Le, Thao N; Stockdale, Gary
Studies suggest that the process of acculturation for immigrant youth, particularly for second-generation youth, is significantly associated with delinquency and violence. This study explored the acculturation-violence link with respect to acculturative dissonance and ethnic identity. The results revealed in a sample of 329 Chinese, Cambodian, Mien/Laotian, and Vietnamese youth that acculturative dissonance was significantly predictive of serious violence, with full mediation through peer delinquency. Ethnic identity was not significantly associated with peer delinquency or serious violence. Although acculturative dissonance and ethnic identity accounted for a small percentage of variance in violence compared with peer delinquency, it cannot be discounted as trivial. Structural equation analyses provided support for both measurement and structural invariance across the four ethnic groups, lending support for cross-cultural comparisons. The results also lend support for the inclusion of cultural factors in youth violence prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:18229995
Gurung, Regan A. R.; Mehta, Vivek
The attitudes of medical students of Indian decent (N=150) toward treating minority clients and using alternative therapies were assessed in relationship to the students' ethnic identity, acculturation, and self-concept. Students with strong ethnic identity and acculturation were more likely to treat minority patients and use alternative…
Maldonado, Jose M.; Kushner, Jason D.; Barr, Jason; Korz, Kelly
Ethnic identity and acculturation are significant issues of English as Second Language students in the intermediate grades. Research has encompassed acculturation and ethnic identity as two distinct elements that differentiate particular ethnic groups. The present study investigates acculturation and ethnic identity and their correlation across…
Chae, Mark H.; Foley, Pamela F.
The current investigation examined the relationship of ethnic identity, acculturation, and psychological functioning among 334 Chinese, Japanese, and Korean American participants. Multiple regression analyses revealed that ethnic identity and acculturation differentially predicted well-being on the basis of ethnic group membership. Results also…
Rayle, Andrea Dixon; Myers, Jane E.
The influence of ethnic identity, acculturation, and mattering on wellness was examined for 176 minority and 286 non-minority adolescents attending a public high school. Participants completed the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure, the Stephenson Multigroup Acculturation Scale, the General Mattering Scale, the Mattering to Others Questionnaire,…
Farver, Jo Ann M; Narang, Sonia K; Bhadha, Bakhtawar R
This study examined the influence of the family on adolescents' acculturation, ethnic identity achievement, and psychological functioning. One hundred eighty American-born Asian Indian adolescents and one of their immigrant parents completed questionnaires assessing their acculturation, ethnic identity, and family conflict. Adolescents also completed anxiety and self-esteem measures. The results showed that parents' and adolescents' ratings of their self-identification and ethnic identity were positively associated. Parents who had a separated or marginalized style of acculturation reported higher family conflict than those who had an integrated or assimilated acculturation style. Adolescents reported higher self-esteem, less anxiety, and less family conflict when there was no acculturation gap between them and their parents. The findings suggest that how parents relate to their natal, as well as to the host, culture has direct effects on adolescents' ethnic identity achievement and their psychological functioning. PMID:12238415
Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; DeLucia-Waack, Janice L.
This study examines the self-esteem, acculturation, and ethnic identity of 150 Latino adolescents enrolled in either a bilingual or traditional education program. Bilingual education programs were established to ensure that academic failure was not the product of limited English proficiency. Grade point average (GPA), acculturation, and ethnic…
Kvernmo, Siv; Heyerdahl, Sonja
Ethnic identity and acculturation attitudes were studied in indigenous Sami (earlier named Lapps) and ethnocultural Kvens (descendants of early Finnish-speaking immigrants from the northern part of Sweden and Finland) in Northern Norway. The sample consisted of 674 Sami and 347 Kven high school students ages 16 to 19 years. Ethnic identity was…
Li, Jiaqi; Marbley, Aretha Faye; Bradley, Loretta J.; Lan, William
The authors examined the help-seeking attitudes of 109 Chinese international students studying in the United States. Results revealed that significant relationships exist among acculturation, ethnic identity, English proficiency, and attitudes toward seeking professional counseling services. Limitations and recommendations for future research are…
Koo, Kelly H.; Stephens, Kari A.; Lindgren, Kristen P.; George, William H.
Asian Americans have been understudied with respect to sexuality and rape and its contributory factors. Some attitudinal research has shown that Asian American college males tend to hold more rape-supportive beliefs than their White counterparts. Generally, this research treats ethnicity as a proxy for culture rather than examining specific facets of culture per se. The current study incorporated measures of misogynistic beliefs, acculturation, and ethnic identity to investigate these ethnic differences in rape-supportive attitudes. White (n = 222) and Asian American (n = 155) college men read an acquaintance rape vignette and evaluated it on four judgments: how much they blamed the perpetrator and the victim, how credible they viewed the victim’s refusal, and to what degree they defined the event as rape. Consistent with previous research, Asian American men made more rape-supportive judgments than Whites. This relationship was partially mediated by misogynistic beliefs for all judgments except the extent to which they defined the vignette as rape. Among Asian Americans, acculturation was negatively associated with all four rape vignette judgments above and beyond generational status, and ethnic identity was positively associated with two of the four judgments above and beyond acculturation and generational status. These findings suggest that cultural constructs are relevant to understanding rape-supportive attitudes among Asian American men, and may be useful for promoting culturally enhanced theoretical models of rape and sexual assault prevention efforts, as well as a deeper understanding of cultural influences on sexuality. PMID:21290256
Koo, Kelly H; Stephens, Kari A; Lindgren, Kristen P; George, William H
Asian Americans have been understudied with respect to sexuality and rape and its contributory factors. Some attitudinal research has shown that Asian American college males tend to hold more rape-supportive beliefs than their White counterparts. Generally, this research treats ethnicity as a proxy for culture rather than examining specific facets of culture per se. The current study incorporated measures of misogynistic beliefs, acculturation, and ethnic identity to investigate these ethnic differences in rape-supportive attitudes. White (n = 222) and Asian American (n = 155) college men read an acquaintance rape vignette and evaluated it on four judgments: how much they blamed the perpetrator and the victim, how credible they viewed the victim's refusal, and to what degree they defined the event as rape. Consistent with previous research, Asian American men made more rape-supportive judgments than Whites. This relationship was partially mediated by misogynistic beliefs for all judgments except the extent to which they defined the vignette as rape. Among Asian Americans, acculturation was negatively associated with all four rape vignette judgments above and beyond generational status, and ethnic identity was positively associated with two of the four judgments above and beyond acculturation and generational status. These findings suggest that cultural constructs are relevant to understanding rape-supportive attitudes among Asian American men, and may be useful for promoting culturally enhanced theoretical models of rape and sexual assault prevention efforts, as well as a deeper understanding of cultural influences on sexuality. PMID:21290256
Given the changing racial/ethnic composition of the United States, the impact of culture on adolescent health risk behaviors is an emerging and important issue. The purpose of the present study was to examine acculturation and ethnic identity and its impact on substance use, depression, and self-esteem in a sample of middle school students.…
Ojeda, Lizette; Pina-Watson, Brandy; Castillo, Linda G.; Castillo, Rosalinda; Khan, Noshaba; Leigh, Jennifer
This study examined the role of culture and personality on the career decision self-efficacy of 338 Latino seventh-grade public middle school students. Specifically, we examined the role of acculturation, enculturation, ethnic identity, and conscientiousness on career decision self-efficacy. Findings indicated Latina girls were more acculturated…
Cano, Miguel Angel; Castillo, Linda G.; Davis, Matthew J.; Lopez-Arenas, Araceli; Vaquero, Juana; Thompson, Keisha V.; Saldivar, Isaac M.
This study investigated the influence of psychocultural variables (e.g., acculturation, enculturation, ethnic identity) and personality characteristics in relation to educational expectations among 345 Latino middle school students in the U.S. Results from a path model indicate that 24.4% of the variance of educational expectations was accounted…
Noels, Kimberly A; Clément, Richard
This study examined whether the acculturation of ethnic identity is first evident in more public situations with greater opportunity for intercultural interaction and eventually penetrates more intimate situations. It also investigated whether situational variations in identity are associated with cross-cultural adaptation. First-generation (G1), second-generation (G2) and mixed-parentage second-generation (G2.5) young adult Canadians (n = 137, n = 169, and n = 91, respectively) completed a questionnaire assessing their heritage and Canadian identities across four situational domains (family, friends, university and community), global heritage identity and cross-cultural adaptation. Consistent with the acculturation penetration hypothesis, the results showed Canadian identity was stronger than heritage identity in public domains, but the converse was true in the family domain; moreover, the difference between the identities in the family domain was attenuated in later generations. Situational variability indicated better adaptation for the G1 cohort, but poorer adaptation for the G2.5 cohort. For the G2 cohort, facets of global identity moderated the relation, such that those with a weaker global identity experienced greater difficulties and hassles with greater identity variability but those with a stronger identity did not. These results are interpreted in light of potential interpersonal issues implied by situational variation for each generation cohort. PMID:26271917
Lantrip, Crystal; Mazzetti, Francesco; Grasso, Joseph; Gill, Sara; Miller, Janna; Haner, Morgynn; Rude, Stephanie; Awad, Germine
This study underscored the importance of addressing the well-being of college students of Asian descent, because these students had higher rates of depression and lower positive feelings about their ethnic group compared with students of European descent, as measured by the Affirmation subscale of the Ethnic Identity Scale. Affirmation mediated…
Iber, George Leland
This study analyzes how acculturation and ethnic identity traits of first- and second-generation Mexican-American high school students in West Liberty, Iowa, correlate with their academic performance. The analysis tests the educational theories of educational anthropologists John Ogbu and Henry Trueba, to determine the extent to which these…
Larrañaga, Nekane; Garcia, Iñaki; Azurmendi, Maria-Jose; Bourhis, Richard
This study analyses the influence of ethnic identity on the acculturation orientations of Basque undergraduates, towards groups in traditional contact (native Basques and native Spaniards) and towards recent immigrant groups. Five dimensions were used to measure the Basque and/or Spanish identities: linguistic, cultural, political, global, and the…
Morales, Pamilla C.
This study was designed to determine if the level of ethnicity, as measured by an acculturation instrument, is related to levels of vocational identity. Three measures were used: (1) My Vocational Situation (J. L. Holland and others, 1980); (2) the Majority-Minority Relations Survey (MMRS), an alternate form of the American-International Relations…
Pak, Jenny H.
Current models of acculturation and cultural identity are primarily devoted to identifying the course or the levels at which it takes place, but they are severely limited in describing how a sense of self is fashioned out of multiple social and cultural contexts. The acculturative process is impacted, for example, by the reasons for immigration,…
Johnson, Branden B
A globalizing world increases immigration between nations, raising the question of how acculturation (or its lack) of immigrants and their descendants to host societies affects risk perceptions. A survey of Paterson, New Jersey, residents tested acculturation's associations with attitudes to air pollution and its management, and knowledge of and self-reported behaviors concerning air pollution. Linguistic and temporal proxy measures for acculturation were independent variables along with ethnicity, plus controls for gender, age, education, and income in multivariate analyses. About one-fifth of contrasts between non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, English-interviewed Hispanics, and Spanish-interviewed Hispanics were statistically significant (Bonferroni-corrected) and of medium or higher affect size, with most featuring the Spanish-interviewed Hispanics. Knowledge variables featured the most significant differences. Specifically, Spanish-interviewed Hispanics reported less concern, familiarity with pollution, recognition of high pollution, and vigorous outdoor activity, and greater belief that government overregulates pollution than English-interviewed Hispanics (and than the other two groups on most of these variables too). English-interviewed Hispanics did not differ from non-Hispanic whites, but did on several variables from non-Hispanic blacks. Temporal proxies of acculturation among the foreign-born were far less significant, but concern and familiarity with air pollution increased with time spent in the United States, while belief in overregulation and a positive trend in New Jersey pollution increased with time in the nation of origin. Implications of these acculturation and ethnicity findings for risk perception/communication research and practice are discussed. PMID:21231941
Thirty Years of Racial/Ethnic Identity Development Research: An Examination of Black College Students Racial/Ethnic Identity Development and Acculturation and How It Affects Their Attitudes toward Professional Help-Seeking
Harbour, Edwanike C.
After thirty years of racial/ethnic identity development (R/EID) studies, research has shown little other than how racial identity is a reflection of one's political affiliation with a racial group. Recent research has shown that R/EID of college students affects psychological well-being (Kwan & Sodowsky, 1997; Yoo & Lee, 2005). However, Black…
Pope-Davis, Donald B.; Liu, William M.; Ledesma-Jones, Shannon; Nevitt, Jonathan
Examines the relationship between acculturation and racial identity among African Americans. One hundred eighty-seven African American students completed the Black Racial Identity Attitude Scale and the African American Acculturation Scale (AAAS). Acculturation was associated with three of the five AAAS subscales: Dissonance, Immersion, and…
Skjervold, Christian K.; And Others
The student booklet presents short case studies illustrating the acculturation unit of the Minneapolis Multi-Ethnic Curriculum Project for secondary schools. It is presented in nine chapters. Chapter I provides background information on immigration and points out ways acculturation takes place. Chapter II, "Barrio Boy," tells of life in a Mexican…
Dong, Li; Lin, Chongde; Li, Tsingan; Dou, Donghui; Zhou, Liqing
Most acculturation research throughout the world has been conducted in immigrant settings. In order to examine the generalizability of the previous conclusions in immigrant settings, the present study tried to explore the relationship between cultural identity and self-esteem and the mediating role of acculturation attitudes in China. Using the cross-sectional design, a total number of 342 Uyghur college students were asked to complete a survey comprising the Multi-Group Ethnic/National Identity Measure-Revised Scale, the Acculturation Attitudes Scale, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Using hierarchical multiple regression, the results indicated that cultural identity was positively correlated with self-esteem. A significant mediation of acculturation was observed between cultural identity and self-esteem. These findings demonstrated the significance of cultural identity and acculturation attitudes in the adaptation of Chinese Uyghur college students, in which integration is an optimal acculturation attitude. PMID:26226499
Becker, Anne E; Fay, Kristen; Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Guarnaccia, Peter M; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H; Gilman, Stephen E
Acculturation has been examined as a risk factor for eating disorders, but interpretation of findings has been limited by inconsistent operationalization of this construct across studies. The study aim was to develop and evaluate a population-specific measure of acculturation for ethnic Fijian adolescent schoolgirls, to use in future analyses related to eating disorders. Our findings suggest that acculturation is a multidimensional construct characterized by distinct, though related, dimensions of orientation to ethnic Fijian and/or western/global culture with respect to a range of behaviors and attitudes. In contrast to theoretical models positing uni-dimensional, orthogonal, or oblique relations between cultural identities in individuals undergoing acculturation, our study findings support a heterogeneous pattern among correlations of dimensions across contrasting cultural identities. We suggest multidimensional measures of acculturation are optimal--and socio-demographic proxies inadequate--for characterization of this complex process for health research. PMID:21088103
Moloney, Molly; Hunt, Geoffrey; Evans, Kristin
This article analyzes the relationship between substance use and ethnic identity in the narratives of 206 young Asian Americans in a dance club/rave scene. We examine the meaning of drug use and found three types of narratives invoked to explain their drug use. The first noted difficulties arising from their Asian-American identities, the experience of culture clash and stresses associated with acculturation and Americanization. The second viewed their drug consumption as unusual among Asian Americans and saw their drug use as indicative of the degree to which they've grown apart from Asian culture and toward white/American culture. The final group saw neither their identities as Asian Americans, as drug users, nor as Asian American drug users as problematic. Drug use was a normal, accepted, and mundane part of their leisure time, not something they viewed as problematic or unusual. PMID:19064437
This paper illustrates situational variation as regards ethnic identification and develops some ideas about identity formation and the expression of ethnic identity in multiple ethnic contexts. The author discusses both social (ethnic) identity and subjective social identity (self-identifications). The author shows how expressions of ethnic origin and identification vary with changes in a number of hypothetical situational settings, explained in terms of a combination of the present and the past. The material consists of interview data from 110 Turks and 114 Yugoslavs aged 16-24, selected randomly, in Stockholm, Sweden. The 1st interview question asked of the Turks and Yugoslavs is how they would describe where they came from in several hypothetical situations. Answers vary more by place asked than by person asking. A tendency exists to relate oneself positively to the person asking, by stressing commonalities. The 2nd question was "To whom do you think you most strongly belong?" Answers show that these immigrants primarily relate themselves to their own ethnic groups and to Swedes, while other immigrant groups in Sweden are less important. The final question was "How would you feel if someone here in Sweden told you that you seem to be just like other Swedes?" The most usual answer is that it does not matter. Both Turks and Yugoslavs would appreciate the statements more from a Swede than a compatriot, and the Turks would become more angry than the Yugoslavs if a compatriot said it. Turks have preserved more ethnic and traditional lifestyles, lack close ties to the Swedes, and experience greater social distance to Swedes. Migrants often develop complex multiple identities, and situational variation, at least in part, can be understood as a competence for living with and making use of this complexity. The article concludes with a typology that illustrates how the interplay between the past and the present creates more or less complex patterns of identification, so
Schwartz, Seth J; Kim, Su Yeong; Whitbourne, Susan Krauss; Zamboanga, Byron L; Weisskirch, Robert S; Forthun, Larry F; Vazsonyi, Alexander T; Beyers, Wim; Luyckx, Koen
The present study was designed to ascertain the extent to which dimensions of acculturation would differ across personal identity statuses in a sample of 2,411 first- and second-generation, immigrant, college-attending emerging adults. Participants from 30 colleges and universities around the United States completed measures of personal identity processes, as well as of heritage and American cultural practices, values, and identifications. Cluster-analytic procedures were used to classify participants into personal identity statuses based on the personal identity processes. Results indicated that, across ethnic groups, individuals in the achieved and searching moratorium statuses reported the greatest endorsement of heritage and American cultural practices, values, and identifications; and individuals in the carefree diffusion status reported the lowest endorsement of all the cultural variables under study. These results are discussed in terms of the convergence between personal identity and cultural identity processes. PMID:23148900
Iturbide, Maria I.; Raffaelli, Marcela; Carlo, Gustavo
The current study investigated whether different ethnic identity components moderate the associations between acculturative stress and psychological adjustment among Mexican American college students (N = 148; 67% female) who completed self-report surveys. For women, ethnic affirmation/belonging and ethnic identity achievement moderated the…
de Baessa, Yetilu; Falbo, Toni; Fernandez, Francisco Javier
Ethnic identity was studied among Guatemalan youth to determine whether the intensity of ethnic identity is associated with psychological adjustment, as measured by self-esteem and attitudes towards people outside their ethnic group. One hundred and thirty-seven students (65 males, 72 females) in grades 7 through 12 and ranged in age from 12 to 17…
Altman, Abby N.; Inman, Arpana G.; Fine, Stephanie G.; Ritter, Hollie A.; Howard, Erin E.
