Science.gov

Sample records for accumulation solid partitioning

  1. Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.

    2012-09-26

    The objective of Solids Accumulation activities was to perform scaled testing to understand the behavior of remaining solids in a Double Shell Tank (DST), specifically AW-105, at Hanford during multiple fill, mix, and transfer operations. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles containing plutonium could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste staging tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids: Gibbsite, Zirconia, Sand, and Stainless Steel, with stainless steel particles representing the heavier particles, e.g., plutonium, and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to mix most of the solids while the simulant was pumped out. Subsequently, the volume and shape of the mounds of residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for heavier particles were measured. Several techniques were developed and equipment designed to accomplish the measurements needed and they included: 1. Magnetic particle separator to remove simulant stainless steel solids. A device was designed and built to capture these solids, which represent the heavier solids during a waste transfer from a staging tank. 2. Photographic equipment to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were photographed as they were exposed at different tank waste levels to develop a composite of topographical areas. 3. Laser rangefinders to determine the volume of

  2. Water and nitrogen management effects on biomass accumulation and partitioning in two potato cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biomass accumulation and partitioning into different plant parts is a dynamic process during the plant growing period, which is influenced by crop management and climate factors. Adequate knowledge of biomass partitioning is important to manage the crops to gain maximum partitioning of assimilates i...

  3. Partition function of the elliptic solid-on-solid model as a single determinant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galleas, W.

    2016-07-01

    In this Rapid Communication we express the partition function of the integrable elliptic solid-on-solid model with domain-wall boundary conditions as a single determinant. This representation appears naturally as the solution of a system of functional equations governing the model's partition function.

  4. Test Plan - Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.; Fowley, M. D.

    2012-05-10

    This plan documents the highlights of the Solids Accumulations Scouting Studies test; a project, from Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), that began on February 1, 2012. During the last 12 weeks considerable progress has been made to design and plan methods that will be used to estimate the concentration and distribution of heavy fissile solids in accumulated solids in the Hanford double-shell tank (DST) 241-AW-105 (AW-105), which is the primary goal of this task. This DST will be one of the several waste feed delivery staging tanks designated to feed the Pretreatment Facility (PTF) of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Note that over the length of the waste feed delivery mission AW-105 is currently identified as having the most fill empty cycles of any DST feed tanks, which is the reason for modeling this particular tank. At SRNL an existing test facility, the Mixing Demonstration Tank, which will be modified for the present work, will use stainless steel particles in a simulant that represents Hanford waste to perform mock staging tanks transfers that will allow solids to accumulate in the tank heel. The concentration and location of the mock fissile particles will be measured in these scoping studies to produce information that will be used to better plan larger scaled tests. Included in these studies is a secondary goal of developing measurement methods to accomplish the primary goal. These methods will be evaluated for use in the larger scale experiments. Included in this plan are the several pretest activities that will validate the measurement techniques that are currently in various phases of construction. Aspects of each technique, e.g., particle separations, volume determinations, topographical mapping, and core sampling, have been tested in bench-top trials, as discussed herein, but the actual equipment to be employed during the full test will need evaluation after fabrication and integration into the test facility.

  5. The effect of solid metal composition on solid metal/ liquid metal partitioning of trace elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, N.; van Westrenen, W.

    2010-12-01

    Fundamental understanding of the partitioning behaviour of elements between different core and/or mantle phases is needed to constrain processes of planetary differentiation and evolution. The partitioning behaviour of elements between solid metal and liquid metal in the Fe-S system, of relevance to core crystallisation in planetesimals and the terrestrial planets, has been investigated by several workers [1-6], most of whom [1-5] conclude that variations in partition coefficients can be explained by variations in melt composition. However, recently Stewart et al. [6] showed that the crystal-lattice strain model commonly used to describe silicate mineral - silicate melt partitioning can be applied to partially molten metallic systems. This suggests the structure of the solid metal also plays a role in determining solid metal / molten metal partitioning. Here, we investigate the effect of the structure of the solid metal in the Fe-S system on solid/liquid metal partitioning by obtaining new element partitioning data at pressures between 0.5 and 3 GPa. The effect of the solid metal is isolated from pressure-temperature-melt composition effects by performing experiments at constant P and T with two Fe-S bulk compositions on either side of the eutectic composition. In addition to the effect of solid metal composition we investigate the effects of pressure and S content on trace element partitioning behaviour and the application of the lattice strain model to our results. Starting mixtures were doped with several hundred ppm levels of trace elements Ni, Co, W, Mo, V, Nb, Ta, Sn, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Mn, P, Ge,. Experiments were performed using a QUICKPress piston cylinder apparatus at the VU University, Amsterdam using alumina capsules. Experiments were heated to 1073 K at pressure and allowed to sinter for a duration of 10 hours before the temperature was raised at a rate of 50 K / min to the target value. Preliminary EPMA data for a 1 GPa experiment with FeS as the solid

  6. Heavy metal partitioning in a municipal solid waste incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Sorum, L.; Fossum, M.; Hustad, J.E.; Evensen, E.

    1997-12-01

    Norway has the following priorities for management of municipal solid waste (MSW) (1) Reduce waste generation and toxic components in waste, (2) Encourage re-use, recycling and energy recovery, and (3) Secure an environmentally safe management of residues. MSW consists of household waste and waste from the service and trade industry delivered to municipal waste treatment plants or recycling schemes. In 1995, a total of 2.7 million tons of MSW (1.26 million tons of household waste and 1.44 million tons of waste from service and trade industry) was handled as follows: 68% was deposited on landfills, 18% was combusted, 13% recycled and 1% composted. Combustion of MSW is handled in five larger plants with energy recovery located in different cities in Norway. In addition, a new incinerator for MSW is planned. This incinerator will have to meet the new emission regulations given by the European Union which are more stringent than the present regulations. Hence, Norway is moving towards more stringent regulations, leading to an increased interest in the environmental aspects of MSW incinerators. During 1995 Trondheim Energy Company carried out an investigation program to examine the residues from the incinerator. Primary attention was on the heavy metals in the bottom ash, fly ash and the landfill leacate. The program was conducted in order to establish more information about characteristics of the residues and thus be able to undertake a sounder evaluation of the environmental aspects of the final treatment of these products. This program was supplementary to the emission analysis done periodically for the flue gas and drain water. The objective of this work has been to establish knowledge about the partitioning of heavy metals through the incinerator and calculate the concentrations of heavy metal in the input MSW.

  7. Reverse energy partitioning-An efficient algorithm for computing the density of states, partition functions, and free energy of solids.

    PubMed

    Do, Hainam; Wheatley, Richard J

    2016-08-28

    A robust and model free Monte Carlo simulation method is proposed to address the challenge in computing the classical density of states and partition function of solids. Starting from the minimum configurational energy, the algorithm partitions the entire energy range in the increasing energy direction ("upward") into subdivisions whose integrated density of states is known. When combined with the density of states computed from the "downward" energy partitioning approach [H. Do, J. D. Hirst, and R. J. Wheatley, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 174105 (2011)], the equilibrium thermodynamic properties can be evaluated at any temperature and in any phase. The method is illustrated in the context of the Lennard-Jones system and can readily be extended to other molecular systems and clusters for which the structures are known. PMID:27586913

  8. PARTITIONING OF TOXIC ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ON MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT SOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fundamental aspects of partitioning of toxic organic compounds on municipal wastewater treatment plant solids have been investigated. Sorption on wastewater solids was not affected by solids-to-liquid ratio. Kinetic data on sorption showed an initial rapid uptake followed by a sl...

  9. Accumulation, distribution and cellular partitioning of mercury in several halophytes of a contaminated salt marsh.

    PubMed

    Castro, Rita; Pereira, Sofia; Lima, Ana; Corticeiro, Sofia; Válega, Mónica; Pereira, Eduarda; Duarte, Armando; Figueira, Etelvina

    2009-09-01

    This work evaluates the role of a plant community in mercury (Hg) stabilization and mobility in a contaminated Portuguese salt marsh. With this aim, the distribution of Hg in below and aboveground tissues, as well as the metal partitioning between cellular fractions (soluble and insoluble) in four different species (Triglochin maritima L., Juncus maritimus Lam, Sarcocornia perennis (Miller) A.J. Scott, and Halimione portulacoides (L.) Aellen) was assessed. Mercury accumulation, translocation and compartmentation between organs and cellular fractions were related to the plant species. Results showed that the degree of Hg absorption and retention was influenced both by environmental parameters and metal translocation/partitioning strategies. Different plant species presented different allocation patterns, with marked differences between monocots (T. maritima and J. maritimus) and dicots (S. perennis, H. portulacoides). Overall, the two monocots, in particular T. maritima showed higher Hg retention in the belowground organs whereas the dicots, particularly S. perennis presented a more pronounced translocation to the aboveground tissues. Considering cellular Hg partitioning, all species showed a higher Hg binding to cell walls and membranes rather than in the soluble fractions. This strategy can be related to the high degree of tolerance observed in the studied species. These results indicate that the composition of salt marsh plant communities can be very important in dictating the Hg mobility within the marsh ecosystem and in the rest of the aquatic system as well as providing important insights to future phytoremediation approaches in Hg contaminated salt marshes. PMID:19595432

  10. Accumulation and partitioning of biomass, nutrients, and trace elements in switchgrass for phytoremediation of municipal biosolids.

    PubMed

    Jeke, Nicholson N; Zvomuya, Francis; Ross, Lisette

    2016-09-01

    In situ phytoremediation of municipal biosolids is a promising alternative to the land spreading and landfilling of biosolids from end-of-life municipal lagoons. Accumulation and partitioning of dry matter, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and trace elements were determined in aboveground biomass (AGB) and belowground biomass (BGB) of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) to determine the harvest stage that maximizes phytoextraction of contaminants from municipal biosolids. Seedlings were transplanted into 15-L plastic pails containing 3.9 kg (dry wt.) biosolids. Biomass yield components and contaminant concentrations were assessed every 14 days for up to 161 days. Logistic model fits to biomass yield data indicated no significant differences in asymptotic yield between AGB and BGB. Switchgrass partitioned significantly more N and P to AGB than to BGB. Maximum uptake occurred 86 days after transplanting (DAT) for N and 102 DAT for P. Harvesting at peak aboveground element accumulation removed 5% of N, 1.6% of P, 0.2% of Zn, 0.05% of Cd, and 0.1% of Cr initially present in the biosolids. These results will contribute toward identification of the harvest stage that will optimize contaminant uptake and enhance in situ phytoremediation of biosolids using switchgrass. PMID:26940512

  11. Equilibrium partitioning of heavy metals in Dutch field soils. 2: Prediction of metal accumulation in earthworms

    SciTech Connect

    Janssen, R.P.T.; Posthuma, L.; Baerselman, R.; Hollander, H.A. Den; Veen, R.P.M. Van; Peijnenburg, W.J.G.M.

    1997-12-01

    To evaluate the adequacy of the equilibrium partitioning concept in predicting metal bioaccumulation, a soil invertebrate species was exposed in 20 Dutch field soils with moderate metal contamination. Earthworms (Eisenia andrei) were kept in the soils for 3 weeks under laboratory conditions. Bioconcentration factors (BCFs) for six metals (Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni) and for As were calculated as the ratio of body- and solid-phase metal concentrations. Multivariate statistical analyses suggested that the BCFs for As, Cd, Cu, and Zn are governed by the same soil characteristics that determine equilibrium partition coefficients between the soil solid phase and the pore water. This suggests that uptake of metals is either direct from the pore water or indirect through an uptake route closely related to pore water. Regression equations were derived for predicting BCF values as a function of easily determinable soil characteristics. By means of internal validation it was shown that the equations obtained can be used for predictive purposes within the range of soil properties encountered in the dataset. Due to a lack of data, external validation was possible only in a qualitative sense.

  12. EXPERIMENTAL METHODS TO ESTIMATE ACCUMULATED SOLIDS IN NUCLEAR WASTE TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M.; Steeper, T.; Steimke, J.

    2012-12-10

    The Department of Energy has a large number of nuclear waste tanks. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles, e.g., plutonium containing, could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to remove most of the solids. Then the volume and shape of the residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for plutonium were measured. This paper discusses the overall test results, which indicated heavy solids only accumulate during the first few transfer cycles, along with the techniques and equipment designed and employed in the test. Those techniques include: Magnetic particle separator to remove stainless steel solids, the plutonium surrogate from a flowing stream; Magnetic wand used to manually remove stainless steel solids from samples and the tank heel; Photographs were used to determine the volume and shape of the solids mounds by developing a composite of topographical areas; Laser rangefinders to determine the volume and shape of the solids mounds; Core sampler to determine the stainless steel solids distribution within the solids mounds; Computer driven positioner that placed the laser rangefinders and the core sampler over solids mounds that accumulated on the bottom of a scaled staging tank in locations where jet velocities were low. These

  13. Solid Metal-Liquid Metal Partitioning of Pt, Re, and Os: The Effect of Carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chabot, N. L.; Campbell, A. J.; Humayun, M.

    2004-01-01

    If the measured Os isotopic ratios are a signature from the Earth's outer core, understanding them is a unique opportunity to understand more about the Earth's core. The distribution of elements between the Earth's solid inner core and the liquid outer core will depend on their solid metal-liquid metal partition coefficients (D). Solid metal-liquid metal partitioning data are loosely consistent with the needed fractionations between Re-Os and Pt-Os to account for the Os isotopic signature; D(Os) is greater than both D(Re) and D(Pt), and the magnitude of the partition coefficients are similar to those needed [e.g. 7, 8]. The pressure in the core, the composition of the core, and the crystal structure of the solid Fe alloy in the inner core may influence the specific values of the partition coefficients. It may thus be possible to use these sensitivities of the partition coefficients to gain insight into the conditions within the Earth's core. In this abstract, we focus on the compositional influence of C, a potential component of the light element in the Earth's core [9], on the partitioning behaviors of Pt, Re, and Os.

  14. Partitioning of Si and platinum group elements between liquid and solid Fe-Si alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morard, G.; Siebert, J.; Badro, J.

    2014-05-01

    Crystallization of the Earth's inner core fractionates major and minor elements between the solid and liquid metal, leaving physical and geochemical imprints on the Earth's core. For example, the density jump observed at the Inner Core Boundary (ICB) is related to the preferential partitioning of lighter elements in the liquid outer core. The fractionation of Os, Re and Pt between liquid and solid during inner core crystallization has been invoked as a process that explains the observed Os isotopic signature of mantle plume-derived lavas (Brandon et al., 1998; Brandon and Walker, 2005) in terms of core-mantle interaction. In this article we measured partitioning of Si, Os, Re and Pt between liquid and solid metal. Isobaric (2 GPa) experiments were conducted in a piston-cylinder press at temperatures between 1250 °C and 1600 °C in which an imposed thermal gradient through the sample provided solid-liquid coexistence in the Fe-Si system. We determined the narrow melting loop in the Fe-Si system using Si partitioning values and showed that order-disorder transition in the Fe-Si solid phases can have a large effect on Si partitioning. We also found constant partition coefficients (DOs, DPt, DRe) between liquid and solid metal, for Si concentrations ranging from 2 to 12 wt%. The compact structure of Fe-Si liquid alloys is compatible with incorporation of Si and platinum group elements (PGEs) elements precluding solid-liquid fractionation. Such phase diagram properties are relevant for other light elements such as S and C at high pressure and is not consistent with inter-elemental fractionation of PGEs during metal crystallization at Earth's inner core conditions. We therefore propose that the peculiar Os isotopic signature observed in plume-derived lavas is more likely explained by mantle source heterogeneity (Meibom et al., 2002; Baker and Krogh Jensen, 2004; Luguet et al., 2008).

  15. Accumulation kinetics and equilibrium partitioning coefficients for semivolatile organic pollutants in forest litter.

    PubMed

    Nizzetto, Luca; Liu, Xiang; Zhang, Gan; Komprdova, Klara; Komprda, Jiri

    2014-01-01

    Soils are important stores of environmentally cycling semivolatile organic contaminants (SVOCs) and represent relevant atmospheric secondary sources whenever environmental conditions favor re-emission. The exchange between air and soil is controlled by resistances posed by interfacial matrices such as the ubiquitously distributed vegetation litter. For the first time, this study focused on the experimental characterization of accumulation parameters for SVOCs in litter under real field conditions. The logarithm of the litter-air equilibrium partitioning coefficient ranged 6.8-8.9 and had a similar dependence on logKOA as that of plant foliage and soil data. Uptake and release rates were also KOA dependent with values (relevant for real environmental conditions) ranging 30,000-150,000 d(-1) and 0.0004-0.0134 d(-1), respectively. The overall mass transfer coefficient v controlling litter-air exchange (0.03-1.4 cm s(-1)) was consistent with previously reported data of v for foliage in forest canopies after normalization on leaf area index. Obtained data suggest that litter holds the potential for influencing atmospheric fugacity in proximity to soil, likely affecting overall exchange of SVOCs between the soil reservoir and the atmosphere. PMID:24320106

  16. Hydrochloric acid aerosol and gaseous hydrogen chloride partitioning in a cloud contaminated by solid rocket exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sebacher, D. I.; Bendura, R. J.; Wornom, D. E.

    1980-01-01

    Partitioning of hydrogen chloride between hydrochloric acid aerosol and gaseous HCl in the lower atmosphere was experimentally investigated in a solid rocket exhaust cloud diluted with humid ambient air. Airborne measurements were obtained of gaseous HCl, total HCl, relative humidity and temperature to evaluate the conditions under which aerosol formation occurs in the troposphere in the presence of hygroscopic HCl vapor. Equilibrium predictions of HCl aerosol formation accurately predict the measured HCl partitioning over a range of total HCl concentrations from 0.6 to 16 ppm.

  17. Partitioning, Persistence, and Accumulation in Digested Sludge of the Topical Antiseptic Triclocarban During Wastewater Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Heidler, Jochen; Sapkota, Amir; Halden, Rolf U.

    2009-01-01

    The topical antiseptic agent triclocarban (TCC) is a common additive in many antimicrobial household consumables, including soaps and other personal care products. Long-term usage of the mass-produced compound and a lack of understanding of its fate during sewage treatment motivated the present mass balance analysis conducted at a typical U.S. activated sludge wastewater treatment plant featuring a design capacity of 680 million liters per day. Using automated samplers and grab sampling, the mass of TCC contained in influent, effluent and digested sludge was monitored by isotope dilution liquid chromatography (tandem) mass spectrometry. The average mass of TCC (mean ± standard deviation) entering and exiting the plant in influent (6.1 ± 2.0 μg/L) and effluent (0.17 ± 0.03 μg/L) was 3,737 ± 694 and 127 ± 6 g/d, respectively, indicating an aqueous-phase removal efficiency of 97 ± 1%. Tertiary treatment by chlorination and sand filtration provided no detectable benefit to the overall removal. Due to strong sorption of TCC to wastewater particulate matter (78 ± 11% sorbed), the majority of the TCC mass was sequestered into sludge in the primary and secondary clarifiers of the plant. Anaerobic digestion for 19 days did not promote TCC transformation, resulting in an accumulation of the antiseptic compound in dewatered, digested municipal sludge to levels of 51 ± 15 mg/kg dry weight (2,815 ± 917 g/d). In addition to the biocide mass passing through the plant contained in the effluent (3 ± 1%), 76 ± 30% of the TCC input entering the plant underwent no net transformation and instead partitioned into and accumulated in municipal sludge. Based on the rate of beneficial reuse of sludge produced by this facility (95%), which exceeds the national average (63%), study results suggest that approximately three quarters of the mass of TCC disposed of by consumers in the catchment area of the plant ultimately is released into the environment by application of municipal

  18. Partitioning, persistence, and accumulation in digested sludge of the topical antiseptic triclocarban during wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Heidler, Jochen; Sapkota, Amir; Halden, Rolf U

    2006-06-01

    The topical antiseptic agent triclocarban (TCC) is a common additive in many antimicrobial household consumables, including soaps and other personal care products. Long-term usage of the mass-produced compound and a lack of understanding of its fate during sewage treatment motivated the present mass balance analysis conducted at a typical U.S. activated sludge wastewater treatment plant featuring a design capacity of 680 million liters per day. Using automated samplers and grab sampling, the mass of TCC contained in influent, effluent, and digested sludge was monitored by isotope dilution liquid chromatography (tandem) mass spectrometry. The average mass of TCC (mean +/- standard deviation) entering and exiting the plant in influent (6.1 +/- 2.0 microg/L) and effluent (0.17 +/- 0.03 microg/ L) was 3737 +/- 694 and 127 +/- 6 g/d, respectively, indicating an aqueous-phase removal efficiency of 97 +/- 1%. Tertiary treatment by chlorination and sand filtration provided no detectable benefit to the overall removal. Due to strong sorption of TCC to wastewater particulate matter (78 +/- 11% sorbed), the majority of the TCC mass was sequestered into sludge in the primary and secondary clarifiers of the plant. Anaerobic digestion for 19 days did not promote TCC transformation, resulting in an accumulation of the antiseptic compound in dewatered, digested municipal sludge to levels of 51 +/- 15 mg/kg dry weight (2815 +/- 917 g/d). In addition to the biocide mass passing through the plant contained in the effluent (3 +/- 1%), 76 +/- 30% of the TCC input entering the plant underwent no net transformation and instead partitioned into and accumulated in municipal sludge. Based on the rate of beneficial reuse of sludge produced by this facility (95%), which exceeds the national average (63%), study results suggest that approximately three-quarters of the mass of TCC disposed of by consumers in the sewershed of the plant ultimately is released into the environment by application

  19. Partitioned airs at microscale and nanoscale: thermal diffusivity in ultrahigh porosity solids of nanocellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Koh; Kobayashi, Yuri; Saito, Tsuguyuki; Isogai, Akira

    2016-02-01

    High porosity solids, such as plastic foams and aerogels, are thermally insulating. Their insulation performance strongly depends on their pore structure, which dictates the heat transfer process in the material. Understanding such a relationship is essential to realizing highly efficient thermal insulators. Herein, we compare the heat transfer properties of foams and aerogels that have very high porosities (97.3-99.7%) and an identical composition (nanocellulose). The foams feature rather closed, microscale pores formed with a thin film-like solid phase, whereas the aerogels feature nanoscale open pores formed with a nanofibrous network-like solid skeleton. Unlike the aerogel samples, the thermal diffusivity of the foam decreases considerably with a slight increase in the solid fraction. The results indicate that for suppressing the thermal diffusion of air within high porosity solids, creating microscale spaces with distinct partitions is more effective than directly blocking the free path of air molecules at the nanoscale.

  20. Partitioned airs at microscale and nanoscale: thermal diffusivity in ultrahigh porosity solids of nanocellulose

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Koh; Kobayashi, Yuri; Saito, Tsuguyuki; Isogai, Akira

    2016-01-01

    High porosity solids, such as plastic foams and aerogels, are thermally insulating. Their insulation performance strongly depends on their pore structure, which dictates the heat transfer process in the material. Understanding such a relationship is essential to realizing highly efficient thermal insulators. Herein, we compare the heat transfer properties of foams and aerogels that have very high porosities (97.3–99.7%) and an identical composition (nanocellulose). The foams feature rather closed, microscale pores formed with a thin film-like solid phase, whereas the aerogels feature nanoscale open pores formed with a nanofibrous network-like solid skeleton. Unlike the aerogel samples, the thermal diffusivity of the foam decreases considerably with a slight increase in the solid fraction. The results indicate that for suppressing the thermal diffusion of air within high porosity solids, creating microscale spaces with distinct partitions is more effective than directly blocking the free path of air molecules at the nanoscale. PMID:26830144

  1. Partitioned airs at microscale and nanoscale: thermal diffusivity in ultrahigh porosity solids of nanocellulose.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Koh; Kobayashi, Yuri; Saito, Tsuguyuki; Isogai, Akira

    2016-01-01

    High porosity solids, such as plastic foams and aerogels, are thermally insulating. Their insulation performance strongly depends on their pore structure, which dictates the heat transfer process in the material. Understanding such a relationship is essential to realizing highly efficient thermal insulators. Herein, we compare the heat transfer properties of foams and aerogels that have very high porosities (97.3-99.7%) and an identical composition (nanocellulose). The foams feature rather closed, microscale pores formed with a thin film-like solid phase, whereas the aerogels feature nanoscale open pores formed with a nanofibrous network-like solid skeleton. Unlike the aerogel samples, the thermal diffusivity of the foam decreases considerably with a slight increase in the solid fraction. The results indicate that for suppressing the thermal diffusion of air within high porosity solids, creating microscale spaces with distinct partitions is more effective than directly blocking the free path of air molecules at the nanoscale. PMID:26830144

  2. Partitioning gas tracer tests for measurement of water in municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Imhoff, Paul T; Jakubowitch, Andrew; Briening, Michele L; Chiu, Pei C

    2003-11-01

    A key component in the operation of almost all bioreactor landfills is the addition of water to maintain optimal moisture conditions. To determine how much water is needed and where to add it, in situ methods are required to measure water within solid waste. Existing technologies often result in measurements of unknown accuracy, because of the variability of solid waste materials and time-dependent changes in packing density, both of which influence most measurement methods. To overcome these problems, a new technology recently developed by hydrologists for measuring water in the vadose zone--the partitioning gas tracer test--was tested. In this technology, the transport behavior of two gas tracers within solid waste is used to measure the fraction of the void space filled with water. One tracer is conservative and does not react with solids or liquids, while a second tracer partitions into the water and is separated from the conservative tracer during transport. This technology was tested in four different solid waste packings and was capable of determining the volumetric water content to within 48% of actual values, with most measurement errors less than 15%. This technology and the factors that affect its applicability to landfills are discussed in this paper. PMID:14649759

  3. Neptunium(V) partitioning to uranium(VI) oxide and peroxide solids.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Matthew; Clark, Sue B; Friese, Judah I; Arey, Bruce W; Buck, Edgar C; Hanson, Brady D

    2005-06-01

    Metaschoepite, [(UO2)8O2(OH)12] x 10H2O, and metastudtite, UO4 x 4H2O, are alteration phases anticipated in a spent nuclear fuel repository following the moist oxidation of UO2 on a geologic time scale. Dissolved concentrations and hence potential mobility of other radionuclides in the fuel, such as the neptunyl cation (NpO2+), will likely be determined by the extent of their partitioning into these U(VI) solids. 237Np is of particular interest due to its potential high mobility and long half-life (2.1 x 10(6) years.) In this study, metaschoepite has been precipitated and subsequently transformed to studtite in the presence of dissolved Np. The metaschoepite and studtite solids that formed initially contained <10 and 6500 ppm Np, respectively. Batch dissolution studies of these solids at pH 6 demonstrate release of Np that exceeds congruent dissolution of U from metastudtite; furthermore, the released Np cation remains in solution. Thus, although the Np partitions into the metastudtite solid initially, it is released to solution over time, indicating that metastudtite is not likely to serve as a host solid for Np incorporation or sorption of the neptunyl cation on long time scales. PMID:15984790

  4. Accumulation and sub-cellular partitioning of metals and As in the clam Venerupis corrugata: Different strategies towards different elements.

    PubMed

    Velez, Cátia; Figueira, Etelvina; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Freitas, Rosa

    2016-08-01

    The main goal of the present study was to assess accumulation, tolerance and sub-cellular partitioning of As, Hg, Cd and Pb in Venerupis corrugata. Results showed an increase of elements accumulation in V. corrugata with the increase of exposure. However, organisms presented higher capacity to accumulate Hg, Cd and Pb (BCF ≥ 12.8) than As (BCF ≤ 2.1) and higher accumulation rate for Cd and Pb than for Hg and As. With the increase of Hg exposure concentrations clams tended to increase the amount of metal bound to metal-sensitive fractions, which may explain the mortality recorded at the highest exposure concentration. Cd sub-cellular partitioning showed that with the increase of exposure concentrations V. corrugata increased the amount of metal in the cellular debris fraction, probably bound to the cellular membranes which explain the mortality recorded at the highest concentration. Results on As partitioning demonstrated that most of the metalloid was associated with fractions in the biologically detoxified metal compartment (BDM). Since high mortality was observed in clams exposed to As our results may indicate that this strategy was not enough to prevent clams from toxic effects and mortality occurred. When exposed to Pb most of the metal was in the BDM compartment, but in this case the metal was mostly in the metal-rich granules fraction which seemed to be efficient in preventing clams from toxicity, and no mortality was recorded. Our study further revealed that As and Hg were the most available elements to be biomagnified through the food chain. PMID:27174825

  5. Experimental method development for estimating solid-phase diffusion coefficients and material/air partition coefficients of SVOCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Guo, Zhishi; Roache, Nancy F.

    2014-06-01

    The solid-phase diffusion coefficient (Dm) and material/air partition coefficient (Kma) are key parameters for characterizing the sources and transport of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in the indoor environment. In this work, a new experimental method was developed to estimate parameters Dm and Kma. The SVOCs chosen for study were polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, including PCB-52, PCB-66, PCB-101, PCB-110, and PCB-118. The test materials included polypropylene, high density polyethylene, low density polyethylene, polytetrafluoroethylene, polyether ether ketone, glass, stainless steel and concrete. Two 53-L environmental chambers were connected in series, with the relatively stable SVOCs source in the source chamber and the test materials, made as small “buttons”, in the test chamber. Prior to loading the test chamber with the test materials, the test chamber had been dosed with SVOCs for 12 days to “coat” the chamber walls. During the tests, the material buttons were removed from the test chamber at different exposure times to determine the amount of SVOC absorbed by the buttons. SVOC concentrations at the inlet and outlet of the test chamber were also monitored. The data were used to estimate the partition and diffusion coefficients by fitting a sink model to the experimental data. The parameters obtained were employed to predict the accumulation of SVOCs in the sink materials using an existing mass transfer model. The model prediction agreed reasonably well with the experimental data.

  6. Partitioning of heavy metals to suspended solids of the Flint River, Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    McIlroy, L.M.; DePinto, J.V.; Young, T.C.; Martin, S.C.

    1986-01-01

    The sorptive affinity of copper and zinc to suspended river sediments was investigated as a function of pH and adsorbent solids concentration. Water samples from the Flint River in Michigan were centrifuged to yield a composite sediment concentrate used as an adsorbent in experiments determining pH adsorption edges and conditional adsorption isotherms. Copper and zinc exhibited sharp pH adsorption edges at pH values of approximately 4 to 5.5 and 6 to 7, respectively. Both metals exhibited fractional adsorption decreases as total metal in the system increased. Adsorbent concentration increases were shown to cause decreases in measured copper partition coefficients. The indirect relationship between adsorbent concentration and partition coefficient was observed whether the adsorbent was concentrated or diluted without altering bulk solution chemistry. A mathematical formulation that incorporated both the adsorbent mass effects and the separation of sorbed metal into reversible and resistant components satisfactorily described the observations.

  7. Occurrence and solid-liquid partition of sulfonated naphthalene-formaldehyde condensates in the aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Lange, Frank T; Merklinger, Michael; Wenz, Michael; Brauch, Heinz-J; Lehmann, Markus; Pinter, Istvan

    2005-03-15

    Sulfonated naphthalene-formaldehyde condensates (SNFC) are high production volume chemicals used in a variety of applications, for example, as concrete plasticizers, tanning agents, or dye dispersants. They enter the aquatic environment primarily by the wastewater path. The occurrence and fate of the monomers, which are different isomers of mono- and disulfonated naphthalene, was intensively investigated in previous studies. However, the environmental fate of the persistent higher molecular SNFC is so far widely unknown. This paper describes an ultrasonic extraction under alkaline conditions, followed by ion-pair HPLC with fluorescence detection for the analysis of SNFC oligomers from solid environmental matrixes such as sewage sludge, suspended solids, and river sediments. Limits of quantification of about 0.1 mg kg-1 d.m. were well below the measured concentrations in environmental samples. SNFC were adsorbed to suspended solids and river sediments in three major German rivers (Rhine, Neckar, and Danube) in concentrations typically up to several mg kg(-1) d.m. A total content of about 4 g kg(-1) d.m. was measured in a sewage sludge of a municipal wastewater treatment plant, which receives wastewater from a textile dyeing plant. Furthermore, the first quantitative field data on the partition of SNFC and their monomers between the aqueous phase and solid environmental compartments are presented. Solid-liquid partition coefficients (Kd) of oligomers with a chain-length ranging from three to six naphthalenesulfonate units were derived from the analysis of corresponding wastewater and sewage sludge samples and from suspended solids and river water samples, respectively. Determined Kd values were in the range from 10(2) to 10(4) L kg(-1). PMID:15819205

  8. Integrated transcriptome sequencing and dynamic analysis reveal carbon source partitioning between terpenoid and oil accumulation in developing Lindera glauca fruits

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Jun; Chen, Yinlei; An, Jiyong; Hou, Xinyu; Cai, Jian; Wang, Jia; Zhang, Zhixiang; Lin, Shanzhi

    2015-01-01

    Lindera glauca fruits (LGF) with the abundance of terpenoid and oil has emerged as a novel specific material for industrial and medicinal application in China, but the complex regulatory mechanisms of carbon source partitioning into terpenoid biosynthetic pathway (TBP) and oil biosynthetic pathway (OBP) in developing LGF is still unknown. Here we perform the analysis of contents and compositions of terpenoid and oil from 7 stages of developing LGF to characterize a dramatic difference in temporal accumulative patterns. The resulting 3 crucial samples at 50, 125 and 150 days after flowering (DAF) were selected for comparative deep transcriptome analysis. By Illumina sequencing, the obtained approximately 81 million reads are assembled into 69,160 unigenes, among which 174, 71, 81 and 155 unigenes are implicated in glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), TBP and OBP, respectively. Integrated differential expression profiling and qRT-PCR, we specifically characterize the key enzymes and transcription factors (TFs) involved in regulating carbon allocation ratios for terpenoid or oil accumulation in developing LGF. These results contribute to our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of carbon source partitioning between terpenoid and oil in developing LGF, and to the improvement of resource utilization and molecular breeding for L. glauca. PMID:26446413

  9. Partitioning the grapevine growing season in the Douro Valley of Portugal: accumulated heat better than calendar dates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Real, António C.; Borges, José; Cabral, J. Sarsfield; Jones, Gregory V.

