Science.gov

Sample records for accueille sa nouvelle

  1. Suivi d'une nouvelle UG du Lynx : MASTER OT J072948.66+593824.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morillon, E.

    2012-03-01

    Suite à la détection, par nos collègues russes, d'une nouvelle variable dans le Lynx mi- février 2012, et à la diffusion de l'alerte sur internet, j'ai pu pointer cette nouvelle cataclysmique de type UGSU, pendant 4h, avant qu'elle ne retourne à son état de repos. Après un rappel sur sa découverte, j'exposerai la façon dont je l'ai suivie 4 jours après la découverte et les quelques résultats que l'on peut en extraire.

  2. Evidence of multiple introductions of beak and feather disease virus into the Pacific islands of Nouvelle-Caledonie (New Caledonia).

    PubMed

    Julian, Laurel; Lorenzo, Almudena; Chenuet, Jean-Paul; Bonzon, Marianne; Marchal, Celine; Vignon, Laurent; Collings, David A; Walters, Matthew; Jackson, Bethany; Varsani, Arvind

    2012-11-01

    Beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) is a circular ssDNA virus that causes psittacine beak and feather disease and has almost global presence. Here, we report for the first time the presence of in Nouvelle-Calédonie (New Caledonia). One hundred and sixty-eight exotic and 79 endemic birds were sampled in Nouvelle-Calédonie, 26 were found to be positive for BFDV. We characterized the full genomes of 26 isolates and phylogenetic analysis placed nine of the isolates into the BFDV-J strain, with the remaining 17 isolates from Deplanche's Rainbow Lorikeet (Trichoglossus haematodus deplanchii) forming a novel strain, BFDV-P. Of more concern was the discovery of an infected bird from the vulnerable and endemic New Caledonian Parakeet (Cyanoramphus saisseti). Our results reveal that there have been at least two introductions of BFDV into Nouvelle-Calédonie. PMID:22855782

  3. Number of SA Astronomy Researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, I. S.

    2015-12-01

    The SA professional astronomical community has grown enormously in recent years with the advent of SALT, SKA/MeerKAT/KAT and HESS (Namibia). In this article I have made an attempt to list the people involved, namely those with doctorates working in fields of astronomy and related technologies, cosmic rays, cosmology and space science.

  4. Traitement arthroscopique d'une fracture articulaire de la glène: nouvelle astuce

    PubMed Central

    Hamoudi, Samir; Alassaf, Ihab; Boussakri, Hassan; Ntrataze, Philbert; Dumez, Jean François

    2015-01-01

    Le traitement des fractures de la glène scapulaire constitue un sujet de débat dans la littérature. Les auteurs décrivent une observation d'un patient âgé de 22 ans qui présente une fracture articulaire de la glène classée stade III de Ideberg traitée chirurgicalement sous arthroscopie. Nous exposons une nouvelle technique chirurgicale utilisant un matériel simple et nous la recommandons pour ce type de fracture qui constitue une alternative efficace. Globalement, nos résultats cliniques et anatomiques immédiats et à moyen terme, au dernier recul, sont excellents. PMID:26161191

  5. Qui sera le nouvel Einstein ? Vers une nouvelle theorie de la gravitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet-Bidaud, J. M.

    1999-10-01

    Un debat de plus d'un siecle a resurgi ces toutes dernieres annees avec une vigueur nouvelle. L'enjeu ? Mettre fin, ni plus ni moins, a l'une des contradictions les plus inouies de la physique fondamentale, en reconciliant mecanique quantique et relativite generale. En effet, a l'heure ou la gravitation semble enfin sur le point de fusionner avec les trois autres forces de la nature. il est certain que la relativite d'Einstein doit etre bientot remplacer par une autre theorie... Reste quye tous les physiciens sont loin de s'accorder sur la marche a suivree. Gravitation quantique, relativite d'echelle, supersymetrie, les candidates ne manquent pas.

  6. Le volvulus gastrique idiopathique aigu: à propos d'une nouvelle observation

    PubMed Central

    Abdelilah, Mouhsine; Jihad, Anzaoui; Rachid, Bouchentouf

    2013-01-01

    Le volvulus gastrique est une rotation anormale de l'estomac autour de son axe. La forme aiguë constitue une urgence chirurgicale. Le diagnostic est souvent retardé en raison d'une symptomatologie fréquemment non spécifique. Des signes respiratoires tels la dyspnée et le hoquet peuvent révéler cette pathologie. Les auteurs rapportent une nouvelle observation de volvulus gastrique aigu chez un adolescent de 17 ans, diagnostiqué par la tomodensitométrie, et confirmé par une intervention chirurgicale. Le traitement est chirurgical et consiste à détordre et fixer l'estomac pour prévenir la récidive. PMID:23503200

  7. Saturn I (SA-4) Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    The Saturn I (SA-4) flight lifted off from Kennedy Space Center launch Complex 34, March 28, 1963. The fourth launch of Saturn launch vehicles developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun, incorporated a Saturn I, Block I engine. The typical height of a Block I vehicle was approximately 163 feet and had only one live stage. It consisted of eight tanks, each 70 inches in diameter, clustered around a central tank, 105 inches in diameter. Four of the external tanks were fuel tanks for the RP-1 (kerosene) fuel. The other four, spaced alternately with the fuel tanks, were liquid oxygen tanks as was the large center tank. All fuel tanks and liquid oxygen tanks drained at the same rates respectively. The thrust for the stage came from eight H-1 engines, each producing a thrust of 165,000 pounds, for a total thrust of over 1,300,000 pounds. The engines were arranged in a double pattern. Four engines, located inboard, were fixed in a square pattern around the stage axis and canted outward slightly, while the remaining four engines were located outboard in a larger square pattern offset 40 degrees from the inner pattern. Unlike the inner engines, each outer engine was gimbaled. That is, each could be swung through an arc. They were gimbaled as a means of steering the rocket, by letting the instrumentation of the rocket correct any deviations of its powered trajectory. The block I required engine gimabling as the only method of guiding and stabilizing the rocket through the lower atmosphere. The upper stages of the Block I rocket reflected the three-stage configuration of the Saturn I vehicle. Like SA-3, the SA-4 flight's upper stage ejected 113,560 liters (30,000 gallons) of ballast water in the upper atmosphere for 'Project Highwater' physics experiment. Release of this vast quantity of water in a near-space environment marked the second purely scientific large-scale experiment. The SA-4 was the last Block I rocket

  8. Saturn I (SA-4) Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    The Saturn I (SA-4) flight lifted off from Kennedy Space Center launch Complex 34, March 28, 1963. The fourth launch of Saturn launch vehicles, developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun, incorporated a Saturn I, Block I engine. The typical height of a Block I vehicle was approximately 163 feet and had only one live stage. It consisted of eight tanks, each 70 inches in diameter, clustered around a central tank, 105 inches in diameter. Four of the external tanks were fuel tanks for the RP-1 (kerosene) fuel. The other four, spaced alternately with the fuel tanks, were liquid oxygen tanks as was the large center tank. All fuel tanks and liquid oxygen tanks drained at the same rates respectively. The thrust for the stage came from eight H-1 engines, each producing a thrust of 165,000 pounds, for a total thrust of over 1,300,000 pounds. The engines were arranged in a double pattern. Four engines, located inboard, were fixed in a square pattern around the stage axis and canted outward slightly, while the remaining four engines were located outboard in a larger square pattern offset 40 degrees from the inner pattern. Unlike the inner engines, each outer engine was gimbaled. That is, each could be swung through an arc. They were gimbaled as a means of steering the rocket, by letting the instrumentation of the rocket correct any deviations of its powered trajectory. The block I required engine gimabling as the only method of guiding and stabilizing the rocket through the lower atmosphere. The upper stages of the Block I rocket reflected the three-stage configuration of the Saturn I vehicle. Like SA-3, the SA-4 flight's upper stage ejected 113,560 liters (30,000 gallons) of ballast water in the upper atmosphere for 'Project Highwater' physics experiment. Release of this vast quantity of water in a near-space environment marked the second purely scientific large-scale experiment. The SA-4 was the last Block I rocket

  9. Nouvelle structure de capteur à courants de Foucault et algorithme associé pour la mesure des propriétés électrique et magnétique d'un métal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lê, Minh-Quang; Placko, Dominique

    1995-06-01

    This paper describes a new structure for eddy-current transducers which improves sensitivity while maintaining high lateral resolution. We have developed an analytical model to allow a model-based inversion from transducers signals to estimate thick and homogeneous plates electrical conductivity, magnetic permeability and/or lift-off. The inversion procedure is described and shows the possibility of a precise simultaneous estimation of the three parameters. Experiments were conducted with magnetic and non magnetic metals. Cet article décrit une nouvelle structure de capteur à courants de Foucault qui permet d'améliorer la sensibilité du capteur tout en conservant sa résolution latérale. Nous avons développé un modèle analytique de ce capteur qui peut être inversé pour estimer la conductivité électrique, la perméabilité magnétique d'une cible homogène et/ou la distance capteur-cible. La procédure d'inversion a été décrite et montre une possibilité d'estimer ces trois paramètres avec précision. L'expérience a été effectuée sur des métaux magnétiques et amagnétiques.

  10. Beyond SaGMRotI: Conversion to SaArb, SaSN, and SaMaxRot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson-Lamprey, J. A.; Boore, D.M.

    2007-01-01

    In the seismic design of structures, estimates of design forces are usually provided to the engineer in the form of elastic response spectra. Predictive equations for elastic response spectra are derived from empirical recordings of ground motion. The geometric mean of the two orthogonal horizontal components of motion is often used as the response value in these predictive equations, although it is not necessarily the most relevant estimate of forces within the structure. For some applications it is desirable to estimate the response value on a randomly chosen single component of ground motion, and in other applications the maximum response in a single direction is required. We give adjustment factors that allow converting the predictions of geometric-mean ground-motion predictions into either of these other two measures of seismic ground-motion intensity. In addition, we investigate the relation of the strike-normal component of ground motion to the maximum response values. We show that the strike-normal component of ground motion seldom corresponds to the maximum horizontal-component response value (in particular, at distances greater than about 3 km from faults), and that focusing on this case in exclusion of others can result in the underestimation of the maximum component. This research provides estimates of the maximum response value of a single component for all cases, not just near-fault strike-normal components. We provide modification factors that can be used to convert predictions of ground motions in terms of the geometric mean to the maximum spectral acceleration (SaMaxRot) and the random component of spectral acceleration (SaArb). Included are modification factors for both the mean and the aleatory standard deviation of the logarithm of the motions.

  11. Saturn I (SA-3) Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    The Saturn I (SA-3) flight lifted off from Kennedy Space Center launch Complex 34, November 16, 1962. The third launch of Saturn launch vehicles, developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun, incorporated a Saturn I, Block I engine. The typical height of a Block I vehicle was approximately 163 feet. and had only one live stage. It consisted of eight tanks, each 70 inches in diameter, clustered around a central tank, 105 inches in diameter. Four of the external tanks were fuel tanks for the RP-1 (kerosene) fuel. The other four, spaced alternately with the fuel tanks, were liquid oxygen tanks as was the large center tank. All fuel tanks and liquid oxygen tanks drained at the same rates respectively. The thrust for the stage came from eight H-1 engines, each producing a thrust of 165,000 pounds, for a total thrust of over 1,300,000 pounds. The engines were arranged in a double pattern. Four engines, located inboard, were fixed in a square pattern around the stage axis and canted outward slightly, while the remaining four engines were located outboard in a larger square pattern offset 40 degrees from the inner pattern. Unlike the inner engines, each outer engine was gimbaled. That is, each could be swung through an arc. They were gimbaled as a means of steering the rocket, by letting the instrumentation of the rocket correct any deviations of its powered trajectory. The block I required engine gimabling as the only method of guiding and stabilizing the rocket through the lower atmosphere. The upper stages of the Block I rocket reflected the three-stage configuration of the Saturn I vehicle. During the SA-3 flight, the upper stage ejected 113,560 liters (30,000 gallons) of ballast water in the upper atmosphere for 'Project Highwater' physics experiment. The water was released at an altitude of 65 miles, where within only 5 seconds, it expanded into a massive ice cloud 4.6 miles in diameter. Release of this vast

  12. The preliminary study of autophagy induction of SA and MeSA by confocal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Lijuan; Chen, Wenli

    2010-02-01

    Autophagy appears to be a highly conserved process from unicellular to multicellular eukaryotes which contributes to the equilibrium of intracelluar environment. While it would be harmful to the cells when it is excessive by inducing programmed cell death (PCD). It is a protein degradation process in which cells recycle cytoplasmic contents when subjected to environmental stress conditions or during certain stages of development. Previous studies have demonstrated autophagy can be induced during abiotic or biotic stresses. salicylic acid (SA) and methyl salicytic (MeSA) are endogenous signal molecules. We found SA and MeSA can induce autophagy in Arabidopsis thaliana respectively. While autophagy was not induced by SA or MeSA in tobacco suspension cells under the same concentration and period. The differences in stuctures or physiological states may contribute to the results.

  13. SA3654 Component characterization. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Meir, G.W.

    1996-06-01

    AlliedSignal Inc., Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T), was provided with production capability assurance program (PCAP) funding to develop, characterize, and qualify purchased product components for use on the PRESS-A program. The SA3654, N-Channel, Power MOSFET was identified as a component needing such activity to support PRESS-A. This report presents the characterization activities and results for the SA3654.

  14. A Generalized Eigensolver based on Smoothed Aggregation (GES-SA) for Initializing Smoothed Aggregation Multigrid (SA)

    SciTech Connect

    Brezina, M; Manteuffel, T; McCormick, S; Ruge, J; Sanders, G; Vassilevski, P S

    2007-05-31

    Consider the linear system Ax = b, where A is a large, sparse, real, symmetric, and positive definite matrix and b is a known vector. Solving this system for unknown vector x using a smoothed aggregation multigrid (SA) algorithm requires a characterization of the algebraically smooth error, meaning error that is poorly attenuated by the algorithm's relaxation process. For relaxation processes that are typically used in practice, algebraically smooth error corresponds to the near-nullspace of A. Therefore, having a good approximation to a minimal eigenvector is useful to characterize the algebraically smooth error when forming a linear SA solver. This paper discusses the details of a generalized eigensolver based on smoothed aggregation (GES-SA) that is designed to produce an approximation to a minimal eigenvector of A. GES-SA might be very useful as a standalone eigensolver for applications that desire an approximate minimal eigenvector, but the primary aim here is for GES-SA to produce an initial algebraically smooth component that may be used to either create a black-box SA solver or initiate the adaptive SA ({alpha}SA) process.

  15. 76 FR 13063 - Airworthiness Directives; EUROCOPTER FRANCE Model SA330F, SA330G, and SA330J Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... September 13, 2010 (75 FR 55492). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the specified... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and (3) Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or... of the pedal unit on a SA 330 helicopter, the copilot set the position beyond the end limit...

  16. R4SA for Controlling Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aghazarian, Hrand

    2009-01-01

    The R4SA GUI mentioned in the immediately preceding article is a userfriendly interface for controlling one or more robot(s). This GUI makes it possible to perform meaningful real-time field experiments and research in robotics at an unmatched level of fidelity, within minutes of setup. It provides such powerful graphing modes as that of a digitizing oscilloscope that displays up to 250 variables at rates between 1 and 200 Hz. This GUI can be configured as multiple intuitive interfaces for acquisition of data, command, and control to enable rapid testing of subsystems or an entire robot system while simultaneously performing analysis of data. The R4SA software establishes an intuitive component-based design environment that can be easily reconfigured for any robotic platform by creating or editing setup configuration files. The R4SA GUI enables event-driven and conditional sequencing similar to those of Mars Exploration Rover (MER) operations. It has been certified as part of the MER ground support equipment and, therefore, is allowed to be utilized in conjunction with MER flight hardware. The R4SA GUI could also be adapted to use in embedded computing systems, other than that of the MER, for commanding and real-time analysis of data.

  17. The inventory of botanical curiosities in Pierre-François-Xavier de Charlevoix's Nouvelle France (1744).

    PubMed

    Kobelinski, Michel

    2013-03-01

    The article explores the botanical contributions of Pierre-François-Xavier de Charlevoix's book Histoire et description générale de la Nouvelle France vis-à-vis the contributions of previous researchers, his use of iconographic and discursive representations and its relevance to the project of French colonization. It investigates why he refused Linnaeus' taxonomic model and what he intended with his catalogue of botanical curiosities. The unfolding of his philosophical and religious trajectory allows to understand his stance regarding the classification of nature, the meanings of ethnological information, his forms of intellectual appropriation, and his use of discourse and botanical iconography as political and emotional propaganda to encourage colonial settlement. PMID:23559045

  18. [Rousseau on the couch. "La nouvelle Héloïse as a key to his childhood trauma].

    PubMed

    Niemeyer, C

    1993-05-01

    Whereas many interpreters and biographers of Rousseau tend to present their subject as a pathological figure, Niemeyer will have no truck with such ascriptions. His reading of Rousseau's epistolary novel Julie ou la Nouvelle Héloïse (1761) draws upon the autobiographical Confessions and reveals that Rousseau uses this novel as a species of self-therapy. In the novel the constellations in which certain scenes recur invite their interpretation as complementary scenes to Rousseau's traumatic "Urszene"--the death of his mother when giving birth to him. In Niemeyer's view, the way in which Rousseau turns his re-working of his childhood trauma to literary account qualifies him as a predecessor of psychoanalysis. PMID:8511325

  19. VIEW LOOKING EAST, SA WETSIDE (DISTILLATION BUILDING) ON THE RIGHT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING EAST, SA WETSIDE (DISTILLATION BUILDING) ON THE RIGHT, STD (SODA TOWER DRYERS?), SA DRYSIDE ON RIGHT. BEHIND STD BUILDING IS SHD BUILDING (SODA HORIZONTAL DRYERS?) THE ENTIRE DRYING COMPLEX WAS KNOWN AS THE DRYSIDE. - Solvay Process Company, SA Wetside Building, Between Willis & Milton Avenue, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  20. Atmospheric environment for ASTP (SA-210) launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. L.

    1976-01-01

    A summary is presented of selected atmospheric conditions observed near ASTP/SA-210 launch time on July 15, 1975, at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual observations (cloud), density, index of refraction, and wind/wind shear aloft are included. A final meteorological data tape for the ASTP launch, consisting of wind and thermodynamic parameters versus altitude, has been constructed.

  1. Biophysicochemical characterization of Pyocin SA189 produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa SA189

    PubMed Central

    Naz, Sehar Afshan; Jabeen, Nusrat; Sohail, Muhammad; Rasool, Sheikh Ajaz

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in spite of being a ubiquitous organism (as it is found in soil, water, and humans), is also an opportunistic pathogen. In order to maintain its diversity in the community, it produces various toxic proteins, known as, bacteriocins. In the present study, pyocin SA189, which is a bacteriocin produced by P. aeruginosa SA189 (isolated from a clinical sample) was characterized. P. aeruginosa SA189, as identified by the conventional and 16S rRNA gene amplification, produced pyocin SA189 of molecular weight of 66 k Da. The pyocin showed antimicrobial activity against several clinically relevant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and was substantially stable for wide ranges of temperature and pH. Furthermore, the pyocin also retained its biological activity upon treatment with metal ions, organic solvents, and various proteolytic and lipolytic enzymes. The data from the growth kinetics indicated that the maximum bacteriocin production occurred in the late log phase. Overall, our results signify the potential of pyocin SA189 as a bio-control agent. PMID:26691474

  2. Saturn I (SA-1) on Launch Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    On October 27, 1961, the Marshall Space Flight Center and the Nation marked a high point in the 3-year-old Saturn development program when the first Saturn vehicle, SA-1, flew a flawless 215-mile ballistic trajectory from Cape Canaveral, Florida. SA-1 is pictured here on the launch pad ready for lift off. Developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun, SA-1 incorporated a Saturn I, Block I engine. The typical height of a Block I vehicle was approximately 163 feet and had only one live stage. It consisted of eight tanks, each 70 inches in diameter, clustered around a central tank, 105 inches in diameter. Four of the external tanks were fuel tanks for the RP-1 (kerosene) fuel. The other four, spaced alternately with the fuel tanks, were liquid oxygen tanks, as was the large center tank. All fuel tanks and liquid oxygen tanks drained at the same rates respectively. The thrust for the stage came from eight H-1 engines, each producing a thrust of 165,000 pounds, for a total thrust of over 1,300,000 pounds. The engines were arranged in a double pattern. Four engines, located inboard, were fixed in a square pattern around the stage axis and canted outward slightly, while the remaining four engines were located outboard in a larger square pattern offset 40 degrees from the inner pattern. Unlike the inner engines, each outer engine was gimbaled. That is, each could be swung through an arc. They were gimbaled as a means of steering the rocket, by letting the instrumentation of the rocket correct any deviations of its powered trajectory. The block I required engine gimabling as the only method of guiding and stabilizing the rocket through the lower atmosphere. The upper stages of the Block I rocket reflected the three-stage configuration of the Saturn I vehicle.

  3. Ammonia Offgassing from SA9T

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monje, Oscar; Nolek, Sara D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2011-01-01

    NH3 is a degradation product of SA9T, a solid-amine sorbent developed by Hamilton Sundstrand, that is continually emitted into the gas stream being conditioned by this sorbent. NH3 offgassing rates were measured using FTIR spectroscopy using a packed bed at similar contact times as offgassing tests conducted at Hamilton Sundstrand and at the Ames Research Center. The bed was challenged with moist air at several flow rates and humidities and NH3 concentration of the effluent was measured for several hours. The NH3 offgassing rates in open-loop testing were calculated from the steady state outlet NH3 concentration and flow rate. NH3 offgassing rates from SA9T were found to be influenced by the contact time with the adsorbent (flow rate) and by the humidity of the inlet gas stream, which are consistent with previous studies. Closed-loop vacuum-swing adsorption cycling rates verified that NH3 offgassing continues when a constant source of water vapor is present.

  4. DoSA: Database of Structural Alignments.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Swapnil; Agarwal, Garima; Iftekhar, Mohammed; Offmann, Bernard; de Brevern, Alexandre G; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy

    2013-01-01

    Protein structure alignment is a crucial step in protein structure-function analysis. Despite the advances in protein structure alignment algorithms, some of the local conformationally similar regions are mislabeled as structurally variable regions (SVRs). These regions are not well superimposed because of differences in their spatial orientations. The Database of Structural Alignments (DoSA) addresses this gap in identification of local structural similarities obscured in global protein structural alignments by realigning SVRs using an algorithm based on protein blocks. A set of protein blocks is a structural alphabet that abstracts protein structures into 16 unique local structural motifs. DoSA provides unique information about 159,780 conformationally similar and 56,140 conformationally dissimilar SVRs in 74 705 pairwise structural alignments of homologous proteins. The information provided on conformationally similar and dissimilar SVRs can be helpful to model loop regions. It is also conceivable that conformationally similar SVRs with conserved residues could potentially contribute toward functional integrity of homologues, and hence identifying such SVRs could be helpful in understanding the structural basis of protein function. Database URL: http://bo-protscience.fr/dosa/ PMID:23846594

  5. DoSA: Database of Structural Alignments

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Swapnil; Agarwal, Garima; Iftekhar, Mohammed; Offmann, Bernard; de Brevern, Alexandre G.; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy

    2013-01-01

    Protein structure alignment is a crucial step in protein structure–function analysis. Despite the advances in protein structure alignment algorithms, some of the local conformationally similar regions are mislabeled as structurally variable regions (SVRs). These regions are not well superimposed because of differences in their spatial orientations. The Database of Structural Alignments (DoSA) addresses this gap in identification of local structural similarities obscured in global protein structural alignments by realigning SVRs using an algorithm based on protein blocks. A set of protein blocks is a structural alphabet that abstracts protein structures into 16 unique local structural motifs. DoSA provides unique information about 159 780 conformationally similar and 56 140 conformationally dissimilar SVRs in 74 705 pairwise structural alignments of homologous proteins. The information provided on conformationally similar and dissimilar SVRs can be helpful to model loop regions. It is also conceivable that conformationally similar SVRs with conserved residues could potentially contribute toward functional integrity of homologues, and hence identifying such SVRs could be helpful in understanding the structural basis of protein function. Database URL: http://bo-protscience.fr/dosa/ PMID:23846594

  6. SEU characterization and design dependence of the SA3300 microprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, F.W.; Treece, R.K.; Axness, C.L.; Hughes, K.H.; Hash, G.L.; Hass, K.J.

    1990-01-01

    The SA3300 16-bit microprocessor is a key component for interplanetary space probes to be launched in the 1990's. A full SEU characterization of the D-latches of the SA3300 is given, including pattern sensitivity and temperature. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  7. EXTERIOR VIEW, THE SA WETSIDE BUILDING (ALSO KNOWN AS DISTILLATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW, THE SA WETSIDE BUILDING (ALSO KNOWN AS DISTILLATION BUILDING OR SOLVAY TOWERS BUILDING) THE HEART OF THE SOLVAY PROCESS. VIEW LOOKING EAST. THIS BUILDING WAS BUILT IN 1954 TO REPLACE A SIMILAR STRUCTURE BUILT CIRCA 1907. - Solvay Process Company, SA Wetside Building, Between Willis & Milton Avenue, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  8. 77 FR 65144 - Airworthiness Directives; Embraer S.A. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-25

    ... 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Embraer S.A...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Embraer S.A. Model ERJ 170...

  9. Inhibition of star formation in Sa galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Pompea, S.M.; Rieke, G.H. )

    1989-07-01

    Only 4 percent of Sas in the Revised Shapley-Ames Catalog with B(T) less than 12 have an infrared luminosity greater than 10 to the 10th solar. This proportion is about one-sixth of the corresponding one for Sbs and Scs. Although the infrared luminosities of most Sa galaxies are dominated by disk emission, the same trend appears in the incidence of nuclear starbursts. IRAS measurements indicate that no more than three Sas out of the entire RSA sample of 166 galaxies have nuclear starbursts that cannot be associated with interactions or active nuclei. Plots of H I fluxes do not strongly correlate with infrared fluxes. Similarly, for at least the infrared selected Sas, the trend of IR flux with CO flux is similar to that of later type spiral galaxies. This would imply that molecular cloud formation is inhibited in Sas, leading to the lack of infrared activity. 38 refs.

  10. STS-48 ESC closeup of UARS solar array (SA) and SA mechanism, pre-deploy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    An extremely closeup view shows the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) solar array (SA) and SA mechanism prior to deploy of the satellite. UARS, grappled by the remote manipulator system (RMS) end effector (out of frame), is undergoing STS-48 pre-deployment checkout above the payload bay (PLB) of the earth-orbiting Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. OV-103's vertical stabilizer can be seen in between the UARS hardware. This view demonstrates the capabilities of the Electronic Still Camera (ESC) to provide high resolution views of hardware for review by ground controllers. This ESC image was documented as part of Development Test Objective (DTO) 648, Electronic Still Photography. The digital image was stored on a removable hard disk or small optical disk, and could be converted to a format suitable for downlink transmission.

  11. Nouvelle methode pour les etudes des interactions aeroservoelastiques en boucle ouverte sur les avions F/A-18, CL-604 et ATM et en boucle fermee sur l'ATM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinu, Alin Dorian

    2006-04-01

    Nous avons concu, implemente puis valide une nouvelle methode d'approximation des forces aerodynamiques non stationnaires a l'aide des polynomes orthogonaux de Chebyshev. Cela represente une contribution originale dans l'analyse des interactions aeroservoelastiques. La premiere serie de resultats obtenus par cette nouvelle methode (erreurs d'approximation des forces aerodynamiques non stationnaires) est comparee avec les resultats des methodes LS et de Pade. La deuxieme serie de resultats (vitesses et frequences de battement obtenues avec cette nouvelle methode) est comparee avec celles obtenues par les methodes classiques LS et de Pade. Ces deux series de resultats obtenus par notre methode et par les deux methodes classiques LS et de Pade sont validees sur trois types differents d'avions: l'ATM (Aircraft Test Model), le F/A-18 en collaboration avec les laboratoires de la NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, et enfin le Challenger CL-604 de Bombardier Aeronautique.

  12. Realtime mitigation of GPS SA errors using Loran-C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braasch, Soo Y.

    1994-01-01

    The hybrid use of Loran-C with the Global Positioning System (GPS) was shown capable of providing a sole-means of enroute air radionavigation. By allowing pilots to fly direct to their destinations, use of this system is resulting in significant time savings and therefore fuel savings as well. However, a major error source limiting the accuracy of GPS is the intentional degradation of the GPS signal known as Selective Availability (SA). SA-induced position errors are highly correlated and far exceed all other error sources (horizontal position error: 100 meters, 95 percent). Realtime mitigation of SA errors from the position solution is highly desirable. How that can be achieved is discussed. The stability of Loran-C signals is exploited to reduce SA errors. The theory behind this technique is discussed and results using bench and flight data are given.

  13. Comparative Analysis of Simulated Annealing (SA) and Simplified Generalized SA (SGSA) for Estimation Optimal of Parametric Functional in CATIVIC

    SciTech Connect

    Freitez, Juan A.; Sanchez, Morella; Ruette, Fernando

    2009-08-13

    Application of simulated annealing (SA) and simplified GSA (SGSA) techniques for parameter optimization of parametric quantum chemistry method (CATIVIC) was performed. A set of organic molecules were selected for test these techniques. Comparison of the algorithms was carried out for error function minimization with respect to experimental values. Results show that SGSA is more efficient than SA with respect to computer time. Accuracy is similar in both methods; however, there are important differences in the final set of parameters.

  14. The JT-60SA Cryoplant Current Design Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, D.; Michel, F.; Roussel, P.; Reynaud, P.; Journeaux, J. Y.; Maréchal, J. L.; Balaguer, D.; Roux, C.; Matsukawa, M.; Yoshida, K.

    2008-03-01

    In the framework of the ITER Broader Approach, CEA is carrying out the procurement of the Cryogenic System to the JA-EU Satellite Tokamak JT-60SA, which should be operated in Japan at JAEA, Naka in 2014. According to the Conceptual Design Report, JT-60SA is to operate for periods of at least 6 months per year, with major shutdown periods in between for maintenance and further installation upgrades. For this operation scenario, the cryoplant and the cryodistribution have to cope with different heat loads which depend on the different JT-60SA operating states. The cryoplant consists of one 4.5 K refrigerator and one 80 K helium loop, each pre-cooled by LN2. These cryogenic subsystems have to operate simultaneously in order to remove the heat loads from the superconducting magnets, 80 K shields and the divertor cryopumps. The first part of this study is based on the Process Flow Diagram (PFD) and presents the current design status of the JT-60SA cryogenic system. The second part is dedicated to the analysis of the cryoplant normal operation modes including the regeneration mode of the divertor cryopumps. Thanks to this analysis, the architecture of the present PFD is proposed in order to match the technical specifications of the cryoplant with the JT-60SA operation requirements.

  15. [Revista de Saúde Pública: 30 years of evolution].

    PubMed

    da Silva, L J

    1996-12-01

    Analysis of the main characteristics of the "Revista de Saúde Pública" during the 30 years of its existence. A parallel is traced with the evolution of brazilian public health. The dynamic aspect of the "Revista" is remembered as one of its main virtues. Its future in the constitution of the Mercosul regional block is discussed. PMID:9302818

  16. 77 FR 33334 - Airworthiness Directives; Embraer S.A. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... (75 FR 30277, June 1, 2010). (c) Applicability (1) This AD applies to Embraer S.A. Model ERJ 190-100...-14, Amendment 39-16319 (75 FR 30277, June 1, 2010). That AD required actions intended to address an unsafe condition on the products listed above. Since we issued AD 2010-11-14, Amendment 39-16319 (75...

  17. SA- AND NO- MEDIATED SIGNALLING IN PLANT DISEASE RESISTANCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salicylic acid and nitric oxide mediated signalling are two key regulators of plant disease resistance mechanisms. Using multiple Arabidopsis mutants that are positive or negative regulators of the SA response we are dissecting the signal transduction chain. To elucidate the components associated w...

  18. Multifunctional SA-PProDOT Binder for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Ling, Min; Qiu, Jingxia; Li, Sheng; Yan, Cheng; Kiefel, Milton J; Liu, Gao; Zhang, Shanqing

    2015-07-01

    An environmentally benign, highly conductive, and mechanically strong binder system can overcome the dilemma of low conductivity and insufficient mechanical stability of the electrodes to achieve high performance lithium ion batteries (LIBs) at a low cost and in a sustainable way. In this work, the naturally occurring binder sodium alginate (SA) is functionalized with 3,4-propylenedioxythiophene-2,5-dicarboxylic acid (ProDOT) via a one-step esterification reaction in a cyclohexane/dodecyl benzenesulfonic acid (DBSA)/water microemulsion system, resulting in a multifunctional polymer binder, that is, SA-PProDOT. With the synergetic effects of the functional groups (e.g., carboxyl, hydroxyl, and ester groups), the resultant SA-PProDOT polymer not only maintains the outstanding binding capabilities of sodium alginate but also enhances the mechanical integrity and lithium ion diffusion coefficient in the LiFePO4 (LFP) electrode during the operation of the batteries. Because of the conjugated network of the PProDOT and the lithium doping under the battery environment, the SA-PProDOT becomes conductive and matches the conductivity needed for LiFePO4 LIBs. Without the need of conductive additives such as carbon black, the resultant batteries have achieved the theoretical specific capacity of LiFePO4 cathode (ca. 170 mAh/g) at C/10 and ca. 120 mAh/g at 1C for more than 400 cycles. PMID:26061529

  19. 78 FR 52416 - Airworthiness Directives; Embraer S.A. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ... February 22, 2013 (78 FR ] 12256). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the specified... Accordance With Previous Service Information Embraer S.A. requested that we revise the NPRM (78 FR 12256... changes: Are consistent with the intent that was proposed in the NPRM (78 FR 12256, February 22, 2013)...

  20. Zitkala-Sa and the Problem of Regionalism: Nations, Narratives, and Critical Traditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totten, Gary

    2005-01-01

    Although Yankton Sioux writer Zitkala-Sa (Gertrude Bonnin, 1876-1938) was, as P. Jane Hafen notes, "virtually unknown for many decades," much critical work has appeared since Dexter Fisher's 1979 article,"Zitkala-Sa: Evolution of a Writer." Some critics desiring to bring Zitkala-Sa into the conversation about turn-of-the-century American women…

  1. [Synergistion mechanism of exogenous Ca2+ to SA-induced resistance to Botrytis cinerea in tomato].

    PubMed

    Li, Lin-lin; Li, Tian-lai; Jiang, Guo-bin; Jin, Hua; Zou, Ji-xiang

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of exogenous calcium and salicylic acid (SA) on Botrytis cinerea resistance in tomato seedlings. We treated a tomato strain susceptible to Botrytis cinerea with foliar spraying of water, SA, SA+CaCl2 and SA+EGTA (Ca2+ chelating agent) for one to five days. During the treatment, leaves were collected to analyze the reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity, chintase and β-1,3-glucanase levels, and the expression of pathogenesis related protein 1, 2, 3 (PR1, PR2, PR3). Three days after infection, the disease index was 74.8 in control plants, and 46.9, 38.5 and 70.3 in SA, SA+Ca and SA+ EGTA treated plants, respectively. SA treatment significantly increased ROS leaf accumulation, and activities of PAL, chintase and β-1,3-glucanase. These values were further enhanced in SA+Ca treated plants, but decreased in SA+EGTA treated plants. Application of SA significantly increased the expression levels of PR1, PR2a and PR3b, which were further elevated by the combination treatment with Ca2+. These effects were counteracted by the combination treatment of SA and EGTA. The transcription levels of PR2b and PR3a were up-regulated by 1-2 folds, and PR1, 2a and 3b by 2-5 folds in SA- and SA+Ca-treated plants relative to control. These data suggested that application of Ca2+ could synergistically increase SA-induced resistance to B. cinerea. The resistance was associated with ROS accumulation, therefore the increase in resistance might be through ROS ability to increase the activity of defense-related enzymes and expression levels of PR1, PR2a and PR3b. PMID:26915208

  2. Performance of JT-60SA divertor Thomson scattering diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Kajita, Shin; Hatae, Takaki; Tojo, Hiroshi; Hamano, Takashi; Shimizu, Katsuhiro; Kawashima, Hisato; Enokuchi, Akito

    2015-08-15

    For the satellite tokamak JT-60 Super Advanced (JT-60SA), a divertor Thomson scattering measurement system is planning to be installed. In this study, we improved the design of the collection optics based on the previous one, in which it was found that the solid angle of the collection optics became very small, mainly because of poor accessibility to the measurement region. By improvement, the solid angle was increased by up to approximately five times. To accurately assess the measurement performance, background noise was assessed using the plasma parameters in two typical discharges in JT-60SA calculated from the SONIC code. Moreover, the influence of the reflection of bremsstrahlung radiation by the wall is simulated by using a ray tracing simulation. The errors in the temperature and the density are assessed based on the simulation results for three typical field of views.

  3. Performance verification tests of JT-60SA CS model coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obana, Tetsuhiro; Murakami, Haruyuki; Takahata, Kazuya; Hamaguchi, Shinji; Chikaraishi, Hirotaka; Mito, Toshiyuki; Imagawa, Shinsaku; Kizu, Kaname; Natsume, Kyohei; Yoshida, Kiyoshi

    2015-11-01

    As a final check of the coil manufacturing method of the JT-60 Super Advanced (JT-60SA) central solenoid (CS), we verified the performance of a CS model coil. The model coil comprised a quad-pancake wound with a Nb3Sn cable-in-conduit conductor. Measurements of the critical current, joint resistance, pressure drop, and magnetic field were conducted in the verification tests. In the critical-current measurement, the critical current of the model coil coincided with the estimation derived from a strain of -0.62% for the Nb3Sn strands. As a result, critical-current degradation caused by the coil manufacturing process was not observed. The results of the performance verification tests indicate that the model coil met the design requirements. Consequently, the manufacturing process of the JT-60SA CS was established.

  4. Performance of JT-60SA divertor Thomson scattering diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Kajita, Shin; Hatae, Takaki; Tojo, Hiroshi; Enokuchi, Akito; Hamano, Takashi; Shimizu, Katsuhiro; Kawashima, Hisato

    2015-08-01

    For the satellite tokamak JT-60 Super Advanced (JT-60SA), a divertor Thomson scattering measurement system is planning to be installed. In this study, we improved the design of the collection optics based on the previous one, in which it was found that the solid angle of the collection optics became very small, mainly because of poor accessibility to the measurement region. By improvement, the solid angle was increased by up to approximately five times. To accurately assess the measurement performance, background noise was assessed using the plasma parameters in two typical discharges in JT-60SA calculated from the SONIC code. Moreover, the influence of the reflection of bremsstrahlung radiation by the wall is simulated by using a ray tracing simulation. The errors in the temperature and the density are assessed based on the simulation results for three typical field of views. PMID:26329196

  5. Using SA508/533 for the HTGR Vessel Material

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Demick

    2012-06-01

    This paper examines the influence of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) module power rating and normal operating temperatures on the use of SA508/533 material for the HTGR vessel system with emphasis on the calculated times at elevated temperatures approaching or exceeding ASME Code Service Limits (Levels B&C) to which the reactor pressure vessel could be exposed during postulated pressurized and depressurized conduction cooldown events over its design lifetime.

  6. Isolation and Genome Characterization of the Virulent Staphylococcus aureus Bacteriophage SA97

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yoonjee; Shin, Hakdong; Lee, Ju-Hoon; Park, Chul Jong; Paik, Soon-Young; Ryu, Sangryeol

    2015-01-01

    A novel bacteriophage that infects S. aureus, SA97, was isolated and characterized. The phage SA97 belongs to the Siphoviridae family, and the cell wall teichoic acid (WTA) was found to be a host receptor of the phage SA97. Genome analysis revealed that SA97 contains 40,592 bp of DNA encoding 54 predicted open reading frames (ORFs), and none of these genes were related to virulence or drug resistance. Although a few genes associated with lysogen formation were detected in the phage SA97 genome, the phage SA97 produced neither lysogen nor transductant in S. aureus. These results suggest that the phage SA97 may be a promising candidate for controlling S. aureus. PMID:26437428

  7. Semi-synthetic mithramycin SA derivatives with improved anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Scott, Daniel; Chen, Jhong-Min; Bae, Younsoo; Rohr, Jürgen

    2013-05-01

    Mithramycin (MTM) is a potent anti-cancer agent that has recently garnered renewed attention. This manuscript describes the design and development of mithramycin derivatives through a combinational approach of biosynthetic analogue generation followed by synthetic manipulation for further derivatization. Mithramycin SA is a previously discovered analogue produced by the M7W1 mutant strain alongside the improved mithramycin analogues mithramycin SK and mithramycin SDK. Mithramycin SA shows decreased anti-cancer activity compared to mithramycin and has a shorter, two carbon aglycon side chain that is terminated in a carboxylic acid. The aglycon side chain is responsible for an interaction with the DNA-phosphate backbone as mithramycin interacts with its target DNA. It was therefore decided to further functionalize this side chain through reactions with the terminal carboxylic acid in an effort to enhance the interaction with the DNA phosphate backbone and improve the anti-cancer activity. This side chain was modified with a variety of molecules increasing the anti-cancer activity to a comparable level to mithramycin SK. This work shows the ability to transform the previously useless mithramycin SA into a valuable molecule and opens the door to further functionalization and semi-synthetic modification for the development of molecules with increased specificity and/or drug formulation. PMID:23331575

  8. Solving Fuzzy Optimization Problem Using Hybrid Ls-Sa Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasant, Pandian

    2011-06-01

    Fuzzy optimization problem has been one of the most and prominent topics inside the broad area of computational intelligent. It's especially relevant in the filed of fuzzy non-linear programming. It's application as well as practical realization can been seen in all the real world problems. In this paper a large scale non-linear fuzzy programming problem has been solved by hybrid optimization techniques of Line Search (LS), Simulated Annealing (SA) and Pattern Search (PS). As industrial production planning problem with cubic objective function, 8 decision variables and 29 constraints has been solved successfully using LS-SA-PS hybrid optimization techniques. The computational results for the objective function respect to vagueness factor and level of satisfaction has been provided in the form of 2D and 3D plots. The outcome is very promising and strongly suggests that the hybrid LS-SA-PS algorithm is very efficient and productive in solving the large scale non-linear fuzzy programming problem.

  9. Level of Need for Cognition and Metacognitive Thinking among Undergraduate Kindergarten Female Students at King Sa'ud University in Sa'udi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daghistani, Bulquees

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at examining the level of need for cognition and metacognitive thinking among undergraduate kindergarten female students in Education Faculty at King Sa'ud University in Sa'udi Arabia from their own perceptions. Results showed that the need for the cognition level was moderate, but metacognitive thinking level was high. In…

  10. Computational studies of H5N1 hemagglutinin binding with SA-{alpha}-2, 3-Gal and SA-{alpha}-2, 6-Gal

    SciTech Connect

    Li Minyong; Wang Binghe . E-mail: wang@gsu.edu

    2006-09-01

    For influenza H5N1 hemagglutinin, a switch from SA-{alpha}-2, 3-Gal to SA-{alpha}-2, 6-Gal receptor specificity is a critical step leading to the conversion from avian-to-human to human-to-human infection. Therefore, the understanding of the binding modes of SA-{alpha}-2, 3-Gal and SA-{alpha}-2, 6-Gal to H5N1 hemagglutinin will be very important for the examination of possible mutations needed for going from an avian to a human flu virus. Based on the available H5N1 hemagglutinin crystal structure, the binding profiles between H5N1 hemagglutinin and two saccharide ligands, SA-{alpha}-2, 3-Gal and SA-{alpha}-2, 6-Gal, were investigated by ab initio quantum mechanics, molecular docking, molecular mechanics, and molecular dynamics simulations. It was found that SA-{alpha}-2, 3-Gal has strong multiple hydrophobic and hydrogen bond interactions in its trans conformation with H5N1 hemagglutinin, whereas the SA-{alpha}-2, 6-Gal only shows weak interactions in a different conformation (cis type)

  11. The visualization of DHSI based on the relationship model of CL and SA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haibo; Guo, Huijuan; Xue, Chengqi

    2013-03-01

    The source and cause of cognitive load (CL) and situation awareness (SA) in digital human-system interface (DHSI) is explained. Based on the analysis of cognitive procedure and the relation of CL and SA, The relationship model of CL and SA in DHSI is put forward. Using the association target and the relationship model of CL and SA, the method and strategy of information visualization of DHSI is presented which is based on the cognitive psychology. Selecting the Boeing 757 autopilot as the case, the comparison of design is shown.

  12. NEW YOUNG STAR CANDIDATES IN CG4 AND Sa101

    SciTech Connect

    Rebull, L. M.; Laine, S.; Laher, R.; Legassie, M.; Hoette, V.; Kim, J. S.; Foster, M.; Mallory, C. R.; McCarron, K.; Sherry, W. H.

    2011-07-15

    The CG4 and Sa101 regions together cover a region of {approx}0.5 deg{sup 2} in the vicinity of a 'cometary globule' that is part of the Gum Nebula. There are seven previously identified young stars in this region; we have searched for new young stars using mid- and far-infrared data (3.6-70 {mu}m) from the Spitzer Space Telescope, combined with ground-based optical data and near-infrared data from the Two Micron All Sky Survey. We find infrared excesses in all six of the previously identified young stars in our maps and identify 16 more candidate young stars based on apparent infrared excesses. Most (73%) of the new young stars are Class II objects. There is a tighter grouping of young stars and young star candidates in the Sa101 region, in contrast to the CG4 region, where there are fewer young stars and young star candidates, and they are more dispersed. Few likely young objects are found in the 'fingers' of the dust being disturbed by the ionization front from the heart of the Gum Nebula.

  13. Finite element analysis of (SA) mechanoreceptors in tactile sensing application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    N, Syamimi; Yahud, S.

    2015-05-01

    This paper addresses the structural design of a fingertip model in order to analyse the sensory function of slow adapting (SA) mechanoreceptors by using the finite element analysis (FEA) method. A biologically inspired tactile sensor was designed to mimic a similar response of the human mechanoreceptors in the human glabrous skin. The simulation work was done by using COMSOL Multiphysics. The artificial skin was modelled as a solid square block of silicone elastomer with a semi cylinder protrusion on top. It was modelled as a nearly incompressible and linear hyperelastic material defined by Neo Hookean constitutive law. The sensing element on the other hand was modelled by using constantan alloy mimicking the SA1 receptor. Boundary loads of 1 N/m² to 4 N/m² with the increment of 1 N/m² were applied to the top surface of the protrusion in z and x-direction for normal and shear stress, respectively. The epidermal model base was constrained to maintain the same boundary conditions throughout all simulations. The changes of length experienced by the sensing element were calculated. The simulations result in terms of strain was identified. The simulated result was plotted in terms of sensing element strain against the boundary load and the graph should produce a linear response.

  14. 76 FR 7511 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-10

    ... rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will... Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170 Airplanes; and Model ERJ 190-100..., contact Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER), Technical Publications Section (PC 060),...

  15. Sequence Determinants for DNA Packaging Specificity in the S. aureus Pathogenicity Island SaPI1

    PubMed Central

    Bento, Joana C; Lane, Kristin D; Read, Erik K; Cerca, Nuno; Christie, Gail E

    2014-01-01

    The SaPIs and their relatives are a family of genomic islands that exploit helper phages for high frequency horizontal transfer. One of the mechanisms used by SaPIs to accomplish this molecular piracy is the redirection of the helper phage DNA packaging machinery. SaPIs encode a small terminase subunit that can be substituted for that of the phage. In this study we have determined the initial packaging cleavage sites for helper phage 80α which uses the phage-encoded small terminase subunit, and for SaPI1, which uses the SaPI-encoded small terminase subunit. We have identified a 19 nt SaPI1 sequence that is necessary and sufficient to allow high frequency 80α transduction of a plasmid by a terminase carrying the SaPI1-encoded small subunit. We also show that the hybrid enzyme with the SaPI1 small terminase subunit is capable of generalized transduction. PMID:24365721

  16. Characteristics and development report for the SA3871 Intent Controller application specific integrated circuit (ASIC)

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, R.L.; Meyer, B.T.

    1995-08-01

    This report describes the design and development activities that were involved in the SA3871 Intent Controller ASIC. The SA3871 is a digital gate array component developed for the MC4396 Trajectory Sensing Signal Generator for use in the B61-3/4/10 system as well as a possible future B61-MAST system.

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Rheinheimera sp. Strain SA_1 Isolated from Iron Backwash Sludge in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Josephin; Liere, Karsten; Szewzyk, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Rheinheimera sp. strain SA_1 is an iron-depositing bacterium for which we report a draft genome sequence. Strain SA_1 was isolated from iron backwash sludge of a waterworks in Germany. The Illumina MiSeq technique was used to sequence the genome of the strain. PMID:27540074

  18. Best Practices Case Study: S&A Homes, East Liberty, PIttsburgh, PA

    SciTech Connect

    2010-12-01

    S&A Homes worked with Building America's IBACOS and architects Pfaffmann & Associates and Moss Associates to design energy-efficient homes for urban in-fill lots. This is a new market for S&A Homes, which builds over 500 homes a year using suburban designs.

  19. Sequence determinants for DNA packaging specificity in the S. aureus pathogenicity island SaPI1.

    PubMed

    Bento, Joana C; Lane, Kristin D; Read, Erik K; Cerca, Nuno; Christie, Gail E

    2014-01-01

    The SaPIs and their relatives are a family of genomic islands that exploit helper phages for high frequency horizontal transfer. One of the mechanisms used by SaPIs to accomplish this molecular piracy is the redirection of the helper phage DNA packaging machinery. SaPIs encode a small terminase subunit that can be substituted for that of the phage. In this study we have determined the initial packaging cleavage sites for helper phage 80α, which uses the phage-encoded small terminase subunit, and for SaPI1, which uses the SaPI-encoded small terminase subunit. We have identified a 19nt SaPI1 sequence that is necessary and sufficient to allow high frequency 80α transduction of a plasmid by a terminase carrying the SaPI1-encoded small subunit. We also show that the hybrid enzyme with the SaPI1 small terminase subunit is capable of generalized transduction. PMID:24365721

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Rheinheimera sp. Strain SA_1 Isolated from Iron Backwash Sludge in Germany.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Josephin; Braun, Burga; Liere, Karsten; Szewzyk, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Rheinheimera sp. strain SA_1 is an iron-depositing bacterium for which we report a draft genome sequence. Strain SA_1 was isolated from iron backwash sludge of a waterworks in Germany. The Illumina MiSeq technique was used to sequence the genome of the strain. PMID:27540074

  1. SEU characterization and design dependence of the SA3300 microprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, F.W.; Treece, R.K.; Hass, K.J.; Hash, G.L.; Axness, C.L. ); Hughes, K.L. ); Buchner, S.P.; Kang, K. )

    1990-12-01

    The SEU vulnerability of the SA3300 16-bit microprocessor has been characterized, and the effects of two different design revisions on error rate have been explored. The authors have found that the threshold for upset depends on the data pattern written into the general purpose registers. With all bits in the general purpose registers set to logic one, a design with 2-{mu}m n- and p-channel transistor lengths had a threshold LET of 35 MeV-cm{sup 2}/mg at 25{degrees} C and 4.5 volt operation. With all zero's stored in the registers the upset threshold increased by more than a factor of two to 83 MeV- cm{sup 2}/mg. A second design revision, with 1.25-{mu}m and 1.75-{mu}m n- and p-channel transistor lengths, respectively, was more vulnerable to upset, but exhibited a smaller dependence on logic state.

  2. Cryogenic requirements for the JT-60SA Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Frederic; Hitz, D.; Hoa, Christine; Lamaison, Valerie; Kamiya, Koji; Roussel, Pascal; Wanner, Manfred; Yoshida, Kiyoshi

    2012-06-01

    The superconducting tokamak JT-60SA is part of the Broader Approach Programmeagreed between Japan and Europe. CEA is in charge of the cryogenic system procurementincluding the Warm Compression Station, the gas storages, the Refrigerator Cold Box andthe Auxiliary Cold Box (ACB) which has to be installed on the JAEA Naka site in 2016.This paper summarizes the updated cryogenic requirements for the tokamak JT-60SAcryogenic system. The cryogenic system has a refrigeration capacity of about 9 kW equivalent at 4.5K, to supply cryopump panels at 3.7 K, superconducting magnets and cold structures at 4.4 K, HTS current leads at 50 K, and thermal shields at 80 K. This paper presents the static and variable heat loads of the different cooling loops and the results of the rmohydraulic calculations to derive the transient heat loads at the interface between the magnet system cooling loops and the Auxiliary Cold Box.

  3. SalSA: A Teraton UHE Neutrino Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Reil, Kevin; /SLAC

    2006-04-19

    The observed spectrum of ultra-high energy cosmic rays virtually guarantees the presence of ultra-high energy neutrinos due to their interaction with the cosmic microwave background. Unlike cosmic rays, each of these neutrinos will point back directly to its source and will arrive at the Earth unattenuated, from sources perhaps as distant as z = 20. The neutrino telescopes currently under construction, should discover a handful of these events, probably too few for detailed study. This paper describes how an array of VHF and UHF antennas embedded in a large salt dome, SalSA (Salt dome Shower Array) promises to yield a teraton detector (> 500 km{sup 3 sr}) for contained neutrino events with energies above 10{sup 17} eV. Our simulations show that such a detector may observe several hundreds of these neutrinos over its lifetime with excellent angular resolution providing source locations.

  4. Editorial challenges of the Revista de Saúde Pública.

    PubMed

    Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; França Júnior, Ivan; de Andrade, Maria Teresinha Dias; Barata, Rita de Cássia Barradas; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2015-07-01

    The editors of the Revista de Saúde Pública describe the journal's editorial profile and discuss the challenges of scientific publication in the area. A historical overview of almost 50 years of the journal is reported, with the temporal projection of their bibliometric indicators. Qualitative and quantitative parameters of its editorial profile and indexes are also reported. Budget constraints and the actions being taken to address them are discussed. The difficulty in allocating reviewers for manuscripts submitted to the editorial process is also discussed; an issue that affects scientific publication in many areas of knowledge. In particular, we sought to reflect on the proposal of measures to boost the editorial process by alleviating the shortage of reviewers and their possible harmful consequences for the editorial process. PMID:26132238

  5. Performance analysis of SA-3 missile second stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmy, A. M.

    1981-01-01

    One SA-3 missile was disassembled. The constituents of the second stage were thoroughly investigated for geometrical details. The second stage slotted composite propellant grain was subjected to mechanical properties testing, physiochemical analyses, and burning rate measurements at different conditions. To determine the propellant performance parameters, the slotted composite propellant grain was machined into a set of small-size tubular grains. These grains were fired in a small size rocket motor with a set of interchangeable nozzles with different throat diameters. The firings were carried out at three different conditions. The data from test motor firings, physiochemical properties of the propellant, burning rate measurement results and geometrical details of the second stage motor, were used as input data in a computer program to compute the internal ballistic characteristics of the second stage.

  6. SA1 and TRF1 synergistically bind to telomeric DNA and promote DNA-DNA pairing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hong; Lin, Jiangguo; Countryman, Preston; Pan, Hai; Parminder Kaur Team; Robert Riehn Team; Patricia Opresko Team; Jane Tao Team; Susan Smith Team

    Impaired telomere cohesion leads to increased aneuploidy and early onset of tumorigenesis. Cohesion is thought to occur through the entrapment of two DNA strands within tripartite cohesin ring(s), along with a fourth subunit (SA1/SA2). Surprisingly, cohesion rings are not essential for telomere cohesion, which instead requires SA1 and shelterin proteins including TRF1. However, neither this unique cohesion mechanism at telomeres or DNA-binding properties of SA1 is understood. Here, using single-molecule fluorescence imaging of quantum dot-labeled proteins on DNA we discover that while SA1 diffuses across multiple telomeric and non-telomeric regions, the diffusion mediated through its N-terminal domain is slower at telomeric regions. However, addition of TRF1 traps SA1 within telomeric regions, which form longer DNA-DNA pairing tracts than with TRF1 alone, as revealed by atomic force microscopy. Together, these experimental results and coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations suggest that TRF1 and SA1 synergistically interact with DNA to support telomere cohesion without cohesin rings.

  7. Preliminary treatment of bovine mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus, with trx-SA1, recombinant endolysin of S. aureus bacteriophage IME-SA1.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jindai; Zeng, Zhiliang; Mai, Kaijie; Yang, Yu; Feng, Jiaqi; Bai, Yang; Sun, Baoli; Xie, Qingmei; Tong, Yigang; Ma, Jingyun

    2016-08-15

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become a great threat to human and animal health and there is an urgent need to develop novel antibacterial agents to control this pathogen. The objective of this study was to obtain an active recombinant endolysin from the novel bacteriophage (IME-SA1), and conduct an efficacy trial of its effectiveness against bovine mastitis. We isolated a phage that was virulent and specific for S. aureus with an optimal multiplicity of infection of 0.01. Electron microscopy revealed that IME-SA1 was a member of the family Myoviridae, with an isometric head (98nm) and a long contractile tail (200nm). Experimental lysis experiments indicated the phage had an incubation period of 20min with a burst size of 80. When host bacteria were in early exponential growth stages, a multiplicity of infection of 0.01 resulted in a complete bacterial lysis after 9h. The endolysin gene (804bp) was cloned into the pET-32a bacterial expression vector and recombinant endolysin Trx-SA1 was successfully obtained with molecular size of about 47kDa. Preliminary results of therapeutic trials in cow udders showed that Trx-SA1 could effectively control mild clinical mastitis caused by S. aureus. The endolysin Trx-SA1 might be an alternative treatment strategy for infections caused by S. aureus, including MRSA. PMID:27374909

  8. Photoelectric UVBY beta photometry of 230 stars brighter than m(pg) = 13.0 in the two B = +75 deg fields SA 80 and SA 81

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knude, J.

    1993-04-01

    The study presents uvby and beta photometry for 123 and 107 stars in SA 80 and SA 81 brighter than m(pg) = 13 and earlier than G1. Most stars seem to be of type A or F with sample limits V is not greater than 12.6 and beta is not less than 2.60. SA 80 and SA 81 have 34 and 27 BD stars in common with a general b is not less than 70 deg program, respectively. uvby photometry for 19 and 12 stars fainter than m(pg) = 13 is also presented. If situated on the standard line, the sample of absolutely less luminous F9-G0 stars are complete in the volume confined to the distance range from 80 to 300-400 pc. Several lines of sight have E(b-y) exceeding 0.050 m. In both areas the remote A stars seem to be virtually unreddened or are perhaps bluer than typical for population I stars. SA 80 covers part of the Virgo cluster, and the data may be used to estimate the galactic reddening in this direction.

  9. Cryogenic thermometry for refrigerant distribution system of JT-60SA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natsume, K.; Murakami, H.; Kizu, K.; Yoshida, K.; Koide, Y.

    2015-12-01

    JT-60SA is a fully superconducting fusion experimental device involving Japan and Europe. The cryogenic system supplies supercritical or gaseous helium to superconducting coils through valve boxes or coil terminal boxes and in-cryostat pipes. There are 86 temperature measurement points at 4 K along the distribution line. Resistance temperature sensors will be installed on cooling pipes in vacuum. In this work, two sensor attachment methods, two types of sensor, two thermal anchoring methods, and two sensor fixation materials have been experimentally evaluated in terms of accuracy and mass productivity. Finally, the verification test of thermometry has been conducted using the sample pipe fabricated in the same way to the production version, which has been decided by the comparison experiments. The TVO sensor is attached by the saddle method with Apiezon N grease and the measurement wires made of phosphor bronze are wound on the pipe with Stycast 2850FT as the thermal anchoring. A Cernox sensor is directly immersed in liquid helium as a reference thermometer during the experiment. The measured temperature difference between the attached one and reference one has been within ±15 mK in the range of 3.40-4.73 K. It has satisfies the accuracy requirement of 0.1 K.

  10. SA1 binds directly to DNA through its unique AT-hook to promote sister chromatid cohesion at telomeres

    PubMed Central

    Bisht, Kamlesh K.; Daniloski, Zharko; Smith, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Summary Sister chromatid cohesion relies on cohesin, a complex comprising a tri-partite ring and a peripheral subunit Scc3, which is found as two related isoforms SA1 and SA2 in vertebrates. There is a division of labor between the vertebrate cohesin complexes; SA1-cohesin is required at telomeres and SA2-cohesin at centromeres. Depletion of SA1 has dramatic consequences for telomere function and genome integrity, but the mechanism by which SA1-cohesin mediates cohesion at telomeres is not well understood. Here we dissect the individual contribution of SA1 and the ring subunits to telomere cohesion and show that telomeres rely heavily on SA1 and to a lesser extent on the ring for cohesion. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation we show that SA1 is highly enriched at telomeres, is decreased at mitosis when cohesion is resolved, and is increased when cohesion persists. Overexpression of SA1 alone was sufficient to induce cohesion at telomeres, independent of the cohesin ring and dependent on its unique (not found in SA2) N-terminal domain, which we show binds to telomeric DNA through an AT-hook motif. We suggest that a specialized cohesion mechanism may be required to accommodate the high level of DNA replication-associated repair at telomeres. PMID:23729739

  11. Functional interplay between SA1 and TRF1 in telomeric DNA binding and DNA-DNA pairing.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jiangguo; Countryman, Preston; Chen, Haijiang; Pan, Hai; Fan, Yanlin; Jiang, Yunyun; Kaur, Parminder; Miao, Wang; Gurgel, Gisele; You, Changjiang; Piehler, Jacob; Kad, Neil M; Riehn, Robert; Opresko, Patricia L; Smith, Susan; Tao, Yizhi Jane; Wang, Hong

    2016-07-27

    Proper chromosome alignment and segregation during mitosis depend on cohesion between sister chromatids. Cohesion is thought to occur through the entrapment of DNA within the tripartite ring (Smc1, Smc3 and Rad21) with enforcement from a fourth subunit (SA1/SA2). Surprisingly, cohesin rings do not play a major role in sister telomere cohesion. Instead, this role is replaced by SA1 and telomere binding proteins (TRF1 and TIN2). Neither the DNA binding property of SA1 nor this unique telomere cohesion mechanism is understood. Here, using single-molecule fluorescence imaging, we discover that SA1 displays two-state binding on DNA: searching by one-dimensional (1D) free diffusion versus recognition through subdiffusive sliding at telomeric regions. The AT-hook motif in SA1 plays dual roles in modulating non-specific DNA binding and subdiffusive dynamics over telomeric regions. TRF1 tethers SA1 within telomeric regions that SA1 transiently interacts with. SA1 and TRF1 together form longer DNA-DNA pairing tracts than with TRF1 alone, as revealed by atomic force microscopy imaging. These results suggest that at telomeres cohesion relies on the molecular interplay between TRF1 and SA1 to promote DNA-DNA pairing, while along chromosomal arms the core cohesin assembly might also depend on SA1 1D diffusion on DNA and sequence-specific DNA binding. PMID:27298259

  12. Does Salicylic Acid (SA) Improve Tolerance to Salt Stress in Plants? A Study of SA Effects On Tomato Plant Growth, Water Dynamics, Photosynthesis, and Biochemical Parameters.

    PubMed

    Mimouni, Hajer; Wasti, Salma; Manaa, Arafet; Gharbi, Emna; Chalh, Abdellah; Vandoorne, Bertrand; Lutts, Stanley; Ben Ahmed, Hela

    2016-03-01

    Environmental stresses such as salinity directly impact crop growth, and by extension, world food supply and societal prosperity. It is estimated that over 800 million hectares of land throughout the world are salt-affected. In arid and semi-arid regions, salt concentration can be close to that in the seawater. Hence, there are intensive efforts to improve plant tolerance to salinity and other environmental stressors. Salicylic acid (SA) is an important signal molecule for modulating plant responses to stress. In the present study, we examined, on multiple plant growth related endpoints, whether SA applied through the rooting medium could mitigate the adverse effects of salinity on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cv. Marmande. The latter is a hitherto understudied tomato plant from the above perspective; it is a classic variety that produces the large ribbed tomatoes in the Mediterranean and consumed worldwide. We found salt stress negatively affected the growth of cv. Marmande tomato plants. However, the SA-treated plants had greater shoot and root dry mass, leaf area compared to untreated plants when exposed to salt stress. Application of SA restores photosynthetic rates and photosynthetic pigment levels under salt (NaCl) exposure. Leaf water, osmotic potential, stomatal conductance transpiration rate, and biochemical parameters were also ameliorated in SA-treated plants under saline stress conditions. Overall, these data illustrate that SA increases cv. Marmande tomato growth by improving photosynthesis, regulation and balance of osmotic potential, induction of compatible osmolyte metabolism, and alleviating membrane damage. We suggest salicylic acid might be considered as a potential growth regulator to improve tomato plant salinity stress resistance, in the current era of global climate change. PMID:26909467

  13. 76 FR 72855 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or... Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER), Technical Publications Section (PC 060), Av. Brigadeiro Faria...

  14. Gemini surfactants affect the structure, stability, and activity of ribonuclease Sa.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Razieh; Bordbar, Abdol-Khalegh; Laurents, Douglas V

    2014-09-11

    Gemini surfactants have important advantages, e.g., low micromolar CMCs and slow millisecond monomer ↔ micelle kinetics, for membrane mimetics and for delivering nucleic acids for gene therapy or RNA silencing. However, as a prerequisite, it is important to characterize interactions occurring between Gemini surfactants and proteins. Here NMR and CD spectroscopies are employed to investigate the interactions of cationic Gemini surfactants with RNase Sa, a negatively charged ribonuclease. We find that RNase Sa binds Gemini surfactant monomers and micelles at pH values above 4 to form aggregates. Below pH 4, where the protein is positively charged, these aggregates dissolve and interactions are undetectable. Thermal denaturation experiments show that surfactant lowers RNase Sa's conformational stability, suggesting that surfactant binds the protein's denatured state preferentially. Finally, Gemini surfactants were found to bind RNA, leading to the formation of large complexes. Interestingly, Gemini surfactant binding did not prevent RNase Sa from cleaving RNA. PMID:25133582

  15. Anti-Sa antibodies: prognostic and pathogenetic significance to rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    El-Gabalawy, Hani S; Wilkins, John A

    2004-01-01

    Anti-Sa antibodies are detected in the serum of 20–47% of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. These antibodies have a high degree of specificity for the disease, and appear to identify a subset of early rheumatoid arthritis patients destined to have aggressive and destructive disease. It has recently been confirmed that anti-Sa antibodies are directed to citrullinated vimentin, thus placing them in the anti-citrulline family of autoantibodies. The Sa antigen has previously been shown to be present in synovium. This, along with the demonstration of citrullinated proteins in rheumatoid synovium, suggests that anti-Sa antibodies may play a pathogenetic role in the initiation and/or persistence of rheumatoid synovitis. PMID:15059270

  16. 78 FR 68697 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca S.A. Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ..., Amendment 39-17321 (78 FR 6725, January 31, 2013), and adding the following new AD: 2013-22-22 Turbomeca S.A...-17321 (78 FR 6725, January 31, 2013). (c) Applicability This AD applies to all Turbomeca S.A. Arriel 2D...-07, Amendment 39-17321 (78 FR 6725, January 31, 2013), (``AD 2013-01-07''). AD 2013-01-07 applied...

