intra-arterial injection of diclofenac -case report.  

PubMed

Diclofenac sodium is a very common drug used in medical practice for analgesia and is freely available over the counter without any medical prescription. The drug is also the most commonly used or misused by quacks working all over India. Many case reports have been published on upper limb catastrophe of unintentional intra-arterial injection of barbiturates, thiopental sodium, narcotics, and tranquilizers but only two cases of inadvertent intra-arterial injection of diclofenac have been reported till date. Potential serious complication of inadvertent intra-arterial injection of diclofenac sodium leading to gangrene has been recently reported in medical literature. It is a medical emergency and literature has shown that timely diagnosis with early intervention can salvage the limb. We hereby report a case of accidental intra-arterial injection of diclofenac sodium in the ulnar artery by a quack for pain abdomen leading to gangrene of the distal part of affected little, ring and part of middle finger of right hand. PMID:25738031

Kumar, Mohinder; Singh, Jasdeep; Sharma, Pratibha; Khera, Aadhar; Singh, Puneet

2015-01-01

249

Total Gaussian curvature, drop shapes and the range of applicability of drop shape techniques.  

PubMed

Drop shape techniques are used extensively for surface tension measurement. It is well-documented that, as the drop/bubble shape becomes close to spherical, the performance of all drop shape techniques deteriorates. There have been efforts quantifying the range of applicability of drop techniques by studying the deviation of Laplacian drops from the spherical shape. A shape parameter was introduced in the literature and was modified several times to accommodate different drop constellations. However, new problems arise every time a new configuration is considered. Therefore, there is a need for a universal shape parameter applicable to pendant drops, sessile drops, liquid bridges as well as captive bubbles. In this work, the use of the total Gaussian curvature in a unified approach for the shape parameter is introduced for that purpose. The total Gaussian curvature is a dimensionless quantity that is commonly used in differential geometry and surface thermodynamics, and can be easily calculated for different Laplacian drop shapes. The new definition of the shape parameter using the total Gaussian curvature is applied here to both pendant and constrained sessile drops as an illustration. The analysis showed that the new definition is superior and reflects experimental results better than previous definitions, especially at extreme values of the Bond number. PMID:24373931

Saad, Sameh M I; Neumann, A Wilhelm

2014-02-01

250

The changing nutrition scenario.  

PubMed

The past seven decades have seen remarkable shifts in the nutritional scenario in India. Even up to the 1950s severe forms of malnutrition such as kwashiorkar and pellagra were endemic. As nutritionists were finding home-grown and common-sense solutions for these widespread problems, the population was burgeoning and food was scarce. The threat of widespread household food insecurity and chronic undernutrition was very real. Then came the Green Revolution. Shortages of food grains disappeared within less than a decade and India became self-sufficient in food grain production. But more insidious problems arising from this revolution were looming, and cropping patterns giving low priority to coarse grains and pulses, and monocropping led to depletion of soil nutrients and 'Green Revolution fatigue'. With improved household food security and better access to health care, clinical manifestations of severe malnutrition virtually disappeared. But the decline in chronic undernutrition and "hidden hunger" from micronutrient deficiencies was slow. On the cusp of the new century, an added factor appeared on the nutritional scene in India. With steady urban migration, upward mobility out of poverty, and an increasingly sedentary lifestyle because of improvements in technology and transport, obesity rates began to increase, resulting in a dual burden. Measured in terms of its performance in meeting its Millennium Development Goals, India has fallen short. Despite its continuing high levels of poverty and illiteracy, India has a huge demographic potential in the form of a young population. This advantage must be leveraged by investing in nutrition education, household access to nutritious diets, sanitary environment and a health-promoting lifestyle. This requires co-operation from all the stakeholders, including governments, non government organizations, scientists and the people at large. PMID:24135189

Gopalan, C

2013-09-01

251

Factors controlling the drop evaporation constant.  

PubMed

In this paper, we discuss the factors affecting drop evaporation. We found that the droplet morphology at a specific temperature was controlled by the physical properties of the liquid itself, such as the molecular weight, density, diffusion coefficient in air, and heat of vaporization. Two processes are included in drop evaporation: diffusion of liquid molecules into the air (diffusion part) and flow of the liquid molecules from inside the drop to the free outer shell liquid layer within the liquid-vapor interface (evaporation part). The diffusion part remained steady during drying and was not sensitive to the variation of temperature. The evaporation part, however, was an active factor and determined the differences in drop evaporation behaviors. PMID:16853660

Fang, Xiaohua; Li, Bingquan; Petersen, Eric; Ji, Yuan; Sokolov, Jonathan C; Rafailovich, Miriam H

2005-11-01

252

Aligner for Elastic Collisions of Dropped Balls.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses an aligner that permits dropping a stack of any number of balls of different sizes, elasticities, hardnesses, or types to observe the rebound of the top ball. Experimental results allow a reasonable comparison with theory. (MVL)

Mellen, Walter Roy

1995-01-01

253

Drop/Add Card SIS Call Number  

E-print Network

Drop/Add Card SIS Call Number (5 digits) Course Prefix (2-4 letters) Course Number (4 digits):_________________________________________________________________________ SIS Call Number (5 digits) Course Prefix (2-4 letters) Course Number (4 digits) Section Number (3

Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

254

Partial Coalescence of Oppositely Charged Drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oppositely charged drops fail to coalesce above a critical field strength, despite the attractive force between the opposite charges [1]. Here we investigate the coalescence behavior at intermediate field strengths for charged water drops in oil, and we report that under many conditions the droplets undergo partial coalescence, i.e., a smaller daughter droplet is expelled. This partial coalescence is highly sensitive to the ionic strength of the droplets. For a given field strength, there exists a critical ionic strength above which the drops completely fail to coalesce and below which they partially coalesce. We explore the roles of charge density, drop size, inertia and viscous drag on the partial coalescence behavior and we interpret the results in terms of a competition between the respective time scales for hydrodynamic motion and ionic conduction. [1] Ristenpart, Bird, Belmonte, Dollar & Stone, Nature, in press (2009).

Creasey, J. C.; Hamlin, B. S.; Ristenpart, W. D.

2009-11-01

255

Monarch Caterpillar or Larva and Droppings  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

An approximately 2 inch long monarch butterfly caterpillar or larva grazes on the leaves of a butterfly weed in a northern Virginia garden. The dark lumps on the leaves around the caterpillar are its droppings or feces....

256

49 CFR 178.810 - Drop test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...be filled with a solid material to not less than 95 percent...with a non-hazardous material having essentially the same physical characteristics. (3) The specific...substituted non-hazardous material used in the drop test...

2010-10-01

257

49 CFR 178.965 - Drop test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...with a non-hazardous material having essentially the same physical characteristics. (3) The specific...substituted non-hazardous material used in the drop test...

2011-10-01

258

49 CFR 178.810 - Drop test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...be filled with a solid material to not less than 95 percent...with a non-hazardous material having essentially the same physical characteristics. (3) The specific...substituted non-hazardous material used in the drop test...

2011-10-01

259

49 CFR 178.603 - Drop test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...composite packagings (plastic material), and combination packagings...with a non-hazardous material having essentially the same physical characteristic, the drop height must...water: (i) Where the materials to be carried have a...

2011-10-01

260

49 CFR 178.965 - Drop test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS...with a non-hazardous material having essentially the same physical characteristics. (3) The specific...substituted non-hazardous material used in the drop test...

2010-10-01

261

PS foams at high pressure drop rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we report data on PS foamed at 100 °C after CO2 saturation at 10 MPa in a new physical foaming batch that achieves pressure drop rates up to 120 MPa/s. Results show how average cell size of the foam nicely fit a linear behavior with the pressure drop rate in a double logarithmic plot. Furthermore, foam density initially decreases with the pressure drop rate, attaining a constant value at pressure drop rates higher than 40 MPa/s. Interestingly, furthermore, we observed that the shape of the pressure release curve has a large effect on the final foam morphology, as observed in tests in which the maximum pressure release rate was kept constant but the shape of the curve changed. These results allow for a fine tuning of the foam density and morphology for specific applications.

Tammaro, Daniele; De Maio, Attilio; Carbone, Maria Giovanna Pastore; Di Maio, Ernesto; Iannace, Salvatore

2014-05-01

262

Short time dynamics of viscous drop spreading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid drops start spreading directly after coming into contact with a solid substrate. Although this phenomenon involves a three-phase contact line, the spreading motion can be very fast. We experimentally study the initial spreading dynamics, characterized by the radius of the wetted area, for viscous drops. Using high-speed imaging with synchronized bottom and side views gives access to 6 decades of time resolution. We show that short time spreading does not exhibit a pure power-law growth. Instead, we find a spreading velocity that decreases logarithmically in time, with a dynamics identical to that of coalescing viscous drops. Remarkably, the contact line dissipation and wetting effects turn out to be unimportant during the initial stages of drop spreading.

Eddi, A.; Winkels, K. G.; Snoeijer, J. H.

2013-01-01

263

49 CFR 178.603 - Drop test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...packaging must be used. The number of drops required and...orientation of samples Steel drums, Aluminum drums...constructed of stainless steel, nickel, or monel...test. Exceptions for the number of steel and aluminum...

2010-10-01

264

49 CFR 178.965 - Drop test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...or with a non-hazardous material having essentially the same physical characteristics. (3) The specific gravity and viscosity of a substituted non-hazardous material used in the drop test for liquids must be similar to the hazardous material...

2014-10-01

265

Shapes of Bubbles and Drops in Motion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the shape distortions that take place in fluid packets (bubbles or drops) with steady flow motion by using the laws of Archimedes, Pascal, and Bernoulli rather than advanced vector calculus. (WRM)

O'Connell, James

2000-01-01

266

Hypothetical air ingress scenarios in advanced modular high temperature gas cooled reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering an extremely hypothetical scenario of complete cross duct failure and unlimited air supply into the reactor vessel of a modular high temperature gas cooled ractor, it is found that the potential air inflow remains limited due to the high friction pressure drop through the active core. All incoming air will be oxidized to CO and some local external burning

Kroeger

1988-01-01

267

Electrokinetic Effects with Small Drops and Bubbles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrokinetic effects with drops and bubbles are studied. We first examine the electrophoresis of drops and bubbles, computing the electrophoretic mobility as a function of the zeta-potential and several other parameters. We find drops and bubbles to be electrophoretically distinct from particles; e.g., conducting drops do not always migrate in the direction that would be anticipated from the sign of their surface charge. The analysis shows the sense of the migration is dictated by the net electrochemical stress acting along the interface and the zeta-potential alone is not sufficient to characterize the surface. For similar reasons, large inviscid spheres tend to remain stationary at modest zeta-potentials and, in contrast to rigid particles, their mobility is actually enhanced by polarization of the double layer. Further, we have uncovered conditions for which the mobility of nonconducting drops is insensitive to the interior viscosity. Next we examine the influence of partial dissociation of ionogenic solutes on electrophoresis, with a view toward understanding, how, and under what conditions, dissociation -association alters the electrokinetics. We find generally that mass-action resists polarization of the diffuse ion cloud and, so, is quantitatively important where double layer polarization and relaxation would otherwise prevail. Mass -action can reduce the mobility of a conducting drop by an order of magnitude, and sizeable decreases (50% and more) in drop mobility are even found at zeta -potentials below 50 mV. Rigid particles are affected less dramatically and quantitative effects rarely exceed 10%; particles are indifferent to partial ionization unless the zeta-potential is high (above ca. 100mV) and akappa > 1. Finally the influence of diffuse charge layers on electrically-induced drop deformations is investigated by revisiting the archetypal problem in electrohydrodynamics: the circulation produced in a drop by an electric field. Singular perturbation methods are employed to constuct a coherent physicochemical description of the regions proximal to the drop surface, including the space charge distribution. The electrokinetic model employed yields predictions of drop deformation consistent with the lumped parameter theory known as the 'leaky dielectric.' Previously it had been thought the leaky dielectric failed to account for the effects of diffuse charge layers on electrohydrodynamic flows.

Baygents, James Claude

268

Program calculates two-phase pressure drop  

SciTech Connect

Analysts have developed a program for determining the two-phase pressure drop in piping. Written for the TI-59 programmable calculator used with a PC-100C printer, the program incorporates several unique features: it calculates single-phase as well as two-phase pressure drops, has a 10-20 s execution time, permits the operating data to be changed easily, and includes an option for calculating the estimated surface tension of paraffinic hydrocarbon liquids.

Blackwell, W.W.

1980-11-24

269

Electrostatic Dispersion Of Drops In Clusters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrical charging speeds evaporation. Report presents theoretical study of evaporation and dispersion of electrostatically charged clusters of drops in liquid fuel sprays. Represents extension of studies described in article, "More About Evaporation of Drops in Clusters" (NPO-17594). Undertaken in effort to learn how electrostatic atomization used to disperse fuel better in order to reduce formation of soot in diesel engines and other power and combustion systems.

Bellan, Josette; Harstad, Kenneth G.

1990-01-01

270

14 CFR 29.727 - Reserve energy absorption drop test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Reserve energy absorption drop test. 29.727 Section 29.727...Landing Gear § 29.727 Reserve energy absorption drop test. The reserve energy absorption drop test must be conducted as...

2013-01-01

271

14 CFR 27.727 - Reserve energy absorption drop test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Reserve energy absorption drop test. 27.727 Section 27.727...Landing Gear § 27.727 Reserve energy absorption drop test. The reserve energy absorption drop test must be conducted as...

2010-01-01

272

14 CFR 27.727 - Reserve energy absorption drop test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Reserve energy absorption drop test. 27.727 Section 27.727...Landing Gear § 27.727 Reserve energy absorption drop test. The reserve energy absorption drop test must be conducted as...

2012-01-01

273

14 CFR 29.727 - Reserve energy absorption drop test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Reserve energy absorption drop test. 29.727 Section 29.727...Landing Gear § 29.727 Reserve energy absorption drop test. The reserve energy absorption drop test must be conducted as...

2012-01-01

274

14 CFR 29.727 - Reserve energy absorption drop test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-01-01 false Reserve energy absorption drop test. 29.727 Section 29.727...Landing Gear § 29.727 Reserve energy absorption drop test. The reserve energy absorption drop test must be conducted as...

2014-01-01

275

14 CFR 27.727 - Reserve energy absorption drop test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-01-01 false Reserve energy absorption drop test. 27.727 Section 27.727...Landing Gear § 27.727 Reserve energy absorption drop test. The reserve energy absorption drop test must be conducted as...

2014-01-01

276

14 CFR 27.727 - Reserve energy absorption drop test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Reserve energy absorption drop test. 27.727 Section 27.727...Landing Gear § 27.727 Reserve energy absorption drop test. The reserve energy absorption drop test must be conducted as...

2013-01-01

277

14 CFR 29.727 - Reserve energy absorption drop test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Reserve energy absorption drop test. 29.727 Section 29.727...Landing Gear § 29.727 Reserve energy absorption drop test. The reserve energy absorption drop test must be conducted as...

2011-01-01

278

14 CFR 27.727 - Reserve energy absorption drop test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Reserve energy absorption drop test. 27.727 Section 27.727...Landing Gear § 27.727 Reserve energy absorption drop test. The reserve energy absorption drop test must be conducted as...

2011-01-01

279

14 CFR 29.727 - Reserve energy absorption drop test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Reserve energy absorption drop test. 29.727 Section 29.727...Landing Gear § 29.727 Reserve energy absorption drop test. The reserve energy absorption drop test must be conducted as...

2010-01-01

280

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 8. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF HYDROGEN FLUORIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report is a chemical specific manual for hydrogen fluoride (HF). It summarizes information to aid regulators and industry personnel in identifying and controlling release hazards associated with HF. Reducing the risk associated with accidental release of HF involves identifyi...

281

10 CFR 72.74 - Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material. 72.74 Section 72.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ...REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE...

2014-01-01

282

10 CFR 72.74 - Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material. 72.74 Section 72.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ...REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE...

2010-01-01

283

10 CFR 72.74 - Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material. 72.74 Section 72.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ...REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE...

2012-01-01

284

10 CFR 72.74 - Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material. 72.74 Section 72.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ...REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE...

2011-01-01

285

10 CFR 72.74 - Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material. 72.74 Section 72.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ...REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE...

2013-01-01

286

Drops can bounce from perfectly hydrophilic surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drops are well known to rebound from superhydrophobic surfaces and from liquid surfaces. Here, we show that drops can also rebound from a superhydrophilic solid surface such as an atomically smooth mica sheet. However, the coefficient of restitution CR associated with this process is significantly lower than that associated with rebound from superhydrophobic surfaces. A direct imaging method allows us to characterize the dynamics of the deformation of the drop in entering the vicinity of the surface. We find that drop bouncing occurs without the drop ever touching the solid and there is a nanometer-scale film of air that separates the liquid and solid, suggesting that shear in the air film is the dominant source of dissipation during rebound. Furthermore, we see that any discrete nanometer-height defects on an otherwise hydrophilic surface, such as treated glass, completely inhibits the bouncing of the drop, causing the liquid to wet the surface. Our study adds a new facet to the dynamics of droplet impact by emphasizing that the thin film of air can play a role not just in the context of splashing but also bouncing, while highlighting the role of rare surface defects in inhibiting this response.

Kolinski, J. M.; Mahadevan, L.; Rubinstein, S. M.

2014-10-01

287

Electrochemistry in an acoustically levitated drop.  

PubMed

Levitated drops show potential as microreactors, especially when radicals are present as reactants or products. Solid/liquid interfaces are absent or minimized, avoiding adsorption and interfacial reaction of conventional microfluidics. We report amperometric detection in an acoustically levitated drop with simultaneous ballistic addition of reactant. A gold microelectrode sensor was fabricated with a lithographic process; active electrode area was defined by a photosensitive polyimide mask. The microdisk gold working electrode of radius 19 ?m was characterized using ferrocenemethanol in aqueous buffer. Using cyclic voltammetry, the electrochemically active surface area was estimated by combining a recessed microdisk electrode model with the Randles-Sevcik equation. Computer-controlled ballistic introduction of reactant droplets into the levitated drop was developed. Chronoamperometric measurements of ferrocyanide added ballistically demonstrate electrochemical monitoring using the microfabricated electrode in a levitated drop. Although concentration increases with time due to drop evaporation, the extent of concentration is predictable with a linear evaporation model. Comparison of diffusion-limited currents in pendant and levitated drops show that convection arising from acoustic levitation causes an enhancement of diffusion-limited current on the order of 16%. PMID:23351154

Chainani, Edward T; Ngo, Khanh T; Scheeline, Alexander

2013-02-19

288

Biofuel and Bioenergy implementation scenarios  

E-print Network

Biofuel and Bioenergy implementation scenarios Final report of VIEWLS WP5, modelling studies #12;Biofuel and Bioenergy implementation scenarios Final report of VIEWLS WP5, modelling studies By André of this project are to provide structured and clear data on the availability and performance of biofuels

289

Student Rights and Responsibilities Scenarios.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To stimulate interest in student's rights and responsibilities, this resource contains incomplete scenarios dealing with the consequences of knowing and not knowing the law, as it is applied to modern practical situations. The scenarios can be used in high school courses such as government, social problems, history, psychology, and business law.…

Peterson, Ludwig A.; And Others

290

Formal Approach to Scenario Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scenarios offer promise as a way to tame requirements analysis, but progress has been impeded by the lack of a systematic way to analyze, generate, and validate them. The authors propose such a method and apply it to a simple PBX system. Their method has a formal mathematical base, generates precise scenarios, accommodates change, and keeps users involved in the

Pei Hsia; Jayarajan Samuel; Jerry Gao; David Chenho Kung; Yasufumi Toyoshima; Cris Chen

1994-01-01

291

Futures Scenario in Science Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we describe our experiences in developing futures scenarios in two science contexts, space science and atmospheric science/climate change. Futures scenario writing can develop scientific literacy by connecting science learning to students' lifeworlds--past, present and future. They also provide a synthesising mechanism for…

Lloyd, David; Vanderhout, Annastasia; Lloyd, Lisa; Atkins, David

2010-01-01

292

Alternative scenarios utilizing nonterrestrial resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

A collection of alternative scenarios that are enabled or substantially enhanced by the utilization of nonterrestrial resources is provided. We take a generalized approach to scenario building so that our report will have value in the context of whatever goals are eventually chosen. Some of the topics covered include the following: lunar materials processing; asteroid mining; lunar resources; construction of

Charles H. Eldred; Barney B. Roberts

1992-01-01

293

Lifetime of oil drops pressed by buoyancy against a planar interface: Large drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a previous report [C. Rojas, G. Urbina-Villalba, and M. García-Sucre, Phys. Rev. E 81, 016302 (2010)10.1103/PhysRevE.81.016302] it was shown that emulsion stability simulations are able to reproduce the lifetime of micrometer-size drops of hexadecane pressed by buoyancy against a planar water-hexadecane interface. It was confirmed that small drops (ri<10?m) stabilized with ? -casein behave as nondeformable particles, moving with a combination of Stokes and Taylor tensors as they approach the interface. Here, a similar methodology is used to parametrize the potential of interaction of drops of soybean oil stabilized with bovine serum albumin. The potential obtained is then employed to study the lifetime of deformable drops in the range 10?ri?1000?m . It is established that the average lifetime of these drops can be adequately replicated using the model of truncated spheres. However, the results depend sensibly on the expressions of the initial distance of deformation and the maximum film radius used in the calculations. The set of equations adequate for large drops is not satisfactory for medium-size drops (10?ri?100?m) , and vice versa. In the case of large particles, the increase in the interfacial area as a consequence of the deformation of the drops generates a very large repulsive barrier which opposes coalescence. Nevertheless, the buoyancy force prevails. As a consequence, it is the hydrodynamic tensor of the drops which determine the characteristic behavior of the lifetime as a function of the particle size. While the average values of the coalescence time of the drops can be justified by the mechanism of film thinning, the scattering of the experimental data of large drops cannot be rationalized using the methodology previously described. A possible explanation of this phenomenon required elaborate simulations which combine deformable drops, capillary waves, repulsive interaction forces, and a time-dependent surfactant adsorption.