    2015-08-01

    Temperature and water status profiles during the growing season are the most important factors influencing the ripening of wine grapes. To model weather influences on the quality and productivity of the vintages, it is necessary to partition the growing season into smaller growth intervals in which weather variables are evaluated. A significant part of past and ongoing research on the relationships between weather and wine quality uses calendar-defined intervals to partition the growing season. The phenology of grapevines is not determined by calendar dates but by several factors such as accumulated heat. To examine the accuracy of different approaches, this work analyzed the difference in average temperature and accumulated precipitation using growth intervals with boundaries defined by means of estimated historical phenological dates and intervals defined by means of accumulated heat or average calendar dates of the Douro Valley of Portugal. The results show that in situations where there is an absence of historical phenological dates and/or no available data that makes the estimation of those dates possible, it is more accurate to use grapevine heat requirements than calendar dates to define growth interval boundaries. Additionally, we analyzed the ability of the length of growth intervals with boundaries based on grapevine heat requirements to differentiate the best from the worst vintage years with the results showing that vintage quality is strongly related to the phenological events. Finally, we analyzed the variability of growth interval lengths in the Douro Valley during 1980-2009 with the results showing a tendency for earlier grapevine physiology.

  10. BIOMASS ACCUMULATION AND PARTITIONING OF EASTERN GAMMAGRASS GROWN UNDER DIFFERENT TEMPERATURE AND CO2 LEVELS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eastern gamagrass has been reported to have one of the highest photosynthetic rates of any C4 species but data on temperature x CO2 interactions are lacking. This study was conducted to determine the potential effects of future increases of atmospheric carbon dioxide on growth, biomass accumulation...

  11. Quantitative Trait Loci and Inter-Organ Partitioning for Essential Metal and Toxic Analogue Accumulation in Barley

    PubMed Central

    Reuscher, Stefan; Kolter, Andreas; Hoffmann, Astrid; Pillen, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    The concentrations of both essential nutrients and chemically similar toxic analogues accumulated in cereal grains have a major impact on the nutritional quality and safety of crops. Naturally occurring genetic diversity can be exploited for the breeding of improved varieties through introgression lines (ILs). In this study, multi-element analysis was conducted on vegetative leaves, senesced flag leaves and mature grains of a set of 54 ILs of the wild ancestral Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum in the cultivated variety Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare cv. Scarlett. Plants were cultivated on an anthropogenically heavy metal-contaminated soil collected in an agricultural field, thus allowing simultaneous localization of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for the accumulation of both essential nutrients and toxic trace elements in barley as a model cereal crop. For accumulation of the micronutrients Fe and Zn and the interfering toxin Cd, we identified 25, 16 and 5 QTL, respectively. By examining the gene content of the introgressions, we associated QTL with candidate genes based on homology to known metal homeostasis genes of Arabidopsis and rice. Global comparative analyses suggested the preferential remobilization of Cu and Fe, over Cd, from the flag leaf to developing grains. Our data identifies grain micronutrient filling as a regulated and nutrient-specific process, which operates differently from vegetative micronutrient homoeostasis. In summary, this study provides novel QTL for micronutrient accumulation in the presence of toxic analogues and supports a higher degree of metal specificity of trace element partitioning during grain filling in barley than previously reported for other cereals. PMID:27078500

  12. Solid-phase microextraction to determine micropollutant-macromolecule partition coefficients.

    PubMed

    Bridle, Helen L; Heringa, Minne B; Schäfer, Andrea I

    2016-08-01

    Aqueous micropollutants such as estradiol can have a large environmental impact-even at low concentrations. Part of understanding this impact involves determining the extent to which the micropollutants interact with macromolecules in water. In environmental samples, relevant macromolecules to which micropollutants bind are referred to as dissolved organic matter, and the most common examples of these in freshwater and coastal seawater are fulvic and humic acids. In living organisms, the most common macromolecules that affect bioavailability of a drug (or toxin) are proteins such as albumin. Using [2, 4, 6, 7 - (3)H]estradiol as an example compound, this protocol uses solid-phase microextraction and scintillation detection as analytical tools to quantify the amount of radiolabeled micropollutant available in solution. The measured free concentration after exposure to various concentrations of macromolecule (dissolved organic matter or protein) or micropollutant is used to determine the partition coefficient in the case of micropollutant-macromolecule interactions. The calibration and preparatory studies take at least 8 d, and the steps to determine the partition coefficient can be completed within 3 d. The protocol could be modified such that nonlabeled compounds are studied; instead of detection of activity by a liquid scintillation counter (LSC), the compounds can be quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or liquid chromatography (LC)-MS(/MS). PMID:27362336

  13. Biodegradation of Endocrine Disruptors in Solid-Liquid Two-Phase Partitioning Systems by Enrichment Cultures

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Silvia Cristina Cunha; Ouellette, Julianne; Juteau, Pierre; Lépine, François; Déziel, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Naturally occurring and synthetic estrogens and other molecules from industrial sources strongly contribute to the endocrine disruption of urban wastewater. Because of the presence of these molecules in low but effective concentrations in wastewaters, these endocrine disruptors (EDs) are only partially removed after most wastewater treatments, reflecting the presence of these molecules in rivers in urban areas. The development of a two-phase partitioning bioreactor (TPPB) might be an effective strategy for the removal of EDs from wastewater plant effluents. Here, we describe the establishment of three ED-degrading microbial enrichment cultures adapted to a solid-liquid two-phase partitioning system using Hytrel as the immiscible water phase and loaded with estrone, estradiol, estriol, ethynylestradiol, nonylphenol, and bisphenol A. All molecules except ethynylestradiol were degraded in the enrichment cultures. The bacterial composition of the three enrichment cultures was determined using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and showed sequences affiliated with bacteria associated with the degradation of these compounds, such as Sphingomonadales. One Rhodococcus isolate capable of degrading estrone, estradiol, and estriol was isolated from one enrichment culture. These results highlight the great potential for the development of TPPB for the degradation of highly diluted EDs in water effluents. PMID:23728808

  14. Nitrogen accumulation and partitioning in a High Arctic tundra ecosystem from extreme atmospheric N deposition events.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Sonal; Blaud, Aimeric; Osborn, A Mark; Press, Malcolm C; Phoenix, Gareth K

    2016-06-01

    Arctic ecosystems are threatened by pollution from recently detected extreme atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition events in which up to 90% of the annual N deposition can occur in just a few days. We undertook the first assessment of the fate of N from extreme deposition in High Arctic tundra and are presenting the results from the whole ecosystem (15)N labelling experiment. In 2010, we simulated N depositions at rates of 0, 0.04, 0.4 and 1.2 g Nm(-2)yr(-1), applied as (15)NH4(15)NO3 in Svalbard (79(°)N), during the summer. Separate applications of (15)NO3(-) and (15)NH4(+) were also made to determine the importance of N form in their retention. More than 95% of the total (15)N applied was recovered after one growing season (~90% after two), demonstrating a considerable capacity of Arctic tundra to retain N from these deposition events. Important sinks for the deposited N, regardless of its application rate or form, were non-vascular plants>vascular plants>organic soil>litter>mineral soil, suggesting that non-vascular plants could be the primary component of this ecosystem to undergo measurable changes due to N enrichment from extreme deposition events. Substantial retention of N by soil microbial biomass (70% and 39% of (15)N in organic and mineral horizon, respectively) during the initial partitioning demonstrated their capacity to act as effective buffers for N leaching. Between the two N forms, vascular plants (Salix polaris) in particular showed difference in their N recovery, incorporating four times greater (15)NO3(-) than (15)NH4(+), suggesting deposition rich in nitrate will impact them more. Overall, these findings show that despite the deposition rates being extreme in statistical terms, biologically they do not exceed the capacity of tundra to sequester pollutant N during the growing season. Therefore, current and future extreme events may represent a major source of eutrophication. PMID:26956177

  15. Experimental Method Development for Estimating Solid-phase Diffusion Coefficients and Material/Air Partition Coefficients of SVOCs

    EPA Science Inventory

    The solid-phase diffusion coefficient (Dm) and material-air partition coefficient (Kma) are key parameters for characterizing the sources and transport of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in the indoor environment. In this work, a new experimental method was developed to es...

  16. An analysis of a new stable partitioned algorithm for FSI problems. Part I: Incompressible flow and elastic solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, J. W.; Henshaw, W. D.; Schwendeman, D. W.

    2014-07-01

    Stable partitioned algorithms for fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems are developed and analyzed in this two-part paper. Part I describes an algorithm for incompressible flow coupled with compressible elastic solids, while Part II discusses an algorithm for incompressible flow coupled with structural shells. Importantly, these new added-mass partitioned (AMP) schemes are stable and retain full accuracy with no sub-iterations per time step, even in the presence of strong added-mass effects (e.g. for light solids). The numerical approach described here for bulk compressible solids extends the scheme of Banks et al. [1,2] for inviscid compressible flow, and uses Robin (mixed) boundary conditions with the fluid and solid solvers at the interface. The basic AMP Robin conditions, involving a linear combination of velocity and stress, are determined from the outgoing solid characteristic relation normal to the fluid-solid interface combined with the matching conditions on the velocity and traction. Two alternative forms of the AMP conditions are then derived depending on whether the fluid equations are advanced with a fractional-step method or not. The stability and accuracy of the AMP algorithm is evaluated for linearized FSI model problems; the full nonlinear case being left for future consideration. A normal mode analysis is performed to show that the new AMP algorithm is stable for any ratio of the solid and fluid densities, including the case of very light solids when added-mass effects are large. In contrast, it is shown that a traditional partitioned algorithm involving a Dirichlet-Neumann coupling for the same FSI problem is formally unconditionally unstable for any ratio of densities. Exact traveling wave solutions are derived for the FSI model problems, and these solutions are used to verify the stability and accuracy of the corresponding numerical results obtained from the AMP algorithm for the cases of light, medium and heavy solids.

  17. Evaluation of PCDD/F partitioning between vapor and solid phases in MWI flue gases with temperature variation.

    PubMed

    Chi, Kai Hsien; Chang, Moo Been; Chang, Shu Hao

    2006-12-01

    Partitioning of PCDD/Fs (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofuran) between vapor and solid phases in flue gas is affected by several factors including temperature variation. In this study, PCDD/F removal efficiencies achieved with activated carbon injection (ACI) and partitioning of vapor/solid phase PCDD/Fs in flue gases with temperature variation in a municipal waste incinerator (MWI) are evaluated via intensive flue gas sampling. Results indicate that most PCDD/Fs in flue gas downstream of the ACI+bag filter (BF) exist in vapor phase (over 90%) while the removal efficiencies of vapor and solid phase PCDD/Fs are 98.5-99.6% and 99.8-99.9%, respectively. The results of flue gas samplings also indicate that there is optimal operating temperature for PCDD/F removal achieved with ACI. Additionally, a pilot-scale adsorption system (PAS) is constructed in this study to evaluate the PCDD/F partitioning affected by temperature. The results of the PAS experimentation indicate that about 55% and 25% vapor phase PCDD/Fs passing through the filter cake (adsorbent) are transferred to solid phase at 150 and 200 degrees C, respectively. As the temperature is increased to 250 degrees C, filter cake (adsorbent) cannot effectively adsorb vapor phase PCDD/Fs and significant PCDD/Fs are formed via de novo synthesis. PMID:16920255

  18. Determination of pesticides in lettuce using solid-liquid extraction with low temperature partitioning.

    PubMed

    Costa, Anna I G; Queiroz, Maria E L R; Neves, Antônio A; de Sousa, Flaviane A; Zambolim, Laércio

    2015-08-15

    This work describes the optimization and validation of a method employing solid-liquid extraction with low temperature partitioning (SLE/LTP) together with analysis by gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC/ECD) for the determination of nine pesticides (chlorothalonil, methyl parathion, procymidone, endosulfan, iprodione, λ-cyhalothrin, permethrin, cypermethrin, and deltamethrin) in lettuce. The method was found to be selective, accurate, and precise, with means recovery values in the range of 72.3-103.2%, coefficients of variation ⩽ 12%, and detection limits in the range 0.4-37 μg kg(-1). The matrix components significantly influence the chromatographic response of the analytes (above 10%). The optimized and validated method was applied to determine the residual concentrations of the fungicides iprodione and procymidone that had been applied to field crops of lettuce. The maximum residual concentrations of the pesticides in the lettuce samples were 13.6 ± 0.4 mg kg(-1) (iprodione) and 1.00 ± 0.01 mg kg(-1) (procymidone), on the day after application of the products. PMID:25794722

  19. Measuring gas-liquid partition coefficients of aroma compounds by solid phase microextraction, sampling either headspace or liquid.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Nathan W; Dungan, Stephanie R; Ebeler, Susan E

    2011-08-21

    Hydrophobic compounds are important odorants and nutrients in foods and beverages, as well as environmental contaminants and pharmaceuticals. Factors influencing their partitioning within multi-component systems and/or from the bulk liquid phase to the air are critical for understanding aroma quality and nutrient bioavailability. The equilibrium partitioning of hydrophobic analytes between air and water was analyzed using solid phase microextraction (SPME) in the headspace (HS-SPME) and via direct immersion in the liquid (DI-SPME). The compounds studied serve as models for hydrophobic aroma compounds covering a range of air-water partition coefficients that extends over four orders of magnitude. By varying the total amount of analyte as well as the ratio of vapor to liquid in the closed, static system, the partition coefficient, K(vl), can be determined without the need for an external calibration, eliminating many potential systematic errors. K(vl) determination using DI-SPME in this manner has not been demonstrated before. There was good agreement between results determined by DI-SPME and by HS-SPME over the wide range of partitioning behavior studied. This shows that these two methods are capable of providing accurate, complementary measurements. Precision in K(vl) determination depends strongly on K(vl) magnitude and the ratio of the air and liquid phases. PMID:21727981

  20. Development of a full automation solid phase microextraction method for investigating the partition coefficient of organic pollutant in complex sample.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ruifen; Lin, Wei; Wen, Sijia; Zhu, Fang; Luan, Tiangang; Ouyang, Gangfeng

    2015-08-01

    A fully automated solid phase microextraction (SPME) depletion method was developed to study the partition coefficient of organic compound between complex matrix and water sample. The SPME depletion process was conducted by pre-loading the fiber with a specific amount of organic compounds from a proposed standard gas generation vial, and then desorbing the fiber into the targeted samples. Based on the proposed method, the partition coefficients (Kmatrix) of 4 polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) between humic acid (HA)/hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (β-HPCD) and aqueous sample were determined. The results showed that the logKmatrix of 4 PAHs with HA and β-HPCD ranged from 3.19 to 4.08, and 2.45 to 3.15, respectively. In addition, the logKmatrix values decreased about 0.12-0.27 log units for different PAHs for every 10°C increase in temperature. The effect of temperature on the partition coefficient followed van't Hoff plot, and the partition coefficient at any temperature can be predicted based on the plot. Furthermore, the proposed method was applied for the real biological fluid analysis. The partition coefficients of 6 PAHs between the complex matrices in the fetal bovine serum and water were determined, and compared to ones obtained from SPME extraction method. The result demonstrated that the proposed method can be applied to determine the sorption coefficients of hydrophobic compounds between complex matrix and water in a variety of samples. PMID:26118804

  1. Experimental determination of the partitioning of gallium between solid iron metal and synthetic basaltic melt Electron and ion microprobe study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, M. J.; Newsom, H. E.; Reed, S. J. B.; Enright, M. C.

    1984-01-01

    The distribution of Ga between solid Fe metal and synthetic basaltic melt is investigated experimentally at temperatures of 1190 and 1330 C, and over a narrow range of oxygen fugacities. Metal-silicate reversal experiments were conducted, indicating a close approach to equilibrium. The analysis of the partitioned products was performed using electron and ion microprobes. At one bar total pressure, the solid metal/silicate melt partition coefficient D(Ga) is used to evaluate metal-silicate fractionation processes in the earth, moon, and Eucrite Parent Body (EPB). It is found that the depletion of Ga abundances in the EPB is due to the extraction of Ga into a metallic core. Likewise, the depletion of Ga in the lunar mantle is consistent with the extraction of Ga into a smaller lunar core if Ga was originally present in a subchondritic concentration. The relatively high Ga abundances in the earth's mantle are discussed, with reference to several theoretical models.

  2. An added-mass partition algorithm for fluid-structure interactions of compressible fluids and nonlinear solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, J. W.; Henshaw, W. D.; Kapila, A. K.; Schwendeman, D. W.

    2016-01-01

    We describe an added-mass partitioned (AMP) algorithm for solving fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems involving inviscid compressible fluids interacting with nonlinear solids that undergo large rotations and displacements. The computational approach is a mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian scheme that makes use of deforming composite grids (DCG) to treat large changes in the geometry in an accurate, flexible, and robust manner. The current work extends the AMP algorithm developed in Banks et al. [1] for linearly elasticity to the case of nonlinear solids. To ensure stability for the case of light solids, the new AMP algorithm embeds an approximate solution of a nonlinear fluid-solid Riemann (FSR) problem into the interface treatment. The solution to the FSR problem is derived and shown to be of a similar form to that derived for linear solids: the state on the interface being fundamentally an impedance-weighted average of the fluid and solid states. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the AMP algorithm is stable even for light solids when added-mass effects are large. The accuracy and stability of the AMP scheme is verified by comparison to an exact solution using the method of analytical solutions and to a semi-analytical solution that is obtained for a rotating solid disk immersed in a fluid. The scheme is applied to the simulation of a planar shock impacting a light elliptical-shaped solid, and comparisons are made between solutions of the FSI problem for a neo-Hookean solid, a linearly elastic solid, and a rigid solid. The ability of the approach to handle large deformations is demonstrated for a problem of a high-speed flow past a light, thin, and flexible solid beam.

  3. Experimental Methods to Estimate Accumulated Solids in Nuclear Waste Tanks - 13313

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, Mark R.; Steeper, Timothy J.; Steimke, John L.

    2013-07-01

    The Department of Energy has a large number of nuclear waste tanks. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles, e.g., plutonium containing, could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to remove most of the solids. Then the volume and shape of the residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for plutonium were measured. This paper discusses the overall test results, which indicated heavy solids only accumulate during the first few transfer cycles, along with the techniques and equipment designed and employed in the test. Those techniques include: - Magnetic particle separator to remove stainless steel solids, the plutonium surrogate from a flowing stream. - Magnetic wand used to manually remove stainless steel solids from samples and the tank heel. - Photographs were used to determine the volume and shape of the solids mounds by developing a composite of topographical areas. - Laser range finders to determine the volume and shape of the solids mounds. - Core sampler to determine the stainless steel solids distribution within the solids mounds. - Computer driven positioner that placed the laser range finders and the core sampler over solids mounds that accumulated on the bottom of a scaled staging tank in locations where jet velocities

  4. Sugar loss and enzyme inhibition due to oligosaccharides accumulation during high solids-loading enzymatic hydrolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oligosaccharide accumulation occurs during high solid loading enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover (CS) irrespective of using different pretreated corn stover (dilute acid: DA, ionic liquids: IL, ammonia fiber expansion: AFEX and extractive ammonia: EA). The methodology for large-scale separation of ...

  5. Damage accumulation in ion-irradiated Ni-based concentrated solid-solution alloys

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ullah, Mohammad W.; Aidhy, Dilpuneet S.; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate Irradiation-induced damage accumulation in Ni0.8Fe0.2 and Ni0.8Cr0.2 alloys by using molecular dynamics simulations to assess possible enhanced radiation-resistance in these face-centered cubic (fcc), single-phase, concentrated solid-solution alloys, as compared with pure fcc Ni.

  6. Transformation of ferulic acid to vanillin using a fed-batch solid-liquid two-phase partitioning bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao-kui; Daugulis, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 (formerly Streptomyces setonii) has shown promising results in converting ferulic acid (trans-4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid; substrate), which can be derived from natural plant wastes, to vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde). After exploring the influence of adding vanillin at different times during the growth cycle on cell growth and transformation performance of this strain and demonstrating the inhibitory effect of vanillin, a solid-liquid two-phase partitioning bioreactor (TPPB) system was used as an in situ product removal technique to enhance transformation productivity by this strain. The thermoplastic polymer Hytrel(®) G4078W was found to have superior partitioning capacity for vanillin with a partition coefficient of 12 and a low affinity for the substrate. A 3-L working volume solid-liquid fed-batch TPPB mode, using 300 g Hytrel G4078W as the sequestering phase, produced a final vanillin concentration of 19.5 g/L. The overall productivity of this reactor system was 450 mg/L. h, among the highest reported in literature. Vanillin was easily and quantitatively recovered from the polymers mostly by single stage extraction into methanol or other organic solvents used in food industry, simultaneously regenerating polymer beads for reuse. A polymer-liquid two phase bioreactor was again confirmed to easily outperform single phase systems that feature inhibitory or easily further degraded substrates/products. This enhancement strategy might reasonably be expected in the production of other flavor and fragrance compounds obtained by biotransformations. PMID:24167066

  7. Arsenic solid-phase partitioning in reducing sediments of a contaminated wetland

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkin, Richard T.; Ford, Robert G.

    2008-10-06

    The geochemical partitioning of arsenic in organic-rich sediments from a contaminated wetland is examined using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and selective chemical extraction procedures, and evaluated in context to the anoxic diagenesis of iron and sulfur. The interaction between ground water and surface water has a significant influence on iron sulfide formation in the wetland sediments. Ground-water seeps supply concentrations of sulfate, dissolved hydrocarbons, ferrous iron, and arsenic, and sediments located near seeps are anomalously enriched in arsenic, reactive iron, and acid-volatile sulfides. Degree-of-sulfidation (DOS) values are high in sediments adjacent to sites of ground-water discharge, ranging from 0.57 to 1.0. Pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) formation is apparently not limited by the abundance of any one primary reactant, e.g., organic carbon, sulfate, or reactive iron; instead, persistence of precursor iron monosulfides is attributed to slow pyrite formation kinetics due to low concentrations of reactive intermediate sulfur species or possibly due to high concentrations of arsenite, dissolved organic-carbon, or other solutes that adsorb to iron monosulfides surfaces and impede transformation reactions to pyrite. Greigite (Fe{sub 3}S{sub 4}) accounts for > 80% of total reduced sulfur in sediments rich in acid-volatile sulfide and X-ray absorption spectroscopy data for magnetic separates provide direct evidence that As(III) is, at least in part, associated with reduced sulfur in the form of greigite. However, pyrite can only account for a small percentage, < 20%, of the total arsenic budget in the reduced sediments. Although pyrite is the predicted stable endpoint for reactive iron and sulfur, it appears that within a 30 y time period pyrite is a relatively unimportant host for arsenic in the system investigated here. The abundance of reactive iron in the sediments prevents accumulation of dissolved sulfide and thus prevents formation of soluble thioarsenic

  8. Solid-solution partitioning of plutonium in surface waters at the Atomic Weapons Establishment Aldermaston (UK).

    PubMed

    McCubbin, David; Leonard, Kinson S; Greenwood, Richard C; Taylor, Benjamin R

    2004-10-01

    The Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) at Aldermaston (Berkshire, UK) has provided and maintained the warheads for the UK's nuclear deterrent for more than 50 years. Whilst the site is radiologically safe, in a few locations the soil contains specific activities of plutonium (Pu) above background arising from a legacy of historic operations. Run-off water (a mixture of rainwater and groundwater) from part of the site is routed into a water management system, and after analysis and radiological assessment, released into local streams. Water and sediment samples have been collected from a number of closely spaced locations within this system to assess the solid-solution partitioning of Pu. Survey work was complemented by batch type desorption experiments to assess redissolution from 'contaminated' sediment into 'uncontaminated' water. The survey data indicate that specific activities of both dissolved and particle bound 239 + 240Pu varied by roughly two orders of magnitude, ranging from approximately 0.7 microBq kg(-1) up to approximately 44 microBq kg(-1), and approximately 1.2 Bq kg(-1) up to approximately 400 Bq kg(-1), respectively, consistent with water originating from different parts of the site. Apparent Kd values varied by an order of magnitude (from 0.7-16 x 10(6)) with an average value of 4 x 10(6). Results from the desorption experiments indicated the extent of redissolution was very small and the derived Kd's corroborated values obtained from the survey work. Kd's given here are compared with other literature values, and are the greatest reported to date. Results are also provided describing the variation in water quality parameters in shallow groundwater samples. Alkalinity values ranged from 120 to 388 mg l(-1) CaCO3 with an average value of 195 mg l(-1) CaCO3. Corresponding values for pH were 6.6-8.3 with an average of 7.5. Over half of the samples were estimated to be supersaturated with respect to calcite. It is suggested that the state of calcite

  9. ARSENIC SOLID-PHASE PARTITIONING IN REDUCING SEDIMENTS OF CONTAMINATED WETLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    The geochemical partitioning of arsenic in organic-rich sediments from a contaminated wetland is examined using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and selective chemical extraction procedures, and evaluated in context to the anoxic diagenesis of iron and sulfur. The interaction betwe...

  10. Partitioning of Se, As, Sb, Te and Bi between monosulfide solid solution and sulfide melt - Application to magmatic sulfide deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmy, Hassan M.; Ballhaus, Chris; Wohlgemuth-Ueberwasser, Cora; Fonseca, Raúl O. C.; Laurenz, Vera

    2010-11-01

    The chalcogenes (S, Se, Te), semimetals (As, Sb) and the metal Bi are important ligands for noble metals and form a wide range of compositionally diverse minerals with the platinum-group elements (PGE). With the exception of S, few experimental data exist to quantify the behavior of these elements in magmatic sulfide systems. Here we report experimental partition coefficients for Se, Te, As, Sb, and Bi between monosulfide solid solution (mss) and sulfide melt, determined at 950 °C at a range of sulfur fugacities ( fS2) bracketed by the Fe-FeS (metal-troilite) and the Fe 1-×S-S x (mss-sulfur) equilibria. Selenium is shown to partition in mss-saturated sulfide melt as an anion replacing S 2-. Arsenic changes its oxidation state with fS 2 from predominantly anionic speciation at low fS 2, to cationic speciation at high fS 2. The elements Sb, Te, and Bi are so highly incompatible with mss that they can only be present in sulfide melt as cations and/or as neutral metallic species. The partition coefficients derived fall with increasing atomic radius of the element. They also reflect the positions of the respective elements in the Periodic Table: within a group (e.g., As, Sb, Bi) the partition coefficients fall with increasing atomic radius, and within a period the elements of the 15th group are more incompatible with mss than the neighboring elements of the 16th group.

  11. Damage accumulation in ion-irradiated Ni-based concentrated solid-solution alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Ullah, Mohammad W.; Aidhy, Dilpuneet S.; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate Irradiation-induced damage accumulation in Ni0.8Fe0.2 and Ni0.8Cr0.2 alloys by using molecular dynamics simulations to assess possible enhanced radiation-resistance in these face-centered cubic (fcc), single-phase, concentrated solid-solution alloys, as compared with pure fcc Ni.

  12. Study of solid extractants based on malonamides, diglycolamides, and bipyridines for the partitioning of minor actinides from high active wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šul'Aková, J.; John, J.; Šebesta, F.

    2006-01-01

    In this work, the performance of the solid extractants with polyacrylonitrile (PAN) binding matrix was studied for the separation of lanthanides and actinides from nitric acid solutions. As extractants, incorporated into the PAN matrix, the N,N‧-dimethyl-N,N‧-dibutyltetradecylmalonamide (DMDBTDMA), N,N‧-dimethyl-N,N‧-dioctyl-hexy-loxyethylmalonamide (DMDOHEMA), N,N,N‧,N‧-tetraoctyldiglycolamide (TODGA), 6,6‧-bis-(5,6-dipentyl-[1,2,4]triazin-3-yl[2,2‧]bipyridinyl (C5BTBP) were used. Weight distribution coefficients Dg of europium and several actinides have been determined for all the composite materials. The kinetics of europium uptake, practical dynamic extraction capacities, and extraction isotherms were also determined. The results obtained revealed that the solid extractants studied are prospective for the partitioning of lanthanides and actinides from liquid radioactive wastes.

  13. Determining octanol-water partition coefficients for extremely hydrophobic chemicals by combining "slow stirring" and solid-phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Jonker, Michiel T O

    2016-06-01

    Octanol-water partition coefficients (KOW ) are widely used in fate and effects modeling of chemicals. Still, high-quality experimental KOW data are scarce, in particular for very hydrophobic chemicals. This hampers reliable assessments of several fate and effect parameters and the development and validation of new models. One reason for the limited availability of experimental values may relate to the challenging nature of KOW measurements. In the present study, KOW values for 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined with the gold standard "slow-stirring" method (log KOW 4.6-7.2). These values were then used as reference data for the development of an alternative method for measuring KOW . This approach combined slow stirring and equilibrium sampling of the extremely low aqueous concentrations with polydimethylsiloxane-coated solid-phase microextraction fibers, applying experimentally determined fiber-water partition coefficients. It resulted in KOW values matching the slow-stirring data very well. Therefore, the method was subsequently applied to a series of 17 moderately to extremely hydrophobic petrochemical compounds. The obtained KOW values spanned almost 6 orders of magnitude, with the highest value measuring 10(10.6) . The present study demonstrates that the hydrophobicity domain within which experimental KOW measurements are possible can be extended with the help of solid-phase microextraction and that experimentally determined KOW values can exceed the proposed upper limit of 10(9) . Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1371-1377. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26550770

  14. Inferences about radionuclide mobility in soils based on the solid/liquid partition coefficients and soil properties.

    PubMed

    Sohlenius, Gustav; Saetre, Peter; Nordén, Sara; Grolander, Sara; Sheppard, Steve

    2013-05-01

    To assist transport modeling in assessments of the radiological impact of a geological repository for radioactive wastes, the mobility of various elements was studied in arable and wetland soils in the Forsmark region, Sweden. Pore water and total element contents were determined for five types of unconsolidated deposits (regolith), spanning a wide range of soil properties with respect to pH and organic matter content. Two soil depths were sampled to capture element mobility in regolith layers affected and unaffected by soil-forming processes. The solid/liquid partition coefficients (K d values) for most elements varied significantly among regolith types. For most elements, the observed variations in K d values could be explained by variations in soil properties. For many elements, mobility increased with decreasing soil pH. The results provide a significant addition of data on radionuclide retention in soils, taking account of soil properties and processes. PMID:23619799

  15. Solid-state phase transformations involving solute partitioning: modeling and measuring on the level of individual grains

    SciTech Connect

    Offerman, S.E.; Dijk, N.H. van; Sietsma, J.; Lauridsen, E.M.; Margulies, L.; Grigull, S.; Poulsen, H.F.; Zwaag, S. van der

    2004-09-20

    A simplified grain growth model is presented for the transition from non-overlapping to overlapping diffusion fields of growing neighboring grains during partitioning solid-state transformations in polycrystalline materials. The model is based on unique observations on the austenite decomposition into ferrite and pearlite in medium-carbon steel with the three-dimensional X-ray diffraction microscope. The model explains three types of observed pro-eutectoid ferrite grain growth and austenite grain decomposition, and the indirectly observed carbon exchange between decomposing austenite grains. A direct comparison of the model and the experiment at the level of individual grains shows that the growth of ferrite grains is strongly related to the local carbon concentration and the local density of nuclei. Unusual observations of a non-stationary austenite grain size prior to the transformation, and oscillatory ferrite growth are reported.