  17. The mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis suppresses plant defense responses by manipulating JA-SA crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng-Jun; Huang, Fang; Zhang, Jin-Ming; Wei, Jia-Ning; Lu, Yao-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Induced plant defenses against herbivores are modulated by jasmonic acid-, salicylic acid-, and ethylene-signaling pathways. Although there is evidence that some pathogens suppress plant defenses by interfering with the crosstalk between different signaling pathways, such evidence is scarce for herbivores. Here, we demonstrate that the mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis suppresses the induced defenses in tomato. We found that exogenous JA, but not SA, significantly decreased mealybug feeding time and reduced nymphal performance. In addition, constitutive activation of JA signaling in 35s::prosys plants reduced mealybug survival. These data indicate that the JA signaling pathway plays a key role in mediating the defense responses against P. solenopsis. We also found that mealybug feeding decreased JA production and JA-dependent defense gene expression, but increased SA accumulation and SA-dependent gene expression. In SA-deficient plants, mealybug feeding did not suppress but activated JA accumulation, indicating that the suppression of JA-regulated defenses depends on the SA signaling pathway. Mealybugs benefit from suppression of JA-regulated defenses by exhibiting enhanced nymphal performance. These findings confirm that P. solenopsis manipulates plants for its own benefits by modulating the JA-SA crosstalk and thereby suppressing induced defenses. PMID:25790868

  18. Closed-loop control of SaO2 in the neonate.

    PubMed

    Morozoff, P E; Evans, R W

    1992-01-01

    A microprocessor-based device has been designed to control oxygen saturation (SaO2) in neonates by adjusting the inspired air-oxygen mixture (FiO2) delivered by a mechanical blender. The user sets a target SaO2, which the controller attempts to maintain. Alarms are actuated if the neonate's SaO2 is outside predefined limits. SaO2 levels are extracted from a commercial pulse oximeter and analyzed by an eight-bit microprocessing unit (MPU). Delivered percentages of FiO2 are adjusted by a motorized air-oxygen blender. The controller has a menu-driven user interface and can graphically present four-hour trends of the SaO2, FiO2, or blender setting. Sixteen hours of collected data can be stored and later downloaded to a personal computer. A real-time multitasking operating system forms the nucleus of the controller's software. Major tasks that share MPU time are control, filtering, user display, data collection, data archiving, alarm monitoring, and user input. Analog SaO2 levels are read and converted to digital values, which are then filtered to extract noise. A differential control algorithm is used to determine the required FiO2 blender setting. The blender is then adjusted to the new setting, after which the controller waits to repeat the process of sampling SaO2 and adjusting FiO2. System response time and blender increments are adjustable to allow a user to tune the controller to the patient's needs. Alarm conditions of concern within the device are SaO2 and FiO2 sensor disconnection, blender disconnection, and SaO2 limiting errors. In preliminary trials, for a target of 92.0% SaO2, a prototype controller maintained an average of 91.6% with a standard deviation of 5.0% over a one-hour period.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1562825

  19. Nouvelles approches en theorie du champ moyen dynamique: le cas du pouvoir thermoelectrique et celui de l'effet orbital d'un champ magnetique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsenault, Louis-Francois

    , cette approche donne une bonne representation de S lorsque le systeme devient coherent. Les calculs montrent aussi que la formule Kelvin est precise lorsque la fonction spectrale des electrons devient incoherente, soit a plus haute temperature. Dans la limite Kelvin, S est essentiellement l'entropie par particule, tel que propose il y a longtemps. Nos resultats demontrent ainsi que la vision purement entropique de S est la bonne dans le regime incoherent, alors que dans le regime coherent, l'approche a frequence infinie est meilleure. Nous avons utilise une methode a la fine pointe, soit le Monte-Carlo quantique en temps continu pour resoudre la DMFT. Pour permettre une exploration rapide du diagramme de phase, nous avons du developper une nouvelle version de la methode des perturbations iterees pour qu'elle soit applicable aussi a forte interaction au-dela de la valeur critique de la transition de Mott. Un autre sujet a aussi ete aborde. L'effet orbital du champ magnetique dans les systemes electroniques fortement correles est une question tres importante et peu developpee. Cela est d'autant plus essentiel depuis la decouverte des oscillations quantiques dans les supraconducteurs a haute temperature (haut- Tc). Par desir de developper une methode la moins biaisee possible, nous avons derive la DMFT lorsqu'un champ se couplant a l'operateur energie cinetique par la substitution de Peierls est present. Ce type d'approche est necessaire pour comprendre entre autres l'effet de la physique de Mott sur des phenomenes tels que les oscillations quantiques. Nous avons obtenu un resultat tres important en demontrant rigoureusement que la relation d'auto-coherence de la DMFT et le systeme intermediaire d'impurete quantique restent les memes. L'effet du champ peut etre contenu dans la fonction de Green locale, ce qui constitue la grande difference avec le cas habituel. Ceci permet de continuer a utiliser les solutionneurs d'impuretes standards, qui sont de plus en plus puissants

  20. Performance of SaSelect, a Chromogenic Medium for Detection of Staphylococci in Clinical Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Kerttula, Anne-Marie; Kaukoranta, Suvi-Sirkku

    2014-01-01

    In a preliminary study, known staphylococcus (n = 86) and other microbial (n = 12) isolates were plated on three chromogenic media, SaSelect (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA, USA), CHROMagar Staph. aureus (CHROMagar Microbiology, Paris, France), and S. aureus ID (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France). The sensitivities of all the media to detect Staphylococcus aureus after 24 h of incubation were high (100.0%). However, their specificities varied at 93.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 86.0% to 100.0%) (CHROMagar Staph. aureus), 97.8% (95% CI, 93.5% to 100.0%) (S. aureus ID), and 100.0% (SaSelect). SaSelect also showed the highest sensitivity for recovery and differentiation of other staphylococci. As the best performing chromogenic medium, SaSelect was then prospectively compared to conventional culture and identification tests for the detection of staphylococci from 2,780 clinical specimens. A total of 1,589 staphylococcal isolates were recovered. Of these, 912 were S. aureus and 677 were other staphylococci. The sensitivity and specificity of SaSelect to detect S. aureus in clinical specimens after 24 h of incubation were 99.6% and 99.9% (95% CI, 99.2% to 100.0% and 99.8% to 100.0%), respectively, whereas the sensitivity and specificity using conventional plates combined with laboratory identification methods were 96.8% and 99.5% (95% CI, 95.7 to 97.9% and 99.2% to 99.8%). For the recovery and preliminary identification of other staphylococci, the sensitivity and specificity of SaSelect were 94.4% and 99.9%. SaSelect is a well-performing chromogenic medium that significantly improved the detection of staphylococci, especially S. aureus, compared to conventional culture (P < 0.0001). PMID:24430448

  1. Antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus infection is inhibited by SA-17, a doxorubicin derivative.

    PubMed

    Ayala-Nuñez, Nilda V; Jarupathirun, Patsaporn; Kaptein, Suzanne J F; Neyts, Johan; Smit, Jolanda M

    2013-10-01

    Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) is thought to play a critical role in the exacerbation of dengue virus (DENV)-induced disease during a heterologous re-infection. Despite ADE's clinical impact, only a few antiviral compounds have been assessed for their anti-ADE activity. We reported earlier that SA-17, a doxorubicin derivative, efficiently inhibits the in vitro infection of DENV and yellow fever virus. Here we explored SA-17's mechanism of inhibition and investigated if the compound is active against ADE of DENV infection. Since enhanced infectivity stimulated by antibodies has been observed with standard and immature DENV, both types of virions were included in the study. We observed that SA-17 (i) inhibits DENV infection by preventing binding/entry to the cell and (ii) interferes with antibody-mediated infection of both standard and immature DENV2. SA-17 markedly reduced the infectivity of DENV2 in ADE conditions, with IC50s ranging from 0.26 to 2.89μM. The compound exerted its activity when added before, during, and after antibody-opsonization of standard and immature virus. Thus, molecules with the characteristics of SA-17 may be attractive antiviral agents since they can be used both to block DENV2 entry during primary and secondary infection and to inhibit ADE of standard and immature virus. PMID:23994499

  2. Comparison of finite element analysis of a piping tee using NASTRAN and CORTES/SA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quezon, A. J.; Everstine, G. C.

    1980-01-01

    A comparison of finite element analyses of a piping tee was made using NASTRAN and CORTES/SA, a modified version of SAP3 having a special purpose input processor for generating geometries for a wide variety of tee joints. Four finite element models were subjected in force, moment, and pressure loadings. Flexibility factors and principal stresses were computed for each model and compared with results obtained experimentally by Combustion Engineering, Inc. Results from the NASTRAN analyses were in good agreement with experimental results for all loadings except internal pressure. The CORTES/SA analyses gave good results for the internal pressure loading, but poorer results for out of plane bending moments or forces resulting in out of plane bending. Two of the basic load cases in CORTES/SA were found to contain errors that could not be easily corrected. COST COMPARison of NASTRAN and CORTES/SA showed NASTRAN to be less expensive to two than CORTES/SA for identical meshes.

  3. Evaluation of the Quantitative Dry Culture Method (Sanitakun(TM) SA) for the Enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus in Artificially Contaminated Food Samples.

    PubMed

    Teramura, Hajime; Iwasaki, Mihoko; Ogihara, Hirokazu

    2015-01-01

    Sanita-kun(TM) SA for Staphylococcus aureus (SkSA), a novel dry sheet quantitative culture system, was evaluated. When the inclusivity and exclusivity of SkSA were assessed using 121 microorganisms including 47 S. aureus strains, the tested S. aureus strains formed blue-colored colonies on the SkSA and all the other microbes failed to grow. The SkSA was then compared with Baird-Parker agar (BP) according to ISO 6888-1, Mannitol salt agar with egg yolk (MSEY), and 3M Petrifilm(TM) STX (3M-STX) in 100 artificially contami nated food samples. The correlation coefficients between SkSA and BP, SkSA and MSEY, and SkSA and 3M-STX were 0.971, 0.989 and 0.996, respectively. Our results demonstrated that SkSA is a suitable alternative for the enumeration of S. aureus in foods. PMID:26699862

  4. Grating Ti:Sa laser: Rydberg & auto-ionizing state spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teigelhoefer, Andrea; Bricault, Pierre; Lassen, Jens; Neu, Walter; Wendt, Klaus

    2009-05-01

    TRIUMF's Isotope Separator and Accelerator facility (ISAC) provides intense radioactive isotope beams (RIB) for nuclear and particle physics experiments. Resonant laser ionization is well suited as an on-line ion source for RIB production due to its efficiency and element selectivity. TRIUMF's Laser Ion Source (TRI LIS) uses BRF tuned Ti:Sa lasers with GHz linewidth and 10kHz rep. rate. Continuous wavelength scanning of these lasers is involved. A grating tuned Ti:Sa laser was built to allow for high resolution continuous wavelength scans (10nm/h) thus allowing for systematic studies of high lying atomic energy levels and the development of efficient RIS schemes. This grating tuned Ti:Sa laser system will be presented.

  5. ASTP (SA-210) launch vehicle operational flight trajectory dispersion analysis, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, N. D.; Klug, G. W.; Ransom, F. A.

    1975-01-01

    In order to establish realistic deviation limits for the ASTP (SA-210) Launch Vehicle Operational Flight Trajectory, a dispersion analysis was conducted. The nominal trajectory prescribed for this analysis is the ASTP (SA-210) Launch Vehicle 500 Pound Launch Window Opening OT. The error sources considered are those associated with predictions of vehicle characteristics, vehicle systems performance, and flight environment. The nominal vehicle, the boost trajectory simulations, the error sources, the analytic procedures utilized, and the results are discussed. Launch vehicle guidance system inaccuracies were determined from the guidance error analysis. These data are composed of individual error source trajectory parameter dispersion envelopes.

  6. Minimization of Reactive Power Fluctuation in JT-60SA Magnet Power Supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, K.; Terakado, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Matsukawa, M.; Baulaigue, O.; Coletti, R.; Coletti, A.; Novello, L.

    2013-02-01

    This paper describes an asymmetric control method for the firing angle and a start/stop timing shift control of four thyristor converters called “Booster PS" to minimize the reactive power fluctuation during plasma initiation in JT-60SA. From the simulation using the “PSCAD/EMTDC" code, it is found that these control methods can drastically reduce the reactive power induced by the four units of the “Booster PS". In addition, the voltage fluctuation of the motor-generator connected to the “Booster PS" is expected to be suppressed. This can also contribute to achieve stable control of the JT-60SA magnet power supplies.

  7. [SciELO Public Health: the performance of Cadernos de Saúde Pública and Revista de Saúde Pública].

    PubMed

    Barata, Rita Barradas

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to analyze two Brazilian scientific journals included in the SciELO Library of Public Health, using a group of bibliometric indicators and scrutinizing the articles most viewed. Cadernos de Saúde Pública was accessed 3,743.59 times per month, with an average of 30.31 citations per article. The 50 articles most viewed (6.72 to 524.5 views) were mostly published in Portuguese (92%). 42% were theoretical essays, 20% surveys, and 16% descriptive studies. 42% used argumentative techniques, 34% quantitative techniques, 18% qualitative techniques, and 6% mathematical modeling. The most common themes were: health and work (50%), epidemiology (22%), and environmental health (8%). Revista de Saúde Pública was accessed 1,590.97 times per month, with an average of 26.27 citations per article. The 50 articles most viewed (7.33 and 56.50 views) were all published in Portuguese: 46% were surveys, 14% databases analysis, and 12% systematic reviews. Quantitative techniques were adopted in 66% of such articles, while mathematical modeling was the same as observed in Cadernos de Saúde Pública, as were qualitative techniques. The most common themes were health services organization (22%), nutrition (22%), health and work (18%), epidemiology (12%), and environmental health (12%). PMID:18157346

  8. Qualification of High Specific Energy Li-Ion Cell VES180SA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defer, M.; Du Peyrat, D.; Prevot, D.; Borthomieu, Y.

    2008-09-01

    In order to improve the competitiveness of future platform by reducing weight and cost of the flight batteries solutions, a high specific energy VES180SA cell has been developed and qualified jointly with ESA, CNES, Astrium and Thales in the frame of Artes8 program. This new generation of cell achieves a specific energy of 155Wh/kg in the same casing as the previous generation of VES140S/SA cells given for 115Wh/kg and takes benefit of:* Use of a Ni based G5 generation electrochemistry already implemented in mass production for industrial application.* Use of return on G4 (VES140) & G5 life tests results as well as VES140S/SA flight experience * Use of SA mechanics i.e. with jelly roll attached in order to sustain more severe mechanical environmentVES180SA cell design is the same as the existing VES140SA cell design except the electrochemistry (jelly-roll) which has evolved in order to deliver more energy. The cell casing is composed by a thin al. tube closed by two al. covers that are welded on the extremities of the tube. During the whole cell lifetime, casing is stressed by combined static loads due to internal gas pressure, in cycling jelly-roll swelling and irreversible jelly roll swelling due to ageing phenomena. In addition to that, static loads are temporarily combined to dynamic loads during the launch phase. Whereas, dynamic loads applied on VES140SA and VES180SA cells are the same, maximal internal gas pressure and jelly-roll swelling are higher in VES180SA cell due to its new electrochemistry. The maximal internal pressure of a cell can be estimated by a Saft numerical model based on pressure measurement and extrapolations. For what concern the jelly roll swelling, such a model was not available at the start of the development of the VES180SA cell. The aim of the cell development phase was therefore to optimize the design by characterizing the casing material and performing adequate tests in order to define the cell worst case mechanical loads as a

  9. Genome Sequence of Klebsiella oxytoca SA2, an Endophytic Nitrogen-Fixing Bacterium Isolated from the Pioneer Grass Psammochloa villosa

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mingyue; Lin, Li; Zhang, Yanming; Sun, Li

    2013-01-01

    Klebsiella oxytoca strain SA2 is an endophytic nitrogen-fixing bacterium isolated from the pioneer grass Psammochloa villosa, which grows in the moving sand dunes of Ordos Plateau, China. The SA2 genome sequence provides the genetic background for understanding its endophytic lifestyle and survival in association with grass in nitrogen-poor environments. PMID:23950120

  10. Genome Sequence of Klebsiella oxytoca SA2, an Endophytic Nitrogen-Fixing Bacterium Isolated from the Pioneer Grass Psammochloa villosa.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mingyue; Lin, Li; Zhang, Yanming; Sun, Li; An, Qianli

    2013-01-01

    Klebsiella oxytoca strain SA2 is an endophytic nitrogen-fixing bacterium isolated from the pioneer grass Psammochloa villosa, which grows in the moving sand dunes of Ordos Plateau, China. The SA2 genome sequence provides the genetic background for understanding its endophytic lifestyle and survival in association with grass in nitrogen-poor environments. PMID:23950120

  11. 75 FR 53609 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-500 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or... Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-500 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation... docket. Relevant Service Information Empresa Brasileira de Aeron utica S.A. (EMBRAER) has issued...

  12. G-LoSA: An efficient computational tool for local structure-centric biological studies and drug design.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hui Sun; Im, Wonpil

    2016-04-01

    Molecular recognition by protein mostly occurs in a local region on the protein surface. Thus, an efficient computational method for accurate characterization of protein local structural conservation is necessary to better understand biology and drug design. We present a novel local structure alignment tool, G-LoSA. G-LoSA aligns protein local structures in a sequence order independent way and provides a GA-score, a chemical feature-based and size-independent structure similarity score. Our benchmark validation shows the robust performance of G-LoSA to the local structures of diverse sizes and characteristics, demonstrating its universal applicability to local structure-centric comparative biology studies. In particular, G-LoSA is highly effective in detecting conserved local regions on the entire surface of a given protein. In addition, the applications of G-LoSA to identifying template ligands and predicting ligand and protein binding sites illustrate its strong potential for computer-aided drug design. We hope that G-LoSA can be a useful computational method for exploring interesting biological problems through large-scale comparison of protein local structures and facilitating drug discovery research and development. G-LoSA is freely available to academic users at http://im.compbio.ku.edu/GLoSA/. PMID:26813336

  13. [Study on structural variation of nucleolar organizer regions (NOR) and the satellite association (SA)].

    PubMed

    Wang, G H

    1989-01-01

    To further illustrate the biological significance of variant NOR (including double NOR--dNOR and triple NOR--tNOR) and satellite association (SA) and the relationship to meiotic non-disjunction (NDJ), this study was carried out in the normal population and the parents of patients with Down Syndrome (DS). Of 800 individuals, 4 dNOR carriers, two of them from the control and two from the non-informative experiments were detected. SA data for 3 out of the 4 dNOR carriers showed no statistical significant increase in SA when dNOR was present in the cell even in case 4 where two dNOR were found in one cell. However, ease 3 demonstrated significant decrease in SA when dNOR was present, although it showed that the overall incidence of dNOR was higher in this carrier than that in the other three. It is concluded that dNOR can be detected on any acrocentric chromosome and not be related to NDJ of chromosome, which is a heritable variant that does not affect phenotype and that there are two kinds of dNOR variants, one being from the translocation of the short arm of acrocentric chromosome, the other from non-translocation. PMID:2534280

  14. 78 FR 275 - Airworthiness Directives; REIMS Aviation S.A. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-03

    ... 12866, (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034...; ] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; REIMS Aviation S.A. Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department...

  15. SEU response of design- and resistor-hardened D-latches in the SA3300 microprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, F.W.; Corbett, W.T.; Axness, C.L.; Wunsch, T.F.; Hughes, K.L.; Treece, R.K.; Hass, K.J.; Hash, G.L.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    The effectiveness of hardening the SA3300 against SEU using design and design-plus-resistor approaches is presented. The full performance and SEU tolerance requirements are met using R{sub fb} {le} 160 k{Omega}. Lumped-parameter circuit simulations are used to analyze results. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  16. The effect of net charge on the solubility, activity, and stability of ribonuclease Sa

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Kevin L.; Grimsley, Gerald R.; Yakovlev, Gennady I.; Makarov, Alexander A.; Pace, C. Nick

    2001-01-01

    The net charge and isoelectric pH (pI) of a protein depend on the content of ionizable groups and their pK values. Ribonuclease Sa (RNase Sa) is an acidic protein with a pI = 3.5 that contains no Lys residues. By replacing Asp and Glu residues on the surface of RNase Sa with Lys residues, we have created a 3K variant (D1K, D17K, E41K) with a pI = 6.4 and a 5K variant (3K + D25K, E74K) with a pI = 10.2. We show that pI values estimated using pK values based on model compound data can be in error by >1 pH unit, and suggest how the estimation can be improved. For RNase Sa and the 3K and 5K variants, the solubility, activity, and stability have been measured as a function of pH. We find that the pH of minimum solubility varies with the pI of the protein, but that the pH of maximum activity and the pH of maximum stability do not. PMID:11369859

  17. 77 FR 65581 - Verizon Business Networks Services, Inc., Senior Analyst, Service Program Delivery (SA-SPD...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... Employment and Training Administration Verizon Business Networks Services, Inc., Senior Analyst, Service Program Delivery (SA-SPD), Including Workers Whose Wages Were Paid Under MCI Communication Services, Inc..., 2012, applicable to workers and former workers of Verizon Business Network Services, Inc.,...

  18. Weasel works SA-150: Design study of a 100 to 150 passenger transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkema, Kevin; Comeaux, Michael; Gilbert, Timothy; Para, Victor; Toepfer, George

    1993-01-01

    As the year 2000 rapidly approaches, the airlines are faced with an extremely competitive and environmentally restrictive marketplace. In order to survive, commercial air carriers will need to find new ways to lower their direct operating costs, increase load factors and comply with tightening federal and international constraints. The SA-150 has been designed to meet these demands by focusing on the areas of aerodynamic efficiency, an improved level of passenger comfort, and a limited application of advanced technology. The SA-150 has been optimized for a 500 nmi. mission to help the airlines meet the challenges of the short haul, quick turnaround flight. With a maximum capacity of 124 passengers, and full baggage, the SA-150 is also capable of covering a range of 1500 nmi. This additional range capability will provide the airlines with flexibility when scheduling their routes. The aircraft features a 'V' tail, fly-by-wire system and is powered by two turbofans mounted under a twelve aspect ratio wing. The SA-150 will have an initial production run of 800 units and have a purchase price of $37.7 million in 1993 dollars.

  19. 78 FR 48824 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca S.A. Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ... Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). Discussion The European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA... 12866, (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... was prompted by a ``chip illumination event'' in flight on a Turbomeca S.A. Arriel 1 engine....

  20. saRNA-guided Ago2 targets the RITA complex to promoters to stimulate transcription

    PubMed Central

    Portnoy, Victoria; Lin, Szu Hua Sharon; Li, Kathy H; Burlingame, Alma; Hu, Zheng-Hui; Li, Hao; Li, Long-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Small activating RNAs (saRNAs) targeting specific promoter regions are able to stimulate gene expression at the transcriptional level, a phenomenon known as RNA activation (RNAa). It is known that RNAa depends on Ago2 and is associated with epigenetic changes at the target promoters. However, the precise molecular mechanism of RNAa remains elusive. Using human CDKN1A (p21) as a model gene, we characterized the molecular nature of RNAa. We show that saRNAs guide Ago2 to and associate with target promoters. saRNA-loaded Ago2 facilitates the assembly of an RNA-induced transcriptional activation (RITA) complex, which, in addition to saRNA-Ago2 complex, includes RHA and CTR9, the latter being a component of the PAF1 complex. RITA interacts with RNA polymerase II to stimulate transcription initiation and productive elongation, accompanied by monoubiquitination of histone 2B. Our results establish the existence of a cellular RNA-guided genome-targeting and transcriptional activation mechanism and provide important new mechanistic insights into the RNAa process. PMID:26902284

  1. Resisting Colonial Education: Zitkala-Sa and Native Feminist Archival Refusal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrance, Laura L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines resistance through a Native Feminist lens, employing the boarding school memoirs of Zitkala-Sa. Within a "story" of appropriation in methodology, it considers protest and parody, and presents archival refusal as modes of resistance to colonial education. (Contains 1 figure.)

  2. Transcriptome Analysis in Haematococcus pluvialis: Astaxanthin Induction by Salicylic Acid (SA) and Jasmonic Acid (JA)

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Guanxun; Li, Guoqiang; Sun, Haifeng; Deng, Suzhen; Shen, Yicheng; Chen, Guoqiang; Zhang, Ruihao; Meng, Chunxiao; Zhang, Xiaowen

    2015-01-01

    Haematococcus pluvialis is an astaxanthin-rich microalga that can increase its astaxanthin production by salicylic acid (SA) or jasmonic acid (JA) induction. The genetic transcriptome details of astaxanthin biosynthesis were analyzed by exposing the algal cells to 25 mg/L of SA and JA for 1, 6 and 24 hours, plus to the control (no stress). Based on the RNA-seq analysis, 56,077 unigenes (51.7%) were identified with functions in response to the hormone stress. The top five identified subcategories were cell, cellular process, intracellular, catalytic activity and cytoplasm, which possessed 5600 (~9.99%), 5302 (~9.45%), 5242 (~9.35%), 4407 (~7.86%) and 4195 (~7.48%) unigenes, respectively. Furthermore, 59 unigenes were identified and assigned to 26 putative transcription factors (TFs), including 12 plant-specific TFs. They were likely associated with astaxanthin biosynthesis in Haematococcus upon SA and JA stress. In comparison, the up-regulation of differential expressed genes occurred much earlier, with higher transcript levels in the JA treatment (about 6 h later) than in the SA treatment (beyond 24 h). These results provide valuable information for directing metabolic engineering efforts to improve astaxanthin biosynthesis in H. pluvialis. PMID:26484871

  3. Phillips SA8016BW 2.5 GHz Synthesizer SEE Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carts, Marty; Ladbury, Ray; Marshall, Paul W.; Mackey, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Single Event Effects (SEE) testing of the Phillips SA8016BW 2.5 GHz Synthesizer that was chose by the GLAST Program for Frequency Generation. Included in this are diagrams of the phased-locked loop (PLL), the synthesizer, and heater.

  4. 75 FR 53857 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Model SA330J Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ... Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). Regulatory... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant... Model SA330J Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT. ACTION: Final rule; request...

  5. A study of the Sa-Ahm Five Element acupuncture theory.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Chang-Beohm; Jang, Kyung-Jun; Yoon, Hyun-Min; Kim, Cheol-Hong; Min, Young-Kwang; Song, Chun-Ho; Lee, Jang-Cheon

    2009-12-01

    This study is a review of the theoretical basis of Sa-Ahm Five Element acupuncture devised about 360 years ago. A total of 21 books and papers ranging from the ancient Huang Di Nei Jing to modern biomedical acupuncture for pain management were researched in relation to the Five Shu points. Gao-Wu, in the Chinese Ming Dynasty, used the Five Shu points for the first time based on the creation cycle as the tonification and sedation treatment, termed the "tonification and sedation treatment of self meridian". Since then, and for no particular reason, this method has been rarely used until Sa-Ahm's new doctrine, which includes the concept of the destruction cycle, was asserted. Sa-Ahm Five Element acupuncture is a method in which the Five Shu points are used from the viewpoints of the simultaneous tonification and sedation methods that are based on the promotion and control cycles. Although it is currently the most utilized method in accordance with the practitioner's points, this method is in need of designated guidelines by which Sa-Ahm acupuncture can be practiced effectively. PMID:20633508

  6. Resisting the Script of Indian Education: Zitkala Sa and the Carlisle Indian School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enoch, Jessica

    2002-01-01

    Offers a "definition" of Zitkala Sa as an Indian teacher who, at the turn of the 20th century, challenged and countered educational norms that silenced Indian voices and erased Indian culture. Examines her autobiographical essays, "Impressions of an Indian Childhood,""The School Days of an Indian Girl," and "An Indian Teacher among Indians," in…

  7. "They Might as Well Be Black": The Racialization of Sa'moan High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaught, Sabina Elena

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the processes of racialization imposed on Sa'moan youth through policy and practice in one urban, US school district and at one high school in particular. Specifically, I use the methodological practices of defamiliarization and counter-storytelling to examine the contradictory practices of racialization and the…

  8. Small Scale Trace Contaminant Testing of SA9T at Ambient and Reduced Pressure Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broerman, Craig; Sweterlitsch, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    A principle concern for air revitalization technology in a closed loop system is the capability to control carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity (H2O). An amine based sorbent technology, SA9T, has long been evaluated for use in this application and several programs are evaluating it for use in both a cabin as well as space suit applications. While the CO2 and H2O performance of the sorbent has been tested extensively, the question of how trace contaminants impact performance requires further evaluation. This paper presents experimental results of small scale SA9T testing that was performed over a variety of test conditions and with a variety of trace contaminants. Testing evaluated the ability of SA9T media to sufficiently remove CO2 and H2O after exposure to a fully saturated trace contaminant at ambient conditions. Testing also evaluated the impact of CO2 and H2O removal performance at suit loop pressures during cyclic operation with a constant inlet contaminant load. In addition, testing evaluated the performance of SA9T at ambient conditions in a continuous 30-day test with a mixed trace contaminant stream.

  9. Bench-Scale Trace Contaminant Testing of SA9T at Ambient and Reduced Pressure Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broerman, Craig; Sweterlitsch, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    A principal concern for air revitalization technology in a closed loop system is the capability to control carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity (H2O). An amine based sorbent technology, SA9T, has been evaluated for use in this application and several programs are evaluating it for use in both cabin and space suit applications. While the CO2 and H2O performance of the sorbent has been tested extensively, the question of how trace contaminants impact performance requires further evaluation. This paper presents experimental results of bench-scale SA9T testing that was performed under a variety of test conditions and with several different trace contaminants. Tests were conducted to determine if the capacity of the SA9T media to sufficiently remove CO2 and H2O is compromised after exposure to a fully saturated trace contaminant at ambient conditions. Tests also were conducted to evaluate the performance of SA9T at ambient conditions in a continuous 30-day test with a mixed trace contaminant stream. In addition, testing also evaluated the impact of CO2 and H2O removal performance at suit loop pressures (29.6 KPa/4.3 psia) during cyclic operation with a constant inlet contaminant load.

  10. 78 FR 34605 - Airworthiness Directives; CFM International S.A. Turbofan Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will...; International fax: 1-513-552-3329; email: geae.aoc@ge.com ; or CFM International SA, Customer Support Center, International phone: 33 1 64 14 88 66; fax: 33 1 64 79 85 55; email: snecma.csc@snecma.fr . (3) You may...

  11. 78 FR 6195 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplanes; Flight Envelope Protection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ... Embraer S.A. Model EMB-550 airplanes was published in the Federal Register on November 9, 2012, (77 FR... Protection: Performance Credit for Automatic Takeoff Thrust Control System (ATTCS) During Go-Around AGENCY... design feature associated with the use of an Automatic Takeoff Thrust Control System (ATTCS) during...

  12. Saturn 1B launch vehicle flight evaluation report-SA-207: Skylab-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The performance evaluation of the SA-207 launch vehicle for the Skylab 3 launch is presented. Flight problems are identified, the causes are determined, and recommendations are made for appropriate corrective action. Summaries of launch operations and spacecraft performance are included. The significant events, failures, and anomalies are tabulated.

  13. Saturn 1B launch vehicle flight evaluation report SA-208 (Skylab-4)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The results of the Saturn 1B, SA-208 launch vehicle flight evaluation are presented. The performance of the launch vehicle is analyzed with special emphasis given to identifying the causes of flight problems. Recommendations for corrective action and summaries of launch operations and spacecraft performance are included.

  14. Saturn 1B launch vehicle flight evaluation report, SA-206, Skylab-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The performance evaluation of the SA-206 launch vehicle for the Skylab 2 launch is presented. Flight problems are identified, the causes are determined, and recommendations are made for appropriate corrective action. Summaries of launch operations and spacecraft performance are included. The significant events, failures, and anomalies are tabulated.

  15. Transcriptome Analysis in Haematococcus pluvialis: Astaxanthin Induction by Salicylic Acid (SA) and Jasmonic Acid (JA).

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhengquan; Li, Yan; Wu, Guanxun; Li, Guoqiang; Sun, Haifeng; Deng, Suzhen; Shen, Yicheng; Chen, Guoqiang; Zhang, Ruihao; Meng, Chunxiao; Zhang, Xiaowen

    2015-01-01

    Haematococcus pluvialis is an astaxanthin-rich microalga that can increase its astaxanthin production by salicylic acid (SA) or jasmonic acid (JA) induction. The genetic transcriptome details of astaxanthin biosynthesis were analyzed by exposing the algal cells to 25 mg/L of SA and JA for 1, 6 and 24 hours, plus to the control (no stress). Based on the RNA-seq analysis, 56,077 unigenes (51.7%) were identified with functions in response to the hormone stress. The top five identified subcategories were cell, cellular process, intracellular, catalytic activity and cytoplasm, which possessed 5600 (~9.99%), 5302 (~9.45%), 5242 (~9.35%), 4407 (~7.86%) and 4195 (~7.48%) unigenes, respectively. Furthermore, 59 unigenes were identified and assigned to 26 putative transcription factors (TFs), including 12 plant-specific TFs. They were likely associated with astaxanthin biosynthesis in Haematococcus upon SA and JA stress. In comparison, the up-regulation of differential expressed genes occurred much earlier, with higher transcript levels in the JA treatment (about 6 h later) than in the SA treatment (beyond 24 h). These results provide valuable information for directing metabolic engineering efforts to improve astaxanthin biosynthesis in H. pluvialis. PMID:26484871

  16. 78 FR 11609 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplane; Landing Pitchover Condition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ...This action proposes special conditions for the Embraer S.A. Model EMB-550 airplane. This airplane will have a novel or unusual design feature(s) associated with landing loads due to the automatic braking system. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate or appropriate safety standards for this design feature. These proposed special conditions contain the additional......

  17. 77 FR 32437 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca S.A. Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... different compliance time. We are proposing this AD to prevent rupture of a gas generator (GG) turbine blade...-13-05, Amendment 39-16728 (76 FR 40222, July 8, 2011) for Turbomeca S.A. Arriel 2B and 2B1 turboshaft... AD resulted from several cases of GG turbine blade rupture occurring in service on Arriel 2...

  18. 76 FR 33298 - Grifols, S.A. and Talecris Biotherapeutics Holdings Corp.; Analysis of Agreement Containing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... Grifols, S.A. and Talecris Biotherapeutics Holdings Corp.; Analysis of Agreement Containing Consent Orders... deceptive acts or practices or unfair methods of competition. The attached Analysis to Aid Public Comment... Commission, has been placed on the public record for a period of thirty (30) days. The following Analysis...

  19. 78 FR 66258 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation... de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of..., and -135LR airplanes; and Model EMB-145, -145ER, -145MR, -145LR, -145XR, -145MP, and -145EP...

  20. SA-based concrete seismic stress monitoring: a case study for normal strength concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, S.; Zhang, H. B.; Ou, J. P.

    2016-09-01

    The stress history of concrete structures that have survived an earthquake can serve as a critical index to evaluate the health of the structure. There are currently few reliable monitoring methods to assess concrete stress after a seismic event. Piezoelectric-based smart aggregate (SA) provides an innovative experimental approach to monitor stress on concrete. The principle of SA-based concrete seismic stress monitoring is based on the assumption that concrete stress can be reliably predicted by the average output voltages of limited SAs with an acceptable margin of error. In this study, the meso-scale randomness of concrete was evaluated throughout the overall stress range of concrete and the influence of different load paths was considered. Four cylindrical specimens of normal strength concrete were embedded with a total of 24 SAs. The SA output sensitivity curve in the paths of loading–unloading with different amplitudes and monotonic loading up to failure was obtained. Monitoring errors were analyzed during pre- and post-peak stages from the experimental results. This research suggests that SA-based concrete seismic stress monitoring for normal strength concrete is reliable.

  1. 77 FR 43552 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca S.A. Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... 2009-03-04, Amendment 39-15805 (74 FR 7796, February 20, 2009), for all Turbomeca S.A. Arriel 1E2, 1S.... Proposed AD Requirements This proposed AD would retain all of the requirements of AD 2009- 03-04, (74 FR... a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February...

  2. Binding Sites Analyser (BiSA): Software for Genomic Binding Sites Archiving and Overlap Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Khushi, Matloob; Liddle, Christopher; Clarke, Christine L.; Graham, J. Dinny

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide mapping of transcription factor binding and histone modification reveals complex patterns of interactions. Identifying overlaps in binding patterns by different factors is a major objective of genomic studies, but existing methods to archive large numbers of datasets in a personalised database lack sophistication and utility. Therefore we have developed transcription factor DNA binding site analyser software (BiSA), for archiving of binding regions and easy identification of overlap with or proximity to other regions of interest. Analysis results can be restricted by chromosome or base pair overlap between regions or maximum distance between binding peaks. BiSA is capable of reporting overlapping regions that share common base pairs; regions that are nearby; regions that are not overlapping; and average region sizes. BiSA can identify genes located near binding regions of interest, genomic features near a gene or locus of interest and statistical significance of overlapping regions can also be reported. Overlapping results can be visualized as Venn diagrams. A major strength of BiSA is that it is supported by a comprehensive database of publicly available transcription factor binding sites and histone modifications, which can be directly compared to user data. The documentation and source code are available on http://bisa.sourceforge.net PMID:24533055

  3. 78 FR 34284 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca S.A. Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ... 2013-01-07, Amendment 39-17321 (78 FR 6725, January 31, 2013), for all Turbomeca S.A. Arriel 2D... helicopter. Actions Since Existing AD Was Issued Since we issued AD 2013-01-07 (78 FR 6725, January 31, 2013... would maintain the existing AD requirements of AD 2013-01-07 (78 FR 6725, January 31, 2013), and...

  4. Development and evaluation of serodiagnostic assays with recombinant BgSA1 of Babesia gibsoni.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Mrityunjay; Banerjee, Partha S; Kumar, Saroj; Garg, Rajat; Ram, Hira; Kundu, Krishnendu; Raina, Opinder K

    2014-10-15

    Indirect ELISA, dot-ELISA and double antibody sandwich ELISA (DAS-ELISA) using truncated recombinant BgSA1 (rBgSA1) were developed for detecting Babesia gibsoni infection in naturally infected dogs. Truncated BgSA1 gene of 858 bp, encoding 32 kDa protein was cloned in pET-32a(+) expression vector, expressed in Escherichia coli and the recombinant protein was purified under native conditions. To evaluate the ability of the truncated rBgSA1as serodiagnostic reagent for B. gibsoni infection, a panel of sera/plasma samples from dogs infected with B. gibsoni (n = 13), uninfected sera (n = 13) and sera from dogs infected with other haemoparasites namely, Babesia canis vogeli (n = 3), Ehrlichia canis (n = 3), Hepatozoon canis (n = 1) and Dirofilaria immitis (n = 1) were used. Besides these, 75 samples collected from dogs suspected for babesiosis were used to evaluate the performance of rBgSA1 based serological assays in comparison to nested PCR. Based on the results, the diagnostic sensitivity of indirect ELISA, dot-ELISA and DAS-ELISA were 97.3%, 91.9% and 100%, respectively, when nested PCR was taken as a reference test, while their specificities were 81.6%, 84.2% and 97.4%, respectively. Further, DAS-ELISA had a quantitation limit of 0.03 μg/ml of the rBgSA1. High kappa values of indirect ELISA, dot-ELISA and DAS-ELISA were recorded, indicating that these assays had substantial to almost perfect agreement at 95% confidence level. There was no cross-reactivity with sera from dogs infected with B. canis vogeli, E. canis, H. canis and D. immitis. The results suggest that the indirect ELISA, dot-ELISA and DAS-ELISA with rBgSA1 may be used in large scale epidemiological surveys and clinical diagnosis of B. gibsoni infection in dogs. DAS-ELISA has advantages over indirect or dot-ELISA in the detection of current infection as well as monitoring the parasite burden. PMID:25241636

  5. Discriminative Stimulus Properties of the Endocannabinoid Catabolic Enzyme Inhibitor SA-57 in Mice.

    PubMed

    Owens, Robert A; Ignatowska-Jankowska, Bogna; Mustafa, Mohammed; Beardsley, Patrick M; Wiley, Jenny L; Jali, Abdulmajeed; Selley, Dana E; Niphakis, Micah J; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Lichtman, Aron H

    2016-08-01

    Whereas the inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) or monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), the respective major hydrolytic enzymes of N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), elicits no or partial substitution for Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in drug-discrimination procedures, combined inhibition of both enzymes fully substitutes for THC, as well as produces a constellation of cannabimimetic effects. The present study tested whether C57BL/6J mice would learn to discriminate the dual FAAH-MAGL inhibitor SA-57 (4-[2-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]-1-piperidinecarboxylic acid 2-(methylamino)-2-oxoethyl ester) from vehicle in the drug-discrimination paradigm. In initial experiments, 10 mg/kg SA-57 fully substituted for CP55,940 ((-)-cis-3-[2-hydroxy-4-(1,1-dimethylheptyl)phenyl]-trans-4-(3-hydroxypropyl)cyclohexanol), a high-efficacy CB1 receptor agonist in C57BL/6J mice and for AEA in FAAH (-/-) mice. Most (i.e., 23 of 24) subjects achieved criteria for discriminating SA-57 (10 mg/kg) from vehicle within 40 sessions, with full generalization occurring 1 to 2 hours postinjection. CP55,940, the dual FAAH-MAGL inhibitor JZL195 (4-​nitrophenyl 4-​(3-​phenoxybenzyl)piperazine-​1-​carboxylate), and the MAGL inhibitors MJN110 (2,5-dioxopyrrolidin-1-yl 4-(bis(4-chlorophenyl)methyl)piperazine-1-carboxylate) and JZL184 (4-[Bis(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)hydroxymethyl]-1-piperidinecarboxylic acid 4-nitrophenyl ester) fully substituted for SA-57. Although the FAAH inhibitors PF-3845 ((N-3-pyridinyl-4-[[3-[[5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridinyl]oxy]phenyl]methyl]-1-piperidinecarboxamide) and URB597 (cyclohexylcarbamic acid 3'-(aminocarbonyl)-[1,1'-biphenyl]-3-yl ester) did not substitute for SA-57, PF-3845 produced a 2-fold leftward shift in the MJN110 substitution dose-response curve. In addition, the CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant blocked the generalization of SA-57, as well as substitution of CP55,940, JZL195, MJN110, and JZL184. These findings

  6. Total synthesis and evaluation of iso-duocarmycin SA and iso-yatakemycin.

    PubMed

    MacMillan, Karen S; Nguyen, Trinh; Nguyen, Trihn; Hwang, Inkyu; Boger, Dale L

    2009-01-28

    The total synthesis and evaluation of iso-duocarmycin SA (5) and iso-yatakemycin (6), representing key analogues of the corresponding natural products incorporating an isomeric alkylation subunit, are detailed. This pyrrole isomer of the natural alkylation subunit displayed an enhanced reaction regioselectivity and a 2-fold diminished stability. Although still exceptionally potent, the iso-duocarmycin SA derivatives and natural product analogues exhibited a corresponding approximate 3-5-fold reduction in cytotoxic activity [L1210 IC(50) for (+)-iso-duocarmycin SA = 50 pM and for (+)-iso-yatakemycin = 15 pM] consistent with their placement on a parabolic relationship correlating activity with reactivity. The DNA alkylation selectivity of the resulting key natural product analogues was unaltered by the structure modification in spite of the minor-groove presentation of a potential H-bond donor. Additionally, a unique ortho-spirocyclization with such derivatives was explored via the preparation, characterization, and evaluation of 34 that is incapable of the more conventional para-spirocyclization. Although 34 proved sufficiently stable for isolation and characterization, it displayed little stability in protic solvents (t(1/2) = 0.19 h at pH 3, t(1/2) = 0.20 h at pH 7), a pH-independent (H(+) independent) solvolysis rate profile at pH 3/4-7, and a much reduced cytotoxic potency, but a DNA alkylation selectivity and efficiency comparable to those of duocarmycin SA and iso-duocarmycin SA. The implications of these observations on the source of the DNA alkylation selectivity and catalysis for this class of natural products are discussed. PMID:19154178

  7. Partial Activation of SA- and JA-Defensive Pathways in Strawberry upon Colletotrichum acutatum Interaction.

    PubMed

    Amil-Ruiz, Francisco; Garrido-Gala, José; Gadea, José; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio; Trelles, Oswaldo; de Los Santos, Berta; Arroyo, Francisco T; Aguado-Puig, Ana; Romero, Fernando; Mercado, José-Ángel; Pliego-Alfaro, Fernando; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Caballero, José L

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the nature of pathogen host interaction may help improve strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) cultivars. Plant resistance to pathogenic agents usually operates through a complex network of defense mechanisms mediated by a diverse array of signaling molecules. In strawberry, resistance to a variety of pathogens has been reported to be mostly polygenic and quantitatively inherited, making it difficult to associate molecular markers with disease resistance genes. Colletotrichum acutatum spp. is a major strawberry pathogen, and completely resistant cultivars have not been reported. Moreover, strawberry defense network components and mechanisms remain largely unknown and poorly understood. Assessment of the strawberry response to C. acutatum included a global transcript analysis, and acidic hormones SA and JA measurements were analyzed after challenge with the pathogen. Induction of transcripts corresponding to the SA and JA signaling pathways and key genes controlling major steps within these defense pathways was detected. Accordingly, SA and JA accumulated in strawberry after infection. Contrastingly, induction of several important SA, JA, and oxidative stress-responsive defense genes, including FaPR1-1, FaLOX2, FaJAR1, FaPDF1, and FaGST1, was not detected, which suggests that specific branches in these defense pathways (those leading to FaPR1-2, FaPR2-1, FaPR2-2, FaAOS, FaPR5, and FaPR10) were activated. Our results reveal that specific aspects in SA and JA dependent signaling pathways are activated in strawberry upon interaction with C. acutatum. Certain described defense-associated transcripts related to these two known signaling pathways do not increase in abundance following infection. This finding suggests new insight into a specific putative molecular strategy for defense against this pathogen. PMID:27471515

  8. Partial Activation of SA- and JA-Defensive Pathways in Strawberry upon Colletotrichum acutatum Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Amil-Ruiz, Francisco; Garrido-Gala, José; Gadea, José; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio; Trelles, Oswaldo; de los Santos, Berta; Arroyo, Francisco T.; Aguado-Puig, Ana; Romero, Fernando; Mercado, José-Ángel; Pliego-Alfaro, Fernando; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Caballero, José L.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the nature of pathogen host interaction may help improve strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) cultivars. Plant resistance to pathogenic agents usually operates through a complex network of defense mechanisms mediated by a diverse array of signaling molecules. In strawberry, resistance to a variety of pathogens has been reported to be mostly polygenic and quantitatively inherited, making it difficult to associate molecular markers with disease resistance genes. Colletotrichum acutatum spp. is a major strawberry pathogen, and completely resistant cultivars have not been reported. Moreover, strawberry defense network components and mechanisms remain largely unknown and poorly understood. Assessment of the strawberry response to C. acutatum included a global transcript analysis, and acidic hormones SA and JA measurements were analyzed after challenge with the pathogen. Induction of transcripts corresponding to the SA and JA signaling pathways and key genes controlling major steps within these defense pathways was detected. Accordingly, SA and JA accumulated in strawberry after infection. Contrastingly, induction of several important SA, JA, and oxidative stress-responsive defense genes, including FaPR1-1, FaLOX2, FaJAR1, FaPDF1, and FaGST1, was not detected, which suggests that specific branches in these defense pathways (those leading to FaPR1-2, FaPR2-1, FaPR2-2, FaAOS, FaPR5, and FaPR10) were activated. Our results reveal that specific aspects in SA and JA dependent signaling pathways are activated in strawberry upon interaction with C. acutatum. Certain described defense-associated transcripts related to these two known signaling pathways do not increase in abundance following infection. This finding suggests new insight into a specific putative molecular strategy for defense against this pathogen. PMID:27471515

  9. Isolation of a haemorrhagic protein toxin (SA-HT) from the Indian venomous butterfish (Scatophagus argus, Linn) sting extract.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, S; Muhuri, D C; Dasgupta, S C; Nagchaudhuri, A K; Gomes, A

    2004-05-01

    A haemorrhagic protein toxin (SA-HT) was isolated and purified from the spine extract of the Indian venomous butterfish, S. argus Linn, by two step ion exchange chromatography. The toxin was homogeneous in native and SDS-PAGE gel. SDS-molecular weight of the toxin was found to be 18.1 +/- 0.09 kDa. SA-HT produced severe haemorrhage on stomach wall but devoid of cutaneous haemorrhage. UV, EDTA, trypsin, protease, cyproheptadine, indomethacin, acetylsalicylic acid and BW755C treatment significantly antagonized the haemorrhagic activity of SA-HT. The toxin produced dose and time dependent oedema on mice hind paw, which was significantly encountered by cyproheptadine, indomethacin and BW755C. SA-HT increased capillary permeability on guinea pig dorsal flank. On isolated guineapig ileum, rat fundus and uterus, SA-HT produced slow contraction which was completely antagonised by prostaglandin blocker SC19220. On isolated rat duodenum, SA-HT produced slow relaxation. SA-HT significantly increased plasma plasmin, serum MDA level and decreased serum SOD level indicating the possible involvement of cyclooxygenase and lipooxygenase pathway. PMID:15233468

  10. Establishment and gene analysis of a cisplatin-resistant cell line, Sa-3R, derived from oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nakatani, Ken; Nakamura, Megumi; Uzawa, Katsuhiro; Wada, Takeshi; Seki, Naohiko; Tanzawa, Hideki; Fujita, Shigeyuki

    2005-04-01

    Cisplatin (CDDP) is widely used for chemotherapy of many malignancies, especially of oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). However, because the mechanism of resistance to CDDP is unclear, we established a CDDP-resistant cell line, Sa-3R, from a CDDP-sensitive cell line, Sa-3, which was derived from moderately differentiated SCC of the lower gingiva. The 3-(3,4-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl) 2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay indicated that Sa-3R has 7.5-fold greater resistance to CDDP than Sa-3. Comparing gene expression levels in the cell lines using an in-house cDNA microarray, which represented 2,201 oral disease origin genes, many differentially expressed genes were identified. The ATP-binding cassette transporter genes (MDR-1, MRP-1, and MRP-2), and FANCONI, GRP58, FLJ12089, and SPINT-2 were up-regulated, whereas FOSL1, MRPS27, and PGK-1 were down-regulated. These results were confirmed by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The Sa-3/Sa-3R cell lines could be useful to identify the candidates responsible for the mechanism of CDDP-resistance and the up- or down-regulated genes identified by the gene expression profiles in the Sa-3R cell line may be, in part, associated with the mechanism. PMID:15756446

  11. Molecular analysis of Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity islands (SaPI) and their superantigens combination of food samples.

    PubMed

    Alibayov, Babek; Zdenkova, Kamila; Sykorova, Hana; Demnerova, Katerina

    2014-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus produces a wide variety of superantigenic activity Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE) and they are a major cause of food poisoning. These superantigens are associated with mobile genetic elements such as plasmids, prophages and S. aureus pathogenicity islands (SaPI). The presence of well-known eight SaPI integrase and 13 enterotoxin genes (sea, seb, sec, sed, see, seg, seh, sei, sej, sel, sek, seq, and tst) in 93 S. aureus strains were investigated. All S. aureus isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and the genes were detected using five sets of multiplex PCR (mPCR). The most predominant toxin genes were sea (19%), seb (15%), sec (54%), sell (48%), selk (46%), selq (52%), seg (22%), and sei (19%). Analysis showed that many S. aureus isolates harbored multiple toxin genes. An mPCR-based assay was developed for the determination of all SaPI and their superantigen gene combinations. Twenty three isolates revealed the gene combination sec, sell and tst, typical of the SaPIbov1 and SaPIn1/m1 pathogenicity islands. Twelve isolates revealed the selk and selq gene combination consistent with SaPI3. Eight isolates exhibited the sec and sell genes without the tst gene typical of SaPImw2. We established a correlation between superantigenic toxin genotypes in S. aureus in terms of combinations of toxin gene-encoding SaPI. These results provide a rapid method for determining superantigenic toxin genotypes in S. aureus strains. A total of 24 PFGE patterns were generated. To our knowledge, this is a first study analyzing the correlation of all known SaPI and their enterotoxins in S. aureus using mPCR. PMID:25447888

  12. Environmental and Mechanical Stability of Environmental Barrier Coated SA Tyrannohex SiC Composites Under Simulated Turbine Engine Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Halbig, Michael Charles; Sing, Mrityunjay

    2014-01-01

    The environmental stability and thermal gradient cyclic durability performance of SA Tyrannohex composites were investigated for turbine engine component applications. The work has been focused on investigating the combustion rig recession, cyclic thermal stress resistance and thermomechanical low cycle fatigue of uncoated and environmental barrier coated Tyrannohex SiC SA composites in simulated turbine engine combustion water vapor, thermal gradients, and mechanical loading conditions. Flexural strength degradations have been evaluated, and the upper limits of operating temperature conditions for the SA composite material systems are discussed based on the experimental results.

  13. [Output and citation in public health: a perspective based on the journals Cadernos de Saúde Pública and Revista de Saúde Pública].

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Leandro; Coimbra, Carlos E A; Souza-Santos, Reinaldo; Santos, Ricardo Ventura

    2007-12-01

    This is a comparative bibliometric study of the two main scientific journals in the Public Health field in Brazil: Cadernos de Saúde Pública (CSP) and Revista de Saúde Pública (RSP). Twenty-four issues of each periodical were analyzed, published from 1996 to 2003, comprising a sample of 819 articles (496 from CSP and 323 from RSP). The following elements in the articles were identified and analyzed: thematic area of the article and citation pattern of publications (articles in periodicals, books and/or book chapters, theses/dissertations, Internet documents, "gray" literature, and other types of publications). The resulting data showed that the majority of the articles represent the sub-area of "epidemiology". The citation pattern in the journals showed articles in periodicals in first place, followed by citations of books and/or book chapters. Papers in the sub-area "social sciences in health" published in CSP are exceptions, since books and chapters are the most frequently cited. The authors discuss the implications of the findings for the characterization and evaluation of scientific output in Public Health in Brazil. PMID:18157345

  14. An evaluation of the spring finger solder joints on SA1358-10 and SA2052-4 connector assemblies (MC3617,W87).

    SciTech Connect

    Kilgo, Alice C.; Vianco, Paul Thomas; Hlava, Paul Frank; Zender, Gary L.

    2006-08-01

    The SA1358-10 and SA2052-4 circular JT Type plug connectors are used on a number of nuclear weapons and Joint Test Assembly (JTA) systems. Prototype units were evaluated for the following specific defects associated with the 95Sn-5Sb (Sn-Sb, wt.%) solder joint used to attach the beryllium-copper (BeCu) spring fingers to the aluminum (Al) connector shell: (1) extended cracking within the fillet; (2) remelting of the solder joint during the follow-on, soldering step that attached the EMR adapter ring to the connector shell (and/or soldering the EMR shell to the adapter ring) that used the lower melting temperature 63Sn-37Pb (Sn-Pb) alloy; and (3) spalling of the Cd (Cr) layer overplating layer from the fillet surface. Several pedigrees of connectors were evaluated, which represented older fielded units as well as those assemblies that were recently constructed at Kansas City Plant. The solder joints were evaluated that were in place on connectors made with the current soldering process as well as an alternative induction soldering process for attaching the EMR adapter ring to the shell. Very similar observations were made, which crossed the different pedigrees of parts and processes. The extent of cracking in the top side fillets varied between the different connector samples and likely the EMR adapter ring to the shell. Very similar observations were made, which crossed the different pedigrees of parts and processes. The extent of cracking in the top side fillets varied between the different connector samples and likely reflected the different extents to which the connector was mated to its counterpart assembly. In all cases, the spring finger solder joints on the SA1358-10 connectors were remelted as a result of the subsequent EMR adapter ring attachment process. Spalling of the Cd (Cr) overplating layer was also observed for these connectors, which was a consequence of the remelting activity. On the other hand, the SA2052-4 connector did not exhibit evidence of

  15. Green synthesis and surface properties of Fe3O4@SA core-shell nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Huimin; Li, Juchuan; Shen, Yuhua; Li, Shikuo; Huang, Fangzhi; Xie, Anjian

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, a one-step, economic and green approach was explored to prepare Fe3O4 nanoparticles by using L-cysteine as reducer and disperser without any inert gas protection. The Fe3O4 nanoparticles were then modified with stearic acid (SA) to form Fe3O4@SA core-shell nanocomposites. The experiment results indicate that the core-shell nanocomposites prepared could form monolayer on the water surface or films by means of Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technology due to their hydrophobic and lipophilic properties. Also the composites exhibit paramagnetism, which make product dispersed stably in the oil medium to form magnetic fluid. Moreover, they are developed as sorbents to remove oil from water surface.

  16. A study of star formation in the disks of Sa galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, N.; Kennicutt, R.; Phillips, A.C.; Schommer, R.A. Steward Observatory, Tucson, AZ Washington Univ., Seattle Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ )

    1991-04-01

    This paper compares the luminosity functions of the H II regions in several Sa galaxies with those of later-type galaxies. Broad UV measurements confirm expectations that the knots associated with the regions are very blue; the converse is also true. The H II region luminosity functions are very steep. The total H-alpha luminosities for the galaxies are computed and used to derive the current star-formation rates. It is found that, in contrast to the late-type galaxies, the current star-formation rates in Sa disks are less than one-tenth of the average rate over the last 15 Gyr. The formal depletion times of gas through star formation are longer than a Hubble time. If the star formation in late-type galaxies takes on the character of that currently seen in the Sas, star formation in such galaxies could continue for much longer than the usual estimate of 5 Gyr. 35 refs.

  17. Permanent draft genome sequence of the gliding predator Saprospira grandis strain Sa g1 (= HR1)

    SciTech Connect

    Mavromatis, K; Chertkov, Olga; Lapidus, Alla L.; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Tice, Hope; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Han, Cliff; Tapia, Roxanne; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Sam; Huntemann, Marcel; Liolios, Konstantinos; Pagani, Ioanna; Ivanova, N; Mikhailova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam L; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie; Rohde, Manfred; Spring, Stefan; Goker, Markus; Detter, J. Chris; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Woyke, Tanja

    2012-01-01

    Saprospira grandis Gross et al. 1911 is a member of the Saprospiraceae, a family in the class 'Sphingobacteria' that remains poorly characterized at the genomic level. The species is known for preying on other marine bacteria via 'ixotrophy'. S. grandis strain Sa g1 was isolated from decaying crab carapace in France and was selected for genome sequencing because of its isolated location in the tree of life. Only one type strain genome has been published so far from the Saprospiraceae, while the sequence of strain Sa g1 represents the second genome to be published from a non-type strain of S. grandis. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 4,495,250 bp long Improved-High-Quality draft of the genome with its 3,536 protein-coding and 62 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  18. STS-48 ESC closeup of extended UARS solar array (SA) during pre-deploy check

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The leading edge of the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) solar array (SA), fully deployed, is recorded by the electronic still camera (ESC). UARS, grappled by the remote manipulator system (RMS) end effector (out of frame), is undergoing STS-48 pre-deployment checkout above the payload bay (PLB) of the earth-orbiting Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. A hinge and the pyrotechnic bolts that enable the SA to deploy can be seen in this crisp image. This view demonstrates the capabilities of the ESC to provide high resolution views of hardware for review by ground controllers. This ESC image was documented as part of Development Test Objective (DTO) 648, Electronic Still Photography. The digital image was stored on a removable hard disk or small optical disk, and could be converted to a format suitable for downlink transmission.

  19. A brief history of cadernos de Saúde Pública/reports in Public Health.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Coeli, Cláudia Medina; Travassos, Claudia

    2015-07-01

    This article was written as part of the 20th-year commemorative issue of Ciência e Saúde Coletiva (C&SC). We take advantage of this opportunity to revisit the successful history of Cadernos de Saúde Pública (CSP)/Reports in Public Health in its 30 years of publication, progressing from a quarterly periodical with limited circulation to a monthly journal indexed in the main scientific databases. We also summarize some themes from our recent editorials, including the internationalization of scientific journals, the demand for relevant and original articles, plagiarism, and peer review. We also discuss the article submission management system developed by CSP and conclude with ideas on cooperation between journals in the public health field. PMID:26132239

  20. [Programa de saúde: a case of book censorship during the Brazilian military dictatorship].

    PubMed

    Reimão, Sandra

    2013-11-30

    Some documents produced by the government during the Brazilian military dictatorship have been made available for reference, including censors' reports on television and radio programs, plays, films, songs, advertisements and printed matter. Of the 500 or so reports on books, there is one that vetoes Programa de saúde: projetos e temas de higiene e saúde, an educational work that proposed actions to help students understand their sanitary conditions and acquire knowledge about health and health-promoting habits in this area. The argument for vetoing it was that the information could fall into the hands of poorly trained teachers, who could distort its content, causing serious damage to Brazilian youth. In this report we see evidence of the obscurantist, elitist posture adopted by the Department of Censorship of Public Entertainment, which aimed to restrict the circulation of information and curb debate. PMID:24346208

  1. Spatial Pattern Detection of Tuberculosis: A Case Study of Si Sa Ket Province, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Hassarangsee, Siriwan; Tripathi, Nitin Kumar; Souris, Marc

    2015-01-01

    This retrospective population-based study was conducted to analyze spatial patterns of tuberculosis (TB) incidence in Si Sa Ket province, Thailand. TB notification data from 2004 to 2008 collected from TB clinics throughout the province was used along with population data to reveal a descriptive epidemiology of TB incidences. Global clustering patterns of the occurrence were assessed by using global spatial autocorrelation techniques. Additionally, local spatial pattern detection was performed by using local spatial autocorrelation and spatial scan statistic methods. The findings indicated clusters of the disease occurred in the study area. More specifically, significantly high-rate clusters were mostly detected in Mueang Si Sa Ket and Khukhan districts, which are located in the northwestern part of the province, while significantly low-rate clusters were persistent in Kantharalak and Benchalak districts, which are located at the southeastern area. PMID:26694437

  2. Plasma regimes and research goals of JT-60SA towards ITER and DEMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamada, Y.; Barabaschi, P.; Ishida, S.; Ide, S.; Lackner, K.; Fujita, T.; Bolzonella, T.; Suzuki, T.; Matsunaga, G.; Yoshida, M.; Shinohara, K.; Urano, H.; Nakano, T.; Sakurai, S.; Kawashima, H.; JT-60SA Team

    2011-07-01

    The JT-60SA device has been designed as a highly shaped large superconducting tokamak with a variety of plasma actuators (heating, current drive, momentum input, stability control coils, resonant magnetic perturbation coils, W-shaped divertor, fuelling, pumping, etc) in order to satisfy the central research needs for ITER and DEMO. In the ITER- and DEMO-relevant plasma parameter regimes and with DEMO-equivalent plasma shapes, JT-60SA quantifies the operation limits, plasma responses and operational margins in terms of MHD stability, plasma transport and confinement, high-energy particle behaviour, pedestal structures, scrape-off layer and divertor characteristics. By integrating advanced studies in these research fields, the project proceeds 'simultaneous and steady-state sustainment of the key performances required for DEMO' with integrated control scenario development applicable to the highly self-regulating burning high-β high bootstrap current fraction plasmas.

  3. Progress of ITER and JT-60SA Magnet Development in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koizumi, N.; Nunoya, Y.; Yoshida, K.; Barabaschi, P.

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), as the Japan Domestic Agency (JADA), has the responsibility to procure 9 ITER toroidal field (TF) coils, 19 TF coil (TFC) structures, 25% of the TF conductors and 100% of the central solenoid (CS) conductors in ITER and, in addition, CS and equilibrium field (EF) coils including their conductors in JT-60SA, which is being developed as a satellite facility for ITER. In ITER, more than 90% of TF conductor fabrication was completed and finalization of the manufacturing procedure of TF coils is in progress through full-scale trials, such as trial fabrication of dummy double pancakes (DPs). In JT-60SA, fabrication of the EF4 coil was completed and the EF5 and EF6 coils are being assembled.

  4. RiSA: A Science Festival for the Bilingual and Bicultural Rio Grande Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Key, Joey Shapiro; Torres, Cristina; Stone, Robert

    2014-03-01

    The Rio Grande Science and Arts (RiSA) Festival organized by the Center for Gravitational Wave Astronomy (CGWA) at the University of Texas at Brownsville (UTB) will use a wide variety of artforms to bring physics and science topics to the bilingual and bicultural population of the Rio Grande Valley of South Texas. The science and art faculty at UTB will partner with art and education professionals to create an annual community event celebrating science though art. Music, dance, poetry, and visual arts will headline the festival activities. Festival events and products will be produced in both English and Spanish to attract and inform the bilingual local community. The RiSA Festival is supported by the Science Festival Alliance and the Sloan Foundation. Supported by the Science Festival Alliance and the Sloan Foundation.

  5. 76 FR 77446 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca S.A. Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... Turbomeca S.A. Arrius 2F turboshaft engines with P3 air pipe (first section) part number (P/N) 0 319 71 918... engines with P3 air pipe (first section), P/N 0 319 71 918 0, installed. That AD requires inspections of...) of this AD as follows: (i) At every installation of a RH rear half-wall P/N 0 319 99 824 0 on...

  6. Osteogenic potential of biosilica on human osteoblast-like (SaOS-2) cells.

    PubMed

    Wiens, Matthias; Wang, Xiaohong; Schlossmacher, Ute; Lieberwirth, Ingo; Glasser, Gunnar; Ushijima, Hiroshi; Schröder, Heinz C; Müller, Werner E G

    2010-12-01

    Biosilica is a natural polymer, synthesized by the poriferan enzyme silicatein from monomeric silicate substrates. Biosilica stimulates mineralizing activity and gene expression of SaOS-2 cells. To study its effect on the formation of hydroxyapatite (HA), SaOS-2 cells were grown on different silicatein/biosilica-modified substrates (bone slices, Ca-P-coated coverslips, glass coverslips). Growth on these substrates induced the formation of HA nodules, organized in longitudinal arrays or spherical spots. Nodules of sizes above 1 μm were composed of irregularly arranged HA prism-like nanorods, formed by aggregates of three to eight SaOS-2 cells. Moreover, growth on silicatein/biosilica-modified substrates elicited increased [(3)H]dT incorporation into DNA, indicative of enhanced cell proliferation. Consequently, an in vitro-based bioassay was established to determine the ratio between [(3)H]dT incorporation and HA formation. This ratio was significantly higher for cells that grew on silicatein/biosilica-modified substrates than for cells on Ca-P-coated coverslips or plain glass slips. Hence, we propose that this ratio of in vitro-determined parameters reflects the osteogenic effect of different substrates on bone-forming cells. Finally, qRT-PCR analyses demonstrated that growth of SaOS-2 cells on a silicatein/biosilica matrix upregulated BMP2 (bone morphogenetic protein 2, inducer of bone formation) expression. In contrast, TRAP (tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, modulator of bone resorption) expression remained unaffected. We conclude that biosilica shows pronounced osteogenicity in vitro, qualifying this material for studies of bone replacement also in vivo. PMID:20725824

  7. 77 FR 43550 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca S.A. Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... 39-13199 (68 FR 36900, June 20, 2003), for all Turbomeca S.A. Arriel 1A, 1A1, 1A2, 1B, 1C, 1C1, 1C2... Existing AD Was Issued Since we issued AD 2003-12-14, Amendment 39-13199 (68 FR 36900, June 20, 2003), in...'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not...

  8. Design Of A High Efficiency And Reliable S3R SA Regulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, A.

    2011-10-01

    The paper explains the challenges faced in the design of a high efficiency SA shunt switch with low output drop. Two different alternatives are presented, one based on synchronous output rectifier and the other based on having only one diode at the output. Careful design is required to achieve reliability of this critical solution. Both solutions are going to be used in satellites, one for earth observation and the other for a telecommunications GEO platform.

  9. 78 FR 32551 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca S.A. Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ...We are superseding an existing airworthiness directive (AD) for Turbomeca S.A. Arrius 2B, 2B1, and 2F turboshaft engines. That AD currently requires replacement of injector manifolds and borescope- inspection of the flame tube and the high-pressure (HP) turbine area for possible damage. This new AD requires, depending on the engine model, repetitive replacements of fuel injection manifolds and......