Rojas, Clara; García-Sucre, Máximo; Urbina-Villalba, Germán

2010-11-01

294

Self-Diffusion of Drops in a Dilute Sheared Emulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Self-diffusion coefficients that describe cross-flow migration of non-Brownian drops in a dilute sheared emulsion were obtained by trajectory calculations. A boundary integral formulation was used to describe pairwise interactions between deformable drops; interactions between undeformed drops were described with mobility functions for spherical drops. The results indicate that drops have large anisotropic self-diffusivities which depend strongly on the drop viscosity and modestly on the shear-rate. Pairwise interactions between drops in shear-flow do not appreciably promote drop breakup.

Loewenberg, Michael; Hinch, E. J.

1996-01-01

295

Shape oscillation of a levitated drop in an acoustic field  

E-print Network

A `star drop' refers to the patterns created when a drop, flattened by some force, is excited into shape mode oscillations. These patterns are perhaps best understood as the two dimensional analog to the more common three dimensional shape mode oscillations. In this fluid dynamics video an ultrasonic standing wave was used to levitate a liquid drop. The drop was then flattened into a disk by increasing the field strength. This flattened drop was then excited to create star drop patterns by exciting the drop at its resonance frequency. Different oscillatory modes were induced by varying the drop radius, fluid properties, and frequency at which the field strength was modulated.

Ran, Weiyu

2013-01-01

296

Persistent Seroconversion after Accidental Eye Exposure to Calcifying Nanoparticles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biosafety of nanomaterials has attracted much attention recently. We report here a case where accidental human eye exposure to biogenic nanosized calcium phosphate in the form of calcifying nanoparticles (CNP) raised a strong IgG immune response against proteins carried by CNP. The antibody titer has persisted over ten years at the high level. The IgG was detected by ELISA using CNPs propagated in media containing bovine and human serum as antigen. The exposure incident occurred to a woman scientist (WS) at a research laboratory in Finland at 1993. CNP, also termed "nanobacteria", is a unique self-replicating agent that has not been fully characterized and no data on biohazards were available at that time. Before the accident, her serum samples were negative for both CNP antigen and anti-CNP antibody using specific ELISA tests (Nanobac Oy, Kuopio, Finland). The accident occurred while WS was harvesting CNP cultures. Due to a high pressure in pipetting, CNP pellet splashed into her right eye. Both eyes were immediately washed with water and saline. The following days there was irritation and redness in the right eye. These symptoms disappeared within two weeks without any treatment. Three months after the accident, blood and urine samples of WS were tested for CNP cultures (2), CNP-specific ELISA tests, and blood cell counts. Blood cell counts were normal, CNP antigen and culture tests were negative. A high IgG anti-CNP antibody titer was detected (see Figure). The antibodies of this person have been used thereafter as positive control and standard in ELISA manufacturing (Nano-Sero IgG ELISA, Nanobac Oy, Kuopio, Finland).

Ciftcioglu, Neva; Aho, Katja M.; McKay, David S.; Kajander, E. Olavi

2007-01-01

297

Laboratory-Acquired Parasitic Infections from Accidental Exposures  

PubMed Central

Parasitic diseases are receiving increasing attention in developed countries in part because of their importance in travelers, immigrants, and immunocompromised persons. The main purpose of this review is to educate laboratorians, the primary readership, and health care workers, the secondary readership, about the potential hazards of handling specimens that contain viable parasites and about the diseases that can result. This is accomplished partly through discussion of the occupationally acquired cases of parasitic infections that have been reported, focusing for each case on the type of accident that resulted in infection, the length of the incubation period, the clinical manifestations that developed, and the means by which infection was detected. The article focuses on the cases of infection with the protozoa that cause leishmaniasis, malaria, toxoplasmosis, Chagas' disease (American trypanosomiasis), and African trypanosomiasis. Data about 164 such cases are discussed, as are data about cases caused by intestinal protozoa and by helminths. Of the 105 case-patients infected with blood and tissue protozoa who either recalled an accident or for whom the likely route of transmission could be presumed, 47 (44.8%) had percutaneous exposure via a contaminated needle or other sharp object. Some accidents were directly linked to poor laboratory practices (e.g., recapping a needle or working barehanded). To decrease the likelihood of accidental exposures, persons who could be exposed to pathogenic parasites must be thoroughly instructed in safety precautions before they begin to work and through ongoing training programs. Protocols should be provided for handling specimens that could contain viable organisms, using protective clothing and equipment, dealing with spills of infectious organisms, and responding to accidents. Special care should be exercised when using needles and other sharp objects. PMID:11585780

Herwaldt, Barbara L.

2001-01-01

298

Acute health effects of accidental chlorine gas exposure  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study was conducted to report the course of an accidental release of chlorine gas that occurred in a factory in Gumi-si, South Korea, on March 5, 2013. We describe the analysis results of 2 patients hospitalized because of chlorine-induced acute health problems, as well as the clinical features of 209 non-hospitalized patients. Methods We analyzed the medical records of the 2 hospitalized patients admitted to the hospital, as well as the medical records and self-report questionnaires of 209 non-hospitalized patients completed during outpatient treatment. Results Immediately after the exposure, the 2 hospitalized patients developed acute asthma-like symptoms such as cough and dyspnea, and showed restrictive and combined pattern ventilatory defects on the pulmonary function test. The case 1 showed asthma-like symptoms over six months and diurnal variability in peak expiratory flow rate was 56.7%. In case 2, his FEV1 after treatment (93%) increased by 25% compared to initial FEV1 (68%). Both cases were diagnosed as chlorine-induced reactive airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS) on the basis of these clinical features. The most frequent chief complaints of the 209 non-hospitalized patients were headache (22.7%), followed by eye irritation (18.2%), nausea (11.2%), and sore throat (10.8%), with asymptomatic patients accounting for 36.5%. The multiple-response analysis of individual symptom revealed headache (42.4%) to be the most frequent symptom, followed by eye irritation (30.5%), sore throat (30.0%), cough (29.6%), nausea (27.6%), and dizziness (27.3%). Conclusions The 2 patients hospitalized after exposure to chlorine gas at the leakage site showed a clinical course corresponding to RADS. All of the 209 non-hospitalized patients only complained of symptoms of the upper airways and mucous membrane irritation.

2014-01-01

299

The Drop Tower Bremen -Experiment Operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The idea behind the drop tower facility of the Center of Applied Space Technology and Micro-gravity (ZARM) in Bremen is to provide an inimitable technical opportunity of a daily access to short-term weightlessness on earth. In this way ZARM`s european unique ground-based microgravity laboratory displays an excellent economic alternative for research in space-related conditions at low costs comparable to orbital platforms. Many national and international ex-perimentalists motivated by these prospects decide to benefit from the high-quality and easy accessible microgravity environment only provided by the Drop Tower Bremen. Corresponding experiments in reduced gravity could open new perspectives of investigation methods and give scientists an impressive potential for a future technology and multidisciplinary applications on different research fields like Fundamental Physics, Astrophysics, Fluid Dynamics, Combus-tion, Material Science, Chemistry and Biology. Generally, realizing microgravity experiments at ZARM`s drop tower facility meet new requirements of the experimental hardware and may lead to some technical constraints in the setups. In any case the ZARM Drop Tower Operation and Service Company (ZARM FAB mbH) maintaining the drop tower facility is prepared to as-sist experimentalists by offering own air-conditioned laboratories, clean rooms, workshops and consulting engineers, as well as scientific personal. Furthermore, ZARM`s on-site apartment can be used for accommodations during the experiment campaigns. In terms of approaching drop tower experimenting, consulting of experimentalists is mandatory to successfully accomplish the pursued drop or catapult capsule experiment. For this purpose there will be a lot of expertise and help given by ZARM FAB mbH in strong cooperation to-gether with the experimentalists. However, in comparison to standard laboratory setups the drop or catapult capsule setup seems to be completely different at first view. While defining a microgravity project at the Drop Tower Bremen, interesting experimentalists should keep in mind generally reducing dimensions and masses of their common laboratory setups to meet the capsule constraints: overall payload height 980mm/1730mm (short/long drop capsule) and 950mm (catapult capsule); area of each capsule platform 0,359sqm; maximum payload mass 274kg/234kg (short/long drop capsule) and 163,8kg (catapult capsule). The base equipments of each capsule are the Capsule Control System (CCS) to remote control the experiment and the rechargeable battery pack (24V/40A) for the experiment operation. Moreover, the exper-iment components must be able to withstand maximum decelerations of 50g while the short capsule impact of about 200ms, and maximum accelerations of 30g while catapult launch with a duration of about 300ms. In our second talk concerning ZARM`s drop tower facility we will go on with detailed infor-mations about the technical base setups of the drop and the catapult capsule structure to completely handle a freely falling experiment. Furthermore, we will summarize interesting current drop tower projects as an outlook to present you the range of opportunities at the ground-based short-term microgravity laboratory of ZARM.

Könemann, Thorben; von Kampen, Peter; Rath, Hans J.

300

Monitoring Volcanoes by Use of Air-Dropped Sensor Packages  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sensor packages that would be dropped from airplanes have been proposed for pre-eruption monitoring of physical conditions on the flanks of awakening volcanoes. The purpose of such monitoring is to gather data that could contribute to understanding and prediction of the evolution of volcanic systems. Each sensor package, denoted a volcano monitoring system (VMS), would include a housing with a parachute attached at its upper end and a crushable foam impact absorber at its lower end (see figure). The housing would contain survivable low-power instrumentation that would include a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, an inclinometer, a seismometer, a barometer, a thermometer, and CO2 and SO2 analyzers. The housing would also contain battery power, control, data-logging, and telecommunication subsystems. The proposal for the development of the VMS calls for the use of commercially available sensor, power, and telecommunication equipment, so that efforts could be focused on integrating all of the equipment into a system that could survive impact and operate thereafter for 30 days, transmitting data on the pre-eruptive state of a target volcano to a monitoring center. In a typical scenario, VMSs would be dropped at strategically chosen locations on the flanks of a volcano once the volcano had been identified as posing a hazard from any of a variety of observations that could include eyewitness reports, scientific observations from positions on the ground, synthetic-aperture-radar scans from aircraft, and/or remote sensing from aboard spacecraft. Once dropped, the VMSs would be operated as a network of in situ sensors that would transmit data to a local monitoring center. This network would provide observations as part of an integrated volcano-hazard assessment strategy that would involve both remote sensing and timely observations from the in situ sensors. A similar strategy that involves the use of portable sensors (but not dropping of sensors from aircraft) is already in use in the Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (VDAP), which was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance to respond to volcanic crises around the world. The VMSs would add a greatly needed capability that would enable VDAP response teams to deploy their volcano-monitoring equipment in a more timely manner with less risk to personnel in the field.

Kedar, Sharon; Rivellini, Tommaso; Webb, Frank; Blaes, Brent; Bracho, Caroline; Lockhart, Andrew; McGee, Ken

2003-01-01

301

Lifetime of oil drops pressed by buoyancy against a planar interface: Large drops  

E-print Network

In a previous report [10] it was shown that emulsion stability simulations are able to reproduce the lifetime of micrometer-size drops of hexadecane pressed by buoyancy against a planar water-hexadecane interface. It was confirmed that small drops (rioil stabilized with bovine serum albumin. The potential obtained is then employed to study the lifetime of deformable drops in the range 10 \\leq ri \\leq 1000 {\\mu}m. It is established that the average lifetime of these drops can be adequately replicated using the model of truncated spheres. However, the results depend sensibly on the expressions of the initial distance of deformation and the maximum film radius used in the calculations. The set of equations adequate for large drops is not satisfactory for medium-size drops (10 \\leq ri \\leq 100 {\\mu}m), and vice versa. In the case of large particles, the increase in the interfacial area as a consequence of the deformation of the drops generates a very large repulsive barrier which opposes coalescence. Nevertheless, the buoyancy force prevails. As a consequence, it is the hydrodynamic tensor of the drops which determine the characteristic behavior of the lifetime as a function of the particle size. While the average values of the coalescence time of the drops can be justified by the mechanism of film thinning, the scattering of the experimental data of large drops cannot be rationalized using the methodology previously described. A possible explanation of this phenomenon required elaborate simulations which combine deformable drops, capillary waves, repulsive interaction forces, and a time-dependent surfactant adsorption.

Clara Rojas; Máximo García-Sucre; Germán Urbina-Villalba

2011-09-22

302

Probabilistic models on contextuality scenarios  

E-print Network

We introduce a framework to describe probabilistic models in Bell experiments, and more generally in contextuality scenarios. Such a scenario is a hypergraph whose vertices represent elementary events and hyperedges correspond to measurements. A probabilistic model on such a scenario associates to each event a probability, in such a way that events in a given measurement have a total probability equal to one. We discuss the advantages of this framework, like the unification of the notions of contexuality and nonlocality, and give a short overview of results obtained elsewhere.

Tobias Fritz; Anthony Leverrier; Ana Belén Sainz

2014-12-30

303

Computations of drop collision and coalescence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computations of drops collision and coalescence are presented. The computations are made possible by a recently developed finite difference/front tracking technique that allows direct solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations for a multi-fluid system with complex, unsteady internal boundaries. This method has been used to examine the boundaries between the various collision modes for drops of equal size and two examples, one of a 'reflective' collision and another of a 'grazing' collision is shown. From drops of unequal size, coalescence can result in considerable mixing between the fluid from the small and the large drop. This problem is discussed and one example showed. In many cases it is necessary to account also for heat transfer along with the fluid mechanics. We show two preliminary results where we are using extensions of the method to simulate such a problem. One example shows pattern formation among many drops moving due to thermal migration, the other shows unstable evolution of a solidification front.

Tryggvason, Gretar; Juric, Damir; Nobari, Mohammed H. R.; Nas, Selman

1994-01-01

304

Vibrations of Sessile Drops of Soft Hydrogels  

E-print Network

Sessile drops of soft hydrogels were vibrated vertically by subjecting them to a mechanically induced Gaussian white noise. Power spectra of the surface fluctuation of the gel allowed identification of its resonant frequency that decreases with their mass, but increases with its shear modulus. The principal resonant frequencies of the spheroidal modes of the gel of shear moduli ranging from 55 Pa to 290 Pa were closest to the lowest Rayleigh mode of vibration of a drop of pure water. These observations coupled with the fact that the resonance frequency varies inversely as the square root of the mass in all cases suggest that they primarily correspond to the capillary (or a pseudo-capillary) mode of drop vibration. The contact angles of the gel drops also increase with the modulus of the gel. When the resonance frequencies are corrected for the wetting angles, and plotted against the fundamental frequency scale (gamma/mu)^0.5, all the data collapse nicely on a single plot provided that the latter is shifted by a shear modulus dependent factor (1+mu.L/gamma). A length scale L, independent of both the modulus and the mass of the drop emerges from such a fit.

Aditi Chakrabarti; Manoj K. Chaudhury

2014-10-08

305

Queensland University of Technology Drop Tower Facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Queensland University of Technology (QUT) Drop Tower Facility provides access to an inexpensive high quality reduced gravity test environment. This facility is available to and has been used by number of nationally and internationally based organisations, along with researchers from QUT, for scientific and industry related research. The drop tower, located in Brisbane, Australia, allows 2.0 seconds of high quality reduced gravity (˜0.001 g). The cylindrical drop package has a maximum rating of 200 kg with dimensions of 0.8 m diameter and 0.9 m high, and experiences a maximum deceleration of ˜30 g. Current research projects being carried out at the QUT Drop Tower Facility include research in the areas of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis of materials, combustion and fire safety, flammability of metals, characterisation of combustion products, and sol-gel nanomaterials. Keywords: Reduced gravity, microgravity, drop tower, zero gravity, low gravity, combustion, combustion products, nanomaterials, sol-gel, flammability, high temperature synthesis.

Plagens, Owen; Hales, Matthew; Castillo, Martin; Steinberg, Theodore

2012-07-01

306

Do not drop: mechanical shock in vials causes cavitation, protein aggregation, and particle formation.  

PubMed

Industry experience suggests that g-forces sustained when vials containing protein formulations are accidentally dropped can cause aggregation and particle formation. To study this phenomenon, a shock tower was used to apply controlled g-forces to glass vials containing formulations of two monoclonal antibodies and recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH). High-speed video analysis showed cavitation bubbles forming within 30 ?s and subsequently collapsing in the formulations. As a result of echoing shock waves, bubbles collapsed and reappeared periodically over a millisecond time course. Fluid mechanics simulations showed low-pressure regions within the fluid where cavitation would be favored. A hydroxyphenylfluorescein assay determined that cavitation produced hydroxyl radicals. When mechanical shock was applied to vials containing protein formulations, gelatinous particles appeared on the vial walls. Size-exclusion chromatographic analysis of the formulations after shock did not detect changes in monomer or soluble aggregate concentrations. However, subvisible particle counts determined by microflow image analysis increased. The mass of protein attached to the vial walls increased with increasing drop height. Both protein in bulk solution and protein that became attached to the vial walls after shock were analyzed by mass spectrometry. rhGH recovered from the vial walls in some samples revealed oxidation of Met and/or Trp residues. PMID:25418950

Randolph, Theodore W; Schiltz, Elise; Sederstrom, Donn; Steinmann, Daniel; Mozziconacci, Olivier; Schöneich, Christian; Freund, Erwin; Ricci, Margaret S; Carpenter, John F; Lengsfeld, Corrine S

2015-02-01

307

Computer simulations of nematic drops: coupling between drop shape and nematic order.  

PubMed

We perform Monte Carlo computer simulations of nematic drops in equilibrium with their vapor using a Gay-Berne interaction between the rod-like molecules. To generate the drops, we initially perform NPT simulations close to the nematic-vapor coexistence region, allow the system to equilibrate and subsequently induce a sudden volume expansion, followed with NVT simulations. The resultant drops coexist with their vapor and are generally not spherical but elongated, have the rod-like particles tangentially aligned at the surface and an overall nematic orientation along the main axis of the drop. We find that the drop eccentricity increases with increasing molecular elongation, ?. For small ? the nematic texture in the drop is bipolar with two surface defects, or boojums, maximizing their distance along this same axis. For sufficiently high ?, the shape of the drop becomes singular in the vicinity of the defects, and there is a crossover to an almost homogeneous texture; this reflects a transition from a spheroidal to a spindle-like drop. PMID:22830709

Rull, L F; Romero-Enrique, J M; Fernandez-Nieves, A

2012-07-21

308

Registration Info Drop/Add Additional Courses Step 7: Drop/Add  

E-print Network

, and continuing students can make changes during the open enrollment period. Please be aware of Web RegistrationCUInfo after the drop deadline (through the 10 week deadline). To access this form go to the Student Tab in My via the MyCUInfo after the drop deadline (through the 10 week deadline). To access this form go

Mojzsis, Stephen J.

309

Computer simulations of nematic drops: Coupling between drop shape and nematic order  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We perform Monte Carlo computer simulations of nematic drops in equilibrium with their vapor using a Gay-Berne interaction between the rod-like molecules. To generate the drops, we initially perform NPT simulations close to the nematic-vapor coexistence region, allow the system to equilibrate and subsequently induce a sudden volume expansion, followed with NVT simulations. The resultant drops coexist with their vapor and are generally not spherical but elongated, have the rod-like particles tangentially aligned at the surface and an overall nematic orientation along the main axis of the drop. We find that the drop eccentricity increases with increasing molecular elongation, ?. For small ? the nematic texture in the drop is bipolar with two surface defects, or boojums, maximizing their distance along this same axis. For sufficiently high ?, the shape of the drop becomes singular in the vicinity of the defects, and there is a crossover to an almost homogeneous texture; this reflects a transition from a spheroidal to a spindle-like drop.

Rull, L. F.; Romero-Enrique, J. M.; Fernandez-Nieves, A.