  16. Sugar loss and enzyme inhibition due to oligosaccharide accumulation during high solids-loading enzymatic hydrolysis

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Xue, Saisi; Uppugundla, Nirmal; Bowman, Michael J.; Cavalier, David; Da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Dale, Bruce E.; Balan, Venkatesh

    2015-11-26

    Accumulation of recalcitrant oligosaccharides during high-solids loading enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass reduces biofuel yields and increases processing costs for a cellulosic biorefinery. Recalcitrant oligosaccharides in AFEX-pretreated corn stover hydrolysate accumulate to the extent of about 18–25 % of the total soluble sugars in the hydrolysate and 12–18 % of the total polysaccharides in the inlet biomass (untreated), equivalent to a yield loss of about 7–9 kg of monomeric sugars per 100 kg of inlet dry biomass (untreated). These oligosaccharides represent a yield loss and also inhibit commercial hydrolytic enzymes, with both being serious bottlenecks for economical biofuel production frommore » cellulosic biomass. Very little is understood about the nature of these oligomers and why they are recalcitrant to commercial enzymes. This work presents a robust method for separating recalcitrant oligosaccharides from high solid loading hydrolysate in gramme quantities. Composition analysis, recalcitrance study and enzyme inhibition study were performed to understand their chemical nature. Results indicate that, oligosaccharide accumulation occurs during high solid loading enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover (CS) irrespective of using different pretreated corn stover (dilute acid: DA, ionic liquids: IL, and ammonia fibre expansion: AFEX). The methodology for large-scale separation of recalcitrant oligosaccharides from 25 % solids-loading AFEXcorn stover hydrolysate using charcoal fractionation and size exclusion chromatography is reported for the first time. Oligosaccharides with higher degree of polymerization (DP) were recalcitrant towards commercial enzyme mixtures [Ctec2, Htec2 and Multifect pectinase (MP)] compared to lower DP oligosaccharides. Enzyme inhibition studies using processed substrates (Avicel and xylan) showed that low DP oligosaccharides also inhibit commercial enzymes. Addition of monomeric sugars to oligosaccharides increases the

  17. Sugar loss and enzyme inhibition due to oligosaccharide accumulation during high solids-loading enzymatic hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Saisi; Uppugundla, Nirmal; Bowman, Michael J.; Cavalier, David; Da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Dale, Bruce E.; Balan, Venkatesh

    2015-11-26

    Accumulation of recalcitrant oligosaccharides during high-solids loading enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass reduces biofuel yields and increases processing costs for a cellulosic biorefinery. Recalcitrant oligosaccharides in AFEX-pretreated corn stover hydrolysate accumulate to the extent of about 18–25 % of the total soluble sugars in the hydrolysate and 12–18 % of the total polysaccharides in the inlet biomass (untreated), equivalent to a yield loss of about 7–9 kg of monomeric sugars per 100 kg of inlet dry biomass (untreated). These oligosaccharides represent a yield loss and also inhibit commercial hydrolytic enzymes, with both being serious bottlenecks for economical biofuel production from cellulosic biomass. Very little is understood about the nature of these oligomers and why they are recalcitrant to commercial enzymes. This work presents a robust method for separating recalcitrant oligosaccharides from high solid loading hydrolysate in gramme quantities. Composition analysis, recalcitrance study and enzyme inhibition study were performed to understand their chemical nature. Results indicate that, oligosaccharide accumulation occurs during high solid loading enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover (CS) irrespective of using different pretreated corn stover (dilute acid: DA, ionic liquids: IL, and ammonia fibre expansion: AFEX). The methodology for large-scale separation of recalcitrant oligosaccharides from 25 % solids-loading AFEXcorn stover hydrolysate using charcoal fractionation and size exclusion chromatography is reported for the first time. Oligosaccharides with higher degree of polymerization (DP) were recalcitrant towards commercial enzyme mixtures [Ctec2, Htec2 and Multifect pectinase (MP)] compared to lower DP oligosaccharides. Enzyme inhibition studies using processed substrates (Avicel and xylan) showed that low DP oligosaccharides also inhibit commercial enzymes. Addition of monomeric sugars to oligosaccharides increases the

  18. PARTITIONING OF HEAVY METALS TO SUSPEND SOLIDS OF THE FLINT RIVER, MI

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sorptive affinity of copper and zinc to suspended river sediments was investigated as a function of pH and adsorbent solids concentration. ater samples from the Flint River in Michigan were centrifuged to yield a composite sediment concentrate used as an adsorbent in experime...

  19. Accumulation and partitioning of seven trace metals in mangroves and sediment cores from three estuarine wetlands of Hainan Island, China.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yao-Wen; Yu, Ke-Fu; Zhang, Gan; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2011-06-15

    Trace metals in mangrove tissues (leaf, branch, root and fruit) of nine species and sediments of ten cores collected in 2008 from Dongzhai Harbor, Sanya Bay and Yalong Bay, Hainan Island, were analyzed. The average concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Hg and As in surface sediments were 14.8, 24.1, 57.9, 0.17, 29.6, 0.08 and 9.7 μg g(-1), whereas those in mangrove tissues were 2.8, 1.4, 8.7, 0.03, 1.1, 0.03, and 0.2 μg g(-1), respectively. Compared to those from other typical mangrove wetlands of the world, the metal levels in Hainan were at low- to median-levels, which is consistent with the fact that Hainan Island is still in low exploitation and its mangroves suffer little impact from human activities. Metal concentrations among different tissues of mangroves were different. In general, Zn and Cu were enriched in fruit, Hg was enriched in leaf, Pb, Cd and Cr were enriched in branch, and As was enriched in root. The cycle of trace metals in mangrove species were estimated. The biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) followed the sequence of Hg (0.43)>Cu (0.27)>Cd (0.22)>Zn (0.17)>Pb (0.07)>Cr (0.06)>As (0.02). PMID:21501926

  20. Overexpression of the transporters AtZIP1 and AtMTP1 in cassava changes zinc accumulation and partitioning

    PubMed Central

    Gaitán-Solís, Eliana; Taylor, Nigel J.; Siritunga, Dimuth; Stevens, William; Schachtman, Daniel P.

    2015-01-01

    Zinc deficiency in humans is a serious problem worldwide with an estimated one third of populations at risk for insufficient zinc in diet, which leads to impairment of cognitive abilities and immune system function. The goal of this research was to increase the bioavailable zinc in the edible portion of cassava roots to improve the overall zinc nutrition of populations that rely on cassava as a dietary staple. To increase zinc concentrations, two Arabidopsis thaliana genes coding for ZIP1 and MTP1 were overexpressed with a tuber-specific or constitutive promoter. Eighteen transgenic events from four constructs, out of a total of 73 events generated, showed significantly higher zinc concentrations in the edible portion of the storage root compared to the non-transgenic controls. The zinc content in the transgenic lines ranged from 4 to 73 mg/kg dry weight (DW) as compared to the non-transgenic control which contained 8 mg/kg. Striking changes in whole plant phenotype such as smaller plant size and chlorotic leaves were observed in transgenic lines that over accumulated zinc. In a confined field trial five transgenic events grown for 12 months showed a range of zinc concentrations from 18 to 217 mg/kg DW. Although the overexpression of zinc transporters was successful in increasing the zinc concentrations in 25% of the transgenic lines generated, it also resulted in a decrease in plant and tuber size and overall yield due to what appears to be zinc deficiency in the aerial parts of the plant. PMID:26217349

  1. Partition of organochlorine concentrations among suspended solids, sediments and brown mussel Perna perna, in tropical bays.

    PubMed

    Galvao, Petrus; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Longo, Renan; Dorneles, Paulo Renato; Torres, João Paulo Machado; Malm, Olaf; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2014-11-01

    For evaluating the brown mussel Perna perna as a sentinel organism regarding environmental concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), the present study reports original data on the relationship between the concentrations of these chemicals in bottom surface sediments, suspended solids (SS) and concentrations bioaccumulated by this bivalve. Three P. perna cultivation areas, located at three bays in southeastern Brazil were used in this study. The three estuaries are under different degrees of environmental impact. Variations in the OCP and PCB concentrations bioaccumulated by the bivalves tended to be similar to those observed in the sediment, but differed from those found in SS. This latter difference might suggest that the SS trapping apparatuses should have been left in place for approximately 60 days (not only 15 days). This longer period would allow the integration of the environmental variability of the OCP and PCB burden adsorbed to this compartment. Authors encourage future studies to evaluate P. perna exposure to OCPs and PCBs through the evaluation of sediment concentrations. PMID:25113178

  2. Using solid-phase microextraction to determine partition coefficients to humic acids and bioavailable concentrations of hydrophobic chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Ramos, E.U.; Meijer, S.N.; Vaes, W.H.J.; Verhaar, H.J.M.; Hermens, J.L.M.

    1998-11-01

    In the current study, the suitability of negligible depletion solid-phase microextraction (nd-SPME) to determine free fractions of chemicals in aquatic environments was explored. The potential interferences of the dissolved matrix (i.e., humic acids) with the SPME measurements were tested. Results show that nd-SPME measures only the freely dissolved fraction and that the measurements are not disturbed by the humic acids. In addition, nd-SPME was used to determine partition coefficients between dissolved organic carbon and water for four hydrophobic chemicals. Obtained values are in excellent agreement with previously reported data. Finally, the bioaccumulation of hexachlorobenzene and PCB 77 to Daphnia magna was determined in the presence and absence of humic acids. The bioconcentration factors (BCF) were calculated based on total as well as on free concentration. Lower BCF values are obtained in the presence of humic acids using total concentrations, whereas equal BCFs are found using free concentrations measured with nd-SPME. Therefore, the authors can conclude that negligible depletion SPME is a good technique to determine bioavailable concentrations of hydrophobic chemicals in aquatic environments.

  3. The Influence of Precipitation Regimes and Elevated CO2 on Photosynthesis and Biomass Accumulation and Partitioning in Seedlings of the Rhizomatous Perennial Grass Leymus chinensis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhuolin; Zhang, Yuting; Yu, Dafu; Zhang, Na; Lin, Jixiang; Zhang, Jinwei; Tang, Jiahong; Wang, Junfeng; Mu, Chunsheng

    2014-01-01

    Leymus chinensis is a dominant, rhizomatous perennial C3 species in the grasslands of Songnen Plain of Northern China, and its productivity has decreased year by year. To determine how productivity of this species responds to different precipitation regimes, elevated CO2 and their interaction in future, we measured photosynthetic parameters, along with the accumulation and partitioning of biomass. Plants were subjected to combinations of three precipitation gradients (normal precipitation, versus normal ± 40%) and two CO2 levels (380±20 µmol mol-1,760±20 µmol mol-1) in controlled-environment chambers. The net photosynthetic rate, and above-ground and total biomass increased due to both elevated CO2 and increasing precipitation, but not significantly so when precipitation increased from the normal to high level under CO2 enrichment. Water use efficiency and the ratio of root: total biomass increased significantly when precipitation was low, but decreased when it was high under CO2 enrichment. Moreover, high precipitation at the elevated level of CO2 increased the ratio between stem biomass and total biomass. The effect of elevated CO2 on photosynthesis and biomass accumulation was higher at the low level of precipitation than with normal or high precipitation. The results suggest that at ambient CO2 levels, the net photosynthetic rate and biomass of L. chinensis increase with precipitation, but those measures are not further affected by additional precipitation when CO2 is elevated. Furthermore, CO2 may partly compensate for the negative effect of low precipitation on the growth and development of L. chinensis. PMID:25093814

  4. The Partition Intervalometer: A Programmable Underwater Timer for Marking Accumulated Sediment Profiles Collected in Anderson Sediment Traps: Development, Operation, Testing Procedures, and Field Results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rendigs, Richard R.; Anderson, Roger Y.; Xu, Jingping; Davis, Raymond E.; Bergeron, Emile M.

    2009-01-01

    This manual illustrates the development of a programmable instrument designed to deploy a series of wafer-shaped discs (partitions) into the collection tube of a sediment trap in various aquatic environments. These hydrodynamically shaped discs are deployed at discrete time intervals from the Intervalometer and provide markers that delineate time intervals within the sediments that accumulate in the collection tube. The timer and mechanical system are lodged in an air-filled, water-tight pressure housing that is vertically hung within the confines of a cone-shaped sediment trap. The instrumentation has been operationally pressure tested to an equivalent water depth of approximately 1 km. Flaws discovered during extensive laboratory and pressure testing resulted in the implementation of several mechanical modifications (such as a redesign of the rotor and the discs) that improved the operation of the rotor assembly as well as the release of discs through the end cap. These results also identified a preferred azimuth placement of the rotor disc relative to the drop hole of the end cap. In the initial field trial, five sediment traps and coupled Intervalometers were attached to moored arrays and deployed at two sites off the coast of Southern California for approximately 8 months. Each of the instruments released 18 discs at the programmed 10 day intervals, except one unit, which experienced a malfunction after approximately 4 months. Most of the discs oriented in a near-horizontal position upon the surface of the sediment in the collection tubes. Sampling of the sediments for geochemical analyses was improved by these clearly defined markers, which indicated the changes in the flux and nature of sediments accumulated during the deployment period of each sediment trap.

  5. Simultaneous Flux Measurements of CO2, its Stable Isotope Ratios and Trace Gases Based on Eddy Accumulation Technique for Flux Partitioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Y.; Hirata, R.

    2007-12-01

    For the purpose of determining the CO2 uptake by terrestrial ecosystem, eddy covariance method (EC) is commonly used in the tower-flux measurements. The flux measured by this method is called 'enet ecosystem exchange (NEE)'. NEE has the meaning of difference between two component fluxes, photosynthetic uptake and respiratory release of CO2. Magnitude of both the component fluxes is far larger than NEE. Both the component fluxes have difference in response function against changes in environmental factors, such as temperature and water. Therefore it is important to evaluate the characteristics of variations in the comporent fluxes individually in the future prediction of CO2 uptake by terrestrial ecosystem. Separation of NEE into the componet fluxes is usually done by using an approximate temperature expression of respiratory flux. This approximate expression is based on the assumption that the NEE observed at nighttime equals to the respiratory flux. The photosynthetic uptake of CO2 is defined as difference between the observed NEE and 'respiration' approximated as a temperature-function. Because of its technical simplicity, this approach has provided useful information about climatology of the gross CO2 fluxes. However, the temperature expression of respiratory flux has several limitations in its application. We are now developing a flux-partitioning method using chemical tracers (e.g. stable isotopes of CO2 and carbonyl sulfide) as additional constraints. The flux partitioning using stable isotopes of CO2 is based on the imbalance of net flux of the CO2 isotopes between 'respiration' and 'photosynthesis'. On the other hand, because of this similarity in the control factors for uptake ratio, the net flux of carbonyl sulfide (COS) is regarded as a possible constraint for the functioning of variations in photosynthetic CO2 uptake by terrestrial ecosystem. Field observation of fluxes of those chemical tracers by EC method is difficult due to stringent requirements

  6. Observation of microscopic damage accumulation in brittle solids subjected to dynamic compressive loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, S.; Xia, K.; Zheng, H.

    2013-09-01

    Dynamic failure of brittle materials is a fundamental physical problem that has significantly impacts to many science and engineering disciplines. As the first and the most important step towards the full understanding of this problem, one has to observe dynamic damage accumulation in brittle solids. In this work, we proposed a methodology to do that and demonstrated it by studying the dynamic compressive damage evolution of a granitic rock loaded with a modified split Hopkinson pressure bar system. To ensure consistency of the experimental results, we used cylindrical rock samples fabricated from the same rock core and subjected them to identical incident loading pulse. Using a special soft recovery technique, we stopped the dynamic loading on the samples at different strain levels, ranging from 0.3% to 1.4%. Therefore, we were able to recover intact samples loaded all the way to the post-peak deformation stage. The recovered samples were subsequently examined with X-ray micro-CT scanning machine. Three dimensional microcrack network induced by the dynamic loading was observed and the evolution of microcracks as a function of the dynamic loading strain was obtained.

  7. Trapped Melt in IIIAB Irons: Solid/Liquid Elemental Partitioning During the Fractionation of the IIIAB Magma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasson, John T.

    1999-01-01

    Group IIIAB, the largest iron-meteorite group, shows compositional trends (including a three-order-of-magnitude It concentration range) indicating that it formed by fractional crystallization of a metallic magma. Because about 200 irons are available, and all degrees of crystallization are well represented, IIIAB offers an excellent set of samples for the study of crystallization at all depths of the asteroidal core. On log-log Ir-Au, and Ir-As diagrams IIIAB forms a broad band; the breadth represents real meteorite-to-meteorite variations, far outside experimental or sampling uncertainties. A successful model must explain the width of this band; I suggest that it mainly resulted from the trapping of parental magma within the crystallizing solid. Because S is essentially insoluble in metal, the abundance of FeS is a measure of the fraction of trapped liquid. The trapped-melt model is supported by the observation that irons having higher S contents plot closer to the inferred composition of the magmatic parental liquid. The lowest S values are found in the irons occupying the left envelope of the IIIAB Ir-Au or Ir-As compositional fields, thus it is this set of irons that should be interpreted as the solid products of a fractionating magma. This simplifies the modeling of the crystallization process and allows inferences regarding the distribution ratios for other elements in the evolved IIIAB system. The large (multiton) Cape York irons show wide variations in their trapped-melt fractions; their compositions seem best understood in terms of a low initial S content of the IIIAB magma, about 20 mg/g. The inferred initial IIIAB distribution coefficient for Ir, 4.6, is much higher than published values based on laboratory studies of low-S systems; I suggest that low-S (and low-P) partition-ratio measurements tend to err in the direction of unity. In IIIAB distribution coefficients for Au, As, and Ni were still < 1 when the most evolved IIIAB irons formed, another

  8. Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus Accumulation and Partitioning, and C:N:P Stoichiometry in Late-Season Rice under Different Water and Nitrogen Managements

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Yushi; Liang, Xinqiang; Chen, Yingxu; Li, Liang; Ji, Yuanjing; Zhu, Chunyan

    2014-01-01

    Water and nitrogen availability plays an important role in the biogeochemical cycles of essential elements, such as carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), in agricultural ecosystems. In this study, we investigated the seasonal changes of C, N and P concentrations, accumulation, partitioning, and C:N:P stoichiometric ratios in different plant tissues (root, stem-leaf, and panicle) of late-season rice under two irrigation regimes (continuous flooding, CF; alternate wetting and drying, AWD) and four N managements (control, N0; conventional urea at 240 kg N ha−1, UREA; controlled-release bulk blending fertilizer at 240 kg N ha−1, BBF; polymer-coated urea at 240 kg N ha−1, PCU). We found that water and N treatments had remarkable effects on the measured parameters in different plant tissues after transplanting, but the water and N interactions had insignificant effects. Tissue C:N, N:P and C:P ratios ranged from 14.6 to 52.1, 3.1 to 7.8, and 76.9 to 254.3 over the rice growing seasons, respectively. The root and stem-leaf C:N:P and panicle C:N ratios showed overall uptrends with a peak at harvest whereas the panicle N:P and C:P ratios decreased from filling to harvest. The AWD treatment did not affect the concentrations and accumulation of tissue C and N, but greatly decreased those of P, resulting in enhanced N:P and C:P ratios. N fertilization significantly increased tissue N concentration, slightly enhanced tissue P concentration, but did not affect tissue C concentration, leading to a significant increase in tissue N:P ratio but a decrease in C:N and C:P ratios. Our results suggested that the growth of rice in the Taihu Lake region was co-limited by N and P. These findings broadened our understanding of the responses of plant C:N:P stoichiometry to simultaneous water and N managements in subtropical high-yielding rice systems. PMID:24992006

  9. Carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus accumulation and partitioning, and C:N:P stoichiometry in late-season rice under different water and nitrogen managements.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yushi; Liang, Xinqiang; Chen, Yingxu; Li, Liang; Ji, Yuanjing; Zhu, Chunyan

    2014-01-01

    Water and nitrogen availability plays an important role in the biogeochemical cycles of essential elements, such as carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), in agricultural ecosystems. In this study, we investigated the seasonal changes of C, N and P concentrations, accumulation, partitioning, and C:N:P stoichiometric ratios in different plant tissues (root, stem-leaf, and panicle) of late-season rice under two irrigation regimes (continuous flooding, CF; alternate wetting and drying, AWD) and four N managements (control, N0; conventional urea at 240 kg N ha(-1), UREA; controlled-release bulk blending fertilizer at 240 kg N ha(-1), BBF; polymer-coated urea at 240 kg N ha(-1), PCU). We found that water and N treatments had remarkable effects on the measured parameters in different plant tissues after transplanting, but the water and N interactions had insignificant effects. Tissue C:N, N:P and C:P ratios ranged from 14.6 to 52.1, 3.1 to 7.8, and 76.9 to 254.3 over the rice growing seasons, respectively. The root and stem-leaf C:N:P and panicle C:N ratios showed overall uptrends with a peak at harvest whereas the panicle N:P and C:P ratios decreased from filling to harvest. The AWD treatment did not affect the concentrations and accumulation of tissue C and N, but greatly decreased those of P, resulting in enhanced N:P and C:P ratios. N fertilization significantly increased tissue N concentration, slightly enhanced tissue P concentration, but did not affect tissue C concentration, leading to a significant increase in tissue N:P ratio but a decrease in C:N and C:P ratios. Our results suggested that the growth of rice in the Taihu Lake region was co-limited by N and P. These findings broadened our understanding of the responses of plant C:N:P stoichiometry to simultaneous water and N managements in subtropical high-yielding rice systems. PMID:24992006

  10. Trace element partitioning in ashes from boilers firing pure wood or mixtures of solid waste with respect to fuel composition, chlorine content and temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Saqib, Naeem Bäckström, Mattias

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Different solids waste incineration is discussed in grate fired and fluidized bed boilers. • We explained waste composition, temperature and chlorine effects on metal partitioning. • Excessive chlorine content can change oxide to chloride equilibrium partitioning the trace elements in fly ash. • Volatility increases with temperature due to increase in vapor pressure of metals and compounds. • In Fluidized bed boiler, most metals find themselves in fly ash, especially for wood incineration. - Abstract: Trace element partitioning in solid waste (household waste, industrial waste, waste wood chips and waste mixtures) incineration residues was investigated. Samples of fly ash and bottom ash were collected from six incineration facilities across Sweden including two grate fired and four fluidized bed incinerators, to have a variation in the input fuel composition (from pure biofuel to mixture of waste) and different temperature boiler conditions. As trace element concentrations in the input waste at the same facilities have already been analyzed, the present study focuses on the concentration of trace elements in the waste fuel, their distribution in the incineration residues with respect to chlorine content of waste and combustion temperature. Results indicate that Zn, Cu and Pb are dominating trace elements in the waste fuel. Highly volatile elements mercury and cadmium are mainly found in fly ash in all cases; 2/3 of lead also end up in fly ash while Zn, As and Sb show a large variation in distribution with most of them residing in the fly ash. Lithophilic elements such as copper and chromium are mainly found in bottom ash from grate fired facilities while partition mostly into fly ash from fluidized bed incinerators, especially for plants fuelled by waste wood or ordinary wood chips. There is no specific correlation between input concentration of an element in the waste fuel and fraction partitioned to fly ash. Temperature and chlorine

  11. Modeled Sources, Transport, and Accumulation of Dissolved Solids in Water Resources of the Southwestern United States1

    PubMed Central

    Anning, David W

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Information on important source areas for dissolved solids in streams of the southwestern United States, the relative share of deliveries of dissolved solids to streams from natural and human sources, and the potential for salt accumulation in soil or groundwater was developed using a SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes model. Predicted area-normalized reach-catchment delivery rates of dissolved solids to streams ranged from <10 (kg/year)/km2 for catchments with little or no natural or human-related solute sources in them to 563,000 (kg/year)/km2 for catchments that were almost entirely cultivated land. For the region as a whole, geologic units contributed 44% of the dissolved-solids deliveries to streams and the remaining 56% of the deliveries came from the release of solutes through irrigation of cultivated and pasture lands, which comprise only 2.5% of the land area. Dissolved-solids accumulation is manifested as precipitated salts in the soil or underlying sediments, and (or) dissolved salts in soil-pore or sediment-pore water, or groundwater, and therefore represents a potential for aquifer contamination. Accumulation rates were <10,000 (kg/year)/km2 for many hydrologic accounting units (large river basins), but were more than 40,000 (kg/year)/km2 for the Middle Gila, Lower Gila-Agua Fria, Lower Gila, Lower Bear, Great Salt Lake accounting units, and 247,000 (kg/year)/km2 for the Salton Sea accounting unit. PMID:22457583

  12. Transfers of iodine in the soil-plant-air system: Solid-liquid partitioning, migration, plant uptake adn volatilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human exposure to soil iodine depends upon the partitioning of the iodine into the, mobile, liquid and gaseous soil phases. From the liquid phase, iodine can be transported into surface- and ground-waters, plant roots, and, consequently, into the human diet. From the gaseous phase, iodine can be tra...

  13. Matrix solid phase dispersion-assisted BCR sequential extraction method for metal partitioning in surface estuarine sediments.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Fernández, Marta; Barciela-Alonso, María Carmen; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar

    2011-01-15

    The BCR (the Community Bureau of Reference) of the European Union sequential extraction scheme for metal partitioning in estuarine sediments has been accelerated by using a matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) approach. The MSPD assisted BCR procedure consists of passing the extractants proposed by conventional BCR protocol (0.11 M acetic acid, 0.1M hydroxylammonium chloride and 8.8M hydrogen peroxide plus 1M ammonium acetate) through the dispersed sample packaged inside a disposable syringe. Different silica-, magnesium- and aluminium-based materials were tested as dispersing agents and sea sand was found to offer the best performances. Variables for assisting the three stages of the BCR protocol were optimized, and accurate results were obtained when assisting the first and the third stages (exchangeable and oxidizable fractions, respectively). However, lack of accuracy was observed when assisting the second step (reducible fraction) and this result agrees with most of the assisted BCR procedures for which extracting the reducible fraction is the most troublesome stage. The organic matter oxidation (third stage) was successfully assisted by passing hydrogen peroxide at 50°C through the dispersed sample inside de syringe just before passing ammonium acetate. Therefore, the time-consuming and unsafe conventional organic matter oxidation processes, commonly performed even for microwave/ultrasounds assisted BCR procedures, are totally avoided. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used as a selective detector. The target elements were Cd, Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, Sr and Zn (first stage), Cd, Co and Ni (second stage), and Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, Sr and Zn (third stage). Repeatability of the method (n=7) was good, and RSDs values of 9, 10, 10, 8, 8, 3 and 8% was obtained for Cd, Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, Sr and Zn, respectively (first stage); 10, 9 and 9% for Cd, Co and Ni, respectively (second stage); and 6, 2, 3, 4, 7 and 9% Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, Sr and Zn, respectively (third

  14. Trace element partitioning in ashes from boilers firing pure wood or mixtures of solid waste with respect to fuel composition, chlorine content and temperature.

    PubMed

    Saqib, Naeem; Bäckström, Mattias

    2014-12-01

    Trace element partitioning in solid waste (household waste, industrial waste, waste wood chips and waste mixtures) incineration residues was investigated. Samples of fly ash and bottom ash were collected from six incineration facilities across Sweden including two grate fired and four fluidized bed incinerators, to have a variation in the input fuel composition (from pure biofuel to mixture of waste) and different temperature boiler conditions. As trace element concentrations in the input waste at the same facilities have already been analyzed, the present study focuses on the concentration of trace elements in the waste fuel, their distribution in the incineration residues with respect to chlorine content of waste and combustion temperature. Results indicate that Zn, Cu and Pb are dominating trace elements in the waste fuel. Highly volatile elements mercury and cadmium are mainly found in fly ash in all cases; 2/3 of lead also end up in fly ash while Zn, As and Sb show a large variation in distribution with most of them residing in the fly ash. Lithophilic elements such as copper and chromium are mainly found in bottom ash from grate fired facilities while partition mostly into fly ash from fluidized bed incinerators, especially for plants fuelled by waste wood or ordinary wood chips. There is no specific correlation between input concentration of an element in the waste fuel and fraction partitioned to fly ash. Temperature and chlorine content have significant effects on partitioning characteristics by increasing the formation and vaporization of highly volatile metal chlorides. Zinc and cadmium concentrations in fly ash increase with the incineration temperature. PMID:25263218

  15. GRACE and AMSR-E-based estimates of winter season solid precipitation accumulation in the Arctic drainage region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Ki-Weon; Ryu, Dongryeol; Kim, Baek-Min; Waliser, Duane E.; Tian, Baijun; Eom, Jooyoung

    2010-10-01

    Solid precipitation plays a major role in controlling the winter hydrological cycle and spring discharge in the Arctic region. However, it has not been well documented due to sharply decreasing numbers of precipitation gauges, gauge measurement biases, as well as limitations of conventional satellite methods in high latitudes. In this study, we document the winter season solid precipitation accumulation in the Arctic region using the latest new satellite measurements from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E). GRACE measures the winter total water (mainly from snow water equivalent (SWE)) storage change through gravity changes while AMSR-E measures the winter SWE through passive microwave measurements. The GRACE and AMSR-E measurements are combined with in situ and numerical model estimates of discharge and evapotranspiration to estimate the winter season solid precipitation accumulation in the Arctic region using the water budget equation. These two satellite-based estimates are then compared to the conventional estimates from two global precipitation products, such as the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) and Climate Prediction Center's Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP), and three reanalyses, the National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis, the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts' ERA-Interim, and the Japan Meteorological Agency's Climate Data Assimilation System (JCDAS) reanalysis. The GRACE-based estimate is very close to the GPCP and ERA-Interim estimates. The AMSR-E-based estimate is the most different from the other estimates. This GRACE-based measurement of winter season solid precipitation accumulation can provide a new valuable benchmark to understand the hydrological cycle, to validate and evaluate the model simulation, and to improve data assimilation in the

  16. Liquid accumulation in vibrating vocal fold tissue: A simplified model based on a fluid-saturated porous solid theory

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Chao; Jiang, Jack J.; Czerwonka, Lukasz

    2011-01-01

    The human vocal fold is treated as a continuous, transversally isotropic, porous solid saturated with liquid. A set of mathematical equations, based on the theory of fluid-saturated porous solids, is developed to formulate the vibration of the vocal fold tissue. As the fluid-saturated porous tissue model degenerates to the continuous elastic tissue model when the relative movement of liquid in the porous tissue is ignored, it can be considered a more general description of vocal fold tissue than the continuous, elastic model. Using the fluid-saturated porous tissue model, the vibration of a bunch of one-dimensional fibers in the vocal fold is analytically solved based on the small amplitude assumption. It is found that the vibration of the tissue will lead to the accumulation of excess liquid in the midmembranous vocal fold. The degree of liquid accumulation is positively proportional to the vibratory amplitude and frequency. The correspondence between the liquid distribution predicted by the porous tissue theory and the location of vocal nodules observed in clinical practice, provides theoretical evidence for the liquid accumulation hypothesis of vocal nodule formation (Jiang, Ph. D., dissertation, 1991, University of Iowa). PMID:19660905

  17. Spatial Measurements of Perfusion, Interstitial Fluid Pressure and Liposomes Accumulation in Solid Tumors.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, Shawn; Mirmilshteyn, Daniel; Zheng, Jinzi; Allen, Christine; Jaffray, David A

    2016-01-01

    The heterogeneous intra-tumoral accumulation of liposomes is a critical determinant of their efficacy. Both the chaotic tumor microcirculation and elevated IFP are linked to the heterogeneous intra-tumoral distribution of nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems such as liposomes. In the present study, the relationship between tumor microcirculation, elevated IFP, and accumulation of nanoparticles was investigated through in vivo experimentation. This was accomplished by evaluation of the tumor microcirculation using dynamic contrast enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT) and measurement of tumor IFP using a novel image-guided robotic needle placement system connected to the micro-CT scanner. The intra-tumoral accumulation of liposomes was determined by CT image-based assessment of a nanoparticle liposomal formulation that stably encapsulate the contrast agent iohexol (CT-liposomes). CT imaging allowed for co-localization of the spatial distribution of tumor hemodynamics, IFP and CT-liposome accumulation in an individual subcutaneous xenograft mouse model of breast cancer. Measurements led to the discovery that perfusion and plasma volume fraction are strong mediators of the intra-tumoral distribution of liposomes. Furthermore, the results suggest that IFP plays an indirect role in mediating liposome distribution through modulating blood flow. PMID:27583578

  18. Occurrence and partition of antibiotics in the liquid and solid phases of swine wastewater from concentrated animal feeding operations in Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Ben, Weiwei; Pan, Xun; Qiang, Zhimin

    2013-04-01

    Swine wastewater represents an important pollution source of antibiotics in the environment; however, regional data about residual antibiotics in swine wastewater are very limited at present. This study investigated the concentrations of three classes of commonly used veterinary antibiotics, including five sulfonamides (SAs), three tetracyclines (TCs) and one macrolide (tiamulin, TIA), in swine wastewater collected from 21 concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) sites in Shandong Province, China. Both the liquid and solid (i.e., suspended solids) phases of swine wastewater were analyzed to determine the total concentration of each studied antibiotic. Results indicate that sulfamethazine had the highest median concentration (14.56 μg L(-1)), followed by oxytetracycline (OTC, 8.05 μg L(-1)) and chlortetracycline (CTC, 6.01 μg L(-1)). The maximum detected concentration reached up to 2.02 mg L(-1) (OTC) and the highest detection frequency was 95.1% (CTC). The median concentrations and detection frequencies of antibiotics in winter samples were generally higher than those in summer samples (except CTC). The log Kd values were in the range of 1.31-1.96 for SAs, 2.05-2.33 for TCs, and 1.54-1.58 for TIA in swine wastewater. More TCs (14-28%) preferred to partition in the solid phase than SAs (2-10%) and TIA (5-10%), indicating that the suspended solids of swine wastewater may not be ignored. PMID:23493952

  19. Bisphenol A in Solid Waste Materials, Leachate Water, and Air Particles from Norwegian Waste-Handling Facilities: Presence and Partitioning Behavior.

