Sample records for accurate molecular weight

  1. Role of viscosity in the accurate prediction of source-terms for high molecular weight substances

    E-print Network

    Shaikh, Irfan Yusuf

    1999-01-01

    This study shows that using better material property predictions results in better source-term modeling for high molecular weight substances. Viscosity, density, and enthalpy are used as a function of process variables, namely, temperature...

  2. RAPID AND ACCURATE METHOD FOR ESTIMATING MOLECULAR WEIGHTS OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM LOW RESOLUTION MASS SPECTRA

    EPA Science Inventory

    An improved method of estimating molecular weights of volatile organic compounds from their mass spectra has been developed and evaluated for accuracy. his technique can be implemented with a user friendly expert system on a personal computer. he method is based on a pattern reco...

  3. Rapid and accurate method for estimating molecular weights of organic compounds from low resolution mass spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    An improved method of estimating molecular weights of volatile organic compounds from their mass spectra has been developed and evaluated for accuracy. This technique can be implemented with a user friendly expert system on a personal computer. The method is based on a pattern recognition based classifier and empirically derived rules from a set of toxic and related organic compounds. The set of compounds consists of six classes: nonhalobenzenes; chlorobenzenes; bromo- and bromochloroalkanes/alkenes; mono- and dichloroalkanes/alkenes; tri, tetra- and pentachloroalkanes/alkenes; and unknowns. In the present study improvements for the unknown class, which is the largest class in actual samples, were made. For this latter class new rules were derived using a new feature of the mass spectrum. Extensive testing of the system was conducted with reference and field data. The probable errors in the estimated molecular weights were 0.5 daltons for training reference spectra and 5.0 and 1.3 daltons for randomly selected and field spectra, respectively. These errors are about one-half those of previous versions of the system. The test results show that the domain of validity of this present system greatly exceeds the original training domain.

  4. Quantitative LC-MS of polymers: determining accurate molecular weight distributions by combined size exclusion chromatography and electrospray mass spectrometry with maximum entropy data processing.

    PubMed

    Gruendling, Till; Guilhaus, Michael; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher

    2008-09-15

    We report on the successful application of size exclusion chromatography (SEC) combined with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and refractive index (RI) detection for the determination of accurate molecular weight distributions of synthetic polymers, corrected for chromatographic band broadening. The presented method makes use of the ability of ESI-MS to accurately depict the peak profiles and retention volumes of individual oligomers eluting from the SEC column, whereas quantitative information on the absolute concentration of oligomers is obtained from the RI-detector only. A sophisticated computational algorithm based on the maximum entropy principle is used to process the data gained by both detectors, yielding an accurate molecular weight distribution, corrected for chromatographic band broadening. Poly(methyl methacrylate) standards with molecular weights up to 10 kDa serve as model compounds. Molecular weight distributions (MWDs) obtained by the maximum entropy procedure are compared to MWDs, which were calculated by a conventional calibration of the SEC-retention time axis with peak retention data obtained from the mass spectrometer. Comparison showed that for the employed chromatographic system, distributions below 7 kDa were only weakly influenced by chromatographic band broadening. However, the maximum entropy algorithm could successfully correct the MWD of a 10 kDa standard for band broadening effects. Molecular weight averages were between 5 and 14% lower than the manufacturer stated data obtained by classical means of calibration. The presented method demonstrates a consistent approach for analyzing data obtained by coupling mass spectrometric detectors and concentration sensitive detectors to polymer liquid chromatography. PMID:18690749

  5. How accurate is molecular dynamics?

    E-print Network

    Christian Bayer; Håkon Hoel; Petr Plechá?; Anders Szepessy; Raúl Tempone

    2011-09-20

    Born-Oppenheimer dynamics is shown to provide an accurate approximation of time-independent Schr\\"odinger observables for a molecular system with an electron spectral gap, in the limit of large ratio of nuclei and electron masses, without assuming that the nuclei are localized to vanishing domains. The derivation, based on a Hamiltonian system interpretation of the Schr\\"odinger equation and stability of the corresponding Hamilton-Jacobi equation, bypasses the usual separation of nuclei and electron wave functions, includes caustic states and gives a different perspective on the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, Schr\\"odinger Hamiltonian systems and numerical simulation in molecular dynamics modeling at constant energy microcanonical ensembles.

  6. Molecular Weight and Molecular Weight Distributions in Synthetic Polymers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Thomas Carl

    1981-01-01

    Focuses on molecular weight and molecular weight distributions (MWD) and models for predicting MWD in a pedagogical way. In addition, instrumental methods used to characterize MWD are reviewed with emphasis on physical chemistry of each, including end-group determination, osmometry, light scattering, solution viscosity, fractionation, and…

  7. Learning Weighted Naive Bayes with Accurate Ranking Harry Zhang

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Huajie "Harry"

    Learning Weighted Naive Bayes with Accurate Ranking Harry Zhang Faculty of Computer Science Bayes is one of most effective classification algo- rithms. In many applications, however, a ranking of exam- ples are more desirable than just classification. How to ex- tend naive Bayes to improve its

  8. 9 CFR 442.3 - Scale requirements for accurate weights, repairs, adjustments, and replacements after inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scale requirements for accurate weights...REQUIREMENTS FOR ACCURATE WEIGHTS § 442.3 Scale requirements for accurate weights...replacements after inspection. (a) All scales used to determine the net...

  9. How accurately do we estimate patients' weight in emergency departments?

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, C. M.; Clark, S.; Price, A.; Innes, G.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the accuracy of estimates of patients' weight made by physicians, nurses, and patients themselves in emergency departments. DESIGN: Observational prospective study. SETTING: Tertiary referral centre in Vancouver, BC. PARTICIPANTS: Eleven attending physicians, 26 nurses, and a convenience sample of 117 patients. INTERVENTIONS: Patients themselves, attending physicians, and nurses independently estimated the weight of 117 patients. An investigator weighed each patient. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mean error was determined by subtracting actual weight from estimated weight and dividing by actual weight; 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. RESULTS: Mean error in estimates was 3.1% (95% CI 2.7 to 3.5) for patients, 8.4% for nurses (CI 7.6 to 9.2), and 8.1% (CI 7.1 to 9.1) for physicians. Weight was estimated within 5% of actual weight by 32% of nurses, 39% of physicians, and 82% of patients. Weight was estimated within 10% of actual weight by 66% of nurses, 66% of physicians, and 97% of patients. Estimates out by more than 15% were made by 11% of nurses, 16% of physicians, and 1% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Patient estimates were most accurate. Physician and nurse estimates were unreliable. PMID:10540697

  10. Effect of molecular weight on polymer processability

    SciTech Connect

    Karg, R.F.

    1983-01-01

    Differences in rheological behavior due to the polymer molecular weight and molecular weight distribution have been shown with the MPT. SBR polymers having high molecular weight fractions develop higher stress relaxation time values due to the higher degree of polymer entanglements. Tests conducted at increasing temperatures show the diminishing influence of the polymer entanglements upon stress relaxation time. EPDM polymers show stress relaxation time and head pressure behavior which correlates with mill processability. As anticipated, compounded stock of EPDM have broad molecular weight distribution has higher stress relaxation time values than EPDM compounds with narrow molecular weight distribution.

  11. Production of high molecular weight polylactic acid

    DOEpatents

    Bonsignore, P.V.

    1995-11-28

    A degradable high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) is described. The poly(lactic acid) has a terminal end group of one of carboxyl or hydroxyl groups with low molecular weight poly(lactic acid) units coupled with linking agents of di-isocyanates, bis-epoxides, bis-oxazolines and bis-ortho esters. The resulting high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) can be used for applications taking advantage of the improved physical properties.

  12. 9 CFR 201.71 - Scales; accurate weights, repairs, adjustments or replacements after inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scales; accurate weights, repairs, adjustments...STOCKYARDS ACT Services § 201.71 Scales; accurate weights, repairs, adjustments...replacements after inspection. (a) All scales used by stockyard owners,...

  13. The accurate determination of molecular equilibrium structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bak, Keld L.; Gauss, Jürgen; Jørgensen, Poul; Olsen, Jeppe; Helgaker, Trygve; Stanton, John F.

    2001-04-01

    Equilibrium structures have been determined for 19 molecules using least-squares fits involving rotational constants from experiment and vibrational corrections from high-level electronic-structure calculations. Equilibrium structures obtained by this procedure have a uniformly high quality. Indeed, the accuracy of the results reported here likely surpasses that reported in most experimental determinations. In addition, the accuracy of equilibrium structures obtained by energy minimization has been calibrated for the following standard models of ab initio theory: Hartree-Fock, MP2, CCSD, and CCSD(T). In accordance with previous observations, CCSD(T) is significantly more accurate than the other models; the mean and maximum absolute errors for bond distances of the 19 molecules are 0.09 and 0.59 pm, respectively, in CCSD(T)/cc-pCVQZ calculations. The maximum error is obtained for ROO in H2O2 and is so large compared with the mean absolute error that an experimental reinvestigation of this molecule is warranted.

  14. Crystallization of high molecular weight urokinase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamarnik, M. Y.

    1999-02-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA), urokinase, belongs to difficult crystallizing proteins. Many efforts were made in the last decade to grow high molecular weight (molecular weight, 54 kDa) u-PA crystals of appropriate quality and sizes. But usual results were small crystals with sizes about 0.05 mm grown very slowly, during several months. This paper presents big u-PA crystals, of sizes ˜0.3-0.8 mm grown in from several days to 1.5 week. The crystals were grown inside glass capillaries and have rectangular parallelepiped or, in many cases, cubic external shape.

  15. Molecular characteristics of some commercial high-molecular-weight hyaluronans.

    PubMed

    Soltés, L; Mendichi, R; Lath, D; Mach, M; Bakos, D

    2002-10-01

    Commercially available hyaluronan (HA) samples were investigated by the method of size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The fractions eluted from the SEC column were on-line molecularly characterized by using a multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) photometer. Along with the SEC-MALLS technique, the high-molecular-weight HA biopolymers were (off-line) analyzed by capillary viscometry. PMID:12378558

  16. Polystyrene-equivalent molecular weight versus true molecular weight in size-exclusion chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miloš Netopil??k; Pavel Kratochv??l

    2003-01-01

    The evaluation of the size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) concentration elution curves by means of a calibration dependence obtained in a given SEC set for a polymer different from the polymer to be analyzed results in an error in the determination of both molecular weight and molecular-weight distribution (MWD). The problem is analyzed assuming the validity of the universal-calibration concept. The differences

  17. Ultrahigh Molecular Weight Aromatic Siloxane Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwick, L. M.

    1983-01-01

    Silphenylene-siloxane polymers can be prepared by a condensation reaction of a diol 1,4-bis(hydroxydimethylsilyl)benzene and a silane bis(dimethylamino)dimethylsilane. Using a stepwise condensation technique, a polymer (R=CH3) with a molecular weight in excess of 1.0 x 1 million has been produced. The polymer exhibits increased thermal stability, compared to a methyl siloxane polymer without the aromatic phenyl ring in the backbone. The use of bis(dimethylamino)methylvinylsilane should allow for ready crosslinking at the vinyl sites (R=-CH=CH2) introduced into the backbone. However, under the conditions of the reaction system a high molecular weight polymer was not obtained or the polymer underwent a crosslinking process during the synthesis.

  18. Microgel formation in high molecular weight poly(ethyleneoxide)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Rangelov; W. Brown

    2000-01-01

    Light scattering measurements show that, below molecular weights of about 106, PEO chains in aqueous solution follow the expected pattern of behavior for a flexible chain in a thermodynamically good solvent, although the coils are unusually extended because of specific interactions with water. For higher molecular weight chains, the molecular weight scaling exponent for the radius of gyration decreases and

  19. Determinations of molecular weight and molecular weight distribution of high polymers by the rheological properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, J. Y.; Hou, T. H.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1989-01-01

    Several methods are reviewed by which the molecular weight (MW) and the molecular weight distribution (MWD) of polymeric material were determined from the rheological properties. A poly(arylene ether) polymer with six different molecular weights was used in this investigation. Experimentally measured MW and MWD were conducted by GPC/LALLS (gel permeation chromatography/low angle laser light scattering), and the rheological properties of the melts were measured by a Rheometric System Four rheometer. It was found that qualitative information of the MW and MWD of these polymers could be derived from the viscoelastic properties, with the methods proposed by Zeichner and Patel, and by Dormier et al., by shifting the master curves of the dynamic storage modulus, G', and the loss modulus, G'', along the frequency axis. Efforts were also made to calculate quantitative profiles of MW and MWD for these polymers from their rheological properties. The technique recently proposed by Wu was evaluated. It was found that satisfactory results could only be obtained for polymers with single modal distribution in the molecular weight.

  20. The molecular weight of xanthan polysaccharide produced under oxygen limitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I.-S. Suh; H. Herbst; A. Schumpe; W.-D. Deckwer

    1990-01-01

    Summary The molecular weight distributions of xanthan polysaccharide were determined by size-exclusion chromatography during batch fermentations in a bubble column. Xanthan with lower weight-mean molecular weight MW* was formed after growth had ceased. Under oxygen limitation, MW* decreased linearly with the specific oxygen uptake rate resulting in lower viscosity yield of the product.

  1. The molecular weight (MW) and molecular weight distribution (MWD) of NR from different age and clone Hevea trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saovanee Kovuttikulrangsie; Jitladda T. Sakdapipanich

    Kovuttikulrangsie, S. and Sakdapipanich, J.T. The molecular weight (MW) and molecular weight distribution (MWD) of NR from different age and clone Hevea trees Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol., 2005, 27(2) : 337-342 NR-latex was tapped from different age and clone Hevea trees. The latex of virgin started from 3 years trees was transesterified to reduce the branching molecules. The molecular weight

  2. Low molecular weight heparins and heparinoids.

    PubMed

    Eikelboom, John W; Hankey, Graeme J

    2002-10-01

    Several low molecular weight (LMW) heparin preparations, including dalteparin, enoxaparin and nadroparin, as well as the heparinoid danaparoid sodium, are approved for use in Australia. LMW heparins are replacing unfractionated heparin for the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism and the treatment of non-ST-segment-elevation acute coronary syndromes. The advantages of LMW heparins over unfractionated heparin include a longer half-life (allowing once-daily or twice-daily subcutaneous dosing), high bioavailability and predictable anticoagulant response (avoiding the need for dose adjustment or laboratory monitoring in most patients), and a low risk of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and osteoporosis. Laboratory monitoring of LMW heparin therapy should be considered in newborns and children, patients with renal impairment, those who are pregnant, and those at the extremes of bodyweight (eg, < 40 kg or > 100 kg). LMW heparins should: be avoided or used with caution in patients undergoing neuraxial anaesthesia, owing to the potential for epidural haematoma formation; not be used (ie, are contraindicated) in patients with immune heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, as they may cross-react with anti-heparin antibodies. Conventional unfractionated heparin retains a role in the management of patients at high risk of bleeding, undergoing invasive procedures, and patients with renal failure owing to its shorter half-life, reversibility with protamine sulfate, and extrarenal metabolism. The heparinoid danaparoid sodium is effective for the treatment of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. PMID:12358583

  3. [Low molecular weight heparins in everyday practice].

    PubMed

    Horellou, M H; Samama, M

    1991-01-01

    Standard nonfractioned heparin has been used for fifty years in the treatment of thromboembolic accidents, and for fifteen years, since Kakkar's works, in the prevention of thromboembolic complications in a surgical and medical context [5]. The antithrombotic efficacy of nonfractioned heparin (NFH) is accompanied by hemorrhagic complications occurring in about 10% of the patients receiving a "curative" treatment at hypocoagulating doses and in about 5% of the patients receiving the low-dose "preventive" treatment. The interest raised by low molecular weight heparins (LMWH), prepared as early as 1970, was based on a concept that is currently called into question: their anti-Xa activity, accounting for the antithrombotic activity, is high, while the anti-IIa (antithrombin) activity, producing the hemorrhagic risks, is lower. The pharmacokinetic properties, including longer-lasting action and better bioavailability with subcutaneous delivery relative to standard heparin, have greatly facilitated their use in the clinical field by allowing the reduction of the daily number of injections. Extensive clinical trials have confirmed that the antithrombotic efficacy of the LMWH is at least equal, if not superior, to that of nonfractioned heparin, though without reducing the frequency of hemorrhagic complications in the prevention of postoperative phlebitis. A limited number of randomized clinical trials suggests that the LMWH might also be as effective as NFH, as expected at doses about 3 times as high as those used for prophylaxis. PMID:1650391

  4. Quantifying Relationships among the Molecular Weight Distribution, Non-Newtonian Shear Viscosity, and Melt Index for

    E-print Network

    Liu, Y. A.

    to quantify the relationships among the molecular weight distribution (MWD), steady-shear non PLUS), polymer producers can predict accurately the MWD from manufacturing conditions. Our the MWD. To do this, this paper employs (1) a modified Carreau-Yasuda (CY) model or Bersted's partition

  5. Original article Characterization of a high molecular weight antigen

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Characterization of a high molecular weight antigen of Cryptosporidium parvum) Summary ― Crossreacting antigens between life cycle stages of Cryptosporidium parvum (Proto- zoa was not investigated and remains to be found. Cryptosporidium parvum / microneme / parasitophorous vacuole / wall

  6. Trends and inferred emissions of atmospheric high molecular weight perfluorocarbons

    E-print Network

    Ivy, Diane Jean

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric observations and atmospheric observation-based global emission estimates are presented for the five high molecular weight perfluorocarbons (PFCs): decafluorobutane (C 4 F 1 0 ), dodecafluoropentane (C5 F1 2 ), ...

  7. Cryoscopic determination of molecular weight of potassium and rubidium superoxides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Ya. Bruner; Ya. Ya. Sauka; N. E. Shmidt

    1968-01-01

    Conclusions 1.The molecular weights of potassium and rubidium Superoxides were determined by salt cryoscopy.2.Potassium Superoxide in molten potassium nitrate and rubidium Superoxide in molten rubidium nitrate are dimeric.

  8. Molecular weight induced peak doubling in liquid chromatography 

    E-print Network

    Fickling, John Mebane

    1980-01-01

    of certain blocked high-molecular weight amino acids and peptides on silica gel using high pressure liquid chromatography with an isopropanol-methylene chloride solvent system. The peak doubling appears to be a combination of molecular weight... system by eluting Ib on a Partisil-10 column with a 0. 452 isopropanol solution of 50:502 v/v hexane-methylene chloride. APPENDIX I A Qualitative Explanation of Liquid Chromatography Parameters N The number of Theoretical plates N is the common...

  9. Polymers: Molecular Weight and its Distribution 1. Introduction

    E-print Network

    Kurnikova, Maria

    of a Molecular Weight Distribution The molecular weight distribution (MWD) is conveniently characterized for a MWD. The moments µ(s) N of N -- (n) and µ(s) W of W -- (n) are related, for example, µ(s) W = µ(s+1) N /µ(s) N , and with F -- (n) a MWD, the ns are often either directly given by a physical measurement

  10. Molecular weight induced peak doubling in liquid chromatography

    E-print Network

    Fickling, John Mebane

    1980-01-01

    of certain blocked high-molecular weight amino acids and peptides on silica gel using high pressure liquid chromatography with an isopropanol-methylene chloride solvent system. The peak doubling appears to be a combination of molecular weight... considerations and protic solvent interactions within the system, and can be prevented by the use of aprotic solvent systems such as acetonitrile-methylene chloride or toluene-ethyl acetate. iv DEDICATION This work is dedicated to Dr. Sherrel C. Smith, whose...

  11. Phase Behavior of Binary Blends of High Molecular Weight Diblock Copolymers with a Low Molecular Weight Triblock

    SciTech Connect

    Mickiewicz, Rafal A.; Ntoukas, Eleftherios; Avgeropoulos, Apostolos; Thomas, Edwin L. (MIT); (Ioannina)

    2009-08-26

    Binary blends of four different high molecular weight poly(styrene-b-isoprene) (SI) diblock copolymers with a lower molecular weight poly(styrene-b-isoprene-b-styrene) (SIS) triblock copolymer were prepared, and their morphology was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering. All the neat block copolymers have nearly symmetric composition and exhibit the lamellar morphology. The SI diblock copolymers had number-average molecular weights, Mn, in the range 4.4 x 10{sup 5}--1.3 x 10{sup 6} g/mol and volume fractions of poly(styrene), {Phi}{sub PS}, in the range 0.43--0.49, and the SIS triblock had a molecular weight of Mn 6.2 x 10{sup 4} g/mol with {Phi}{sub PS} = 0.41. The high molecular weight diblock copolymers are very strongly segregating, with interaction parameter values, {chi}N, in the range 470--1410. A morphological phase diagram in the parameter space of molecular weight ratio (R = M{sub n}{sup diblock}/1/2M{sub n}{sup triblock}) and blend composition was constructed, with R values in the range between 14 and 43, which are higher than previously reported. The phase diagram revealed a large miscibility gap for the blends, with macrophase separation into two distinct types of microphase-separated domains for weight fractions of SI, w{sub SI} < 0.9, implying virtually no solubility of the much higher molecular weight diblocks in the lower molecular weight triblock. For certain blend compositions, above R 30, morphological transitions from the lamellar to cylindrical and bicontinuous structures were also observed.

  12. Identification of the High Molecular Weight Isoform of Phostensin

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yu-Shan; Huang, Hsien-Lu; Liu, Wei-Ting; Lin, Ta-Hsien; Huang, Hsien-Bin

    2014-01-01

    Phostensin is encoded by KIAA1949. 5?-RACEanalysis has been used to identify the translation start site of phostensin mRNA, indicating that it encodes 165 amino acids with an apparent molecular weight of 26 kDa on SDS-PAGE. This low-molecular-weight phostensin is present in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and many leukemic cell lines. Phostensin is a protein phosphatase-1(PP1) binding protein. It also contains one actin-binding motif at its C-terminal region and binds to the pointed ends of actin filaments, modulating actin dynamics. In the current study, a high-molecular-weight phostensin is identified by using immunoprecipitationin combination with a proteomic approach. This new species of phostensin is also encoded by KIAA1949 and consists of 613 amino acids with an apparent molecular weight of 110 kDa on SDS-PAGE. The low-molecular-weight and high-molecular-weight phostensins were named as phostensin-? and phostensin-?, respectively. Although phostensin-? is the C-terminal region of phostensin-?, it is not degraded from phostensin-?. Phostensin-? is capable of associating with PP1 and actin filaments, and is present in many cell lines. PMID:24434620

  13. Evaluation of a Viscosity-Molecular Weight Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathias, Lon J.

    1983-01-01

    Background information, procedures, and results are provided for a series of graduate/undergraduate polymer experiments. These include synthesis of poly(methylmethacrylate), viscosity experiment (indicating large effect even small amounts of a polymer may have on solution properties), and measurement of weight-average molecular weight by light…

  14. SEDFIT-MSTAR: Molecular weight and molecular weight distribution analysis of polymers by sedimentation equilibrium in the ultracentrifuge

    PubMed Central

    Schuck, Peter; Gillis, Richard B.; Besong, Tabot M.D.; Almutairi, Fahad; Adams, Gary G.; Rowe, Arthur J.; Harding, Stephen E.

    2014-01-01

    Sedimentation equilibrium (analytical ultracentrifugation) is one of the most inherently suitable methods for the determination of average molecular weights and molecular weight distributions of polymers, because of its absolute basis (no conformation assumptions) and inherent fractionation ability (without the need for columns or membranes and associated assumptions over inertness). With modern instrumentation it is also possible to run up to 21 samples simultaneously in a single run. Its application has been severely hampered because of difficulties in terms of baseline determination (incorporating estimation of the concentration at the air/solution meniscus) and complexity of the analysis procedures. We describe a new method for baseline determination based on a smart-smoothing principle and built into the highly popular platform SEDFIT for the analysis of the sedimentation behavior of natural and synthetic polymer materials. The SEDFIT-MSTAR procedure – which takes only a few minutes to perform - is tested with four synthetic data sets (including a significantly non-ideal system) a naturally occurring protein (human IgG1) and two naturally occurring carbohydrate polymers (pullulan and ?–carrageenan) in terms of (i) weight average molecular weight for the whole distribution of species in the sample (ii) the variation in “point” average molecular weight with local concentration in the ultracentrifuge cell and (iii) molecular weight distribution. PMID:24244936

  15. Molecular weight dependent bimolecular recombination in organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philippa, Bronson; Stolterfoht, Martin; White, Ronald D.; Velusamy, Marrapan; Burn, Paul L.; Meredith, Paul; Pivrikas, Almantas

    2014-08-01

    Charge carrier recombination is studied in operational organic solar cells made from the polymer:fullerene system PCDTBT:PC71BM (poly[N-9''-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3'-benzothiadiazole)]: [6,6]-phenyl-C70-butyric acid methyl ester). A newly developed technique High Intensity Resistance dependent PhotoVoltage is presented for reliably quantifying the bimolecular recombination coefficient independently of variations in experimental conditions, thereby resolving key limitations of previous experimental approaches. Experiments are performed on solar cells of varying thicknesses and varying polymeric molecular weights. It is shown that solar cells made from low molecular weight PCDTBT exhibit Langevin recombination, whereas suppressed (non-Langevin) recombination is found in solar cells made with high molecular weight PCDTBT.

  16. Molecular weight dependent bimolecular recombination in organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Philippa, Bronson; Stolterfoht, Martin; White, Ronald D; Velusamy, Marrapan; Burn, Paul L; Meredith, Paul; Pivrikas, Almantas

    2014-08-01

    Charge carrier recombination is studied in operational organic solar cells made from the polymer:fullerene system PCDTBT:PC71BM (poly[N-9''-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3'-benzothiadiazole)]: [6,6]-phenyl-C70-butyric acid methyl ester). A newly developed technique High Intensity Resistance dependent PhotoVoltage is presented for reliably quantifying the bimolecular recombination coefficient independently of variations in experimental conditions, thereby resolving key limitations of previous experimental approaches. Experiments are performed on solar cells of varying thicknesses and varying polymeric molecular weights. It is shown that solar cells made from low molecular weight PCDTBT exhibit Langevin recombination, whereas suppressed (non-Langevin) recombination is found in solar cells made with high molecular weight PCDTBT. PMID:25106609

  17. A Weight-Averaged Interpolation Method for Coupling Time-Accurate Rarefied and Continuum Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Steven William

    A novel approach to coupling rarefied and continuum flow regimes as a single, hybrid model is introduced. The method borrows from techniques used in the simulation of spray flows to interpolate Lagrangian point-particles onto an Eulerian grid in a weight-averaged sense. A brief overview of traditional methods for modeling both rarefied and continuum domains is given, and a review of the literature regarding rarefied/continuum flow coupling is presented. Details of the theoretical development of the method of weighted interpolation are then described. The method evaluates macroscopic properties at the nodes of a CFD grid via the weighted interpolation of all simulated molecules in a set surrounding the node. The weight factor applied to each simulated molecule is the inverse of the linear distance between it and the given node. During development, the method was applied to several preliminary cases, including supersonic flow over an airfoil, subsonic flow over tandem airfoils, and supersonic flow over a backward facing step; all at low Knudsen numbers. The main thrust of the research centered on the time-accurate expansion of a rocket plume into a near-vacuum. The method proves flexible enough to be used with various flow solvers, demonstrated by the use of Fluent as the continuum solver for the preliminary cases and a NASA-developed Large Eddy Simulation research code, WRLES, for the full lunar model. The method is applicable to a wide range of Mach numbers and is completely grid independent, allowing the rarefied and continuum solvers to be optimized for their respective domains without consideration of the other. The work presented demonstrates the validity, and flexibility of the method of weighted interpolation as a novel concept in the field of hybrid flow coupling. The method marks a significant divergence from current practices in the coupling of rarefied and continuum flow domains and offers a kernel on which to base an ongoing field of research. It has the potential to significantly increase the flexibility of hybrid rarefied/continuum flow analyses.

  18. Influence of Molecular Weight and Degree of Deacetylation of Low Molecular Weight Chitosan on the Bioactivity of Oral Insulin Preparations

    PubMed Central

    Qinna, Nidal A.; Karwi, Qutuba G.; Al-Jbour, Nawzat; Al-Remawi, Mayyas A.; Alhussainy, Tawfiq M.; Al-So’ud, Khaldoun A.; Al Omari, Mahmoud M. H.; Badwan, Adnan A.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to prepare and characterize low molecular weight chitosan (LMWC) with different molecular weight and degrees of deacetylation (DDA) and to optimize their use in oral insulin nano delivery systems. Water in oil nanosized systems containing LMWC-insulin polyelectrolyte complexes were constructed and their ability to reduce blood glucose was assessed in vivo on diabetic rats. Upon acid depolymerization and testing by viscosity method, three molecular weights of LMWC namely, 1.3, 13 and 18 kDa were obtained. As for the DDA, three LMWCs of 55%, 80% and 100% DDA were prepared and characterized by spectroscopic methods for each molecular weight. The obtained LMWCs showed different morphological and in silico patterns. Following complexation of LMWCs with insulin, different aggregation sizes were obtained. Moreover, the in vivo tested formulations showed different activities of blood glucose reduction. The highest glucose reduction was achieved with 1.3 kDa LMWC of 55% DDA. The current study emphasizes the importance of optimizing the molecular weight along with the DDA of the incorporated LMWC in oral insulin delivery preparations in order to ensure the highest performance of such delivery systems. PMID:25826718

  19. A Method of Self Calibration for Molecular Weight Distribution Determinations for Liquid Crystalline Polymers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glenn A. Meyer; Julian F. Johnson; Hui H. Chin; Leonid V. Azároff

    1988-01-01

    A method of molecular weight calibration was devised for various substituted liquid crystalline polymers with substantial molecular weight repeat units. With the use of gel permeation chromatography, oligomer peak separation was achieved offering a method for self calibration for molecular weight distribution determinations. Employing an overlay of a low molecular weight polystyrene standard, a retention time marker was utilized as

  20. Solvent extraction studies using high-molecular-weight amines

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, C.

    1981-08-25

    This research project is concerned with systematically investigating high-molecular-weight amines and high-molecular-weight quaternary ammonium salts to ascertain the feasibility of their utilization for the extraction of group II B and transition metal ions from aqueous solutions. Methods which have promise of being scaled up for utilization by industries for the economical removal of toxic metal such as mercury, cadmium and nickel from their effluent waste water are being investigated. During this contract period, the following two research projects were completed: solvent extraction of mercury using alamine 304; and ion flotation of nickel using ethylhexadecyldimethylammonium bromide.

  1. Aspects of determining the molecular weight of cyclodextrin polymers and oligomers by static light scattering.

    PubMed

    Puskás, István; Szemjonov, Alexandra; Fenyvesi, Éva; Malanga, Milo; Szente, Lajos

    2013-04-15

    Methodic issues affecting the use of static light scattering to determine the average molecular weight of cyclodextrin poly- and oligomers are discussed. The critical features which enable accurate measurement such as aggregation behavior and segment-segment interaction are elucidated. Static light scattering data supported with globule size and aggregate state analysis (as determined by dynamic light scattering) allowed the aggregate-free state of the samples to be justified and the ideal globular conformation of the macromolecules to be corroborated. These molecular characteristics were demonstrated for uncharged, charged and fluorescent randomly crosslinked water soluble cyclodextrin poly- and oligomers. PMID:23544520

  2. Efficient and accurate FPGA-based simulator for Molecular Dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eunjung Cho; Anu G. Bourgeois; José Alberto Fernández-zepeda

    2008-01-01

    A molecular dynamics (MD) system is defined by the position and momentum of particles and their interactions. Solving the dynamics numerically and evaluating the interaction is computationally expensive even for a small number of particles in the system. We are focusing on long-ranged interactions, since the calculation time is O(N2) for an N particle system. There are many existing algorithms

  3. Diffusion of low molecular weight siloxane from bulk to surface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Homma; T. Kuroyagi; K. Izumi; C. L. Mirley; J. Ronzello; S. A. Boggs

    1999-01-01

    Silicone-based materials for outdoor insulators have the advantage that low molecular weight (LMW) components migrate through the material and coat the surface, thereby restoring hydrophobicity over a period of hours. By measuring the IR absorption of siloxane migrating to the silicone surface through a thin carbon coating, the time constant for migration was calculated. According to the time dependence of

  4. Rapid isoation of metaphase chromosomes containing high molecular weight DNA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. B. Blumentahl; J. D. Dieden; L. N. Kapp; J. W. Sedat

    1979-01-01

    Metaphase chromosomes with high molecular weight DNA were isolated from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells in a neutral buffer containing polyamines and chelators. The individual, unfixed chromosomes retained their centromeric and secondary constrictions, distinct sister chromatids, and complex banding patterns. The DNA from these chromosomes was 100-fold larger (2 x 10⁸ daltons) than DNA from chromosomes isolated by other procedures.

  5. Polyacrylamide molecular weight effects on soil infiltration and erosion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seal formation at the surface of smectitic soils during rainstorms reduces soil infiltration rate (IR) and causes runoff and erosion. Surface application of dry anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) with high molecular weight (MW) has been found to be effective in stabilizing soil aggregates, and decreasing ...

  6. Preferential increase in high-molecular weight adiponectin after niacin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabine Westphal; Claus Luley

    2008-01-01

    ObjectiveRecently we have demonstrated that treatment with niacin raises adiponectin between 52% and 95% in patients with the metabolic syndrome. In this study we investigated whether all three adiponectin fractions are increased equally, and, secondly, whether the increase in the biologically most active high-molecular weight (HMW) fraction can prevent the deterioration of insulin sensitivity that was also observed after niacin.

  7. Molecular Weight Dependence of Polymersome Membrane Structure, Elasticity, and Stability

    E-print Network

    Molecular Weight Dependence of Polymersome Membrane Structure, Elasticity, and Stability Harry in water from a series of diblock copolymerss"polymersomes"sare physically characterized. With increasing)-polybutadiene increases up to 20 nm, which is considerably greater than any previously studied lipid or polymersome system

  8. Ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene wear particle effects on bioactivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hsu-Wei Fang

    2003-01-01

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) wear particles have been recognized as one of the major causes of aseptic loosening in total joint replacements. Macrophage phagocytosis of wear particles induces human biological\\/physiological responses which eventually lead to bone resorption and osteolysis. However, the dependence of these reactions on the size and shape of the particles has not been elucidated and is

  9. Wear mechanisms and particle generation in ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Lankford; C. R. Blanchard; C. M. Agrawal

    1995-01-01

    The effect of varying the initial surface roughness of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) tested in reciprocating wear against CoCr pins in bovine serum is investigated. It is found that wear occurs in two distinct stages that appear and disappear cyclically. The low wear phase corresponds to the development of surface deformation features that degenerate into a high amplitude wavelike

  10. The blast erosion behaviour of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Q. Wang; L. P. Huang; W. L. Liu; J. Li

    1998-01-01

    The erosive wear behaviour of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) was tested by an air-borne particle erosion equipment. The effects of impact angle, velocity and the particle hardness on the erosive wear of UHMWPE were demonstrated. By scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), the worn surface morphology was analyzed. The plastic deformation and microcracking are the main erosion mechanisms of UHMWPE under

  11. Molecular weight distribution in non-linear emulsion polymerization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hidetaka Tobita; Mamoru Nomura

    1999-01-01

    A modelistic study is conducted for an emulsion polymerization that involves chain transfer to the polymer, by focusing our attention to the effect of very small reaction volume on the formed molecular weight distribution. In emulsion polymerization, a polymer radical that causes the polymer transfer reaction must choose the partner only within the same particle, which makes the expected size

  12. Melt rheology of aliphatic hyperbranched polyesters with various molecular weights

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T.-T Hsieh; C Tiu; G. P Simon

    2001-01-01

    Rheological behaviour of a series of aliphatic hyperbranched polyesters, Boltorn polymers, with different molecular weights (generations) is studied in the molten state. The onset of a nonlinear region occurs at much lower strains for Boltorn polymers of lower generations (generation 2 and 3) compared with those of higher generations (generation 4 and 5) in the dynamic strain sweep experiments. Relaxation

  13. Shifting paradigms: biopharmaceuticals versus low molecular weight drugs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Crommelin; Gert Storm; Ruud Verrijk; Leo de Leede; Wim Jiskoot; Wim E. Henninka

    2003-01-01

    Biopharmaceuticals are pharmaceutical products consisting of (glyco)proteins. Nowadays a substantial part of the FDA- approved drugs belong to this class of drugs. Biopharmaceuticals deserve special attention as they have a number of characteristics that set them aside from low molecular weight drugs. Their activity depends on their complicated shape based on secondary, tertiary and (sometimes) quaternary structures. These structures cannot

  14. Intraoperative low molecular weight heparin and postoperative bleeding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael K. F. Choo

    2009-01-01

    A case of postoperative bleeding associated with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) administration is reported. A literature search suggests that perioperative bleeding can be as high as 11% when LMWH is administered intraoperatively. When administered 6 h postoperatively, LMWH does not signi- ficantly increase the risk of bleeding whilst retaining efficacy for venous thromboembolism prophy- laxis. Although LMWH has not

  15. High molecular weight organic matter in martian meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sephton, M. A.; Wright, I. P.; Gilmour, I.; de Leeuw, J. W.; Grady, M. M.; Pillinger, C. T.

    2002-06-01

    We have performed an investigation to detect high molecular weight organic matter in martian meteorites. Solvent-extracted samples of two Antarctic finds (ALH 84001, sub-sample 106 and EET A79001, sub-sample 351) and one non-Antarctic fall (Nakhla) were analysed by flash pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results suggest that our sub-sample of ALH 84001 contains no pyrolysable organic matter. In contrast, our samples of EET A79001 and Nakhla contain organic matter of high molecular weight, which releases aromatic and alkylaromatic hydrocarbons, phenol and benzonitrile as major compounds upon pyrolysis. The detection of similar pyrolysis products from Nakhla and EET A79001 indicates that these martian meteorites may have a common high molecular weight organic phase. Carbon isotopic measurements of individual molecules in the Nakhla pyrolysate, by flash pyrolysis-gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry, reveal that this high molecular weight organic matter has some similarities to that found in carbonaceous chondrites. At this point, an origin by terrestrial contamination cannot be unequivocally ruled out, but the data seem to support proposals that martian samples contain organic matter originating from meteoritic infall on Mars. The results suggest that a wider, pyrolysis-based study of martian meteorites would be a justifiable use of these precious samples.

  16. Preparation of soybean oil polymers with high molecular weight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cationic polymerization of soybean oils was initiated by boron trifluoride diethyl etherate BF3.O(C2H5)2 in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) medium. The resulting polymers had molecular weight ranging from 21,842 to 118,300 g/mol. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and gel perme...

  17. Molecular weight dependence of domain structure in silica-siloxane molecular composites

    SciTech Connect

    Ulibarri, T.A.; Beaucage, G.; Schaefer, D.W.; Olivier, B.J.; Assink, R.A.

    1992-07-01

    A detailed investigation of the molecular weight dependence of silica growth in in situ filled polydimethylsiloxane/tetraethylorthosilicate (PDMS/TEOS) materials was conducted using small angle neutron scattering (SANS). Composite materials were produced by using TEOS to simultaneously produce the glassy filler phase and to crosslink linear, hydroxyl terminated PDMS of variable molecular weight, M. Correlated domains of glassy filler were produced. The morphology of the in situ filled material showed a definite dependence on the molecular weight of the precursor polymer. The scale, R, of the glassy domains follows de Gennes` description of phase separation in a crosslinked system (R {alpha} M{sup 1/2}).

  18. Molecular weight dependence of domain structure in silica-siloxane molecular composites

    SciTech Connect

    Ulibarri, T.A.; Beaucage, G.; Schaefer, D.W.; Olivier, B.J.; Assink, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    A detailed investigation of the molecular weight dependence of silica growth in in situ filled polydimethylsiloxane/tetraethylorthosilicate (PDMS/TEOS) materials was conducted using small angle neutron scattering (SANS). Composite materials were produced by using TEOS to simultaneously produce the glassy filler phase and to crosslink linear, hydroxyl terminated PDMS of variable molecular weight, M. Correlated domains of glassy filler were produced. The morphology of the in situ filled material showed a definite dependence on the molecular weight of the precursor polymer. The scale, R, of the glassy domains follows de Gennes' description of phase separation in a crosslinked system (R {alpha} M{sup 1/2}).