2012-07-01

310

Software for emission rate modeling of accidental toxic releases  

SciTech Connect

This book fulfills the need for Section 112(r) of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. This software is based on the guidelines released by the USEPA. It includes manual and proprietary software on CDROM. Contents include release scenario description (two-phase and single-phase choked/unchoked gas release, two-phase pressurized and refrigerated liquid release, single-phase high and low volatility liquid release); emission rate model development for each release class; software design and software evaluation and application.

Kumar, A.; Vashisth, S.

1999-08-01

311

Interpreting the IPCC emisions scenarios  

E-print Network

This paper discusses how two sets of emissions scenarios, generated using the Atmospheric Stabilization Framework, were used by the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). In particular it discusses ...

Margolis, Robert M.

1992-01-01

312

Settling of copper drops in molten slags  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The settling of suspended metal and sulfide droplets in liquid metallurgical, slags can be affected by electric fields. The migration of droplets due to electrocapillary motion phenomena may be used to enhance the recovery of suspended matte/metal droplets and thereby to increase the recovery of pay metals. An experimental technique was developed for the purpose of measuring the effect of electric fields on the settling rate of metallic drops in liquid slags. Copper drops suspended in CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-Cu2O slags were found to migrate toward the cathode. Electric fields can increase the settling rate of 5-mm-diameter copper drops 3 times or decrease the settling until levitation by reversal of the electric field. The enhanced settling due to electric fields decreases with increasing Cu2O contents in the slag.

Warczok, A.; Utigard, T. A.

1995-02-01

313

Glaucoma eye drops adverse skin reactions.  

PubMed

The term "Glaucoma" is used to describe a number of diseases of the eye characterized by a particular form of optic nerve damage that is often associated with high intraocular pressure (IOP). The open-angle glaucoma is the most common form that is also referred to as chronic glaucoma. This is described as an optic neuropathy with multifactorial nature in which there is a loss of characteristics of the optic nerve fibers. Therapeutic options for the treatment of this disease are different, you can take advantage of eye drops, laser therapy and conventional surgery or more combined treatments. Medicated eye drops are the most common way to treat glaucoma. Although eye drops are widely used, adverse reactions are not frequently observed and described. In particular, the adverse skin reactions are not frequently described in the literature, but often seen in dermatologic clinic, we reported their skin reactions and possible alternative treatments described in literature and their patent applications. PMID:25487259

Cantisani, Carmen; Ambrifi, Marina; Frascani, Federica; Fazia, Gilda; Paolino, Giovanni; Lisi, Roberto; Calvieri, Stefano

2014-01-01

314

PRESSURE DROP IN RADON CONTROL PIPES  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT + Design of radon mitigation systems requires the designer to choose among the available fan sizes and to choose a fan with pressure-flow characteristics which match the application. The mitigator is also faced with a choice of pipe size and material, and must choose a routing through the structure which is acceptable to the customer and which will not disrupt system function with excessive pressure drop. This paper presents a tabulation of pressure drops for use in selecting pipe size and routing for radon control system pipes. The calculated pressure drop in the pipework can also be used to assist in fan selection. Disclaimer This paper does not necessarily reflect the policies of the Environmental Protection Agency. No endorsement of any named

315

Drop impact on porous superhydrophobic polymer surfaces.  

PubMed

Water drop impacts are performed on porous-like superhydrophobic surfaces. We investigate the influence of the drop size and of the impact velocity on the event. The Cassie-Baxter/Wenzel transition is observed to be a function of the drop size, as well as the outcomes of the impact or deposition process, which can be deposition, rebound, sticking, or fragmentation. A quantitative analysis on the experimental conditions required to observe rebound is provided. Our analysis shows that the wettability hysteresis controls the limit between deposition and rebound events. This limit corresponds to a constant Weber number. A survey of literature results on impact over patterned superhydrophobic surfaces is provided as a comparison. PMID:19360957

Rioboo, R; Voué, M; Vaillant, A; De Coninck, J

2008-12-16

316

Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) Contest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first NASA Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) student competition pilot project came to a conclusion at the Glenn Research Center in April 2001. The competition involved high-school student teams who developed the concept for a microgravity experiment and prepared an experiment proposal. The two student teams - COSI Academy, sponsored by the Columbus Center of Science and Industry, and another team from Cincinnati, Ohio's Sycamore High School, designed a microgravity experiment, fabricated the experimental apparatus, and visited NASA Glenn to operate their experiment in the 2.2 Second Drop Tower. Sandi Thompson of the National Center for Microgravity Research GRC makes a final adjustment to the drop package. This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

2001-01-01

317

Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) Contest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first NASA Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) student competition pilot project came to a conclusion at the Glenn Research Center in April 2001. The competition involved high-school student teams who developed the concept for a microgravity experiment and prepared an experiment proposal. The two student teams - COSI Academy, sponsored by the Columbus Center of Science and Industry, and another team from Cincinnati, Ohio's Sycamore High School, designed a microgravity experiment, fabricated the experimental apparatus, and visited NASA Glenn to operate their experiment in the 2.2 Second Drop Tower. Meredith Mendenhall of Sycamore High School, Cincinnati, Ohio, flips on a tape recorder in preparation for a drop. This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

2001-01-01

318

Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) contest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first NASA Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) student competition pilot project came to a conclusion at the Glenn Research Center in April 2001. The competition involved high-school student teams who developed the concept for a microgravity experiment and prepared an experiment proposal. The two student teams - COSI Academy, sponsored by the Columbus Center of Science and Industry, and another team from Cincinnati, Ohio's Sycamore High School, designed a microgravity experiment, fabricated the experimental apparatus, and visited NASA Glenn to operate their experiment in the 2.2 Second Drop Tower. Here students from Sycamore High School in Cincinnati, Ohio, talk with Dr. Dennis Stocker, one of Glenn's lead microgravity scientists, about the uses of the drop tower. This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

2001-01-01

319

Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) contest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first NASA Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) student competition pilot project came to a conclusion at the Glenn Research Center in April 2001. The competition involved high-school student teams who developed the concept for a microgravity experiment and prepared an experiment proposal. The two student teams - COSI Academy, sponsored by the Columbus Center of Science and Industry, and another team from Cincinnati, Ohio's Sycamore High School, designed a microgravity experiment, fabricated the experimental apparatus, and visited NASA Glenn to operate their experiment in the 2.2 Second Drop Tower. Here Jose Carrion, a lab mechanic with AKAC, starts the orange-colored drag shield, and the experiment apparatus inside, on the hoist upward to the control station at the top of the drop tower. This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

2001-01-01

320

Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) contest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first NASA Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) student competition pilot project came to a conclusion at the Glenn Research Center in April 2001. The competition involved high-school student teams who developed the concept for a microgravity experiment and prepared an experiment proposal. The two student teams - COSI Academy, sponsored by the Columbus Center of Science and Industry, and another team from Cincinnati, Ohio's Sycamore High School, designed a microgravity experiment, fabricated the experimental apparatus, and visited NASA Glenn to operate their experiment in the 2.2 Second Drop Tower. Here, students are briefed by NASA engineer Daniel Dietrich at the top of the drop tower. This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

2001-01-01

321

Alternative scenarios utilizing nonterrestrial resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A collection of alternative scenarios that are enabled or substantially enhanced by the utilization of nonterrestrial resources is provided. We take a generalized approach to scenario building so that our report will have value in the context of whatever goals are eventually chosen. Some of the topics covered include the following: lunar materials processing; asteroid mining; lunar resources; construction of a large solar power station; solar dynamic power for the space station; reduced gravity; mission characteristics and options; and tourism.

Eldred, Charles H.; Roberts, Barney B.

1992-01-01

322

Water Drops Dancing on Ice: How Sublimation Leads to Drop Rebound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drop rebound is a spectacular event that appears after impact on hydrophobic or superhydrophobic surfaces but can also be induced through the so-called Leidenfrost effect. Here we demonstrate that drop rebound can also originate from another physical phenomenon, the solid substrate sublimation. Through drop impact experiments on a superhydrophobic surfaces, a hot plate, and solid carbon dioxide (commonly known as dry ice), we compare drop rebound based on three different physical mechanisms, which apparently share nothing in common (superhydrophobicity, evaporation, and sublimation), but lead to the same rebound phenomenon in an extremely wide temperature range, from 300°C down to even below -79°C. The formation and unprecedented visualization of an air vortex ring around an impacting drop are also reported.

Antonini, C.; Bernagozzi, I.; Jung, S.; Poulikakos, D.; Marengo, M.

2013-07-01

323

Best Measuring Time for a Millikan Oil Drop Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a Millikan oil drop experiment, there is a best measuring time for observing the drop, due to Brownian motion of the drop and the experimenter's reaction time. Derives an equation for the relative error in the measurement of the drop's excess charge, and obtains a formula for the best measuring time. (Author/MLH)

Kapusta, J. I.

1975-01-01

324

Long slender drops in a simple shear flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study theoretically the slow viscous motion of a long slender drop placed in a simple shear flow, the drop having a low viscosity compared with that of the suspending fluid. As a simplifying approximation, the cross-section of the drop is taken to be circular. An equilibrium shape with the drop nearly aligned with the flow is found for all

E. J. Hinch; A. Acrivos

1980-01-01

325

Experimental Investigation of Wind-Forced Drop Stability  

E-print Network

limits for 235 drops are measured as functions of drop volume and surface inclination. Drops experiencing airflow alone are found to shed at a Weber number of 8.0 +/- 0.5. From measurement sequences of reconstructed drop profiles, the evolution of contact...

Schmucker, Jason

2012-10-19

326

Millikan "oil drop" stabilized by growth.  

PubMed

A diffusion cloud chamber has been used to qualitatively study some dynamic properties of liquid drops by suspending them in an electric field at the plane of saturation (p/ps = 1, where p is the actual partial pressure of the vapor at a given elevation and ps is the equilibrium pressure at that temperature characteristic of that elevation). By varying the strength of the electric field, it is possible to change the size of the suspended droplets and even, if desired, to isolate a single drop. PMID:17772443

Sun, L K; Gertler, A W; Reiss, H

1979-01-26

327

Corners, Cusps, and Pearls in Running Drops  

SciTech Connect

Small drops sliding down a partially wetting substrate bifurcate between different shapes depending on their capillary number Ca . At low Ca , they are delimited by a rounded, smooth contact line. At intermediate values they develop a corner at the trailing edge, the angle of which evolves from flat to 60{sup o} with increasing velocity. Further up, they exhibit a cusped tail that emits smaller drops (''pearls''). These bifurcations may be qualitatively and quantitatively recovered by considering the dynamic contact angle along the contact line.

Podgorski, T.; Flesselles, J.-M.; Limat, L.

2001-07-16

328

The quest for an intermediate-scale accidental axion and further ALPs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent detection of the cosmic microwave background polarimeter experiment BICEP2 of tensor fluctuations in the B-mode power spectrum basically excludes all plausible axion models where its decay constant is above 1013 GeV. Moreover, there are strong theoretical, astrophysical, and cosmological motivations for models involving, in addition to the axion, also axion-like particles (ALPs), with decay constants in the intermediate scale range, between 109 GeV and 1013 GeV. Here, we present a general analysis of models with an axion and further ALPs and derive bounds on the relative size of the axion and ALP photon (and electron) coupling. We discuss what we can learn from measurements of the axion and ALP photon couplings about the fundamental parameters of the underlying ultraviolet completion of the theory. For the latter we consider extensions of the Standard Model in which the axion and the ALP(s) appear as pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons from the breaking of global chiral U(1) (Peccei-Quinn (PQ)) symmetries, occurring accidentally as low energy remnants from exact discrete symmetries. In such models, the axion and the further ALP are protected from disastrous explicit symmetry breaking effects due to Planck-scale suppressed operators. The scenarios considered exploit heavy right handed neutrinos getting their mass via PQ symmetry breaking and thus explain the small mass of the active neutrinos via a seesaw relation between the electroweak and an intermediate PQ symmetry breaking scale. For a number of explicit models, we determine the parameters of the low-energy effective field theory describing the axion, the ALPs, and their interactions with photons and electrons, in terms of the input parameters, in particular the PQ symmetry breaking scales. We show that these models can accommodate simultaneously an axion dark matter candidate, an ALP explaining the anomalous transparency of the universe for ?-rays, and an ALP explaining the recently reported 3.55 keV gamma line from galaxies and clusters of galaxies, if the respective decay constants are of intermediate scale. Moreover, they do not suffer severely from the domain wall problem.

Dias, A. G.; Machado, A. C. B.; Nishi, C. C.; Ringwald, A.; Vaudrevange, P.

2014-06-01

329

Proceedings of the second international colloquium on drops and bubbles  

SciTech Connect

Applications of bubble and drop technologies are discussed and include: low gravity manufacturing, containerless melts, microballoon fabrication, ink printers, laser fusion targets, generation of organic glass and metal shells, and space processing. The fluid dynamics of bubbles and drops were examined. Thermomigration, capillary flow, and interfacial tension are discussed. Techniques for drop control are presented and include drop size control and drop shape control. For individual titles, see N82-23419 through N82-23469.

Lecroissette, D.H.

1982-03-01

330

Analysis of a hypothetical dropped spent nuclear fuel shipping cask impacting a floor mounted crush pad  

SciTech Connect

A crush pad has been designed and analyzed to absorb the kinetic energy of a hypothetically dropped spent nuclear fuel shipping cask into a 44-ft. deep cask unloading pool at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The 110-ton Large Cell Cask was assumed to be accidentally dropped onto the parapet of the unloading pool, causing the cask to tumble through the pool water and impact the floor mounted crush pad with the cask`s top corner. The crush pad contains rigid polyurethane foam, which was modeled in a separate computer analysis to simulate the manufacturer`s testing of the foam and to determine the foam`s stress and strain characteristics. This computer analysis verified that the foam was accurately represented in the analysis to follow. A detailed non-linear, dynamic finite element analysis was then performed on the crush pad and adjacent pool structure to assure that a drop of this massive cask does not result in unacceptable damage to the storage facility. Additionally, verification was made that the crush pad adequately protects the cask from severe impact loading. At impact, the cask has significant vertical, horizontal and rotational velocities. The crush pad absorbs much of the energy of the cask through plastic deformation during primary and secondary impacts. After the primary impact with the crush pad, the cask still has sufficient energy to rebound and rotate until it impacts the pool wall. An assessment is made of the damage to the crush pad and pool wall and of the impact loading on the cask.

Hawkes, B.D.; Uldrich, E.D.

1998-03-01

331

Predicting Students Drop Out: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The monitoring and support of university freshmen is considered very important at many educational institutions. In this paper we describe the results of the educational data mining case study aimed at predicting the Electrical Engineering (EE) students drop out after the first semester of their studies or even before they enter the study program…

Dekker, Gerben W.; Pechenizkiy, Mykola; Vleeshouwers, Jan M.

2009-01-01

332

Drops and shells of liquid crystal  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the state of the art concerning drops and shells of liquid crystal. We especially focus on the defect structures\\u000a observed with liquid crystals with different degrees of order under different boundary conditions and on the transitions between\\u000a these structures. We conclude with an overview where we emphasize those areas that are still unexplored.

Teresa Lopez-Leon; Alberto Fernandez-Nieves

2011-01-01

333

Naphazoline nasal drops intoxication in children.  

PubMed

Naphazoline, a sympathomimetic and an imidazoline derivative, is used as 0.05-0.1% solution for local decongestion of the nasal and ocular mucosa. In excessive dosage, or if ingested by accident, may cause depression of the central nervous system (disturbances of consciousness progressing to coma), hypothermia, bradycardia and sweating. These naphazoline effects are particularly strongly pronounced in children. Anglo-Saxon pharmacotherapy excludes the application of naphazoline nasal drops in children younger than six years, whereas the Croatian pharmacotherapeutic literature (and practice) allows its use even in infancy. At the Kantrida Paediatric Clinic, Clinical Hospital Centre in Rijeka, 11 children with signs of intoxication with naphazoline nasal drops were hospitalized from 1990 to 1992. The symptoms pertaining to the central nervous system i.e. disturbances of consciousness in the form of somnolence were clearly marked in all children. Some children developed skin pallor, bradycardia, bradypnoea and hypothermia. Resolution occurred within 24 hours and the findings returned to normal values. Clinical picture followed by rapid resolution and normal findings, with a personal history of drug taking, is a safe indication for diagnosis. There are several reasons to account for intoxication (drops difficult to use with children, containers inadequate for proper dosage), but the major factor is the age of the patient--all hospitalized children were younger than six years. It is pointed out that administration of naphazoline drops at an early age is not advisable. PMID:8067910

Vitezi?, D; Rozmani?, V; Franulovi?, J; Ahel, V; Matesi?, D

1994-03-01

334

Transient Marangoni convection in hanging evaporating drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A combined experimental and numerical analysis has been carried out to study Marangoni effects during the evaporation of droplets. The experiments are performed with pendant drops of silicone oils (with different viscosities) and hydrocarbons. The temperature of the disk sustaining the drop is rapidly increased or decreased in order to study transient heating or cooling processes. The velocity field in the droplet is evaluated monitoring the motion of tracers in the meridian plane, using a laser sheet illumination system and a video camera. Surface temperature distributions of the drops are detected by infrared thermocamera. The numerical model is based on axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations, taking into account the presence of Marangoni shear stresses and evaporative cooling at the liquid-air interface. Marangoni flows cause a larger, more uniform surface temperature, increasing heat transfer from disk to droplet, as well as evaporation rate. When Marangoni effects are negligible, larger surface temperature differences occur along the drop surface and heat transfer is relatively small. The role of Marangoni and buoyancy flows in silicone oils with different viscosities and hydrocarbons is discussed and correlations are presented between experimental and numerical results.

Savino, R.; Fico, S.

2004-10-01

335

Banner course drop/add instructions  

E-print Network

Like the main screen, this page has customizable sections of information. ... The system blocks access from Add or Drop Classes if you are in a grade level that is yet ... Management, which is alphabetically the first course that begins with “M”).

skorty

2008-07-28

336

Drop impact entrapment of bubble rings  

E-print Network

We use ultra-high-speed video imaging to look at the initial contact of a drop impacting onto a liquid layer. We observe experimentally the vortex street and the bubble-ring entrapments predicted numerically, for high impact velocities, by Thoraval et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 264506 (2012)]. These dynamics occur mostly within 50 {\\mu}s after the first contact, requiring imaging at 1 million frames/sec. For a water drop impacting onto a thin layer of water, the entrapment of isolated bubbles starts through azimuthal instability, which forms at low impact velocities, in the neck connecting the drop and pool. For Re above about 12 000, up to 10 partial bubble-rings have been observed at the base of the ejecta, starting when the contact is about 20% of the drop size. More regular bubble rings are observed for a pool of ethanol or methanol. The video imaging shows rotation around some of these air cylinders, which can temporarily delay their breakup into microbubbles. The different refractive index in the pool l...

Thoraval, M -J; Etoh, T G; Thoroddsen, S T

2012-01-01

337

Reducing cyclone pressure drop with evasés  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cyclones are widely used to separate particles from gas flows and as air emissions control devices. Their cost of operation is proportional to the fan energy required to overcome their pressure drop. Evasés or exit diffusers potentially could reduce exit pressure losses without affecting collection...

338

Utah Drop-Out Drug Use Questionnaire.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This questionnaire assesses drug use practices in high school drop-outs. The 79 items (multiple choice or apply/not apply) are concerned with demographic data and use, use history, reasons for use/nonuse, attitudes toward drugs, availability of drugs, and drug information with respect to narcotics, amphetamines, LSD, Marijuana, and barbiturates.…

Governor's Citizen Advisory Committee on Drugs, Salt Lake City, UT.

339

Assessment and Collection of Drop Fees.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to concern that some community college students were being denied access to courses because others had enrolled in more courses than they really intended to maintain, the California community college finance bill of 1983 mandated that the colleges charge students a $10 fee for each course dropped after the second week of the term (not…

Petersen, Allan L.; Meyer, John

340

Dropping Two Balls Near the Earth's Surface  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation depicts two balls being dropped near the Earth's surface in an interactive simulation. The user can control the initial horizontal speed of one ball and observe the path and acceleration of both balls as they fall and hit the Earth's surface at the same time.

David M. Harrison

341

Inverted drop testing and neck injury potential.  