    PubMed

    Morin, Nicolas; Arp, Hans Peter H; Hale, Sarah E

    2015-07-01

    The plastic additive bisphenol A (BPA) is commonly found in landfill leachate at levels exceeding acute toxicity benchmarks. To gain insight into the mechanisms controlling BPA emissions from waste and waste-handling facilities, a comprehensive field and laboratory campaign was conducted to quantify BPA in solid waste materials (glass, combustibles, vehicle fluff, waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE), plastics, fly ash, bottom ash, and digestate), leachate water, and atmospheric dust from Norwegian sorting, incineration, and landfill facilities. Solid waste concentrations varied from below 0.002 mg/kg (fly ash) to 188 ± 125 mg/kg (plastics). A novel passive sampling method was developed to, for the first time, establish a set of waste-water partition coefficients, KD,waste, for BPA, and to quantify differences between total and freely dissolved concentrations in waste-facility leachate. Log-normalized KD,waste (L/kg) values were similar for all solid waste materials (from 2.4 to 3.1), excluding glass and metals, indicating BPA is readily leachable. Leachate concentrations were similar for landfills and WEEE/vehicle sorting facilities (from 0.7 to 200 μg/L) and dominated by the freely dissolved fraction, not bound to (plastic) colloids (agreeing with measured KD,waste values). Dust concentrations ranged from 2.3 to 50.7 mg/kgdust. Incineration appears to be an effective way to reduce BPA concentrations in solid waste, dust, and leachate. PMID:26055751

  20. Gold solubility and partitioning between sulfide liquid, monosulfide solid solution and hydrous mantle melts: Implications for the formation of Au-rich magmas and crust-mantle differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuan; Audétat, Andreas

    2013-10-01

    The solubility of Au in sulfur-free vs. sulfide-saturated melts and its partitioning behavior between sulfide liquid (SL), monosulfide solid solution (MSS) and hydrous basanite melt at variable Au activities was investigated in a fO2 range of FMQ-2 to FMQ+1.6 at 1200 °C/1.5 GPa using piston cylinder apparatus. Gold solubility in sulfur-free (<100 μg/g S) melt is low (0.6-1.6 μg/g) and increases with fO2 in a manner consistent with Au dissolution as AuO1/2, whereas in sulfide-saturated melts it is high (13.6 ± 1.7 μg/g) and independent of fO2. Variations in the chlorine content of sulfide-saturated melts (0.2-1.2 wt% Cl) had no measurable effect on Au solubility. Gold partition coefficients between sulfide liquid and silicate melt (DAuSL/SM) are very high, ∼10,000 ± 3000, which is at the upper end of values reported in previous studies. Gold partition coefficients between MSS and silicate melt (DAuMSS/SM) are much lower, 60 ± 10, which is at the lower end of previous values. Both DAuSL/SM and DAuMSS/SM are independent of fO2. The new Au partition coefficients were used in conjunction with previously published Cu and Ag partition coefficients to investigate the role of MSS versus SL during partial melting in the source region of primitive potassic magmas and during crust-mantle differentiation. The high Au content of ore deposits associated with potassic magmas has commonly been explained by the dissolution of Au-rich sulfide liquid, either during partial melting in the mantle source or during partial re-melting of sulfide-bearing cumulates at the crust-mantle boundary. We argue that MSS is the dominant sulfide phase in the mantle source region of these magmas, and thus that their high Au content is a consequence of low MSS-silicate melt partition coefficients rather than of sulfide exhaustion or partial re-melting of sulfide-bearing cumulates. Continental crust is depleted in Au, Ag and Cu relative to mantle melts, which was thought to be due to removal of

  1. Partitioning of platinum-group elements (PGE) and chalcogens (Se, Te, As, Sb, Bi) between monosulfide-solid solution (MSS), intermediate solid solution (ISS) and sulfide liquid at controlled fO2-fS2 conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yanan; Brenan, James

    2015-06-01

    In order to better understand the behavior of highly siderophile elements (HSEs: Os, Ir, Ru, Rh, Pt, Pd, Au, Re), Ag, Pb and chalcogens (As, Se, Sb, Te and Bi) during the solidification of sulfide magmas, we have conducted a series of experiments to measure partition coefficients (D values) between monosulfide solid solution (MSS) and sulfide melt, as well as MSS and intermediate solid solution (ISS), at 0.1 MPa and 860-926 °C, log fS2 -3.0 to -2.2 (similar to the Pt-PtS buffer), with fO2 controlled at the fayalite-magnetite-quartz (FMQ) buffer. The IPGEs (Os, Ir, Ru), Rh and Re are found to be compatible in MSS relative to sulfide melt with D values ranging from ∼20 to ∼5, and DRe/DOs of ∼0.5. Pd, Pt, Au, Ag, Pb, as well as the chalcogens, are incompatible in MSS, with D values ranging from ∼0.1 to ∼1 × 10-3. For the same metal/sulfur ratio, D values for the IPGEs, Rh and Re are systematically larger than most past studies, correlating with higher oxygen content in the sulfide liquid, reflecting the significant effect of oxygen on increasing the activity coefficients for these elements in the melt phase. MSS/ISS partitioning experiments reveal that Ru, Os, Ir, Rh and Re are partitioned into MSS by a factor of >50, whereas Pd, Pt, Ag, Au and the chalcogens partition from weakly (Se, As) to strongly (Ag, Au) into ISS. Uniformly low MSS- and ISS- melt partition coefficients for the chalcogens, Pt, Pd, Ag and Au will lead to enrichment in the residual sulfide liquid, but D values are generally too large to reach early saturation in Pt-Pd-chalcogen-rich accessory minerals, based on current solubility estimates. Instead, these phases likely precipitate at the last dregs of crystallization. Modeled evolution curves for the PGEs and chalcogens are in reasonably good agreement with whole-rock sulfide compositions for the McCreedy East deposit (Sudbury, Ontario), consistent with an origin by crystallization of MSS, then MSS + ISS from sulfide magma.

  2. Remodelling of extracellular matrix due to solid stress accumulation during tumour growth

    PubMed Central

    Pirentis, Athanassios P.; Polydorou, Christiana; Papageorgis, Panagiotis; Voutouri, Chrysovalantis; Mpekris, Fotios; Stylianopoulos, Triantafyllos

    2015-01-01

    Solid stresses emerge as the expanding tumour displaces and deforms the surrounding normal tissue, and also as a result of intratumoural component interplay. Among other things, solid stresses are known to induce extensive extracellular matrix synthesis and reorganization. In the present study, we developed a mathematical model of tumour growth that distinguishes the contribution to stress generation by collagenous and non-collagenous tumour structural components, and also investigates collagen fibre remodelling exclusively due to solid stress. To this end, we initially conducted in vivo experiments using an orthotopic mouse model for breast cancer to monitor primary tumour growth and derive the mechanical properties of the tumour. Subsequently, we fitted the mathematical model to experimental data to determine values of the model parameters. According to the model, intratumoural solid stress is compressive, whereas extratumoural stress in the tumour vicinity is compressive in the radial direction and tensile in the periphery. Furthermore, collagen fibres engaged in stress generation only in the peritumoural region, and not in the interior where they were slackened due to the compressive stress state. Peritumoural fibres were driven away from the radial direction, tended to realign tangent to the tumour-host interface, and were also significantly stretched by tensile circumferential stresses. By means of this remodelling, the model predicts that the tumour is enveloped by a progressively thickening capsule of collagen fibres. This prediction is consistent with long-standing observations of tumour encapsulation and histologic sections that we performed, and it further corroborates the expansive growth hypothesis for the capsule formation. PMID:26194953

  3. Remodeling of extracellular matrix due to solid stress accumulation during tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Pirentis, Athanassios P; Polydorou, Christiana; Papageorgis, Panagiotis; Voutouri, Chrysovalantis; Mpekris, Fotios; Stylianopoulos, Triantafyllos

    2015-01-01

    Solid stresses emerge as the expanding tumor displaces and deforms the surrounding normal tissue, and also as a result of intratumoral component interplay. Among other things, solid stresses are known to induce extensive extracellular matrix synthesis and reorganization. In this study, we developed a mathematical model of tumor growth that distinguishes the contribution to stress generation by collagenous and non-collagenous tumor structural components, and also investigates collagen fiber remodeling exclusively due to solid stress. To this end, we initially conducted in vivo experiments using an orthotopic mouse model for breast cancer to monitor primary tumor growth and derive the mechanical properties of the tumor. Subsequently, we fitted the mathematical model to experimental data to determine values of the model parameters. According to the model, intratumoral solid stress is compressive, whereas extratumoral stress in the tumor vicinity is compressive in the radial direction and tensile in the periphery. Furthermore, collagen fibers engaged in stress generation only in the peritumoral region, and not in the interior where they were slackened due to the compressive stress state. Peritumoral fibers were driven away from the radial direction, tended to realign tangent to the tumor-host interface, and were also significantly stretched by tensile circumferential stresses. By means of this remodeling, the model predicts that the tumor is enveloped by a progressively thickening capsule of collagen fibers. This prediction is consistent with long-standing observations of tumor encapsulation and histologic sections that we performed, and it further corroborates the expansive growth hypothesis for the capsule formation. PMID:26194953

  4. Rate of production, dissolution and accumulation of biogenic solids in the ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrhenius, G.

    1988-01-01

    The equatorial current system, by its response to global circulation changes, provides a unique recording mechanism for long range climatic oscillations. A permanent record of the changes in rate of upwelling and organic production is generated in the equatorial deep sea sediments, particularly by such biogenic components which are unaffected by secondary dissolution. In order to determine the rates of accumulation of various sedimentary components, a reliable differential measurement of age of the strata must be obtained. Various approaches to this problem are reviewed, and sources of error discussed. Secondary dissolution of calcium carbonate introduces a substantial and variable difference between the dissolution-modified, and hence a priori unknown, rate of deposition on one hand and the rate of accumulation, derivable from the observed concentration, on the other. The cause and magnitude of these variations are of importance, particularly since some current dating schemes are based on assumed constancy in the rate of accumulation of this and, in some cases, also all other sedimentary components. The concepts used in rate evaluation are discussed with emphasis on the difference between the state of dissolution, an observable property of the sediment, and the rate of dissolution, a parameter that requires deduction of the carbonate fraction dissolved, and of the time differential. As a most likely cause of the enhanced state of dissolution of the interglacial carbonate sediments is proposed the lowered rates of biogenic production and deposition, which cause longer exposure of the carbonate microfossils to corrosion in the bioturbated surface layer of the sediment. Historical perspective is included in the discussion in view of the dedication of the Symposium to Hans Pettersson, the leader of the Swedish Deep Sea Expedition 1947-1948, an undertaking that opened a new era in deep sea research and planetary dynamics.

  5. Optimization of erythritol and glycerol accumulation in conidia of Beauveria bassiana by solid-state fermentation, using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Tarocco, Federico; Lecuona, Roberto E; Couto, Alicia S; Arcas, Jorge A

    2005-09-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi are widely produced for use as mycoinsecticides. Therefore, improvement of the shelf life of fungal propagules under good and adverse conditions should be a pre-requisite of their production. In order to improve conidial physiology as well as mycoinsecticide efficiency, culture conditions may be varied. The Doehlert design was used to generate response surfaces with an estimation of the parameters of the quadratic model allowing the study of three different factors at a different number of levels. This experimental design was applied to optimize water activity (aw), pH, and fermentation time for Beauveria bassiana conidial production and accumulation of polyols in solid-state fermentation. Thus, it was possible to identify the region in the experimental range in which the optimum values of these parameters were simultaneously achieved. Maximal conidia production was achieved at pH 5-6 and aw=0.999. Under these conditions, polyol accumulation was 3 mg erythritol/g conidia and 29.6 mg glycerol/g conidia. However, maximal polyol accumulation was achieved at pH 4.5 and aw 0.950; erythritol production increased 33-fold and glycerol production 4.5-fold. Under these conditions conidia production was 1,000 times lower. The possibilities of increasing the quality of the biocontrol agent without neglecting yield are discussed. PMID:15731900

  6. Partitioning of rhodium and ruthenium between Pd-Rh-Ru and (Ru,Rh)O2 solid solutions in high-level radioactive waste glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugawara, Toru; Ohira, Toshiaki; Komamine, Satoshi; Ochi, Eiji

    2015-10-01

    The partitioning of rhodium and ruthenium between Pd-Rh-Ru alloy with a face-centered cubic (FCC) structure and (Ru,Rh)O2 solid solution has been investigated between 1273 and 1573 K at atmospheric oxygen fugacity. The rhodium and ruthenium contents in FCC increase, while the RhO2 content in (Ru,Rh)O2 decreases with increasing temperature due to progressive reduction of the system. Based on the experimental results and previously reported thermodynamic data, the thermodynamic mixing properties of FCC phase and (Ru,Rh)O2 have been calibrated in an internally consistent manner. Phase equilibrium of platinum grope metals in an HLW glass was calculated by using the obtained thermodynamic parameters.

  7. Improved reactor performance and operability in the biotransformation of carveol to carvone using a solid-liquid two-phase partitioning bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Morrish, Jenna L E; Daugulis, Andrew J

    2008-12-01

    In an effort to improve reactor performance and process operability, the microbial biotransformation of (-)-trans-carveol to (R)-(-)-carvone by hydrophobic Rhodococcus erythropolis DCL14 was carried out in a two phase partitioning bioreactor (TPPB) with solid polymer beads acting as the partitioning phase. Previous work had demonstrated that the substrate and product become inhibitory to the organism at elevated aqueous concentrations and the use of an immiscible second phase in the bioreactor was intended to provide a reservoir for substrates to be delivered to the aqueous phase based on the metabolic rate of the cells, while also acting as a sink to uptake the product as it is produced. The biotransformation was previously undertaken in a two liquid phase TPPB with 1-dodecene and with silicone oil as the immiscible second phase and, although improvement in the reactor performance was obtained relative to a single phase system, the hydrophobic nature of the organism caused the formation of severe emulsions leading to significant operational challenges. In the present work, eight types of polymer beads were screened for their suitability for use in a solid-liquid TPPB for this biotransformation. The use of selected solid polymer beads as the second phase completely prevented emulsion formation and therefore improved overall operability of the reactor. Three modes of solid-liquid TPPB operation were considered: the use of a single polymer bead type (styrene/butadiene copolymer) in the reactor, the use of a mixture of polymer beads in the reactor (styrene/butadiene copolymer plus Hytrel(R) 8206), and the use of one type of polymer beads in the reactor (styrene/butadiene copolymer), and another bead type (Hytrel(R) 8206) in an external column through which fermentation medium was recirculated. This last configuration achieved the best reactor performance with 7 times more substrate being added throughout the biotransformation relative to a single aqueous phase

  8. PARTITION INFRARED METHOD FOR TOTAL GASOLINE RANGE ORGANICS IN WATER BASED ON SOLID PHASE MICROEXTRACTION. (R825343)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new method is described for determining total gasoline-range organics
    (TGRO) in water that combines solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and infrared
    (IR) spectroscopy. In this method, the organic compounds are extracted from
    250-mL of water into a small square (3....

  9. Spatial distribution and accumulation of radicals arising in organic solids under the action of glow discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raitsimring, A. M.; Kurshev, V. V.

    1994-12-01

    The method, based on analyzing the dipolar broadening of EPR spectra was applied for investigation of the spatial distribution of radicals generated by high-frequency glow discharge in organic molecular crystals (powders of malonic and dimethylmalonic acids) and glassy isopropanol contained electron scavenger. It was shown that in the first case the radical distribution does not depend on time of discharge. The radicals are generated in layer of size ˜.05-0.1 μm at a concentration of ˜2 10 20 cm -3. For the second case the distribution function was changed in the course of plasma treatment and the depth of radical generation was varied from 0.25 to 1.5 μm during the discharge action. Contribution of the various mechanisms of radical formation were evaluated and it was shown that ionic mechanism predominated. A kinetic model is proposed to describe both the radical accumulation and evolution of spatial distribution function in plasmolysis. The use of the model, method and obtained data for general and practical applications is discussed.

  10. Partition search

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsberg, M.L.

    1996-12-31

    We introduce a new form of game search called partition search that incorporates dependency analysis, allowing substantial reductions in the portion of the tree that needs to be expanded. Both theoretical results and experimental data are presented. For the game of bridge, partition search provides approximately as much of an improvement over existing methods as {alpha}-{beta} pruning provides over minimax.

  11. Solid-solution partitioning and thionation of diphenylarsinic acid in a flooded soil under the impact of sulfate and iron reduction.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Meng; Tu, Chen; Hu, Xuefeng; Zhang, Haibo; Zhang, Lijuan; Wei, Jing; Li, Yuan; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2016-11-01

    Diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA) is a major organic arsenic (As) compound derived from abandoned chemical weapons. The solid-solution partitioning and transformation of DPAA in flooded soils are poorly understood but are of great concern. The identification of the mechanisms responsible for the mobilization and transformation of DPAA may help to develop effective remediation strategies. Here, soil and Fe mineral incubation experiments were carried out to elucidate the partitioning and transformation of DPAA in anoxic (without addition of sulfate or sodium lactate) and sulfide (with the addition of sulfate and sodium lactate) soil and to examine the impact of sulfate and Fe(III) reduction on these processes. Results show that DPAA was more effectively mobilized and thionated in sulfide soil than in anoxic soil. At the initial incubation stages (0-4weeks), 6.7-74.5% of the total DPAA in sulfide soil was mobilized likely by sorption competition with sodium lactate. At later incubation stage (4-8weeks), DPAA was almost completely released into the solution likely due to the near-complete Fe(III) reduction. Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) results provide further direct evidence of elevated DPAA release coupled with Fe(III) reduction in sulfide environments. The total DPAA fraction decreased significantly to 24.5% after two weeks and reached 3.4% after eight weeks in sulfide soil, whereas no obvious elimination of DPAA occurred in anoxic soil at the initial two weeks and the total DPAA fraction decreased to 10.9% after eight weeks. This can be explained in part by the enhanced mobilization of DPAA and sulfate reduction in sulfide soil compared with anoxic soil. These results suggest that under flooded soil conditions, Fe(III) and sulfate reduction significantly promote DPAA mobilization and thionation, respectively, and we suggest that it is essential to consider both sulfate and Fe(III) reduction to further our understanding of the environmental fate of DPAA

  12. Partitioning of trace elements and metals between quasi-ultrafine, accumulation and coarse aerosols in indoor and outdoor air in schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viana, M.; Rivas, I.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Álvarez-Pedrerol, M.; Bouso, L.; Sioutas, C.; Sunyer, J.

    2015-04-01

    Particle size distribution patterns of trace elements and metals across three size fractions (<0.25 μm, quasi-ultrafine particles, q-UF; 0.25-2.5 μm, accumulation particles; 2.5-10 μm, coarse particles) were analysed in indoor and outdoor air at 39 primary schools across Barcelona (Spain). Special attention was paid to emission sources in each particle size range. Results evidenced the presence in q-UF particles of high proportions of elements typically found in coarse PM (Ca, Al, Fe, Mn or Na), as well as several potentially health-hazardous metals (Mn, Cu, Sn, V, Pb). Modal shifts (e.g., from accumulation to coarse or q-UF particles) were detected when particles infiltrated indoors, mainly for secondary inorganic aerosols. Our results indicate that the location of schools in heavily trafficked areas increases the abundance of q-UF particles, which infiltrate indoors quite effectively, and thus may impact children exposure to these health-hazardous particles.

  13. The fate of steroid estrogens: partitioning during wastewater treatment and onto river sediments.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Rachel L; Scrimshaw, Mark D; Cartmell, Elise; Lester, John N

    2011-04-01

    The partitioning of steroid estrogens in wastewater treatment and receiving waters is likely to influence their discharge to, and persistence in, the environment. This study investigated the partitioning behaviour of steroid estrogens in both laboratory and field studies. Partitioning onto activated sludge from laboratory-scale Husmann units was rapid with equilibrium achieved after 1 h. Sorption isotherms and Kd values decreased in the order 17α-ethinyl estradiol>17α-estradiol>estrone>estriol without a sorption limit being achieved (1/n>1). Samples from a wastewater treatment works indicated no accumulation of steroid estrogens in solids from primary or secondary biological treatment, however, a range of steroid estrogens were identified in sediment samples from the River Thames. This would indicate that partitioning in the environment may play a role in the long-term fate of estrogens, with an indication that they will be recalcitrant in anaerobic conditions. PMID:20556648

  14. Partition Equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, Michal; Tennenholtz, Moshe

    We introduce partition equilibrium and study its existence in resource selection games (RSG). In partition equilibrium the agents are partitioned into coalitions, and only deviations by the prescribed coalitions are considered. This is in difference to the classical concept of strong equilibrium according to which any subset of the agents may deviate. In resource selection games, each agent selects a resource from a set of resources, and its payoff is an increasing (or non-decreasing) function of the number of agents selecting its resource. While it has been shown that strong equilibrium exists in resource selection games, these games do not possess super-strong equilibrium, in which a fruitful deviation benefits at least one deviator without hurting any other deviator, even in the case of two identical resources with increasing cost functions. Similarly, strong equilibrium does not exist for that restricted two identical resources setting when the game is played repeatedly. We prove that for any given partition there exists a super-strong equilibrium for resource selection games of identical resources with increasing cost functions; we also show similar existence results for a variety of other classes of resource selection games. For the case of repeated games we identify partitions that guarantee the existence of strong equilibrium. Together, our work introduces a natural concept, which turns out to lead to positive and applicable results in one of the basic domains studied in the literature.

  15. Mechanisms of salt tolerance in habanero pepper plants (Capsicum chinense Jacq.): Proline accumulation, ions dynamics and sodium root-shoot partition and compartmentation

    PubMed Central

    Bojórquez-Quintal, Emanuel; Velarde-Buendía, Ana; Ku-González, Ángela; Carillo-Pech, Mildred; Ortega-Camacho, Daniela; Echevarría-Machado, Ileana; Pottosin, Igor; Martínez-Estévez, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Despite its economic relevance, little is known about salt tolerance mechanisms in pepper plants. To address this question, we compared differences in responses to NaCl in two Capsicum chinense varieties: Rex (tolerant) and Chichen-Itza (sensitive). Under salt stress (150 mM NaCl over 7 days) roots of Rex variety accumulated 50 times more compatible solutes such as proline compared to Chichen-Itza. Mineral analysis indicated that Na+ is restricted to roots by preventing its transport to leaves. Fluorescence analysis suggested an efficient Na+ compartmentalization in vacuole-like structures and in small intracellular compartments in roots of Rex variety. At the same time, Na+ in Chichen-Itza plants was compartmentalized in the apoplast, suggesting substantial Na+ extrusion. Rex variety was found to retain more K+ in its roots under salt stress according to a mineral analysis and microelectrode ion flux estimation (MIFE). Vanadate-sensitive H+ efflux was higher in Chichen-Itza variety plants, suggesting a higher activity of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase, which fuels the extrusion of Na+, and, possibly, also the re-uptake of K+. Our results suggest a combination of stress tolerance mechanisms, in order to alleviate the salt-induced injury. Furthermore, Na+ extrusion to apoplast does not appear to be an efficient strategy for salt tolerance in pepper plants. PMID:25429292

  16. PREDICTING THE BIOAVAILABILITY OF COPPER AND ZINC IN SOILS: MODELING THE PARTITIONING OF POTENTIALLY BIOAVAILABLE COPPER AND ZINC FROM SOIL SOLID TO SOIL SOLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research produced statistically based, semi-mechanistic models describing partitioning of Cu and Zn in 40 soils from the US, Canada, the UK, the Netherlands, and Chile with widely varying characteristics. Two different types of models were constructed, partitioning models ...

  17. Investigation of Particle Accumulation, Chemosensitivity and Thermosensitivity for Effective Solid Tumor Therapy Using Thermosensitive Liposomes and Hyperthermia

    PubMed Central

    Lokerse, Wouter J.M.; Bolkestein, Michiel; ten Hagen, Timo L.M.; de Jong, Marion; Eggermont, Alexander M.M.; Grüll, Holger; Koning, Gerben A.

    2016-01-01

    Doxorubicin (Dox) loaded thermosensitive liposomes (TSLs) have shown promising results for hyperthermia-induced local drug delivery to solid tumors. Typically, the tumor is heated to hyperthermic temperatures (41-42 °C), which induced intravascular drug release from TSLs within the tumor tissue leading to high local drug concentrations (1-step delivery protocol). Next to providing a trigger for drug release, hyperthermia (HT) has been shown to be cytotoxic to tumor tissue, to enhance chemosensitivity and to increase particle extravasation from the vasculature into the tumor interstitial space. The latter can be exploited for a 2-step delivery protocol, where HT is applied prior to i.v. TSL injection to enhance tumor uptake, and after 4 hours waiting time for a second time to induce drug release. In this study, we compare the 1- and 2-step delivery protocols and investigate which factors are of importance for a therapeutic response. In murine B16 melanoma and BFS-1 sarcoma cell lines, HT induced an enhanced Dox uptake in 2D and 3D models, resulting in enhanced chemosensitivity. In vivo, therapeutic efficacy studies were performed for both tumor models, showing a therapeutic response for only the 1-step delivery protocol. SPECT/CT imaging allowed quantification of the liposomal accumulation in both tumor models at physiological temperatures and after a HT treatment. A simple two compartment model was used to derive respective rates for liposomal uptake, washout and retention, showing that the B16 model has a twofold higher liposomal uptake compared to the BFS-1 tumor. HT increases uptake and retention of liposomes in both tumors models by the same factor of 1.66 maintaining the absolute differences between the two models. Histology showed that HT induced apoptosis, blood vessel integrity and interstitial structures are important factors for TSL accumulation in the investigated tumor types. However, modeling data indicated that the intraliposomal Dox fraction did not

  18. Effects of pressure and composition on Pt-Re-Os partitioning behavior between solid and liquid metal in the Fe-Ni-S system: Implication for Os isotopic anomalies in plume-derived lavas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, H.; Ohtani, E.; Terasaki, H.; Ito, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Coupled 186Os/188Os and 187Os/188Os enrichments of plume-derived lavas have been suggested to reflect material contribution from the outer core (e.g., Brandon, 1998). This geochemical hypothesis is based on an assumption that the outer core shows coupled enrichments in 186Os/ 188Os and 187Os/ 188Os ratio, reflecting the decay of 190Pt and 187Re to 186Os and 187Os, respectively. In order to examine this hypothesis, partitioning experiments of Pt-Re-Os between solid metal and liquid metal were performed using an MA-8 Kawai-type multi-anvil apparatus at 5-20 GPa and 1250-1400C. Starting materials of Fe metal, Ni (7 wt.%) metal and FeS (5 wt.% S in the bulk) were doped with 3 wt.% of Pt, Re and Os metals. Concentrations of all elements were determined using JXA-8800M electron probe microanalyzer with wave-dispersive spectrometry. Measured partition coefficients of Pt, Re and Os increase with increasing sulfur content and almost constant with increasing pressure. Therefore, the effect of liquid composition on the partitioning behavior of highly siderophile elements is much more significant compared to the effect of pressure and temperature. On the basis of the present experimental results, it is unlikely to generate the required Pt-Re-Os fractionation during inner core crystallization assuming that the light element in the Earth"fs core is sulfur only.

  19. Understanding sugar yield loss and enzyme inhibition due to oligosaccharides accumulation during high solids-loading enzymatic hydrolisis.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass, polysaccharides are cleaved by glycosyl hydrolases to soluble oligosaccharides and further hydrolyzed by ß-glucosidase, ß-xylosidase and other enzymes to monomeric sugars. However, not all oligosaccharides can be fully hydrolyzed and they may accumulate to 18-...

  20. Solid-solution partitioning of organic matter in soils as influenced by an increase in pH or Ca concentration.

    PubMed

    Oste, L A; Temminghoff, E J M; van Riemsdijk, W H

    2002-01-15

    Organic matter is an important component of soil with regard to the binding of contaminants. Hence, the partitioning of organic matter influences the partitioning of soil contaminants. The partitioning of organic matter is, among other factors, influenced by the ionic composition and ionic strength of the soil solution. This study focuses on the behavior of organic matter after a change in the ionic composition of the soil solution, particularly in Ca concentration and pH. Different amounts of Ca(NO3)2 and NaOH were added to soil suspensions. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration increased with increasing pH (addition of NaOH), whereas an increase in Ca (addition of Ca(NO3)2) had the opposite effect. A stronger increase in DOC was observed if a single dose of NaOH was added, compared to a gradual addition of the same amount of NaOH. Cation binding by organic matter in the supernatant was calculated using the NICA-Donnan model. The log DOC concentration appeared to be correlated to the Donnan potential, calculated under the assumption that all DOC equals humic acid. This correlation was found for all eight neutral to acidic soils used in this study, although the slopes and elevations of the regression lines varied. The slope varied by a factor of 2 and the elevation appeared to be strongly influenced by the DOC concentration in the untreated soils, which is related to the total organic matter in the soil. Finally, we predicted the Donnan potential on the basis of an extraction of untreated soil with 0.03 M NaNO3, and the total additions of Ca(NO3)2 and NaOH. Comparison of these predictions with speciation calculations in solution showed a good correlation, indicating that a combination of one batch experiment and the presented calculation procedure can provide good estimations of DOC concentrations after addition of chemicals. PMID:11831217

  1. Design configurations affecting flow pattern and solids accumulation in horizontal free water and subsurface flow constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Pedescoll, A; Sidrach-Cardona, R; Sánchez, J C; Carretero, J; Garfi, M; Bécares, E

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different horizontal constructed wetland (CW) design parameters on solids distribution, loss of hydraulic conductivity over time and hydraulic behaviour, in order to assess clogging processes in wetlands. For this purpose, an experimental plant with eight CWs was built at mesocosm scale. Each CW presented a different design characteristic, and the most common CW configurations were all represented: free water surface flow (FWS) with different effluent pipe locations, FWS with floating macrophytes and subsurface flow (SSF), and the presence of plants and specific species (Typha angustifolia and Phragmites australis) was also considered. The loss of the hydraulic conductivity of gravel was greatly influenced by the presence of plants and organic load (representing a loss of 20% and c.a. 10% in planted wetlands and an overloaded system, respectively). Cattail seems to have a greater effect on the development of clogging since its below-ground biomass weighed twice as much as that of common reed. Hydraulic behaviour was greatly influenced by the presence of a gravel matrix and the outlet pipe position. In strict SSF CW, the water was forced to cross the gravel and tended to flow diagonally from the top inlet to the bottom outlet (where the inlet and outlet pipes were located). However, when FWS was considered, water preferentially flowed above the gravel, thus losing half the effective volume of the system. Only the presence of plants seemed to help the water flow partially within the gravel matrix. PMID:23286990

  2. Accumulate repeat accumulate codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative channel coding scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate codes' (ARA). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, thus belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA codes on a graph. The structure of encoder for this class can be viewed as precoded Repeat Accumulate (RA) code or as precoded Irregular Repeat Accumulate (IRA) code, where simply an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. Thus ARA codes have simple, and very fast encoder structure when they representing LDPC codes. Based on density evolution for LDPC codes through some examples for ARA codes, we show that for maximum variable node degree 5 a minimum bit SNR as low as 0.08 dB from channel capacity for rate 1/2 can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Thus based on fixed low maximum variable node degree, its threshold outperforms not only the RA and IRA codes but also the best known LDPC codes with the dame maximum node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators any desired high rate codes close to code rate 1 can be obtained with thresholds that stay close to the channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results are provided. The ARA codes also have projected graph or protograph representation that allows for high speed decoder implementation.

  3. Partitioning and lipophilicity in quantitative structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed Central

    Dearden, J C

    1985-01-01

    The history of the relationship of biological activity to partition coefficient and related properties is briefly reviewed. The dominance of partition coefficient in quantitation of structure-activity relationships is emphasized, although the importance of other factors is also demonstrated. Various mathematical models of in vivo transport and binding are discussed; most of these involve partitioning as the primary mechanism of transport. The models describe observed quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) well on the whole, confirming that partitioning is of key importance in in vivo behavior of a xenobiotic. The partition coefficient is shown to correlate with numerous other parameters representing bulk, such as molecular weight, volume and surface area, parachor and calculated indices such as molecular connectivity; this is especially so for apolar molecules, because for polar molecules lipophilicity factors into both bulk and polar or hydrogen bonding components. The relationship of partition coefficient to chromatographic parameters is discussed, and it is shown that such parameters, which are often readily obtainable experimentally, can successfully supplant partition coefficient in QSARs. The relationship of aqueous solubility with partition coefficient is examined in detail. Correlations are observed, even with solid compounds, and these can be used to predict solubility. The additive/constitutive nature of partition coefficient is discussed extensively, as are the available schemes for the calculation of partition coefficient. Finally the use of partition coefficient to provide structural information is considered. It is shown that partition coefficient can be a valuable structural tool, especially if the enthalpy and entropy of partitioning are available. PMID:3905374

  4. Neutron relative biological effectiveness for solid cancer incidence in the Japanese A-bomb survivors: an analysis considering the degree of independent effects from γ-ray and neutron absorbed doses with hierarchical partitioning.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Linda

    2013-03-01

    It has generally been assumed that the neutron and γ-ray absorbed doses in the data from the life span study (LSS) of the Japanese A-bomb survivors are too highly correlated for an independent separation of the all solid cancer risks due to neutrons and due to γ-rays. However, with the release of the most recent data for all solid cancer incidence and the increased statistical power over previous datasets, it is instructive to consider alternatives to the usual approaches. Simple excess relative risk (ERR) models for radiation-induced solid cancer incidence fitted to the LSS epidemiological data have been applied with neutron and γ-ray absorbed doses as separate explanatory covariables. A simple evaluation of the degree of independent effects from γ-ray and neutron absorbed doses on the all solid cancer risk with the hierarchical partitioning (HP) technique is presented here. The degree of multi-collinearity between the γ-ray and neutron absorbed doses has also been considered. The results show that, whereas the partial correlation between the neutron and γ-ray colon absorbed doses may be considered to be high at 0.74, this value is just below the level beyond which remedial action, such as adding the doses together, is usually recommended. The resulting variance inflation factor is 2.2. Applying HP indicates that just under half of the drop in deviance resulting from adding the γ-ray and neutron absorbed doses to the baseline risk model comes from the joint effects of the neutrons and γ-rays-leaving a substantial proportion of this deviance drop accounted for by individual effects of the neutrons and γ-rays. The average ERR/Gy γ-ray absorbed dose and the ERR/Gy neutron absorbed dose that have been obtained here directly for the first time, agree well with previous indirect estimates. The average relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons relative to γ-rays, calculated directly from fit parameters to the all solid cancer ERR model with both

  5. A new type of isotherm for zinc liquid-solid partitioning on δ-MnO2, γ-MnOOH and manganite in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Gang; Zhang, Zhengbin; Liu, Liansheng

    1987-03-01

    This article deals with the interaction of zinc with δ-MnO2, γ-MnOOH and manganite existing in natural water systems. The mechanism of the reaction has been studied in detail. From the fact that the “ratio of ion exchange(%)-pH” graph is an “S shaped” curve, it is possible to deduce that the chemical reaction is of the nature of cation exchange. And since the pH range of ion exchange=4, it is possible to further deduce that the reaction can be explained by the mechanism of monovalence cation exchange. The main result of this article is the discovery of a new type of isotherm which has not been mentioned in previous literature here and abroad. This isotherm cannot be represented by any presently available adsorption isotherm equations in marine chemistry. The characteristics of this new type of isotherm are as follows: the isotherm has two “knees” and three “plateaus”, the heights of these three “plateaus” are in the ratio 1:2:3. In order to explain theoretically our new isotherm, this article suggests the application of the principle of interfacial stepwise ion exchange for liquid-solid distribution of minor elements on suspended particulate matter. The corresponding isotherm equation was derived from this theory. The results obtained in this article will be of theoretical guiding significance in the study of the marine geochemistry of zinc.