  19. Structural determinants in a library of low molecular weight gelators.

    PubMed

    Morris, Kyle L; Chen, Lin; Rodger, Alison; Adams, Dave J; Serpell, Louise C

    2015-02-14

    Low molecular weight hydrogels are formed by molecules that form a matrix that immobilises water to form a self-supporting gel. Such gels have uses as biomaterials such as molecular scaffolds and structures for tissue engineering. One class of low molecular weight gelator (LMWG), naphthalene-conjugated dipeptides, has been shown to form hydrogels via self-assembly following a controlled drop in pH. A library of naphthalene-dipeptides has been generated previously although the relationship between the precursor sequence and the resulting self-assembled structures remained unclear. Here, we have investigated the structural details of a set of dipeptide sequences containing alanine (A) and valine (V) conjugated to naphthalene groups substituted with a Br, CN or H at the 6-position. Electron microscopy, circular dichroism and X-ray fibre diffraction shows that these LMWG may be structurally classified by their composition: the molecular packing is determined by the class of conjugate, whilst the chirality of the self-assemblies can be attributed to the dipeptide sequence. This provides insights into the relationship between the precursor sequence and the macromolecular and molecular structures of the fibres that make up the resulting hydrogels. PMID:25562785

  20. Molecular physiology of weight regulation in mice and humans

    PubMed Central

    Leibel, RL

    2009-01-01

    Evolutionary considerations relating to efficiency in reproduction, and survival in hostile environments, suggest that body energy stores are sensed and actively regulated, with stronger physiological and behavioral responses to loss than gain of stored energy. Many physiological studies support this inference, and suggest that a critical axis runs between body fat and the hypothalamus. The molecular cloning of leptin and its receptor—projects based explicitly on the search for elements in this axis—confirmed the existence of this axis and provided important tools with which to understand its molecular physiology. Demonstration of the importance of this soma-brain reciprocal connection in body weight regulation in humans has been pursued using both classical genetic approaches and studies of physiological responses to experimental weight perturbation. This paper reviews the history of the rationale and methodology of the cloning of leptin (Lep) and the leptin receptor (Lepr), and describes some of the clinical investigation characterizing this axis. PMID:19136999

  1. Molecular weight characterization of single globular proteins using optical nanotweezers.

    PubMed

    Wheaton, Skyler; Gordon, Reuven

    2015-07-21

    We trap a set of molecular weight standard globular proteins using a double nanohole optical trap. The root mean squared variation of the trapping laser transmission intensity gives a linear dependence with the molecular weight, showing the potential for analysis of globular proteins. The characteristic time of the autocorrelation of the trapping laser intensity variations scales with a -2/3 power dependence with the volume of the particle. A hydrodynamic laser tweezer model is used to explain these dependencies. Since this is a single particle technique that operates in solution and can be used to isolate an individual particle, we believe that it provides an interesting alternative to existing analysis methods and shows promise to expand the capabilities of protein related studies to the single particle level. PMID:25739349

  2. Sensitivity of low molecular weight RNA synthesis to UV radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George L. Eliceiri

    1979-01-01

    RNA SPECIES C and D (nomenclature of Weinberg and Penman1) are among the most abundant of the long-lived2, homodisperse, low molecular weight nuclear RNAs3, and are present in all vertebrates tested4, but their function is unknown. They have several interesting characteristics: they seem to be transcribed from multiple-copy genes (102-103 genes per genome)5,6, to pass through the cytoplasm for a

  3. Wear characteristics of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. El-Domiaty; M. El-Fadaly; A. Es. Nassef

    2002-01-01

    The wear of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) bearing against 316 stainless steel or cobalt chromium (Co-Cr)\\u000a alloy was measured using a 12-channel wear tester especially developed for the evaluation of candidate materials for prosthetic\\u000a joints. The coefficient of friction and wear rate were determined as a function of lubricant, contact stress, and metallic\\u000a surface roughness in tests lasting 2–3

  4. Wear performance of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene\\/quartz composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. L. Xie; C. Y. Tang; Kathy Y. Y. Chan; X. C. Wu; C. P. Tsui; C. Y. Cheung

    2003-01-01

    Ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE)\\/quartz composites were compression molded in the presence of organosiloxane, and then hydrolyzed. The used organosiloxane is vinyl tri-ethyloxyl silane. The gelation, the melting behavior, the crystallinity, the mechanical properties and the wear resistance of UHMWPE\\/quartz composites were investigated. The results showed that organosiloxane can act as a cross-linking agent for UHMWPE matrix and serve as

  5. The Crosslinked Ultrahigh Molecular Weight Polyethylene: Risk and Limitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Costa; P. Bracco; E. M. Brach Prever

    \\u000a In the past three decades the majority of the implanted orthopedic prostheses included a bearing component made of ultrahigh\\u000a molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) articulating against a femoral metallic or ceramic ball or a metallic tibial plateau.\\u000a Wear of the polyethylene bearing surfaces produces abrasion particles [1], often causing a foreign body response that may lead to bone resorption (osteolysis) and

  6. RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES & MOLECULAR WEIGHT DISTRIBUTIONS OF FOUR PERFLUORINATED THERMOPLASTIC POLYMERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D M Hoffman; A L Shields

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic viscosity measurements and molecular weight estimates have been made on four commercial, amorphous fluoropolymers with glass transitions (Tg) above 100 C: Teflon AF 1600, Hyflon AD 60, Cytop A and Cytop M. These polymers are of interest as binders for the insensitive high explosive 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) because of their high density and Tg above ambient, but within a suitable

  7. Low molecular weight inhibitors of the protease anthrax lethal factor.

    PubMed

    Dalkas, Georgios A; Papakyriakou, Athanasios; Vlamis-Gardikas, Alexios; Spyroulias, Georgios A

    2008-03-01

    Anthrax Lethal Factor (LF) is a zinc-dependent metalloprotease that together with the protective antigen constitute the anthrax lethal toxin, the most prominent virulence factor of the disease anthrax. This review summarizes the current knowledge on anthrax toxicity and defense in relation to LF. Particular emphasis is placed on the structural aspects of LF, the properties of its substrates and the achievements in the design of low molecular weight inhibitors of the catalytic activity of the metalloenzyme. PMID:18336349

  8. High molecular weight tropomyosins regulate osteoclast cytoskeletal morphology.

    PubMed

    Kotadiya, Preeyal; McMichael, Brooke K; Lee, Beth S

    2008-11-01

    Tropomyosins are coiled-coil dimers that bind to the major groove of F-actin and regulate its accessibility to actin-modifying proteins. Although approximately 40 tropomyosin isoforms have been identified in mammals, they can broadly be classified into two groups based on protein size, that is, high molecular weight and low molecular weight isoforms. Osteoclasts, which undergo rounds of polarization and depolarization as they progress through the resorptive cycle, possess an unusual and highly dynamic actin cytoskeleton. To further define some of the actin regulatory proteins involved in osteoclast activity, we previously performed a survey of tropomyosin isoforms in resting and resorbing osteoclasts. Osteoclasts were found to express two closely related tropomyosins of the high molecular weight type, which are not expressed in monocytic and macrophage precursors. These isoforms, Tm-2 and Tm-3, are not strongly associated with actin-rich adhesion structures, but are instead distributed diffusely throughout the cell. In this study, we found that Tm-2/3 expression occurs late in osteoclastogenesis and continues to increase as cells mature. Knockdown of these isoforms via RNA interference results in flattening and increased spreading of osteoclasts, accompanied by diminished motility and altered resorptive capacity. In contrast, overexpression of Tm-2, but not Tm-3, caused morphological changes that include decreased spreading of the cells and induction of actin patches or stress fiber-like actin filaments, also with effects on motility and resorption. Suppression of Tm-2/3 or overexpression of Tm-2 resulted in altered distribution of gelsolin and microfilament barbed ends. These data suggest that high molecular weight tropomyosins are expressed in fusing osteoclasts to regulate the cytoskeletal scaffolding of these large cells, due at least in part by moderating accessibility of gelsolin to these microfilaments. PMID:18674650

  9. Molecular weight effect on the efficiency of polymer solar cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Wang, Kai; Hu, Xiaowen; Yang, Yali; Hsu, Chih-Hao; Zhang, Wei; Xiao, Steven; Gong, Xiong; Cao, Yong

    2013-11-27

    In this study, we report the investigation of the influence of molecular weight (MW) on power conversion efficiency (PCE) of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells (PSCs). It was found that PCEs of PSCs fabricated by poly[[4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl][3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl

  10. Effect of cross-linking ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene: Surface molecular orientation and wear characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharadha Sambasivan; Daniel A. Fischer; Stephen M. Hsu

    2007-01-01

    Molecular orientation at the surface layer of cross-linked ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) has been examined. Molecular orientation has been shown to affect the wear resistance and surface mechanical properties of UHMWPE under biomechanical loading conditions. This study utilizes a nondestructive synchrotron based soft x-ray technique; near edge x-ray absorption fine structure at the carbon K-edge to examine the degree

  11. Measurement of the Molecular Weights of Vapors at High Temperature. II. The Vapor Pressure of Germanium and the Molecular Weight of Germanium Vapor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan W. Searcy; Robert D. Freeman

    1955-01-01

    The vapor pressure of germanium and the molecular weight of germanium vapor have been determined by use of an apparatus for the simultaneous measurement of the weight of vapor effusing through two small orifices and of the force exerted by the effusing vapor. The molecular weight of germanium vapor at 1750°K was found to be 58±16 compared to the atomic

  12. Toward Accurate Potentials for Condensed-Phase Chemical Reactions: Electrostatically Embedded Multi-Configuration Molecular Mechanics

    E-print Network

    Truhlar, Donald G

    Toward Accurate Potentials for Condensed-Phase Chemical Reactions: Electrostatically Embedded Multi and molecular mechanical (QM/MM) methods have provided powerful means for studying chemical reactions be used in QM/MM methods. The result is a key step toward studying chemical reactions in condensed phases

  13. Structure and molecular weight of the dynein ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, KA; Wall, JS

    1983-01-01

    Dynein has been examined by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Samples of 30S dynein from tetrahymena cilia were applied to carbon films and either were freeze- dried and examined as unstained, unfixed specimens, or were negatively stained with uranyl sulfate. A totally new image of the dynein molecule was revealed showing three globular heads connected by three separate strands to a common base. Two of the heads appeared to be identical and exhibited a diameter of 10 nm while the third head was somewhat larger (approximately 12 nm). The overall length of the particle was 35 nm. Mass analysis, based upon the integration of electron scattering intensities for unstained particles, gave a molecular weight of 1.95 (+/-)0.24) megadaltons. Mass per unit length analysis was performed using bovine brain microtubules decorated with dynein under conditions where the dynein shows a linear repeat of 24 nm with seven dynein molecules surrounding a microtubule made up of 14 protofilaments. Undecorated microtubules gave a molecular weight per unit length of 21,000+/-1,900 daltons/A, compared to a value of 84,400+/-2,200 daltons/A for the fully decorated microtubules. Taken together, these data give a molecular weight of 2.17 (+/- 0.14) megadaltons per dynein molecule, in agreement with measurements on the isolated particles. Mass analysis of individual globular heads observed in isolated particles gave a molecular weight distribution with a mean of 416+/- 76 kdaltons. These data could also be viewed as the sum of two populations of head with two-thirds of the heads at approximately 400 kdaltons and one-third at approximately 550 kdaltons, although more precise data will be required to distinguish two classes of heads with confidence. The mass of the dynein-microtubule complex as a function of distance from the midline of the particle was analysed to distinguish which end of the dynein molecule was bound to the microtubule. The projected mass distribution was consistent with a model where the three dynein heads were oriented toward the microtubule and clearly not consistent with the opposite orientation. These data indicate that the three globular heads form the ATP-sensitive site in this heterologous dynein-microtubule system and suggest that the rootlike base of the dynein molecule forms the structural attachment site to the A-subfiber of the outer doublet in cilia and flagella. The structure and function of the dynein are dicussed in terms of these new results. PMID:6220019

  14. Polymerization of low molecular weight hydrogelators to form electrochromic polymers.

    PubMed

    Kubiak, Peter S; Awhida, Salmah; Hotchen, Christopher; Deng, Wentao; Alston, Ben; McDonald, Tom O; Adams, Dave J; Cameron, Petra J

    2015-06-16

    We present a method for the polymerization of low molecular weight hydrogelators to form polymers with unique structures. Carbazole-protected amino acids are shown to form hydrogels by self-assembly into fibrous structures. We show that is possible to directly electropolymerize the hydrogels. This results in the formation of microporous electrochromic polymers with distinctive structure. Polymers formed from the same gelator without the pregelation step show more compact structures. This method opens the possibility of creating polymers templated from pre-assembled gels that have the potential to be used in a wide range of applications. PMID:26027654

  15. Pharmacological and Clinical Differences Between Low-Molecular-Weight Heparins

    PubMed Central

    Merli, Geno J.; Groce, James B.

    2010-01-01

    Thanks to their predictable pharmacokinetics and ease of use, low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) have established uses in the prevention and treatment of thrombotic diseases and as a replacement for unfractionated heparin (UFH). Although LMWHs as a class have similar antithrombotic effects, they comprise a diverse group of agents with distinct biochemical and pharmacological profiles. In light of the ongoing pressure to contain pharmacy costs, the diversity among the LMWHs and their benefits over UFH are important considerations in clinical practice. PMID:20221326

  16. On the use of shifted Jacobi polynomials in accurate evaluation of roots and weights of Rys polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flocke, N.

    2009-08-01

    In this paper it is shown that shifted Jacobi polynomials Gn(p,q,x) can be used in connection with the Gaussian quadrature modified moment technique to greatly enhance the accuracy of evaluation of Rys roots and weights used in Gaussian integral evaluation in quantum chemistry. A general four-term inhomogeneous recurrence relation is derived for the shifted Jacobi polynomial modified moments over the Rys weight function e-Tx/?x . It is shown that for q =1/2 this general four-term inhomogeneous recurrence relation reduces to a three-term p-dependent inhomogeneous recurrence relation. Adjusting p to proper values depending on the Rys exponential parameter T, the method is capable of delivering highly accurate results for large number of roots and weights in the most difficult to treat intermediate T range. Examples are shown, and detailed formulas together with practical suggestions for their efficient implementation are also provided.

  17. Human copper-containing superoxide dismutase of high molecular weight.

    PubMed Central

    Marklund, S L

    1982-01-01

    A superoxide dismutase (superoxide:superoxide oxidoreductase, EC 1.15.1.1), distinct from previously known superoxide dismutases, has been isolated from human lung tissue. It is probably of the same nature as a previously demonstrated high molecular weight superoxide dismutating factor in human extracellular fluids. The enzyme has a molecular weight around 135,000 and is composed of four equal noncovalently bound subunits. Each molecule appears to have four copper atoms. No iron or manganese was found in the enzyme. Cyanide inhibits the enzyme efficiently. The enzyme brings about a first-order dismutation of the superoxide radical, the rate constant for the catalyzed reaction being about 1 X 10(9) M-1 s-1 per copper atom. The enzyme has hydrophobic properties. Affinity for various lectins indicates the presence of carbohydrate. Upon chromatography on heparin-Sepharose it is divided into three fractions, one with no, one with weak, and one with strong affinity for heparin. Images PMID:6961438

  18. Crystal ageing in irradiated ultra high molecular weight polyethylene.

    PubMed

    Barron, D; Collins, M N; Flannery, M J; Leahy, J J; Birkinshaw, C

    2008-06-01

    Medical grade ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) of two molecular weights has been gamma irradiated in air to give received doses of 3.5 and 10 Mrad and aged in air for 25 months. Differential scanning calorimetry and wide and small angle X-ray diffraction (WAX and SAX) techniques and transmission electron microscopy have been used to characterize the materials. Polymer from an orthopaedic component, retrieved 10 years after implantation, has been subjected to the same analytical programme. The X-ray diffraction data shows that following irradiation two events occur with time, first a crystal refinement process, indicated by pronounced sharpening of the SAX peak, and secondly growth of a new crystal population of reduced lamellae thickness compared to the original crystal structures, shown by the development of a bimodal SAX pattern. Following irradiation crystallinity increases with time and this second crystal population makes a significant contribution to that increase. The retrieved component shows full development of these processes. It is considered that these crystallographic changes with time are responsible for the observed time dependent changes in the mechanical properties of air irradiated UHMWPE. PMID:18071874

  19. Viscoelastic Behavior of Low Molecular Weight Sulfonated Polystyrene Ionomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hongying

    Ionomers are those hydrophobic polymers having small amounts of bonded ionic groups. The introduction of the ionic groups into polymer chain produces large changes in the physical, mechanical and rheological properties of the parent polymer. Characterization of the effect of the ionic interactions on the rheology is complicated by the difficulty in separating effects due to molecular entanglements and the ionic interactions. In this study, low molecular weight (Mw=4000) sulfonated polystyrene (SPS) was used to study the dynamic and steady shear rheology of SPS ionomers. The polymer chain length used was far below the entanglement molecular weight of polystyrene and effects of molecular entanglements will be absent. Any polymer chain entanglements or lengthening behavior on the melt rheology should be due to the ionic interactions. Random SPS ionomers with two sulfonation levels were examined, 2.5 and 4.8 mol%, which corresponded, respectively, to one and two sulfonate groups per chain on average. The metal counterions was varied across the alkali metal series of the periodic table. Morphology of the ionomer was characterized by using small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis, and dynamic and steady shear measurements were performed to investigate rheological behavior of the ionomers. Glass transition temperatures of the ionomers increased with increasing ion concentration but were insensitive to cation used. The scattering peak in SAXS indicates the existence of the nanophase separated ionic clusters. The strong ionic nanophase persist up to very high temperatures and is not sensitive to the external stress. Time-temperature superposition (TTS) of G' worked reasonably well while TTS of G" failed for most ionomers. Ionic interactions increased the terminal relaxation time of the melts as much as seven orders of magnitude greater than the unentangled PS melt. The zero shear viscosity and first normal stress coefficients scaled with cq/a, where c was the concentration of the ionic groups, q was the charge of the cation, and a was the cation radius. The flow activation energy of the ionomers was similar to that of high molecular weight PS and the calculated molecular weight between "entanglements" (Me) of the SPS4.8 ionomers was the same as for PS. However, SPS2.5 ionomers contain more inactive chains that do not contribute to the melt elasticity and lead to the higher Me value. All ionomers exhibit Newtonian flow behavior at low shear rates and shear thinning behavior were observed for SPS2.5 ionomers. However, shear thickening were found for LiSPS2.5 and NaSPS2.5 under lower temperatures and up to some critical shear rate. The shear thickening is believed to be due to the mechanism that the interchain association of the chains increases as they are deformed in the shear flow. The larger complexes that formed at higher shear rates lead to higher viscosities.

  20. Mothers' and Fathers' Perceptions of Their Adolescent Daughters' Shape, Weight, and Body Esteem: Are They Accurate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geller, Josie; Srikameswaran, Suja; Zaitsoff, Shannon L.; Cockell, Sarah J.; Poole, Gary D.

    2003-01-01

    Examined parents' awareness of their daughters' attitudes, beliefs, and feelings about their bodies. Sixty-six adolescent daughters completed an eating disorder scale, a body figure rating scale, and made ratings of their shape and weight. Greater discrepancies between parents' estimates of daughters' body esteem and daughters' self-reported body…

  1. Low molecular weight silicones particularly facilitate human serum albumin denaturation.

    PubMed

    Nayef, Lamees M; Khan, Madiha F; Brook, Michael A

    2015-04-01

    There is a market trend towards the administration of therapeutic proteins using sterilized, pre-filled glass syringes lubricated with silicone oil. It has been widely reported that initially clear solutions of proteins can become turbid during transport and storage, with unclear outcomes with respect to bioefficacy. While the basic processes of interactions of proteins with hydrophobic entities, leading to denaturation and aggregation, are increasingly well understood, the apparently random occurrence of such processes in syringes is not. To better understand the parameters that may be responsible for this change, we report the systematic examination of a series of factors that can affect the behavior of the protein human serum albumin (HSA) when in contact with silicone oil in water. Fluorescence spectroscopy showed that greater mixing times and greater concentrations of silicones (polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)), especially lower molecular weight hydrophobic silicones like octamethyltetracyclosiloxane (D4), were associated with increased protein denaturation. The turbidity of HSA solutions, due to the formation both of silicone oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions and protein aggregates, was also facilitated by the presence of D4. A series of mixtures of silicone oils, all of which exhibited a viscosity of 1000 cSt but which were comprised of different silicone constituents, clearly showed a correlation between the presence of lower molecular silicones and enhanced solution turbidity. While the addition of a non-ionic silicone-polyether surfactant led to greater turbidity by increasing the number of stabilized oil droplets, it was not accompanied by protein denaturation. These results are consistent with HSA denaturation and subsequent aggregation as a consequence of contact particularly with low molecular weight, hydrophobic silicones that are more mobile, leading to more efficient protein/silicone contact. PMID:25800359

  2. A simple capillary electrophoresis method for the rapid separation and determination of intact low molecular weight and unfractionated heparins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rahul P. Patel; Christian Narkowicz; Joseph P. Hutchinson; Emily F. Hilder; Glenn A. Jacobson

    2008-01-01

    A simple, selective and accurate capillary electrophoresis (CE) method has been developed for the rapid separation and identification of various low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) and unfractionated heparin. Separation and operational parameters were investigated using dalteparin sodium as the test LMWH. The developed method used a 70cm fused silica capillary (50?m i.d.) with a detection window 8.5cm from the distal

  3. Effect of Molecular Weight on Hydrated Morphologies of the Short-Side-Chain Perfluorosulfonic Acid Membrane

    E-print Network

    Elliott, James

    either the length of the side chain or equivalent weight (EW) of the ionomer is changed [Wu et al. EnergyEffect of Molecular Weight on Hydrated Morphologies of the Short-Side-Chain Perfluorosulfonic Acid) simulations in an attempt to better understand how molecular weight (MW) affects the hydrated morphology

  4. Dairy Wastewater Treatment Using Low Molecular Weight Crab Shell Chitosan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geetha Devi, M.; Dumaran, Joefel Jessica; Feroz, S.

    2012-08-01

    The investigation of possible use of low molecular weight crab shell chitosan (MW 20 kDa) in the treatment of dairy waste water was studied. Various experiments have been carried out using batch adsorption technique to study the effects of the process variables, which include contact time, stirring speed, pH and adsorbent dosage. Treated effluent characteristics at optimum condition showed that chitosan can be effectively used as adsorbent in the treatment of dairy wastewater. The optimum conditions for this study were at 150 mg/l of chitosan, pH 5 and 50 min of mixing time with 50 rpm of mixing speed. Chitosan showed the highest performance under these conditions with 79 % COD, 93 % turbidity and 73 % TSS reduction. The result showed that chitosan is an effective coagulant, which can reduce the level of COD, TSS and turbidity in dairy industry wastewater.

  5. Gels and foams from ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Hair, L.M.; Letts, S.A. (Lawrence Livermore National Labs., CA (United States))

    1990-01-01

    Crystallization-gelation of ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMW PE) was used to make stiff gels that were supercritically dried to make low-density, small-cell-size foams. The effects of solvent and cooling conditions on gelation and morphology were investigated. X-ray diffractometry showed that the size of the crystalline lamellae in the finished foam decreased with increased cooling rate for foams made from UHMW PE in tetralin, but not in dodecane or decalin. This difference may be attributable to the greater expansion of the polyethylene chain in tetralin than in dodecane, as revealed by viscometry. However, the superstructure of the foam, which includes the pore sizes and homogeneity, was found to be affected by solvent as well as by cooling conditions.

  6. Biological effects of high molecular weight lignin derivatives.

    PubMed

    Pessala, Piia; Schultz, Eija; Kukkola, Jukka; Nakari, Tarja; Knuutinen, Juha; Herve, Sirpa; Paasivirta, Jaakko

    2010-10-01

    A number of high molecular weight (HMW) lignin derivatives possessing varied chemical properties were screened for their biological effects in order to obtain more information on the possible structural features of HMW lignin-related effects. The studied compounds were both commercial and in-house extracted lignin derivatives. Bioassays used include reverse electron transport (RET), Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna, and juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes. The studied lignin derivatives inhibited the in vitro systems and luminescence of V. fischeri bacteria to some extent-daphnids were not affected. It seems that, at least in the RET assay, certain pH-dependent functional groups in lignin may be of importance regarding the biological effects. PMID:20494440

  7. Unexpected Molecular Weight Dependence of Dynamics in Polymer Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Adam; Cheng, Shiwang; Bocharova, Vera; Griffin, Philip; Imel, Adam; Dadmun, Mark; Sokolov, Alexei

    2015-03-01

    The impact of nanoscale confinement in polymer nanocomposites has invoked tremendous interest ever since the reports of dramatic changes in polymer dynamics with relatively low nanoparticle concentrations. It has been shown that the segmental dynamics at an attractive polymer/nanoparticle interface slows down significantly due to formation of an interfacial layer. The general expectation is that the length scale of this layer and its influence will grow with increasing polymer molecular weight (MW). Our measurements reveal an opposite trend: the magnitude of the effect on segmental dynamics decreases with increasing MW. Based on detailed analysis of dielectric spectroscopy and small angle x-ray scattering measurements we provide a qualitative explanation of the unexpected observation.

  8. Apparatus and method of determining molecular weight of large molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, Stephen (Montrose, CA); Benner, W. Henry (Danville, CA); Madden, Norman (Livermore, CA); Searles, William (Fremont, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A mass spectrometer determines the mass of multiply charged high molecular weight molecules. This spectrometer utilizes an ion detector which is capable of simultaneously measuring the charge z and transit time of a single ion as it passes through the detector. From this transit time, the velocity of the single ion may then be derived, thus providing the mass-to-charge ratio m/z for a single ion which has been accelerated through a known potential. Given z and m/z, the mass m of the single ion can then be calculated. Electrospray ions with masses in excess of 1 MDa and charge numbers greater than 425 e.sup.- are readily detected. The on-axis single ion detection configuration enables a duty cycle of nearly 100% and extends the practical application of electrospray mass spectrometry to the analysis of very large molecules with relatively inexpensive instrumentation.

  9. Gels and foams from ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Hair, L.M.; Letts, S.A.; Tillotson, T.

    1988-07-01

    Ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW PE) foams with densities from 0.04 to 0.2 g/cm{sup 3} have routinely been made in our laboratory. First, an entangled solution of UHMW PE is made. Then, the solution is geled by cooling to crystallize the PE. The gel is later dried to a foam by critical point drying. Viscometry and cloud point measurements were used to determine the gelatin point and the critical gelatin concentrations. Polarized light microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry were used to investigate the effects of cooling rate on the gel, while the effects of cooling rate on the foam were investigated via x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. We found that rapid cooling of 5 wt % UHMW PE/tetralin solutions to {minus}10{degree}c yielded small, uniform structure at the expense of crystallinity and strength; cooling over three days yielded spherulitic structure with strength. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Soluble, High Molecular Weight Polysilsesquioxanes with Carboxylate Functionalities

    SciTech Connect

    RAHIMIAN,KAMYAR; LOY,DOUGLAS A.; WHEELER,DAVID R.

    2000-07-14

    Trialkoxysilyl-containing monomers of the type (RO){sub 3}Si(CH{sub 2}){sub 3}C(O)OtBu (R = Me, Et) were prepared by hydrosilation of the corresponding vinylic tert-butyl esters CH{sub 3}CHCH{sub 2}C(O)OtBu. Acid- or base-catalyzed polymerization of the monomers leads to very high molecular weight polymers with relatively narrow polydispersities. The polymerization results in complete condensation of the alkoxy groups while the tert-butyl ester functionality remains fully intact. Partial or full deprotection of the tert-butyl group can easily be achieved to yield the corresponding carboxylic acid polymers. The ester and carboxylic acid functionalities of these new materials allow for their potential use in a variety of applications such as scavenging of heavy metals.

  11. [Anaphylactic reactions to low-molecular weight chemicals].

    PubMed

    Nowak, Daria; Panaszek, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Low-molecular weight chemicals (haptens) include a large group of chemical compounds occurring in work environment, items of everyday use (cleaning products, clothing, footwear, gloves, furniture), jewelry (earrings, bracelets), drugs, especially in cosmetics. They cause type IV hypersensitive reactions. During the induction phase of delayed-type hypersensitivity, haptens form complexes with skin proteins. After internalization through antigen presenting cells, they are bound to MHC class II molecules. Next, they are exposed against specific T-lymphocytes, what triggers activation of Th1 cells mainly. After repeating exposition to that hapten, during effector phase, Th1 induce production of cytokines affecting non-specific inflammatory cells. Usually, it causes contact dermatitis. However, occasionally incidence of immediate generalized reactions after contact with some kinds of haptens is noticed. A question arises, how the hapten does induce symptoms which are typical for anaphylaxis, and what contributes to amplification of this mechanism. It seems that this phenomenon arises from pathomechanism occurring in contact urticaria syndrome in which an anaphylactic reaction may be caused either by contact of sensitized skin with protein antigens, high-molecular weight allergens, or haptens. One of the hypotheses indicates the leading role of basophiles in this process. Their contact with haptens, may cause to release mediators of immediate allergic reaction (histamine, eicosanoids) and to produce cytokines corresponding to Th2 cells profile. Furthermore, Th17 lymphocytes secreting pro-inflammatory interleukin-17 might be engaged into amplifying hypersensitivity into immediate reactions and regulatory T-cells may play role in the process, due to insufficient control of the activity of effector cells. PMID:25661919

  12. Enhancing molecular shape comparison by weighted Gaussian functions.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xin; Li, Jiabo; Liu, Zhihong; Zheng, Minghao; Ge, Hu; Xu, Jun

    2013-08-26

    Shape comparing technologies based on Gaussian functions have been widely used in virtual screening of drug discovery. For efficiency, most of them adopt the First Order Gaussian Approximation (FOGA), in which the shape density of a molecule is represented as a simple sum of all individual atomic shape densities. In the current work, the effectiveness and error in shape similarity calculated by such an approximation are carefully analyzed. A new approach, which is called the Weighted Gaussian Algorithm (WEGA), is proposed to improve the accuracy of the first order approximation. The new approach significantly improves the accuracy of molecular volumes and reduces the error of shape similarity calculations by 37% using the hard-sphere model as the reference. The new algorithm also keeps the simplicity and efficiency of the FOGA. A program based on the new method has been implemented for molecular overlay and shape-based virtual screening. With improved accuracy for shape similarity scores, the new algorithm also improves virtual screening results, particularly when a shape-feature combo scoring function is used. PMID:23845061

  13. In situ reinforced polymers using low molecular weight compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yordem, Onur Sinan

    2011-12-01

    The primary objective of this research is to generate reinforcing domains in situ during the processing of polymers by using phase separation techniques. Low molecular weight compounds were mixed with polymers where the process viscosity is reduced at process temperatures and mechanical properties are improved once the material system is cooled or reacted. Thermally induced phase separation and thermotropic phase transformation of low molar mass compounds were used in isotactic polypropylene (iPP) and poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) resins. Reaction induced phase separation was utilized in thermosets to generate anisotropic reinforcements. A new strategy to increase fracture toughness of materials was introduced. Simultaneously, enhancement in stiffness and reduction in process viscosity were also attained. Materials with improved rheological and mechanical properties were prepared by using thermotropic phase transformations of metal soaps in polymers (calcium stearate/iPP). Morphology and thermal properties were studied using WAXS, DSC and SEM. Mechanical and rheological investigation showed significant reduction in process viscosity and substantial improvement in fracture toughness were attained. Effects of molecular architecture of metal soaps were investigated in PEEK (calcium stearate/PEEK and sodium stearate/PEEK). The selected compounds reduced the process viscosity due to the high temperature co-continuous morphology of metal soaps. Unlike the iPP system that incorporates spherical particles, interaction between PEEK and metal soaps resulted in two discrete and co-continuous phases of PEEK and the metal stearates. DMA and melt rheology exhibited that sodium stearate/PEEK composites are stiffer. Effective moduli of secondary metal stearate phase were calculated using different composite theories, which suggested bicontinuous morphology to the metal soaps in PEEK. Use of low molecular weight crystallizable solvents was investigated in reactive systems. Formation of anisotropic reinforcements was evaluated using dimethyl sulfone (DMS) as the crystallizable diluent and diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA)/m-phenylene diamine (mPDA) material system as the epoxy thermoset. Miscible blends of DMS and DGEBA/mPDA form homogenous mixtures that undergo polymerization induced phase separation, once the DGEBA oligomers react with mPDA. The effect of the competition between the crystallization and phase separation of DMS resulted in nano-wires to micro-scale fiber-like crystals that were generated by adjusting the reaction temperature and DMS concentration.

  14. Chloride channel CLCN5 mutations in Japanese children with familial idiopathic low molecular weight proteinuria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HITOSHI NAKAZATO; JUNICHIRO YOSHIMUTA; SHINNYO KARASHIMA; SHINICHI MATSUMOTO; FUMIO ENDO; ICHIRO MATSUDA; SHINZABURO HATTORI

    1999-01-01

    Chloride channel CLCN5 mutations in Japanese children with familial idiopathic low molecular weight proteinuria.BackgroundFamilial idiopathic low molecular weight proteinuria (FILMWP) is a renal proximal tubulopathy characterized by mild proteinuria consisting of low molecular weight proteinuria and relatively conserved renal function in young patients, but without rickets. Mutations in the renal chloride channel CLCN5 gene have been reported in three disorders

  15. TOPICAL APPLICATION OF LOW MOLECULAR WEIGHT HEPARIN IN A RABBIT TRAUMATIC ANASTOMOSIS MODEL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kaiding Fu; Ricardo Izquierdo; Darl Vandevender; Raymond L Warpeha; Helmut Wolf; Jawed Fareed

    1997-01-01

    Low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) are antithrombotic drugs composed of lower molecular weight components of heparin with an apparent molecular weight in the range of 4.0–8.0 KDA. These agents have been used clinically for several years. They have different mechanisms of action compared to heparin, a longer half-life and much higher bioavailability. Anticoagulant drugs such as heparin have been used

  16. Exposure assessment of high molecular weight sensitisers: contribution to occupational epidemiology and disease prevention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Heederik; Doekes de G; M. J. Nieuwenhuijsen

    1999-01-01

    An important group of sensitising agents are so called high molecular weight sensitisers--proteins or glycoproteins with molecular weights in the 5-70 kDa range that can provoke a specific IgE response in workers exposed to these agents. Exposure to high molecular weight sensitisers could only be evaluated indirectly in the recent past. Few measurement techniques existed that made it possible to

  17. Machine Learning Predictions of Molecular Properties: Accurate Many-Body Potentials and Nonlocality in Chemical Space

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneously accurate and efficient prediction of molecular properties throughout chemical compound space is a critical ingredient toward rational compound design in chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Aiming toward this goal, we develop and apply a systematic hierarchy of efficient empirical methods to estimate atomization and total energies of molecules. These methods range from a simple sum over atoms, to addition of bond energies, to pairwise interatomic force fields, reaching to the more sophisticated machine learning approaches that are capable of describing collective interactions between many atoms or bonds. In the case of equilibrium molecular geometries, even simple pairwise force fields demonstrate prediction accuracy comparable to benchmark energies calculated using density functional theory with hybrid exchange-correlation functionals; however, accounting for the collective many-body interactions proves to be essential for approaching the “holy grail” of chemical accuracy of 1 kcal/mol for both equilibrium and out-of-equilibrium geometries. This remarkable accuracy is achieved by a vectorized representation of molecules (so-called Bag of Bonds model) that exhibits strong nonlocality in chemical space. In addition, the same representation allows us to predict accurate electronic properties of molecules, such as their polarizability and molecular frontier orbital energies. PMID:26113956

  18. Accurate quadrupolar NMR relaxation rates of aqueous cations from classical molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Carof, Antoine; Salanne, Mathieu; Charpentier, Thibault; Rotenberg, Benjamin

    2014-11-20

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation rates encode information about the collective and local dynamics around nuclei. Provided a suitable microscopic model is available, this allows investigating, e.g., the solvation shell dynamics around aqueous ions. Previous attempts with molecular dynamics simulations faced the double challenge of calculating accurately the microscopic properties governing the relaxation process, such as the electric field gradient (EFG) at the nucleus, and of sampling the trajectories over sufficiently long times. Here we show how to compute the NMR relaxation rate from classical molecular dynamics simulations. We use a recently derived force field parametrized on ab initio calculations and show that the EFG predicted by this force field can be used to accurately estimate the one computed by DFT using the PAW method where the electronic structure is described explicitly. The predicted relaxation rates for aqueous alkaline and alkaline Earth cations are in good agreement with experimental data. Our approach opens the way to the quantitative interpretation of these rates with molecular simulation. PMID:25340813

  19. Optimization of parameters for coverage of low molecular weight proteins

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Stephan A.; Kohajda, Tibor; Findeiß, Sven; Stadler, Peter F.; Washietl, Stefan; Kellis, Manolis; von Bergen, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Proteins with molecular weights of <25 kDa are involved in major biological processes such as ribosome formation, stress adaption (e.g., temperature reduction) and cell cycle control. Despite their importance, the coverage of smaller proteins in standard proteome studies is rather sparse. Here we investigated biochemical and mass spectrometric parameters that influence coverage and validity of identification. The underrepresentation of low molecular weight (LMW) proteins may be attributed to the low numbers of proteolytic peptides formed by tryptic digestion as well as their tendency to be lost in protein separation and concentration/desalting procedures. In a systematic investigation of the LMW proteome of Escherichia coli, a total of 455 LMW proteins (27% of the 1672 listed in the SwissProt protein database) were identified, corresponding to a coverage of 62% of the known cytosolic LMW proteins. Of these proteins, 93 had not yet been functionally classified, and five had not previously been confirmed at the protein level. In this study, the influences of protein extraction (either urea or TFA), proteolytic digestion (solely, and the combined usage of trypsin and AspN as endoproteases) and protein separation (gel- or non-gel-based) were investigated. Compared to the standard procedure based solely on the use of urea lysis buffer, in-gel separation and tryptic digestion, the complementary use of TFA for extraction or endoprotease AspN for proteolysis permits the identification of an extra 72 (32%) and 51 proteins (23%), respectively. Regarding mass spectrometry analysis with an LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometer, collision-induced fragmentation (CID and HCD) and electron transfer dissociation using the linear ion trap (IT) or the Orbitrap as the analyzer were compared. IT-CID was found to yield the best identification rate, whereas IT-ETD provided almost comparable results in terms of LMW proteome coverage. The high overlap between the proteins identified with IT-CID and IT-ETD allowed the validation of 75% of the identified proteins using this orthogonal fragmentation technique. Furthermore, a new approach to evaluating and improving the completeness of protein databases that utilizes the program RNAcode was introduced and examined. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00216-010-4093-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20803007

  20. Kinetics of Formation of Molecular Weight Distribution of Epoxy Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komar, Lyudmila A.; Kondyurin, Alexey; Svistkov, Alexander L.

    Curing of epoxy matrix prepreg in free space environment is a complex problem. A simulation of the chemical reaction, evaporation and radiation effects in the matrix is a way to understand and predict the curing process. We have developed a mathematical apparatus of the epoxy resin kinetics in term of molecular weight distribution (MWD), which includes the polymerization mechanism of bifunctional epoxy and sixfunctional triethylenetetraamine (TETA) molecules. The mathematical model for a number of molecules with the mass m at time t is based on the following equation $ beta(t,m)=m_{am} / m sum(6}_{i=0) alpha(am) _i (t,m)+ m_{ep} / m sum(2}_{i=0) alpha(ep) _i (t,m), where m_{am} and m_{ep} are the masses of one amine block and one epoxy block, respectively; alpha^{am}_i (t,m) is the MWD near the TETA blocks with the chemical bonds i at time t for the mass values m>0; alpha_i^{ep}(t,m) is the MWD parameters of the epoxy blocks with chemical bonds i at time t for the mass values m>0. For the distribution densities alpha^{am}_i (t,m) and alpha_i^{ep}(t,m), we propose the differential system of equations, which has been solved by applying boundary conditions which are based on the results of chromatography and infrared spectroscopy measurements of the epoxy matrix having different concentration of the hardener. For the initial MWD we accept a Gaussian distribution with parameters alpha^{am}_0 (t,m_1) =146 amu, alpha_0^{ep}(t,m_1) =340 amu and alpha_1^{ep}(t,m_1) =624 amu. Dispersion of the molecular weight for the initial distribution equals to 25 amu. A portion of TETA molecules in the fraction was 25%, and the portion of epoxy molecules with i=0 and i=1 was 67.5% and 7.5%$, respectively. Solutions were obtained at mass step equals to 5 amu and at time step equals to 0.25 min over the interval from 0 to 500 min. The model gives a full kinetic of MWD during the curing reaction. The study is supported by the RFBR (grants N 12-08-00970-a and N 14-08-96011-r-ural-a).

  1. Characterization and analysis of the molecular weight of lignin for biorefining studies

    SciTech Connect

    Tolbert, Allison [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta] [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta; Akinosho, Hannah [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta] [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta; Khunsupat, Taya Ratayakorn [ORNL] [ORNL; Naskar, Amit K [ORNL] [ORNL; Ragauskas, Arthur [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta] [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta

    2014-01-01

    The molecular weight of lignin is a fundamental property that infl uences the recalcitrance of biomass and the valorization of lignin. The determination of the molecular weight of lignin in native biomass is dependent on the bioresources used and the isolation and purifi cation procedures employed. The three most commonly employed isolation methods are milled wood lignin (MWL), cellulolytic enzyme lignin (CEL), and enzymatic mild acidolysis lignin (EMAL). Common characterization techniques for determining the molecular weight of lignin will be addressed, with an emphasis on gel permeation chromatography (GPC). This review also examines the mechanisms behind several biological, physical, and chemical pre-treatments and their impact on the molecular weight of lignin. The number average molecular weight (Mn), weight average molecular weight (Mw) and polydispersity index (D) all vary in magnitude depending on the biomass source, pre-treatment conditions, and isolation method. Additionally, there is a growing body of literature that supports changes in the molecular weight of lignin in response to genetic modifi cations in the lignin biosynthetic pathways. This review summarizes different procedures for obtaining the molecular weight of lignin that have been used in recent years and highlight future opportunities for applications of lignin.

  2. Can we differentiate the low-molecular-weight heparins?

    PubMed

    Turpie, A G

    2000-01-01

    The low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) have a number of therapeutic advantages, relative to standard unfractionated heparin (UFH). They are readily bioavailable when injected subcutaneously and can be given in fixed doses, allowing for far simpler administration. Several LMWHs are now commercially available, each demonstrating different physical and chemical properties and different activities in animal models of anticoagulation or hemorrhage. In clinical comparisons with placebo in the treatment of unstable coronary artery disease (UCAD), the LMWHs dalteparin sodium and nadroparin calcium have demonstrated good anticoagulant efficacy. In comparisons with UFH, on the other hand, only enoxaparin has shown superior anticoagulant activity, as reported in the results of the Efficacy and Safety of Subcutaneous Enoxaparin in Non-Q-wave Coronary Events (ESSENCE) and Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) 11B trials. However, close scrutiny of the methodology of the clinical trials in UCAD reveals considerable differences in study designs, dosage regimens, duration of administration of active treatments, and the timing and definition of endpoints. Therefore, it would not be scientifically sound to compare results with the different LMWHs based on the current available studies. It is also not possible to draw any conclusions with regard to the relative efficacy of the different LMWHs, since there are no properly-sized comparative data between dalteparin sodium, enoxaparin sodium, and nadroparin calcium. PMID:10680037

  3. Low molecular weight heparin use in unexplained recurrent miscarriage

    PubMed Central

    Yuksel, Halide; Kayatas, Semra; Boza, Aysen Telce; Api, Murat; Ertekin, A. Aktug; Cam, Cetin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate whether the use of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) improve live birth rates when compared with control group in patients with unexplained recurrent miscarriages (URM). Methods: In this prospective observational study 150 women with a history of two or more previous unexplained first trimester pregnancy loss who received LMWH; either enoxaparin (n=50), tinzaparin (n=50) or nothing (n=50) were followed for the pregnancy outcome measures. Only the patients who have used standardized dosage of LMWH (4000 IU/day enoxaparin or 3500 IU/day tinzaparin ) were included to the study. The primary end point was the live birth rate and secondary end points were the side effects, late pregnancy complications and neonatal outcome in the study cohorts. Results: Live birth was achieved 85% of the LMWH group and 66% of the control group (p=0.007). According to the subgroup analysis; live birth rates did not differ significantly between the enoxaparin and tinzaparin group (84% and 86%, respectively). Maternal and neonatal side effects were not statistically significant among the study participants. Conclusion: Thromboprophylaxis with LMWH resulted in a improved live-birth rate in patient with 2 or more consecutive unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss. Nevertheless these findings need to be confirmed in larger randomized trials. PMID:25674114

  4. Regulatory considerations for generic or biosimilar low molecular weight heparins.

    PubMed

    García-Arieta, Alfredo; Blázquez, Antonio

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the present paper is to address the legal aspects, technical requirements and possible conditions of use associated to low molecular weight heparin generics and biosimilars that are arriving to the market in United States and the European Union, respectively. To this end the concept of "similar biological medicinal product" that was coined in 2003 by the pharmaceutical legislation of the European Union is compared to the concept of generic in the United States and the concept of generic in the European Union. This different legal basis determines directly the technical requirements to obtain a marketing authorisation. Therefore, the chemical/biological, non-clinical and clinical requirements to demonstrate therapeutic equivalence are different in these two Regulatory Authorities, FDA and EMA. Consequently, the possible conditions of use are different. In the United States the products approved as generics by the FDA are considered interchangeable to the Reference Listed Drug. In contrast, the EMA legislation only deals with the approvability or prescribability of the medicines and it is a national / regional decision of the member States to consider these biosimilar products as interchangeable or not. PMID:21838658

  5. The Effect of Low Molecular Weight Heparins on Fracture Healing

    PubMed Central

    Kapetanakis, Stylianos; Nastoulis, Evangelos; Demesticha, Theano; Demetriou, Thespis

    2015-01-01

    Venous Thromboembolism is a serious complication in the trauma patient. The most commonly studied and used anticoagulant treatment in prophylaxis of thrombosis is heparin. The prolonged use of unfractionated heparin has been connected with increased incidence of osteoporotic fractures. Low molecular-weight-heparins (LMWHs) have been the golden rule in antithrombotic therapy during the previous two decades as a way to overcome the major drawbacks of unfractioned heparin. However there are few studies reporting the effects of LMWHs on bone repair after fractures. This review presents the studies about the effects of LMWHs on bone biology (bone cells and bone metabolism) and underlying the mechanisms by which LMWHs may impair fracture healing process. The authors’ research based on literature concluded that there are no facts and statistics for the role of LMWHs on fracture healing process in humans and the main body of evidence of their role comes from in vitro and animal studies. Further large clinical studies designed to compare different types of LMWHs, in different dosages and in different patient or animal models are needed for exploring the effects of LMWHs on fracture healing process. PMID:26161162

  6. Photoelectrical characterization of a new low molecular weight compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siderov, V.; Dobrikov, G. H.; Zhivkov, I.; Dobrikov, G. M.; Georgiev, Y.; Yordanov, R.; Honova, J.; Weiter, M.

    2014-12-01

    Photoelectrical characterization of a newly synthesized low molecular weight compound was carried out. 1,8-naphtalimide (chemical formula C32H34N4O5S) was originally synthesized and analyzed by NMR spectroscopy. Thin films were deposited in vacuum on commercially pre-patterned ITO covered glass substrates and the samples were prepared in clean room environment. The films deposited were characterized by SEM. Photoelectrical characteristics of the samples prepared were estimated by dark current-voltage measurement, spectral dependence of the photoconductivity and measurement under exposure with light, produced by solar simulator. Finally electroluminescence measurements were performed. It was found that the samples exhibit diode behaviour. The low values characterizing photovoltaic parameters obtained could be connected with the relative higher series resistance (Rseries). The predominant influence of Rseries is assumed as the relative high photoluminescence, measured from solution should be related to a relatively strong charge carrier photogeneration. This result is supported by electroluminescent measurement. Another reason for the low values of the photovoltaic parameters measured could be the non-optimized film thickness leading to a non-optimal light absorption and increased charge carrier recombination. The assumption for the predominant influence of Rseries is supported by the electroluminescent measurements.

  7. Antiaging activity of low molecular weight peptide from Paphia undulate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xin; Cai, Bingna; Chen, Hua; Pan, Jianyu; Chen, Deke; Sun, Huili

    2013-05-01

    Low molecular weight peptide (LMWP) was prepared from clam Paphia undulate and its antiaging effect on D-galactose-induced acute aging in rats, aged Kunming mice, ultraviolet-exposed rats, and thermally injured rats was investigated. P. undulate flesh was homogenized and digested using papain under optimal conditions, then subjected to Sephadex G-25 chromatography to isolate the LMWP. Administration of LMWP significantly reversed D-galactose-induced oxidative stress by increasing the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT), and by decreasing the level of malondialdehyde (MDA). This process was accompanied by increased collagen synthesis. The LMWP prevented photoaging and promoted dermis recovery and remission of elastic fiber hyperplasia. Furthermore, treatment with the LMWP helped to regenerate elastic fibers and the collagen network, increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the serum and significantly decreased MDA. Thermal scald-induced inflammation and edema were also relieved by the LWMP, while wound healing in skin was promoted. These results suggest that the LMWP from P. undulate could serve as a new antiaging substance in cosmetics.

  8. Photochemical Preparation of a Novel Low Molecular Weight Heparin

    PubMed Central

    Higashi, Kyohei; Hosoyama, Saori; Ohno, Asami; Masuko, Sayaka; Yang, Bo; Sterner, Eric; Wang, Zhenyu; Linhardt, Robert J.; Toida, Toshihiko

    2011-01-01

    Commercial low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) are prepared by several methods including peroxidative cleavage, nitrous acid cleavage, chemical ß-elimination, and enzymatic ?-elimination. The disadvantages of these methods are that strong reaction conditions or harsh chemicals are used and these can result in decomposition or modification of saccharide units within the polysaccharide backbone. These side-reactions reduce product quality and yield. Here we show the partial photolysis of unfractionated heparin can be performed in distillated water using titanium dioxide (TiO2). TiO2 is a catalyst that can be easily removed by centrifugation or filtration after the photochemical reaction takes place, resulting in highly pure products. The anticoagulant activity of photodegraded LMWH (pLMWH) is comparable to the most common commercially available LMWHs (i.e., Enoxaparin and Dalteparin). 1H NMR spectra obtained show that pLMWH maintains the same core structure as unfractionated heparin. This photochemical reaction was investigated using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and unlike other processes commonly used to prepare LMWHs, photochemically preparation affords polysaccharide chains of reduced length having both odd and even of saccharide residues. PMID:22205826

  9. Association between cationic liposomes and low molecular weight hyaluronic acid.

    PubMed

    Gasperini, Antonio A M; Puentes-Martinez, Ximena E; Balbino, Tiago Albertini; Rigoletto, Thais de Paula; Corrêa, Gabriela de Sá Cavalcanti; Cassago, Alexandre; Portugal, Rodrigo Villares; de La Torre, Lucimara Gaziola; Cavalcanti, Leide P

    2015-03-24

    This work presents a study of the association between low molecular weight hyaluronic acid (16 kDa HA) and cationic liposomes composed of egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC), 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE), and 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP). The cationic liposome/HA complexes were evaluated to determine their mesoscopic structure, average size, zeta potential, and morphology as a function of the amount of HA in the system. Small angle X-ray scattering results revealed that neighboring cationic liposomes either stick together after a partial coating of low concentration HA or disperse completely in excess of HA, but they never assemble as multilamellar vesicles. Cryo-transmission electron microscopy images confirm the existence of unilamellar vesicles and large aggregates of unilamellar vesicles for HA fractions up to 80% (w/w). High concentrations of HA (> 20% w/w) proved to be efficient for coating extruded liposomes, leading to particle complexes with sizes in the nanoscale range and a negative zeta potential. PMID:25730494

  10. A capillary electrophoretic method for fingerprinting low molecular weight heparins.

    PubMed

    King, J Timothy; Desai, Umesh R

    2008-09-15

    Clinically used low molecular weight heparins (LMWH) are anticoagulants of choice and are phenomenally complex mixtures of millions of distinct natural and unnatural polymeric sequences. The FDA recommends that each LMWH be considered as an independent drug with its own activity profile, placing significant importance on the biophysical characterization of each intact LMWH. We report a robust protocol for fingerprinting these pharmaceutical agents. Capillary electrophoresis of three LMWHs, enoxaparin, tinzaparin, and a Sigma preparation, under reverse polarity conditions in the presence of selected linear alkyl polyamines gives an electrophoretic pattern that is characteristic of the nature of the starting material. The buffers that best provided optimal resolution without compromising sensitivity and speed of analysis were 50 mM sodium phosphate, pH 2.3, and 100 mM ammonium formate, pH 3.5. Resolution was strongly dependent on the structure of polyamine with pentaethylenehexamine being most effective for enoxaparin and Sigma LMWH. In contrast, tinzaparin could be best resolved with tetraethylenepentamine. Cyclic polyamines were ineffective. Resolution was also dependent on the concentration of resolving agents and displayed a narrow window that provides optimal resolution. These features suggest a strong structural origin of the fingerprint pattern. Overall, the simple protocol will find special use in assessing LMWH quality and batch-to-batch variability. PMID:18572011

  11. Delamination toughness of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porras, A.; Tellez, J.; Casas-Rodriguez, J. P.