Despite a growing amount of research on the topic of ethnic identity, Jews, and the important aspects of a Jewish identity, have not been included in the multicultural and psychological literature. Using consensual qualitative research (C. E. Hill et al., 2005), the authors sought to gain an understanding of Jewish ethnic identity in 10 American…
Nassar-McMillan, Sylvia C.; Lambert, Richard G.; Hakim-Larson, Julie
The authors examined discrimination history, backlash fear, and ethnic identity of Arab Americans nationally at 3 times, beginning shortly after September 11, 2001. Relations between variables were moderate, and discrimination history and backlash fear were statistically significant predictors of ethnic identity. Implications for acculturation and…
Holleran, Lori K.
A study examined young Mexican Americans' perspectives concerning their own ethnicity. Observations and focus groups with 30 Mexican American youths from a Southwest barrio indicate that respondents used racial terms to understand acculturation differences. Intense negative feelings were expressed about less- acculturated, Spanish-speaking…
Phinney, Jean S.
This paper presents a model and some empirical research on the process of ethnic identity development beyond childhood. Several models of ethnic identity development among minorities share with Erikson the idea that an achieved identity is the result of an identity crisis, which involves a period of searching that leads to a commitment. In order…
Phinney, Jean S.; Ambarsoom, Hamlet
The theoretical basis of most studies of identity development is Erikson's theory, which proposes that the achievement of a personal identity is the central developmental task of adolescence. Although Erikson mentioned the role of culture, no research has examined ethnicity directly as a dimension of identity. This study examined ethnic identity…
Alvarado, Melissa; Ricard, Richard J.
This study examined the confluence of developmental assets, ethnic identity, and acculturative stress in the prediction of thriving among Hispanic adolescents. Thriving is used to encompass youth who are not only doing well now but who are also on the trajectory toward overall success. Study participants included 130 self-reported Hispanic middle…
Rhea, Deborah J; Thatcher, W Gregory
The purpose of this study was two-fold: to determine the relationship between ethnic identity and self-esteem as dimensions of one's self-concept; and to determine if differences exist among one's ethnicity, ethnic identity, and/or self-esteem when examining at-risk eating disordered behaviors. A total of 893 urban adolescent females completed three behavioral subscales: the Eating Disorder Inventory, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, and Phinney's Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure. As hypothesized, ethnic identity was significantly associated with self-esteem to form one's self-concept. When compared to Mexican American and White females, only Black females who were in the higher ethnic identity and self-esteem categories had significantly lower at-risk eating disordered scores. Our findings suggest eating disorder status in Mexican American and White females may not be associated as much with ethnic identity as with other acculturation and self-concept factors. Further, this study demonstrated ethnicity, self-esteem, and ethnic identity play significant roles in eating disorder risks. PMID:23600553
Altschul, Inna; Oyserman, Daphna; Bybee, Deborah
How are racial-ethnic identity and acculturation processes linked, and when do they have positive consequences for academic achievement and assimilation trajectory? To address these issues this study integrates two frameworks--segmented assimilation (Portes and Rumbaut 2001) and racial-ethnic self-schema (Oyserman et al. 2003)--that focus on how…
Roark, Sue N.
The origins of the Oklahoma Delaware reflect a complex history of migration, forced relocation, and punitive concentration. Though 36 tribal identities survive today, they are not of equal cultural coherence. Among the Delaware, there is no simple relation between socioeconomic status, level of acculturation, and factional membership. Rather, the…
Stewart, Tiffany A.; Owens, Delila; Queener, John E.; Reynolds, Cynthia A.
In this study, we examined racial identity and acculturative stress among 116 African American counselor education graduate students in Council for the Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP) accredited programs. Results indicated that racial identity and acculturative stress remain viable variables to take into…
Yin, Robert K.
The investigation of race relations, of social problems related to race and ethnicity, and of different racial and social groups, all presume prior information about the definition of racial or ethnic group identity, about the formation, maintenance, and dissolution of such identities, and about the importance of such identities in American…
Bruce, Elizabeth J.; Waelde, Lynn C.
Previous research has found that delinquency is related to higher levels of trauma symptoms and poorer ethnic identity. The present study used a California Bay Area school-based sample of 307 adolescents to examine whether the relationship of trauma symptoms to delinquency is buffered by higher ethnic identity and whether this buffering effect is…
The challenges of identity formation are particularly difficult for minority youth because of the clash of traditional culture and the host culture. This study examined the effects of parenting style, acculturation, and parent and adolescent ethnic identity on the self-esteem and school performance of East Indian and European American adolescents.…
Eitle, Tamela McNulty
This is the first study to examine the relationship between acculturation and alcohol use by gender and ethnicity using a nationally representative sample of Hispanic and non-Hispanic white adolescents. Specifically, we use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to explore alcohol use and binge drinking for a sample that includes 6792 non-Hispanic whites, 910 Mexican Americans, 290 Cuban Americans, and 336 Puerto Ricans. Bivariate results reveal significant gender differences in alcohol use among first generation Mexican American, first generation Puerto Rican, and second generation Cuban American adolescents. In addition, these results indicate binge drinking differs significantly by gender among first generation Mexican American, first generation Cuban American, third plus generation Puerto Rican, and third plus generation non-Hispanic white adolescents. Multivariate logistic regression reveals that gender also moderates the effect of acculturation as well as ethnicity on alcohol use and abuse. Among both males and females, first generation immigrants are significantly less likely than third plus generation immigrants to use alcohol and binge drink while selective acculturation significantly reduces the odds of both behaviors. However, the effects of immigrant generation and selective acculturation on binge drinking are larger for females. Further, the trajectories that alcohol use and binge drinking follow with acculturation differ significantly by gender and ethnicity. These results reaffirm the need to further develop theoretical models and intervention strategies that are both gender-specific and culturally-specific, targeting high risk groups in particular in these efforts. PMID:18807187
Phelps, Rosemary E.; Taylor, Janice D.; Gerard, Phyllis A.
Examines cultural mistrust, ethnic identity, racial identity, and self-esteem among Black university students (N=160). African American students' scores were statistically different from those of African and West Indian/Caribbean students on cultural mistrust, racial identity, and ethnic identity measures. There were no statistically significant…
Chung, Ruth H. Gim
This study looked at intergenerational relations according to gender, ethnicity, and acculturation, as aspects of immigrant family life of Asian American college students (N=342). Variations were found in intergenerational tensions over expectations regarding educational and career concerns, and dating and marriage issues. Gender was a factor but…
Whitehead, Kevin A.; Ainsworth, Andrew T.; Wittig, Michele A.; Gadino, Brandy
The present paper develops and tests two temporal models of the relationships among adolescents' ethnic identity exploration, ethnic identity affirmation and belonging, and attitudes toward their racial/ethnic ingroup and outgroups. Structural equation models for Euro-Americans, Asian Americans, and Latinos revealed that all hypothesized…
Ramírez, A Susana; Rutten, Lila J Finney; Oh, April; Vengoechea, Bryan Leyva; Moser, Richard P; Vanderpool, Robin C; Hesse, Bradford W
Literature suggests racial/ethnic minorities, particularly those who are less-acculturated, have stronger fatalistic attitudes toward cancer than do non-Latino Whites. Knowledge of cancer prevention is also lower among racial/ethnic minorities. Moreover, low knowledge about cancer risk factors is often associated with fatalistic beliefs. Our study examined fatalism and cancer knowledge by race/ethnicity and explored whether race/ethnicity moderate the association of fatalism with knowledge of cancer prevention and risk factors. We analyzed data from the Health Information National Trends Survey (2008), a national probability survey, to calculate population estimates of the associations among race/ethnicity, fatalistic beliefs, and knowledge about cancer from multivariable logistic regression. Racial/ethnic minorities had higher odds of holding fatalistic beliefs and lower odds of having knowledge of cancer risk factors than non-Hispanic Whites, and important differences by acculturation among Latinos were observed. Limited evidence of the moderating effect of race/ethnicity on the relationship between fatalistic beliefs and cancer risk factor knowledge was observed. Knowledge of cancer risk factors is low among all race/ethnicities, while fatalistic beliefs about cancer are higher among racial/ethnic minorities compared with non-Hispanic Whites. Implications for cancer education efforts are discussed. PMID:23355279
Kiang, Lisa; Witkow, Melissa R; Champagne, Mariette C
Identity development is a highly salient task for adolescents, especially those from immigrant backgrounds, yet longitudinal research that tracks simultaneous change in ethnic identity and American identity over time has been limited. With a focus on 177 Asian American adolescents recruited from an emerging immigrant community, in the current study, we used hierarchical linear modeling and found that ethnic identity tends to remain fairly stable across the 4 years of high school, whereas American identity increases over time. When ethnic identity and American identity were examined simultaneously, consistent with existing research, ethnic identity was positively associated with positive relationships, high self-esteem, academic motivation, and lower levels of depression over time. Although American identity was not significantly associated with depression, positive links with relationships, self-esteem, and academic motivation were found. Both identities were interactively associated with academic motivation. Acculturative implications and the importance of considering the dual construction of ethnic identity and American identity in light of adolescent adjustment are discussed. PMID:23231687
Diep, Cassandra S.; Lemaitre, Rozenn N.; Chen, Tzu-An; Baranowski, Tom; Lutsey, Pamela L.; Manichaikul, Ani W.; Rich, Stephen S.; St-Jules, David E.; Steffen, Brian T.; Tsai, Michael Y.; Siscovick, David S.; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C.
Background Acculturation to the U.S. is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the etiologic pathways are not fully understood. Plasma fatty acid levels exhibit ethnic differences and are emerging as biomarkers and predictors of cardiovascular disease risk. Thus, plasma fatty acids may represent one pathway underlying the association between acculturation and cardiovascular disease. We investigated the cross-sectional relationship between acculturation and plasma phospholipid fatty acids in a diverse sample of Hispanic- and Chinese-American adults. Methods and Findings Participants included 377 Mexican, 320 non-Mexican Hispanic, and 712 Chinese adults from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, who had full plasma phospholipid assays and acculturation information. Acculturation was determined from three proxy measures: nativity, language spoken at home, and years in the U.S., with possible scores ranging from 0 (least acculturated) to 5 (most acculturated) points. α-Linolenic acid, linoleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and arachidonic acid were measured in fasting plasma. Linear regression models were conducted in race/ethnicity-stratified analyses, with acculturation as the predictor and plasma phospholipid fatty acids as the outcome variables. We ran secondary analyses to examine associations between acculturation and dietary fatty acids for comparison. Covariates included age, gender, education, and income. Contrary to our hypothesis, no statistically significant associations were detected between acculturation and plasma phospholipid fatty acids for Chinese, non-Mexican Hispanic, or Mexican participants. However, acculturation was related to dietary total n-6 fatty acids and dietary n-3/n-6 ratios in expected directions for Mexican, non-Mexican Hispanic, and combined Hispanic participants. In Chinese individuals, acculturation was unexpectedly associated with lower arachidonic acid intake. Conclusion Absence of
Yodanis, Carrie; Lauer, Sean; Ota, Risako
Through in-depth interviews with respondents who were in interethnic relationships (N = 28), the authors extended and refined a new approach to mate selection based on affiliative ethnic identities (T. Jimenez, 2010). Rather than assimilation and a breakdown of ethnic group boundaries, they found that people pursued interethnic relationships…
Ahrold, Tierney K.
Although it has been hypothesized that culture and religion play an important role in sexuality, the relative roles of acculturation and religiosity on ethnic differences in sexual attitudes have not been often empirically explored. The present study assessed differences in sexual attitudes in Euro-American, Asian, and Hispanic American populations using measures of acculturation to analyze the relative effects of heritage and mainstream cultures, as well as religiosity, within each ethnic group. A total of 1,415 college students (67% Euro-American, 16% Hispanic, 17% Asian; 32% men, 68% women) completed questionnaires which assessed attitudes towards homosexuality, gender role traditionality, casual sex, and extramarital sex. In concordance with previous studies, Asians reported more conservative sexual attitudes than did their Hispanic and Euro-American peers. Hispanics reported sexual attitudes similar to that of Euro-Americans. For both Hispanic and Asians, higher acculturation predicted sexual attitudes similar to that of Euro-Americans. For Asian, Hispanic, and Euro-American women, there was a significant interaction between intrinsic religiosity and spirituality such that the relationship between conservativism of sexual attitudes and intrinsic religiosity was stronger at higher levels of spirituality. In Euro-Americans and Asians, intrinsic religiosity and religious fundamentalism strongly predicted conservative sexual attitudes; while still significant, these relationships were not as pronounced in the Hispanic sample, implying an ethnic-by-religious effect. Novel to this study, acculturation did not mediate the relationship between religiosity and sexual attitudes, indicating that ethnic differences in religiosity effects were distinct from acculturation. PMID:18839302
Wadsworth, Brooke Chapman; Hecht, Michael L.; Jung, Eura
This study examined a model of international students' educational satisfaction in the U.S. Using Communication Theory of Identity as a framework, the authors proposed that personal-enacted identity gaps and personal-relational identity gaps contribute to international students' educational satisfaction. Furthermore, acculturation and perceived…
Miyawaki, Christina E.
This review identified domains of care experiences among studies of Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese caregivers in the United States and Canada between 2000 and 2012. Using a narrative approach, 46 peer-reviewed journal articles were found through electronic databases and references. Considering caregivers’ assimilation to host countries, attention was given to their culture, socioeconomic resources, immigrant status, filial responsibility, generation, and acculturation. Three primary domains were identified across subgroups. The caregivers’ experiences domain was a strong sense of filial responsibility and its varied effects on caregiving experience; in the cultural values domain, reciprocity, and familism. In the acculturation domain, caregivers’ generations influenced their experiences. Because our society is rapidly changing demographically and culturally, studies of older adults and their caregivers that are not only inclusive of all racial/ethnic groups but also sensitive to specific racial/ethnic and cultural subgroup differences are necessary to inform policy and practice. PMID:26229736
Syed, Moin; Azmitia, Margarita
This study used a narrative approach to understand how emerging adults experience ethnicity in their everyday lives and to link ethnic identity processes with the content of how ethnic identity is experienced. Participants were 191 ethnically diverse emerging adults who completed the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) and provided a written…
Syed, Moin; Azmitia, Margarita
The purpose in this longitudinal study was to investigate further the link between ethnic identity processes and content through an examination of emerging adults' narratives of ethnicity-related experiences. Seventy ethnically diverse college students completed an ethnic identity exploration index and told an ethnicity-related narrative on 2…
Shi, Huiying; Zhang, Qinglin; Chen, Peifeng; Fan, Fenghui
In China, ethnic identity refers to both one's own ethnic identity and the identity of the Chinese nation. It is of great significance not only to individuals' mental health and full play of psychological functions but also to ethnic solidarity and regional and national stability. On the whole, ethnic minority college students in the Southwestern…
Yang, Shuhan; Li, Ling; Yalikunjiang, Aisige; Tao, Xunyu; Li, Quan; Gong, Siyuan
This study used a questionnaire to survey ethnic identity among 329 ethnic minority no-fee preservice students at Southwest University. The results indicated that: (1) Ethnic minority no-fee students have a relatively strong sense of identity with both their ethnicity and the Chinese nation, and the correlation between the two is positive. Their…
Stein, Judith A.; Bentler, Peter M.