PubMed

Inverted drop testing of vehicles is a methodology that has long been used by the automotive industry and researchers to test roof integrity and is currently being considered by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration as a roof strength test. In 1990 a study was reported which involved 8 dolly rollover tests and 5 inverted drop tests. These studies were conducted with restrained Hybrid III instrumented Anthropometric Test Devices (ATD) in production and rollcaged vehicles to investigate the relationship between roof strength and occupant injury potential. The 5 inverted drop tests included in the study provided a methodology producing "repeatable roof impacts" exposing the ATDs to the similar impact environment as those seen in the dolly rollover tests. Authors have conducted two inverted drop test sets as part of an investigation of two real world rollover accidents. Hybrid-III ATD's were used in each test with instrumented head and necks. Both test sets confirm that reduction of roof intrusion and increased headroom can significantly enhance occupant protection. In both test pairs, the neck force of the dummy in the vehicle with less crush and more survival space was significantly lower. Reduced roof crush and dynamic preservation of the occupant survival space resulted in only minor occupant contact and minimal occupant loading, establishing a clear causal relationship between roof crush and neck injuries. PMID:12724903

Forrest, Stephen; Herbst, Brian; Meyer, Steve; Sances, Anthony; Kumaresan, Srirangam

2003-01-01

342

Self-similar recoil of inviscid drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After capillary pinchoff of a fluid thread or drop, the newly created drop tips recoil due to the large local curvature. Similarity solutions for the postpinchoff recoil of an axisymmetric inviscid fluid of density ?1 and surface tension ? immersed in a surrounding fluid of density ?2 are obtained over a range of the density ratio D=?2/?1. The far-field shape of the two new drops and the far-field dipole potentials are prescribed from known prepinching solutions [D. Leppinen and J. R. Lister, Phys. Fluids 15, 568 (2003)] and the positions and self-similar shape of the two recoiling tips are calculated. The momentum of the prepinching flow makes a significant difference to the recoiling shapes. Capillary waves are observed, in agreement with previous two-dimensional studies and analytical calculations, and the wave frequency is found to increase with D. The recoil of a single axisymmetric drop (with a conical far-field shape) under surface tension is also studied as a function of D and the far-field cone angle ?0. Capillary waves are again observed, and the results for small values of ?0 are shown to agree well with previous asymptotic predictions. The related problem of violent jet emission, following the formation of a near-conical structure with very high curvature at its tip, is also discussed and its similarity with the recoiling cone problem investigated.

Sierou, Asimina; Lister, John R.

2004-05-01

343

How to Use Eye Drops Properly  

MedlinePLUS

How to Use Eye Drops Properly (Using a mirror or having someone else give you the eyedrops may make this procedure easier.) 1 Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water. 2 Check the dropper tip to make sure that it is not chipped or cracked. 3 Avoid touching the ...

344

An evaporation model of multicomponent solution drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solutions of polymers are widely used in the pharmaceutical industry as tablets coatings. These allow controlling the rate at which the drug is delivered, taste or appearance. The coating is performed by spraying and drying the tablets at moderate temperatures. The wetting of the coating solution on the pill's surface depends on the droplet Webber and Re numbers, angle of impact and on the rheological properties of the droplet. We present a model for the evaporation of multicomponent solutions droplets in a hot air environment with temperatures substantially lower than the boiling temperature of the solvent. As the liquid vaporizes from the surface the fluid in the drop increases in concentration, until reaching its saturation point. After saturation, precipitation occurs uniformly within the drop. As the surface regresses, a compacting front formed by the precipitate at its maximum packing density advances into the drop, while the solute continues precipitating uniformly. This porous shell grows fast due to the double effect of surface regression and precipitation. The evaporation rate is determined by the rates at which heat is transported to the droplet surface and at which liquid vapor diffuses away from it. When the drop is fully compacted, the evaporation is drastically reduced.

Sartori, Silvana; Liñán, Amable; Lasheras, Juan C.

2010-11-01

345

Make Every Drop Count In Your Home  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Nebraska - Lincoln Extension, presents this site which outlines the steps to take in order to make "every drop of water count in your home." Focusing on everyday things such as toilets, showers, faucets and washing machines, the site is applicable to a very general audience. Overall, this is introductory material which quickly shows easy ways to conserve water.

346

Viscosity Measurement Using Drop Coalescence in Microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present in here validation studies of a new method for application in microgravity environment which measures the viscosity of highly viscous undercooled liquids using drop coalescence. The method has the advantage of avoiding heterogeneous nucleation at container walls caused by crystallization of undercooled liquids during processing. Homogeneous nucleation can also be avoided due to the rapidity of the measurement using this method. The technique relies on measurements from experiments conducted in near zero gravity environment as well as highly accurate analytical formulation for the coalescence process. The viscosity of the liquid is determined by allowing the computed free surface shape relaxation time to be adjusted in response to the measured free surface velocity for two coalescing drops. Results are presented from two sets of validation experiments for the method which were conducted on board aircraft flying parabolic trajectories. In these tests the viscosity of a highly viscous liquid, namely glycerin, was determined at different temperatures using the drop coalescence method described in here. The experiments measured the free surface velocity of two glycerin drops coalescing under the action of surface tension alone in low gravity environment using high speed photography. The liquid viscosity was determined by adjusting the computed free surface velocity values to the measured experimental data. The results of these experiments were found to agree reasonably well with the known viscosity for the test liquid used.

Antar, Basil N.; Ethridge, Edwin C.; Maxwell, Daniel; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

347

Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) contest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first NASA Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) student competition pilot project came to a conclusion at the Glenn Research Center in April 2001. The competition involved high-school student teams who developed the concept for a microgravity experiment and prepared an experiment proposal. The two student teams - COSI Academy, sponsored by the Columbus Center of Science and Industry, and another team from Cincinnati, Ohio's Sycamore High School, designed a microgravity experiment, fabricated the experimental apparatus, and visited NASA Glenn to operate their experiment in the 2.2 Second Drop Tower. NASA and contractor personnel who conducted the DIME activity with the students. Shown (L-R) are: Eric Baumann (NASA, 2.2-second Drop Tower Facility manager), Daniel Dietrich (NASA) mentor for Sycamore High School team), Carol Hodanbosi (National Center for Microgravity Research; DIME staff), Richard DeLombard (NASA; DIME staff), Jose Carrion (GRC Akima, drop tower technician), Dennis Stocker (NASA; DIME staff), Peter Sunderland (NCMR, mentor for COSI Academy student team), Sandi Thompson (NSMR sabbatical teacher; DIME staff), Dan Woodard (MASA Microgravity Outreach Program Manager), Adam Malcolm (NASA co-op student; DIME staff), Carla Rosenberg (NCMR; DIME staff), and Twila Schneider (Infinity Technology; NASA Microgravity Research program contractor). This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

2001-01-01

348

Instabilities of volatile films and drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on instabilities during spreading of volatile liquids, with emphasis on the novel instability observed when isopropyl alcohol (IPA) is deposited on a monocrystalline silicon (Si) wafer. This instability is characterized by emission of drops ahead of the expanding front, with each drop followed by smaller, satellite droplets, forming the structures which we nickname "octopi" due to their appearance. A less volatile liquid, or a substrate of larger heat conductivity, suppress this instability. In addition, we examine the spreading of drops of water (DIW)-IPA mixtures on both Si wafers and plain glass slides, and describe the variety of contact line instabilities which appear. We find that the decrease of IPA concentration in mixtures leads to transition from "octopi" to mushroom-like instabilities. Through manipulation of our experimental set up, we also find that the mechanism responsible for these instabilities appears to be mostly insensitive to both the external application of convection to the gas phase, and the doping of the gas phase with vapor in order to create the saturated environment. In order to better understand the "octopi" instability, we develop a theoretical model for evaporation of a pure liquid drop on a thermally conductive solid substrate. This model includes all relevant physical effects, including evaporation, thermal conductivity in both liquid and solid, (thermocapillary) Marangoni effect, vapor recoil, disjoining pressure, and gravity. The crucial ingredient in this problem is the evaporation model, since it influences both the motion of the drop contact line, and the temperature profiles along the liquid-solid and liquid-gas interfaces. We consider two evaporation models: the equilibrium "lens" model and the non-equilibrium one-sided (NEOS) model. Along with the assumption of equilibrium at the liquid-gas interface, the "lens" model also assumes that evaporation proceeds in a (vapor) diffusion-limited regime, therefore bringing the focus to the gas phase, where the problem of vapor mass diffusion is to be solved, which invokes analogy with the problem of lens-shaped conductor from electrostatics. On the other hand, NEOS model assumes non-equilibrium at the liquid-gas interface and a reaction-limited regime of evaporation; the liquid and gas phases are decoupled using the one-sided assumption, and hence, the problem is to be solved in the liquid phase only. We use lubrication approximation and derive a single governing equation for the evolution of drop thickness, which includes both models. An experimental procedure is described next, which we use in order to estimate the volatility parameter corresponding to each model. We also describe the numerical code, which we use to solve the governing equation for drop thickness, and show how this equation can be used to predict which evaporation model is more appropriate for a particular physical problem. Next, we perform linear stability analysis (LSA) of perturbed thin film configuration. We find excellent agreement between our numerical results and LSA predictions. Furthermore, these results indicate that the IPA/Si configuration is the most unstable one, in direct agreement with experimental results. We perform numerical simulations in the simplified 2d geometry (cross section of the drop) for both planar and radial symmetry and show that our theoretical model reproduces the main features of the experiment, namely, the formation of "octopus"-like features ahead of the contact line of an evaporating drop. Finally, we perform quasi-3d numerical simulations of evaporating drops, where stability to azimuthal perturbations of the contact line is examined. We recover the "octopi" instability for IPA/Si configuration, similarly as seen in the experiments.

Murisic, Nebojsa

2008-12-01

349

Acute effects of nitrogen dioxide after accidental release.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: Following an accidental release of nitrogen dioxide from a railroad tank car containing nitrous tetroxide, the authors undertook a study of the health effects of the release, measuring the association between acute low level exposure and pulmonary symptoms. METHODS: The authors reviewed the records of three emergency departments, surveyed 80 emergency department patients, 552 community residents, 21 chemical plant workers, and 29 emergency workers, and conducted a case-control study. Pulmonary case status was defined as having an objective pulmonary finding noted on the emergency department record, reporting that the onset of symptoms was subsequent to the release, and being within the city limits at the time of the release. Self-reported case status was defined as reporting one or more symptoms consistent with exposure to nitrogen dioxide in the week after the release and having been within the city limits at the time of the release. Control subjects were survey respondents who reported no symptoms in the week after the release and had been within the city limits at the time of the release. Chemical exposure was characterized by proximity to, direction from, and being outdoors within one hour after the release. Duration of potential exposure was not measured. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence interval for symptoms by exposure level, adjusted for age, sex, smoking, and preexisting pulmonary conditions. RESULTS: Local emergency department visits increased fivefold in the week after the release. The most common complaints recorded in a systematic sample of 528 visits in the first 30 hours after the release were headache (31%), burning eyes (30%), and sore throat (24%). Objective pulmonary findings were recorded for 41 (5%) patients in the week before and 165 (4%) in the week after the release. The odds of being a pulmonary case increased by 40% for each quarter-mile increment in proximity to the release (odds ratio [OR] 1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1, 1.7), while the odds of being a self-reported case increased by 20% for each quarter-mile increment in proximity (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1, 1.4). People who met the pulmonary case definition were 2.5 times (CI 1.3, 4.8) more likely than control subjects to have been outdoors and 6.4 times (CI 3.2, 12.6) more likely to report a preexisting pulmonary condition. Self-reported cases were 2.6 times (95% CI 1.8, 3.8) more likely than control subjects to have been outdoors and 1.9 times (95% CI 1.1, 3.1) more likely to report a preexisting pulmonary condition. CONCLUSIONS: Emergency department visits increased five-fold, but serious acute health effects were uncommon. People who met the pulmonary case definition were six times more likely to report pulmonary symptoms than those without preexisting conditions. This study was not designed to determine any potential long-term effects of exposure. PMID:9475936

Bauer, U; Berg, D; Kohn, M A; Meriwether, R A; Nickle, R A

1998-01-01

350

Accidental Coverage of Both Renal Arteries during Infrarenal Aortic Stent-Graft Implantation: Cause and Treatment  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this paper is to report a salvage maneuver for accidental coverage of both renal arteries during endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) of an infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). A 72-year-old female with a 6?cm infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm was treated by endovascular means with a standard bifurcated graft. Upon completing an angiogram, both renal arteries were found to be accidentally occluded. Through a left percutaneous brachial approach, the right renal artery was catheterized and a chimney stent was deployed; however this was not possible for the left renal artery. A retroperitoneal surgical approach was therefore carried out with a retrograde chimney stent implanted to restore blood flow. After three months, both renal arteries were patent and renal function was not different from the baseline. Both endovascular with percutaneous access via the brachial artery and open retroperitoneal approaches with retrograde catheterization are feasible rescue techniques to recanalize the accidentally occluded renal arteries during EVAR. PMID:25544930

Bracale, Umberto Marcello; Giribono, Anna Maria; Vitale, Gaetano; Narese, Donatella; Santini, Gianpaolo; del Guercio, Luca

2014-01-01

351

Alternative Geothermal Power Production Scenarios  

DOE Data Explorer

The information given in this file pertains to Argonne LCAs of the plant cycle stage for a set of ten new geothermal scenario pairs, each comprised of a reference and improved case. These analyses were conducted to compare environmental performances among the scenarios and cases. The types of plants evaluated are hydrothermal binary and flash and Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) binary and flash plants. Each scenario pair was developed by the LCOE group using GETEM as a way to identify plant operational and resource combinations that could reduce geothermal power plant LCOE values. Based on the specified plant and well field characteristics (plant type, capacity, capacity factor and lifetime, and well numbers and depths) for each case of each pair, Argonne generated a corresponding set of material to power ratios (MPRs) and greenhouse gas and fossil energy ratios.

Sullivan, John

352

Alternative Geothermal Power Production Scenarios  

SciTech Connect

The information given in this file pertains to Argonne LCAs of the plant cycle stage for a set of ten new geothermal scenario pairs, each comprised of a reference and improved case. These analyses were conducted to compare environmental performances among the scenarios and cases. The types of plants evaluated are hydrothermal binary and flash and Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) binary and flash plants. Each scenario pair was developed by the LCOE group using GETEM as a way to identify plant operational and resource combinations that could reduce geothermal power plant LCOE values. Based on the specified plant and well field characteristics (plant type, capacity, capacity factor and lifetime, and well numbers and depths) for each case of each pair, Argonne generated a corresponding set of material to power ratios (MPRs) and greenhouse gas and fossil energy ratios.

Sullivan, John

2014-03-14

353

Contact angle hysteresis of cylindrical drops on chemically heterogeneous striped surfaces  

E-print Network

Contact angle hysteresis of a macroscopic droplet on a heterogeneous but flat substrate is studied using the interface displacement model. First, the apparent contact angle of a droplet on a heterogeneous surface under the condition of constant volume is considered. By assuming a cylindrical liquid-vapor surface (meniscus) and minimizing the total free energy, we derive an equation for the apparent contact angle, which is similar but different from the well-known Cassie's law. Next, using this modified Cassie's law as a guide to predict the behavior of a droplet on a heterogeneous striped surface, we examine several scenarios of contact angle hysteresis using a periodically striped surface model. By changing the volume of the droplet, we predict a sudden jump of the droplet edge, and a continuous change of the apparent contact angle at the edge of two stripes. Our results suggest that as drop volume is increased (advancing contact lines), the predominant drop configuration observed is the one whose contact angle is large; whereas, decreasing drop volume from a large value (receding contact lines) yields drop configuration that predominantly exhibit the smaller contact angle.

Masao Iwamatsu

2005-11-26

354

Registration Info Drop/Add Additional Courses Step 7: Drop/Add  

E-print Network

, and continuing students can make changes during the open enrollment period. Please be aware of Web RegistrationCUInfo after the drop deadline (through the 10 week deadline). To access this form go to the Student Tab in My

Mojzsis, Stephen J.

355

Surface and Bulk Oscillations of Sessile Drops: Clearing Up Confusion and Understanding Wind Sheared Drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sessile drop oscillations are studied in the presence of a shearing airflow, and varying body force. The various possibilities for analysis, (center of mass or drop surface oscillations) are elucidated through presenting a unifying analysis framework based on wavenumber, frequency, and fluid properties. This work examines a range of fluid properties in a single study for the first time. A dispersion relation is found relating the frequency of centroid oscillation and capillary-gravity wave number, depending on the ratio (surface tension/liquid density)^1/2, drop size-3/2 and contact angle. The effects of contact angle are more complex than previously suggested simplifications, or analytic solutions for axisymetric drops and must at present be treated empirically. The growth of sessile drop oscillations is linear at low air velocities and exponential at higher air velocities. This is explained by drawing analogies to drops experiencing a varying body force, and to wind driven capillary-gravity waves on lakes, respectively. Liquid viscosity retards the growth of the waves, and has other important effects.

Milne, Andrew J. B.; Defez Garcia, Beatriz; Cabrerizo Vilchez, Miguel; Amirfazli, Alidad

2011-11-01

356

Laplacian drop shapes and effect of random perturbations on accuracy of surface tension measurement for different drop constellations.  

PubMed

Theoretical drop shapes are calculated for three drop constellations: pendant drops, constrained sessile drops, and unconstrained sessile drops. Based on total Gaussian curvature, shape parameter and critical shape parameter are discussed as a function of different drop sizes and surface tensions. The shape parameter is linked to physical parameters for every drop constellation. The as yet unavailable detailed dimensional analysis for the unconstrained sessile drop is presented. Results show that the unconstrained sessile drop shape depends on a dimensionless volume term and the contact angle. Random perturbations are introduced and the accuracy of surface tension measurement is assessed for precise and perturbed profiles of the three drop constellations. It is concluded that pendant drops are the best method for accurate surface tension measurement, followed by constrained sessile drops. The unconstrained sessile drops come last because they tend to be more spherical at low and moderate contact angles. Of course, unconstrained sessile drops are the only option if contact angles are to be measured. PMID:25466689

Saad, Sameh M I; Neumann, A Wilhelm

2014-11-13

357

Description of the Scenario Machine  

E-print Network

We present here an updated description of the "Scenario Machine" code. This tool is used to carry out a population synthesis of binary stars. Previous version of the description can be found at http://xray.sai.msu.ru/~mystery//articles/review/contents.html

V. M. Lipunov; K. A. Postnov; M. E. Prokhorov; A. I. Bogomazov

2007-09-26

358

Transportation scenarios for risk analysis.  

SciTech Connect

Transportation risk, like any risk, is defined by the risk triplet: what can happen (the scenario), how likely it is (the probability), and the resulting consequences. This paper evaluates the development of transportation scenarios, the associated probabilities, and the consequences. The most likely radioactive materials transportation scenario is routine, incident-free transportation, which has a probability indistinguishable from unity. Accident scenarios in radioactive materials transportation are of three different types: accidents in which there is no impact on the radioactive cargo, accidents in which some gamma shielding may be lost but there is no release of radioactive material, and accident in which radioactive material may potentially be released. Accident frequencies, obtainable from recorded data validated by the U.S. Department of Transportation, are considered equivalent to accident probabilities in this study. Probabilities of different types of accidents are conditional probabilities, conditional on an accident occurring, and are developed from event trees. Development of all of these probabilities and the associated highway and rail accident event trees are discussed in this paper.

Weiner, Ruth F.

2010-09-01

359

Scenario analysis for combat systems  

SciTech Connect

Under the current environment of budget cuts and force reductions, the U.S. Army must determine the resources required to ensure the ability to deal with contingencies throughout the world. Scenario analysis employs an optimization routine to determine the forces required to defeat several specified threats in diverse geographical locations. Uncertainty is assumed and exhibited by assigning probabilities to a finite set of events (scenarios). The optimization routine is a linear program that is executed for each potential event The results identify the forces required to achieve success in each scenario, and includes the resource implications to procure, maintain, and staff the force. The technique has been employed in several studies, mainly to develop up to an armor brigade, using results from approved computer combat models. The results of a study to develop a force to conduct several early entry operations will be presented. For this study, over 20 different combat systems were included in the trade-offs to develop the force necessary to achieve success in three contingencies. Overall scenario analysis shows a substantial capability in providing a fast tool to gain insights in developing a robust threat-based force.

Laferriere, R.

1994-12-31

360

Pressure drop consideration of control valves  

SciTech Connect

Control valves develop a pressure drop in order to restrict the flow of liquids in HVAC hydronic systems. Theoretically, the amount of this pressure drop can be rather large. However, for practical noise, erosion, and wear reasons, there should be limitations. This paper is related to the pressure recovery ability of control valves. The pressure recovery is dependent on the internal design of the valve and the system operating conditions. For example, the operation of an automatic flow-limiting valve (ASHRAE 1992) is discussed. This discussion is applicable to any valve that controls flow by means of restricting the flow passage area. Typically, these include automatic temperature control, manual balancing, and the automatic pressure-actuated flow-limiting valves.

Golestan, F. [Flow Design, Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)

1998-10-01

361

Acute confusion secondary to steroid eye drops.  