    2012-08-01

    Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibre reinforced composites are an important group of material for armours solutions, where their unique combination of properties could be utilized. A commonly observed failure mode in this kind of unidirectional laminated composites under impact ballistic is delamination between the composite layers. In the present study, an investigation on the delamination toughness behaviour exhibited by UHMWPE composites laminated was made. The interlaminar Mode II critical strain energy release rates of (UHMWPE) fibre reinforced composites were characterized using the End Notch Flexural (ENF) test. Critical strain energy release rate was obtained from the load - deflection test data using the beam theory expression. It was found that the energy release rate of the composite exhibited a very low value of around 60J/m2 using a moulding pressure of approximately 1200 psi. In order to analyse the delamination resistance of composite, the effects of changing the manufacture process variables and the use of a thermoplastic adhesive film in the composites were investigated. The composite laminates were produced by hot compressing moulding using a film-stacking procedure. It was found that the damage resistance of the UHMWPE composite was influenced by the manufacture method, which affects the Mode II interlaminar fracture toughness and the ballistic response of composites.

  12. CAST: a new program package for the accurate characterization of large and flexible molecular systems.

    PubMed

    Grebner, Christoph; Becker, Johannes; Weber, Daniel; Bellinger, Daniel; Tafipolski, Maxim; Brückner, Charlotte; Engels, Bernd

    2014-09-15

    The presented program package, Conformational Analysis and Search Tool (CAST) allows the accurate treatment of large and flexible (macro) molecular systems. For the determination of thermally accessible minima CAST offers the newly developed TabuSearch algorithm, but algorithms such as Monte Carlo (MC), MC with minimization, and molecular dynamics are implemented as well. For the determination of reaction paths, CAST provides the PathOpt, the Nudge Elastic band, and the umbrella sampling approach. Access to free energies is possible through the free energy perturbation approach. Along with a number of standard force fields, a newly developed symmetry-adapted perturbation theory-based force field is included. Semiempirical computations are possible through DFTB+ and MOPAC interfaces. For calculations based on density functional theory, a Message Passing Interface (MPI) interface to the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU)-accelerated TeraChem program is available. The program is available on request. PMID:25056524

  13. Purification and characterization of a low molecular weight zinc binding protein from human placenta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Honey; G. I. Dhall; R. Nath

    1994-01-01

    A low molecular weight, native zinc binding, cytosolic protein (LMZP) has been isolated, purified and characterized from human normal term placenta. Gel filtration of heat treated placental cytosol after sequential acetone precipitation (80% ppt) revealed a major zinc binding protein in the range of low molecular weight. This partially purified zinc binding fraction was further fractionated on DEAE-Sephadex A-25. The

  14. Effect of molecular weight and annealing temperature on the oxygen barrier properties of oriented PET film

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Perkins

    1988-01-01

    The influence of molecular weight and annealing, or heat setting, temperature on the crystallinity and subsequent resistance to oxygen permeability was evaluated for biaxially oriented films of poly(ethylene terephthalate). Within the range investigated, molecular weight affected the amount of crystallinity developed at a given temperature, yet had little influence on oxygen permeability. Annealing temperature more directly influenced permeability than did

  15. Mutations of CLCN5 in Japanese children with idiopathic low molecular weight proteinuria, hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naoko Akuta; Sarah E Lloyd; Takashi Igarashi; Hiroshi Shiraga; Takeshi Matsuyama; Seitarou Yokoro; Jeremy P D Cox; Rajesh V Thakker

    1997-01-01

    Mutations of CLCN5 in Japanese children with idiopathic low molecular weight proteinuria, hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis. The annual urinary screening of Japanese children above three years of age has identified a progressive renal tubular disorder characterized by low molecular weight proteinuria, hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis. The disorder has been observed in over 60 patients and has a familial predisposition. Mutations of a

  16. Stable, concentrated solutions of high molecular weight polyaniline and articles therefrom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin R. Mattes; Hsing-Lin Wang

    1999-01-01

    Stable, concentrated solutions of high molecular weight polyaniline. In order to process high quality fibers and other articles possessing good mechanical properties, it is known that solution concentrations of the chosen polymer should be in the range from 15-30% (w\\/w). Moreover, it is desirable to use the highest molecular weight consistent with the solubility properties of the polymer. However, such

  17. Stable, concentrated solutions of high molecular weight polyaniline and articles therefrom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin R. Mattes; Hsing-Lin Wang

    2000-01-01

    Stable, concentrated solutions of high molecular weight polyaniline. In order to process high quality fibers and other articles possessing good mechanical properties, it is known that solution concentrations of the chosen polymer should be in the range from 15-30% (w\\/w). Moreover, it is desirable to use the highest molecular weight consistent with the solubility properties of the polymer. However, such

  18. Stable, concentrated solutions of high molecular weight polyaniline and articles therefrom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. R. Mattes; H. L. Wang

    1999-01-01

    Stable, concentrated solutions of high molecular weight polyaniline are disclosed. In order to process high quality fibers and other articles possessing good mechanical properties, it is known that solution concentrations of the chosen polymer should be in the range from 15--30% (w\\/w). Moreover, it is desirable to use the highest molecular weight consistent with the solubility properties of the polymer.

  19. Formation of high molecular weight products from benzene during boundary lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morales, W.

    1985-01-01

    High molecular weight products were detected on the wear track of an iron disk at the end of a sliding friction and wear test using benzene as a lubricant. Size exclusion chromagography in conjunction with UV analysis gave evidence that the high molecular weight products are polyphenyl ether type substances. Organic electrochemistry was used to elucidate the possible surface reaction mechanisms.

  20. Effect of molecular weight and shear on phase diagram of PS\\/PVME blend

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khalil El Mabrouk; Mosto Bousmina

    2006-01-01

    The molecular weight dependence of the lower critical solution temperature of polystyrene (PS) and poly(vinyl methyl ether) blends was studied by laser light transmission. The temperature of phase separation was found to decrease with increasing PS molecular weight. In the steady shear flow conditions and near the critical temperature, shear was found to enhance fluctuations of concentration at relatively small

  1. Molecular weight and hydrodynamic properties of a proteinase A inhibitor from baker's yeast.

    PubMed

    Meussdoerffer, F; Afting, E G; Holzer, H

    1978-08-01

    The molecular weight of the proteinase A inhibitor IA3 from baker's yeast was determined by different methods. From gel-filtration experiments, a molecular weight of 19 000 was calculated for the native inhibitor, while under denaturing conditions a molecular weight of 7400 was found. From electrophoretic experiments with the native protein, a molecular weight of 9000 was calculated. A similar value was obtained from the analytical ultracentrifuge, even at a protein concentration of 12 mg/ml. The diffusion coefficient and the partial specific volume were measured and from these data the frictional ratio and the Stokes radius were calculated. These parameters indicate that the relatively high apparent molecular weight calculated from the gel-filtration experiments is caused by the assymetric shape of the inhibitor molecule rather than by an aggregation of subunits. PMID:361535

  2. Folding Molecular Dynamics Simulations Accurately Predict the Effect of Mutations on the Stability and Structure of a Vammin-

    E-print Network

    Glykos, Nikolaos

    repeatedly been shown to be able to accurately predict the structure and dynamics of peptides ranging from the effects of mutations on peptide structure and dynamics. The system we selected to study is based on twoFolding Molecular Dynamics Simulations Accurately Predict the Effect of Mutations on the Stability

  3. High Molecular Weight Dimer Esters in ?-Pinene Secondary Organic Aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Kasper; Cui, Tianqu; Zhang, Haofei; Gold, Avram; Glasius, Marianne; Surratt, Jason D.

    2014-05-01

    Monoterpenes, such as ?-pinene, constitute an important group of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC). Once emitted into the atmosphere ?-pinene is removed by oxidization by the hydroxyl radical (OH), reactions with ozone (O3), and with nitrate radicals (NO3) resulting in the formation of first-generation oxidation products, such as semi-volatile carboxylic acids. In addition, higher molecular weight dimer esters originating from the oxidation of ?-pinene have been observed in both laboratory-generated and ambient secondary organic aerosols (SOA). While recent studies suggest that the dimers are formed through esterification between carboxylic acids in the particle phase, the formation mechanism of the dimer esters is still ambiguous. In this work, we present the results of a series of smog chamber experiments to assess the formation of dimer esters formed from the oxidation of ?-pinene. Experiments were conducted in the University of North Carolina (UNC) dual outdoor smog chamber facility to investigate the effect of oxidant species (OH versus O3), relative humidity (RH), and seed aerosol acidity in order to obtain a better understanding of the conditions leading to the formation of the dimer esters and how these parameters may affect the formation and chemical composition of SOA. The chemical composition of ?-pinene SOA was investigated by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-HR-Q-TOFMS), and a total of eight carboxylic acids and four dimer esters were identified, constituting between 8 and 12 % of the total ?-pinene SOA mass.

  4. Computational aids for the estimation of the molecular weight of petroleum oils from kinematic viscosity measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Maroto; F. J. de las Nieves

    2007-01-01

    The ASTM standard D 2502-92 (reapproved 2004) provides a means of calculating the mean molecular weight (relative molecular\\u000a mass) of petroleum oils from kinematic viscosity measurements. It is applicable to samples with molecular weights in the range\\u000a from 250 to 700 g\\/mol and is intended for use with average petroleum fractions. Nevertheless, this estimation was carried\\u000a out by using a

  5. Effect of molecular weight distribution on e-beam exposure properties of polystyrene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Ripon Kumar; Cui, Bo

    2013-06-01

    Polystyrene is a negative electron beam resist whose exposure properties can be tuned simply by using different molecular weights (Mw). Most previous studies have used monodisperse polystyrene with a polydispersity index (PDI) of less than 1.1 in order to avoid any uncertainties. Here we show that despite the fact that polystyrene’s sensitivity is inversely proportional to its Mw, no noticeable effect of very broad molecular weight distribution on sensitivity, contrast and achievable resolution is observed. It is thus unnecessary to use the costly monodisperse polystyrene for electron beam lithography. Since the polydispersity is unknown for general purpose polystyrene, we simulated a high PDI polystyrene by mixing in a 1:1 weight ratio two polystyrene samples with Mw of 170 and 900 kg mol-1 for the high Mw range, and 2.5 and 13 kg mol-1 for the low Mw range. The exposure property of the mixture resembles that of a monodisperse polystyrene with similar number averaged molecular weight \\overline{{Mn}}, which indicates that it is \\overline{{Mn}} rather than \\overline{{Mw}} (weight averaged molecular weight) that dominates the exposure properties of polystyrene resist. This also implies that polystyrene of a certain molecular weight can be simulated by a mixture of two polystyrenes having different molecular weights.

  6. Structural elucidation of Argonne premium coals: Molecular weights, heteroatom distributions and linkages between clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Winans, R.E.,; Kim, Y.; Hunt, J.E.; McBeth, R.L.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this study is to create a statistically accurate picture of important structural features for a group of coals representing a broad rank range. Mass spectrometric techniques are used to study coals, coal extracts and chemically modified coals and extracts. Laser desorption mass spectrometry is used to determine molecular weight distributions. Desorption chemical ionization high resolution mass spectrometry provides detailed molecular information on compound classes of molecules is obtained using tandem mass spectrometry. These results are correlated with other direct studies on these samples such as solid NMR, XPS and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. From the complex sets of data, several general trends are emerging especially for heteroatom containing species. From a statistical point of view, heteroatoms must play important roles in the reactivity of all coals. Direct characterization of sulfur containing species in the Argonne coals has been reported from XANES analysis. Indirect methods used include: TG-FTIR and HRMS which rely on thermal desorption and pyrolysis to vaporize the samples. Both XANES and XPS data on nitrogen has been reported, but at this time, the XPS information is probably more reliable. Results from HRMS are discussed in this paper. Most other information on nitrogen is limited to analysis of liquefaction products. However, nitrogen can be important in influencing characteristics of coal liquids and as a source of NO{sub x}`s in coal combustion.

  7. Perchlorate-induced combustion of organic matter with variable molecular weights: Implications for Mars missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sephton, Mark A.; Lewis, James M. T.; Watson, Jonathan S.; Montgomery, Wren; Garnier, Carole

    2014-11-01

    Instruments on the Viking landers and Curiosity rover analyzed samples of Mars and detected carbon dioxide and organic compounds of uncertain origin. Mineral-assisted reactions are leading to uncertainty, particularly those involving perchlorate minerals which thermally decompose to produce chlorine and oxygen which can then react with organic matter to generate organochlorine compounds and carbon dioxide. Although generally considered a problem for interpretation, the release profiles of generated gases can indicate the type of organic matter present. We have performed a set of experiments with perchlorate and organic matter of variable molecular weights. Results indicate that organic susceptibility to thermal degradation and mineral-assisted reactions is related to molecular weight. Low molecular weight organic matter reacts at lower temperatures than its high molecular weight counterparts. The natural occurrence and association of organic matter with differing molecular weights helps to discriminate between contamination (usually low molecular weight organic matter only) and indigenous carbon (commonly low and high molecular weight organic matter together). Our results can be used to provide insights into data returning from Mars.

  8. How Does the Preparation of Rye Porridge Affect Molecular Weight Distribution of Extractable Dietary Fibers?

    PubMed Central

    Rakha, Allah; Åman, Per; Andersson, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Extractable dietary fiber (DF) plays an important role in nutrition. This study on porridge making with whole grain rye investigated the effect of rest time of flour slurries at room temperature before cooking and amount of flour and salt in the recipe on the content of DF components and molecular weight distribution of extractable fructan, mixed linkage (1?3)(1?4)-?-d-glucan (?-glucan) and arabinoxylan (AX) in the porridge. The content of total DF was increased (from about 20% to 23% of dry matter) during porridge making due to formation of insoluble resistant starch. A small but significant increase in the extractability of ?-glucan (P = 0.016) and AX (P = 0.002) due to rest time was also noted. The molecular weight of extractable fructan and AX remained stable during porridge making. However, incubation of the rye flour slurries at increased temperature resulted in a significant decrease in extractable AX molecular weight. The molecular weight of extractable ?-glucan decreased greatly during a rest time before cooking, most likely by the action of endogenous enzymes. The amount of salt and flour used in the recipe had small but significant effects on the molecular weight of ?-glucan. These results show that whole grain rye porridge made without a rest time before cooking contains extractable DF components maintaining high molecular weights. High molecular weight is most likely of nutritional importance. PMID:21686191

  9. Fast and accurate quantum molecular dynamics of dense plasmas across temperature regimes.

    PubMed

    Sjostrom, Travis; Daligault, Jérôme

    2014-10-10

    We develop and implement a new quantum molecular dynamics approximation that allows fast and accurate simulations of dense plasmas from cold to hot conditions. The method is based on a carefully designed orbital-free implementation of density functional theory. The results for hydrogen and aluminum are in very good agreement with Kohn-Sham (orbital-based) density functional theory and path integral Monte Carlo calculations for microscopic features such as the electron density as well as the equation of state. The present approach does not scale with temperature and hence extends to higher temperatures than is accessible in the Kohn-Sham method and lower temperatures than is accessible by path integral Monte Carlo calculations, while being significantly less computationally expensive than either of those two methods. PMID:25375717

  10. Bioremediation of Mixtures of High Molecular Weight Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, H.; Wu, J.; Shi, X.; Sun, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Although bioremediation has been considered as one of the most promising means to remove polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from polluted environments, the efficacy of PAHs bioremediation still remains challenged, especially for high molecular weight PAHs (HMW PAHs) and their mixtures. This study was focused on (a) isolation and characterization of pure strain and mixed microbial communities able to degrade HMW PAHs and (b) further evaluation of the ability of the isolated microbes to degrade HMW PAHs mixtures in the absence and presence of indigenous flora. Fluoranthene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and pyrene were selected as the representative HMW PAHs in this study. A pure bacterial strain, identified as Herbaspirillum chlorophenolicum FA1, was isolated from activated sludge. A mixed bacterial community designated as consortium-4 was isolated from petroleum contaminated soils, containing Pseudomonas sp. FbP1?Enterobacter sp. FbP2?Hydrogenophaga sp. FbP3 and Luteolibacter pohnpeiensis. FbP4. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that bacterial strains of Herbaspirillum chlorophenolicum FA1 and Luteolibacter pohnpeiensis. FbP4 can also degrade fluoranthene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and pyrene. Experiment results showed that both strain FA1 and consortium-4 could degrade fluoranthene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and pyrene within a wide range of temperature, pH and initial PAHs concentration. Degradation of HMW PAHs mixtures (binary and ternary) demonstrated the interactive effects that can alter the rate and extent of biodegradation within a mixture. The presence of indigenous flora was found to either increase or decrease the degradation of HMW PAHs, suggesting possible synergistic or competition effects. Biodegradation kinetics of HMW PAHs for sole substrates, binary and ternary systems was evaluated, with the purpose to better characterize and compare the biodegradation process of individual HMW PAH and mixtures of HMW PAHs. Results of this study could advance our understanding of HMW PAHs biodegradation and help to develop successful bioremediation strategies. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41102148), and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (20110091120063).

  11. Low molecular weight carboxylic acids in oxidizing porphyry copper tailings.

    PubMed

    Dold, Bernhard; Blowes, David W; Dickhout, Ralph; Spangenberg, Jorge E; Pfeifer, Hans-Rudolf

    2005-04-15

    The distribution of low molecular weight carboxylic acids (LMWCA) was investigated in pore water profiles from two porphyry copper tailings impoundments in Chile (Piuquenes at La Andina and Cauquenes at El Teniente mine). The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the distribution of LMWCA, which are interpreted to be the metabolic byproducts of the autotroph microbial community in this low organic carbon system, and (2) to infer the potential role of these acids in cycling of Fe and other elements in the tailings impoundments. The speciation and mobility of iron, and potential for the release of H+ via hydrolysis of the ferric iron, are key factors in the formation of acid mine drainage in sulfidic mine wastes. In the low-pH oxidation zone of the Piuquenes tailings, Fe(III) is the dominant iron species and shows high mobility. LMWCA, which occur mainly between the oxidation front down to 300 cm below the tailings surface at both locations (e.g., max concentrations of 0.12 mmol/L formate, 0.17 mmol/L acetate, and 0.01 mmol/L pyruvate at Piuquenes and 0.14 mmol/L formate, 0.14 mmol/L acetate, and 0.006 mmol/L pyruvate at Cauquenes), are observed at the same location as high Fe concentrations (up to 71.2 mmol/L Fe(II) and 16.1 mmol/L Fe(III), respectively). In this zone, secondary Fe(III) hydroxides are depleted. Our data suggest that LMWCA may influence the mobility of iron in two ways. First, complexation of Fe(III), through formation of bidentate Fe(III)-LMWCA complexes (e.g., pyruvate, oxalate), may enhance the dissolution of Fe(III) (oxy)hydroxides or may prevent precipitation of Fe(III) (oxy)hydroxides. Soluble Fe(III) chelate complexes which may be mobilized downward and convert to Fe(II) by Fe(III) reducing bacteria. Second, monodentate LMWCA (e.g., acetate and formate) can be used by iron-reducing bacteria as electron donors (e.g., Acidophilum spp.), with ferric iron as the electron acceptor. These processes may, in part, explain the low abundances of secondary Fe(III) hydroxide precipitates below the oxidation front and the high concentrations of Fe(II) observed in the pore waters of some low-sulfide systems. The reduction of Fe(III) and the subsequent increase of iron mobility and potential acidity transfer (Fe(II) oxidation can result in the release of H+ in an oxic environment) should be taken in account in mine waste management strategies. PMID:15884343

  12. Simple, rapid and accurate molecular diagnosis of acute promyelocytic leukemia by loop mediated amplification technology

    PubMed Central

    Spinelli, Orietta; Rambaldi, Alessandro; Rigo, Francesca; Zanghì, Pamela; D'Agostini, Elena; Amicarelli, Giulia; Colotta, Francesco; Divona, Mariadomenica; Ciardi, Claudia; Coco, Francesco Lo; Minnucci, Giulia

    2015-01-01

    The diagnostic work-up of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) includes the cytogenetic demonstration of the t(15;17) translocation and/or the PML-RARA chimeric transcript by RQ-PCR or RT-PCR. This latter assays provide suitable results in 3-6 hours. We describe here two new, rapid and specific assays that detect PML-RARA transcripts, based on the RT-QLAMP (Reverse Transcription-Quenching Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification) technology in which RNA retrotranscription and cDNA amplification are carried out in a single tube with one enzyme at one temperature, in fluorescence and real time format. A single tube triplex assay detects bcr1 and bcr3 PML-RARA transcripts along with GUS housekeeping gene. A single tube duplex assay detects bcr2 and GUSB. In 73 APL cases, these assays detected in 16 minutes bcr1, bcr2 and bcr3 transcripts. All 81 non-APL samples were negative by RT-QLAMP for chimeric transcripts whereas GUSB was detectable. In 11 APL patients in which RT-PCR yielded equivocal breakpoint type results, RT-QLAMP assays unequivocally and accurately defined the breakpoint type (as confirmed by sequencing). Furthermore, RT-QLAMP could amplify two bcr2 transcripts with particularly extended PML exon 6 deletions not amplified by RQ-PCR. RT-QLAMP reproducible sensitivity is 10?3 for bcr1 and bcr3 and 10?2 for bcr2 thus making this assay particularly attractive at diagnosis and leaving RQ-PCR for the molecular monitoring of minimal residual disease during the follow up. In conclusion, PML-RARA RT-QLAMP compared to RT-PCR or RQ-PCR is a valid improvement to perform rapid, simple and accurate molecular diagnosis of APL. PMID:25815362

  13. Critical Analysis and Review of Flash Points of High Molecular Weight Poly-functional C, H, N, O Compounds 

    E-print Network

    Thomas, Derrick

    2011-08-08

    The research focuses on the critical review and prediction of flash points of high molecular weight compounds used mainly in the specialty chemical area. Thus far this area of high molecular weight specialty chemicals has ...

  14. Rheology of Ziegler–Natta and metallocene high-density polyethylenes: broad molecular weight distribution effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahmoud Ansari; Savvas G. Hatzikiriakos; Ashish M. Sukhadia; David C. Rohlfing

    2011-01-01

    The linear viscoelastic properties of two series of Ziegler–Natta and metallocene HDPEs (ZN-HDPEs and m-HDPEs, respectively)\\u000a of broad molecular weight distribution (MWD) have been studied. Correlations between zero-shear viscosity and molecular weight\\u000a and molecular weight distribution show that the breadth of the MWD for m-HDPEs plays a role. Other interesting correlations\\u000a between the crossover modulus and steady-state compliance with MWD

  15. Improved performance of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene for orthopedic applications 

    E-print Network

    Plumlee, Kevin Grant

    2009-05-15

    A considerable number of total-joint replacement devices used in orthopedic medicine involve articulation between a metallic alloy and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). Though this polymer has excellent wear resistance, the wear...

  16. Molecular-weight fractionation of polystyrene by zone-melting chromatography.

    PubMed

    Maeda, S; Kobayashi, H; Ueno, K

    1974-11-01

    Polystyrene can be fractionated by zone-melting chromatography on a solid column of durene. The polymer solute moves in the same direction as the heated zone. The higher the molecular weight of the polymer the slower it moves. Experiments with model mixtures of monodisperse polystyrenes of average molecular weight 6 x 10(2)-2 x 10(5) indicate that a polymer fraction can be separated in 90% purity from fractions with molecular weights higher or lower by one order of magnitude. Polystyrene samples of various molecular weight distributions, after processing on durene columns, gave several fractions having significantly narrower dispersions than that of the starting polymer, in terms of gel-permeation chromatography. PMID:18961573

  17. Unique Profile of Chicken Adiponectin, a Predominantly Heavy Molecular Weight Multimer,

    E-print Network

    Ramachandran, Ramesh

    Unique Profile of Chicken Adiponectin, a Predominantly Heavy Molecular Weight Multimer adiponectin levels in chickens, which are naturally hyperglycemic relative to mammals. Using gel filtration conditions, adiponectin in chicken plasma, and adipose tissue is predominantly a multimeric HMW isoform

  18. Facilitated Phosphatidylcholine Flip-Flop Across Erythrocyte Membranes Using Low Molecular Weight Synthetic Translocases

    E-print Network

    Smith, Bradley D.

    Facilitated Phosphatidylcholine Flip-Flop Across Erythrocyte Membranes Using Low Molecular Weight: The transmembrane distribution of phospholipids plays an important regulatory role in human erythrocytes. Membrane phosphatidylcholine flip-flop across erythrocyte membranes. Addition of a small amount of dilauroylphos

  19. High Molecular Weight Petrogenic and Pyrogenic Hydrocarbons in Aquatic Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrajano, T. A., Jr.; Yan, B.; O'Malley, V.

    2003-12-01

    Geochemistry is ultimately the study of sources, movement, and fate of chemicals in the geosphere at various spatial and temporal scales. Environmental organic geochemistry focuses such studies on organic compounds of toxicological and ecological concern (e.g., Schwarzenbach et al., 1993, 1998; Eganhouse, 1997). This field emphasizes not only those compounds with potential toxicological properties, but also the geological systems accessible to the biological receptors of those hazards. Hence, the examples presented in this chapter focus on hydrocarbons with known health and ecological concern in accessible shallow, primarily aquatic, environments.Modern society depends on oil for energy and a variety of other daily needs, with present mineral oil consumption throughout the 1990s exceeding 3×109 t yr-1 (NRC, 2002). In the USA, e.g., ˜40% of energy consumed and 97% of transportation fuels are derived from oil. In the process of extraction, refinement, transport, use, and waste production, a small but environmentally significant fraction of raw oil materials, processed products, and waste are released inadvertently or purposefully into the environment. Because their presence and concentration in the shallow environments are often the result of human activities, these organic materials are generally referred to as "environmental contaminants." Although such reference connotes some form of toxicological or ecological hazard, specific health or ecological effects of many organic "environmental contaminants" remain to be demonstrated. Some are, in fact, likely innocuous at the levels that they are found in many systems, and simply adds to the milieu of biogenic organic compounds that naturally cycle through the shallow environment. Indeed, virtually all compounds in crude oil and processed petroleum products have been introduced naturally to the shallow environments as oil and gas seepage for millions of years ( NRC, 2002). Even high molecular weight (HMW) polyaromatic compounds were introduced to shallow environments through forest fires and natural coking of crude oil ( Ballentine et al., 1996; O'Malley et al., 1997). The full development of natural microbial enzymatic systems that can utilize HMW hydrocarbons as carbon or energy source attests to the antiquity of hydrocarbon dispersal processes in the environment. The environmental concern is, therefore, primarily due to the rate and spatial scale by which petroleum products are released in modern times, particularly with respect to the environmental sensitivity of some ecosystems to these releases ( Schwarzenbach et al., 1993; Eganhouse, 1997; NRC, 2002).Crude oil is produced by diagenetic and thermal maturation of terrestrial and marine plant and animal materials in source rocks and petroleum reservoirs. Most of the petroleum in use today is produced by thermal and bacterial decomposition of phytoplankton material that once lived near the surface of the world's ocean, lake, and river waters (Tissot and Welte, 1984). Terrestrially derived organic matter can be regionally significant, and is the second major contributor to the worldwide oil inventory ( Tissot and Welte, 1984; Peters and Moldowan, 1993; Engel and Macko, 1993). The existing theories hold that the organic matter present in crude oil consists of unconverted original biopolymers and new compounds polymerized by reactions promoted by time and increasing temperature in deep geologic formations. The resulting oil can migrate from source to reservoir rocks where the new geochemical conditions may again lead to further transformation of the petrogenic compounds. Any subsequent changes in reservoir conditions brought about by uplift, interaction with aqueous fluids, or even direct human intervention (e.g., drilling, water washing) likewise could alter the geochemical makeup of the petrogenic compounds. Much of our understanding of environmental sources and fate of hydrocarbon compounds in shallow environments indeed borrowed from the extensive geochemical and analytical framework that was meticulo

  20. Limiting diffusion coefficients of heavy molecular weight organic contaminants in supercritical carbon dioxide 

    E-print Network

    Orejuela, Mauricio

    1994-01-01

    LIMITING DIFFUSION COEFFICIENTS OF HEAVY MOLECULAR WEIGHT ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE A Thesis by MAURICIO OREJUELA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1994 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering LIMITING DIFFUSION COEFFICIENTS OF HEAVY MOLECULAR WEIGHT ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE A Thesis by MAURICIO OREJUELA Submitted...

  1. Effects of molecular weight and stereoregularity on biodegradation of poly(vinyl alcohol) by Alcaligenes faecalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuichi Matsumura; Yukimasa Shimura; Koutaro Terayama; Takato Kiyohara

    1994-01-01

    Summary The biodegradability of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) was analyzed with respect to its molecular weight and stereoregularity using the isolated PVA-assimilating microbial strain,Alcaligenes faecalis KK314. The biodegradability of PVA was influenced by its stereoregularity, and the isotactic moiety was preferentially biodegraded. However, there is no difference in the biodegradability based on the molecular weight of PVA being larger than the

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of Low Molecular Weight Azido Polymers as High Energetic Plasticizers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Murali Mohan; K. Mohana Raju

    2004-01-01

    The present work describes a convenient process for the preparation of low molecular weight hydroxyl-terminated glycidyl azide polymers. The facile route involves the formation of glycidyl azide polymer in a single step. The polymerization of epichlorohydrin was carried out in dipolar aprotic solvent N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) medium using diols as initiators in the presence of sodium azide. Various low molecular weight

  3. Effect of Varying Polyacrylamide Molecular Weight on Tertiary Oil Recovery From Porous Media of Varying Permeability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. T. Ball; M. J. Pitts

    1984-01-01

    Three different molecular weight emulsion polyacrylamides (PAA) have been tested for their ability to recover oil from a multi-permeability Berea core system. Injection of a 6.5 x 10⁶, 17 x 10⁶, and 36 x 10⁶ molecular weight PAA resulted in oil recovery from the multiple permeability core systems of 53.4, 63.7, and 57.2 percent of the waterflood residual oil, respectively.

  4. Stress - Optical behavior of Poly( m-xylylenediamine adipamide) (Nylon MXD6): Influence of molecular weight

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvain Seif; Miko Cakmak

    2010-01-01

    The effect of molecular weight and rubbery state uniaxial stretching conditions on the mechano-optical behavior of Poly(m-xylylenediamine adipamide) (Nylon MXD6) films was investigated using a real time spectral birefringence stretching machine. The stress optical behavior exhibits a multi stage behavior that depends on process conditions as well as molecular weight. At low stretching temperatures and high rates the stress optical

  5. The viscosity dependence on concentration, molecular weight and shear rate of xanthan solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Milas; M. Rinaudo; B. Tinland

    1985-01-01

    Summary  This paper concerns the viscosity dependence of Xanthan as a function of polymer concentration, shear rate and molecular weight\\u000a in the ordered conformation. The different samples with various molecular weights are obtained by ultrasonication. A unique\\u000a curve is obtained for the reduced specific viscosity (\\u000a $$\\\\eta _{sp\\/} \\\\eta _{sp_0 } $$\\u000a ) as a function of ? ?\\u000a r\\u000a ?1

  6. A study on sliding wear mechanism of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene\\/polypropylene blends

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gongde Liu; Yingzi Chen; Huilin Li

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores anti-wear properties and wear mechanism for ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) and ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene\\/polypropylene (UHMWPE\\/PP) blends, which were prepared by melt extruding through a single-screw extruder, and were conducted sliding wear tests with MM-200 wear tester by sliding against 45# steel ring of a surface roughness about 0.015?m. Results show that anti-wear properties of UHMWPE

  7. Use of ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene for bearing materials on a steel substrate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. N. Kornopol’tsev; D. M. Mognonov; I. A. Farion; V. E. Nikitin; V. A. Zakharov

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents results on the usage of ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene for manufacture of antifrictional materials\\u000a on a steel substrate. Hot molding regimes are determined for the production of polymeric components. The optimum degree of\\u000a ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene filling with graphite is determined (about 50 mass %) for the purpose of achieving\\u000a perfect triboengineering parameters of sheet antifrictional materials during operation against

  8. Ribosomal Proteins, XIII. Molecular Weights of Isolated Ribosomal Proteins of Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Dzionara; E. Kaltschmidt; H. G. Wittmann

    1970-01-01

    Molecular weights of the isolated proteins from the 30S and 50S ribosomal subunits of Escherichia coli were determined by two independent methods: polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with sodium dodecylsulphate and equilibrium sedimentation. The values for the molecular weights determined by gel electrophoresis range from 10,900 to 65,000 for the proteins of the 30S subunit and from 9,600 to 31,500 for those

  9. Antihyperlipidemic effects of different molecular weight sulfated polysaccharides from Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu Pengzhan; Li Ning; Liu Xiguang; Zhou Gefei; Zhang Quanbin; Li Pengcheng

    2003-01-01

    Ulvan, a sulfated polysaccharide from Ulva pertusa, was degraded to yield two low molecular weight fractions U1 and U2. The molecular weights of ulvan and its fractions were determined and varied from 151.6 to 28.2kDa. They were fed to rats on a hypercholesterolemic diet for 21 days to evaluate and compare the antihyperlipidemic actions. Ulvan-based diet significantly lowered the levels

  10. Study on Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Gadus morrhua Skin Collagen and Molecular Weight Distribution of Hydrolysates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian-xin HUO; Zheng ZHAO

    2009-01-01

    Process parameters on enzymatic hydrolysis and molecular weight (MW) distribution of collagen hydrolysates from Gadus morrhua skin were investigated. The optimal process parameters were obtained by the single-factor and orthogonal experiments. The molecular weight distribution of hydrolysates was determined using both Sephadex G25 partition and high speed liquid chromatography electricity spray mass spectrum (HPLC-ESI-MS). Collagen hydrolysates were first gained by

  11. Effect of protein molecular weight on release from micron-sized PLGA microspheres

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maryellen Sandor; David Enscore; Paula Weston; Edith Mathiowitz

    2001-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of protein molecular weight on release kinetics from polymeric microspheres (1–3 ?m). Proteins were encapsulated at high and low loadings in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) by a phase inversion technique. Mechanism of release from this type of microsphere appeared to be dependent on protein molecular weight for microspheres with low loadings (0.5–1.6%), while independent of protein

  12. Molecular weight dependence of the physical properties of protonated polyaniline films and fibers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phillip N. Adams; Danielle Bowman; Lori Brown; Dali Yang; Benjamin R. Mattes

    2001-01-01

    Polyaniline, (PANI) in the form of emeraldine base, was synthesized by polymerizing aniline in acid solutions at different sub-zero temperatures to give a range of molecular weights between 100,000 and 300,000 gmol-1. Molecular weights were measured using gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The polymers were formed into solvent-cast films using an acid processing technique, involving 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (AMPSA) as the solvating\\/protonating

  13. Effect of Hydrothermal Polylactic Acid Degradation on Polymer Molecular Weight and Surface Properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. L. Sambha’a; A. Lallam; A. Jada

    2010-01-01

    In the present work, polylactic acid, PLA, samples were degraded by hydrothermal treatment, and then their molecular weights,\\u000a crystallinity, surface charges and compositions, were determined, respectively, by using viscometry, 1H NMR, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), microelectrophoresis and Infra Red spectroscopy methods. The viscometry and\\u000a 1H NMR data indicate that the molecular weight, of the polymer, decreases after the hydrothermal treatment.

  14. Enhancement of molecular weight build up in polyimides using ether solvents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egli, Annemarie H.; St. Clair, Terry L.

    1985-01-01

    Two linear polyimides were prepared in various ether and amide solvents. The inherent viscosity was then monitored as a function of time. The polymers made in the ether solvents consistently gave higher inherent viscosities, and thus molecular weights, than the same polymers made in the amide solvents. This molecular weight buildup is attributed to the unique solvation mechanism of the ether solvents which enhances the basicity of the amines via hydrogen bonding.

  15. Control of molecular weight distribution (MWD) for polyethylene catalyzed over Ziegler-Natta\\/Metallocene hybrid catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Han Seock Cho; Kee Ho Choi; Dae Jung Choi; Wha Young Lee

    2000-01-01

    Two types of inorganic supports, MgCl2 and SiO2, for the impregnation of catalysts were prepared by the recrystallization and sol-gel methods, respectively. The Ziegler-Natta\\/Metallocene\\u000a hybrid catalysts were prepared in order to control the molecular weight (Mw) and the molecular weight distribution (MWD) during\\u000a ethylene polymerization. The polyethylene produced by the hybrid catalysts can control the Mw and the MWD of

  16. Control of molecular weight of polystyrene using the reverse iodine transfer polymerization (RITP)-emulsion technique.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hyeong Geun; Shin, Hongcheol; Jung, Hyejun; Lee, Byung Hyung; Choe, Soonja

    2011-01-15

    The RITP-emulsion polymerization of styrene in the presence of molecular iodine has been successfully performed using potassium persulfate (KPS) as an initiator and 1-hexadecanesulfonate as an emulsifier under argon atmosphere at 80°C for 7 hrs in the absence of light. The effects of the iodine concentration, molar ratio between KPS and iodine, and solid contents on the molecular weight of polystyrene (PS) were studied. As the iodine concentration increased from 0.05 to 0.504 mmol under the fixed [KPS]/[I(2)] ratio at 4.5, the weight-average molecular weight of PS substantially decreased from 126,120 to 35,690 g/mol, the conversion increased from 85.0% to 95.2%, and the weight-average particle diameter decreased from 159 to 103 nm. In addition, as the ratio of [KPS]/[I(2)] increased from 0.5 to 6.0 at the fixed [I(2)] of 0.504 mmol, the weight-average molecular weight of PS decreased from 72,170 to 30,640 g/mol with high conversion between 81.7% and 96.5%. Moreover, when the styrene solid content increased from 10 to 40 wt.% at the fixed [KPS]/[I(2)] ratio of 4.5, the weight-average molecular weight of PS varied between 33,500 and 37,200 g/mol, the conversion varied between 94.9% and 89.7% and the weight-average diameter varied from 122 to 205 nm. Thus, the control of molecular weight of PS less than 100,000g/mol with high conversion (95%) and particle stability of up to 40 wt.% solid content were easily achieved through the usage of iodine with suitable ratio of [KPS]/[I(2)] in the RITP-emulsion polymerization technique, which is of great industrial importance. PMID:20950818

  17. Role of viscosity in the accurate prediction of source-terms for high molecular weight substances 

    E-print Network

    Shaikh, Irfan Yusuf

    1999-01-01

    Data Comparison at 450 K 32 Average Evaporation Rate vs Chemical Normal Boiling Point . . . 34 LIST OF TABLES TABLE Page Crude Pseudo-Mixture Compositions . 10 Critical Properties . . Characterization Parameters for MPCS-MBWR Equation... on the accuracy of dispersion modeling for accidental release scenarios. Material released from holes and cracks in tanks and pipes, from leaks in llanges, pumps, and valves, and a large variety of other sources are poorly characterized. Source-term models...

  18. Molecular weight dependent vertical composition profiles of PCDTBT:PC71BM blends for organic photovoltaics

    PubMed Central

    Kingsley, James W.; Marchisio, Pier Paolo; Yi, Hunan; Iraqi, Ahmed; Kinane, Christy J.; Langridge, Sean; Thompson, Richard L.; Cadby, Ashley J.; Pearson, Andrew J.; Lidzey, David G.; Jones, Richard A. L.; Parnell, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    We have used Soxhlet solvent purification to fractionate a broad molecular weight distribution of the polycarbazole polymer PCDTBT into three lower polydispersity molecular weight fractions. Organic photovoltaic devices were made using a blend of the fullerene acceptor PC71BM with the molecular weight fractions. An average power conversion efficiency of 5.89% (peak efficiency of 6.15%) was measured for PCDTBT blend devices with a number average molecular weight of Mn = 25.5?kDa. There was significant variation between the molecular weight fractions with low (Mn = 15.0?kDa) and high (Mn = 34.9?kDa) fractions producing devices with average efficiencies of 5.02% and 3.70% respectively. Neutron reflectivity measurements on these polymer:PC71BM blend layers showed that larger molecular weights leads to an increase in the polymer enrichment layer thickness at the anode interface, this improves efficiency up to a limiting point where the polymer solubility causes a reduction of the PCDTBT concentration in the active layer. PMID:24924096

  19. Molecular weight dependent vertical composition profiles of PCDTBT:PC??BM blends for organic photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Kingsley, James W; Marchisio, Pier Paolo; Yi, Hunan; Iraqi, Ahmed; Kinane, Christy J; Langridge, Sean; Thompson, Richard L; Cadby, Ashley J; Pearson, Andrew J; Lidzey, David G; Jones, Richard A L; Parnell, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    We have used Soxhlet solvent purification to fractionate a broad molecular weight distribution of the polycarbazole polymer PCDTBT into three lower polydispersity molecular weight fractions. Organic photovoltaic devices were made using a blend of the fullerene acceptor PC??BM with the molecular weight fractions. An average power conversion efficiency of 5.89% (peak efficiency of 6.15%) was measured for PCDTBT blend devices with a number average molecular weight of Mn = 25.5 kDa. There was significant variation between the molecular weight fractions with low (Mn = 15.0 kDa) and high (Mn = 34.9 kDa) fractions producing devices with average efficiencies of 5.02% and 3.70% respectively. Neutron reflectivity measurements on these polymer:PC??BM blend layers showed that larger molecular weights leads to an increase in the polymer enrichment layer thickness at the anode interface, this improves efficiency up to a limiting point where the polymer solubility causes a reduction of the PCDTBT concentration in the active layer. PMID:24924096

  20. Effects of molecular weight on permeability and microstructure of mixed ethyl-hydroxypropyl-cellulose films.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Helene; Hjärtstam, Johan; Stading, Mats; von Corswant, Christian; Larsson, Anette

    2013-01-23

    Films of ethyl cellulose (EC) and water-soluble hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) can be used for extended release coatings in oral formulations. The permeability and microstructure of free EC/HPC films with 30% w/w HPC were studied to investigate effects of EC molecular weight. Phase separation during film spraying and subsequent HPC leaching after immersion in aqueous media cause pore formation in such films. It was found that sprayed films were porous throughout the bulk of the films after water immersion. The molecular weight affected HPC leaching, pore morphology and film permeability; increasing the molecular weight resulted in decreasing permeability. A model to distinguish the major factors contributing to diffusion retardation in porous films showed that the trend in permeability was determined predominantly by factors associated with the geometry and arrangement of pores, independent of the diffusing species. The film with the highest molecular weight did, however, show an additional contribution from pore wall/permeant interactions. In addition, rapid drying and increasing molecular weight resulted in smaller pores, which suggest that phase separation kinetics affects the final microstructure of EC/HPC films. Thus, the molecular weight influences the microstructural features of pores, which are crucial for mass transport in EC/HPC films. PMID:23159668

  1. Environmental effects of silicone oil on mechanical properties of low and high molecular weight PMMA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Tsai; C. C. Chen; J. A. Sauer

    1984-01-01

    The influence of a silicone oil environment on deformation modes and tensile behaviour of poly(methylmethacrylate) were investigated. Tests were made on samples coated with oils of varying viscosity, ranging from 5 to 1000 cSt. To investigate the effects of polymer molecular weight on environmentally induced craze growth and stability, tests were conducted on an extruded grade of relatively low molecular

  2. Synthesis of the low molecular weight heat shock proteins in plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Mansfield; J. L. Key

    1987-01-01

    Heat shock of living tissue induces the synthesis of a unique group of proteins, the heat shock proteins. In plants, the major group of heat shock proteins has a molecular mass of 15 to 25 kilodaltons. Accumulation to these proteins to stainable levels has been reported in only a few species. To examine accumulation of the low molecular weight heat

  3. Effects of high molecular weight species on shear-induced orientation and crystallization of isotactic polypropylene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajesh H. Somani; Ling Yang; Benjamin S. Hsiao

    2006-01-01

    In situ rheo-SAXS (small-angle X-ray scattering) and—rheo-WAXD (wide-angle X-ray diffraction) techniques were used to investigate the role of high molecular weight species on the evolution of oriented microstructure in isotactic polypropylene (iPP) melt under shear flow. The two iPP samples, designated as PP-A and PP-B, respectively, had the same number-average (Mn) but different weight-average (Mw) and Z-average (Mz) molecular weights.