A structural equations model examined the influence of three cultural variables of ethnic pride, traditional family values and acculturation, along with the mediating variables of avoidance self-efficacy and perceptions of the “benefits” of cigarette smoking, on cigarette and alcohol use in a sample of Latino middle school students in the Southwest. Girls (N = 585) and boys (N = 360) were analyzed separately. In both groups, higher ethnic pride and traditional family values exerted indirect effects on less cigarette smoking and alcohol use when mediated through greater self-efficacy and less endorsement of the “benefits” of cigarette smoking. Among the girls, greater ethnic pride also had a direct effect on less cigarette and alcohol use. Also, greater acculturation directly predicted more cigarette and alcohol use among the girls, but not among the boys. However, differences between the boys and girls were generally nonsignificant as revealed by multiple group latent variable models. These results offer implications for incorporating cultural variables into the design of culturally relevant prevention interventions that discourage cigarette and alcohol use among Latino adolescents. PMID:19415497
Brownstein, Henry H.; And Others
This guide to teaching ethnicity from the ethnic individual's point of view is designed to accompany the student sourcebook, The Individual and Ethnic Identity (see SO 013 157). The sourcebook, suitable for secondary and higher education, contains quotations of 51 individuals from varying ethnic backgrounds and varying degrees of ethnicity. It…
Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl C.
During the past 20 years, much has been written on the ethnic/racial identity development of adults. Recently, attention toward adolescents' ethnic identity development has increased; to explicate this new research, a model of ethnic identity development proposed by Phinney (1989) is explored here. The model classifies adolescents into one of four…
The study reported in this article is part of a wider research project on the adaptation of South Asians in Britain. It examines and compares the acculturation attitudes and cultural identity of Indian and Pakistani second-generation adolescents Indian (Punjabi Sikh and Gujarati Hindu) and Pakistani (Muslim) in Britain. The research project…
Reese, Le'Roy E.; Vera, Elizabeth M.; Paikoff, Roberta L.
Examined the reliability of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Scale (MEIM) (J. Phinney, 1992) in measuring feelings of ethnic affirmation and belongings, ethnic behaviors, and ethnic knowledge with 118 inner-city African American children aged 8 to 12 years. Results of reliability analyses are mixed and indicate that constructs of ethnic behavior and…
Rakhkovskaya, Liya M; Warren, Cortney S
Although much research suggests that ethnic identity is positively correlated with psychological health for ethnic minority women, research examining ethnic identity's relationships to thin-ideal internalization, weight concerns, and eating concerns is sparse. Consequently, this study examined these relationships in European American, African American, Latina, and Asian American college women (N=816). As expected, univariate analyses of variance indicated that European American women scored lowest on ethnic identity and highest on eating and weight concerns, whereas African American women scored lowest on thin-ideal internalization. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that ethnic identity was negatively associated with eating and weight concerns, while body mass index and thin-ideal internalization were positively associated. Ethnic identity moderated the relationship between thin-ideal internalization and eating concerns such that the relationship was stronger for participants with lower ethnic identity. These results suggest ethnic identity may be a direct or interactive protective factor against eating concerns in ethnically diverse college women. PMID:25079012
Trujillo, Matthew D; Garcia, Randi L; Shelton, J Nicole
Across 2 studies we examined how ethnic minorities respond to ethnic miscategorization. Using a 21-day experience sampling procedure (Study 1), we found that ethnic minorities exhibited greater ethnic identity assertion when they had reported being ethnically miscategorized the previous day. Similarly, we found that ethnic minorities who were ethnically miscategorized (vs. not) by a White partner in the laboratory exhibited greater ethnic identity assertion and expressed greater dislike of their partner (Study 2). In both studies, these effects were stronger for individuals whose ethnic identity was central to their self-concept. The implications of these findings for ethnic identity development and intergroup relations are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25364835
Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Zeiders, Katharine H.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.
The current study examined the longitudinal associations between family ethnic socialization and youths’ ethnic identity among a sample of Mexican-origin youth (N = 178, Mage = 18.17, SD = .46). Findings from multiple-group cross lagged panel models over a two year period indicated that for U.S.-born youth with immigrant parents, the process appeared to be family-driven: Youths’ perceptions of family ethnic socialization in late adolescence were associated with significantly greater ethnic identity exploration and resolution in emerging adulthood, while youths’ ethnic identity during late adolescence did not significantly predict youths’ future perceptions of family ethnic socialization. Conversely, for U.S.-born youth with U.S. born parents, youths’ ethnic identity significantly predicted their future perceptions of family ethnic socialization but perceptions of family ethnic socialization did not predict future levels of youths’ ethnic identity, suggesting a youth-driven process. Findings were consistent for males and females. PMID:23421841
Gfellner, Barbara M.; Armstrong, Helen D.
This study supported associations between three theoretically driven conceptualizations of racial and ethnic identity (REI; Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure; Multidimensional Racial Identity Measure; Bicultural Identity Measure) and with adaptive functioning among Canadian indigenous adolescents in middle school to high school. Age differences…
Syed, Moin; Juan, Mary Joyce D.
This study assessed the degree to which pairs of friends report similar levels of ethnic identity. College-age friends (n=107 pairs; N=214 overall) completed measures of ethnic identity exploration and commitment, identity synthesis, relationship closeness, and frequency of talking to friends and family about ethnicity-related issues. Participants…
Ai, Amy L; Aisenberg, Eugene; Weiss, Saskia I; Salazar, Dulny
Social Identity Theory indicates that ethnic identity could benefit minority members in a society because of its promotion of a sense of belonging, or of its buffering of the damage of discrimination. Despite growing investigation about Latinos' overall health, few studies have simultaneously examined the influence of multiple cultural strength factors, especially racial/ethnic identity, social support, and religious attendance, on these outcomes. Using the National Latino and Asian American Study, we examine the potential predictive value of these cultural strength factors on Latinos' Self-Rated Mental and Physical Health (SRMH and SRPH). Two separate two-step regression models revealed significant positive effects of racial/ethnic identity on both mental and physical health of Latinos, above and beyond the effect of known demographic and acculturation factors, such as discrimination. Religious attendance had a positive effect on SRMH but not on SRPH. The deteriorating roles of discrimination, in mental health only, and that of Length in the US in both outcomes, however, was primarily not altered by entry of these cultural strength factors. The independent direct effect of racial/ethnic identity among Latinos nationwide may suggest that this cultural strength is an internalized protective asset. Longitudinal data is needed to explore its underlying mechanism and long-term impact. PMID:24464428
Kulis, Stephen; Yabiku, Scott T.; Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Nieri, Tanya; Crossman, Ashley
This study examined whether the efficacy of "keepin' it REAL", a model program for substance use prevention in schools, was moderated by gender, ethnicity, and acculturation. Gender differences in program efficacy may arise through boys' higher risk of drug use, inadequate attention to girls' developmental issues, or cultural factors like…
Acculturation to the U.S. is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the etiologic pathways are not fully understood. Plasma fatty acid levels exhibit ethnic differences and are emerging as biomarkers and predictors of cardiovascular disease risk. Thus, plasma fatty acids may...
Schnettler, Berta; Huaiquiñir, Valeska; Mora, Marcos; Miranda, Horacio; Sepúlveda, José; Denegri, Marianela
In order to identify differences in the food consumption and expenditure habits of Mapuches according to their ethnic group as consumers as well as their degree of acculturation, a personal survey was conducted on 400 people stratified by ethnic group in four districts of the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile. The empirical results showed that habits regarding the consumption of food groups included in the Family Budget Survey did not present any significant differences depending on the consumer's ethnic group, although the monthly expenditure on food is lower in Mapuche households. The ethnic origin and degree of acculturation in Mapuches are only significantly associated with the consumption of mate (herbal infusion) and food in restaurants. Mapuches maintain both food practices belonging to their traditional culture as well as foods incorporated more recently, such as mate. The degree of acculturation is significantly associated with the consumption of these foods; bi-cultural Mapuches present a higher probability of consuming a greater range of traditional foods than accultured Mapuches. PMID:20677456
Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; O'Donnell, Megan; Knight, George P; Roosa, Mark W; Berkel, Cady; Nair, Rajni
The current study examined how parental ethnic socialization informed adolescents' ethnic identity development and, in turn, youths' psychosocial functioning (i.e., mental health, social competence, academic efficacy, externalizing behaviors) among 749 Mexican-origin families. In addition, school ethnic composition was examined as a moderator of these associations. Findings indicated that mothers' and fathers' ethnic socialization were significant longitudinal predictors of adolescents' ethnic identity, although fathers' ethnic socialization interacted significantly with youths' school ethnic composition in 5(th) grade to influence ethnic identity in 7(th) grade. Furthermore, adolescents' ethnic identity was significantly associated with increased academic self-efficacy and social competence, and decreased depressive symptoms and externalizing behaviors. Findings support theoretical predictions regarding the central role parents play in Mexican-origin adolescents' normative developmental processes and adjustment and, importantly, underscore the need to consider variability that is introduced into these processes by features of the social context such as school ethnic composition. PMID:24465033
Stepney, Cesalie T; Sanchez, Diana T; Handy, Phillip E
The present study examined the relationship of perceived parental closeness and parental ethnic identity on personal ethnic identity and colorblindness beliefs in 275 part-White biracial Americans (M age = 23.88). Respondents completed online measures of their personal ethnic identity (minority, White, and multiracial), perceived parental ethnic identity, parental closeness, and attitudes about the state of race relations and the need for social action in the United States. Using path modeling, results show that part-White biracial individuals perceive their ethnic identity to be strongly linked to their parental racial identities, especially when they had closer parental relationships. Moreover, stronger minority identity was linked to less colorblind attitudes, and greater White identity was linked to greater colorblind attitudes suggesting that patterns of identity may influence how biracial individuals view race-relations and the need for social action. Implications for biracial well-being and their understanding of prejudice and discrimination are discussed. PMID:25090151
Heath, Shirley Brice, Ed.; McLaughlin, Milbrey W., Ed.
How ethnic identity and gender figure in building the embedded identities of youth in different contexts is examined, focusing on the self-concepts of inner-city youth. The voices of urban youth argue that their embedded identities, or multilayered self-conceptions, represent far more than simple labels of ethnic or racial membership. After an…
Wakefield, W. David; Hudley, Cynthia
Identity is a major developmental task for adolescents, and the development of ethnic identity is a unique and significant developmental task for many adolescents. This article reviews theoretical and empirical literature that informs our understanding of the development of a positive ethnic identity, and the consequences for adolescent mental…
Syed, Moin; Azmitia, Margarita
The goals of this study were to examine trajectories of change in ethnic identity during the college years and to explore group-level and individual-level variations. Participants were 175 diverse college students who completed indices of ethnic identity exploration and commitment, self-esteem, and domain-general identity resolution. Multilevel…
Ferrari, Laura; Rosnati, Rosa; Manzi, Claudia; Benet-Martínez, Verònica
The ethnic identity development plays a crucial role in adolescence and emerging adulthood and may be more complex for adoptees who do not share their ethnic identity with their adoptive families. Evidence from the studies was mixed, with strong ethnic identity not always found to be indicative of improved psychological adjustment. Recently…
Cachelin, Fary M.; Phinney, Jean S.; Schug, Robert A.; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.
Our purpose was to investigate acculturation and eating disorders by examining the role of ethnic identity and by utilizing a bidimensional perspective toward two cultures. We predicted that orientation toward European American culture and lower ethnic identity would be positively associated with eating disorders. Participants were 188 Mexican…
Molina, Ludwin E; Phillips, Nia L; Sidanius, Jim
Does the United States afford people of different backgrounds a sense of equal identification with the nation? Past research has documented ethnic/racial group differences on levels of national identity but there has been little research examining what psychologically moderates these disparities. The present research investigates how perceived group discrimination is associated with national and ethnic identification among ethnic majority and minority groups. Study 1 examines whether perceived group discrimination moderates subgroup differences on national and ethnic identification. Study 2 makes salient group discrimination--via an item order manipulation--and examines the effects on national and ethnic identification. In general, the 2 studies demonstrate that for most ethnic minorities higher perceptions of group discrimination are related to lower levels of national identity and higher ethnic identity. Conversely, among majority group members, higher levels of perceived discrimination predict higher levels of national identity with little influence on ethnic identification. PMID:25198413
Phinney, Jean S.; Nakayama, Stephanie
In a study of the relationship between parents' ethnic attitudes and socialization practices and the ethnic identity of their American-born children, 60 adolescents, aged 16 to 18 years, from 1 of 3 ethnic groups (Asian American, Black, and Hispanic) and one parent for each adolescent, were surveyed. The research was conducted to provide…
Tsai, Kim M.; Fuligni, Andrew J.
This article examined changes in ethnic identity as a function of college type and residential status and whether differences due to college type could be explained by involvement in extracurricular activities and college ethnic composition. Although no changes in ethnic labeling or belonging were found, there was a normative decrease in ethnic…
Mann, Danny Stephen
This study explored the relationship between students' residence hall preference and ethnic identity. The study explored differences in ethnic identity development among first-year Chicano/Latino college students who actively requested to live on a culturally themed living learning community and were placed there; Chicano/Latino students who…
Gonzalez, Roger Geertz
This study examines the ethnic identity of Cuban American and non-Hispanic White college students at Florida International University (FIU) in Miami, Florida. Current Latino/a and White college student ethnic identity theories are limited regarding a variety of contextual considerations such as immigration, majority-minority demographics, student…
Harris, Herbert W., Ed.; And Others
Racial and ethnic identity must be understood as an important determinant of the creative process and social dynamics, as well as understood as individual psychology. This collection of papers examines identity issues in the following chapters: (1) "Roots and Routes: Black Identity as an Outernational Project" (Paul Gilroy); (2) "Identity as…
Cokley, Kevin O.
A survey of the literature reveals that there is conceptual confusion and inconsistent and sometimes inappropriate usage of the terms racial identity, ethnic identity, and Afrocentric values. This study explored the extent to which Black racial(ized) identity attitudes were related to ethnic identity and Afrocentric cultural values. Two hundred…
Boone, Kyle Brauer; Victor, Tara L; Wen, Johnny; Razani, Jill; Pontón, Marcel
The relationship between ethnicity and cognitive test performance was examined in a sample of 161 patients referred for evaluation at a public hospital-affiliated neuropsychology clinic; 83 patients were Caucasian (non-Hispanic), 31 were African-American, 30 were Hispanic, and 17 were Asian. Significant group differences were present on some measures of language (Boston Naming Test), attention (Digit Span ACSS), constructional ability (Rey-Osterrieth [RO] copy), nonverbal processing speed (Trails A), and executive skills (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test [WCST]). Comparison of those who spoke English as a first language (or who learned English concurrently with a second language) versus those who spoke English as a second language (ESL) revealed significantly higher performance in the non-ESL group for Digit Span, Boston Naming Test, and FAS, and a higher score in the ESL group for RO copy. Boston Naming Test scores were significantly related to years educated in the United States; Boston Naming Test and Digit Span scores were significantly correlated with age at which conversational English was first learned and number of years in the United States; and finally, FAS scores were also significantly related to number of years in the United States. These findings are consistent with data from published literature on ethnic differences and the effects of acculturation on cognitive test performance in nonpatients, and also indicate that these observations are not attenuated by the presence of psychiatric or neurologic illness. The results further caution that normative data derived on Caucasian samples may not be appropriate for use with other ethnic groups. PMID:17320344
Gummadam, Praveena; Pittman, Laura D.; Ioffe, Micah
This study considers how the psychological adjustment of ethnic minority college students may be linked to a sense of school belonging and ethnic identity, two constructs related to individuals feeling like they belong to a larger group. Using self-reports from 311 undergraduates from ethnic minority backgrounds, school belonging was found to be…
Utsey, Shawn O; Chae, Mark H; Brown, Christa F; Kelly, Deborah
This study examined the effect of ethnic group membership on ethnic identity, race-related stress, and quality of life (QOL). The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure, the Index of Race Related Stress--Brief Version, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life--Brief Version were administered to 160 male and female participants from 3 ethnic groups (African American, Asian American, and Latino American). Results indicated that African American participants had significantly higher race-related stress, ethnic identity, and psychological QOL scores than did Asian and Latino American participants. A stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that ethnic identity and cultural racism were significant predictors of QOL and accounted for 16% of the total variance for the entire sample. PMID:12416322
Yip, Tiffany; Fuligni, Andrew J.