  10. 78 FR 77614 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca S.A. Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ...-09R1, Amendment 39-16322 (75 FR 30687, June 2, 2010). That AD applies to all Turbomeca S.A. 2B1... Since Existing AD Was Issued Since we issued AD 2007-19-09R1, Amendment 39-16322 (75 FR 30687, June 2... requirements of AD 2007-19- 09R1, Amendment 39-16322 (75 FR 30687, June 2, 2010) but would reduce...

  11. 1HNMR study of methotrexate serum albumin (MTX SA) binding in rheumatoid arthritis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sułkowska, A.; Maciążek-Jurczyk, M.; Bojko, B.; Równicka, J.; Sułkowski, W. W.

    2008-11-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an immunologically depended disease. It is characterized by a chronic, progressive inflammatory process. Methotrexate (4-amino-10-methylfolic acid, MTX) is the modifying drug used to treat RA. The aim of the presented studies is to determine the low affinity binding site of MTX in bovine (BSA) and human (HSA) serum albumin with the use of proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1HNMR) spectroscopy. The analysis of 1HNMR spectra of MTX in the presence of serum albumin (SA) allows us to observe the interactions between aromatic rings of the drug and the rings of amino acids located in the hydrophobic subdomains of the protein. On the basis of the chemical shifts σ [ppm] and the relaxation times T1 [s] of drug protons the hydrophobic interaction between MTX-SA and the stoichiometric molar ratio of the complex was evaluated. This work is a part of a spectroscopic study on MTX-SA interactions [A. Sułkowska, M. Maciążek, J. Równicka, B. Bojko, D. Pentak, W.W. Sułkowski, J. Mol. Struct. 834-836 (2007) 162-169].

  12. PAU-SA: A Synthetic Aperture Interferometric Radiometer Test Bed for Potential Improvements in Future Missions

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Perez, Isaac; Camps, Adriano; Bosch-Lluis, Xavi; Rodriguez-Alvarez, Nereida; Valencia-Domènech, Enric; Park, Hyuk; Forte, Giuseppe; Vall-llosera, Merce

    2012-01-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission is an Earth Explorer Opportunity mission from the European Space Agency (ESA). Its goal is to produce global maps of soil moisture and ocean salinity using the Microwave Imaging Radiometer by Aperture Synthesis (MIRAS). The purpose of the Passive Advanced Unit Synthetic Aperture (PAU-SA) instrument is to study and test some potential improvements that could eventually be implemented in future missions using interferometric radiometers such as the Geoestacionary Atmosferic Sounder (GAS), the Precipitation and All-weather Temperature and Humidity (PATH) and the Geostationary Interferometric Microwave Sounder (GIMS). Both MIRAS and PAU-SA are Y-shaped arrays with uniformly distributed antennas, but the receiver topology and the processing unit are quite different. The purpose of this work is to identify the elements in the MIRAS's design susceptible of improvement and apply them in the PAU-SA instrument demonstrator, to test them in view of these future interferometric radiometer missions. PMID:22969371

  13. Identification of a Unique Ganglioside Binding Loop within Botulinum Neurotoxins C and D-SA

    SciTech Connect

    Karalewitz, Andrew P.-A.; Kroken, Abby R.; Fu, Zhuji; Baldwin, Michael R.; Kim, Jung-Ja P.; Barbieri, Joseph T.

    2010-09-22

    The botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most potent protein toxins for humans. There are seven serotypes of BoNTs (A-G) based on a lack of cross antiserum neutralization. BoNTs utilize gangliosides as components of the host receptors for binding and entry into neurons. Members of BoNT/C and BoNT/D serotypes include mosaic toxins that are organized in D/C and C/D toxins. One D/C mosaic toxin, BoNT/D-South Africa (BoNT/D-SA), was not fully neutralized by immunization with BoNT serotype C or D, which stimulated this study. Here the crystal structures of the receptor binding domains of BoNT/C, BoNT/D, and BoNT/D-SA are presented. Biochemical and cell binding studies show that BoNT/C and BoNT/D-SA possess unique mechanisms for ganglioside binding. These studies provide new information about how the BoNTs can enter host cells as well as a basis for understanding the immunological diversity of these neurotoxins.

  14. Predicting SA-I mechanoreceptor spike times with a skin-neuron model

    PubMed Central

    Lesniak, Daine R.; Gerling, Gregory J.

    2009-01-01

    Slowly adapting type I (SA-I) mechanoreceptors encode the edges and curvature of touched objects by generating neural spikes in response to indentation of the skin. Beneath this general input-output relationship, models are of great utility for understanding the sub-processes, as SA-I transduction sites are inaccessible to whole-cell recording. This work develops and validates a SA-I skin-receptor model that combines a finite element model of skin mechanics, a sigmoidal function of transduction, and a leaky integrate-and-fire model of neural dynamics. The model produced a R2=0.80 goodness of fit between predicted and observed firing rates for 3 mm and 5 mm grating stimuli. In addition, modulation indices of predicted firing rates for 3 mm and 5 mm gratings are 0.46 and 0.59 respectively, compared to the 0.71 and 0.72 found in vivo. An analysis of predicted first spikes indicates their latency may also be enhanced by edges, as edge proximity shortened first spike latencies by 26.2 and 41.8 ms for the 3 mm and 5 mm gratings, respectively. The model described here bridges the gap between those models that transform sustained indentation to firing rates and those that transform vibration to spike times. PMID:19362097

  15. Production of an extracellular thermohalophilic lipase from a moderately halophilic bacterium, Salinivibrio sp. strain SA-2.

    PubMed

    Amoozegar, Mohammad Ali; Salehghamari, Ensieh; Khajeh, Khosro; Kabiri, Mahbube; Naddaf, Saied

    2008-06-01

    Fifty strains of moderately halophilic bacteria were isolated from various salty environments in Iran. A strain designated as SA-2 was shown to be the best producer of extracellular lipase and was selected for further studies. Biochemical and physiological characterization along with 16S rDNA sequence analysis placed SA-2 in the genus Salinivibrio. The optimum salt, pH, temperature and aeration for enzyme production were 0.1 M KCl, pH 8, 35 degrees C and 150 rpm, respectively. The enzyme production was synchronized bacterial growth and reached a maximum level during the early-stationary phase in the basal medium containing 1 M NaCl. Triacylglycerols enhanced lipase production, while carbohydrates had inhibitory effects on it. The maximum lipase activity was obtained at pH 7.5, 50 degrees C and CaCl(2) concentration of 0.01 M. The enzyme was stable at pH range of 7.5-8 and retained 90% of its activity at 80 degrees C for 30 min. Different concentrations of NaNO(3), Na(2)SO(4), KCl and NaCl had no affect on lipase stability for 3 h. These results suggest that the lipase secreted by Salinivibrio sp. strain SA-2 is industrially important from the perspective of its tolerance to a broad temperature range, its moderate thermoactivity and its high tolerance to a wide range of salt concentrations (0-3 M NaCl). PMID:18506896

  16. MM-GB/SA rescoring of docking poses in structure-based lead optimization.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Cristiano R W; Cardozo, Mario

    2008-05-01

    The critical issues in docking include the prediction of the correct binding pose and the accurate estimation of the corresponding binding affinity. Different docking methodologies have all been successful in reproducing the crystallographic binding modes but struggle when predicting the corresponding binding affinities. The aim of this work is to evaluate the performance of the MM-GB/SA rescoring of docking poses in structure-based lead optimization. To accomplish that, a diverse set of pharmaceutically relevant targets, including CDK2, FactorXa, Thrombin, and HIV-RT were selected. The correlation between the MM-GB/SA results and experimental data in all cases is remarkable. It even qualifies this approach as a more attractive alternative for rank-ordering than the Free Energy Perturbation and Thermodynamic Integration methodologies because, while as accurate, it can handle more structurally dissimilar ligands and provides results at a fraction of the computational cost. On the technical side, the benefit of performing a conformational analysis and having an ensemble of conformers to represent each ligand in the unbound state during the MM-GB/SA rescoring procedure was investigated. In addition, the estimation of conformational entropy penalties for the ligands upon binding, computed from the Boltzmann distribution in water, was evaluated and compared to a commonly used approach employed by many docking scoring functions. PMID:18422307

  17. Study on rheo-diecasting process of 7075R alloys by SA-EMS melt homogenized treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhihua, G.; Jun, X.; Zhifeng, Z.; Guojun, L.; Mengou, T.

    2016-03-01

    An advanced melt processing technology, spiral annular electromagnetic stirring (SA-EMS) based on the annular electromagnetic stirring (A-EMS) process was developed for manufacturing Al-alloy components with high integrity. The SA-EMS process innovatively combines non-contact electromagnetic stirring and a spiral annular chamber with specially designed profiles to in situ make high quality melt slurry, and intensive forced shearing can be achieved under high shear rate and high intensity of turbulence inside the spiral annular chamber. In this paper, the solidification microstructure and hardness of 7075R alloy die-casting connecting rod conditioned by the SA-EMS melt processing technology were investigated. The results indicate that, the SA-EMS melt processing technology exhibited superior grain refinement and remarkable structure homogeneity. In addition, it can evidently enhance the mechanical performance and reduce the crack tendency.

  18. SA-SSR: a suffix array-based algorithm for exhaustive and efficient SSR discovery in large genetic sequences

    PubMed Central

    Pickett, B. D.; Karlinsey, S. M.; Penrod, C. E.; Cormier, M. J.; Ebbert, M. T. W.; Shiozawa, D. K.; Whipple, C. J.; Ridge, P. G.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) are used to address a variety of research questions in a variety of fields (e.g. population genetics, phylogenetics, forensics, etc.), due to their high mutability within and between species. Here, we present an innovative algorithm, SA-SSR, based on suffix and longest common prefix arrays for efficiently detecting SSRs in large sets of sequences. Existing SSR detection applications are hampered by one or more limitations (i.e. speed, accuracy, ease-of-use, etc.). Our algorithm addresses these challenges while being the most comprehensive and correct SSR detection software available. SA-SSR is 100% accurate and detected >1000 more SSRs than the second best algorithm, while offering greater control to the user than any existing software. Availability and implementation: SA-SSR is freely available at http://github.com/ridgelab/SA-SSR Contact: perry.ridge@byu.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:27170037

  19. Extraction and Analysis of Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS): Comparison of Methods and EPS Levels in Salmonella pullorum SA 1685

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) production and composition for Salmonella pullorum SA 1685 exposed to artificial groundwater (AGW) has been examined utilizing three EPS extraction methods: lyophilization, ethanol, and sonication. Experiments were carried out to evaluate the robustness...

  20. 77 FR 67675 - Importer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration, SA INTL GMBH C/O., Sigma Aldrich Co...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ..., 2012, 77 FR 50162, SA INTL GMBH C/O., Sigma Aldrich Co., LLC., 3500 Dekalb Street, St. Louis, Missouri... (7437) I Psilocyn (7438) I 1- piperidine I (7470). N-Benzylpiperazine (7493) I Heroin (9200)...

  1. 78 FR 39339 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; SA INTL GMBH C/O., Sigma Aldrich Co., LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ..., 78 FR 19015, SA INTL GMBH C/O., Sigma Aldrich Co. LLC., 3500 Dekalb Street, St. Louis, Missouri 63118... Heroin (9200) I Normorphine (9313) I Etonitazene (9624) I Amphetamine (1100) II Methamphetamine (1105)...

  2. The Endophytic Bacterium, Sphingomonas SaMR12, Improves the Potential for Zinc Phytoremediation by Its Host, Sedum alfredii

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xincheng; Pan, Fengshan; Yang, Xiaoe; Feng, Ying

    2014-01-01

    The endophytic bacterium, Sphingomonas SaMR12, isolated from Sedum alfredii Hance, appears to increase plant biomass and zinc-extraction from contaminated soil; however, the mechanism by which this occurs is not clear. Here, the ability of SaMR12 to promote zinc extraction and its effects on root morphology and exudation were examined in hydroponics. Zinc treatment increased shoot biomass by 30 to 45%, and by a further 10 to 19% when combined with SaMR12 inoculation. Zinc treatment also increased zinc accumulation modestly and this too was enhanced with SaMR12. Both biomass and zinc levels increased in a dose-dependent manner with significant effects seen at 50 µM zinc and apparent saturation at 500 µM. Zinc and the endophyte also increased levels of auxin but not at 50 µM and zinc increased levels of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide but mainly at 500 µM. As for root morphology, SaMR12 increased root branching, the number of root tips, and surface area. Zinc and SaMR12 also increased the exudation of oxalic acid. For most assays the effects of the endophyte and zinc were additive, with the notable exception of SaMR12 strongly reducing the production of reactive oxygen species at 500 µM zinc. Taken together, these results suggest that the promotion of growth and zinc uptake by exposure to zinc and to SaMR12 are independent of reactive oxygen and do not involve increases in auxin. PMID:25198772

  3. Dr. von Braun, Dr. Mueller, and Dr. Rees at the Firing Room During the SA-6 Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    This photograph depicts an intense moment during the SA-6 launch at the Firing Room. Dr. von Braun, Director of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is at center; to his left is Dr. George Mueller, Associate Director for Marned Space Flight; and far right is Dr. Eberhard Rees, Director for Research and Development, MSFC. The SA-6, the sixth flight of the Saturn 1 vehicle, launched a S-IV stage (a second stage) and an Apollo boilerplate spacecraft.

  4. Simian adenovirus type 7 (SA-7) induces tumours of nerve-supporting or paraneural cell origin in newborn hamsters.

    PubMed Central

    Ohtaki, S.; Kato, K.

    1989-01-01

    Simian adenovirus type 7 (SA-7) was found to induce tumours originating from nerve-supporting or paraneural cells in newborn hamsters, regardless of injection site or tissues. SA-7 induces glioblastomas characterized by definite localization (subependymal regions) and its main cell type, bipolar spongioblast-like cells, in the brain of hamsters inoculated as newborns. When the eyes of newborn hamsters were directly inoculated, SA-7 failed to induce retinoblastoma (0/27), but retro or peri-bulbar SA-7 tumours frequently occurred in tissues closely related to the peripheral nerve apparatus, including the oculomotor nerve or ciliary ganglion. These tumour cells were situated like stromal cells in these nerve tissues. The histological features of the orbital tumours were similar to those of SA-7-induced subcutaneous tumours but not to brain tumours. In contrast with other hamster brain tumours induced by human adenovirus type 12 or human papova JC virus, medulloepithelioma or medulloblastoma, SA-7 induced tumours exhibit distinctive histological and localization characteristics. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6a Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12a PMID:2765394

  5. The contribution of cohesin-SA1 to gene expression and chromatin architecture in two murine tissues.

    PubMed

    Cuadrado, Ana; Remeseiro, Silvia; Graña, Osvaldo; Pisano, David G; Losada, Ana

    2015-03-31

    Cohesin, which in somatic vertebrate cells consists of SMC1, SMC3, RAD21 and either SA1 or SA2, mediates higher-order chromatin organization. To determine how cohesin contributes to the establishment of tissue-specific transcriptional programs, we compared genome-wide cohesin distribution, gene expression and chromatin architecture in cerebral cortex and pancreas from adult mice. More than one third of cohesin binding sites differ between the two tissues and these show reduced overlap with CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) and are enriched at the regulatory regions of tissue-specific genes. Cohesin/CTCF sites at active enhancers and promoters contain, at least, cohesin-SA1. Analyses of chromatin contacts at the Protocadherin (Pcdh) and Regenerating islet-derived (Reg) gene clusters, mostly expressed in brain and pancreas, respectively, revealed remarkable differences that correlate with the presence of cohesin. We could not detect significant changes in the chromatin contacts at the Pcdh locus when comparing brains from wild-type and SA1 null embryos. In contrast, reduced dosage of SA1 altered the architecture of the Reg locus and decreased the expression of Reg genes in the pancreas of SA1 heterozygous mice. Given the role of Reg proteins in inflammation, such reduction may contribute to the increased incidence of pancreatic cancer observed in these animals. PMID:25735743

  6. Cloning, purification and preliminary crystallographic analysis of a conserved hypothetical protein, SA0961 (YlaN), from Staphylococcus aureus

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Ling; Sedelnikova, Svetlana E.; Baker, Patrick J.; Rice, David W.

    2006-08-01

    SA0961 is an unknown hypothetical protein from Staphylococcus aureus that can be identified in the Firmicutes division of Gram-positive bacteria. SA0961 was cloned and the protein was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and subsequently crystallized. SA0961 is an unknown hypothetical protein from Staphylococcus aureus that can be identified in the Firmicutes division of Gram-positive bacteria. The gene for the homologue of SA0961 in Bacillus subtilis, ylaN, has been shown to be essential for cell survival, thus identifying the protein encoded by this gene as a potential target for the development of novel antibiotics. SA0961 was cloned and the protein was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and subsequently crystallized. Crystals of selenomethionine-labelled SA0961 diffract to beyond 2.4 Å resolution and belong to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 31.5, b = 42.7, c = 62.7 Å, β = 92.4° and two molecules in the asymmetric unit. A full structure determination is under way to provide insights into the function of this protein.

  7. Two Redundant Receptor-Like Cytoplasmic Kinases Function Downstream of Pattern Recognition Receptors to Regulate Activation of SA Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Kong, Qing; Sun, Tongjun; Qu, Na; Ma, Junling; Li, Meng; Cheng, Yu-Ti; Zhang, Qian; Wu, Di; Zhang, Zhibin; Zhang, Yuelin

    2016-06-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) serves as a critical signaling molecule in plant defense. Two transcription factors, SARD1 and CBP60g, control SA biosynthesis through regulating pathogen-induced expression of Isochorismate Synthase1, which encodes a key enzyme for SA biosynthesis. Here, we report that Pattern-Triggered Immunity Compromised Receptor-like Cytoplasmic Kinase1 (PCRK1) and PCRK2 function as key regulators of SA biosynthesis. In the pcrk1 pcrk2 double mutant, pathogen-induced expression of SARD1, CBP60g, and ICS1 is greatly reduced. The pcrk1 pcrk2 double mutant, but neither of the single mutants, exhibits reduced accumulation of SA and enhanced disease susceptibility to bacterial pathogens. Both PCRK1 and PCRK2 interact with the pattern recognition receptor FLS2, and treatment with pathogen-associated molecular patterns leads to rapid phosphorylation of PCRK2. Our data suggest that PCRK1 and PCRK2 function downstream of pattern recognition receptor in a signal relay leading to the activation of SA biosynthesis. PMID:27208222

  8. Antitumor effectiveness of different amounts of electrical charge in Ehrlich and fibrosarcoma Sa-37 tumors

    PubMed Central

    Ciria, HC; Quevedo, MS; Cabrales, LB; Bruzón, RP; Salas, MF; Pena, OG; González, TR; López, DS; Flores, JM

    2004-01-01

    Background In vivo studies were conducted to quantify the effectiveness of low-level direct electric current for different amounts of electrical charge and the survival rate in fibrosarcoma Sa-37 and Ehrlich tumors, also the effect of direct electric in Ehrlich tumor was evaluate through the measurements of tumor volume and the peritumoral and tumoral findings. Methods BALB/c male mice, 7–8 week old and 20–22 g weight were used. Ehrlich and fibrosarcoma Sa-37 cell lines, growing in BALB/c mice. Solid and subcutaneous Ehrlich and fibrosarcoma Sa-37 tumors, located dorsolaterally in animals, were initiated by the inoculation of 5 × 106 and 1 × 105 viable tumor cells, respectively. For each type of tumor four groups (one control group and three treated groups) consisting of 10 mice randomly divided were formed. When the tumors reached approximately 0.5 cm3, four platinum electrodes were inserted into their bases. The electric charge delivered to the tumors was varied in the range of 5.5 to 110 C/cm3 for a constant time of 45 minutes. An additional experiment was performed in BALB/c male mice bearing Ehrlich tumor to examine from a histolological point of view the effects of direct electric current. A control group and a treated group with 77 C/cm3 (27.0 C in 0.35 cm3) and 10 mA for 45 min were formed. In this experiment when the tumor volumes reached 0.35 cm3, two anodes and two cathodes were inserted into the base perpendicular to the tumor long axis. Results Significant tumor growth delay and survival rate were achieved after electrotherapy and both were dependent on direct electric current intensity, being more marked in fibrosarcoma Sa-37 tumor. Complete regressions for fibrosarcoma Sa-37 and Ehrlich tumors were observed for electrical charges of 80 and 92 C/cm3, respectively. Histopathological and peritumoral findings in Ehrlich tumor revealed in the treated group marked tumor necrosis, vascular congestion, peritumoral neutrophil infiltration, an acute

  9. Body weight gain during adulthood and uterine myomas: Pró-Saúde Study

    PubMed Central

    Boclin, Karine de Lima Sírio; Torres, Fernanda Pelegrini; Faerstein, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study intended to investigate whether body weight gain during adulthood is associated with uterine myomas. 1,560 subjects were evaluated in a Pró-Saúde Study. Weight gain was evaluated in a continuous fashion and also in quintiles. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated through logistic regression models that were adjusted for education levels, color/race, body mass indices at age 20, age of menarche, parity, use of oral contraceptive methods, smoking, health insurance, and the Papanicolaou tests. No relevant differences were observed regarding the presence of uterine myomas among weight gain quintiles in that studied population. PMID:26558353

  10. 78 FR 2198 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca S.A. Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-10

    ...We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Turbomeca S.A. Arriel 1A1, 1A2, 1B, 1C, 1C1, 1C2, 1D, 1D1, 1E2, 1K1, 1S, and 1S1 turboshaft engines. This AD requires performing a high gas generator speed (NG) rating vibration check. This AD was prompted by several reports of uncommanded in-flight shutdown on Arriel 1 engines. We are issuing this AD to prevent an uncommanded in-......

  11. [Introduction to a social cartography: the journal Revista de Saúde Pública, 1967 to 1977].

    PubMed

    Santos, Maurici Tadeu Ferreira Dos; Gomes, Mara Helena de Andréa; Silveira, Cássio

    2016-01-26

    Through reliance on a social cartography method based on Karl Mannheim's sociology of knowledge, the article analyzes the first ten issues of Revista de Saúde Pública, published by the University of São Paulo. Articles and editorials are mapped in order to understand the period's transformations. In the realm of the journal's editorial line, tensions are noted between complying with the principles of the institution and international transformations, which demanded an openness to interdisciplinary topics. Special focus is placed on sub-fields, dominated by an epidemiology that was in flux as it absorbed new knowledge in the context of the formation of the field of public health. PMID:27276044

  12. Optical modeling and physical performances evaluations for the JT-60SA ECRF antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Platania, P. Figini, L.; Farina, D.; Micheletti, D.; Moro, A.; Sozzi, C.; Isayama, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Moriyama, S.

    2015-12-10

    The purpose of this work is the optical modeling and physical performances evaluations of the JT-60SA ECRF launcher system. The beams have been simulated with the electromagnetic code GRASP® and used as input for ECCD calculations performed with the beam tracing code GRAY, capable of modeling propagation, absorption and current drive of an EC Gaussion beam with general astigmatism. Full details of the optical analysis has been taken into account to model the launched beams. Inductive and advanced reference scenarios has been analysed for physical evaluations in the full poloidal and toroidal steering ranges for two slightly different layouts of the launcher system.

  13. Optical modeling and physical performances evaluations for the JT-60SA ECRF antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platania, P.; Figini, L.; Farina, D.; Isayama, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Micheletti, D.; Moriyama, S.; Moro, A.; Sozzi, C.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this work is the optical modeling and physical performances evaluations of the JT-60SA ECRF launcher system. The beams have been simulated with the electromagnetic code GRASP® and used as input for ECCD calculations performed with the beam tracing code GRAY, capable of modeling propagation, absorption and current drive of an EC Gaussion beam with general astigmatism. Full details of the optical analysis has been taken into account to model the launched beams. Inductive and advanced reference scenarios has been analysed for physical evaluations in the full poloidal and toroidal steering ranges for two slightly different layouts of the launcher system.

  14. Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial applications of zinc oxide nanoparticles loaded gum acacia/poly(SA) hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, S K; Jadaun, Mamta; Tiwari, Seema

    2016-11-20

    In this work, zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized in-situ within the gum acacia/poly (acrylate) hydrogel network using hydrothermal approach. The synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles were characterized by Surface plasmon resonance (SPR), X-Ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The water absorption behavior of ZnO/GA/poly(SA) hydrogels was investigated in the phosphate buffer saline (PBS) of pH 7.4 at 37°C. The water uptake data were analyzed with the help of various kinetic models. Finally, the antimicrobial action of nanocomposites was studied using E. coli as model bacteria. PMID:27561472

  15. Saturn 5 Launch Vehicle Flight Evaluation Report, SA-513, Skylab 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Saturn V SA-513 (Skylab-1) was launched at 13:30:00 Eastern Daylight Time (EDT) on May 14, 1973, from Kennedy Space Center, Complex 39, Pad A. The vehicle lifted off on a launch azimuth of 90 degrees east of north and rolled to a flight azimuth of 40.88 degrees east of north. The launch vehicle successfully placed the Saturn Work Shop in the planned earth orbit. All launch vehicle objectives were accomplished. No launch vehicle failures or anomalies occurred that seriously affected the mission.

  16. Hub and blade structural loads measurements of an SA349/2 helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamauchi, Gloria K.; Heffernan, Ruth M.; Gaubert, Michel

    1988-01-01

    Data from 23 flight conditions, including level flights ranging from advance ratio mu = 0.14 to 0.37 and steady turning flights from advance ratio mu = 0.26 to 0.35, are presented for an Aerospatiale SA349/2 Gazelle helicopter. The data include hub loads data (for 6 of the 23 conditions), blade structural data at eleven different blade radial stations, and fuselage structural data. All dynamic data are presented as harmonic analysis coefficients (ten harmonics per rotor revolution). The data acquisition and reduction procedures are also documented. Blade structural and inertial properties are provided in addition to control system geometry and properties.

  17. Rebalance between 7S and 11S globulins in soybean seeds of differing protein content and 11SA4.

    PubMed

    Yang, A; Yu, X; Zheng, A; James, A T

    2016-11-01

    Protein content and globulin subunit composition of soybean seeds affect the quality of soy foods. In this proteomic study, the protein profile of soybean seeds with high (∼45.5%) or low (∼38.6%) protein content and with or without the glycinin (11S) subunit 11SA4 was examined. 44 unique proteins and their homologues were identified and showed that both protein content and 11SA4 influenced the abundance of a number of proteins. The absence of 11SA4 exerted a greater impact than the protein content, and led to a decreased abundance of glycinin G2/A2B1 and G5/A5A4B3 subunits, which resulted in lower total 11S with a concomitant higher total β-conglycinin (7S). Low protein content was associated with higher glycinin G3/A1aB1b and lower glycinin G4/A5A4B3. Using the proteomic approach, it was demonstrated that 11SA4 deficiency induced compensatory accumulation of 7S globulins and led to a similar total abundance for 7S+11S irrespective of protein content or 11SA4. PMID:27211633

  18. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd Isotopic Studies of Martian Depleted Shergottes SaU 094/005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.; Reese, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Sayh al Uhaymir (SaU) 094 and SaU 005 are olivine-phyric shergottites from the Oman desert and are considered as pairs. [e.g., 1]. They are very similar to the Libyan desert shergottite Dar al Gani (DaG) 476 in petrology, chemistry and ejection age [2-6]. This group of shergottites, also recognized as depleted shergottites [e.g. 7] has been strongly shocked and contains very low abundances of light rare earth elements (REE). In addition, terrestrial contaminants are commonly present in meteorites found in desert environments. Age-dating these samples is very challenging, but lower calcite contents in the SaU meteorites suggest that they have been subjected to less severe desert weathering than their DaG counterparts [3-4]. In this report, we present Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic results for SaU 094 and SaU 005, discuss the correlation of their ages with those of other similar shergottites, and discuss their petrogenesis.

  19. Assignment of simian rotavirus SA11 temperature-sensitive mutant groups B and E to genome segments

    SciTech Connect

    Gombold, J.L.; Estes, M.K.; Ramig, R.F.

    1985-05-01

    Recombinant (reassortant) viruses were selected from crosses between temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants of simian rotavirus SA11 and wild-type human rotavirus Wa. The double-stranded genome RNAs of the reassortants were examined by electrophoresis in Tris-glycine-buffered polyacrylamide gels and by dot hybridization with a cloned DNA probe for genome segment 2. Analysis of replacements of genome segments in the reassortants allowed construction of a map correlating genome segments providing functions interchangeable between SA11 and Wa. The reassortants revealed a functional correspondence in order of increasing electrophoretic mobility of genome segments. Analysis of the parental origin of genome segments in ts+ SA11/Wa reassortants derived from the crosses SA11 tsB(339) X Wa and SA11 tsE(1400) X Wa revealed that the group B lesion of tsB(339) was located on genome segment 3 and the group E lesion of tsE(1400) was on segment 8.

  20. Chemical enhancement of SA7 virus transformation of hamster embryo cells: evaluation by interlaboratory testing of diverse chemicals.

    PubMed

    Hatch, G G; Anderson, T M; Lubet, R A; Kouri, R E; Putman, D L; Cameron, J W; Nims, R W; Most, B; Spalding, J W; Tennant, R W

    1986-01-01

    Twelve chemicals from diverse structural classes were tested under code for their capacity to enhance the transformation of Syrian hamster embryo cells by simian adenovirus SA7 in two independent laboratories. Pretreatment of hamster cells with eight of those chemicals (reserpine, dichlorvos, methapyrilene hydrochloride, benzidine dihydrochloride, diphenylhydantoin, cinnamyl anthranilate, 11-aminoundecanoic acid, and 4,4'-oxydianiline) produced repeatable enhancement of SA7 transformation at two or more consecutive dose levels, which constitutes clear evidence of enhancing activity in this assay. Both toxic and nontoxic doses of each of these chemicals caused enhancement of virus transformation. Two chemicals (2,6-dichloro-p-phenylenediamine and cinnamaldehyde) produced some evidence of enhancing activity (repeatable transformation enhancement at one dose). Dose ranges for cytotoxicity and enhancement of SA7 transformation were similar in both laboratories for all chemicals producing activity. The final two chemicals, chloramphenicol sodium succinate and ethylene thiourea, failed to reproducibly demonstrate either significant cytotoxicity or enhancement of SA7 transformation at concentrations up to 10-20 mM. The test results for these 12 chemicals were combined with the test results for 9 known carcinogens and noncarcinogens in order to evaluate relationships between activity, dose response, and lowest effective enhancing concentration for these compounds, as well as to correlate them with rodent carcinogenesis classifications. The Syrian hamster embryo cell-SA7 system demonstrated reproducible test responses in both intra- and interlaboratory studies and detected 13 out of 15 known rodent carcinogens. PMID:3732194

  1. [Effects of Ca2+ and SA on physiological and photosynthesis of Platycodon grandiflorum under high temperature stress].

    PubMed

    Li, Ke-ni; Wang, Kang-cai; Li, Li; Li, Yu-qing; Duan, Yun-jing

    2015-05-01

    In order to reveal feasibility of different concentrations of Ca2+ and SA on Platycodon grandiflorum under high temperature stress, the effects of Ca2+ on physiological index and related photosynthetic parameters were studied. Pot cultured P. grandiflorum leaves under the same outdoor conditions were sprayed with CaCl2 and SA separately, and then placed in the high incubator [35 degrees C/25 degrees C (day/night), light intensity 3 600 lx], and sprayed with distilled water at 25 degrees C and under high temperature stress were set as the control. The related photosynthesis, relative conductivity, contents of proline, malondialdehyde, soluble protein, activities of SOD and CAT, ASA and GSH content were measured. The results show that the 6 mmol x L(-1) CaCl2 and 1.5 mmol x L(-1) SA enhanced the activities of SOD and CAT, the contents of proline and soluble protein, and effectively reduced the damage of heat stress on cell membrance. At the same time, the exogenous Ca2+ and SA increased the contents of chlorophyll and carotenoid, the efficiency of leaf photosynthesis and ASA and GSH content, and thus effectively resisted the oxidative stress caused by high temperatures, but with the increasing concentration of spraying, P. grandiflorum decreased the ability to resist high temperature stress. In conclusion, the foliage spraying CaCl2 and SA could reduce the damage of high temperature stress on P. grandiflorum leaves. PMID:26390646

  2. Endophytic bacterium Sphingomonas SaMR12 promotes cadmium accumulation by increasing glutathione biosynthesis in Sedum alfredii Hance.

    PubMed

    Pan, Fengshan; Meng, Qian; Wang, Qiong; Luo, Sha; Chen, Bao; Khan, Kiran Yasmin; Yang, Xiaoe; Feng, Ying

    2016-07-01

    A hydroponic experiment was conducted to verify the effects of inoculation with endophytic bacteria Sphingomonas SaMR12 on root growth, cadmium (Cd) uptake, reactive oxygen species (ROS), antioxidases, glutathione (GSH) and the related gene expression of Sedum alfredii Hance under different levels of Cd such as 0, 10, 25, 100 and 400 μM. The results showed that inoculation of SaMR12 improved Cd accumulation and upregulated glutathione synthase (GS) expression, but slightly reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and alleviated Cd-induced damage in roots. However it didn't alter the activities of antioxidant enzymes. When Cd concentration exceeded 25 μM, SaMR12 increased the concentration of GSH and the expression level of GSH1. At high Cd treatment levels (100 and 400 μM), SaMR12 significantly reduced H2O2 concentration and enhanced expression level of 1-Cys peroxiredoxin PER1 and ATPS genes. These results indicate that although SaMR12 has no significant effects on antioxidases activities, it reduces H2O2 concentration by enhancing GSH concentration and relevant genes expression, and subsequently improves Cd tolerance and accumulation. PMID:27065458

  3. An optical design and accuracy estimation for a JT-60SA edge Thomson scattering diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tojo, H.; Hatae, T.; Hamano, T.; Sakuma, T.; Itami, K.

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents the design of a collection optics used for the Thomson scattering diagnostic in JT-60SA. Good spatial resolution ( ~ 10mm) is necessary for the optics to measure detailed profiles of electron temperature (Te) and density (ne) in the plasma edge region. Six lenses forming a Petzval-like lens are employed in this design. The use of an anomalous dispersion glass material for two lenses suppresses severe chromatic aberration; two flat mirrors prevent interference with the port plug in which the collection optics is to be installed. The resultant spot radius (resolution) at the image for the peripheral region is approximately 0.2 mm. When another collection optics previously designed for core measurements is used simultaneously, the angle of laser polarization must be considered because the two collection optics are to be installed in different port-plugs accessing the vacuum vessel from the cryostat. Otherwise, the measured signal would be degraded, and the scattered spectra would be different from the expected ones. This paper evaluates the scattered spectra with relativistic effects without any approximations. This paper also provides a means to optimize the polarization angle by considering a simulated profile in JT-60SA and contributes to future devices that have limited space for collection optics.

  4. Performance evaluation of the GA/SA hybrid heuristic optimum filter for optical pattern recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeun, Jin S.; Kim, Nam; Pan, Jae Kyung; Kim, R. S.; Um, J. U.; Kim, Sang H.

    1997-04-01

    In this paper, we newly apply a genetic and simulated annealing hybrid heuristic to encode optimal filter for optical pattern recognition. Simulated annealing as a stochastic computational technique allows for finding near globally-minimum-cost solutions with cooling schedule. Using the advantages of a parallelizable genetic algorithm (GA) and a simulated annealing algorithm (SA), the optimum filters are designed and implemented. The filter having 128 multiplied by 128 pixel size consists of the stepped phase that causes the discrete phase delay. The structure of this can be divided into rectangular cells such that each cell imparts a discrete phase delay of 0 approximately equals 2 pi[rad] to the incident wave front. Eight-phase stepped filters that we designed are compared with phase only matched filter and cosine-binary phase only filter. It is deeply focused on investigating the performance of the optimum filter in terms of recognition characteristics on the translation, scale and rotation variations of the image, and discrimination properties against similar images. By GA/SA hybrid heuristic, the optimum filter is realized for high efficiency optical reconstruction in spite of decreasing iteration number needed to encode it by respective algorithms.

  5. Interaction between the Natural Components in Danhong Injection (DHI) with Serum Albumin (SA) and the Influence of the Coexisting Multi-Components on the SaB-BSA Binding System: Fluorescence and Molecular Docking Studies

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Jia; Zhang, Yingyue; Wang, Xingrui; Yan, Huo; Liu, Erwei; Gao, Xiumei

    2015-01-01

    Danhong injection (DHI) is a widely used Chinese Materia Medica standardized product for the clinical treatment of ischemic encephalopathy and coronary heart disease. The bindings of eight natural components in DHI between bovine serum albumin (BSA) were studied by fluorescence spectroscopy technology and molecular docking. According to the results, the quenching process of salvianolic acid B and hydroxysafflor yellow A was a static quenching procedure through the analysis of quenching data by the Stern-Volmer equation, the modified Stern-Volmer equation, and the modified Scatchard equation. Meanwhile, syringin (Syr) enhanced the fluorescence of BSA, and the data were analyzed using the Lineweaver-Burk equation. Molecular docking suggested that all of these natural components bind to serum albumin at the site I location. Further competitive experiments of SaB confirmed the result of molecular docking studies duo to the displacement of warfarin by SaB. Base on these studies, we selected SaB as a research target because it presented the strongest binding ability to BSA and investigated the influence of the multi-components coexisting in DHI on the interaction between the components of the SaB-BSA binding system. The participation of these natural components in DHI affected the interaction between the components of the SaB-BSA system. Therefore, when DHI is used in mammals, SaB is released from serum albumin more quickly than it is used alone. This work would provide a new experiment basis for revealing the scientific principle of compatibility for Traditional Chinese Medicine. PMID:26035712

  6. Novel structure of an ultra-narrow-bandwidth fibre laser based on cascade filters: PGFBG and SA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Zhaojin; Zeng, Xiaodong; Cao, Chanqing; Feng, Zhejun; Lai, Zhi; Dang, Wenjia

    2016-06-01

    An ultra-narrow-linewidth single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) erbium-doped fibre (EDF) ring laser based on cascade filters, which include a phase-gap fibre Bragg grating (PGFBG) and a saturable absorber (SA) is proposed and demonstrated. A PGFBG is used as the first filter to coarsely select the longitudinal mode, the second filter is an SA, which selects the SLM from a few existing longitudinal modes after the first filter by creating a self-writing filter. We measure the linewidth of the fibre ring laser using the delayed self-heterodyne method. The result is approximately 1.2 KHz with a 3 dB linewidth. This fibre laser also has high laser pump power efficiency: the optical to optical efficiency is approximately 15% for a sufficiently long EDF. The stable single linear polarization SLM output of this fibre laser is ensured using polarization-maintaining (PM) devices and the SA.

  7. SA-4-1BBL and monophosphoryl lipid A constitute an efficacious combination adjuvant for cancer vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Abhishek K.; Dinc, Gunes; Sharma, Rajesh K.; Yolcu, Esma S.; Zhao, Hong; Shirwan, Haval

    2014-01-01

    Vaccines based on tumor-associated antigens (TAA) have limited therapeutic efficacy due to their weak immunogenic nature and the various immune evasion mechanisms active in advanced tumors. In an effort to overcome these limitations, we evaluated a combination of the T cell co-stimulatory molecule SA-4-1BBL with the TLR4 agonist monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) as a novel vaccine adjuvant system. In the TC-1 mouse allograft model of HPV-induced cancer, a single administration of this combination adjuvant with HPV E7 protein caused tumor rejection in all tumor-bearing mice. On its own, SA-4-1BBL outperformed MPL in this setting. Against established tumors, two vaccinations were sufficient to elicit rejection in the majority of mice. In the metastatic model of Lewis lung carcinoma, vaccination of the TAA survivin with SA-4-1BBL/MPL yielded superior efficacy against pulmonary metastases. Therapeutic efficacy of SA-4-1BBL/MPL was achieved in the absence of detectable toxicity, correlating with enhanced DC activation, CD8+ T cell function and an increased intratumoral ratio of CD8+ T effector cells to CD4+FoxP3+ T regulatory cells. Unexpectedly, use of MPL on its own was associated with unfavorable intratumoral ratios of these T cell populations resulting in suboptimal efficacy. The efficacy of MPL monotherapy was restored by depletion of T regulatory cells, whereas eliminating CD8+ T cells abolished the efficacy of its combination with SA-4-1BBL. Mechanistic investigations showed that IFN-γ played a critical role in supporting the therapeutic effect of SA-4-1BBL/MPL. Taken together, our results offer a preclinical proof of concept for the use of a powerful new adjuvant system for TAA-based cancer vaccines. PMID:25252915

  8. Progress in long-pulse production of powerful negative ion beams for JT-60SA and ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, A.; Umeda, N.; Hanada, M.; Yoshida, M.; Kashiwagi, M.; Tobari, H.; Watanabe, K.; Akino, N.; Komata, M.; Mogaki, K.; Sasaki, S.; Seki, N.; Nemoto, S.; Shimizu, T.; Endo, Y.; Ohasa, K.; Dairaku, M.; Yamanaka, H.; Grisham, L. R.

    2015-06-01

    Significant progress in the extension of pulse durations of powerful negative ion beams has been made to realize the neutral beam injectors for JT-60SA and ITER. In order to overcome common issues of the long-pulse production/acceleration of negative ion beams in JT-60SA and ITER, new technologies have been developed in the JT-60SA ion source and the MeV accelerator in Japan Atomic Energy Agency. As for the long-pulse production of high-current negative ions for the JT-60SA ion source, the pulse durations have been successfully increased from 30 s at 13 A on JT-60U to 100 s at 15 A by modifying the JT-60SA ion source, which satisfies the required pulse duration of 100 s and 70% of the rated beam current for JT-60SA. This progress was based on the R&D efforts for the temperature control of the plasma grid and uniform negative ion productions with the modified tent-shaped filter field configuration. Moreover, each parameter of the required beam energy, current and pulse has been achieved individually by these R&D efforts. The developed techniques are useful to design the ITER ion source because the sustainment of the caesium coverage in the large extraction area is one of the common issues between JT-60SA and ITER. As for the long-pulse acceleration of high power density beams in the MeV accelerator for ITER, the pulse duration of MeV-class negative ion beams has been extended by more than 2 orders of magnitude by modifying the extraction grid with a high cooling capability and a high transmission of negative ions. A long-pulse acceleration of 60 s has been achieved at 70 MW m-2 (683 keV, 100 A m-2) which has reached the power density of JT-60SA level of 65 MW m-2. No degradations of the voltage holding capability of the acceleration voltage and the beam optics due to the distortion of the acceleration grids have been observed in this power density level. These results are the longest pulse durations of high-current and high-power-density negative ion beams in the

  9. Does long-term use of the Guidelines for Adolescent Preventive Services (GAPS) questionnaires lead to earlier mental health or substance abuse (MH/SA) diagnosis?

    PubMed Central

    Gadomski, Anne M; Scribani, Melissa B; Krupa, Nicole; Jenkins, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Objective Do the GAPS comprehensive screening questionnaires increase detection or shorten time to diagnosis of mental health and substance abuse (MH/SA) disorders? Design Analyses of an administrative database and a prior implementation study to compare change in MH/SA diagnoses pre-GAPS (May 1994 to April 1998) to post-GAPS (May 1999 to April 2003). Setting Rural health network in NY. Participants 8,112 adolescents (13 to 15 years). Intervention GAPS questionnaires routinely administered at annual visits starting May 1999. Outcome Measures Diagnostic codes reflecting MH/SA disorders for outpatient visits subsequent to an index annual visit were enumerated. Population based rates were derived using school enrollment data. Using time series, the rate of MH/SA diagnoses was compared pre- and post-GAPS. Using survival analysis, historical cohorts of adolescents ages 13–15 years who had an annual visit pre- or post-GAPS were constructed to compare the time to MH/SA diagnosis over two 4-year follow up periods. Using a merged database, a sensitivity, specificity, and proportional hazard analysis of the GAPS for MH/SA diagnosis was completed using 297 GAPS questionnaires. Results The rate of MH/SA diagnosis did not change significantly pre- and post-GAPS (p=0.13). There was no difference in time to MH/SA diagnosis post-GAPS (7.0 months) and pre-GAPS (9.0 months, log rank p=0.30). A GAPS with > 3 items positive was associated with an increased risk of any MH/SA diagnosis (H.R. 1.97, p = 0.007). Conclusion Even though related to past or eventual MH/SA diagnosis, GAPS screening did not change the rate of or time to MH/SA diagnosis. N=250 PMID:24488253

  10. Survival of SA11 rotavirus in fresh fruit juices of pineapple, papaya, and honeydew melon.

    PubMed

    Leong, Yap Kok; Xui, Ong Chiaw; Chia, Ong Kien

    2008-05-01

    Survival of rotavirus in fresh fruit juices of papaya (Caraca papaya L.), honeydew melon (Cucumis melo L.), and pineapple (Ananas comosus [L.] Merr.) was studied. Clarified juices were prepared from pulps of ripe fruits and sterilized by ultrafiltration. One milliliter of juice from each fruit was inoculated with 20 microl of 1 x 10(6) PFU of SA11 rotavirus and sampled immediately (0-h exposure) and 1 and 3 h later at 28 degrees C. Mean viral titers in juices of papaya (pH 5.1) and honeydew melon (pH 6.3) at 1 and 3 h were not significantly different from titers at 0-h exposure. Mean viral titers in juices from pineapples with ripening color indices of 3 (pH 3.6) and 6 (pH 3.7) at 1-h exposure (color index 3: 4.0 +/- 1.7 x 10(4); color index 6: 2.3 +/- 0.3 x 10(5)) and 3-h exposure (color index 3: 1.1 +/- 0.4 x 10(4); color index 6:1.3 +/- 0.6 x 10(5)) were significantly lower than titers at 0-h exposure (color index 3: 5.7 +/- 2.9 x 10(5); color index 6: 7.4 +/- 1.3 x 10(5)). Virus titers in pineapple juices of color index 3 were significantly lower than titers of the virus in juices of index 6. In cell culture medium (pH 7.4), SA11 titer remained stable over 3 h at 28 degrees C. However, at pH 3.6, the virus titer was reduced to a level not significantly different from that of the virus in pineapple juice of color index 6 (pH 3.7). In conclusion, papaya and honeydew melon juices, in contrast to pineapple juice, have the potential to transmit rotavirus. Inactivation of SA11 virus in pineapple juice can be possibly attributed to low pH and constituent(s) in the juice. PMID:18522042

  11. Sequence of the hyperplastic genome of the naturally competent Thermus scotoductus SA-01

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many strains of Thermus have been isolated from hot environments around the world. Thermus scotoductus SA-01 was isolated from fissure water collected 3.2 km below surface in a South African gold mine. The isolate is capable of dissimilatory iron reduction, growth with oxygen and nitrate as terminal electron acceptors and the ability to reduce a variety of metal ions, including gold, chromate and uranium, was demonstrated. The genomes from two different Thermus thermophilus strains have been completed. This paper represents the completed genome from a second Thermus species - T. scotoductus. Results The genome of Thermus scotoductus SA-01 consists of a chromosome of 2,346,803 bp and a small plasmid which, together are about 11% larger than the Thermus thermophilus genomes. The T. thermophilus megaplasmid genes are part of the T. scotoductus chromosome and extensive rearrangement, deletion of nonessential genes and acquisition of gene islands have occurred, leading to a loss of synteny between the chromosomes of T. scotoductus and T. thermophilus. At least nine large inserts of which seven were identified as alien, were found, the most remarkable being a denitrification cluster and two operons relating to the metabolism of phenolics which appear to have been acquired from Meiothermus ruber. The majority of acquired genes are from closely related species of the Deinococcus-Thermus group, and many of the remaining genes are from microorganisms with a thermophilic or hyperthermophilic lifestyle. The natural competence of Thermus scotoductus was confirmed experimentally as expected as most of the proteins of the natural transformation system of Thermus thermophilus are present. Analysis of the metabolic capabilities revealed an extensive energy metabolism with many aerobic and anaerobic respiratory options. An abundance of sensor histidine kinases, response regulators and transporters for a wide variety of compounds are indicative of an oligotrophic lifestyle

  12. Comparison of Xpert MRSA/SA Nasal and MRSA/SA ELITe MGB Assays for Detection of the mecA Gene with Susceptibility Testing Methods for Determination of Methicillin Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Belmekki, Mohamed; Mammeri, Hedi; Hamdad, Farida; Rousseau, Florence; Canarelli, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    In a series of 82 Staphylococcus strains isolated from culture, 100% were identified as Staphylococcus aureus by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS); 99.9% (77/82) of them were resistant to benzylpenicillin, oxacillin, and cefoxitin, and 6.1% (5/82) were susceptible to methicillin. Xpert MRSA/SA assay results were concordant with the phenotypic results in 76.8% (63/82) of cases and discordant in 23.2% (19/82) of cases. The MRSA/SA ELITe MGB kit results were concordant with phenotypic results in 100% of the cases. When comparing the Xpert MRSA/SA assay results with the MRSA/SA ELITe MGB kit results, 78% (64/82) of the cases were concordant, while 22% (18/82) of the cases were discordant. No statistically significant differences were observed between the two techniques. The PCR protocol that was used to validate the results of these two methods gave the following results: 49 were conventional methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates (mecA positive and mecALGA251 negative), and 25 were phenotypic MRSA isolates (mecA negative and mecALGA251 positive). PMID:23863569

  13. Perceptions of Nebraska Teachers Regarding the Transition from STARS to NeSA and Its Perceived Influence on the Implementation of a Balanced Assessment System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isom, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this explanatory mixed methods study was to explore the perceptions of Nebraska teachers about their experiences in the transition from STARS to NeSA. The study explored their perceptions of the influence of the transition on implementation of a balanced assessment system. As defined by NDE, a balanced system included NeSA testing,…

  14. Structural and biophysical characterization of Staphylococcus aureus SaMazF shows conservation of functional dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Zorzini, Valentina; Buts, Lieven; Sleutel, Mike; Garcia-Pino, Abel; Talavera, Ariel; Haesaerts, Sarah; Greve, Henri De; Cheung, Ambrose; van Nuland, Nico A. J.; Loris, Remy

    2014-01-01

    The Staphylococcus aureus genome contains three toxin–antitoxin modules, including one mazEF module, SamazEF. Using an on-column separation protocol we are able to obtain large amounts of wild-type SaMazF toxin. The protein is well-folded and highly resistant against thermal unfolding but aggregates at elevated temperatures. Crystallographic and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) solution studies show a well-defined dimer. Differences in structure and dynamics between the X-ray and NMR structural ensembles are found in three loop regions, two of which undergo motions that are of functional relevance. The same segments also show functionally relevant dynamics in the distantly related CcdB family despite divergence of function. NMR chemical shift mapping and analysis of residue conservation in the MazF family suggests a conserved mode for the inhibition of MazF by MazE. PMID:24748664

  15. Expanding CRISPR/Cas9 Genome Editing Capacity in Zebrafish Using SaCas9

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yan; Chen, Cheng; Han, Yuxiang; Chen, Zelin; Lu, Xiaochan; Liang, Fang; Li, Song; Qin, Wei; Lin, Shuo

    2016-01-01

    The type II CRISPR/Cas9 system has been used widely for genome editing in zebrafish. However, the requirement for the 5′-NGG-3′ protospacer-adjacent motif (PAM) of Cas9 from Streptococcus pyogenes (SpCas9) limits its targeting sequences. Here, we report that a Cas9 ortholog from Staphylococcus aureus (SaCas9), and its KKH variant, successfully induced targeted mutagenesis with high frequency in zebrafish. Confirming previous findings, the SpCas9 variant, VQR, can also induce targeted mutations in zebrafish. Bioinformatics analysis of these new Cas targets suggests that the number of available target sites in the zebrafish genome can be greatly expanded. Collectively, the expanded target repertoire of Cas9 in zebrafish should further facilitate the utility of this organism for genetic studies of vertebrate biology. PMID:27317783

  16. Crack growth in ASME SA-105 grade 2 steel in hydrogen at ambient temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    Cyclic-load crack growth measurements were performed on ASME SA-105 Grade 2 steel specimens exposed to 10,000- and 15,000-psi hydrogen and to 5000-psi helium, all at ambient temperatures. The cyclic-load crack growth rate was found to be faster in high-pressure hydrogen than in helium. Cyclic-load crack growth rates in this steel were not reduced by preloading in air to a stress intensity of 1.5 times the cyclic K sub max in hydrogen. There are indications that holding under load in hydrogen, and loading and unloading in helium retards hydrogen-accelerated cyclic-load crack growth. Cyclic frequency and R (ratio of K sub min/k sub max) were important variables determining crack growth rate. The crack growth rate increased as a logarithm of the cycle duration and decreased with increasing R.

  17. The solvent absorption-extractive distillation (SAED) process for ethanol recovery from gas/vapor streams

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, M.C.

    1993-12-31

    A low energy system for ethanol recovery and dehydration has been developed. This system utilizes a solvent for (1) absorption of ethanol vapors, and then the same solvent for (2) extractive distillation. The ideal solvent for this process would have a high affinity for ethanol, and no affinity for water. Heavy alcohols such as dodecanol, and tridecanol, some phosphorals, and some fatty acids have been determined to meet the desired specifications. These solvents have the effect of making water more volatile than ethanol. Thus, a water stream is taken off initially in the dehydration column, and a near anhydrous ethanol stream is recovered from the ethanol/solvent stripper column. Thus the solvent serves dual uses (1) absorption media, and (2) dehydration media. The SAED process as conceptualized would use a solvent similar to solvents used for direct extractive separation of ethanol from aqueous ethanol solutions.

  18. Structural and biophysical characterization of Staphylococcus aureus SaMazF shows conservation of functional dynamics.

    PubMed

    Zorzini, Valentina; Buts, Lieven; Sleutel, Mike; Garcia-Pino, Abel; Talavera, Ariel; Haesaerts, Sarah; De Greve, Henri; Cheung, Ambrose; van Nuland, Nico A J; Loris, Remy

    2014-06-01

    The Staphylococcus aureus genome contains three toxin-antitoxin modules, including one mazEF module, SamazEF. Using an on-column separation protocol we are able to obtain large amounts of wild-type SaMazF toxin. The protein is well-folded and highly resistant against thermal unfolding but aggregates at elevated temperatures. Crystallographic and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) solution studies show a well-defined dimer. Differences in structure and dynamics between the X-ray and NMR structural ensembles are found in three loop regions, two of which undergo motions that are of functional relevance. The same segments also show functionally relevant dynamics in the distantly related CcdB family despite divergence of function. NMR chemical shift mapping and analysis of residue conservation in the MazF family suggests a conserved mode for the inhibition of MazF by MazE. PMID:24748664

  19. SA-4-1BBL as a Novel Adjuvant for the Development of Therapeutic Cancer Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rajesh K.; Yolcu, Esma S.; Shirwan, Haval

    2016-01-01

    Tumor associated antigen (TAA)-based therapeutic vaccines have great potential as a safe, practical, and cost-efficient alternative to standard treatments for cancer. Clinical efficacy of TAA-based vaccines, however, has yet to be realized and will require adjuvants with pleiotropic functions on immune cells. Such adjuvants need not only to generate/boost T cell responses, but also reverse intrinsic/extrinsic tumor immune evasion mechanisms for therapeutic efficacy. This review focuses on a novel agonistic ligand, SA-4-1BBL, for 4-1BB costimulatory receptor as an adjuvant of choice because of its ability to: i) serve as a vehicle to deliver TAAs to dendritic cells (DCs) for antigen uptake and cross-presentation to CD8+ T cells; ii) augment adaptive Th1 and innate immune responses; and iii) overcome various immune evasion mechanisms, cumulatively translating into therapeutic efficacy in preclinical tumor models. PMID:24521311

  20. Modeling flow stress constitutive behavior of SA508-3 steel for nuclear reactor pressure vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Mingyue; Hao, Luhan; Li, Shijian; Li, Dianzhong; Li, Yiyi

    2011-11-01

    Based on the measured stress-strain curves under different temperatures and strain rates, a series of flow stress constitutive equations for SA508-3 steel were firstly established through the classical theories on work hardening and softening. The comparison between the experimental and modeling results has confirmed that the established constitutive equations can correctly describe the mechanical responses and microstructural evolutions of the steel under various hot deformation conditions. We further represented a successful industrial application of this model to simulate a forging process for a large conical shell used in a nuclear steam generator, which evidences its practical and promising perspective of our model with an aim of widely promoting the hot plasticity processing for heavy nuclear components of fission reactors.

  1. Expanding CRISPR/Cas9 Genome Editing Capacity in Zebrafish Using SaCas9.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yan; Chen, Cheng; Han, Yuxiang; Chen, Zelin; Lu, Xiaochan; Liang, Fang; Li, Song; Qin, Wei; Lin, Shuo

    2016-01-01

    The type II CRISPR/Cas9 system has been used widely for genome editing in zebrafish. However, the requirement for the 5'-NGG-3' protospacer-adjacent motif (PAM) of Cas9 from Streptococcus pyogenes (SpCas9) limits its targeting sequences. Here, we report that a Cas9 ortholog from Staphylococcus aureus (SaCas9), and its KKH variant, successfully induced targeted mutagenesis with high frequency in zebrafish. Confirming previous findings, the SpCas9 variant, VQR, can also induce targeted mutations in zebrafish. Bioinformatics analysis of these new Cas targets suggests that the number of available target sites in the zebrafish genome can be greatly expanded. Collectively, the expanded target repertoire of Cas9 in zebrafish should further facilitate the utility of this organism for genetic studies of vertebrate biology. PMID:27317783

  2. Apollo/Saturn 5 Postflight Trajectory - SA-513 Skylab 1 Mission. Tracking and Flight Reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The postflight trajectory for the Apollo/Saturn V SA-513 Skylab I flight is presented. An analysis is included of the orbital and powered flight trajectories of the launch vehicle, the orbital trajectory of the spent S-II stage, and the free flight impact trajectory of the expended S-IC stage. Launch vehicle trajectory dependent parameters are provided in earth-fixed launch site, launch vehicle navigation, and geographic polar coordinate systems. The time history of the trajectory parameters for the launch vehicle is presented from guidance reference release to the transfer to ATM control. Tables of significant launch vehicle parameters at engine cutoff, stage separation, and workshop orbit insertion are included. Figures of such parameters as altitude, surface and cross range, and the magnitude of total velocity and acceleration as a function of range time for the powered flight trajectory are given.

  3. AmeriFlux BR-Sa1 Santarem-Km67-Primary Forest

    DOE Data Explorer

    Saleska, Scott [University of Arizona

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site BR-Sa1 Santarem-Km67-Primary Forest. Site Description - The LBA Tapajos KM67 Mature Forest site is located in the Tapajos National Forest, a 450,000 ha closed-canopy upland forest in Amazonian Brazil. Bounded by the Tapajos River in the west and highway BR-163 to the east, the tower is located on a flat plateau (or planalto) that extends up to 150 km to the north, south, and east. Within the confines of the National Forest, anthropogenic disturbances are limited to a few small hunting trails. The surrounding stand is classified as primary or "old-growth"" predominantly by its uneven age distribution, emergent trees, numerous epiphytes and abundant large logs. In 2007 falling trees hit the tower guy wires rendering all instrumentation in-operational. After a complete restoration tower measurements resumed in August of 2008.

  4. Moessbauer analysis of heat affected zones of an SA 508 steel weld

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, S.J.; Oh, S.J.; Kim, S.; Lee, S.; Kim, J.H.

    1998-12-18

    Microstructure of a heat affected zone (HAZ) in a weld is influenced by many factors such as chemical composition, welding condition, and peak temperature. It is more complex under multi-pass welding because of the repeated heat input. For the analysis of the HAZ microstructure, optical microscope, electron microscope, and X-ray diffraction techniques have been widely used. However, their application is limited since they can hardly make quantitative analysis of HAZ where numerous phases such as martensite, bainite, ferrite, pearlite, austenite, and carbides are co-existing. Moessbauer spectroscopy, in such a case, is particularly useful due to the capability of quantitative analysis on the fraction of each phase. In this study, phases present in the HAZ of an SA 508 steel were identified, and their fractions were quantitatively determined by Moessbauer spectroscopy in conjunction with microscopic observations.

  5. AEM analyses of SRL 131 glass altered as a function of SA/V

    SciTech Connect

    Mazer, J.J.; Bates, J.K.; Biwer, B.M.; Bradley, C.R.

    1991-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to consider the effects of SVT (svt=surface area-to-volume ratio multiplied by reaction time) scaling on glass/water reactions, particularly with respect to characterizing the alteration layer formed at different values of SVT. Preliminary testing indicated that a Na-rich borosilicate glass, SRL 131, would achieve significant reaction in a relatively short period of time. While 131 glass is not expected to be produced at the defense waste processing facility (DWPF) its composition falls in the range for consideration. The results presented here include a comparison of the solution concentrations and detailed descriptions of the alteration layers that formed, analyzed using Analytical Electron Microscopy (AEM). The examination of solution concentrations and solids changes simultaneously allows a more complete assessment of the effects of surface area to volume ratio (SA/V) on glass reaction. 20 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Saturn I (SA-1) in Marshall Space Flight Center Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    On October 27, 1961, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and the Nation marked a high point in the 3-year-old Saturn development program when the first Saturn vehicle flew a flawless 215-mile ballistic trajectory from Cape Canaveral, Florida. SA-1 is pictured here, five months before launch, in the MSFC test stand on May 16, 1961. Developed and tested at MSFC under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun, SA-1 incorporated a Saturn I, Block I engine. The typical height of a Block I vehicle was approximately 163 feet. and had only one live stage. It consisted of eight tanks, each 70 inches in diameter, clustered around a central tank, 105 inches in diameter. Four of the external tanks were fuel tanks for the RP-1 (kerosene) fuel. The other four, spaced alternately with the fuel tanks, were liquid oxygen tanks, as was the large center tank. All fuel tanks and liquid oxygen tanks drained at the same rates respectively. The thrust for the stage came from eight H-1 engines, each producing a thrust of 165,000 pounds, for a total thrust of over 1,300,000 pounds. The engines were arranged in a double pattern. Four engines, located inboard, were fixed in a square pattern around the stage axis and canted outward slightly, while the remaining four engines were located outboard in a larger square pattern offset 40 degrees from the inner pattern. Unlike the inner engines, each outer engine was gimbaled. That is, each could be swung through an arc. They were gimbaled as a means of steering the rocket, by letting the instrumentation of the rocket correct any deviations of its powered trajectory. The block I required engine gimabling as the only method of guiding and stabilizing the rocket through the lower atmosphere. The upper stages of the Block I rocket reflected the three-stage configuration of the Saturn I vehicle.

  7. Mineralization of bone-related SaOS-2 cells under physiological hypoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Müller, Werner E G; Schröder, Heinz C; Tolba, Emad; Diehl-Seifert, Bärbel; Wang, Xiaohong

    2016-01-01

    Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) is a physiological energy-rich polymer with multiple phosphoric anhydride bonds. In cells such as bone-forming osteoblasts, glycolysis is the main pathway generating metabolic energy in the form of ATP. In the present study, we show that, under hypoxic culture conditions, the growth/viability of osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells is not impaired. The addition of polyP to those cells, administered as amorphous calcium polyP nanoparticles (aCa-polyP-NP; approximate size 100 nm), significantly increased the proliferation of the cells. In the presence of polyP, the cells produce significant levels of lactate, the end product of anaerobic glycolysis. Under those conditions, an eight-fold increase in the steady-state level of the membrane-associated carbonic anhydrase IX is found, as well as a six-fold induction of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1. Consequently, biomineral formation onto the SaOS-2 cells decreases under low oxygen tension. If the polyP nanoparticles are added to the cells, the degree of mineralization is enhanced. These changes had been measured also in human mesenchymal stem cells. The assumption that the bicarbonate, generated by the carbonic anhydrase in the presence of polyP under low oxygen, is deposited as a constituent of the bioseeds formed during initial hydroxyapatite formation is corroborated by the identification of carbon besides of calcium, oxygen and phosphorus in the initial biomineral deposit onto the cells using the sensitive technology of high-resolution energy dispersive spectrometry mapping. Based on these data, we conclude that polyP is required for the supply of metabolic energy during bone mineral formation under physiological, hypoxic conditions, acting as a 'metabolic fuel' for the cells to grow. PMID:26453899

  8. Simulation of plasma current ramp-up with reduced magnetic flux consumption in JT-60SA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakatsuki, T.; Suzuki, T.; Hayashi, N.; Shiraishi, J.; Ide, S.; Takase, Y.

    2015-06-01

    Current ramp-up with reduced central solenoid (CS) flux consumption in JT-60SA has been investigated using an integrated modeling code suite (TOPICS) with a turbulent model (CDBM). The plasma current can be ramped-up from 0.6 MA to 2.1 MA with no additional CS flux consumption if the plasma current is overdriven by neutral-beam-driven and bootstrap current. A time duration required for the current ramp-up without CS flux consumption becomes as long as 150 s in the scenario we have examined. In order to achieve a current overdrive condition from 0.6 MA, the current drive by a lower energy neutral beam (85 keV) is effective. A higher energy neutral beam (500 keV) cannot be used in this early phase with a low central electron density (~2 × 1019 m-3) due to large shine through loss, while it can be effectively used in the later phase. Therefore, the main current driver should be switched from the lower energy neutral beam to the higher energy neutral beam during the current ramp-up phase. As a result of an intensive auxiliary heating, plasma beta (the ratio of the plasma pressure to the magnetic pressure) becomes high. Ideal MHD instabilities of such high beta plasmas have been investigated using a linear ideal MHD stability analysis code (MARG2D). External kink modes which might affect the core plasma can be stabilized during the current ramp-up if there is a perfectly conducting wall at the location of the stabilizing plate and the vacuum vessel of JT-60SA and the plasma has a broader pressure profile with the H-mode pedestal and the internal transport barrier.

  9. A remedy to prevent the P1SA scheme degradation in multidimensional S{sub n} calculations in the presence of material discontinuities

    SciTech Connect

    Voloschenko, A. M.

    2006-07-01

    In the paper a way to prevent the P1 synthetic acceleration (P1SA) scheme degradation in solving small absorption highly heterogeneous (SAHH) multidimensional problems that ensures fast pointwise convergence of the P1SA scheme is discussed. Numerical experiment has shown that the lack of the difference scheme mono-tonicity is the reason of the consistent P1SA scheme degradation in solving SAHH problems. So, improvement of the difference scheme mono-tonicity also improves convergence of the consistent P1SA scheme in solving SAHH problems. In the paper we discuss remedies those improve the difference scheme mono-tonicity without essential degradation in accuracy. We also present results which demonstrate that a suitable choice of the fix-up function in the adaptive weighted diamond difference (AWDD) scheme essentially extends the class of SAHH problems, which can be efficiently accelerated by the consistent P1SA scheme. (authors)

  10. 78 FR 14007 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplanes; Electrical/Electronic Equipment Bay...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-04

    ...These special conditions are issued for the Embraer S.A. Model EMB-550 airplane. This airplane will have novel or unusual design features, specifically distributed electrical and electronic equipment bays in pressurized areas of the airplane. Older transport category airplane electrical/electronic equipment bay installations are located in the lower lobe where the flight crew could determine......

  11. 76 FR 2279 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170 and ERJ...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ... costs. As we do not control warranty coverage for affected parties, some parties may incur costs higher... rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will... de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170 and ERJ 190 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal...

  12. 76 FR 40286 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronáutica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-505 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ... not control warranty coverage for affected individuals. As a result, we have included all costs in our... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or... de Aeron utica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-505 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...

  13. 76 FR 5298 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-500 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira... identified in this proposed AD, contact EMBRAER Empresa Brasileira de Aeron utica S.A., Phenom...