  6. STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS OF METAL PARTITIONING TO MINERAL SURFACES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The conceptual understanding of surface complexation reactions that control trace element partitioning to mineral surfaces is limited by the assumption that the solid reactant possesses a finite, time-invariant population of surface functional groups. This assumption has limited...

  7. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate-Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    Inspired by recently proposed Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate (ARA) codes [15], in this paper we propose a channel coding scheme called Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate (ARAA) codes. These codes can be seen as serial turbo-like codes or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, and they have a projected graph or protograph representation; this allows for a high-speed iterative decoder implementation using belief propagation. An ARAA code can be viewed as a precoded Repeat-and-Accumulate (RA) code with puncturing in concatenation with another accumulator, where simply an accumulator is chosen as the precoder; thus ARAA codes have a very fast encoder structure. Using density evolution on their associated protographs, we find examples of rate-lJ2 ARAA codes with maximum variable node degree 4 for which a minimum bit-SNR as low as 0.21 dB from the channel capacity limit can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Such a low threshold cannot be achieved by RA or Irregular RA (IRA) or unstructured irregular LDPC codes with the same constraint on the maximum variable node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators we can construct families of higher rate ARAA codes with thresholds that stay close to their respective channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results show comparable performance with the best-known LDPC codes but with very low error floor even at moderate block sizes.

  8. Continuous partition lattice

    PubMed Central

    Björner, Anders

    1987-01-01

    A continuous analogue to the partition lattices is presented. This is the metric completion of the direct limit of a system of embeddings of the finite partition lattices. The construction is analogous to von Neumann's construction of a continuous geometry over a field F from the finite-dimensional projective geometries over F. PMID:16593874

  9. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Samuel; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    Accumulate-repeat-accumulate-accumulate (ARAA) codes have been proposed, inspired by the recently proposed accumulate-repeat-accumulate (ARA) codes. These are error-correcting codes suitable for use in a variety of wireless data-communication systems that include noisy channels. ARAA codes can be regarded as serial turbolike codes or as a subclass of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, and, like ARA codes they have projected graph or protograph representations; these characteristics make it possible to design high-speed iterative decoders that utilize belief-propagation algorithms. The objective in proposing ARAA codes as a subclass of ARA codes was to enhance the error-floor performance of ARA codes while maintaining simple encoding structures and low maximum variable node degree.

  10. Partitioning planning studies: Preliminary evaluation of metal and radionuclide partitioning the high-temperature thermal treatment systems

    SciTech Connect

    Liekhus, K.; Grandy, J.; Chambers, A.

    1997-03-01

    A preliminary study of toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning during high-temperature processing of mixed waste has been conducted during Fiscal Year 1996 within the Environmental Management Technology Evaluation Project. The study included: (a) identification of relevant partitioning mechanisms that cause feed material to be distributed between the solid, molten, and gas phases within a thermal treatment system; (b) evaluations of existing test data from applicable demonstration test programs as a means to identify and understand elemental and species partitioning; and, (c) evaluation of theoretical or empirical partitioning models for use in predicting elemental or species partitioning in a thermal treatment system. This preliminary study was conducted to identify the need for and the viability of developing the tools capable of describing and predicting toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning in the most applicable mixed waste thermal treatment processes. This document presents the results and recommendations resulting from this study that may serve as an impetus for developing and implementing these predictive tools.

  11. Fuzzy Partition Models for Fitting a Set of Partitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, A. D.; Vichi, M.

    2001-01-01

    Describes methods for fitting a fuzzy consensus partition to a set of partitions of the same set of objects. Describes and illustrates three models defining median partitions and compares these methods to an alternative approach to obtaining a consensus fuzzy partition. Discusses interesting differences in the results. (SLD)

  12. Partitioning and parallel radiosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merzouk, S.; Winkler, C.; Paul, J. C.

    1996-03-01

    This paper proposes a theoretical framework, based on domain subdivision for parallel radiosity. Moreover, three various implementation approaches, taking advantage of partitioning algorithms and global shared memory architecture, are presented.

  13. Comparison of an acetonitrile extraction/partitioning and "dispersive solid-phase extraction" method with classical multi-residue methods for the extraction of herbicide residues in barley samples.

    PubMed

    Díez, C; Traag, W A; Zommer, P; Marinero, P; Atienza, J

    2006-10-27

    An acetonitrile/partitioning extraction and "dispersive solid-phase extraction (SPE)" method that provides high quality results with a minimum number of steps and a low solvent and glassware consumption was published in 2003. This method, suitable for the analysis of multiple classes of pesticide residues in foods, has been given an acronymic name, QuEChERS, that reflects its major advantages (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, safe). In this work, QuEChERS method, which was originally created for vegetable samples with a high amount of water, was modified to optimise the extraction of a wide range of herbicides in barley. Then, it was compared with known conventional multi-residue extraction procedures such as the Luke method, which was simplified and shortened by eliminating the Florisil clean-up (mini Luke) and the ethyl acetate extraction, which involves a subsequent clean-up by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and which is the official extraction method used by some of European authorities. Finally, a simple acetone extraction was carried out to check the differences with the other three methods. Extracts were analysed by gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF/MS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Mini Luke was significantly more effective for the extraction of non-polar and medium-polar compounds, but the best recoveries for polar compounds were achieved by QuEChERS and ethyl acetate methods. QuEChERS was the only method that provided an overall recovery value of 60-70% for non-, medium- and polar compounds, with some exceptions due to co-eluted matrix interferences. Clean-up by dispersive SPE was effective and did not differ so much with ethyl acetate extracts considering that QuEChERS clean-up step is much easier and less time-consuming. As a conclusion, it resulted to be the most universal extraction method by providing a well-defined phase separation without dilution and achieving acceptable

  14. PARTITIONING OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN OCTANOL-WATER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    When plots of the log of the octanol-water partition coefficients vs log of water solubilities of a wide variety of liquid and solid solutes are modified by converting the solid solubilities to the estimated solubilities of the corresponding supercooled liquids, the differences b...

  15. Manganese As a Metal Accumulator

    EPA Science Inventory

    Manganese deposits in water distribution systems accumulate metals, radionuclides and oxyanions by a combination of surface complexation, adsorption and solid substitution, as well as a combination of oxidation followed by manganese reduction and sorption of the oxidized constitu...

  16. Partitioning Breaks Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Fergal; McDaid, Aaron; Hurley, Neil

    Considering a clique as a conservative definition of community structure, we examine how graph partitioning algorithms interact with cliques. Many popular community-finding algorithms partition the entire graph into non-overlapping communities. We show that on a wide range of empirical networks, from different domains, significant numbers of cliques are split across the separate partitions produced by these algorithms. We then examine the largest connected component of the subgraph formed by retaining only edges in cliques, and apply partitioning strategies that explicitly minimise the number of cliques split. We further examine several modern overlapping community finding algorithms, in terms of the interaction between cliques and the communities they find, and in terms of the global overlap of the sets of communities they find. We conclude that, due to the connectedness of many networks, any community finding algorithm that produces partitions must fail to find at least some significant structures. Moreover, contrary to traditional intuition, in some empirical networks, strong ties and cliques frequently do cross community boundaries; much community structure is fundamentally overlapping and unpartitionable in nature.

  17. Equilibration timescale of atmospheric secondary organic aerosol partitioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraiwa, Manabu; Seinfeld, John H.

    2012-12-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed from partitioning of oxidation products of anthropogenic and biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) accounts for a substantial portion of atmospheric particulate matter. In describing SOA formation, it is generally assumed that VOC oxidation products rapidly adopt gas-aerosol equilibrium. Here we estimate the equilibration timescale, τeq, of SOA gas-particle partitioning using a state-of-the-art kinetic flux model. τeq is found to be of order seconds to minutes for partitioning of relatively high volatility organic compounds into liquid particles, thereby adhering to equilibrium gas-particle partitioning. However, τeq increases to hours or days for organic aerosol associated with semi-solid particles, low volatility, large particle size, and low mass loadings. Instantaneous equilibrium partitioning may lead to substantial overestimation of particle mass concentration and underestimation of gas-phase concentration.

  18. Partition density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nafziger, Jonathan

    Partition density functional theory (PDFT) is a method for dividing a molecular electronic structure calculation into fragment calculations. The molecular density and energy corresponding to Kohn Sham density-functional theory (KS-DFT) may be exactly recovered from these fragments. Each fragment acts as an isolated system except for the influence of a global one-body 'partition' potential which deforms the fragment densities. In this work, the developments of PDFT are put into the context of other fragment-based density functional methods. We developed three numerical implementations of PDFT: One within the NWChem computational chemistry package using basis sets, and the other two developed from scratch using real-space grids. It is shown that all three of these programs can exactly reproduce a KS-DFT calculation via fragment calculations. The first of our in-house codes handles non-interacting electrons in arbitrary one-dimensional potentials with any number of fragments. This code is used to explore how the exact partition potential changes for different partitionings of the same system and also to study features which determine which systems yield non-integer PDFT occupations and which systems are locked into integer PDFT occupations. The second in-house code, CADMium, performs real-space calculations of diatomic molecules. Features of the exact partition potential are studied for a variety of cases and an analytical formula determining singularities in the partition potential is derived. We introduce an approximation for the non-additive kinetic energy and show how this quantity can be computed exactly. Finally a PDFT functional is developed to address the issues of static correlation and delocalization errors in approximations within DFT. The functional is applied to the dissociation of H2 + and H2.

  19. Cumulants of partitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Christoph; Block, Martin; Holthaus, Martin; Schmieder, Gerald

    2003-02-01

    We utilize the formal equivalence between the number-partitioning problem and a harmonically trapped ideal Bose gas within the microcanonical ensemble for characterizing the probability distribution which governs the number of addends occurring in an unrestricted partition of a natural number n. By deriving accurate asymptotic formulae for its coefficients of skewness and excess, it is shown that this distribution remains non-Gaussian even when n is made arbitrarily large. Both skewness and excess vary substantially before settling to their constant-limiting values for n > 1010.

  20. FNAS phase partitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanalstine, James M.

    1993-01-01

    Project NAS8-36955 D.O. #100 initially involved the following tasks: (1) evaluation of various coatings' ability to control wall wetting and surface zeta potential expression; (2) testing various methods to mix and control the demixing of phase systems; and (3) videomicroscopic investigation of cell partition. Three complementary areas were identified for modification and extension of the original contract. They were: (1) identification of new supports for column cell partition; (2) electrokinetic detection of protein adsorption; and (3) emulsion studies related to bioseparations.

  1. Trace element partitioning between ionic crystal and liquid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsang, T.; Philpotts, J. A.; Yin, L.

    1978-01-01

    The partitioning of trace elements between ionic crystals and the melt has been correlated with lattice energy of the host. The solid-liquid partition coefficient has been expressed in terms of the difference in relative ionic radius of the trace element and the homogeneous and heterogeneous strain of the host lattice. Predictions based on this model appear to be in general agreement with data for alkali nitrates and for rare-earth elements in natural garnet phenocrysts.

  2. Airborne phthalate partitioning to cotton clothing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Glenn; Li, Hongwan; Mishra, Santosh; Buechlein, Melissa

    2015-08-01

    Accumulation on indoor surfaces and fabrics can increase dermal uptake and non-dietary ingestion of semi-volatile organic compounds. To better understand the potential for dermal uptake of phthalates from clothing, we measured the mass accumulation on cotton fabrics of two phthalate esters commonly identified in indoor air: diethylphthalate (DEP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP). In 10-day chamber experiments, we observed strong air-to-cloth partitioning of these phthalates to shirts and jean material. Area-normalized partition coefficients ranged from 209 to 411 (μg/m2)/(μg/m3) for DEP and 2850 to 6580 (μg/m2)/(μg/m3) for DnBP. Clothing volume-normalized partition coefficients averaged 2.6 × 105 (μg/m3)/(μg/m3) for DEP and 3.9 × 106 (μg/m3)/(μg/m3) for DnBP. At equilibrium, we estimate that a typical set of cotton clothing can sorb DnBP from the equivalent of >10,000 m3 of indoor air, thereby substantially decreasing external mass-transfer barriers to dermal uptake. Further, we estimate that a significant fraction of a child's body burden of DnBP may come from mouthing fabric material that has been equilibrated with indoor air.

  3. New Aperture Partitioning Element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, S.; Calef, B.; Williams, S.

    Postprocessing in an optical system can be aided by adding an optical element to partition the pupil into a number of segments. When imaging through the atmosphere, the recorded data are blurred by temperature-induced variations in the index of refraction along the line of sight. Using speckle imaging techniques developed in the astronomy community, this blurring can be corrected to some degree. The effectiveness of these techniques is diminished by redundant baselines in the pupil. Partitioning the pupil reduces the degree of baseline redundancy, and therefore improves the quality of images that can be obtained from the system. It is possible to implement the described approach on an optical system with a segmented primary mirror, but not very practical. This is because most optical systems do not have segmented primary mirrors, and those that do have relatively low bandwidth positioning of segments due to their large mass and inertia. It is much more practical to position an active aperture partitioning element at an aft optics pupil of the optical system. This paper describes the design, implementation and testing of a new aperture partitioning element that is completely reflective and reconfigurable. The device uses four independent, annular segments that can be positioned with a high degree of accuracy without impacting optical wavefront of each segment. This mirror has been produced and is currently deployed and working on the 3.6 m telescope.

  4. Cadmium accumulation by a Citrobacter sp. immobilized on gel and solid supports: applicability to the treatment of liquid wastes containing heavy metal cations

    SciTech Connect

    Macaskie, L.E.; Wates, J.M.; Dean, A.C.R.

    1987-01-01

    Polyacrylamide gel-immobilized cells of a Citrobacter sp. removed cadmium from flows supplemented with glycerol 2-phosphate, the metal uptake mechanism being mediated by the activity of a cell-bound phosphatase that precipitates liberated inorganic phosphate with heavy metals at the cell surface. The constraints of elevated flow rate and temperature were investigated and the results discussed in terms of the kinetics of immobilized enzymes. Loss in activity with respect to cadmium accumulation but not inorganic phosphate liberation was observed at acid pH and was attributed to the pH-dependent solubility of cadmium phosphate. Similarly high concentrations of chloride ions, and traces of cyanide inhibited cadmium uptake and this was attributed to the ability of these anions to complex heavy metals, especially the ability of CN/sup -/ to form complex anions with Cd/sup 2 +/. The data are discussed in terms of the known chemistry of chloride and cyanide-cadmium complexes and the relevance of these factors in the treatment of metal-containing liquid wastes is discussed. The cells immobilized in polyacrylamide provided a convenient small-scale laboratory model system. It was found that the Citrobacter sp. could be immobilized on glass supports with no chemical treatment or modification necessary. Such cells were also effective in metal accumulation and a prototype system more applicable to the treatment of metal-containing streams on a larger scale is described.

  5. Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative coded modulation scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation' (ARA coded modulation). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes that are combined with high level modulation. Thus at the decoder belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA coded modulation on a graph, provided a demapper transforms the received in-phase and quadrature samples to reliability of the bits.

  6. Comparison of pressurized liquid extraction and matrix solid-phase dispersion for the measurement of semivolatile organic compound accumulation in tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Kerri; Simonich, Staci Massey; Bradford, David; Davidson, Carlos; Tallent-Halsell, Nita

    2009-10-01

    Analytical methods capable of trace measurement of semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) are necessary to assess the exposure of tadpoles to contaminants as a result of long-range and regional atmospheric transport and deposition. The present study compares the results of two analytical methods, one using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and the other using matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD), for the trace measurement of more than 70 SOCs in tadpole tissue, including current-use pesticides. The MSPD method resulted in improved SOC recoveries and precision compared to the PLE method. The MSPD method also required less time, consumed less solvent, and resulted in the measurement of a greater number of SOCs than the PLE method. PMID:19432502

  7. Binary space partitioning trees and their uses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Bradley N.

    1989-01-01

    Binary Space Partitioning (BSP) trees have some qualities that make them useful in solving many graphics related problems. The purpose is to describe what a BSP tree is, and how it can be used to solve the problem of hidden surface removal, and constructive solid geometry. The BSP tree is based on the idea that a plane acting as a divider subdivides space into two parts with one being on the positive side and the other on the negative. A polygonal solid is then represented as the volume defined by the collective interior half spaces of the solid's bounding surfaces. The nature of how the tree is organized lends itself well for sorting polygons relative to an arbitrary point in 3 space. The speed at which the tree can be traversed for depth sorting is fast enough to provide hidden surface removal at interactive speeds. The fact that a BSP tree actually represents a polygonal solid as a bounded volume also makes it quite useful in performing the boolean operations used in constructive solid geometry. Due to the nature of the BSP tree, polygons can be classified as they are subdivided. The ability to classify polygons as they are subdivided can enhance the simplicity of implementing constructive solid geometry.

  8. Chemical amplification based on fluid partitioning

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Brian L.; Colston, Jr., Billy W.; Elkin, Chris

    2006-05-09

    A system for nucleic acid amplification of a sample comprises partitioning the sample into partitioned sections and performing PCR on the partitioned sections of the sample. Another embodiment of the invention provides a system for nucleic acid amplification and detection of a sample comprising partitioning the sample into partitioned sections, performing PCR on the partitioned sections of the sample, and detecting and analyzing the partitioned sections of the sample.

  9. Investigation of biogeochemical controls on the formation, uptake and accumulation of methylmercury in rice paddies in the vicinity of a coal-fired power plant and a municipal solid waste incinerator in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Su, Yen-Bin; Chang, Wei-Chun; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Lin, Chu-Ching

    2016-07-01

    Recent studies have shown that rice consumption is another critical route of human exposure to methylmercury (MeHg), the most toxic and accumulative form of mercury (Hg) in the food web. Yet, the mechanisms that underlie the production and accumulation of MeHg in the paddy ecosystem are still poorly understood. In 2013 and 2014, we conducted field campaigns and laboratory experiments over a rice growing season to examine Hg and MeHg cycling, as well as associated biogeochemistry in a suite of paddies close to a municipal solid waste incinerator and a coal-fired power plant station in Taiwan. Concentrations of total Hg and MeHg in paddy soil and rice grain at both sites were low and found not to exceed the control standards for farmland soil and edible rice in Taiwan. However, seasonal variations of MeHg concentrations observed in pore water samples indicate that the in situ bioavailability of inorganic Hg and activity of Hg-methylating microbes in the rhizosphere increased from the early-season and peaked at the mid-season, presumably due to the anoxia created under flooded conditions and root exudation of organic compounds. The presence of Hg-methylators was also confirmed by the hgcA gene detected in all root soil samples. Subsequent methylation tests performed by incubating the root soil with inorganic Hg and an inhibitor or stimulant specific for certain microbes further revealed that sulfate-reducers might have been the principal Hg-methylting guild at the study sites. Interestingly, results of hydroponic experiments conducted by cultivating rice in a defined nutrient solution amended with fixed MeHg and varying levels of MeHg-binding ligands suggested that chemical speciation in soil pore water may play a key role in controlling MeHg accumulation in rice, and both passive and active transport pathways seem to take place in the uptake of MeHg in rice roots. PMID:27070857

  10. EMPIRICAL MODELS OF PB AND CD PARTITIONING USING DATA FROM 13 SOILS, SEDIMENTS AND AQUIFER MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) are two of the most common toxicants found in contaminated environments. Because solubilization of these metallic elements from the solid phase can influence their fate, transport and bioavailability, the partitioning coefficient (Kd) for these metals ...

  11. Metal partitioning and toxicity in sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson-Ekvall, C.E.A.; Morrison, G.M.

    1995-12-31

    Over 20 years of research has failed to provide an unequivocal correlation between chemically extracted metals in sewage sludge applied to agricultural soil and either metal toxicity to soil organisms or crop uptake. Partitioning of metals between phases and species can provide a better estimation of mobility and potential bioavailability. Partition coefficients, K{sub D} for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in a sludge/water solution were determined considering the sludge/water solution as a three-phase system (particulate, colloidal and electrochemically available) over a range of pH values, ionic strengths, contact times and sludge/water ratios and compared with the KD values for sludge/water solution as a two-phase system (aqueous phase and particulate phase). Partitioning results were interpreted in terms of metal mobility from sludge to colloids and in terms of potential bioavailability from colloids to electrochemically available. The results show that both mobility and potential bioavailability are high for Zn, while Cu partitions into the mobile colloidal phase which is relatively non-bioavailable. Lead is almost completely bound to the solid phase, and is neither mobile nor bioavailable. A comparison between K, values and toxicity shows that Zn in sludge is more toxic than can be accounted for in the aqueous phase, which can be due to synergistic effects between sludge organics and Zn. Copper demonstrates clear synergism which can be attributed to the formation of lipid-soluble Cu complexes with known sludge components such as LAS, caffeine, myristic acid and nonylphenol.

  12. Orientation and velocity dependence of the nonequilibrium partition coefficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beatty, K. M.; Jackson, K. A.

    1995-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations based on a Spin-1 Ising Model for binary alloys have been used to investigate the non-equilibrium partition coefficient (k(sub neq)) as a function of solid-liquid interface velocity and orientation. In simulations of Si with a second component k(sub neq) is greater in the [111] direction than the [100] direction in agreement with experimental results reported by Azlz et al. The simulated partition coefficient scales with the square of the step velocity divided by the diffusion coefficient of the secondary component in the liquid.

  13. Flux Partitioning by Isotopic Eddy Covariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehr, R.; Munger, J. W.; Nelson, D. D.; McManus, J. B.; Zahniser, M. S.; Wofsy, S. C.; Saleska, S. R.

    2011-12-01

    Net ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of CO2 is routinely measured by eddy covariance at sites around the world, but studies of ecosystem processes are more interested in the gross photosynthetic and respiratory fluxes that comprise the net flux. The standard method of partitioning the net flux into these components has been to extrapolate nighttime respiration into daytime based on a relationship between nighttime respiration, temperature, and sometimes moisture. However, such relationships generally account for only a small portion of the variation in nighttime respiration, and the assumption that they can predict respiration throughout the day is dubious. A promising alternate method, known as isotopic flux partitioning, works by identifying the stable isotopic signatures of photosynthesis and respiration in the CO2 flux. We have used this method to partition the net flux at Harvard Forest, MA, based on eddy covariance measurements of the net 12CO2 and 13CO2 fluxes (as well as measurements of the sensible and latent heat fluxes and other meteorological variables). The CO2 isotopologues were measured at 4 Hz by an Aerodyne quantum cascade laser spectrometer with a δ13C precision of 0.4 % in 0.25 sec and 0.02 % in 100 sec. In the absence of such high-frequency, high-precision isotopic measurements, past attempts at isotopic flux partitioning have combined isotopic flask measurements with high-frequency (total) CO2 measurements to estimate the isoflux (the EC/flask approach). Others have used a conditional flask sampling approach called hyperbolic relaxed eddy accumulation (HREA). We 'sampled' our data according to each of these approaches, for comparison, and found disagreement in the calculated fluxes of ~10% for the EC/flask approach, and ~30% for HREA, at midday. To our knowledge, this is the first example of flux partitioning by isotopic eddy covariance. Wider use of this method, enabled by a new generation of laser spectrometers, promises to open a new window

  14. Quantum field theory of partitions

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, C.M.; Brody, D.C.; Meister, B.K.

    1999-07-01

    Given a sequence of numbers {l_brace}a{sub n}{r_brace}, it is always possible to find a set of Feynman rules that reproduce that sequence. For the special case of the partitions of the integers, the appropriate Feynman rules give rise to graphs that represent the partitions in a clear pictorial fashion. These Feynman rules can be used to generate the Bell numbers B(n) and the Stirling numbers S(n,k) that are associated with the partitions of the integers. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. Probabilistic framework for network partition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tiejun; Liu, Jian; E, Weinan

    2009-08-01

    Given a large and complex network, we would like to find the partition of this network into a small number of clusters. This question has been addressed in many different ways. In a previous paper, we proposed a deterministic framework for an optimal partition of a network as well as the associated algorithms. In this paper, we extend this framework to a probabilistic setting, in which each node has a certain probability of belonging to a certain cluster. Two classes of numerical algorithms for such a probabilistic network partition are presented and tested. Application to three representative examples is discussed.

  16. Partitioning ecosystems for sustainability.

    PubMed

    Murray, Martyn G

    2016-03-01

    Decline in the abundance of renewable natural resources (RNRs) coupled with increasing demands of an expanding human population will greatly intensify competition for Earth's natural resources during this century, yet curiously, analytical approaches to the management of productive ecosystems (ecological theory of wildlife harvesting, tragedy of the commons, green economics, and bioeconomics) give only peripheral attention to the driving influence of competition on resource exploitation. Here, I apply resource competition theory (RCT) to the exploitation of RNRs and derive four general policies in support of their sustainable and equitable use: (1) regulate resource extraction technology to avoid damage to the resource base; (2) increase efficiency of resource use and reduce waste at every step in the resource supply chain and distribution network; (3) partition ecosystems with the harvesting niche as the basic organizing principle for sustainable management of natural resources by multiple users; and (4) increase negative feedback between consumer and resource to bring about long-term sustainable use. A simple policy framework demonstrates how RCT integrates with other elements of sustainability science to better manage productive ecosystems. Several problem areas of RNR management are discussed in the light of RCT, including tragedy of the commons, overharvesting, resource collapse, bycatch, single species quotas, and simplification of ecosystems. PMID:27209800

  17. Guidelines for Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and maintaining areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes in quantities greater than 100 kg (220 lb) per month of solid waste or 55 gallons per month of liquid waste are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in smaller amounts are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). This document provides guidelines for employee and organizational responsibilities for WAAs; constructing a WAA; storing waste in a WAA; operating and maintaining a WAA, and responding to spills in a WAA. 4 figs.

  18. Orientation-dependent impurity partitioning of colloidal crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozawa, Jun; Uda, Satoshi; Hu, Sumeng; Fujiwara, Kozo; Koizumi, Haruhiko

    2016-04-01

    Impurity partitioning during colloidal crystallization was investigated for grains with different orientations. Particles of various sizes were doped as impurities during the growth of colloidal polycrystals. The effective partition coefficient, keff, which is the impurity concentration in the solid (CS) divided by that in initial solution (CL), was measured for grains oriented in the [111] and [100] directions normal to the growth direction. The [111]-oriented grains were found to have a larger keff than [100]-oriented grains. This was analyzed by using the Thurmond and Struthers model. Though both [111]- and [100]-oriented grains were face centered cubic (fcc) structures, within several layers of crystals, the volume fraction of [111]-oriented grains was larger than that of [100]-oriented grains, yielding a larger driving force for nucleation, ΔGTr, and thus a larger equilibrium partition coefficient, k0, for [111]-oriented grains.

  19. Graph Partitioning and Sequencing Software

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1995-09-19

    Graph partitioning is a fundemental problem in many scientific contexts. CHACO2.0 is a software package designed to partition and sequence graphs. CHACO2.0 allows for recursive application of several methods for finding small edge separators in weighted graphs. These methods include inertial, spectral, Kernighan Lin and multilevel methods in addition to several simpler strategies. Each of these approaches can be used to partition the graph into two, four, or eight pieces at each level of recursion.more » In addition, the Kernighan Lin method can be used to improve partitions generated by any of the other algorithms. CHACO2.0 can also be used to address various graph sequencing problems, with applications to scientific computing, database design, gene sequencing and other problems.« less

  20. Carbon allocation and accumulation in conifers

    SciTech Connect

    Gower, S.T.; Isebrands, J.G.; Sheriff, D.W.

    1995-07-01

    Forests cover approximately 33% of the land surface of the earth, yet they are responsible for 65% of the annual carbon (C) accumulated by all terrestrial biomes. In general, total C content and net primary production rates are greater for forests than for other biomes, but C budgets differ greatly among forests. Despite several decades of research on forest C budgets, there is still an incomplete understanding of the factors controlling C allocation. Yet, if we are to understand how changing global events such as land use, climate change, atmospheric N deposition, ozone, and elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} affect the global C budget, a mechanistic understanding of C assimilation, partitioning, and allocation is necessary. The objective of this chapter is to review the major factors that influence C allocation and accumulation in conifer trees and forests. In keeping with the theme of this book, we will focus primarily on evergreen conifers. However, even among evergreen conifers, leaf, canopy, and stand-level C and nutrient allocation patterns differ, often as a function of leaf development and longevity. The terminology related to C allocation literature is often inconsistent, confusing and inadequate for understanding and integrating past and current research. For example, terms often used synonymously to describe C flow or movement include translocation, transport, distribution, allocation, partitioning, apportionment, and biomass allocation. A common terminology is needed because different terms have different meanings to readers. In this paper we use C allocation, partitioning, and accumulation according to the definitions of Dickson and Isebrands (1993). Partitioning is the process of C flow into and among different chemical, storage, and transport pools. Allocation is the distribution of C to different plant parts within the plant (i.e., source to sink). Accumulation is the end product of the process of C allocation.

  1. 40 CFR 262.34 - Accumulation time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Accumulation time. 262.34 Section 262.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Pre-Transport Requirements § 262.34 Accumulation time. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (d),...

  2. Update on the Argonne positron accumulator ring

    SciTech Connect

    Borland, M.

    1993-07-01

    The injector for the Advanced Photon Source incorporates a 450-MeV positron accumulator ring (PAR) to decrease the filling time with the 2-Hz synchrotron. In addition to accumulating positrons from the linac, the PAR damps the beam and reduces the bunch length. The PAR lattice has been redesigned to use zero-gradient dipoles, while retaining essentially the same damping partition. Extensive simulations have been performed to set tolerances that will give high capture efficiency, in spite of the large momentum spread of the incoming positron beam.

  3. Partition of fine particles in aqueous biphase systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xi

    The objective of this research project is to develop an aqueous biphase extraction process for the treatment of fine coals. Aqueous biphase extraction is an advanced separation technology that relies on the ability of an aqueous system consisting of a water-soluble polymer and another component, e.g., another polymer, an inorganic salt, or a nonionic surfactant, to separate into two immiscible aqueous phases. The principle behind the partition of solid particles in aqueous biphase systems is the physicochemical interaction between the solid surface and the surrounding liquid solution. In order to remove sulfur and mineral matter from fine coal with aqueous biphasic extraction, it is necessary to know the partitioning behavior of coal, as well as the inorganic mineral components. Therefore, in this research emphasis was placed on the partitioning behavior of fine coal particles as well as model fine inorganic particles in aqueous biphase systems. In the polyethylene glycol (PEG)/salt/H2O system, it was found that pyrite partition was highly dependent upon pH conditions: at high pH the particles preferred the salt-rich (bottom) phase, while they moved to the polymer-rich (top) phase at low pH. This behavior is attributable to the different surface oxidation products associated with the pH variations: formation of FeOOH in alkaline solution, and a hydrophobic iron-deficient product (Fe 1-xS2) in acidic environment. The partitioning behavior of oxide particles (e.g., Al2O3, Fe2O 3, SiO2, TiO2) in the PEG/Na2SO 4/H2O system indicated that, in the absence of polymer-solid interaction, the surface hydrophilic/hydrophobic properties determined solid partition; otherwise, the specific polymer-solid interaction dominated the distribution of the solid particles. Aside from the polymer/salt aqueous biphase systems, the partitioning behavior of hematite and silica was also investigated in polymer/polymer (PEG/dextran) and polymer/nonionic surfactant (Triton X-100 (TX100

  4. Metal separations using aqueous biphasic partitioning systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chaiko, D.J.; Zaslavsky, B.; Rollins, A.N.; Vojta, Y.; Gartelmann, J.; Mego, W.

    1996-05-01

    Aqueous biphasic extraction (ABE) processes offer the potential for low-cost, highly selective separations. This countercurrent extraction technique involves selective partitioning of either dissolved solutes or ultrafine particulates between two immiscible aqueous phases. The extraction systems that the authors have studied are generated by combining an aqueous salt solution with an aqueous polymer solution. They have examined a wide range of applications for ABE, including the treatment of solid and liquid nuclear wastes, decontamination of soils, and processing of mineral ores. They have also conducted fundamental studies of solution microstructure using small angle neutron scattering (SANS). In this report they review the physicochemical fundamentals of aqueous biphase formation and discuss the development and scaleup of ABE processes for environmental remediation.

  5. Partition Coefficients at High Pressure and Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Righter, K.; Drake, M. J.

    2003-12-01

    Differentiation of terrestrial planets includes separation of a metallic core and possible later fractionation of mineral phases within either a solid or molten mantle (Figure 1). Lithophile and siderophile elements can be used to understand these two different physical processes, and ascertain whether they operated in the early Earth. The distribution of elements in planets can be understood by measuring the partition coefficient, D (ratio of concentrations of an element in different phases (minerals, metals, or melts)). (14K)Figure 1. Schematic cross-section through the Earth, showing: (a) an early magma ocean stage and (b) a later cool and differentiated stage. The siderophile elements (iron-loving) encompass over 30 elements and are defined as those elements for which D(metal/silicate)>1, and are useful for deciphering the details of core formation. This group of elements is commonly broken up into several subclasses, including the slightly siderophile elements (1104). Because these three groups encompass a wide range of partition coefficient values, they can be very useful in trying to determine the conditions under which metal may have equilibrated with the mantle (or a magma ocean). Because metal and silicate may equilibrate by several different mechanisms, such as at the base of a deep magma ocean, or as metal droplets descend through a molten mantle, partition coefficients can potentially shed light on which mechanism may be most important, thus linking the physics and chemistry of core formation. In this chapter, we summarize metal/silicate partitioning of siderophile elements and show how they may be used to understand planetary core formation.Once a planet is differentiated into core and mantle, a mantle will cool during convection, and can start in either a molten or solid state, depending upon the initial thermal conditions. If hot enough, minerals will

  6. New Instrumentation for Phase Partitioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Cells and molecules can be purified by partitioning between the two immiscible liquid phases formed by aqueous solutions of poly/ethylene glycol and dextran. Such purification can be more selective, higher yielding, and less destructive to sensitive biological materials than other available techniques. Earth's gravitational field is a hindering factor as it causes sedimentation of particles to be purified and shear-induced particle randomization. The present proposal is directed toward developing new instrumentation for performing phase partitioning both on Earth and in microgravity.