This study examined links among global ethnic identity and ethnic behaviors, ethnic identity salience, and psychological well-being among Chinese American adolescents. Analysis of daily diary entries over a 2-week period indicated a positive daily association between engagement in ethnic behaviors and ethnic salience, while links between ethnic…
Thai, Nghi D.; Connell, Christian M.; Tebes, Jacob Kraemer
This study examines the relative influence of race/ethnicity, acculturation, peer substance use, and academic achievement on adolescent substance use among different Asian American ethnic groups and U.S. racial/ethnic groups. Data from the Wave 1 in-home sample of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health was used to examine lifetime use of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana in a full adolescent sample of all racial/ethnic groups (N=20,745) and a subsample of Asian American adolescents (N=1,248). Path analysis examined the hypothesized relationships of peer substance use and acculturation as risk factors and academic achievement as a protective factor for racial/ethnic groups. The results indicated that when Asian American adolescents were compared to other major U.S. racial/ethnic groups, peer use and acculturation were both significant mediators of smoking, drinking, and marijuana use, and academic achievement mediated each type of use at a trend level. For Asian American ethnic groups, peer use is a risk factor and, to a lesser extent, academic achievement a protective factor for substance use. Also, although acculturation is a predictor of substance use, when peer use and academic achievement are taken into account, acculturation -- like ethnicity -- no longer predicts use. Mediation analyses indicated that: peer substance use mediates smoking, drinking, and marijuana use; academic achievement does not; and acculturation mediates substance use for some substances and some Asian American ethnic groups. The results are discussed for their implications for understanding how culturally-specific approaches can inform preventive interventions. PMID:25309680
Douglass, Sara; Wang, Yijie; Yip, Tiffany
Given the social and developmental relevance of ethnicity-race during adolescence, it is important to understand the meaning of ethnic-racial identity in adolescents' everyday lives. The current study considered how individual differences in ethnic-racial identity exploration (i.e., the extent to which individuals have explored their ethnicity-race), and commitment (i.e., the extent which they have a clear sense of what it means to them) influenced variability versus stability in the awareness of ethnicity-race in a given situation (i.e., salience), and how this variability is related to mood in that situation. Within an ethnic/racially diverse sample of 395 adolescents (M age = 15; 63 % female; 12 % Black, 26 % Latino, 34 % Asian, 23 % White), results indicated that ethnic-racial identity exploration was unrelated to variability in salience, while commitment promoted stability in salience across situations. Further, among adolescents who were generally very aware of their ethnicity-race, increases in situational salience were related to decreased negative and anxious mood. Among adolescents who were generally not aware of their ethnicity-race, increases in situational salience were related to increased positive and decreased negative mood. Implications for understanding the developmental and everyday experiences of ethnic-racial identity are discussed. PMID:26662047
Salett, Elizabeth Pathy, Ed.; Koslow, Diane R., Ed.
The impact that race and ethnicity have on an individual's identity development in the United States are explored through the theoretical framework, issues of dominance, identity development, and questions of biraciality. The following chapters address these issues: (1) "Identity, Self, and Individualism in a Multicultural Perspective" (Alan…
Elements of racial-ethnic identity, often found among adolescents from racial-ethnic minority groups, have their origins in middle childhood and pre-adolescence. The present study explored the developmental trajectory of some of those components among Native Canadian children living on relatively remote First Nation communities. Children and young adolescents (N = 414,209 female) between the ages of 6-11 completed measures assessing their level of racial-ethnic identity, concrete operational thought, implicit and explicit self-esteem, implicit and explicit in-group attitudes, and the importance of their racial-ethnic identity each year for 5 years. Consistent with predictions from cognitive developmental theory, trajectory modeling revealed significant increases over time in explicit and implicit in-group attitudes, level of concrete operational thought and the importance of children's racial-ethnic identity. However, level of racial-ethnic identity remained unchanged over time. The results are discussed in terms of cognitive-developmental theory, and the influence of living in a racially homogeneous environment on the development of racial-ethnic identity among minority group children. Studies are also suggested for future research. PMID:23982921
Kiang, Lisa; Fuligni, Andrew J.
Within an ethnically diverse sample of young adults (n = 223, 26% Latin American, 14% Asian American, 32% Filipino American, 28% European American), average levels of ethnic identity was found to vary significantly across different relational contexts. Regardless of ethnicity, young adults reported highest levels of ethnic exploration and ethnic…
Kiang, Lisa; Takeuchi, David T
OBJECTIVE: Links between phenotypes (skin tone, physical features) and a range of outcomes (income, physical health, psychological distress) were examined. Ethnic identity was examined as a protective moderator of phenotypic bias. METHOD: Data were from a community sample of 2,092 Filipino adults in San Francisco and Honolulu. RESULTS: After controlling for age, nativity, marital status, and education, darker skin was associated with lower income and lower physical health for females and males. For females, more ethnic features were associated with lower income. For males, darker skin was related to lower psychological distress. One interaction was found such that females with more ethnic features exhibited lower distress; however, ethnic identity moderated distress levels of those with less ethnic features. CONCLUSIONS: Phenotypic bias appears prevalent in Filipino Americans though specific effects vary by gender and skin color versus physical features. Discussion centers on the social importance of appearance and potential strengths gained from ethnic identification. PMID:20107617
Kiang, Lisa; Takeuchi, David T.
Objective Links between phenotypes (skin tone, physical features) and a range of outcomes (income, physical health, psychological distress) were examined. Ethnic identity was examined as a protective moderator of phenotypic bias. Method Data were from a community sample of 2,092 Filipino adults in San Francisco and Honolulu. Results After controlling for age, nativity, marital status, and education, darker skin was associated with lower income and lower physical health for females and males. For females, more ethnic features were associated with lower income. For males, darker skin was related to lower psychological distress. One interaction was found such that females with more ethnic features exhibited lower distress; however, ethnic identity moderated distress levels of those with less ethnic features. Conclusions Phenotypic bias appears prevalent in Filipino Americans though specific effects vary by gender and skin color versus physical features. Discussion centers on the social importance of appearance and potential strengths gained from ethnic identification. PMID:20107617
Vera, Elizabeth M.; Kordesh, Kathy; Polanin, Megan; Adams, Kristen; Aydin, Fatma; Knoll, Mike; Oh, Jennifer; Wade, James; Roche, Meghan; Hughes, Kelly; Eisenberg, Corry; Camacho, Daniel; Jeremie-Brink, Gihane
Relationships among bully victimization, bully perpetration, ethnic identity, and subjective well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect) were examined in a group of urban, ethnically diverse early adolescents. Indices of subjective well-being correlated with participants' scores on bully victimization and…
Jones, Matthew D.; Galliher, Renee V.
The current study assessed associations among theoretically driven measures of ethnic identity and psychosocial adjustment among 137 Navajo adolescents. For both sexes, measures of students' sense of affirmation and belonging to their ethnic heritage emerged as a strong predictor of positive psychosocial functioning. Less-consistent patterns of…
Wilson, Antoinette R; Leaper, Campbell
The purpose of this study was to integrate and validate a multidimensional model of ethnic-racial identity and gender identity borrowing constructs and measures based on social identity and gender identity theories. Participants included 662 emerging adults (M age = 19.86 years; 75 % female) who self-identified either as Asian American, Latino/a, or White European American. We assessed the following facets separately for ethnic-racial identity and gender identity: centrality, in-group affect, in-group ties, self-perceived typicality, and felt conformity pressure. Within each identity domain (gender or ethnicity/race), the five dimensions generally indicated small-to-moderate correlations with one another. Also, correlations between domains for each dimension (e.g., gender typicality and ethnic-racial typicality) were mostly moderate in magnitude. We also noted some group variations based on participants' ethnicity/race and gender in how strongly particular dimensions were associated with self-esteem. Finally, participants who scored positively on identity dimensions for both gender and ethnic-racial domains indicated higher self-esteem than those who scored high in only one domain or low in both domains. We recommend the application of multidimensional models to study social identities in multiple domains as they may relate to various outcomes during development. PMID:26142190
Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Nieri, Tanya
Using a predominately Mexican-origin Latino sample of 5th grade students from the Southwestern United States, this study examined the relative effects of perceived discrimination and acculturation stress on substance use, and it assessed whether these effects were moderated by linguistic acculturation or time in the United States. Although rates…
Torres, Vasti; Baxter Magolda, Marcia B.
The influence of cognitive development on ethnic identity development is investigated in the context of a qualitative longitudinal study of Latina/o college students. Findings indicate that when students reconstruct social knowledge their ethnic identity is positively influenced. Strategies and mechanisms for positively influencing identity…
Jamil, Omar B.; Harper, Gary W.; Fernandez, M. Isabel
Identity development is a critical task of adolescence and occurs across multiple areas of self identification. Though research on the identity development process among individuals who are ethnic and sexual minorities has been conducted for individuals who have one minority status or the other, few studies have examined these processes in persons who are both ethnic and sexual minorities. This qualitative study examined the dual identity development processes related to ethnic and sexual identity among gay/bisexual/questioning (GBQ) Latino and African American male adolescents. Results indicated that the processes associated with the development of sexual orientation and ethnic identity occur concurrently. However, the actual processes involved with the development of each identity not only differed, but seemed to be independent of each other since neither process was referenced in the development of the other. Overall, the process of ethnic identity development involved the process of becoming aware of one’s ethnic and cultural heritage, while sexual identity development involved finding one’s own personally relevant sexual orientation label and connecting to that community. The implications of these findings for the development of interventions to assist in the healthy development of GBQ adolescents are discussed. PMID:19594249
Quintana, Stephen M.; Vera, Elizabeth M.
Interviews with 47 Mexican-American children in grades 2 and 6 and their parents revealed that parental ethnic socialization about ethnic discrimination was associated with children's development of ethnic knowledge. Children's understanding of ethnic prejudice was related to their ethnic knowledge but not their ethnic behaviors. Contains 24…
Gennaro, Susan; Fantasia, Heidi Collins; Keshinover, Tayra; Garry, David; Wilcox, Wendy; Uppal, Elyse
Nurse researchers need to be able to identify the race and ethnicity of participants in their studies for several reasons including addressing health disparities, ensuring adequate representation from under-represented minorities, and making sure other nurses can understand how findings may or may not pertain to their own patient population. However, obtaining accurate information about race and ethnicity requires careful attention to norms of study participants. Race and ethnicity are not always viewed as 2 separate constructs and the definition of both changes over time. In fact, a random sample of 100 patients in 1 hospital found an 11% discrepancy between patients' self-identification of race using 2 different methodologies of self-identification. To optimize accuracy of self-identification of race and ethnicity, this paper discusses techniques learned in practice and in the literature for improving self-identification of these 2 constructs. PMID:22975139
Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Baluch, Suraiya; Carielli, Dominick
The conceptual basis and development of The Suinn Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation Scale (SL-ASIA) are reviewed. This study of psychometric strengths and limitations includes 16 published empirical studies concerning reliability and validity of SL-ASIA. Measures of reliability and methods of establishing construct validity are discussed, and…
Ontai-Grzebik, Lenna L.; Raffaelli, Marcela
Building on prior Latino ethnic identity research, this study had three goals: describe age-related trends in ethnic identity among young adults, examine relations among ethnic identity and individual factors, and explore the impact of family and peer socialization on ethnic identity. The participants (two hundred 19- to 30-year-olds; mean age =…
Birnie-Smith, Jessica Rae
This paper examines the language choice and ethnic identity construction online of four young Chinese Indonesians from West Kalimantan, Indonesia. The study draws on a combination of Social Identity model of De-individuation Effects (SIDE) theory and audience design theory to formulate a hypothesis about participants' linguistic behaviour within…
Examines the ethnic identity of Polish Americans, and the issues that Polish immigrants face. The following are components of the conceptual structure of identity: (1) genetically inherited characteristics; (2) characteristics acquired through family socialization; and (3) characteristics acquired through re-socialization. (BJV)
French, Sabine Elizabeth; Chavez, Noe R.
Based on the risk and resilience model, the current study examined the effect of ethnicity-related stressors (perceived discrimination, stereotype confirmation concern, and own-group conformity pressure) and ethnic identity (centrality, private regard, public regard, and other-group orientation) on the well-being of 171 Latino American college…
Garroutte, Eva Marie; Kunovich, Robert M; Jacobsen, Clemma; Goldberg, Jack
Work in the field of culturally competent medical care draws on studies showing that minority Americans often report lower satisfaction with care than White Americans and recommends that providers should adapt care to patients' cultural needs. However, empirical evidence in support of cultural competence models is limited by reliance upon measurements of racial rather than ethnic identity and also by a near-total neglect of American Indians. This project explored the relationship between ethnic identity and satisfaction using survey data collected from 115 chronically ill American Indian patients >or=50 years at a Cherokee Nation clinic. Satisfaction scores were high overall and comparable to those found in the general population. Nevertheless, analysis using hierarchical linear modeling showed that patients' self-rated American Indian ethnic identity was significantly associated with satisfaction. Specifically, patients who rated themselves high on the measure of American Indian ethnic identity reported reduced scores on satisfaction with health care providers' social skill and attentiveness, as compared to those who rated themselves lower. Significant associations remained after controlling for patients' sex, age, education, marital status, self-reported health, wait time, and number of previous visits. There were no significant associations between patients' American Indian ethnic identity and satisfaction with provider's technical skill and shared decision-making. Likewise, there were no significant associations between satisfaction and a separate measure of White American ethnic identity, although a suggestive trend was observed for satisfaction with provider's social skill. Our findings demonstrate the importance of including measures of ethnic identity in studies of medical satisfaction in racial minority populations. They support the importance of adapting care to patient's cultural needs, and they highlight the particular significance of interpersonal
Kang, Jikyeong; Kim, Youn-Kyung
Responses from 172 Chinese Americans, 185 Japanese Americans, and 144 Korean Americans revealed distinct reference group, media, and store attribute influences on clothing purchases. Patterns differed depending on degree of acculturation. (SK)
Brown, Susan D.; Unger Hu, Kirsten A.; Mevi, Ashley A.; Hedderson, Monique M.; Shan, Jun; Quesenberry, Charles P.; Ferrara, Assiamira
The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised (MEIM-R), a brief instrument assessing affiliation with one’s ethnic group, is a promising advance in the ethnic identity literature. However, equivalency of its measurement properties across specific racial and ethnic groups should be confirmed before using it in diverse samples. We examined a) the psychometric properties of the MEIM-R including factor structure, measurement invariance, and internal consistency reliability, and b) levels of and differences in ethnic identity across multiple racial and ethnic groups and subgroups. Asian (n = 630), Black/African American (n = 58), Hispanic (n = 240), multiethnic (n = 160), and White (n = 375) women completed the MEIM-R as part of the “Gestational diabetes’ Effect on Moms” diabetes prevention trial in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California health care setting (N = 1,463; M age 32.5 years, SD = 4.9). Multiple-groups confirmatory factor analyses provided provisional evidence of measurement invariance, i.e., an equal, correlated two-factor structure, equal factor loadings, and equal item intercepts across racial and ethnic groups. Latent factor means for the two MEIM-R subscales, exploration and commitment, differed across groups; effect sizes ranging from small to large generally supported the notion of ethnic identity as more salient among people of color. Pending replication, good psychometric properties in this large and diverse sample of women support the future use of the MEIM-R. Preliminary evidence of measurement invariance suggests that the MEIM-R could be used to measure and compare ethnic identity across multiple racial and ethnic groups. PMID:24188656
Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Adkins, Chris
In the United States, the interplay of racism, sexism, and acculturation creates psychological and social stressors that may affect the development of positive ethnic/sexual identities among Asian and Pacific Islander (API) adolescents. This article proposes a new model of identity formation theory for API gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender…
Identity is central for research on education since, under certain conditions, it may influence school choice, career preferences and classroom behaviour. Identity also determines disposition toward schooling because it may have the capacity to shape and modify the values, beliefs and characteristics that distinguish one person from another, by…
Hjort, Hanna; Frisen, Ann
The saliency of ethnicity and ethnic identity is influenced by contextual circumstances. In Bosnia-Herzegovina, due to the current ethno-political situation, ethnicity and ethnic identity most likely are important aspects of adolescents' lives. The main purpose of this study is to describe a group of young Mostarians in relation to ethnic identity…
Davey, Maureen; Fish, Linda Stone; Askew, Julie; Robila, Mihaela
Three years after being interviewed, a nonrandom, purposeful subsample of 14 Jewish families from a larger sample of 48 families living in Central New York was reinterviewed. The primary aim of this follow-up study was to develop a descriptive understanding of parenting practices and the transmission of ethnic identity. Semistructured family interviews were conducted and coded using grounded-theory techniques, in particular the constant comparative method of analysis. Four main qualitative categories emerged from this study: Individual differences in teenagers, stages of ethnic identity development, parenting practices, and parental role models. Findings suggest that clear expectations, a type of authoritative parenting, could be associated with the positive transmission of Jewish ethnic identity. This type of parenting style was direct as parents expressed clear expectations for participation in Jewish activities both at home and in the community. PMID:12728778
Devos, Thierry; Mohamed, Hafsa
The issue of ethnic diversity and national identity in an immigrant nation such as the USA is a recurrent topic of debate. We review and integrate research examining the extent to which the American identity is implicitly granted or denied to members of different ethnic groups. Consistently, European Americans are implicitly conceived of as being more American than African, Asian, Latino, and even Native Americans. This implicit American = White effect emerges when explicit knowledge or perceptions point in the opposite direction. The propensity to deny the American identity to members of ethnic minorities is particularly pronounced when targets (individuals or groups) are construed through the lenses of ethnic identities. Implicit ethnic–national associations fluctuate as a function of perceivers’ ethnic identity and political orientation, but also contextual or situational factors. The tendency to equate being American with being White accounts for the strength of national identification (among European Americans) and behavioral responses including hiring recommendations and voting intentions. The robust propensity to deny the American identity to ethnic minority groups reflects an exclusionary national identity. PMID:27011765
Dong, XinQi; Bergren, Stephanie M; Chang, E-Shien
Acculturation is a difficult process for minority older adults for a variety of reasons, including access and exposure to mainstream culture, competing ethnic identities, and linguistic ability and preference. There is a paucity of research regarding overall level of acculturation for Chinese older adults in the United States. This study aimed to provide an overall estimate of level of acculturation of Chinese older adults in the United States and to examine correlations between sociodemographic characteristics, self-reported health measures, and level of acculturation. Data were collected through the Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago (PINE) study. This community-based participatory research study surveyed 3,159 Chinese older adults aged 60 and older. The PINE Study Acculturation Scale was used to assess level of acculturation in three dimensions: language preference, media use, and ethnic social relations. Mean acculturation level for all items was 15.3 ± 5.1, indicating low levels of acculturation. Older age, more offspring, lower income, fewer years living in the United States, lower overall health status, and lower quality of life were associated with lower levels of acculturation. Level of acculturation was low in Chinese older adults, and certain subsets of the population were more likely to have a lower level of acculturation. Future research should investigate causality and effects of level of acculturation. PMID:26313023
Rosnati, Rosa; Pinderhughes, Ellen E.; Baden, Amanda L.; Grotevant, Harold D.; Lee, Richard M.; Mohanty, Jayashree
The collective findings of the six articles in this special issue highlight the importance of ethnic-racial socialization and ethnic identity among international transracial adoptees (ITRAs). A multidimensional developmental phenomenon, ethnic identity intersects with other identities, notably adoptive identity. Family, peers, community, and host…
Chhuon, Vichet; Hudley, Cynthia
Research suggests that Cambodian students often endure conflicting ethnic stereotypes from larger society and their school and communities. We examine the ways in which Cambodian youth negotiated their ethnic identities in response to these stereotypes and argue that Cambodian students adopted, rejected, and affirmed certain ethnic identities in…
Brittian, Aerika S.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Lee, Richard M.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Kim, Su Yeong; Weisskirch, Robert S.; Castillo, Linda G.; Whitbourne, Susan Krauss; Hurley, Eric A.; Huynh, Que-Lam; Brown, Elissa J.; Caraway, S. Jean
Background: Prior literature has shown that ethnic affirmation, one aspect of ethnic identity, is positively associated with mental health. However, the associations between ethnic affirmation and mental health may vary depending how much importance individuals place on their ethnic group membership (ie, centrality). Methods: Using path analysis,…
The crux of this study lies in the consideration of the manner in which rights to citizenship are granted or denied, and in which the ensuing educational policy toward an ethnic minority influences identity formation. In this article the author first introduces a brief background of the two ethnic groups, ethnic Chinese in Korea and ethnic Koreans…
Gonzáles-Figueroa, Evelyn; Young, Angela M
This study examined ethnic identity and mentoring (a known strategy to promote career success and advancement) in a sample of 103 Latina women with professional roles in the areas of business, academia, policy, and politics. Other variables examined included traditional gender roles and perceptions of professional success. Findings indicated that the women's ethnic identity was consistent with a bicultural profile; some received mentoring and, if given a choice, would prefer to be mentored by someone of similar ethnicity. This finding is critical and can allow researchers, service providers, and policy developers to apply culturally responsive strategies in communities and in organizations. Other hypotheses were not supported. A discussion of the findings, implications, and suggestions for future research are presented. PMID:16117589
Hovick, Shelly R; Holt, Lanier F
Within the health communication literature there has been an increased focus on the use of cultural and identity-based message tailoring to enhance the effectiveness of messages and interventions, particularly among minority and underserved populations. Although this approach may be promising, little is known about the effect of ethnic identity on health behaviors and beliefs or how the effects of ethnic identity differ from those of race or ethnicity. This study is among the first to explore relationships between ethnic identity and cancer-related risk factors, knowledge characteristics, and cognitive and affective appraisals. This study utilized a national online sample of Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics (N = 1,452). Higher ethnic identity was associated with increased physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake and decreased body mass index among Whites (p < .05). Higher ethnic identity was also associated with increased cancer risk knowledge (p < .05) but not cancer risk perceptions or self-efficacy (p > .05). Hispanics and Blacks with higher ethnic identity had greater cancer worry. Our results suggest that the effect of ethnic identity is often distinct from that of race/ethnicity and that health communication interventions based solely on race/ethnicity may not be as effective as those that also take ethnic identity into account. PMID:26717497
Rodriguez, Ester R.; Bernstein, Bianca L.