  14. 75 FR 45558 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-500 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira.... Relevant Service Information Empresa Brasileira de Aeron utica S.A. (EMBRAER) has issued Service...

  15. Using Expansion Strategies in Making Untranslatable Areas of Poetry Translatable: Sa'di's Bustan as a Case in Point

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirinzadeh, Seyed Alireza; Mahadi, Tengku Sepora Tengku

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore poetry translatability and seek to see what the translators do to compensate those untranslatable areas of poetry. In doing so, the researchers chose a literary work, i.e., Bustan, by one of the well-known Iranian poets, that is, Sa'di (Wickens, 1990) and one of its translations, "The Bustan by Shaikh…

  16. Achieving Academic Excellence through Higher-Order Cognition in an African Language: Students Researching "Small Talk" in Sesotho sa Leboa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramani, Esther; Joseph, Michael

    2008-01-01

    In 2002 in a special issue of "Perspectives in Education" on multilingual education, we outlined the thinking underlying a proposed dual-medium degree (in Sesotho sa Leboa and English) at the then University of the North. This article theorises the experience of teaching and learning since 2003 when the degree, BA in Contemporary English and…

  17. 75 FR 2060 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ... Register on July 15, 2009 (74 FR 34276). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or... de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...

  18. 78 FR 11562 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplanes; Flight Envelope Protection: High Speed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... Embraer S.A. Model EMB-550 airplanes was published in the Federal Register on November 20, 2012 (77 FR... electronic flight control system which contains fly-by-wire control laws, including envelope protections, for... controls consist of hydraulically powered fly-by-wire elevators, aileron and rudder, controlled by...

  19. 75 FR 63048 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-500 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... (75 FR 45558). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the specified products. The MCAI... Order 12866; (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... EMBRAER Empresa Brasileira de Aeron utica S.A., Phenom Maintenance Support, Av. Brig. Farina Lima,...

  20. 78 FR 39772 - Huntingdon County Site, FCI USA, LLC, Americas Division, a Subsidiary of FCI SA, Including On...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Huntingdon County Site, FCI USA, LLC, Americas Division, a Subsidiary of FCI SA, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Manpower Inc. and Geodis Wilson Inc., Mount Union, Pennsylvania; Amended Certification...

  1. 78 FR 11555 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplane; Design Roll Maneuver for Electronic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... Embraer S.A. EMB-550 airplanes was published in the Federal Register on November 26, 2012 (77 FR 70384...; Design Roll Maneuver for Electronic Flight Controls AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... design roll maneuver for electronic flight controls, specifically an electronic flight control...

  2. 75 FR 32262 - Airworthiness Directives; CFM International, S.A. Models CFM56-3 and -3B Turbofan Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... Federal Register on July 23, 2009 (74 FR 36420), and published a supplemental proposed AD in the Federal... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and (3) Will..., Boeing 737 series airplanes. (d) CFM International, S.A. has added to the basic engine model number...

  3. 77 FR 50162 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; SA INTL GMBH C/O., Sigma Aldrich Co., LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; SA INTL GMBH C/O., Sigma Aldrich Co., LLC Correction In notice document 2012-19191 appearing on pages 47106-47108 in the issue...

  4. 78 FR 11553 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ...These special conditions are issued for the Embraer S.A. Model EMB-550 airplane. This airplane will have a novel or unusual design feature(s) associated with the control surface awareness and mode annunciation of the electronic flight control system. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate or appropriate safety standards for this design feature. These special......

  5. Master curve characterization of the fracture toughness behavior in SA508 Gr.4N low alloy steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ki-Hyoung; Kim, Min-Chul; Lee, Bong-Sang; Wee, Dang-Moon

    2010-08-01

    The fracture toughness properties of the tempered martensitic SA508 Gr.4N Ni-Mo-Cr low alloy steel for reactor pressure vessels were investigated by using the master curve concept. These results were compared to those of the bainitic SA508 Gr.3 Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steel, which is a commercial RPV material. The fracture toughness tests were conducted by 3-point bending with pre-cracked charpy (PCVN) specimens according to the ASTM E1921-09c standard method. The temperature dependency of the fracture toughness was steeper than those predicted by the standard master curve, while the bainitic SA508 Gr.3 steel fitted well with the standard prediction. In order to properly evaluate the fracture toughness of the Gr.4N steels, the exponential coefficient of the master curve equation was changed and the modified curve was applied to the fracture toughness test results of model alloys that have various chemical compositions. It was found that the modified curve provided a better description for the overall fracture toughness behavior and adequate T0 determination for the tempered martensitic SA508 Gr.4N steels.

  6. 78 FR 34169 - Notice of Finding That Liberty Reserve S.A. Is a Financial Institution of Primary Money...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... Financial Crimes Enforcement Network Notice of Finding That Liberty Reserve S.A. Is a Financial Institution of Primary Money Laundering Concern AGENCY: Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN), Treasury... individuals. Liberty Reserve uses a system of internal accounts and a network of virtual currency...

  7. 75 FR 67771 - SA Industries 2, Inc., Formerly Known as Gates Corporation, Fluid Power Division, Including On...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ... notice was published in the Federal Register on September 22, 2009 (74 FR 48304). At the request of the... Employment and Training Administration SA Industries 2, Inc., Formerly Known as Gates Corporation, Fluid..., applicable to workers of Gates Corporation, Fluid Power Division, a subdivision of Tomkins PLC, including...

  8. ViSA: a neurodynamic model for visuo-spatial working memory, attentional blink, and conscious access.

    PubMed

    Simione, Luca; Raffone, Antonino; Wolters, Gezinus; Salmas, Paola; Nakatani, Chie; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti; van Leeuwen, Cees

    2012-10-01

    Two separate lines of study have clarified the role of selectivity in conscious access to visual information. Both involve presenting multiple targets and distracters: one simultaneously in a spatially distributed fashion, the other sequentially at a single location. To understand their findings in a unified framework, we propose a neurodynamic model for Visual Selection and Awareness (ViSA). ViSA supports the view that neural representations for conscious access and visuo-spatial working memory are globally distributed and are based on recurrent interactions between perceptual and access control processors. Its flexible global workspace mechanisms enable a unitary account of a broad range of effects: It accounts for the limited storage capacity of visuo-spatial working memory, attentional cueing, and efficient selection with multi-object displays, as well as for the attentional blink and associated sparing and masking effects. In particular, the speed of consolidation for storage in visuo-spatial working memory in ViSA is not fixed but depends adaptively on the input and recurrent signaling. Slowing down of consolidation due to weak bottom-up and recurrent input as a result of brief presentation and masking leads to the attentional blink. Thus, ViSA goes beyond earlier 2-stage and neuronal global workspace accounts of conscious processing limitations. PMID:22823385

  9. 78 FR 11554 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplane, Limit Pilot Forces for Sidestick Control

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ...These special conditions for the Embraer S.A. Model EMB-550 airplane. This airplane will have a novel or unusual design feature, specifically sidestick controllers designed to be operated with only one hand. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate or appropriate safety standards for this design feature. These special conditions contain the additional safety standards......

  10. WebMedSA: a web-based framework for segmenting and annotating medical images using biomedical ontologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega, Francisco; Pérez, Wilson; Tello, Andrés.; Saquicela, Victor; Espinoza, Mauricio; Solano-Quinde, Lizandro; Vidal, Maria-Esther; La Cruz, Alexandra

    2015-12-01

    Advances in medical imaging have fostered medical diagnosis based on digital images. Consequently, the number of studies by medical images diagnosis increases, thus, collaborative work and tele-radiology systems are required to effectively scale up to this diagnosis trend. We tackle the problem of the collaborative access of medical images, and present WebMedSA, a framework to manage large datasets of medical images. WebMedSA relies on a PACS and supports the ontological annotation, as well as segmentation and visualization of the images based on their semantic description. Ontological annotations can be performed directly on the volumetric image or at different image planes (e.g., axial, coronal, or sagittal); furthermore, annotations can be complemented after applying a segmentation technique. WebMedSA is based on three main steps: (1) RDF-ization process for extracting, anonymizing, and serializing metadata comprised in DICOM medical images into RDF/XML; (2) Integration of different biomedical ontologies (using L-MOM library), making this approach ontology independent; and (3) segmentation and visualization of annotated data which is further used to generate new annotations according to expert knowledge, and validation. Initial user evaluations suggest that WebMedSA facilitates the exchange of knowledge between radiologists, and provides the basis for collaborative work among them.

  11. TB-SA antibody test for diagnosis and monitoring treatment outcome of sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinxu; Xu, Hancheng; Jiang, Shiwen; Jing, Kuanhe; Wang, Li; Liu, Xiaoqiu; Li, Weibin; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Lixia

    2011-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the suitability of the TB-SA antibody test to diagnose tuberculosis in sputum smear negative (SS-) pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients and its applicability for monitoring treatment outcomes in these patients. This study was conducted in three counties/districts in Chongqing Municipality, Liaoning Province, China between June 2005 and June 2007. A total of 432 SS suspected pulmonary TB patients were recruited and their blood was collected prior to treatment, at the end of 1 month of treatment, 2 months of treatment and 6 months of treatment (E6MT). The serum samples were analyzed with a TB-SA antibody test kit. Of the 432 SS suspected pulmonary TB patients, serum samples were obtained at all time points in 316 patients and analyzed. The 316 patients were divided into three groups according to sputum smear and sputum culture results and the chest X-ray results before treatment and at E6MT. Ten point four percent were SS-/culture positive (C+), 73.1% were SS-/culture negative (C-) with X-rays abnormalities, and 16.5% were SS-/C- without X-rays abnormalities. The positive rates for TB-SA antibody in the three groups were 57.6, 44.6 and 44.2%, respectively, before treatment, and 18.2, 19.1 and 26.9%, respectively, at E6MT. There was a significant decrease in TB-SA antibody positivity with treatment for all 3 groups. The TB-SA antibody test may be a useful adjunct to diagnose tuberculosis in SS- pulmonary TB patients, and may be useful for monitoring treatment outcomes of SS- pulmonary TB patients. PMID:22299440

  12. CTCF and CohesinSA-1 Mark Active Promoters and Boundaries of Repressive Chromatin Domains in Primary Human Erythroid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Laurie A.; Schulz, Vincent; Makismova, Yelena; Lezon-Geyda, Kimberly; Gallagher, Patrick G.

    2016-01-01

    Background CTCF and cohesinSA-1 are regulatory proteins involved in a number of critical cellular processes including transcription, maintenance of chromatin domain architecture, and insulator function. To assess changes in the CTCF and cohesinSA-1 interactomes during erythropoiesis, chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with high throughput sequencing and mRNA transcriptome analyses via RNA-seq were performed in primary human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC) and primary human erythroid cells from single donors. Results Sites of CTCF and cohesinSA-1 co-occupancy were enriched in gene promoters in HSPC and erythroid cells compared to single CTCF or cohesin sites. Cell type-specific CTCF sites in erythroid cells were linked to highly expressed genes, with the opposite pattern observed in HSPCs. Chromatin domains were identified by ChIP-seq with antibodies against trimethylated lysine 27 histone H3, a modification associated with repressive chromatin. Repressive chromatin domains increased in both number and size during hematopoiesis, with many more repressive domains in erythroid cells than HSPCs. CTCF and cohesinSA-1 marked the boundaries of these repressive chromatin domains in a cell-type specific manner. Conclusion These genome wide data, changes in sites of protein occupancy, chromatin architecture, and related gene expression, support the hypothesis that CTCF and cohesinSA-1 have multiple roles in the regulation of gene expression during erythropoiesis including transcriptional regulation at gene promoters and maintenance of chromatin architecture. These data from primary human erythroid cells provide a resource for studies of normal and perturbed erythropoiesis. PMID:27219007

  13. Hypogenic speleogenesis in quartzite: The case of Corona 'e Sa Craba Cave (SW Sardinia, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Onac, Bogdan P.; Galli, Ermanno; Dublyansky, Yuri; Baldoni, Eleonora; Sanna, Laura

    2014-04-01

    The paper presents a detailed study demonstrating the hypogenic origin of the Corona 'e Sa Craba quartzite cave in SW Sardinia (Italy). Although the quartzite host-rock of this cave derived from silicification of Cambrian dolostones and dissolution of carbonate remnants could have had a role in the speleogenesis, detailed morphologic and petrographic investigation revealed clear evidence of quartz dissolution without signs of mechanical erosion by running waters. Thin section microscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images show pervasive dissolution morphologies, such as pits and notches on quartz crystals causing the deep arenization of the cave walls, suggesting that the dissolution of quartz had a primary role in the formation of the void. The study of secondary cave minerals and the sulfur isotopic composition of sulfates and sulfides, coupled with data on fluid inclusions, allowed reconstruction of the peculiar speleogenetic history of this hypogenic hydrothermal quartzite cave. The cave formed by reduced hydrothermal fluids, probably under basic-neutral pH in phreatic conditions. The presence of abundant cations of Ba2 + in reduced Cl-rich fluids enhanced the quartz dissolution rate, allowing the formation of the voids in deep settings. During the Late Oligocene uplift of the area, the hydrothermal fluids in the cave reached oxygen-rich conditions, thus a minerogenetic phase started with the deposition of barite when the temperature of the fluid was ≤ 50 °C. The presence of cinnabar crusts in the lower part of the cave walls and on the boulders suggests a later volcanic phase with Hg-rich vapors ascending from below. Other minerals such as alunite, basaluminite, gypsum and halloysite (typical of an acid sulfate alteration environment), and phosphates were formed in a final, much more recent stage. The δ34S values of the cave sulfate minerals indicate that S is derived from the remobilization of original Precambrian Pb-Zn Mississippi Valley Type

  14. Effect of lead factors on the embrittlement of RPV SA-508 cl 3 steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempf, Rodolfo; Troiani, Horacio; Fortis, Ana Maria

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a project to study the effect of lead factors on the mechanical behaviour of the SA-508 type 3 Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) steel used in the reactor under construction Atucha II in Argentina. Charpy-V notch specimens of this steel were irradiated at the RA1 experimental reactor at a temperature of 275 °C with two lead factors (186 and 93). The neutron flux was 3.71 × 1015 n m-2 s-1 and 1.85 × 1015 n m-2 s-1 (E > 1 MeV) respectively. In both cases, the fluence was 6.6 × 1021 n m-2, which is equivalent to that received by the PHWR Atucha II RPV in 10 years of full power irradiation. The results of Charpy tests revealed significant embrittlement both in the ΔT = 14 °C and ΔT = 21 °C shifts of the ductile-brittle transition temperatures (DBTT) and in the reduction of the maximum energy absorbed. This result shows that the shift of the DBTT with a lead factor of 93 is larger than that obtained with a lead factor of 186. Then, the results of irradiation in experimental reactors (MTR) with high lead factors may not be conservative with respect to the actual RPV embrittlement.

  15. Leak before break evaluation for main steam piping system made of SA106 Gr.C

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Kyoung Mo; Jee, Kye Kwang; Pyo, Chang Ryul; Ra, In Sik

    1997-04-01

    The basis of the leak before break (LBB) concept is to demonstrate that piping will leak significantly before a double ended guillotine break (DEGB) occurs. This is demonstrated by quantifying and evaluating the leak process and prescribing safe shutdown of the plant on the basis of the monitored leak rate. The application of LBB for power plant design has reduced plant cost while improving plant integrity. Several evaluations employing LBB analysis on system piping based on DEGB design have been completed. However, the application of LBB on main steam (MS) piping, which is LBB applicable piping, has not been performed due to several uncertainties associated with occurrence of steam hammer and dynamic strain aging (DSA). The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the applicability of the LBB design concept to main steam lines manufactured with SA106 Gr.C carbon steel. Based on the material properties, including fracture toughness and tensile properties obtained from the comprehensive material tests for base and weld metals, a parametric study was performed as described in this paper. The PICEP code was used to determine leak size crack (LSC) and the FLET code was used to perform the stability assessment of MS piping. The effects of material properties obtained from tests were evaluated to determine the LBB applicability for the MS piping. It can be shown from this parametric study that the MS piping has a high possibility of design using LBB analysis.

  16. Structure and function of cohesin’s Scc3/SA regulatory subunit

    PubMed Central

    Roig, Maurici B.; Löwe, Jan; Chan, Kok-Lung; Beckouët, Frédéric; Metson, Jean; Nasmyth, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Sister chromatid cohesion involves entrapment of sister DNAs by a cohesin ring created through association of a kleisin subunit (Scc1) with ATPase heads of Smc1/Smc3 heterodimers. Cohesin’s association with chromatin involves subunits recruited by Scc1: Wapl, Pds5, and Scc3/SA, in addition to Scc2/4 loading complex. Unlike Pds5, Wapl, and Scc2/4, Scc3s are encoded by all eukaryotic genomes. Here, a crystal structure of Scc3 reveals a hook-shaped protein composed of tandem α helices. Its N-terminal domain contains a conserved and essential surface (CES) present even in organisms lacking Pds5, Wapl, and Scc2/4, while its C-terminal domain binds a section of the kleisin Scc1. Scc3 turns over in G2/M while maintaining cohesin’s association with chromosomes and it promotes de-acetylation of Smc3 upon Scc1 cleavage. PMID:25171859

  17. Effects of H content on the tensile properties and fracture behavior of SA508-III steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jia-hua; Wang, Lei; Liu, Yang; Song, Xiu; Luo, Jiong; Yuan, Dan

    2015-08-01

    SA508-III steel was charged with different hydrogen (H) contents using a high-pressure thermal charging method to study the effects of H content on the tensile properties and evaluate the H embrittlement behavior of the steel. The results indicate that the ultimate tensile strength remains nearly unchanged with the addition of H. In contrast, the yielding strength slightly increases, and the elongation significantly decreases with increasing H content, especially at concentrations exceeding 5.6 × 10-6. On the basis of fractographic analysis, it is clear that the addition of H changes the fracture mode from microvoid coalescence to a mixture of river patterns and dimples. Carbides are strong traps for H; thus, the H atoms easily migrate in the form of Cottrell atmosphere toward the carbides following moving dislocations during tensile deformation. In addition, stress-induced H atoms accumulate at the interface between carbides and the matrix after necking under three-dimensional stress, which weakens the interfacial bonding force. Consequently, when the local H concentration reaches a critical value, microcracks occur at the interface, resulting in fracture.

  18. Characteristics of velocity ambiguity for CINRAD-SA Doppler weather radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Zhigang; Yin, Yan; Gu, Songshan

    2014-02-01

    The velocity ambiguity in Doppler weather radars has inhibited the application of wind field data for long time. One effective solution is software-based velocity dealiasing algorithm. In this paper, in order to better design, optimize and validate velocity dealiasing algorithms for CINRAD-SA, data from operational radars were used to statistically characterize velocity ambiguity. The analyzed characteristic parameters included occurrence rate, and inter-station, inter-type, temporal, and spatial distributions. The results show that 14.9% of cloud-rain files and 0.3% of clear-air files from CINRADSA radars are ambiguous. It is also found that echoes of weak convections have the highest occurrence rate of velocity ambiguity than any other cloud types, and the probability of ambiguity is higher in winter than in summer. A detailed inspection of the occurrence of ambiguity in various cases indicates that ambiguous points usually occur in areas with an elevation angle of 6.0°, an azimuth of 70° or 250°, radial distance of 50-60 km, and height of 5-6 km, and that 99.4% of ambiguous points are in the 1st-folding interval. Suggestions for performing dealiasing at different locations and different time points are provided.

  19. Fracture toughness and fracture behavior of SA508-III steel at different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jia-hua; Wang, Lei; Liu, Yang; Song, Xiu; Luo, Jiong; Yuan, Dan

    2014-12-01

    The fracture toughness of SA508-III steel was studied in the temperature range from room temperature to 320°C using the J-integral method. The fracture behavior of the steel was also investigated. It was found that the conditional fracture toughness ( J Q) of the steel first decreased and then increased with increasing test temperature. The maximum and minimum values of J Q were 517.4 kJ/m2 at 25°C and 304.5 kJ/m2 at 180°C, respectively. Dynamic strain aging (DSA) was also observed to occur when the temperature exceeded 260°C with a certain strain rate. Both the dislocation density and the number of small dislocation cells effectively increased because of the occurrence of DSA; as a consequence, crack propagation was more strongly inhibited in the steel. Simultaneously, an increasing number of fine carbides precipitated under high stress at temperatures greater than 260°C. Thus, the deformation resistance of the steel was improved and the J Q was enhanced.

  20. Colville Resident Trout Hatchery Project Supplement Analysis (DOE/EA-0307-SA-01)

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2003-10-02

    The Bonneville Power Administration prepared an Environmental Assessment (DOE/EA-0307) for the Colville Resident Hatchery Project (Project) and published a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) in the Federal Register on September 8, 1986 (Vol. 51, No.173). The Project involved the design, site selection, construction, operation and maintenance of a resident trout hatchery on the Colville Indian Reservation to partially mitigate for anadromours and other fish losses resulting from the construction and operation of the Chief Joseph Dam and Grand Coulee Dam hydroelectric projects. Since the hatchery was constructed, ongoing Operation and Maintenance (O&M) and Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) activities have been funded by BPA. The O&M and M&E activities examined in the EA were very general in nature due to the fact the project was in the conceptual stage. Since that time the hatchery has refined the need for specific O&M and M&E activities, proposed for fiscal year 2004, (funding for projects runs from October 2003 to September 2004). The purpose of this Supplement Analysis (SA) is to determine if a supplemental EA is needed to analyze the environmental impacts that would result from the specific O&M and M&E activities proposed for fiscal year 2004.

  1. Cyclic-load crack growth in ASME SA-105 grade II steel in high-pressure hydrogen at ambient temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, R. J.; Chandler, W. T.

    1976-01-01

    ASME SA-105 Grade II steel, which is used in high-pressure hydrogen compressor systems, is similar to steels used or considered for use in high-pressure hydrogen storage vessels and pipelines. This paper summarizes the results of a program conducted to provide cyclic-load crack growth rate (da/dN) data for a fracture mechanics analysis of a 15,000 psi hydrogen compressor facility which contains pulse quieter and after-cooler separator vessels constructed of the ASME SA-105 Grade II steel. Included in the program were tests performed to assist in establishing operating procedures that could minimize the effect of hydrogen on crack growth rates during operation.

  2. COMMIX-SA-1: a three-dimensional thermohydrodynamic computer program for solar applications. [Heat-storage water tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Sha, W.T.; Lin, E.I.H.; Schmitt, R.C.; Liu, K.V.; Hull, J.R.; Oras, J.J. Jr.; Domanus, H.M.

    1980-11-01

    COMMIX-SA-1 is a three-dimensional, transient, single-phase, compressible-flow, component computer program for thermohydrodynamic analysis. It was developed for solar applications in general, and for analysis of thermocline storage tanks in particular. The conservation equations (in cylindrical coordinates) for mass, momentum, and energy are solved as an initial-boundary-value problem. The detailed numerical-solution procedure based on a modified ICE (Implicit Continuous-Fluid Eulerian) technique is described. A method for treating the singularity problem arising at the origin of a cylindrical-coordinate system is presented. In addition, the thermal interactions between fluid and structures (tank walls, baffles, etc.) are explicitly accounted for. Finally, the COMMIX-SA-1 code structure is delineated, and an input description and sample problems are presented.

  3. Much ado about SEA/SA monitoring: The performance of English Regional Spatial Strategies, and some German comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Hanusch, Marie Glasson, John

    2008-11-15

    Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) seeks to better integrate environmental considerations into the preparation and decision-making process of plans and programmes with a view to promoting sustainable development. Further to application of the European Directive 2001/42/EC (SEA Directive) in 2004, the body of practical SEA experience, and parallel research, has increased steadily. Yet there is a crucial element of SEA which cannot build on much experience but whose importance will grow over time - namely that of SEA monitoring. The paper explores the application of SEA monitoring for English Regional Spatial Strategies (RSSs). It briefly introduces the role of SEA monitoring and its legal requirements, the English approach of integrating SEA into Sustainability Appraisal (SA) and the nature of the current English Regional Planning context. The main part presents the research findings and discusses how practitioners cope with the challenges of SEA/SA monitoring - with guiding questions: why, what, who, how, when, and with what outcomes? Reflecting that monitoring is just about to start, the paper draws on measures envisaged for monitoring in the SA reports prepared for RSS, and on expert interviews. It identifies monitoring trends and highlights workable approaches as well as shortcomings. For a critical reflection the findings are mirrored briefly with SEA monitoring approaches of German Regional Plans. Although it is still early days for such monitoring, the findings indicate that there is a danger that some of the specific requirements and objectives of SEA/SA monitoring are not fully met, mainly due to insufficient databases, inappropriate institutional conditions and limited personnel and financial resources. Some recommendations are offered in conclusion.

  4. Functional and topographical analyses of epitopes on the hemagglutinin (VP4) of the simian rotavirus SA11.

    PubMed Central

    Burns, J W; Greenberg, H B; Shaw, R D; Estes, M K

    1988-01-01

    An immunochemical analysis of the hemagglutinin (VP4) of the simian rotavirus SA11 was performed to better understand the structure and function of this molecule. Following immunization of mice with double-shelled virus particles and VP4-enriched fractions from CsCl gradients, a battery of anti-SA11 hybridomas was generated. A total of 13 clones secreting high levels of anti-VP4 monoclonal antibody (MAb) was characterized and compared with two cross-reactive anti-VP4 MAbs generated against heterologous rhesus (RRV) and porcine (OSU) rotavirus strains. These cross-reactive MAbs effectively neutralized SA11 infectivity in vitro. The epitopes recognized by these 15 MAbs were grouped into six antigenic sites on the SA11 hemagglutinin. These sites were identified following analysis of the MAbs by using a simple competitive binding enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and biological assays. Three of the antigenic sites were involved in neutralization of virus infectivity in vitro. All the MAbs with neutralization activity and two nonneutralizing MAbs were able to inhibit viral hemagglutination of human erythrocytes. Competitive binding ELISA data showed a positive cooperative binding effect with some pairs of the anti-VP4 MAbs, apparently due to a conformational change induced by the binding of the first MAb. Some of the MAbs also bound better to trypsin-treated virus than to non-trypsin-treated virus. A topographic map for VP4 is proposed on the basis of the observed properties of each antigenic site. Images PMID:2452900

  5. 78 FR 49655 - Special Conditions: Embraer, S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplane; Side-Facing Seats; Installation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ...These special conditions are issued for the Embraer S.A. Model EMB-550 airplane. This airplane will have a novel or unusual design feature associated with multiple-place and single-place side-facing seats and the installation of airbag systems in the shoulder belts. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate or appropriate safety standards for this design feature. These......

  6. 76 FR 65101 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A.; Model EMB 500; Single-Place Side Facing Seat Dynamic Test...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ...These special conditions are issued for the installation of a single-place side facing seat on Embraer S.A. EMB 500 aircraft. Side- facing seats are considered a novel design, and their installation in a part 23 airplane was not envisaged and is not adequately addressed in 14 CFR part 23. The FAA has determined that the existing regulations do not provide adequate or appropriate safety......

  7. Crystal growth, structural, crystalline perfection, optical and mechanical properties of Nd3+ doped sulfamic acid (SA) single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkir, Mohd.; Riscob, B.; Ganesh, V.; Vijayan, N.; Gupta, Rahul; Plaza, J. L.; Dieguez, E.; Bhagavannarayana, G.

    2013-10-01

    Sulfamic acid (SA) single crystals, both pure and doped with 1, 2.5 and 5 mol% Nd, were grown successfully in an aqueous solution by the slow cooling method. Powder X-ray diffraction patterns were recorded to check the variation in the lattice parameters and phase of the crystals. The optical transparency was found to be higProd. Type: FTPhest (∼80%) for the 1 mol% Nd3+ doped SA single crystal. The optical band gap was also calculated and found to be ∼4.31, 4.20 and 3.67 eV. The influence of Nd3+ doping on the crystalline perfection was assessed by a high resolution X-ray diffractometer (HRXRD) and shows that the grown crystals could accommodate Nd3+ at the interstitial positions in the crystalline matrix of SA up to some critical concentration without any deterioration in the crystalline perfection. The etching studies were carried out and the etch pits densities were calculated. The mechanical property of grown single crystals was also studied.

  8. CNWs loaded poly(SA) hydrogels: effect of high concentration of CNWs on water uptake and mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, S K; Pathak, V; Soni, Bhawna; Mohan, Y M

    2014-06-15

    In this work, poly(sodium acrylate) (poly(SA)) hydrogel films, doped with cellulose nano-whiskers (CNWs), are prepared via free radical polymerization of sodium acrylate (SA) in aqueous medium. The CNWs were added into the polymerization feed mixture, in the concentration range of 4.8-24.3 wt% of monomer and the resulting CNWs/poly(SA) hydrogel films were investigated for their water absorbency in the physiological fluid (PF). The addition of CNWs caused a decrease in the equilibrium water uptake. The kinetic water uptake data of all hydrogel samples were best interpreted by the second order kinetic. The water vapor permeation studies were also carried out. The water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of all the film samples was quite low. The mechanical properties of films such as tensile strength (TS) and percent elongation (PE) varied with the CNWs content. All the film samples showed fair folding endurance (FE), with more than 600 times folding without suffering from any crack. PMID:24721089

  9. Cyclic lipopeptide iturin A structure-dependently induces defense response in Arabidopsis plants by activating SA and JA signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Kawagoe, Yumi; Shiraishi, Soma; Kondo, Hiroko; Yamamoto, Shoko; Aoki, Yoshinao; Suzuki, Shunji

    2015-05-15

    Iturin A is the most well studied antifungal cyclic lipopeptide produced by Bacillus species that are frequently utilized as biological control agents. Iturin A not only shows strong antifungal activity against phytopathogens but also induces defense response in plants, thereby reducing plant disease severity. Here we report the defense signaling pathways triggered by iturin A in Arabidopsis salicylic acid (SA) or jasmonic acid (JA)-insensitive mutants. Iturin A activated the transcription of defense genes PR1 and PDF1.2 through the SA and JA signaling pathways, respectively. The role of iturin A as an elicitor was dependent on the cyclization of the seven amino acids and/or the β-hydroxy fatty acid chain. The iturin A derivative peptide, NH2-(L-Asn)-(D-Tyr)-(D-Asn)-(L-Gln)-(L-Pro)-(D-Asn)-(L-Ser)-COOH, completely suppressed PR1 and PDF1.2 gene expression in wild Arabidopsis plants. The identification of target molecules binding to iturin A and its derivative peptide is expected to shed new light on defense response in plants through the SA and JA signaling pathways. PMID:25842204

  10. Assessment of the accuracy of plasma shape reconstruction by the Cauchy condition surface method in JT-60SA.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Y; Suzuki, T; Takechi, M; Urano, H; Ide, S

    2015-07-01

    For the purpose of stable plasma equilibrium control and detailed analysis, it is essential to reconstruct an accurate plasma boundary on the poloidal cross section in tokamak devices. The Cauchy condition surface (CCS) method is a numerical approach for calculating the spatial distribution of the magnetic flux outside a hypothetical surface and reconstructing the plasma boundary from the magnetic measurements located outside the plasma. The accuracy of the plasma shape reconstruction has been assessed by comparing the CCS method and an equilibrium calculation in JT-60SA with a high elongation and triangularity of plasma shape. The CCS, on which both Dirichlet and Neumann conditions are unknown, is defined as a hypothetical surface located inside the real plasma region. The accuracy of the plasma shape reconstruction is sensitive to the CCS free parameters such as the number of unknown parameters and the shape in JT-60SA. It is found that the optimum number of unknown parameters and the size of the CCS that minimizes errors in the reconstructed plasma shape are in proportion to the plasma size. Furthermore, it is shown that the accuracy of the plasma shape reconstruction is greatly improved using the optimum number of unknown parameters and shape of the CCS, and the reachable reconstruction errors in plasma shape and locations of strike points are within the target ranges in JT-60SA. PMID:26233387

  11. The isolation and genetic characterisation of a South African strain of Phthorimaea operculella granulovirus, PhopGV-SA.

    PubMed

    Jukes, Michael D; Knox, Caroline M; Hill, Martin P; Moore, Sean D

    2014-04-01

    The Phthorimaea operculella granulovirus (PhopGV) is considered a promising biopesticide that can be incorporated into integrated pest management programmes for sustainable control of the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), a major pest of solanaceous crops in sub-tropical and tropical regions worldwide. Several PhopGV isolates recovered from geographically different insect populations have been genetically characterised, and the full genome of the Tunisian PhopGV-1346 isolate has been sequenced, providing a reference strain for comparison of novel isolates. Here we report the identification and genetic characterisation of a South African PhopGV isolate recovered from a P. operculella colony held under laboratory conditions. Transmission electron microscopy examination of purified occlusion bodies together with analysis of granulin and late expression factor-8 (lef-8) gene sequences confirmed the identity of the virus as PhopGV. The sequenced ecdysteroid UDP-glucosyltransferase (egt) gene was 1353nt in length, placing PhopGV-SA in egt group II. Finally, a phylogenetic analysis using a range of egt sequences grouped PhopGV-SA together with the Kenyan, Ecuadorian, Indonesian and Colombian isolates. The results are discussed with reference to the possible origin of PhopGV-SA, and provide a platform for future studies involving virulence evaluation against geographically different P. operculella populations with a view to biopesticide development. PMID:24503224

  12. High Duty Factor (DF) Testing of a Saddle Antenna Radio Frequency Surface Plasma Ion Source (SA RF SPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitschopf, Jeffrey; Dudnikov, Vadim; Johnson, Rol; Carr, Jerry, Jr.; Welton, Robert; Han, Baoxi; Murray, Sydney, Jr.; Pennisi, Terry; Piller, Chip; Santana, Manuel; Stockli, Martin; Dudnikova, Galina

    2014-10-01

    A SA RF SPS was tested at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Lab. Hydrogen ions were extracted from the source as described in Dudnikov et al. (2011). Modifications were installed to increase ion beam output and optimize cooling. The source was tested under a DF of 5-20% at 150 Hz as well as a continuous beam with power ranging from 0.8 kW to 3.3 kW. Cesium was also used to optimize H- beam output. The highest beam produced was 13 mA at 2.5 kW. The SA RF SPS has an ion production efficiency of ~5 mA/kW while the current ion source at the SNS produces ~1 mA/kW. The SA RF SPS will be tested with the conditions of the linear accelerator at the SNS so the recent accelerator-based pulsed neutron record of 20 GW (1.4 MW average power) can be surpassed.

  13. ProSA-web: interactive web service for the recognition of errors in three-dimensional structures of proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wiederstein, Markus; Sippl, Manfred J.

    2007-01-01

    A major problem in structural biology is the recognition of errors in experimental and theoretical models of protein structures. The ProSA program (Protein Structure Analysis) is an established tool which has a large user base and is frequently employed in the refinement and validation of experimental protein structures and in structure prediction and modeling. The analysis of protein structures is generally a difficult and cumbersome exercise. The new service presented here is a straightforward and easy to use extension of the classic ProSA program which exploits the advantages of interactive web-based applications for the display of scores and energy plots that highlight potential problems spotted in protein structures. In particular, the quality scores of a protein are displayed in the context of all known protein structures and problematic parts of a structure are shown and highlighted in a 3D molecule viewer. The service specifically addresses the needs encountered in the validation of protein structures obtained from X-ray analysis, NMR spectroscopy and theoretical calculations. ProSA-web is accessible at https://prosa.services.came.sbg.ac.at PMID:17517781

  14. Integration of Scale Invariant Generator Technique and S-A Technique for Characterizing 2-D Patterns for Information Retrieve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, L.; Cheng, Q.

    2004-12-01

    The scale invariant generator technique (SIG) and spectrum-area analysis technique (S-A) were developed independently relevant to the concept of the generalized scale invariance (GSI). The former was developed for characterizing the parameters involved in the GSI for characterizing and simulating multifractal measures whereas the latter was for identifying scaling breaks for decomposition of superimposed multifractal measures caused by multiple geophysical processes. A natural integration of these two techniques may yield a new technique to serve two purposes, on the one hand, that can enrich the power of S-A by increasing the interpretability of decomposed patterns in some applications of S-A and, on the other hand, that can provide a mean to test the uniqueness of multifractality of measures which is essential for application of SIG technique in more complicated environment. The implementation of the proposed technique has been done as a Dynamic Link Library (DLL) in Visual C++. The program can be friendly used for method validation and application in different fields.

  15. An Enhanced Drought-Tolerant Method Using SA-Loaded PAMPS Polymer Materials Applied on Tobacco Pelleted Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Yajing; Cui, Huawei; Ma, Wenguang; Zheng, Yunye; Tian, Yixin; Hu, Jin

    2014-01-01

    Drought is one of the most important stress factors limiting the seed industry and crop production. Present study was undertaken to create novel drought-resistant pelleted seeds using the combined materials with superabsorbent polymer, poly(2-acrylamide-2-methyl propane sulfonic acid) (PAMPS) hydrogel, and drought resistance agent, salicylic acid (SA). The optimized PAMPS hydrogel was obtained as the molar ratio of 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-propanesulfonic acid (AMPS) to potassium peroxydisulfate (KPS) and N, N′-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) was 1 : 0.00046 : 0.00134. The hydrogel weight after swelling in deionized water for 24 h reached 4306 times its own dry weight. The water retention ratio (RR) of PAMPS was significantly higher as compared with the control. It could keep as high as 85.3% of original weight after 30 min at 110°C; even at 25°C for 40 d, the PAMPS still kept RR at 33.67%. PAMPS disintegration ratio increased gradually and reached around 30% after embedding in soil or activated sludge for 60 d. In addition, there were better seed germination performance and seedling growth in the pelleted treatments with SA-loaded PAMPS hydrogel under drought stress than control. It suggested that SA-loaded PAMPS hydrogel, a nontoxic superabsorbent polymer, could be used as an effective drought resistance material applied to tobacco pelleted seeds. PMID:25250387

  16. Assessment of the accuracy of plasma shape reconstruction by the Cauchy condition surface method in JT-60SA

    SciTech Connect

    Miyata, Y.; Suzuki, T.; Takechi, M.; Urano, H.; Ide, S.

    2015-07-15

    For the purpose of stable plasma equilibrium control and detailed analysis, it is essential to reconstruct an accurate plasma boundary on the poloidal cross section in tokamak devices. The Cauchy condition surface (CCS) method is a numerical approach for calculating the spatial distribution of the magnetic flux outside a hypothetical surface and reconstructing the plasma boundary from the magnetic measurements located outside the plasma. The accuracy of the plasma shape reconstruction has been assessed by comparing the CCS method and an equilibrium calculation in JT-60SA with a high elongation and triangularity of plasma shape. The CCS, on which both Dirichlet and Neumann conditions are unknown, is defined as a hypothetical surface located inside the real plasma region. The accuracy of the plasma shape reconstruction is sensitive to the CCS free parameters such as the number of unknown parameters and the shape in JT-60SA. It is found that the optimum number of unknown parameters and the size of the CCS that minimizes errors in the reconstructed plasma shape are in proportion to the plasma size. Furthermore, it is shown that the accuracy of the plasma shape reconstruction is greatly improved using the optimum number of unknown parameters and shape of the CCS, and the reachable reconstruction errors in plasma shape and locations of strike points are within the target ranges in JT-60SA.

  17. Evidence of cosmic recurrent and lagged millennia-scale patterns and consequent forecasts: multi-scale responses of solar activity (SA) to planetary gravitational forcing (PGF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Sesma, Jorge

    2016-07-01

    Solar activity (SA) oscillations over the past millennia are analyzed and extrapolated based on reconstructed solar-related records. Here, simple recurrent models of SA signal are applied and tested. The consequent results strongly suggest the following: (a) the existence of multi-millennial ( ˜ 9500-year) scale solar patterns linked with planetary gravitational forcing (PGF), and (b) their persistence, over at least the last glacial-interglacial cycle, but possibly since the Miocene (10.5 Myr ago). This empirical modeling of solar recurrent patterns has also provided a consequent multi-millennial-scale experimental forecast, suggesting a solar decreasing trend toward grand (super) minimum conditions for the upcoming period, AD 2050-2250 (AD 3750-4450). Taking into account the importance of these estimated SA scenarios, a comparison is made with other SA forecasts. In Appendixes A and B, we provide further verification, testing and analysis of solar recurrent patterns since geological eras, and their potential gravitational forcing.

  18. Cloning, Characterization and Expression Pattern Analysis of a Cytosolic Copper/Zinc Superoxide Dismutase (SaCSD1) in a Highly Salt Tolerant Mangrove (Sonneratia alba)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Enze; Yi, Shanze; Bai, Fang; Niu, Dewei; Zhong, Junjie; Wu, Qiuhong; Chen, Shufang; Zhou, Renchao; Wang, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Mangroves are critical marine resources for their remarkable ability to tolerate seawater. Antioxidant enzymes play an especially significant role in eliminating reactive oxygen species and conferring abiotic stress tolerance. In this study, a cytosolic copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SaCSD1) cDNA of Sonneratia alba, a mangrove species with high salt tolerance, was successfully cloned and then expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta-gami (designated as SaCSD1). SaCSD1 comprised a complete open reading frame (ORF) of 459 bp which encoded a protein of 152 amino acids. Its mature protein is predicted to be 15.32 kDa and the deduced isoelectric point is 5.78. SaCSD1 has high sequence similarity (85%–90%) with the superoxide dismutase (CSD) of some other plant species. SaCSD1 was expressed with 30.6% yield regarding total protein content after being introduced into the pET-15b (Sma I) vector for expression in Rosetta-gami and being induced with IPTG. After affinity chromatography on Ni-NTA, recombinant SaCSD1 was obtained with 3.2-fold purification and a specific activity of 2200 U/mg. SaCSD1 showed good activity as well as stability in the ranges of pH between 3 and 7 and temperature between 25 and 55 °C. The activity of recombinant SaCSD1 was stable in 0.25 M NaCl, Dimethyl Sulphoxide (DMSO), glycerol, and chloroform, and was reduced to a great extent in β-mercaptoethanol, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), H2O2, and phenol. Moreover, the SaCSD1 protein was very susceptive to pepsin digestion. Real-time Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assay demonstrated that SaCSD1 was expressed in leaf, stem, flower, and fruit organs, with the highest expression in fruits. Under 0.25 M and 0.5 M salt stress, the expression of SaCSD1 was down-regulated in roots, but up-regulated in leaves. PMID:26703583

  19. Cloning, Characterization and Expression Pattern Analysis of a Cytosolic Copper/Zinc Superoxide Dismutase (SaCSD1) in a Highly Salt Tolerant Mangrove (Sonneratia alba).

    PubMed

    Yang, Enze; Yi, Shanze; Bai, Fang; Niu, Dewei; Zhong, Junjie; Wu, Qiuhong; Chen, Shufang; Zhou, Renchao; Wang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Mangroves are critical marine resources for their remarkable ability to tolerate seawater. Antioxidant enzymes play an especially significant role in eliminating reactive oxygen species and conferring abiotic stress tolerance. In this study, a cytosolic copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SaCSD1) cDNA of Sonneratia alba, a mangrove species with high salt tolerance, was successfully cloned and then expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta-gami (designated as SaCSD1). SaCSD1 comprised a complete open reading frame (ORF) of 459 bp which encoded a protein of 152 amino acids. Its mature protein is predicted to be 15.32 kDa and the deduced isoelectric point is 5.78. SaCSD1 has high sequence similarity (85%-90%) with the superoxide dismutase (CSD) of some other plant species. SaCSD1 was expressed with 30.6% yield regarding total protein content after being introduced into the pET-15b (Sma I) vector for expression in Rosetta-gami and being induced with IPTG. After affinity chromatography on Ni-NTA, recombinant SaCSD1 was obtained with 3.2-fold purification and a specific activity of 2200 U/mg. SaCSD1 showed good activity as well as stability in the ranges of pH between 3 and 7 and temperature between 25 and 55 °C. The activity of recombinant SaCSD1 was stable in 0.25 M NaCl, Dimethyl Sulphoxide (DMSO), glycerol, and chloroform, and was reduced to a great extent in β-mercaptoethanol, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), H₂O2, and phenol. Moreover, the SaCSD1 protein was very susceptive to pepsin digestion. Real-time Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assay demonstrated that SaCSD1 was expressed in leaf, stem, flower, and fruit organs, with the highest expression in fruits. Under 0.25 M and 0.5 M salt stress, the expression of SaCSD1 was down-regulated in roots, but up-regulated in leaves. PMID:26703583

  20. Une ecole elementaire nouvelle pour une societe nouvelle (New Elementary Schools for a New Society).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pare, Andre; Pelletier, Louise

    1971-01-01

    This article, translated into Spanish from the French, discusses changes and increasing complications in society which call for educational reform and improvement. Elementary education, traditionally based on memory skills, should become the setting for the development of mental processes and intellectual skills through the activity of problem…

  1. G (VP7) serotype-dependent preferential VP7 gene selection detected in the genetic background of simian rotavirus SA11.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, N; Taniguchi, K; Kojima, K; Urasawa, T; Urasawa, S

    1996-01-01

    We previously found the preferential selection of VP7 gene from a parent rotavirus strain SA11 with G serotype 3 (G3) in the sequential passages after mixed infection of simian rotavirus SA11 and SA11-human rotavirus single-VP7 gene-substitution reassortants with G1, G2, or G4 specificity. However, it has not been known whether or not VP7 genes derived from other strains with G3 specificity (G3-VP7 gene) are preferentially selected in the genetic background of SA11. To address this question, mixed infections followed by multiple passages were performed with a reassortant SA11-L2/KU-R1 (SKR1) (which possesses VP7 gene derived from G1 human rotavirus KU and other 10 genes of SA11 origin) and one of the five G3-rotaviruses, RRV, K9, YO, AK35, and S3. After the 10th passage, selection rates of SA11-L2/KU-R1 gene 9 (G1-VP7 gene) and gene 5 (NSP1 gene) reduced considerably (0 to 20.4%) in the clones obtained from all the coinfection experiments, while all or some of other segments were preferentially selected from SKR1 depending on the pairs of coinfection. When viral growth kinetics was examined, SKR1 exhibited better growth and reached a higher titer than any G3 viruses. Although the generated reassortants with VP7 gene and NSP1 gene derived from G3 viruses showed almost similar growth kinetics to that of SKR1 during the first 20 h of replication, the titers of these reassortants were higher than that of SKR1 after 36 h postinfection. The results obtained in this study suggested that G3-VP7 gene is functionally more adapted to the genetic background of SA11. PMID:8774679

  2. Effect of bioglass on growth and biomineralization of SaOS-2 cells in hydrogel after 3D cell bioprinting.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaohong; Tolba, Emad; Schröder, Heinz C; Neufurth, Meik; Feng, Qingling; Diehl-Seifert, Bärbel; Müller, Werner E G

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of bioglass (bioactive glass) on growth and mineralization of bone-related SaOS-2 cells, encapsulated into a printable and biodegradable alginate/gelatine hydrogel. The hydrogel was supplemented either with polyphosphate (polyP), administered as polyP • Ca2+-complex, or silica, or as biosilica that had been enzymatically prepared from ortho-silicate by silicatein. These hydrogels, together with SaOS-2 cells, were bioprinted to computer-designed scaffolds. The results revealed that bioglass (nano)particles, with a size of 55 nm and a molar ratio of SiO2 : CaO : P2O5 of 55 : 40 : 5, did not affect the growth of the encapsulated cells. If silica, biosilica, or polyP • Ca2+-complex is co-added to the cell-containing alginate/gelatin hydrogel the growth behavior of the cells is not changed. Addition of 5 mg/ml of bioglass particles to this hydrogel significantly enhanced the potency of the entrapped SaOS-2 cells to mineralize. If compared with the extent of the cells to form mineral deposits in the absence of bioglass, the cells exposed to bioglass together with 100 µmoles/L polyP • Ca2+-complex increased their mineralization activity from 2.1- to 3.9-fold, or with 50 µmoles/L silica from 1.8- to 2.9-fold, or with 50 µmoles/L biosilica from 2.7- to 4.8-fold or with the two components together (100 µmoles/L polyP • Ca2+-complex and 50 µmoles/L biosilica) from 4.1- to 6.8-fold. Element analysis by EDX spectrometry of the mineral nodules formed by SaOS-2 revealed an accumulation of O, P, Ca and C, indicating that the mineral deposits contain, besides Ca-phosphate also Ca-carbonate. The results show that bioglass added to alginate/gelatin hydrogel increases the proliferation and mineralization of bioprinted SaOS-2 cells. We conclude that the development of cell-containing scaffolds consisting of a bioprintable, solid and cell-compatible inner matrix surrounded by a printable hard and flexible outer matrix containing bioglass, provide

  3. Effect of Bioglass on Growth and Biomineralization of SaOS-2 Cells in Hydrogel after 3D Cell Bioprinting

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaohong; Tolba, Emad; Schröder, Heinz C.; Neufurth, Meik; Feng, Qingling; Diehl-Seifert, Bärbel; Müller, Werner E. G.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of bioglass (bioactive glass) on growth and mineralization of bone-related SaOS-2 cells, encapsulated into a printable and biodegradable alginate/gelatine hydrogel. The hydrogel was supplemented either with polyphosphate (polyP), administered as polyP•Ca2+-complex, or silica, or as biosilica that had been enzymatically prepared from ortho-silicate by silicatein. These hydrogels, together with SaOS-2 cells, were bioprinted to computer-designed scaffolds. The results revealed that bioglass (nano)particles, with a size of 55 nm and a molar ratio of SiO2∶CaO∶P2O5 of 55∶40∶5, did not affect the growth of the encapsulated cells. If silica, biosilica, or polyP•Ca2+-complex is co-added to the cell-containing alginate/gelatin hydrogel the growth behavior of the cells is not changed. Addition of 5 mg/ml of bioglass particles to this hydrogel significantly enhanced the potency of the entrapped SaOS-2 cells to mineralize. If compared with the extent of the cells to form mineral deposits in the absence of bioglass, the cells exposed to bioglass together with 100 µmoles/L polyP•Ca2+-complex increased their mineralization activity from 2.1- to 3.9-fold, or with 50 µmoles/L silica from 1.8- to 2.9-fold, or with 50 µmoles/L biosilica from 2.7- to 4.8-fold or with the two components together (100 µmoles/L polyP•Ca2+-complex and 50 µmoles/L biosilica) from 4.1- to 6.8-fold. Element analysis by EDX spectrometry of the mineral nodules formed by SaOS-2 revealed an accumulation of O, P, Ca and C, indicating that the mineral deposits contain, besides Ca-phosphate also Ca-carbonate. The results show that bioglass added to alginate/gelatin hydrogel increases the proliferation and mineralization of bioprinted SaOS-2 cells. We conclude that the development of cell-containing scaffolds consisting of a bioprintable, solid and cell-compatible inner matrix surrounded by a printable hard and flexible outer matrix containing bioglass, provide a

  4. Differential expression of T cell-related genes in AMI and SA stages of coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Wenwen; Wang, Lemin; Jiang, Jinfa; Xu, Wenjun; Gong, Zhu; Duan, Qianglin; Li, Chuanrong; Song, Haoming; Che, Lin; Shen, Yuqin; Zhou, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify differentially expressed T cells-related genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and compare their differences in T cell activation and subset functions in different stages of coronary atherosclerosis disease (CAD). Methods: 20 patients with acute myocardial infarction patients (AMI), 20 patients with stable angina pectoris (SA) and 20 healthy volunteers were recruited into the study. Whole human genome microarray analysis was used to detect the expression of T cell related genes among three groups. Results: mRNA expression of 68 genes involved in T cell was detected. 1) Antigen recognition: in the AMI patients 12 genes were down-regulated and 9 were significantly down-regulated among all 13 genes, compared with those of the SA and the control group, respectively. 2) Co-stimulators and regulators of T cell activation: among 16 genes in the AMI patients, 15 genes were lower and 8 were significantly lower than the other two groups. 3) T cell subsets, CTL: all 11 genes in the AMI patients were down-regulated, particularly GZMM and CASP8 were significantly down-regulated compared with the SA patients and controls. Th1/Th2: in the AMI patients, gene expressions including IL1 and IL18 were significantly higher, whereas GATA3 mRNA was significantly lower than those in other two groups. Th17/Treg: in the AMI group, RORC and CCR6 mRNAs were significantly down-regulated compared with the control group, while CD25 and CD127 expressions were significantly lower than SA group. There was no difference in T cell related genes between the SA patients and the controls. Conclusions: In the AMI patients, the mRNA expression of T cell antigen recognition, activation and subset functions was imbalanced or decreased, indicating the dysfunction of cellular immunity in patients with AMI. Then improving T cell mediated cellular immunity may be considered as a potential target for medical interventions in the patients with AMI. PMID:26379881

  5. Two Redundant Receptor-Like Cytoplasmic Kinases Function Downstream of Pattern Recognition Receptors to Regulate Activation of SA Biosynthesis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Qing; Qu, Na; Ma, Junling; Li, Meng; Cheng, Yu-ti; Zhang, Qian; Wu, Di; Zhang, Zhibin; Zhang, Yuelin

    2016-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) serves as a critical signaling molecule in plant defense. Two transcription factors, SARD1 and CBP60g, control SA biosynthesis through regulating pathogen-induced expression of Isochorismate Synthase1, which encodes a key enzyme for SA biosynthesis. Here, we report that Pattern-Triggered Immunity Compromised Receptor-like Cytoplasmic Kinase1 (PCRK1) and PCRK2 function as key regulators of SA biosynthesis. In the pcrk1 pcrk2 double mutant, pathogen-induced expression of SARD1, CBP60g, and ICS1 is greatly reduced. The pcrk1 pcrk2 double mutant, but neither of the single mutants, exhibits reduced accumulation of SA and enhanced disease susceptibility to bacterial pathogens. Both PCRK1 and PCRK2 interact with the pattern recognition receptor FLS2, and treatment with pathogen-associated molecular patterns leads to rapid phosphorylation of PCRK2. Our data suggest that PCRK1 and PCRK2 function downstream of pattern recognition receptor in a signal relay leading to the activation of SA biosynthesis. PMID:27208222

  6. Microstructural characterization of an SA508–309L/308L–316L domestic dissimilar metal welded safe-end joint

    SciTech Connect

    Ming, Hongliang; Zhang, Zhiming; Wang, Jianqiu Han, En-Hou; Ke, Wei

    2014-11-15

    The microstructure of an SA508–309L/308L–316L domestic dissimilar metal welded safe-end joint was characterized in this work by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (with electron back scattering diffraction) and micro-hardness testing. Epitaxial growth and competitive growth are evident in the 308L–316L fusion boundary regions. A martensite layer, carbon-depleted zones, and type-II and type-I boundaries are found in the SA508–309L fusion boundary regions, while only martensite and austenite mixed zones are observed in the SA508–308L fusion boundary regions. The microstructure near the fusion boundary and the microstructure transition in the SA508 heat affected zone are quite complex. Both for SA508–309L/308L and 308L–316L, the highest residual strain is located on the outside of the weldment. The residual strain and the grain boundary character distribution change with increasing distance from the fusion boundary in the heat affected zone of 316L. Micro-hardness measurements also reveal non-uniform mechanical properties across the weldment. - Highlights: • The microstructure of SA508 HAZ, especially near the FB, is very complex. • The outside of the dissimilar metal welded joint has the highest residual. • The micro-hardness distributions along the DMWJ are non-uniform.

  7. Salt Bridge Rearrangement (SaBRe) Explains the Dissociation Behavior of Noncovalent Complexes.

    PubMed

    Loo, Rachel R Ogorzalek; Loo, Joseph A

    2016-06-01

    Native electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry, with gas-phase activation and solution compositions that partially release subcomplexes, can elucidate topologies of macromolecular assemblies. That so much complexity can be preserved in gas-phase assemblies is remarkable, although a long-standing conundrum has been the differences between their gas- and solution-phase decompositions. Collision-induced dissociation of multimeric noncovalent complexes typically distributes products asymmetrically (i.e., by ejecting a single subunit bearing a large percentage of the excess charge). That unexpected behavior has been rationalized as one subunit "unfolding" to depart with more charge. We present an alternative explanation based on heterolytic ion-pair scission and rearrangement, a mechanism that inherently partitions charge asymmetrically. Excessive barriers to dissociation are circumvented in this manner, when local charge rearrangements access a lower-barrier surface. An implication of this ion pair consideration is that stability differences between high- and low-charge state ions usually attributed to Coulomb repulsion may, alternatively, be conveyed by attractive forces from ion pairs (salt bridges) stabilizing low-charge state ions. Should the number of ion pairs be roughly inversely related to charge, symmetric dissociations would be favored from highly charged complexes, as observed. Correlations between a gas-phase protein's size and charge reflect the quantity of restraining ion pairs. Collisionally-facilitated salt bridge rearrangement (SaBRe) may explain unusual size "contractions" seen for some activated, low charge state complexes. That some low-charged multimers preferentially cleave covalent bonds or shed small ions to disrupting noncovalent associations is also explained by greater ion pairing in low charge state complexes. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:27052739

  8. Crystal structure of a thermostable Old Yellow Enzyme from Thermus scotoductus SA-01

    SciTech Connect

    Opperman, Diederik J.; Sewell, Bryan T.; Litthauer, Derek; Isupov, Mikhail N.; Littlechild, Jennifer A.; Heerden, Esta van

    2010-03-12

    Recent characterization of the chromate reductase (CrS) from the thermophile Thermus scotoductus SA-01 revealed this enzyme to be related to the Old Yellow Enzyme (OYE) family. Here, we report the structure of a thermostable OYE homolog in its holoform at 2.2 A as well as its complex with p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (pHBA). The enzyme crystallized as octamers with the monomers showing a classical TIM barrel fold which upon dimerization yields the biologically active form of the protein. A sulfate ion is bound above the si-side of the non-covalently bound FMN cofactor in the oxidized solved structure but is displaced upon pHBA binding. The active-site architecture is highly conserved as with other members of this enzyme family. The pHBA in the CrS complex is positioned by hydrogen bonding to the two conserved catalytic-site histidines. The most prominent structural difference between CrS and other OYE homologs is the size of the 'capping domain'. Thermostabilization of the enzyme is achieved in part through increased proline content within loops and turns as well as increased intersubunit interactions through hydrogen bonding and complex salt bridge networks. CrS is able to reduce the C=C bonds of {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated carbonyl compounds with a preference towards cyclic substrates however no activity was observed towards {beta}-substituted substrates. Mutational studies have confirmed the role of Tyr177 as the proposed proton donor although reduction could still occur at a reduced rate when this residue was mutated to phenylalanine.

  9. Salt Bridge Rearrangement (SaBRe) Explains the Dissociation Behavior of Noncovalent Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loo, Rachel R. Ogorzalek; Loo, Joseph A.

    2016-04-01

    Native electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry, with gas-phase activation and solution compositions that partially release subcomplexes, can elucidate topologies of macromolecular assemblies. That so much complexity can be preserved in gas-phase assemblies is remarkable, although a long-standing conundrum has been the differences between their gas- and solution-phase decompositions. Collision-induced dissociation of multimeric noncovalent complexes typically distributes products asymmetrically (i.e., by ejecting a single subunit bearing a large percentage of the excess charge). That unexpected behavior has been rationalized as one subunit "unfolding" to depart with more charge. We present an alternative explanation based on heterolytic ion-pair scission and rearrangement, a mechanism that inherently partitions charge asymmetrically. Excessive barriers to dissociation are circumvented in this manner, when local charge rearrangements access a lower-barrier surface. An implication of this ion pair consideration is that stability differences between high- and low-charge state ions usually attributed to Coulomb repulsion may, alternatively, be conveyed by attractive forces from ion pairs (salt bridges) stabilizing low-charge state ions. Should the number of ion pairs be roughly inversely related to charge, symmetric dissociations would be favored from highly charged complexes, as observed. Correlations between a gas-phase protein's size and charge reflect the quantity of restraining ion pairs. Collisionally-facilitated salt bridge rearrangement (SaBRe) may explain unusual size "contractions" seen for some activated, low charge state complexes. That some low-charged multimers preferentially cleave covalent bonds or shed small ions to disrupting noncovalent associations is also explained by greater ion pairing in low charge state complexes.

  10. Salt Bridge Rearrangement (SaBRe) Explains the Dissociation Behavior of Noncovalent Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loo, Rachel R. Ogorzalek; Loo, Joseph A.

    2016-06-01

    Native electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry, with gas-phase activation and solution compositions that partially release subcomplexes, can elucidate topologies of macromolecular assemblies. That so much complexity can be preserved in gas-phase assemblies is remarkable, although a long-standing conundrum has been the differences between their gas- and solution-phase decompositions. Collision-induced dissociation of multimeric noncovalent complexes typically distributes products asymmetrically (i.e., by ejecting a single subunit bearing a large percentage of the excess charge). That unexpected behavior has been rationalized as one subunit "unfolding" to depart with more charge. We present an alternative explanation based on heterolytic ion-pair scission and rearrangement, a mechanism that inherently partitions charge asymmetrically. Excessive barriers to dissociation are circumvented in this manner, when local charge rearrangements access a lower-barrier surface. An implication of this ion pair consideration is that stability differences between high- and low-charge state ions usually attributed to Coulomb repulsion may, alternatively, be conveyed by attractive forces from ion pairs (salt bridges) stabilizing low-charge state ions. Should the number of ion pairs be roughly inversely related to charge, symmetric dissociations would be favored from highly charged complexes, as observed. Correlations between a gas-phase protein's size and charge reflect the quantity of restraining ion pairs. Collisionally-facilitated salt bridge rearrangement (SaBRe) may explain unusual size "contractions" seen for some activated, low charge state complexes. That some low-charged multimers preferentially cleave covalent bonds or shed small ions to disrupting noncovalent associations is also explained by greater ion pairing in low charge state complexes.

  11. Design optimization for plasma performance and assessment of operation regimes in JT-60SA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, T.; Tamai, H.; Matsukawa, M.; Kurita, G.; Bialek, J.; Aiba, N.; Tsuchiya, K.; Sakurai, S.; Suzuki, Y.; Hamamatsu, K.; Hayashi, N.; Oyama, N.; Suzuki, T.; Navratil, G. A.; Kamada, Y.; Miura, Y.; Takase, Y.; Campbell, D.; Pamela, J.; Romanelli, F.; Kikuchi, M.

    2007-11-01

    The design of the modification of JT-60U, JT-60SA has been optimized from the viewpoint of plasma performance, and operation regimes have been evaluated with the latest design. Upper and lower divertors with different geometries will be prepared for flexibility of the plasma shape, which will enable both low aspect ratio (A ~ 2.65) and ITER shape (A = 3.1) configurations. The beam lines of negative-ion neutral beam injection will be shifted downwards by ~0.6 m for the off-axis current drive (CD), in order to obtain a weak/reversed shear plasma, as well as having the capability of heating the central region. The feedback control coils along the openings in the stabilizing plate are found effective in suppressing the resistive wall mode and sustaining high βN close to the ideal wall limit. Sustainment of plasma current of 3-3.5 MA for 100 s will be possible in ELMy H-mode plasmas with moderate heating power, βN, and density within an available flux swing. It is also expected that higher βN, high-density ELMy H-mode plasmas will be maintained for 100 s with higher heating power. The expected regime of full CD operation has been extended with upgraded heating and CD power. Full CD operation for 100 s with reactor-relevant high values of normalized beta and bootstrap current fraction (Ip = 2.4 MA, βN = 4.3, fBS = 0.69, \\bar{n}_{\\rme}/n_GW = 0.86 , HH98y2 = 1.3) is expected in a highly-shaped low-aspect-ratio configuration (A = 2.65).

  12. Childhood Diarrhea Exhibits Spatiotemporal Variation in Northwest Ethiopia: A SaTScan Spatial Statistical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Azage, Muluken; Kumie, Abera; Worku, Alemayehu; Bagtzoglou, Amvrossios C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Childhood diarrhea continues to be a public health problem in developing countries, including Ethiopia. Detecting clusters and trends of childhood diarrhea is important to designing effective interventions. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate spatiotemporal clustering and seasonal variability of childhood diarrhea in northwest Ethiopia. Methods Retrospective record review of childhood diarrhea was conducted using quarterly reported data to the district health office for the seven years period beginning July 1, 2007. Thirty three districts were included and geo-coded in this study. Spatial, temporal and space-time scan spatial statistics were employed to identify clusters of childhood diarrhea. Smoothing using a moving average was applied to visualize the trends and seasonal pattern of childhood diarrhea. Statistical analyses were performed using Excel® and SaTScan programs. The maps were plotted using ArcGIS 10.0. Results Childhood diarrhea in northwest Ethiopia exhibits statistical evidence of spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal clustering, with seasonal patterns and decreasing temporal trends observed in the study area. A most likely purely spatial cluster was found in the East Gojjam administrative zone of Gozamin district (LLR = 7123.89, p <0.001). The most likely spatiotemporal cluster was detected in all districts of East Gojjam zone and a few districts of the West Gojjam zone (LLR = 24929.90, p<0.001), appearing from July 1, 2009 to June 30, 2011. One high risk period from July 1, 2008 to June 30, 2010 (LLR = 9655.86, p = 0.001) was observed in all districts. Peak childhood diarrhea cases showed a seasonal trend, occurring more frequently from January to March and April to June. Conclusion Childhood diarrhea did not occur at random. It has spatiotemporal variation and seasonal patterns with a decreasing temporal trend. Accounting for the spatiotemporal variation identified in the study areas is advised for the prevention and control of

  13. Educational inequality in the occurrence of abdominal obesity: Pró-Saúde Study

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Ronaldo Fernandes Santos; Faerstein, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the degree of educational inequality in the occurrence of abdominal obesity in a population of non-faculty civil servants at university campi. METHODS In this cross-sectional study, we used data from 3,117 subjects of both genders aged 24 to 65-years old, regarding the baseline of Pró-Saúde Study, 1999-2001. Abdominal obesity was defined according to abdominal circumference thresholds of 88 cm for women and 102 cm for men. A multi-dimensional, self-administered questionnaire was used to evaluate education levels and demographic variables. Slope and relative indices of inequality, and Chi-squared test for linear trend were used in the data analysis. All analyses were stratified by genders, and the indices of inequality were standardized by age. RESULTS Abdominal obesity was the most prevalent among women (43.5%; 95%CI 41.2;45.9), as compared to men (24.3%; 95%CI 22.1;26.7), in all educational strata and age ranges. The association between education levels and abdominal obesity was an inverse one among women (p < 0.001); it was not statistically significant among men (p = 0.436). The educational inequality regarding abdominal obesity in the female population, in absolute terms (slope index of inequality), was 24.0% (95%CI 15.5;32.6). In relative terms (relative index of inequality), it was 2.8 (95%CI 1.9;4.1), after the age adjustment. CONCLUSIONS Gender inequality in the prevalence of abdominal obesity increases with older age and lower education. The slope and relative indices of inequality summarize the strictly monotonous trend between education levels and abdominal obesity, and it described educational inequality regarding abdominal obesity among women. Such indices provide relevant quantitative estimates for monitoring abdominal obesity and dealing with health inequalities. PMID:26465669

  14. Révision de la sous-famille des Metaracoelophryinae de Puytorac 1972 (Oligohymenophora : Hoplytophryida : Hoplytophryidae), ciliés astomes du tube digestif d’oligochètes terricoles d’Afrique : description de cinq espèces nouvelles

    PubMed Central

    Fokam, Z.; Ngassam, P.; Nana, P.A.; Bricheux, G.; Bouchard, P.; Sime Ngando, T.