  7. THE KINETICS OF PENETRATION : VIII. TEMPORARY ACCUMULATION.

    PubMed

    Osterhout, W J; Kamerling, S E

    1934-03-20

    A model is described which throws light on the mechanism of accumulation. In the model used an external aqueous phase A is separated by a non-aqueous phase B (representing the protoplasm) from the artificial sap in C. A contains KOH and C contains HCl: they tend to mix by passing through the non-aqueous layer but much more KOH moves so that most of the KCl is formed in C, where the concentration of potassium becomes much greater than in A. This accumulation is only temporary for as the system approaches equilibrium the composition of A approaches identity with that of C, since all the substances present can pass through the non-aqueous layer. Such an approach to equilibrium may be compared to the death of the cell as the result of which accumulation disappears. During the earlier stages of the experiment potassium tends to go in as KOH and at the same time to go out as KCl. These opposing tendencies do not balance until the concentration of potassium inside becomes much greater than outside (hence potassium accumulates). The reason is that KCl, although its driving force be great, moves very slowly in B because its partition coefficient is low and in consequence its concentration gradient in B is small. This illustrates the importance of partition coefficients for penetration in models and in living cells. It also indicates that accumulation depends on the fact that permeability is greater for the ingoing compound of the accumulating substance than for the outgoing compound. Other things being equal, accumulation is increased by maintaining a low pH in C. Hence we may infer that anything which checks the production of acid in the living cell may be expected to check accumulation and growth. This model recalls the situation in Valonia and in most living cells where potassium accumulates as KCl, perhaps because it enters as KOH and forms KA in the sap (where A is an organic anion). In some plants potassium accumulates as KA but when HCl exists in the external

  8. Effect of Lipid Partitioning on Predictions of Acute Toxicity of Oil Sands Process Affected Water to Embryos of Fathead Minnow (Pimephales promelas).

    PubMed

    Morandi, Garrett D; Zhang, Kun; Wiseman, Steve B; Pereira, Alberto Dos Santos; Martin, Jonathan W; Giesy, John P

    2016-08-16

    Dissolved organic compounds in oil sands process affected water (OSPW) are known to be responsible for most of its toxicity to aquatic organisms, but the complexity of this mixture prevents use of traditional bottom-up approaches for predicting toxicities of mixtures. Therefore, a top-down approach to predict toxicity of the dissolved organic fraction of OSPW was developed and tested. Accurate masses (i.e., m/z) determined by ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry in negative and positive ionization modes were used to assign empirical chemical formulas to each chemical species in the mixture. For each chemical species, a predictive measure of lipid accumulation was estimated by stir-bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) to poly(dimethyl)siloxane, or by partitioning to solid-supported lipid membranes (SSLM). A narcosis mode of action was assumed and the target-lipid model was used to estimate potencies of mixtures by assuming strict additivity. A model developed using a combination of the SBSE and SSLM lipid partitioning estimates, whereby the accumulation of chemicals to neutral and polar lipids was explicitly considered, was best for predicting empirical values of LC50 in 96-h acute toxicity tests with embryos of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Model predictions were within 4-fold of observed toxicity for 75% of OSPW samples, and within 8.5-fold for all samples tested, which is comparable to the range of interlaboratory variability for in vivo toxicity testing. PMID:27420640

  9. Rectilinear partitioning of irregular data parallel computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicol, David M.

    1991-01-01

    New mapping algorithms for domain oriented data-parallel computations, where the workload is distributed irregularly throughout the domain, but exhibits localized communication patterns are described. Researchers consider the problem of partitioning the domain for parallel processing in such a way that the workload on the most heavily loaded processor is minimized, subject to the constraint that the partition be perfectly rectilinear. Rectilinear partitions are useful on architectures that have a fast local mesh network. Discussed here is an improved algorithm for finding the optimal partitioning in one dimension, new algorithms for partitioning in two dimensions, and optimal partitioning in three dimensions. The application of these algorithms to real problems are discussed.

  10. Investigation into the determination of trimethylarsine in natural gas and its partitioning into gas and condensate phases using (cryotrapping)/gas chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and liquid/solid sorption techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupp, E. M.; Johnson, C.; Rechsteiner, C.; Moir, M.; Leong, D.; Feldmann, J.

    2007-09-01

    Speciation of trialkylated arsenic compunds in natural gas, pressurized and stable condensate samples from the same gas well was performed using (Cryotrapping) Gas Chromatography-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. The major species in all phases investigated was found to be trimethylarsine with a highest concentration of 17.8 ng/L (As) in the gas phase and 33.2 μg/L (As) in the stable condensate phase. The highest amount of trimethylarsine (121 μg/L (As)) was found in the pressurized condensate, along with trace amounts of non-identified higher alkylated arsines. Volatile arsenic species in natural gas and its related products cause concern with regards to environment, safety, occupational health and gas processing. Therefore, interest lies in a fast and simple field method for the determination of volatile arsenicals. Here, we use simple liquid and solid sorption techniques, namely absorption in silver nitrate solution and adsorption on silver nitrate impregnated silica gel tubes followed by total arsenic determination as a promising tool for field monitoring of volatile arsenicals in natural gas and gas condensates. Preliminary results obtained for the sorption-based methods show that around 70% of the arsenic is determined with these methods in comparison to volatile arsenic determination using GC-ICP-MS. Furthermore, an inter-laboratory- and inter-method comparison was performed using silver nitrate impregnated silica tubes on 14 different gas samples with concentrations varying from below 1 to 1000 μg As/m 3 natural gas. The results obtained from the two laboratories differ in a range of 10 to 60%, but agree within the order of magnitude, which is satisfactory for our purposes.

  11. Set covering, partition and packing

    SciTech Connect

    Hulme, B.L.; Baca, L.S.

    1984-03-01

    Set covering problems are known to be solvable by Boolean algebraic methods. This report shows that set partition and set packing problems can be solved by the same algebraic methods because these problems can be converted into covering problems. Many applications are possible including security patrol assignment which is used as an example.

  12. Monomial Crystals and Partition Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tingley, Peter

    2010-04-01

    Recently Fayers introduced a large family of combinatorial realizations of the fundamental crystal B(Λ0) for ^sln, where the vertices are indexed by certain partitions. He showed that special cases of this construction agree with the Misra-Miwa realization and with Berg's ladder crystal. Here we show that another special case is naturally isomorphic to a realization using Nakajima's monomial crystal.

  13. METAL PARTITIONING IN COMBUSTION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article summarizes ongoing research efforts at the National Risk Management Research Laboratory of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency examining [high temperature] metal behavior within combustion environments. The partitioning of non-volatile (Cr and Ni), semi-volatil...

  14. Some trees with partition dimension three

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredlina, Ketut Queena; Baskoro, Edy Tri

    2016-02-01

    The concept of partition dimension of a graph was introduced by Chartrand, E. Salehi and P. Zhang (1998) [2]. Let G(V, E) be a connected graph. For S ⊆ V (G) and v ∈ V (G), define the distance d(v, S) from v to S is min{d(v, x)|x ∈ S}. Let Π be an ordered partition of V (G) and Π = {S1, S2, ..., Sk }. The representation r(v|Π) of vertex v with respect to Π is (d(v, S1), d(v, S2), ..., d(v, Sk)). If the representations of all vertices are distinct, then the partition Π is called a resolving partition of G. The partition dimension of G is the minimum k such that G has a resolving partition with k partition classes. In this paper, we characterize some classes of trees with partition dimension three, namely olive trees, weeds, and centipedes.

  15. Terminology for trace-element partitioning

    SciTech Connect

    Beattie, P. ); Drake, M. ); Jones, J.; McKay, G. ); Leeman, W. ); Longhi, J. ); Nielsen, R. ); Palme, H. ); Shaw, D. ); Takahashi, E. ); Watson, B. )

    1993-04-01

    A self-consistent terminology for partitioning data is presented. Ratios of the concentration of a component in two phases are termed partition coefficients and given the symbol D. Ratios of partition coefficients are termed exchange coefficients and given the symbol K[sub D]. The prefix bulk implies that these coefficients are weighted according to the proportions of coexisting phases. Bulk partition and bulk exchange coefficients are denoted by [bar D] and [ovr K[sub D

  16. Methodology for optimally sized centrifugal partition chromatography columns.

    PubMed

    Chollet, Sébastien; Marchal, Luc; Jérémy Meucci; Renault, Jean-Hugues; Legrand, Jack; Foucault, Alain

    2015-04-01

    Centrifugal Partition Chromatography (CPC) is a separation process based on the partitioning of solutes between two partially miscible liquid phases. There is no solid support for the stationary phase. The centrifugal acceleration is responsible for both stationary phase retention and mobile phase dispersion. CPC is thus a process based on liquid-liquid mass transfer. The separation efficiency is mainly influenced by the hydrodynamics of the phases in each cell of the column. Thanks to a visualization system, called "Visual CPC", it was observed that the mobile phase can flow through the stationary phase as a sheet, or a spray. Hydrodynamics, which directly governs the instrument efficiency, is directly affected during scale changes, and non-linear phenomena prevent the successful achievement of mastered geometrical scale changes. In this work, a methodology for CPC column sizing is proposed, based on the characterization of the efficiency of advanced cell shapes, taking into account the hydrodynamics. Knowledge about relationship between stationary phase volume, cell efficiency and separation resolution in CPC allowed calculating the optimum cell number for laboratory and industrial scale CPC application. The methodology is highlighted with results on five different geometries from 25 to 5000 mL, for two applications: the separation of alkylbenzene by partitioning with heptane/methanol/water biphasic system; and the separation of peptides by partitioning with n-butanol/acetic acid/water (4/1/5) biphasic system. With this approach, it is possible to predict the optimal CPC column length leading to highest productivity. PMID:25744547

  17. Equilibrium partitioning of Ficoll in composite hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Kosto, Kimberly B; Panuganti, Swapna; Deen, William M

    2004-09-15

    Equilibrium partition coefficients (phi, the concentration in the gel divided by that in free solution) of fluorescein-labeled Ficolls in pure agarose and agarose-dextran composite gels were measured as a function of gel composition and Ficoll size. The four narrow fractions of Ficoll, a spherical polysaccharide, had Stokes-Einstein radii ranging from 2.7 to 5.9 nm. Gels with agarose volume fractions of 0.040 and 0.080 were studied, with dextran volume fractions (calculated as if the chain were a long fiber) up to 0.011. As expected, phi generally decreased as the Ficoll size increased (for a given gel composition) or as the amount of dextran incorporated into the gel increased (for a given agarose concentration and Ficoll size). The decrease in phi that accompanied dextran addition was predicted well by an excluded volume theory in which agarose and dextran were both treated as rigid, straight, randomly positioned and oriented fibers. Modeling dextran as a spherical coil within a fibrous agarose gel produced much less accurate predictions. The diffusional permeabilities of these gels were assessed by combining the current partitioning data with relative diffusivities (Kd, the diffusivity in the gel divided by that in free solution) reported previously. The values of phi Kd for a synthetic gel with 8.0% agarose and 1.1% dextran (by volume) were found to be very similar to those for the glomerular basement membrane, a physiologically important material which also has a total solids content of approximately 10%. PMID:15341852

  18. Dual-phase reactor plant with partitioned isolation condenser

    DOEpatents

    Hui, Marvin M.

    1992-01-01

    A nuclear energy plant housing a boiling-water reactor utilizes an isolation condenser in which a single chamber is partitioned into a distributor plenum and a collector plenum. Steam accumulates in the distributor plenum and is conveyed to the collector plenum through an annular manifold that includes tubes extending through a condenser pool. The tubes provide for a transfer of heat from the steam, forming a condensate. The chamber has a disk-shaped base, a cylindrical sidewall, and a semispherical top. This geometry results in a compact design that exhibits significant performance and cost advantages over prior designs.

  19. Interseismic Plate coupling and strain partitioning in the Northeastern Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manaker, D. M.; Calais, E.; Freed, A. M.; Ali, S. T.; Przybylski, P.; Mattioli, G.; Jansma, P.; Prépetit, C.; de Chabalier, J. B.

    2008-09-01

    The northeastern Caribbean provides a natural laboratory to investigate strain partitioning, its causes and its consequences on the stress regime and tectonic evolution of a subduction plate boundary. Here, we use GPS and earthquake slip vector data to produce a present-day kinematic model that accounts for secular block rotation and elastic strain accumulation, with variable interplate coupling, on active faults. We confirm that the oblique convergence between Caribbean and North America in Hispaniola is partitioned between plate boundary parallel motion on the Septentrional and Enriquillo faults in the overriding plate and plate-boundary normal motion at the plate interface on the Northern Hispaniola Fault. To the east, the Caribbean/North America plate motion is accommodated by oblique slip on the faults bounding the Puerto Rico block to the north (Puerto Rico subduction) and to the south (Muertos thrust), with no evidence for partitioning. The spatial correlation between interplate coupling, strain partitioning and the subduction of buoyant oceanic asperities suggests that the latter enhance the transfer of interplate shear stresses to the overriding plate, facilitating strike-slip faulting in the overriding plate. The model slip rate deficit, together with the dates of large historical earthquakes, indicates the potential for a large (Mw7.5 or greater) earthquake on the Septentrional fault in the Dominican Republic. Similarly, the Enriquillo fault in Haiti is currently capable of a Mw7.2 earthquake if the entire elastic strain accumulated since the last major earthquake was released in a single event today. The model results show that the Puerto Rico/Lesser Antilles subduction thrust is only partially coupled, meaning that the plate interface is accumulating elastic strain at rates slower than the total plate motion. This does not preclude the existence of isolated locked patches accumulating elastic strain to be released in future earthquakes, but whose

  20. Element Partitioning Constraints on Formation and Composition of the Earth's Core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, J.; Agee, C. B.; Fei, Y.

    1998-01-01

    Element partitioning study provides a number of constraints on the formation and composition of the core. First, partitioning of siderophile elements between the core and mantle should explain the "excess" siderophile elements in the mantle. Second, partitioning of light element(s) between the core and mantle should supply the core with the right amount of light element(s) to account for the density deficit in the core. Third, partitioning of light element(s) between the inner and outer core should be consistent with the observed difference in density deficits (relative to pure Fe) between these two reservoirs. In this study, high-pressure and high-temperature experiments have been conducted to investigate the pressure, temperature, and composition effects on partitioning of siderophile elements Ni and Co between core-forming Fe alloy and mantle silicate melt and minerals, partitioning of light elements S, O, and Si between core-forming Fe alloy and mantle silicate melt and minerals, and partitioning of light elements S and C between solid and liquid Fe. The implications of these results for mechanism of core formation and the composition of the core are discussed.

  1. Consolidated Incineration Facility metals partitioning test. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, D.B.

    1993-08-31

    Test burns were conducted at Energy and Environmental Research Corporation`s rotary kiln simulator, the Solid Waste Incineration Test Facility, using surrogate CIF wastes spiked with hazardous metals and organics. The primary objective for this test program was measuring heavy metals partition between the kiln bottom ash, scrubber blowdown solution, and incinerator stack gas. Also, these secondary waste streams were characterized to determine waste treatment requirements prior to final disposal. These tests were designed to investigate the effect of several parameters on metals partitioning: incineration temperature; waste chloride concentration; waste form (solid or liquid); and chloride concentration in the scrubber water. Tests were conducted at three kiln operating temperatures. Three waste simulants were burned, two solid waste mixtures (paper, plastic, latex, and one with and one without PVC), and a liquid waste mixture (containing benzene and chlorobenzene). Toxic organic and metal compounds were spiked into the simulated wastes to evaluate their fate under various combustion conditions. Kiln offgases were sampled for volatile organic compounds (VOC), semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC), polychlorinated dibenz[p]dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF), metals, particulate loading and size distribution, HCl, and combustion products. Stack gas sampling was performed to determine additional treatment requirements prior to final waste disposal. Significant test results are summarized below.

  2. About Thinning Invariant Partition Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starr, Shannon; Vermesi, Brigitta; Wei, Ang

    2012-08-01

    Bernoulli- p thinning has been well-studied for point processes. Here we consider three other cases: (1) sequences ( X 1, X 2,…); (2) gaps of such sequences ( X n+1- X 1) n∈ℕ; (3) partition structures. For the first case we characterize the distributions which are simultaneously invariant under Bernoulli- p thinning for all p∈(0,1]. Based on this, we make conjectures for the latter two cases, and provide a potential approach for proof. We explain the relation to spin glasses, which is complementary to important previous work of Aizenman and Ruzmaikina, Arguin, and Shkolnikov.

  3. On some trees having partition dimension four

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ida Bagus Kade Puja Arimbawa, K.; Baskoro, Edy Tri

    2016-02-01

    In 1998, G. Chartrand, E. Salehi and P. Zhang introduced the notion of partition dimension of a graph. Since then, the study of this graph parameter has received much attention. A number of results have been obtained to know the values of partition dimensions of various classes of graphs. However, for some particular classes of graphs, finding of their partition dimensions is still not completely solved, for instances a class of general tree. In this paper, we study the properties of trees having partition dimension 4. In particular, we show that, for olive trees O(n), its partition dimension is equal to 4 if and only if 8 ≤ n ≤ 17. We also characterize all centipede trees having partition dimension 4.

  4. Partitioning of divalent transition elements between octahedral sheets of trioctahedral smectites and water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decarreau, Alain

    1985-07-01

    Using trioctahedral smectites synthesized at low temperature (25 and 75°C). partition coefficients have been determined for M2+ transition metals (Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn) between octahedral sheets of smectites and water. These coefficients D( M2+- Mg) = ( M2+)/( Mg) solid/( M2+)/( Mg) liquid have high values near 10 4 for Cu, 1000 for Ni, Co, Zn, 300 for Fe and 30 for Mn. All transition metals are strongly stabilized in the magnesian solid phase, even Mn which leads to noncrystallized products. Within the range of experimental uncertainties, it is found that tetrahedral substitution of Si by Al and differences in temperature (from 25 to 75°C) have no influence on partition coefficients. Experimental data are closely related to thermodynamic properties of the cations and on this basis other partition coefficients can be calculated, for the ( M2+ - Fe2+) pair for instance. The behaviour of transition metals is explained using crystal field theory.

  5. Chemical amplification based on fluid partitioning in an immiscible liquid

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Brian L.; Colston, Bill W.; Elkin, Christopher J.

    2010-09-28

    A system for nucleic acid amplification of a sample comprises partitioning the sample into partitioned sections and performing PCR on the partitioned sections of the sample. Another embodiment of the invention provides a system for nucleic acid amplification and detection of a sample comprising partitioning the sample into partitioned sections, performing PCR on the partitioned sections of the sample, and detecting and analyzing the partitioned sections of the sample.

  6. PARTITIONING OF GADOLINIUM IN THE CHEMICAL PROCESSING CELL

    SciTech Connect

    Reboul, S.; Best, D.; Stone, M.; Click, D.

    2011-04-27

    A combination of short-term beaker tests and longer-duration Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) simulations were performed to investigate the relative partitioning behaviors of gadolinium and iron under conditions applicable to the Chemical Processing Cell (CPC). The testing was performed utilizing non-radioactive simple Fe-Gd slurries, non-radioactive Sludge Batch 6 simulant slurries, and a radioactive real-waste slurry representative of Sludge Batch 7 material. The testing focused on the following range of conditions: (a) Fe:Gd ratios of 25-100; (b) pH values of 2-6; (c) acidification via addition of nitric, formic, and glycolic acids; (d) temperatures of {approx}93 C and {approx}22 C; and (e) oxalate concentrations of <100 mg/kg and {approx}10,000 mg/kg. The purpose of the testing was to provide data for assessing the potential use of gadolinium as a supplemental neutron poison when dispositioning excess plutonium. Understanding of the partitioning behavior of gadolinium in the CPC was the first step in assessing gadolinium's potential applicability. Significant fractions of gadolinium partitioned to the liquid-phase at pH values of 4.0 and below, regardless of the Fe:Gd ratio. In SRAT simulations targeting nitric and formic acid additions of 150% acid stoichiometry, the pH dropped to a minimum of 3.5-4.0, and the maximum fractions of gadolinium and iron partitioning to solution were both {approx}20%. In contrast, in a SRAT simulation utilizing a nitric and formic acid addition under atypical conditions (due to an anomalously low insoluble solids content), the pH dropped to a minimum of 3.7, and the maximum fractions of gadolinium and iron partitioning to solution were {approx}60% and {approx}70%, respectively. When glycolic acid was used in combination with nitric and formic acids at 100% acid stoichiometry, the pH dropped to a minimum of 3.6-4.0, and the maximum fractions of gadolinium and iron partitioning to solution were 60-80% and 3-5%, respectively

  7. Displaying multimedia environmental partitioning by triangular diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.C.; Mackay, D.

    1995-11-01

    It is suggested that equilateral triangular diagrams are a useful method of depicting the equilibrium partitioning of organic chemicals among the three primary environmental media of the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, and the organosphere (natural organic matter and biotic lipids and waxes). The technique is useful for grouping chemicals into classes according to their partitioning tendencies, for depicting the incremental effects of substituents such as alkyl groups and chlorine, and for showing how partitioning changes in response to changes in temperature.

  8. Parameters of photosynthetic energy partitioning.

    PubMed

    Lazár, Dušan

    2015-03-01

    Almost every laboratory dealing with plant physiology, photosynthesis research, remote sensing, and plant phenotyping possesses a fluorometer to measure a kind of chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence induction (FLI). When the slow Chl FLI is measured with addition of saturating pulses and far-red illumination, the so-called quenching analysis followed by the so-called relaxation analysis in darkness can be realized. These measurements then serve for evaluation of the so-called energy partitioning, that is, calculation of quantum yields of photochemical and of different types of non-photochemical processes. Several theories have been suggested for photosynthetic energy partitioning. The current work aims to summarize all the existing theories, namely their equations for the quantum yields, their meaning and their assumptions. In the framework of these theories it is also found here that the well-known NPQ parameter ( [Formula: see text] ; Bilger and Björkman, 1990) equals the ratio of the quantum yield of regulatory light-induced non-photochemical quenching to the quantum yield of constitutive non-regulatory non-photochemical quenching (ΦNPQ/Φf,D). A similar relationship is also found here for the PQ parameter (ΦP/Φf,D). PMID:25569797

  9. Mass partitioning effects in diffusion transport.

    PubMed

    Kojic, Milos; Milosevic, Miljan; Wu, Suhong; Blanco, Elvin; Ferrari, Mauro; Ziemys, Arturas

    2015-08-28

    Frequent mass exchange takes place in a heterogeneous environment among several phases, where mass partitioning may occur at the interface of phases. Analytical and computational methods for diffusion do not usually incorporate molecule partitioning masking the true picture of mass transport. Here we present a computational finite element methodology to calculate diffusion mass transport with a partitioning phenomenon included and the analysis of the effects of partitioning. Our numerical results showed that partitioning controls equilibrated mass distribution as expected from analytical solutions. The experimental validation of mass release from drug-loaded nanoparticles showed that partitioning might even dominate in some cases with respect to diffusion itself. The analysis of diffusion kinetics in the parameter space of partitioning and diffusivity showed that partitioning is an extremely important parameter in systems, where mass diffusivity is fast and that the concentration of nanoparticles can control payload retention inside nanoparticles. The computational and experimental results suggest that partitioning and physiochemical properties of phases play an important, if not crucial, role in diffusion transport and should be included in the studies of mass transport processes. PMID:26204522

  10. A Henry's Law Test for Experimental Partitioning Studies of Iron Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chabot, N. L.; Campbell, A. J.; Humayun, M.; Agee, C. B.

    2001-01-01

    Low-level doped solid metal/liquid metal experiments analyzed by laser ablation ICP-MS allow Henry's Law to be tested. The results indicate Henry's Law is obeyed and the experimental partition coefficients can be applied to iron meteorites. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  11. Partitioning and diffusion of PBDEs through an HDPE geomembrane.

    PubMed

    Rowe, R Kerry; Saheli, Pooneh T; Rutter, Allison

    2016-09-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) has been measured in MSW landfill leachate and its migration through a modern landfill liner has not been investigated previously. To assure environmental protection, it is important to evaluate the efficacy of landfill liners for controlling the release of PBDE to the environment to a negligible level. The partitioning and diffusion of a commercial mixture of PBDEs (DE-71: predominantly containing six congeners) with respect to a high-density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane is examined. The results show that the partitioning coefficients of the six congeners in this mixture range from 700,000 to 7,500,000 and the diffusion coefficients range from 1.3 to 6.0×10(-15)m(2)/s depending on the congener. This combination of very high partitioning coefficients and very low diffusion coefficients suggest that a well constructed HDPE geomembrane liner will be an extremely effective barrier for PBDEs with respect to diffusion from a municipal solid waste landfill, as illustrated by an example. The results for pure diffusion scenario showed that the congeners investigated meet the guidelines by at least a factor of three for an effective geomembrane liner where diffusion is the controlling transport mechanism. PMID:27211313

  12. Disentangling event-scale hydrologic flow partitioning in mountains of the Korean Peninsula under extreme precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shope, Christopher L.

    2016-07-01

    Mountainous headwaters include a variety of spatial landscape units; however, the flow contribution from different hydrologic components is complex and often unclear. In addition to complex landscape controls, temporal meteorological drivers play an important role in the distribution between surface runoff and subsurface storage changes. This spatiotemporal variability in partitioning can influence catchment-wide flow accumulation and nutrient and sediment loading. We use a multi-year, multi-method analysis of stable isotopes, geochemical indicators, and discharge distributed throughout the Haean catchment in South Korea to identify temporal variability in hydrologic flow partitioning from surface runoff, springs, shallow interflow, and groundwater under monsoonal conditions. By combining a weighted, multi-method discharge approach, high frequency, synoptic, catchment-wide isotopic and geochemical sampling, and baseflow analysis, we characterize watershed-scale spatiotemporal hydrologic flow partitioning. Meteorological drivers are spatially variable throughout the catchment and temporally between individual events. Baseflow contributions in the high elevation, forested areas are up to 50%, while the majority of the catchment is approximately 20%. Our study builds on previously reported seasonality of isotopic signatures by quantifying trends in distributed event-based partitioning of isotopic tracers. We demonstrate that high frequency flow partitioning can accurately be determined in mountainous topography with high precipitation and that there is a need for multiple method characterizations. Our results further show the benefit of spatially distributed synoptic sampling for process understanding of hydrologic partitioning throughout the watersheds.

  13. Growth rate controlled barium partitioning in calcite and aragonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goetschl, Katja Elisabeth; Mavromatis, Vasileios; Baldermann, Andre; Purgstaller, Bettina; Dietzel, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The barium (Ba) content and the Ba/Ca molar ratios in biogenic and abiotic carbonates have been widely used from the scientific community as a geochemical proxy especially in marine and early diagenetic settings. The Ba content of carbonate minerals has been earlier associated to changes in oceanic circulation that may have been caused by upwelling, changes in weathering regimes and river-runoff as well as melt water discharge. The physicochemical controls of Ba ion incorporation in the two most abundant CaCO3 polymorphs found in Earth's surface environments, i.e. calcite and aragonite, have adequately been studied only for calcite. These earlier studies (i.e. [1]) suggest that at increasing growth rate, Ba partitioning in calcite is increasing as well. In contrast, to date the effect of growth rate on the partitioning of Ba in aragonite remains questionable, despite the fact that this mineral phase is the predominant carbonate-forming polymorph in shallow marine environments. To shed light on the mechanisms controlling Ba ion uptake in carbonates in this study we performed steady-state Ba co-precipitation experiments with calcite and aragonite at 25°C. The obtained results for the partitioning of Ba in calcite are in good agreement with those reported earlier by [1], whereas those for aragonite indicate a reduction of Ba partitioning at elevated aragonite growth rates, with the partitioning coefficient value between solid and fluid to be approaching the unity. This finding is good agreement with the formation of a solid solution in the aragonite-witherite system, owing to the isostructural crystallography of the two mineral phases. Moreover, our data set provides new insights that are required for reconstructing the evolution of the Ba content of pristine marine versus diagenetically altered carbonate minerals commonly occurring in marine subfloor settings, as the thermodynamically less stable aragonite will transform to calcite enriched in Ba, whilst affecting

  14. Modeling kinetic partitioning of secondary organic aerosol and size distribution dynamics: representing effects of volatility, phase state, and particle-phase reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Zaveri, Rahul A.; Easter, Richard C.; Shilling, John E.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2014-05-27

    Evidence is mounting that the majority of the climatically active aerosols are produced through the growth of smaller particles via secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from gas-to-particle conversion of anthropogenic and biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The timescale of SOA partitioning and the associated size distribution dynamics are expected to depend on the gas-phase oxidation of the precursor VOCs and their products, volatility of these organic solutes, composition and phase state of the pre-existing particles, and diffusivity and reactivity of the solute within the particle phase. This paper describes a new framework for modeling kinetic gas-particle partitioning of SOA, with an analytical treatment for the diffusion-reaction process within the particle phase. The formulation is amenable for eventual use in regional and global climate models, although it currently awaits implementation of the actual particle-phase reactions that are important for SOA formation. In the present work, the model is applied to investigate the competitive growth dynamics of the Aitken and accumulation mode particles while the Kelvin effect and coagulation are neglected for simplicity. The timescale of SOA partitioning and evolution of number and composition size distributions are evaluated for a range of solute volatilities (C*), particle-phase bulk diffusivities (Db), and particle-phase reactivity, as exemplified by a pseudo-first-order rate constant (kc). Results show that irreversible condensation of non-volatile organic vapors (equivalent to ) produces significant narrowing of the size distribution. At the other extreme, non-reactive partitioning of semi-volatile organic vapors is volume-controlled in which the final (equilibrium) size distribution simply shifts to the right on the diameter axis while its shape remains unchanged. However, appreciable narrowing of the size distribution may occur when the pre-existing particles are highly viscous semi-solids such

  15. Assimilate partitioning during reproductive growth

    SciTech Connect

    Finazzo, S.F.; Davenport, T.L.

    1987-04-01

    Leaves having various phyllotactic relationships to fruitlets were labeled for 1 hour with 10/sub r/Ci of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/. Fruitlets were also labeled. Fruitlets did fix /sup 14/CO/sub 2/. Translocation of radioactivity from the peel into the fruit occurred slowly and to a limited extent. No evidence of translocation out of the fruitlets was observed. Assimilate partitioning in avocado was strongly influenced by phyllotaxy. If a fruit and the labeled leaf had the same phyllotaxy then greater than 95% of the radiolabel was present in this fruit. When the fruit did not have the same phyllotaxy as the labeled leaf, the radiolabel distribution was skewed with 70% of the label going to a single adjacent position. Avocado fruitlets exhibit uniform labeling throughout a particular tissue. In avocado, assimilates preferentially move from leaves to fruits with the same phyllotaxy.

  16. A Partitioning Technique for Defining Instructional Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Frank B.; Hubert, Lawrence J.

    1979-01-01

    A technique is presented for partitioning N students into K groups of fixed sizes using a given measure of proximity for all student pairs. The measure of proximity is typically calculated from a set of variables and constitutes the data needed for a criterion of partition "fit." (Author)

  17. Building Ecology and Partition Design. Technical Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.

    This bulletin is intended as a resource for school system facility planners and architects who design schools. Ways in which decision makers can incorporate environmental concerns in the design of school buildings are detailed. Focus is on the design of interior partition systems. Partition systems in schools serve several purposes; they define…

  18. Trace element transformations and partitioning during the roasting of pyrite ores in the sulfuric acid industry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunxia; Chen, Yongheng; Peng, Ping'an; Li, Chao; Chang, Xiangyang; Wu, Yingjuan

    2009-08-15

    Total concentrations combined with chemical partitioning of trace elements (Cd, Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, Tl, and Zn) in raw pyrite ore and solid roasting wastes were investigated in order to elucidate their transformations and partitioning during the roasting of raw pyrite ores in sulfuric acid production. In order to better understand the behavior of these elements during roasting, mineral transformations accompanying roasting were also investigated by using microscopy. Results indicated that the mode of occurrence of trace elements in raw pyrite ore and the thermostability of trace element-bearing species formed during roasting played major roles in the transformations of the selected trace elements. Silicate- and amorphous iron (hydr)oxide-bound elements (Cr and Pb) were stable and mainly retained in their original phases. However, acid-exchangeable and sulfide-bound elements tended to transform into other forms via different pathways: elements that tend to form low thermostable species (Cd, Pb and Tl) were significantly vaporized, whereas elements that tend to form high thermostable species (Co, Mn and Ni) mainly reacted with iron oxides or silicates, which then remained in the solid residues. The volatility of trace elements during the roasting has a significant effect on their subsequent partitioning in roasting wastes. Nonvolatile element (Co, Cr, Mn, and Ni) partitioning was determined by settling of the particulate in which they are bound, whereas the partitioning of (semi)volatile elements (Cd, Pb, Tl, and Zn) was controlled by the adsorption of their gaseous species on the particulate. PMID:19261379

  19. Prediction of Partition Coefficients of Organic Compounds between SPME/PDMS and Aqueous Solution

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Keh-Ping; Lu, Yu-Ting; Yang, Hsiu-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is commonly used as the coated polymer in the solid phase microextraction (SPME) technique. In this study, the partition coefficients of organic compounds between SPME/PDMS and the aqueous solution were compiled from the literature sources. The correlation analysis for partition coefficients was conducted to interpret the effect of their physicochemical properties and descriptors on the partitioning process. The PDMS-water partition coefficients were significantly correlated to the polarizability of organic compounds (r = 0.977, p < 0.05). An empirical model, consisting of the polarizability, the molecular connectivity index, and an indicator variable, was developed to appropriately predict the partition coefficients of 61 organic compounds for the training set. The predictive ability of the empirical model was demonstrated by using it on a test set of 26 chemicals not included in the training set. The empirical model, applying the straightforward calculated molecular descriptors, for estimating the PDMS-water partition coefficient will contribute to the practical applications of the SPME technique. PMID:24534804

  20. Prediction of partition coefficients of organic compounds between SPME/PDMS and aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Chao, Keh-Ping; Lu, Yu-Ting; Yang, Hsiu-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is commonly used as the coated polymer in the solid phase microextraction (SPME) technique. In this study, the partition coefficients of organic compounds between SPME/PDMS and the aqueous solution were compiled from the literature sources. The correlation analysis for partition coefficients was conducted to interpret the effect of their physicochemical properties and descriptors on the partitioning process. The PDMS-water partition coefficients were significantly correlated to the polarizability of organic compounds (r = 0.977, p < 0.05). An empirical model, consisting of the polarizability, the molecular connectivity index, and an indicator variable, was developed to appropriately predict the partition coefficients of 61 organic compounds for the training set. The predictive ability of the empirical model was demonstrated by using it on a test set of 26 chemicals not included in the training set. The empirical model, applying the straightforward calculated molecular descriptors, for estimating the PDMS-water partition coefficient will contribute to the practical applications of the SPME technique. PMID:24534804

  1. Partition behaviour of alkylphenols in crude oil/brine systems under subsurface conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, B.; Larter, S. R.