PubMed

We present a case of a 90-year-old woman who presented to the acute medical unit with a new onset presentation of confusion. Her abbreviated mental test on admission was 5/10. Biochemical screen including full blood count, urea and electrolytes, C reactive protein and liver function test and imaging such as chest X-ray and CT of the head were normal. The patient had recently been started on steroid eye drops for shingles. Suspension of this medication was followed by a resolution of confusion with the abbreviated mental test on discharge improving to 9/10. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first presentation of a link between steroid eye drops and acute confusion. PMID:25540207

Farooq, Umar; Dallol, Bander

2014-01-01

362

Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) Contest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first NASA Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) student competition pilot project came to a conclusion at the Glenn Research Center in April 2001. The competition involved high-school student teams who developed the concept for a microgravity experiment and prepared an experiment proposal. The two student teams - COSI Academy, sponsored by the Columbus Center of Science and Industry, and another team from Cincinnati, Ohio's Sycamore High School, designed a microgravity experiment, fabricated the experimental apparatus, and visited NASA Glenn to operate their experiment in the 2.2 Second Drop Tower. Students from Sycamore High School in Cincinnati, Ohio (girls), and the COSI Academy, Columbus, Ohio (boys), participated. This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

2001-01-01

363

DROP: Durable Reconnaissance and Observation Platform  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Robots have been a valuable tool for providing a remote presence in areas that are either inaccessible or too dangerous for humans. Having a robot with a high degree of adaptability becomes crucial during such events. The adaptability that comes from high mobility and high durability greatly increases the potential uses of a robot in these situations, and therefore greatly increases its usefulness to humans. DROP is a lightweight robot that addresses these challenges with the capability to survive large impacts, carry a usable payload, and traverse a variety of surfaces, including climbing vertical surfaces like wood, stone, and concrete. The platform is crash-proof, allowing it to be deployed in ways including being dropped from an unmanned aerial vehicle or thrown from a large MSL-class (Mars Science Laboratory) rover.

Parness, Aaron; McKenzie, Clifford F.

2012-01-01

364

Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) contest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first NASA Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) student competition pilot project came to a conclusion at the Glenn Research Center in April 2001. The competition involved high-school student teams who developed the concept for a microgravity experiment and prepared an experiment proposal. The two student teams - COSI Academy, sponsored by the Columbus Center of Science and Industry, and another team from Cincinnati, Ohio's Sycamore High School, designed a microgravity experiment, fabricated the experimental apparatus, and visited NASA Glenn to operate their experiment in the 2.2 Second Drop Tower. Here, students from Sycamore High School in Cincinnati, Ohio, help a NASA technician prepare their experiment. This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

2001-01-01

365

Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) contest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first NASA Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) student competition pilot project came to a conclusion at the Glenn Research Center in April 2001. The competition involved high-school student teams who developed the concept for a microgravity experiment and prepared an experiment proposal. The two student teams - COSI Academy, sponsored by the Columbus Center of Science and Industry, and another team from Cincinnati, Ohio's Sycamore High School, designed a microgravity experiment, fabricated the experimental apparatus, and visited NASA Glenn to operate their experiment in the 2.2 Second Drop Tower. This is the interior of the Sycamore High School (Cincinnati, Ohio) students' experiment to observe the flame spreading on a 100 percent cotton T-shirt under low-g. This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

2001-01-01

366

Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) contest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first NASA Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) student competition pilot project came to a conclusion at the Glenn Research Center in April 2001. The competition involved high-school student teams who developed the concept for a microgravity experiment and prepared an experiment proposal. The two student teams - COSI Academy, sponsored by the Columbus Center of Science and Industry, and another team from Cincinnati, Ohio's Sycamore High School, designed a microgravity experiment, fabricated the experimental apparatus, and visited NASA Glenn to operate their experiment in the 2.2 Second Drop Tower. Here Carol Hodanbosi of the National Center for Microgravity Research and Jose Carrion, a lab mechanic with AKAC, prepare a student experiment package (inside the silver-colored frame) inside the orange-colored drag shield that encloses all experiment hardware. This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

2001-01-01

367

Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) Contest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first NASA Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) student competition pilot project came to a conclusion at the Glenn Research Center in April 2001. The competition involved high-school student teams who developed the concept for a microgravity experiment and prepared an experiment proposal. The two student teams - COSI Academy, sponsored by the Columbus Center of Science and Industry, and another team from Cincinnati, Ohio's Sycamore High School, designed a microgravity experiment, fabricated the experimental apparatus, and visited NASA Glenn to operate their experiment in the 2.2 Second Drop Tower. Pictured are students from COSI Academy, Columbus, Ohio and their teacher. The other team was from Sycamore High School in Cincinnati, Ohio. This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

2001-01-01

368

Pressure Drop in a Pebble Bed Reactor  

E-print Network

2010 Major Subject: Nuclear Engineering PRESSURE DROP IN A PEBBLE BED REACTOR A Thesis by CHANGWOO KANG Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved by: Chair of Committee, Yassin A. Hassan Committee Members, William H. Marlow Kalyan Annamalai Head of Department, Raymond J. Juzaitis August 2010 Major Subject: Nuclear Engineering iii ABSTRACT...

Kang, Changwoo

2011-10-21

369

Tendon transfers for the drop foot.  

PubMed

The paralytic drop foot represents a challenging problem for even the most experienced orthopedic surgeon. Careful patient selection, thorough preoperative examination and planning, and application of tendon transfer biomechanical and physiologic principles outlined in this article can lead to successful results, either through a posterior tibialis tendon transfer, Bridle transfer, or variations on these procedures. Achilles lengthening or gastrocnemius recession may also be needed at the time of tendon transfer. PMID:24548510

Schweitzer, Karl M; Jones, Carroll P

2014-03-01

370

Chimpanzee Droppings Lead Scientists to Evolutionary Discovery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This case study looks at the research of Dr. Beatrice Hahn, who used DNA sequences in chimpanzee droppings to find the origins of HIV. The material is appropriate for introductory biology courses for both science and health majors and non majors. The lesson is intended for high school and lower level undergraduate students. The case study and teaching notes may be downloaded in PDF format. The site also includes a section for instructor feedback where general comments may be read and contributed.

Kosal, Erica F.

371

Modeling Evaporation of Drops of Different Kerosenes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mathematical model describes the evaporation of drops of a hydrocarbon liquid composed of as many as hundreds of chemical species. The model is intended especially for application to any of several types of kerosenes commonly used as fuels. The concept of continuous thermodynamics, according to which the chemical composition of the evaporating multicomponent liquid is described by use of a probability distribution function (PDF). However, the present model is more generally applicable than is its immediate predecessor.

Bellan, Josette; Harstad, Kenneth

2007-01-01

372

Probable warfarin interaction with menthol cough drops.  

PubMed

Warfarin is a widely used and effective oral anticoagulant; however, the agent has an extensive drug and food interaction profile. We describe a 46-year-old African-American man who was receiving warfarin for a venous thromboembolism and experienced a decrease in his international normalized ratio (INR). No corresponding reduction had been made in his warfarin dosage, and no changes had been made in his concomitant drug therapy or diet. The patient's INR fell from a therapeutic value of 2.6 (target range 2-3) to 1.6 while receiving a weekly warfarin dose of 50 mg. His INR remained stable at 1.6 for 3 weeks despite incremental increases in his warfarin dose. The patient reported that he had been taking 8-10 menthol cough drops/day due to dry conditions at his workplace during the time period that the INR decreased. Five days after discontinuing the cough drops, his INR increased from 1.6 to 2.9. Over the subsequent 5 weeks, his INR was stabilized at a much lower weekly warfarin dose of 40 mg. Use of the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale indicated that the decreased INR was probably related to the concomitant use of menthol cough drops during warfarin therapy. The mechanism for this interaction may be related to the potential for menthol to affect the cytochrome P450 system as an inducer and inhibitor of certain isoenzymes that would potentially interfere with the metabolism of warfarin. To our knowledge, this is the second case report of an interaction between warfarin and menthol. Patients receiving warfarin should be closely monitored, as they may choose to take over-the-counter products without considering the potential implications, and counseled about a possible interaction with menthol cough drops. PMID:20030479

Coderre, Karen; Faria, Claudio; Dyer, Earl

2010-01-01

373

Low-Pressure-Drop Shutoff Valve  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flapper valve remains open under normal flow conditions but closes upon sudden increases to high rate of flow and remains closed until reset. Valve is fluid/mechanical analog of electrical fuse or circuit breaker. Low-pressure-drop shutoff valve contains flapper machined from cylindrical surface. During normal flow conditions, flapper presents small cross section to flow. (Useful in stopping loss of fluid through leaks in cooling systems.)

Thornborrow, John

1994-01-01

374

Diffusion Of Mass In Evaporating Multicomponent Drops  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report summarizes study of diffusion of mass and related phenomena occurring in evaporation of dense and dilute clusters of drops of multicomponent liquids intended to represent fuels as oil, kerosene, and gasoline. Cluster represented by simplified mathematical model, including global conservation equations for entire cluster and conditions on boundary between cluster and ambient gas. Differential equations of model integrated numerically. One of series of reports by same authors discussing evaporation and combustion of sprayed liquid fuels.

Bellan, Josette; Harstad, Kenneth G.

1992-01-01

375

1. Preventing Accidental Changes of Pacemaker Controls Do not place the Model 5388 in any area where patients may  

E-print Network

1. Preventing Accidental Changes of Pacemaker Controls Do not place the Model 5388 in any area where patients may interact with it. The temporary pacemaker should be placed in an area that minimizes disposable cover helps prevent accidental changes of temporary pacemaker controls, including the emergency

Kay, Mark A.

376

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 2. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF CHLORINE (SCAQMD) (SOUTH COAST AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT DISTRICT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The manual discusses reducing the risk associated with an accidental release of chlorine. It identifies some of the potential causes of accidental releases that apply to the processes that use chlorine. It also identifies examples of potential causes, as well as measures that may...

377

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES, VOL. 2. POST-RELEASE MITIGATION MEASURES FOR CONTROLLING ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF AIR TOXICS  

EPA Science Inventory

The volume discusses prevention and protection measures for controlling accidental releases of air toxics. The probability of accidental releases depends on the extent to which deviations (in magnitude and duration) in the process can be tolerated before a loss of chemical contai...

378

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES, VOLUME 2: POST-RELEASE MITIGATION MEASURES FOR CONTROLLING ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF AIR TOXICS  

EPA Science Inventory

The volume discusses prevention and protection measures for controlling accidental releases of air toxics. The probability of accidental releases depends on the extent to which deviations (in magnitude and duration) in the process can be tolerated before a loss of chemical contai...

379

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES. VOLUME 1. PREVENTION AND PROTECTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR CONTROLLING ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF AIR TOXICS  

EPA Science Inventory

The volume discusses prevention and protection measures for controlling accidental releases of air toxics. The probability of accidental releases depends on the extent to which deviations (in magnitude and duration) in the process can be tolerated before a loss of chemical contai...

380

Towards the operational estimation of a radiological plume using data assimilation after a radiological accidental atmospheric release  

E-print Network

Towards the operational estimation of a radiological plume using data assimilation after a radiological accidental atmospheric release Victor Winiareka , Julius Virab , Marc Bocqueta,c , Mikhail Sofievb- ological plume using data assimilation after a radiological accidental atmospheric release. Atmos. Env. 45

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

381

Building scenarios for Hong Kong using EMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Managers facing substantial uncertainties find it helpful to construct scenarios describing alternative futures. The scenarios reveal a variety of possible futures that managers might face, and the scenario construction process can offer insights into the source of future uncertainties. As part of the scenario-building process it is useful to talk with people who are knowledgeable about the events depicted in

Robert W. Blanning; Bruce A. Reinig

1998-01-01

382

Scenario-Based Requirement Analysis 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for scenario based requirements engineering is described. T he method uses two types of scenario, structure models of the system context and s cripts of system usage. A modelling language is reported for describing scenarios, a nd heuristics are given to cross check dependencies between scenario models and the require ments specification. Heuristics are grouped into several analytic

Alistair Sutcliffe

1998-01-01

383

Artemisinin Scenario Analysis Summary of findings  

E-print Network

Artemisinin Scenario Analysis Summary of findings May, 2009 #12;1Artemisinin Scenario Analysis Scenario Analysis_vfinal for distribution.ppt Key findings Demand for ACTs expected increase to ~275M Scenario Analysis_vfinal for distribution.ppt Agenda Market overview · ACT demand forecast and assumptions

Elliott, Chris

384

Aluminum: Principled Scenario Exploration through Minimality  

E-print Network

Aluminum: Principled Scenario Exploration through Minimality Tim Nelson1, Salman Saghafi1, Daniel J Aluminum, a modification of Alloy that presents only minimal scenarios: those that contain no more than is necessary. Aluminum lets users explore the scenario space by adding to scenarios and backtracking. It also

Krishnamurthi, Shriram

385

Aluminum: Principled Scenario Exploration through Minimality  

E-print Network

Aluminum: Principled Scenario Exploration through Minimality Tim Nelson1, Salman Saghafi1, Daniel J. We present Aluminum, a modification of Alloy that presents only minimal scenarios: those that contain no more than is necessary. Aluminum lets users explore the scenario space by adding to scenarios

Dougherty, Daniel J.

386

Genomics and society: four scenarios for 2015  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops four alternative scenarios depicting possible futures for genomics applications within a broader social context. The scenarios integrate forecasts for future genomics applications with key drivers that are shaping genomics. Each scenario is a narrative depiction of an alternative path towards four very different futures for genomics. The scenarios are intended to give the user the a framework

Mark Justman; Clement Bezold; William R. Rowley

2002-01-01

387

Low arc drop hybrid mode thermionic converter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The hybrid mode operation for the reduction of plasma drops is being investigated. This report discusses the results obtained from two molybdenum emitter converters. One converter had a molybdenum collector and the other a nickel collector. The molybdenum collector converter was operated in a hybrid mode (at an interelectrode distance of 1.7 mm) and produced a minimum barrier index of 1.96 eV at an emitter temperature of 1500 K. The arc drop was calculated to be 0.14 eV, using the published results for a molybdenum collector. On the other hand, the nickel collector converter was operated in a conventional ignited mode (at an interelectrode distance of 0.5 mm) and produced a minimum barrier index of 2.1 eV at an emitter temperature of 1700 K. It is tentatively concluded that a large-gap operation of the hybrid mode converter permits the diffusion of cesium ions to a distance in the order of one millimeter for an effective neutralization of electron space charge. By employing a low work function collector (1.55 eV) in a hybrid mode converter with an arc drop of 0.14 eV, it appears that a barrier index as low as 1.69 eV could be achieved.

Shimada, K.

1977-01-01

388

Excess equimolar radius of liquid drops.  

PubMed

The curvature dependence of the surface tension is related to the excess equimolar radius of liquid drops, i.e., the deviation of the equimolar radius from the radius defined by the macroscopic capillarity approximation. Based on the Tolman [J. Chem. Phys. 17, 333 (1949)] approach and its interpretation by Nijmeijer et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 96, 565 (1991)], the surface tension of spherical interfaces is analyzed in terms of the pressure difference due to curvature. In the present study, the excess equimolar radius, which can be obtained directly from the density profile, is used instead of the Tolman length. Liquid drops of the truncated and shifted Lennard-Jones fluid are investigated by molecular dynamics simulation in the canonical ensemble, with equimolar radii ranging from 4 to 33 times the Lennard-Jones size parameter ?. In these simulations, the magnitude of the excess equimolar radius is shown to be smaller than ?/2. This suggests that the surface tension of liquid drops at the nanometer length scale is much closer to that of the planar vapor-liquid interface than reported in studies based on the mechanical route. PMID:22587106

Horsch, Martin; Hasse, Hans; Shchekin, Alexander K; Agarwal, Animesh; Eckelsbach, Stefan; Vrabec, Jadran; Müller, Erich A; Jackson, George

2012-03-01

389

Organization of microbeads in Leidenfrost drops.  

PubMed

We investigated the organization of micrometric hydrophilic beads (glass or basalt) immersed in Leidenfrost drops. Starting from a large volume of water compared to the volume of the beads, while the liquid evaporates, we observed that the grains are eventually trapped at the interface of the droplet and accumulate. At a moment, the grains entirely cover the droplet. We measured the surface area at this moment as a function of the total mass of particles inserted in the droplet. We concluded that the grains form a monolayer around the droplet assuming (i) that the packing of the beads at the surface is a random close packing and (ii) that the initial surface of the drop is larger than the maximum surface that the beads can cover. Regarding the evaporation dynamics, the beads are found to reduce the evaporation rate of the drop. The slowdown of the evaporation is interpreted as being the consequence of the dewetting of the particles located at the droplet interface which makes the effective surface of evaporation smaller. As a matter of fact, contact angles of the beads with the water deduced from the evaporation rates are consistent with contact angles of beads directly measured at a flat air-water interface of water in a container. PMID:24705688

Maquet, Laurent; Colinet, Pierre; Dorbolo, Stéphane

2014-06-21

390

Leaf drop affects herbivory in oaks.  

PubMed

Leaf phenology is important to herbivores, but the timing and extent of leaf drop has not played an important role in our understanding of herbivore interactions with deciduous plants. Using phylogenetic general least squares regression, we compared the phenology of leaves of 55 oak species in a common garden with the abundance of leaf miners on those trees. Mine abundance was highest on trees with an intermediate leaf retention index, i.e. trees that lost most, but not all, of their leaves for 2-3 months. The leaves of more evergreen species were more heavily sclerotized, and sclerotized leaves accumulated fewer mines in the summer. Leaves of more deciduous species also accumulated fewer mines in the summer, and this was consistent with the idea that trees reduce overwintering herbivores by shedding leaves. Trees with a later leaf set and slower leaf maturation accumulated fewer herbivores. We propose that both leaf drop and early leaf phenology strongly affect herbivore abundance and select for differences in plant defense. Leaf drop may allow trees to dispose of their herbivores so that the herbivores must recolonize in spring, but trees with the longest leaf retention also have the greatest direct defenses against herbivores. PMID:23774946

Pearse, Ian S; Karban, Richard

2013-11-01

391

Viscosity Measurement using Drop Coalescence in Microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present in here details of a new method, using drop coalescence, for application in microgravity environment for determining the viscosity of highly viscous undercooled liquids. The method has the advantage of eliminating heterogeneous nucleation at container walls caused by crystallization of undercooled liquids during processing. Also, due to the rapidity of the measurement, homogeneous nucleation would be avoided. The technique relies on both a highly accurate solution to the Navier-Stokes equations as well as on data gathered from experiments conducted in near zero gravity environment. The liquid viscosity is determined by allowing the computed free surface shape relaxation time to be adjusted in response to the measured free surface velocity of two coalescing drops. Results are presented from two validation experiments of the method which were conducted recently on board the NASA KC-135 aircraft. In these tests the viscosity of a highly viscous liquid, such as glycerine at different temperatures, was determined to reasonable accuracy using the liquid coalescence method. The experiments measured the free surface velocity of two glycerine drops coalescing under the action of surface tension alone in low gravity environment using high speed photography. The free surface velocity was then compared with the computed values obtained from different viscosity values. The results of these experiments were found to agree reasonably well with the calculated values.

Antar, Basil N.; Ethridge, Edwin; Maxwell, Daniel

1999-01-01

392

Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) Contest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first NASA Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) student competition pilot project came to a conclusion at the Glenn Research Center in April 2001. The competition involved high-school student teams who developed the concept for a microgravity experiment and prepared an experiment proposal. The two student teams - COSI Academy, sponsored by the Columbus Center of Science and Industry, and another team from Cincinnati, Ohio's Sycamore High School, designed a microgravity experiment, fabricated the experimental apparatus, and visited NASA Glenn to operate their experiment in the 2.2 Second Drop Tower. NASA and contractor personnel who conducted the DIME activity with the students. Shown (L-R) are: Daniel Dietrich (NASA) mentor for Sycamore High School team), Carol Hodanbosi (National Center for Microgravity Research; DIME staff), Jose Carrion (GRC Akima, drop tower technician), Dennis Stocker (NASA; DIME staff), Richard DeLombard (NASA; DIME staff), Sandi Thompson (NSMR sabbatical teacher; DIME staff), Peter Sunderland (NCMR, mentor for COSI Academy student team), Adam Malcolm (NASA co-op student; DIME staff). This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

2001-01-01

393

Influence of arterial wall compliance on the pressure drop across coronary artery stenoses under hyperemic flow condition.  