  4. Non-Born-Oppenheimer potential energy curve: Hydrogen molecular ion with highly accurate free complement method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, Hiroyuki; Nakatsuji, Hiroshi

    2013-08-01

    Although the concept of a potential energy curve (PEC) originates from the outgrowth of the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) approximation, we propose the application of analysis methods for the physical PEC with non-Born-Oppenheimer (non-BO) wave functions. A numerical examination was performed with the highly accurate non-BO vibronic wave functions of hydrogen molecular ion, which were obtained in our previous studies with the free complement method. The reduced density function integrated over the electron coordinates plays an important role in understanding nuclear motion dynamics, since it corresponds to the wave function density of the vibrational and rotational motions. The maximum positions of this density indicate the high existence probability of nuclei and can be considered as a discrete representation of the PEC. Whereas an ordinary PEC with the BO approximation is obtained as a numeric curve after multiple electronic state calculations at fixed nuclear coordinates, we propose a new analytical expression of the PEC from a non-BO wave function.

  5. Polymerization of Kraft lignin via ultrasonication for high-molecular-weight applications.

    PubMed

    Wells, Tyrone; Kosa, Matyas; Ragauskas, Arthur J

    2013-11-01

    Kraft lignin is an inexpensive and abundant byproduct of pulp mills that can be used in the synthesis of adhesives and carbon fibers along with energy production. Some of these material applications favor the utilization of high molecular weight (HMW) lignin. This study investigates the use of ultrasonics as a means to increase the degree of polymerization (DP) of highly purified Kraft lignin. Treated samples were characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, (13)C and (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). After 15 min of sustained cavitation, ultrasonicated lignin generated a high molecular-weight fraction (~35%) that had a weight-average molecular weight (Mw) over 450-fold greater than the initial Kraft lignin sample. (13)C-NMR and (31)P-NMR analysis indicated that the highly-polymerized fraction was enriched with C5 condensed phenolic structures. PMID:23714331

  6. Profiling of the Molecular Weight and Structural Isomer Abundance of Macroalgae-Derived Phlorotannins

    PubMed Central

    Heffernan, Natalie; Brunton, Nigel P.; FitzGerald, Richard J.; Smyth, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Phlorotannins are a group of complex polymers of phloroglucinol (1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene) unique to macroalgae. These phenolic compounds are integral structural components of the cell wall in brown algae, but also play many secondary ecological roles such as protection from UV radiation and defense against grazing. This study employed Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC) with tandem mass spectrometry to investigate isomeric complexity and observed differences in phlorotannins derived from macroalgae harvested off the Irish coast (Fucus serratus, Fucus vesiculosus, Himanthalia elongata and Cystoseira nodicaulis). Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content assays were used as an index for producing phlorotannin fractions, enriched using molecular weight cut-off dialysis with subsequent flash chromatography to profile phlorotannin isomers in these macroalgae. These fractions were profiled using UPLC-MS with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) and the level of isomerization for specific molecular weight phlorotannins between 3 and 16 monomers were determined. The majority of the low molecular weight (LMW) phlorotannins were found to have a molecular weight range equivalent to 4–12 monomers of phloroglucinol. The level of isomerization within the individual macroalgal species differed, resulting in substantially different numbers of phlorotannin isomers for particular molecular weights. F. vesiculosus had the highest number of isomers of 61 at one specific molecular mass, corresponding to 12 phloroglucinol units (PGUs). These results highlight the complex nature of these extracts and emphasize the challenges involved in structural elucidation of these compounds. PMID:25603345

  7. Profiling of the molecular weight and structural isomer abundance of macroalgae-derived phlorotannins.

    PubMed

    Heffernan, Natalie; Brunton, Nigel P; FitzGerald, Richard J; Smyth, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    Phlorotannins are a group of complex polymers of phloroglucinol (1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene) unique to macroalgae. These phenolic compounds are integral structural components of the cell wall in brown algae, but also play many secondary ecological roles such as protection from UV radiation and defense against grazing. This study employed Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC) with tandem mass spectrometry to investigate isomeric complexity and observed differences in phlorotannins derived from macroalgae harvested off the Irish coast (Fucus serratus, Fucus vesiculosus, Himanthalia elongata and Cystoseira nodicaulis). Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content assays were used as an index for producing phlorotannin fractions, enriched using molecular weight cut-off dialysis with subsequent flash chromatography to profile phlorotannin isomers in these macroalgae. These fractions were profiled using UPLC-MS with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) and the level of isomerization for specific molecular weight phlorotannins between 3 and 16 monomers were determined. The majority of the low molecular weight (LMW) phlorotannins were found to have a molecular weight range equivalent to 4-12 monomers of phloroglucinol. The level of isomerization within the individual macroalgal species differed, resulting in substantially different numbers of phlorotannin isomers for particular molecular weights. F. vesiculosus had the highest number of isomers of 61 at one specific molecular mass, corresponding to 12 phloroglucinol units (PGUs). These results highlight the complex nature of these extracts and emphasize the challenges involved in structural elucidation of these compounds. PMID:25603345

  8. Effect of Molecular Weight on Spectroscopic and Spectroelectrochemical Properties of Regioregular Poly(3-hexylthiophene).

    PubMed

    Trznadel; Pron; Zagorska; Chrzaszcz; Pielichowski

    1998-07-28

    Using experimentally established sequence of extractions, we were able to fractionate regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (R-P3HT) into four fractions differing significantly in their molecular weight (Mn) and exhibiting low polydispersity coefficients. 1H NMR analysis of low molecular fractions enabled us to propose the dominant chain termination mechanisms and identify the sources of regioregularity defects. In particular, it turned out that the presence of small amounts of undesired isomer of 2-bromo-3-hexylthiophene, namely, 2-bromo-4-hexylthiophene, strongly influences the molecular weight and to a much lesser extent the regioregularity of the polymer obtained via Grignard type polycondensation. In the reaction with the growing chain, 2-bromo-4-hexylthiophene either causes its termination, lowering in this manner the molecular weight of the resulting polymer, or introduces regioregularity defects of TT-HH (TT = tail to tail; HH = head to head) type. The average conjugation length in R-P3HT increases with the increase of Mn as manifested by a bathochromic shift of the lambdamax and the appearance of the vibrational structure in the UV-vis-near-IR spectra of the fractions of higher molecular weight. This conclusion is supported by FTIR data. The onset of the oxidative doping of R-P3HT shifts to lower potentials with the increase of the molecular weight as evidenced by cyclic voltammetry and UV-vis-near-IR spectroelectrochemistry. PMID:9680445

  9. Adsorption of dissolved organics in lake water by aluminum oxide. Effect of molecular weight

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.A.; Gloor, R.

    1981-01-01

    Dissolved organic compounds in a Swiss lake were fractionated into three molecular size classes by gel exclusion chromatography, and adsorption of each fraction on colloidal alumina was studied as a function of pH. Organic compounds with molecular weight (mr) greater than 1000 formed strong complexes with the alumina surface, but low molecular weight compounds were weakly adsorbed. Electrophoretic mobility measurements indicated that alumina particles suspended in the original lake water were highly negatively charged because of adsorbed organic matter. Most of the adsorbed organic compounds were in the mr range 1000 < mr < 3000. Adsorption of these compounds during the treatment of drinking water by alum coagulation may be responsible for the preferential removal of trihalomethane precursors. Adsorption may also influence the molecular-weight distribution of dissolved organic material in lakes.

  10. Low-molecular-weight polyethylenimine as a non-viral vector for DNA delivery: comparison of physicochemical properties, transfection efficiency and in vivo distribution with high-molecular-weight polyethylenimine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klaus Kunath; Anke von Harpe; Dagmar Fischer; Holger Petersen; Ulrich Bickel; Karlheinz Voigt; Thomas Kissel

    2003-01-01

    Low-molecular-weight polyethylenimine (LMW-PEI) was synthesized by the acid-catalyzed, ring-opening polymerization of aziridine and compared with commercially available high-molecular-weight PEI (HMW-PEI) of 25 kDa. Molecular weights were determined by size-exclusion chromatography in combination with multi-angle laser light scattering. The weight average molecular weight (Mw) of synthesized LMW-PEI was determined as 5.4±0.5 kDa, whereas commercial HMW-PEI showed a Mw of 48±2 kDa.

  11. Adsorption of dissolved organics in lake water by aluminum oxide. Effect of molecular weight

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, J.A.; Gloor, R.

    1981-01-01

    Dissolved organic compounds in a Swiss lake were fractionated into three molecular size classes by gel exclusion chromatography, and adsorption of each fraction on colloidal alumina was studied as a function of pH. Organic compounds with molecular weight (Mr) greater than 1000 formed strong complexes with the alumina surface, but low molecular weight compounds were weakly adsorbed. Electrophoretic mobility measurements indicated that alumina particles suspended in the original lake water were highly negatively charged because of adsorbed organic matter. Most of the adsorbed organic compounds were in the Mr range 1000 < Mr < 3000. Adsorption of these compounds during the treatment of drinking water by alum coagulation may be responsible for the preferential removal of trihalomethane precursors. Adsorption may also influence the molecular-weight distribution of dissolved organic material in lakes. surface, the present work will focus on the influence of molecular size and pH on the adsorption behavior of dissolved organic material of a Swiss lake. From a geochemical point of view, it is important to know the molecular-weight distribution of adsorbed organic matter so that we may better assess its reactivity with trace elements. The study also serves as a first step in quantifying the role of adsorption in the geochemical cycle of organic carbon in lacustrine environments. For water-treatment practice, we need to determine whether molecular weight fractionation occurs during adsorption by aluminum oxide. Such a fractionation could be significant in the light of recent reports that chloroform and other organochlorine compounds are preferentially produced by particular molecular-weight fractions (25-27). ?? 1981 American Chemical Society.

  12. Mild cracking of high-molecular-weight hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Biouri, B.; Hamdan, F.; Herault, D.

    1985-01-01

    Controlled cracking in the liquid phase of n-hexadecane, 6-methyleicosane, 1-phenyldodecane, and C21-C27 paraffins was studied in a stainless steel microreactor between 350 and 440 C for residence times varyin from 0.5 to 4 h at nitrogen or hydrogen pressures of 20 bar. Cracking occurred according to a molecular mechanism, but its kinetic data such as the order of reaction and the activation energy were similar to those of radical type cracking. The rate of formation of cracked gases was extremely small and the experimental and simulated compositions of the cracked liquids, based on a molecular type scission, agreed very well. This type of cracking is very interesting for visbreaking of heavy oils.

  13. Evaluation of circulation profiles of liposomes coated with hydrophilic polymers having different molecular weights in rats.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, H; Kojima, H; Yamamoto, H; Kawashima, Y

    2001-07-10

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the circulating properties of liposomes coated with modified polyvinyl alcohol (PVA-R) having different molecular weights (6000, 9000 and 20000). The size controlled liposomes (egg phosphatidylcholine (or distearoylphosphatidylcholine):cholesterol=7:3 in a molar ratio) were prepared by the hydration method followed by sonication. Polymer coated liposomes were prepared by just mixing the resultant liposomal suspension and a polymer solution. The effects of polymer coating were evaluated by measuring the circulation time of the injected liposomes after i.v. administration in rats and the dispersing property of the liposomes in a biological condition. The circulation of the PVA-R coated liposomes was prolonged with increasing the molecular weight of PVA-R. The aggregation and/or fusion of the liposomes in the presence of serum in vitro was also depressed more by coating the liposomes with PVA-R having higher molecular weight. There was a good correlation between the circulation time and the physical stability of non-coated and the various PVA-R coated liposomes. The prolonged circulation time of PVA-R (molecular weight: 20000) coated liposomes (ca. 1.3 mol% coating) was comparable to that of a stealth liposome prepared with 8 mol% of DSPE-PEG (molecular weight of PEG: 2000). PMID:11451499

  14. Absolute molecular weight determination of hypromellose acetate succinate by size exclusion chromatography: use of a multi angle laser light scattering detector and a mixed solvent.

    PubMed

    Chen, Raymond; Ilasi, Nicholas; Sekulic, Sonja S

    2011-12-01

    Molecular weight distribution is an important quality attribute for hypromellose acetate succinate (HPMCAS), a pharmaceutical excipient used in spray-dried dispersions. Our previous study showed that neither relative nor universal calibration method of size exclusion chromatography (SEC) works for HPMCAS polymers. We here report our effort to develop a SEC method using a mass sensitive multi angle laser light scattering detector (MALLS) to determine molecular weight distributions of HPMCAS polymers. A solvent screen study reveals that a mixed solvent (60:40%, v/v 50mM NaH(2)PO(4) with 0.1M NaNO(3) buffer: acetonitrile, pH* 8.0) is the best for HPMCAS-LF and MF sub-classes. Use of a mixed solvent creates a challenging condition for the method that uses refractive index detector. Therefore, we thoroughly evaluated the method performance and robustness. The mean weight average molecular weight of a polyethylene oxide standard has a 95% confidence interval of (28,443-28,793) g/mol vs. 28,700g/mol from the Certificate of Analysis. The relative standard deviations of average molecular weights for all polymers are 3-6%. These results and the Design of Experiments study demonstrate that the method is accurate and robust. PMID:21840663

  15. Application of computer-assisted molecular modeling (CAMM) for immunoassay of low molecular weight food contaminants: A review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immunoassay for low molecular weight food contaminants, such as pesticides, veterinary drugs, and mycotoxins is now a well-established technique which meets the demands for a rapid, reliable, and cost-effective analytical method. However, due to limited understanding of the fundamental aspects of i...

  16. Ionic Conductivity Trends with Molecular Weight in PEO and PEO-Based Solid Polymer Electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teran, Alexander; Mullin, Scott; Wanakule, Nisita; Panday, Ashoutosh; Balsara, Nitash

    2010-03-01

    Poly(ethylene oxide) based polymer electrolytes with lithium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonamide (LiTFSI) salt remain one of the most promising class of solid polymer electrolyte for rechargeable lithium metal batteries. Among those, poly(styrene-b-ethyleneoxide) (SEO) doped with LiTFSI has been shown to exhibit acceptable levels of conductivity while possessing a sufficiently high modulus to suppress the growth of dendrites. The purpose of this study is to explore the molecular weight dependence on conductivity for the PEO/LiTFSI system to which previous studies have alluded, but never quantified, and contrast this with the observed molecular weight dependence of SEO reported in previous work. Conductivities were measured using AC impedance spectroscopy over a broad range of temperatures and molecular weights beyond those reported in the literature.

  17. Isolation and function of a low molecular weight protein of mung bean embryonic axes.

    PubMed

    Manickam, A; Carlier, A R

    1980-08-01

    A low molecular weight protein from dry mung bean (Vigna radiata) embryonic axes has been purified to near homogeneity by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and hydroxylapatite. It shows a molecular weight of about 12,000 in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels and a sedimentation coefficient of about 2 S in sucrose gradients. This protein occurs in greater amounts in dry axes than in dry cotyledons, and it dramatically disappears during early germination of the seed. Affinity chromatography tests do not indicate it as a trypsin inhibitor or as a glycoprotein. It is a water-soluble cytoplasmic protein exhibiting an amino acid composition characteristic of storage proteins with a high content of glutamic acid/glutamine. We suggest that it is a low molecular weight storage albumin. PMID:24306292

  18. Conversion between renin and high-molecular-weight renin in the dog.

    PubMed Central

    Funakawa, S; Funae, Y; Yamamoto, K

    1978-01-01

    Two forms of renin, one of mol.wt. 43,000 and the other 60,000, were found in the dog kidney. Conversion between the two forms of renin was reversible at neutral pH. Though the molecular weight of renin in kidney-cortex homogenate was 43,000, it was completely converted into high-molecular-weight renin in the presence of substances that react with thiol groups. On the contrary, stored renin in the granules was the form of normal size (mol. wt. 43,000) regardless of the absence or presence of such substances. The present experiments indicated that renin is stored in the granules as the form of normal size and might be converted into high-molecular-weight renin when it is released from the granules and attached to some substance in the soluble fraction of renal-cortical tissue. PMID:747665

  19. Molecular weight effect on the formation of ? phase poly(9,9'-dioctylfluorene) in dilute solutions.

    PubMed

    Cone, Craig W; Cheng, Ryan R; Makarov, Dmitrii E; Vanden Bout, David A

    2011-11-01

    The effect of molecular weight on the formation of ? phase poly(9,9'-dioctylfluorene) (PF8) was studied in dilute solutions. Temperature-dependent fluorescence experiments of unique synthetic batches as well as size-excluded single batches of polyflourene were studied. Each batch had unique molecular weight, tetrahedral defect concentration, and polydispersity index (PDI). Polyflourene was found to exhibit a temperature-dependent transition between two phases with distinct electronic transition signatures: the ? (primary) phase and the ? (secondary) phase. In dilute solutions, the temperature at which the polymer exhibited a conversion between these phases showed a clear dependence on molecular weight. We model this transition temperature for ? phase formation using the mean field theory for the coil-globule transition developed by Isaac Sanchez. Results show that temperature affects the average end-to-end distance corresponding to increases in secondary electronic absorption and that the dependence on temperature related to the coil-globule transition. PMID:21899310

  20. Preparation of different molecular weight polysaccharides from Porphyridium cruentum and their antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liqin; Wang, Changhai; Shi, Quanjian; Ma, Cuihua

    2009-07-01

    Hermetical microwave was used to degrade Porphyridium cruentum polysaccharides from 2918 to 256.2, 60.66 and 6.55kDa. The antioxidant properties of different molecular weight polysaccharides were evaluated by determining the scavenging ability of free radicals, inhibitory effects on lipid peroxidation in liver homogenates and hemolysis of mouse erythrocytes. Analysis of physicochemical properties confirmed that microwave degradation might not markedly change the chemical components of the polysaccharides. High-molecular-weight polysaccharides from P. cruentum had no obvious antioxidant activity, but low-molecular-weight fragments after degradation exerted an inhibitory effect on oxidative damage. The 6.55-kDa fragment had stronger antioxidant activity than the 60.66 and 256-kDa fragments. PMID:19447258

  1. Low Molecular Weight Chitosan–Insulin Polyelectrolyte Complex: Characterization and Stability Studies

    PubMed Central

    Al-Kurdi, Zakieh I.; Chowdhry, Babur Z.; Leharne, Stephen A.; Al Omari, Mahmoud M. H.; Badwan, Adnan A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the work reported herein was to investigate the effect of various low molecular weight chitosans (LMWCs) on the stability of insulin using USP HPLC methods. Insulin was found to be stable in a polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) consisting of insulin and LMWC in the presence of a Tris-buffer at pH 6.5. In the presence of LMWC, the stability of insulin increased with decreasing molecular weight of LMWC; 13 kDa LMWC was the most efficient molecular weight for enhancing the physical and chemical stability of insulin. Solubilization of insulin-LMWC polyelectrolyte complex (I-LMWC PEC) in a reverse micelle (RM) system, administered to diabetic rats, results in an oral delivery system for insulin with acceptable bioactivity. PMID:25830681

  2. Influence of refractive index and molecular weight of alcohol agents on skin optical clearing effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Zhongzhen; Zheng, Ying; Hu, Yating; Lu, Wei; Luo, Qingming; Zhu, Dan

    2007-02-01

    In order to discuss the relative factors affecting the optical clearing effect of agents on skin tissues, six hydroxy-terminated and saturated alcohols with different refractive index and molecular weight were chosen as the optical clearing agents (OCAs). After being treated by different OCAs, the change of transmitted intensity of porcine skins in vitro was measured by single integrating sphere system. The results showed the optical clearing effects of six OCAs, i.e., glycerol, PEG400, PEG200, 1,3-propylene glycol, 1,4-butanediol and 1-butanol, arranged in the descending order. Based on the above results, the refractive index and molecular weight was further discussed. The optical clearing effect of alcohols has been deduced to have negative correlation with refractive index (r=-0.608), but no correlation with molecular weight (r= 0.008).

  3. The Combined Influence of Molecular Weight and Temperature on the Aging and Viscoelastic Response of a Glassy Thermoplastic Polyimide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, Lee M.; Whitley, Karen S.; Gates, Thomas S.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of molecular weight on the viscoelastic performance of an advanced polymer (LaRC-SI) was investigated through the use of creep compliance tests. Testing consisted of short-term isothermal creep and recovery with the creep segments performed under constant load. The tests were conducted at three temperatures below the glass transition temperature of five materials of different molecular weight. Through the use of time-aging-time superposition procedures, the material constants, material master curves and aging-related parameters were evaluated at each temperature for a given molecular weight. The time-temperature superposition technique helped to describe the effect of temperature on the timescale of the viscoelastic response of each molecular weight. It was shown that the low molecular weight materials have higher creep compliance and creep rate, and are more sensitive to temperature than the high molecular weight materials. Furthermore, a critical molecular weight transition was observed to occur at a weight-average molecular weight of M (bar) (sub w) 25000 g/mol below which, the temperature sensitivity of the time-temperature superposition shift factor increases rapidly. The short-term creep compliance data were used in association with Struik's effective time theory to predict the long-term creep compliance behavior for the different molecular weights. At long timescales, physical aging serves to significantly decrease the creep compliance and creep rate of all the materials tested.

  4. A log-normal distribution model for the molecular weight of aquatic fulvic acids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cabaniss, S.E.; Zhou, Q.; Maurice, P.A.; Chin, Y.-P.; Aiken, G.R.

    2000-01-01

    The molecular weight of humic substances influences their proton and metal binding, organic pollutant partitioning, adsorption onto minerals and activated carbon, and behavior during water treatment. We propose a lognormal model for the molecular weight distribution in aquatic fulvic acids to provide a conceptual framework for studying these size effects. The normal curve mean and standard deviation are readily calculated from measured M(n) and M(w) and vary from 2.7 to 3 for the means and from 0.28 to 0.37 for the standard deviations for typical aquatic fulvic acids. The model is consistent with several types of molecular weight data, including the shapes of high- pressure size-exclusion chromatography (HP-SEC) peaks. Applications of the model to electrostatic interactions, pollutant solubilization, and adsorption are explored in illustrative calculations.The molecular weight of humic substances influences their proton and metal binding, organic pollutant partitioning, adsorption onto minerals and activated carbon, and behavior during water treatment. We propose a log-normal model for the molecular weight distribution in aquatic fulvic acids to provide a conceptual framework for studying these size effects. The normal curve mean and standard deviation are readily calculated from measured Mn and Mw and vary from 2.7 to 3 for the means and from 0.28 to 0.37 for the standard deviations for typical aquatic fulvic acids. The model is consistent with several type's of molecular weight data, including the shapes of high-pressure size-exclusion chromatography (HP-SEC) peaks. Applications of the model to electrostatic interactions, pollutant solubilization, and adsorption are explored in illustrative calculations.

  5. Molecular weight of barley ?-glucan does not influence satiety or energy intake in healthy male subjects.

    PubMed

    Clegg, Miriam E; Thondre, Pariyarath S

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies have shown the ability of high molecular weight barley ?-glucan with increased viscosity to attenuate glycemic response, gastric emptying and in vitro starch digestion. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of molecular weight of barley ?-glucan in a semisolid meal on energy intake and subjective feelings of hunger, fullness, desire to eat and prospective food consumption in healthy male subjects. In a randomised, controlled, crossover trial, 23 healthy male subjects (BMI 24.2?±?2.5?kg/m(2)) tested soups equivalent to 25?g available carbohydrate containing high or low molecular weight barley ?-glucan (~3?g) as preload after a standard breakfast. The viscosity of soup with high molecular weight ?-glucan was 350?Pa·s whereas the soup with low molecular weight ?-glucan had a viscosity of 100?Pa·s. Appetite ratings before and for two hours after consumption of ?-glucan soups and subsequent ad libitum energy intake at lunch were recorded and compared with a control soup with no ?-glucan. There was no significant difference in food intake at the ad libitum meal or for the remainder of the day following consumption of the three test foods (p?>?0.05). Similarly, there were no significant differences (p?>?0.05) in hunger, fullness, desire to eat or prospective food consumption following ?-glucan soups. The current study provides evidence that the molecular weight of barley ?-glucan may not impact on perceived feelings of hunger or food intake at the current dose and viscosity. PMID:25106092

  6. Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin (Fragmin) During Instability in Coronary Artery Disease (FRISC)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1997-01-01

    This study evaluated whether the low-molecular-weight (LMW) heparin dalteparin sodium (Fragmin) had protective effects against cardiac events in aspirin-treated patients with unstable coronary artery syndromes. Patients (n = 1,506) with unstable angina or non-Q-wave myocardial infarction were randomized to double-blind, placebo-controlled treatment with LMW heparin. The treatment was given as subcutaneous injections: 120 U\\/kg body weight\\/12 hours during the first

  7. Leucocyte sequestration in endotoxemia and the effect of low-molecular-weight dextran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan T. Christenson; Azu Owunwanne

    1990-01-01

    Leucocyte sequestration in various organs during endotoxin-induced shock in sheep was studied using leucocytes labelled with indium 111 oxine. A moderate dose ofEscherichia coli endotoxin (10 µg\\/kg body weight) was slowly infused intravenously in 16 sheep, 9 of which subsequently received a continuous i.v. infusion of low-molecular-weight dextran (LMWD) given at an infusion rate of 15 ml\\/h over 4 h,

  8. Low molecular weight thermostable {beta}-D-glucosidase from Acidothermus cellulolyticus

    DOEpatents

    Himmel, M.E.; Tucker, M.P.; Adney, W.S.; Nieves, R.A.

    1995-07-11

    A purified low molecular weight {beta}-D-glucosidase is produced from Acidothermus cellulolyticus ATCC 43068. The enzyme is water soluble, possesses activity against pNP-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside, has a high of degree of stability toward heat, exhibits optimal temperature activity at about 65 C at a pH range of from about 2 to about 7, has an inactivation temperature of about 80 C at a pH range of from about 2 to about 7 and has a molecular weight of about 50.5--54.5 kD as determined by SDS-PAGE. 6 figs.

  9. Effect of molecular weight on the electrophoretic deposition of carbon black nanoparticles in moderately viscous systems.

    PubMed

    Modi, Satyam; Panwar, Artee; Mead, Joey L; Barry, Carol M F

    2013-08-01

    Electrophoretic deposition from viscous media has the potential to produce in-mold assembly of nanoparticles onto three-dimensional parts in high-rate, polymer melt-based processes like injection molding. The effects of the media's molecular weight on deposition behavior were investigated using a model system of carbon black and polystyrene in tetrahydrofuran. Increases in molecular weight reduced the electrophoretic deposition of the carbon black particles due to increases in suspension viscosity and preferential adsorption of the longer polystyrene chains on the carbon black particles. At low deposition times (?5 s), only carbon black deposited onto the electrodes, but the deposition decreased with increasing molecular weight and the resultant increases in suspension viscosity. For longer deposition times, polystyrene codeposited with the carbon black, with the amount of polystyrene increasing with molecular weight and decreasing with greater charge on the polystyrene molecules. This deposition behavior suggests that use of lower molecular polymers and control of electrical properties will permit electrophoretic deposition of nanoparticles from polymer melts for high-rate, one-step fabrication of nano-optical devices, biochemical sensors, and nanoelectronics. PMID:23848316

  10. Synthesis of the low molecular weight heat shock proteins in plants.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, M A; Key, J L

    1987-08-01

    Heat shock of living tissue induces the synthesis of a unique group of proteins, the heat shock proteins. In plants, the major group of heat shock proteins has a molecular mass of 15 to 25 kilodaltons. Accumulation of these proteins to stainable levels has been reported in only a few species. To examine accumulation of the low molecular weight heat shock proteins in a broader range of species, two-dimensional electrophoresis was used to resolve total protein from the following species: soybean (Glycine max L. Merr., var Wayne), pea (Pisum sativum L., var Early Alaska), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), rice (Oryza sativa L., cv IR-36), maize (Zea mays L.), pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum L. Leeke, line 23DB), and Panicum miliaceum L. When identified by both silver staining and incorporation of radiolabel, a diverse array of low molecular weight heat shock proteins was synthesized in each of these species. These proteins accumulated to significant levels after three hours of heat shock but exhibited considerable heterogeneity in isoelectric point, molecular weight, stainability, and radiolabel incorporation. Although most appeared to be synthesized only during heat shock, some were detectable at low levels in control tissue. Compared to the monocots, a higher proportion of low molecular weight heat shock proteins was detectable in control tissues from dicots. PMID:16665553

  11. Synthesis of the low molecular weight heat shock proteins in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Mansfield, M.A.; Key, J.L. (Univ., of Georgia, Athens (USA))

    1987-08-01

    Heat shock of living tissue induces the synthesis of a unique group of proteins, the heat shock proteins. In plants, the major group of heat shock proteins has a molecular mass of 15 to 25 kilodaltons. Accumulation to these proteins to stainable levels has been reported in only a few species. To examine accumulation of the low molecular weight heat shock proteins in a broader range of species, two-dimensional electrophoresis was used to resolve total protein from the following species: soybean (Glycine max L. Merr., var Wayne), pea (Pisum sativum L., var Early Alaska), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), wheat (Triticum asetivum L.), rice (Oryza sativa L., cv IR-36), maize (Zea mays L.), pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum L. Leeke, line 23DB), and Panicum miliaceum L. When identified by both silver staining and incorporation of radiolabel, a diverse array of low molecular weight heat shock proteins was synthesized in each of these species. These proteins accumulated to significant levels after three hours of heat shock but exhibited considerable heterogeneity in isoelectric point, molecular weight, stainability, and radiolabel incorporation. Although most appeared to be synthesized only during heat shock, some were detectable at low levels in control tissue. Compared to the monocots, a higher proportion of low molecular weight heat shock proteins was detectable in control tissues from dicots.

  12. High molecular weight lipids from the trilaminar outer wall (TLS)-containing microalgae Chlorella emersonii, Scenedesmus communis and Tetraedron minimum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B Allard; J Templier

    2001-01-01

    High molecular weight lipids were isolated from Chlorella emersonii, Scenedesmus communis and Tetraedron minimum, thin trilaminar outer wall (TLS)-containing freshwater microalgae producing an insoluble non-hydrolysable biopolymer (i.e. algaenan). Molecular weight determination by gel permeation chromatography indicated that their molecular weights range from ca. 400 to 2000 Da. Flash pyrolysis with in situ methylation using tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) and alkaline hydrolysis

  13. Mutations in the CLCN5 gene in Japanese patients with familial idiopathic low-molecular-weight proteinuria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hitoshi Nakazato; Shinzaburo Hattori; Akio Furuse; Tomoyasu Kawano; Shinnyo Karashima; Motoko Tsuruta; Junichiro Yoshimuta; Fumio Endo; Ichiro Matsuda

    1997-01-01

    Mutations in the CLCN5 gene in Japanese patients with familial idiopathic low-molecular-weight proteinuria. Familial idiopathic low-molecular-weight proteinuria (FILMWP) is a renal proximal tubulopathy that occurs predominantly in males. FILMWP is characterized by mild proteinuria consisting of low-molecular-weight proteinuria, aminoaciduria and relatively conserved renal function, but without rickets. To determine whether FILMWP is related to the CLCN5 gene, which is responsible

  14. Oversulfated Chondroitin Sulfate: Impact of a Heparin Impurity, Associated with Adverse Clinical Events, on Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin Preparation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhenqing; Weïwer, Michel; Li, Boyangzi; Kemp, Melissa M.; Daman, Tyler H.; Linhardt, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Heparin, a widely used anticoagulant, is being rapidly displaced by low-molecular-weight heparins. Recently, certain lots of heparin have been associated with anaphylactoid-type reactions resulting from contamination with oversulfated chondroitin sulfate. This impurity has also contaminated low-molecular-weight heparins obtained by chemical and enzymatic depolymerization of heparin. The sensitivity of oversulfated chondroitin sulfate to five different depolymerization processes similar to ones used in preparing low-molecular-weight heparins is reported. PMID:18754653

  15. Novel High-Molecular Weight Fucosylated Milk Oligosaccharides Identified in Dairy Streams

    PubMed Central

    Mehra, Raj; Barile, Daniela; Marotta, Mariarosaria; Lebrilla, Carlito B.; Chu, Caroline; German, J. Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Oligosaccharides are the third largest component in human milk. This abundance is remarkable because oligosaccharides are not digestible by the newborn, and yet they have been conserved and amplified during evolution. In addition to encouraging the growth of a protective microbiota dominated by bifidobacteria, oligosaccharides have anti-infective activity, preventing pathogens from binding to intestinal cells. Although it would be advantageous adding these valuable molecules to infant milk formula, the technologies to reproduce the variety and complexity of human milk oligosaccharides by enzymatic/organic synthesis are not yet mature. Consequently, there is an enormous interest in alternative sources of these valuable oligosaccharides. Recent research has demonstrated that bovine milk and whey permeate also contain oligosaccharides. Thus, a thorough characterization of oligosaccharides in bovine dairy streams is an important step towards fully assessing their specific functionalities. In this study, bovine milk oligosaccharides (BMOs) were concentrated by membrane filtration from a readily available dairy stream called “mother liquor”, and analyzed by high accuracy MALDI FT-ICR mass spectrometry. The combination of HPLC and accurate mass spectrometry allowed the identification of ideal processing conditions leading to the production of Kg amount of BMO enriched powders. Among the BMOs identified, 18 have high-molecular weight and corresponded in size to the most abundant oligosaccharides present in human milk. Notably 6 oligosaccharides contained fucose, a sugar monomer that is highly abundant in human milk, but is rarely observed in bovine milk. This work shows that dairy streams represent a potential source of complex milk oligosaccharides for commercial development of unique dairy ingredients in functional foods that reproduce the benefits of human milk. PMID:24810963

  16. A simple capillary electrophoresis method for the rapid separation and determination of intact low molecular weight and unfractionated heparins.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rahul P; Narkowicz, Christian; Hutchinson, Joseph P; Hilder, Emily F; Jacobson, Glenn A

    2008-01-01

    A simple, selective and accurate capillary electrophoresis (CE) method has been developed for the rapid separation and identification of various low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) and unfractionated heparin. Separation and operational parameters were investigated using dalteparin sodium as the test LMWH. The developed method used a 70 cm fused silica capillary (50 microm i.d.) with a detection window 8.5 cm from the distal end. Phosphate electrolyte (pH 3.5; 50 mM), an applied voltage of -30 k V, UV detection at 230 nm and sample injection at 20 mbar for 5s were used. The method performance was assessed in terms of linearity, selectivity, intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy. The method was successfully applied to the European Pharmacopeia LMWH standard, dalteparin sodium, enoxaparin sodium and heparin sodium with a significant reduction in the run time and increased resolution compared with previously reported CE methods. Different CE separation profiles were obtained for various LMWHs and unfractionated heparin showing significant structural diversity. The current methodology was sensitive enough to reveal minor constituent differences between two different batches of enoxaparin sodium. This CE method also clearly showed chemical changes that occurred to LMWHs under different stress conditions. The sensitivity, selectivity and simplicity of the developed method allow its application in research or manufacturing for the identification, stability analysis, characterization and monitoring of batch-to-batch consistency of different low molecular weight and unfractionated heparins. PMID:18024047

  17. Synthesis of Polyelectrolyte and Studies of its Conductivity Changes with Respect to Molecular Weight

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. N. K. Chowdhury; M. F. Mina; A. K. M. M. Alam; F. Akhtar; M. M. Rahman

    2006-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of acrylamide monomer were irradiated by ?-rays using a Co-60 source to synthesize polyacrylamide of different molecular weight (Mw). Solubility tests together with ultraviolet and infrared spectroscopic studies were performed for examining the irradiated samples to ensure that the prepared products were gradually converted from monomer to polymer (polyacrylamide), depending on the radiation dose. Various physico-chemical properties like

  18. Polyacrylamide molecular weight and phosphogypsum effects on infiltration and erosion in semi-arid soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seal formation at the surface of semi-arid soils during rainstorms reduces soil infiltration rate (IR) and causes runoff and erosion. Surface application of dry anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) with high molecular weight (MW) has been found to be effective in stabilizing soil aggregates, and decreasing ...

  19. Incorporation of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits into doughs using 2 gram mixograph and extensigraphs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To study the contributions of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) to the gluten macropolymer and dough properties, wheat HMW-GS (x- and y-types) are synthesized in a bacterial expression system. These subunits are then purified and used to supplement dough mixing and extensigraph exper...

  20. Improved colorimetric determination of high-molecular weight hyaluronic acid from synovial fluids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Horst Kutsch; Christine Schleich

    1989-01-01

    A method is presented depending on the metachromic shift of a carbocyanine dye (“Stains-all”) in the presence of high molecular weight hyaluronic acid. Although this colorimetric reaction itself is not new, progress has been made in elaborating a technique which, in most cases, does not require any pretreatment of the original biological sample (synovial fluid) except appropriate dilution. The method

  1. Microfluidics Meets Dilute Solution Viscometry: An Undergraduate Laboratory to Determine Polymer Molecular Weight Using a Microviscometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pety, Stephen J.; Lu, Hang; Thio, Yonathan S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a student laboratory experiment to determine the molecular weight of a polymer sample by measuring the viscosity of dilute polymer solutions in a PDMS microfluidic viscometer. Sample data are given for aqueous solutions of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). A demonstration of shear thinning behavior using the microviscometer is…

  2. Improved isolation protocol to detect high molecular weight polysaccharide structures of Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Judit K; Fels?, Péter; Em?dy, Levente; Schneider, György; Kocsis, Béla

    2014-12-01

    Simple detection of high molecular weight, LPS-like structures of Campylobacter jejuni is still an unsolved problem. A phenol-free extraction method for the detection of HMW polysaccharide was developed without the need for Western blot. This method provides a reliable technique for large-scale screening and comparative characterization study of different isolates. PMID:25229649

  3. Low molecular weight heparin: An evaluation of current and potential clinical utility in surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryan R. Davies; Michael A. Coady; Graeme L. Hammond; John A. Elefteriades; Richard J. Gusberg

    1999-01-01

    Heparin, a mixture of glycosaminoglycans of various sizes, is a potent natural anticoagulant. Low molecular weight heparins (LMWH) contain only the polymers of smaller size, which appear to possess most of the antithrombotic potential. Pharmacological differences between the two suggest a number of advantages with LMWH therapy. Our objective was to establish the utility of LMWHs in comparison to the

  4. Overview on guidelines and recommendations for generic low-molecular-weight heparins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Job Harenberg

    2011-01-01

    The first generic low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) end of July 2010 for clinical use in all medical indications where the branded product enoxaparin has reached approval. Many LMWHs have been approved for prophylaxis and the treatment of venous and arterial thromboembolism based on the results of large clinical trials. Generic LMWHs are

  5. Effects of molecular weight on the diffusion coefficient of aquatic dissolved organic matter and humic substances.

    PubMed

    Balch, J; Guéguen, C

    2015-01-01

    In situ measurements of labile metal species using diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) passive samplers are based on the diffusion rates of individual species. Although most studies have dealt with chemically isolated humic substances, the diffusion of dissolved organic matter (DOM) across the hydrogel is not well understood. In this study, the diffusion coefficient (D) and molecular weight (MW) of 11 aquatic DOM and 4 humic substances (HS) were determined. Natural, unaltered aquatic DOM was capable of diffusing across the diffusive gel membrane with D values ranging from 2.48×10(-6) to 5.31×10(-6) cm(2) s(-1). Humic substances had diffusion coefficient values ranging from 3.48×10(-6) to 6.05×10(-6) cm(2) s(-1), congruent with previous studies. Molecular weight of aquatic DOM and HS samples (?500-1750 Da) measured using asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) strongly influenced D, with larger molecular weight DOM having lower D values. No noticeable changes in DOM size properties were observed during the diffusion process, suggesting that DOM remains intact following diffusion across the diffusive gel. The influence of molecular weight on DOM mobility will assist in further understanding and development of the DGT technique and the uptake and mobility of contaminants associated with DOM in aquatic environments. PMID:25112575

  6. Small molecular weight organic thin-film photodetectors and solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Peumans; Aharon Yakimov; Stephen R. Forrest

    2003-01-01

    In this review, we discuss the physics underlying the operation of single and multiple heterojunction, vacuum-deposited organic solar cells based on small molecular weight thin films. For single heterojunction cells, we find that the need for direct contact between the deposited electrode and the active organics leads to quenching of excitons. An improved device architecture, the double heterojunction, is shown

  7. SAMPLING FOR HIGH-MOLECULAR-WEIGHT ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN POWER PLANT STACK GASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The results of laboratory and field investigations of experimental sampling systems intended to collect high-molecular-weight organic compounds from flue gases in coal-fired power plants are presented. The most promising sampling device was a solid sorbent cartridge inserted dire...

  8. Polyacrylamide Molecular Weight and Phosphogypsum Effects on Infiltration and Erosion in Semi-Arid Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seal formation at the surface of semi-arid soils during rainstorms reduces soil infiltration rate (IR) and causes runoff and erosion. Surface application of dry anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) with high molecular weight (MW) has been found to be effective in stabilizing soil aggregates, and decreasing ...

  9. Effect of chitosan molecular weight on rheological behavious of chitosan modified nanoclay at highly hydrated state

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effect of chitosan molecular weight (M(cs)) on the rheological properties of chitosan modified clay (CMCs) at highly hydrated state was investigated. With special emphasis on its effect on the thixotropy of CMCs, the structure recovery at rest after underwent a pre-shearing process was further perfo...

  10. Coagulation and nanofiltration: A hybrid system for the removal of lower molecular weight organic compounds (LMWOC)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuanfang Wang; Li Shu; Veeriah Jegatheesan; Baoyu Gao

    2009-01-01

    The removal of lower molecular weight organic compounds (LMWOC) from water is of increasing concern. While, nano-filtration (NF) is a good option, it removes only a fraction of the LMWOC. In this paper, NF experiments were conducted to remove oxalic acid and diuron in combination with coagulation using poly-aluminum chloride (PAC) as the coagulant. The results showed that this hybrid

  11. Improved method for estimating molecular weights of volatile organic compounds from low-resolution mass spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    An improved method of estimating molecular weights of volatile organic compounds from their mass spectra has been developed and implemented with an expert system. The method is based on the strong correlation of MAXMASS, the highest mass with an intensity of 5% of the base peak in a mass spectrum, with the true molecular weight. Linear corrections to MAXMASS, which yield molecular weight estimates, were derived empirically using the expert system. The system is based on a sequential modular design with a primary classifier linked to molecular weight estimators for the resulting six classes. These are non-halobenzenes; chlorobenzenes; bromoalkenes/alkenes; mono- and dichloroalkanes/alkenes; tri-, tetra- and pentachloro-alkanes/alkenes; and others. Performance tests were made with the old and improved expert systems and the Self Training Interpretive and Retrieval System (STIRS) on NIST reference spectra of the 107 training compounds; on a set of 32 test NIST reference spectra of other compounds found in air samples; on a set of 100 randomly selected NIST reference spectra; and on 27 spectra taken from actual field gas chromatography/mass spectrometry samples.

  12. Effect of molecular weight and presence of antioxidant in thermooxidative degradation of poly(2-hexyne) films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Gonzalez-Velasco; J. A. Gonzalez-Marcos; J. A. Delgado

    1996-01-01

    Some interesting polyacetylenes present unstable behaviour because of their reactivity with oxygen, among them, poly(2-hexyne). This paper is a continuation of a previous work, where models for oxidation and chain scission processes of this polymer were proposed. Here, the model of oxidation has been applied to a sample of poly(2-hexyne) with different molecular weight, to examine its effect on the

  13. Highly Cross-Linked Ultrahigh Molecular Weight Polyethylene With Improved Fatigue Resistance for Total Joint Arthroplasty

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ebru Oral; Arnaz S. Malhi; Keith K. Wannomae; Orhun K. Muratoglu

    2008-01-01

    Eliminating postirradiation melting and stabilizing the residual free radicals of radiation cross-linked ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) with vitamin E resulted in improved fatigue crack propagation resistance without compromising wear resistance. We designed a cantilever postbending test to determine the bending fatigue resistance of ?-tocopherol–doped, irradiated UHMWPE (?-TPE) in comparison to conventional UHMWPE. The bending fatigue behavior of ?-TPE was

  14. Improved wear performance of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene coated with hydrogenated diamond like carbon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Puértolas; V. Martínez-Nogués; M. J. Martínez-Morlanes; M. D. Mariscal; F. J. Medel; C. López-Santos; F. Yubero

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogenated diamond like carbon (DLCH) thin films were deposited on medical grade ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) by radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The DLCH coating thicknesses ranged from 250 to 700nm. The substrates were disks made of UHMWPEs typically used for soft components in artificial joints, namely virgin GUR 1050 and highly crosslinked (gamma irradiated in

  15. The mechanical properties of the ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) modified by oxygen plasma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hengjun Liu; Dong Xie; Linmao Qian; Xingrui Deng; Y. X. Leng; Nan Huang

    2011-01-01

    In this work, ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) was modified with oxygen plasma generated by microwave electron cyclotron resonance (ECR). Surface microstructure and properties of UHMWPE were studied by means of water contact angle measurement, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scratch test and wear test. The results showed that O2 plasma treatment could effectively improve the wettability,

  16. A Study of the Wear Characteristics of UltraHigh Molecular Weight Polyethylene Sliding against Glass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J E Randall; D Dowson

    1984-01-01

    Investigations of the wear of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene in unidirectional sliding against a range of glass counterfaces of various initial surface roughnesses are described. The tests were carried out either with the wear specimens under dry conditions of contact or lubricated by distilled water. Comparative tests under rarified atmosphere were also carried out. A single sliding speed of

  17. Effect of femoral head surface roughness on the wear of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene acetabular cups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Wang; V. K. Polineni; C. Stark; J. H. Dumbleton

    1998-01-01

    We studied the effect of femoral head surface roughness on the wear of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) acetabular cups using a hip joint simulator and a reciprocating wear tester. Compared with the hip simulator, the reciprocating wear tester severely exaggerates the effect of counterface roughness on UHMWPE wear and drastically underestimates the wear rate of the UHMWPE against smooth

  18. Does Neck\\/Liner Impingement Increase Wear of Ultrahigh-Molecular-Weight Polyethylene Liners?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Molly M. Usrey; Philip C. Noble; Lanny J. Rudner; Michael A. Conditt; Michael V. Birman; Richard F. Santore; Kenneth B. Mathis

    2006-01-01

    We explore the hypothesis that repetitive impingement increases wear of ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene inserts. During revision total hip arthroplasty, 113 acetabular components were retrieved and examined for impingement, backside wear, and articular wear. Sixty percent of acetabular liners showed evidence of prosthetic impingement, with moderate or severe damage to the rim in 32%. Moderate or severe backside damage was present in

  19. Mechanistic and clinical aspects of fatigue of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jevan Furmanski

    2008-01-01

    Ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is a tough semi-crystalline polymer employed widely as a bearing material in total joint replacements. While UHMWPE has been tremendously successful in this application, debris generated due to frictional contact may lead ultimately to an adverse biological reaction and failure of the implant. Radiation cross-linking of the polymer has been undertaken in order to improve

  20. Abrasive wear behavior of particle reinforced ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chaozong Liu; Luquan Ren; R. D. Arnell; Jin Tong

    1999-01-01

    This paper, based on orthogonal experimental design method, reports the results of abrasive wear investigations of various composites of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) reinforced with quartz powder rubbed against abrasive papers under dry conditions. The main purpose was to study the influence of such parameters such as filler particle size, load, sliding speed and abrading particle size on the

  1. Reduction in the initial wear of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene after compressive creep deformation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kwon-Yong Lee; David Pienkowski

    1997-01-01

    Although the wear of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) total joint implant components has received much attention, the creep of this polymer has been inadequately studied. The objectives of this study were to determine whether creep affects the wear of UHMWPE and, if so, to measure the magnitude of this effect. Cylindrical specimens were machined from GUR 4150HP extruded unirradiated

  2. Effect of oxidation on delamination of ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene tibial components

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol J. Bell; Peter S. Walker; Melanie R. Abeysundera; Jonathan M. H. Simmons; Polly M. King; Gordon W. Blunn

    1998-01-01

    Whether oxidation of ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) causes delamination of the plastic in total knee arthroplasties (TKAs) was investigated. Examination of retrieved TKAs has shown that oxidation of UHMWPE can be caused by postirradiation damage leading to a subsurface band or, to a lesser extent, by mechanical forces during use leading to surface oxidation. Delamination cracks propagated through the subsurface oxidized

  3. TOXICOLOGICAL HIGHLIGHT (REDOX REDUX: A CLOSER LOOK AT CONCEPTAL LOW MOLECULAR WEIGHT THIOLS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Glutathione (GSH) is present as the most abundant low molecular weight thiol (LMWT) in virtually all mitochondria-bearing eucaryotic cells, often at millimolar concentrations (Meister, 1988). Functions of GSH include roles in DNA and protein synthesis, maintenance of cell membra...