This study examined the relationship between psychological separation and college adjustment in a Chicano/Latino sample, a group which has traditionally not valued psychological separation (N=137). Ethnic identity as a moderator variable was also explored. The Psychological Separation Inventory, Student Adjustment to College Questionnaire, and the…
In-depth interviews were conducted with 7 second-generation Indian American students between 17 and 21 years of age to study their ethnic identity formation. Respondents were college students who came from families that represented the earlier waves of post-1965 Indian immigrants, highly educated middle- and upper-class professionals. The…
Pnevmatikos, Dimitris; Geka, Maria; Divane, Maria
This study investigates the emergence, development and structure of ethnic identity during childhood. Forty Roma children living in Greece aged between 2.8 and 11.9 years answered questions about their awareness/recognition of four aspects of their ethnic identity-namely place of habitation, traditional costumes, the Roma language, and early betrothal of children-their identity and their sense of stability and constancy. The study also investigates how the children feel about the abandonment of those four aspects. The evidence from the current data supports the hypothesis that awareness of ethnic identity emerges before the age of 4. Moreover, this study offers direct empirical evidence of the multidimensionality of ethnic identity. A model of three concentric rings is proposed, extending from a core containing the most highly valued aspects of ethnic identity to the outer annulus that comprises the nonpermanent and nonstable aspects of ethnic identity. The aspects in each annulus differ in terms of the development of the sense of stability and constancy and the feelings associated with loss of the aspects in question. Even the youngest participants considered the aspects in the core to be stable and constant as well as emotionally charged; and even the 11-year-olds did not consider the aspects contained in the outer, more fluid annulus as stable and constant aspects of their ethnic identity. The development of an aspect is determined by what the majority of adults in a society, at a particular time in history, consider to be most important. PMID:22044083
Rakhkovskaya, Liya M; Warren, Cortney S
Emerging research suggests that ethnic identity and American identity are associated with mental health in ethnic minorities and European Americans, respectively. Furthermore, although ethnic identity is associated with diminished body dissatisfaction in minority women, the relationship between American identity and body dissatisfaction is unexplored in all ethnic groups. Accordingly, this study examined the relationships among ethnic identity, American identity, thin-ideal internalization, pressures for thinness, and body dissatisfaction in 1018 ethnically diverse college women. Ethnic identity negatively predicted body dissatisfaction for African Americans, and attenuated the relationship between pressures for thinness and body dissatisfaction for African Americans and Asian Americans, but not European Americans or Latina Americans. Results for American identity were inconclusive. Findings suggest that ethnic identity may be a protective factor against eating pathology for Asian American and African American women. PMID:26609942
Walker, Lovey H. M.; Syed, Moin
Background/Context: Students of Color continue to be underrepresented at the undergraduate level. Recent research has demonstrated the importance of non-academic psychosocial factors for understanding college experiences. One factor, identity, is a broad, multidimensional construct that comprises numerous distinct domains, including political,…
Gartner, Meaghan; Kiang, Lisa; Supple, Andrew
Ethnic socialization and ethnic identity have been related to positive outcomes, but little research has examined these associations longitudinally. This three-wave study prospectively linked socialization messages at Time 1, ethnic identity and American identity at Time 2, and self-esteem and depressive symptoms at Time 3 in 147 (58% female; 25% first-generation) Asian-American adolescents. The results indicated positive links between cultural socialization messages and ethnic and American identity, though the latter association was significant only for females. Ethnic identity was positively related to self-esteem, and mediated the positive effect of cultural socialization on self-esteem. The promotion of mistrust was positively linked to self-esteem and negatively related to ethnic identity, though this latter association was significant for foreign-born youth only. Our findings highlight the importance of elucidating prospective links in identity development, and examining gender and generational differences within them. PMID:24162183
The current study explores the intersection of ethnic identity development and significance in a sample of 354 diverse adolescents (mean age 14). Adolescents completed surveys five times a day for 1 week. Cluster analyses revealed four identity clusters: diffused, foreclosed, moratorium, and achieved. Achieved adolescents reported the highest…
This article examines Ecuadorian students' attempts to contest immigrant stereotypes and redefine their social identities in Madrid, Spain. I argue that academic tracking plays a pivotal role in the trajectory of students' emergent ethnic identity. To illustrate this process, I focus on students who abandon their academic and professional…
Johnson, Samon C.; Arbona, Consuelo
The purpose of this study was to explore to what extent ethnic identity and racial identity are related constructs among African American college students by examining (a) the association of racial identity to ethnic identity and (b) the relative and unique contribution of both constructs to race-related stress. Participants were 140 college…
Yip, Tiffany; Shelton, J. Nicole
Everyday interactions with same-racial/ethnic others may confer positive benefits for adolescents, but the meaning of these interactions are likely influenced by individual differences and larger structural contexts. This study examined the situation-level association between contact with same-ethnic others and anxiety symptoms among a diverse sample of 306 racial/ethnic minority adolescents (Mage = 14 years; 66 % female), based on (1) individual differences in ethnic identity centrality and (2) developmental histories of transitions in diversity between elementary, middle, and high school. The results indicated that at the level of the situation, when adolescents interacted with more same-ethnic others, they reported fewer anxiety symptoms. Further, for adolescents who had experienced a transition in school diversity, the positive benefits of contact with same-ethnic others was only conferred for those who felt that their ethnicity was very important to them. The importance of examining individual differences within larger developmental histories to understand the everyday experiences of ethnic minority adolescents are discussed. PMID:24951944
Gonzales-Backen, Melinda A.
A body of literature has increased our understanding of ethnic identity formation among ethnic minorities, but there remains a dearth of research focused on the ethnic identity formation of biethnic adolescents. Biethnic adolescents are likely to have unique experiences related to ethnicity that significantly alter the course of their ethnic…
Juang, Linda; Syed, Moin
We examined how family cultural socialization related to the ethnic identity of Asian American, Latino, White, and Mixed-Ethnic emerging adults (N = 225). Greater family cultural socialization was related to greater ethnic identity exploration and commitment. Ethnic minority students reported higher levels of family cultural socialization and…
Pobutsky, Ann; St John, Tonya Lowery; Urabe, Chelsi N; Li, Fenfang; Johnson, Lila
This cross-sectional study explores the differences in ethnicity, sex, immigration (place of birth of student and parents), and acculturation (based on language spoken at home) on current cigarette smoking among public high school students in Hawai'i, and especially examine if this affected smoking among girls. Previous behavior risk surveys of youth in Hawai'i showed higher smoking rates among girls, although these were not found to be statistically significant differences. Multiple years of data were compiled from the Hawai'i Youth Tobacco Survey (YTS) for years 2005, 2007, 2009, and 2011, for a total sample size of N=5,527. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the likelihood of current cigarette smoking (in the past 30 days) in relation to a variety of factors. The analysis revealed that Hawai'i-specific ethnicity, grade, and sex were all significant predictors of smoking. Girls whose mothers were born in Hawai'i or in another United States state were more likely to smoke than those whose mothers were born in a foreign country. The model showed girls were more likely to smoke than boys. Eleventh and twelfth graders were more likely to smoke than ninth graders. Whites, Filipinos, Native Hawaiians, Pacific Islanders, and Other ethnic groups were more likely to smoke than those who identified themselves as Japanese. PMID:24470981
Vu, Lung; Choi, Kyung-Hee; Do, Tri
Having a positive attitude toward one's own sexual and ethnic identity can improve psychological well-being and self-efficacy and may reduce vulnerability to HIV infection. We sought to understand factors associated with having greater self-worth about being Asian and Pacific Islander (API), being gay/bisexual, and being both gay/bisexual and API (dual identity). We conducted serial, cross-sectional surveys of 763 API men who have sex with men (MSM) annually from 1999 to 2002 in San Diego, California and Seattle, Washington. We found (a) sexual and ethnic identity were intertwined and mutually influential; (b) a positive attitude toward sexual identity was associated with higher socioeconomic status, greater social support, and self-identified homosexual orientation (as opposed to "straight/undecided"); (c) a positive dual identity was associated with higher socioeconomic status, greater social support, and levels of acculturation (being United States born and speaking English and another language equally); and (d) a positive sexual identity and dual identity were associated with HIV testing. The findings suggest that targeted programs should address cultural issues at the intersection of sexual and ethnic identity, promote social support and self-acceptance around homosexual identity, and help MSM build a positive sense of self to foster their self-esteem and HIV prevention self-efficacy. PMID:22010806
Hipolito-Delgado, Carlos P.
For Latina/o undergraduates, ethnic identity is an important construct linked to self-esteem and educational attainment. Internalized and perceived racism have been hypothesized to hinder ethnic identity development in Latina/o undergraduates. To assess if internalized and perceived racism were inversely related to ethnic identity, the author…
Lee, Richard M.; Falbo, Toni; Doh, Hyun Sim; Park, Seong Yeon
Korean undergraduates living in the United States and in China were administered the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure to assess their ethnic identity. Korean Americans had higher scores on ethnic identity and were more likely to be classified as bicultural, indicating that they were able to retain their cultural heritage while incorporating…
Bailey, Jo Daugherty
Children who are adopted internationally are at risk for losing their ethnic heritage, and social workers in the field have a vital role to play in minimizing this risk. By applying social identity theory to the case of international adoptees' ethnic identity formation, it follows that a positive ethnic identity is best facilitated by exposure to…
Rock, Patrick F.; Cole, Daphne J.; Houshyar, Shadi; Lythcott, Mawiyah; Prinstein, Mitchell J.
This investigation examined the association between ethnic identity centrality and peer status for African American adolescents who represented a sizable proportion, yet numerical minority within a high school context. Initial analyses indicated that a traditional sociometric nomination procedure did not adequately characterize peer status for…
Wester, Kelly L.; Trepal, Heather C.
This study examined race and ethnic identity in relation to nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). Participants included freshmen at 2 universities, who were predominantly female. Final inferential statistics examined differences across Caucasian, African American, Hispanic, Asian American, and Multiracial students, finding African Americans and Asian…
Toomey, Russell B.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Jahromi, Laudan B.
Few studies examine normative developmental processes among teenage mothers. Framed from a risk and resilience perspective, this prospective study examined the potential for ethnic identity status (e.g., diffuse, achieved), a normative developmental task during adolescence, to buffer the detrimental effects of discrimination on later adjustment and self-esteem in a sample of 204 Mexican-origin adolescent mothers. Ethnic discrimination was associated with increases in depressive symptoms and decreases in self-esteem over time, regardless of ethnic identity status. However, ethnic discrimination was only associated with increases in engagement in risky behavior among diffuse adolescents, suggesting that achieved or foreclosed identities buffered the risk of ethnic discrimination on later risky behavior. Findings suggest that ethnic identity resolution (i.e., the component shared by those in foreclosed and achieved statuses) may be a key cultural factor to include in prevention and intervention efforts aimed to reduce the negative effects of ethnic discrimination on later externalizing problems. PMID:24011098
Pinderhughes, Ellen E.; Zhang, Xian; Agerbak, Susanne
Drawing on a model of ethnic-racial socialization (E-RS; Pinderhughes, 2013), this study examined hypothesized relations among parents' role variables (family ethnic identity and acknowledgment of cultural and racial differences), cultural socialization (CS) behaviors, and children's self-perceptions (ethnic self-label and feelings about…
SCHWARTZ, SETH J.; PANTIN, HILDA; SULLIVAN, SUMMER; PRADO, GUILLERMO; SZAPOCZNIK, JOSÉ
The current study was conducted to ascertain the validity of two commonly used markers of acculturation (nativity and years in the receiving culture) in an enclave context. Relationships between these markers and a bidimensional measure of acculturation were examined in a convenience sample of Hispanic immigrant adolescents and their caregivers in Miami. Nativity was examined using adolescent-reported data; approximately half of the youth were U.S.-born and half foreign-born, but all of the caregivers were foreign-born. Years in the receiving culture was examined using both adolescent and caregiver data. Results indicated that nativity was significantly associated with adoption of receiving-culture practices, with a small to moderate effect size. Years in the receiving culture was significantly associated with adoption of receiving-culture practices only for adolescent girls and for female caregivers who immigrated as youth. Neither nativity nor years in the receiving culture explained even moderate amounts of variance in retention or loss of culture-of-origin practices. PMID:16799700
Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Unger, Jennifer B
Latino youth can experience a range of cultural (i.e., ethnic discrimination and acculturative stress) and familial (i.e. family conflict) risk factors that can contribute to their perceived stress, thereby increasing their risk for depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking. To understand the mechanisms by which ethnic discrimination, acculturative stress and family conflict influence the risk for depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking of youth, the current study investigated the mediating role of perceived stress in these associations. The data came from a longitudinal study of acculturation and substance use with 1919 Latino adolescents (52% female; 84% 14 year-olds; 87% U.S. born). Structural equation modeling indicated that discrimination and family conflict (Time 1) related with higher perceived stress (Time 2), which, in turn, related with more depressive symptoms and smoking (Time 3). The results suggest that perceived stress might be one mechanism by which ethnic discrimination and family conflict contribute to Latino youth symptoms of depression and cigarette smoking. The findings highlight the need for prevention and intervention strategies that help youth manage their general perceived stress and/or focus on stress reduction techniques. PMID:26294041
Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda A.; Guimond, Amy B.