    2012-01-01

    Cinq nouvelles espèces de ciliés astomes, présentes dans le tube digestif de vers oligochètes du genre Alma du Cameroun, ont été décrites. Les techniques utilisées sont : l’observation vitale, la coloration au DAPI, la microscopie électronique à balayage et les imprégnations argentiques selon Fernandez Galiano, 1966. Ce travail confirme la présence des genres Paracoelophrya et Dicoelophrya dans le tube digestif des oligochètes du genre Alma du Gabon et du Cameroun ; il permet de faire une synthèse récapitulative de la sous-famille des Metaracoelophryinae. De plus, est confirmée l’homogénéité de ce groupe, et est reposée la question de la parenté phylogénétique des Hoplitophryida. PMID:22314239

  15. Frequency dependence of the magnetostrictive phenomenon in Metglas 2605SA1 ribbon: A minor-loop case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jen, S. U.; Liu, C. C.; Lin, H. R.; Chou, S. H.

    2014-12-01

    Frequency dependence of magnetostrictive phenomenon of as-cast 2605SA1 ribbon was studied. We applied a sinusoidal sweeping field (H), with a fixed frequency (f), along length (L) of the ribbon, and simultaneously recorded the longitudinal magnetostriction (λ∥) and the transverse magnetostriction (λ⊥) as a function of time (t), respectively. f was varied from 0.07 to 122 Hz. In the low-f case (f =0.07 Hz), we observed the frequency-doubling (FD) feature in λ∥(t) and λ⊥(t) curves; i.e., only even harmonic magnetostrictive signals showed up. In the high-f case (f = 122 Hz), we observed the no-frequency-doubling (NFD) feature; i.e., both odd and even harmonic magnetostrictive signals showed up. A theory, based on the balance among various torques acting on magnetization, is developed to explain the f dependence of the magnetostriction phenomenon observed. From this theory, we conclude that only when the reflection symmetry of the system is reserved, i.e., when the equivalent easy axis (EEA) is perpendicular to L, will λ∥(t) and λ⊥(t) have the true-frequency-doubling (TFD) feature. However, for the as-cast 2605SA1 ribbon, EEA is not perpendicular to L. Thus, strictly speaking, we should observe the NFD feature only. Nevertheless, in the low-f limit, we can show that the FD feature is somewhat allowed under the condition, b/α being close to 1, where b and α are the two parameters used in the theory. From experimental data, this condition is met for as-cast 2605SA1. To make a distinction from TFD, this low-f feature is called close-frequency-doubling (CFD) in this paper. In general, the theory explains all the experimental results fairly well.

  16. Comparison of ESwab and Wound Fiber Swab Specimen Collection Devices for Use with Xpert SA Nasal Complete Assay.

    PubMed

    Beck, Eric T; Buchan, Blake W; Reymann, Garrett C; Ledeboer, Nathan A

    2016-07-01

    Paired nasal swab specimens were collected from patients who were undergoing routine methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) screening prior to elective cardiac or orthopedic procedures. Each patient was swabbed using a traditional wound fiber liquid Stuart swab and an ESwab device, a flocked swab with a modified liquid Amies microbiology transport medium. The two specimens were tested using the Cepheid Xpert SA Nasal Complete assay. Results demonstrated a 95.5% agreement between the ESwab and the FDA-cleared wound fiber swab collection device. PMID:27122376

  17. Comparison of ESwab and Wound Fiber Swab Specimen Collection Devices for Use with Xpert SA Nasal Complete Assay

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Eric T.; Reymann, Garrett C.

    2016-01-01

    Paired nasal swab specimens were collected from patients who were undergoing routine methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) screening prior to elective cardiac or orthopedic procedures. Each patient was swabbed using a traditional wound fiber liquid Stuart swab and an ESwab device, a flocked swab with a modified liquid Amies microbiology transport medium. The two specimens were tested using the Cepheid Xpert SA Nasal Complete assay. Results demonstrated a 95.5% agreement between the ESwab and the FDA-cleared wound fiber swab collection device. PMID:27122376

  18. Direct Detection of Staphylococcus Osteoarticular Infections by Use of Xpert MRSA/SA SSTI Real-Time PCR ▿

    PubMed Central

    Dubouix-Bourandy, Anne; de Ladoucette, Aymard; Pietri, Valerie; Mehdi, Nazim; Benzaquen, David; Guinand, Régis; Gandois, Jean-Marc

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the Xpert MRSA/SA SSTI real-time PCR assay (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA) directly on perioperative bone and joint samples. The sensitivity and specificity for detection of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococcus were, respectively, 100% and 98.3%, 100% and 100%, and 100% and 95.3%. The median total test turnaround time was 72 min for PCR versus 79 h for culture. Using these rapid results, appropriate antibiotic treatment could be rapidly initiated. PMID:21998420

  19. Structural Insights into the Distinct Binding Mode of Cyclic Di-AMP with SaCpaA_RCK.

    PubMed

    Chin, Ko-Hsin; Liang, Juin-Ming; Yang, Jauo-Guey; Shih, Min-Shao; Tu, Zhi-Le; Wang, Yu-Chuang; Sun, Xing-Han; Hu, Nien-Jen; Liang, Zhao-Xun; Dow, J Maxwell; Ryan, Robert P; Chou, Shan-Ho

    2015-08-11

    Cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP) is a relatively new member of the family of bacterial cyclic dinucleotide second messengers. It has attracted significant attention in recent years because of the abundant roles it plays in a variety of Gram-positive bacteria. The structural features that allow diverse bacterial proteins to bind c-di-AMP are not fully understood. Here we report the biophysical and structural studies of c-di-AMP in complex with a bacterial cation-proton antiporter (CpaA) RCK (regulator of the conductance of K(+)) protein from Staphylococcus aureus (Sa). The crystal structure of the SaCpaA_RCK C-terminal domain (CTD) in complex with c-di-AMP was determined to a resolution of 1.81 Å. This structure revealed two well-liganded water molecules, each interacting with one of the adenine bases by a unique H2Olp-π interaction to stabilize the complex. Sequence blasting using the SaCpaA_RCK primary sequence against the bacterial genome database returned many CpaA analogues, and alignment of these sequences revealed that the active site residues are all well-conserved, indicating a universal c-di-AMP binding mode for CpaA_RCK. A proteoliposome activity assay using the full-length SaCpaA membrane protein indicated that c-di-AMP binding alters its antiporter activity by approximately 40%. A comparison of this structure to all other reported c-di-AMP-receptor complex structures revealed that c-di-AMP binds to receptors in either a "U-shape" or "V-shape" mode. The two adenine rings are stabilized in the inner interaction zone by a variety of CH-π, cation-π, backbone-π, or H2Olp-π interaction, but more commonly in the outer interaction zone by hydrophobic CH-π or π-π interaction. The structures determined to date provide an understanding of the mechanisms by which a single c-di-AMP can interact with a variety of receptor proteins, and how c-di-AMP binds receptor proteins in a special way different from that of c-di-GMP. PMID:26171638

  20. Specific Sites in the C Terminus of CTCF Interact with the SA2 Subunit of the Cohesin Complex and Are Required for Cohesin-Dependent Insulation Activity ▿

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Tiaojiang; Wallace, Julie; Felsenfeld, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the protein CTCF, which plays an important role in insulation and in large-scale organization of chromatin within the eukaryotic nucleus, depends for both activities on recruitment of the cohesin complex. We show here that the interaction of CTCF with the cohesin complex involves direct contacts between the cohesin subunit SA2 and specific regions of the C-terminal tail of CTCF. All other cohesin components are recruited through their interaction with SA2. Expression in vivo of CTCF mutants lacking the C-terminal domain, or with mutations at sites within it required for SA2 binding, disrupts the normal expression profile of the imprinted genes IGF2-H19 and also results in a loss of insulation activity. Taken together, our results demonstrate that specific sites on the C terminus of CTCF are essential for cohesin binding and insulator function. The only direct interaction between CTCF and cohesin involves contact with SA2, which is external to the cohesin ring. This suggests that in recruiting cohesin to CTCF, SA2 could bind first and the ring could assemble subsequently. PMID:21444719

  1. Specific sites in the C terminus of CTCF interact with the SA2 subunit of the cohesin complex and are required for cohesin-dependent insulation activity.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Tiaojiang; Wallace, Julie; Felsenfeld, Gary

    2011-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that the protein CTCF, which plays an important role in insulation and in large-scale organization of chromatin within the eukaryotic nucleus, depends for both activities on recruitment of the cohesin complex. We show here that the interaction of CTCF with the cohesin complex involves direct contacts between the cohesin subunit SA2 and specific regions of the C-terminal tail of CTCF. All other cohesin components are recruited through their interaction with SA2. Expression in vivo of CTCF mutants lacking the C-terminal domain, or with mutations at sites within it required for SA2 binding, disrupts the normal expression profile of the imprinted genes IGF2-H19 and also results in a loss of insulation activity. Taken together, our results demonstrate that specific sites on the C terminus of CTCF are essential for cohesin binding and insulator function. The only direct interaction between CTCF and cohesin involves contact with SA2, which is external to the cohesin ring. This suggests that in recruiting cohesin to CTCF, SA2 could bind first and the ring could assemble subsequently. PMID:21444719

  2. Entrapment into nanoemulsions potentiates the anticancer activity of tocotrienols against the highly malignant (+SA) mouse mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Alayoubi, Alaadin; Ayoub, Nehad M; Malaviya, Abhita; Sylvester, Paul W; Nazzal, Sami

    2014-05-01

    The highly malignant +SA mouse mammary epithelial cells were used as the model cell line over the years to establish the anticancer activity of tocotrienols. Tocotrienols, however, have poor oral bioavailability and were therefore entrapped into parenteral nanoemulsions for parenteral administration. The objective of this work was to test whether the activity of tocotrienols in lipid nanoemulsions against the +SA cells was retained. A secondary objective was to test whether stabilizing the nanoemulsions with poloxamer or sodium oleate would affect their activity. Nanoemulsions were found to be significantly more potent than tocotrienol/albumin conjugate. The IC50 values of the poloxamer and sodium oleate nanoemulsions were 3 and 6 microM, respectively, whereas the IC50 value of the conjugate was 10 microM. The antiproliferative activity of the nanoemulsions was also found to inversely correlate with particle size. No activity was observed with nanoemulsions loaded with alpha-tocopherol or vehicle, which confirmed the cytotoxic activity of tocotrienols and the potential use of nanoemulsions in cancer therapy. PMID:24734680

  3. Structural pattern of the Saïss basin and Tabular Middle Atlas in northern Morocco: Hydrological implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauteuil, O.; Moreau, F.; Qarqori, K.

    2016-07-01

    The plain of Saïss is a fertile area of great agricultural production with major economic interests. Therefore, the improved knowledge about the water supply is imperative within a context of recurrent droughts and overexploitation of the groundwater. This plain is located in the Meknes-Fes basin and between two deformed domains: the Rif and Middle Atlas. The aquifers are fed by water coming from the Tabular Middle Atlas, for which the pathways are poorly constrained. This study provides new data to determine the water pathways based on a structural map produced from a novel analysis of SPOT images and a digital elevation model. This structural map reveals two fracture sets trending NE-SW and NW-SE. The first set is well known and corresponds to a main trend that controlled the tectonic and stratigraphic evolution of the study area. On the other hand, the NW-SE set was poorly described until now: it is both diffuse and widespread on the Tabular Middle Atlas. A comparison between the regional water flow trend, drainage pattern and structural map shows that the NW-SE fractures control the water flow from the Tabular Middle Atlas to the Saïss plain. A hydrological model is discussed where the water flow is confined onto Liassic carbonates and driven by NW-SE fractures. This study explains how a detailed structural mapping shows hydrology constraints.

  4. Stress Corrosion Cracking of SA-543 High-Strength Steel in All-Volatile Treatment Boiler Feed Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rihan, R.; Basha, M.; Al-Meshari, A.; Bayramov, A.; van Zyl, G.; Dafalla, H.; Mohamed, A. I.

    2015-10-01

    Susceptibility of SA-543 steel, its welds (with and without stress relief treatment), and the heat-affected zone (HAZ) to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) was investigated in de-aerated and aerated boiler feed water subjected to the all-volatile treatment (AVT-BFW), and distilled water at 275 °C using the slow strain rate testing (SSRT) technique. The SSRT specimens were tested at three extension rates (3.50 × 10-6, 9.00 × 10-6, and 7.50 × 10-5 mm/s) using a novel SCC testing rig capable of testing at high temperatures and pressures. There are no significant differences in the time-to-failure among the four tested specimens. The elongation of the specimens at the time of failure is in the range of 10-23%. The reduction of the cross-sectional area of the failed specimens is large (45-77%) and the absence of any signs of intergranular propagation in fractured specimens, determined by scanning electron microscopy, indicates that the failure is due to mechanical load and not due to SCC. Dissolved oxygen does not affect the susceptibility of the specimens to SCC, which could be due to the inhibition effect of the test solution. SA-543 steel as the base metal, its welds (with and without stress relief treatment), and the HAZ are suitable for use in hot AVT-BFW and distilled water.

  5. Irradiation creep of SA 304L and CW 316 stainless steels: Mechanical behaviour and microstructural aspects. Part I: Experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnier, J.; Bréchet, Y.; Delnondedieu, M.; Pokor, C.; Dubuisson, P.; Renault, A.; Averty, X.; Massoud, J. P.

    2011-06-01

    Solution annealed 304L (SA 304L) and cold work 316 (CW 316) austenitic stainless steel irradiation creep behaviour have been studied thoroughly. Irradiations were carried out in fast breeder reactors BOR-60 (at 330 °C, up to 120 dpa) and EBR-II (at 375 °C, up to 10.5 dpa), and in the OSIRIS mixed spectrum reactor (at 330 °C, up to 9.8 dpa). After an incubation threshold, the irradiation creep of the austenitic stainless steels is linear in stress and in dose. Creep appears to be athermal in this temperature range. A significant difference in the behaviour is measured between the creep of SA 304L and CW 316. In order to study the anisotropy of loop population, which would be the signature of a possible stress induced preferential absorption (SIPA) mechanism for irradiation creep, special attention was given to the measurement of anisotropy of loop distribution between the four families. The anisotropy induced by an applied stress has been shown to be in the range of the statistical scatter in the situation where no stress is applied. TEM microstructural analyses performed on this sample show slight difference between the microstructure of specimens deformed under irradiation and the microstructure of specimens irradiated without stress under the same irradiation conditions.

  6. Energy gradient and geomorphological processes along a river influenced by neotectonics (the Saône river, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astrade, Laurent; Bravard, Jean-Paul

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to link the sediment transit and the flood plain storage of the Saône to hydromorphological characteristics of the hydrosystem, which exemplifies a new approach to sediment dynamics. The study of suspended sediment concentration in terms of temporal evolution, together with sediment deposition in terms of spatial variability, is a way to record the longitudinal evolution of the sediment load, which expresses the available energy gradient from upstream to downstream in hydrosystem. The Saône river is a 480-km-long Rhone tributary, with an oceanic pluvial regime, and an average yearly discharge of 440 m s -1 at Lyons. The watercourse is characterised by very gentle slopes controlled by the neotectonics of the Bresse trough and by Holocene fluvial dynamics. Sediments were sampled during the December 1993-January 1994 flood (2 375 m 3 s -1) and the 1995 January-February flood (1 826 m 3 s -1). A fine partition into homogeneous sectors, using stream power as well as shear stress, has been realized on a 400 km reach using longitudinal and cross-sections at one kilometre intervals. This partition, compared with the results of the field sampling, shows that the amount of energy is closely connected to the hydromorphological characteristics of the river.

  7. The DIAS Outreach Seismology in Schools (Seismeolaí­ocht sa Scoil) Pilot Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, T.; Jones, A. G.; Campbell, G.

    2008-12-01

    Ireland has technology to thank for the 'Celtic Tiger' Revolution, yet over the last half decade fewer and fewer Irish students are completing high school with a science focus. To counter this trend, and to ensure a supply of Irish geophysicists for the future, it is important to engage and fascinate young minds with the wonders of physics and of the Earth we live on. The Geophysics Section of the School of Cosmic Physics in the Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies (DIAS) has been running an Outreach programme for some years, but there was a more general public orientation to the programme. In an effort to bring DIAS's science directly to the schools, we have launched a pilot programme, coincidentally and fortuitously during the International Year of Planet Earth (IYPE), in Seismology in Schools (Seismeolaíocht sa Scoil) that introduces young students to the world of seismology and earthquake research. The launch of DIAS's Seismology in Schools programme has been aided considerably through IRIS's (The Incorporated Institutes for Research Seismology) contributions of their AMASEIS software, that is used to display the data output from the seismometer, and educational posters and demonstration software used to teach Earth Science to students, and through BGS's design and development of the educational seismometer, which is a Lehman pattern horizontal motion seismometer using a garden-gate offset suspension pendulum. Initially, we planned for a very tentative pilot with just two seismometers rotating around local schools, but the Directors of the Educational Centres across Ireland (ATECI, Association of Teachers/Education Centres in Ireland) have become key players in this pilot by purchasing a further 34 seismometers and promoting this initiative among their school. In addition, Geological Survey of Ireland (GSI) has purchased a further four seismometers as part of their contribution to IYPE. Currently 36 schools are participating in the enlarged pilot programme

  8. SaX: An open source package for electronic-structure and optical-properties calculations in the GW approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Samos, Layla; Bussi, Giovanni

    2009-08-01

    We present here SaX (Self-energies and eXcitations), a plane-waves package aimed at electronic-structure and optical-properties calculations in the GW framework, namely using the GW approximation for quasi-particle properties and the Bethe-Salpeter equation for the excitonic effects. The code is mostly written in FORTRAN90 in a modern style, with extensive use of data abstraction (i.e. objects). SaX employs state of the art techniques and can treat large systems. The package is released with an open source license and can be also download from http://www.sax-project.org/. Program summaryProgram title: SaX (Self-energies and eXcitations) Catalogue identifier: AEDF_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEDF_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 779 771 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 4 894 755 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: FORTRAN, plus some C utilities Computer: Linux PC, Linux clusters, IBM-SP5 Operating system: Linux, Aix Has the code been vectorised or parallelized?: Yes RAM: depending on the system complexity Classification: 7.3 External routines: Message-Passing Interface (MPI) to perform parallel computations. ESPRESSO ( http://www.quantum-espresso.org) Nature of problem: SaX is designed to calculate the electronic band-structure of semiconductors, including quasi-particle effects and optical properties including excitonic effects. Solution method: The electronic band-structure is calculated using the GW approximation for the self-energy operator. The optical properties are calculated solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation in the GW approximation. The wavefunctions are expanded on a plane-waves basis set, using norm-conserving pseudopotentials. Restrictions: Many objects are non-local matrix represented in plane wave basis

  9. Local mechanical properties of Alloy 82/182 dissimilar weld joint between SA508 Gr.1a and F316 SS at RT and 320C

    SciTech Connect

    Byun, Thak Sang; Kim, Jin Weon

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the variations of local mechanical and microstructural properties in dissimilar metal weld joints consisting of the SA508 Gr.1a ferritic steel, Alloy 82/182 filler metal, and F316 austenitic stainless steel. Flat or round tensile specimens and transmission electron microscopy disks were taken from the base metals, welds, and heat-affected zones (HAZ) of the joints and tested at room temperature (RT) and/or at 320 C. The tensile test results indicated that the mechanical property was relatively uniform within each material zone, but varied considerably between different zones. Further, significant variations were observed both in the austenitic HAZ of F316 SS and in the ferritic HAZ of SA508 Gr.1a. The yield stress (YS) of the weld metal was under-matched with respect to the HAZs of SA508 Gr.1a and F316 SS by 0.78 to 0.92, although the YS was over-matched with respect to both base metals. The minimum ductility occurred in the HAZ of SA508 Gr.1 at both test temperatures. The plastic instability stress also varied considerably in the weld joints, with minimum values occurring in the SA508 Gr.1a base metal at RT and in the HAZ of F316 SS at 320 C, suggesting that the probability of ductile failure caused by a unstable deformation at the Alloy 82/182 buttering layer is low. Within the HAZ of SA508 Gr.1a, the gradient of the YS and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) was significant, primarily because of the different microstructures produced by the phase transformation during the welding process. The increment of YS was unexpectedly high in the HAZ of F316 SS, which was explained by the strain hardening induced by a strain mismatch between the weldment and the base metal. This was confirmed by the transmission electron micrographs showing high dislocation density in the HAZ.

  10. Optimization of the GB/SA Solvation Model for Predicting the Structure of Surface Loops in Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Szarecka, Agnieszka; Meirovitch, Hagai

    2006-01-01

    Implicit solvation models are commonly optimized with respect to experimental data or Poisson Boltzmann (PB) results obtained for small molecules, where the force field sometimes is not considered. In previous studies we have developed an optimization procedure for cyclic peptides and surface loops in proteins based on the entire system studied and the specific force field used. Thus, the loop has been modeled by the simplified solvation function Etot = EFF(ɛ=2r) + ∑i σiAi, where EFF(ɛ=nr) is the AMBER force field energy with a distance dependent dielectric function, ɛ=nr, Ai is the solvent accessible surface area of atom i, and σi is its atomic solvation parameter. During the optimization process the loop is free to move while the protein template is held fixed in its X-ray structure. To improve on the results of this model, in the present work we apply our optimization procedure to the physically more rigorous solvation model, the generalized Born with surface area (GB/SA) (together with the all-atom AMBER force field) as suggested by Still and coworkers (J. Phys. Chem.A 1997, 101, 3005). The six parameters of the GB/SA model namely, P1-P5 and the surface area parameter, σ (programmed in the program TINKER) are re-optimized for a “training” group of nine loops, and from the individual sets of optimized parameters a best-fit set is defined. The best-fit set and Still’s original set of parameters (where Lys, Arg, His, Glu, and Asp are charged or neutralized) were applied to the training group as well as to a “test” group of seven loops and the energy gaps and the corresponding RMSD values were calculated. These GB/SA results based on the three sets of parameters have been found to be comparable; surprisingly, however, they are somewhat inferior (e.g.., of larger energy gaps) to those obtained previously from the simplified model described above. We discuss recent results for loops obtained by other solvation models and potential directions for

  11. The Global ecosystem Production in Space and Time (GePiSaT) Model of the Terrestrial Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, T. W.; Prentice, I. C.; Evans, B. J.; Wang, H.; Gilbert, X.

    2014-12-01

    This work is a continuation of the development and analysis of the Global ecosystem Production in Space and Time (GePiSaT) model. The development of the GePiSaT model was prompted due to inconsistencies found amongst the more complex global vegetation and biogeochemical models that are focused more on prediction rather than explanation. GePiSaT takes a simplistic approach to modelling terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) by making the best use of in situ observations while defensibly representing the principal ecophysiological processes that govern GPP, including (1) the eddy-covariance method of partitioning net CO2 and solar radiative fluxes into monthly quantities of GPP and respiration and (2) the optimality principle of vegetation minimizing the summed costs associated with maintaining carbon fixation and water transport capabilities. The free and fair-use FLUXNET archive provided the half-hourly in situ observations and were screened for outliers using Peirce's criterion. The limitations of the observational data (i.e., missing or invalid data points) were overcome by means of gap-filling based on modelled half-hourly extraterrestrial solar radiation with daily magnitudes scaled to match WATCH global modelled data products of shortwave downwelling solar radiation and converted to photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD). Monthly totals of GPP and PPFD, together with MODIS-based estimates of fractionally absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fPAR), are used in a new theoretically-based light-use efficiency model. Estimates have been made for the intrinsic quantum efficiency and carbon to water cost ratio at individual flux sites to the global terrestrial scale. Analyses of meteorological variables and soil moisture conditions have revealed that vapor pressure deficit and moisture availability (i.e., the Cramer-Prentice bioclimatic moisture index) are important for explaining the deviation from the expected in the light-use efficiency. The new

  12. Enhanced salt stress tolerance of rice plants expressing a vacuolar H+-ATPase subunit c1 (SaVHAc1) gene from the halophyte grass Spartina alterniflora Löisel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The physiological role of a vacuolar ATPase subunit c1 (SaVHAc1) from a halophyte grass Spartina alterniflora was studied through its expression in rice. The SaVHAc1– expressing plants showed enhanced tolerance to salt stress than the wild-type plants, mainly through adjustments in early stage and p...

  13. Ciência & Saúde coletiva Journal at the national and international context of scientific communication.

    PubMed

    Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; Gomes, Romeu

    2015-07-01

    The article discusses the role of the Ciência & Saúde Coletiva Journal in the dissemination of knowledge in Brazil and in the international scientific community, its new challenges and role in the consolidation of the national public health field. Its history is outlined, positioning it as a scientific journal and the themes approached in it are analyzed. Among the findings, it is emphasized that the journal features a structured space by the habitus of public health, and creates its own habitus that contributes to structure this field. In addition, the journal contributes to the development of critical mass in the area and is committed to the Brazilian Public Health System. PMID:26132240

  14. Conductor and joint test results of JT-60SA CS and EF coils using the NIFS test facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obana, Tetsuhiro; Takahata, Kazuya; Hamaguchi, Shinji; Kizu, Kaname; Murakami, Haruyuki; Chikaraishi, Hirotaka; Noguchi, Hiroki; Kobuchi, Takashi; Moriuchi, Sadatomo; Imagawa, Shinsaku; Mito, Toshiyuki; Tsuchiya, Katsuhiko; Natsume, Kyohei; Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Nomoto, Kazuhiro; Kim, Tae-hyun

    2016-01-01

    In 2007, JAEA and NIFS launched the test project to evaluate the performance of cable-in-conduit (CIC) conductors and conductor joints for the JT-60SA CS and EF coils. In this project, conductor tests for four types of coil conductor and joint tests for seven types of conductor joint have been conducted for the past eight years using the NIFS test facility. As a result, the test project indicated that the CIC conductors and conductor joints fulfill the design requirement for the CS and EF coils. In addition, the NIFS test facility is expected to be utilized as the test facility for the development of a conductor and conductor joint for the purpose of the DEMO nuclear fusion power plant, provided that the required magnetic field strength is within 9 T.

  15. Anisotropic electron temperature measurements without knowing the spectral transmissivity for a JT-60SA Thomson scattering diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Tojo, H.; Hatae, T.; Yatsuka, E.; Itami, K.

    2012-10-15

    This paper focuses on a method for measuring the electron temperature (T{sub e}) without knowing the transmissivity using Thomson scattering diagnostic with a double-pass scattering system. Application of this method for measuring the anisotropic T{sub e}, i.e., the T{sub e} in the directions parallel (T{sub e Double-Vertical-Line Double-Vertical-Line }) and perpendicular (T{sub e Up-Tack }) to the magnetic field, is proposed. Simulations based on the designed parameters for a JT-60SA indicate the feasibility of the measurements except in certain T{sub e} ranges, e.g., T{sub e Double-Vertical-Line Double-Vertical-Line }{approx} 3.5T{sub e Up-Tack} at 120 Degree-Sign of the scattering angle.

  16. Ascent Heating Thermal Analysis on the Spacecraft Adaptor (SA) Fairings and the Interface with the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Xiao-Yen; Yuko, James; Motil, Brian

    2009-01-01

    When the crew exploration vehicle (CEV) is launched, the spacecraft adaptor (SA) fairings that cover the CEV service module (SM) are exposed to aero heating. Thermal analysis is performed to compute the fairing temperatures and to investigate whether the temperatures are within the material limits for nominal ascent aero heating case. Heating rates from Thermal Environment (TE) 3 aero heating analysis computed by engineers at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) are used in the thermal analysis. Both MSC Patran 2007r1b/Pthermal and C&R Thermal Desktop 5.1/Sinda models are built to validate each other. The numerical results are also compared with those reported by Lockheed Martin (LM) and show a reasonably good agreement.

  17. Cy-SaBOX/Copper(II)-Catalyzed Highly Diastereo- and Enantioselective Synthesis of Bicyclic N,O Acetals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiong-Jie; Wang, Lijia; Kang, Qi-Kai; Zhang, X Peter; Tang, Yong

    2016-08-01

    Facile and effective access for the asymmetric construction of the useful and important skeleton of the bicyclic N,O-acetals is described. Cu(II) /SaBOX could catalyze the reaction of β,γ-unsaturated α-ketoesters with cyclic enamines efficiently, thus affording the desired products in excellent yields with excellent stereoselectivities (21 examples; up to 99 % yields; up to >95:5 d.r.; and 95-99 % ee). This reaction can be well performed on gram scale, even with only 1 mol % catalyst loading. The single-crystal structures of the copper complexes lead to a good understanding of the stereo-synergistic effects of the sidearm. PMID:27351738

  18. In situ TEM annealing of ion-amorphized Hi Nicalon S and Tyranno SA3 SiC fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huguet-Garcia, J.; Jankowiak, A.; Miro, S.; Meslin, E.; Serruys, Y.; Costantini, J.-M.

    2016-05-01

    In this work, recrystallization of ion-amorphized Hi Nicalon Type S and Tyranno SA3 SiC fibers (4 MeV Au3+, 2 × 1015 cm-2) has been studied via in situ TEM annealing. Both fibers show a two-step recovery process of the radiation damage. First recovery stage starts at temperatures as low as 250 °C and implies recovery of the radiation swelling. Eventually the amorphous layer recrystallizes with no signs of polytype change (3C-SiC). Recrystallization temperatures yield 900-920 °C and 930 °C for the HNS and the TSA3 respectively. HNS fiber shows columnar recrystallization perpendicular to the amorphous-crystalline interphase with a grain growth rate of ∼20 nm min-1. On the other hand, recrystallization of TSA3 fiber is rather "spontaneous" with no preferential growth direction. The different recrystallization is attributed to the different microstructure of the fibers.

  19. Modeling flows over gravel beds by a drag force method and a modified S-A turbulence closure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, C.; Li, C. W.

    2012-09-01

    A double-averaged Navier-Stokes equations (DANS) model has been developed for depth-limited open channel flows over gravels. Three test cases are used to validate the model: an open-channel flow over a densely packed gravel bed with small-scale uniform roughness (D/d50 ˜ 13, d50 = median diameter of roughness elements, D = water depth), open-channel flows over large-scale sparsely distributed roughness elements (D/Δ ˜ 2.3-8.7, Δ = roughness height) and steep slope gravel-bed river flows with D/d50 ˜ 7-25. Various methods of treatment of the gravel-induced resistance effect have been investigated. The results show that the wall function approach (WFA) is successful in simulating flows over small gravels but is not appropriate for large gravels since the vertical profile of the longitudinal velocity does not follow the logarithmic-linear relationship. The drag force method (DFM) performs better but the non-logarithmic velocity distribution generated by sparsely distributed gravels cannot be simulated accurately. Noting that the turbulence length scale within the gravel layer is governed by the gravel size, the DANS model incorporating the DFM and a modified Spalart-Allmaras (S-A) turbulence closure is proposed. The turbulence length scale parameter in the S-A model is modified to address the change in the turbulence structure within the gravel layer. The computed velocity profiles agree well with the corresponding measured profiles in all cases. Particularly, the model reproduces the S-shape velocity profile for sparsely distributed large size roughness elements. The modeling methodology is robust and can be easily integrated into the existing numerical models.

  20. 75 FR 13045 - Airworthiness Directives; CFM International, S.A. CFM56-5, -5B, and -7B Series Turbofan Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). Examining the AD Docket You... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Would not have a significant... Directives; CFM International, S.A. CFM56-5, -5B, and -7B Series Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal...

  1. 75 FR 34924 - Airworthiness Directives; CFM International, S.A. CFM56-5, -5B, and -7B Series Turbofan Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ..., 2010 (75 FR 13045). That action proposed to require removing from service, nine stage 3 LPT disks... 12866; (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... International, S.A. CFM56-5, -5B, and -7B series turbofan engines. This AD requires removing from service,...

  2. AN OVERVIEW OF THE UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS, SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS, AND PARAMETER ESTIMATION (UA/SA/PE) API AND HOW TO IMPLEMENT IT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Application Programming Interface (API) for Uncertainty Analysis, Sensitivity Analysis, and
    Parameter Estimation (UA/SA/PE API) (also known as Calibration, Optimization and Sensitivity and Uncertainty (CUSO)) was developed in a joint effort between several members of both ...

  3. In Vitro Analysis of Predicted DNA-Binding Sites for the Stl Repressor of the Staphylococcus aureus SaPIBov1 Pathogenicity Island

    PubMed Central

    Nyíri, Kinga; Vertessy, Beata G.

    2016-01-01

    The regulation model of the Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity island SaPIbov1 transfer was recently reported. The repressor protein Stl obstructs the expression of SaPI proteins Str and Xis, latter which is responsible for mobilization initiation. Upon Φ11 phage infection of S. aureus. phage dUTPase activates the SaPI transfer via Stl-dUTPase complex formation. Our aim was to predict the binding sites for the Stl repressor within the S. aureus pathogenicity island DNA sequence. We found that Stl was capable to bind to three 23-mer oligonucleotides, two of those constituting sequence segments in the stl-str, while the other corresponding to sequence segment within the str-xis intergenic region. Within these oligonucleotides, mutational analysis revealed that the predicted binding site for the Stl protein exists as a palindromic segment in both intergenic locations. The palindromes are built as 6-mer repeat sequences involved in Stl binding. The 6-mer repeats are separated by a 5 oligonucleotides long, nonspecific sequence. Future examination of the interaction between Stl and its binding sites in vivo will provide a molecular explanation for the mechanisms of gene repression and gene activation exerted simultaneously by the Stl protein in regulating transfer of the SaPIbov1 pathogenicity island in S. aureus. PMID:27388898

  4. Whole Genome Comparison of Thermus sp. NMX2.A1 Reveals Principal Carbon Metabolism Differences with Closest Relation Thermus scotoductus SA-01

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Walter J.; Tlalajoe, Nokuthula; Cason, Errol D.; Litthauer, Derek; Reva, Oleg; Brzuszkiewicz, Elzbieta; van Heerden, Esta

    2016-01-01

    Genome sequencing of the yellow-pigmented, thermophilic bacterium Thermus sp. NMX2.A1 resulted in a 2.29 Mb draft genome that encodes for 2312 proteins. The genetic relationship between various strains from the genus Thermus was assessed based on phylogenomic analyses using a concatenated set of conserved proteins. The resulting phylogenetic tree illustrated that Thermus sp. NMX2 A.1 clusters together with Thermus scotoductus SA-01, despite being isolated from vastly different geographical locations. The close evolutionary relationship and metabolic parallels between the two strains has previously been recognized; however, neither strain’s genome data were available at that point in time. Genomic comparison of the Thermus sp. NMX2.A1 and T. scotoductus SA-01, as well as other closely related Thermus strains, revealed a high degree of synteny at both the genomic and proteomic level, with processes such as denitrification and natural cell competence appearing to be conserved. However, despite this high level of similarity, analysis revealed a complete, putative Calvin–Benson–Bassham (CBB) cycle in NMX2.A1 that is absent in SA-01. Analysis of horizontally transferred gene islands provide evidence that NMX2 selected these genes due to pressure from its HCO3- rich environment, which is in stark contrast to that of the deep subsurface isolated SA-01. PMID:27412985

  5. 77 FR 70812 - United States v. Star Atlantic Waste Holdings, L.P., Veolia Environnement S.A. and Veolia ES...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-27

    ... Antitrust Division United States v. Star Atlantic Waste Holdings, L.P., Veolia Environnement S.A. and Veolia... District of Columbia in United States of America v. Star Atlantic Waste Holdings, L.P., Veolia..., the United States filed a Complaint alleging that the proposed acquisition by Star Atlantic...

  6. In Vitro Analysis of Predicted DNA-Binding Sites for the Stl Repressor of the Staphylococcus aureus SaPIBov1 Pathogenicity Island.

    PubMed

    Papp-Kádár, Veronika; Szabó, Judit Eszter; Nyíri, Kinga; Vertessy, Beata G

    2016-01-01

    The regulation model of the Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity island SaPIbov1 transfer was recently reported. The repressor protein Stl obstructs the expression of SaPI proteins Str and Xis, latter which is responsible for mobilization initiation. Upon Φ11 phage infection of S. aureus. phage dUTPase activates the SaPI transfer via Stl-dUTPase complex formation. Our aim was to predict the binding sites for the Stl repressor within the S. aureus pathogenicity island DNA sequence. We found that Stl was capable to bind to three 23-mer oligonucleotides, two of those constituting sequence segments in the stl-str, while the other corresponding to sequence segment within the str-xis intergenic region. Within these oligonucleotides, mutational analysis revealed that the predicted binding site for the Stl protein exists as a palindromic segment in both intergenic locations. The palindromes are built as 6-mer repeat sequences involved in Stl binding. The 6-mer repeats are separated by a 5 oligonucleotides long, nonspecific sequence. Future examination of the interaction between Stl and its binding sites in vivo will provide a molecular explanation for the mechanisms of gene repression and gene activation exerted simultaneously by the Stl protein in regulating transfer of the SaPIbov1 pathogenicity island in S. aureus. PMID:27388898

  7. 75 FR 48618 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Model AS-365N2, AS 365 N3, and SA-365N1 Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). Examining the Docket You may examine the docket that... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3... Model AS-365N2, AS 365 N3, and SA-365N1 Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT....

  8. 76 FR 13065 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Model AS-365N2, AS 365 N3, and SA-365N1 Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... 365A33.6161.21. That NPRM was published in the Federal Register on August 11, 2010 (75 FR 48618) and... rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will... Model AS-365N2, AS 365 N3, and SA-365N1 Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA),...

  9. SaOS-2 cell response to macro-porous boron-incorporated TiO2 coating prepared by micro-arc oxidation on titanium.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qianli; Elkhooly, Tarek A; Liu, Xujie; Zhang, Ranran; Yang, Xing; Shen, Zhijian; Feng, Qingling

    2016-10-01

    The aims of the present study were to develop boron-incorporated TiO2 coating (B-TiO2 coating) through micro-arc oxidation (MAO) and subsequently evaluate the effect of boron incorporation on the in vitro biological performance of the coatings. The physicochemical properties of B-TiO2 coating and its response to osteoblast like cells (SaOS-2) were investigated compared to the control group without boron (TiO2 coating). The morphological and X-ray diffraction results showed that both coatings exhibited similar surface topography and phase composition, respectively. However, the incorporation of B led to an enhancement in the surface hydrophilicity of B-TiO2 coating. The spreading of SaOS-2 cells on B-TiO2 coating was faster than that on TiO2 coating. The proliferation rate of SaOS-2 cells cultured on B-TiO2 decreased after 5days of culture compared to that on TiO2 coating. SaOS-2 cells cultured on B-TiO2 coating exhibited an enhanced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, Collagen I synthesis and in vitro mineralization compared to those on TiO2 coating. The present findings suggest that B-TiO2 coating is a promising candidate surface for orthopedic implants. PMID:27287114

  10. Structure of a conserved hypothetical protein SA1388 from S. aureus reveals a capped hexameric toroid with two PII domain lids and a dinuclear metal center

    SciTech Connect

    Saikatendu, Kumar Singh; Zhang, Xuejun; Kinch, Lisa; Leybourne, Matthew; Grishin, Nick V.; Zhang, Hong

    2009-01-26

    The protein encoded by the SA1388 gene from Staphylococcus aureus was chosen for structure determination to elucidate its domain organization and confirm our earlier remote homology based prediction that it housed a nitrogen regulatory PII protein-like domain. SA1388 was predicted to contain a central PII-like domain and two flanking regions, which together belong to the NIF3-like protein family. Proteins like SA1388 remain a poorly studied group and their structural characterization could guide future investigations aimed at understanding their function. The structure of SA1388 has been solved to 2.0{angstrom} resolution by single wavelength anomalous dispersion phasing method using selenium anomalous signals. It reveals a canonical NIF3-like fold containing two domains with a PII-like domain inserted in the middle of the polypeptide. The N and C terminal halves of the NIF3-like domains are involved in dimerization, while the PII domain forms trimeric contacts with symmetry related monomers. Overall, the NIF3-like domains of SA1388 are organized as a hexameric toroid similar to its homologs, E. coli ybgI and the hypothetical protein SP1609 from Streptococcus pneumoniae. The openings on either side of the toroid are partially covered by trimeric 'lids' formed by the PII domains. The junction of the two NIF3 domains has two zinc ions bound at what appears to be a histidine rich active site. A well-defined electron density corresponding to an endogenously bound ligand of unknown identity is observed in close proximity to the metal site. SA1388 is the third member of the NIF3-like family of proteins to be structurally characterized, the other two also being hypothetical proteins of unknown function. The structure of SA1388 confirms our earlier prediction that the inserted domain that separates the two NIF3 domains adopts a PII-like fold and reveals an overall capped toroidal arrangement for the protein hexamer. The six PII-like domains form two trimeric 'lids' that

  11. Penam sulfones and β-lactamase inhibition: SA2-13 and the importance of the C2 side chain length and composition.

    PubMed

    Rodkey, Elizabeth A; Winkler, Marisa L; Bethel, Christopher R; Pagadala, Sundar Ram Reddy; Buynak, John D; Bonomo, Robert A; van den Akker, Focco

    2014-01-01

    β-Lactamases are the major reason β-lactam resistance is seen in Gram-negative bacteria. To combat this resistance mechanism, β-lactamase inhibitors are currently being developed. Presently, there are only three that are in clinical use (clavulanate, sulbactam and tazobactam). In order to address this important medical need, we explored a new inhibition strategy that takes advantage of a long-lived inhibitory trans-enamine intermediate. SA2-13 was previously synthesized and shown to have a lower k(react) than tazobactam. We investigated here the importance of the carboxyl linker length and composition by synthesizing three analogs of SA2-13 (PSR-4-157, PSR-4-155, and PSR-3-226). All SA2-13 analogs yielded higher turnover numbers and k(react) compared to SA2-13. We next demonstrated using protein crystallography that increasing the linker length by one carbon allowed for better capture of a trans-enamine intermediate; in contrast, this trans-enamine intermediate did not occur when the C2 linker length was decreased by one carbon. If the linker was altered by both shortening it and changing the carboxyl moiety into a neutral amide moiety, the stable trans-enamine intermediate in wt SHV-1 did not form; this intermediate could only be observed when a deacylation deficient E166A variant was studied. We subsequently studied SA2-13 against a relatively recently discovered inhibitor-resistant (IR) variant of SHV-1, SHV K234R. Despite the alteration in the mechanism of resistance due to the K→R change in this variant, SA2-13 was effective at inhibiting this IR enzyme and formed a trans-enamine inhibitory intermediate similar to the intermediate seen in the wt SHV-1 structure. Taken together, our data reveals that the C2 side chain linker length and composition profoundly affect the formation of the trans-enamine intermediate of penam sulfones. We also show that the design of SA2-13 derivatives offers promise against IR SHV β-lactamases that possess the K234R

  12. Switch of sensitivity dynamics revealed with DyGloSA toolbox for dynamical global sensitivity analysis as an early warning for system's critical transition.

    PubMed

    Baumuratova, Tatiana; Dobre, Simona; Bastogne, Thierry; Sauter, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Systems with bifurcations may experience abrupt irreversible and often unwanted shifts in their performance, called critical transitions. For many systems like climate, economy, ecosystems it is highly desirable to identify indicators serving as early warnings of such regime shifts. Several statistical measures were recently proposed as early warnings of critical transitions including increased variance, autocorrelation and skewness of experimental or model-generated data. The lack of automatized tool for model-based prediction of critical transitions led to designing DyGloSA - a MATLAB toolbox for dynamical global parameter sensitivity analysis (GPSA) of ordinary differential equations models. We suggest that the switch in dynamics of parameter sensitivities revealed by our toolbox is an early warning that a system is approaching a critical transition. We illustrate the efficiency of our toolbox by analyzing several models with bifurcations and predicting the time periods when systems can still avoid going to a critical transition by manipulating certain parameter values, which is not detectable with the existing SA techniques. DyGloSA is based on the SBToolbox2 and contains functions, which compute dynamically the global sensitivity indices of the system by applying four main GPSA methods: eFAST, Sobol's ANOVA, PRCC and WALS. It includes parallelized versions of the functions enabling significant reduction of the computational time (up to 12 times). DyGloSA is freely available as a set of MATLAB scripts at http://bio.uni.lu/systems_biology/software/dyglosa. It requires installation of MATLAB (versions R2008b or later) and the Systems Biology Toolbox2 available at www.sbtoolbox2.org. DyGloSA can be run on Windows and Linux systems, -32 and -64 bits. PMID:24367574

  13. Canonical-ensemble state-averaged complete active space self-consistent field (SA-CASSCF) strategy for problems with more diabatic than adiabatic states: Charge-bond resonance in monomethine cyanines

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Seth

    2015-01-28

    This paper reviews basic results from a theory of the a priori classical probabilities (weights) in state-averaged complete active space self-consistent field (SA-CASSCF) models. It addresses how the classical probabilities limit the invariance of the self-consistency condition to transformations of the complete active space configuration interaction (CAS-CI) problem. Such transformations are of interest for choosing representations of the SA-CASSCF solution that are diabatic with respect to some interaction. I achieve the known result that a SA-CASSCF can be self-consistently transformed only within degenerate subspaces of the CAS-CI ensemble density matrix. For uniformly distributed (“microcanonical”) SA-CASSCF ensembles, self-consistency is invariant to any unitary CAS-CI transformation that acts locally on the ensemble support. Most SA-CASSCF applications in current literature are microcanonical. A problem with microcanonical SA-CASSCF models for problems with “more diabatic than adiabatic” states is described. The problem is that not all diabatic energies and couplings are self-consistently resolvable. A canonical-ensemble SA-CASSCF strategy is proposed to solve the problem. For canonical-ensemble SA-CASSCF, the equilibrated ensemble is a Boltzmann density matrix parametrized by its own CAS-CI Hamiltonian and a Lagrange multiplier acting as an inverse “temperature,” unrelated to the physical temperature. Like the convergence criterion for microcanonical-ensemble SA-CASSCF, the equilibration condition for canonical-ensemble SA-CASSCF is invariant to transformations that act locally on the ensemble CAS-CI density matrix. The advantage of a canonical-ensemble description is that more adiabatic states can be included in the support of the ensemble without running into convergence problems. The constraint on the dimensionality of the problem is relieved by the introduction of an energy constraint. The method is illustrated with a complete active space

  14. Effects of cyclophosphamide and irradiation singly and in combination upon SaI growth in A/J mice

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.E.; Williams, W.L.; Tokuda, S.

    1987-05-01

    The effects of various doses of cyclophosphamide and low-dose (15 rads) radiation upon the size of tumors caused by 10(4) Sarcoma I (SaI) cells was determined. In intact A/Jax (A/J) recipients, the effect of the two agents singly and in combination was found to be dependent especially upon the dosage of cyclophosphamide and the time of its administration in relation to tumor inoculation. In cell transfer experiments to adult thymectomized, lethally irradiated, bone-marrow-restored (ATxXBM) mice, the effects of cyclophosphamide and irradiation appeared to be either overlapping (low dosages of cyclophosphamide) or additive (dosages of cyclophosphamide greater than or equal to 50 mg/kg), suggesting that the two agents exert their influence in dissimilar fashion, perhaps by injuring different cell types with the same basic function. The most pronounced conjoint effects are seen when low dosages of cyclophosphamide are given 3 days after the adoptive transfer of spleen cells from mice pretreated with low-dose irradiation. The implications of this observation with respect to immunotherapy are discussed.

  15. Rutin-Mediated Priming of Plant Resistance to Three Bacterial Pathogens Initiating the Early SA Signal Pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Xu, Xiaonan; Li, Yang; Wang, Yingzi; Li, Ming; Wang, Yong; Ding, Xinhua; Chu, Zhaohui

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids are ubiquitous in the plant kingdom and have many diverse functions, including UV protection, auxin transport inhibition, allelopathy, flower coloring and insect resistance. Here we show that rutin, a proud member of the flavonoid family, could be functional as an activator to improve plant disease resistances. Three plant species pretreated with 2 mM rutin were found to enhance resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, Ralstonia solanacearum, and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 in rice, tobacco and Arabidopsis thaliana respectively. While they were normally propagated on the cultural medium supplemented with 2 mM rutin for those pathogenic bacteria. The enhanced resistance was associated with primed expression of several pathogenesis-related genes. We also demonstrated that the rutin-mediated priming resistance was attenuated in npr1, eds1, eds5, pad4-1, ndr1 mutants, and NahG transgenic Arabidopsis plant, while not in either snc1-11, ein2-5 or jar1 mutants. We concluded that the rutin-priming defense signal was modulated by the salicylic acid (SA)-dependent pathway from an early stage upstream of NDR1 and EDS1. PMID:26751786

  16. Modulation of the initial mineralization process of SaOS-2 cells by carbonic anhydrase activators and polyphosphate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaohong; Schröder, Heinz C; Schlossmacher, Ute; Neufurth, Meik; Feng, Qingling; Diehl-Seifert, Bärbel; Müller, Werner E G

    2014-05-01

    Ca-phosphate/hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals constitute the mineral matrix of vertebrate bones, while Ca-carbonate is the predominant mineral of many invertebrates, like mollusks. Recent results suggest that CaCO₃ is also synthesized during early bone formation. We demonstrate that carbonic anhydrase-driven CaCO₃ formation in vitro is activated by organic extracts from the demosponge Suberites domuncula as well as by quinolinic acid, one component isolated from these extracts. Further results revealed that the stimulatory effect of bicarbonate (HCO₃ (-)) ions on mineralization of osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells is strongly enhanced if the cells are exposed to inorganic polyphosphate (polyP), a linear polymer of phosphate linked by energy-rich phosphodiester bonds. The effect of polyP, administered as polyP (Ca²⁺ salt), on HA formation was found to be amplified by addition of the carbonic anhydrase-activating sponge extract or quinolinic acid. Our results support the assumption that CaCO₃ deposits, acting as bio-seeds for Ca-carbonated phosphate formation, are formed as an intermediate during HA mineralization and that the carbonic anhydrase-mediated formation of those deposits is under a positive-negative feedback control by bone alkaline phosphatase-dependent polyP metabolism, offering new targets for therapy of bone diseases/defects. PMID:24374859

  17. Optical designs of reflection and refraction collection optics for a JT-60SA core Thomson scattering system.

    PubMed

    Tojo, H; Hatae, T; Hamano, T; Sakuma, T; Itami, K

    2013-09-01

    Collection optics for core measurements in a JT-60SA Thomson scattering system were designed. The collection optics will be installed in a limited space and have a wide field of view and wide wavelength range. Two types of the optics are therefore suggested: refraction and reflection types. The reflection system, with a large primary mirror, avoids large chromatic aberrations. Because the size limit of the primary mirror and vignetting due to the secondary mirror affect the total collection throughput, conditions that provide the high throughput are found through an optimization. A refraction system with four lenses forming an Ernostar system is also employed. The use of high-refractive-index glass materials enhances the freedom of the lens curvatures, resulting in suppression of the spherical and coma aberration. Moreover, sufficient throughput can be achieved, even with smaller lenses than that of a previous design given in [H. Tojo, T. Hatae, T. Sakuma, T. Hamano, K. Itami, Y. Aida, S. Suitoh, and D. Fujie, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 10D539 (2010)]. The optical resolutions of the reflection and refraction systems are both sufficient for understanding the spatial structures in plasma. In particular, the spot sizes at the image of the optics are evaluated as ~0.3 mm and ~0.4 mm, respectively. The throughput for the two systems, including the pupil size and transmissivity, are also compared. The results show that good measurement accuracy (<10%) even at high electron temperatures (<30 keV) can be expected in the refraction system. PMID:24089827

  18. The Eat Well SA project: an evaluation-based case study in building capacity for promoting healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Smith, Alison; Coveney, John; Carter, Patricia; Jolley, Gwyn; Laris, Paul

    2004-09-01

    The term 'capacity building' is used in the health promotion literature to mean investing in communities, organizations and structures to enhance access to knowledge, skills and resources needed to conduct effective health programs. The Eat Well SA project aimed to increase consumption of healthy food by children, young people and their families in South Australia. The project evaluation demonstrated that awareness about healthy eating among stakeholders across a range of sectors, coalitions and partnerships to promote healthy eating and sustainable programs had been developed. The project achievements were analysed further using a capacity-building framework. This analysis showed that partnership development was a key strategy for success, leading to increased problem-solving capacity among key stakeholders and workers from education, child care, health, transport and food industry sectors. It was also a strategy that required concerted effort and review. New and ongoing programs were initiated and institutionalized within other sectors, notably the child care, vocational education and transport sectors. A model for planning and evaluating nutrition health promotion work is described. PMID:15306617

  19. Differences in Physical and Biochemical Properties of Thermus scotoductus SA-01 Cultured with Dielectric or Convection Heating

    PubMed Central

    Cockrell, Allison L.; Fitzgerald, Lisa A.; Cusick, Kathleen D.; Barlow, Daniel E.; Tsoi, Stanislav D.; Soto, Carissa M.; Baldwin, Jeffrey W.; Dale, Jason R.; Morris, Robert E.; Little, Brenda J.

    2015-01-01

    A thermophile, Thermus scotoductus SA-01, was cultured within a constant-temperature (65°C) microwave (MW) digester to determine if MW-specific effects influenced the growth and physiology of the organism. As a control, T. scotoductus cells were also cultured using convection heating at the same temperature as the MW studies. Cell growth was analyzed by optical density (OD) measurements, and cell morphologies were characterized using electron microscopy imaging (scanning electron microscopy [SEM] and transmission electron microscopy [TEM]), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Biophysical properties (i.e., turgor pressure) were also calculated with AFM, and biochemical compositions (i.e., proteins, nucleic acids, fatty acids) were analyzed by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to analyze the fatty acid methyl esters extracted from cell membranes. Here we report successful cultivation of a thermophile with only dielectric heating. Under the MW conditions for growth, cell walls remained intact and there were no indications of membrane damage or cell leakage. Results from these studies also demonstrated that T. scotoductus cells grown with MW heating exhibited accelerated growth rates in addition to altered cell morphologies and biochemical compositions compared with oven-grown cells. PMID:26150459

  20. Change detection in Arctic satellite imagery using clustering of sparse approximations (CoSA) over learned feature dictionaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moody, Daniela I.; Wilson, Cathy J.; Rowland, Joel C.; Altmann, Garrett L.

    2015-06-01

    Advanced pattern recognition and computer vision algorithms are of great interest for landscape characterization, change detection, and change monitoring in satellite imagery, in support of global climate change science and modeling. We present results from an ongoing effort to extend neuroscience-inspired models for feature extraction to the environmental sciences, and we demonstrate our work using Worldview-2 multispectral satellite imagery. We use a Hebbian learning rule to derive multispectral, multiresolution dictionaries directly from regional satellite normalized band difference index data. These feature dictionaries are used to build sparse scene representations, from which we automatically generate land cover labels via our CoSA algorithm: Clustering of Sparse Approximations. These data adaptive feature dictionaries use joint spectral and spatial textural characteristics to help separate geologic, vegetative, and hydrologic features. Land cover labels are estimated in example Worldview-2 satellite images of Barrow, Alaska, taken at two different times, and are used to detect and discuss seasonal surface changes. Our results suggest that an approach that learns from both spectral and spatial features is promising for practical pattern recognition problems in high resolution satellite imagery.

  1. NGR, XRD and TEM/SAED investigations on waste dumps materials with a view to recover precious metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udubasa, S. S.; Constantinescu, S.; Popescu-Pogrion, N.; Feder, M.; Udubasa, G.

    2010-03-01

    Two types of ores were selected for the investigation of the fate of the ore minerals during relatively long time of residence in the waste dumps (active mining: 25 years ago in the Badeanca Valley and some 50 years ago in the Valea lui Stan area). The pentametallic ores (Co-Ni-Bi-Ag-U) in the Leaota Mts. contain a great number of primary minerals of Cu, As etc. Although the waste dumps materials have whitish-yellowish colors their NGR spectra show the presence of iron minerals very finely dispersed. In the gold ores of Valea lui Stan deposit numerous minerals were identified, such as arsenopyrite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, etc., as major gold bearing sulfides. The waste dumps materials naturally show different mineral constituents, with clay minerals as major phases. Detailed NGR investigations show however Mössbauer spectra pointing out the presence of finely dispersed iron or iron-bearing minerals. Under supergene conditions gold is commonly sequestrated by iron hydroxydes; further TEM/SAED and XRD investigations are contributing to localize the gold. In some samples Mössbauer spectra resembling those of greigite have been obtained. Greigite is also a principal concentrator of gold under supergene conditions.

  2. Mössbauer, TEM/SAED and XRD investigation on waste dumps of the Valea lui Stan gold mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantinescu, Serban Grigore; Udubasa, Sorin S.; Udubasa, Gheorghe; Kuncser, Victor; Popescu-Pogrion, Nicoleta; Mercioniu, Ionel; Feder, Marcel

    2012-03-01

    The complementary investigation techniques, Mössbauer spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy with selected area electron diffraction (TEM/SAED), X-ray diffraction (XRD) have been used to investigate the fate of the Valea lui Stan, Romania, gold-ore nanoscale-minerals during the long time of residence in the waste dumps. The preliminary investigations showed such waste dumps to contain significant amount of metals which cannot be identified by conventional methods. An intense research activity started up in order to evaluate the possibilities to recycle Valea lui Stan waste dumps and to recover metals by chemical or phytoextraction procedures. The waste dumps naturally show different mineral constituents with clay minerals as major phases, observed by XRD-technique. Although the waste dumps materials have whitish-yellowish colours, MÖSSBAUER technique evidences the presence of the finely dispersed iron bearing minerals. The authors are focusing to inspect and analyze Fe-compounds in the samples collected from Valea lui Stan's waste dumps in order to identify the magnetic phases by Mössbauer technique.

  3. Rutin-Mediated Priming of Plant Resistance to Three Bacterial Pathogens Initiating the Early SA Signal Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Wang, Yingzi; Li, Ming; Wang, Yong; Ding, Xinhua; Chu, Zhaohui

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids are ubiquitous in the plant kingdom and have many diverse functions, including UV protection, auxin transport inhibition, allelopathy, flower coloring and insect resistance. Here we show that rutin, a proud member of the flavonoid family, could be functional as an activator to improve plant disease resistances. Three plant species pretreated with 2 mM rutin were found to enhance resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, Ralstonia solanacearum, and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 in rice, tobacco and Arabidopsis thaliana respectively. While they were normally propagated on the cultural medium supplemented with 2 mM rutin for those pathogenic bacteria. The enhanced resistance was associated with primed expression of several pathogenesis-related genes. We also demonstrated that the rutin-mediated priming resistance was attenuated in npr1, eds1, eds5, pad4-1, ndr1 mutants, and NahG transgenic Arabidopsis plant, while not in either snc1-11, ein2-5 or jar1 mutants. We concluded that the rutin-priming defense signal was modulated by the salicylic acid (SA)-dependent pathway from an early stage upstream of NDR1 and EDS1. PMID:26751786

  4. Correlation of the microstructure and fracture toughness of the heat-affected zones of an SA 508 steel

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.; Kang, S.Y.; Oh, S.J.; Kwon, S.J.; Lee, S.; Kim, J.H.; Hong, J.H.

    2000-04-01

    In this study, microstructures of a heat-affected zone (HAZ) of an SA 508 steel were identified by Moessbauer spectroscopy in conjunction with microscopic observations, and were correlated with fracture toughness. Specimens with the peak temperature raised to 1350 C showed mostly martensite. With the peak temperature raised to 900 C, the martensite fraction was reduced, while bainite or martensite islands were formed because of the slow cooling from the lower austenite region and the increase in the prior austenite grain size. As the martensite fraction present inside the HAZ increased, hardness and strength tended to increase, whereas fracture toughness decreased. The microstructures were not changed much from the base metal because of the minor tempering effect when it was raised to 650 C or 700 C. However, fracture toughness of the subcritical HAZ with the peak temperature raised to 650 C to 700 C was seriously reduced after postweld heat treatment (PWHT) because carbide particles were of primary importance in initiating voids. Thus, the most important microstructural factors affecting fracture toughness were the martensite fraction before PWHT and the carbide fraction after PWHT.

  5. Design of a thin disk amplifier with extraction during pumping for high peak and average power Ti:Sa systems (EDP-TD).

    PubMed

    Chvykov, Vladimir; Nagymihaly, Roland S; Cao, Huabao; Kalashnikov, Mikhail; Osvay, Karoly

    2016-02-22

    Combination of the scheme of extraction during pumping (EDP) and the Thin Disk (TD) technology is presented to overcome the limitations associated with thermal cooling of crystal and transverse amplified spontaneous emission in high average power laser systems based on Ti:Sa amplifiers. The optimized design of high repetition rate 1-10 PW Ti:Sapphire EDP-TD power amplifiers are discussed, including their thermal dynamic behavior. PMID:26907029

  6. Development of a morphogenetically active scaffold for three-dimensional growth of bone cells: biosilica-alginate hydrogel for SaOS-2 cell cultivation.

    PubMed

    Müller, Werner E G; Schröder, Heinz C; Feng, Qingling; Schlossmacher, Ute; Link, Thorben; Wang, Xiaohong

    2015-11-01

    Polymeric silica is formed from ortho-silicate during a sol-gel formation process, while biosilica is the product of an enzymatically driven bio-polycondensation reaction. Both polymers have recently been described as a template that induces an increased expression of the genes encoding bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and osteoprotegerin in osteoblast-related SaOS-2 cells; simultaneously or subsequently the cells respond with enhanced hydroxyapatite formation. In order to assess whether the biocompatible polymeric silica/biosilica can serve as a morphogenetically active matrix suitable for three-dimensional (3D) cell growth, or even for 3D cell bioprinting, SaOS-2 cells were embedded into a Na-alginate-based hydrogel. Four different gelatinous hydrogel matrices were used for suspending SaOS-2 cells: (a) the hydrogel alone; (b) the hydrogel with 400 μM ortho-silicate; (c) the hydrogel supplemented with 400 μM ortho-silicate and recombinant silicatein to allow biosilica synthesis to occur; and (d) the hydrogel with ortho-silicate and BSA. The SaOS-2 cells showed an increased growth if silica/biosilica components were present in the hydrogel. Likewise intensified was the formation of hydroxyapatite nodules in the silica-containing hydrogels. After an incubation period of 2 weeks, cells present in silica-containing hydrogels showed a significantly higher expression of the genes encoding the cytokine BMP-2, the major fibrillar structural protein collagen 1 and likewise of carbonic anhydrase. It is concluded that silica, and to a larger extent biosilica, retains its morphogenetic/osteogenic potential after addition to Na-alginate-based hydrogels. This property might qualify silica hydrogels to be also used as a matrix for 3D cell printing. PMID:23585362

  7. Complete genome sequence of 'Halanaeroarchaeum sulfurireducens' M27-SA2, a sulfur-reducing and acetate-oxidizing haloarchaeon from the deep-sea hypersaline anoxic lake Medee.

    PubMed

    Messina, Enzo; Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Kublanov, Ilya V; Toshchakov, Stepan; Lopatina, Anna; Arcadi, Erika; Smedile, Francesco; La Spada, Gina; La Cono, Violetta; Yakimov, Michail M

    2016-01-01

    Strain M27-SA2 was isolated from the deep-sea salt-saturated anoxic lake Medee, which represents one of the most hostile extreme environments on our planet. On the basis of physiological studies and phylogenetic positioning this extremely halophilic euryarchaeon belongs to a novel genus 'Halanaeroarchaeum' within the family Halobacteriaceae. All members of this genus cultivated so far are strict anaerobes using acetate as the sole carbon and energy source and elemental sulfur as electron acceptor. Here we report the complete genome sequence of the strain M27-SA2 which is composed of a 2,129,244-bp chromosome and a 124,256-bp plasmid. This is the second complete genome sequence within the genus Halanaeroarchaeum. We demonstrate that genome of 'Halanaeroarchaeum sulfurireducens' M27-SA2 harbors complete metabolic pathways for acetate and sulfur catabolism and for de novo biosynthesis of 19 amino acids. The genomic analysis also reveals that 'Halanaeroarchaeum sulfurireducens' M27-SA2 harbors two prophage loci and one CRISPR locus, highly similar to that of Kulunda Steppe (Altai, Russia) isolate 'H. sulfurireducens' HSR2(T). The discovery of sulfur-respiring acetate-utilizing haloarchaeon in deep-sea hypersaline anoxic lakes has certain significance for understanding the biogeochemical functioning of these harsh ecosystems, which are incompatible with life for common organisms. Moreover, isolations of Halanaeroarchaeum members from geographically distant salt-saturated sites of different origin suggest a high degree of evolutionary success in their adaptation to this type of extreme biotopes around the world. PMID:27182430

  8. Silicon-mediated resistance of Arabidopsis against powdery mildew involves mechanisms other than the salicylic acid (SA)-dependent defence pathway.

    PubMed

    Vivancos, Julien; Labbé, Caroline; Menzies, James G; Bélanger, Richard R

    2015-08-01

    On absorption by plants, silicon (Si) offers protection against many fungal pathogens, including powdery mildews. The mechanisms by which Si exerts its prophylactic role remain enigmatic, although a prevailing hypothesis suggests that Si positively influences priming. Attempts to decipher Si properties have been limited to plants able to absorb Si, which excludes the model plant Arabidopsis because it lacks Si influx transporters. In this work, we were able to engineer Arabidopsis plants with an Si transporter from wheat (TaLsi1) and to exploit mutants (pad4 and sid2) deficient in salicylic acid (SA)-dependent defence responses to study their phenotypic response and changes in defence expression against Golovinomyces cichoracearum (Gc) following Si treatment. Our results showed that TaLsi1 plants contained significantly more Si and were significantly more resistant to Gc infection than control plants when treated with Si, the first such demonstration in a plant transformed with a heterologous Si transporter. The resistant plants accumulated higher levels of SA and expressed higher levels of transcripts encoding defence genes, thus suggesting a role for Si in the process. However, TaLsi1 pad4 and TaLsi1 sid2 plants were also more resistant to Gc than were pad4 and sid2 plants following Si treatment. Analysis of the resistant phenotypes revealed a significantly reduced production of SA and expression of defence genes comparable with susceptible controls. These results indicate that Si contributes to Arabidopsis defence priming following pathogen infection, but highlight that Si will confer protection even when priming is altered. We conclude that Si-mediated protection involves mechanisms other than SA-dependent defence responses. PMID:25346281

  9. Place du Lambeau Interosseux Posterieur dans sa Variante Aponevrotique dans le Traitement des Sequelles de Brulure de la Face Dorsale de la Main

    PubMed Central

    Achbouk, A.; Khales, A.; Oufkir, A.; Ihrai, H.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Le lambeau interosseux postérieur dans sa variante aponévrotique est un outil très intéressant dans le traitement des séquelles de brûlures de la face dorsale de la main. Les Auteurs cherchent, à travers un cas clinique et une revue de la littérature, à replacer cette variante dans l'arsenal thérapeutique. PMID:21991207

  10. Evaluating color deficiency simulation and daltonization methods through visual search and sample-to-match: SaMSEM and ViSDEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon-Liedtke, Joschua T.; Farup, Ivar; Laeng, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Color deficient people might be confronted with minor difficulties when navigating through daily life, for example when reading websites or media, navigating with maps, retrieving information from public transport schedules and others. Color deficiency simulation and daltonization methods have been proposed to better understand problems of color deficient individuals and to improve color displays for their use. However, it remains unclear whether these color prosthetic" methods really work and how well they improve the performance of color deficient individuals. We introduce here two methods to evaluate color deficiency simulation and daltonization methods based on behavioral experiments that are widely used in the field of psychology. Firstly, we propose a Sample-to-Match Simulation Evaluation Method (SaMSEM); secondly, we propose a Visual Search Daltonization Evaluation Method (ViSDEM). Both methods can be used to validate and allow the generalization of the simulation and daltonization methods related to color deficiency. We showed that both the response times (RT) and the accuracy of SaMSEM can be used as an indicator of the success of color deficiency simulation methods and that performance in the ViSDEM can be used as an indicator for the efficacy of color deficiency daltonization methods. In future work, we will include comparison and analysis of different color deficiency simulation and daltonization methods with the help of SaMSEM and ViSDEM.