  4. Molecular weight dependence of reductions in the glass transition temperature of thin, freely standing polymer films

    E-print Network

    Dutcher, John

    , and thin films 10 . The first systematic studies of the glass transition in confined geometries involvedMolecular weight dependence of reductions in the glass transition temperature of thin, freely standing polymer films K. Dalnoki-Veress,1,2 J. A. Forrest,3 C. Murray,1 C. Gigault,1 and J. R. Dutcher1 1

  5. Drop formation and breakup of low viscosity elastic fluids: Effects of molecular weight and concentration

    E-print Network

    Drop formation and breakup of low viscosity elastic fluids: Effects of molecular weight fluids all exhibit the same global necking behavior that is observed for a Newtonian fluid of equivalent, as would occur in the equivalent Newtonian fluid. Alternatively, a cylindrical filament forms in which

  6. Use of ultrasonic degradation to study the molecular weight influence of polymeric admixtures for mortars

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , ultrasonic degradation HIGHLIGHTS Ultrasonic degradation is applicable to admixtures for building materialsUse of ultrasonic degradation to study the molecular weight influence of polymeric admixtures-1Jul2013 Author manuscript, published in "Construction and Building Materials 47 (2013) 1046-1052" DOI

  7. Sedimentation Coefficient, Frictional Coefficient, and Molecular Weight: A Preparative Ultracentrifuge Experiment for the Advanced Undergraduate Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halsall, H. B.; Wermeling, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    Describes an experiment using a high-speed preparative centrifuge and calculator to demonstrate effects of the frictional coefficient of a macromolecule on its rate of transport in a force field and to estimate molecular weight of the macromolecule using an empirical relationship. Background information, procedures, and discussion of results are…

  8. Characterization of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) modified by ion implantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Valenza; A. M. Visco; L. Torrisi; N. Campo

    2004-01-01

    Surface modification of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is induced by ion implantation of different ions at 300 keV energy. The aim of this work was the chemical, physical and mechanical characterization of the modified material in order to know deep inside about the effect of the ion beam upon the polymer.The irradiated surfaces are investigated by Raman spectroscopy,

  9. IR-MALDI OF LOW MOLECULAR WEIGHT COMPOUNDS USING A FREE ELECTRON LASER.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Initial experiments on infrared matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (IR-MALDI) using a free electron laser in the analysis of low-molecular-weight compounds are reported. Mass spectra from samples of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), nitrilotriacet...

  10. Structure transfer from a polymeric melt to the solid state. Part II: Dependence on molecular weight

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. K. Bayer; F. Liebentraut; T. Meyer

    1992-01-01

    Melt spinning experiments of polyethylene, using a high quenching rate have been carried out. Molecular weight has been varied. From measurements of the mechanical properties of the monofilaments produced it is concluded that melt history influences the solid state behavior. This is reflected in the hypothesis of a transference of knots, preexisting in the melt into the solid state. Measurements

  11. Effect of molecular weight on the flow-induced crystallization of isotactic poly(1-butene)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefano Acierno; Blandina Palomba; Henning H. Winter; Nino Grizzuti

    2003-01-01

    Turbidity measurements were used to characterize the effect of shear flow on the crystallization kinetics of several isotactic poly(1-butene) samples of different molecular weight (MW). Polymer melts were rapidly cooled below the nominal crystallization temperature, and subjected to a shear flow of varying shear rate but constant total deformation. While the quiescent crystallization was found to be essentially MW-independent, a

  12. Constrained inversion of rheological data to molecular weight distribution for polymer melts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franco Cocchini; Maria Rossella Nobile

    2003-01-01

    In this paper an inverse method for converting linear viscoelastic properties of polymer melts into molecular weight distribution (MWD) is presented. It relies on the use of the double reptation mixing rule and the Generalized Exponential function (GEX) describing the MWD; i.e. an a priori knowledge of the nature of the solution is postulated following previous attempts (Nobile et al.

  13. Influence of polymer molecular weight on the solid-state structure of PEG\\/monoolein mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denny Mahlin; Johan Unga; Annika Ridell; Göran Frenning; Sven Engström

    2005-01-01

    The polar lipid monoolein (MO) and poly(ethylene glycol), PEG, of different molar mass (1500, 4000 and 8000) were melted, mixed and left to solidify at room temperature. Analysis of the solid mixtures by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) revealed that a phase separation occurs when MO is present in sufficient amounts. The molecular weight of

  14. Morphology Evolution of Molecular Weight Dependent P3HT: PCBM Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng; Chen, Dian; Briseno, Alejandro; Russell, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    Effective strategies to maximize the performance of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) photovoltaic devices have to be developed and understood to realize their full potential. In BHJ solar cells, the morphology of the active layer is a critical issue to improve device efficiency. In this work, we choose poly(3-hexyl-thiophene) (P3HT) and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) system to study the morphology evolution. Different molecular weight P3HTs were synthesized by using Grignard Metathesis (GRIM)~method. In device optimization, polymer with a molecular weight between 20k-30k shows the highest efficiency. It was observed that the as-spun P3HT: PCBM (1:1) blends do not have high order by GISAXS. Within a few seconds of thermal annealing at 150& circ; the crystallinity of P3HT increaased substantially and the polymer chains adopted an edge-on orientation. An-bicontinous morphology was also developed within this short thermal treatment. The in situ GISAXS experiment showed that P3HT of high molecular weight was more easily crystallized from a slowly evaporated chlorobenzene solution and their edge-on orientation is much more obvious than for the lower molecular weight P3HTs. DSC was used to study the thermal properties of P3HTs and P3HT: PCBM blend. The ? of P3HT-PCBM was also calculated by using melting point depression method.

  15. Determination of low molecular weight organic acids in soil, plants, and water by capillary zone electrophoresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying-hui Li; Bi-xia Huang; Xiao-quan Shan

    2003-01-01

    Determination of low molecular weight organic acids in soils and plants by capillary zone electrophoresis was accomplished using a phthalate buffer and indirect UV detection mode. The influence of some crucial parameters, such as pH, buffer concentration and surfactant were investigated. A good separation of seven organic acids was achieved within 5 min using an electrolyte containing 15 mmol Lу

  16. Pollutant Removal From Aquaculture Wastewater Using the Biopolymer Chitosan at Different Molecular Weights

    Microsoft Academic Search

    YING-CHIEN CHUNG; YI-HE LI; CHIING-CHANG CHEN

    2005-01-01

    Removal of organic compounds, inorganic nutrients, and bacteria from aquaculture wastewaters before discharge cannot only minimize deterioration of receiving water quality, but can also make possible the reuse of the original water in the culture of prawn, fish, and shellfish. In this study, the feasibility of using chitosan, a multifunctional environmentally friendly biopolymer, at different molecular weights to simultaneously remove

  17. Author's personal copy Chemical and isotopic composition of high-molecular-weight dissolved organic

    E-print Network

    Guo, Laodong

    of high-molecular-weight dissolved organic matter (HMW-DOM) in the mixing zone of the Mississippi River polysaccharide contents in lower salinity areas but higher polysaccharide and low phenol contents in coastal to -21.86 at an offshore station in the Gulf of Mexico. Changes in stable isotope composition resemble

  18. COMPARISON OF HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT ORGANICS ISOLATED FROM DRINKING WATER IN FIVE CITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since the previously unidentifiable non-volatile fraction of the chlorinated organics in drinking water is of significant health concern, the physical and chemical characteristics of the high molecular weight organics isolated from drinking water in five cities (New Orleans, Phil...

  19. Molecular weight distribution and functional group profiles of TEMPO-oxidized lyocell fibers.

    PubMed

    Milanovic, Jovana; Schiehser, Sonja; Milanovic, Predrag; Potthast, Antje; Kostic, Mirjana

    2013-10-15

    The effects of TEMPO-mediated oxidation, performed with NaClO, a catalytic amount of NaBr, and 2,2',6,6'-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxy radical (TEMPO), were studied on lyocell fibers by means of GPC using multiple detection and group-selective fluorescence labeling according to the CCOA and FDAM methodology. The applied method determines functional group content as a sum parameter, as well as functional group profiles in relation to the molecular weight of the cellulose fibers. Both the CHO and COOH profiles, as well as molecular weight alterations, were analyzed. A significant decrease in the average molecular weight was obtained during the first hour of TEMPO-mediated oxidation, but prolonged oxidation time resulted in no strong additional chain scission. Significant amounts of COOH groups were introduced in the high molecular weight fractions by the oxidation with higher concentrations of NaClO (2.42-9.67 mmol NaClO/g fiber) after modification times of 1h or longer. PMID:23987366

  20. Aggregate stability as affected by polyacrylamide molecular weight, soil texture and water quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The favorable effects of the environmentally friendly, non toxic, anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) as a soil conditioner have long been established. However, some uncertainties exist regarding the effects of PAM molecular weight (MW) on its performance as a soil amendment and the ability of PAM to penet...

  1. Effects of Polyacrylamide Molecular Weight, Soil Texture and Electrolyte Concentration on Drainable Porosity and Aggregate Stability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The literature reports on the intricate relations between soil type and molecular weight (MW) of polyacrylamide (PAM) with respect to PAM efficacy as a soil conditioner. This relation may depend on the ability of PAM to penetrate into aggregates and thus stabilize both outer and inner aggregate surf...

  2. Infiltration and Erosion in Soils Treated with Dry PAM of Two Molecular Weights and Phosphogypsum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil surface application of dissolved linear polyacrylamide (PAM) of high molecular weight (MW) can mitigate seal formation, runoff and erosion, especially when added with a source of electrolytes (e.g., gypsum). Practical difficulties associated with PAM solution application prohibited commercial u...

  3. Field test of high molecular weight alcohol flushing for subsurface nonaqueous phase liquid remediation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald W. Falta; Cindy M. Lee; Scott E. Brame; Eberhard Roeder; John T. Coates; Charles Wright; A. Lynn Wood; Carl G. Enfield

    1999-01-01

    A pilot scale field test of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) removal using high molecular weight alcohols was conducted at Operable Unit 1, Hill Air Force Base, Utah. Petroleum hydrocarbons and spent solvents were disposed of in chemical disposal pits at this site, and these materials are now present in the subsurface in the form of a light non-aqueous phase liquid

  4. A New Low-Molecular-Weight Component Promoting Adrenergic Development in Cultured Chick Sympathetic Neurons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. D. Zurn

    A low-molecular-weight component present in medium con- ditioned by cultured chick liver cells (LCM) enhances the adrenergic properties of dissociated chick superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons in culture (Zurn and Mudry, 1988). This substance cannot replace NGF as a survival, growth, or differentiation factor. However, in the presence of NGF, it stimulates neuronal metabolism and catecholamine (CA), but not ACh

  5. Ultra-High Molecular-Weight Polyethylene Composites: Structure, Properties and Ballistic Response

    E-print Network

    Wadley, Haydn

    Ultra-High Molecular-Weight Polyethylene Composites: Structure, Properties and Ballistic Response, the sails of racing ships and ballistic impact protection systems. In this study, three commercially and the HB26 laminate was investigated in a ballistic loading scenario. X-ray and thermal analysis have

  6. Seven Golden Rules for heuristic filtering of molecular formulas obtained by accurate mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tobias Kind; Oliver Fiehn

    2007-01-01

    Background: Structure elucidation of unknown small molecules by mass spectrometry is a challenge despite advances in instrumentation. The first crucial step is to obtain correct elemental compositions. In order to automatically constrain the thousands of possible candidate structures, rules need to be developed to select the most likely and chemically correct molecular formulas. Results: An algorithm for filtering molecular formulas

  7. Isoleucine epimerization and amino acid composition in molecular-weight separations of Pleistocene Genyornis eggshell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Darrell S.; Miller, Gifford H.

    1995-07-01

    This study explores the geochronological utility and analytical reproducibility of separating the high-molecular-weight fraction (HMW) from eggshells of the extinct late Pleistocene ratite, Genyornis, using disposable, prepacked gel-filtration columns. The superior integrity of ratite eggshell for the retention of amino acids indicates that this biomineral is better suited for this type of investigation than previously studied molluscan shell. To evaluate the reproducibility of the gel-filtration technique, we analyzed triplicate subsamples of three eggshells of different ages. The reproducibility, based on the average intrashell variation (coefficient of variation; CV) in the extent of isoleucine epimerization (aIle/Ile) in the HMW (enriched in molecules ca. >10,000 MW) is 3%, well within the range appropriate for geochronological purposes. The average intrashell variation in the total amino acid concentration (?[aa]) of the HMW is 5%, somewhat better than for the total acid hydrolysate (TOTAL) of the same samples (7%). To evaluate the relation between molecular weight and the rate of isoleucine epimerization, three molecular-weight fractions were separated using gel filtration, plus the naturally hydrolyzed free fraction (FREE), for each of four fossil eggshells. AIle/Ile increases with decreasing molecular weight in all shells, with a ca. sixfold to ninefold difference in ratios between the HMW andFREE, and a ca. fivefold difference between the HMW andTOTAL. Although linear correlations between aIle/Ile measured in each molecular-weight fraction and in theTOTAL are all highly significant (r ? 0.951), the relation between the extent of epimerization in the HMW and in the TOTAL is best expressed as an exponential function (r = 0.951). This relation is consistent with the idea that, as the epimerization reaction approaches equilibrium in theTOTAL (ca. aIle/Ile > 1.1), its rate decreases beyond that of the HMW. The amino acid composition (relative percent of eight amino acids or combinations of amino acids) is more uniform in the HMW of the four samples compared to lower-molecular-weight fractions. The greater "compositional stability" of the HMW indicates that it contains a residuum of macromolecules that have not been affected by the diagenetically driven changes observed in lower-molecular-weight fractions.

  8. In vivo endothelial siRNA delivery using polymeric nanoparticles with low molecular weightIn vivo endothelial siRNA delivery using polymeric nanoparticles with low molecular weight

    E-print Network

    von Andrian, Ulrich H.

    In vivo endothelial siRNA delivery using polymeric nanoparticles with low molecular weightIn vivo endothelial siRNA delivery using polymeric nanoparticles with low molecular weight ­ Supplementary Information, Tatiana Novobrantseva, Vera M. Ruda, Abigail K.R. Lytton-Jean, Christopher G. Levins, Brian Kalish, Dayna

  9. Intermolecular complexation of low-molecular-weight succinoglycans directs solubility enhancement of pindolol.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoungtea; Cho, Eunae; Choi, Jae Min; Kim, Hwanhee; Jang, Ahri; Choi, Youngjin; Lee, Im Soon; Yu, Jae-Hyuk; Jung, Seunho

    2014-06-15

    The low-molecular-weight succinoglycans isolated from Sinorhizobium meliloti are repeating octasaccharide units consisting of monomers, dimers, and trimers. Pindolol is a beta-blocker used to treat cardiovascular disorders. We investigated the formation of complexes between pindolol and low-molecular-weight succinoglycan monomers (SGs). Even though SGs have a linear structure, the solubility of pindolol in the presence of SGs was increased up to 7-fold compared with methyl-?-cyclodextrin reported as the best solubilizer of pindolol. Complexation of SGs with pindolol was confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and scanning electron microscopy. Formation constants of complexes were determined from phase solubility diagrams. Conformation of complex was suggested based on a molecular docking study. The present study indicated that formation of pindolol/SGs complexes not only resulted in increased pindolol solubility but also could be useful for improving its clinical application as it did not affect cell viability. PMID:24721056

  10. Low-molecular-weight heparin prophylaxis: preoperative versus postoperative initiation in patients undergoing elective hip surgery.

    PubMed

    Hull, R D; Pineo, G F; MacIsaac, S

    2001-01-01

    Administration of low-molecular-weight heparin prophylaxis in elective hip implant patients commonly begins 12 h preoperatively in European practices to optimize effectiveness, and 12 to 24 h postoperatively in North American practices to optimize safety. A meta-analysis comparing these two treatment regimes revealed that preoperative initiation demonstrated greater efficacy and superior safety for patients (10.0% rate of total deep-vein thrombosis vs. 15.3%, P = .023). In addition to the pre/postsurgical debate, proximity of initiation of low-molecular-weight heparin in relation to surgery is an issue of critical importance. Recent studies revealed that beginning therapy immediately within 2 h preoperatively or 6 h postoperatively dramatically decreased the risk of venous thrombosis. An investigation of low-molecular-weight heparin prophylaxis initiated 2 h before elective hip surgery or approximately 6 h after surgery compared with warfarin sodium revealed that total and proximal deep-vein thrombosis rates were reduced in patients receiving low-molecular-weight heparin compared with warfarin. The frequencies of deep-vein thrombosis for patients receiving preoperative and postoperative dalteparin vs. warfarin for all deep-vein thrombosis were 36 of 337 (10.7%, P < .001) and 44 of 336 (13.1%, P < .001) vs. 81 of 338 (24.0%); and for proximal deep-vein thrombosis were 3 of 354 (0.8%, P = .035) and 3 of 358 (0.8%, P = .033) vs. 11 of 363 (3.0%). Relative risk reductions for the dalteparin groups vs. warfarin ranged from 45% to 72%. In this case, low-molecular-weight heparin administered in close proximity to surgery provided superior efficacy over warfarin. Major bleeding was significantly increased with the preoperative regimen but not the postoperative regimen. PMID:11342095

  11. The statistical estimation of molecular weights from normal and difference ultracentrifuge boundaries.

    PubMed

    McCallum, M A; Spragg, S P

    1972-06-01

    1. To determine molecular weights from boundary data taken from a sedimentation velocity experiment in an ultracentrifuge, the parameter s/D must be estimated. This can be obtained by using non-linear statistical methods to fit a mathematical model [the Fujita & MacCosham (1959) equation] to the results. 2. The statistical method chosen was the simplex method of Nelder & Mead (1965), which was found to be ideal for this problem. Internal errors were calculated at the end of the search for the minimum in the residuals, but in general these errors were found to not represent the overall true error of the experiment. 3. Calculations of molecular weights of myoglobin showed that instabilities at low concentrations of protein (less than 0.8mg/ml) disturbed the calculation of s/D. If 1% (w/v) sucrose was included in the solvent, these instabilities were decreased, and extrapolating to infinite time the linear function of s versus 1/(time) gave an acceptable value for s with an error of +/-4.8%. The estimates of the molecular weights were less well-defined and the mean value was low by 8%, with an estimated error of the mean of +/-3%. The conclusion was that vibration was responsible for the instabilities without sucrose. 4. The Fujita-MacCosham equation can be extended to make it possible to estimate ratios of sedimentation and molecular weights for difference boundaries. Tests using two solutions of orosomucoid in which a 2% decrease in velocity of one boundary was achieved by adding a calculated quantity of sucrose showed that the analysis gave realistic values for the two ratios, and the error for the ratio of sedimentation coefficients was +/-10%. The error was larger for the estimated ratio of the molecular weights, but the analysis gave the expected value for the ratio. PMID:5084797

  12. Ultra-drawing of gel films of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene\\/low molecular weight polymer blends containing BaTiO 3 nanoparticles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ho Sik Park; Jong Hoon Lee; Jae-Do Nam; Soo Jung Seo; Young Kwan Lee; Yong Soo Oh; Hyun-Chul Jung

    2006-01-01

    The ultra-drawing process of an ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) gel film was examined by incorporating linear\\u000a low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) and BaTiO3 nanoparticles. The effects of LLDPE and the draw ratios on the morphological development and mechanical properties of the\\u000a nanocomposite membrane systems were investigated. By incorporating BaTiO3 nanoparticles in the UHMWPE\\/LLDPE blend systems, the ultra-drawing process provided a

  13. Effects of High Molecular Weight Species on Shear-Induced Orientation and Crystallization of Isotactic Polypropylene

    SciTech Connect

    Somani,R.; Yang, L.; Hsiao, B.

    2006-01-01

    In situ rheo-SAXS (small-angle X-ray scattering) and rheo-WAXD (wide-angle X-ray diffraction) techniques were used to investigate the role of high molecular weight species on the evolution of oriented microstructure in isotactic polypropylene (iPP) melt under shear flow. The two iPP samples, designated as PP-A and PP-B, respectively, had the same number-average (M{sub n}) but different weight-average (M{sub w}) and Z-average (M{sub z}) molecular weights. Molecular weight distribution (MWD) of PP-A and PP-B was such that for MW<10{sup 5} the MWD curves overlapped; whereas in the high MW tail region, the amount of high molecular weight species was higher in PP-B than PP-A. Both samples were subjected to an identical shear condition (rate=60 s{sup -1}, duration=5 s, T=155 degC). In situ 2D SAXS and WAXD images allowed the tracking of shear-induced oriented structures in the melt. It was found that the shish structures evolved much earlier, and the degree of crystal orientation and oriented crystal fractions were higher in PP-B than PP-A. Moreover, PP-B exhibited faster crystallization kinetics than PP-A. These results, along with the predictions of double reptation models of chain motion and experimental studies of chain conformation dynamics in dilute solutions under flow, suggest the following: When a polymer melt that consists of entangled chains of different lengths is deformed, the chain segments aligned with the flow eigenvector can undergo the abrupt coil-stretch-like transition, while other segments would remain in the coiled state. Since, flow-induced orientation decays much more slowly for long chains than for short chains, oriented high molecular weight species play a prominent role in formation of the stretched sections, where shish originates. Our experimental results are strong evidence of the hypothesis that even a small increase in the concentration of high molecular weight species causes a significant increase in the formation, stability and concentration of the flow-induced oriented microstructure.

  14. Bioremediation of high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: a review of the microbial degradation of benzo[ a]pyrene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albert L. Juhasz; Ravendra Naidu

    2000-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, research on the microbial degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has resulted in the isolation of numerous genera of bacteria, fungi and algae capable of degrading low molecular weight PAHs (compounds containing three or less fused benzene rings). High molecular weight PAHs (compounds containing four or more fused benzene rings) are generally recalcitrant to microbial

  15. Identification of Low Molecular Weight Gel Separated Proteins by MALDI MS and MALDI-QqTOF MS.

    E-print Network

    Ens, Werner

    Identification of Low Molecular Weight Gel Separated Proteins by MALDI MS and MALDI-QqTOF MS. Anna proteins by high mass accuracy MALDI peptide mapping has become a powerful tool in proteomic research to identify low molecular weight proteins (MW MALDI mapping, since only a few peptides can

  16. The potential benefits of low-molecular-weight heparins in cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Cancer patients are at increased risk of venous thromboembolism due to a range of factors directly related to their disease and its treatment. Given the high incidence of post-surgical venous thromboembolism in cancer patients and the poor outcomes associated with its development, thromboprophylaxis is warranted. A number of evidence-based guidelines delineate anticoagulation regimens for venous thromboembolism treatment, primary and secondary prophylaxis, and long-term anticoagulation in cancer patients. However, many give equal weight to several different drugs and do not make specific recommendations regarding duration of therapy. In terms of their efficacy and safety profiles, practicality of use, and cost-effectiveness the low-molecular-weight heparins are at least comparable to, and offer several advantages over, other available antithrombotics in cancer patients. In addition, data are emerging that the antithrombotics, and particularly low-molecular-weight heparins, may exert an antitumor effect which could contribute to improved survival in cancer patients when given for long-term prophylaxis. Such findings reinforce the importance of thromboprophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparin in cancer patients. PMID:20074349

  17. Low molecular weight chitosan conjugated with folate for siRNA delivery in vitro: optimization studies

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Julio C; Qiu, Xingping; Winnik, Francoise M; Benderdour, Mohamed; Zhang, Xiaoling; Dai, Kerong; Shi, Qin

    2012-01-01

    The low transfection efficiency of chitosan is one of its drawbacks as a gene delivery carrier. Low molecular weight chitosan may help to form small-sized polymer-DNA or small interfering RNA (siRNA) complexes. Folate conjugation may improve gene transfection efficiency because of the promoted uptake of folate receptor-bearing cells. In the present study, chitosan was conjugated with folate and investigated for its efficacy as a delivery vector for siRNA in vitro. We demonstrate that the molecular weight of chitosan has a major influence on its biological and physicochemical properties, and very low molecular weight chitosan (below 10 kDa) has difficulty in forming stable complexes with siRNA. In this study, chitosan 25 kDa and 50 kDa completely absorbed siRNA and formed nanoparticles (?220 nm) at a chitosan to siRNA weight ratio of 50:1. The introduction of a folate ligand onto chitosan decreased nanoparticle toxicity. Compared with chitosan-siRNA, folate-chitosan-siRNA nanoparticles improved gene silencing transfection efficiency. Therefore, folate-chitosan shows potential as a viable candidate vector for safe and efficient siRNA delivery. PMID:23209368

  18. In situ analysis of melt-drawing behavior of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene films with different molecular weights: roles of entanglements on oriented crystallization.

    PubMed

    Kato, Satomi; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Yamanobe, Takeshi; Uehara, Hiroki

    2015-04-16

    Ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE) films having different molecular weights (MWs) were melt-drawn at 150 °C. The stress-strain curve for higher-MW film exhibits higher stress on the characteristic plateau region and a subsequent steeper increase of stress due to strain hardening. Structural changes during such melt-drawing were analyzed using in situ wide-angle X-ray diffraction measurements. Hexagonal crystallization occurs at the beginning of the plateau region, independent of the sample MW. Once this hexagonal reflection intensity is saturated, it remains constant even at the later stage of draw. In contrast, orthorhombic reflection intensities gradually increase with increasing draw strain. Both of these oriented crystallizations into plateau hexagonal and increasing orthorhombic forms are accelerated with increasing MW. Correspondingly, the higher amount of extended chain crystals (ECCs) was confirmed from morphological observation for the resultant melt-drawn films of the higher-MW sample. Deep entanglements can effectively transmit the applied stress; thus, the oriented amorphous melts induce rapid hexagonal crystallization with disentangling shallow entanglements, which subsequently transforms into orthorhombic form. Such hexagonal crystallization plays the role of a thermodynamic pathway for growing such ECCs, where the stable orthorhombic form gradually accumulates with increasing draw strain. PMID:25785561

  19. Molecular-weight distributions of coal and petroleum asphaltenes from laser desorption/ionization experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ana R. Hortal; Paola Hurtado; Bruno Martinez-Haya; Oliver C. Mullins [Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Seville (Spain). Departamento de Sistemas Fisicos, Quimicos y Naturales

    2007-09-15

    Molecular-weight distributions (MWDs) of asphaltenes extracted from coal and petroleum have been measured in laser desorption/ionization (LDI) mass spectrometric experiments. The dried-droplet and solvent-free sample preparation methods are compared. The coal asphaltenes have a relatively narrow MWD (full width 150 amu) with an average molecular weight of 340 amu. The petroleum asphaltenes display a broader MWD (full width 300 amu) and are heavier on average (680 amu). The LDI spectra also provide evidence for the formation of noncovalent clusters of the two types of asphaltenes during the desorption process. Petroleum and coal asphaltenes exhibit aggregation as do large model polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with five or more fused rings also included in the study. Smaller PAHs (pyrene) exhibit less aggregation, especially when alkane-chain substituents are incorporated to the molecular structure. This indicates that asphaltenes possess large PAHs and, according to the relatively small molecular weights observed, that there is a preponderance of asphaltene molecules with only a single fused ring system. The coal asphaltenes present a significantly smaller propensity toward aggregation than their crude oil counterparts. This finding, coupled with the fact that (1) alkanes inhibit aggregation in LDI and (2) petroleum asphaltenes possess much more alkane carbon, indicates that coal asphaltenes have smaller PAHs on average than petroleum asphaltenes. This is further corroborated by the stronger ultraviolet absorbance of the coal asphaltenes at wavelengths shorter than 400 nm. 32 refs., 8 figs.

  20. Low molecular weight oligomers of amyloid peptides display ?-barrel conformations: A replica exchange molecular dynamics study in explicit solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Simone, Alfonso; Derreumaux, Philippe

    2010-04-01

    The self-assembly of proteins and peptides into amyloid fibrils is connected to over 40 pathological conditions including neurodegenerative diseases and systemic amyloidosis. Diffusible, low molecular weight protein and peptide oligomers that form in the early steps of aggregation appear to be the harmful cytotoxic species in the molecular etiology of these diseases. So far, the structural characterization of these oligomers has remained elusive owing to their transient and dynamic features. We here address, by means of full atomistic replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations, the energy landscape of heptamers of the amyloidogenic peptide NHVTLSQ from the beta-2 microglobulin protein. The simulations totaling 5 ?s show that low molecular weight oligomers in explicit solvent consist of ?-barrels in equilibrium with amorphous states and fibril-like assemblies. The results, also accounting for the influence of the pH on the conformational properties, provide a strong evidence of the formation of transient ?-barrel assemblies in the early aggregation steps of amyloid-forming systems. Our findings are discussed in terms of oligomers cytotoxicity.

  1. Relationship between molecular weight of poly(ethylene)glycol and intermolecular interaction of Taka-amylase A monomers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuo Onuma; Naoki Furubayashi; Fujiko Shibata; Yoshiko Kobayashi; Sachiko Kaito; Yuki Ohnishi; Koji Inaka

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic and static light scattering investigations of Taka-amylase A (TAA) protein monomers were done using solutions containing poly(ethylene)glycol (PEG) with molecular weights of 1500, 4000, 8000, and 20000. The anomalies observed in a previous study using a weight of 8000, in which the hydrodynamic TAA monomer radius at a zero protein concentration and the molecular weight of the monomers decreased

  2. Demulsification of bitumen emulsions with a high molecular weight mixed alkylene oxide polyol

    SciTech Connect

    Gipson, R.M.; Mccoy, D.R.; Young, K.B.

    1982-03-23

    A process for recovering bitumen from oil-in-water (O/w) emulsions is disclosed wherein water soluble demulsifiers are used. These demulsifiers are polyols of 2 and greater functionality containing predominantly mixed ethylene oxide and propylene oxide wherein the ethylene oxide content of the polyol (by weight) is greater than about 70% but less than about 95%. The molecular weight of these polyols is greater than about 10, to resolve the bituminous petroleum emulsions, the process is carried out between 25 and 1200 c wherein the demulsifier of the invention is contacted with the bituminous emulsion.

  3. An Efficient and Accurate Car-Parrinello-like Approach to Born-Oppenheimer Molecular Dynamics

    E-print Network

    Thomas D. Kühne; Matthias Krack; Fawzi R. Mohamed; Michele Parrinello

    2006-12-20

    We present a new method which combines Car-Parrinello and Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics in order to accelerate density functional theory based ab-initio simulations. Depending on the system a gain in efficiency of one to two orders of magnitude has been observed, which allows ab-initio molecular dynamics of much larger time and length scales than previously thought feasible. It will be demonstrated that the dynamics is correctly reproduced and that high accuracy can be maintained throughout for systems ranging from insulators to semiconductors and even to metals in condensed phases. This development considerably extends the scope of ab-initio simulations.

  4. Flow Induced Crystallization in Model Polyethylene Blends: Molecular Weight Effect of the Matrix

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ling Yang; Rajesh Somani; Igors Sics; Benjamin Hsiao; Rainer Kolb; David Lohse; Christine Ong; Hitesh Fruitwala

    2003-01-01

    In this study, the effect of chain lengths on shear-induced crystallization in polyethylene melts was studied by in-situ rheo-SAXS (small-angle X-ray scattering) and rheo-WAXD (wide-angle X-ray diffraction) techniques. Two model polyethylene blends MB-50k\\/MB-250k(90\\/10) and MB-100k\\/MB-250k(90\\/10) were prepared by solution blending of 10 wt% of high molecular weight homopolymer PE (Mw = 250,000, MWD = 2) and 90% of low molecular

  5. A mathematical programming for predicting molecular formulas in accurate mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shefali Kumar; Mohit Kumar; Regina Stoll; Kerstin Thurow

    2010-01-01

    The prediction of correct molecular formulas in mass spectra is a challenge since a large number of chemically possible candidate formulas are obtained in higher mass regions. This study presents a neural network based mathematical programming approach to reduce the search of candidate formulas to a smaller volume in the chemical space of given constituent elements. The approach consists of

  6. Role of Laccase and Low Molecular Weight Metabolites from Trametes versicolor in Dye Decolorization

    PubMed Central

    Moldes, Diego; Fernández-Fernández, María; Sanromán, M. Ángeles

    2012-01-01

    The studies regarding decolorization of dyes by laccase may not only inform about the possible application of this enzyme for environmental purposes, but also may provide important information about its reaction mechanism and the influence of several factors that could be involved. In this paper, decolorization of crystal violet and phenol red was carried out with different fractions of extracellular liquids from Trametes versicolor cultures, in order to describe the role of laccase in this reaction. Moreover, the possible role of the low molecular weight metabolites (LMWMs) also produced by the fungus was evaluated. The results confirm the existence of a nonenzymatic decolorization factor, since the nonprotein fraction of the extracellular liquids from cultures of T. versicolor has shown decolorization capability. Several experiments were performed in order to identify the main compounds related to this ability, which are probably low molecular weight peroxide compounds. PMID:22566767

  7. Occurrence of low molecular weight O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Yamagata, S

    1980-11-01

    Studies with crude preparations obtained from a cysteine auxotroph of Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed that O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase could be separated from O-acetylhomoserine sulfhydrylase by chromatography on a DEAE-cellulose column and centrifugation in a sucrose density gradient. On the basis of sedimentation distance, the molecular weights of these enzymes were calculated to be about 99,000 and 182,000, respectively. The former did not react with the amino acid substrate of the latter, and vice versa. The wild-type strain was also demonstrated to possess O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase (molecular weight: about 96,000), in addition to a large amount of O-acetylserine-O-acetylhomoserine sulfhydrylase (Yamagata et al. (1974) J. Biochem. 75, 1221). PMID:7007360

  8. Low-molecular weight heparin: treatment failure in a patient with primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Shahid; Karim, Anita; Patel, Dilip; Siddiqui, Rina; Mattana, Joseph

    2002-11-01

    Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is an acquired autoimmune disorder characterized by vascular thrombosis and/or recurrent pregnancy losses along with laboratory evidence of antiphospholipid antibodies. Anticoagulation rather than immunosuppression is the mainstay of treatment. Despite the effectiveness of oral anticoagulation for the prevention of recurrent thromboembolic episodes, thrombotic complications in the setting of apparently therapeutic oral anticoagulation have been observed; this may at times be due to difficulties in maintaining a consistently therapeutic level of anticoagulation. Low-molecular-weight heparin has been a useful alternative for long-term anticoagulation when there is difficulty in managing oral anticoagulant therapy and has the advantage of a consistent anticoagulant effect. In this report, we describe a woman with primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome who developed extensive pulmonary embolism despite receiving a proven therapeutic dosage of low molecular weight heparin. PMID:12449450

  9. Degradation of high-molecular-weight hyaluronan by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of cupric ions.

    PubMed

    Soltés, Ladislav; Brezová, Vlasta; Stankovská, Monika; Kogan, Grigorij; Gemeiner, Peter

    2006-04-10

    Dynamic viscosity (eta) of the high-molecular-weight hyaluronan (HA) solution was measured by a Brookfield rotational viscometer equipped with a Teflon cup and spindle of coaxial cylindrical geometry. The decrease of eta of the HA solution, indicating degradation of the biopolymer, was induced by a system containing H2O2 alone or H2O2 plus CuCl2. The reaction system H2O2 plus CuCl2 as investigated by EPR spin-trapping technique revealed the formation of a four-line EPR signal characteristic of a *DMPO-OH spin adduct. Thus, hydroxyl radicals are implicated in degradation of high-molecular-weight HA by the system containing H2O2 and CuCl2. PMID:16445893

  10. High molecular weight acidic polysaccharides from Malva sylvestris and Alcea rosea.

    PubMed

    Classen, B; Blaschek, W

    1998-10-01

    Leaves and flowers of Malva sylvestris and Alcea rosea (Malvaceae) were compared by determination of the swelling index as well as the content and viscosity of their mucilages. The investigations showed mucilage from flowers of Alcea to be superior to mucilages from leaves or flowers from Malva. High molecular weight acidic polysaccharides (HMWAPs) were isolated from the mucilages of leaves and flowers of both species. The molecular weight of all HMWAPs was in a range of 1.3 to 1.6 x 10(6) D. HMWAP-content in mucilage from flowers of Alcea was highest compared to content in mucilages from leaves or flowers from Malva. HMWAPs were found to be composed mainly of glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, rhamnose and galactose. Methylation analysis of the carboxyl-reduced and deuterium labeled sugar derivatives of HMWAPs from flowers of Malva sylvestris ssp. mauritiana and Alcea rosea enabled elucidation of the principal structural features of both polysaccharides. PMID:9810269

  11. HPMA-oligolysine copolymers for gene delivery: optimization of peptide length and polymer molecular weight

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Russell N.; Chu, David S. H.; Shi, Julie; Schellinger, Joan G.; Carlson, Peter M.; Pun, Suzie H.

    2011-01-01

    Polycations are one of the most frequently used classes of materials for non-viral gene transfer in vivo. Several studies have demonstrated a sensitive relationship between polymer structure and delivery activity. In this work, we used reverse addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization to build a panel of N-(2-hydroxypropyl(methacrylamide) (HPMA)-oligolysine copolymers with varying peptide length and polymer molecular weight. The panel was screened for optimal DNA-binding, colloidal stability in salt, high transfection efficiency, and low cytotoxicity. Increasing polyplex stability in PBS correlated with increasing polymer molecular weight and decreasing peptide length. Copolymers containing K5 and K10 oligocations transfected cultured cells with significantly higher efficiencies than copolymers of K15. Four HPMA-oligolysine copolymers were identified that met desired criteria. Polyplexes formed with these copolymers demonstrated both salt stability and transfection efficiencies on-par with poly(ethylenimine) PEI in cultured cells. PMID:21782863

  12. Simulated dynamic response of a multi-stage compressor with variable molecular weight flow medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babcock, Dale A.

    1995-01-01

    A mathematical model of a multi-stage compressor with variable molecular weight flow medium is derived. The modeled system consists of a five stage, six cylinder, double acting, piston type compressor. Each stage is followed by a water cooled heat exchanger which serves to transfer the heat of compression from the gas. A high molecular weight gas (CFC-12) mixed with air in varying proportions is introduced to the suction of the compressor. Condensation of the heavy gas may occur in the upper stage heat exchangers. The state equations for the system are integrated using the Advanced Continuous Simulation Language (ACSL) for determining the system's dynamic and steady state characteristics under varying operating conditions.

  13. Sorption and permeation of low molecular weight volatile compounds in polypropylene 

    E-print Network

    Vidal, Antonio Ramiro Santiago

    1991-01-01

    there is no interaction between the polymer and the penetrant molecules. The permeability coefficient is the combination of the diffusion coefficient (D) and solubility coefficient (S). They are 8 related as follows: P DS The diffusion coefficient is associated... with the velocity of propagation of the permeant molecules, and the solubility coefficient reflects the degree of affinity between the permeant molecules and the polymer. 9 The list of factors influencing sorption and permeation of low molecular weight organic...

  14. Molecular weight distribution for NOM in different drinking water treatment processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong An; Jia-xiu Song; Wei Gao; Guo-guang Chen; Nai-yun Gao

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to analyze molecular weight (MW) distribution in different drinking water treatment processes, and to find out the relationship between dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and disinfection by-products formation potential (DBPFP) in treated water. The results showed that in conventional water treatment, compared with similar methods, namely chlorination (Cl2) and potassium permanganate (KMnO4), pre-ozonation can reduce

  15. Molecular weight distribution of proteinaceous material in Long Island Sound sediments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvio Pantoja; Cindy Lee

    1999-01-01

    Abstract Proteinaceous material usually accounts for much,of the total nitrogen and organic carbon in marine sediments. Thus, decomposition of protein is frequently investigated as a measure of labile organic matter turnover. The fraction of protein that escapes remineralization to CO2 undergoes,transformations that may,reflect pathways,of preservation in sedimentary,environments. We analyzed,the molecular weight distribution of sedimentary,proteinaceous,material extracted with NaOH and evaluated the

  16. Development and molecular-weight issues on the lithographic performance of poly (methyl methacrylate)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Olzierski; I. Raptis

    2004-01-01

    The effect of methyl isobutyl ketone, MIBK:IPA, IPA:H2O developers and the molecular-weight on the dissolution mechanism and on the overall lithographic performance of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) was studied. PMMA sensitivity decreases monotonically as MIBK relative concentration decreases. For isopropyl alcohol (IPA) concentration in the 60–90% range (IPA:H2O solutions) the contrast and sensitivity values are very high and almost similar.

  17. High-molecular weight protein toxins of marine invertebrates and their elaborate modes of action

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Butzke; Andreas Luch

    \\u000a High-molecular weight protein toxins significantly contribute to envenomations by certain marine invertebrates, e.g., jellyfish\\u000a and fire corals. Toxic proteins frequently evolved from enzymes meant to be employed primarily for digestive purposes. The\\u000a cellular intermediates produced by such enzymatic activity, e.g., reactive oxygen species or lysophospholipids, rapidly and\\u000a effectively mediate cell death by disrupting cellular integrity. Membrane integrity may also be

  18. Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin Prophylaxis: Preoperative Versus Postoperative Initiation in Patients Undergoing Elective Hip Surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Russell D. Hull; Graham F. Pineo; Susan MacIsaac

    2001-01-01

    Administration of low-molecular-weight heparin prophylaxis in elective hip implant patients commonly begins 12 h preoperatively in European practices to optimize effectiveness, and 12 to 24 h postoperatively in North American practices to optimize safety. A meta-analysis comparing these two treatment regimes revealed that preoperative initiation demonstrated greater efficacy and superior safety for patients (10.0% rate of total deep-vein thrombosis vs.