The current longitudinal study of 323 Latino adolescents (50.5% male; M age = 15.31 years) examined whether ethnic identity exploration, resolution, and affirmation demonstrated significant growth over a 4-year period and whether growth in ethnic identity predicted growth in self-esteem. Findings from multiple-group latent growth curve models…
Kunst, Jonas R; Thomsen, Lotte; Sam, David L; Berry, John W
Although integration involves a process of mutual accommodation, the role of majority groups is often downplayed to passive tolerance, leaving immigrants with the sole responsibility for active integration. However, we show that common group identity can actively involve majority members in this process across five studies. Study 1 showed that common identity positively predicted support of integration efforts; Studies 2 and 3 extended these findings, showing that it also predicted real behavior such as monetary donations and volunteering. A decrease in modern racism mediated the relations across these studies, and Studies 4 and 5 further demonstrated that it indeed mediated these effects over and above acculturation expectations and color-blindness, which somewhat compromised integration efforts. Moreover, the last two studies also demonstrated that common, but not dual, groups motivated integration efforts. Common identity appears crucial for securing majorities' altruistic efforts to integrate immigrants and, thus, for achieving functional multiculturalism. PMID:26276500
Gonzales-Backen, Melinda A.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.
Guided by ecological theory, the current study examined physical appearance as a moderator of the relation between familial ethnic socialization (FES) and ethnic identity among 167 Latino adolescents. Results indicated that FES was positively associated with ethnic identity exploration and resolution. Furthermore, as expected, physical appearance…
Verkuyten, Maykel; Brug, Peary
Examined ethnic identity achievement among Surinamese adolescents in the Netherlands as it related to self-esteem, perceived discrimination, and Dutch national identification. Surveys of Surinamese and ethnic Dutch adolescents indicated that ethnic identity achievement and self-esteem were positively correlated for Surinamese students.…
Knight, George P.; And Others
Aspects of a theoretical model of the socialization of ethnic identity were tested for 45 6- to 10-year-old Mexican-American children and their mothers. As predicted, socialization indices functioned as a mediator of the influence of ethnic family background on children's ethnic identity. (SLD)
Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Guimond, Amy B.
Characteristics of the familial and societal context were examined as predictors of Latino adolescents' (N = 323; 49.5% female) ethnic identity. Consistent with previous work, familial ethnic socialization significantly predicted future levels of ethnic identity exploration, resolution, and affirmation for both male adolescents and female…
Umana-Taylor, Adriana, J.
This study explored ethnic identity and self-esteem among 1062 Mexican-origin adolescents who were attending one of three schools, which varied in their ethnic composition (i.e., predominately Latino, predominately non-Latino, and balanced Latino/non-Latino). Significant relationships emerged between ethnic identity and self-esteem among…
This paper reviews the research and theories on ethnic identity development, and draws some implications from these ideas for improving curriculum design for, and instructional effectiveness with, ethnically different students, especially Black Americans. The paradigm of "the developmental stages of ethnic identity transformation" presented relies…
Giang, Michael T; Wittig, Michele A
Berry, Trimble, and Olmedo's (1986) acculturation model was used to investigate the relationship among adolescents' acculturation strategies, personal self-esteem, and collective self-esteem. Using data from 427 high school students, factor analysis results distinguished Collective Self-esteem Scale constructs (Luhtanen & Crocker, 1992) from both ethnic identity and outgroup orientation subscales of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (Phinney, 1992). Subsequent results showed that: 1) both acculturation dimensions were correlated with personal and collective self-esteems, 2) integrationists shared similar levels of personal and collective self-esteems with assimilationists and/or separationists, and 3) marginalizationists generally had the lowest levels of personal and collective self-esteems. Implications are drawn for understanding acculturation among adolescents and for the utility of group-level measures of self-esteem. PMID:17087532
Giang, Michael T.; Wittig, Michele A.
Berry, Trimble, and Olmedo’s (1986) acculturation model was used to investigate the relationship among adolescents’ acculturation strategies, personal self-esteem, and collective self-esteem. Using data from 427 high school students, factor analysis results distinguished Collective Self-esteem Scale constructs (Luhtanen & Crocker, 1992) from both ethnic identity and outgroup orientation subscales of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (Phinney, 1992). Subsequent results showed that: 1) both acculturation dimensions were correlated with personal and collective self-esteems, 2) integrationists shared similar levels of personal and collective self-esteems with assimilationists and/or separationists, and 3) marginalizationists generally had the lowest levels of personal and collective self-esteems. Implications are drawn for understanding acculturation among adolescents and for the utility of group-level measures of self-esteem. PMID:17087532
Zou, Yali, Ed.; Trueba, Enrique T., Ed.
The essays in this collection provide insights into the dilemmas faced by immigrants and ethnic minorities and by school personnel and policy makers. The first part of the book consists of comparative studies of ethnic identity, and the second part focuses on some lessons learned from studies of ethnic identification and equity, with implications…
Lee, Joyce P.; Lee, Richard M.; Hu, Alison W.; Kim, Oh Myo
Despite the growing practice of international adoption over the past 60 years, the racial and ethnic experiences of adopted youth are not well known. This study examined the moderating role of ethnic identity in the association between racial/ethnic discrimination and adjustment among transracially, transnationally adopted Korean American adolescents (N = 136). Building on self-categorization theory and past empirical research on Asian Americans, it was hypothesized that ethnic identity would exacerbate negative outcomes associated with discrimination. The moderating role of ethnic identity was found to vary by specific ethnic identity dimensions. For individuals with more pride in their ethnic group (affective dimension of ethnic identity), discrimination was positively associated with externalizing problems. For individuals with greater engagement with their ethnic group (behavioral dimension of ethnic identity), discrimination was positively associated with substance use. By contrast, clarity regarding the meaning and importance of one’s ethnic group (cognitive dimension of ethnic identity) did not moderate the relationship between discrimination and negative outcomes. PMID:26273427
Ferrari, Laura; Ranieri, Sonia; Barni, Daniela; Rosnati, Rosa
Transracial adoptees represent a specific group of immigrants who experience unique immigration processes that bring them face-to-face with two cultural backgrounds: that of their heritage culture on one hand and that of their national culture on the other hand. However, there is a scarcity of studies focused on the way these processes unfold within adoptive families. This study was aimed at exploring how transracial adoptees cope with the construction of their ethnic identity. Administering a self-report questionnaire to 127 transracial adoptees and their mothers, for a total of 254 participants, we first investigated the association between mothers' cultural socialisation (enculturation and preparation for bias strategies) and adoptees' ethnic identity (i.e. ethnic identity exploration and ethnic identity affirmation dimensions). We then investigated whether ethnic identity affects self-esteem by testing the hypothesis that national identity moderates the relationship between ethnic identity and self-esteem. Results revealed that mothers' enculturation (but not their preparation for bias) supported adoptees' ethnic identity exploration, which in turn was positively associated with ethnic identity affirmation. Moreover, we confirmed the moderation effect: ethnic identity affirmation enhanced the level of self-esteem, but only for those adoptees who perceived a higher degree of national identity affirmation. PMID:26264672
Yogeeswaran, Kumar; Adelman, Levi; Parker, Michael T; Dasgupta, Nilanjana
Two studies examined how perceivers' national identification influences their implicit and explicit attitudes toward White and non-White ethnic groups whose members express their ethnic identity overtly in public or discreetly in private spaces. Results revealed that at a conscious level, White American perceivers' national identification elicited more negative attitudes toward both White and non-White ethnic groups when members embraced their ethnic heritage in public rather than in private. However, at an unconscious level, White perceivers' identification with the national group led to less favorable attitudes toward non-White ethnic groups, but not White ethnic groups, when their group members embraced ethnic identity in public. By integrating research on national identification, ethnic identity expression, and prejudice, the present research highlights some conditions under which majority group members' national identification affects how they perceive ethnic subgroups within the nation. PMID:25045948
Booth, Margaret Zoller; Curran, Erin M.; Frey, Christopher J.; Gerard, Jean M.; Collet, Bruce; Bartimole, Jennifer
The relationships between adolescent ethnic identity and attitudes toward school and school climate are investigated in a small, multiracial/multiethnic city in the Great Lakes region with ethnically diverse adolescents taught by primarily White teachers. The mixed methods investigation of 986 eighth through eleventh grade students during the 2010–2011 academic year suggests that the relationship between ethnic identity and attitude toward school is a complex interaction among individual characteristics of ethnicity/race, ethnic identity, gender, and ecological context. Quantitative results reveal that White female and Hispanic and African American male students exhibit strong ethnic identity that correlates positively with school attitude; however, qualitative results indicate very different paths in getting to those outcomes. Hispanic students appear to benefit from a strong ethnic identity that assists with positive relationships at school, while African American male students utilize parental cultural socialization as a protective function in school. The results emphasize the implications of positive school climates for all students. PMID:25866457
Turner, Kelly L.; Brown, Christia Spears
This study examined (1) whether 5- to 12-year-old children consider gender and ethnicity to be central and important components of their identity, (2) whether the relative centrality of these identity components differs across children, and (3) how the centrality of children's gender and ethnic identities is affected by a dynamic situational…
... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Records as to racial or ethnic identity of employees. 1602... Employers § 1602.13 Records as to racial or ethnic identity of employees. Employers may acquire the... force, or at their option, by the maintenance of post-employment records as to the identity of...
Chang, Yiting; Halgunseth, Linda C
This study examines the interactions among family meals, parental discipline practices, ethnicity, and acculturation on weight status change in a diverse sample of early-adolescents. Data were obtained from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K), a nationally representative sample of children who entered kindergarten during 1998-1999. In fifth grade, parents reported on child and household routines. In fifth and eighth grade, children were weighed and measured at school. Above and beyond covariates, less acculturated Hispanic adolescents who ate more family meals and experienced low parental behavioral control in fifth grade were less likely to make a healthy change (γ = -0.15, OR = 0.86, p < 0.05) and more likely to make an unhealthy change (γ = 0.32, OR = 1.38, p < 0.05) in their weight status by eighth grade, when compared to White Non-Hispanic adolescents. The implications of interactions among family meals, parental discipline practices, and healthy weight promotion are discussed in the context of ethnicity and acculturation. PMID:25138136
Shehadeh, Nancy; McCoy, H. Virginia
Migrant workers have been shown to be at a heightened level of risk for HIV, and ethnic identity has been posited to have an impact on engagement in risky sexual behaviors. Our longitudinal study examined associations between baseline and short term changes in ethnic identity and high-risk sexual behaviors. Baseline (N = 431) and 6-month assessment (n = 270) data were obtained from a larger HIV prevention study conducted among African American and Hispanic migrant workers. Repeated measures MANCOVA and multiple linear regressions were used. Ethnic identity explore, a subscale of ethnic identity, was a significant predictor of overall sexual risk (F[8, 422] = 6.953, p < .001) and unprotected vaginal acts (F[8, 422] = 8.444, p < .001) at baseline. However, ethnic identity had no bearing on changes in risky sexual behaviors. Ethnic identity explore was associated with safer sexual behaviors. PMID:24210917
Stuart, Jaimee; Jose, Paul E.
The present study examined the associations among family connectedness, ethnic identity, and ethnic engagement on changes in well-being over time for the understudied population of Ma¯ori (indigenous New Zealand) youth. Data were collected as part of a longitudinal study of youth connectedness in New Zealand using self-report measures at 3…
Davidson, Ann Locke; And Others
Examines the effects of ethnicity on students, discussing how the meaning and practice of ethnic identity are shaped by school experiences. The article suggests ethnicity is negotiated across time and social situations, rather than solely from group membership. Daily social interaction mediates and reshapes institutionally produced social or…
Tsang, A. Ka Tat; Irving, Howard; Alaggia, Ramona; Chau, Shirley B. Y.; Benjamin, Michael
Examined the concept of ethnic identity through the experience of Canada's satellite children (children of ethnically Chinese immigrants to North America who have returned to their country of origin after immigration). Interviews with 68 adolescent satellite children highlighted multiple ways of ethnic negotiation, ranging from an essentialist…
Wright, Margaret O'Dougherty; Littleford, Linh Nguyen
Factors affecting ethnic identity and other group orientation were assessed in 115 college students from 5 ethnic groups. Ethnic group self-identification, negative and positive interracial experiences, perceptions of racial bias, social support, just-world beliefs, and psychological distress were each associated with various components of ethnic…
Evans, Alexandra; Seth, Jennifer Greenberg; Smith, Shanna; Harris, Karol Kaye; Loyo, Jennifer; Spaulding, Carol; Van Eck, Mary; Gottlieb, Nell
The purpose of this study was to examine differences in parental feeding practices according to ethnicity/race, household income, parent education level, acculturation (for Hispanic participants only), and participation in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program among parents living in a southern state in the United States. For this cross-sectional study, parents of children ages 1-5 years living throughout Texas were recruited through random digit dialing with screening questions during Fall 2006. Eligible parents who agreed to participate completed the Preschooler Feeding Questionnaire (PFQ) and a demographic questionnaire over the phone in either English or Spanish. The PFQ included five subscales: child overeating concerns, child underweight concerns, difficulty with picky eating, using food to calm, and pushing child to eat. Demographic questions assessed ethnicity/race, household income, parent education level, acculturation, and WIC participation. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), with the demographic variables as predictors, was used to predict the five PFQ subscales. Complete data were obtained from 721 parents, 50% of whom were Hispanic. Significant differences for the PFQ subscales were noted for ethnicity/race, acculturation, and income level. Spanish-speaking Hispanic participants were significantly more worried about their child being underweight than English-speaking Hispanic participants. High-income non-WIC respondents were more likely to report that they have difficulty with picky eaters compared to WIC respondents. Spanish-speaking Hispanics and Black respondents were more likely than English-speaking Hispanics to use food to calm the child. Health practitioners need to be aware of differences in parental feeding practices and concerns among parents of diverse demographic backgrounds. Results from this study can be used to tailor health programs that promote healthy feeding practices among
Schwartz, Seth J; Syed, Moin; Yip, Tiffany; Knight, George P; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Rivas-Drake, Deborah; Lee, Richard M
This article takes stock of research methods employed in the study of racial and ethnic identity with ethnic minority populations. The article is presented in three parts. The first section reviews theories, conceptualizations, and measurement of ethnic and racial identity (ERI) development. The second section reviews theories, conceptualizations, and measurement of ERI content. The final section reviews key methodological and analytic principles that are important to consider for both ERI development and content. The article concludes with suggestions for future research addressing key methodological limitations when studying ERI. PMID:24490892
Rogers, Leoandra Onnie; Zosuls, Kristina M; Halim, May Ling; Ruble, Diane; Hughes, Diane; Fuligni, Andrew
Social identity, including identification with one's ethnic group, is an important aspect of social development. However, little is known about the subjective meaning associated with social group memberships, particularly during middle childhood. Using second- and fourth-graders responses to an open-ended question, we explored the meaning of ethnic identity with a sample of Chinese, Dominican, Russian, White, and Black American children. Analyses revealed that middle childhood is an active period for meaning making as children described the ethnic identity to include ideas such as language, physical appearance, pride, relative social position, and culture. While there were few differences in the ethnic identity meaning responses of second- and fourth-grade children, the meaning of ethnic identity varied considerably across the ethnic groups underscoring how the unique features and experiences of different ethnic groups shapes the subjective meaning of ethnic identity. These findings align with prior research on the meaning of ethnic identity among adults and adolescents and offer insight for future research regarding the conceptualization and measurement of the meaning of social group membership. PMID:22506814
Street, Jalika; Harris-Britt, April; Walker-Barnes, Chanequa
Ethnic identity has been linked to a number of healthy psychological outcomes for African American adolescents. The levels of conflict and cohesion in the family environment have also been found to be predictive of adolescent mental health. This study examined whether the ethnic identity and levels of conflict and cohesion in the family…
Gu, Mingyue; Patkin, John
This article investigates the language attitudes, language practices and identity construction of a group of ethnic minority students in a secondary school in Hong Kong. Drawing on data from focus group and individual interviews, this research shows that the ethnic minority students negotiate and contest their heritage identity by utilizing their…
Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Quintana, Stephen M.; Lee, Richard M.; Cross, William E., Jr.; Rivas-Drake, Deborah; Schwartz, Seth J.; Syed, Moin; Yip, Tiffany; Seaton, Eleanor
Although ethnic and racial identity (ERI) are central to the normative development of youth of color, there have been few efforts to bring scholars together to discuss the theoretical complexities of these constructs and provide a synthesis of existing work. The Ethnic and Racial Identity in the 21st Century Study Group was assembled for this…
Pierce, Walter J.; Singleton, Sharron M.; Hudson, Rhonda E.