  11. PP2C-like Promoter and Its Deletion Variants Are Induced by ABA but Not by MeJA and SA in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Bhalothia, Purva; Sangwan, Chetna; Alok, Anshu; Mehrotra, Sandhya; Mehrotra, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Gene expression is mediated through interaction between cis regulatory elements and its cognate transcription factors. Cis regulatory elements are defined as non-coding DNA sequences that provide the binding sites for transcription factors and are clustered in the upstream region of genes. ACGT cis regulatory element is one of the important cis regulatory elements found to be involved in diverse biological processes like auxin response, salicylic acid (SA) response, UV light response, ABA response and jasmonic acid (JA) response. We identified through in silico analysis that the upstream region of protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) gene has a distinct genetic architecture of ACGT elements. In the present study, the activation of the full length promoter and its deletion constructs like 900 base pair, 500 base pair, 400 base pair and NRM (Nathji Rajesh Mehrotra) were examined by stable transformation in Arabidopsis thaliana using β-glucuronidase as the reporter gene. Evaluation of deletion constructs of PP2C-like promoter was carried out in the presence of phytohormones like abscisic acid (ABA), SA and JA. Our result indicated that the full length and 900 base pair promoter-reporter constructs of PP2C-like promoter was induced in response to ABA but not to methyl jasmonate and SA. PMID:27200023

  12. Salivaricin G32, a Homolog of the Prototype Streptococcus pyogenes Nisin-Like Lantibiotic SA-FF22, Produced by the Commensal Species Streptococcus salivarius.

    PubMed

    Wescombe, Philip A; Dyet, Kristin H; Dierksen, Karen P; Power, Daniel A; Jack, Ralph W; Burton, Jeremy P; Inglis, Megan A; Wescombe, Anna L; Tagg, John R

    2012-01-01

    Salivaricin G32, a 2667 Da novel member of the SA-FF22 cluster of lantibiotics, has been purified and characterized from Streptococcus salivarius strain G32. The inhibitory peptide differs from the Streptococcus pyogenes-produced SA-FF22 in the absence of lysine in position 2. The salivaricin G32 locus was widely distributed in BLIS-producing S. salivarius, with 6 (23%) of 26 strains PCR-positive for the structural gene, slnA. As for most other lantibiotics produced by S. salivarius, the salivaricin G32 locus can be megaplasmid encoded. Another member of the SA-FF22 family was detected in two Streptococcus dysgalactiae of bovine origin, an observation supportive of widespread distribution of this lantibiotic within the genus Streptococcus. Since the inhibitory spectrum of salivaricin G32 includes Streptococcus pyogenes, its production by S. salivarius, either as a member of the normal oral microflora or as a commercial probiotic, could serve to enhance protection of the human host against S. pyogenes infection. PMID:22567013

  13. Salivaricin G32, a Homolog of the Prototype Streptococcus pyogenes Nisin-Like Lantibiotic SA-FF22, Produced by the Commensal Species Streptococcus salivarius

    PubMed Central

    Wescombe, Philip A.; Dyet, Kristin H.; Dierksen, Karen P.; Power, Daniel A.; Jack, Ralph W.; Burton, Jeremy P.; Inglis, Megan A.; Wescombe, Anna L.; Tagg, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Salivaricin G32, a 2667 Da novel member of the SA-FF22 cluster of lantibiotics, has been purified and characterized from Streptococcus salivarius strain G32. The inhibitory peptide differs from the Streptococcus pyogenes—produced SA-FF22 in the absence of lysine in position 2. The salivaricin G32 locus was widely distributed in BLIS-producing S. salivarius, with 6 (23%) of 26 strains PCR-positive for the structural gene, slnA. As for most other lantibiotics produced by S. salivarius, the salivaricin G32 locus can be megaplasmid encoded. Another member of the SA-FF22 family was detected in two Streptococcus dysgalactiae of bovine origin, an observation supportive of widespread distribution of this lantibiotic within the genus Streptococcus. Since the inhibitory spectrum of salivaricin G32 includes Streptococcus pyogenes, its production by S. salivarius, either as a member of the normal oral microflora or as a commercial probiotic, could serve to enhance protection of the human host against S. pyogenes infection. PMID:22567013

  14. PP2C-like Promoter and Its Deletion Variants Are Induced by ABA but Not by MeJA and SA in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Bhalothia, Purva; Sangwan, Chetna; Alok, Anshu; Mehrotra, Sandhya; Mehrotra, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Gene expression is mediated through interaction between cis regulatory elements and its cognate transcription factors. Cis regulatory elements are defined as non-coding DNA sequences that provide the binding sites for transcription factors and are clustered in the upstream region of genes. ACGT cis regulatory element is one of the important cis regulatory elements found to be involved in diverse biological processes like auxin response, salicylic acid (SA) response, UV light response, ABA response and jasmonic acid (JA) response. We identified through in silico analysis that the upstream region of protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) gene has a distinct genetic architecture of ACGT elements. In the present study, the activation of the full length promoter and its deletion constructs like 900 base pair, 500 base pair, 400 base pair and NRM (Nathji Rajesh Mehrotra) were examined by stable transformation in Arabidopsis thaliana using β-glucuronidase as the reporter gene. Evaluation of deletion constructs of PP2C-like promoter was carried out in the presence of phytohormones like abscisic acid (ABA), SA and JA. Our result indicated that the full length and 900 base pair promoter-reporter constructs of PP2C-like promoter was induced in response to ABA but not to methyl jasmonate and SA. PMID:27200023

  15. Targeted Delivery of C/EBPα -saRNA by Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma-specific RNA Aptamers Inhibits Tumor Growth In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Sorah; Huang, Kai-Wen; Reebye, Vikash; Mintz, Paul; Tien, Yu-Wen; Lai, Hong-Shiee; Sætrom, Pål; Reccia, Isabella; Swiderski, Piotr; Armstrong, Brian; Jozwiak, Agnieszka; Spalding, Duncan; Jiao, Long; Habib, Nagy; Rossi, John J

    2016-01-01

    The 5-year survival rate for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains dismal despite current chemotherapeutic agents and inhibitors of molecular targets. As the incidence of PDAC constantly increases, more effective multidrug approaches must be made. Here, we report a novel method of delivering antitumorigenic therapy in PDAC by upregulating the transcriptional factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-α (C/EBPα), recognized for its antiproliferative effects. Small activating RNA (saRNA) duplexes designed to increase C/EBPα expression were linked onto PDAC-specific 2′-Fluropyrimidine RNA aptamers (2′F-RNA) - P19 and P1 for construction of a cell type–specific delivery vehicle. Both P19- and P1-C/EBPα-saRNA conjugates increased expression of C/EBPα and significantly suppressed cell proliferation. Tail vein injection of the saRNA/aptamer conjugates in PANC-1 and in gemcitabine-resistant AsPC-1 mouse-xenografts led to reduced tumor size with no observed toxicity. To exploit the specificity of the P19/P1 aptamers for PDAC cells, we also assessed if conjugation with Cy3 would allow it to be used as a diagnostic tool on archival human pancreatic duodenectomy tissue sections. Scoring pattern from 72 patients suggested a positive correlation between high fluorescent signal in the high mortality patient groups. We propose a novel aptamer-based strategy for delivery of targeted molecular therapy in advanced PDAC where current modalities fail. PMID:26983359

  16. Development of a dual frequency (110/138 GHz) gyrotron for JT-60SA and its extension to an oscillation at 82 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashia, Takayuki; Moriyama, Shinichi; Isayama, Akihiko; Sawahata, Masayuki; Terakado, Masayuki; Hiranai, Shinichi; Wada, Kenji; Sato, Yoshikatsu; Hinata, Jun; Yokokura, Kenji; Hoshino, Katsumichi; Sakamoto, Keishi

    2015-03-01

    A dual-frequency gyrotron, which can generate 110 GHz and 138 GHz waves independently, is being developed in JAEA to enable electron cyclotron heating (ECH) and current drive (ECCD) in a wider range of plasma discharge conditions of JT-60SA. Conditioning operation of the gyrotron toward 1 MW for 100 s, which is the target output power and pulse length for JT-60SA, is in progress without significant problems. Oscillations of 1 MW for 10 s and 0.5 MW for 198 s were obtained, so far, at both frequencies. Cooling water temperatures in the gyrotron and matching optics unit were saturated in the 198 s oscillation, and the observed maximum water temperature is sufficiently low. In addition to the above activity on the dual-frequency gyrotron development, an oscillation (0.3 MW for 20 ms) at 82 GHz was demonstrated as an additional frequency of the dual-frequency gyrotron. A possibility of the use of fundamental harmonic wave at 82 GHz in JT-60SA has been shown.

  17. Eight Nucleotide Substitutions Inhibit Splicing to HPV-16 3′-Splice Site SA3358 and Reduce the Efficiency by which HPV-16 Increases the Life Span of Primary Human Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoze; Johansson, Cecilia; Cardoso Palacios, Carlos; Mossberg, Anki; Dhanjal, Soniya; Bergvall, Monika; Schwartz, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The most commonly used 3′-splice site on the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) genome named SA3358 is used to produce HPV-16 early mRNAs encoding E4, E5, E6 and E7, and late mRNAs encoding L1 and L2. We have previously shown that SA3358 is suboptimal and is totally dependent on a downstream splicing enhancer containingmultiple potential ASF/SF2 binding sites. Here weshow that only one of the predicted ASF/SF2 sites accounts for the majority of the enhancer activity. We demonstrate that single nucleotide substitutions in this predicted ASF/SF2 site impair enhancer function and that this correlates with less efficient binding to ASF/SF2 in vitro. We provide evidence that HPV-16 mRNAs that arespliced to SA3358 interact with ASF/SF2 in living cells. In addition,mutational inactivation of the ASF/SF2 site weakened the enhancer at SA3358 in episomal forms of the HPV-16 genome, indicating that the enhancer is active in the context of the full HPV-16 genome.This resulted in induction of HPV-16 late gene expression as a result of competition from late splice site SA5639. Furthermore, inactivation of the ASF/SF2 site of the SA3358 splicing enhancer reduced the ability of E6- and E7-encoding HPV-16 plasmids to increase the life span of primary keratinocytes in vitro, demonstrating arequirement for an intact splicing enhancer of SA3358 forefficient production of the E6 and E7 mRNAs. These results link the strength of the HPV-16 SA3358 splicing enhancer to expression of E6 and E7 and to the pathogenic properties of HPV-16. PMID:24039800

  18. Eight nucleotide substitutions inhibit splicing to HPV-16 3'-splice site SA3358 and reduce the efficiency by which HPV-16 increases the life span of primary human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoze; Johansson, Cecilia; Cardoso Palacios, Carlos; Mossberg, Anki; Dhanjal, Soniya; Bergvall, Monika; Schwartz, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The most commonly used 3'-splice site on the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) genome named SA3358 is used to produce HPV-16 early mRNAs encoding E4, E5, E6 and E7, and late mRNAs encoding L1 and L2. We have previously shown that SA3358 is suboptimal and is totally dependent on a downstream splicing enhancer containingmultiple potential ASF/SF2 binding sites. Here weshow that only one of the predicted ASF/SF2 sites accounts for the majority of the enhancer activity. We demonstrate that single nucleotide substitutions in this predicted ASF/SF2 site impair enhancer function and that this correlates with less efficient binding to ASF/SF2 in vitro. We provide evidence that HPV-16 mRNAs that arespliced to SA3358 interact with ASF/SF2 in living cells. In addition,mutational inactivation of the ASF/SF2 site weakened the enhancer at SA3358 in episomal forms of the HPV-16 genome, indicating that the enhancer is active in the context of the full HPV-16 genome.This resulted in induction of HPV-16 late gene expression as a result of competition from late splice site SA5639. Furthermore, inactivation of the ASF/SF2 site of the SA3358 splicing enhancer reduced the ability of E6- and E7-encoding HPV-16 plasmids to increase the life span of primary keratinocytes in vitro, demonstrating arequirement for an intact splicing enhancer of SA3358 forefficient production of the E6 and E7 mRNAs. These results link the strength of the HPV-16 SA3358 splicing enhancer to expression of E6 and E7 and to the pathogenic properties of HPV-16. PMID:24039800

  19. The νSaα Specific Lipoprotein Like Cluster (lpl) of S. aureus USA300 Contributes to Immune Stimulation and Invasion in Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Minh Thu; Kraft, Beatrice; Yu, Wenqi; Demicrioglu, Dogan Doruk; Hertlein, Tobias; Burian, Marc; Schmaler, Mathias; Boller, Klaus; Bekeredjian-Ding, Isabelle; Ohlsen, Knut; Schittek, Birgit; Götz, Friedrich

    2015-01-01

    All Staphylococcus aureus genomes contain a genomic island, which is termed νSaα and characterized by two clusters of tandem repeat sequences, i.e. the exotoxin (set) and 'lipoprotein-like' genes (lpl). Based on their structural similarities the νSaα islands have been classified as type I to IV. The genomes of highly pathogenic and particularly epidemic S. aureus strains (USA300, N315, Mu50, NCTC8325, Newman, COL, JH1 or JH9) belonging to the clonal complexes CC5 and CC8 bear a type I νSaα island. Since the contribution of the lpl gene cluster encoded in the νSaα island to virulence is unclear to date, we deleted the entire lpl gene cluster in S. aureus USA300. The results showed that the mutant was deficient in the stimulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines in human monocytes, macrophages and keratinocytes. Purified lipoprotein Lpl1 was further shown to elicit a TLR2-dependent response. Furthermore, heterologous expression of the USA300 lpl cluster in other S. aureus strains enhanced their immune stimulatory activity. Most importantly, the lpl cluster contributed to invasion of S. aureus into human keratinocytes and mouse skin and the non-invasive S. carnosus expressing the lpl gene cluster became invasive. Additionally, in a murine kidney abscess model the bacterial burden in the kidneys was higher in wild type than in mutant mice. In this infection model the lpl cluster, thus, contributes to virulence. The present report is one of the first studies addressing the role of the νSaα encoded lpl gene cluster in staphylococcal virulence. The finding that the lpl gene cluster contributes to internalization into non-professional antigen presenting cells such as keratinocytes highlights the lpl as a new cell surface component that triggers host cell invasion by S. aureus. Increased invasion in murine skin and an increased bacterial burden in a murine kidney abscess model suggest that the lpl gene cluster serves as an important virulence factor. PMID:26083414

  20. Structural and redox properties of VOx and Pd/VOx thin film model catalysts studied by TEM and SAED.

    PubMed

    Penner, Simon; Klötzer, Bernhard; Jenewein, Bernd

    2007-05-21

    The oxidation of pure V(2)O(3) and Pd/V(2)O(3) films was studied by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Selected Area Electron Diffraction (SAED) in the temperature range 673-773 K. Thin films of V(2)O(3) were prepared by reactive deposition of V metal in 10(-2) Pa O(2) on NaCl(001) cleavage faces. Pd particles were epitaxially grown on NaCl(001) and subsequently embedded in V(2)O(3). Oxidation of both pure V(2)O(3) and Pd/V(2)O(3) at 673 K transforms V(2)O(3) into a platelet-like V(2)O(5) structure. At temperatures T>or= 773 K, a reconstruction of the platelet-like V(2)O(5) structure into an array of oblong and needle-type V(2)O(5) nanocrystals of different size occurs. Subsequent reduction of the so-prepared structures in 1 bar H(2) at 573-673 K results in the formation of the cubic VO phase, whereby the external shape of the original crystals is partially maintained. Upon oxidation at 723 K, Pd is transformed into PdO, but its formation is suppressed in comparison with Pd supported on Al(2)O(3) and occurs only at an about 100 K higher temperature than on Pd/Al(2)O(3). The Pd particles are stabilized against oxidation up to 673 K, PdO decomposes upon reduction in hydrogen between 573 and 673 K. PMID:17492107

  1. Co-evolution of soils and vegetation in the Aísa Valley Experimental Station (Central Pyrenees)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano Muela, Maria Pilar; Nadal Romero, Estela; Lasanta, Teodoro; María García Ruiz, José

    2013-04-01

    Soils and vegetation tend to evolve jointly in relation to climate evolution and the impacts of human activity. This study analyzes soil and vegetation characteristics under various plant covers, using information from the Aísa Valley Experimental Station (AVES), Spanish Pyrenees, from 1991 to 2010. The land uses considered were: dense shrub cover, grazing meadow, abandoned field, cereal (barley), abandoned shifting agriculture, active shifting agriculture, burnt1 and burnt2 plots, and in-fallow plot. All the plots were installed on a field abandoned 45 years ago. Some of the plots did not change in plant cover through the study period (e.g., the meadow, cereal and shifting agriculture plots), but others underwent changes in density and composition, such as: (i) The dense shrub cover plot represents the natural evolution of the abandoned field. When the AVES was equipped, this plot was completely dominated by Genista scorpius, with a few stands of Rosa gr. Canina. Twenty years later, Genista scorpius is affected of senescence and shows almost no regeneration capacity. (ii) The abandoned field had previously been cultivated with cereals until 1993. Once abandoned, the progression of plant colonization was very rapid. Firstly with grasses and, 10 years later, with Genista scorpius. At present, this latter occupies more than 50% of the plot. (iii) The evolution of plant colonization in the abandoned shifting agriculture plot was slower than that in the 'normal' abandoned field, mainly because of the differences in fertilization when they were cultivated. (iv) One of the burnt plots evolved from 0% to a coverage of almost 100% in a shot period, whereas the other plot remained with a shrub density of about 60% several years after the fire. Soil samples (superficial and depth) were analyzed to obtain physical and chemical properties: structure, texture, pH, CaCO3, Organic Matter and various anions and cations. The main purpose was to detect differences in the soil

  2. Optical designs of reflection and refraction collection optics for a JT-60SA core Thomson scattering system

    SciTech Connect

    Tojo, H.; Hatae, T.; Hamano, T.; Sakuma, T.; Itami, K.

    2013-09-15

    Collection optics for core measurements in a JT-60SA Thomson scattering system were designed. The collection optics will be installed in a limited space and have a wide field of view and wide wavelength range. Two types of the optics are therefore suggested: refraction and reflection types. The reflection system, with a large primary mirror, avoids large chromatic aberrations. Because the size limit of the primary mirror and vignetting due to the secondary mirror affect the total collection throughput, conditions that provide the high throughput are found through an optimization. A refraction system with four lenses forming an Ernostar system is also employed. The use of high-refractive-index glass materials enhances the freedom of the lens curvatures, resulting in suppression of the spherical and coma aberration. Moreover, sufficient throughput can be achieved, even with smaller lenses than that of a previous design given in [H. Tojo, T. Hatae, T. Sakuma, T. Hamano, K. Itami, Y. Aida, S. Suitoh, and D. Fujie, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 10D539 (2010)]. The optical resolutions of the reflection and refraction systems are both sufficient for understanding the spatial structures in plasma. In particular, the spot sizes at the image of the optics are evaluated as ∼0.3 mm and ∼0.4 mm, respectively. The throughput for the two systems, including the pupil size and transmissivity, are also compared. The results show that good measurement accuracy (<10%) even at high electron temperatures (<30 keV) can be expected in the refraction system.

  3. Simultaneous hyperspectral differential-CARS, TPF and SHG microscopy with a single 5 fs Ti:Sa laser.

    PubMed

    Pope, Iestyn; Langbein, Wolfgang; Watson, Peter; Borri, Paola

    2013-03-25

    We have developed a multimodal multiphoton laser-scanning microscope for cell imaging featuring simultaneous acquisition of differential Coherent Antistokes Raman Scattering (D-CARS), two-photon fluorescence (TPF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) using a single 5 fs Ti:Sa broadband (660-970 nm) laser. The spectral and temporal pulse requirements of these modalities were optimized independently by splitting the laser spectrum into three parts: TPF/SHG excitation (> 900 nm), CARS Pump excitation (< 730 nm), and CARS Stokes excitation (730-900 nm). In particular, by applying an equal linear chirp to pump and Stokes pulses using glass dispersion we achieved a CARS spectral resolution of 10 cm(-1), and acquired CARS images over the 1200-3800 cm(-1) vibrational range selected by the time delay between pump and Stokes. A prism pulse compressor in the TPF/SHG excitation was used to achieve Fourier limited 30 fs pulses at the sample for optimum TPF and SHG. D-CARS was implemented with few passive optical elements and enabled simultaneous excitation and detection of two vibrational frequencies with a separation adjustable from 20 cm(-1) to 150 cm(-1) for selective chemical contrast and background suppression. The excitation/detection set-up using beam-scanning was built around a commercial inverted microscope stand providing conventional bright-field, differential interference contrast and epi-fluorescence for user-friendly characterization of biological samples. Examples of CARS hyperspectral images and simultaneous acquisition of D-CARS, TPF and SHG images in both forward and epi-direction are shown on HeLa cells, stem-cell derived human adipocytes and mouse tissues. PMID:23546091

  4. Soil-plant water status and wine quality: the case study of Aglianico wine (the ZOViSA project)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonfante, Antonello; Manna, Piero; Albrizio, Rossella; Basile, Angelo; Agrillo, Antonietta; De Mascellis, Roberto; Caputo, Pellegrina; Delle Cave, Aniello; Gambuti, Angelita; Giorio, Pasquale; Guida, Gianpiero; Minieri, Luciana; Moio, Luigi; Orefice, Nadia; Terribile, Fabio

    2014-05-01

    The terroir analysis, aiming to achieve a better use of environmental features with respect to plant requirement and wine production, needs to be strongly rooted on hydropedology. In fact, the relations between wine quality and soil moisture regime during the cropping season is well established. The ZOViSA Project (Viticultural zoning at farm scale) tests a new physically oriented approach to terroir analysis based on the relations between the soil-plant water status and wine quality. The project is conducted in southern Italy in the farm Quintodecimo of Mirabella Eclano (AV) located in the Campania region, devoted to quality Aglianico red wine production (DOC). The soil spatial distribution of study area (about 3 ha) was recognized by classical soil survey and geophysics scan by EM38DD; then the soil-plant water status was monitored for three years in two experimental plots from two different soils (Cambisol and Calcisol). Daily climate variables (temperature, solar radiation, rainfall, wind), daily soil water variables (through TDR probes and tensiometers), crop development (biometric and physiological parameters), and grape must and wine quality were monitored. The agro-hydrological model SWAP was calibrated and applied in the two experimental plots to estimate soil-plant water status in different crop phenological stages. The effects of crop water status on crop response and wine quality was evaluated in two different pedo-systems, comparing the crop water stress index with both: crop physiological measurements (leaf gas exchange, leaf water potential, chlorophyll content, LAI measurement), grape bunches measurements (berry weight, sugar content, titratable acidity, etc.) and wine quality (aromatic response). Finally a "spatial application" of the model was carried out and different terroirs defined.

  5. Droit International De L'éducation: Une Discipline Nouvelle?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, Agostinho Reis

    2008-03-01

    INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION LAW: A NEW DISCIPLINE? - Education is one of the most highly regarded "human rights" and one which has been developed most extensively within the International Human Rights Law, so that its normative corpus already forms a very International Education Law. The right to education means a new right to a new education that, in the Rule of Law, may be qualified as Rightful Education. Such an expression is an operating concept for a human rights-based approach to education; that is, for an education no longer envisaged as a right of man over man. It amounts to a new paradigm. It is therefore high time to systematize the International Education Law in order to promote its study and the introduction of a legal dimension into pedagogic culture.

  6. Grandes nouvelles dimensions et gravité quantique au coin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Dimopoulos, Savas; Dvali, Gia

    2003-04-01

    The electroweak unification mass may be the only fundamental scale in nature. If so, the visible universe may lie on a membrane floating within a higher dimensional space; new dimensions, black holes, quantum gravity, and string theory may become experimentally accessible in this decade. The dark matter could reside on parallel universes inside the extra dimensions. To cite this article: N. Arkani-Hamed et al., C. R. Physique 4 (2003).

  7. Technologies nouvelles cherchent neologismes (New Technologies Seek Out Neologisms).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otman, Gabriel

    1986-01-01

    Examines the changes in French vocabulary due to technological advancement and the need for new terminology to accommodate those changes. The origins of common neologisms and their relationship to English are explored and the pervasive use of acronyms, suffixes, and prefixes is described. (MSE)

  8. ProKaSaRe Study Protocol: A Prospective Multicenter Study of Pulmonary Rehabilitation of Patients With Sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Lingner, Heidrun; Großhennig, Anika; Flunkert, Kathrin; Buhr-Schinner, Heike; Heitmann, Rolf; Tönnesmann, Ulrich; van der Meyden, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Background Available data assessing the efficacy of pulmonary rehabilitation for patients with chronic sarcoidosis are scant; for Germany, there are none at all. Objective To gain information about the benefit of in-house pulmonary rehabilitation for patients with chronic sarcoidosis and for the health care system, we intend to collect data in a prospective multicenter “real-life” cohort trial. Methods ProKaSaRe (Prospektive Katamnesestudie Sarkoidose in der pneumologischen Rehabilitation) [Prospective Catamnesis Study of Sarcoidosis in Pulmonary Rehabilitation] will assess a multimodal 3-week inpatient pulmonary rehabilitation program for adult patients with chronic sarcoidosis over a 1-year follow-up time. Defined specific clinical measurements and tests will be performed at the beginning and the end of the rehabilitation. In addition, questionnaires concerning health-related quality of life and the patients’ symptoms will be provided to all patients. Inclusion criteria will be referral to one of the 6 participating pulmonary rehabilitation clinics in Germany for sarcoidosis and age between 18 and 80 years. Patients will only be excluded for a lack of German language skills or the inability to understand and complete the study questionnaires. To rule out seasonal influences, the recruitment will take place over a period of 1 year. In total, at least 121 patients are planned to be included. A descriptive statistical analysis of the data will be performed, including multivariate analyses. The primary outcomes are specific health-related quality of life (St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire) and exercise capacity (6-minute walk test). The secondary outcomes are several routine lung function and laboratory parameters, dyspnea scores and blood gas analysis at rest and during exercise, changes in fatigue, psychological burden, and generic health-related quality of life (36-item Short Form Health Survey). Results Funding was obtained on October 12, 2010

  9. Longitudinal study of patients with chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy in Brazil (SaMi-Trop project): a cohort profile

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Clareci Silva; Sabino, Ester Cerdeira; Oliveira, Claudia Di Lorenzo; de Oliveira, Lea Campos; Ferreira, Ariela Mota; Cunha-Neto, Edécio; Bierrenbach, Ana Luiza; Ferreira, João Eduardo; Haikal, Desirée Sant'Ana; Reingold, Arthur L; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz P

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We have established a prospective cohort of 1959 patients with chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy to evaluate if a clinical prediction rule based on ECG, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels, and other biomarkers can be useful in clinical practice. This paper outlines the study and baseline characteristics of the participants. Participants The study is being conducted in 21 municipalities of the northern part of Minas Gerais State in Brazil, and includes a follow-up of 2 years. The baseline evaluation included collection of sociodemographic information, social determinants of health, health-related behaviours, comorbidities, medicines in use, history of previous treatment for Chagas disease, functional class, quality of life, blood sample collection, and ECG. Patients were mostly female, aged 50–74 years, with low family income and educational level, with known Chagas disease for >10 years; 46% presented with functional class >II. Previous use of benznidazole was reported by 25.2% and permanent use of pacemaker by 6.2%. Almost half of the patients presented with high blood cholesterol and hypertension, and one-third of them had diabetes mellitus. N-terminal of the prohormone BNP (NT-ProBNP) level was >300 pg/mL in 30% of the sample. Findings to date Clinical and laboratory markers predictive of severe and progressive Chagas disease were identified as high NT-ProBNP levels, as well as symptoms of advanced heart failure. These results confirm the important residual morbidity of Chagas disease in the remote areas, thus supporting political decisions that should prioritise in addition to epidemiological surveillance the medical treatment of chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy in the coming years. The São Paulo-Minas Gerais Tropical Medicine Research Center (SaMi-Trop) represents a major challenge for focused research in neglected diseases, with knowledge that can be applied in primary healthcare. Future plans We will continue following this patients’ cohort

  10. Planning analysis for locally advanced lung cancer: dosimetric and efficiency comparisons between intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), single-arc/partial-arc volumetric modulated arc therapy (SA/PA-VMAT)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the differences between the intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), single/partial-arc volumetric modulated arc therapy (SA/PA-VMAT) techniques in treatment planning for locally advanced lung cancer. Materials and methods 12 patients were retrospectively studied. In each patient's case, several parameters were analyzed based on the dose-volume histograms (DVH) of the IMRT, SA/PA-VMAT plans respectively. Also, each plan was delivered to a phantom for time comparison. Results The SA-VMAT plans showed the superior target dose coverage, although the minimum/mean/maximum doses to the target were similar. For the total and contralateral lungs, the higher V5/10, lower V20/30 and mean lung dose (MLD) were observed in the SA/PA-VMAT plans (p < 0.05, respectively). The PA-VMAT technique improves the dose sparing (V20, V30 and MLD) of the controlateral lung more notably, comparing to those parameters of the IMRT and SA-VMAT plans respectively. The delivered monitor units (MUs) and treatment times were reduced significantly with VMAT plans, especially PA-VMAT plans (for MUs: mean 458.3 vs. 439.2 vs. 435.7 MUs, p < 0.05 and for treatment time: mean 13.7 vs. 10.6 vs. 6.4 minutes, p < 0.01). Conclusions The SA-VMAT technique achieves highly conformal dose distribution to the target. Comparing to the IMRT plans, the higher V5/10, lower V20/30 and MLD were observed in the total and contralateral lungs in the VMAT plans, especially in the PA-VMAT plans. The SA/PA-VMAT plans also reduced treatment time with more efficient dose delivering. But the clinical benefit of the VMAT technique for locally advanced lung cancer needs further investigations. PMID:22014217

  11. JE Nakayama/JE SA-14-14-2 virus structural region intertypic viruses: Biological properties in the mouse model of neuroinvasive disease

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Thomas J.; Droll, Deborah A.; Jiang, Xiaoshan; Wold, William S. M.; Nickells, Janice A.

    2007-01-01

    A molecular clone of Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus Nakayama strain was used to create intertypic viruses containing either the 5’-C-prM-E or the prM-E region of the attenuated JE SA14-14-2 virus in the JE-Nakayama background. These two intertypic JE viruses, JE-X/5’CprME(S) and JE-X/prME(S) respectively, generally resembled the parental JE virus in cell culture properties. Similar to virus derived from the JE Nakayama molecular clone (JE-XJN), JE-X/prME(S) was highly neuroinvasive and neurovirulent for young adult mice, whereas JE-X/5’CprME(S) was attenuated for neuroinvasiveness and only partially attenuated for neurovirulence. Immunization of young mice with JE-X/5’CprME(S) virus elicited neutralizing antibodies against JE Nakayama virus and conferred protection against encephalitis following challenge with JE Nakayama virus. The sequence of the JE-X/5’CprME(S) virus differed from that of JE-X/prME(S) virus at two nucleotides in the 5’ UTR, 3 amino acid positions in the capsid protein, 4 positions in the prM protein and 1 in the envelope protein. For JE-X/prME(S) virus, the 4 differences in prM and the single substitution in the envelope represented reversions to the sequence of JE-Nakayama virus. Overall, this study reveals that molecular determinants associated with the prM-E region of the attenuated JE SA14-14-2 virus are insufficient by themselves to confer an attenuation phenotype upon JE Nakayama virus. This suggests a role for determinants in the 5’ UTR and/or the capsid protein of the JE SA 14-14-2 virus genome in influencing the virulence properties of the JE Nakayama virus in the mouse model. PMID:17521693

  12. HRTEM, SAED and XRD investigations of RE{sub 4}O{sub 4}[AsO{sub 4}]Cl (RE = La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd)

    SciTech Connect

    Ben Yahia, Hamdi; Rodewald, Ute Ch.; Boulahya, Khalid; Pöttgen, Rainer

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: The new compounds RE{sub 4}O{sub 4}[AsO{sub 4}]Cl (RE = La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd) were synthesised by solid state reaction via a salt flux route and investigated by HRTEM, SAED, and single crystal X-ray diffraction. - Highlights: • We discovered the series of RE{sub 4}O{sub 4}[AsO{sub 4}]Cl (RE = La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd) compounds. • The RE{sub 4}O{sub 4}[AsO{sub 4}]Cl single crystals were grown using NaCl/KCl flux. • The RE{sub 4}O{sub 4}[AsO{sub 4}]Cl structures were solved using single crystal X-ray diffraction data. • The layered RE{sub 4}O{sub 4}[AsO{sub 4}]Cl compounds were further characterized using HRTEM and SAED. • We observed an alternation of ordered-[RE{sub 4}O{sub 4}]{sup 4+} and disordered-[ClAsO{sub 4}]{sup 4–} layers. - Abstract: The new compounds RE{sub 4}O{sub 4}[AsO{sub 4}]Cl (RE = La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd) were synthesised by solid state reaction via a salt flux route and investigated by HRTEM, SAED, and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The samples crystallise with a tetragonal cell, space group P4{sub 2}/mnm and Z = 2. Their crystal structure consists of an alternation of [RE{sub 4}O{sub 4}]{sup 4+} and [ClAsO{sub 4}]{sup 4–} layers. The [RE{sub 4}O{sub 4}]{sup 4+} layer contains ORE{sub 4/4} tetrahedra which share common edges. The anions AsO{sub 4}{sup 3–} and Cl{sup –} are located between these layers in disordered manner. SAED and HRTEM experiments confirmed this structural model and enabled us to propose an ordered model for the [ClAsO{sub 4}]{sup 4–} layers.

  13. Ether modifications to 1-[2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl]-4-(3-phenylpropyl)piperazine (SA4503): effects on binding affinity and selectivity for sigma receptors and monoamine transporters

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Rong; Lord, Sarah A.; Peterson, Ryan M.; Fergason-Cantrell, Emily A.; Lever, John R.; Lever, Susan Z.

    2014-01-01

    Two series of novel ether analogs of the sigma (σ) receptor ligand 1-[2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl]-4-(3-phenylpropyl)piperazine (SA4503) have been prepared. In one series, the alkyl portion of the 4-methoxy group was replaced with allyl, propyl, bromoethyl, benzyl, phenethyl, and phenylpropyl moieties. In the second series, the 3,4-dimethoxy was replaced with cyclic methylenedioxy, ethylenedioxy and propylenedioxy groups. These ligands, along with 4-O-des-methyl SA4503, were evaluated for σ1 and σ2 receptor affinity, and compared to SA4503 and several known ether analogs. SA4503 and a subset of ether analogs were also evaluated for dopamine transporter (DAT) and serotonin transporter (SERT) affinity. The highest σ1 receptor affinities, Ki values of 1.75 nM – 4.63 nM, were observed for 4-O-des-methyl SA4503, SA4503 and the methylenedioxy analog. As steric bulk increased, σ1 receptor affinity decreased, but only to a point. Allyl, propyl and bromoethyl substitutions gave σ1 receptor Ki values in the 20 nM – 30 nM range, while bulkier analogs having phenylalkyl, and Z- and E-iodoallyl, ether substitutions showed higher σ1 affinities, with Ki values in the 13 nM – 21 nM range. Most ligands studied exhibited comparable σ1 and σ2 affinities, resulting in little to no subtype selectivity. SA4503, the fluoroethyl analog and the methylenedioxy congener showed modest six- to fourteen-fold selectivity for σ1 sites. DAT and SERT interactions proved much more sensitive than σ receptor interactions to these structural modifications. For example, the benzyl congener (σ1 Ki = 20.8 nM; σ2 Ki = 16.4 nM) showed over 100-fold higher DAT affinity (Ki = 121 nM) and 6-fold higher SERT affinity (Ki = 128 nM) than the parent SA4503 (DAT Ki = 12650 nM; SERT Ki = 760 nM). Thus, ether modifications to the SA4503 scaffold can provide polyfunctional ligands having a broader spectrum of possible pharmacological actions. PMID:25468036

  14. Inhibition of SA Node at Supine Position in Right Atrial Thrombus Complicating Behçet’s Disease – From Cardiac Surgical Point of View

    PubMed Central

    Hijazi, Emad Mohamed; Ibdah, Rasheed Khaled; Rawashdeh, Sukina Ismael; Saadeh, Abdullah Mahmoud; Al-Balas, Hamzeh Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Female, 27 Final Diagnosis: Right atrial thrombus compressing the sinoatrial node Symptoms: Dyspnea • cough and hemoptysis with supine bradycardia reaching 36/min and dizziness Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Cardiac surgical intervention removing the mechanical cause if conservative management failed can be done safely Specialty: Surgery Objective: Rare disease Background: Behçet’s disease (BD) is a chronic multi-systemic disease of unknown cause. Intra-cardiac thrombus (ICT) complicating BD is extremely rare. In general, cardiac manifestations in BD are associated with poor prognosis. Chest computed tomography (CT) scan and echocardiogram are excellent modalities for diagnosis and patient assessment. Cardiac surgical intervention can be done safely using an on-pump technique when medical management has failed. Case Report: We report on a case of a 27-year-old Jordanian woman diagnosed with BD who presented with dyspnea, cough, and hemoptysis, with supine bradycardia reaching 36 beats/minute and dizziness which disappear on sitting or standing position, and with heart rate reaching 76 beats/minute. Right atrial thrombus was identified using transthoracic echocardiogram and chest CT scan. After medical management failed, cardiac surgical intervention became an option and targeted extraction of the right atrial thrombus compressing the sinoatrial node (SA node). Conclusions: In BD, right atrial thrombus compressing the SA node is rare. If conservative management has failed, cardiac surgical intervention removing the mechanical cause can be done safely, either using on-pump with cross clamp or on-pump with beating heart technique. PMID:27311379

  15. Development of a small animal peripheral challenge model of Japanese encephalitis virus using interferon deficient AG129 mice and the SA14-14-2 vaccine virus strain.

    PubMed

    Calvert, Amanda E; Dixon, Kandice L; Delorey, Mark J; Blair, Carol D; Roehrig, John T

    2014-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the most common cause of viral encephalitis in Asia, and it is increasingly a global public health concern due to its recent geographic expansion. While commercial vaccines are available and used in some endemic countries, JEV continues to be a public health problem, with 50,000 cases reported annually. Research with virulent JEV in mouse models to develop new methods of prevention and treatment is restricted to BSL-3 containment facilities, confining these studies to investigators with access to these facilities. We have developed an adult small animal peripheral challenge model using interferon-deficient AG129 mice and the JEV live-attenuated vaccine SA14-14-2, thus requiring only BSL-2 containment. A low dose of virus (10PFU/0.1ml) induced 100% morbidity in infected mice. Increased body temperatures measured by implantable temperature transponders correlated with an increase in infectious virus and viral RNA in serum, spleen and brain as well as an increase in pro-inflammatory markers measured by a 58-biomarker multi-analyte profile (MAP) constructed during the course of infection. In the future, the MAP measurements can be used as a baseline for comparison in order to better assess the inhibition of disease progression by other prophylactic and therapeutic agents. The use of the AG129/JEV SA14-14-2 animal model makes vaccine and therapeutic studies feasible for laboratories with limited biocontainment facilities. PMID:24252694

  16. Análise da aplicação e dos resultados do modelo OPM3® para a área da saúde

    PubMed Central

    Augusto dos Santos, Luis; de Fátima Marin, Heimar

    2015-01-01

    Esta pesquisa procurou analisar se um modelo de questionário criado por uma comunidade internacional de gerenciamento de projetos e se é aplicavél a organizações voltadas a área de saúde. O modelo OPM3® (Organizational Project Management Maturity Model) foi criado para que organizações de qualquer área ou porte pudessem identificar a presença, ou ausência, de boas práticas de gerenciamento. O objetivo da aplicação desse modelo é avaliar sempre a organização e não o entrevistado. No presente artigo, são apresentados os resultados da aplicação desse modelo em uma organização que possuía produtos e serviços de tecnologia da informação aplicados à área de saúde. Este estudo verificou que o modelo é aplicável de forma rápida e que a organização analisada possuía um número expressivo de boas práticas. PMID:26924862

  17. Use of the mCherry Fluorescent Protein To Study Intestinal Colonization by Enterococcus mundtii ST4SA and Lactobacillus plantarum 423 in Mice

    PubMed Central

    van Zyl, Winschau F.; Deane, Shelly M.

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are natural inhabitants of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of humans and animals, and some LAB species receive considerable attention due to their health benefits. Although many papers have been published on probiotic LAB, only a few reports have been published on the migration and colonization of the cells in the GIT. This is due mostly to the lack of efficient reporter systems. In this study, we report on the application of the fluorescent mCherry protein in the in vivo tagging of the probiotic strains Enterococcus mundtii ST4SA and Lactobacillus plantarum 423. The mCherry gene, encoding a red fluorescent protein (RFP), was integrated into a nonfunctional region on the genome of L. plantarum 423 by homologous recombination. In the case of E. mundtii ST4SA, the mCherry gene was cloned into the pGKV223D LAB/Escherichia coli expression vector. Expression of the mCherry gene did not alter the growth rate of the two strains and had no effect on bacteriocin production. Both strains colonized the cecum and colon of mice. PMID:26116681

  18. Two-color experiments combining the UV storage ring free-electron laser and the SA5 IR beamline at Super-ACO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahon, Laurent; Renault, Eric; Couprie, Marie-Emmanuelle; Nutarelli, Daniele; Garzella, David; Billardon, Michel; Carr, G. Lawrence; Williams, Gwyn P.; Dumas, Paul

    1999-10-01

    The UV-storage ring Free Electron Laser (FEL) operating at Super-ACO is a tunable, coherent and intense (up to 300 mW) photon source in the near-UV range (300 - 350 nm). Besides, it has the unique feature to be synchronized in a one-to-one shot ratio with the Synchrotron Radiation (SR) at the high repetition rate of 8.32 MHz. This FEL + SR combination appears to be very powerful for the performance of pump- probe time-resolved and/or frequency-resolved experiments on the sub-ns and ns time-scales. In particular, there is a strong scientific case for the combination of the recently- commissioned SA5 Infra-Red Synchrotron Radiation beamline with the UV-FEL, for the performance of transient IR- absorption spectroscopy on FEL-excited samples with a Fourier-transform spectrometer coupled with a microscope allowing high spectral and spatial resolution. The principle and interest of the two-color combination altogether with the description of both the FEL and the SA5 IR beamline are presented. The first synchronization signal between the IR and the UV beams is shown. The correct spatial overlap between the UV (FEL) and the IR (SR) photon beams is demonstrated by monitoring via IR-spectro-microscopy the time evolution of a single mineral particulate (kaolinite) under UV-FEL irradiation.

  19. Bacillus cereus AR156 activates PAMP-triggered immunity and induces a systemic acquired resistance through a NPR1-and SA-dependent signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Niu, Dongdong; Wang, Xiujuan; Wang, Yanru; Song, Xiaoou; Wang, Jiansheng; Guo, Jianhua; Zhao, Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    Induced resistance responses play a potent role in plant defense system against pathogen attack. Bacillus cereus AR156 is a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) that installs induced systemic resistance (ISR) to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) in Arabidopsis. Here, we show that AR156 leaf infiltration enhances disease resistance in Arabidopsis through the activation of a systemic acquired resistance (SAR). PR1 protein expression and reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst are strongly induced in plants treated with AR156 and inoculated with Pst than that in plants inoculated with Pst only. Moreover, AR156 can trigger SAR in jar1 or ein2 mutants, but not in the NahG transgenic and NPR1 mutant plants. Our results indicate that AR156-induced SAR depends on SA-signaling pathway and NPR1, but not JA and ET. Also, AR156-treated plants are able to rapidly activate MAPK signaling and FRK1 gene expression, which are involved in pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI). Altogether, our results indicate that AR156 can induce SAR by the SA-signaling pathways in an NPR1-dependent manner and involves multiple PTI components. PMID:26616055

  20. Inhibition of SA Node at Supine Position in Right Atrial Thrombus Complicating Behçet's Disease - From Cardiac Surgical Point of View.

    PubMed

    Hijazi, Emad Mohamed; Ibdah, Rasheed Khaled; Rawashdeh, Sukina Ismael; Saadeh, Abdullah Mahmoud; Al-Balas, Hamzeh Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Behçet's disease (BD) is a chronic multi-systemic disease of unknown cause. Intra-cardiac thrombus (ICT) complicating BD is extremely rare. In general, cardiac manifestations in BD are associated with poor prognosis. Chest computed tomography (CT) scan and echocardiogram are excellent modalities for diagnosis and patient assessment. Cardiac surgical intervention can be done safely using an on-pump technique when medical management has failed. CASE REPORT We report on a case of a 27-year-old Jordanian woman diagnosed with BD who presented with dyspnea, cough, and hemoptysis, with supine bradycardia reaching 36 beats/minute and dizziness which disappear on sitting or standing position, and with heart rate reaching 76 beats/minute. Right atrial thrombus was identified using transthoracic echocardiogram and chest CT scan. After medical management failed, cardiac surgical intervention became an option and targeted extraction of the right atrial thrombus compressing the sinoatrial node (SA node). CONCLUSIONS In BD, right atrial thrombus compressing the SA node is rare. If conservative management has failed, cardiac surgical intervention removing the mechanical cause can be done safely, either using on-pump with cross clamp or on-pump with beating heart technique. PMID:27311379

  1. iLOGP: a simple, robust, and efficient description of n-octanol/water partition coefficient for drug design using the GB/SA approach.

    PubMed

    Daina, Antoine; Michielin, Olivier; Zoete, Vincent

    2014-12-22

    The n-octanol/water partition coefficient (log Po/w) is a key physicochemical parameter for drug discovery, design, and development. Here, we present a physics-based approach that shows a strong linear correlation between the computed solvation free energy in implicit solvents and the experimental log Po/w on a cleansed data set of more than 17,500 molecules. After internal validation by five-fold cross-validation and data randomization, the predictive power of the most interesting multiple linear model, based on two GB/SA parameters solely, was tested on two different external sets of molecules. On the Martel druglike test set, the predictive power of the best model (N = 706, r = 0.64, MAE = 1.18, and RMSE = 1.40) is similar to six well-established empirical methods. On the 17-drug test set, our model outperformed all compared empirical methodologies (N = 17, r = 0.94, MAE = 0.38, and RMSE = 0.52). The physical basis of our original GB/SA approach together with its predictive capacity, computational efficiency (1 to 2 s per molecule), and tridimensional molecular graphics capability lay the foundations for a promising predictor, the implicit log P method (iLOGP), to complement the portfolio of drug design tools developed and provided by the SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics. PMID:25382374

  2. Control of Current Profile and Instability by Radiofrequency Wave Injection in JT-60U and Its Applicability in JT-60SA

    SciTech Connect

    Isayama, A.; Suzuki, T.; Hayashi, N.; Ide, S.; Hamamatsu, K.; Fujita, T.; Hosoyama, H.; Kamada, Y.; Oyama, N.; Ozeki, T.; Sakata, S.; Seki, M.; Sueoka, M.; Takechi, M.; Urano, H.; Nagasaki, K.

    2007-09-28

    Recent results of control of current profile and instability using radiofrequency wave in JT-60U and prediction analysis in JT-60SA are descried. In JT-60U, control of current profile in high-beta regime was demonstrated by using a real-time system, where the motional Stark effect diagnostic and lower hybrid wave were used as a detector and actuator, respectively. The minimum value of the safety factor was raised from 1.3 to 1.7 so as to follow the commanded value. Complete stabilization of a neoclassical tearing mode (NTM) with the poloidal mode number m = 2 and the toroidal mode number n = 1 was demonstrated using electron cyclotron (EC) current drive. By scanning the location of EC current drive in detail, strong stabilization effect was found for misalignment less than about half of the full island width. In addition, destabilization of the 2/1 NTM was observed for misalignment comparable to the full island width. Simulation of NTM stabilization in JT-60SA was performed by using the TOPICS code combined with the modified Rutherford equation. The TOPICS simulation showed that complete stabilization can be achieved more effectively by optimizing the EC wave injection angle and modulating the EC wave.

  3. SePreSA: a server for the prediction of populations susceptible to serious adverse drug reactions implementing the methodology of a chemical-protein interactome.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lun; Luo, Heng; Chen, Jian; Xing, Qinghe; He, Lin

    2009-07-01

    Serious adverse drug reactions (SADRs) are caused by unexpected drug-human protein interactions, and some polymorphisms within binding pockets make the population carrying these polymorphisms susceptible to SADR. Predicting which populations are likely to be susceptible to SADR will not only strengthen drug safety, but will also assist enterprises to adjust R&D and marketing strategies. Making such predictions has recently been facilitated by the introduction of a web server named SePreSA. The server has a comprehensive collection of the structural models of nearly all the well known SADR targets. Once a drug molecule is submitted, the scale of its potential interaction with multi-SADR targets is calculated using the DOCK program. The server utilizes a 2-directional Z-transformation scoring algorithm, which computes the relative drug-protein interaction strength based on the docking-score matrix of a chemical-protein interactome, thus achieve greater accuracy in prioritizing SADR targets than simply using dock scoring functions. The server also suggests the binding pattern of the lowest docking score through 3D visualization, by highlighting and visualizing amino acid residues involved in the binding on the customer's browser. Polymorphism information for different populations for each of the interactive residues will be displayed, helping users to deduce the population-specific susceptibility of their drug molecule. The server is freely available at http://SePreSA.Bio-X.cn/. PMID:19417066

  4. Rapid Analysis of Carbohydrates in Bioprocess Samples: An Evaluation of the CarboPac SA10 for HPAE-PAD Analysis by Interlaboratory Comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Sevcik, R. S.; Hyman, D. A.; Basumallich, L.; Scarlata, C. J.; Rohrer, J.; Chambliss, C. K.

    2013-01-01

    A technique for carbohydrate analysis for bioprocess samples has been developed, providing reduced analysis time compared to current practice in the biofuels R&D community. The Thermofisher CarboPac SA10 anion-exchange column enables isocratic separation of monosaccharides, sucrose and cellobiose in approximately 7 minutes. Additionally, use of a low-volume (0.2 mL) injection valve in combination with a high-volume detection cell minimizes the extent of sample dilution required to bring sugar concentrations into the linear range of the pulsed amperometric detector (PAD). Three laboratories, representing academia, industry, and government, participated in an interlaboratory study which analyzed twenty-one opportunistic samples representing biomass pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, and fermentation samples. The technique's robustness, linearity, and interlaboratory reproducibility were evaluated and showed excellent-to-acceptable characteristics. Additionally, quantitation by the CarboPac SA10/PAD was compared with the current practice method utilizing a HPX-87P/RID. While these two methods showed good agreement a statistical comparison found significant quantitation difference between them, highlighting the difference between selective and universal detection modes.

  5. Presence of a 16/6 related human anti-DNA common idiotype (SA1) in the anticardiolipin antibodies of patients with primary antiphospholipid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, G M; Alarcón-Segovia, D; Villa, A R; Cabral, A R; Shoenfeld, Y

    1991-10-01

    Patients with primary antiphospholipid syndrome (PAPS) have few or no autoantibodies, other than the antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) that could be natural autoantibodies encoded by germline genes. Some of the autoantibodies marked by the human anti-DNA common idiotype 16/6 have been found to be encoded by unmutated germline genes. Hence, we tested the sera of 19 patients with PAPS for the presence of the 16/6 idiotype which has also been found to be expressed on antibodies that bind cardiolipin. For this we used an ELISA method with antiserum against the SA1 idiotype which recognizes the 16/6. Five of our patients had the idiotype in at least one serum. Among the patients there was one with a variant of PAPS with hemolytic anemia and an IgM antibody to phosphatidylcholine that is akin to the natural autoantibody of normal mice encoded by germline genes VH11 and VH12. Inhibition studies with ssDNA, dsDNA and cardiolipin revealed that all 3 antigens decreased the serum levels of the SA1 idiotype despite absence of detectable anti-DNA antibodies by other methods. Our findings suggest that within the B cell clones that produce aPL in patients with PAPS there are some that produce immunoglobulins bearing 16/6 related idiotypes. This could indicate that some of the aPL present in patients with PAPS derive from natural autoantibody producing cell clones. PMID:1765979

  6. Synergistic streptococcal phage λSA2 and B30 endolysins kill streptococci in cow milk and in a mouse model of mastitis.

    PubMed

    Schmelcher, Mathias; Powell, Anne M; Camp, Mary J; Pohl, Calvin S; Donovan, David M

    2015-10-01

    Bovine mastitis results in billion dollar losses annually in the USA alone. Streptococci are among the most relevant causative agents of this disease. Conventional antibiotic therapy is often unsuccessful and contributes to development of antibiotic resistance. Bacteriophage endolysins represent a new class of antimicrobials against these bacteria. In this work, we characterized the endolysins (lysins) of the streptococcal phages λSA2 and B30 and evaluated their potential as anti-mastitis agents. When tested in vitro against live streptococci, both enzymes exhibited near-optimum lytic activities at ionic strengths, pH, and Ca(2+) concentrations consistent with cow milk. When tested in combination in a checkerboard assay, the lysins were found to exhibit strong synergy. The λSA2 lysin displayed high activity in milk against Streptococcus dysgalactiae (reduction of CFU/ml by 3.5 log units at 100 μg/ml), Streptococcus agalactiae (2 log), and Streptococcus uberis (4 log), whereas the B30 lysin was less effective. In a mouse model of bovine mastitis, both enzymes significantly reduced intramammary concentrations of all three streptococcal species (except for B30 vs. S. dysgalactiae), and the effects on mammary gland wet weights and TNFα concentrations were consistent with these findings. Unexpectedly, the synergistic effect determined for the two enzymes in vitro was not observed in the mouse model. Overall, our results illustrate the potential of endolysins for treatment of Streptococcus-induced bovine mastitis. PMID:25895090

  7. Inactivation of the WNT5A Alternative Promoter B Is Associated with DNA Methylation and Histone Modification in Osteosarcoma Cell Lines U2OS and SaOS-2.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Himani; Rumph, Candie; Katula, Karen S

    2016-01-01

    WNT5A is a secreted ligand involved in Wnt pathway signaling and has a role in cell movement and differentiation. Altered WNT5A expression is associated with various cancers, although in most studies the focus has been on only one of the known WNT5A isoforms. In this study, we analyzed expression from two of the major WNT5A promoters, termed promoter A and promoter B, in normal human osteoblasts, SaOS-2 and U2OS osteosarcoma cell lines, and osteosarcoma tumor tissue. We found that both promoters A and B are active in normal osteoblasts with nearly 11-fold more promoter B than A transcripts. Promoter B but not promoter A transcripts are decreased or nearly undetectable in the SaOS-2 and U2OS cell lines and osteosarcoma tumor tissues. Transient transfection of promoter A and promoter B reporter constructs confirmed that SaOS-2 cells have the necessary factors to transcribe both promoters. Bisulfite sequencing analysis revealed that three CpG enriched regions upstream of the promoter B exon 1βare highly methylated in both SaOS-2 and U2OS cells. The CpG island sub-region R6 located in promoter B exon 1β was approximately 51% methylated in SaOS-2 and 25% methylated in U2OS. Region 3 was approximately 28% methylated in normal osteoblasts, whereas the others were unmethylated. Promoter B was re-activated by treatment of SaOS-2 cells with 1 μM 5-azacytidine, which was associated with only a small insignificant change in methylation of sub-region R6. ChIP analysis of U2OS and SaOS-2 cells indicated that the promoter B region is less enriched in the active histone mark H3K4me3, in comparison to promoter A and that there is increased enrichment of the repressive mark H3K27me3 in association with the promoter B genomic region in the cell line SaOS-2. These findings show that epigenetic inactivation of the WNT5A promoter B involves both DNA methylation and histone modifications and suggest that differential expression of the WNT5A alternative promoters A and B is a

  8. Inactivation of the WNT5A Alternative Promoter B Is Associated with DNA Methylation and Histone Modification in Osteosarcoma Cell Lines U2OS and SaOS-2

    PubMed Central

    Vaidya, Himani; Rumph, Candie; Katula, Karen S.

    2016-01-01

    WNT5A is a secreted ligand involved in Wnt pathway signaling and has a role in cell movement and differentiation. Altered WNT5A expression is associated with various cancers, although in most studies the focus has been on only one of the known WNT5A isoforms. In this study, we analyzed expression from two of the major WNT5A promoters, termed promoter A and promoter B, in normal human osteoblasts, SaOS-2 and U2OS osteosarcoma cell lines, and osteosarcoma tumor tissue. We found that both promoters A and B are active in normal osteoblasts with nearly 11-fold more promoter B than A transcripts. Promoter B but not promoter A transcripts are decreased or nearly undetectable in the SaOS-2 and U2OS cell lines and osteosarcoma tumor tissues. Transient transfection of promoter A and promoter B reporter constructs confirmed that SaOS-2 cells have the necessary factors to transcribe both promoters. Bisulfite sequencing analysis revealed that three CpG enriched regions upstream of the promoter B exon 1βare highly methylated in both SaOS-2 and U2OS cells. The CpG island sub-region R6 located in promoter B exon 1β was approximately 51% methylated in SaOS-2 and 25% methylated in U2OS. Region 3 was approximately 28% methylated in normal osteoblasts, whereas the others were unmethylated. Promoter B was re-activated by treatment of SaOS-2 cells with 1 μM 5-azacytidine, which was associated with only a small insignificant change in methylation of sub-region R6. ChIP analysis of U2OS and SaOS-2 cells indicated that the promoter B region is less enriched in the active histone mark H3K4me3, in comparison to promoter A and that there is increased enrichment of the repressive mark H3K27me3 in association with the promoter B genomic region in the cell line SaOS-2. These findings show that epigenetic inactivation of the WNT5A promoter B involves both DNA methylation and histone modifications and suggest that differential expression of the WNT5A alternative promoters A and B is a

  9. Investigation of a Sudden Malaria Outbreak in the Isolated Amazonian Village of Saül, French Guiana, January–April 2009

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Franck; Flamand, Claude; Musset, Lise; Djossou, Félix; Rosine, Jacques; Sanquer, Marie-Anne; Dusfour, Isabelle; Legrand, Eric; Ardillon, Vanessa; Rabarison, Patrick; Grenier, Claire; Girod, Romain

    2012-01-01

    Malaria is endemic in French Guiana. Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are the predominant species responsible and Anopheles darlingi is described as the major vector. In mid-August 2008, an increase in malaria incidence was observed in Saül. A retrospective cohort survey was performed. In vitro susceptibility profiles to antimalarials were determined on P. falciparum isolates. Collections of mosquitoes were organized. The malaria attack rate reached 70.6/100. The risk of malaria increased for people between 40 and 49 years of age, living in a house not subjected to a recent indoor residual insecticide spraying or staying overnight in the surrounding forest. All isolates were susceptible. Anopheles darlingi females and larvae were collected in the village suggesting a local transmission. Our results strongly support a role of illegal mining activities in the emergence of new foci of malaria. Therefore, public health authorities should define policies to fight malaria at a transborder level. PMID:22492141

  10. Helping Sex Offenders to Desist Offending: The Gains and Drains for CoSA Volunteers-A Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Höing, Mechtild; Bogaerts, Stefan; Vogelvang, Bas

    2016-08-01

    In Circles of Support and Accountability (CoSA), a group of trained volunteers support sex offenders in their desistance process by engaging in a long-lasting empathic relationship. Is it safe to employ volunteers in this way? This literature review provides an overview of both theoretical explanations and empirical evidence of the possible impact of this type of volunteerism on the volunteers themselves. Fifty original research articles and reviews met the selection criteria of a systematic search. Results on effects of volunteering in general, effects of volunteer work with offenders, and effects of working with sex offenders on professionals are summarized and integrated. Generally, volunteering supports and improves physical health and mental well-being, personal growth, and citizenship. However, working with sex offenders in an empathic relationship generates both positive and negative effects on psychological and social function. Personal characteristics, task characteristics, and organizational characteristics moderate and mediate the impact. PMID:24906364

  11. Le fibromatosis colli ou torticolis congénital: son diagnostic et sa prise en charge à propos de deux cas

    PubMed Central

    Tchaou, Mazamaesso; Pegbessou, Plaodezina Essobozou; Sonhaye, Lantam; Ahouanssou, Patricia Yékpé; Amadou, Abdoulatif; Kolou, Beresa; Kama, Lidi Bessi; Garba, Nouhou Mahamadou; Koussema, Lama Kegdigoma Agoda; N'dakéna, Koffi

    2015-01-01

    Le fibromatosis colli (FC) est pseudotumeur rare du muscle sterno-cléido-mastoïdien (SCM), à l'origine d'un torticolis dit congénital chez le nouveau-né ou le nourrisson. Le mécanisme étio-pathogénique de sa survenue est sujet à controverse. Son diagnostic fait appel à l’échographie qui permet de mettre en évidence un épaississement caractéristique du muscle. Nous rapportons deux cas diagnostiqués par l’échographie avec pour un cas une notion de malposition intra-utérine et pour l'autre cas une absence totale de malposition et de traumatisme obstétrical qui pourtant est évoqué comme élément du mécanisme de survenue du FC. PMID:26834927

  12. Is Xpert MRSA/SA SSTI real-time PCR a reliable tool for fast detection of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci in periprosthetic joint infections?

    PubMed

    Lourtet-Hascoëtt, J; Bicart-See, A; Félicé, M P; Giordano, G; Bonnet, E

    2015-09-01

    Periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs) are frequently caused by methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). Cultures remain the gold standard but often require a few days. Thus, a rapid test could be interesting to guide antibiotic strategy earlier. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performances of RT-PCR Xpert® MRSA/SA technique for the detection of methicillin-resistant CoNS (MRCoNS) from deep samples in patients with PJIs. RT-PCR was tested on 72 samples. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of RT-PCR method were 0.36, 0.98, 0.90, and 0.74, respectively. Although RT-PCR may allow early microbial diagnosis of PJI due to Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA and MRSA), the low sensitivity and the high cost of this method to detect MRCoNS could limit its use in this field. PMID:26052062

  13. [Caring for the health of your neighbor: the work of anthropologist Charles Wagley with the Serviço Especial de Saúde Pública].

    PubMed

    de Figueiredo, Regina Érika Domingos

    2014-01-01

    The article focuses on the work of Charles Wagley as a top staff member with Serviço Especial de Saúde Pública (Special Public Health Service), a US-Brazil cooperation program established during World War II. Taking into consideration Wagley's experience with migration policy under Brazil's Rubber Program, as well as the context of development promotion and the issues then on the anthropological agenda, the article explores Wagley's community study of the Amazon town he visited while on SESP missions, published in the book Uma comunidade amazônica (Amazon Town). Encountering a reality that he believed emblematic of underdevelopment, Wagley was led to reflect on social change and the role of science. PMID:25099224

  14. Tectonic evolution and setting of the Sa'al Complex, southern Sinai, Egypt: A Proterozoic continental back-arc rift model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, A.; Hassen, I.; Hassan, M.

    2015-04-01

    The Sa'al Complex is a mainly low grade metamorphosed polydeformed volcanosedimentary sequence exposed in the northern central Sinai basement, Egypt. Details of the stratigraphy, sedimentology and petrography of the three formations: Agramiya, Ra'ayan and Zaghara Formations are described. The earliest deformation (D1) is related to extensional tectonism and HT-LP regional metamorphism. The main D1 structure is a bedding-parallel S1 foliation with at least 50% vertical shortening in the well-foliated Ra'ayan phyllites. Earlier models that explained S1 by bedding-parallel shearing are rejected. The Sa'al volcanism, D1 extension and HT metamorphism were probably associated with back-arc rifting in a continental arc setting, similar to the modern Taupo Zone of New Zealand. Later deformations, D2 and D3, involved folding about NE-trending and NW-trending axial planes, respectively. D2 was probably a result of compressional stresses typical of continental back-arc regions, and resulted in development of steep NW-vergent imbricate thrusts and NE-trending F2 meso- and macrofolds. The Firinga gabbro and the Wadi Murad foliated diorite intruded along D2 backthrusts, while the main diorite intrusion dominating the centre of the complex intruded along D2 steepened imbricate thrusts. F3 deformation may be related to the latest convergence of the east and west Gondwana, and has correlatives in the Kid and Feiran Complexes. A final deformation D4 that generated the main strike-slip faults in the area correlates with NE-SW trending σ1, inconsistent with a Najd origin. Recent geochronological results from U/Pb zircon studies are difficult to reconcile with stratigraphic and intrusion field evidence, and apparently require very tight time constraints on the main metamorphism, D1 and D2 deformations of the complex.

  15. Inorganic polymeric phosphate/polyphosphate as an inducer of alkaline phosphatase and a modulator of intracellular Ca2+ level in osteoblasts (SaOS-2 cells) in vitro.

    PubMed

    Müller, Werner E G; Wang, Xiaohong; Diehl-Seifert, Bärbel; Kropf, Klaus; Schlossmacher, Ute; Lieberwirth, Ingo; Glasser, Gunnar; Wiens, Matthias; Schröder, Heinz C

    2011-06-01

    Inorganic polymeric phosphate is a physiological polymer that accumulates in bone cells. In the present study osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells were exposed to this polymer, complexed in a 2:1 stoichiometric ratio with Ca(2+), polyP (Ca(2+) salt). At a concentration of 100 μM, polyP (Ca(2+) salt) caused a strong increase in the activity of the alkaline phosphatase and also an induction of the steady-state expression of the gene encoding this enzyme. Comparative experiments showed that polyP (Ca(2+) salt) can efficiently replace β-glycerophosphate in the in vitro hydroxyapatite (HA) biomineralization assay. In the presence of polyP (Ca(2+) salt) the cells extensively form HA crystallites, which remain intimately associated with or covered by the plasma membrane. Only the tips of the crystallites are directly exposed to the extracellular space. Element mapping by scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy coupled to a silicon drift detector supported the finding that organic material was dispersed within the crystallites. Finally, polyP (Ca(2+) salt) was found to cause an increase in the intracellular Ca(2+) level, while polyP, as well as inorganic phosphate (P(i)) or Ca(2+) alone, had no effect at the concentrations used. These findings are compatible with the assumption that polyP (Ca(2+) salt) is locally, on the surface of the SaOS-2 cells, hydrolyzed to P(i) and Ca(2+). We conclude that the inorganic polymer polyP (Ca(2+) salt) in concert with a second inorganic, and physiologically occurring, polymer, biosilica, activates osteoblasts and impairs the maturation of osteoclasts. PMID:21397057

  16. Long-pulse production of high current negative ion beam by using actively temperature controlled plasma grid for JT-60SA negative ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Kojima, A.; Hanada, M.; Yoshida, M.; Umeda, N.; Hiratsuka, J.; Kashiwagi, M.; Tobari, H.; Watanabe, K.; Grisham, L. R.

    2015-04-08

    The temperature control system of the large-size plasma grid has been developed to realize the long pulse production of high-current negative ions for JT-60SA. By using this prototype system for the JT-60SA ion source, 15 A negative ions has been sustained for 100 s for the first time, which is three times longer than that obtained in JT-60U. In this system, a high-temperature fluorinated fluid with a high boiling point of 270 degree Celsius is circulated in the cooling channels of the plasma grids (PG) where a cesium (Cs) coverage is formed to enhance the negative ion production. Because the PG temperature control had been applied to only 10% of the extraction area previously, the prototype PG with the full extraction area (110 cm × 45 cm) was developed to increase the negative ion current in this time. In the preliminary results of long pulse productions of high-current negative ions at a Cs conditioning phase, the negative ion production was gradually degraded in the last half of 100 s pulse where the temperature of an arc chamber wall was not saturated. From the spectroscopic measurements, it was found that the Cs flux released from the wall might affect to the negative ion production, which implied the wall temperature should be kept low to control the Cs flux to the PG for the long-pulse high-current production. The obtained results of long-pulse production and the PG temperature control method contributes the design of the ITER ion source.