  19. Metachromatic behavior: Influence of the molecular weights of chitosan in thionine-sodium dodecyl sulfate system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sung-Hyun Kim

    2009-01-01

    Chitosans having three molecular weights (4.0×104, 8.0×104, and 16.0×104Da) were isolated by an ultrasonic degradation of chitin obtained from crab shell wastes and used to determine a metachromic behavior from the effect of aggregation characteristics. The metachromatic behaviors of thionine (Th)-sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), Th-SDS-chitosan system were investigated by the absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy.For SDS\\/Th<40, the order of decrease of

  20. Renal filtration, transport, and metabolism of low-molecular-weight proteins: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Maack; Valerie Johnson; Sen T Kau; Jose Figueiredo; Daniel Sigulem

    1979-01-01

    Low-molecular-weight proteins are a heterogenous group of substances which constitute a small but biologically important fraction of total circulating proteins. The group comprises enzymes (for example, ribonuclease, lysozyme), immuno-proteins (for example, light chains of immunoglobulins, ?2 microglobulin), and peptide-hormones (for example, insulin, growth hormone, parathyroid hormone). Despite general recognition that the kidneys play an important role in the plasma turnover

  1. Production of chloroform and other low molecular-weight halocarbons by some species of macroalgae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. D. NIGHTINGALE; G. MALIN; P. S. LISS

    1995-01-01

    The production of volatile low-molecular-weight halocarbons by macroalgae was investigated at a site on the west coast of Scotland. Levels of CH31, CH,Br,, CHBr,, CHBr,Cl, CHBrCl,, and CHC13 were elevated in beds of Laminaria digitata. Storage tests on 11 common species of brown, green, and red seaweeds indicated release of some or all of these compounds. Estimates of production rates

  2. Extraction of rare earths and yttrium with high molecular weight carboxylic acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. K. Singh; H. Singh; J. N. Mathur

    2006-01-01

    The extraction behaviour of trivalent rare earths namely La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy and Ho including Y (M(III), where M represents rare earths and yttrium ) from chloride medium has been studied with the solutions of high molecular weight carboxylic acids such as cekanoic, naphthenic, neo-heptanoic and Versatic 10 in dodecane. The effects of equilibrium pH, extractant concentration,

  3. Extraction of rare earth elements by high molecular weight amines from nitric acid solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Milyukova; N. S. Varezhkina; B. F. Myasoedov

    1986-01-01

    Extraction of trivalent rare earth elements by a high molecular weight primary amine \\/decylamine\\/ from 0.5–3M nitric acid solutions, containing potassium phosphotungstate \\/K10P2W17O61\\/, has been investigated. The effect of nitric acid and potassium phosphotungstate concentration of the organic solvent, and lanthanides ionic radii upon distribution coefficients has been studied. It has been established that decylamine solutions in chloroform can be

  4. Determination of average molecular weight of commercial surfactants: Alkylpolyglucosides and fatty alcohol ethoxylates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Bravo Rodriguez; E. Jurado Alameda; A. Reyes Requena; A. I. Garcia López; R. Bailón-Moreno; M. Cuevas Aranda

    2005-01-01

    A quick and simple method, based on elemental and moisture analyses, is proposed for estimating the mean molecular weight\\u000a of alkylpolyglucosides and fatty alcohol ethoxylates, which are nonionic surfactants that are attracting growing interest\\u000a for their ease of biodegradation. Analyses for the water content and the elemental composition were carried out for three\\u000a alkylpolyglucosides (Henkel-Cognis): Glucopon 215, Glucopon 600, and

  5. Improved wear resistance of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene by plasma immersion ion implantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Shi; X. Y. Li; H. Dong

    2001-01-01

    Surface modification of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) has been explored using the novel non-line-of-slight plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) with nitrogen. The modified surfaces were characterised by SEM and a Nano Test 600 testing machine. The tribological behaviour of PIII treated UHMWPE sliding against AISI 316L stainless steel counterfaces was evaluated using a pin-on-disc tribometer under water lubricated conditions.

  6. Chemical composition and nutrient profile of low molecular weight fraction of bovine colostrum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott Christiansen; Mingruo Guo; Derek Kjelden

    2010-01-01

    Bovine colostrum collected within 12 h of parturition was de-fatted, de-caseinated, and ultrafiltered (UF) using a 5 kDa cut-off membrane; the resulting UF permeate was freeze dried to create a powder with possible use as a functional food ingredient. Samples representative of five lots of this powdered “colostrum low molecular weight fraction” (CLMWF) were analyzed for chemical composition and nutrient profile. The

  7. Nanometer size wear debris generated from ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene in vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Lapcikova; M. Slouf; J. Dybal; E. Zolotarevova; G. Entlicher; D. Pokorny; J. Gallo; A. Sosna

    Ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) has been used as a bearing material in total joint replacements (TJR) for\\u000a more than forty years. The success of UHMWPE in TJRs consists in its good biocompatibility, very good friction properties,\\u000a satisfactory mechanical performance and high wear resistance. Nevertheless, the friction between the polymer and metallic\\/ceramics\\u000a components of TJR produces UHMWPE wear particles, which

  8. A study of the tribological behavior of carbon-nanotube-reinforced ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Wei; Ya-Pu Zhao; S. L. Ruan; P. Gao; T. X. Yu

    2006-01-01

    The tribological properties of the high-strength and high-modulus ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) film and the UHMWPE composites reinforced by multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT\\/UHMWPE) were investigated using a nanoindenter and atomic force microscope (AFM). The MWCNT\\/UHMWPE composites films exhibited not only high wear resistance but also a low friction coefficient compared to the pure UHMWPE films. We attribute the high

  9. Delamination and Adhesive Wear Behavior of ?-Tocopherol–Stabilized Irradiated Ultrahigh-Molecular-Weight Polyethylene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith K. Wannomae; Steven D. Christensen; Brad R. Micheli; Shannon L. Rowell; Dave W. Schroeder; Orhun K. Muratoglu

    2010-01-01

    Wear and delamination of conventional ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) components used in total knee arthroplasty can compromise long-term performance. Radiation cross-linking and melt-annealing reduced wear and increased delamination resistance of UHMWPE. An alternative material is the ?-tocopherol–stabilized irradiated UHMWPE (?TPE), with improved mechanical and fatigue properties vs irradiated and melted UHMWPE. We studied the wear and delamination resistance of ?TPE and

  10. Friction, Wear, Transfer, and Wear Surface Morphology of Ultrahigh-Molecular-Weight Polyethylene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert L. Fusaro

    1985-01-01

    Tribological studies at 25°C in a 50 percent relative-humidity air atmosphere were conducted using hemispherically tipped 440C HT (high temperature) stainless steel pins sliding against ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) disks. The results indicate that sliding speed, sliding distance, contact stress, and specimen geometry can markedly affect friction, UHMWPE wear, UHMWPE transfer, and the type of wear mechanisms that occur. Adhesion appears

  11. Knee Simulator Wear of Vitamin E Stabilized Irradiated Ultrahigh Molecular Weight Polyethylene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brad R. Micheli; Keith K. Wannomae; Andrew J. Lozynsky; Steven D. Christensen; Orhun K. Muratoglu

    Wear and damage of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) tibial inserts used in total knee arthroplasty are accelerated by oxidation. Radiation crosslinking reduces wear but produces residual free radicals adversely affecting stability. One alternative to stabilize radiation-crosslinked UHMWPE is to infuse the material with vitamin E (vit E). We investigated the properties of 100-kGy e-beam–irradiated UHMWPE that was subsequently doped

  12. Surface texture and micromechanics of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) orthopaedic implant bearings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monica A. Schmidt

    2001-01-01

    Tibial bearings of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) were characterized to identify differences in morphology, surface texture (roughness and skewness), and micro-scale mechanical behavior. These orthopaedic implant components were fabricated by direct molding or by machining after isostatic compression molding. Sterilization was by gamma irradiation (3.3 Mrad) in air, followed by shelf aging for 2 years. Comparisons were made between

  13. Biotribological behavior of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene composites containing bovine bone hydroxyapatite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin-long LIU; Yuan-yuan ZHU; Qing-liang WANG; Shi-rong GE

    2008-01-01

    Wear particles of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) are the main cause of long-term failure of total joint replacements. Therefore, increasing its wear resistance or bioactivity will be very useful in order to obtain high quality artificial joints. In our study, UHMWPE composites filled with the bovine bone hydroxyapatite (BHA) were prepared by the method of compression moulding. A ball-on-disc

  14. Effects of contact area and stress on the volumetric wear of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Mazzucco; Myron Spector

    2003-01-01

    The effects of contact area and contact stress on the wear of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (PE) articulating with a polished surface of cobalt–chromium alloy were evaluated using a pin-on-disk apparatus implementing bi-directional movement. Within a relevant range of contact stresses, volumetric wear rate increased with increasing contact area. Volumetric wear was found to be independent of normal load within

  15. Location of nodulation and nitrogen fixation genes on a high molecular weight plasmid of R. meliloti

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Bánfalvi; V. Sakanyan; C. Koncz; A. Kiss; I. Dusha; A. Kondorosi

    1981-01-01

    R. meliloti strain 41 (Rm41) was shown to harbour two indigenous plasmids with molecular weights of 140 Mdal (pRmc41a) and more than 300 Mdal (pRme41b), respectively. Using a heat-treatment procedure, derivatives of Rm41 defective in nodulation (Nod-) or nitrogen fixation (Fix-) have been readily obtained. In some Nod- mutants the deletion of a segment of plasmid pRme41b was found.

  16. Mutations in CLCN5 Chloride Channel in Japanese Patients with Low Molecular Weight Proteinuria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TETSUJI MORIMOTO; SHINICHI UCHIDA; HISATO SAKAMOTO; YOSHIAKI KONDO; HIROSHI HANAMIZU; MITSUMINE FUKUI; YASUHIKO TOMINO; NAOKO NAGANO; FUMIAKI MARUMO

    Mutations in the CLCN5 gene have been demon- strated in three disorders of hypercalciurie nephrolithiasis, i.e., Dent's disease, X-linked recessive nephrobithiasis, and X-linked recessive hypophosphatemie rickets. Recently, a number of Japanese children with low molecular weight pro- teinuria (LMWP) showing symptoms similar to those shown by patients with Dent's disease in British families have also been reported to have mutations

  17. Scaling of high-pressure viscosity data in low-molecular-weight glass-forming liquids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Paluch; Z. Dendzik; S. J. Rzoska

    1999-01-01

    We discuss the phenomenology related to the pressure behavior of viscosity in low-molecular-weight glass-forming liquids. We show that the effect of pressure on viscosity in two examined glass-forming systems, salol and ortho-terphenyl, can be satisfactorily described, over considerable ranges of pressure (up to 1 GPa) and temperature (300-425 K), by the two-parameter pressure law which has been proposed previously for

  18. High molecular weight copolymers of l-lactide and ?-caprolactone as biodegradable elastomeric implant materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. W. Grijpma; G. J. Zondervan; A. J. Pennings

    1991-01-01

    High molecular weight copolymers of L-lactide and e-caprolactone have been synthesized by ring opening copolymerization with stannous octoate as catalyst. The good mechanical properties of the 50\\/50 copolymers make it a suitable material for biomedical applications such as nerve guides etc., where degradation of the elastomeric implant is required. In contrast to the frequently used MDI containing polyurethanes, degradation products

  19. Role of Gas Pressure and Molecular Weight in Bubble Pinch-Off from an Underwater Nozzle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathan C. Keim; Sidney R. Nagel

    2008-01-01

    We report on experiments that explore the role of gas pressure and molecular weight near the pinch-off of an air bubble from an nozzle submerged in water. We use high-speed video to image the dynamics close to the singularity occurring at pinch-off. As the neck collapses to a radius of several microns, the effects of the Bernoulli pressure associated with

  20. Light-induced conversion of refractory, high molecular weight lake water constituents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annette Geller

    1985-01-01

    High molecular weight DOM (apparent mol wt. ?1500) was isolated from lake water, both in summer and in winter. Sephadex G-15\\u000a gel permeation chromatography with 0.02 M phosphate buffer yielded one peak. Elution with distilled water gave rise to distinct\\u000a smaller sized subfractions. It was concluded that these compounds are weakly bound subunits of the macromolecules, which are\\u000a liberated on

  1. Characterization of three low-molecular-weight Glu-D3 subunit genes in common wheat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. L. Zhao; X. C. Xia; Z. H. He; K. R. Gale; Z. S. Lei; R. Appels; W. Ma

    2006-01-01

    Low-molecular-weight glutenins (LMW-GS) in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) are of great importance for processing quality of pan bread and noodles. The objectives of this study are to identify LMW-GS coding genes at GluD3 locus on chromosome 1D and to establish relationships between these genes and GluD3 alleles (a, b, c, d, and e) defined by protein electrophoretic mobility. Specific

  2. Physical properties of low molecular weight triglycerides for the development of bio-diesel fuel models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John W. Goodrum; Mark A. Eiteman

    1996-01-01

    To aid the improvement of fuel properties of oils, basic physical and combustion-related properties of low molecular weight triglycerides are described. These properties include density, viscosity, heat capacity, surface tension and vapor pressure. Fuel injection atomization factors were determined for these triglycerides. Properties of tributyrin (C4:0), tricaproin (C6:0), tricaprylin (C8:0) and tricaprin (C10:0) indicate that these triglycerides are potential components

  3. Solubility and molecular weight of hemicelluloses from Alnus incana and Alnus glutinosa. Effect of tree age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatiana Bikova; Arnis Treimanis

    2002-01-01

    The xylems of Alnus incana Moench. and Alnus glutinosa Gaertn. 8-15-year-old trees were subjected to comparative studies regarding the molecular weight (MW) of hemicelluloses. Extraction of hemicelluloses according to the sequence 1% NaOH-10% KOH-18% NaOH, followed by direct analysis of each extract using the SEC\\/UV method, was applied aiming at simultaneous quantitative and MW analysis. Both the tree age and

  4. Polyethylene pyrolysis: Theory and experiments for molecular-weight-distribution kinetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naime A. Sezgi; Wang S. Cha; J. M. Smith; Ben J. McCoy

    1998-01-01

    A novel reactor for pyrolysis of a polyethylene melt stirred by bubbles of flowing nitrogen gas at atmospheric pressure permits uniform-temperature depolymerization. Sweep-gas experiments at temperatures 370--410 C allowed pyrolysis products to be collected separately as reactor residue (solidified polyethylene melt), condensed vapor, and uncondensed gas products. Molecular-weight distributions (MWDs) determined by gel permeation chromatography indicated that random scission and

  5. Simultaneous stress and birefringence measurements during uniaxial elongation of polystyrene melts with narrow molecular weight distribution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clarisse Luap; Christian Müller; Thomas Schweizer; David C. Venerus

    2005-01-01

    Tensile stress and flow-induced birefringence have been measured during uniaxial elongation at a constant strain rate of two polystyrene melts with narrow molecular weight distribution. For both melts, the stress- optical rule (SOR) is found to be fulfilled upto a critical stress of 2.7 MPa, independent of strain rate and temperature. Estimation of the Rouse times of the melts, from both

  6. Production of colloidally stable latices from low molecular weight ethylene–propylene–diene copolymers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Delphine L Tillier; Jan Meuldijk; Cor E Koning

    2003-01-01

    The best impact modifiers for coatings and engineering plastics include fixed morphology core-shell particles. For the present work, ethylene–propylene copolymers (EPM) and ethylene–propylene–diene copolymers (EPDM) were chosen, for their good resistance to stringent conditions, like UV-irradiation or high temperatures, to prepare the core of the desired particles.The solution-emulsification technique was used to produce artificial latices based on low molecular weight

  7. Topical delivery of low-molecular-weight heparin with surface-charged flexible liposomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yun-Kyoung Song; Chong-Kook Kim

    2006-01-01

    To increase topical delivery of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH), cationic, neutral, and anionic flexible liposomes (cFlexosome, nFlexosome, and aFlexosome) were prepared. The effects of surface charge of Flexosome on physicochemical properties and skin penetration of LMWH were also investigated. Among the different formulations of Flexosome, cFlexosome demonstrated three-times higher entrapment efficiency of LMWH, and better physicochemical stability than nFlexosome and aFlexosome.

  8. Evaluation of circulation profiles of liposomes coated with hydrophilic polymers having different molecular weights in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hirofumi Takeuchi; Hiroyuki Kojima; Hiromitsu Yamamoto; Yoshiaki Kawashima

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the circulating properties of liposomes coated with modified polyvinyl alcohol (PVA-R) having different molecular weights (6000, 9000 and 20?000). The size controlled liposomes (egg phosphatidylcholine (or distearoylphosphatidylcholine):cholesterol=7:3 in a molar ratio) were prepared by the hydration method followed by sonication. Polymer coated liposomes were prepared by just mixing the resultant liposomal suspension

  9. Isotope labeling strategies for the study of high-molecular-weight proteins by solution NMR spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vitali Tugarinov; Voula Kanelis; Lewis E Kay

    2006-01-01

    The development of isotope labeling methodology has had a significant impact on NMR studies of high-molecular-weight proteins and macromolecular complexes. Here we review some of this methodology that has been developed and used in our laboratory. In particular, experimental protocols are described for the production of highly deuterated, uniformly 15N- and 13C-labeled samples of large proteins, with optional incorporation of

  10. Tandem Organic Photovoltaic Cells Based on Low-Molecular-Weight Semiconductors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tetsuya Taima; Toshihiro Yamanari; Jun Sakai; Yuji Yoshida

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the power conversion efficiency (\\\\mathit{PCE}) of organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells has been improved through increased photocurrent density. To further increase \\\\mathit{PCE}, open circuit voltage (Voc) should also be increased. Here, we report tandem OPV cells based on low-molecular-weight semiconductors evaporated in vacuum. The tandem system produced a high Voc that is proportional to the number of tandem OPV cells.

  11. Doping effects for organic photovoltaic cells based on small-molecular-weight semiconductors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tetsuya Taima; Jun Sakai; Toshihiro Yamanari; Kazuhiro Saito

    2009-01-01

    We have studied highly efficient organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells based on small-molecular-weight semiconductors: zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) and C60. To improve the efficiency furthermore, open-circuit voltage (Voc) has to be increased. We reported that 5,6,11,12-tetraphenylnaphthacene (rubrene) produces the highest Voc of 0.91V by p–n heterojunction OPV cells with C60. In this paper, we report rubrene doping effects for OPV cells based

  12. Low-molecular weight organic composition of acid water from coconut oil soapstock

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arunthathi Sivasothy; Peter J. Reilly

    1996-01-01

    Soapstock from alkaline refining of coconut oil was acidified, and the resulting acid water after neutralization was subjected\\u000a to gas chromatography, electron-ionization and chemical-ionization mass spectroscopy, and high-performance liquid chromatography.\\u000a The chief low-molecular weight organic components were C4?C18 fatty acids, hydroxylated acids, and sugar alcohols. The prevalence of acids and total absence of phosphate compounds make\\u000a coconut acid water different

  13. Molecular weight dependence of polyethylene glycol penetration across acetone-disrupted permeability barrier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Tsai; P. L. Hung; H. M. Sheu

    2001-01-01

    \\u000a Abstract Previous studies have demonstrated that permeability barrier disruption by acetone treatment significantly enhances skin\\u000a permeability to both hydrophilic and amphipathic compounds, but not to highly lipophilic compounds. The purpose of the present\\u000a study was to investigate the dependence of permeability on molecular weight (MW) in acetone-disrupted hairless mouse skin\\u000a in contrast to normal skin. Penetration of polyethylene glycol (PEG)

  14. Efficient and Accurate Car-Parrinello-like Approach to Born-Oppenheimer Molecular Dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas D. Kühne; Matthias Krack; Fawzi R. Mohamed; Michele Parrinello

    2007-01-01

    We present a new method which combines Car-Parrinello and Born-Oppenheimer\\u000amolecular dynamics in order to accelerate density functional theory based\\u000aab-initio simulations. Depending on the system a gain in efficiency of one to\\u000atwo orders of magnitude has been observed, which allows ab-initio molecular\\u000adynamics of much larger time and length scales than previously thought\\u000afeasible. It will be demonstrated

  15. Mesoporous Silica Chips for Selective Enrichment and Stabilization of Low Molecular Weight Proteome

    PubMed Central

    Bouamrani, Ali; Hu, Ye; Tasciotti, Ennio; Li, Li; Chiappini, Ciro; Liu, Xuewu; Ferrari, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    The advanced properties of mesoporous silica have been demonstrated in applications which include chemical sensing, filtration, catalysis, drug-delivery and selective biomolecular uptake. These properties depend on the architectural, physical and chemical properties of the material, which in turn are determined by the processing parameters in evaporation-induced self-assembly. In this study, we introduce a combinatorial approach for the removal of the high molecular weight proteins and for the specific isolation and enrichment of low molecular weight species. This approach is based on Mesoporous Silica Chips able to fractionate, selectively harvest and protect from enzymatic degradation, peptides and proteins present in complex human biological fluids. We present the characterization of the harvesting properties of a wide range of mesoporous chips using a library of peptides and proteins standard and their selectivity on the recovery of serum peptidome. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, we established the correlation between the harvesting specificity and the physico-chemical properties of mesoporous silica surfaces. The introduction of this mesoporous material with fine controlled properties will provide a powerful platform for proteomics application offering a rapid and efficient methodology for low molecular weight biomarker discovery. PMID:20013801

  16. IR-MALDI of low molecular weight compounds using a free electron laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, Wayne P.; Park, Hee K.; Yavas, Oguz; Haglund, R. F.

    1998-05-01

    Initial experiments on infrared matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (IR-MALDI) using a free electron laser in the analysis of low-molecular-weight compounds are reported. Mass spectra from samples of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) and a phosphate salt were obtained. Low molecular weight (LMW) compounds are of similar mass as the molecular weight of the matrix compound and interference between matrix and analyte ions can degrade MALDI sensitivity. Under optimal conditions, however, we find little interference and that often the analyte signal exceeds the matrix signal, a result also observed in UV-MALDI of these compounds. In the IR-MALDI of EDTA near 3.0 ?m the FEL results are similar to those obtained using a fixed frequency 2.94 ?m Er:YAG laser of 200 ns pulse duration. However, the tunable FEL laser can selectively excite particular vibrational modes of the matrix (e.g., an OH or CO stretch) or of residual water contained within the crystalline MALDI sample. This capability was used to explore possible vaporization and ionization mechanisms of IR-MALDI for EDTA.

  17. Influence of Polymer Molecular Weight, Temperature, and Strain Rate on the Mechanical Properties of PBX 9501

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idar, D. J.; Thompson, D. G.; Gray, G. T., III; Blumenthal, W. R.; Cady, C. M.; Peterson, P. D.; Roemer, E. L.; Wright, W. J.; Jacquez, B. J.

    2002-07-01

    Compression and tensile measurements were conducted on newly formulated (baseline) and lower molecular weight (virtually-aged) plastic-bonded explosive PBX 9501. The PBX 9501 binder system is composed of nitroplasticized Estane 5703,trademark a polyester polyurethane copolymer. The molecular weight of polyester urethanes can degrade with time as a function of hydrolysis, affecting the mechanical behavior of the polymer or a polymer composite material of high explosives, i.e. PBXs. The molecular weight of Estane 5703trademark was degraded by exposure to high temperature and humidity for different periods of time, and then formulated to produce "virtually-aged" PBX 9501 specimens. Quasi-static and dynamic compression tests were conducted on the baseline and virtually-aged PBX 9501 as a function of temperature and strain rate. Quasi-static tensile tests were also conducted as a function of temperature and test rate. Rate and temperature dependence was exhibited during both compression and tensile loading. Results also show significant differences between the baseline and virtually-aged specimens for the dynamic compression tests at -15degC, and for the quasi-static compression tests at -15degC, 22degC, and 50degC.

  18. Molecular weight dependence of the physical properties of protonated polyaniline films and fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Phillip N.; Bowman, Danielle; Brown, Lori; Yang, Dali; Mattes, Benjamin R.

    2001-07-01

    Polyaniline, (PANI) in the form of emeraldine base, was synthesized by polymerizing aniline in acid solutions at different sub-zero temperatures to give a range of molecular weights between 100,000 and 300,000 gmol-1. Molecular weights were measured using gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The polymers were formed into solvent-cast films using an acid processing technique, involving 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (AMPSA) as the solvating/protonating acid group and dichloroacetic acid (DCA) plus formic acid (FA) as the solvent. The dried, free-standing films were stretched by drawing over a hot pin to align the polymer chains. Fibers were prepared by spinning more concentrated solutions into a butanone coagulation bath. Conductivity measurements were then made on the drawn films and fibers, and tensile test measurements performed to determine the peak stress and modulus of the drawn films and fibers. The reaction conditions under which the different polyanilines were synthesized, and their molecular weight, were found to have a definite effect upon both the electrical and mechanical properties of the drawn films and fibers. The drawn films and fibers can be used as mechanical actuators.

  19. INFLUENCE OF POLYMER MOLECULAR WEIGHT, TEMPERATURE, AND STRAIN RATE ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PBX 9501

    SciTech Connect

    D. J. IDAR; D. G. THOMPSON; ET AL

    2001-06-01

    Compression and tensile measurements were conducted on newly formulated (baseline) and lower molecular weight (virtually-aged) plastic-bonded explosive PBX 9501. The PBX 9501 binder system is composed of nitroplasticized Estane 5703, TM a polyester polyurethane copolymer. The molecular weight of polyester urethanes can degrade with time as a function of hydrolysis, affecting the mechanical behavior of the polymer or a polymer composite material of high explosives, i.e. PBXs. The molecular weight of Estane 5703{trademark} was degraded by exposure to high temperature and humidity for different periods of time, and then formulated to produce ''virtually-aged'' PBX 9501 specimens. Quasi-static and dynamic compression tests were conducted on the baseline and virtually-aged PBX 9501 as a function of temperature and strain rate. Quasi-static tensile tests were also conducted as a function of temperature and test rate. Rate and temperature dependence was exhibited during both compression and tensile loading. Results also show significant differences between the baseline and virtually-aged specimens for the dynamic compression tests at -15 C, and for the quasi-static compression tests at -15 C, 22 C, and 50 C.

  20. Sizing of PDADMAC/PSS complex aggregates by polyelectrolyte and salt concentration and PSS molecular weight.

    PubMed

    Starchenko, Vitaliy; Müller, Martin; Lebovka, Nikolai

    2012-12-27

    Herein we report on the influence of salt and polyelectrolyte (PEL) concentration, molecular weight, and mixing ratio on the size and size distribution of polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) particles composed of cationic poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) and anionic poly(styrene sulfonic acid). The unusual salt concentration dependence of PEC particle sizes was observed. This behavior was explained by competition of two processes both related to the charge screening: swelling/shrinking of the outer shell formed by the excess PEL molecules and increasing/decreasing of the aggregation rate of colloidal PEC particles. The results on the size regulation of PEC particles by varying PEL concentration reflect both competitive processes as well. The regulation of the mixing ratio of PEL allows producing PEC particles with different charges, and it does not affect significantly the PEC particle size regulation by salt concentration. The PEC size dependence on the molecular weight of polymer was shown to be power and an exponent value of ? ? 0.13 was obtained for the spherical PEC particles. This value is lower than one for polymer particles with a compact globular structure with exponent values of ? = 0.33. However, the molecular weight of only one polymer component of a two-component PEC particle was varied. PMID:23190399

  1. Isolation and characterization of a high molecular weight actin-binding protein from Physarum polycephalum plasmodia

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    A high molecular weight actin-binding protein was isolated from the Physarum polycephalum plasmodia. The protein ( HMWP ) shares many properties with other high molecular weight actin-binding proteins such as spectrin, actin-binding protein from macrophages, and filamin. It has a potent activity to cross-link F-actin into a gel-like structure. Its cross-linking activity does not depend on calcium concentrations. Hydrodynamic studies have revealed that the protein is in the monomeric state of a polypeptide chain with molecular weight of approximately 230,000 in a high ionic strength solvent, while it self-associates into a dimer under physiological ionic conditions. Electron microscopic examinations of HMWP have shown that the monomer particle observed in a high ionic strength solvent is rod shaped with the two-stranded morphology very similar to that of spectrin. On the other hand, under physiological ionic conditions, the HMWP dimer shows the dumb-bell shape with two globular domains connected with a thin flexible strand. PMID:6725393

  2. Early Estrogen Action: Stimulation of the Metabolism of High Molecular Weight and Ribosomal RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Luck, Dennis N.; Hamilton, Terrell H.

    1972-01-01

    Samples of RNA, isolated from uteri of ovariectomized adult rats treated with estrogen, have been analyzed on sucrose gradients. Treatment with estrogen either for 20 min or 2 hr increased the specific activity of all classes of uterine RNA, but produced no significant alteration in the distribution of radioactivity in the gradients, when animals received [3H]uridine intraperitoneally 15 min before they were killed. After labeling periods of 30 min, 1 hr, or 2 hr, however, the RNAs isolated from animals treated with estrogen had a smaller percentage of rapidly sedimenting (faster than 28S) species of RNA than did RNA from animals not treated with the hormone. The decreased percentage of high molecular weight RNA correlated with increases in both the specific activity of 28S and 18S RNA and the concentration of RNA in the whole organ. The labeled RNA of high molecular weight was also demonstrated, by the use of actinomycin D in vivo, to have a more rapid turnover rate in the estrogen-stimulated uterus. Our results indicate that estrogen increases not only the rate of synthesis of ribosomal RNA in the uterus of the ovariectomized adult rat, but also the rate or efficiency of processing of precursor RNA species of high molecular weight. PMID:4500546

  3. The concentration, apparent molecular weight and chemical reactivity of silica from groundwater in southern Nevada.

    PubMed

    George, S; Steinberg, S M; Hodge, V

    2000-01-01

    Sorption of radionuclides, metals and organic compounds to colloidal particles has been suggested to increase the mobility of these pollutants in groundwater. Because silicates and alumino-silicates can be important components of groundwater colloids, we have conducted a study to characterize the nature of silica in various springs and wells in Southern Nevada and to determine the extent that silica may be associated with colloidal particles that can participate in pollutant transport. The total silica content was measured using inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP). In addition, reactive silica was measured using the silica molybdate colorimetric technique. The apparent molecular weight of the silica was investigated using split-flow-lateral-transport-thin-cell-fractionation (SPLITT) which can readily distinguish between colloidal and low molecular weight associations. This study indicates that silica does not tend to form stable inorganic colloids in Southern Nevada groundwaters but exists as low molecular weight species. However, water from one of the test facilities on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) did contain stable siliceous colloids that could have important implications for the modeling the transport of radionuclides at this site. PMID:10665445

  4. Rheological characterization of poly(ethylene oxide) solutions of different molecular weights.

    PubMed

    Ebagninin, Koblan Wilfried; Benchabane, Adel; Bekkour, Karim

    2009-08-01

    The rheological properties of aqueous solutions of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) of different molecular weights (1x10(5), 4x10(5), 1x10(6) and 4x10(6) g mol(-1)) and concentrations were investigated using shear viscosity and dynamic rheological measurements. It was found that the aqueous solutions of PEO do not exhibit a yield stress and that, above a critical shear rate, all PEO solutions exhibit shear-thinning behavior, well described by the Cross model, except for the solutions made by the lowest molecular weight (1x10(5) g mol(-1)) which were almost Newtonian. The parameters of the Cross model, namely the zero-shear rate viscosity and reciprocal of the time constant, allowed the determination of the critical concentrations c(*) and c(**) (respectively, the transition to semi-dilute network solution and concentrated solution). At concentrations higher than c(**) and below a critical shear rate, solutions made of PEO of high molecular weight exhibited a clearly shear-thickening behavior at very low shear rates. In addition, the dynamic tests showed that PEO solutions exhibit concentration-dependent viscoelastic properties, with a dominant viscous behavior at PEO concentrations lower than c(**) and a dominant elastic behavior at PEO concentrations greater than c(**). PMID:19406425

  5. Influence of the polymer molecular weight on the microstructure of hybrid materials prepared by ?-irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancastre, Joana J. H.; Falcão, António N.; Margaça, Fernanda M. A.; Ferreira, Luís M.; Miranda Salvado, Isabel M.; Casimiro, Maria H.; Almásy, László; Meiszterics, Anikó

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid materials have been the object of intense research due to their potential for biomedical applications as well as in other fields. They are usually prepared by sol-gel but the method of gamma irradiation of the precursors is an alternative avoiding the addition of any other chemicals. The study of the hybrids prepared by this method has been progressing to understand the impact of different variables on the microstructure. In this work, the influence of the polymer's molecular weight on the microstructure of the materials is investigated. Hybrids were obtained from a mixture of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) silanol terminated, tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and zirconium propoxide (PrZr) in the wt% composition 20PDMS-73TEOS-7PrZr varying only the PDMS molecular weight. The obtained materials are homogeneous, transparent and flexible and their microstructure was analysed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS). It was found that different microstructures were obtained, depending on the polymer molecular weight.

  6. Study of Low Molecular Weight Impurities in Pluronic Triblock Copolymers using MALDI, Interaction Chromatography, and NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helming, Z.; Zagorevski, D.; Ryu, C. Y.

    2014-03-01

    Poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) triblock copolymers are a group of commercial macromolecular amphiphilic surfactants that have been widely studied for their applications in polymer-based nanotechnology and drug-delivery. It has been well-established that the synthesis of commercial Pluronic triblocks results in low molecular weight ``impurities,'' which are generally disregarded in the applications and study of these polymers. These species have been shown to have significant effects on the rheological properties of the material, as well as altering the supramolecular ``micellar'' structures for which the polymers are most often used. We have isolated the impurities from the bulk Pluronic triblock using Interaction Chromatography (IC) techniques, and subjected them to analysis by H1 NMR and MALDI (Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization) Mass Spectrometry to identify relative block composition and molecular weight information. We report significant evidence of at least two polymeric components: a low-molecular-weight homopolymer of poly(ethylene oxide) and a ``blocky'' copolymer of both poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(propylene oxide). This has significant implications, not only for the applied usage of Pluronic triblock copolymers, but for the general scientific acceptance of the impurities and their effects on Pluronic micelle and hydrogel formation.

  7. Utilizing fast multipole expansions for efficient and accurate quantum-classical molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Schwörer, Magnus; Lorenzen, Konstantin; Mathias, Gerald; Tavan, Paul

    2015-03-14

    Recently, a novel approach to hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations has been suggested [Schwörer et al., J. Chem. Phys. 138, 244103 (2013)]. Here, the forces acting on the atoms are calculated by grid-based density functional theory (DFT) for a solute molecule and by a polarizable molecular mechanics (PMM) force field for a large solvent environment composed of several 10(3)-10(5) molecules as negative gradients of a DFT/PMM hybrid Hamiltonian. The electrostatic interactions are efficiently described by a hierarchical fast multipole method (FMM). Adopting recent progress of this FMM technique [Lorenzen et al., J. Chem. Theory Comput. 10, 3244 (2014)], which particularly entails a strictly linear scaling of the computational effort with the system size, and adapting this revised FMM approach to the computation of the interactions between the DFT and PMM fragments of a simulation system, here, we show how one can further enhance the efficiency and accuracy of such DFT/PMM-MD simulations. The resulting gain of total performance, as measured for alanine dipeptide (DFT) embedded in water (PMM) by the product of the gains in efficiency and accuracy, amounts to about one order of magnitude. We also demonstrate that the jointly parallelized implementation of the DFT and PMM-MD parts of the computation enables the efficient use of high-performance computing systems. The associated software is available online. PMID:25770527

  8. Hypoglycemic effect of polysaccharides with different molecular weight of Pseudostellaria heterophylla

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstracts Background The aims of this study were to evaluate the antidiabetic activity and to detect molecular size of Pseudostellaria heterophylla polysaccharide (PHP). Pseudostellaria heterophylla is a medicine extensively used in traditional Chinese medicine formulas to treat diabetes and its complications. Methods Molecular weight of PHP was determined by gel permeation chromatography combined with phenol-sulphuric acid method and the monosaccharides composition was determined by HPLC with a precolumn derivatization. Four polysaccharides with different molecular weight were compared for hypoglycemic active on two animal models both high does alloxan induced type1 diabetic mellitus (T1DM) and high-fat/lower does streptozotocin induced type2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM). Blood sugar, glucose tolerance, and insulin tolerance were detected. Rat serum IL-1?, IL-2, IL-10, Leptin, TNF-?, Acrp30 and CRP were also analyzed by sandwich-ELISA approaches to preliminary probe the hypoglycemic mechanism of PHP. Results The hypoglycemic effects related to molecular size of polysaccharide were more effective against T2DM than T1DM. PHP comprise four monosaccharides of galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose and arabinos. T2DM rats daily receiving oral dose of polysaccharide(100?~?400 mg/kg) with 50?~?210 kDa molecular weight (PF40) could not only significantly lower blood sugar but also reduce total triglyceride level in serum. PF40 improves in insulin tolerance inhibited the expression of some biomarkers including inflammatory cytokine TNF-? and elevated anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, regulated adiponectin Acrp30 and leptin. Conclusions PF40 prevent the cascade of inflammatory events in the treatment of T2DM to block overweight progresses to obesity. PMID:24131482

  9. Accurate vibrational spectra via molecular tailoring approach: a case study of water clusters at MP2 level.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Nityananda; Gadre, Shridhar R

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the recent advents in parallel algorithms and computer hardware, high-level calculation of vibrational spectra of large molecules is still an uphill task. To overcome this, significant effort has been devoted to the development of new algorithms based on fragmentation methods. The present work provides the details of an efficient and accurate procedure for computing the vibrational spectra of large clusters employing molecular tailoring approach (MTA). The errors in the Hessian matrix elements and dipole derivatives arising due to the approximation nature of MTA are reduced by grafting the corrections from a smaller basis set. The algorithm has been tested out for obtaining vibrational spectra of neutral and charged water clusters at Møller-Plesset second order level of theory, and benchmarking them against the respective full calculation (FC) and/or experimental results. For (H2O)16 clusters, the estimated vibrational frequencies are found to differ by a maximum of 2 cm(-1) with reference to the corresponding FC values. Unlike the FC, the MTA-based calculations including grafting procedure can be performed on a limited hardware, yet take a fraction of the FC time. The present methodology, thus, opens a possibility of the accurate estimation of the vibrational spectra of large molecular systems, which is otherwise impossible or formidable. PMID:25573553

  10. Ab initio molecular dynamics with noisy and cheap quantum Monte Carlo forces: accurate calculation of vibrational frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ye; Sorella, Sandro

    2014-03-01

    We introduce a general and efficient method for the calculation of vibrational frequencies of electronic systems, ranging from molecules to solids. By performing damped molecular dynamics with ab initio forces, we show that quantum vibrational frequencies can be evaluated by diagonalizing the time averaged position-position or force-force correlation matrices, although the ionic motion is treated on the classical level within the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. The novelty of our approach is to evaluate atomic forces with QMC by means of a highly accurate and correlated variational wave function which is optimized simultaneously during the dynamics. QMC is an accurate and promising many-body technique for electronic structure calculation thanks to massively parallel computers. However, since infinite statistics is not feasible, property evaluation may be affected by large noise that is difficult to harness. Our approach controls the QMC stochastic bias systematically and gives very accurate results with moderate computational effort, namely even with noisy forces. We prove the accuracy and efficiency of our method on the water monomer[A. Zen et al., JCTC 9 (2013) 4332] and dimer. We are currently working on the challenging problem of simulating liquid water at ambient conditions.

  11. Characterization of low-molecular-weight antiyeast metabolites produced by a food-protective Lactobacillus-Propionibacterium coculture.

    PubMed

    Schwenninger, Susanne Miescher; Lacroix, Christophe; Truttmann, Stefan; Jans, Christoph; Spörndli, Cäcilia; Bigler, Laurent; Meile, Leo

    2008-12-01

    We developed a pH-controlled batch fermentation process with separately immobilized cells of the protective coculture of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei SM20 and Propionibacterium jensenii SM11 in supplemented whey permeate medium yielding cell-free supernatants with high antiyeast activity against Candida pulcherrima and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. The antiyeast compounds were resistant to proteinase K and pronase E treatments and showed high heat resistance (121 degrees C for 15 min). Diafiltration (1,000-Da cutoff) revealed that the inhibitory metabolites have low molecular weights. Partial purification of active compounds was achieved by a microplate bioassay controlled procedure with solid-phase extraction (C18) followed by (i) gel filtration chromatography or (ii) semipreparative reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (C18). In addition to propionic, acetic, and lactic acids, 2-pyrrolidone-5-carboxylic acid, 3-phenyllactic acid, hydroxyphenyllactic acid, and succinic acid were identified by chromatography and mass spectrometry. Accurate quantifications revealed only low concentrations (up to 7 mM) of 2-pyrrolidone-5-carboxylic acid, 3-phenyllactic acid, and hydroxyphenyllactic acid produced during fermentation in contrast to relatively high MICs (50 to more than 500 mM) determined at different pH values (4.0, 5.0, and 6.0). Succinic acid was present at higher concentrations (29 mM) in cell-free supernatants but with comparable high MICs (200 to more than 500 mM and pH 4.0, 5.0, and 6.0). Although none of these compounds was the main substance responsible per se for suppression of yeast growth, our study revealed a complex antiyeast mechanism with putative synergistic effects between several low-molecular-weight compounds. PMID:19244902

  12. A low-molecular-weight protein cross-reacting with human liver N-acetyl-?-d-glucosaminidase

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Mark; Robinson, Donald

    1974-01-01

    Antisera were raised to preparations of hexosaminidase isoenzymes A and B purified from human liver. Protein that cross-reacted with the liver hexosaminidase was detected by an antibody-consumption method. A cross-reacting protein with a low molecular weight (20000) was partially characterized and purified from control human liver. This protein is also present in the liver of patients with Tay–Sachs disease or with Sandhoff's disease. Hexosaminidases A and B gave an immunological reaction of partial identity with the low-molecular-weight protein. The possible identity of the low-molecular-weight cross-reacting protein as a subunit of hexosaminidase is discussed. PMID:4207386

  13. Molecularly confirmed primary malignant rhabdoid tumor of the urinary bladder: implications of accurate diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Natasha; Linn, Dan; McDonough, Colleen; Donohoe, Jeffrey M.; Franco, Arie; Reuter, Victor; Biddinger, Paul W.; Eaton, Katherine W.; Biegel, Jaclyn A.; Sharma, Suash

    2012-01-01

    Malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRTs) are well recognized in the kidney and extrarenal sites such as soft tissues, retroperitoneum, and bladder but are classified as atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors in the central nervous system. The unifying features of both extracranial MRT and atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors are the exon deletions/mutations of the SMARCB1 (SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily b, member 1) gene in 22q11.23 and resulting loss of SMARCB1/INI1 (integrase interactor 1) protein expression by immunohistochemistry. We herein report a case of extrarenal rhabdoid tumor confined to the bladder in a 3-year-old child, diagnosed by histopathology and confirmed by immunohistochemical and molecular studies. This is only the fourth molecularly proven primary MRT of the bladder to be reported. The patient’s peripheral blood was negative for the deletions observed in the tumor, thereby confirming a sporadic origin for the tumor. Given the possible dismal outcome, urgency for definitive diagnosis to institute intensive multimodality therapy, histopathologic differential diagnosis with rhabdomyosarcoma and urothelial carcinoma with rhabdoid features, and lack of consensus management guidelines, oncologists, urologists, and pathologists must be aware of this entity. Evaluation for a germ line SMARCB1 alteration may greatly aid risk stratification and family planning. PMID:21775180

  14. Methylation of high molecular weight fibroblast growth factor-2 determines post-translational increases in molecular weight and affects its intracellular distribution.

    PubMed Central

    Pintucci, G; Quarto, N; Rifkin, D B

    1996-01-01

    The high molecular weight (HMW) forms (24, 22.5, and 22 kDa) of basic fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) contain an N-terminal extension responsible for their predominantly nuclear localization. These forms of FGF-2 are post-translationally modified, resulting in a 1- to 2-kDa increase in apparent molecular mass. Here we show that this post-translational modification is inhibited by methionine starvation and by the methyltransferase inhibitors 5'-deoxy-5'-methylthioadenosine (MTA) and 3-deaza-adenosine. Inhibition of the methylation-dependent modification results in a significant decrease in HMW FGF-2 nuclear accumulation, suggesting that methylation is relevant to the intracellular distribution of these forms of FGF-2. Treatment with MTA does not affect either the synthesis or the intracellular fate of another nuclear protein, the SV40 large T antigen, demonstrating that this drug does not have a generalized effect on nuclear protein accumulation. These results link HMW FGF-2 post-translational modification to its intracellular distribution. Images PMID:8856668

  15. Characterization of currently marketed heparin products: analysis of molecular weight and heparinase-I digest patterns.

    PubMed

    Sommers, Cynthia D; Ye, Hongping; Kolinski, Richard E; Nasr, Moheb; Buhse, Lucinda F; Al-Hakim, Ali; Keire, David A

    2011-11-01

    We evaluated polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and size exclusion chromatography coupled with multi-angle laser light scattering (SEC-MALLS) approaches to determine weight-average molecular weight (M(w)) and polydispersity (PD) of heparins. A set of unfractionated heparin sodium (UFH) and low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) samples obtained from nine manufacturers which supply the US market were assessed. For SEC-MALLS, we measured values for water content, refractive index increment (dn/dc), and the second virial coefficient (A(2)) for each sample prior to molecular weight assessment. For UFH, a mean ± standard deviation value for M(w) of 16,773 ± 797 was observed with a range of 15,620 to 18,363 (n = 20, run in triplicate). For LMWHs by SEC-MALLS, we measured mean M(w) values for dalteparin, tinzaparin, and enoxaparin of 6,717 ± 71 (n = 4), 6,670 ± 417 (n = 3), and 3,959 ± 145 (n = 3), respectively. PAGE analysis of the same UFH, dalteparin, tinzaparin, and enoxaparin samples showed values of 16,135 ± 643 (n = 20), 5,845 ± 45 (n = 4), 6,049 ± 95 (n = 3), and 4,772 ± 69 (n = 3), respectively. These orthogonal measurements are the first M(w) results obtained with a large heparin sample set on product being marketed after the heparin crisis of 2008 changed the level of scrutiny of this drug class. In this study, we compare our new data set to samples analyzed over 10 years earlier. In addition, we found that the PAGE analysis of heparinase digested UFH and neat LMWH samples yield characteristic patterns that provide a facile approach for identification and assessment of drug quality and uniformity. PMID:21901459

  16. Characterization of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits from Eremopyrum bonaepartis and identification of a novel variant with unusual high molecular weight and altered cysteine residues.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qian-Tao; Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Ma, Jian; Wei, Long; Zhao, Shan; Zhao, Quan-Zhi; Qi, Peng-Fei; Lu, Zhen-Xiang; Zheng, You-Liang; Wei, Yu-Ming

    2014-04-01

    We characterized two high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) variants from Eremopyrum bonaepartis, determined their complete open reading frames, and further expressed them in a bacterial system. The variants have many novel structural features compared with typical subunits encoded by Glu-1 loci: 1Fx3.7 and 1Fy1.5 exhibit hybrid properties of x- and y-type subunits. In addition, unusual molecular mass and altered number and distribution of cysteine residues were unique features of HMW-GSs encoded by Glu-F1 from E. bonaepartis. The mature 1Fx3.7 subunit has a full length of 1,223 amino acid residues, making it the largest subunit found thus far, while 1Fy1.5 is just 496 residues. In addition, the mutated PGQQ repeat motif was found in the repetitive region of 1Fx3.7. Although it has a similar molecular mass to that previously reported for 1Dx2.2, 1Dx2.2* and 1S(sh)x2.9 subunits, 1Fx3.7 appears to have had a different evolutionary history. The N-terminal and repetitive regions have a total of four additional cysteine residues, giving 1Fx3.7 a total of eight cysteines, while 1Fy1.5 has only six cysteines because the GHCPTSPQQ nonapeptide at the end of the repetitive region is deleted. With its extra cysteine residues and the longest repetitive region, features that are relevant to good wheat quality, the 1Fx3.7 subunit gene could be an excellent candidate for applications in wheat quality improvement. PMID:24395202

  17. Effects of molecular weight and ratio of guluronic acid to mannuronic acid on the antioxidant properties of sodium alginate fractions prepared by radiation-induced degradation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Murat ?en

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the effects of the molecular weight and ratio of guluronic acid (G) to mannuronic acid (M), G\\/M, of some sodium alginate (NaAlg) fractions on their antioxidative properties were investigated. Low-molecular-weight-fractions with various G\\/M were prepared by gamma radiation-induced degradation of NaAlg. Change in their molecular weight was monitored. Antioxidant properties of the fractions with various molecular weight

  18. Correlation between human maternal-fetal placental transfer and molecular weight of PCB and dioxin congeners/isomers.