PubMed

Hemodynamic endpoints such as flow and pressure drop are often measured during angioplasty procedures to determine the functional severity of a coronary artery stenosis. There is a lack of knowledge regarding the influence of compliance of the arterial wall-stenosis on the pressure drop under hyperemic flows across coronary lesions. This study evaluates the influence in flow and pressure drop caused by variation in arterial-stenosis compliance for a wide range of stenosis severities. The flow and pressure drop were evaluated for three different severities of stenosis and tested for limiting scenarios of compliant models. The Mooney-Rivlin model defined the non-linear material properties of the arterial wall and the plaque regions. The non-Newtonian Carreau model was used to model the blood flow viscosity. The fluid (blood)-structure (arterial wall) interaction equations were solved numerically using the finite element method. Irrespective of the stenosis severity, the compliant models produced a lower pressure drop than the rigid artery due to compliance of the plaque region. A wide variation in the pressure drop was observed between different compliant models for significant (90% area occlusion) stenosis with 41.0, 32.1, and 29.8 mmHg for the rigid artery, compliant artery with calcified plaque, and compliant artery with smooth muscle cell proliferation, respectively. When compared with the rigid artery for significant stenosis the pressure drop decreased by 27.7% and 37.6% for the calcified plaque and for the smooth muscle cell proliferation case, respectively. These significant variations in pressure drop for the higher stenosis may lead to misinterpretation and misdiagnosis of the stenosis severity. PMID:21391325

Konala, Bhaskar Chandra; Das, Ashish; Banerjee, Rupak K

2011-03-01

394

14 CFR 23.727 - Reserve energy absorption drop test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Reserve energy absorption drop test. 23.727 Section 23...Gear § 23.727 Reserve energy absorption drop test. (a) If compliance with the reserve energy absorption requirement in §...

2010-01-01

395

14 CFR 23.727 - Reserve energy absorption drop test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Reserve energy absorption drop test. 23.727 Section 23...Gear § 23.727 Reserve energy absorption drop test. (a) If compliance with the reserve energy absorption requirement in §...

2012-01-01

396

14 CFR 23.727 - Reserve energy absorption drop test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Reserve energy absorption drop test. 23.727 Section 23...Gear § 23.727 Reserve energy absorption drop test. (a) If compliance with the reserve energy absorption requirement in §...

2014-01-01

397

14 CFR 23.727 - Reserve energy absorption drop test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Reserve energy absorption drop test. 23.727 Section 23...Gear § 23.727 Reserve energy absorption drop test. (a) If compliance with the reserve energy absorption requirement in §...

2013-01-01

398

14 CFR 23.727 - Reserve energy absorption drop test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Reserve energy absorption drop test. 23.727 Section 23...Gear § 23.727 Reserve energy absorption drop test. (a) If compliance with the reserve energy absorption requirement in §...

2011-01-01

399

14 CFR 23.725 - Limit drop tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...by free drop tests, these tests must be made on the complete airplane, or on units consisting of wheel, tire, and shock absorber, in their proper relation, from free drop heights not less than those determined by the following formula:...

2010-01-01

400

14 CFR 23.725 - Limit drop tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...by free drop tests, these tests must be made on the complete airplane, or on units consisting of wheel, tire, and shock absorber, in their proper relation, from free drop heights not less than those determined by the following formula:...

2014-01-01

401

14 CFR 23.725 - Limit drop tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...by free drop tests, these tests must be made on the complete airplane, or on units consisting of wheel, tire, and shock absorber, in their proper relation, from free drop heights not less than those determined by the following formula:...

2012-01-01

402

14 CFR 23.725 - Limit drop tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...by free drop tests, these tests must be made on the complete airplane, or on units consisting of wheel, tire, and shock absorber, in their proper relation, from free drop heights not less than those determined by the following formula:...

2013-01-01

403

14 CFR 23.725 - Limit drop tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...by free drop tests, these tests must be made on the complete airplane, or on units consisting of wheel, tire, and shock absorber, in their proper relation, from free drop heights not less than those determined by the following formula:...

2011-01-01

404

Controlling drop coalescence using nano-engineered surfaces  

E-print Network

The dynamics of drop coalescence are explored on micro-scale surface features for the first time. Drop coalescence is defined as a process by which two or more droplets, bubbles or particles merge during contact to form a ...

Corral, Manuel, Jr

2011-01-01

405

Characterizing the mechanical properties of drop stitch inflatable structures  

E-print Network

This study investigates the mechanical properties of drop stitch inflatable structures with specific reference to inflatable stand up paddleboards. A sample of drop stitch material was fabricated and simple beam bending ...

DiGiovanna, Lia (Lia Rose)

2013-01-01

406

Liquid Drop Runs Upward between Two Nonparallel Plates.  

PubMed

We have recently observed an interesting phenomenon: even under gravity, a microliter-scaled silicone oil drop was still able to run upward between two nonparallel plates that were approximately vertically placed. We also saw the same phenomenon in the case of isopropyl alcohol (IPA) drops. In this work, we developed simple models to interpret this phenomenon, followed by experimental validation. We demonstrated that, by changing the locations of drops or tilt and opening angles of plates, the moving directions of silicone oil, IPA, and water drops could be controlled. In the cases of silicone oil and IPA, we also found that the speed of a drop had a linear relation with the square of the drop location when the drop was far away from the corner of two nonparallel plates and that the drop moved faster as it became closer to this corner. PMID:25701003

Heng, Xin; Luo, Cheng

2015-03-10

407

HMT Hospitality Management KEY: # = new course * = course changed = course dropped  

E-print Network

HMT Hospitality Management KEY: # = new course * = course changed = course dropped UniversityHumanEnvironmentalSciences HMT 120 INTRODUCTION TO HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT AND TOURISM. (3 of instructor. #12;HMT Hospitality Management KEY: # = new course * = course changed = course dropped

MacAdam, Keith

408

Multiple scattering and accidental coincidences in the J-PET detector simulated using GATE package  

E-print Network

Novel Positron Emission Tomography system, based on plastic scintillators, is developed by the J-PET collaboration. In order to optimize geometrical configuration of built device, advanced computer simulations are performed. Detailed study is presented of background given by accidental coincidences and multiple scattering of gamma quanta.

Kowalski, P; Wi?licki, W; Raczy?ski, L; Bednarski, T; Bia?as, P; Bu?ka, J; Czerwi?ski, E; Gajos, A; Gruntowski, A; Kami?ska, D; Kap?on, ?; Kochanowski, A; Korcyl, G; Kowal, J; Kozik, T; Krzemie?, W; Kubicz, E; Nied?wiecki, Sz; Pa?ka, M; Rudy, Z; Salabura, P; Sharma, N G; Silarski, M; S?omski, A; Smyrski, J; Strzelecki, A; Wieczorek, A; Wochlik, I; Zieli?ski, M; Zo?, N

2015-01-01

409

Emergency operational meteorological considerations during an accidental release of hazardous chemicals. Technical memo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accidental release of toxic chemicals into the atmosphere has always been of great concern among local emergency response authorities. Evacuation of persons in and around the affected area, the amount of chemical spilled, and atmospheric conditions governing the downwind concentrations are among some of the more pressing issues confronting local hazardous materials (HAZMAT) personnel. Recently, the National Oceanic and

P. Mueller; J. Galt

1991-01-01

410

Accidental Discovery of Information on the User-Defined Social Web: A Mixed-Method Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Frequently interacting with other people or working in an information-rich environment can foster the "accidental discovery of information" (ADI) (Erdelez, 2000; McCay-Peet & Toms, 2010). With the increasing adoption of social web technologies, online user-participation communities and user-generated content have provided users the…

Lu, Chi-Jung

2012-01-01

411

Framework for preventing accidental falls in hospitals - management plan for ADL, medication and medical conditions.  

PubMed

Prevention and reduction of medical accidents is essential. Among medical accidents, accidental falls remain a serious problem. While "assessment score sheets" have already been used in hospitals to prevent accidental falls, satisfactory results have not actually been achieved. In this study, we aim to establish a methodology for preventing accidental falls. We consider that the 'management plan' for each patient includes three factors. A plan of instructions for patients on actions they can take for safety in their ADL (Activities of Daily Living) is essential as a base. Second, a plan to keep up with any short term change in a patient's state is needed, because the state of a hospitalized patient will usually be temporarily affected by medication and changing medical conditions. We develop a model for preventing accidental falls, which enable us to design appropriate management plan for each patient. Then, we develop a prototype system based on the designed model. Finally, we address the result of verification of the model, by applying the prototype system into actual cases in hospitals. PMID:19592884

Kato, Shogo; Tsuru, Satoko; Iizuka, Yoshinori

2009-01-01

412

Coping with Serious Accidental Injury: A One-Year Follow-Up Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The aim of this study was to analyze changes of coping strategies in severely injured accident victims over time and to compare patients with high and low posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom levels with regard to their coping patterns and accident-related cognitions. Methods: 106 consecutive patients with severe accidental injuries admitted to a trauma surgery intensive care unit (ICU)

Urs Hepp; Hanspeter Moergeli; Stefan Büchi; Lutz Wittmann; Ulrich Schnyder

2005-01-01

413

Confiding in others and illness rate among spouses of suicide and accidental-death victims  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveyed 19 spouses (mean age 37.5 yrs) of suicide and accidental death victims (representing a 61.3% response rate of all relevant cases that occurred in 1982 in a metropolitan county) concerning their health and coping strategies approximately 1 yr after their spouse's death. Results show that the more Ss discussed their spouse's death with friends and the less that they

James W. Pennebaker; Robin C. OHeeron

1984-01-01

414

Vibration behavior and response to an accidental collision of SFT prototype in Qiandao Lake (China)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents free vibration analysis of the submerged floating tunnel (SFT) prototype, which has been designed to be built in Qiandao Lake (China). As an approximation the supporting effect of the tethers is omitted in the calculation of beam-like bending vibrations. As a case study, the response of the SFT prototype to an accidental collision by an object like

Shuangyin Zhang; Lei Wang; Youshi Hong

2010-01-01

415

Accidental contact burns of the upper limb in children with obstetric brachial plexus injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

The denervated limb of the child with obstetrical brachial plexus injury is theoretically at risk of contact burns. A prospective study was designed to document the incidence and clinical presentation of these burn injuries in a series of 127 birth palsy cases. The study group included 90 Erb's and 37 total plexus palsy cases. Accidental burns occurred in 11% of

M. M. Al-Qattan

1999-01-01

416

New Tracers Identify Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids and Accidental Releases from Oil and Gas Operations  

E-print Network

New Tracers Identify Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids and Accidental Releases from Oil and Gas fingerprints of fluids that return to the surface after high volume hydraulic fracturing of unconventional oil elemental and isotopic signatures (B/Cl, Li/Cl, 11 B, and 7 Li) useful for characterizing hydraulic

Jackson, Robert B.

417

[Accidental injection of adrenaline in a finger with EpiPen].  

PubMed

We report a case of accidental injection of 0.3 mg epinephrine in the right pollux. The actual case was treated with systemic nitroglyceride and immersion of the finger in hot water. A review of the literature shows that the adequate treatment is local infiltration with Phentholamine Mesylate. There is a need to describe this treatment in conventional literature. PMID:9816965

Kaspersen, J; Vedsted, P

1998-11-01

418

Accidental Epipen injection into a digit - the value of a Google search.  

PubMed

Despite the lack of awareness by the clinicians consulted of the most suitable treatment for accidentally injected epinephrine, this patient was successfully treated due mainly to the ability of clinicians on-site to access the Internet in the A&E department. A broad search engine such as Google can be an invaluable tool in finding important clinical information rapidly. PMID:15140311

Turner, M J A; Purushotham, A D

2004-05-01

419

A Method for Reliability Assessment of Aircraft Structures Subject to Accidental Damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method has been proposed to assess the reliability of aircraft structures subject to accidental damage using in-service damage data. The development of this method is motivated by the increasing use of composite materials in aircraft structures, which are particularly sensitive to impact damage. In addition, damage to composite structures may not be visible or may be difficult to detect.

Cary K. Huang; Kuen Y. Lin

420

Analyzing exposure of school children to accidental releases of hazardous substances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concerns regarding consequences of hazardous chemical accidents and children's environmental health have increased substantially in recent years. The objectives of this paper are to: (a) demonstrate a methodology for identifying areas potentially exposed to accidental releases of hazardous substances in a large metropolitan region (Hillsborough County, Florida); (b) examine the number and type of schools and school children at risk;

JAYAJIT CHAKRABORTY

2001-01-01

421

Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning presenting without a history of exposure: A case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Carbon monoxide poisoning is easy to diagnose when there is a history of exposure. When the exposure history is absent, or delayed, the diagnosis is more difficult and relies on recognising the importance of multi-system disease. We present a case of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning. CASE PRESENTATION: A middle-aged man, who lived alone in his mobile home was found

Luke Bennetto; Louise Powter; Neil J Scolding

2008-01-01

422

Accidental Entry of Fish into Throat While Bathing in a Pond  

PubMed Central

While fish bones are common foreign bodies in the throat, a whole live fish in the pharynx is very rare. We report a case where a whole fish accidentally entered the throat of a 52-year-old male, where it became lodged causing throat pain and dysphagia. The fish was removed as an emergency procedure. PMID:24371443

Parida, Pradipta Kumar; Surianarayanan, Gopalakrishnan

2013-01-01

423

SUMMARY OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF RADIOACTIVITY DETECTED OFF THE NEVADA TEST SITE, 1963-1986  

EPA Science Inventory

Of the more than 450 underground nuclear explosives tests conducted at the Nevada Test Site from August 1963 (signing of the Limited Test Ban Treaty) through the end of 1986, only 23 accidentally released radioactivity that was detectable beyond the boundary of the NTS. Of these ...

424

Effect of neighboring particles on drop coalescence at an interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coalescence of a liquid drop in the presence of an adjacent solid particle or liquid drop is studied using high-speed visualization and Tomographic PIV. A drop of water\\/glycerin (W\\/G), surrounded by silicone oil of matched refractive index, is released onto an underlying W\\/G interface. A nylon sphere, neutrally buoyant with respect to the drop liquid, is placed adjacent to

Ankur Bordoloi; Deepak Adhikari; Ellen Longmire

2010-01-01

425

Electrocoalescence of drops in a water-in-oil emulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrocoalescence of water drops in a stagnant water-in-oil emulsion has been studied in a newly developed test cell. An homogeneous electric field was applied across the emulsion volume. It was used to observe drop behaviour in a multi-drop system. The emulsion was made of napthenic oil containing chemically stabilized water drops with size in the range of 5-100 ¿m. Insulated

Jorunn Holto; Gunnar Berg; Lars E. Lundgaard

2009-01-01

426

DROPVARS: Stata module: drops all existing variables in a list  

Microsoft Academic Search

dropvars varlist is similar to drop varlist, but warns if a variable does not exists, rather than aborts. Note that capture drop varlist either drops all variables or none. dropvar varlist is equivalent to for var varlist: capture drop X For those with Stata v6 on an internet-accessible machine, install by typing .net cd http:\\/\\/www.fss.uu.nl\\/soc\\/iscore\\/stata\\/ then .net install dropvars

Jeroen Weesie

1999-01-01

427

Radiative and gas cooling of falling molten drops  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The supercooling rate and solidification time for molten drops of niobium, copper, and lead are calculated. Calculations for both radiation and helium gas cooling are presented in order to estimate the influence that the presence of helium gas would have upon the cooling rate of falling drops in the Marshall Space Flight Center space processing drop tube.

Robinson, M. B.

1978-01-01

428

Packet Dropping Policies for ATM and IP Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selective packet dropping policies have been used to reduce congestion and transmission of traffic that would inevitably be retransmitted. For data applications using best-effort services, packet dropping policies (PDPs) are congestion management mechanisms implemented at each intermediate node that decide, reactively or proactively, to drop packets to reduce congestion and free up precious buffer space. While the primary goal of

Miguel A. Labrador; Sujata Banerjee

1999-01-01

429

Drop formation dynamics of constant low-viscosity, elastic fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics of drop formation under gravity has been investigated as a function of elasticity using a set of low-viscosity, ideal elastic fluids and an equivalent Newtonian glycerol–water solution. All solutions had the same shear viscosity, equilibrium surface tension, and density, but differed greatly in elasticity. The minimum drop radius in the early stages of drop formation (necking) was found

J. J. Cooper-White; J. E. Fagan; V. Tirtaatmadja; D. R. Lester; D. V. Boger

2002-01-01

430

Pressure Drop for Subsonic Gas Flow in Microchannels and Nanochannels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this article is to furnish the research and design communities with a simple and convenient means of predicting pressure drop for subsonic gas flow in microducts. The pressure drop is utilized to overcome the friction against the walls and simultaneously accelerate the flow to compensate for the decrease in density. A general pressure drop model for approximately

Zhipeng Duan

2012-01-01

431

Self-Assembled Arrays of Non-Coalescent Water Drops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Condensation figures form over polymer dissolved in volatile solvent exposed to a stream of moist air. These patterns are hexagonally symmetric and they comprise of non-coalescent and nearly monodisperse water drops. Typical condensation figures have a range of drop sizes, resulting from the nucleation, growth and coalescence of different generations of water drops. In this study, we image the pattern

Vivek Sharma; Mohan Srinivasarao

2008-01-01

432

Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Bounding Drop Support Calculations  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates different drop heights, concrete and other impact media to which the transport package and/or the MCO is dropped. A prediction method is derived for estimating the resultant impact factor for determining the bounding drop case for the SNF Project.

CHENAULT, D.M.

1999-11-16

433

IR-Thermography of Evaporating Acoustically Levitated Drops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface temperature of evaporating acoustically levitated drops has been monitored by IR-thermography. The thermography system has been calibrated by simultaneous measurements with a thin thermocouple. The integral IR-emission coefficients of a few pure liquids have been derived. Evaporation processes of pure liquids and of binary mixtures of liquids have been studied with levitated drops. Using drop surface temperatures, we

R. Tuckermann; S. Bauerecker; H. K. Cammenga

2005-01-01

434

The Illustrated Topology of Liquid Drops during Formation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High-speed photography can show that the shape often used for a newly forming drop is wrong. Knowledge of drop behaviour is important for inkjet printers, and a close look at the formation of drops as given here can enhance critical observation, thinking and analysis.

Libii, Josue Njock

2004-01-01

435

POLICIES CONCERNING UNDERGRADUATE REGISTRATION CHANGES (DROP/ADD) FALL 2014  

E-print Network

(no signatures or fee required) overloads and underloads: For overloads: Students must submit a request for overload (link on WebAdvisor Student menu) to carry greater than 14 credits. For underloads of overload no - drop instructor(s), adviser, dean drops, adds no $100 all instructor(s), adviser, dean drops

Marsh, David

436

Delayed Frost Growth on Jumping-Drop Superhydrophobic Surfaces  

SciTech Connect

Self-propelled jumping drops are continuously removed from a condensing superhydrophobic surface to enable a micrometric steady-state drop size. Here, we report that subcooled condensate on a chilled superhydrophobic surface are able to repeatedly jump off the surface before heterogeneous ice nucleation occurs. Frost still forms on the superhydrophobic surface due to ice nucleation at neighboring edge defects, which eventually spreads over the entire surface via an inter-drop frost wave. The growth of this inter-drop frost front is shown to be up to three times slower on the superhydrophobic surface compared to a control hydrophobic surface, due to the jumping-drop effect dynamically minimizing the average drop size and surface coverage of the condensate. A simple scaling model is developed to relate the success and speed of inter-drop ice bridging to the drop size distribution. While other reports of condensation frosting on superhydrophobic surfaces have focused exclusively on liquid-solid ice nucleation for isolated drops, these findings reveal that the growth of frost is an inter-drop phenomenon that is strongly coupled to the wettability and drop size distribution of the surface. A jumping-drop superhydrophobic condenser was found to be superior to a conventional dropwise condenser in two respects: preventing heterogeneous ice nucleation by continuously removing subcooled condensate, and delaying frost growth by minimizing the success of interdrop ice bridge formation.

Boreyko, Jonathan B [ORNL; Collier, Pat [ORNL

2013-01-01

437

Evaluation of pressure response in the Los Alamos controlled air incinerator during three incident scenarios  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos Controlled Air Incinerator (CAI) is a system designed to accept radioactive mixed waste containing alpha-emitting radionuclides. A mathematical model was developed to predict the pressure response throughout the offgas treatment system of the CAI during three hypothetical incident scenarios. The scenarios examined included: (1) loss of burner flame and failure of the flame safeguard system with subsequent reignition of fuel gas in the primary chamber, (2) pyrolytic gas buildup from a waste package due to loss of induced draft and subsequent restoration of induced draft, and (3) accidental charging of propellant spray cans in a solid waste package to the primary chamber during a normal feed cycle. For each of the three scenarios, the finite element computer model was able to determine the transient pressure surge and decay response throughout the system. Of particular interest were the maximum absolute pressures attainable at critical points in the system as well as maximum differential pressures across the high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. Modeling results indicated that all three of the scenarios resulted in maximum HEPA filter differential pressures well below the maximum allowable levels.

Vavruska, J.S. [Equinox, Ltd., Santa Fe, NM (United States); Elsberry, K. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Thompson, T.K.; Pendergrass, J.A. [T.K. Thompson, Inc., White Rock, NM (United States)

1996-05-01

438

Dome It Challenge Scenario Cards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Student teams find solutions to hypothetical challenge scenarios that require them to sustainably manage both resources and wastes. They begin by creating a card representing themselves and the resources (inputs) they need and wastes (outputs) they produce. Then they incorporate additional cards for food and energy components and associated necessary resources and waste products. They draw connections between outputs that provide inputs for other needs, and explore the problem of using linear solutions in resource-limited environments. Then students incorporate cards based on biorecycling technologies, such as algae photobioreactors and anaerobic digesters in order to make circular connections. Finally, the student teams present their complete biorecycling engineering solutions to their scenarios—in poster format—by connecting outputs to inputs, and showing the cycles of how wastes become resources.