This article explores the difference between ethnic identity scores for African-descended MSW students who are native to this country, who are first generation born of immigrant parents, and who are foreign-born Black immigrants. The research further explores whether ethnic identity is associated with the students' commitment to work with their…
Kenyon, DenYelle Baete; Carter, Jessica S.
Limited research has examined how ethnic identity and sense of community may be associated with psychological well-being in American Indian adolescents. Via survey data, we examined the relationships among ethnic identity, sense of community, psychosomatic symptoms, positive affect, and feelings of depression with students from a tribal high…
Baolian Qin, Desiree
In the last two decades, a corpus of research has been conducted to understand immigrant adolescent ethnic identity formation. However, few studies have examined the intersection of gender and ethnic identity. In this paper, drawing on mainly qualitative data collected on 72 Chinese immigrant adolescents, I present findings on the gendered…
Kim Park, Irene J.
The purpose of the present study was to test a socialization model in which ethnic identity mediated the relationship between 3 domains of family processes and 1 key aspect of enculturation: native language fluency. Data from a sample of 112 Korean American adolescents living in the Midwest revealed that adolescent ethnic identity partially…
Identity development is a dynamic process which involves reconciling multiple messages. While ethnic minority adolescents' development is affected profoundly by discrimination, positive racial/ethnic encounters can also transform one's identity. Questionnaire data were gathered from 122 tenth-grade Mexican Americans in a low-performing school that…
Turnage, Barbara F.
This study of 105 senior high school Southern African American adolescent females examined the relationship between global self-esteem, appearance evaluation (body image), and ethnic identity. As predicted, the relationship between global self-esteem, appearance evaluation (r = 0.46, p less than 0.001), and ethnic identity (r = 40, p less than…
Schwartz, Seth J.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Weisskirch, Robert S.; Rodriguez, Liliana
Identity exploration has often been associated with maladaptive aspects of psychosocial functioning such as anxiety and depression. It is not known, however, whether maladaptive psychosocial functioning is related to both personal and ethnic identity exploration. In the present study, we examined the relationships of personal and ethnic identity…
Guardia, Juan R.; Evans, Nancy J.
Higher education scholars have examined Latino/a student experiences and ethnic identity, yet there is no research describing the ethnic identity development of Latino fraternity members at a Hispanic Serving Institution (HSI). The purpose of this phenomenological study was to understand how membership in a Latino fraternity at an HSI enhanced…
Knight, George P.; Losoya, Sandra H.; Cho, Young Il; Chassin, Laurie; Williams, Joanna Lee; Cota-Robles, Sonia
We examined the association of joint trajectories of ethnic identity and criminal offending to psychosocial maturity, gang membership, and Mexican American affiliation among 300 Mexican American male juvenile offenders from ages 14 to 22. There were two low-offending groups: one was the highest in ethnic identity and changing slightly with age and…
Bernal, Martha E., Ed.; Knight, George P., Ed.
This book contains 14 research papers and reviews on the development of ethnic identity in childhood and adolescence and the transmission of ethnic identity within families and across family generations. The research focuses on Hispanic-Americans, particularly Mexican-Americans; some studies include Blacks, American Indians, Asian-Americans, and…
Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Vargas-Chanes, Delfino; Garcia, Cristal D.; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda
The current longitudinal study tested the premise that Latino adolescents' (N = 323) proactive coping with discrimination would mediate the relationship between ethnic identity and self-esteem. Each component of ethnic identity (i.e., exploration, resolution, and affirmation) was positively associated with concurrent assessments of adolescents'…
Duffy, Ryan D.; Klingaman, Elizabeth A.
The current study explored the relation of ethnic identity achievement and career development progress among a sample of 2,432 first-year college students who completed the Career Decision Profile and Phinney's Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure. Among students of color, correlational analyses revealed a series of statistically significant, but…
Johnson, Jennifer M.; Lambie, Glenn W.
This study examined a multicultural group experience on students' ("N"= 94) ethnic identity development and social-cognitive maturity. Although no differences were identified between treatment and comparison group participants, group therapeutic factors scores were predictive of ethnic identity development and social-cognitive…
Phinney, Jean S.; Ong, Anthony D.
In this article, the authors examine the conceptualization and measurement of ethnic identity as a multidimensional, dynamic construct that develops over time through a process of exploration and commitment. The authors discuss the components of ethnic identity that have been studied and the theoretical background for a developmental model of…
Maramba, Dina C.; Velasquez, Patrick
This qualitative research study examined ethnic identity development among underrepresented students of color at a selective, research intensive, predominantly White university. The objective focused on influences of the campus experience on students' ethnic identity development when they entered and as they prepared to graduate from college.…
Dandy, Justine; Durkin, Kevin; McEvoy, Peter; Barber, Bonnie L.; Houghton, Stephen
The present study investigated the reliability and factor structure of scores on a 12-item version of Phinney's multigroup ethnic identity measure with an Australian sample from diverse cultural backgrounds. Participants were 485 students aged between 10 and 15 years. The results generally supported the reliability of the ethnic identity scale…
Kiang, Lisa; Fuligni, Andrew J.
Ninth graders (N = 679; 50% male, 50% female) from Latin American (41%), Asian (38%), and European (21%) backgrounds reported on their ethnic identity and family attitudes and relationships. Adolescents also completed daily checklists of family interactions over a two-week period. Results indicated that ethnic identity, measured through…
Examines social practices of ethnic identity among 60 students in 2 groups, Puerto Rican migrants' descendants (PRMD) and Puerto Ricans, following face-to-face experiences in Puerto Rico. Results indicate PRMD base ethnic identity on motivational (thinking, feeling) criteria; islanders on behavior. Reveals contrast- and resentment-based social…
Joseph, Alex Clement
This study explored the relationship between ethnic identity, emotional empathy, multicultural sensitivity and dimensions of burnout among schoolteachers working with students from diverse ethnic groups. Based on the self-stereotyping principles and tendencies for ingroup favoritism of social identity approaches, it was hypothesized that…
Chung, Y. Barry; Katayama, Motoni
Ethnic and sexual identity development and the interaction of the two identities among Asian-American lesbian and gay adolescents are discussed. Counseling implications are addressed. A theory of parallel and interactive processes of ethnic and social development among Asian-American lesbian and gay adolescents is proposed. Research in the area is…
Kim, Su Yeong; Chao, Ruth K.
The assumption that heritage language fluency is an essential component of ethnic identity, and that both factors are important predictors of school effort, was tested across two ethnic groups spanning multiple generations of immigrants. The sample consisted of 207 immigrant Chinese (first- and second-generation) and 354 Mexican (first-, second-, and third-generation) adolescents. The findings demonstrate that heritage language fluency is an important component of ethnic identity for second-generation Mexican adolescents, but not for second-generation Chinese adolescents. Thus, for this latter group, it may not be appropriate to use identity measures which assess heritage language fluency as a part of the general dimension of ethnic identity. The findings also show that higher reading and writing skills in Spanish are significant predictors of school effort for all three generations of Mexican adolescents; in addition, higher ethnic identity exploration is related to the school effort of second generation Mexican adolescents. PMID:19209978
Ethnic identity has been found to relate to many positive psychological outcomes, such as self-esteem and well-being, but little has been said about negative social outcomes such as aggression, nor have these relations been tested across time. The current study examined the concurrent and longitudinal relations between ethnic identity and peer nominated aggression at two time points with a two-year interval (8th and 10th grades) in a sample of 125 Israeli adolescents with an immigration background (56.8% girls). As hypothesized, ethnic identity related negatively to aggression at both T1 and T2. In addition, ethnic identity predicted a relative decrease in future aggression. Given these findings, the article suggests the importance of strengthening ethnic identity through interventions and educational programs. PMID:26113492
Britain is experiencing the ageing of a large number of minority ethnic groups for the first time in its history, due to the post-war migration of people from the Caribbean and the Indian subcontinent. Stereotypes about a high level of provision of informal caregiving among minority ethnic groups are common in Britain, as in the US, despite quantitative studies refuting this assumption. This paper reports on a qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews with older people from five different ethnic groups about their conceptualisation of their ethnic identity, and their attributions of motivations of caregiving within their own ethnic group and in other groups. It is argued that ethnic identity becomes salient after migration and becoming a part of an ethnic minority group in the new country. Therefore, White British people who have never migrated do not have a great sense of ethnic identity. Further, a strong sense of ethnic identity is linked with identifying with the collective rather than the individual, which explains why the White British participants gave an individualist account of their motivations for informal care, whereas the minority ethnic participants gave a collectivist account of their motivations of care. Crucially, members of all ethnic groups were providing or receiving informal care, so it was the attribution and not the behaviour which differed. PMID:22869345
Knight, George P.; And Others
Interviews with 59 Mexican-American children (aged 9-12) and their mothers, plus a resource allocation task completed by the children, revealed that mothers with more ethnic knowledge and ethnic preferences had children with stronger ethnic identity and that children with stronger ethnic identity displayed greater concern for peers' resources and…
Brownstein, Henry H.; And Others
An evaluation of a student sourcebook which contains quotations of 51 individuals from varying ethnic backgrounds and with varying degrees of ethnicity is reported. The primary objective of the source book is to illustrate that people who identify with ethnic groups are individuals and not merely members of the group. Separate sections of the…
In "Educations in Ethnic Violence", Matthew Lange explores the effects education has on ethnic violence. Lange contradicts the widely-held belief that education promotes peace and tolerance. Rather, Lange finds that education commonly contributes to aggression, especially in environments with ethnic divisions, limited resources, and ineffective…
Homma, Yuko; Wong, Sabrina T; Zumbo, Bruno D; Saewyc, Elizabeth M
Despite the large number of East Asian youth in Canada, little is known about their health and risk behaviors. We examined the relationship between ethnic identity and sexual initiation among East Asians. This secondary analysis of a population-based survey selected 4,311 students in 7-12th grades who described themselves as East Asian (e.g., Chinese, Japanese, Korean). Gender-stratified logistic regression analyses examined whether ethnic identity was associated with sexual initiation, controlling for age, living situation, and cultural exposure. Boys with stronger commitment to their ethnic groups were less likely to have ever had sexual intercourse (aOR 0.80). Girls with higher levels of ethnic identity exploration were less likely to report sexual initiation (aOR 0.71). Stronger ethnic identity was associated with not having sexual intercourse among East Asian adolescents. The findings suggest the need to consider ethnocultural factors in future research and practice. PMID:25204622
Dimitrova, Radosveta; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Trost, Kari
This study investigates intergeneration transmission of ethnic identity as a resource for life satisfaction of Roma adolescents and their parents. Historically, Roma represent the largest ethnic minority in Europe. They have been exposed to severe discrimination, social exclusion, and poverty. Therefore, identifying resources for their life satisfaction is theoretically and practically important. The present study included 1093 participants, of which there were 171 Roma adolescents (age: M = 14.96 years, SD = 1.85), 155 mothers (age: M = 36.16 years, SD = 5.77) and 123 fathers (age: M = 39.68 years, SD = 6.06). Further, a comparison group of 248 mainstream adolescents with their mothers (n = 221) and fathers (n = 175) was also included in the study. Adolescents and their parents provided data on ethnic identity (MEIM; Phinney, 1992) and life satisfaction (SWLS; Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985). Results indicated that Roma youth were lower on endorsement of ethnic identity and average on life satisfaction compared to their mainstream peers. A structural equation model showed that ethnic identity was a positive predictor of life satisfaction for both adolescents and their Roma parents. Furthermore, parents' ethnic identity was a predictor of adolescent life satisfaction. We concluded that for Roma youth and their parents, ethnic identity represents a salient source for life satisfaction and an intergenerational continuity of identity and life satisfaction exists. PMID:26547146
This article reviews the studies concerning ethnic identity construction in the schooling context. Next, it outlines a conceptual framework about theories of ethnic identity. Finally, it demonstrates a case study of ethnic identity construction of Neidi Tibet School with data collection and analysis. (Contains 1 note, 2 tables, and 2 figures.)
Holmes, Khiela J.; Lochman, John E.
The current study tested models to determine the extent to which self-worth and social goals mediate the influence of ethnic identity on aggression among aggressive European and African American preadolescents. Ethnic identity emerged as important for both groups, but in different ways. Different patterns of influence of ethnic identity and of…
Birman, Dina; Persky, Irena; Chan, Wing Yi
The current paper explores the salience and impact of ethnic and national identities for immigrants that are negotiating more than two cultures. Specifically, we were interested in the ways in which Jewish immigrant adolescents from the former Soviet Union integrate their Russian, Jewish, and American identities, and to what extent identification…
Negy, Charles; Shreve, Tara L.; Jensen, Bernard J.; Uddin, Nizam
Examines the competing theories of social identity theory (SIT) and multicultural theory to determine if support would be found for either theory. Consistent with SIT, levels of ethnic identity correlated significantly with levels of ethnocentrism for Whites and Hispanics but not for African Americans. Implications of the findings are discussed.…
Mezzich, Juan E; Ruiperez, Maria A; Yoon, Gihyun; Liu, Jason; Zapata-Vega, Maria I
Cultural identity is central to health. Acculturation may be formulated with a bicultural model, assessing in parallel the degree of identification with both the original and the host culture. The Cortes, Rogler and Malgady Bicultural Scale (CRM-BS) is composed of two subscales: "original" culture and "mainstream-United States" (US) culture. It was modified into three ethnic versions: Latino, Korean and Chinese. Validation of the CRM-BS was conducted using health professionals and psychiatric patients from the above three ethnic groups and a control sample of mainstream-US (main-US) health professionals in New York City (n = 394). Mean time of completion was 3.7 min and 73% judged it to be easy to use. Strong test-retest reliability correlation coefficients were found (original culture, 0.78; mainstream-US, 0.82). The internal consistency was documented by high Cronbach's alpha values (original culture, 0.88; mainstream-US, 0.80). Factorial analysis revealed two factors, the first one involving all the items of the original culture and the second all of the mainstream-US items. Concerning its discriminant validity, non-main-US subjects scored significantly higher than main-US subjects on the original culture subscale, and vice versa. Construct validity was assessed comparing intergenerational mean scores on both subscales; as generations become older, mean scores for the original culture decreased, while those for the "host" culture increased. Results for each specific ethnic version are also presented. Cutoff scores were calculated to categorize the involvement with the original culture or the host culture, both of them, or neither. PMID:19543817
Lee, Debbiesiu L.; Ahn, Soyeon
This meta-analysis synthesized the results of 27 studies examining the relations of racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization to discrimination-distress for Black Americans. The purpose was to uncover which constructs connected to racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization most strongly correlate with racial…
Kiang, Lisa; Witkow, Melissa R.; Champagne, Mariette C.
Identity development is a highly salient task for adolescents, especially those from immigrant backgrounds, yet longitudinal research that tracks simultaneous change in ethnic identity and American identity over time has been limited. With a focus on 177 Asian American adolescents recruited from an emerging immigrant community, in the current…
Ispa, Jean M; Fine, Mark A; Halgunseth, Linda C; Harper, Scott; Robinson, JoAnn; Boyce, Lisa; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Brady-Smith, Christy
The present study investigated the extent to which maternal intrusiveness and warmth during play, observed in 579 European American, 412 African American, and 110 more and 131 less acculturated Mexican American low-income families when children were approximately 15 months old, predicted 3 dimensions of the mother-toddler relationship 10 months later. Intrusiveness predicted increases in later child negativity in all 4 groups. Among African Americans only, this association was moderated by maternal warmth. Intrusiveness predicted negative change in child engagement with mothers only in European American families. Finally, near-significant trends suggested that intrusiveness predicted later decreased dyadic mutuality in European American and more acculturated Mexican American families, but not in African American or less acculturated Mexican American families. PMID:15566369
Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Negi, Nalini Junko; Partiali, Rachel Negar; Creswell, John W.