    PubMed

    Mori, Chisato; Nakamura, Noriko; Todaka, Emiko; Fujisaki, Takeyoshi; Matsuno, Yoshiharu; Nakaoka, Hiroko; Hanazato, Masamichi

    2014-11-01

    Establishing methods for the assessment of fetal exposure to chemicals is important for the prevention or prediction of the child's future disease risk. In the present study, we aimed to determine the influence of molecular weight on the likelihood of chemical transfer from mother to fetus via the placenta. The correlation between molecular weight and placental transfer rates of congeners/isomers of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins was examined. Twenty-nine sample sets of maternal blood, umbilical cord, and umbilical cord blood were used to measure PCB concentration, and 41 sample sets were used to analyze dioxins. Placental transfer rates were calculated using the concentrations of PCBs, dioxins, and their congeners/isomers within these sample sets. Transfer rate correlated negatively with molecular weight for PCB congeners, normalized using wet and lipid weights. The transfer rates of PCB or dioxin congeners differed from those of total PCBs or dioxins. The transfer rate for dioxin congeners did not always correlate significantly with molecular weight, perhaps because of the small sample size or other factors. Further improvement of the analytical methods for dioxin congeners is required. The findings of the present study suggested that PCBs, dioxins, or their congeners with lower molecular weights are more likely to be transferred from mother to fetus via the placenta. Consideration of chemical molecular weight and transfer rate could therefore contribute to the assessment of fetal exposure. PMID:25113211

  19. A rapid and accurate method for calculation of stratospheric photolysis rates with molecular scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boughner, Robert E.

    1986-01-01

    A method for calculating the photodissociation rates needed for photochemical modeling of the stratosphere, which includes the effects of molecular scattering, is described. The procedure is based on Sokolov's method of averaging functional correction. The radiation model and approximations used to calculate the radiation field are examined. The approximated diffuse fields and photolysis rates are compared with exact data. It is observed that the approximate solutions differ from the exact result by 10 percent or less at altitudes above 15 km; the photolysis rates differ from the exact rates by less than 5 percent for altitudes above 10 km and all zenith angles, and by less than 1 percent for altitudes above 15 km.

  20. Towards More Accurate Measurements of the Ionization Energy of Molecular Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprecher, D.; Beyer, M.; Liu, J.; Merkt, F.; Salumbides, E.; Eikema, K. S. E.; Ubachs, W.; Jungen, Ch.

    2013-06-01

    With two electrons and two protons, molecular hydrogen is the simplest molecule displaying all features of a chemical bond. H_2 is therefore a fundamental system for testing molecular quantum mechanics and quantum electrodynamics in molecules. The test can be performed by comparing measured and calculated intervals between different rovibronic states of H_2. Two further quantities that can be used for this test are the dissociation and ionization energies of H_2, and considerable efforts have been invested over more than 80 years to improve the precision and accuracy of experimental and theoretical determination of these two quantities. The current status of the comparison is that the theoretical and experimental values of the ionization and dissociation energies of H_2 agree within the combined uncertainty of 30 MHz (see also). The factors currently limiting the precision of the experimental determination will be discussed and the strategies that are being implemented towards overcoming these limitations will be presented. A long-term goal is to achieve a precision of better than 15 kHz, which is the ultimate limit imposed on the accuracy of the theoretical determination by the current uncertainty of the proton-to-electron mass ratio. E. J. Salumbides, G. D. Dickenson, T. I. Ivanov and W. Ubachs, {Phys. Rev. Lett.} 107 (4), 043005 (2011). K. Piszczatowski, G. Lach, M. Przybytek, J. Komasa, K. Pachuckiand and B. Jeziorski, {J. Chem. Theory Comput.} 5 (11), 3039 (2009). J. Liu, E. J. Salumbides, U. Hollenstein, J. C. J. Koelemeij, K. S. E. Eikema, W. Ubachs and F. Merkt, {J. Chem. Phys.} 130 (17), 174306 (2009). D. Sprecher, Ch. Jungen, W. Ubachs and F. Merkt, {Faraday Discuss.} 150, 51 (2011).

  1. Efficacy of Intracolonic Administration of Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin CB01-05, Compared to Other Low-Molecular-Weight Heparins and Unfractionated Heparin, in Experimentally Induced Colitis in Rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuseppe Celasco; Luigi Moro; Roberta Bozzella; Katia Mangano; Cinzia Quattrocchi; Caterina Aiello; Marco Donia; Paolo Fagone; Roberto Di Marco

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Parenteral administration of low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) and unfractionated heparin (UFH) resulted effective in\\u000a improving the symptoms of experimental colitis in rat. Today, there is little information about their activity by intracolonic\\u000a instillation. The scope of this study was to evaluate the ability of CB-01-05 (a LMWH with a mean molecular weight of about\\u000a 5,700), compared to a series of

  2. Culture Conditions Affect the Molecular Weight Properties of Hyaluronic Acid Produced by Streptococcus zooepidemicus

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, D. C.; Johns, M. R.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of five culture variables on the molecular weight properties of hyaluronic acid (HA) produced by Streptococcus zooepidemicus was studied in batch culture with a complex medium containing glucose and 10 g of yeast extract per liter. Neither the culture pH (pH 6.3 to 8.0) nor the agitation speed (300 to 1,000 rpm) affected the weight-average molecular weight (M(infw)) of HA under anaerobic conditions at 37(deg)C when 20 g of glucose per liter was used initially. M(infw) was in the narrow range of 1.5 x 10(sup6) to 2.3 x 10(sup6), and polydispersity (P) was between 1.8 and 2.5. When S. zooepidemicus was grown at lower temperatures or with aeration, higher-molecular-weight polymer and increased yields were observed. The polydispersity, however, remained unaffected. Anaerobically, the mean M(infw) (based on three samples taken within 4 h of glucose exhaustion) was (2.40 (plusmn) 0.10) x 10(sup6) and (1.90 (plusmn) 0.05) x 10(sup6) at 32 and 40(deg)C respectively. Aeration of the culture at 1 vol/vol/min produced HA with mean M(infw) of (2.65 (plusmn) 0.05) x 10(sup6) compared with (2.10 (plusmn) 0.10) x 10(sup6) under equivalent anaerobic conditions. The initial glucose concentration had the most pronounced effect on polymer characteristics. Increasing this concentration from 20 to 40 g/liter produced HA with mean M(infw) of (3.1 (plusmn) 0.1) x 10(sup6) at 1-vol/vol/min aeration. The molecular weight of HA also exhibited time dependency, with smaller chains (M(infw), ca. 2.5 x 10(sup6)) detected early in the culture time course, rising to a maximum (M(infw), 3.2 x 10(sup6)) in the late exponential phase of growth. The mean polydispersity was also greater (2.7 (plusmn) 0.1) under these conditions. Replicate experiments performed under conditions resulting in the lowest (40(deg)C, anaerobic) and highest (40 g of glucose per liter, 1-vol/vol/min aeration)-M(infw) polymer demonstrated excellent experimental reproducibility. PMID:16535649

  3. Influence of molecular weight of chemically sulfated citrus pectin fractions on their antithrombotic and bleeding effects.

    PubMed

    Cipriani, Thales R; Gracher, Ana Helena P; de Souza, Lauro M; Fonseca, Roberto J C; Belmiro, Celso L R; Gorin, Philip A J; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Iacomini, Marcello

    2009-05-01

    Evaluated were the anticoagulant and antithrombotic activities, and bleeding effect of two chemically sulfated polysaccharides, obtained from citric pectin, with different average molar masses. Both low-molecular-weight (Pec-LWS, 3,600 g/mol) and high-molecular-weight sulfated pectins (Pec-HWS, 12,000 g/mol) had essentially the same structure, consisting of a (1-->4)-linked alpha-D-GalpA chain with almost all its HO-2 and HO-3 groups substituted by sulfate. Both polysaccharides had anticoagulant activity in vitro, although Pec-HWS was a more potent antithrombotic agent in vivo, giving rise to total inhibition of venous thrombosis at a dose of 3.5 mg/kg body weight. Surprisingly, in contrast with heparin, Pec-HWS and Pec-LWS are able to directly inhibit alpha-thrombin and factor Xa by a mechanism independent of antithrombin (AT) and/or heparin co-factor II (HCII). Moreover, Pec-HWS provided a lower risk of bleeding than heparin at a dose of 100% effectiveness against venous thrombosis, indicating it to be a promising antithrombotic agent. PMID:19404539

  4. Controlling the degradation of covalently cross-linked carboxymethyl chitosan utilizing bimodal molecular weight distribution.

    PubMed

    Lu, Guangyuan; Sheng, Baiyang; Wang, Gan; Wei, Yujun; Gong, Yandao; Zhang, Xiufang; Zhang, Lihai

    2009-03-01

    Degradability is often a critical property of materials utilized in tissue engineering. Although chitosan, a naturally derived polysaccharide, is an attractive material due to its biocompatibility and ability to form scaffolds, its slow and uncontrollable rate of degradation can be an undesirable feature. In this study, we characterize chitosan derivatives formed using a combination of carboxymethylation and a bimodal molecular weight distribution. Specifically, chitosan is carboxymethylated to a theoretical extent of approximately 30% as described in our previous work, in which carboxyl groups possessing negative charges are created at a physiological pH. Carboxymethyl chitosan is used to form films and constructs by varying the ratio of high to low molecular weight (MW) while maintaining the mechanical properties of the polymer. The rate of degradation is found to be dependent upon both the carboxymethylation and the ratio of high to low MW polymer, as determined by dry weight loss in lysozyme solution in PBS. Subsequently, biocompatibility is examined to determine the effects of these modifications upon Neuro-2a cells cultured on these films. Neuro-2a cells adhere and proliferate on the modified films at a comparable rate to those cultured on unmodified films. This data indicates that these chitosan derivatives exhibit tunable degradation rates and result in a promising material system for neural tissue engineering. PMID:18697877

  5. Controlling alginate gel degradation utilizing partial oxidation and bimodal molecular weight distribution.

    PubMed

    Boontheekul, Tanyarut; Kong, Hyun-Joon; Mooney, David J

    2005-05-01

    Degradability is often a critical property of materials utilized in tissue engineering. Although alginate, a naturally derived polysaccharide, is an attractive material due to its biocompatibility and ability to form hydrogels, its slow and uncontrollable degradation can be an undesirable feature. In this study, we characterized gels formed using a combination of partial oxidation of polymer chains and a bimodal molecular weight distribution of polymer. Specifically, alginates were partially oxidized to a theoretical extent of 1% with sodium periodate, which created acetal groups susceptible to hydrolysis. The ratio of low MW to high MW alginates used to form gels was also varied, while maintaining the gel forming ability of the polymer. The rate of degradation was found to be controlled by both the oxidation and the ratio of high to low MW alginates, as monitored by the reduction of mechanical properties and corresponding number of crosslinks, dry weight loss, and molecular weight decrease. It was subsequently examined whether these modifications would lead to reduced biocompatibility by culturing C2C12 myoblast on these gels. Myoblasts adhered, proliferated, and differentiated on the modified gels at a comparable rate as those cultured on the unmodified gels. Altogether, this data indicates these hydrogels exhibit tunable degradation rates and provide a powerful material system for tissue engineering. PMID:15585248

  6. Screening for low molecular weight compounds in fish meal solubles by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simple analytical method using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry was developed to screen for low molecular weight compounds in enzyme treated and untreated Alaskan pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) stickwater (SW) generated from processing fish meal with po...

  7. Low-Molecular-Weight O-Acetylserine Sulfhydrylase and Serine Sulfhydrylase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Are the Same Protein

    PubMed Central

    Yamagata, Shuzo

    1981-01-01

    Low-molecular-weight O-acetyl-l-serine sulfhydrylase was purified from a cysteine auxotroph of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and was demonstrated to be identical with l-serine sulfhydrylase. Images PMID:7021536

  8. Comment 441 dissolved organic carbon of different molecular weights from piration rates of marine plankton populations, p. 289-357.

    E-print Network

    Comment 441 dissolved organic carbon of different molecular weights from piration rates of marine boundaries on estimates of bacterial res- piration (BR) where BR can be constrained by other in- formation

  9. Molecular Size and Weight of Asphaltene and Asphaltene Solubility Fractions from Coals, Crude Oils and Bitumen

    SciTech Connect

    Badre,S.; Goncalves, C.; Norinaga, K.; Gustavson, G.; Mullins, O.

    2005-01-01

    The molecular weight of asphaltenes has been a controversy for several decades. In recent years, several techniques have converged on the size of the fused ring system; indicating that chromophores in virgin crude oil asphaltenes typically have 4-10 fused rings. Consequently, the molecular weight debate is equivalent to determining whether asphaltenes are monomeric (one fused-ring system per molecule) or whether they are polymeric. Time-resolved fluorescence depolarization (FD) is employed here to interrogate the absolute size of asphaltene molecules and to determine the relation of the size of the fused ring system to that of the corresponding molecule. Coal, petroleum and bitumen asphaltenes are compared. Molecular size of coal asphaltenes obtained here by FD-determined rotational diffusion match closely with Taylor-dispersion-derived translational diffusion measurements with UV absorption. Coal asphaltenes are smaller than petroleum asphaltenes. N-methyl pyrrolidinone (NMP) soluble and insoluble fractions are examined. NMP soluble and insoluble fractions of asphaltenes are monomeric. It is suggested that the 'giant' asphaltene molecules reported from SEC studies using NMP as the eluting solvent may actually be the expected flocs of asphaltene which are not soluble in NMP. Data is presented that intramolecular electronic relaxation in asphaltenes does not perturb FD results.

  10. Accurate and efficient integration for molecular dynamics simulations at constant temperature and pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lippert, Ross A.; Predescu, Cristian; Ierardi, Douglas J.; Mackenzie, Kenneth M.; Eastwood, Michael P.; Dror, Ron O.; Shaw, David E.

    2013-10-01

    In molecular dynamics simulations, control over temperature and pressure is typically achieved by augmenting the original system with additional dynamical variables to create a thermostat and a barostat, respectively. These variables generally evolve on timescales much longer than those of particle motion, but typical integrator implementations update the additional variables along with the particle positions and momenta at each time step. We present a framework that replaces the traditional integration procedure with separate barostat, thermostat, and Newtonian particle motion updates, allowing thermostat and barostat updates to be applied infrequently. Such infrequent updates provide a particularly substantial performance advantage for simulations parallelized across many computer processors, because thermostat and barostat updates typically require communication among all processors. Infrequent updates can also improve accuracy by alleviating certain sources of error associated with limited-precision arithmetic. In addition, separating the barostat, thermostat, and particle motion update steps reduces certain truncation errors, bringing the time-average pressure closer to its target value. Finally, this framework, which we have implemented on both general-purpose and special-purpose hardware, reduces software complexity and improves software modularity.

  11. Accurate and efficient integration for molecular dynamics simulations at constant temperature and pressure.

    PubMed

    Lippert, Ross A; Predescu, Cristian; Ierardi, Douglas J; Mackenzie, Kenneth M; Eastwood, Michael P; Dror, Ron O; Shaw, David E

    2013-10-28

    In molecular dynamics simulations, control over temperature and pressure is typically achieved by augmenting the original system with additional dynamical variables to create a thermostat and a barostat, respectively. These variables generally evolve on timescales much longer than those of particle motion, but typical integrator implementations update the additional variables along with the particle positions and momenta at each time step. We present a framework that replaces the traditional integration procedure with separate barostat, thermostat, and Newtonian particle motion updates, allowing thermostat and barostat updates to be applied infrequently. Such infrequent updates provide a particularly substantial performance advantage for simulations parallelized across many computer processors, because thermostat and barostat updates typically require communication among all processors. Infrequent updates can also improve accuracy by alleviating certain sources of error associated with limited-precision arithmetic. In addition, separating the barostat, thermostat, and particle motion update steps reduces certain truncation errors, bringing the time-average pressure closer to its target value. Finally, this framework, which we have implemented on both general-purpose and special-purpose hardware, reduces software complexity and improves software modularity. PMID:24182003

  12. Effects of Deletions of High Molecular Weight Glutenin Subunit Alleles on Dough Properties and Wheat Flour Tortilla Quality 

    E-print Network

    Tuncil, Yunus

    2012-10-19

    .............................................. 51 6 Effect of deletions and variations in high molecular weight glutenin allelic composition on tortilla deformation modulus ................................. 56 7 Effect of deletions and variations in high molecular weight glutenin allelic... of wheat cultivars with optimum gluten functionality for tortillas. RESEARCH OBJECTIVES 1) Determine the effect of deletions at different HMW -GS alleles at homologous loci on A, B, and D genomes, on dough properties 3 2) Evaluate the tortilla...

  13. Effects of the molecular weight of hyaluronic acid and its action mechanisms on experimental joint pain in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Gotoh; J Onaya; M Abe; K Miyazaki; A Hamai; K Horie; K Tokuyasu

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--It has been shown previously that hyaluronic acid (HA) has an analgesic action on bradykinin induced pain in the knee joints of rats. This study further clarifies the effects of the molecular weight of HA and its mechanism of action in the same model using HA of molecular weight 800 to 2.3 x 10(6) daltons and a bradykinin antagonist. METHODS--Bradykinin

  14. Preliminary study of the effect of aging following irradiation on the wear of ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Fisher; K. L. Chan; J. L. Hailey; D. Shaw; M. Stone

    1995-01-01

    Several studies have indicated that degradation of ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene following gamma irradiation in air daversely affects the mechanical properties of the material; however, it is not known how this subsequently affects it wear rate. Wear studies have therefore been performed on three groups of ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene: unirradiated material, recently irradiated material (aged for 2 months), and aged irradiated material (aged

  15. Characterization of a Highly Cross-linked Ultrahigh Molecular-Weight Polyethylene in Clinical Use in Total Hip Arthroplasty

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michel P. Laurent; Todd S. Johnson; Roy D. Crowninshield; Cheryl R. Blanchard; Sushil K. Bhambri; Jian Q. Yao

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on a commercially available extensively cross-linked ultrahigh molecular-weight polyethylene (HXPE) produced by subjecting molded GUR 1050 ultrahigh molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) to 100 ± 10 kGy of electron beam radiation followed by melt annealing and sterilization by gas plasma. When compared to contemporary conventional molded GUR 1050 UHMWPE sterilized by 37 kGy of gamma radiation, the HXPE material

  16. Conductive Fibre Prepared From UltraHigh Molecular Weight Polyaniline for Smart Fabric and Interactive Textile Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Bowman; B. R. Mattes

    2005-01-01

    Panion™ fibre is prepared from a high molecular weight version of chlorine and defect free polyaniline (PANI). It is processed into textile fibre by continuous wet spinning techniques. The room temperature DC conductivity for unstretched and stretched (5x at 373K) high molecular weight samples was 72 and 725??1cm?1, respectively. Resistivity measurements of Panion™, from 4 to 350K, indicate that the

  17. The influence of PEG molecular weight on the structural changes of corn starch in a starch\\/PEG blend

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chang-Hyeon Kim; Dong-Won Kim; Kuk Young Cho

    2009-01-01

    Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is a nonvolatile plasticizer used for starch gelatinization. Blends of starch and PEG at a fixed\\u000a ratio of 50:50 (based on wt%) were prepared by varying the molecular weight of PEG. Interaction of the PEG and starch was\\u000a investigated as a function of the PEG molecular weight via FT-IR and DSC experiment. The starch chain conformation changed

  18. Efficacy of oral colon-specific delivery capsule of low-molecular-weight heparin on ulcerative colitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun-Yong Luo; Yan Zhong; Ji-Chao Cao; Hui-Fei Cui

    2011-01-01

    Low-molecular-weight heparin has the potential for the treatment of ulcerative colitis, and targeted drug delivery to the colon is important for topical treatment of this disease, so low-molecular-weight heparin oral colon-specific delivery capsule was prepared, and the in vitro and in vivo drug release behavior was investigated. The macroscopical and histological scoring systems, wet colon mass index and myeloperoxidase activity

  19. Purification and characteristics of a low-molecular-weight peptide possessing oxidative capacity for phenol from Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming Hu; Weican Zhang; Xuemei Lu; Peiji Gao

    2006-01-01

    A new low-molecular-weight peptide with phenol oxidase activity, named Pc factor, was isolated and purified from liquid culture\\u000a of a white-rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Its molecular weight was about 600 Da estimated by gel-filtration. Three amino acids Glu, Gly and Val were detected in hydrolysate.\\u000a Absorption peaks corresponding to amino acids and peptide were observed by UV and IR spectra

  20. Isolation of a very high molecular weight polylactosamine from an ovarian cyst mucin of blood group

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, A.S.S.; Bush, C.A.

    1986-05-01

    Treatment of a blood group A active ovarian cyst mucin glycoprotein with alkaline borohydride under conditions expected to cleave-O-glycosidically linked carbohydrate chains releases a polysaccharide of average molecular weight 25,000 daltons. It contains no peptide or mannose at the 1% level and carbohydrate analysis gives fuc:galNAc:gal:glcNAc in the ratio of 1:1:2.5:2.5. The /sup 13/C and /sup 1/H NMR spectra show that the polysaccharide has non-reducing terminal side chains of the structure galNAc(..cap alpha..-1 ..-->.. 3)(fuc(..cap alpha..-1 ..-->.. 2)) gal(..beta..-1 ..-->.. 3) glcNAc (i.e. a type 1 chain). Periodate oxidation removes all the fucose and galNAc from the non-reducing terminal but leaves intact the backbone composed of ..beta..-linked gal and glcNAc as would be expected for a polylactosamine. They conclude that this is a high molecular weight polylactosamine which is related to the asparagine linked polylactosamine chains of cell surface glycoproteins which have been implicated in cell differentiation. However, the blood group A polysaccharide from the ovarian cyst mucin is unique in several respects. It has a much larger molecular weight than even the erythroglycan of the red cell membrane protein, band 3, and is linked to the protein by an -O-glycosidic bond rather than the -N-asparagine linkage of the previously known polylactosamines which have a trimannosyl core. Its blood group A side chains are on a type one core rather than type 2 which is found on other polylactosamines.

  1. High molecular weight lipids from the trilaminar outer wall (TLS)-containing microalgae Chlorella emersonii, Scenedesmus conmmunis and Tetraedron minimum.

    PubMed

    Allard, B; Templier, J

    2001-06-01

    High molecular weight lipids were isolated from Chlorella emersonii, Scenedesmus communis and Tetraedron minimum, thin trilaminar outer wall (TLS)-containing freshwater microalgae producing an insoluble non-hydrolysable biopolymer (i.e. algaenan). Molecular weight determination by gel permeation chromatography indicated that their molecular weights range from ca. 400 to 2000 Da. Flash pyrolysis with in situ methylation using tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) and alkaline hydrolysis showed that the high molecular weight lipids isolated from C. emersonii and S. communis are mainly composed of saturated n-C26 and n-C28 fatty acids and alcohols and of saturated n-C30 and n-C32 alpha,omega-diols and omega-hydroxy acids. In contrast the high molecular weight lipids isolated from T. minimum are predominantly composed of long-chain fatty acids and omega-hydroxy acids. Aromatic moieties were also identified in small amounts in the thermochemolysate and in the hydrolysate. Chemical structural models containing long-chain mono- and polyesters were proposed for the high molecular weight lipids isolated from the three microalgae in agreement with analytical and spectroscopic data. Structural similarity between the outer cell wall of these microalgae and the cuticular membrane of higher plants is suggested. PMID:11393527

  2. Neuroprotective effects of ultra-low-molecular-weight heparin in vitro and vivo models of ischemic injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-guo; Lü, Tai-sheng; Yuan, Hong-ying

    2011-06-01

    This study was conducted to demonstrate ultra-low-molecular-weight heparin's neuroprotective effects on ischemic injury both in vivo and in vitro studies. In vitro, the effect of ultra-low-molecular-weight heparin was tested in cultured PC12 cells exposed to Earle's solution containing sodium dithionite, to identify its neuroprotection to PC12 cells damaged by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). The cell injury was detected by the tetrazolium salt 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5 diphenyl-2H tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. In vivo, male Wistar rats with middle cerebral artery occlusion were evaluated for infarct volume followed by the treatment with ultra-low-molecular-weight heparin. The results in vitro showed that ultra-low-molecular-weight heparin significantly inhibited PC12 cells damage induced by OGD. Results in vivo showed that vein injection of Ultra-Low-molecular-weight heparin at doses of 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg exerted significant neuroprotective effects on rats with focal cerebral ischemic injury by significantly reducing the infarct volume compared with the injury group. All the findings suggest that ultra-low-molecular-weight heparin might act as a neuroprotective agent useful in the treatment of cerebral ischemia. PMID:20608997

  3. Catalytic conversion of methanol to low molecular weight olefins in a fluidized bed reactor 

    E-print Network

    Garza Tobias, Ricardo

    1983-01-01

    o. MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1983 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering CATALYTIC CONVERSION OF METHANOL TO LOW MOLECULAR WEIGHT OLEFINS IN A FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR A Thesis by RICARDO GARZA TOBIAS Approved as to style and content by: R. G...%) The effect of dilution in the feed and catalyst age on the butane yields, T 430'C (Methanol-DME conversion was greater than 95% on all experiments except 313 where it was 73%) The effect of dilution in the feed and catalyst age on the butylene yields, T...

  4. Low-molecular-weight heparins for the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Ornstein, D L; Hong-Dice, Y G; Papini, J R

    2001-07-01

    Low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) are rapidly becoming the anticoagulants of choice for the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism. LMWHs are at least as safe and effective as unfractionated heparin, and they have the added advantage of improved pharmacokinetic and safety profiles. The result is that LMWHs are easier to use, provide a more predictable anticoagulant effect, and do not require routine laboratory monitoring in most circumstances. Currently, the LMWHs ardeparin, dalteparin, danaparoid, enoxaparin, and tinzaparin have Food and Drug Administration-approved indications in the United States. This paper reviews the clinical use and cost-effectiveness of the LMWHs for the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism. PMID:11469031

  5. Computational and experimental investigation of DNA repair protein photolyase interactions with low molecular weight drugs.

    PubMed

    Azizo?lu, Selimcan; Kizilel, Riza; Maruši?, Maja; Kavakli, Ibrahim Halil; Erman, Burak; Kizilel, Seda

    2013-07-01

    This paper reports the previously unknown interactions between eight low molecular weight commercially available drugs (130-800 Da) and DNA repair protein photolyase using computational docking simulations and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) experiments. Theoretical dissociation constants, K(d), obtained from molecular docking simulations were compared with the values found from SPR experiments. Among the eight drugs analyzed, computational and experimental values showed similar binding affinities between selected drug and protein pairs. We found no significant differences in binding interactions between pure and commercial forms of the drug lornoxicam and DNA photolyase. Among the eight drugs studied, prednisone, desloratadine, and azelastine exhibited the highest binding affinity (K(d) = 1.65, 2.05, and 8.47 ?M, respectively) toward DNA photolyase. Results obtained in this study are promising for use in the prediction of unknown interactions of common drugs with specific proteins such as human clock protein cryptochrome. PMID:23657985

  6. Synthesis of High Molecular Weight Polybenzoxazoles in Polyphosphoric Acid and Investigation of their Hydrolytic Stability under Acidic Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young Jun Kim; Brian R. Einsla; Charles N. Tchatchoua; James E. Mcgrath

    2005-01-01

    Studies on the synthesis of high molecular weight polybenzoxazoles (PBOs) in polyphosphoric acid (PPA) and investigations of their hydrolytic stability in aqueous methanesulfonic acid are described. The polymerization of PBOs based upon 2,2?-bis(3-amino-4-hydroxyphenyl)-hexafluoropropane (6FAP) and 4,4?-oxydibenzoic acid (ODBA) was investigated as a function of the percentage of P2 O5 content in PPA, polymerization temperature, percentage monomer (total weight of monomers\\/weight

  7. Dragline silk: a fiber assembled with low-molecular-weight cysteine-rich proteins.

    PubMed

    Pham, Thanh; Chuang, Tyler; Lin, Albert; Joo, Hyun; Tsai, Jerry; Crawford, Taylor; Zhao, Liang; Williams, Caroline; Hsia, Yang; Vierra, Craig

    2014-11-10

    Dragline silk has been proposed to contain two main protein constituents, MaSp1 and MaSp2. However, the mechanical properties of synthetic spider silks spun from recombinant MaSp1 and MaSp2 proteins have yet to approach natural fibers, implying the natural spinning dope is missing critical factors. Here we report the discovery of novel molecular constituents within the spinning dope that are extruded into dragline silk. Protein studies of the liquid spinning dope from the major ampullate gland, coupled with the analysis of dragline silk fibers using mass spectrometry, demonstrate the presence of a new family of low-molecular-weight cysteine-rich proteins (CRPs) that colocalize with the MA fibroins. Expression of the CRP family members is linked to dragline silk production, specifically MaSp1 and MaSp2 mRNA synthesis. Biochemical data support that CRP molecules are secreted into the spinning dope and assembled into macromolecular complexes via disulfide bond linkages. Sequence analysis supports that CRP molecules share similarities to members that belong to the cystine slipknot superfamily, suggesting that these factors may have evolved to increase fiber toughness by serving as molecular hubs that dissipate large amounts of energy under stress. Collectively, our findings provide molecular details about the components of dragline silk, providing new insight that will advance materials development of synthetic spider silk for industrial applications. PMID:25259849

  8. Gas separation properties of carbon molecular sieve membranes derived from polyimide\\/polyvinylpyrrolidone blends: effect of the molecular weight of polyvinylpyrrolidone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Youn Kook Kim; Ho Bum Park; Young Moo Lee

    2005-01-01

    Carbon molecular sieve (CMS) membranes were prepared using aromatic polyimide (PI) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) polymer blends. The characteristics of the carbon structures and the gas permeation properties of the CMS membranes pyrolyzed at 500 and 700°C were investigated in terms of the molecular weight of PVP (the thermally labile polymer). The PI\\/PVP blend showed two separate thermal decomposition steps. In

  9. Low-molecular-weight heparin biosimilars: potential implications for clinical practice. Australian Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin Biosimilar Working Group (ALBW).

    PubMed

    Nandurkar, H; Chong, B; Salem, H; Gallus, A; Ferro, V; McKinnon, R

    2014-05-01

    A working group of clinicians and scientists was formed to review the clinical considerations for use of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) biosimilars. LMWH are biological molecules of significant complexity; the full complexity of chemical structure is still to be elucidated. LMWH biosimilars are products that are biologically similar to their reference product and rely on clinical data from a reference product to establish safety and efficacy. The complex nature of LMWH molecules means that it is uncertain whether a LMWH biosimilar is chemically identical to its reference product; this introduces the possibility of differences in activity and immunogenicity. The challenge for regulators and clinicians is to evaluate the level of evidence required to demonstrate that a LMWH is sufficiently similar to the reference product. The consensus opinion of the working group is that prior to clinical use a LMWH biosimilar should have proven efficacy and safety, similar to the reference product with prospective studies, which should be confirmed with a proactive post-marketing pharmacovigilance programme. PMID:24816308

  10. What lies beyond the eye: the molecular mechanisms regulating tomato fruit weight and shape

    PubMed Central

    van der Knaap, Esther; Chakrabarti, Manohar; Chu, Yi Hsuan; Clevenger, Josh P.; Illa-Berenguer, Eudald; Huang, Zejun; Keyhaninejad, Neda; Mu, Qi; Sun, Liang; Wang, Yanping; Wu, Shan

    2014-01-01

    Domestication of fruit and vegetables resulted in a huge diversity of shapes and sizes of the produce. Selections that took place over thousands of years of alleles that increased fruit weight and altered shape for specific culinary uses provide a wealth of resources to study the molecular bases of this diversity. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) evolved from a wild ancestor (S. pimpinellifolium) bearing small and round edible fruit. Molecular genetic studies led to the identification of two genes selected for fruit weight: FW2.2 encoding a member of the Cell Number Regulator family; and FW3.2 encoding a P450 enzyme and the ortholog of KLUH. Four genes were identified that were selected for fruit shape: SUN encoding a member of the IQD family of calmodulin-binding proteins leading to fruit elongation; OVATE encoding a member of the OVATE family proteins involved in transcriptional repression leading to fruit elongation; LC encoding most likely the ortholog of WUSCHEL controlling meristem size and locule number; FAS encoding a member in the YABBY family controlling locule number leading to flat or oxheart shape. For this article, we will provide an overview of the putative function of the known genes, when during floral and fruit development they are hypothesized to act and their potential importance in regulating morphological diversity in other fruit and vegetable crops. PMID:24904622

  11. Extraction conditions of Antheraea mylitta sericin with high yields and minimum molecular weight degradation.

    PubMed

    Yun, Haesung; Oh, Hanjin; Kim, Moo Kon; Kwak, Hyo Won; Lee, Jeong Yun; Um, In Chul; Vootla, Shyam Kumar; Lee, Ki Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Although the technique for extracting the Bombyx mori sericin has been extensively known, the extraction of sericin from wild-silkworm cocoons is not yet standardized. The aim of this study was to find the optimal conditions for the extraction of sericin from Antheraea mylitta cocoons, with high yields and minimum degradation. We attempted to apply various protocols for the extraction of the A. mylitta sericin (AmS). Among these, we found that the extraction of AmS with a sodium carbonate solution exhibited the highest yield except the conventional soap-alkali extraction. To find the optimal conditions for the AmS extraction with the sodium carbonate, we changed the concentration of sodium carbonate and the treatment time. With an increase in the sodium carbonate concentration and the extraction time, the yield of AmS increased, but the molecular weight (MW) of AmS decreased. Considering the yield, molecular weight distribution (MWD) and amino acid composition of AmS, we suggest that the optimal conditions for the AmS extraction require treatment with 0.02 M sodium carbonate and boiling for 60 min. PMID:23026092

  12. Commercialization of low molecular weight guayule rubber in environmentally friendly coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Thames, S.F.; He, Z.A. [Univ. of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Guayule (Parthenium Argentatum Gray), a shrub growing in the southwest United States and Mexico, is a promising domestic source of natural rubber. Low molecular weight guayule rubber (LMWGR) is one of four major coproducts obtained during the processing of the guayule shrub and this work describes our recent efforts directed to the derivation of value-added LMWGR derivatives; in particular chlorinated hydroxylated LMWGR and acrylated chlorinated LMWGR. Both products are useful as raw materials for the formulation of low volatile organic compound (VOC) coating formulations. Chlorinated hydroxylated LMWGR was synthesized via the chlorination of partially hydroxylated LMWGR whose structure was confirmed by {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). We have used chlorinated hydroxylated LMWGR as a reactive, primary alcohol in high solids polyurethane tough, of high gloss, and resistant to water, selected solvents, acids, and bases. Acrylated chlorinated low molecular weight rubber (ACLMWGR) was synthesized via reacting chlorinated hydroxylated LMWGR and acryloyl chloride. ACLMWGR is a useful prepolymer in 100% solids, UV cure coating formulations. The coatings cure readily when exposed to ultraviolet light giving films with excellent adhesion, good chemical resistance, ease of sanding, and water and solvent resistance. The cured finishes are hard, attractive, of high gloss, and possess excellent adhesion as well as superb water and solvent resistance.

  13. Effect of molecular weight reduction by gamma irradiation on chitosan film properties.

    PubMed

    García, Mario A; Pérez, Liliam; de la Paz, Nilia; González, Juan; Rapado, Manuel; Casariego, Alicia

    2015-10-01

    The present work aimed the influence of molecular weight (MW) reduction by irradiation with (60)Co and polymer concentration on some physical properties of chitosan films. Irradiation of chitosan with a MW of 275.221kDa and 74.74% of deacetylation degree was performed using a (60)Co source to provide doses of 5, 10, 20 and 50kGy to obtain chitosans with molecular weights of 247.847, 221.563, 126.469 and 77.063kDa, respectively. Films were prepared via the solution casting method. Film-forming solutions (FFS) of chitosan irradiated or not, were prepared at 1.5 and 2% (w/v) in a solution of lactic acid at 1% (v/v) and 0.1% (v/v) of Tween 80. The FFS were poured into glass plates of 400cm(2) and dried at 60°C during 10h without airflow. The decrease of MW and increase of chitosan concentration increased the tensil strength and water vapor permeability while decreased the elongation at break of the films. The chitosan MW did not significantly influence (p>0.05) the water solubility of films within a same polymer concentration. There was a decrease in the films' brightness with the increase of concentration and a decrease of the MW of irradiated chitosan, while the b* values of films increased and there was an increasing tendency of their apparent opacity. PMID:26117752

  14. Structure and activity of a new low-molecular-weight heparin produced by enzymatic ultrafiltration.

    PubMed

    Fu, Li; Zhang, Fuming; Li, Guoyun; Onishi, Akihiro; Bhaskar, Ujjwal; Sun, Peilong; Linhardt, Robert J

    2014-05-01

    The standard process for preparing the low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) tinzaparin, through the partial enzymatic depolymerization of heparin, results in a reduced yield because of the formation of a high content of undesired disaccharides and tetrasaccharides. An enzymatic ultrafiltration reactor for LMWH preparation was developed to overcome this problem. The behavior, of the heparin oligosaccharides and polysaccharides using various membranes and conditions, was investigated to optimize this reactor. A novel product, LMWH-II, was produced from the controlled depolymerization of heparin using heparin lyase II in this optimized ultrafiltration reactor. Enzymatic ultrafiltration provides easy control and high yields (>80%) of LMWH-II. The molecular weight properties of LMWH-II were similar to other commercial LMWHs. The structure of LMWH-II closely matched heparin's core structural features. Most of the common process artifacts, present in many commercial LWMHs, were eliminated as demonstrated by 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The antithrombin III and platelet factor-4 binding affinity of LMWH-II were comparable to commercial LMWHs, as was its in vitro anticoagulant activity. PMID:24634007

  15. Skin proteasomes (high-molecular-weight protease): purification, enzymologic properties, gross structure, and tissue distribution.

    PubMed

    Suga, Y; Takamori, K; Ogawa, H

    1993-09-01

    Proteasomes (high-molecular-weight protease) were purified from rat skin, and their enzymologic properties, gross structure, and tissue distribution were investigated. Skin proteasomes were purified by successive (NH4)2SO4 fractionation and by phenyl Sepharose CL-4B and HPLC gel filtration chromatography. The molecular weights of the proteasomes were estimated from gel filtration to be 750 kD. On sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the purified enzymes dissociated into several bands, the majority falling into the range of 36-20 kD. Two-dimensional electrophoretic analysis demonstrated approximately 10-15 separate protein spots with pl values varying between 3 and 10. As analyzed by electron microscopy, the gross structure of the enzymes showed an almost symmetrical ring-shaped particle with a small hole in the center. Succinyl-leucyl-leucyl-valyl-tyrosine-4-methylcoumaryl-7-amide, a fluorogenic substrate for serine proteinases, demonstrated the highest activity in terms of substrate specificity. Sodium dodecylsulfate, Ca++, and some free fatty acids activated enzyme activity. Activity was inhibited by diisopropylfluorophosphate, leupeptin, N-ethylmaleimide, iodoacetamide, and chymostatin. These results show that both serine and cysteine residues are related to the enzyme activity of proteasomes. Total and specific enzyme activities in the epidermis were, respectively, 10 and 20 times higher than in the dermis. Immunohistochemical studies utilizing the avidin-biotin complex method with monoclonal antibody revealed that the enzyme is distributed throughout the epidermis. These findings indicate the epidermal localization of proteasomes. PMID:8370972

  16. Molecular-weight-dependent changes in morphology of solution-grown polyethylene single crystals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Chen, Jingbo; Baier, Moritz C; Mecking, Stefan; Reiter, Renate; Mülhaupt, Rolf; Reiter, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Polymer single crystals consisting of folded chains are always in a nonequilibrium state, even if they are faceted with a well-defined envelope reflecting the parameters of the crystal unit cell. Heterogeneities like small variations in the degree of chain folding within such crystals are responsible for a rather broad range in melting temperature. Consequently, upon annealing at a given temperature, some parts may be above and some below their respective melting temperatures, inducing a lamellar thickening process, which may vary locally. To emphasize such variations, controlled annealing experiments are performed at comparatively low temperatures and for long times. For single crystals of low-molecular-weight polyethylene, the formation of the well-known "Swiss-cheese"-like morphology with randomly distributed holes of varying sizes within the annealed single crystal is observed. However, for high-molecular-weight polyethylene, a regular pattern appeared upon annealing, characterized by branches of equal width that are oriented perpendicular to the crystal edge. All branches end at the nucleation site. Interestingly, the resulting pattern depends sensitively on both crystallization and annealing conditions. These thermally induced regular patterns within a single crystal are attributed to a stable crystalline framework formed within polyethylene single crystals in the course of growth. PMID:25303218

  17. Partial Hydrothermal Oxidation of High Molecular Weight Unsaturated Carboxylic Acids for Upgrading of Biodiesel Fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, K.; Jin, F.; Kishita, A.; Tohji, K.; Enomoto, H.

    2007-03-01

    With increasing environmental awareness and crude oil price, biodiesel fuel (BDF) is gaining recognition as a renewable fuel which may be used as an alternative diesel fuel without any modification to the engine. The cold flow and viscosity of BDF, however, is a major drawback that limited its use in cold area. In this study, therefore, we investigated that partial oxidation of high molecular weight unsaturated carboxylic acids in subcritical water, which major compositions in BDF, to upgrade biodiesel fuel. Oleic acid, (HOOC(CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)7CH3), was selected as a model compound of high molecular weight unsaturated carboxylic acids. All experiments were performed with a batch reactor made of SUS 316 with an internal volume of 5.7 cm3. Oleic acid was oxidized at 300 °C with oxygen supply varying from 1-10 %. Results showed that a large amount of carboxylic acids and aldehydes having 8-9 carbon atoms were formed. These experimental results suggest that the hydrothermal oxidative cleavage may mainly occur at double bonds and the cleavage of double bonds could improve the cold flow and viscosity of BDF.

  18. Bemiparin, an effective and safe low molecular weight heparin: a review.

    PubMed

    Ciccone, Marco Matteo; Cortese, Francesca; Corbo, Filomena; Corrales, Noel Ernesto; Al-Momen, Abdul Kareem; Silva, Antonio; Zito, Annapaola; Pinto, Mariangela; Gesualdo, Michele; Scicchitano, Pietro

    2014-07-01

    Bemiparin is a low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) indicated for the acute treatment of deep vein thrombosis with or without pulmonary embolism, for the prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism in surgical and non-surgical patients and for the prevention of clotting in the extracorporeal circuit during hemodialysis. Due to its excellent pharmacological profile-the second-generation LMWH with the lowest molecular weight, the longest half-life and the highest anti-Factor Xa/anti-Factor IIa activity ratio-it can be safely used in special categories of patients (children, elderly, patients with renal impairment and congestive heart failure). Several studies demonstrated its safety and efficacy, while cost analyses show the economic benefits of bemiparin treatment as compared to other heparins. Recent evidences suggested the application of bemiparin even in the management of diabetic foot ulcers. The aim of this narrative review was to evaluate literature according to results coming from studies involving bemiparin administration in various clinical conditions. PMID:24657810

  19. Hydroxyethyl starch-induced pruritus: clinical characteristics and influence of dose, molecular weight and substitution.