2014-09-18

439

Scenario driven requirements analysis method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application specific scenarios are used to develop a system's requirements-specification document and then iterate through the software development lifecycle. A seamless object-oriented approach is presented, suitable for the development of large real-time systems. It starts with requirements-analysis and specifications definition. It then iterates through the design, implementation, and test phases. The items of interest in each phase of the lifecycle

Wei Wang; Steve Hufnagel; Pei Hsia; Seung Min Yang

1992-01-01

440

Pressure Drop in Radiator Air Tubes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes a method for measuring the drop in static pressure of air flowing through a radiator and shows (1) a reason for the discrepancy noted by various observers between head resistance and drop in pressure; (2) a difference in degree of contraction of the jet in entering a circular cell and a square cell; (3) the ratio of internal frictional resistance to total head resistance for two representative types; (4) the effect of smoothness of surface on pressure gradient; and (5) the effects of supplying heat to the radiator on pressure gradient. The fact that the pressure gradients are found to be approximately proportional to the square of the rate of flow of air appears to indicate turbulent flow, even in the short tubes of the radiator. It was found that the drop in the static pressure in the air stream through a cellular radiator and the pressure gradient in the air tubes are practically proportional to the square of the air flow in a given air density; that the difference between the head resistance per unit area and the fall of static pressure through the air tubes in radiators is apparent rather than real; and that radiators of different types differ widely in the amount of contraction of the jet at entrance. The frictional resistance was found to vary considerably, and in one case to be two-thirds of the head resistance in the type using circular cells and one-half of the head resistance of the radiator type using square cells of approximately the same dimensions.

Parsons, S R

1921-01-01

441

Predicting Pressure Drop In Porous Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Theory developed to predict drop in pressure based on drag of individual fibers. Simple correlation method for data also developed. Helps in predicting flow characteristics of many strain-isolation pad (SIP) glow geometries in Shuttle Orbiter tile system. Also helps in predicting venting characteristics of tile assemblies during ascent and leakage of hot gas under tiles during descent. Useful in study of mechanics of flows through fibrous and porous media, and procedures applicable to purged fiberglass insulation, dialysis filters, and other fibrous and porous media.

Lawing, Pierce L.

1990-01-01

442

``Water Drops'' Essays Available for Public Radio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

``Water Drops'' are 90-second essays on water science, hydrology, culture, history, organizations, law, and policy that have aired weekly on radio station WRVO-FM in Oswego, N.Y., since January 2006. Created for the lay public with a basic understanding of Earth science, the 133 essays now are available on Public Radio Exchange (http://www.prx.org) for free use by public radio stations, according to terms set forth at the Exchange Web site that include citing appropriate credits. If aired weekly, there are enough essays for 2.5 years of radio programming.

Black, Peter E.

2007-11-01

443

Naval Waste Package Drop With Emplacement Pallet  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this calculation was to determine the structural responses of the Emplacement Pallet and Naval Long Waste Package (WP) to drops from their highest possible lift heights. The scope of this document was limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of maximum stress intensities. The Naval Long WP is classified as Quality Level 1 (Ref 12, page 7, Table 1). The Emplacement Pallet is classified as Quality Level 2 (Ref. 19, page 7, Table 1). Therefore, this calculation is subject to the requirements of the Quality Assurance Requirements and Description (Ref. 11). AP-3.12Q, Calculations, was used to perform the calculation and develop the document (Ref. 3).

D.G. McLenzie

2005-08-04

444

Chimpanzee Droppings Lead Scientists to Evolutionary Discovery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interrupted case study focuses on the research of Dr. Beatrice Hahn, who investigates DNA sequences in chimpanzee droppings in order to explore the origins of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Students first consider the types of data that can be gained through collecting chimpanzee feces and studying the behavior of these animals. Students then apply this information to learn more about microevolution when they compare DNA sequences. Finally, students learn about ELISA tests and consider the role of basic and applied science. This case study is appropriate for an introductory biology course for non-majors or majors.

Erica F. Kosal

2008-01-01

445

Vertical vibration and shape oscillation of acoustically levitated water drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the vertical harmonic vibration of levitated water drops within ultrasound field. The restoring force to maintain such a vibration mode is provided by the resultant force of acoustic radiation force and drop gravity. Experiments reveal that the vibration frequency increases with the aspect ratio for drops with the same volume, which agrees with the theoretical prediction for those cases of nearly equiaxed drops. During the vertical vibration, the floating drops undergo the second order shape oscillation. The shape oscillation frequency is determined to be twice the vibration frequency.

Geng, D. L.; Xie, W. J.; Yan, N.; Wei, B.

2014-09-01

446

Vertical vibration and shape oscillation of acoustically levitated water drops  

SciTech Connect

We present the vertical harmonic vibration of levitated water drops within ultrasound field. The restoring force to maintain such a vibration mode is provided by the resultant force of acoustic radiation force and drop gravity. Experiments reveal that the vibration frequency increases with the aspect ratio for drops with the same volume, which agrees with the theoretical prediction for those cases of nearly equiaxed drops. During the vertical vibration, the floating drops undergo the second order shape oscillation. The shape oscillation frequency is determined to be twice the vibration frequency.

Geng, D. L.; Xie, W. J.; Yan, N.; Wei, B., E-mail: bbwei@nwpu.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072 (China)

2014-09-08

447

An experimental study of dynamics of drop formation  

SciTech Connect

A liquid being ejected from a nozzle emanates from it as discrete, uniformly sized drops when the flow rate is sufficiently low. In this paper, an experimental study is presented of the dynamics of a viscous liquid drop that is being formed directly at the tip of a vertical tube into ambient air. The evolution in time of the drop shape and volume is monitored with a time resolution of 1/12 to 1 ms. Following the detachment of the previous drop, the profile of the new growing drop at first changes from spherical to pear-shaped. As time advances, the throat of the pear-shaped drop takes on the appearance of a liquid thread that connects the bottom portion of the drop that is about to detach to the rest of the liquid that is pendant from the tube. The focus here is on probing the effects of physical and geometric parameters on the universal features of drop formation, paying special attention to the development, extension, and breakup of the liquid thread and the satellite drops that are formed subsequent to its breakup. The role of surfactants in modifying the dynamics of drop formation is also studied. The effects of finite inertial, capillary, viscous, and gravitational forces are all accounted for to classify drastically different formation dynamics and to elucidate the fate of satellite drops following thread rupture.

Zhang, X.; Basaran, O.A. [Chemical Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6224 (United States)] [Chemical Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6224 (United States)

1995-06-01

448

Effect of neighboring particles on drop coalescence at an interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coalescence of a liquid drop in the presence of an adjacent solid particle or liquid drop is studied using high-speed visualization and Tomographic PIV. A drop of water/glycerin (W/G), surrounded by silicone oil of matched refractive index, is released onto an underlying W/G interface. A nylon sphere, neutrally buoyant with respect to the drop liquid, is placed adjacent to the drop. Three initial conditions are considered: the particle is wetted in W/G so that the interface maintains an angle of contact with the particle, the particle is wetted in oil so that it rests above the interface, and the particle is placed so that it maintains an angle of contact with the drop already resting above the interface. These cases are compared with that of two neighboring W/G drops. Off-axis rupture near the solid particle was found to be dominant in cases where the particle was wetted with W/G. However, when the particle was wetted with oil, the point of rupture occurred closer to the drop-axis. The film rupture in the drop is followed by retraction of the film and finally collapse of the drop. Both visualization and PIV results show that the trajectory of the collapsing drop depends on the initial contact condition as well as the rupture location.

Bordoloi, Ankur; Adhikari, Deepak; Longmire, Ellen

2010-11-01

449

Determinants of Suicide and Accidental or Violent Death in the Australian HIV Observational Database  

PubMed Central

Background Rates of suicide and accidental or violent death remain high in HIV-positive populations despite significantly improved prognosis since the introduction of cART. Methods We conducted a nested case-control study of suicide and accidental or violent death in the Australian HIV Observational Database (AHOD) between January 1999 and March 2012. For each case, 2 controls were matched by clinic, age, sex, mode of exposure and HIV-positive date to adjust for potential confounding by these covariates. Risk of suicide and accidental or violent death was estimated using conditional logistic regression. Results We included 27 cases (17 suicide and 10 violent/accidental death) and 54 controls. All cases were men who have sex with men (MSM) or MSM/ injecting drug use (IDU) mode of exposure. Increased risk was associated with unemployment (Odds Ratio (OR) 5.86, 95% CI: 1.69–20.37), living alone (OR 3.26, 95% CI: 1.06–10.07), suicidal ideation (OR 6.55, 95% CI: 1.70–25.21), and >2 psychiatric/cognitive risk factors (OR 4.99, 95% CI: 1.17–30.65). CD4 cell count of >500 cells/µL (OR 0.25, 95% CI: 0.07–0.87) and HIV-positive date ?1990 (1990–1999 (OR 0.31, 95% CI: 0.11–0.89), post-2000 (OR 0.08, 95% CI: 0.01–0.84)) were associated with decreased risk. CD4 cell count ?500 cells/µL remained a significant predictor of reduced risk (OR 0.15, 95% CI: 0.03–0.70) in a multivariate model adjusted for employment status, accommodation status and HIV-positive date. Conclusions After adjustment for psychosocial factors, the immunological status of HIV-positive patients contributed to the risk of suicide and accidental or violent death. The number of psychiatric/cognitive diagnoses contributed to the level of risk but many psychosocial factors were not individually significant. These findings indicate a complex interplay of factors associated with risk of suicide and accidental or violent death. PMID:24586519

McManus, Hamish; Petoumenos, Kathy; Franic, Teo; Kelly, Mark D.; Watson, Jo; O’Connor, Catherine C.; Jeanes, Mark; Hoy, Jennifer; Cooper, David A.; Law, Matthew G.

2014-01-01

450

Spent fuel receipt scenarios study  

SciTech Connect

This study reports on the results of an assignment from the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management to evaluate of the effects of different scenarios for receipt of spent fuel on the potential performance of the waste packages in the proposed Yucca Mountain high-level waste repository. The initial evaluations were performed and an interim letter report was prepared during the fall of 1988. Subsequently, the scope of work was expanded and additional analyses were conducted in 1989. This report combines the results of the two phases of the activity. This study is a part of a broader effort to investigate the options available to the DOE and the nuclear utilities for selection of spent fuel for acceptance into the Federal Waste Management System for disposal. Each major element of the system has evaluated the effects of various options on its own operations, with the objective of providing the basis for performing system-wide trade-offs and determining an optimum acceptance scenario. Therefore, this study considers different scenarios for receipt of spent fuel by the repository only from the narrow perspective of their effect on the very-near-field temperatures in the repository following permanent closure. This report is organized into three main sections. The balance of this section is devoted to a statement of the study objective, a summary of the assumptions. The second section of the report contains a discussion of the major elements of the study. The third section summarizes the results of the study and draws some conclusions from them. The appendices include copies of the waste acceptance schedule and the existing and projected spent fuel inventory that were used in the study. 10 refs., 27 figs.

Ballou, L.B.; Montan, D.N.; Revelli, M.A.

1990-09-01

451

The Composite Twin Higgs scenario  

E-print Network

Based on an explicit model, we propose and discuss the generic features of a possible implementation of the Twin Higgs program in the context of composite Higgs models. We find that the Twin Higgs quadratic divergence cancellation argument can be uplifted to a genuine protection of the Higgs potential, based on symmetries and selection rules, but only under certain conditions which are not fulfilled in some of the existing models. We also find that a viable scenario, not plagued by a massless Twin Photon, can be obtained by not gauging the Twin Hypercharge and taking this as the only source of Twin Symmetry breaking at a very high scale.

Riccardo Barbieri; Davide Greco; Riccardo Rattazzi; Andrea Wulzer

2015-03-25

452

The Composite Twin Higgs scenario  

E-print Network

Based on an explicit model, we propose and discuss the generic features of a possible implementation of the Twin Higgs program in the context of composite Higgs models. We find that the Twin Higgs quadratic divergence cancellation argument can be uplifted to a genuine protection of the Higgs potential, based on symmetries and selection rules, but only under certain conditions which are not fulfilled in some of the existing models. We also find that a viable scenario, not plagued by a massless Twin Photon, can be obtained by not gauging the Twin Hypercharge and taking this as the only source of Twin Symmetry breaking at a very high scale.

Barbieri, Riccardo; Rattazzi, Riccardo; Wulzer, Andrea

2015-01-01

453

ALTERNATIVE JET FUEL SCENARIO ANALYSIS Final Report  

E-print Network

1 ALTERNATIVE JET FUEL SCENARIO ANALYSIS REPORT Final Report U.S. Department of Transportation Alternative jet fuel scenario analysis report 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Kristin Lewis, Shuchi Mitra

454

A high-drop hole-type photonic crystal add-drop filter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the effect of total internal reflection (TIR) and photonic band gap, a new type of hexagonal-lattice hole-type silicon photonic crystal add-drop filter is proposed with a large circular hole as inner ring. The single mode operation is realized by compressing the two rows of photonic crystal above and below the line defect waveguide. Two-dimensional (2D) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is then applied to investigate the impacts of side length of inner ring and coupling strength on its drop efficiency. It is also fairly compared with the traditional inner ring structure composed of hexagonal-lattice holes. The results show that the proposed structure can offer higher spectral selectivity than the traditional one. Two channel wavelengths of 1.425 ?m and 1.45 ?m can be simultaneously dropped at corresponding ports with drop efficiency of more than 90% and quality factor of 900 in the proposed configuration when the width of bus waveguide, the side length of inner ring and the coupling strength are 0.8 ?3 a, 4 a and 0, respectively, where a is the lattice constant.

Jiang, Jun-zhen; Qiang, Ze-xuan; Zhang, Hao; Zheng, Yan-min; Qiu, Yi-shen

2014-01-01

455

Community Mental Health Services: Dropping-In and Dropping-Out.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of studies have examined variables that discriminate individuals who drop out of mental health programs. However, relatively little attention has been focused on determining characteristics of individuals who fail to follow through after their initial contact with mental health services. This study was designed to provide a profile of…

Lonigan, Christopher J.; Muzekari, Louis H.

456

Drop breakage in liquid–liquid stirred dispersions: Modelling of single drop breakage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new experimental approach has been developed for the identification of reasonable break-up mechanisms in stirred dispersions and of a physically based model for the daughter drop size distribution. In the experiments, breakage of a single organic droplet and the subsequent fragments formation are analyzed by image processing techniques. The experimental data are then fitted by means of a daughter

Alessio Zaccone; Ansor Gäbler; Sebastian Maaß; Daniele Marchisio; Matthias Kraume

2007-01-01

457

Step 7: Drop/Add Dropping and Adding Courses Enrollment Appointments  

E-print Network

begins, and continuing students can make changes during the open enrollment period. · Please be aware (through the 10 week deadline in spring and fall terms). To access this form go to the Student Tab in myCUinfo after the drop deadline through November 2. To access this form go to the Student Tab in myCUinfo. Click

Mojzsis, Stephen J.

458

Pathogen and nutrient pulsing and attenuation in "accidental" urban wetland networks along the Salt River in Phoenix, AZ  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increases in available nutrients and bacteria in urban streams are at the forefront of research concerns within the ecological and medical communities, and both pollutants are expected to become more problematic under projected changes in climate. Season, discharge, instream conditions (oxygen, water velocity), and weather conditions (antecedent moisture) all may influence loading rates to and the retention capabilities of wetlands fed by urban runoff and storm flow. The aim of this research was to examine the effect of these variables on nutrient (nitrogen, phosphorus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) loading and attenuation along flow paths in urban wetland networks along the Salt River in Phoenix, AZ. Samples were collected for one year along flowpaths through wetlands that formed below six perennially flowing outfalls. Collection took place monthly during baseflow (dry season) conditions, and before and immediately following storm events, in the summer monsoon and winter rainy seasons. Water quality was assessed at the following points: immediately downstream of the outfall, mid-wetland, and downstream of the wetland. For determination of E. coli counts, samples were plated on coliform-selective media (Chromocult) and incubated for 24 hours. Plates were then used to enumerate E. coli. For determination of nutrient concentrations, samples were filtered and frozen until they could be analyzed by ion chromatography and automated wet chemistry. During both summer and winter, total discharge into the wetlands increased during storm events. Concentrations of PO43+, NH4+, and E. coli were significantly higher following storm events than during baseflow conditions, and post-storm peaks in concentration ('pulses') were higher during the summer monsoon than in winter storms. Pulses of pollutants during storms were highest when preceded by hot, dry conditions. NO3- was high in both base and stormflow. E. coli counts and nutrient concentrations dropped along flowpaths through the wetlands, indicating high attenuation capability even during storms. Attenuation of nutrients during baseflow appeared to be a function of microbial processing, while during stormflow, when water retention time in the wetlands was reduced, attenuation was likely explained by other factors, such as sediment adsorption. Potential tradeoffs emerged between removal of NO3- (highest under low dissolved oxygen) and E. coli (highest under high dissolved oxygen) during baseflow. Climate change models project increases in severe droughts and extreme precipitation events for the southwestern United States, which can lead to more sewage leakages and increases in contaminated runoff from impervious surfaces in urban areas. Wetlands are constructed or restored to mitigate microbial contamination of wastewater. Our research indicates that even "accidental" urban wetlands can serve to reduce downstream transport of nutrients and pathogens in storm and wastewater. However, wetland restoration or design targeting increased water retention time may increase the capability of accidental wetlands in this urban desert river channel to remove nutrients and pathogens from stormwater.

Palta, M. M.; Grimm, N. B.

2013-12-01

459

Visualizing inter-dependencies between scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the main challenges in understanding a scenario- based speciflcation of a reactive system is rooted in the inter-dependencies between the scenarios. These are inher- ently implicit in the very idea of scenario-based program- ming. We introduce a graph-based visualization of such inter-dependencies, and implement it in a tool we call SIV (for Scenario Inter-dependency Visualization), which sup- plies

David Harel; Itai Segall

2008-01-01

460

Scenario Development for the Southwestern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary goal of employing a scenario development approach for the U.S. southwest is to inform regional policy by examining future possibilities related to regional vegetation change, water-leasing, and riparian restoration. This approach is necessary due to a lack of existing explicit water resources application of scenarios to the entire southwest region. A formal approach for scenario development is adopted and applied towards water resources issues within the arid and semi-arid regions of the U.S. southwest following five progressive and reiterative phases: scenario definition, scenario construction, scenario analysis, scenario assessment, and risk management. In the scenario definition phase, the inputs of scientists, modelers, and stakeholders were collected in order to define and construct relevant scenarios to the southwest and its water sustainability needs. From stakeholder-driven scenario workshops and breakout sessions, the three main axes of principal change were identified to be climate change, population development patterns, and quality of information monitoring technology. Based on the extreme and varying conditions of these three main axes, eight scenario narratives were drafted to describe the state of each scenario's respective future and the events which led to it. Events and situations are described within each scenario narrative with respect to key variables; variables that are both important to regional water resources (as distinguished by scientists and modelers), and are good tracking and monitoring indicators of change. The current phase consists of scenario construction, where the drafted scenarios are re-presented to regional scientists and modelers to verify that proper key variables are included (or excluded) from the eight narratives. The next step is to construct the data sets necessary to implement the eight scenarios on the respective computational models of modelers investigating vegetation change, water-leasing, and riparian restoration in the southwest

Mahmoud, M.; Gupta, H.; Stewart, S.; Liu, Y.; Hartmann, H.; Wagener, T.

2006-12-01

461

Scenarios for coastal vulnerability assessment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coastal vulnerability assessments tend to focus mainly on climate change and especially on sea-level rise. Assessment of the influence of nonclimatic environmental change or socioeconomic change is less well developed and these drivers are often completely ignored. Given that the most profound coastal changes of the twentieth century due to nonclimate drivers are likely to continue through the twenty-first century, this is a major omission. It may result in not only overstating the importance of climate change but also overlooking significant interactions of climate change and other drivers. To support the development of policies relating to climate change and coastal management, integrated assessments of climatic change in coastal areas are required, including the effects of all the relevant drivers. This chapter explores the development of scenarios (or "plausible futures") of relevant climate and nonclimate drivers that can be used for coastal analysis, with an emphasis on the nonclimate drivers. It shows the importance of analyzing the impacts of climate change and sea-level rise in a broader context of coastal change and all its drivers. This will improve the analysis of impacts, key vulnerabilities, and adaptation needs and, hence, inform climate and coastal policy. Stakeholder engagement is important in the development of scenarios, and the underlying assumptions need to be explicit, transparent, and open to scientific debate concerning their uncertainties/realism and likelihood.