    1997-10-01

    Partition of organic solutes between oils and water in the subsurface is an important geochemical process occurring during petroleum migration and reservoiring, during water washing, and during petroleum production. Currently no data exists on the quantitative aspects of the partition process at subsurface conditions for solutes such as phenols and aromatic hydrocarbons which are major components of both oils and waters. We have constructed an equilibration device for oils and waters based on flow injection analysis principles to measure partition coefficients of alkylphenols in crude oil/brine systems under reservoir conditions. Concentrations of C 0C 2 alkylphenols in waters and solid phase extracts of crude oils produced in the device were determined by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (RP-HPLC-ED), partition coefficients being measured as a function of pressure (25-340 bar), temperature (25-150°C), and water salinity (0-100,000 mg/L sodium chloride) for a variety of oils. Partition coefficients for all compounds decreased with increasing temperature, increased with water salinity and crude oil bulk NSO content, and showed little change with varying pressure. These laboratory measurements, determined under conditions close to those typically encountered in petroleum reservoirs, suggest temperature, water salinity, and crude oil bulk NSO content will have important influence on oil-water partition processes in the subsurface during migration and water washing.

  2. Purification of biomaterials by phase partitioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    A technique which is particularly suited to microgravity environments and which is potentially more powerful than electrophoresis is phase partitioning. Phase partitioning is purification by partitioning between the two immiscible aqueous layers formed by solution of the polymers poly(ethylene glycol) and dextran in water. This technique proved to be very useful for separations in one-g but is limited for cells because the cells are more dense than the phase solutions thus tend to sediment to the bottom of the container before reaching equilibrium with the preferred phase. There are three phases to work in this area: synthesis of new polymers for affinity phase partitioning; development of automated apparatus for ground-based separations; and design of apparatus for performing simple phase partitioning space experiments, including examination of mechanisms for separating phases in the absence of gravity.

  3. Cell partition in two phase polymer systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, D. E.

    1979-01-01

    Aqueous phase-separated polymer solutions can be used as support media for the partition of biological macromolecules, organelles and cells. Cell separations using the technique have proven to be extremely sensitive to cell surface properties but application of the systems are limited to cells or aggregates which do not significantly while the phases are settling. Partition in zero g in principle removes this limitation but an external driving force must be applied to induce the phases to separate since their density difference disappears. We have recently shown that an applied electric field can supply the necessary driving force. We are proposing to utilize the NASA FES to study field-driven phase separation and cell partition on the ground and in zero g to help define the separation/partition process, with the ultimate goal being to develop partition as a zero g cell separation technique.

  4. Bicriterion methods for partitioning dissimilarity matrices.

    PubMed

    Brusco, Michael J; Cradit, J Dennis

    2005-11-01

    Partitioning indices associated with the within-cluster sums of pairwise dissimilarities often exhibit a systematic bias towards clusters of a particular size, whereas minimization of the partition diameter (i.e. the maximum dissimilarity element across all pairs of objects within the same cluster) does not typically have this problem. However, when the partition-diameter criterion is used, there is often a myriad of alternative optimal solutions that can vary significantly with respect to their substantive interpretation. We propose a bicriterion partitioning approach that considers both diameter and within-cluster sums in the optimization problem and facilitates selection from among the alternative optima. We developed several MATLAB-based exchange algorithms that rapidly provide excellent solutions to bicriterion partitioning problems. These algorithms were evaluated using synthetic data sets, as well as an empirical dissimilarity matrix. PMID:16293203

  5. The accumulation and structure of comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donn, Bertram

    1991-01-01

    The paper reviews evidence for the accumulation of the terrestrial planets and comets from solid grains, with emphasis on the various proposals for the formation of cometary nuclei. With three exceptions, all hypotheses conclude or imply that a single compact object forms. Several hypotheses start with Goldreich-Ward-type gravitational instabilities. The collapse for this case also occurs at low velocities in the cm/s to m/s range. Experiment and theory show that under these conditions, low-density, filamentary clusters form that are fractal aggregates with a fractal dimension approximately equal to 2. In order to form cometary nuclei, the initial temperature must be about 50 K and not undergo a significant temperature rise during the accumulation process. The calculations show that accumulation will occur at low temperatures. Models of cometary nuclei are reviewed, and a simple model of the structure that results fom the accumulation of fluffy aggregates is described.

  6. Dense Subgraph Partition of Positive Hypergraphs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hairong; Latecki, Longin Jan; Yan, Shuicheng

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we present a novel partition framework, called dense subgraph partition (DSP), to automatically, precisely and efficiently decompose a positive hypergraph into dense subgraphs. A positive hypergraph is a graph or hypergraph whose edges, except self-loops, have positive weights. We first define the concepts of core subgraph, conditional core subgraph, and disjoint partition of a conditional core subgraph, then define DSP based on them. The result of DSP is an ordered list of dense subgraphs with decreasing densities, which uncovers all underlying clusters, as well as outliers. A divide-and-conquer algorithm, called min-partition evolution, is proposed to efficiently compute the partition. DSP has many appealing properties. First, it is a nonparametric partition and it reveals all meaningful clusters in a bottom-up way. Second, it has an exact and efficient solution, called min-partition evolution algorithm. The min-partition evolution algorithm is a divide-and-conquer algorithm, thus time-efficient and memory-friendly, and suitable for parallel processing. Third, it is a unified partition framework for a broad range of graphs and hypergraphs. We also establish its relationship with the densest k-subgraph problem (DkS), an NP-hard but fundamental problem in graph theory, and prove that DSP gives precise solutions to DkS for all kin a graph-dependent set, called critical k-set. To our best knowledge, this is a strong result which has not been reported before. Moreover, as our experimental results show, for sparse graphs, especially web graphs, the size of critical k-set is close to the number of vertices in the graph. We test the proposed partition framework on various tasks, and the experimental results clearly illustrate its advantages. PMID:26353260

  7. Fast carry accumulator design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastin, W. C.

    1971-01-01

    Simple iterative accumulator combined with gated-carry, carry-completion detection, and skip-carry circuits produces three accumulators with decreased carry propagation times. Devices are used in machine control, measurement equipment, and computer applications to increase speed of binary addition. NAND gates are used in combining network.

  8. Tonoplast Sugar Transporters (SbTSTs) putatively control sucrose accumulation in sweet sorghum stems

    PubMed Central

    Bihmidine, Saadia; Julius, Benjamin T; Dweikat, Ismail; Braun, David M

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Carbohydrates are differentially partitioned in sweet versus grain sorghums. While the latter preferentially accumulate starch in the grain, the former primarily store large amounts of sucrose in the stem. Previous work determined that neither sucrose metabolizing enzymes nor changes in Sucrose transporter (SUT) gene expression accounted for the carbohydrate partitioning differences. Recently, 2 additional classes of sucrose transport proteins, Tonoplast Sugar Transporters (TSTs) and SWEETs, were identified; thus, we examined whether their expression tracked sucrose accumulation in sweet sorghum stems. We determined 2 TSTs were differentially expressed in sweet vs. grain sorghum stems, likely underlying the massive difference in sucrose accumulation. A model illustrating potential roles for different classes of sugar transport proteins in sorghum sugar partitioning is discussed. PMID:26619184

  9. [Effects of chlorides on Cd partitioning and speciation in a simulated MSW incinerator].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; Zhang, Yan-Guo; Li, Qing-Hai; Zhuo, Yu-Qun; Chen, Chang-He

    2008-05-01

    The effects of chlorides (including inorganic chloride NaCl and organic chloride PVC) on Cd emission in MSW (municipal solid waste) incineration was investigated using a simulated tubular furnace and the simulated MSW spiked with heavy metals. The concentrations of heavy metals were measured by ICP-AES after the digesting of samples including bottom ash, fly ash and flue gas according to related USEPA Methods. Heavy metal species in bottom ash and fly ash were identified by X-ray diffraction technique and the spectra of elements distributed and micrographs of bottom ash and fly ash were detected by energy dispersive X-ray system and scanning electron microscope, respectively. The results indicated that the emission of Cd tended to be enhanced with the increasing of chloride content, and 97% Cd partitioned in fly ash after spiked chlorides. However, the content effect of inorganic chloride NaCl and inorganic chloride PVC on Cd emission had no significant difference. The effect of PVC on Cd partitioning was affected by temperature, 80.51% Cd partitioned in fly ash at 550 degrees C and 97.91% Cd partitioned in fly ash at 850 degrees C, when temperature went above the melting point of CdCl2 (568 degrees C), the effect of temperature became less important. The effect of NaCl on Cd partitioning was not affected by temperature, 95.02% Cd partitioned in fly ash at 550 degrees C and 96.58% Cd partitioned at 1 000 degrees C when spiked NaCl. Residence time had no significant effect on Cd partitioning with spiked chlorides. The two different mechanisms of chlorides effects on Cd emission were identified by bottom ash and fly ash analysis using SEM/EDS and XRD technique. PMID:18624222

  10. Chalcophile element partitioning into magmatic sulphides: the effect of silicate melt composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiseeva, Kate; Wood, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    Partitioning of many elements between sulphide and silicate melts is a function of the FeO content of the silicate liquid (Kiseeva and Wood, 2013). The theoretical relationship is a linear one between LogDM (DM=[M]sulph/[M]sil) and -log[FeO] with a slope of n/2, where n is the valency of trace element M. In practice we find that the slope deviates from the theoretical one because of the presence of oxygen in the sulphide. In our recent study we investigated the effects of sulphide composition and temperature on chalcophile element partitioning between sulphide and silicate liquids (Kiseeva and Wood, 2015). We have concluded that partitioning of most chalcophile elements is a strong function of the oxygen (or FeO) content of the sulphide. As expected, lithophile elements partition more strongly into sulphide as its oxygen content increases, while chalcophile elements enter sulphide less readily with increasing oxygen. The effect of Ni and Cu content of sulphide is significantly smaller than the effect of oxygen, while the effects of temperature are large only for a number of elements (such as Ni, Cu, Ag). In this study we show that in addition to the effect of sulphide composition, for certain elements the effect of silicate melt composition on sulphide/silicate partitioning can be quite large. For instance, within the range of NBO/T between 0.5 and 2 the DTlsulph/sil changes in order of magnitude. For the elements, like Pb, partition coefficient does not seem to change much with the silicate melt composition, while for Sb the effect of the silicate melt composition on D is a factor of 3. Partitioning of chalcophile elements into more evolved, alkali-rich and felsic magmas is estimated to be very different from the partitioning into basaltic melts, mainly due to the strong effects of temperature and alkali components. Although it is highly likely that sulphide is in solid form at liquidus temperatures for dacite and rhyolite and thus the partitioning of chalcophile

  11. Partition coefficients of organic compounds in new imidazolium based ionic liquids using inverse gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Revelli, Anne-Laure; Mutelet, Fabrice; Jaubert, Jean-Noël

    2009-06-01

    Partition coefficients of organic compounds in four ionic liquids: 1-ethanol-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, 1-ethanol-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, 1,3-dimethylimidazolium dimethylphosphate and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethylphosphate were measured using inverse gas chromatography from 303.3 to 332.55K. The influence of gas-liquid and gas-solid interfacial adsorption of different solutes on ionic liquids was also studied. Most of the polar solutes were retained largely by partition while light hydrocarbons were retained predominantly by interfacial adsorption on the ionic liquids studied in this work. The solvation characteristics of the ionic liquids were evaluated using the Abraham solvation parameter model. PMID:19414174

  12. Contaminant Accumulation in Many New England Lead Pipe Scales

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous work has shown that contaminants such as Al, As and Ra can accumulate in drinking water distribution system solids. The release of accumulated contaminants back into the water supply could conceivably result in elevated levels at consumers' taps. The objective of this s...

  13. 40 CFR 273.35 - Accumulation time limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Accumulation time limits. 273.35 Section 273.35 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Standards for Large Quantity Handlers of Universal Waste § 273.35 Accumulation time limits. (a) A...

  14. 40 CFR 273.15 - Accumulation time limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Accumulation time limits. 273.15 Section 273.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Standards for Small Quantity Handlers of Universal Waste § 273.15 Accumulation time limits. (a) A...

  15. Evaluation of log K{sub ow} and tissue lipid content as predictors of chemical partitioning to fish tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Bertelsen, S.L.; Gallinat, C.A.; Elonen, C.M.; Hoffman, A.D.; Nichols, J.W.

    1998-08-01

    In vitro equilibrium chemical partition coefficients were determined for six chemicals in selected tissues from four species of fish. Log-transformed values were then regressed in stepwise fashion against chemical log octanol/water partition coefficient (K{sub ow}) and the log of tissue lipid content to derive a series of linear one- and two-variable models. Equations derived for fat indicate that n-octanol is a good surrogate for nonpolar lipid in the range of chemical log K{sub ow} tested (1.46 < log K{sub ow} < 4.04). These equations also support the conclusion that previously developed K{sub ow}-bioconcentration factor relationships are largely a reflection of chemical accumulation in fat. Fitted slope and intercept terms for lean tissues differed from those expected from chemical partitioning to lipid only and were instead consistent with the suggestion that partitioning to nonlipid-nonwater cellular constituents contributes substantially to chemical accumulation. A general equation is presented for prediction of tissue/water and blood/water partitioning from chemical log K{sub ow} and tissue (or blood) lipid content. It is suggested, however, that tissue- and blood-specific equations be used to estimate the tissue/blood partitioning relationships needed for kinetic modeling efforts.

  16. Selecting optimal partitioning schemes for phylogenomic datasets

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Partitioning involves estimating independent models of molecular evolution for different subsets of sites in a sequence alignment, and has been shown to improve phylogenetic inference. Current methods for estimating best-fit partitioning schemes, however, are only computationally feasible with datasets of fewer than 100 loci. This is a problem because datasets with thousands of loci are increasingly common in phylogenetics. Methods We develop two novel methods for estimating best-fit partitioning schemes on large phylogenomic datasets: strict and relaxed hierarchical clustering. These methods use information from the underlying data to cluster together similar subsets of sites in an alignment, and build on clustering approaches that have been proposed elsewhere. Results We compare the performance of our methods to each other, and to existing methods for selecting partitioning schemes. We demonstrate that while strict hierarchical clustering has the best computational efficiency on very large datasets, relaxed hierarchical clustering provides scalable efficiency and returns dramatically better partitioning schemes as assessed by common criteria such as AICc and BIC scores. Conclusions These two methods provide the best current approaches to inferring partitioning schemes for very large datasets. We provide free open-source implementations of the methods in the PartitionFinder software. We hope that the use of these methods will help to improve the inferences made from large phylogenomic datasets. PMID:24742000

  17. Partitioning of regular computation on multiprocessor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Fung Fung

    1988-01-01

    Problem partitioning of regular computation over two dimensional meshes on multiprocessor systems is examined. The regular computation model considered involves repetitive evaluation of values at each mesh point with local communication. The computational workload and the communication pattern are the same at each mesh point. The regular computation model arises in numerical solutions of partial differential equations and simulations of cellular automata. Given a communication pattern, a systematic way to generate a family of partitions is presented. The influence of various partitioning schemes on performance is compared on the basis of computation to communication ratio.

  18. How pervasive is the Hirshfeld partitioning?

    SciTech Connect

    Heidar-Zadeh, Farnaz; Ayers, Paul W.

    2015-01-28

    One can partition the molecular density into its atomic contributions by minimizing the divergence of the atom-in-molecule densities from their corresponding reference pro-atomic densities, subject to the constraint that the sum of the atom-in-molecule densities is the total molecular density. We expose conditions on the divergence measure that are necessary, and sufficient, to recover the popular Hirshfeld partitioning. Specifically, among all local measures of the divergence between two probability distribution functions, the Hirshfeld partitioning is obtained only for f-divergences.

  19. Quantum Dilogarithms and Partition q-Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Akishi; Terashima, Yuji

    2015-08-01

    In our previous work (Kato and Terashima, Commun Math Phys. arXiv:1403.6569, 2014), we introduced the partition q-series for mutation loop γ—a loop in exchange quiver. In this paper, we show that for a certain class of mutation sequences, called reddening sequences, the graded version of partition q-series essentially coincides with the ordered product of quantum dilogarithm associated with each mutation; the partition q-series provides a state-sum description of combinatorial Donaldson-Thomas invariants introduced by Keller.

  20. Convex Regression with Interpretable Sharp Partitions

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Ashley; Simon, Noah; Witten, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of predicting an outcome variable on the basis of a small number of covariates, using an interpretable yet non-additive model. We propose convex regression with interpretable sharp partitions (CRISP) for this task. CRISP partitions the covariate space into blocks in a data-adaptive way, and fits a mean model within each block. Unlike other partitioning methods, CRISP is fit using a non-greedy approach by solving a convex optimization problem, resulting in low-variance fits. We explore the properties of CRISP, and evaluate its performance in a simulation study and on a housing price data set.

  1. Partitioning technique for open systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brändas, Erkki J.

    2010-11-01

    The focus of the present contribution is essentially confined to three research areas carried out during the author's turns as visiting (assistant, associate and full) professor at the University of Florida's Quantum Theory Project, QTP. The first two topics relate to perturbation theory and spectral theory for self-adjoint operators in Hilbert space. The third subject concerns analytic extensions to non-self-adjoint problems, where particular consequences of the occurrence of continuous energy spectra are measured. In these studies general partitioning methods serve as general cover for perturbation-, variational- and general matrix theory. In addition we follow up associated inferences for the time dependent problem as well as recent results and conclusions of a rather general yet surprising character. Although the author spent most of his times at QTP during visits in the 1970s and 1980s, collaborations with department members and shorter stays continued through later decades. Nevertheless the impact must be somewhat fragmentary, yet it is hoped that the present account is sufficiently self-contained to be realistic and constructive.

  2. Lipid partitioning during cardiac stress.

    PubMed

    Kolwicz, Stephen C

    2016-10-01

    It is well documented that fatty acids serve as the primary fuel substrate for the contracting myocardium. However, extensive research has identified significant changes in the myocardial oxidation of fatty acids during acute or chronic cardiac stress. As a result, the redistribution or partitioning of fatty acids due to metabolic derangements could have biological implications. Fatty acids can be stored as triacylglycerols, serve as critical components for biosynthesis of phospholipid membranes, and form the potent signaling molecules, diacylglycerol and ceramides. Therefore, the contribution of lipid metabolism to health and disease is more intricate than a balance of uptake and oxidation. In this review, the available data regarding alterations that occur in endogenous cardiac lipid pathways during the pathological stressors of ischemia-reperfusion and pathological hypertrophy/heart failure are highlighted. In addition, changes in endogenous lipids observed in exercise training models are presented for comparison. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Heart Lipid Metabolism edited by G.D. Lopaschuk. PMID:27040509

  3. HPAM: Hirshfeld Partitioned Atomic Multipoles

    PubMed Central

    Elking, Dennis M.; Perera, Lalith; Pedersen, Lee G.

    2011-01-01

    An implementation of the Hirshfeld (HD) and Hirshfeld-Iterated (HD-I) atomic charge density partitioning schemes is described. Atomic charges and atomic multipoles are calculated from the HD and HD-I atomic charge densities for arbitrary atomic multipole rank lmax on molecules of arbitrary shape and size. The HD and HD-I atomic charges/multipoles are tested by comparing molecular multipole moments and the electrostatic potential (ESP) surrounding a molecule with their reference ab initio values. In general, the HD-I atomic charges/multipoles are found to better reproduce ab initio electrostatic properties over HD atomic charges/multipoles. A systematic increase in precision for reproducing ab initio electrostatic properties is demonstrated by increasing the atomic multipole rank from lmax = 0 (atomic charges) to lmax = 4 (atomic hexadecapoles). Both HD and HD-I atomic multipoles up to rank lmax are shown to exactly reproduce ab initio molecular multipole moments of rank L for L ≤ lmax. In addition, molecular dipole moments calculated by HD, HD-I, and ChelpG atomic charges only (lmax = 0) are compared with reference ab initio values. Significant errors in reproducing ab initio molecular dipole moments are found if only HD or HD-I atomic charges used. PMID:22140274

  4. REE Partitioning in Lunar Minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapp, J. F.; Lapen, T. J.; Draper, D. S.

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) are an extremely useful tool in modeling lunar magmatic processes. Here we present the first experimentally derived plagioclase/melt partition coefficients in lunar compositions covering the entire suite of REE. Positive europium anomalies are ubiquitous in the plagioclase-rich rocks of the lunar highlands, and complementary negative Eu anomalies are found in most lunar basalts. These features are taken as evidence of a large-scale differentiation event, with crystallization of a global-scale lunar magma ocean (LMO) resulting in a plagioclase flotation crust and a mafic lunar interior from which mare basalts were subsequently derived. However, the extent of the Eu anomaly in lunar rocks is variable. Fagan and Neal [1] reported highly anorthitic plagioclase grains in lunar impact melt rock 60635,19 that displayed negative Eu anomalies as well as the more usual positive anomalies. Indeed some grains in the sample are reported to display both positive and negative anomalies. Judging from cathodoluminescence images, these anomalies do not appear to be associated with crystal overgrowths or zones.

  5. Energy partitioning schemes: a dilemma.

    PubMed

    Mayer, I

    2007-01-01

    Two closely related energy partitioning schemes, in which the total energy is presented as a sum of atomic and diatomic contributions by using the "atomic decomposition of identity", are compared on the example of N,N-dimethylformamide, a simple but chemically rich molecule. Both schemes account for different intramolecular interactions, for instance they identify the weak C-H...O intramolecular interactions, but give completely different numbers. (The energy decomposition scheme based on the virial theorem is also considered.) The comparison of the two schemes resulted in a dilemma which is especially striking when these schemes are applied for molecules distorted from their equilibrium structures: one either gets numbers which are "on the chemical scale" and have quite appealing values at the equilibrium molecular geometries, but exhibiting a counter-intuitive distance dependence (the two-center energy components increase in absolute value with the increase of the interatomic distances)--or numbers with too large absolute values but "correct" distance behaviour. The problem is connected with the quick decay of the diatomic kinetic energy components. PMID:17328441

  6. Actinide partitioning processes for fuel reprocessing and refabrication plant wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Finney, B.C.; Tedder, D.W.

    1980-01-01

    Chemical processing methods have been developed on a laboratory scale to partition the actinides from the liquid and solid fuel reprocessing plant (FRP) and refabrication plant (FFP) wastes. It was envisioned that these processes would be incorporated into separate waste treatment facilities (WTFs) that are adjacent to, but not integrated with, the fuel reprocessing and refabrication plants. Engineering equipment and material balance flowsheets have been developed for WTFs in support of a 2000-MTHM/year FRP and a 660-MTHM/year MOX-FFP. The processing subsystems incorporated in the FRP-WTF are: High-Level Solid Waste Treatment, High-Level Liquid Waste Treatment, Solid Alpha Waste Treatment, Cation Exchange Chromatography, Salt Waste Treatment, Actinide Recovery, Solvent Cleanup and recycle, Off-Gas Treatment, Actinide Product Concentration, and Acid and Water Recycle. The WTF supporting a fuel refabrication facility, although similar, does not contain subsystems (1) and (2). Based on the results of the laboratory and hot-cell experimental work, we believe that the processes and flowsheets offer the potential to reduce the total unrecovered actinides in FRP and FFP wastes to less than or equal to 0.25%. The actinide partitioning processes and the WTF concept represent advanced technology that would require substantial work before commercialization. It is estimated that an orderly development program would require 15 to 20 years to complete and would cost about 700 million 1979 dollars. It is estimated that the capital cost and annual operating cost, in mid-1979 dollars, for the FRP-WTF are $1035 million and $71.5 million/year, and for the FFP-WTF are $436 million and $25.6 million/year, respectively.

  7. Partition dataset according to amino acid type improves the prediction of deleterious non-synonymous SNPs

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Jing; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Yi-Xue; Ye, Zhi-Qiang

    2012-03-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proper dataset partition can improve the prediction of deleterious nsSNPs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Partition according to original residue type at nsSNP is a good criterion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Similar strategy is supposed promising in other machine learning problems. -- Abstract: Many non-synonymous SNPs (nsSNPs) are associated with diseases, and numerous machine learning methods have been applied to train classifiers for sorting disease-associated nsSNPs from neutral ones. The continuously accumulated nsSNP data allows us to further explore better prediction approaches. In this work, we partitioned the training data into 20 subsets according to either original or substituted amino acid type at the nsSNP site. Using support vector machine (SVM), training classification models on each subset resulted in an overall accuracy of 76.3% or 74.9% depending on the two different partition criteria, while training on the whole dataset obtained an accuracy of only 72.6%. Moreover, the dataset was also randomly divided into 20 subsets, but the corresponding accuracy was only 73.2%. Our results demonstrated that partitioning the whole training dataset into subsets properly, i.e., according to the residue type at the nsSNP site, will improve the performance of the trained classifiers significantly, which should be valuable in developing better tools for predicting the disease-association of nsSNPs.

  8. Connections between groundwater flow and transpiration partitioning.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Reed M; Condon, Laura E

    2016-07-22

    Understanding freshwater fluxes at continental scales will help us better predict hydrologic response and manage our terrestrial water resources. The partitioning of evapotranspiration into bare soil evaporation and plant transpiration remains a key uncertainty in the terrestrial water balance. We used integrated hydrologic simulations that couple vegetation and land-energy processes with surface and subsurface hydrology to study transpiration partitioning at the continental scale. Both latent heat flux and partitioning are connected to water table depth, and including lateral groundwater flow in the model increases transpiration partitioning from 47 ± 13 to 62 ± 12%. This suggests that lateral groundwater flow, which is generally simplified or excluded in Earth system models, may provide a missing link for reconciling observations and global models of terrestrial water fluxes. PMID:27463671

  9. Connections between groundwater flow and transpiration partitioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxwell, Reed M.; Condon, Laura E.

    2016-07-01

    Understanding freshwater fluxes at continental scales will help us better predict hydrologic response and manage our terrestrial water resources. The partitioning of evapotranspiration into bare soil evaporation and plant transpiration remains a key uncertainty in the terrestrial water balance. We used integrated hydrologic simulations that couple vegetation and land-energy processes with surface and subsurface hydrology to study transpiration partitioning at the continental scale. Both latent heat flux and partitioning are connected to water table depth, and including lateral groundwater flow in the model increases transpiration partitioning from 47 ± 13 to 62 ± 12%. This suggests that lateral groundwater flow, which is generally simplified or excluded in Earth system models, may provide a missing link for reconciling observations and global models of terrestrial water fluxes.

  10. Cell Partition in Two Polymer Aqueous Phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Partition of biological cells in two phase aqueous polymer systems is recognized as a powerful separation technique which is limited by gravity. The synthesis of new, selective polymer ligand conjugates to be used in affinity partition separations is of interest. The two most commonly used polymers in two phase partitioning are dextran and polyethylene glycol. A thorough review of the chemistry of these polymers was begun, particularly in the area of protein attachment. Preliminary studies indicate the importance in affinity partitioning of minimizing gravity induced randomizing forces in the phase separation process. The PEG-protein conjugates that were prepared appear to be ideally suited for achieving high quality purifications in a microgravity environment. An interesting spin-off of this synthetic work was the observation of catalytic activity for certain of our polymer derivatives.

  11. Reducing variance in batch partitioning measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Mariner, Paul E.

    2010-08-11

    The partitioning experiment is commonly performed with little or no attention to reducing measurement variance. Batch test procedures such as those used to measure K{sub d} values (e.g., ASTM D 4646 and EPA402 -R-99-004A) do not explain how to evaluate measurement uncertainty nor how to minimize measurement variance. In fact, ASTM D 4646 prescribes a sorbent:water ratio that prevents variance minimization. Consequently, the variance of a set of partitioning measurements can be extreme and even absurd. Such data sets, which are commonplace, hamper probabilistic modeling efforts. An error-savvy design requires adjustment of the solution:sorbent ratio so that approximately half of the sorbate partitions to the sorbent. Results of Monte Carlo simulations indicate that this simple step can markedly improve the precision and statistical characterization of partitioning uncertainty.

  12. Deriving the Hirshfeld partitioning using distance metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidar-Zadeh, Farnaz; Ayers, Paul W.; Bultinck, Patrick

    2014-09-01

    The atoms in molecules associated with the Hirshfeld partitioning minimize the generalized Hellinger-Bhattacharya distance to the reference pro-atom densities. Moreover, the reference pro-atoms can be chosen by minimizing the distance between the pro-molecule density and the true molecular density. This provides an alternative to both the heuristic "stockholder" and the mathematical information-theoretic interpretations of the Hirshfeld partitioning. These results extend to any member of the family of f-divergences.

  13. Deriving the Hirshfeld partitioning using distance metrics

    SciTech Connect

    Heidar-Zadeh, Farnaz; Ayers, Paul W.; Bultinck, Patrick

    2014-09-07

    The atoms in molecules associated with the Hirshfeld partitioning minimize the generalized Hellinger-Bhattacharya distance to the reference pro-atom densities. Moreover, the reference pro-atoms can be chosen by minimizing the distance between the pro-molecule density and the true molecular density. This provides an alternative to both the heuristic “stockholder” and the mathematical information-theoretic interpretations of the Hirshfeld partitioning. These results extend to any member of the family of f-divergences.

  14. Isorropia Partitioning and Load Balancing Package

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2006-09-01

    Isorropia is a partitioning and load balancing package which interfaces with the Zoltan library. Isorropia can accept input objects such as matrices and matrix-graphs, and repartition/redistribute them into a better data distribution on parallel computers. Isorropia is primarily an interface package, utilizing graph and hypergraph partitioning algorithms that are in the Zoltan library which is a third-party library to Tilinos.

  15. Software Partitioning Schemes for Advanced Simulation Computer Systems. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clymer, S. J.

    Conducted to design software partitioning techniques for use by the Air Force to partition a large flight simulator program for optimal execution on alternative configurations, this study resulted in a mathematical model which defines characteristics for an optimal partition, and a manually demonstrated partitioning algorithm design which…

  16. Experimental investigations of trace element fractionation in iron meteorites. III - Elemental partitioning in the system Fe-Ni-S-P

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malvin, D. J.; Jones, J. H.; Drake, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Measurements of solid metal/liquid metal trace element partition coefficients, which are used to interpret the crystallization history of magmatic iron meteorite groups differ greatly between different research groups, using different experimental techniques. Specifically, partition coefficients measured utilizing 'static' experiments which approach equilibrium cannot be reconciled with the results of 'dynamic' experiments which mimic fractional crystallization. We report new tests of our 'static' experimental technique and demonstrate that our methodology yields reliable equilibrium values for Ni, P and Ge partition coefficients. Partition coefficients in the Fe-Ni-S-P system are well matched by interpolation between the Fe-Ni-S and Fe-Ni-P subsystems. In contrast, the predictions of 'dynamic' experiments do not agree with our measurements and, consequently, the ability of 'dynamic' experiments to reproduce iron meteorite Ge vs. Ni fractionation trends successfully must be regarded as fortuitous.

  17. Atmospheric amines - Part II. Thermodynamic properties and gas/particle partitioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Xinlei; Wexler, Anthony S.; Clegg, Simon L.

    2011-01-01

    Amines enter the atmosphere from a wide range of sources, but relatively little is known about their atmospheric behavior, especially their role in gas/particle partitioning. In Part I of this work ( Ge et al., 2011) a total of 154 amines, 32 amino acids and urea were identified as occurring in the atmosphere, based upon a survey of the literature. In this work we compile data for the thermodynamic properties of the amines which control gas/particle partitioning (Henry's Law constant, liquid vapor pressure, acid dissociation constant, activity coefficient and solubility in water), and also estimate the solid/gas dissociation constants of their nitrate and chloride salts. Prediction methods for boiling point, liquid vapor pressure, acid dissociation constant and the solubility of the amines in water are evaluated, and used to estimate values of the equilibrium constants where experimental data are lacking. Partitioning of amines into aqueous aerosols is strongly dependent upon pH and is greatest for acidic aerosols. For several common amines the tendency to partition to the particle phase is similar to or greater than that of ammonia. Our results are presented as tables of values of thermodynamic equilibrium constants, which are also incorporated into the Extended Aerosol Inorganics Model ( E-AIM, http://www.aim.env.uea.ac.uk/aim/aim.php) to enable gas/aerosol partitioning and other calculations to be carried out.