  17. Rapid and successful start-up of anammox process by immobilizing the minimal quantity of biomass in PVA-SA gel beads.

    PubMed

    Ali, Muhammad; Oshiki, Mamoru; Rathnayake, Lashitha; Ishii, Satoshi; Satoh, Hisashi; Okabe, Satoshi

    2015-08-01

    Rapid start-up of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process in up-flow column reactors was successfully achieved by immobilizing minimal quantity of biomass in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-sodium alginate (SA) gel beads. The changes in the reactor performance (i.e., nitrogen removal rate; NRR) were monitored with time. The results demonstrate that the reactor containing the immobilized biomass concentration of 0.33 g-VSS L(-1) achieved NRR of 10.8 kg-N m(-3) d(-1) after 35-day operation, whereas the reactor containing the granular biomass of 2.5 g-VSS L(-1) could achieve only NRR of 3.5 kg-N m(-3) d(-1). This indicates that the gel immobilization method requires much lower seeding biomass for start-up of anammox reactor. To explain the better performance of the immobilized biomass, the biological and physicochemical properties of the immobilized biomass were characterized and compared with the naturally aggregated granular biomass. Effective diffusion coefficient (De) in the immobilized biomass was directly determined by microelectrodes and found to be three times higher than one in the granular biomass. High anammox activity (i.e., NH4(+) and NO2(-) consumption rates) was evenly detected throughout the gel beads by microelectrodes due to faster and deeper substrate transport. In contrast, anammox activity was localized in the outer layers of the granular biomass, indicating that the inner biomass could not contribute to the nitrogen removal. This difference was in good agreement with the spatial distribution of microbes analysed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Based on these results, PVA-SA gel immobilization is an efficient strategy to initiate anammox reactors with minimal quantity of anammox biomass. PMID:25980915

  18. ANTIPSYCHOTICS REVERSE P-GLYCOPROTEIN-MEDIATED DOXORUBICIN RESISTANCE IN HUMAN UTERINE SARCOMA MES-SA/Dx5 CELLS: A NOVEL APPROACH TO CANCER CHEMOTHERAPY.

    PubMed

    Angelini, A; Ciofani, G; Conti, P

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) mediated by P-glycoprotein (Pgp) remains one of the major obstacles to effective cancer chemotherapy. Several chemosensitizers have been used in vivo and in vitro to reverse MDR but have exhibited several unwanted side effects. Antipsychotics are often administered to treat psychiatric disorders such as delirium, anxiety and sleep disorders in cancer patients during chemotherapy. The present in vitro study, examined the effects of two common antipsychotic compounds, haloperidol and risperidone, and a natural compound such as theobromine on reversing MDR Pgp-mediated, to evaluate their potential use as chemosensitizing agents. The human doxorubicin (doxo) resistant uterine sarcoma cells (MES-SA/Dx5) that overexpress Pgp (100-fold), were treated with the antipsychotic alone (1, 10 and 20 μM) or in combination with different concentrations of doxo (2, 4 and 8 μM). The accumulation and cytotoxicity of doxo (MTT assay) and cellular GSH content (GSH assay) in comparison with verapamil, a well-known Pgp inhibitor, used as reference molecule were examined. It was found that the three compounds significantly enhanced the intracellular accumulation of doxo in resistant cancer cells, when compared with cells receiving doxo alone (p<0.05). Furthermore, compounds showed strong potency to increase doxo cytotoxicity toward resistant MES-SA/Dx5 cells, when compared with untreated control cells. The antipsychotic compounds also significantly increased GSH content at all concentrations (> 30%) in resistant cells, when compared to untreated control cells (p<0.05). These findings suggest that the antipsychotics or their derivatives might represent a novel class of reversal agents for overcoming MDR in cancer therapy, in particular theobromine showed to be an effective Pgp inhibitor with the lowest toxicity. PMID:26122223

  19. Prime-boost vaccination with SA-4-1BBL costimulatory molecule and survivin eradicates lung carcinoma in CD8+ T and NK cell dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Abhishek K; Sharma, Rajesh K; Yolcu, Esma S; Ulker, Vahap; MacLeod, Kathryn; Dinc, Gunes; Shirwan, Haval

    2012-01-01

    Subunit vaccines containing universal tumor associated antigens (TAAs) present an attractive treatment modality for cancer primarily due to their safety and potential to generate long-term immunological responses that can safeguard against recurrences. However, TAA-based subunit vaccines require potent adjuvants for therapeutic efficacy. Using a novel form of the 4-1BBL costimulatory molecule, SA-4-1BBL, as the adjuvant of choice, we previously demonstrated that a single vaccination with survivin (SVN) as a bona fide self TAA was effective in eradicating weakly immunogenic 3LL tumors in >70% of C57BL/6 mice. The present study was designed to i) assess the therapeutic efficacy of a prime-boost vaccination and ii) investigate the mechanistic basis of vaccine efficacy. Our data shows that a prime-boost vaccination strategy was effective in eradicating 3LL lung carcinoma in 100% of mice. The vaccine efficacy was correlated with increased percentages of CD8(+) T cells expressing IFN-γ as well as potent killing responses of both CD8(+) T and NK cells in the absence of detectable antibodies to ssDNA as a sign of autoimmunity. Antibody depletion of CD8(+) T cells one day before vaccination completely abrogated therapeutic efficacy, whereas depletion of CD4(+) T cells had no effect. Importantly, NK cell depletion had a moderate (∼50% reduction), but significant (p<0.05) effect on vaccine efficacy. Taken together, these results shed light on the mechanistic basis of the SA-4-1BBL/SVN subunit vaccine formulation in a lung carcinoma model and demonstrate the robust therapeutic efficacy of the prime-boost immunization strategy with important clinical implications. PMID:23144888

  20. Long-pulse production of high current negative ion beam by using actively temperature controlled plasma grid for JT-60SA negative ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, A.; Hanada, M.; Yoshida, M.; Umeda, N.; Hiratsuka, J.; Kashiwagi, M.; Tobari, H.; Watanabe, K.; Grisham, L. R.

    2015-04-01

    The temperature control system of the large-size plasma grid has been developed to realize the long pulse production of high-current negative ions for JT-60SA. By using this prototype system for the JT-60SA ion source, 15 A negative ions has been sustained for 100 s for the first time, which is three times longer than that obtained in JT-60U. In this system, a high-temperature fluorinated fluid with a high boiling point of 270 degree Celsius is circulated in the cooling channels of the plasma grids (PG) where a cesium (Cs) coverage is formed to enhance the negative ion production. Because the PG temperature control had been applied to only 10% of the extraction area previously, the prototype PG with the full extraction area (110 cm × 45 cm) was developed to increase the negative ion current in this time. In the preliminary results of long pulse productions of high-current negative ions at a Cs conditioning phase, the negative ion production was gradually degraded in the last half of 100 s pulse where the temperature of an arc chamber wall was not saturated. From the spectroscopic measurements, it was found that the Cs flux released from the wall might affect to the negative ion production, which implied the wall temperature should be kept low to control the Cs flux to the PG for the long-pulse high-current production. The obtained results of long-pulse production and the PG temperature control method contributes the design of the ITER ion source.

  1. The sulfated laminarin triggers a stress transcriptome before priming the SA- and ROS-dependent defenses during grapevine's induced resistance against Plasmopara viticola.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Adrien; Trouvelot, Sophie; Kelloniemi, Jani; Frettinger, Patrick; Wendehenne, David; Daire, Xavier; Joubert, Jean-Marie; Ferrarini, Alberto; Delledonne, Massimo; Flors, Victor; Poinssot, Benoit

    2014-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is susceptible to many pathogens which cause significant losses to viticulture worldwide. Chemical control is available, but agro-ecological concerns have raised interest in alternative methods, especially in triggering plant immunity by elicitor treatments. The β-glucan laminarin (Lam) and its sulfated derivative (PS3) have been previously demonstrated to induce resistance in grapevine against downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola). However, if Lam elicits classical grapevine defenses such as oxidative burst, pathogenesis-related (PR)-proteins and phytoalexin production, PS3 triggered grapevine resistance via a poorly understood priming phenomenon. The aim of this study was to identify the molecular mechanisms of the PS3-induced resistance. For this purpose we studied i) the signaling events and transcriptome reprogramming triggered by PS3 treatment on uninfected grapevine, ii) grapevine immune responses primed by PS3 during P. viticola infection. Our results showed that i) PS3 was unable to elicit reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration variations, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation but triggered a long lasting plasma membrane depolarization in grapevine cells, ii) PS3 and Lam shared a common stress-responsive transcriptome profile that partly overlapped the salicylate- (SA) and jasmonate-(JA)-dependent ones. After P. viticola inoculation, PS3 specifically primed the SA- and ROS-dependent defense pathways leading to grapevine induced resistance against this biotroph. Interestingly pharmacological approaches suggested that the plasma membrane depolarization and the downstream ROS production are key events of the PS3-induced resistance. PMID:24516597

  2. Comparison of cell viability and morphology of a human osteoblast-like cell line (SaOS-2) seeded on various bone substitute materials: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Ayobian-Markazi, Nader; Fourootan, T.; Kharazifar, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Many studies have shown favorable results following the use of different bone graft materials. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of four different bone graft materials regarding cell viability and morphology of Human osteoblast-like cells (SaOS-2) in vitro. Materials and Methods: The effects of Bio-Oss®, Tutodent®, Osteon®, and Cerasorb® were studied on the human osteoblast-like cell line to evaluate various parameters. Human osteoblast-like cells were seeded onto the mentioned bone substitute materials (BSMs). Cell differentiation; cell viability and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of the seeded cells were evaluated by means of scanning electron microscopy, cell viability test and phase contrast microscopy Analysis of variance (ANOVA). Tamhane's post-hoc, Kruskal-Wallis Test, and Dunn's Test were used. The results were considered to be statistically significant at P<0.05. Results: The control group (SaOS-2 cells which were incubated in Dulbecco Modified Eagle Medium without any kind of bone graft materials) had the highest level of cell viability (P<0.001), followed by Tutodent®, Osteon®, Cerasorb®, and Bio-Oss®. There was no significant difference in MTT assay results between Tutodent® and the control group (P=0.032). All tested bone graft materials showed significantly higher ALP activity than the control (P<0.001). The Tutodent® group showed the best cell growth among all experimental groups, followed by the Osteon® group. The former had a higher spindle-like morphology with good attachment to the surface. Cells cultivated on the surfaces of the Cerasorb® and Bio-Oss® granules had more round morphologies. Conclusion: This in vitro study demonstrated that all tested BSMs can provide good cell differentiation but a lower rate of proliferation. PMID:22363369

  3. Inhibition of P-glycoprotein-mediated transport by S-adenosylmethionine and cynarin in multidrug-resistant human uterine sarcoma MES-SA/Dx5 cells.

    PubMed

    Angelini, A; Di Pietro, R; Centurione, L; Castellani, M L; Conti, P; Porreca, E; Cuccurullo, F

    2012-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) to anticancer chemotherapy is often mediated by the overexpression of the plasma membrane drug transporter P-glycoprotein (Pgp) encoded by multidrug resistance gene (MDR1). Various chemosensitizing agents are able to inhibit Pgp activity but their clinical application is limited by their toxicity. Furthermore, hepatotoxicity related to chemotherapy causes delays of treatment in cancer patients and often requires supplementation of anti-tumour therapy with hepatoprotective agents. In this in vitro study, we investigated the effectiveness of an endogenous hepatoprotective agent, S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), and a natural hepatoprotective compound, Cynarin (Cyn), to inhibit Pgp activity in order to evaluate their potential use as chemosensitizing agents. Human doxorubicin (doxo) resistant uterine sarcoma cells (MES-SA/Dx5) expressing high levels of Pgp were treated with two hepatoprotectors at various concentrations (1, 5 and 10 microM) that are clinically achievable, in the presence or absence of three different concentrations of doxo (2, 4 and 8 microM). In order to evaluate the effects of both hepatoprotectors, we measured the intracellular accumulation and cytotoxicity of doxo, the cellular GSH level, ROS production and catalase (CAT) activity. We found that treatment with 2, 4 and 8 microM doxo in the presence of SAMe or Cyn significantly increased the doxo accumulation and cytotoxicity on MES-SA/Dx5 cells, when compared to control cells receiving doxo alone. Moreover, treatment with SAMe or Cyn significantly increased GSH content, greater than 80 percent and 60 percent, respectively) and CAT activity greater than 60 and 150 percent, respectively) in resistant cancer cells, while ROS production was below the values of corresponding untreated control cells. Our in vitro findings provide a rationale for the potential clinical use of these hepatoprotectors both as chemosensitizing agents, to reverse Pgp-mediated MDR, and as antioxidants to

  4. A randomized study of the immunogenicity and safety of Japanese Encephalitis Chimeric Virus Vaccine (JE-CV) in comparison with SA14-14-2 Vaccine in children in the Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong Soo; Houillon, Guy; Jang, Gwang Cheon; Cha, Sung-Ho; Choi, Soo-Han; Lee, Jin; Kim, Hwang Min; Kim, Ji Hong; Kang, Jin Han; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Ki Hwan; Kim, Hee Soo; Bang, Joon; Naimi, Zulaikha; Bosch-Castells, Valérie; Boaz, Mark; Bouckenooghe, Alain

    2014-01-01

    A new live attenuated Japanese encephalitis chimeric virus vaccine (JE-CV) has been developed based on innovative technology to give protection against JE with an improved immunogenicity and safety profile. In this phase 3, observer-blind study, 274 children aged 12−24 months were randomized 1:1 to receive one dose of JE-CV (Group JE-CV) or the SA14–14–2 vaccine currently used to vaccinate against JE in the Republic of Korea (Group SA14–14–2). JE neutralizing antibody titers were assessed using PRNT50 before and 28 days after vaccination. The primary endpoint of non-inferiority of seroconversion rates on D28 was demonstrated in the Per Protocol analysis set as the difference between Group JE-CV and Group SA14–14–2 was 0.9 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI]: −2.35; 4.68), which was above the required −10%. Seroconversion and seroprotection rates 28 days after administration of a single vaccine dose were 100% in Group JE-CV and 99.1% in Group SA14–14–2; all children except one (Group SA14–14–2) were seroprotected. Geometric mean titers (GMTs) increased in both groups from D0 to D28; GM of titer ratios were slightly higher in Group JE-CV (182 [95% CI: 131; 251]) than Group SA14–14–2 (116 [95% CI: 85.5, 157]). A single dose of JE-CV was well tolerated and no safety concerns were identified. In conclusion, a single dose of JE-CV or SA14–14–2 vaccine elicited a comparable immune response with a good safety profile. Results obtained in healthy Korean children aged 12−24 months vaccinated with JE-CV are consistent with those obtained in previous studies conducted with JE-CV in toddlers. PMID:25483480

  5. Survival improvements associated with access to biological agents: Results from the South Australian (SA) metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) registry.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Yoko; Karapetis, Christos S; Ullah, Shahid; Townsend, Amanda R; Roder, David; Beeke, Carol; Roy, Amitesh C; Padbury, Rob; Price, Timothy J

    2016-01-01

    Background Randomized controlled trials evaluating biological therapy have shown improvements in survival from metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Subjects in the trials represent a selected proportion of mCRC patients. We have the potential to assess the impact of biological therapy on mCRC outcomes, particularly the effect of bevacizumab, from a population-based clinical registry by comparing two time cohorts with differences in therapy accessibility. Material and methods A retrospective cohort study was performed by analyzing the South Australian (SA) mCRC registry data based on diagnosis in two time periods: 1 February 2006-31 May 2009 (Cohort A) versus 1 June 2009-30 June 2014 (Cohort B). The demarcation for these cohorts was chosen to reflect the change in accessibility of bevacizumab from July 2009. Results Between February 2006 and June 2014, 3308 patients were identified through the SA mCRC registry: 1464 (44%) in Cohort A and 1844 (56%) in Cohort B. 61 and 59% patients in Cohort A and B, respectively received systemic therapy (p = 0.26). Major differences in clinical characteristics were: biological therapy use 18 versus 33% (p < 0.001) and clinical trial enrolment 12 versus 7% (p < 0.001). Uptake of bevacizumab was: first-line 9 versus 42% and second-line 6 versus 16%. Median overall survival (mOS) for the entire group was: 13.1 versus 17.1 months (HR 0.80; 95% CI 0.74-0.87). Evaluation restricted to patients receiving systemic therapy was 20.5 versus 25.2 months (HR 0.80; 95% CI 0.72-0.89). Multivariate analysis indicated that biological therapy and Cohort B were associated with improved mOS. Conclusion The expected rise in bevacizumab administration was observed in Cohort B. Its use in first-line therapy remained relatively low even after the reimbursement, potentially reflecting real world practice where comorbidities, primary in-situ and age may contraindicate its use. mOS improvement over time was attributed to increased access to

  6. Effects of alloying elements on mechanical and fracture properties of base metals and simulated heat-affected zones of SA 508 steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sangho; Lee, Sunghak; Im, Young-Roc; Lee, Hu-Chul; Oh, Yong Jun; Hong, Jun Hwa

    2001-04-01

    This study was aimed at developing low-alloy steels for nuclear reactor pressure vessels by investigating the effects of alloying elements on mechanical and fracture properties of base metals and heat-affected zones (HAZs). Four steels whose compositions were variations of the composition specification for SA 508 steel (class 3) were fabricated by vacuum-induction melting and heat treatment, and their tensile properties and Charpy impact toughness were evaluated. Microstructural analyses indicated that coarse M3C-type carbides and fine M2C-type carbides were precipitated along lath boundaries and inside laths, respectively. In the steels having decreased carbon content and increased molybdenum content, the amount of fine M2C carbides was greatly increased, while that of coarse M3C carbides was decreased, thereby leading to the improvement of tensile properties and impact toughness. Their simulated HAZs also had sufficient impact toughness after postweld heat treatment (PWHT). These findings suggested that the low-alloy steels with high strength and toughness could be processed by decreasing carbon and manganese contents and by increasing molybdenum content.

  7. The Ciência & Saúde Coletiva journal and the process of institutionalization of a field of knowledge and practices.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Everardo Duarte

    2015-07-01

    This paper takes as its starting point the concepts that make up the process of institutionalization of a field of knowledge in the following phases: 1. Differentiation of subjects, methods and techniques of knowledge or existing disciplines, 2. The subject previously considered as peripheral is now seem as part of a particular field of knowledge, 3. The new field becomes significant in the set of an area and starts the standardization of recruitment of human resources, selection of experts and financial resources, and 4. Consolidation of the new field, building its culture within the scientific community, with its social networks of communication, scientific associations and its own publications. Our central objective is to analyze the role of the Ciência e Saúde Coletiva Journal in the process of institutionalization of the Collective Health; we situate the Collective Health and its stages, make a brief report on the history of scientific publications by emphasizing the Brazilian studies on the public health field, and work the early stages of the Journal. PMID:26132236

  8. Parkin induces upregulation of 40S ribosomal protein SA and posttranslational modification of cytokeratins 8 and 18 in human cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Dae-Geun; Kim, Yoon Suk; Jung, Byung Chul; Rhee, Ki-Jong; Pan, Cheol-Ho

    2013-12-01

    Parkin was originally identified as a protein associated with Parkinson's disease. Recently, numerous research studies have suggested that parkin acts as a tumor suppressor. In accordance with these studies, we previously reported that overexpression of parkin in HeLa cells induced growth inhibition. To elucidate possible mechanisms by which parkin may inhibit cell growth, HeLa cells were infected with adenoviruses expressing either the parkin gene or adenovirus alone for 72 h and a total proteomic analysis was performed using 2-D gel electrophoresis followed by LC-MS/MS. We identified three proteins whose expression changed between the two groups: the 40S ribosomal protein SA (RPSA) was downregulated in parkin virus-infected cells, and cytokeratins 8 and 18 exhibited an acid shift in pI value without a change in molecular weight, suggesting that these proteins became phosphorylated in parkin virus-infected cells. The changes in these three proteins were first observed at 60 h postinfection and were most dramatic at 72 h postinfection. Because upregulation of RPSA and dephosphorylation of cytokeratins 8/18 have been linked with tumor progression, these data suggest that parkin may inhibit cell growth, at least in part, by decreasing RPSA expression and inducing phosphorylation of cytokeratin 8/18. PMID:23990477

  9. Undercomplete learned dictionaries for land cover classification in multispectral imagery of Arctic landscapes using CoSA: clustering of sparse approximations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moody, Daniela I.; Brumby, Steven P.; Rowland, Joel C.; Gangodagamage, Chandana

    2013-05-01

    Techniques for automated feature extraction, including neuroscience-inspired machine vision, are of great interest for landscape characterization and change detection in support of global climate change science and modeling. We present results from an ongoing effort to extend machine vision methodologies to the environmental sciences, using state-of-theart adaptive signal processing, combined with compressive sensing and machine learning techniques. We use a Hebbian learning rule to build undercomplete spectral-textural dictionaries that are adapted to the data. We learn our dictionaries from millions of overlapping multispectral image patches and then use a pursuit search to generate classification features. Land cover labels are automatically generated using our CoSA algorithm: unsupervised Clustering of Sparse Approximations. We demonstrate our method using multispectral Worldview-2 data from three Arctic study areas: Barrow, Alaska; the Selawik River, Alaska; and a watershed near the Mackenzie River delta in northwest Canada. Our goal is to develop a robust classification methodology that will allow for the automated discretization of the landscape into distinct units based on attributes such as vegetation, surface hydrological properties, and geomorphic characteristics. To interpret and assign land cover categories to the clusters we both evaluate the spectral properties of the clusters and compare the clusters to both field- and remote sensing-derived classifications of landscape attributes. Our work suggests that neuroscience-based models are a promising approach to practical pattern recognition problems in remote sensing.

  10. A novel dengue virus serotype 1 vaccine candidate based on Japanese encephalitis virus vaccine strain SA14-14-2 as the backbone.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huiqiang; Li, Zhushi; Lin, Hua; Wang, Wei; Yang, Jian; Liu, Lina; Zeng, Xianwu; Wu, Yonglin; Yu, Yongxin; Li, Yuhua

    2016-06-01

    To develop a potential dengue vaccine candidate, a full-length cDNA clone of a novel chimeric virus was constructed using recombinant DNA technology, with Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) vaccine strain SA14-14-2 as the backbone, with its premembrane (prM) and envelope (E) genes substituted by their counterparts from dengue virus type 1 (DENV1). The chimeric virus (JEV/DENV1) was successfully recovered from primary hamster kidney (PHK) cells by transfection with the in vitro transcription products of JEV/DENV1 cDNA and was identified by complete genome sequencing and immunofluorescent staining. No neuroinvasiveness of this chimeric virus was observed in mice inoculated by the subcutaneous route (s.c.) or by the intraperitoneal route (i.p.), while some neurovirulence was displayed in mice that were inoculated directly by the intracerebral route (i.c.). The chimeric virus was able to stimulate high-titer production of antibodies against DENV1 and provided protection against lethal challenge with neuroadapted dengue virus in mice. These results suggest that the chimeric virus is a promising dengue vaccine candidate. PMID:26976137

  11. Development of a human live attenuated West Nile infectious DNA vaccine: Suitability of attenuating mutations found in SA14-14-2 for WN vaccine design.

    PubMed

    Yamshchikov, Vladimir; Manuvakhova, Marina; Rodriguez, Efrain

    2016-01-01

    Direct attenuation of West Nile (WN) virus strain NY99 for the purpose of vaccine development is not feasible due to its high virulence and pathogenicity. Instead, we created highly attenuated chimeric virus W1806 with the serological identity of NY99. To further attenuate W1806, we investigated effects of mutations found in Japanese encephalitis virus vaccine SA14-14-2. WN viruses carrying all attenuating mutations lost infectivity in mammalian, but not in mosquito cells. No single reversion restored infectivity in mammalian cells, although increased infectivity in mosquito cells was observed. To identify a subset of mutations suitable for further attenuation of W1806, we analyzed effects of E138K and K279M changes on virulence, growth properties, and immunogenicity of derivatized W956, from which chimeric W1806 inherited its biological properties and attenuation profile. Despite strong dominant attenuating effect, introduction of only two mutations was not sufficient for attenuating W1806 to the safety level acceptable for human use. PMID:26545140

  12. Estimation of the Impact of a Japanese Encephalitis Immunization Program with Live, Attenuated SA 14-14-2 Vaccine in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Upreti, Shyam Raj; Janusz, Kristen B.; Schluter, W. William; Bichha, Ram Padarath; Shakya, Geeta; Biggerstaff, Brad J.; Shrestha, Murari Man; Sedai, Tika Ram; Fischer, Marc; Gibbons, Robert V.; Shrestha, Sanjaya K.; Hills, Susan L.

    2013-01-01

    Wider availability of the live, attenuated SA 14-14-2 Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine has facilitated introduction or expansion of immunization programs in many countries. However, information on their impact is limited. In 2006, Nepal launched a JE immunization program, and by 2009, mass campaigns had been implemented in 23 districts. To describe the impact, we analyzed surveillance data from 2004 to 2009 on laboratory-confirmed JE and clinical acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) cases. The post-campaign JE incidence rate of 1.3 per 100,000 population was 72% lower than expected if no campaigns had occurred, and an estimated 891 JE cases were prevented. In addition, AES incidence was 58% lower, with an estimated 2,787 AES cases prevented, suggesting that three times as many disease cases may have been prevented than indicated by the laboratory-confirmed JE cases alone. These results provide useful information on preventable JE disease burden and the potential value of JE immunization programs. PMID:23358643

  13. In vitro and in vivo characterization of chimeric duck Tembusu virus based on Japanese encephalitis live vaccine strain SA14-14-2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Jiang; Liu, Long; Li, Xiao-Feng; Ye, Qing; Deng, Yong-Qiang; Qin, E-De; Qin, Cheng-Feng

    2016-07-01

    Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV), a newly identified flavivirus, has rapidly spread to China, Malaysia and Thailand. The potential threats to public health have been well-highlighted; however its virulence and pathogenesis remain largely unknown. Here, by using reverse genetics, a recombinant chimeric DTMUV based on Japanese encephalitis live vaccine strain SA14-14-2 was obtained by substituting the corresponding prM and E genes (named ChinDTMUV). In vitro characterization demonstrated that ChinDTMUV replicated efficiently in mammalian cells with small-plaque phenotype in comparison with its parental viruses. Mouse tests showed ChinDTMUV exhibited avirulent phenotype in terms of neuroinvasiveness, while it retained neurovirulence from its parental virus DTMUV. Furthermore, immunization with ChinDTMUV was evidenced to elicit robust IgG and neutralizing antibody responses in mice. Overall, we successfully developed a viable chimeric DTMUV, and these results provide a useful platform for further investigation of the pathogenesis of DTMUV and development of a live attenuated DTMUV vaccine candidate. PMID:27100268

  14. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of transients in the HELIOS loop including a CICC section representative of the JT-60SA Central Solenoid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carli, S.; Bonifetto, R.; Hoa, C.; Savoldi, L.; Zanino, R.

    2015-12-01

    The HELIOS facility at CEA Grenoble is a supercritical helium (SHe) loop which is being used to investigate the effects on the cryogenic cooling system of the pulsed heat loads which are typical of superconducting tokamak operation. In the standard configuration, the magnet heat load is simulated by electrical heaters wrapped around a section of cryoline. In the present work, the resistively heated section is substituted in the HELIOS model of the 4C code, already validated for the standard configuration of HELIOS, by a sub-size winding structure made of JT-60SA Cable-In-Conduit Conductors (CICCs). The new model is then used to highlight the differences in the circuit behaviour when the heated pipe is substituted by an actual magnet wound with CICCs, checking the representativeness of the control strategies developed for the present HELIOS configuration. The use of CICCs will be shown to produce an intrinsic smoothing of the temperature profiles which is not affecting the capability of the control strategies to smooth the heat loads to the cryoplant.

  15. Characterization and Surface Treatment of Materials Used in MADEAL S.A. Industry Productive Process of Rims by Plasma Assisted Repetitive Pulsed Arcs Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, H.; Salazar, V. H.; Devia, A.; Jaramillo, S.; Velez, G.

    2006-12-04

    A study of materials used in the molds production to aluminium rims manufacture in the MADEAL S.A. factory was carried out for apply a plasma assisted surface treatment consists in growing TiAlN hard coatings that it protects this molds in the productive process. This coating resists high oxidation temperatures, of the other of 800 deg. C, high hardness (2800 Vickers) and low friction coefficient. A plasma assisted repetitive pulsed arcs mono-evaporator system was used in the grow of the TiAlN coatings, the TiAlN target is a sinterized 50% Ti and 50% Al, in the substrate they were used two types of steel that compose the molds injection pieces for the rims production. These materials were subjected to linear and fluctuating thermal changes in the Bruker axs X-Ray diffractometer temperature chamber, what simulated the molds thermal variation in the rims production process and they were compared with TiAlN coatings subjected to same thermal changes. The Materials characterization, before and later of thermal process, was carried out using XRD, SPM and EDS techniques, to analyze the crystallographic, topographic and chemical surface structure behaviours.

  16. Antagonistic interactions of "Ya-Sa-Marn-Phlae" ethanol extract in combination with topical antiseptics against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Chusri, Sasitorn; Tongrod, Sirirat; Chokpaisarn, Julalak; Limsuwan, Surasak; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan

    2014-01-01

    This investigation was aimed at assessing a possible interaction of a traditional Thai herbal recipe, "Ya-Sa-Marn-Phlae (YSMP)," used for wound treatments with topical antiseptics, povidone-iodine (PI) solution and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and effects of THR-SK010 alone and the combinations on Staphylococcus aureus. Antibacterial activities of ethanol extracts from the herbal recipe were determined against both methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). YSMP exhibited remarkable antistaphylococcal activity with MIC values of 3.9-7.8 μg/mL. This recipe possessed bacteriostatic activity and did not reduce the tolerance of both MRSA and MSSA isolates to the high ionic strength. Interaction between THR-SK010 and the antiseptics was carried out by checkerboard testing and time-kill assay. Both indifferent and slightly antagonistic effects were observed with THR-SK010/PI and THR-SK010/H2O2 combinations against the tested isolates. In addition to commercially available antiseptics, THR-SK010 offered additional therapeutic options for the decolonization of MRSA and MSSA. Topical application of plant extracts with antioxidant activity, such as THR-SK010, should not be used immediately with PI or H2O2 and further investigation on this interaction is needed. PMID:24895620

  17. Antagonistic Interactions of “Ya-Sa-Marn-Phlae” Ethanol Extract in Combination with Topical Antiseptics against Clinical Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Tongrod, Sirirat; Chokpaisarn, Julalak; Limsuwan, Surasak; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan

    2014-01-01

    This investigation was aimed at assessing a possible interaction of a traditional Thai herbal recipe, “Ya-Sa-Marn-Phlae (YSMP),” used for wound treatments with topical antiseptics, povidone-iodine (PI) solution and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and effects of THR-SK010 alone and the combinations on Staphylococcus aureus. Antibacterial activities of ethanol extracts from the herbal recipe were determined against both methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). YSMP exhibited remarkable antistaphylococcal activity with MIC values of 3.9–7.8 μg/mL. This recipe possessed bacteriostatic activity and did not reduce the tolerance of both MRSA and MSSA isolates to the high ionic strength. Interaction between THR-SK010 and the antiseptics was carried out by checkerboard testing and time-kill assay. Both indifferent and slightly antagonistic effects were observed with THR-SK010/PI and THR-SK010/H2O2 combinations against the tested isolates. In addition to commercially available antiseptics, THR-SK010 offered additional therapeutic options for the decolonization of MRSA and MSSA. Topical application of plant extracts with antioxidant activity, such as THR-SK010, should not be used immediately with PI or H2O2 and further investigation on this interaction is needed. PMID:24895620

  18. Developing a robust tephrochronological framework for Late Quaternary marine records in the Southern Adriatic Sea: new data from core station SA03-11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, I. P.; Trincardi, F.; Lowe, J. J.; Bourne, A. J.; MacLeod, A.; Abbott, P. M.; Andersen, N.; Asioli, A.; Blockley, S. P. E.; Lane, C. S.; Oh, Y. A.; Satow, C. S.; Staff, R. A.; Wulf, S.

    2015-06-01

    Tephra layers are assuming an increasingly important role in the dating and correlation of Late Quaternary marine sequences. Here we demonstrate their potential by reporting a new study of the sediment sequence of marine core SA03-11, recovered from the Southern Adriatic Sea, which spans the last c. 39 ka. A total of 28 discrete tephra layers are reported from this sequence, 10 of which are visible in the core and a further 18 are non-visible cryptotephra layers. These have been analysed using more than 1400 WDS-EPMA measurements of glass chemistry and results have been compared with published chemical measurements obtained from relevant proximal and distal sites which preserve eruptive material dating to within the same time interval. The data show that a high proportion of the layers originate from the Campi Flegrei volcanic field but more distinctive layers are sourced from Vesuvius, the Aeolian Islands and Vulcano, and these provide key marker horizons. The results show that the sequence extends in time to the Campanian Ignimbrite at the base, that a number of the layers have robust age estimates that permit a better constrained age-depth model to be constructed for the sequence, and that the potential exists for importing terrestrially-based age estimates into marine contexts, thereby circumventing problems of incorporating reservoir uncertainties associated with marine radiocarbon dates. The WDS-EPMA dataset generated here also provides important new data that constrain key Late Quaternary tephra layers in the central Mediterranean region.

  19. Bacitracin and nisin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus: a novel pathway involving the BraS/BraR two-component system (SA2417/SA2418) and both the BraD/BraE and VraD/VraE ABC transporters.

    PubMed

    Hiron, Aurélia; Falord, Mélanie; Valle, Jaione; Débarbouillé, Michel; Msadek, Tarek

    2011-08-01

    Two-component systems (TCSs) are key regulatory pathways allowing bacteria to adapt their genetic expression to environmental changes. Bacitracin, a cyclic dodecylpeptide antibiotic, binds to undecaprenyl pyrophosphate, the lipid carrier for cell wall precursors, effectively inhibiting peptidoglycan biosynthesis. We have identified a novel and previously uncharacterized TCS in the major human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus that we show to be essential for bacitracin and nisin resistance: the BraS/BraR system (Bacitracin resistance associated; SA2417/SA2418). The braRS genes are located immediately upstream from genes encoding an ABC transporter, accordingly designated BraDE. We have shown that the BraSR/BraDE module is a key bacitracin and nisin resistance determinant in S. aureus. In the presence of low antibiotic concentrations, BraSR activate transcription of two operons encoding ABC transporters: braDE and vraDE. We identified a highly conserved imperfect palindromic sequence upstream from the braDE and vraDE promoter sequences, essential for their transcriptional activation by BraSR, suggesting it is the likely BraR binding site. We demonstrated that the two ABC transporters play distinct and original roles in antibiotic resistance: BraDE is involved in bacitracin sensing and signalling through BraSR, whereas VraDE acts specifically as a detoxification module and is sufficient to confer bacitracin and nisin resistance when produced on its own. We show that these processes require functional BraD and VraD nucleotide-binding domain proteins, and that the large extracellular loop of VraE confers its specificity in bacitracin resistance. This is the first example of a TCS associated with two ABC transporters playing separate roles in signal transduction and antibiotic resistance. PMID:21696458

  20. Comparative zircon U-Pb geochronology of impact melt breccias from Apollo 12 and lunar meteorite SaU 169, and implications for the age of the Imbrium impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dunyi; Jolliff, Bradley L.; Zeigler, Ryan A.; Korotev, Randy L.; Wan, Yushan; Xie, Hangqiang; Zhang, Yuhai; Dong, Chunyan; Wang, Wei

    2012-02-01

    The ages of zircons from high-Th impact-melt breccias (IMBs) from meteorite Sayh al Uhaymir (SaU) 169 and from rock fragments in soil samples from Apollo 12 have been determined using the SHRIMP-II ion microprobe. The IMBs are very similar to each other in chemistry, mineralogy and texture, and the zircons from the KREEP-rich (high-Th) crystalline impact melt have similar U and Th contents and identical ages, within uncertainties, of 3920 ± 13 (2σ) Ma (SaU 169) and 3914 ± 7 (2σ) Ma (Apollo 12). The age results support the idea that the high-Th IMBs (Apollo 12 and SaU 169) formed in the same impact event. The similarity of composition and age suggest that SaU 169 and the high-Th IMB fragments of Apollo 12 originated from the same area of the Procellarum KREEP Terrane. We interpret the age of zircon grains in the Apollo 12 high-Th IMB as a precise and direct determination of the age of the Imbrium impact. This age is significantly older than the commonly cited age of 3.85 Ga but is similar to recent determinations from SIMS U-Pb dating of Apollo 14 apatite grains and with anticipated revision of ages by 40Ar-39Ar and 87Rb-86Sr. The present zircon 207Pb-206Pb age is the first direct zircon age determination of the Imbrium impact event from an Apollo sample. Previous measurements of zircon ages of Apollo IMBs have recorded events pre-dating the Imbrium basin-forming event.

  1. Lanczos wave packet propagation on coupled potential energy surfaces: the three body predissociation of rotating D3 and H3 {{3}^{2}}{{A}^{\\prime }}(2sa_{1}^{\\prime })

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehner, M.; Jungen, M.

    2015-02-01

    A three-dimensional wave packet method, based on Lanczos tridiagonalization of the Hamiltonian, is introduced and applied to the three-particle predissociation of rotating D3 and H3 3{{ }2}{{A}\\prime } (2sa1\\prime ). The time-dependent propagation calculations on the (diabatic) ground state potential energy surfaces include the non-adiabatic transition from the excited initial state. Results for the eight lowest vibrational levels are presented as Dalitz plots and compared to momentum correlation measurements.

  2. First report of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus ST88 harbouring ΦSa2usa isolated from refractory breast abscesses in Japan.

    PubMed

    Togashi, A; Aung, M S; Yoto, Y; Akane, Y; Tsugawa, T; Kawaguchiya, M; Tsutsumi, H; Kobayashi, N

    2016-09-01

    A methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus with Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes was isolated from refractory breast abscesses of 12-year-old girl in Japan, and classified into ST88, spa-t1245 and coa-IIIa. This strain harboured PVL phage ΦSa2usa, which is usually found in ST8 community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus clone USA300. PMID:27453786

  3. A cost-saving algorithm for rapid diagnosis of Staphylococcus aureus and susceptibility to oxacillin directly from positive blood culture bottles by combined testing with BinaxNOW® S. aureus and Xpert MRSA/SA Assay.

    PubMed

    Yossepowitch, Orit; Dan, Michael; Kutchinsky, Anuta; Gottesman, Tamar; Schwartz-Harari, Orna

    2014-04-01

    We studied an algorithm combining 2 rapid methods to detect Staphylococcus aureus and its susceptibility to oxacillin directly from positive blood cultures; our goal was to reduce the cost of the procedure, while maintaining accuracy and a short turnaround time. A total of 581 blood cultures containing gram-positive cocci in clusters were tested by BinaxNOW® Staphylococcus aureus Test. Positive samples were further assessed by the Xpert MRSA/SA BC Assay. Phenotypic methods have identified coagulase-negative staphylococci in 505 samples and S. aureus in 76 samples, of which 51 were oxacillin sensitive and 25 were oxacillin resistant. Sensitivity and specificity of the BinaxNOW® Test were 92% and 99%, respectively, compared to the phenotypic method. The Xpert MRSA/SA BC Assay showed complete concordance with phenotypic identification and antimicrobial susceptibility results. The combined rapid assays produced results within 2 hours and reduced the cost by 75% compared with the Xpert MRSA/SA BC Assay if used alone on all blood bottles. PMID:24503507

  4. Gyrotron development for high-power, long-pulse electron cyclotron heating and current drive at two frequencies in JT-60SA and its extension toward operation at three frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, T.; Yokokura, S. Moriyama K.; Sawahata, M.; Terakado, M.; Hiranai, S.; Wada, K.; Sato, Y.; Hinata, J.; Hoshino, K.; Isamaya, A.; Oda, Y.; Ikeda, R.; Takahashi, K.; Sakamoto, K.

    2015-06-01

    A gyrotron enabling high-power, long-pulse oscillations at both 110 and 138 GHz has been developed for electron cyclotron heating (ECH) and current drive (CD) in JT-60SA. Oscillations of 1 MW for 100 s have been demonstrated at both frequencies, for the first time in the world as a gyrotron operating at two frequencies. The optimization of the anode voltage, or the electron pitch factor, using a triode gun was a key to obtain high power and high efficiency at two frequencies. It was also confirmed that the internal losses in the gyrotron were sufficiently low for expected long pulse operation at the higher power level of ∼1.5 MW. Another important result is that an oscillation at 82 GHz, which enables use of fundamental harmonic waves in JT-60SA while the other two frequencies are used as second harmonics waves, was demonstrated up to 0.4 MW for 2 s. These results of the gyrotron development significantly contribute to enhancing the operation regime of the ECH/CD system in JT-60SA.

  5. A randomized study of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin versus continuous-infusion doxorubicin in elderly patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: the GRAALL-SA1 study

    PubMed Central

    Hunault-Berger, Mathilde; Leguay, Thibaut; Thomas, Xavier; Legrand, Ollivier; Huguet, Françoise; Bonmati, Caroline; Escoffre-Barbe, Martine; Legros, Laurence; Turlure, Pascal; Chevallier, Patrice; Larosa, Fabrice; Garban, Frederic; Reman, Oumedaly; Rousselot, Philippe; Dhédin, Nathalie; Delannoy, André; Lafage-Pochitaloff, Marina; Béné, Marie Christine; Ifrah, Norbert; Dombret, Hervé

    2011-01-01

    Background The prognosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in the elderly is poor. The GRAALL-SA1 phase II, randomized trial compared the efficacy and toxicity of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin versus continuous-infusion doxorubicin in patients 55 years or older with Philadelphia chromosome-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Design and Methods Sixty patients received either continuous-infusion doxorubicin (12 mg/m2/day) and continuous-infusion vincristine (0.4 mg/day) on days 1–4 or pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (40 mg/m2) and standard vincristine (2 mg) on day 1, accompanied by dexamethasone, followed at day 28 by a second cycle, reinforced by cyclophosphamide. End-points were safety, outcome and prognostic factors. Results Myelosuppression was reduced in the pegylated liposomal doxorubicin arm with shorter severe neutropenia (P=0.05), shorter severe thrombocytopenia (P=0.03), and fewer red blood cell transfusions (P=0.04). Grade 3/4 infections and Gram-negative bacteremia were reduced in the pegylated liposomal doxorubicin arm (P=0.04 and P=0.02, respectively). There was a trend towards fewer cardiac events among the patients who received pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (1/29 versus 6/31). The complete remission rate was 82% and, with a median follow-up of 4 years, median event-free survival and overall survival were 9 and 10 months, respectively. Despite the better tolerance of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin, no differences in survival were observed between the two arms, due to trends towards more induction refractoriness (17 versus 3%, P=0.10) and a higher cumulative incidence of relapse (52% versus 32% at 2 years, P=0.20) in the pegylated liposomal doxorubicin arm. Conclusions With the drug schedules used in this study, pegylated liposomal doxorubicin did not improve the outcome of elderly patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia despite reduced toxicities. PMID:20971822

  6. Rice Crop Monitoring and Yield Assessment with MODIS 250m Gridded Vegetation Products: A Case Study of Sa Kaeo Province, Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijesingha, J. S. J.; Deshapriya, N. L.; Samarakoon, L.

    2015-04-01

    Billions of people in the world depend on rice as a staple food and as an income-generating crop. Asia is the leader in rice cultivation and it is necessary to maintain an up-to-date rice-related database to ensure food security as well as economic development. This study investigates general applicability of high temporal resolution Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 250m gridded vegetation product for monitoring rice crop growth, mapping rice crop acreage and analyzing crop yield, at the province-level. The MODIS 250m Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) time series data, field data and crop calendar information were utilized in this research in Sa Kaeo Province, Thailand. The following methodology was used: (1) data pre-processing and rice plant growth analysis using Vegetation Indices (VI) (2) extraction of rice acreage and start-of-season dates from VI time series data (3) accuracy assessment, and (4) yield analysis with MODIS VI. The results show a direct relationship between rice plant height and MODIS VI. The crop calendar information and the smoothed NDVI time series with Whittaker Smoother gave high rice acreage estimation (with 86% area accuracy and 75% classification accuracy). Point level yield analysis showed that the MODIS EVI is highly correlated with rice yield and yield prediction using maximum EVI in the rice cycle predicted yield with an average prediction error 4.2%. This study shows the immense potential of MODIS gridded vegetation product for keeping an up-to-date Geographic Information System of rice cultivation.

  7. A Coding System with Independent Annotations of Gesture Forms and Functions during Verbal Communication: Development of a Database of Speech and GEsture (DoSaGE)

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin; Law, Sam-Po; Kwan, Connie Ching-Yin; Lai, Christy; Lam, Vivian

    2014-01-01

    Gestures are commonly used together with spoken language in human communication. One major limitation of gesture investigations in the existing literature lies in the fact that the coding of forms and functions of gestures has not been clearly differentiated. This paper first described a recently developed Database of Speech and GEsture (DoSaGE) based on independent annotation of gesture forms and functions among 119 neurologically unimpaired right-handed native speakers of Cantonese (divided into three age and two education levels), and presented findings of an investigation examining how gesture use was related to age and linguistic performance. Consideration of these two factors, for which normative data are currently very limited or lacking in the literature, is relevant and necessary when one evaluates gesture employment among individuals with and without language impairment. Three speech tasks, including monologue of a personally important event, sequential description, and story-telling, were used for elicitation. The EUDICO Linguistic ANnotator (ELAN) software was used to independently annotate each participant’s linguistic information of the transcript, forms of gestures used, and the function for each gesture. About one-third of the subjects did not use any co-verbal gestures. While the majority of gestures were non-content-carrying, which functioned mainly for reinforcing speech intonation or controlling speech flow, the content-carrying ones were used to enhance speech content. Furthermore, individuals who are younger or linguistically more proficient tended to use fewer gestures, suggesting that normal speakers gesture differently as a function of age and linguistic performance. PMID:25667563

  8. ME8373 Spring 2015 ICME Proposal ICME Analysis of Fatigue Crack Growth Through a Weld in SA-516 Grade 70 Plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Jody L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes work accomplished to predict the service life of a flexure joint design which is a component of a diffuser duct in the A3 Test Stand, an altitude simulation rocket engine test facility at NASA's Stennis Space Center. The duct has two pressure shells separated by cooling water passages and connected by stiffening ribs and flexure joints. Rocket exhaust flows within the duct and heats the inner pressure shell while the outer pressure shell remains at ambient temperature. The flexure joints allow for differential thermal expansion of the inner and outer pressure shells and are subject to in-service loading by this thermal expansion along with water pressure in the cooling water passage, atmospheric pressure outside the duct, near vacuum conditions within the duct, and vibrational loads from operation of the facility and rocket engine. Figure 1 shows a schematic axisymmetric cross section of the diffuser pressure shells and flexure joints with a zoomed in view of the flexure joint. The flexure joints are expected to eventually fail by fatigue cracking leading to leaks from the cooling water passages to the outside. The zoomed in view in Figure 1 indicates where cracking is expected to occur, namely through a weld bead between two plates of SA-516 Grade 70 steel. This weld bead acts as the fulcrum of the flexure joint and it is clear from inspection of the geometry and loading represented in the zoomed in portion of Figure 1 that inherent in the design there is a severe notch formed between the flexure plate, weld bead, and stiffening ring that will be the site of crack initiation and location from which the crack grows to the outer surface of the weld bead.

  9. Can cyclic HIV protease inhibitors bind in a non-preferred form? An ab initio, DFT and MM-PB(GB)SA study.

    PubMed

    Oehme, Daniel P; Brownlee, Robert T C; Wilson, David J D

    2013-03-01

    X-ray crystallography studies have identified that most cyclic inhibitors of HIV protease (including cyclic ureas) bind in a symmetric manner, however some cyclic inhibitors, such as cyclic sulfamides, bind in a non-symmetric manner. This raises the question as to whether it is possible for cyclic sulfamides to bind symmetrically and conversely for cyclic ureas to bind non-symmetrically. Herein we report an analysis of the conformational preference of cyclic ureas and sulfamides both free in solution and bound to HIV protease, including an investigation of the effect of branching. Quantum chemical calculations (B3LYP, M06-2X, MP2, CCSD(T)) predict the cyclic urea to prefer a symmetric conformation in solution, with a large activation barrier towards inter-conversion to the non-symmetric conformation. This differs from the cyclic sulfamides, which marginally prefer a non-symmetric conformation with a much smaller barrier to inter-conversion making it more likely for a non-preferred conformation to be observed. It is predicted that the cyclic scaffold itself favours a symmetric form, while branching induces a preference for a non-symmetric form. MD simulations on the free inhibitors identified inter-conversion with the cyclic sulfamides but not the cyclic ureas, in support of the quantum chemical results. MM-PB(GB)SA calculations on the cyclic inhibitors bound to HIV protease corroborate the X-ray crystallography studies, identifying the cyclic ureas to bind symmetrically and the cyclic sulfamides in a non-symmetrical manner. While the non-preferred form of the sulfamide may well be present as a free molecule in solution, our results suggest that it is unlikely to bind to HIV protease in a symmetric manner. PMID:23149763

  10. Leptosphaeria maculans effector AvrLm4-7 affects salicylic acid (SA) and ethylene (ET) signalling and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) accumulation in Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Nováková, Miroslava; Šašek, Vladimír; Trdá, Lucie; Krutinová, Hana; Mongin, Thomas; Valentová, Olga; Balesdent, Marie-HelEne; Rouxel, Thierry; Burketová, Lenka

    2016-08-01

    To achieve host colonization, successful pathogens need to overcome plant basal defences. For this, (hemi)biotrophic pathogens secrete effectors that interfere with a range of physiological processes of the host plant. AvrLm4-7 is one of the cloned effectors from the hemibiotrophic fungus Leptosphaeria maculans 'brassicaceae' infecting mainly oilseed rape (Brassica napus). Although its mode of action is still unknown, AvrLm4-7 is strongly involved in L. maculans virulence. Here, we investigated the effect of AvrLm4-7 on plant defence responses in a susceptible cultivar of B. napus. Using two isogenic L. maculans isolates differing in the presence of a functional AvrLm4-7 allele [absence ('a4a7') and presence ('A4A7') of the allele], the plant hormone concentrations, defence-related gene transcription and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation were analysed in infected B. napus cotyledons. Various components of the plant immune system were affected. Infection with the 'A4A7' isolate caused suppression of salicylic acid- and ethylene-dependent signalling, the pathways regulating an effective defence against L. maculans infection. Furthermore, ROS accumulation was decreased in cotyledons infected with the 'A4A7' isolate. Treatment with an antioxidant agent, ascorbic acid, increased the aggressiveness of the 'a4a7' L. maculans isolate, but not that of the 'A4A7' isolate. Together, our results suggest that the increased aggressiveness of the 'A4A7' L. maculans isolate could be caused by defects in ROS-dependent defence and/or linked to suppressed SA and ET signalling. This is the first study to provide insights into the manipulation of B. napus defence responses by an effector of L. maculans. PMID:26575525

  11. SA Innovation Lecture Stephen Shapiro

    NASA Video Gallery

    Stephen Shapiro, one of America’s foremost innovation advisers, joined us on January 19th to show us how innovation isn’t just about generating occasional new ideas; it’s about making it a re...

  12. Genetic Diversity of Bacillus thuringiensis from Different Geo-Ecological Regions of Ukraine by Analyzing the 16S rRNA and gyrB Genes and by AP-PCR and saAFLP

    PubMed Central

    Punina, N. V.; Zotov, V. S.; Parkhomenko, A. L.; Parkhomenko, T. U.; Topunov, A. F.

    2013-01-01

    The Bacillus cereus group consists of closely related species of bacteria and is of interest to researchers due to its importance in industry and medicine. However, it remains difficult to distinguish these bacteria at the intra- and inter-species level. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a member of the B. cereus group. In this work, we studied the inter-species structure of five entomopathogenic strains and 20 isolates of Bt, which were collected from different geo-ecological regions of Ukraine, using various methods: physiological and biochemical analyses, analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the 16S rRNA and gyrB genes, by AP-PCR (BOX and ERIC), and by saAFLP. The analysis of the 16S rRNA and gyrB genes revealed the existence of six subgroups within theB.cereus group: B anthracis, B. cereus I and II, Bt I and II, and Bt III, and confirmed that these isolates belong to the genus Bacillus. All strains were subdivided into 3 groups. Seventeen strains belong to the group Bt II of commercial, industrial strains. The AP-PCR (BOX and ERIC) and saAFLP results were in good agreement and with the results obtained for the 16S rRNA and gyrB genes. Based on the derived patterns, all strains were reliably combined into 5 groups. Interestingly, a specific pattern was revealed by the saAFLP analysis for the industrial strain Bt 0376 р.о., which is used to produce the entomopathogenic preparation “STAR-t”. PMID:23556134

  13. CD4+ T cells play a critical role in the generation of primary and memory antitumor immune responses elicited by SA-4-1BBL and TAA-based vaccines in mouse tumor models.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rajesh K; Yolcu, Esma S; Srivastava, Abhishek K; Shirwan, Haval

    2013-01-01

    The role of CD4(+) T cells in the generation of therapeutic primary and memory immune responses in cancer diverse immunotherapy settings remains ambiguous. We herein investigated this issue using two vaccine formulations containing a novel costimulatory molecule, SA-4-1BBL, as adjuvant and HPV E7 or survivin (SVN) as tumor associated antigens (TAAs) in two mouse transplantable tumor models; the TC-1 cervical cancer expressing xenogeneic HPV E7 and 3LL lung carcinoma overexpressing autologous SVN. Single vaccination with optimized SA-4-1BBL/TAA formulations resulted in the eradication of 6-day established TC-1 and 3LL tumors in >70% of mice in both models. The in vivo depletion of CD4(+) T cells one day before tumor challenge resulted in compromised vaccine efficacy in both TC-1 (25%) and 3LL (12.5%) tumor models. In marked contrast, depletion of CD4(+) T cells 5 days post-tumor challenge and one day prior to vaccination did not significantly alter the therapeutic efficacy of these vaccines. However, long-term immunological memory was compromised in the 3LL, but not in TC-1 model as a significant number (85.7%) of tumor free-mice succumbed to tumor growth when rechallenged with 3LL cells 60 days after the initial tumor inoculation. Collectively, these results demonstrate the indispensable role CD4(+) T cells play in the generation of therapeutic primary immune responses elicited by SA-4-1BBL/TAA-based vaccines irrespective of the nature of TAAs and establish the importance of CD4(+) T cells for long-term immune memory against 3LL tumor expressing self-antigen SVN, but not TC-1 expressing xenogeneic viral antigen E7. PMID:24066030

  14. The Forum for Defence of the Brazilian Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde) and its role in building community participation in the fight against the privatization of health.

    PubMed

    de Lara, Lutiane; Guareschi, Neuza Maria de Fátima

    2016-03-01

    Based on a Foucauldian framework, this article discusses the involvement of the Forum for Defence of the Sistema Único de Saúde in the fight against health care privatization. Community participation is a locus of experience that produces subjects implicated in the production of public health care. The locus of experience in this instance derives from the rejection of private elements that historically have been part of Brazilian public policies. It is an experience that produces workers and service users as agents able to defend the public system and endowed with instituting power. PMID:26987838

  15. A critical view of the 'social reinsertion' concept and its implications for the practice of psychologists in the area of mental health in the Brazilian Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde).

    PubMed

    Frazatto, Carina F; Sawaia, Bader B

    2016-03-01

    Improving psychological practice in mental health services in the Brazilian Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde) requires a critical analysis of core concepts of the psychiatric reform, such as 'social reinsertion'. This analysis, oriented by the dialectics of exclusion/inclusion, showed that this concept is impregnated with the adaptation paradigm and asylum view which prevents its effective implantation. The results suggest it is necessary to include social aspects in the discussion of mental health, articulating it with networks of social work and recuperating the revolutionary aspects of the psychiatric reform, thus demarcating the political nature of professional practices. PMID:26987835

  16. 75 FR 23574 - Airworthiness Directives; CFM International, S.A. CFM56-5B1/P, -5B2/P, -5B3/P, -5B3/P1, -5B4/P...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and (3) Will not have a significant..., S.A. CFM56-5B1/P, - 5B2/P, -5B3/P, -5B3/P1, -5B4/P, -5B5/P, -5B6/P, -5B7/P, -5B8/P, -5B9/P, -5B1/2P... INFORMATION: The FAA proposed to amend 14 CFR part 39 by superseding AD 2009-01-01, Amendment......

  17. Mathematical Model of Forecasting the Formation of Sinkhole Using Salustowicz's Theory / Model Matematyczny Prognozowania Zapadlisk Przy Wykorzystaniu Teorii Sklepienia Ciśnień Sałustowicza

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strzałkowski, Piotr

    2015-03-01

    In area affected by old, shallow extraction in some cases sinkholes are formed, causing security issues in urbanized areas. Problem of working out deterministic forecast of this threat seems to be important and up-to-date. Mathematical model presented in this work let us predict the possibility of sinkhole formation. That prediction is essential for analyzing possibility of investments in such areas. Basing on presented work, it is also possible to determine dimensions of sinkhole. Considerations are based on known from literature Sałustowicz's theory, which is utilises Huber's solution of equation describing the stress state around elliptic void made in flat plate Początki eksploatacji górniczej na Górnym Śląsku sięgają XVIII stulecia. Dawna eksploatacja prowadzona na głębokościach nie przekraczających 80 m, do dziś generuje zagrożenia bezpieczeństwa powszechnego z uwagi na możliwość wystąpienia zapadlisk. Jak to wynika z pracy (Chudek i in., 2013), obszary pod którymi prowadzono w minionych latach płytką eksploatację zajmują znaczną powierzchnię śląskich miast, które w dalszym ciągu się rozbudowują. Dlatego problem występowania zapadlisk należy w dalszym ciągu uznać za ważny i aktualny. Duża liczba zapadlisk, ze zrozumiałych względów, jest wynikiem utraty stateczności płytkich wyrobisk korytarzowych. Istniejące metody prognozowania zapadlisk pozwalają głównie określać prawdopodobieństwo wystąpienia zapadliska. Jeśli wartość prawdopodobieństwa wystąpienia zapadliska jest większa od 0, wówczas należy się liczyć z zagrożeniem bezpieczeństwa terenu i co istotniejsze ludności. Taki sposób prognozowania wystąpienia zapadlisk nie daje jednoznacznej odpowiedzi na pytanie, czy teren objęty analizą jest rzeczywiście zagrożony. Dlatego istotnym jest stworzenie możliwości deterministycznego prognozowania tego typu deformacji. W tym kierunku zmierza propozycja autora pracy, w kt

  18. Nouvelles techniques d'imagerie multiphonique : vers une nouvelle génération de marqueurs moléculaires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchard-Desce, Mireille

    Novel microscopies based on nonlinear optical (NLO) phenomena such as two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second-harmonic generation (SHG) have gained overwhelming popularity in the biology community owing to the many advantages they provide in biological imaging. Examples of molecular engineering approaches toward NLO-probes specifically designed for SHG and/or TPEF imaging of lipid membranes and biological cells are given here, providing an illustration of their intriguing potential in the area of real-time, non-damaging imaging of biological structures. Optimized NLO-markers open new routes for improved monitoring and better understanding of fundamental dynamic processes. To cite this article: M. Blanchard-Desce, C. R. Physique 3 (2002) 439-448.

  19. Crystal molecular dynamics simulations to speed up MM/PB(GB)SA evaluation of binding free energies of di-mannose deoxy analogs with P51G-m4-Cyanovirin-N.

    PubMed

    Vorontsov, Ivan I; Miyashita, Osamu

    2011-04-30

    Complexes of two Cyanovirin-N (CVN) mutants, m4-CVN and P51G-m4-CVN, with deoxy di-mannose analogs were employed as models to generate conformational ensembles using explicit water Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations in solution and in crystal environment. The results were utilized for evaluation of binding free energies with the molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann (or Generalized Born) surface area, MM/PB(GB)SA, methods. The calculations provided the ranking of deoxy di-mannose ligands affinity in agreement with available qualitative experimental evidences. This confirms the importance of the hydrogen-bond network between di-mannose 3'- and 4'-hydroxyl groups and the protein binding site B(M) as a basis of the CVN activity as an effective HIV fusion inhibitor. Comparison of binding free energies averaged over snapshots from the solution and crystal simulations showed high promises in the use of the crystal matrix for acceleration of the conformational ensemble generation, the most time consuming step in MM/PB(GB)SA approach. Correlation between energy values based on solution versus crystal ensembles is 0.95 for both MM/PBSA and MM/GBSA methods. PMID:20949512

  20. Aerodynamic characteristics of a 0.00563 scale 142-inch diameter solid rocket booster (MSFC model 449 and 480) with side mounted stings in the NASA/MSFC 14-inch trisonic wind tunnel (SA14FA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, P. E.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental investigation (SA14FA, TWT 620) was conducted in the MSFC 14-inch Trisonic Wind Tunnel (TWT) to determine the entry static stability of a 0.00563 scale shuttle solid rocket booster (SRB). The primary objective was to determine the effects of four side mounted sting configurations and to improve the definition of the aerodynamic characteristics in the vicinity of the SRB entry trim point. Data were obtained for two 60 and two 90 degree side mounted stings and a straight nose mounted sting. The angle of attack range for the side-mounted stings was 100 to 170 degrees while that for the nose mounted sting was 150 to 170 degrees. The Mach number range consisted of 0.6 to 3.48. Except for the aft attach ring, no protuberances were considered and the side slip and roll angles were zero. The test model was scaled from the 142-inch diameter SRB known as configuration 139 which was used during test TWT 572 (SA5F).

  1. SaDA: From Sampling to Data Analysis—An Extensible Open Source Infrastructure for Rapid, Robust and Automated Management and Analysis of Modern Ecological High-Throughput Microarray Data

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kumar Saurabh; Thual, Dominique; Spurio, Roberto; Cannata, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    One of the most crucial characteristics of day-to-day laboratory information management is the collection, storage and retrieval of information about research subjects and environmental or biomedical samples. An efficient link between sample data and experimental results is absolutely important for the successful outcome of a collaborative project. Currently available software solutions are largely limited to large scale, expensive commercial Laboratory Information Management Systems (LIMS). Acquiring such LIMS indeed can bring laboratory information management to a higher level, but most of the times this requires a sufficient investment of money, time and technical efforts. There is a clear need for a light weighted open source system which can easily be managed on local servers and handled by individual researchers. Here we present a software named SaDA for storing, retrieving and analyzing data originated from microorganism monitoring experiments. SaDA is fully integrated in the management of environmental samples, oligonucleotide sequences, microarray data and the subsequent downstream analysis procedures. It is simple and generic software, and can be extended and customized for various environmental and biomedical studies. PMID:26047146

  2. SaDA: From Sampling to Data Analysis-An Extensible Open Source Infrastructure for Rapid, Robust and Automated Management and Analysis of Modern Ecological High-Throughput Microarray Data.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kumar Saurabh; Thual, Dominique; Spurio, Roberto; Cannata, Nicola

    2015-06-01

    One of the most crucial characteristics of day-to-day laboratory information management is the collection, storage and retrieval of information about research subjects and environmental or biomedical samples. An efficient link between sample data and experimental results is absolutely important for the successful outcome of a collaborative project. Currently available software solutions are largely limited to large scale, expensive commercial Laboratory Information Management Systems (LIMS). Acquiring such LIMS indeed can bring laboratory information management to a higher level, but most of the times this requires a sufficient investment of money, time and technical efforts. There is a clear need for a light weighted open source system which can easily be managed on local servers and handled by individual researchers. Here we present a software named SaDA for storing, retrieving and analyzing data originated from microorganism monitoring experiments. SaDA is fully integrated in the management of environmental samples, oligonucleotide sequences, microarray data and the subsequent downstream analysis procedures. It is simple and generic software, and can be extended and customized for various environmental and biomedical studies. PMID:26047146

  3. Crude saponins from Platycodon grandiflorum induce apoptotic cell death in RC-58T/h/SA#4 prostate cancer cells through the activation of caspase cascades and apoptosis-inducing factor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju-Hye; Oh, Eun-Kyoung; Cho, Hyun-Dong; Kim, Jae-Yong; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Seo, Kwon-Il

    2013-04-01

    Saponins are a major active component of Platycodon grandiflorum (P. grandiflorum) and are known to induce apoptosis in metastatic prostate cancer cell lines. However, thus far, no research has been conducted on the anticancer activity of saponins in RC-58T/h/SA#4 primary prostate cancer cells. In this study, we show that the treatment of prostate cancer cells with saponins extracted from P. grandiflorum (SPG) inhibits cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. SPG significantly induced apoptotic cell death, resulting in an increase in the sub-G1 apoptotic cell population, apoptotic DNA fragmentation and morphological changes. Pre-treatment with a caspase inhibitor modestly attenuated the SPG-induced increase in the sub-G1 cell population, suggesting that caspases play a role in SPG-induced apoptosis. Moreover, SPG-induced apoptosis was associated with changes in caspase activity, the upregulation of the apoptotic protein, Bax and the downregulation of the anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2. Furthermore, the caspase-independent mitochondrial apoptosis factor, apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) was upregulated following SPG treatment. These findings indicate that SPG exerts its anticancer effects on RC-58T/h/SA#4 primary prostate cancer cells through mitochondrial caspase-dependent and -independent apoptotic pathways. PMID:23443329

  4. Overview of JT-60U results towards the resolution of key physics and engineering issues in ITER and JT-60SA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isayama, A.; JT-60 Team

    2011-09-01

    ELM frequency by electron cyclotron heating in the edge region of the high-field side was observed, and the frequency increase was four times than that of neutral beam injection cases having the same absorption power. Laser scattering measurement of carbon dust generation showed that the dust distribution had a peak in the far scrape-off layer and penetration into the core plasma was not significant. Depth profile measurements of deuterium and carbon in tungsten-coated tiles (tungsten thickness: 50 µm) determined that the ratio of deuterium to carbon was 0.06 ± 0.02 over a 20 µm depth, suggesting deuterium trapping by carbon in the tungsten layer. Furthermore, new records for both the beam energy of negative-ion-based neutral beams (507 keV) and the output power of 110 GHz electron cyclotron waves (1.5 MW for 4 s from one gyrotron) were achieved, which confirmed and extended the heating and current drive capabilities of ITER and JT-60SA.

  5. 76 FR 27954 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Model SA-365C, SA-365C1, SA-365C2, SA-365N, SA-365N1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic... the strong effect of temperature on the strength of the bush-to- Starflex star arm end attachment... the main rotor frequency adapters to reduce the temperature in the area, to prevent failure of...

  6. 76 FR 35346 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Model SA-365C, SA-365C1, SA-365C2, SA-365N, SA-365N1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). Regulatory Findings We have determined that this AD will not have.... Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February...) helicopters. This action requires visually inspecting the adhesive bead between the bushing and the...