Nicholls, Robert J.; Woodroffe, Colin D.; Burkett, Virginia; Hay, John; Wong, Poh Poh; Nurse, Leonard

2011-01-01

462

Formalizing Scenario Analysis Peter McBurney  

E-print Network

Formalizing Scenario Analysis Peter McBurney Department of Computer Science University of Liverpool and scenario analysis. 1 Introduction In many domains, the absence of hard data or the presence of conflicting policy determination, and in scientific domains. An early use of the methods of scenario analysis may

Parsons, Simon

463

Preview of Scenario Planning & Collaborative Modeling Processes  

E-print Network

; scenarios help us to plan. #12;Most models include scenarios; and most scenarios are based on models. #12;In Increase (linked to temperature) Moderate Drought Severity, frequency and duration all increase High #12;Drought Severity Duration and frequency change little Patterns change little Patterns shift ­ more

464

Building Scenarios from a Heterogeneous Alert Stream  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a realtime algorithm for combining the alerts produced by several heterogeneous intrusion detection sensors into sce- narios. Each scenario represents a sequence of actions performed by a single actor or organization. Our algorithm, which is probabilistic in na- ture, can determine the scenario membership of a new alert in time pro- portional to the number of candidate scenarios.

Oliver M. Dain; Robert K. Cunningham

2001-01-01

465

DEVELOPMENT OF IMPACT ORIENTED CLIMATE SCENARIOS  

EPA Science Inventory

Appropriate scenarios of future climate must be developed prior to any assessment of the impacts of climate change. he information needed by impact assessors was examined in consultation with those having experience in scenario use. ost assessors require regional scenarios with a...

466

Development and Change through Scenario Planning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the role of scenario planning as a development and change intervention. To do so, this article provides an overview of scenario planning and an overview of development and change in organizations. The article then builds on the philosophical orientations of development and change through scenario planning introducing the…

Chermack, Thomas J.; Walton, John S.

2004-01-01

467

Stress drop and strength drop: faulting dynamics of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seismic stress drop (EG) was estimated by dynamic wave inversion of slip produced by the September 21, 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan earthquake (Mw 7.6) at large slip region (10 m) of northern part of the fault [Ma et al., 2001], which show a large value around 40 MJ/m2. On the other hand, two data sets of temperature loggings both from shallow borehole in 2000 [Tanaka et al., 2002, 2006] and deep borehole in 2005 [Kano et al., 2006] penetrating Chelung-pu fault zone show positive thermal anomaly right on the slip zones. Considering the thermal conductivity directly measured from the retrieved core of the TCDP, we suggest that the temperature anomaly observed in the deeper hole might be resulted from the thermal conductivity fluctuation [Tanaka et al., in submission]. Thus, only the temperature logs from shallow hole was used to estimate dynamic friction during faulting [Tanaka et al., 2006]. Strength drop during faulting is estimated by thermal pressurization modeling of the slip zone materials recovered from deep borehole. Most of the parameters necessary for thermal pressurization calculations are obtained directory from recovered core and geophysical logging. Assuming some parameters, complete strength drop is estimated at the slip distance of 5 m, implying dynamic friction is close to zero after 5 m slip. In most of the calculation, dynamic energy for friction (Edf) is estimated to be extremely low, 1 to 10 MJ/m2 at the slip zone of 1 km depth. The amounts of stress drop from seismic wave inversion and strength drop from thermal pressurization is almost identical, around 12 MPa. Comparison between the two dynamic models lead to a conclusion that, if we consider the real value of fracture energy is presented as EG - Edf, more than 70 percent of the energy was consumed by fracturing in the slip zone at the depth of 1 km.

Hidemi, T.; Kuo-Fong, M.

2006-12-01

468

Photonic crystal surface-emitting lasers enabled by an accidental Dirac point  

SciTech Connect

A photonic-crystal surface-emitting laser (PCSEL) includes a gain medium electromagnetically coupled to a photonic crystal whose energy band structure exhibits a Dirac cone of linear dispersion at the center of the photonic crystal's Brillouin zone. This Dirac cone's vertex is called a Dirac point; because it is at the Brillouin zone center, it is called an accidental Dirac point. Tuning the photonic crystal's band structure (e.g., by changing the photonic crystal's dimensions or refractive index) to exhibit an accidental Dirac point increases the photonic crystal's mode spacing by orders of magnitudes and reduces or eliminates the photonic crystal's distributed in-plane feedback. Thus, the photonic crystal can act as a resonator that supports single-mode output from the PCSEL over a larger area than is possible with conventional PCSELs, which have quadratic band edge dispersion. Because output power generally scales with output area, this increase in output area results in higher possible output powers.

Chua, Song Liang; Lu, Ling; Soljacic, Marin

2014-12-02

469

Accidental Displacement of Third Molar into the Sublingual Space: a Case Report  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Background Successful extraction of third molars depends on preoperative diagnosis and planning. Gold standard preoperative examinations are performed through computed tomography, decreasing risks and avoiding potential accidents. The present report highlights the value of preoperative examinations in face of accidentally displaced third molars. Methods An 18-years-old female patient underwent a third mandibular molar extraction with a general dentist. Accidentally, the mandibular left third molar was displaced into the sublingual space, making necessary a second surgical step. The surgery was interrupted and the patient was referred to an expert in maxillofacial surgery. Results After 21 days awaiting an asymptomatic health status, the second surgical step was successfully performed using multislice computed tomography as preoperative imaging guide. Conclusions The present case report highlights the clinical usefulness of imaging planning and informed consents in face of legal and ethic potential complaints. PMID:25386232

Garcia, Robson Rodrigues; Botelho, Tessa Lucena; Franco, Ademir; Silva, Rhonan Ferreira

2014-01-01

470

Pre-hospital core temperature measurement in accidental and therapeutic hypothermia.  

PubMed

Core temperature (T core) measurement is the only diagnostic tool to accurately assess the severity of hypothermia. International recommendations for management of accidental hypothermia encourage T core measurement for triage, treatment, and transport decisions, but they also recognize that lack of equipment may be a limiting factor, particularly in the field. The aim of this nonsystematic review is to highlight the importance of field measurement of T core and to provide practical guidance for clinicians on pre-hospital temperature measurement in accidental and therapeutic hypothermia. Clinicians should recognize the difference between alternative measurement locations and available thermometers, tailoring their decision to the purpose of the measurement (i.e., intermittent vs. continual measurement), and the impact on management decisions. The importance of T core measurement in therapeutic hypothermia protocols during early cooling and monitoring of target temperature is discussed. PMID:24950388

Strapazzon, Giacomo; Procter, Emily; Paal, Peter; Brugger, Hermann

2014-06-01

471

Gibbs free energy of liquid drops on conical fibers.  

PubMed

Small drops can move spontaneously on conical fibers. As a drop moves along the cone, it must change shape to maintain a constant volume, and thus, it must change its surface energy. Simultaneously, the exposed surface area of the underlying cone must also change. The associated surface energies should balance each other, and the drop should stop moving when it reaches a location where the free energy is a minimum. In this paper, a minimum Gibbs free energy analysis has been performed to predict where a drop will stop on a conical fiber. To obtain the Gibbs free energies of a drop at different locations of a conical fiber, the theoretical expressions for the shape of a droplet on a conical fiber are derived by extending Carroll's equations for a drop on a cylindrical fiber. The predicted Gibbs free energy exhibits a minimum along the length of the cone. For a constant cone angle, as the contact angle between the liquid and the cone increases, the drop will move toward the apex of the cone. Likewise, for a constant contact angle, as the cone angle increases, the drop moves toward the apex. Experiments in which water and dodecane were placed on glass cones verify these dependencies. Thus, the final location of a drop on a conical fiber can be predicted on the basis of the geometry and surface energy of the cone, the surface tension and volume of the liquid, and the original location where the drop was deposited. PMID:21863839

Michielsen, Stephen; Zhang, Jinlin; Du, Jinmei; Lee, Hoon Joo

2011-10-01

472

Drops on hydrophilic conical fibers: gravity effect and coexistent States.  

PubMed

Controlling the droplet equilibrium location and shape on a conical fiber is essential to industrial applications such as dip-pen nanolithography. In this work, the equilibrium conformations of a drop on a vertical, conical fiber has been investigated by the finite element method, Surface Evolver simulations. Similar to the morphology of a drop on a cylinder, two different types (barrel shape and clam-shell shape) can be obtained. In the absence of gravity, the droplet moves upward (lower curvature) and the total surface energy decays as the drop ascends. Whatever the initial conformation of the drop on a conical fiber, the rising drop exhibits the clam-shell shape eventually and there is no equilibrium location. However, in the presence of gravity, the drop can stop at the equilibrium location stably. For a given contact angle, the clam-shell shape is generally favored for smaller drops but the barrel shape is dominant for larger drops. In a certain range of drop volume, the coexistence of both barrel and clam-shell shapes is observed. For large enough drops, the falling-off state is seen. PMID:25595207

Liang, Yu-En; Tsao, Heng-Kwong; Sheng, Yu-Jane

2015-02-10

473

Sessile drops: spreading versus evaporation-condensation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The equations that govern the dynamics of the liquid-vapor interface and contact line of a sessile drop in the spreading and evaporation-condensation regimes are derived. During spreading, the liquid-vapor interface and contact line convect with the liquid and are therefore material. In contrast, when evaporation or condensation occurs, the liquid-vapor interface and contact line migrate relative to the liquid and are therefore nonmaterial. For spreading, the evolution equations consist of kinematical constraints on the normal velocities of the liquid-vapor interface and contact line along with the normal and tangential components of the constitutively augmented standard force balances on the liquid-vapor interface and along the contact line. The tangential components of the standard force balances on the liquid-vapor interface and at the contact line, being solely dissipative, are automatically satisfied at equilibrium. The normal component of the standard force balance on the liquid-vapor interface reduces to the Young-Laplace equation, whereas its counterpart along the contact line simplifies to the generalization, accounting for line energy, of the Young equation mentioned by Gibbs. In the presence of evaporation or condensation, the kinematical constraints are no longer valid. Their absence is compensated for by the normal components of the configurational force balances on the liquid-vapor interface and along the contact line. Hence, away from equilibrium and in the presence of dissipation, a complete description of the liquid-vapor interface and contact line of a volatile drop involves the normal and tangential components of the standard force balances along with the normal components of the configurational force balances. At equilibrium, the normal component of the configurational force balance on the liquid-vapor interface simplifies to the condition for chemical equilibrium requiring the continuity of the chemical potential, whereas its counterpart along the contact line, being entirely dissipative, holds trivially. Comparison with recently proposed kinetic laws for the liquid-vapor interface and contact line of a drop is provided.

Fried, Eliot; Jabbour, Michel

2014-04-01

474

Effect of neighboring perturbations on drop coalescence at an interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coalescence at a quiescent silicone oil/water glycerine interface was investigated for water/glycerine drops with Bond number ˜7 and Ohnesorge number = 0.01 using high-speed imaging and time-resolved tomographic particle image velocimetry. In addition to a single drop case, three perturbation cases were considered corresponding with a second drop, a solid particle wetted in oil, and a solid particle wetted in water/glycerine placed adjacent to the coalescing drop. Each perturbing object caused an initial tilting of the drop, influencing its rupture location and eventual collapse behavior. Once tilted, drops typically ruptured near their lowest vertical position which was located either toward or away from the perturbing object depending on the case. The initial retraction speed of the ruptured film was higher for drops initially tilted at significant angles, and the local variations in retraction speed correlated well with the expected variations in local film thickness. The drop fluid always collapsed away from the drop axis in the direction of the rupture location in all unperturbed or perturbed cases. In the case of a drop next to a particle wetted in water/glycerine, the collapsing fluid travelled away from the particle, and the downward propagating vortex ring which developed was similar to that resulting from an unperturbed drop rupture. By contrast, the drop fluid collapsed toward either a second drop or a particle wetted in oil. The resulting vortex rings were more asymmetric, and viscous interaction between the particle and collapsing fluid hindered the downward motion of the associated ring.

Bordoloi, Ankur Deep; Longmire, Ellen K.

2012-06-01

475

Accidental PUVA burns, vitiligo and atopic diathesis resulting in prurigo nodularis: a logical but undocumented rarity.  

PubMed

Vitiligo is a dreaded disease in India due to its social and cultural consequences. PUVA and PUVAsol are the main treatment modalities for vitiligo vulgaris. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of accidental PUVA burns eventuating in prurigo nodularis lesions to be reported in a female patient who was undergoing home PUVA therapy. The itch is so prominent and disabling that the focus of the patient has shifted from treating her vitiligo to ameliorating the pruritus. PMID:23197209

Verma, Shyam Bhanushankar; Wollina, Uwe

2012-01-01

476

Accidental PUVA burns, vitiligo and atopic diathesis resulting in prurigo nodularis: a logical but undocumented rarity*  

PubMed Central

Vitiligo is a dreaded disease in India due to its social and cultural consequences. PUVA and PUVAsol are the main treatment modalities for vitiligo vulgaris. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of accidental PUVA burns eventuating in prurigo nodularis lesions to be reported in a female patient who was undergoing home PUVA therapy. The itch is so prominent and disabling that the focus of the patient has shifted from treating her vitiligo to ameliorating the pruritus. PMID:23197209

Verma, Shyam Bhanushankar; Wollina, Uwe

2012-01-01

477

[Cardiac arrest and secondary pulmonary oedema following accidental intramucosal injection of naphazoline in an adult].  

PubMed

During neurosurgery for hypophysary adenoma under general anaesthesia in a prone position, a 34 year-old-women received accidental 6 ml intramucosal injection of lidocaine with naphazoline. The patient presented a severe bradycardia associated with a major increase in arterial blood pression followed by a brief cardiac arrest. She also presented a prolonged awakening and a pulmonary oedema, which lead to mechanical ventilation. The patient rapidly recovered a normal clinical state. PMID:12831977

Villeret, I; Tellier, A C; Erhmann, S; Réa, D; Delalande, J P

2003-05-01

478

Sex ratio of accidentally killed Long?eared Owls Asio otus in Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an autumn investigation of 52 migrating Long?eared Owls Asio otus on the northern coast of the British Isles where females predominated. In contrast, a sample of 36 accidentally killed Long?eared Owls collected in Norway (36 in winter), indicate a predominance of males during late autumn and winter. This may support an assumption that migrating Long?eared Owls in

K. Overskaug; E. Kristiansen

1994-01-01

479

Predicting accidental falls in people with multiple sclerosis — a longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate accidental falls and near fall incidents in people with multiple sclerosis with respect to clinical variables and the predictive values of four tests.Design: A longitudinal, multi-centred cohort study with prospectively collected falls.Procedures: Self-reported incidents during the three months following a standardized test procedure.Subjects: Seventy-six people with multiple sclerosis and an Expanded Disability Status Scale score between 3.5

Y. Nilsagård; Cecilia Lundholm; E. Denison; L. G. Gunnarsson

2009-01-01

480

Serologic markers for hepatitis B among Marshallese accidentally exposed to fallout radiation in 1954  

SciTech Connect

At least one serologic marker of prior hepatitis B infection (hepatitis B surface antigen, antibody to surface antigen, or antibody to core antigen) was found in 91.7% of 314 Marshallese tested. The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigenemia (3.3%) in a subpopulation that had resided on Rongelap Atoll at the time of accidental exposure to radioactive fallout from a thermonuclear test in 1954 did not differ significantly from the prevalence in a selected unexposed population (10.5%).

Adams, W.H.; Fields, H.A.; Engle, J.R.; Hadler, S.C.

1986-10-01

481

Positive income shocks and accidental deaths among Cherokee Indians: a natural experiment  

PubMed Central

Background Several studies in low-income populations report the somewhat counterintuitive finding that positive income gains adversely affect adult health. The literature posits that receipt of a large portion of annual income increases, in the short term, risk-taking behaviour and/or the consumption of health-damaging goods. This work implies the hypothesis that persons with an unexpected gain in income will exhibit an elevated risk of accidental death—the fifth leading cause of death in the USA. We test this hypothesis directly by capitalizing on a natural experiment in which Cherokee Indians in rural North Carolina received discrete lump sum payments from a new casino. Methods We applied Poisson regression to the monthly count of accidental deaths among Cherokee Indians over 204 months spanning 1990–2006. We controlled for temporal patterns in accidental deaths (e.g. seasonality and trend) as well as changes in population size. Results As hypothesized, the risk of accidental death rises above expected levels during months of the large casino payments (relative risk?=?2.62; 95% confidence interval?=?1.54–4.47). Exploratory analyses of ethnographic interviews and behavioural surveys support that increased vehicular travel and consumption of health-damaging goods may account for the rise in accident proneness. Conclusions Although long-term income gains may improve health in this population, our findings indicate that acute responses to large income gains, in the short term, increase risk-taking and accident proneness. We encourage further investigation of natural experiments to identify causal economic antecedents of population health. PMID:21527447

Bruckner, Tim A; Brown, Ryan A; Margerison-Zilko, Claire

2011-01-01

482

Accidental injection of sodium hypochlorite instead of local anesthetic in a patient scheduled for endodontic procedure  

PubMed Central

We present here a case of tissue destruction and paresthesia following the accidental injection of sodium hypochlorite instead of local anesthetic in a patient scheduled for endodontic procedure. The accident was managed by the local injection of steroid, debridement of necrotic tissue, daily dressings and medications. Wound healing was satisfactory at the end of 1 month. An extra-oral scar and a small area of paresthesia persisted even after 5 years.

Waknis, Pushkar Prakash; Deshpande, Aditya Sunil; Sabhlok, Samrat

2012-01-01

483

Bitter pill to swallow: a case of accidental poisoning with digitalis purpurea  

PubMed Central

While digitoxicity secondary to therapeutic use is frequent, due to its distinctive appearance and unpleasant taste accidental ingestion of digitalis purpurea (foxglove) is uncommon. This report relates the case of two previously healthy individuals who inadvertently consumed significant quantities of digitalis in its plant form. Both men presented in first-degree atrioventricular block and had digoxin levels of 4.9 ?g/litre, but were otherwise stable and made unremarkable recoveries with repeated dose activated charcoal. PMID:22791473

Mitchell, Andrew

2010-01-01

484

Bitter pill to swallow: a case of accidental poisoning with digitalis purpurea.  

PubMed

While digitoxicity secondary to therapeutic use is frequent, due to its distinctive appearance and unpleasant taste accidental ingestion of digitalis purpurea (foxglove) is uncommon. This report relates the case of two previously healthy individuals who inadvertently consumed significant quantities of digitalis in its plant form. Both men presented in first-degree atrioventricular block and had digoxin levels of 4.9 ?g/litre, but were otherwise stable and made unremarkable recoveries with repeated dose activated charcoal. PMID:22791473

Mitchell, Andrew

2010-01-01

485

Ontogeny of accidental wetlands and hydric soil development in surface mined landscapes  

SciTech Connect

Reducing conditions are periodically present in hydric soils and are essential for chemical processes that support wetland functions and values. Indicators of these conditions, i.e., redoximorphic features, can be useful in determining the presence of a hydric soil. However, young wetlands, i.e., those recently formed, may not possess reducing conditions and/or may not exhibit redoximorphic features. Few studies have addressed the time needed for hydric soil development. In this study, we present data on redoximorphic features, including chroma and oxidized rhizospheres, gathered from two sets of wetlands in southwestern Virginia, including (1) constructed wetlands that are 3 years old and (2) accidental wetlands that are 10 to 30 years old. Under conditions described for these sites, there is strong evidence that discernable redoximorphic features form in accidental wetlands within 10 years, but not within 3 years in constructed wetlands. Since accidental wetlands have been in existence for longer than most man-made wetlands, they provide clues to the development of hydric soils in recently constructed wetland systems.

Atkinson, R.B. [Christopher Newport Univ., Newport News, VA (United States); Daniels, W.L.; Cairns, J. Jr. [Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States)

1996-12-31

486

Shape oscillations of a viscoelastic drop  

SciTech Connect

Small-amplitude axisymmetric shape deformations of a viscoelastic liquid drop in microgravity are theoretically analyzed. Using the Jeffreys constitutive equation for linear viscoelasticity, the characteristic equation for the frequency and decay factor of the shape oscillations is derived. Asymptotic analysis of this equation is performed in the low- and high-viscosity limits and for the cases of small, moderate, and large elasticities. Elastic effects are shown to give rise to a type of shape oscillation that does not depend on the surface tension. The existence of such oscillations is confirmed by numerical solution of the characteristic equation in various regimes. A method for determining the viscoelastic properties of highly viscous liquids based upon experimental measurements of the frequency and damping rate of such shape oscillations is suggested.

Khismatullin, Damir B.; Nadim, Ali

2001-06-01

487

Multi - directional Electrophoretic Positioning of Charged Drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate a multi-directional electrophoretic technique to provide precise control over the position, trajectory and velocity of a charged object. Two or more pairs of electrodes, oriented along different directions, are p