  18. Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation Information Page Synonym(s): Hallervorden-Spatz Disease, ... done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation? Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) ...

  19. Plastids and Carotenoid Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Yuan, Hui; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Plastids are ubiquitously present in plants and are the organelles for carotenoid biosynthesis and storage. Based on their morphology and function, plastids are classified into various types, i.e. proplastids, etioplasts, chloroplasts, amyloplasts, and chromoplasts. All plastids, except proplastids, can synthesize carotenoids. However, plastid types have a profound effect on carotenoid accumulation and stability. In this chapter, we discuss carotenoid biosynthesis and regulation in various plastids with a focus on carotenoids in chromoplasts. Plastid transition related to carotenoid biosynthesis and the different capacity of various plastids to sequester carotenoids and the associated effect on carotenoid stability are described in light of carotenoid accumulation in plants. PMID:27485226

  20. Making Solid Geometry Solid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartz, Viggo

    1981-01-01

    Allowing students to use a polystyrene cutter to fashion their own three-dimensional models is suggested as a means of allowing individuals to experience problems and develop ideas related to solid geometry. A list of ideas that can lead to mathematical discovery is provided. (MP)

  1. Tracers in recharge — Effects of partitioning in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerritse, Robert G.; Adeney, John A.

    1992-02-01

    Partitioning among mobile and stationary water phases in a soil measurably reduces movement of a tracer relative to the mobile water phase. The quantity of water infiltrating the soil, however, still follows from the product of the distance travelled by the tracer and average moisture content of the soil over that distance. Partitioning between surface and water phases in a soil by proton and protium exchange has only a small effect on the retention of isotopically labelled water. Partitioning between surface, water and gas phases in a soil, however, strongly decreases diffusive movement of isotopically labelled water in the gas phase. In sandy soils with moisture contents less than 5%, the effective diffusion coefficient in the gas phase can be reduced by a factor between 50 and 5000. As a soil dries out, diffusive movement of 18O labelled water will become larger than of HDO and HTO. Negative charges on soil surfaces repel chloride and bromide. The effect of charge exclusion on movement of Cl - and Br - relative to HDO was measured in small columns for a number of soils from the southwest of Western Australia. Data from these experiments show that in the unsaturated zone of sandy soils, charge exclusion can reduce the pore volume available to Cl - and Br - in the water phase at field capacity by > 20%. Recharge to ground water, if calculated from the position of Cl - or Br - tracers and average moisture in the soil profile, must then be reduced by the same percentage. The effect of charge exclusion in soils on the calculation of recharge from profile data, was evaluated for a practical situation. Significant amounts of bromide from car exhaust gases accumulate in soils in urban areas and can be used to trace water movement. A site was chosen in metropolitan Perth on a sparsely vegetated calcareous sand near the junction of two busy roads. A seasonal effect on bromide accumulation in the soil profile at this site was clearly visible from data on the soil solution

  2. Exact Potts model partition functions on ladder graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrock, Robert

    2000-08-01

    We present exact calculations of the partition function Z of the q-state Potts model and its generalization to real q, for arbitrary temperature on n-vertex ladder graphs, i.e., strips of the square lattice with width Ly=2 and arbitrary length Lx, with free, cyclic, and Möbius longitudinal boundary conditions. These partition functions are equivalent to Tutte/Whitney polynomials for these graphs. The free energy is calculated exactly for the infinite-length limit of these ladder graphs and the thermodynamics is discussed. By comparison with strip graphs of other widths, we analyze how the singularities at the zero-temperature critical point of the ferromagnet on infinite-length, finite-width strips depend on the width. We point out and study the following noncommutativity at certain special values q s: lim n→∞ limq→q s Z 1/n≠ limq→q s limn→∞ Z 1/n. It is shown that the Potts antiferromagnet on both the infinite-length line and ladder graphs with cyclic or Möbius boundary conditions exhibits a phase transition at finite temperature if 0< q<2, but with unphysical properties, including negative specific heat and non-existence, in the low-temperature phase, of an n→∞ limit for thermodynamic functions that is independent of boundary conditions. Considering the full generalization to arbitrary complex q and temperature, we determine the singular locus B in the corresponding C2 space, arising as the accumulation set of partition function zeros as n→∞. In particular, we study the connection with the T=0 limit of the Potts antiferromagnet where B reduces to the accumulation set of chromatic zeros. Certain properties of the complex-temperature phase diagrams are shown to exhibit close connections with those of the model on the square lattice, showing that exact solutions on infinite-length strips provide a way of gaining insight into these complex-temperature phase diagrams.

  3. PAH sorption mechanism and partitioning behavior in lampblack-impacted soils from former oil-gas plant sites.

    PubMed

    Hong, Lei; Ghosh, Upal; Mahajan, Tania; Zare, Richard N; Luthy, Richard G

    2003-08-15

    This study assessed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) association and aqueous partitioning in lampblack-impacted field soils from five sites in California that formerly housed oil-gas process operations. Lampblack is the solid residue resulting from the decomposition of crude oil at high temperatures in the gas-making operation and is coated or impregnated with oil gasification byproducts, among which PAHs are the compounds of the greatest regulatory concern. A suite of complementary measurements investigated the character of lampblack particles and PAH location and the associated effects on PAH partitioning between lampblack and water. PAH analyses on both whole samples and density-separated components demonstrated that 81-100% of PAHs in the lampblack-impacted soils was associated with lampblack particles. FTIR, 13C NMR, and SEM analyses showed that oil-gas lampblack solids comprise primarily aromatic carbon with soot-like structures. A free-phase aromatic oil may be present in some of the lampblack soils containing high PAH concentrations. Comparable long-term aqueous partitioning measurements were obtained with an air-bridge technique and with a centrifugation/alum flocculation procedure. Large solid/water partition coefficient (Kd) values were observed in samples exhibiting lower PAH and oil levels, whereas smaller Kd values were measured in lampblack samples containing high PAH levels. The former result is in agreement with an oil-soot partitioning model, and the latter is in agreement with a coal tar-water partitioning model. Lampblack containing high PAH levels appears to exhaust the sorption capacity of the soot-carbon, creating a free aromatic oil phase that exhibits partitioning behavior similar to PAHs in coal tar. This study improves mechanistic understanding of PAH sorption on aged lampblack residuals at former oil-gas sites and provides a framework for mechanistic assessment of PAH leaching potential and risk from such site materials. PMID

  4. Modeling of crude oil biodegradation using two phase partitioning bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Fakhru'l-Razi, A; Peyda, Mazyar; Ab Karim Ghani, Wan Azlina Wan; Abidin, Zurina Zainal; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Moeini, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    In this work, crude oil biodegradation has been optimized in a solid-liquid two phase partitioning bioreactor (TPPB) by applying a response surface methodology based d-optimal design. Three key factors including phase ratio, substrate concentration in solid organic phase, and sodium chloride concentration in aqueous phase were taken as independent variables, while the efficiency of the biodegradation of absorbed crude oil on polymer beads was considered to be the dependent variable. Commercial thermoplastic polyurethane (Desmopan®) was used as the solid phase in the TPPB. The designed experiments were carried out batch wise using a mixed acclimatized bacterial consortium. Optimum combinations of key factors with a statistically significant cubic model were used to maximize biodegradation in the TPPB. The validity of the model was successfully verified by the good agreement between the model-predicted and experimental results. When applying the optimum parameters, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed a significant reduction in n-alkanes and low molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. This consequently highlights the practical applicability of TPPB in crude oil biodegradation. PMID:24692323

  5. Quality Partitioned Meshing of Multi-Material Objects

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qin; Cha, Deukhyun; Bajaj, Chandrajit

    2016-01-01

    We present a simple but effective algorithm for generating topologically and geometrically consistent quality triangular surface meshing of compactly packed multiple heterogeneous domains in R3. By compact packing we imply that adjacent homogeneous domains or materials share some 0, 1, and/or 2 dimensional boundary. Such packed multiple material (or multi-material) solids arise naturally from classification/partitioning/segmentation of homogeneous domains in R3 into different sub-regions. The multi-materials may also represent separate functionally classified sections or just be multiple component copies tightly fused together as perhaps by layered manufacturing processes. The input to our algorithm is a geometric representation of the entire multi-material solid, and a volumetric classification map identifying the individual materials. As output, each individual material region is represented by a triangulated 2-manifold boundary, with adjacent material regions having shared boundaries. Our algorithm has been implemented, and applied to different multi-material solids, and the results are additionally presented with quantitative analysis of detection and cure of non-manifold interfaces as well as spurious small components. These meshes are useful for combined boundary element analysis, however these simulation results are not presented.

  6. Influence of colloids on sediment-water partition coefficients of polychlorobiphenyl congeners in natural waters

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, J.E.; Capel, P.D.; Eisenreich, S.J.

    1986-11-01

    Measurements of sediment-water partitioning of polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) congeners in Lake Superior provide some of the first field evidence demonstrating the importance of colloids to the fates of highly hydrophobic organic pollutants. Laboratory-derived correlations between sediment-water distribution coefficients and properties of both the contaminant (octanol-water partition coefficient) and the suspended solids (organic carbon content, concentration) do not accurately predict PCB speciation in Lake Superior. This failure can be explained by the presence of colloidal matter with which contaminants may associate and the very low solids concentrations in oligotrophic surface waters. A surprising consequence of such colloid associations is that the observed sediment-water distribution coefficients are independent of properties of highly hydrophobic compounds. A three-phase model including nonfilterable microparticles and macromolecular organic matter shows that colloidal-associated contaminants may be the dominant species in most surface waters. Colloidal associations are therefore likely to significantly impact the geochemistry of hydrophobic pollutants.

  7. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing

    PubMed Central

    Kühl, Hjalmar S.; Kalan, Ammie K.; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D’Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E.; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J.; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M.; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  8. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing.

    PubMed

    Kühl, Hjalmar S; Kalan, Ammie K; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D'Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  9. Accumulation of the planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherill, G. W.

    1987-01-01

    In modeling the accumulation of planetesimals into planets, it is appropriate to distinguish between two stages: an early stage, during which approximately 10 km diameter planetesimals accumulate locally to form bodies approximate 10 to the 25th g in mass; and a later stage in which the approximately 10 to the 25th g planetesimals accumulate into the final planets. In the terrestrial planet region, an initial planetesimal swarm corresponding to the critical mass of dust layer gravitational instabilities is considered. In order to better understand the accumulation history of Mercury-sized bodies, 19 Monte-Carlo simulations of terrestrial planet growth were calculated. A Monte Carlo technique was used to investigate the orbital evolution of asteroidal collision debris produced interior to 2.6 AU. It was found that there are two regions primarily responsible for production of Earth-crossing meteoritic material and Apollo objects. The same techniques were extended to include the origin of Earth-approaching asteroidal bodies. It is found that these same two resonant mechanisms predict a steady-state number of Apollo-Amor about 1/2 that estimated based on astronomical observations.

  10. Multi-A Graph Patrolling and Partitioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elor, Y.; Bruckstein, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    We introduce a novel multi agent patrolling algorithm inspired by the behavior of gas filled balloons. Very low capability ant-like agents are considered with the task of patrolling an unknown area modeled as a graph. While executing the proposed algorithm, the agents dynamically partition the graph between them using simple local interactions, every agent assuming the responsibility for patrolling his subgraph. Balanced graph partition is an emergent behavior due to the local interactions between the agents in the swarm. Extensive simulations on various graphs (environments) showed that the average time to reach a balanced partition is linear with the graph size. The simulations yielded a convincing argument for conjecturing that if the graph being patrolled contains a balanced partition, the agents will find it. However, we could not prove this. Nevertheless, we have proved that if a balanced partition is reached, the maximum time lag between two successive visits to any vertex using the proposed strategy is at most twice the optimal so the patrol quality is at least half the optimal. In case of weighted graphs the patrol quality is at least (1)/(2){lmin}/{lmax} of the optimal where lmax (lmin) is the longest (shortest) edge in the graph.

  11. ADSORPTION-PARTITIONING UPTAKE OF NINE LOW-POLARITY ORGANIC CHEMICALS ON A NATURAL SORBENT. (R825406)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sorption of comparatively nonpolar organic chemicals by natural solids not
    only can be predominated by partitioning with organic matter but also can
    reflect a substantial contribution from adsorption at low relative
    concentration. Sorption of nine polycyclic aromat...

  12. New parallel SOR method by domain partitioning

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, D.; Adams, L.

    1999-07-01

    In this paper the authors propose and analyze a new parallel SOR method, the PSOR method, formulated by using domain partitioning and interprocessor data communication techniques. They prove that the PSOR method has the same asymptotic rate of convergence as the Red/Black (R/B) SOR method for the five-point stencil on both strip and block partitions, and as the four-color (R/B/G/O) SOR method for the nine-point stencil on strip partitions. They also demonstrate the parallel performance of the PSOR method on four different MIMD multiprocessors (a KSR1, an Intel Delta, a Paragon, and an IBM SP2). Finally, they compare the parallel performance of PSOR, R/B SOR, and R/B/G/O SOR. Numerical results on the Paragon indicate that PSOR is more efficient than R/B SOR and R/B/G/O SOR in both computation and interprocessor data communication.

  13. Fourier transform spectrometer controller for partitioned architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamas-Selicean, D.; Keymeulen, D.; Berisford, D.; Carlson, R.; Hand, K.; Pop, P.; Wadsworth, W.; Levy, R.

    The current trend in spacecraft computing is to integrate applications of different criticality levels on the same platform using no separation. This approach increases the complexity of the development, verification and integration processes, with an impact on the whole system life cycle. Researchers at ESA and NASA advocated for the use of partitioned architecture to reduce this complexity. Partitioned architectures rely on platform mechanisms to provide robust temporal and spatial separation between applications. Such architectures have been successfully implemented in several industries, such as avionics and automotive. In this paper we investigate the challenges of developing and the benefits of integrating a scientific instrument, namely a Fourier Transform Spectrometer, in such a partitioned architecture.

  14. Parallel algorithms for dynamically partitioning unstructured grids

    SciTech Connect

    Diniz, P.; Plimpton, S.; Hendrickson, B.; Leland, R.

    1994-10-01

    Grid partitioning is the method of choice for decomposing a wide variety of computational problems into naturally parallel pieces. In problems where computational load on the grid or the grid itself changes as the simulation progresses, the ability to repartition dynamically and in parallel is attractive for achieving higher performance. We describe three algorithms suitable for parallel dynamic load-balancing which attempt to partition unstructured grids so that computational load is balanced and communication is minimized. The execution time of algorithms and the quality of the partitions they generate are compared to results from serial partitioners for two large grids. The integration of the algorithms into a parallel particle simulation is also briefly discussed.

  15. Some comments on molecular partition functions

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, C.M.

    1987-03-01

    In models of cool stellar atmospheres where molecules are important, molecular spectroscopic data can be used to calculate partition functions, from which equilibrium constants hence abundances can be obtained. In this report, it is shown that simple analytic approximations can be used to calculate very easily the partition functions of diatomic molecules, and comparisons are made for the two particularly important astrophysical molecules, H/sub 2/ and CO, with other work where the partition functions are calculated by explicitly summing over a very large number of energy levels. It is found that these analytic approximations give excellent agreement with more detailed calculations and are certainly adequate for many purposes. This method is very convenient, as only a few spectroscopic constants are needed, and the analytic formulae are very easily evaluated.

  16. Origins of Linear Partitioning in Binary Solutions: the Exchange Coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, S. A.

    2006-05-01

    Linear partitioning occurs when, as often in petrologic systems and perhaps always in azeotropes, a straight- line relationship occurs when the partition coefficient D = X1S/X1L is plotted against the solid composition X2S and runs from an intercept value KD at pure (2) to 1.0 at pure (1). The equation is then D = KD*X2S + X1S (Morse 1997, JGeol 105:471; 2000 GCA, 64:2309). The notation KD was taken from its long-standing familiarity in binary solutions (Roeder & Emslie 1970, CMP 29:275) and described as the exchange coefficient (Beattie et al. 1993 GCA 57:1605). But the binary loop is not in itself an exchange equilibrium; it is a transfer equilibrium marching to a different drummer, and that causes a problem (Kretz 2005, CanMin 43:1349). In at least three ways, the binary loop qualifies as an exchange reaction and justifies calling the intercept KD. To the experimentalist this issue never arises. In a perfect liquidus experiment, an infinitesimal mass of liquid is indeed transferred to the crystal. A second bulk composition is then made, and at the new liquidus a second mass transfer occurs. The ensemble of all such perfect partitioning experiments in sufficient number then completely delineates the binary loop without any continuous transfer at changing T having taken place. The partitionings are therefore truly independent of the path. Moreover, each equilibrium pair defines a common tangent in G-X space whose intercept at pure (2) unarguably gives the value of the common chemical potential, a partial Gibbs energy. But where is the exchange reaction? The real experimentalist makes no perfect experiments, and neither does nature. In reality, the barrier to nucleation (particularly formidable in the case of plagioclase) dictates that the crystals nucleate only at some supercooling. They therefore have some composition between the initial solidus and the liquid lying at the bulk composition (BC). Over time the two phases may drift apart by diffusion, the crystal

  17. Partition signed social networks via clustering dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jianshe; Zhang, Long; Li, Yong; Jiao, Yang

    2016-02-01

    Inspired by the dynamics phenomenon occurred in social networks, the WJJLGS model is modified to imitate the clustering dynamics of signed social networks. Analyses show that the clustering dynamics of the model can be applied to partition signed social networks. Traditionally, blockmodel is applied to partition signed networks. In this paper, a detailed dynamics-based algorithm for signed social networks (DBAS) is presented. Simulations on several typical real-world and illustrative networks that have been analyzed by the blockmodel verify the correctness of the proposed algorithm. The efficiency of the algorithm is verified on large scale synthetic networks.

  18. DNA Partitioning in Confining Nanofluidic Slits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenier, Madeline; Levy, Stephen

    We measure the partitioning of double stranded DNA molecules in moderately and strongly confining nanofluidic slit-like structures. Using fluorescent microscopy, the free energy penalty of confinement is inferred by comparing the concentration of DNA molecules in adjoining slits of different depths. These depths range in size from several persistence lengths to the DNA molecule's radius of gyration. The partition coefficient is determined as a function of the slit depth, DNA contour length, and DNA topology. We compare our results to theory and Monte Carlo simulations that predict the loss of free energy for ideal and semiflexible excluded volume polymers confined between parallel plates.

  19. Partitioning SAT Instances for Distributed Solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyvärinen, Antti E. J.; Junttila, Tommi; Niemelä, Ilkka

    In this paper we study the problem of solving hard propositional satisfiability problem (SAT) instances in a computing grid or cloud, where run times and communication between parallel running computations are limited.We study analytically an approach where the instance is partitioned iteratively into a tree of subproblems and each node in the tree is solved in parallel.We present new methods for constructing partitions which combine clause learning and lookahead. The methods are incorporated into the iterative approach and its performance is demonstrated with an extensive comparison against the best sequential solvers in the SAT competition 2009 as well as against two efficient parallel solvers.

  20. Glycosylation-mediated phenylpropanoid partitioning in Populus tremuloides cell cultures

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Phenylpropanoid-derived phenolic glycosides (PGs) and condensed tannins (CTs) comprise large, multi-purpose non-structural carbon sinks in Populus. A negative correlation between PG and CT concentrations has been observed in several studies. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the relationship is not known. Results Populus cell cultures produce CTs but not PGs under normal conditions. Feeding salicyl alcohol resulted in accumulation of salicins, the simplest PG, in the cells, but not higher-order PGs. Salicin accrual reflected the stimulation of a glycosylation response which altered a number of metabolic activities. We utilized this suspension cell feeding system as a model for analyzing the possible role of glycosylation in regulating the metabolic competition between PG formation, CT synthesis and growth. Cells accumulated salicins in a dose-dependent manner following salicyl alcohol feeding. Higher feeding levels led to a decrease in cellular CT concentrations (at 5 or 10 mM), and a negative effect on cell growth (at 10 mM). The competition between salicin and CT formation was reciprocal, and depended on the metabolic status of the cells. We analyzed gene expression changes between controls and cells fed with 5 mM salicyl alcohol for 48 hr, a time point when salicin accumulation was near maximum and CT synthesis was reduced, with no effect on growth. Several stress-responsive genes were up-regulated, suggestive of a general stress response in the fed cells. Salicyl alcohol feeding also induced expression of genes associated with sucrose catabolism, glycolysis and the Krebs cycle. Transcript levels of phenylalanine ammonia lyase and most of the flavonoid pathway genes were reduced, consistent with down-regulated CT synthesis. Conclusions Exogenous salicyl alcohol was readily glycosylated in Populus cell cultures, a process that altered sugar utilization and phenolic partitioning in the cells. Using this system, we identified candidate genes

  1. Gas/Aerosol partitioning: a simplified method for global modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, S. M.

    2000-09-01

    The main focus of this thesis is the development of a simplified method to routinely calculate gas/aerosol partitioning of multicomponent aerosols and aerosol associated water within global atmospheric chemistry and climate models. Atmospheric aerosols are usually multicomponent mixtures, partly composed of acids (e.g. H2SO4, HNO3), their salts (e.g. (NH4)2SO4, NH4NO3, respectively), and water. Because these acids and salts are highly hygroscopic, water, that is associated with aerosols in humid environments, often exceeds the total dry aerosol mass. Both the total dry aerosol mass and the aerosol associated water are important for the role of atmospheric aerosols in climate change simulations. Still, multicomponent aerosols are not yet routinely calculated within global atmospheric chemistry or climate models. The reason is that these particles, especially volatile aerosol compounds, require a complex and computationally expensive thermodynamical treatment. For instance, the aerosol associated water depends on the composition of the aerosol, which is determined by the gas/liquid/solid partitioning, in turn strongly dependent on temperature, relative humidity, and the presence of pre-existing aerosol particles. Based on thermodynamical relations such a simplified method has been derived. This method is based on the assumptions generally made by the modeling of multicomponent aerosols, but uses an alternative approach for the calculation of the aerosol activity and activity coefficients. This alternative approach relates activity coefficients to the ambient relative humidity, according to the vapor pressure reduction and the generalization of Raoult s law. This relationship, or simplification, is a consequence of the assumption that the aerosol composition and the aerosol associated water are in thermodynamic equilibrium with the ambient relative humidity, which determines the solute activity and, hence, activity coefficients of a multicomponent aerosol mixture

  2. Biomass Accumulation and Partitioning in Two Potato Cultivars as Influenced by Irrigation and Nitrogen Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The acreage under ‘Umatilla Russet’ and ‘Ranger Russet’ potato cultivars increased during the recent years in the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Research to determine the optimal management of fertilizer and water on the growth characteristics, yield, and yield attributes of these new cultivars are lackin...

  3. Nitrogen Accumulation and Partitioning in High Arctic Tundra from Extreme Atmospheric N Deposition Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phoenix, G. K.; Osborn, A.; Blaud, A.; Press, M. C.; Choudhary, S.

    2013-12-01

    Arctic ecosystems are threatened by pollution from extreme atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition events. These events occur from the long-range transport of reactive N from pollution sources at lower latitudes and can deposit up to 80% of the annual N deposition in just a few days. To date, the fate and impacts of these extreme pollutant events has remained unknown. Using a field simulation study, we undertook the first assessment of the fate of acutely deposited N on arctic tundra. Extreme N deposition events were simulated on field plots at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard (79oN) at rates of 0, 0.04, 0.4 and 1.2 g N m-2 yr-1 applied as NH4NO3 solution over 4 days, with 15N tracers used in the second year to quantify the fate of the deposited N in the plant, soil, microbial and leachate pools. Separate applications of 15NO3- and 15NH4+ were also made to determine the importance of N form in the fate of N. Recovery of the 15N tracer at the end of the first growing season approached 100% of the 15N applied irrespective of treatment level, demonstrating the considerable capacity of High Arctic tundra to capture pollutant N from extreme deposition events. Most incorporation of the 15N was found in bryophytes, followed by the dominant vascular plant (Salix polaris) and the microbial biomass of the soil organic layer. Total recovery remained high in the second growing season (average of 90%), indicating highly conservative N retention. Between the two N forms, recovery of 15NO3- and 15NH4+ were equal in the non-vascular plants, whereas in the vascular plants (particularly Salix polaris) recovery of 15NO3- was four times higher than of 15NH4+. Overall, these findings show that High Arctic tundra has considerable capacity to capture and retain the pollutant N deposited in acute extreme deposition events. Given they can represent much of the annual N deposition, extreme deposition events may be more important than increased chronic N deposition as a pollution source. Furthermore, current extreme N deposition events -and the predicted future increase in extreme deposition events- may represent an important source of eutrophication to 'pristine' arctic tundra.

  4. Evidence for melt partitioning between olivine and orthopyroxene in partially molten harzburgite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, K.; Zhu, W.; Montesi, L. G.; Le Roux, V.; Gaetani, G. A.

    2013-12-01

    During melting at mid-ocean ridges, melt is driven into an equilibrium, minimum-energy configuration by surface energy gradients between solid-solid and solid-liquid phase boundaries. Such a configuration, where melt is mostly restricted to three and four-grain junctions, acts as a porous medium through which melt can percolate to the surface. For a monomineralic system, melt is distributed evenly among all grains. However, in mineralogical heterogeneous systems, melt partitions unevenly between the various solid phases to minimize the total energy of the system. In a ocean ridge melting environment, where olivine is often juxtaposed against orthopyroxene (opx), lithologic partitioning is expected to turn olivine-rich regions into high-permeability conduits, through which melt can be quickly extracted, drastically increasing the permeability of the mantle [Zhu and Hirth, 2003]. Lithologic partitioning has been demonstrated in experiments using analogue systems [Watson, 1999]; however, to date, no experiment has confirmed its existence in partially molten mantle systems. We present experimental results that determine the degree of melt partitioning between olivine and opx in partially molten harzburgites. Samples were prepared from a powdered mixture of oxides and carbonates and then hot-pressed in a solid-media piston-cylinder apparatus at 1350°C and 1.5GPa [Zhu et al., 2011] to achieve an 82/18 vol. % ratio of olivine to opx. Prior to hot-pressing, basalt was added to the powdered mixtures in various proportions to test for lithologic partitioning across a range of melt fractions. Three-dimensional, 700nm-resolution images of our samples were obtained using synchrotron X-ray microtomography on the 2BM station of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Labs. Image data were filtered using an anisotropic diffusion filter to enhance phase contrast and then segmented to produce binary representations of each phase. In order to quantitatively demonstrate

  5. Rigorous Definition of Oxidation States of Ions in Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lai; Levchenko, Sergey V.; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2012-04-01

    We present justification and a rigorous procedure for electron partitioning among atoms in extended systems. The method is based on wave-function topology and the modern theory of polarization, rather than charge density partitioning or wave-function projection, and, as such, reformulates the concept of oxidation state without assuming real-space charge transfer between atoms. This formulation provides rigorous electrostatics of finite-extent solids, including films and nanowires.

  6. Cellulose Deficiency Is Enhanced on Hyper Accumulation of Sucrose by a H+-Coupled Sucrose Symporter.

    PubMed

    Yeats, Trevor H; Sorek, Hagit; Wemmer, David E; Somerville, Chris R

    2016-05-01

    In order to understand factors controlling the synthesis and deposition of cellulose, we have studied the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) double mutant shaven3 shaven3-like1 (shv3svl1), which was shown previously to exhibit a marked cellulose deficiency. We discovered that exogenous sucrose (Suc) in growth medium greatly enhances the reduction in hypocotyl elongation and cellulose content of shv3svl1 This effect was specific to Suc and was not observed with other sugars or osmoticum. Live-cell imaging of fluorescently labeled cellulose synthase complexes revealed a slowing of cellulose synthase complexes in shv3svl1 compared with the wild type that is enhanced in a Suc-conditional manner. Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance confirmed a cellulose deficiency of shv3svl1 but indicated that cellulose crystallinity was unaffected in the mutant. A genetic suppressor screen identified mutants of the plasma membrane Suc/H(+) symporter SUC1, indicating that the accumulation of Suc underlies the Suc-dependent enhancement of shv3svl1 phenotypes. While other cellulose-deficient mutants were not specifically sensitive to exogenous Suc, the feronia (fer) receptor kinase mutant partially phenocopied shv3svl1 and exhibited a similar Suc-conditional cellulose defect. We demonstrate that shv3svl1, like fer, exhibits a hyperpolarized plasma membrane H(+) gradient that likely underlies the enhanced accumulation of Suc via Suc/H(+) symporters. Enhanced intracellular Suc abundance appears to favor the partitioning of carbon to starch rather than cellulose in both mutants. We conclude that SHV3-like proteins may be involved in signaling during cell expansion that coordinates proton pumping and cellulose synthesis. PMID:27013021

  7. Influence of carbon partitioning kinetics on final Austenite fraction during quenching and partitioning

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, Amy J; Speer, John G; Matlock, David K; Rizzo, F C; Edmonds, David V; Santofimia, Maria J

    2009-01-01

    The quenching and partitioning (Q&P) process is a two-stage heat-treatment procedure proposed for producing steel microstructures that contain carbon-enriched retained austenite. In Q&P processing, austenite stabilization is accomplished by carbon partitioning from supersaturated martensite. A quench temperature selection methodology was developed to predict an optimum process quench temperature; extension of this methodology to include carbon partitioning kinetics is developed here. Final austenite fraction is less sensitive to quench temperature than previously predicted, in agreement with experimental results.

  8. Constraints on light noble gas partitioning at the conditions of spinel-peridotite melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Colin R. M.; Parman, Stephen W.; Kelley, Simon P.; Cooper, Reid F.

    2013-12-01

    Helium partitioning between olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, and spinel and basaltic melt has been experimentally determined under upper mantle melting conditions (up to 20 kbar and 1450 °C). Under the conditions explored, helium partition coefficients are similar in all minerals investigated (KdHe˜10-4), suggesting He is evenly distributed between the minerals of spinel peridotite. This is in contrast to most incompatible elements, which are concentrated in clinopyroxene in spinel peridotite. The studied minerals have different concentrations of point defects, but similar He solubility, providing no evidence for He partitioning onto specific defects sites (e.g. cation vacancies). Upper limits on the partition coefficients for Ne and Ar have also been determined, constraining these elements to be moderately to highly incompatible in olivine at the conditions of spinel peridotite melting (<10-2 and <10-3, respectively). Helium partitioning in peridotite minerals varies little within the range of temperatures, pressures, and mineral compositions explored in this study. Reported partition coefficients, in combination with previous work, suggest that moderate to high degree mantle melting is not an efficient mechanism for increasing (U+Th)/He, (U+Th)/Ne, or K/Ar of the depleted mantle (DMM) through time, and consequently, supports the argument that recycling of oceanic crust is largely responsible for the relatively strong radiogenic noble gas signatures in the depleted mantle. Mantle residues with lowered (U+Th)/He, (U+Th)/Ne, and K/Ar may be produced through large extents of melting, but concentrations of noble gases will be low, unless noble gas solubility in solids deviate from Henry's Law at high fugacity.

  9. Carbon and Nitrogen Assimilation and Partitioning in Soybeans Exposed to Low Root Temperatures 1

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Kerry B.; Layzell, David B.

    1986-01-01

    Low root temperature effects on vegetative growth of soybean (Harosoy 63 × Rhizobium japonicum USDA 16) were examined in 35 day old plants exposed to temperatures of 15°C (shoots at 25°C) for an 11 day period. Duing this period various aspects of C and N assimilation and partitioning were monitored including shoot night and nodulated root respiration, C and N partitioning to six plant parts, C2H2 reduction, H2 evolution, leaf area, transpiration, net photosynthesis, and N2 fixation. The low temperature treatment resulted in a decrease in the net rate of N2 fixation but nitrogenase relative efficiency increased. In response, the plant retained N in the tissues of the nodulated root and decreased N partitioning to young shoot tissues, thereby inducing the remobilization of N from older leaves, and reducing leaf area development. The leaf area specific rate of net photosynthesis was not affected over the study period; however, shoot and nodulated root respiration declined. Consequently, C accumulated in mature leaves and stems, partly in the form of increased starch reserves. Three possibilities were considered for increasing low temperature tolerance in nodulated soybeans: (a) decrease in temperature optima for nitrogenase, (b) increased development of nodules and N2 fixation capacity at low temperature, and (c) alterations in the pattern of C and N partitioning in response to low temperature conditions. PMID:16664592

  10. Differential cadmium accumulation and phytotoxicity in sixteen tobacco cultivars

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, B.B.; Brennan, E. )

    1989-10-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine the effect of plant genotype on cadmium accumulation and phytotoxicity in tobacco. When low levels of CdCl{sub 2} were added to the nutrient solution of 16 tobacco cultivars growing in sand culture, the heavy metal was partitioned in the following order: leaves > roots > stems. Because leaves are the commercial product, this pattern of partitioning is highly undersirable. The concentration of Cd accumulated in the tissues varied with plant genotype and level of Cd treatment. At the 0.25 ppm Cd treatment, a maximum of 127.6 ppm Cd was found in foliage of the Coker-48 variety, and at the 1.0 ppm Cd treatment, a maximum of 382.6 ppm Cd was detected in the foliage of NC-232. None of the Cd-treated tobacco plants exhibited visual foliar symptoms commonly observed in other plant species. A concentration of 0.25 ppm Cd stimulated shoot height, internode length and leaf number but inhibited total dry weight and percent dry weight. Cd phytotoxicity was found to vary with plant genotype and level of Cd treatment but not with the amount of Cd accumulated by the plant.