  7. Development of community based model of Tawanchai Center: sufficiency economy principles for community Development an applicability at Bankhambong Community, Sa-ard Sub-district, Nampong District, Khon Kaen Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kotrmaneetaweetong, Unchana; Choopen, Hhakuan; Chowchuen, Bowornsilp

    2012-11-01

    The objectives of the present study are 1) to study the application of sufficiency economy philosophy in community development as a model for future application of community health care program of Tawanchai Center, 2) study the administrative model for self sufficiency economy community in Bankhambong Community, Sa-ard Sub-district, Nampong District, Khon Kaen Province. The integrated study model included qualitative research by collecting data from documents, textbook, article, report, theory concept, researches and interviewing of relevant persons and the quantitative research by collecting data from questionnaires. The findings of study included objectives for development model of sufficiency economy for understanding of people, and use the philosophy of sufficiency economy model which compose of decrease expenditure, increase income activities, saving activities, learning activities and preservation of environment and sustainable natural resources activities. Decrease in expenditure activities included household gardening, and no allurements leading to ruin. Increase in income activities included supplement occupation and appropriate use of technology. Saving activities included creating saving group in household and community level. Learning activities included community use of local wisdom, and household learnt philosophy of sufficiency economy in daily living. Preservation of environment and sustainable natural resources activities included the use of sustainable raw materials in occupation. The generosity of one another activities included helping each other and solving problems for the poor and disable persons. The community development at in Bankhambong Community, Sa-ard Sub-district, Nampong District, Khon Kaen Province followed all of the above scope and guidelines and is the model for application of sufficiency community philosophy. We recommended method for successful implementation, including the starting from group process with capability of

  8. Isoquercitrin and polyphosphate co-enhance mineralization of human osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells via separate activation of two RUNX2 cofactors AFT6 and Ets1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaohong; Schröder, Heinz C; Feng, Qingling; Diehl-Seifert, Bärbel; Grebenjuk, Vladislav A; Müller, Werner E G

    2014-06-01

    Isoquercitrin, a dietary phytoestrogen, is a potential stimulator of bone mineralization used for prophylaxis of osteoporotic disorders. Here we studied the combined effects of isoquercitrin, a cell membrane permeable 3-O-glucoside of quercetin, and polyphosphate [polyP], a naturally occurring inorganic polymer inducing bone formation, on mineralization of human osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells. Both compounds isoquercitrin and polyP induce at non-toxic concentrations the mineralization process of SaOS-2 cells. Co-incubation experiments revealed that isoquercitrin (at 0.1 and 0.3μM), if given simultaneously with polyP (as Ca(2+) salt; at 3, 10, 30 and 100μM) amplifies the mineralization-enhancing effect of the inorganic polymer. The biomineralization process induced by isoquercitrin and polyP is based on two different modes of action. After incubation of the cells with isoquercitrin or polyP the expression of the Runt-related transcription factor 2 [RUNX2] is significantly upregulated. In addition, isoquercitrin causes a strong increase of the steady-state-levels of the two co-activators of RUNX2, the activating transcription factor 6 [ATF6] and the Ets oncogene homolog 1 [Ets1]. The activating effect of isoquercitrin occurs via a signal transduction pathway involving ATF6, and by that, is independent from the induction cascade initiated by polyP. This conclusion is supported by the finding that isoquercitrin upregulates the expression of the gene encoding for osteocalcin, while polyP strongly increases the expression of the Ets1 gene and of the alkaline phosphatase. We show that the two compounds, polyP and isoquercitrin, have a co-enhancing effect on bone mineral formation and in turn might be of potential therapeutic value for prevention/treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:24726443

  9. An in vitro evaluation of the responses of human osteoblast-like SaOs-2 cells on SLA titanium surfaces irradiated by different powers of CO2 lasers.

    PubMed

    Ayubianmarkazi, Nader; Karimi, Mohammadreza; Koohkan, Shima; Sanasa, Armand; Foroutan, Tahereh

    2015-11-01

    Bacterial biofilms have been identified as the primary etiological factor for the development and progression of peri-implantitis. Lasers have been shown to remove bacterial plaque from titanium surfaces effectively and can restore its biocompatibility without damaging these surfaces. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the responses (i.e., the cell viability and morphology) of human osteoblast-like SaOs-2 cells to sandblasted, large grit, and acid-etched (SLA) titanium surfaces irradiated by CO2 lasers at two different power outputs. A total of 24 SLA disks were randomly radiated by CO2 lasers at either 6 W (group 1, 12 disks) or 8 W (group 2, 12 disks). Non-irradiated disks were used as a control group (four disks). The cell viability rates of the SaOs-2 cells in the control and study groups (6 and 8 W) were 0.33 ± 0.00, 0.24 ± 0.11, and 0.2372 ± 0.09, respectively (P < 0.6). Cells with cytoplasmic extensions and spreading morphology were most prominent in the control group (141.00 ± 29.00), while in the study groups (6 and 8 W), the number of cells with such morphology was 60.40 ± 26.00 and 35.20 ± 5.40, respectively (P < 0.005). Within the limits of this study, it may be concluded that the use of CO2 lasers with the aforementioned setting parameters could not be recommended for decontamination of SLA titanium surfaces. PMID:25958169

  10. Lot-to-lot consistency of live attenuated SA 14-14-2 Japanese encephalitis vaccine manufactured in a good manufacturing practice facility and non-inferiority with respect to an earlier product.

    PubMed

    Zaman, K; Naser, Abu Mohd; Power, Maureen; Yaich, Mansour; Zhang, Lei; Ginsburg, Amy Sarah; Luby, Stephen P; Rahman, Mahmudur; Hills, Susan; Bhardwaj, Mukesh; Flores, Jorge

    2014-10-21

    We conducted a four-arm, double-blind, randomized controlled trial among 818 Bangladeshi infants between 10 and 12 months of age to establish equivalence among three lots of live attenuated SA 14-14-2 JE vaccine manufactured by the China National Biotec Group's Chengdu Institute of Biological Products (CDIBP) in a new Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) facility and to evaluate non-inferiority of the product with a lot of the same vaccine manufactured in CDIBP's original facility. The study took place in two sites in Bangladesh, rural Matlab and Mirpur in urban Dhaka. We collected pre-vaccination (Day 0) and post-vaccination Day 28 (-4 to +14 days) blood samples to assess neutralizing anti-JE virus antibody titers in serum by plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNT). Seroprotection following vaccination was defined as a PRNT titer ≥1:10 at Day 28 in participants non-immune at baseline. Follow-up for reactogenicity and safety was conducted through home visits at Day 7 and monitoring for serious adverse events through Day 28. Seroprotection rates ranged from 80.2% to 86.3% for all four lots of vaccine. Equivalence of the seroprotection rates between pairs of vaccine lots produced in the new GMP facility was satisfied at the pre-specified 10% margin of the 95% confidence interval (CI) for two of the three pairwise comparisons, but not for the third (-4.3% observed difference with 95% CI of -11.9 to 3.3%). Nevertheless, the aggregate seroprotection rate for all three vaccine lots manufactured in the GMP facility was calculated and found to be within the non-inferiority margin (within 10%) to the vaccine lot produced in the original facility. All four lots of vaccine were safe and well tolerated. These study results should facilitate the use of SA 14-14-2 JE vaccine as a routine component of immunization programs in Asian countries. PMID:25239483

  11. IL-15 superagonist/IL-15RαSushi-Fc fusion complex (IL-15SA/IL-15RαSu-Fc; ALT-803) markedly enhances specific subpopulations of NK and memory CD8+ T cells, and mediates potent anti-tumor activity against murine breast and colon carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Kim, Peter S; Kwilas, Anna R; Xu, Wenxin; Alter, Sarah; Jeng, Emily K; Wong, Hing C; Schlom, Jeffrey; Hodge, James W

    2016-03-29

    Interleukin (IL)-15-N72D superagonist-complexed with IL-15RαSushi-Fc fusion protein (IL-15SA/IL-15RαSu-Fc; ALT-803) has been reported to exhibit significant anti-tumor activity in murine myeloma, rat bladder cancer, and murine glioblastoma models. In this study, we examined the immunomodulatory and anti-tumor effects of IL-15SA/IL-15RαSu-Fc in tumor-free and highly metastatic tumor-bearing mice. Here, IL-15SA/IL-15RαSu-Fc significantly expanded natural killer (NK) and CD8+ T cells. In examining NK cell subsets, the greatest significant increase was in highly cytotoxic and migrating (CD11b+, CD27hi; high effector) NK cells, leading to enhanced function on a per-cell basis. CD8+ T cell subset analysis determined that IL-15SA/IL-15RαSu-Fc significantly increased IL-15 responding memory (CD122+, CD44+) CD8+ T cells, in particular those having the innate (NKG2D+, PD1-) phenotype. In 4T1 breast tumor-bearing mice, IL-15SA/IL-15RαSu-Fc induced significant anti-tumor activity against spontaneous pulmonary metastases, depending on CD8+ T and NK cells, and resulting in prolonged survival. Similar anti-tumor activity was seen in the experimental pulmonary metastasis model of CT26 colon carcinoma cells, particularly when IL-15SA/IL-15RαSu-Fc was combined with a cocktail of checkpoint inhibitors, anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-L1. Altogether, these studies showed for the first time that IL-15SA/IL-15RαSu-Fc (1) promoted the development of high effector NK cells and CD8+ T cell responders of the innate phenotype, (2) enhanced function of NK cells, and (3) played a vital role in reducing tumor metastasis and ultimately survival, especially in combination with checkpoint inhibitors. PMID:26910920

  12. IL-15 superagonist/IL-15RαSushi-Fc fusion complex (IL-15SA/IL-15RαSu-Fc; ALT-803) markedly enhances specific subpopulations of NK and memory CD8+ T cells, and mediates potent anti-tumor activity against murine breast and colon carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Peter S.; Kwilas, Anna R.; Xu, Wenxin; Alter, Sarah; Jeng, Emily K.; Wong, Hing C.

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-15-N72D superagonist-complexed with IL-15RαSushi-Fc fusion protein (IL-15SA/IL-15RαSu-Fc; ALT-803) has been reported to exhibit significant anti-tumor activity in murine myeloma, rat bladder cancer, and murine glioblastoma models. In this study, we examined the immunomodulatory and anti-tumor effects of IL-15SA/IL-15RαSu-Fc in tumor-free and highly metastatic tumor-bearing mice. Here, IL-15SA/IL-15RαSu-Fc significantly expanded natural killer (NK) and CD8+ T cells. In examining NK cell subsets, the greatest significant increase was in highly cytotoxic and migrating (CD11b+, CD27hi; high effector) NK cells, leading to enhanced function on a per-cell basis. CD8+ T cell subset analysis determined that IL-15SA/IL-15RαSu-Fc significantly increased IL-15 responding memory (CD122+, CD44+) CD8+ T cells, in particular those having the innate (NKG2D+, PD1−) phenotype. In 4T1 breast tumor–bearing mice, IL-15SA/IL-15RαSu-Fc induced significant anti-tumor activity against spontaneous pulmonary metastases, depending on CD8+ T and NK cells, and resulting in prolonged survival. Similar anti-tumor activity was seen in the experimental pulmonary metastasis model of CT26 colon carcinoma cells, particularly when IL-15SA/IL-15RαSu-Fc was combined with a cocktail of checkpoint inhibitors, anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-L1. Altogether, these studies showed for the first time that IL-15SA/IL-15RαSu-Fc (1) promoted the development of high effector NK cells and CD8+ T cell responders of the innate phenotype, (2) enhanced function of NK cells, and (3) played a vital role in reducing tumor metastasis and ultimately survival, especially in combination with checkpoint inhibitors. PMID:26910920

  13. L'Enseignement des langues assiste par ordinateur: nouvelle pedagogie? (Computer Assisted Language Instruction: New Pedagogy?).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkabas, Charles

    1989-01-01

    Recent second language instruction computer software focuses almost exclusively on the structures and forms of language, and on programed learning instead of developing communicative skills. Until artificial intelligence changes these old behavioristic principles, computer-assisted language instruction can only play a minor role in language…

  14. Malformations vasculaires au cours du syndrome de Williams-Beuren: à propos de trois nouvelles observations

    PubMed Central

    Sator, Hicham; Rhouni, Fatima Ezzahra; Benjouad, Ibitihale; Rhouni, Fatima Ezzahra; Benjouad, Ibitihale; Dafiri, Rachida; Chat, Latifa

    2016-01-01

    Le syndrome de Williams-Beuren est une maladie génétique rare, il associe classiquement une dysmorphie faciale assez spécifique, des malformations cardiovasculaires et un profil neuropsychologique particulier. Nous rapportons les observations de trois enfants atteints du syndrome de Williams-Beuren en insistant surtout sur les anomalies vasculaires observées sur l'angio-scanner et angio-IRM. PMID:27200143

  15. Symétries et nomenclature des baryons: Proposition d'une nouvelle nomenclature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landry, Gaëtan

    Baryons, such as protons and neutrons, are matter particles made of three quarks. Their current nomenclature is based on the concept of isospin, introduced by Werner Heisenberg in 1932 to explain the similarity between the masses of protons and neutrons, as well as the similarity of their behaviour under the strong interaction. It is a refinement of a nomenclature designed in 1964, before the acceptance of the quark model, for light baryons. A historical review of baryon physics before the advent of the quark model is given to understand the motivations behind the light baryon nomenclature. Then, an overview of the quark model is given to understand the extensions done to this nomenclature in 1986, as well as to understand the physics of baryons and of properties such as isospin and flavour quantum numbers. Since baryon properties are in general explained by the quark model, a nomenclature based on isospin leads to several issues of physics and of clarity. To resolve these issues, the concepts of isospin and mass groups are generalized to all flavours of quarks, the Gell-Mann--Okubo formalism is extended to generalized mass groups, and a baryon nomenclature based on the quark model, reflecting modern knowledge, is proposed.

  16. Youth and the New Economy=Les jeunes et la nouvelle economie.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Perspectives Series, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This Community Perspective Series document includes statements about young people in the new economy of Toronto made by three participants in the October 2000 annual general meeting of the Toronto Training Board. "A Hitchhiker's Guide to the New Economy" (Olivia Chow) suggests that training programs available to young people are fragmented and…

  17. Training in Toronto's "New Economy"=La formation dans la "nouvelle" economie de Toronto.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Perspectives Series, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This Community Perspectives Series document includes statements about the new economy in Toronto made by four participants in a March 2001 forum. The new economy was defined by the moderator as "an economy that emphasizes knowledge and technical processes put to the production of goods and other outputs so that an individual's knowledge is viewed…

  18. Stabilite magnetohydrodynamique des cuves d'electrolyse: Aspects physiques et idees nouvelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munger, David

    Industrial production of primary aluminum by means of electrolysis of alumina through the Hall--Heroult process raises magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability problems in physics. In aluminum reduction cells, a thin layer of electrolytic bath lies on top of a liquid aluminum layer. Magnetic forces acting on the liquids tend to amplify motions of the aluminum--electrolyte interface, thus limiting the process stability and efficiency. We review and comment the established understanding of the MHD of reduction cells, with a particular focus on the metal pad roll instability. Next, we discuss from a physical standpoint a few specific aspects such as the factors that determine the electric current distribution and how a horizontal gradient of the vertical magnetic field affects already known instabilities. We describe the numerical method that we devised to simulate instabilities in reduction cells, and thus uncover a new MHD instability caused by the large eddies generally observed in operating cells. We explain how power supplied by the magnetic force is converted to radial wave motion through the action of centrifugal and Coriolis forces. We finally study different control scenarios for the electrolysis current supplied to the cell by the anodes and thus show that the intensity of the current deflection inside the cell can be considerably reduced by varying the electric potential in such a way as to limit the current fluctuations at the anodes, which allows to slow down the development of MHD instabilities. Keywords. magnetohydrodynamics, waves, instabilities, linearization, numerical simulation, Saint-Venant, magnetostatics, electric current, aluminum reduction.

  19. Une Nouvelle Place pour le francais au Senegal? (A New Place for French in Senegal?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ka, Omar

    1993-01-01

    A discussion of the role of the French language in Senegal first chronicles language and education policy from the colonial period until 1980, then cites research indicating that French is infrequently used for personal purposes. Recent initiatives to strengthen its status and usage, and obstacles to their success, are outlined. (MSE)

  20. Nouvelles Limites sur la Detection Directe de la Matiere Sombre avec l'Experience PICASSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piro, Marie-Cecile

    Astronomical and cosmological observations strongly suggest the presence of an exotic form of non-relativistic, non-baryonic matter that would represent 26% of the actual energy-matter content of the Universe. This so-called cold dark matter would be composed of Weakly Interactive Massive Particles (WIMP). PICASSO (Project In CAnada to Search for Supersymmetric Objects) aims to detect directly one of the dark matter candidates proposed in the framework of supersymmetric extensions of the standard model : the neutralino. The experiment is installed in the SNOLAB underground laboratory at Sudbury (Ontario) and uses superheated C4F10 droplets detectors, a variant of bubble chamber technique. Phase transitions in the superheated liquids are triggered by 19F recoils caused by the elastic collision with neutralinos and create an acoustic signal which is recorded by piezoelectric sensors. This thesis presents recent progress in PICASSO leading to a substantially increased sensitivity in the search of neutralinos. New fabrication and purification procedures allowed a background reduction of about a factor 10 of the major detectors contamination caused by alpha emitters. Detailed studies allowed to localize these emitters in the detectors. In addition, data analysis efforts were able to improve substantially the discrimination between alpha particle induced events and those created by nuclear recoils. New analysis tools were also developed in order to discriminate between particle induced and non-particle induced events, such as electronic backgrounds and acoustic noise signals. An important new background suppression mechanism at higher temperatures led to the present improved sensitivity of PICASSO at low WIMP masses.

  1. La pneumonie tuberculeuse: une nouvelle série de 27 cas

    PubMed Central

    Bakouh, Ouiam; Aniked, Sarra; Bourkadi, Jamaleddine

    2014-01-01

    Dans le but d’étudier les aspects cliniques, radiologiques et évolutifs de la pneumonie tuberculeuse (PT) au Maroc, pays à forte prévalence de tuberculose, une étude rétrospective s’étalant de Janvier au Septembre 2013 a été menée au service de phtisiologie femme de l'hôpital Moulay Youssef de Rabat. 27 cas de PT ont été diagnostiqués, dont 2 VIH séropositives. La fièvre et l'altération de l’état général étaient rapportées chez toutes les patientes, précédant les signes respiratoires comme La toux et la dyspnée. L'hémoptysie est rapportée chez 7 cas. Diagnostiquées souvent tardivement, du fait de la non spécificité de ses signes, 14 pneumonies sur 27 étaient excavées. Avec prédominance des lésions au lobe supérieur droit. Le traitement antituberculeux était efficace dans la majorité des cas. On a déploré 2 décès. La décision de mise en route du traitement antituberculeux même en l'absence de certitude bactériologique doit être prise dans un délai raisonnable de 15 jours vue la gravité du tableau et les séquelles persistantes. PMID:25745530

  2. Deux espèces nouvelles de puces (Siphonaptera : Ctenophthalmidae & Rhopalopsyllidae) du Chili

    PubMed Central

    Beaucournu, J.-C.; Moreno, L.; González-Acuña, D.

    2011-01-01

    Agastopsylla guzmani n. sp. (Ctenophthalmidae) et Delostichus degus n. sp. (Rhopalopsyllidae) sont décrites. Une clé est donnée pour le genre Agastopsylla ; pour le genre Delostichus, une brève comparaison est faite avec D. incisus et D. ojedoi décrites depuis la parution du Catalogue de Smit en 1987. PMID:21894265

  3. Learner Autonomy: New Insights. = Autonomie de l'apprenant: nouvelles pistes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dam, Leni, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This book presents papers, written in both English and French, from a symposium entitled "Promoting Learner Autonomy: New Insights." After "Introduction" (Leni Dam), the eight papers include the following: "Examining the Discourse of Learner Advisory Sessions" (David Crabbe, Alison Hoffman, and Sara Cotteral); "Approaches to Advising for…

  4. La maladie de Fanconi: à propos d'une nouvelle observation

    PubMed Central

    Es-Seddiki, Anass; Ayyad, Anass; Messouadi, Sahar; Amrani, Rim

    2015-01-01

    La maladie de Fanconi ou l'anémie de Fanconi (AF) est une maladie génétique rare à transmission autosomique récessive. Elle est marquée par une hétérogénéité phénotypique. Certains symptômes et notamment la triade classique faite d'une petite taille, d'un syndrome malformatif varié et parfois discret et d'une insuffisance médullaire d'apparition précoce, doivent faire évoquer le diagnostic. Nous rapportons le cas d'un enfant âgé de sept ans, suivi et traité pour une luxation congénitale des hanches, qui présentait une pancytopénie avec à l'examen clinique on note un faciès dysmorphique triangulaire, une duplication du pouce droit, une surélévation de l’épaule gauche et un retard staturo-pondéral. PMID:26213593

  5. An in vitro evaluation of the responses of human osteoblast-like SaOs-2 cells to SLA titanium surfaces irradiated by erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) lasers.

    PubMed

    Ayobian-Markazi, Nader; Fourootan, Tahereh; Zahmatkesh, Atieh

    2014-01-01

    Erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser treatment is an effective option for the removal of bacterial plaques. Many studies have shown that Er:YAG lasers cannot re-establish the biocompatibility of titanium surfaces. The aim of this study was to evaluate the responses of the human osteoblast-like cell line, SaOs-2, to sand-blasted and acid-etched (SLA) titanium surface irradiation using different energy settings of an Er:YAG laser by examining cell viability and morphology. Forty SLA titanium disks were irradiated with an Er:YAG laser at a pulse energy of either 60 or 100 mJ with a pulse frequency of 10 Hz under water irrigation and placed in a 24-well plate. Human osteoblast-like SaOs-2 cells were seeded onto the disks in culture media. Cells were then kept in an incubator with 5% carbon dioxide at 37 °C. Each experimental group was divided into two smaller groups to evaluate cell morphology by scanning electron microscope and cell viability using 3-4,5-dimethylthiazol 2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide test. In both the 60 and the 100 mJ experimental groups, spreading morphologies, with numerous cytoplasmic extensions, were observed prominently. Similarly, a majority of cells in the control group exhibited spreading morphologies with abundant cytoplasmic extensions. There were no significant differences among the laser and control groups. The highest cell viability rate was observed in the 100 mJ laser group. No significant differences were observed between the cell viability rates of the two experimental groups (p = 1.00). In contrast, the control group was characterized by a significantly lower cell viability rate (p < 0.001). Treatments with an Er:YAG laser at a pulse energy of either 60 or 100 mJ do not reduce the biocompatibility of SLA titanium surfaces. In fact, modifying SLA surfaces with Er:YAG lasers improved the biocompatibility of these surfaces. PMID:23179305

  6. Biosilica-loaded poly(ϵ-caprolactone) nanofibers mats provide a morphogenetically active surface scaffold for the growth and mineralization of the osteoclast-related SaOS-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Müller, Werner E G; Tolba, Emad; Schröder, Heinz C; Diehl-Seifert, Bärbel; Link, Thorben; Wang, Xiaohong

    2014-10-01

    Bioprinting/3D cell printing procedures for the preparation of scaffolds/implants have the potential to revolutionize regenerative medicine. Besides biocompatibility and biodegradability, the hardness of the scaffold material is of critical importance to allow sufficient mechanical protection and, to the same extent, allow migration, cell-cell, and cell-substrate contact formation of the matrix-embedded cells. In the present study, we present a strategy to encase a bioprinted, cell-containing, and soft scaffold with an electrospun mat. The electrospun poly(ϵ-caprolactone) (PCL) nanofibers mats, containing tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), were subsequently incubated with silicatein. Silicatein synthesizes polymeric biosilica by polycondensation of ortho-silicate that is formed from prehydrolyzed TEOS. Biosilica provides a morphogenetically active matrix for the growth and mineralization of osteoblast-related SaOS-2 cells in vitro. Analysis of the microstructure of the 300-700 nm thick PCL/TEOS nanofibers, incubated with silicatein and prehydrolyzed TEOS, displayed biosilica deposits on the mats formed by the nanofibers. We conclude and propose that electrospun PCL nanofibers mats, coated with biosilica, may represent a morphogenetically active and protective cover for bioprinted cell/tissue-like units with a suitable mechanical stability, even if the cells are embedded in a softer matrix. PMID:24995956

  7. Lhcb2 gene expression analysis in two ecotypes of Sedum alfredii subjected to Zn/Cd treatments with functional analysis of SaLhcb2 isolated from a Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Senoura, Takeshi; Yang, Xiaoe; Chao, Yueen; Nishizawa, Naoko K

    2011-09-01

    The Lhcb2 gene from hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii was up-regulated more than three-fold while the non-hyperaccumulator accumulated one or two-fold higher amount of the mRNA than control plants under different concentrations of Cd(2+) for 24 h. Lhcb2 expression was up-regulated more than five-fold in a non-hyperaccumulator S. alfredii when exposed to 2 μM Cd(2+) or 50 μM Zn(2+) for 8 d and the hyperaccumulator had over two-fold more mRNA abundance than the control plants. Over-expression of SaLhcb2 increased the shoot biomass by 14-41% and the root biomass by 21-57% without Cd(2+) treatment. Four transgenic tobacco lines (L5, L7, L10 and L11) possessed higher shoot biomass than WT plants with Cd(2+). Four transgenic lines (L7, L8, L10 and L11) accumulated 6-35% higher Cd(2+) amounts in shoots than the wild type plants. PMID:21516315

  8. A Chimeric Dengue Virus Vaccine using Japanese Encephalitis Virus Vaccine Strain SA14-14-2 as Backbone Is Immunogenic and Protective against Either Parental Virus in Mice and Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Feng; Deng, Yong-Qiang; Yang, Hui-Qiang; Zhao, Hui; Jiang, Tao; Yu, Xue-Dong; Li, Shi-Hua; Ye, Qing; Zhu, Shun-Ya; Wang, Hong-Jiang; Zhang, Yu; Ma, Jie; Yu, Yong-Xin; Liu, Zhong-Yu; Qin, E-De; Shi, Pei-Yong

    2013-01-01

    The development of a safe and efficient dengue vaccine represents a global challenge in public health. Chimeric dengue viruses (DENV) based on an attenuated flavivirus have been well developed as vaccine candidates by using reverse genetics. In this study, based on the full-length infectious cDNA clone of the well-known Japanese encephalitis virus live vaccine strain SA14-14-2 as a backbone, a novel chimeric dengue virus (named ChinDENV) was rationally designed and constructed by replacement with the premembrane and envelope genes of dengue 2 virus. The recovered chimeric virus showed growth and plaque properties similar to those of the parental DENV in mammalian and mosquito cells. ChinDENV was highly attenuated in mice, and no viremia was induced in rhesus monkeys upon subcutaneous inoculation. ChinDENV retained its genetic stability and attenuation phenotype after serial 15 passages in cultured cells. A single immunization with various doses of ChinDENV elicited strong neutralizing antibodies in a dose-dependent manner. When vaccinated monkeys were challenged with wild-type DENV, all animals except one that received the lower dose were protected against the development of viremia. Furthermore, immunization with ChinDENV conferred efficient cross protection against lethal JEV challenge in mice in association with robust cellular immunity induced by the replicating nonstructural proteins. Taken together, the results of this preclinical study well demonstrate the great potential of ChinDENV for further development as a dengue vaccine candidate, and this kind of chimeric flavivirus based on JE vaccine virus represents a powerful tool to deliver foreign antigens. PMID:24109223

  9. 75 FR 55492 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Models SA330F, SA330G, and SA330J Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-13

    ... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or..., the copilot set the position beyond the end limit (``tall pilot'' position). This resulted in the... determined that the Loctite bond on the ``tall pilot'' stop nut was damaged, most likely due to aging of...

  10. SA's workplace programmes still poor, study finds.

    PubMed

    Mason, B

    1995-08-01

    In South Africa, a survey was conducted of 24 agencies that implement workplace HIV/AIDS programs to determine the range of programs, services, and resources offered by these agencies and the extent to which the programs observe generally-accepted strategies for AIDS and the workplace. The agencies were from the public sector (50%), the private sector (33%), and nongovernmental organizations (17%). Most of the programs consulted management but did not consult employee representatives at all levels. About 33% tried to talk to trade unions and fewer actually contacted them. Even though about 66% claimed to have provided peer educator training courses, most participants were health personnel, human resources personnel, or supervisors rather than peers of most employees. Most agencies either provided directly or facilitated access to resources (e.g., condoms and printed educational materials). Some agencies provided HIV testing and counseling. Almost 50% of agencies claimed that their audiovisual and printed materials were targeted to certain groups, yet none used evaluated media. More than 50% of agencies offered consultation on policy issues but few companies used this service. Less than 50% included follow-up as part of their program. 30-40% acknowledged the importance of follow-up and either advocated it to the companies or provided it on request. A formal evaluation of program effectiveness had been conducted of only one program. Less than 50% of programs claimed that informal evaluations of their programs had been done. A major reason for not conducting a formal evaluation was cost. These findings show that programs tend not to follow the generally-accepted strategies of AIDS and the workplace programs. Decision makers in management and in trade unions need to become familiar with guidelines for effective AIDS programs so they can make informed choices about programs and services. They should see that the company complies with those guidelines by insisting on a formal evaluation. PMID:12289852

  11. 75 FR 4482 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Model SE3160, SA315B, SA316B, SA316C, and SA319B...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... published as a final rule on August 28, 2003 (68 FR 51681). The current AD requires certain inspections of a... published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). Regulatory Findings We have determined that this AD will not... Order 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44...

  12. The presence of monocytes enhances the susceptibility of B cells to highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus possibly through the increased expression of α2,3 SA receptor.

    PubMed

    Lersritwimanmaen, Patharapan; Na-Ek, Prasit; Thanunchai, Maytawan; Thewsoongnoen, Jutarat; Sa-Ard-Iam, Noppadol; Wiboon-ut, Suwimon; Mahanonda, Rangsini; Thitithanyanont, Arunee

    2015-08-28

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus causes severe systemic infection in avian and mammalian species, including humans by first targeting immune cells. This subsequently renders the innate and adaptive immune responses less active, thus allowing dissemination of the virus to systemic organs. To gain insight into the pathogenesis of H5N1, this study aims to determine the susceptibility of human PBMCs to the H5N1 virus and explore the factors which influence this susceptibility. We found that PBMCs were a target of H5N1 infection, and that monocytes and B cells were populations which were clearly the most susceptible. Analysis of PBMC subpopulations showed that isolated monocytes and monocytes residing in whole PBMCs had comparable percentages of infection (28.97 ± 5.54% vs 22.23 ± 5.14%). In contrast, isolated B cells were infected to a much lower degree than B cells residing in a mixture of whole PBMCs (0.88 ± 0.34% vs 34.87 ± 4.63%). Different susceptibility levels of B cells for these tested conditions spurred us to explore the B cell-H5N1 interaction mechanisms. Here, we first demonstrated that monocytes play a crucial role in the enhancement of B cell susceptibility to H5N1 infection. Although the actual mechanism by which this enhancement occurs remains in question, α2,3-linked sialic acid (SA), known for influenza virus receptors, could be a responsible factor for the greater susceptibility of B cells, as it was highly expressed on the surface of B cells upon H5N1 infection of B cell/monocyte co-cultures. Our findings reveal some of the factors involved with the permissiveness of human immune cells to H5N1 virus and provide a better understanding of the tropism of H5N1 in immune cells. PMID:26187669

  13. SmartPill® as an objective parameter for determination of severity and duration of postoperative ileus: study protocol of a prospective, two-arm, open-label trial (the PIDuSA study)

    PubMed Central

    Vilz, Tim O; Pantelis, Dimitrios; Lingohr, Philipp; Fimmers, Rolf; Esmann, Anke; Randau, Thomas; Kalff, Jörg C; Coenen, Martin; Wehner, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Postoperative ileus (POI) is a frequent complication after abdominal surgery (AS). Until today, neither a prophylaxis nor an evidence-based therapy exists. This originates from the absence of objective parameters evaluating the severity and duration of POI resulting in clinical trials of modest quality. The SmartPill®, a capsule which frequently measures pH value, temperature and intraluminal pressure after swallowing, offers an elegant option for analysing gastrointestinal (GI) transit times and smooth muscle activity in vivo. As the use in patients in the first months after AS is not covered by the marketing authorisation, we aim to investigate the safety and feasibility of the SmartPill® immediately after surgery. Additionally, we analyse the influence of prokinetics and laxatives as well as standardised physiotherapy on postoperative bowel contractility, as scientific evidence of its effects is still lacking. Methods and analysis The PIDuSA study is a prospective, single-centre, two-arm, open-label trial. The SmartPill® will be applied to 55 patients undergoing AS having a high risk for POI and 10 patients undergoing extra-abdominal surgery rarely developing POI. The primary objective is the safety of the SmartPill® in patients after surgery on the basis of adverse device effects/serious adverse device effects (ADE/SADE). The sample size suggests that events with a probability of 3% could be seen with a certainty of 80% for at least once in the sample. Secondary objective is the analysis of postoperative intestinal activity in the GI tract in both groups. Furthermore, clinical signs of bowel motility disorders will be correlated to the data measured by the SmartPill® to evaluate its significance as an objective parameter for assessing POI severity. Additionally, effects of prokinetics, laxatives and physiotherapy on postoperative peristaltic activity recorded by the SmartPill® will be analysed. Ethics and dissemination The protocol was

  14. Nouvelle methode d'integration energetique pour la retro-installation des procedes industriels et la transformation des usines papetieres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonhivers, Jean-Christophe

    The increase in production of goods over the last decades has led to the need for improving the management of natural resources management and the efficiency of processes. As a consequence, heat integration methods for industry have been developed. These have been successful for the design of new plants: the integration principles are largely employed, and energy intensity has dramatically decreased in many processes. Although progress has also been achieved in integration methods for retrofit, these methods still need further conceptual development. Furthermore, methodological difficulties increase when trying to retrofit heat exchange networks that are closely interrelated to water networks, such as the case of pulp and paper mills. The pulp and paper industry seeks to increase its profitability by reducing production costs and optimizing supply chains. Recent process developments in forestry biorefining give this industry the opportunity for diversification into bio-products, increasing potential profit margins, and at the same time modernizing its energy systems. Identification of energy strategies for a mill in a changing environment, including the possibility of adding a biorefinery process on the industrial site, requires better integration methods for retrofit situations. The objective of this thesis is to develop an energy integration method for the retrofit of industrial systems and the transformation of pulp and paper mills, ant to demonstrate the method in case studies. Energy is conserved and degraded in a process. Heat can be converted into electricity, stored as chemical energy, or rejected to the environment. A systematic analysis of successive degradations of energy between the hot utilities until the environment, through process operations and existing heat exchangers, is essential in order to reduce the heat consumption. In this thesis, the "Bridge Method" for energy integration by heat exchanger network retrofit has been developed. This method is the first that considers the analysis of these degradations. The fundamental mechanism to reduce the heat consumption in an existing network has been made explicit; it is the basis of the developed method. The Bridge Method includes the definition of "a bridge", which is a set of modifications leading to heat reduction in a heat exchanger network. It is proven that, for a given set of streams, only bridges can lead to heat savings. The Bridge Method also includes (1) a global procedure for heat exchanger network retrofit, (2) a procedure to enumerate systematically the bridges, (3) "a network table" to easily evaluate them, and (4) an "energy transfer diagram" showing the effect of the two first principles of thermodynamics of energy conservation and degradation in industrial processes in order to identify energy savings opportunities. The Bridge Method can be used for the analysis of networks including several types of heat transfer, and site-wide analysis. The Bridge Method has been applied in case studies for retrofitting networks composed of indirect-contact heat exchangers, including the network of a kraft pulp mill, and also networks of direct-contact heat exchangers, including the hot water production system of a pulp mill. The method has finally been applied for the evaluation of a biorefinery process, alone or hosted in a kraft pulp mill. Results show that the use of the method significantly reduces the search space and leads to identification of the relevant solutions. The necessity of a bridge to reduce the inputs and outputs of a process is a consequence of the two first thermodynamics principles of energy conservation and increase in entropy. The concept of bridge alone can also be used as a tool for process analysis, and in numerical optimization-based approaches for energy integration.

  15. Making Canada Productive: Creating New Partnerships. Selected Cases = Rendons le Canada Productif: Creer de Nouvelles Associations. Cas Choisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thom, Gordon A., Ed.

    The Making Canada Productive project, a human resource initiative undertaken by the Association of Canadian Community Colleges (ACCC), is described in this monograph. An introductory chapter discusses the need for and aim of the project (i.e., to improve work force productivity through training, using creative partnerships between industry, labor,…

  16. Francophones in Canada: A Community of Interests. New Canadian Perspectives = Les liens dans la francophonie canadienne. Nouvelles Perspectives Canadiennes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guindon, Rene; Poulin, Pierre

    This text examines the ties that bind Francophones across Canada to illustrate the diversity and depth of the Canadian Francophone community. Observations are organized into seven chapters. The first looks at the kinship ties of Canadian Francophones, including common ancestral origins, settlement of the Francophone regions, and existence of two…

  17. LiCo2As3O10: une nouvelle structure à tunnels inter­connectés

    PubMed Central

    Ben Smida, Youssef; Guesmi, Abderrahmen; Driss, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, lithium dicobalt(II) triarsenate, LiCo2As3O10, was synthesized by a solid-state reaction. The As atoms and four out of seven O atoms lie on special positions, all with site symmetry m. The Li atoms are disordered over two independent special (site symmetry -1) and general positions with occupancies of 0.54 (7) and 0.23 (4), respectively. The structure model is supported by bond-valence-sum (BVS) and charge-distribution (CHARDI) methods. The structure can be described as a three-dimensional framework constructed from bi-octahedral Co2O10 dimers edge-connected to As3O10 groups. It delimits two sets of tunnels, running parallel to the a and b axes, the latter being the larger. The Li+ ions are located within the inter­sections of the tunnels. The possible motion of the alkali cations has been investigated by means of the BVS model. This simulation shows that the Li+ motion appears to be easier mainly along the b-axis direction and that this material may possess inter­esting conduction properties. PMID:23794970

  18. Nouvelles techniques pratiques pour la modelisation du comportement dynamique des systèmes eau-structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miquel, Benjamin

    The dynamic or seismic behavior of hydraulic structures is, as for conventional structures, essential to assure protection of human lives. These types of analyses also aim at limiting structural damage caused by an earthquake to prevent rupture or collapse of the structure. The particularity of these hydraulic structures is that not only the internal displacements are caused by the earthquake, but also by the hydrodynamic loads resulting from fluid-structure interaction. This thesis reviews the existing complex and simplified methods to perform such dynamic analysis for hydraulic structures. For the complex existing methods, attention is placed on the difficulties arising from their use. Particularly, interest is given in this work on the use of transmitting boundary conditions to simulate the semi infinity of reservoirs. A procedure has been developed to estimate the error that these boundary conditions can introduce in finite element dynamic analysis. Depending on their formulation and location, we showed that they can considerably affect the response of such fluid-structure systems. For practical engineering applications, simplified procedures are still needed to evaluate the dynamic behavior of structures in contact with water. A review of the existing simplified procedures showed that these methods are based on numerous simplifications that can affect the prediction of the dynamic behavior of such systems. One of the main objectives of this thesis has been to develop new simplified methods that are more accurate than those existing. First, a new spectral analysis method has been proposed. Expressions for the fundamental frequency of fluid-structure systems, key parameter of spectral analysis, have been developed. We show that this new technique can easily be implemented in a spreadsheet or program, and that its calculation time is near instantaneous. When compared to more complex analytical or numerical method, this new procedure yields excellent prediction of the dynamic behavior of fluid-structure systems. Spectral analyses ignore the transient and oscillatory nature of vibrations. When such dynamic analyses show that some areas of the studied structure undergo excessive stresses, time history analyses allow a better estimate of the extent of these zones as well as a time notion of these excessive stresses. Furthermore, the existing spectral analyses methods for fluid-structure systems account only for the static effect of higher modes. Thought this can generally be sufficient for dams, for flexible structures the dynamic effect of these modes should be accounted for. New methods have been developed for fluid-structure systems to account for these observations as well as the flexibility of foundations. A first method was developed to study structures in contact with one or two finite or infinite water domains. This new technique includes flexibility of structures and foundations as well as the dynamic effect of higher vibration modes and variations of the levels of the water domains. Extension of this method was performed to study beam structures in contact with fluids. These new developments have also allowed extending existing analytical formulations of the dynamic properties of a dry beam to a new formulation that includes effect of fluid-structure interaction. The method yields a very good estimate of the dynamic behavior of beam-fluid systems or beam like structures in contact with fluid. Finally, a Modified Accelerogram Method (MAM) has been developed to modify the design earthquake into a new accelerogram that directly accounts for the effect of fluid-structure interaction. This new accelerogram can therefore be applied directly to the dry structure (i.e. without water) in order to calculate the dynamic response of the fluid-structure system. This original technique can include numerous parameters that influence the dynamic response of such systems and allows to treat analytically the fluid-structure interaction while keeping the advantages of finite element modeling.

  19. Fabrication et analyse de revetements de nitrure de silicium deposes par plasma pour de nouvelles applications optiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernhes, Richard

    In the present thesis, innovative methods and strategies are proposed for the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) of thin films in order to tune their physical properties (e.g. optical constants, optical gap, etc.), by relying on the control and understanding of plasma characteristics and plasma-surface interactions rather than on the traditional variation of the gas mixture composition. The following paragraphs summarize the applied methodology and the main results, presented in the form of three articles at the core of this thesis, plus an additional chapter devoted to sensor fabrication and testing. (1) In the first article, we propose a new method of fabricating a-SiNx:H alloys by pulsing the radiofrequency (RF) signal during the PECVD process. Spectroscopic ellipsometric analysis in the UV-VIS-NIR and FIR ranges, atomic force microscopy, and elastic recoil detection reveal strong variations in the optical constants (1.88 ≤ n ≤ 2.75, 10-4 ≤ k ≤ 5 x 10-2 at 550 nm), optical gap (4.01 eV ≥ E 9 ≥ 1.95 eV), microstructural characteristics (1.3 nm ≤ surface roughness ≤ 8.3 nm), and chemical composition (0.47 ≤ x ≤ 1.35) of the coatings as a function of duty cycle. Using solely the control of duty cycle, we fabricate two types of a-SiNx:H-based thin film devices, namely (i) a model Fabry-Perot optical filter deposited on a plastic substrate, and (ii) a superlattice structure displaying a photoluminescence signal four times as large as the reference single layer. (2) In the second article, transparent hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride coatings are prepared by dual-mode microwave/radiofrequency PECVD. By controlling the effects of plasma density and ion energy on the film growth, it is possible to modify the microstructure of the coatings and hence the refractive index, n. Using this method, we are able to vary n from 1.6 to 2.0 at 550 nm, simply by adjusting the power levels of the radiofrequency and microwave components. (3) In the third article, surface treatments are performed on porous layers using argon and nitrogen RF plasmas in order to densify and flatten their surface, and hence to obtain an abrupt transition between porous and dense films. We show that besides the densification effect, preferential sputtering and annealing phenomena also occur during plasma treatments at high bias values ( VtreatB > 400 V), leading to silicon enrichment at the film surface and chemical stabilization of the film bulk. Using atomic force microscopy, we observe a significant reduction of the surface roughness after treatment of the single layers (≈ 70% reduction) and multilayer stacks (≈ 60% reduction). (4) In the next chapter, we demonstrate the concept of using nanoporous multilayer optical filters as optical gas sensors, based on the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of Si3N4 films with controlled porosity. In situ real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry, associated with the effective medium approximation is employed for characterizing the film microstructure, particularly the total volume fraction of porosity (fv), and the fraction of open porosity (fo). In order to do so, the effective refractive index (neff) of the as-grown films is evaluated both in vacuo and when exposed to ethanol vapor.

  20. Languages in Canada 1996 Census. New Canadian Perspectives = Les langues au Canada Recensement de 1996. Nouvelles Perspectives Canadiennes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmen, Louise; Corbeil, Jean-Pierre

    This book analyzes the evolution of the language situation in Canada over the last 45 years, drawing heavily from census data taken between 1951 and 1996. Chapters discuss: the evolution of the English language in Canada, including the size and distribution of the English native-language population, use of English as a home language, knowledge of…

  1. Système hydrogéologique d'un massif minier ultrabasique de Nouvelle-Calédonie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Join, Jean-Lambert; Robineau, Bernard; Ambrosi, Jean-Paul; Costis, Claire; Colin, Fabrice

    2005-12-01

    Ultramafic rocks outcrop over more than one third of New Caledonia's main island. Under tropical conditions, thick lateritic mantles with nickel concentrations developed on these rocks by geochemical weathering. Groundwater in ultramafic mined massifs represents a valuable resource, but also a severe constrain for mining engineering. Previous works describe several water tables in the various layers of the weathering mantle. From a hydrologic study of the Tiebaghi massif, the hydraulic continuity across the weathering layers down to the bedrock is proposed. To cite this article: J.-L. Join et al., C. R. Geoscience 337 (2005).

  2. Helicopter internal noise reduction research and development application to the SA 360 and SA 365 Dauphin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marze, H. J.; Dambra, F.

    1978-01-01

    Noise sources inside helicopter cabins are considered with emphasis on the mechanisms of vibration generation inside the main gear box and mechanisms of transmission between source and cabin. The dynamic behavior of the main gear box components is examined in relation to the transfer of vibration energy to the structure. It is indicated that although improvements can be made in noise reduction at the source, a soundproofing treatment isolating the passenger from the noise source is necessary. Soundproofing treatments installed and optimized include: (1) an acoustic screen using the weight effect to isolate the passenger from the noise source; (2) a damping treatment to limit the conversion of the vibratory energy into acoustic energy; and (3) an absorbing treatment achieved either through HELMHOLTZ resonators or through a glass wool blanket to limit the propagation of acoustic waves and the wave reflection effects in the cabin. The application of treatments at the source and the optimization of the sound barriers improved the noise level by about 30 db.

  3. Le syndrome d'apert

    PubMed Central

    Benmiloud, Sarra; Chaouki, Sana; Atmani, Samir; Hida, Moustapha

    2013-01-01

    Le syndrome d'Apert est une affection congénitale rare, caractérisée par une sténose cranio-faciale associée à une syndactylie des mains et des pieds. Sa prise en charge doit être précoce et multidisciplinaire. Sa gravité réside dans la coexistence de plusieurs malformations avec un risque d'hypertension intracrânienne chronique responsable d'une cécité et d'une débilité mentale. Les auteurs rapportent une nouvelle observation à travers laquelle ils illustrent les aspects cliniques et évolutifs ainsi que les difficultés thérapeutiques de cette affection. PMID:23565313

  4. An investigation of the aerodynamic characteristics of a 0.00548 scale model (model no. 486) of the space shuttle 146-inch diameter solid rocket booster at angels of attack from 113 deg to 180 deg in the AEDC PWT 4-foot transonic wind tunnel (SA16F)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, P. E.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental investigation (SA16F) was conducted in the AEDC PWT 4T to determine the entry static stability of a 0.00548 scale space shuttle solid rocket booster (SRB). The primary objective was to improve the definition of the aerodynamic characteristics in the angle of attack range beyond 90 deg in the vicinity of the entry trim point. The SRB scale model consisted of the reentry configuration with all major protuberances. A simulated heat shield around the engine nozzle was also included. Data were obtained for a 60 deg side mounted sting and a straight nose mounted sting. The angle of attack range for the side mounted sting was 113 deg to 147 deg and for the nose mounted sting 152 deg to 187 deg. The Mach number range consisted of 0.4 to 1.2 at roll angles of 0 and 90 deg. The resulting 6-component aerodynamic force data was presented as the variation of coefficients with angle of attack for each Mach number and roll angle.

  5. Hanbuk Tungkol sa Edukasyon sa California para sa mga Magulang na ang Wika ay Minorya = A Handbook on California Education for Language Minority Parents. Pilipino/English Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    A bilingual handbook for parents of Pilipino children in Caifornia public schools is presented that emphasizes the important partnership between home and school. In a question-answer format, the contents cover the following topics: (1) enrollment and attendance, general information, transportation; (2) basic school program, curriculum; (3) grades,…

  6. 75 FR 61980 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Model SA-365N, SA-365N1, AS-365N2, AS-365N3, SA-366G1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... by superseding AD 2005-03-09, Amendment 39-13965 (70 FR 7382, February 14, 2005), for the specified... FR 36581). The action proposed to require shortening the initial inspection required by AD 2005-03-09... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive...

  7. 75 FR 36581 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Model EC 155B, EC155B1, SA-360C, SA-365C, SA-365C1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78... On February 1, 2005, we issued AD 2005-03-09, Amendment 39-13965 (70 FR 7382, February 14, 2005), to... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and...

  8. Comparison of the next-generation Xpert MRSA/SA BC assay and the GeneOhm StaphSR assay to routine culture for identification of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus in positive-blood-culture broths.

    PubMed

    Buchan, Blake W; Allen, Stephen; Burnham, Carey-Ann D; McElvania TeKippe, Erin; Davis, Thomas; Levi, Michael; Mayne, Donna; Pancholi, Preeti; Relich, Ryan F; Thomson, Richard; Ledeboer, Nathan A

    2015-03-01

    A bloodstream infection with Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), is a serious condition that carries a high mortality rate and is also associated with significant hospital costs. The rapid and accurate identification and differentiation of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and MRSA directly from positive blood cultures has demonstrated benefits in both patient outcome and cost-of-care metrics. We compare the next-generation Xpert MRSA/SA BC (Xpert) assay to the GeneOhm StaphSR (GeneOhm) assay for the identification and detection of S. aureus and methicillin resistance in prospectively collected blood culture broths containing Gram-positive cocci. All results were compared to routine bacterial culture as the gold standard. Across 8 collection and test sites, the Xpert assay demonstrated a sensitivity of 99.6% (range, 96.4% to 100%) and a specificity of 99.5% (range, 98.0% to 100%) for identifying S. aureus, as well as a sensitivity of 98.1% (range, 87.5% to 100%) and a specificity of 99.6% (range, 98.3% to 100%) for identifying MRSA. In comparison, the GeneOhm assay demonstrated a sensitivity of 99.2% (range, 95.2% to 100%) and a specificity of 96.5% (range, 89.2% to 100%) for identifying S. aureus, as well as a sensitivity of 94.3% (range, 87.5% to 100%) and a specificity of 97.8% (range, 96.1% to 100%) for identifying MRSA. Five of six cultures falsely reported as negative for MRSA by the GeneOhm assay were correctly identified as positive by the Xpert assay, while one culture falsely reported as negative for MRSA by the Xpert assay was correctly reported as positive by the GeneOhm assay. PMID:25540397

  9. REPORT TO SAED OF GESAED-BUHRC TRAINING STUDY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HARRISON, ROGER; OSHRY, BARRY

    A RESEARCH STUDY CONDUCTED BY THE SMALL AIRCRAFT ENGINE DEPARTMENT OF GENERAL ELECTRIC AND BOSTON UNIVERSITY HUMAN RELATIONS CENTER EXPLORED THE PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF 47 T-GROUP PARTICIPANTS. IN PART 1, THE AUTHORS DISCUSS THE PREDICTOR MEASURES THAT WERE FORMED BEFORE TRAINING. AT THE END OF EACH LABORATORY EACH MEMBER AND THE TRAINERS…

  10. 77 FR 63272 - Airworthiness Directives; Embraer S.A. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ..., we estimate that this proposed AD would affect about 163 products of U.S. registry. We also estimate... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska; and 4. Will... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Embraer...

  11. 78 FR 19090 - Airworthiness Directives; Embraer S.A. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... NPRM (77 FR 63272, October 16, 2012). Costs of Compliance We estimate that this AD will affect 163... FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska; and 4. Will not have...-146-AD; Amendment 39-17384; AD 2013-05-12] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Embraer...

  12. SA-SVM based automated diagnostic system for skin cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masood, Ammara; Al-Jumaily, Adel

    2015-03-01

    Early diagnosis of skin cancer is one of the greatest challenges due to lack of experience of general practitioners (GPs). This paper presents a clinical decision support system aimed to save time and resources in the diagnostic process. Segmentation, feature extraction, pattern recognition, and lesion classification are the important steps in the proposed decision support system. The system analyses the images to extract the affected area using a novel proposed segmentation method H-FCM-LS. The underlying features which indicate the difference between melanoma and benign lesions are obtained through intensity, spatial/frequency and texture based methods. For classification purpose, self-advising SVM is adapted which showed improved classification rate as compared to standard SVM. The presented work also considers analyzed performance of linear and kernel based SVM on the specific skin lesion diagnostic problem and discussed corresponding findings. The best diagnostic rates obtained through the proposed method are around 90.5 %.

  13. Skills Needs of the SA Labour Market: 1998-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, E. Comp.; Roodt, J., Comp.

    This document, which contains information relevant to individuals planning their careers, employers, human resource planners, and training institutions, examines the skill needs of the South African labor market in 1998-2003. The preface presents a brief overview of the factors that have contributed to the high levels of unemployment and patterns…

  14. Iowa Farm Women in the 1930s--A Reassessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Deborah; Schwieder, Dorothy

    Both economically and socially, Iowa farm women played important roles in supporting and maintaining the rural population during the 1930s. They continued their patterns of production for consumption and for income, and during the Depression this production constituted a larger and more significant part of the household economy. Women kept large…

  15. 77 FR 74628 - Airworthiness Directives; Embraer S.A. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ... rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not...). This proposed AD would require repetitive measurements of the left-hand (LH) and right-hand (RH) MLG... Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590. Hand Delivery: U.S. Department of Transportation, Docket Operations,...

  16. 78 FR 33201 - Airworthiness Directives; Embraer S.A. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... in the Federal Register on December 17, 2012 (77 FR 74628). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe... replace the MLG side stay fitting in accordance with paragraphs (g) and (h) of the NPRM (77 FR 74628... intent that was proposed in the NPRM (77 FR 74628, December 17, 2012) for correcting the unsafe...

  17. 77 FR 73270 - Airworthiness Directives; Embraer S.A. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... reference of certain publications listed in this AD as of July 6, 2010 (75 FR 30277, June 1, 2010... to the specified products. That NPRM was published in the Federal Register on June 6, 2012 (77 FR 33334), and proposed to supersede AD 2010-11-14, Amendment 39-16319 (75 FR 30277, June 1, 2010)....

  18. 78 FR 9800 - Airworthiness Directives; Embraer S.A. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... to the specified products. That NPRM was published in the Federal Register on December 6, 2012 (77 FR...) supports the intent of the NPRM (77 FR 72776, December 6, 2012). Conclusion We reviewed the available data... consistent with the intent that was proposed in the NPRM (77 FR 72776, December 6, 2012) for correcting...

  19. Jean Piaget et sa Recherche: Search and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Elspeth M.

    1981-01-01

    The early influences on and development of Jean Piaget's thinking from which crystallized the ideas forming the foundation of his subsequent work are discussed. The influences noted are personal, intellectual, and professional. (MSE)

  20. 78 FR 39567 - Airworthiness Directives; Embraer S.A. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ...-16359 (75 FR 42585, July 22, 2010), and, for certain airplanes, replacing the LPCVs of the LH and RH... SU airplanes cycle. (retained actions from AD 2010- 14-14 (75 FR 42585, July 22, 2010)). Replacement... (75 FR 42585, July 22, 2010). The Director of the Federal Register approved the incorporation...

  1. 77 FR 72776 - Airworthiness Directives; Embraer S.A. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not.... Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM... ERJ 190 airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by reports of the cockpit door falling off the...

  2. 78 FR 67018 - Airworthiness Directives; Embraer S.A. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... receipt. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jim Rutherford, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small Airplane...; email: jim.rutherford@faa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Discussion The Agencia Nacional De Aviacoa... not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February...

  3. 77 FR 75911 - Airworthiness Directives; Embraer S.A. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... AD. Discussion On June 23, 2010, we issued AD 2010-14-14, Amendment 39-16359 (75 FR 42585, July 22... and ERJ 190 airplanes. Since we issued AD 2010-14-14, Amendment 39-16359 (75 FR 42585, July 22, 2010... the actions required by AD 2010-14-14, Amendment 39-16359 (75 FR 42585, July 22, 2010), and...

  4. 78 FR 12256 - Airworthiness Directives; Embraer S.A. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not... unit (APU) electronic starter controller (ESC) power cables and the airplane tail cone firewall. This... APU ESC power cables, installing ] new grommet support in the tail cone firewall, and...

  5. 77 FR 49702 - Airworthiness Directives; Embraer S.A. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... reference of a certain publication listed in this AD ] as of September 9, 2010 (75 FR 52238, August 25, 2010... to the specified products. That NPRM was published in the Federal Register on May 1, 2012 (77 FR 25644), and proposed to supersede AD 2010-07-04, Amendment 39-16248 (75 FR 14333, March 25, 2010);...

  6. 77 FR 44437 - Airworthiness Directives; Embraer S.A. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... products. That NPRM was published in the Federal Register on November 28, 2011 (76 FR 72855). That NPRM... requested that we revise the NPRM (76 FR 72855, November 28, 2011) to include EMBRAER Service Bulletin... Damage Is Found EMBRAER requested that we revise the NPRM (76 FR 72855, November 28, 2011) to...

  7. 76 FR 53315 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Model SA-365N and SA-365N1 Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... the electrical wires which supply electrical power to the high level indicator light on the fuel... separated, causing damage to the insulation of the electrical wires which supply electrical power to the... the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). Regulatory Findings We...

  8. Official Languages in Canada: Changing the Language Landscape. New Canadian Perspectives = Les langues officielles au Canada: transformer le paysage linguistique. Nouvelles Perspectives Canadiennes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchill, Stacy

    This book offers an overview of the events surrounding the development of the two official language communities (English and French) of Canada during the last 30 years and the establishment of a model of official bilingualism. The text is provided in both languages. Chapter 1 describes the context of language change: historical origins of…

  9. Éléphantiasis pénoscrotal idiopathique : une nouvelle observation et revue de la littérature

    PubMed Central

    Dekou, Angoran; Konan, Paul-Gérard; Yao, Blaise; Vodi, Clément; Fofana, Abroulaye; Manzan, Konan

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Nous rapportons un nouveau cas d’éléphantiasis pénoscrotal idiopathique chez un adulte de 31 ans. La masse scrotale atteignait les genoux, avec lésions de grattage traitées et guéries à l’éosine aqueuse associée à une antibiothérapie par voie parentérale. Une exérèse de la masse scrotale a été effectuée, suivie d’une plastie de peau scrotale postérosupérieure associée à une circoncision partielle. Le résultat esthétique et fonctionnel à long terme fut excellent, avec une peau pénienne assouplie et élastique. PMID:23401736

  10. Levain et Levier: Le partenariat en educatoin, les nouvelles dynamiques educatives et societales (Leaven and Lever: The Partnership in Education, the New Educational and Societal Dynamics).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tschoumy, Jacques-Andre

    This document examines the trend of school partnership both inside and outside the educational system. The report asks three questions: what is motivating European partners?; is the phenomenon of partnership really European?; and is this the end of the school of Jules Ferry? School partnership history, strategy, and axiomatics or rules are…

  11. Une question nouvelle pour l'action educative et la formation: Le viellissement des populations (A New Issue for Educational Action and Training: The Aging of Populations).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gani, Leon

    1993-01-01

    In industrialized societies, life expectancy is increasing while the elderly are increasingly marginalized. Aging, especially with respect to social demography, should be an essential educational topic for teachers and those who care for the elderly. Education for the elderly should help them assume the role of transmitting their knowledge and…

  12. Données nouvelles sur le contenu organique des dépôts phosphatés du gisement de Ras-Draâ (Tunisie)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Hassen, Aida; Trichet, Jean; Disnar, Jean-Robert; Belayouni, Habib

    2009-04-01

    The study of the organic matter (OM) content of phosphatic sediments from the Ras-Draâ deposit, Tunisia, was carried on the two separated lithological fractions constituting the bulk sediments, namely phosphatic grains (pellets) and their associated matrices. The geochemical characterization of the OM present in pellets and in their matrices by CNS elemental analysis and RE pyrolysis indicates that: (i) the TOC content is higher in matrices (where it reaches 4.00%), than in pellets in the same strata where it does not exceed 1.62%; (ii) the presence of more or less oxidized marine planktonic OM in both fractions; (iii) a low degree of diagenetic evolution of the OM in both fractions (RE Tmax globally < than 430 °C). The chemical extraction of the humic substances (HS) from both fractions followed by the separation of fractions according to the IHSS procedure, systematically indicates a higher abundance of extractable humic compounds (HC) in the pellets (C HC ˜ 70% of the sum of TOC in the separated fractions, TOCfr) and a variable but lower extraction yield in matrices (C HC ˜ 18% TOCfr). This significant difference between both fractions excludes the possibility that pellets formed authigenically from, and within, their matrix. This is consistent with recent findings suggesting that these pellets could be fish feces.

  13. Ecole, valeurs et laicite: vers de nouvelles approches du mieux vivre-ensemble (School, Values, and Secular Society: Toward New Approaches to Better Living Together).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desaulniers, Marie-Paule

    2000-01-01

    Given that there can be no education without values, how do we define values education in a pluralistic, secular, and democratic society, and on what basis? To answer those questions, we must first distinguish between ethics, morality, and values education, and then examine the present-day context in which these concepts are expressed. (TD)

  14. Nouvelles données paléoenvironnementales pour le Quaternaire récent en Tunisie centrale (bassin de Maknassy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouda, Bouchra; Zouari, Kamel; Ouezdou, Hedi Ben; Chkir, Najiba; Causse, Christiane

    1998-06-01

    Sedimentary deposits outcropping on the Wadi Leben and Wadi Ben Sellam banks in the Maknassy Basin (central Tunisia) have registered paleoclimatic variations, and particularly humid episodes, already known for Upper Pleistocene and Holocene, in present hyperarid areas of northern Sahara. A pluridisciplinary study, including prehistory, sedimentology, mineralogy, ecology and radiochronology ( 14C, uranium-thorium [U-Th]), improves the comprehension of paleoenvironmental interpretations and makes it possible to precisely determine the chronological framework of humid episodes during the Upper Quaternary in Tunisia.

  15. Tuberculome myocardique: localisation inhabituelle de la tuberculoseà propos d'une nouvelle observation avec une revue de la littérature

    PubMed Central

    Lambatten, Dalal; Hammi, Sanaa; Rhofir, Yasmina; Bourkadi, Jamal Eddine

    2016-01-01

    Nous rapportons l'observation d'un patient de 50 ans présentant une masse tumorale du ventricule gauche évoluant dans un contexte d'altération de l’état général et de fièvre. Cette masse a été objectivée par l’échocardiographie réalisée pour l'exploration d'une cardiomégalie radiologique. L'aspect en imagerie par résonance magnétique était évocateur d'un tuberculome intra myocardique. A travers notre observation, nous proposons une revue de la littérature sur cette localisation inhabituelle de la tuberculose. PMID:27583096

  16. Caribou: mon pays blanc. Serie: Villes Franco-Americaines de la Nouvelle - Angleterre (Caribou, My Snowy Country. Collection: French-American Cities of New England, Vol. 2).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pipyn, Michel

    This text is the second in a series of materials dealing with cities in New England having a distinct Franco-American presence. The text and supporting audio-visual materials present an overview of the city of Caribou, Maine, as seen through the eyes of its people. Its primary objective is to provide up-to-date, culturally valid Franco-American…

  17. Francophone Minorities: Assimilation and Community Vitality. Second Edition. New Canadian Perspectives = Minorites francophones: assimilation et vitalite des communautes. Deuxieme edition. Nouvelles Perspectives Canadiennes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Keefe, Michael

    This book, in English and French, explores the concepts of assimilation and community vitality, as well as statistical evidence regarding the vitality of Francophone communities outside Quebec. It highlights trends and seeks to clarify certain issues related to the current demographic reality of Francophone communities outside Quebec. The two…

  18. Methode nouvelle pour la mesure CCD du diametre solaire avec un astrolabe. A new method for CCD measurements of the solar diameter with an astrolabe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinceac, V.; Chollet, F.; Laclare, F.; Delmas, C.

    1998-03-01

    Observing the Solar disk is a challenge and, as for the past visual observations, we have many results depending on observers and/or instruments. This was due to the differences in visual perceptions of the Sun's limb, instrumental errors and atmospheric disturbances. After a long series of visual observations at Calern Observatory, Francis Laclare felt the need for more impersonal and automatic measurements of the Solar diameter. After a series of analog CCD measurements (1989-1995), a digital data acquisition and processing was tested by the Paris Observatory group (F. Chollet and V. Sinceac) during the 1996 spring at Calern Observatory. Before starting a new continuous campaign of observations, to confirm eventual variations of the diameter and solar flatness, the aim is to find the best definition of the solar edge. The test campaign was spent comparing different solutions that were tried on two different astrolabes at Calern Observatory: The ``classical'' one, outfitted with eleven zerodur ceramic prisms (S astrolabe), that has been used for twenty years in the Laclare series and on the other hand an instrument equipped with a varying angle prism (V astrolabe) enabling many measurements (385 in 1996) for perfecting the know how. This article focusses on acquisition techniques and their feasibility. Two procedures were tried: The first one used alternately the direct and reflected images (separated using a revolving shutter in front of the objective) and the second one mathematically sorts out both components inside the computer (an image being a two-dimensionral array of numbers). According to the principle of the astrolabe, the measured quantity is the exact time crossing the parallel of altitude (defined by the prism angle) by the Sun's edge, i.e. the time of merging of the two images of the Sun in the focal plane of the telescope where the CCD matrix stands. Here comes the definition of the Solar edge for one frame as the collection of the inflect points on the luminosity function along each of the 256 useful lines (the matrix is 512 by 512 pixels). This means that a numerical derivation is performed on every other line of the CCD video camera which has to stand as vertical as possible. Then, for every frame, and through the 256 points, a parabola is fitted, using the least squares method. The top of this parabola materializes the prospective characteristic point. The sets of such points associated with the corresponding times of acquisition, are collected for both images and the exact time of contact of the two images may be obtained. This time is also the time when the solar edge crosses the almucantar. The results for the semi-diameter obtained during 1996 campaign are derived from sixty measurements with the revolving mask and sixty seven without it, performed on the Solar Astrolabe. They give a mean value of 959\\farcs39 +/- 0\\farcs 03 with a scatter of 0\\farcs 29. It is interesting to remark that the values of the error bar and the scatter obtained do not depend on the definition of the Solar edge, whereas the mean value does depend on it. It is noticed that going with the method is made a systematic error which slightly shrinks the diameter, but this value can be known statistically and the correction can easily be done. Choosing the best definition of the Solar edge will be the matter of a following article. The main advantage of such a digital acquisition procedure has to be stressed, as it enables to store the full data for further reference and, if possible, better future processing.

  19. Developpement et apprentissage dans la nouvelle politique educative en France (Development and Training in the New Policy for Education in France).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman-Bredel, Josiana

    1993-01-01

    Discusses France's 1989 New Policy for Education (NPE), which identifies three ways of preventing academic failure: school policies stressing family involvement and instructional continuity; reorganization of primary education into three training cycles; and assessment of student competencies. Considers NPE's position on knowledge development.…

  20. Nouvelles découvertes de Vertébrés miocènes dans le synclinal de Dera Bugti (Balouchistan, Pakistan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welcomme, Jean-Loup; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier; Duranthon, Francis; Mein, Pierre; Ginsburg, Léonard

    1997-10-01

    Since Forster-Cooper in 1910, no paleontologist bas visited the area of Dera Bugti in Baluchistan (Pakistan). In 1995 and 1996, two small French expeditions prospected the syncline of Dera Bugti. They established stratigraphical sections ana discovered many fossils, mainly reptiles, and mammals. On top of the Eocene marine limestone of the Kirthar there lies a Burdigalian marine falun. Above, about 250 m of continental marls, sands and sandstones are deposited. The first 100 m have yielded five fossiliferous levels of MN3 b in age, and one of MN4, surrounded by a more sandy series. The top of the series has yielded Hipparion of the Upper Miocene.