This phenomenological study elucidates the identity development processes of 12 second-generation adult Asian Indian Americans. The results identify salient sociocultural factors and multidimensional processes of racial and ethnic identity development. Discrimination, parental, and community factors seemed to play a salient role in influencing participants’ racial and ethnic identity development. The emergent Asian Indian American racial and ethnic identity model provides a contextualized overview of key developmental periods and turning points within the process of identity development. PMID:25298617
Schweigman, Kurt; Soto, Claradina; Wright, Serena; Unger, Jennifer
This study analyzed data from a large statewide sample of Native American adolescents throughout California to determine whether participation in cultural practices was associated with stronger ethnic identity. The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) scale was used to measure the ethnic identity of 945 Native American adolescents (416 male, 529 female) aged 13 - 19 across California. Respondents who participated in cultural activities including pow-wows, sweat lodge, drum group and roundhouse dance reported significantly higher Native American ethnic identity than their counterparts who did not take part in cultural activities. The association between cultural activities and ethnic identity was only significant among urban youth and not among reservation youth. Higher grades in school were associated with ethnic identity among females but not among males. Findings from this study show a strong association between cultural activities and traditional practices with tribal enculturation among Native American youth in California. Cultural-based practices to enhance Native identity could be useful to improve mental and behavioral health among Native American youth. PMID:22400467
Wilkerson, J. Michael; Brooks, Ann K.; Ross, Michael W.
How collegiate gay and bisexual men acquire a sociosexual identity appears to affect their sexual health. Analysis of interview data from 25 self-identified collegiate gay or bisexual men resulted in the development of a collective sexual script for men acquiring a sociosexual identity. Changes in an individual's acting out of a cultural scenario…
Reitz, Anne K; Motti-Stefanidi, Frosso; Asendorpf, Jens B
Immigrant youth differ in their adaptation, which is judged on the basis of how well they deal with developmental and acculturative tasks. While immigrant adolescents are faced with the realities of 2 different cultures, they also have to master age-salient tasks, such as self-efficacy and identity development. To get a better insight into the interplay of developmental and acculturative tasks and their relationship with family functioning, we used 3-wave longitudinal data over a 2-year period from 13-year-old immigrant students (N = 609) in Athens, Greece. Cross-lagged models revealed that family functioning and acculturation were resources for the mastery of developmental tasks. Involvement in the host culture prospectively predicted self-efficacy beliefs, and involvement in the ethnic culture prospectively predicted ethnic identity. These effects increased over time. Family functioning prospectively predicted self-efficacy and ethnic identity. These effects decreased over time. The findings suggest that a well-functioning family, for early adolescents, and being involved in the host culture and in ethnic cultures, for middle adolescents, are particularly important resources to master the tasks of their developmental period. Our findings underscore the importance of developmentally sensitive approaches and the need to account for acculturative challenges in order to understand individual differences in immigrant youth adaptation. PMID:23937380
Explores processes governing the ethnic identification of second and later generations of Mexican immigrant descendants using the Latino National Political Survey. Ethnic identification arises directly from cultural continuity and lower levels of assimilation, experiences with ethnic competition, and a combination of both processes. Experiences…
Shuttlesworth, Mary E; Zotter, Deanne
The influential roles of culture and ethnic identity are frequently cited in developing disordered eating and body dissatisfaction, constituting both protective and risk factors. For African American women, strongly identifying with African American cultural beauty ideals may protect against disordered eating to lose weight, but may actually increase risk in development of disordered eating directed at weight gain, such as binge eating. This study compares African American and Caucasian women on disordered eating measures, positing that African American women show greater risk for binge eating due to the impact of ethnic identity on body dissatisfaction. Findings indicate low levels of ethnic identity represent a risk factor for African American women, increasing the likelihood of showing greater binge eating and bulimic pathology. In Caucasian women, high levels of ethnic identity constitute a risk factor, leading to higher levels of both binge eating and global eating pathology. Implications for prevention and treatment are discussed. PMID:22073427
Brown, Christia Spears; Chu, Hui
This study examined ethnic identity, perceptions of discrimination, and academic attitudes and performance of primarily first- and second-generation Mexican immigrant children living in a predominantly White community (N=204, 19 schools, mean age=9years). The study also examined schools' promotion of multiculturalism and teachers' attitudes about the value of diversity in predicting immigrant youth's attitudes and experiences. Results indicated that Latino immigrant children in this White community held positive and important ethnic identities and perceived low overall rates of discrimination. As expected, however, school and teacher characteristics were important in predicting children's perceptions of discrimination and ethnic identity, and moderated whether perceptions of discrimination and ethnic identity were related to attitudes about school and academic performance. PMID:22966916
The data drawn from interviews with 55 second-generation Iranian American adolescents revealed that pride in ancient Persian culture, the adolescents' physical characteristics, perceived stereotypes, and community point of reference all combined to affect ethnic identity as well as to reinforce a sense of ethnic loyalty. The contextual factors…
Lee, Richard M.
Ethnic identity and other-group orientation were examined as possible moderators and mediators on the effects of personal ethnic discrimination and minority group discrimination in 2 studies of Asian Americans. Results demonstrated that discrimination, particularly when directed personally at an individual, correlated negatively with psychological…
Cislo, Andrew M.
A growing literature suggests that stronger ethnic identity is associated with higher levels of self-esteem among Hispanic Americans. However, most studies employ a panethnic "Hispanic" category or focus on one ethnic group, leaving open the question of how different Hispanic groups compare in this association. In the framework of social identity…
For many centuries, "being a Jew" was equivalent to "performing the ceremonial laws of Judaism." Thus, ethnic and confessional principles coincided and reinforced the cultural identity of Jewry as an entity. Strong self-identification and in-group solidarity supported the high "ethnic temperature" of this group. The…
Research in general has shown a beneficial effect of ethnic identity on adoptees' psychological well-being. However, studies also indicate that overemphasis on birth culture and racial/ethnic differences may negatively impact adoptees' overall adjustment. Using Rojewski's (2005) and Brodzinsky's (1987) propositions of a balanced approach to…
Kiang, Lisa; Yip, Tiffany; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda; Witkow, Melissa; Fuligni, Andrew J.
Protective effects of ethnic identity on daily psychological well-being were examined in a sample of 415 ninth graders from Mexican and Chinese backgrounds. Utilizing daily diary assessments and multilevel modeling, adolescents with a greater regard for their ethnic group exhibited greater levels of daily happiness and less daily anxiety averaged…
Cuca, Janet Melei
Career plans, based on responses to the Association of American Medical Colleges' first annual graduation questionnaire concerning the racial/ethnic identity of 1978 U.S. medical graduates, are reported. The data show that the six racial/ethnic groups follow similar general trends, though group differences do appear. (MLW)
Booth, Margaret Zoller; Curran, Erin M.; Frey, Christopher J.; Gerard, Jean M.; Collet, Bruce; Bartimole, Jennifer
The relationships between adolescent ethnic identity and attitudes toward school and school climate are investigated in a small, multiracial/multiethnic city in the Great Lakes region with ethnically diverse adolescents taught by primarily White teachers. The mixed methods investigation of 986 eighth through eleventh grade students during the…
Tran, Linh T.; Walter, Pierre G.
In this article, the authors discuss the ways in which Vietnam's educational policies for ethnic minorities are enacted in the bachelor of arts (BA) program in ethnic minority cultures (EMC) at the Hanoi University of Culture (HUC). Hanoi University of Culture is one of only two universities in Vietnam that offer this program. Although the BA is…
The Mexican village of Erongaricuaro, Michoacan, is both culturally and structurally mestizo. In this article a case is made for the existence of Tarascan ethnicity as a self identifying construct of the villagers. The phenomenon of ethnicity is explored from a broad anthropological (as well as from a local ethnographic) perspective. (GC)
Okagaki, Lynn; Helling, Mary Kay; Bingham, Gary E.
Sixty-seven American Indian and 96 European-American undergraduate students responded to questions about their educational and ethnic beliefs and their perceptions of their mother's and father's support for education. The American Indian participants completed some additional items regarding their ethnic beliefs and their perceptions of their…
Titzmann, Peter F.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.
This longitudinal study compared immigrant and native adolescents' expectations concerning the timing of conventional socially acceptable and oppositional less socially acceptable forms of autonomy. Based on normative development and a collectivist background among immigrants, both developmental and acculturative change was expected. The sample…
Skewes, Monica C; Blume, Arthur W
This research involves the examination of drinking motives, alcohol consequences, and ethnic identity in a sample of Native and non-Native college student drinkers in Alaska. Although more Alaska Native students are abstinent from alcohol compared to any other ethnic group, Native students who do drink experience greater alcohol consequences and dependence symptoms. Therefore, we attempted to examine the influence of ethnic identity on alcohol consequences in a diverse sample of Native and non-Native students in Alaska. Findings showed that drinking motives, as measured by the Drinking Motives Questionnaire (social, coping, enhancement, and conformity), significantly predicted alcohol consequences after controlling for frequency of monthly binge drinking. In addition, after controlling for depression, binge drinking, and drinking motives, one aspect of ethnic identity (Affirmation, Belonging, and Commitment) was significantly negatively related to alcohol consequences, whereas another aspect of ethnic identity (Ethnic Identity Search) was not. Taken together, these findings suggest that interventions for college student alcohol misuse that target Native students should be culturally grounded and focused on enhancing the Affirmation, Belonging, and Commitment to one's ethnic heritage and should address drinking motives, especially drinking to cope, as a way to reduce alcohol related harm. PMID:25536236
Aldana, Adriana; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Checkoway, Barry; Richards-Schuster, Katie
Empirical evidence shows that intergroup dialogue programs promote changes in ethnic-racial identity and racism awareness among college students. Expanding on this research, this study examines the effects of intergroup dialogues on adolescents' racial consciousness. Self-reports of 147 adolescents (13-19 years old), of various racial and ethnic…
Vera, Elizabeth M.; Vacek, Kimberly; Coyle, Laura D.; Stinson, Jennifer; Mull, Megan; Doud, Katherine; Buchheit, Christine; Gorman, Catherine; Hewitt, Amber; Keene, Chesleigh; Blackmon, Sha'kema; Langrehr, Kimberly J.
This study explored relations between culturally relevant stressors (i.e., urban hassles, perceived discrimination) and subjective well-being (SWB; i.e., positive/ negative affect, life satisfaction) to examine whether ethnic identity and/or coping strategies would serve as moderators of the relations between stress and SWB for 157 urban, ethnic…
Smith, Timothy B; Silva, Lynda
This article summarizes research examining the relationship between the constructs of ethnic identity and personal well-being among people of color in North America. Data from 184 studies analyzed with random effects models yielded an omnibus effect size of r = .17, suggesting a modest relationship between the 2 constructs. The relationship was somewhat stronger among adolescents and young adults than among adults over age 40. No differences were observed across participant race, gender, or socioeconomic status, which findings support the general relevance of ethnic identity across people of color. Studies correlating ethnic identity with self-esteem and positive well-being yielded average effect sizes twice as large as those from studies correlating ethnic identity with personal distress or mental health symptoms. Ethnic identity was thus more strongly related to positive well-being than to compromised well-being. Overall, the corpus of research reviewed consisted of correlational designs; limited scholarship has addressed causal mechanisms, mediating factors, or psychological functions of ethnic identity across different social contexts. PMID:21171745
Negy, Charles; Shreve, Tara L; Jensen, Bernard J; Uddin, Nizam
Social identity theory (SIT) proposes that the more strongly individuals identify with their group, the less favorable attitudes they hold toward dissimilar groups. In contrast, multicultural theory proposes that affirmation toward one's group--particularly with respect to ethnicity--should correspond with higher levels of acceptance toward dissimilar groups. These competing theories were examined with 486 non-Hispanic White, African American, and Hispanic/Latino university students to determine if support would be found for either theory. Consistent with SIT, levels of ethnic identity correlated significantly with levels of ethnocentrism for Whites and Hispanics but not for African Americans. African Americans obtained significantly higher ethnic identity and self-esteem scores than the other 2 groups. Implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:14609364
Rivas-Drake, Deborah; Seaton, Eleanor K; Markstrom, Carol; Quintana, Stephen; Syed, Moin; Lee, Richard M; Schwartz, Seth J; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; French, Sabine; Yip, Tiffany
The construction of an ethnic or racial identity is considered an important developmental milestone for youth of color. This review summarizes research on links between ethnic and racial identity (ERI) with psychosocial, academic, and health risk outcomes among ethnic minority adolescents. With notable exceptions, aspects of ERI are generally associated with adaptive outcomes. ERI are generally beneficial for African American adolescents' adjustment across all three domains, whereas the evidence is somewhat mixed for Latino and American Indian youth. There is a dearth of research for academic and health risk outcomes among Asian American and Pacific Islander adolescents. The review concludes with suggestions for future research on ERI among minority youth. PMID:24490891
Bartolome, Lilia I.; Macedo, Donaldo P.
Analysis of issues and messages in the mass media and news events demonstrates the dynamics of ethnic and racial relations in the United States. The politics of racism are an unacknowledged part of mainstream ideology, thought, and action. (SK)
Kodama, Corinne M.; Ebreo, Angela
This study explored the relationship between Asian American students' choices of racial and ethnic identity labels, their attitudes toward racial and ethnic issues, and involvement in campus organizations. The findings suggest complex relationships between racial and ethnic self-identification and attitudes for some identity groups and no…
Park, Linda S
This paper details a study on ethnic identity in midlife, illuminating identity formation as a complex life course phenomenon. The study addresses the importance of ethnic identity in understanding the experiences of racial and ethnic Baby Boomers as both recipients of care and as caregivers to their aging parents (first generation immigrants). Using a case study of second-generation Korean American Baby Boomers, the primary aims of this study are: (a) to explore how the relationship between age and race/ethnicity influences identity formation, and (b) how contexts influence ethnic identity formation. Findings reveal that cumulative experiences over earlier developmental years resulted in resolutions to appreciate their ethnic identity at midlife. Increasing racial and ethnic diversity in the U.S., combined with the large number of aging Baby Boomers, necessitate recognition of the cultural and racial differences within the Baby Boomer generation. PMID:25370357
Arbona, Consuelo; Jimenez, Carolina
The main purpose of the study was to examine among Latino/a college students the extent to which dimensions of minority stress related to ethnic group membership (college climate, academic achievement, ethnic discrimination, and intra-ethnic pressure stress) were uniquely associated with depression symptoms when general college stress was taken into account. The study also examined if ethnic identity moderated the relation of minority stress to depression symptoms. Participants were 309 Latino/a undergraduate students (53% women; 69% of Mexican descent) enrolled in a diverse, major research, urban, public university in the southwestern United States. Findings revealed that minority stress in the areas of academic concerns and negative perceptions of the campus climate contributed unique variance to depression symptoms when controlling for gender and students' general college stress. Ethnic identity did not moderate the relation of any of the minority stress dimensions to depression. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:24188654
Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Trost, Kari; Lorente, Carolyn Cass; Mansoory, Shahram
The chapter describes empirical evidence about identity development in Swedish adolescents and emerging adults and highlights cultural and contextual influences that may be specific to coming of age in Sweden. Broad trends in identity options are evident in the lives of many youth living in Sweden. Although research on identity and diversity is in…
In the context of identity politics, identity has been perceived as something substantial, inborn and essential--an unchangeable quality of self that waits to be explored and expressed. Its dynamic aspect could be nurtured through enlightenment and experience as one grows up. In this essay, the author wants to explore the dilemma that identity as…
Hughes, Diane; Hagelskamp, Carolin; Way, Niobe; Foust, Monica D.
The current study examined relationships between adolescents' and mothers' reports of ethnic-racial socialization and adolescents' ethnic-racial identity. The sample included 170 sixth graders (49% boys, 51% girls) and their mothers, all of whom identified as Black, Puerto Rican, Dominican, or Chinese. Two dimensions of ethnic-racial socialization…
Gray, Calonie M. K.; Montgomery, Marilyn J.
Objectives: This study examined the links between maltreatment, posttraumatic stress symptoms, ethnicity-specific factors (i.e., perceived discrimination, ethnic identity, and ethnic orientation), and alcohol and/or other drug (AOD) problems among adolescent girls. Methods: These relations were examined using archived data from a community sample…
Colleran, Kevin J.; Gurak, Douglas; Kritz, Mary
Two articles are presented in this research bulletin. The first, entitled "Acculturation in Puerto Rican Families," assesses the degree of acculturation of 100 sets of married children of 100 Puerto Rican families living in New York City. Attitudes toward language, identity, and values are used as criteria. The specific values the study…
Hunt, Geoffrey; Moloney, Molly; Evans, Kristin
This article analyzes the construction of ethnic identity in the narratives of 100 young Asian Americans in a dance club/rave scene. Authors examine how illicit drug use and other consuming practices shape their understanding of Asian American identities, finding three distinct patterns. The first presents a disjuncture between Asian American…
Knifsend, Casey A.; Juvonen, Jaana
This study investigated contextual antecedents (i.e., cross-ethnic peers and friends) and correlates (i.e., intergroup attitudes) of social identity complexity in seventh grade. Social identity complexity refers to the perceived overlap among social groups with which youth identify. Identifying mostly with out-of-school sports, religious…