    PubMed

    Ständer, Sonja; Richter, Laura; Osada, Nani; Metze, Dieter

    2014-05-01

    Severe persistent pruritus is a common, but incompletely characterized, complication of hydroxyethyl starch (HES) infusion. This retrospective study aimed to assess HES-induced pruritus by electron microscopic findings, pruritus characteristics, and response to stimuli, and to determine the impact of HES dosage, molecular weight and substitution. Seventy patients with electron micro-scopy-proven HES-induced pruritus were included. HES-laden vacuoles were observed in skin macrophages of all patients. The median latency between HES exposure and pruritus onset was 3 weeks, and the median duration of pruritus was 6 months. Pruritus was severe, or very severe, in 80% of patients. Mechanical stimuli triggered pruritus in 74% of patients. Although the median cumulative dose of HES was 300 g, 15% of patients developed pruritus after only 30 g. There were no significant differences between HES 130/0.4 and HES 200/0.5 in pruritus latency, duration or severity. HES-induced pruritus thus may occur at any dose, molecular weight or substitution. PMID:24037065

  20. Molecular weight and amino acid composition of fowl delta-globulin.

    PubMed

    Richards, C B

    1975-05-01

    1. The molecular weight of delta-globulin was estimated chromatographically to be about 10,700 daltons. 2. Ultracentrifuge experiments at 2-7 times 10-5 g gave values of s20, w = (1-49+0-16c) times 10- minus 13 s for the sedimentation coefficient and D20, w = (1-12+0-19c) times 10- minus 6 cm-2 s- minus 1 for the diffusion coefficient, c being the protain concentration (g/100 ml). 3. According to the Svedberg equation, these imply a molecular weight of 12,470 daltons, assuming v = 0-74 ml/g. 4. Using refractometer measurements of protein concentration it was found that E-1% 1cm (278 nm) = 5-57 at pH 7-8. 5. From the ultraviolet absorption spectrum of the protein in 0-1 N NaOH it was concluded that the molecule probably contains four tyrosine residues and no tryptophan. 6. On this basis a revised amino acid composition is given. PMID:806331

  1. Update on the clinical use of the low-molecular-weight heparin, parnaparin

    PubMed Central

    Camporese, Giuseppe; Bernardi, Enrico; Noventa, Franco

    2009-01-01

    Parnaparin is a low-molecular-weight heparin that has widely shown its efficacy and safety in prevention of venous thromboembolism, in the treatment of chronic venous disorders, and in the treatment of venous and arterial (stable and unstable angina, acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction) thrombosis. Parnaparin at the respective dosages of 3200, 4250, 6400, or 12800 IUaXa for a period ranging from 3 to 5 days to 6 months, is usually administered subcutaneously by means of once-daily regimen and is better tolerated than unfractionated heparin at the injection site. In the variety of commercially available low-molecular-weight heparins, parnaparin represents a useful therapeutic option, even though little evidence is available comparing the superiority or the equivalent efficacy and safety of parnaparin to that of the unfractionated heparin or placebo. This review summarizes the available literature on the use of parnaparin in different settings of cardiovascular diseases, including papers published during the past year and ongoing studies. PMID:19851520

  2. Development of solvent-free offset ink using vegetable oil esters and high molecular-weight resin.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung Min; Kim, Young Han; Kim, Sung Bin

    2013-01-01

    In the development of solvent-free offset ink, the roles of resin molecular weight and used solvent on the ink performance were evaluated by examining the relationship between the various properties of resin and solvent and print quality. To find the best performing resin, the soy-oil fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was applied to the five modified-phenolic resins having different molecular weights. It is found from the experimental results that the ink made of higher molecular weight and better solubility resin gives better printability and print quality. It is because larger molecular weight resin with better solubility gives higher rate of ink transfer. From the ink application of different esters to high molecular weight resin, the best printing performance was yielded from the soy-oil fatty acid butyl ester (FABE). It is due to its high kinematic viscosity resulting in the smallest change of ink transfer weight upon multiple number of printing, which improves the stability of ink quality. PMID:23728325

  3. Tribology of confined Fomblin-Z perfluoropolyalkylethers: molecular weight dependence and comparison between unfunctionalized and telechelic chains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marina Ruths; Steve Granick

    1999-01-01

    The dynamic shear properties of molecularly-thin films of unfunctionalized and end-functionalized (telechelic) Fomblin-Z perfluoropolyalkylether\\u000a (PFPAE) melts with number-average molecular weight M\\u000a n? 3000?4000 g,mol-1 have been studied at shear rates of 10-2?105 s-1 at normal pressures of 1 and 3 MPa. The shear responses are compared to measurements on end-functionalized polymers of the\\u000a same chemical composition but lower molecular weight,

  4. Molecular weight determination of hypromellose acetate succinate (HPMCAS) using size exclusion chromatography with a multi-angle laser light scattering detector.

    PubMed

    Fukasawa, Miyuki; Obara, Sakaé

    2004-11-01

    The molecular weight of hypromellose acetate succinate (HPMCAS), a polymer used for enteric coating, was determined by means of size exclusion chromatography with a multi-angle laser light scattering detector. The weight-average molecular weight (Mw) of several lots and grades ranged approximately from 17000 to 20000, and the number-average molecular weight (Mn) was around 13000. The inter-day precision of measurement, in terms of the coefficient of variation, was less than 5%. PMID:15516773

  5. Vapor-pressure osmometric study of the molecular weight and aggregation tendency of a reference-soil fulvic acid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marinsky, J.A.; Reddy, M.M.

    1990-01-01

    The molecular weight and aggregation tendency of a reference-soil fulvic acid in Armadale horizon Bh were determined by vapor-pressure osmometry using tetrahydrofuran and water as solvents. With tetrahydrofuran, number-average molecular weight values of 767 ?? 34 and 699 ?? 8 daltons were obtained from two separate sets of measurements. Two sets of measurements with water also yielded values within this range (754 ?? 70 daltons) provided that the fulvic acid concentration in water did not exceed 7 mg ml-1; at higher concentrations (9.1-13.7 mg ml-1) a number-average molecular weight of 956 ?? 25 daltons was resolved, providing evidence of molecular aggregation. Extension of these studies to 80% neutralized fulvic acid showed that a sizeable fraction of the sodium counter ion is not osmotically active.

  6. A novel low-molecular weight chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan isolated from cartilage.

    PubMed Central

    Heinegård, D; Paulsson, M; Inerot, S; Carlström, C

    1981-01-01

    Proteoglycans were isolated from cartilage by extraction with 4M-guanidinium chloride followed by direct centrifugation in 4M-guanidinium chloride/CsCl at a low starting density, 1.34 g/ml. N-Ethylmaleimide was included in the extraction solvent as a precaution against contamination of proteoglycans with unrelated proteins mediated by disulphide exchange. A novel, discrete, low-buoyant-density proteoglycan (1.40--1.35 g/ml) was demonstrated by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Its proteoglycan nature was revealed by the shift in the molecular size observed on gel electrophoresis after treatment with chondroitinase ABC. The core protein was monodisperse. The proteoglycan was further purified by gel chromatography with and without addition of hyaluronate. The proteoglycan constitutes less than 2% (by weight) of the total extracted proteoglycans and is not capable of interacting with hyaluronate. The same proteoglycan was purified in larger quantities by sequential associative and dissociative CsCl-density-gradient centrifugation, zonal rate sedimentation in a sucrose gradient and gel chromatography on Sepharose CL-4B. The pure proteoglycan had a molecular weight of 76 300 determined by sedimentation-equilibrium centrifugation and an apparent partial specific volume of 0.59 ml/g. It contained about 25% protein (of dry weight) and had remarkably high contents of leucine and cysteine as compared with other proteoglycans. The proteoglycan contained two to three large chondroitin sulphate chains and some oligosaccharides. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:6798963

  7. Size-exclusion chromatography in the measurements of concentration and molecular weight of some EOR polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, J.A.; Young, T.S.; Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.

    1988-08-01

    Procedures that involve the use of size exclusion chromatography (SEC) for the measurement of concentration and weight-averaged molecular weight, M-bar/sub w/, of some EOR polymers were developed and found to give improved detectability, accuracy, and/or efficiency. The separation of polymer from low-molecular-weight impurities by size allows unambiguous detection of polymer properties such as concentration and M-bar/sub w/. A combination of an SEC column of a pore size small enough to exclude the polymer totally and a mobile phase of ionic strength of 1.5 was found suitable for the separation of polyacrylamide, partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide, cationic polyacrylamide derivative, and xanthan polysaccharide from impurities. Concentration detection of the separated polymer sample with a variable-wavelength ultraviolet (UV) detector was found to give superior detectability over detection by refractive index difference. A wavelength of 214 nm (2,140 A) was used for the detection of these polymers on the basis of the spectra of samples purified by dialysis. With the active polymer assay determined by reprecipitation into a nonsolvent, the detection limit by UV was determined to be <0.1 ..mu..g/cm/sup 3/ for polyacrylamide and a cationic polyacrylamide derivative, <0.2 ..mu..g/cm/sup 3/ for partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide, and <0.7 ..mu..g/cm/sup 3/ for a xanthan polysaccharide. The linear calibration range was up to 500 ..mu..g/cm/sup 3/. The precision of the concentration measurement was better than 4% for polyacrylamide and its derivative and 5% for polysaccharide at a 95% confidence level.

  8. Biodegradable Poly(2-Dimethylamino Ethylamino)Phosphazene for In Vivo Gene Delivery to Tumor Cells. Effect of Polymer Molecular Weight

    PubMed Central

    de Wolf, Holger K.; de Raad, Markus; Snel, Cor; van Steenbergen, Mies J.; Fens, Marcel H. A. M.; Storm, Gert

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Previously, we have shown that complexes of plasmid DNA with the biodegradable polymer poly(2-dimethylamino ethylamino)phosphazene (p(DMAEA)-ppz) mediated tumor selective gene expression after intravenous administration in mice. In this study, we investigated the effect of p(DMAEA)-ppz molecular weight on both in vitro and in vivo tumor transfection, as well as on complex induced toxicity. Materials and Methods p(DMAEA)-ppz with a broad molar mass distribution was fractionated by preparative size exclusion chromatography. Polyplexes consisting of plasmid DNA and the collected polymer fractions were tested for biophysical properties, (cyto)toxicity and transfection activity. Results Four p(DMAEA)-ppz fractions were collected with weight average molecular weights ranging from 130 to 950 kDa, and with narrow molecular mass distributions (Mw/Mn from 1.1 to 1.3). At polymer-to-DNA (N/P) ratios above 6, polyplexes based on these polymers were all positively charged (zeta potential 25–29 mV), and had a size of 80–90 nm. The in vitro cytotoxicity of the polyplexes positively correlated with polymer molecular weight. The in vitro transfection activity of the different polyplexes depended on their N/P ratio, and was affected by the degree of cytotoxicity, as well as the colloidal stability of the different polyplexes. Intravenous administration of polyplexes based on the high molecular weight polymers led to apparent toxicity, as a result of polyplex-induced erythrocyte aggregation. On the other hand, administration of polyplexes based on low molecular weight p(DMAEA)-ppz’s (Mw 130 kDa) did not show signs of toxicity and resulted in tumor selective gene expression. Conclusion Polymer molecular weight fractionation enabled us to optimize the transfection efficiency/toxicity ratio of p(DMAEA)-ppz polyplexes for in vitro and in vivo tumor transfection. PMID:17435970

  9. Learning a Weighted Sequence Model of the Nucleosome Core and Linker Yields More Accurate Predictions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Homo sapiens

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Sheila M.; Bilmes, Jeff A.; Noble, William Stafford

    2010-01-01

    DNA in eukaryotes is packaged into a chromatin complex, the most basic element of which is the nucleosome. The precise positioning of the nucleosome cores allows for selective access to the DNA, and the mechanisms that control this positioning are important pieces of the gene expression puzzle. We describe a large-scale nucleosome pattern that jointly characterizes the nucleosome core and the adjacent linkers and is predominantly characterized by long-range oscillations in the mono, di- and tri-nucleotide content of the DNA sequence, and we show that this pattern can be used to predict nucleosome positions in both Homo sapiens and Saccharomyces cerevisiae more accurately than previously published methods. Surprisingly, in both H. sapiens and S. cerevisiae, the most informative individual features are the mono-nucleotide patterns, although the inclusion of di- and tri-nucleotide features results in improved performance. Our approach combines a much longer pattern than has been previously used to predict nucleosome positioning from sequence—301 base pairs, centered at the position to be scored—with a novel discriminative classification approach that selectively weights the contributions from each of the input features. The resulting scores are relatively insensitive to local AT-content and can be used to accurately discriminate putative dyad positions from adjacent linker regions without requiring an additional dynamic programming step and without the attendant edge effects and assumptions about linker length modeling and overall nucleosome density. Our approach produces the best dyad-linker classification results published to date in H. sapiens, and outperforms two recently published models on a large set of S. cerevisiae nucleosome positions. Our results suggest that in both genomes, a comparable and relatively small fraction of nucleosomes are well-positioned and that these positions are predictable based on sequence alone. We believe that the bulk of the remaining nucleosomes follow a statistical positioning model. PMID:20628623

  10. Molecular Weight Dependent Glucose Lowering Effect of Low Molecular Weight Chitosan Oligosaccharide (GO2KA1) on Postprandial Blood Glucose Level in SD Rats Model

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Sung-Hoon; Ha, Kyoung-Soo; Moon, Kyoung-Sik; Kim, Jong-Gwan; Oh, Chen-Gum; Kim, Young-Cheul; Apostolidis, Emmanouil; Kwon, Young-In

    2013-01-01

    This research investigated the effect of enzymatically digested low molecular weight (MW) chitosan oligosaccharide on type 2 diabetes prevention. Three different chitosan oligosaccharide samples with varying MW were evaluated in vitro for inhibition of rat small intestinal ?-glucosidase and porcine pancreatic ?-amylase (GO2KA1; <1000 Da, GO2KA2; 1000–10,000 Da, GO2KA3; MW > 10,000 Da). The in vitro results showed that all tested samples had similar rat ?-glucosidase inhibitory and porcine ?-amylase inhibitory activity. Based on these observations, we decided to further investigate the effect of all three samples at a dose of 0.1 g/kg, on reducing postprandial blood glucose levels in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat model after sucrose loading test. In the animal trial, all tested samples had postprandial blood glucose reduction effect, when compared to control, however GO2KA1 supplementation had the strongest effect. The glucose peak (Cmax) for GO2KA1 and control was 152 mg/dL and 193 mg/dL, respectively. The area under the blood glucose-time curve (AUC) for GO2KA1 and control was 262 h mg/dL and 305 h mg/dL, respectively. Furthermore, the time of peak plasma concentration of blood glucose (Tmax) for GO2KA1 was significantly delayed (0.9 h) compared to control (0.5 h). These results suggest that GO2KA1 could have a beneficial effect for blood glucose management relevant to diabetes prevention in normal and pre-diabetic individuals. The suggested mechanism of action is via inhibition of the carbohydrate hydrolysis enzyme ?-glucosidase and since GO2KA1 (MW < 1000 Da) had higher in vivo effect, we hypothesize that it is more readily absorbed and might exert further biological effect once it is absorbed in the blood stream, relevant to blood glucose management. PMID:23839092

  11. Synthesis and characterization of sugar based low molecular weight gelators and the preparation of chiral sulfinamides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangunuru, Hari Prasad Reddy

    Low molecular weight gelators (LMWGs) have received considerable attention in the field of chemistry from last few decades. These compounds form self-assembled fibrous networks like micelles, cylindrical, sheets, fibers, layers and so on. The fibrous network entraps the solvent and forms gel, because of the self-assembly phenomenon and their demonstrated potential uses in a variety of areas, ranging from environmental to medicinal applications. Sugars are good starting materials to synthesize the new class of LMWG's, because these are different from some expensive materials, these are natural products. We have synthesized and characterized the LMGS's based on D-glucose and D-glucosamine. D-glucosamine is the versatile starting material to make different peptoids and triazoles. Several series of compounds were synthesized using compounds 1-3 as starting material and studied the gelation behavior all the compounds. We have studied the self-assembling properties of a new class of tripeptoids, synthesized by one-pot Ugi reaction from simple starting materials. Among the focused library of tripeptoids synthesized, we found that several efficient low molecular weight organogelators were obtained for aqueous DMSO and ethanol mixtures. We have also synthesized and characterized a series of monosaccharide triazole derivatives. These compounds were synthesized from N-acetyl glucosamine and D-glucose via a Cu(I) catalyzed azide/alkyne cycloaddition reaction (CuAAc). The compounds have been screened for their gelation properties and several efficient low molecular weight organo/hydro gelators were obtained, among these compounds, five per-acetyl glucosamine derivatives and one peracetyl glucose derivative were able to form gels in water. These new molecules are expected to be useful in drug delivery and tissue engineering.*. Asymmetric synthesis of chiral amines is a challenging in synthetic organic chemistry. The development of new catalysts for asymmetric organic transformations is a very important research goal in modern synthetic organic chemistry. We have synthesized a new class of chiral oxathiozinone from chiral amino phenol. From this synthesized chiral sulfinamides, ketimines followed by reducing the ketimines synthesized the highly hindered chiral amines. *Please refer to dissertation for diagrams.

  12. On the nature of static and cyclic fracture resistance of ultra high molecular weight polyethylenes used in total joint replacements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadarajan, Ravikumar

    In 2005, about 629,000 total joint replacement (TJR) surgeries were performed in the United States alone and the number is expected to increase by 343% by 2030. In addition, the average age of the patient receiving TJR is decreasing. Therefore, there is an immediate need to enhance the material properties of the implants. Fracture of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) components used in total joint replacements is a clinical concern. In this work, static and cyclic fracture resistance of conventional and highly crosslinked and post-processed UHMWPE materials were evaluated in ambient air and physiologically relevant environmental conditions. Applicability of a compliance based automated system for crack length measurement during fatigue crack propagation (FCP) tests was demonstrated for UHMWPE materials. The Standard compliance calibration coefficients were found to accurately predict the fatigue crack growth only in the low da/dN regime (da/dN < 10-4 mm/cycle). New compliance calibration coefficients that can accurately predict the fatigue crack growth were computed for different UHMWPE materials. FCP studies were conducted in ambient air and in 37°C PBS environments to evaluate the cyclic fracture resistance of UHMWPE materials. In a 37°C PBS environment, the resistance to fatigue crack inception and propagation of sterilized and highly crosslinked UHMWPE materials were found to be reduced compared to ambient air. This findings suggests that under in-vivo conditions UHMWPE implants are more likely to be susceptible to fatigue fracture than might be expected from tests conducted in ambient air. The presence of crack closure overestimates the FCP resistance in the near threshold regime. Crack closure was not observed for any of the UHMWPE materials under the testing conditions selected for this study. Under in-vivo conditions, UHMWPE components may be subjected to overloads. On application of an overload, some test specimens exhibited crack retardation while others exhibited crack acceleration on application of a single overload. On application of multiple overloads crack arrest was observed. To evaluate the static fracture resistance of UHMWPE materials, J-R curves were obtained in ambient air and 37°C PBS environments using a single specimen normalization method. The single specimen method based on power law based deformation function was demonstrated to predict J-R curves accurately for UHMWPE materials. Significantly lower J-R fracture resistance was observed in the 37°C PBS environment as compared to that in an ambient air environment. A novel experimental method based on CTOD was developed to evaluate fracture initiation in UHMWPE materials. This method predicted conservative and more reliable J-initiation fracture toughness estimates as compared to the traditional blunting line approach.

  13. Surface engineering on mesoporous silica chips for enriching low molecular weight phosphorylated proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ye; Peng, Yang; Lin, Kevin; Shen, Haifa; Brousseau, Louis C., III; Sakamoto, Jason; Sun, Tong; Ferrari, Mauro

    2011-02-01

    Phosphorylated peptides and proteins play an important role in normal cellular activities, e.g., gene expression, mitosis, differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis, as well as tumor initiation, progression and metastasis. However, technical hurdles hinder the use of common fractionation methods to capture phosphopeptides from complex biological fluids such as human sera. Herein, we present the development of a dual strategy material that offers enhanced capture of low molecular weight phosphoproteins: mesoporous silica thin films with precisely engineered pore sizes that sterically select for molecular size combined with chemically selective surface modifications (i.e. Ga3+, Ti4+ and Zr4+) that target phosphoroproteins. These materials provide high reproducibility (CV = 18%) and increase the stability of the captured proteins by excluding degrading enzymes, such as trypsin. The chemical and physical properties of the composite mesoporous thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and ellipsometry. Using mass spectroscopy and biostatistics analysis, the enrichment efficiency of different metal ions immobilized on mesoporous silica chips was investigated. The novel technology reported provides a platform capable of efficiently profiling the serum proteome for biomarker discovery, forensic sampling, and routine diagnostic applications.Phosphorylated peptides and proteins play an important role in normal cellular activities, e.g., gene expression, mitosis, differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis, as well as tumor initiation, progression and metastasis. However, technical hurdles hinder the use of common fractionation methods to capture phosphopeptides from complex biological fluids such as human sera. Herein, we present the development of a dual strategy material that offers enhanced capture of low molecular weight phosphoproteins: mesoporous silica thin films with precisely engineered pore sizes that sterically select for molecular size combined with chemically selective surface modifications (i.e. Ga3+, Ti4+ and Zr4+) that target phosphoroproteins. These materials provide high reproducibility (CV = 18%) and increase the stability of the captured proteins by excluding degrading enzymes, such as trypsin. The chemical and physical properties of the composite mesoporous thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and ellipsometry. Using mass spectroscopy and biostatistics analysis, the enrichment efficiency of different metal ions immobilized on mesoporous silica chips was investigated. The novel technology reported provides a platform capable of efficiently profiling the serum proteome for biomarker discovery, forensic sampling, and routine diagnostic applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00720j

  14. Toward accurate molecular identification of species in complex environmental samples: testing the performance of sequence filtering and clustering methods.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Jullien M; Brown, Emily A; Chain, Frédéric J J; MacIsaac, Hugh J; Cristescu, Melania E

    2015-06-01

    Metabarcoding has the potential to become a rapid, sensitive, and effective approach for identifying species in complex environmental samples. Accurate molecular identification of species depends on the ability to generate operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that correspond to biological species. Due to the sometimes enormous estimates of biodiversity using this method, there is a great need to test the efficacy of data analysis methods used to derive OTUs. Here, we evaluate the performance of various methods for clustering length variable 18S amplicons from complex samples into OTUs using a mock community and a natural community of zooplankton species. We compare analytic procedures consisting of a combination of (1) stringent and relaxed data filtering, (2) singleton sequences included and removed, (3) three commonly used clustering algorithms (mothur, UCLUST, and UPARSE), and (4) three methods of treating alignment gaps when calculating sequence divergence. Depending on the combination of methods used, the number of OTUs varied by nearly two orders of magnitude for the mock community (60-5068 OTUs) and three orders of magnitude for the natural community (22-22191 OTUs). The use of relaxed filtering and the inclusion of singletons greatly inflated OTU numbers without increasing the ability to recover species. Our results also suggest that the method used to treat gaps when calculating sequence divergence can have a great impact on the number of OTUs. Our findings are particularly relevant to studies that cover taxonomically diverse species and employ markers such as rRNA genes in which length variation is extensive. PMID:26078860

  15. Toward accurate molecular identification of species in complex environmental samples: testing the performance of sequence filtering and clustering methods

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Jullien M; Brown, Emily A; Chain, Frédéric J J; MacIsaac, Hugh J; Cristescu, Melania E

    2015-01-01

    Metabarcoding has the potential to become a rapid, sensitive, and effective approach for identifying species in complex environmental samples. Accurate molecular identification of species depends on the ability to generate operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that correspond to biological species. Due to the sometimes enormous estimates of biodiversity using this method, there is a great need to test the efficacy of data analysis methods used to derive OTUs. Here, we evaluate the performance of various methods for clustering length variable 18S amplicons from complex samples into OTUs using a mock community and a natural community of zooplankton species. We compare analytic procedures consisting of a combination of (1) stringent and relaxed data filtering, (2) singleton sequences included and removed, (3) three commonly used clustering algorithms (mothur, UCLUST, and UPARSE), and (4) three methods of treating alignment gaps when calculating sequence divergence. Depending on the combination of methods used, the number of OTUs varied by nearly two orders of magnitude for the mock community (60–5068 OTUs) and three orders of magnitude for the natural community (22–22191 OTUs). The use of relaxed filtering and the inclusion of singletons greatly inflated OTU numbers without increasing the ability to recover species. Our results also suggest that the method used to treat gaps when calculating sequence divergence can have a great impact on the number of OTUs. Our findings are particularly relevant to studies that cover taxonomically diverse species and employ markers such as rRNA genes in which length variation is extensive.

  16. Absorption spectroscopy of the rubidium dimer in an overheated vapor: An accurate check of molecular structure and dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Beuc, R.; Movre, M.; Horvatic, V.; Vadla, C. [Institute of Physics, Bijenicka 46, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Dulieu, O.; Aymar, M. [Laboratoire Aime Cotton, CNRS, Campus d'Orsay, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2007-03-15

    Experimental studies of the absorption spectrum of the Rb{sub 2} dimer are performed in the 600-1100 nm wavelength range for temperatures between 615 and 745 K. The reduced absorption coefficient is measured by spatially resolved white light absorption in overheated rubidium vapor with a radial temperature gradient, which enables simultaneous measurements at different temperatures. Semiclassical and quantum spectral simulations are obtained by taking into account all possible transitions involving the potential curves stemming from the 5 {sup 2}S+5 {sup 2}S and 5 {sup 2}S+5 {sup 2}P asymptotes. The most accurate experimental potential curves are used where available, and newly calculated potential curves and transition dipole moments otherwise. The overall consistency of the theoretical model with the experimental interpretation is obtained only if the radial dependence of both the calculated transition dipole moments and the spin-orbit coupling is taken into account. This highlights the low-resolution absorption spectroscopy as a valuable tool for checking the accuracy of molecular electronic structure calculations.

  17. Nuclear Quantum Effects in Liquid Water: A Highly Accurate ab initio Path-Integral Molecular Dynamics Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Distasio, Robert A., Jr.; Santra, Biswajit; Ko, Hsin-Yu; Car, Roberto

    2014-03-01

    In this work, we report highly accurate ab initio path-integral molecular dynamics (AI-PIMD) simulations on liquid water at ambient conditions utilizing the recently developed PBE0+vdW(SC) exchange-correlation functional, which accounts for exact exchange and a self-consistent pairwise treatment of van der Waals (vdW) or dispersion interactions, combined with nuclear quantum effects (via the colored-noise generalized Langevin equation). The importance of each of these effects in the theoretical prediction of the structure of liquid water will be demonstrated by a detailed comparative analysis of the predicted and experimental oxygen-oxygen (O-O), oxygen-hydrogen (O-H), and hydrogen-hydrogen (H-H) radial distribution functions as well as other structural properties. In addition, we will discuss the theoretically obtained proton momentum distribution, computed using the recently developed Feynman path formulation, in light of the experimental deep inelastic neutron scattering (DINS) measurements. DOE: DE-SC0008626, DOE: DE-SC0005180.

  18. The potency of hyaluronan of different molecular weights in the stimulation of blood phagocytes.

    PubMed

    Safrankova, Barbora; Gajdova, Silvie; Kubala, Lukas

    2010-01-01

    The regulatory functions of glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA) are suggested to be dependent on its molecular weight (MW). Proinflammatory and stimulatory effects are proposed mainly for the low MW HA. However, the complex response of blood phagocytes to HA of different MW is unclear. Herein, the effects of highly purified HA of precisely defined MW (52, 250, and 970 ?kDa) on human blood phagocytes were tested. All MW HA activated blood phagocytes, including the spontaneous production of ROS, degranulation, and the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha, with low MW HA 52 ?kDa having the highest potency and high MW HA 970? kDa having the lowest potency. Interestingly, HA inhibited ROS production stimulated by opsonized zymosan particles and, in contrast, potentiated starch-activated ROS production, mostly independent of MW. Data showed a significant effect of HA of different MW on blood phagocytes, including high MW HA. PMID:21403830

  19. The Potency of Hyaluronan of Different Molecular Weights in the Stimulation of Blood Phagocytes

    PubMed Central

    Safrankova, Barbora; Gajdova, Silvie; Kubala, Lukas

    2010-01-01

    The regulatory functions of glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA) are suggested to be dependent on its molecular weight (MW). Proinflammatory and stimulatory effects are proposed mainly for the low MW HA. However, the complex response of blood phagocytes to HA of different MW is unclear. Herein, the effects of highly purified HA of precisely defined MW (52, 250, and 970?kDa) on human blood phagocytes were tested. All MW HA activated blood phagocytes, including the spontaneous production of ROS, degranulation, and the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha, with low MW HA 52?kDa having the highest potency and high MW HA 970?kDa having the lowest potency. Interestingly, HA inhibited ROS production stimulated by opsonized zymosan particles and, in contrast, potentiated starch-activated ROS production, mostly independent of MW. Data showed a significant effect of HA of different MW on blood phagocytes, including high MW HA. PMID:21403830

  20. The effect of a low molecular weight heparin on coagulation parameters in healthy cats.

    PubMed

    Vargo, Cheryl L; Taylor, Susan M; Carr, Anthony; Jackson, Marion L

    2009-04-01

    The low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), dalteparin sodium, was administered subcutaneously (100 IU/kg) to 8 healthy cats twice daily for 13 doses. Anti-activated factor X (anti-Xa) activity was measured prior to administration (time 0), and 4, 6, 8, and 12 h after the 1st dose, 4 h after administration of the 3rd dose, and at 4, 6, 8, and 12 h after the last dose. Four cats developed measurable anti-Xa activity 4 h following a single dose, returning to baseline by 6 h. Anti-Xa activity was not detected at any time point in 4 cats. Prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and antithrombin (AT) concentrations were unaffected by LMWH administration. Dalteparin, at 100 IU/kg SC, did not achieve anti-Xa activity in 4 out of 8 cats and failed to maintain anti-Xa activity beyond 4 h in the other 4 healthy cats. PMID:19436582

  1. Intentional low-molecular-weight heparin overdose: a case report and review.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Michael; Zumberg, Marc

    2012-12-01

    The reversal of low-molecular-weight heparins, particularly at supratherapeutic levels, remains challenging. The paucity of literature available to guide the treatment of these patients makes their management difficult for primary care providers, surgeons, and subspecialists alike. We report the case of a 34-year-old woman, who intentionally overdosed on enoxaparin (Lovenox) in a suicide attempt. Her initial antifactor Xa activity level was 8.3 IU/ml, the highest level reported in the literature to date. She was initially managed conservatively, however, within 24 h of admission she developed evidence of acute blood loss. Protamine sulfate and three doses of recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) were administered in an effort to control bleeding. We report the effects of these measures and review the literature to date. Our study is one of the first to graph in-vivo antifactor Xa activity levels and to suggest a drug half-life of approximately 25 h. PMID:23135382

  2. Degradation diagnosis of ultrahigh-molecular weight polyethylene with terahertz-time-domain spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Kohji; Yamaguchi, Mariko; Tani, Masahiko; Hangyo, Masanori; Teramura, Satoshi; Isu, Toshiro; Tomita, Naohide [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871 (Japan); Graduate School of Material Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology (NAIST), 8916-5, Takayama, Ikoma, Nara, 630-0101 (Japan); International Innovation Center, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Hon-machi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8501 (Japan)

    2004-11-29

    We investigated ultrahigh-molecular-weight-polyethylene (UHMWPE) samples prepared by various conditions with terahertz-time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). Degradation of the virgin UHMWPE samples by {gamma} irradiation induced a drastic increase of the absorption ranging continuously over the THz region. The increase of the absorption continuum is interpreted to originate in the oxidation of the amorphous region within the sample. Only slight THz spectral changes induced by the {gamma} irradiation were, however, observed for the UHMWPE samples doped with 0.1 and 0.3 wt % vitamin E. This result agrees with the earlier indication that vitamin E has an antidegradation effect on UHMWPE. The present result shows that the THz-TDS can be used for the quality control of UHMWPE by monitoring the absorption continuum in the THz region.

  3. Processing of hydroxyapatite reinforced ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Fang, Liming; Leng, Yang; Gao, Ping

    2005-06-01

    A new method for processing hydroxyapatite/ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (HA/UHMWPE) composite has been developed by combining wet ball milling and swelling. Sintered HA particles were ground in ethanol to approximately 50 nm in diameter. The nano-sized HA particles were mechanically mixed with UHMWPE in the ball mill and then compression molded into solid slabs. The slabs were then swollen in a pharmaceutical grade paraffin oil to enhance the UHMWPE chain mobility and HA/UHMWPE interface adhesion before final hot press. The resultant composite exhibits a two-zone network structure formed by a homogeneous HA-rich phase and a UHMWPE-rich phase. This process resulted in a 90% increase in Young's modulus and a 50% increase in the yield strength of HA/UHMWPE composite, comparing with those of unfilled UHMWPE. PMID:15621236

  4. Low molecular weight heparins copies: are they considered to be generics or biosimilars?

    PubMed

    Minghetti, Paola; Cilurzo, Francesco; Franzé, Silvia; Musazzi, Umberto M; Itri, Manuela

    2013-03-01

    The protection rights of low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) are expired or are expiring, so the extent and nature of the studies required to obtain a market authorization for LMWH copies represents a hot topic. FDA classifies LMWHs as semisynthetic drugs and their copies as generics whereas the EMA views them as biological medicines and consequently their copies as biosimilars. Consequently, FDA requires only in vivo pharmacodynamic studies, while EMA requires also clinical trials. The current work reviews the chemical composition and therapeutic indications of LMWHs available in the EU and USA markets to discuss the two different approaches. Because LMWHs show a high intrinsic variability and a complete characterization is not viable, a conservative approach is desirable. PMID:23153556

  5. In vivo endothelial siRNA delivery using polymeric nanoparticles with low molecular weight.

    PubMed

    Dahlman, James E; Barnes, Carmen; Khan, Omar F; Thiriot, Aude; Jhunjunwala, Siddharth; Shaw, Taylor E; Xing, Yiping; Sager, Hendrik B; Sahay, Gaurav; Speciner, Lauren; Bader, Andrew; Bogorad, Roman L; Yin, Hao; Racie, Tim; Dong, Yizhou; Jiang, Shan; Seedorf, Danielle; Dave, Apeksha; Singh Sandhu, Kamaljeet; Webber, Matthew J; Novobrantseva, Tatiana; Ruda, Vera M; Lytton-Jean, Abigail K R; Levins, Christopher G; Kalish, Brian; Mudge, Dayna K; Perez, Mario; Abezgauz, Ludmila; Dutta, Partha; Smith, Lynelle; Charisse, Klaus; Kieran, Mark W; Fitzgerald, Kevin; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Danino, Dganit; Tuder, Rubin M; von Andrian, Ulrich H; Akinc, Akin; Panigrahy, Dipak; Schroeder, Avi; Koteliansky, Victor; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G

    2014-08-01

    Dysfunctional endothelium contributes to more diseases than any other tissue in the body. Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) can help in the study and treatment of endothelial cells in vivo by durably silencing multiple genes simultaneously, but efficient siRNA delivery has so far remained challenging. Here, we show that polymeric nanoparticles made of low-molecular-weight polyamines and lipids can deliver siRNA to endothelial cells with high efficiency, thereby facilitating the simultaneous silencing of multiple endothelial genes in vivo. Unlike lipid or lipid-like nanoparticles, this formulation does not significantly reduce gene expression in hepatocytes or immune cells even at the dosage necessary for endothelial gene silencing. These nanoparticles mediate the most durable non-liver silencing reported so far and facilitate the delivery of siRNAs that modify endothelial function in mouse models of vascular permeability, emphysema, primary tumour growth and metastasis. PMID:24813696

  6. Skin: Major target organ of allergic reactions to small molecular weight compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Merk, Hans F. [Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Univ.-Hospital, RWTH Aachen, Pauwelsstr. 30, D-52074 Aachen (Germany)], E-mail: hans.merk@post.rwth-aachen.de; Baron, Jens M.; Neis, Mark M.; Obrigkeit, Daniela Hoeller [Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Univ.-Hospital, RWTH Aachen, Pauwelsstr. 30, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); Karlberg, Ann-Therese [Dermatochemistry and Skin Allergy, Department of Chemistry, Goeteborg University, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2007-11-01

    Skin is a major target organ for allergic reactions to small molecular weight compounds. Drug allergic reactions may be life-threatening such as in the case of anaphylactic reactions or bullous drug reactions and occur in about 5% of all hospitalized patients. Allergic contact dermatitis has an enormous influence on the social life of the patient because it is the most frequent reason for occupational skin diseases and the treatment and prevention of this disease cost approximately Euro 3 billion per year in Germany. The different proposed pathophysiological pathways leading to a drug eruption are discussed in this paper. All major enzymes which are involved in the metabolism of xenobiotica were shown to be present in skin. Evidence supporting the role of metabolism in the development of drug allergy and allergic contact dermatitis is demonstrated in the example of sulphonamides and fragrances.

  7. Polycationic biocides with pendant active groups: molecular weight dependence of antibacterial activity.

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, T; Hirayama, H; Yamaguchi, H; Tazuke, S; Watanabe, M

    1986-01-01

    Two types of polycations with pendant active groups were synthesized: one is polymethacrylate containing pendant biguanide units, and the other is poly(vinylbenzyl ammonium chloride). The two polycations were found to exhibit higher bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus than the corresponding monomers. Fractionation of the polycations was successfully performed on gel filtration chromatography, and examination of the antibacterial activity against S. aureus of the well-characterized polymer samples with various molecular weights (MW) revealed that the activity was strongly dependent on the MW of the polycations and that there existed an optimal MW range for the cidal action of the polymeric biocides. Experiments on the lysis of protoplasts of Bacillus subtilis in contact with the polycations have shown that target sites of the polycationic biocides are cytoplasmic membranes of bacteria. PMID:3092730

  8. Immune-enhancing activities of low molecular weight ?-glucan depolymerized by gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Nak-Yun; Byun, Eui-Hong; Kwon, Sun-Kyu; Song, Beom-Seok; Choi, Jong-il; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Yoo, Young-Choon; Kim, Mee-Ree; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-07-01

    ?-glucans are structural cell wall polymers of many microorganisms and cereals which possess immunomodulatory properties and have been used in the food, cosmetic and medical industry. In our previous study, ?-glucan was depolymerized by gamma irradiation and leads to improve the solubility and viscosity. This study was carried out to evaluate the functional properties, mainly immune-enhancing activities of low molecular weight ?-glucan fragmented by gamma irradiation. The results showed that RAW 264.7 macrophage cell stimulation activities of irradiated ?-glucan were higher than that of non-irradiated ?-glucan. In addition, the oral administration of gamma-irradiated ?-glucan significantly increased the proliferation and cytokine (IFN-? and IL-2) release of spleen and Peyer's patch cells compared with non-irradiated ?-glucan. In conclusion, gamma irradiation could be used as an effective method for the production of depolymerized ?-glucan improved functional property such as immunomodulatory activity.

  9. A novel glucose/pH responsive low-molecular-weight organogel of easy recycling.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chaoyu; Gao, Wenxia; Yang, Kaiwen; Xu, Long; Ding, Jinchang; Chen, Jiuxi; Liu, Miaochang; Huang, Xiaobo; Wang, Shun; Wu, Huayue

    2013-11-01

    A new phenylboronic acid based gelator was developed to prepare low-molecular-weight organogel (LMOG), which could interact with several solvents to assemble into a three-dimensional nanofiber network. (1)H NMR spectroscopy study suggests that the driving force for the gelation includes hydrogen bonding and ?-? stacking. Evaluated by UV-spectroscopy, the gel showed a prompt initial response to glucose at low concentration of 0.012 mmol/mL, which is a critical concentration of venous plasma glucose for diabetes. Significantly, this organogel exhibits excellent sensitivity to glucose among seven sugars tested (i.e., mannitol, galactose, lactose, maltose, sucrose, and fructose). The proposed formation of hydrogen-bonded complexes during the glucose sensing was supported by our energy calculation. Meanwhile, this organogel exhibits pH-response. Importantly, this LMOG could be conveniently recycled and thus be reused. PMID:24093805

  10. Vibration enhances clearance of solutes with varying molecular weights during in vitro hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Bruce A; Jasiak, Karalea D; Thiel, Sarah R; Stevenson, James M; Vilay, A Mary; Scoville, Bridget A; Churchwell, Mariann D; Pasko, Deborah A; Perkins, Noel

    2013-01-01

    This proof of concept pilot study was performed to determine whether vibration can increase solute clearance when applied to an in vitro dialysis model. Urea, creatinine, gentamicin, and vancomycin transmembrane clearances were calculated at a blood flow rate of 200 ml/min, dialysate flow rates of 2 and 8 L/hr, and no concurrent ultrafiltration at various vibration intensities. Dialyzer integrity was determined by measuring transmembrane pressure, filter drop pressure, and albumin clearance, and by visually inspecting the dialysate. Comparing the highest vibration modality with no vibration, the median percentage increase in urea, creatinine, gentamicin, and vancomycin clearance was 18% (all p < 0.005). The transmembrane clearance of albumin was negligible for all experiments. When measuring transmembrane pressure and filter drop pressure, no significant differences were found between nonvibration and vibration dialysis. The addition of vibration during dialysis increased transmembrane clearance for solutes with molecular weights of 60-1450 Daltons. PMID:23438776

  11. Radical degradation of high molecular weight hyaluronan: inhibition of the reaction by ibuprofen enantiomers.

    PubMed

    Soltés, L; Lath, D; Mendichi, R; Bystrický, P

    2001-03-01

    The antioxidative and/or free-radical-scavenging activities of R-(-)- and S-(+)-ibuprofen enantiomers, as well as of the drug racemate, were studied in vitro on measuring the kinetics of (uninhibited or drug-inhibited) degradation of high molecular weight hyaluronan by hydroxyl radicals. The continual flux of OH radicals at aerobic conditions was maintained by the H2O2 + Cu2+ system. The kinetics of hyaluronan degradation was monitored indirectly by capillary viscometry. Under experimental conditions, with no drug addition, the relative viscosity ([eta]rel) decreased continuously, reaching 13% of the initial [eta]rel. value in 4 h. Each drug tested exhibited a dose-dependent protective effect against hyaluronan degradation, however R-(-)-ibuprofen demonstrated a slightly greater activity than the drug S-(+)-enantiomer. PMID:11484412

  12. Characterization of fatty acid liposome coated with low-molecular-weight chitosan.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hsiao Wei; Misran, Misni

    2012-12-01

    Preparation of chitosan-coated fatty acid liposomes is often restricted by the solubility of chitosan under basic conditions. In this experiment, the preparation of chitosan-coated oleic acid (OA) liposomes using low molecular weight (LMW) chitosan (10 and 25 kDA) was demonstrated. These selected LMW chitosans are water soluble. The coating of the chitosan layer on OA liposomes was confirmed by its microscope images and physicochemical properties, such as zeta potential and the size of the liposomes. The "peeling off" effect on the surface of chitosan-coated OA liposomes was observed in the atomic force microscope images and showed the occurrence of the chitosan layer on the surface of OA liposomes. The size of the chitosan-coated liposomes was at least 20?nm smaller than the OA liposomes, and the increase of zeta potential with the increasing amount of LMW chitosan further confirmed the presence of the surface modification of OA liposomes. PMID:22881198

  13. In vivo endothelial siRNA delivery using polymeric nanoparticles with low molecular weight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlman, James E.; Barnes, Carmen; Khan, Omar F.; Thiriot, Aude; Jhunjunwala, Siddharth; Shaw, Taylor E.; Xing, Yiping; Sager, Hendrik B.; Sahay, Gaurav; Speciner, Lauren; Bader, Andrew; Bogorad, Roman L.; Yin, Hao; Racie, Tim; Dong, Yizhou; Jiang, Shan; Seedorf, Danielle; Dave, Apeksha; Singh Sandhu, Kamaljeet; Webber, Matthew J.; Novobrantseva, Tatiana; Ruda, Vera M.; Lytton-Jean, Abigail K. R.; Levins, Christopher G.; Kalish, Brian; Mudge, Dayna K.; Perez, Mario; Abezgauz, Ludmila; Dutta, Partha; Smith, Lynelle; Charisse, Klaus; Kieran, Mark W.; Fitzgerald, Kevin; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Danino, Dganit; Tuder, Rubin M.; von Andrian, Ulrich H.; Akinc, Akin; Panigrahy, Dipak; Schroeder, Avi; Koteliansky, Victor; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G.

    2014-08-01

    Dysfunctional endothelium contributes to more diseases than any other tissue in the body. Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) can help in the study and treatment of endothelial cells in vivo by durably silencing multiple genes simultaneously, but efficient siRNA delivery has so far remained challenging. Here, we show that polymeric nanoparticles made of low-molecular-weight polyamines and lipids can deliver siRNA to endothelial cells with high efficiency, thereby facilitating the simultaneous silencing of multiple endothelial genes in vivo. Unlike lipid or lipid-like nanoparticles, this formulation does not significantly reduce gene expression in hepatocytes or immune cells even at the dosage necessary for endothelial gene silencing. These nanoparticles mediate the most durable non-liver silencing reported so far and facilitate the delivery of siRNAs that modify endothelial function in mouse models of vascular permeability, emphysema, primary tumour growth and metastasis.

  14. Tribological behavior of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene in a hip joint simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamad Raffi, N.; Kanagarajan, D.; Srinivasan, V.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper effects of various injection molding parameters on tribological properties of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) were investigated. The tribological properties like coefficient of friction and wear rate were obtained from the experimental results of hip simulator which was designed and fabricated in the laboratory. Bovine serum was used as a lubricant in this study. In addition, the hardness of the specimen was also investigated as well. The injection molding parameters that varied for this study are melt temperature, injection velocity and compaction time. The results show that contact loads and melt temperature were mostly influenced the tribological behavior of UHMWPE. A wear mechanism map was developed to study the dominant wear mechanism that influences the wear behavior of UHMWPE. SEM was employed to study the worn out morphologies of UHMWPE. The dominant wear mechanisms that are dominated through our study are ironing, scratching, ploughing, plastic deformation, and fatigue wear.

  15. Appearance of high-molecular-weight acetylcholinesterase in aneural muscle developing in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sohal, G S; Wrenn, R W

    1984-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase was studied in the superior oblique muscle of the duck embryo during the course of in vivo development. Normally developing, paralyzed, and uninnervated muscles were studied using velocity sedimentation for separation of various forms and biochemical determination of enzyme activity, and light and electron microscopy for histochemical and cytochemical localization of enzyme. Results indicate that neither muscle activity nor contact by the motor neurons is essential for the appearance of high-molecular-weight form of acetylcholinesterase on muscle cells developing in vivo. Acetylcholinesterase activity per muscle was considerably lower in the paralyzed and aneural muscles than the normal muscle. The absolute loss of acetylcholinesterase parallels loss of muscle protein in paralyzed and aneural muscles and may be secondary. Paralysis or absence of innervation had no significant effect on the specific activity of acetylcholinesterase. PMID:6692976

  16. The scaling of the dielectric and electric relaxation in two low molecular weight glass forming liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stickel, F.; Kremer, F.; Fischer, E. W.

    1993-12-01

    The scaling of the dielectric and electric relaxation in two low molecular weight glass forming systems (PDE=Phenolphtalein-dimethylether and KDE=Kresolphtalein-di-methylether) is studied in the frequency regime from 10 -3 Hz to 10 9 Hz by use of broadband dielectric spectroscopy. For both the dielectric ?-relaxation and the dc-conductivity the temperature dependence is characterised by a crossover (at a temperature TA) from an Arrhenius to a Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann law. Above TA the dc-conductivity (reflecting translational diffusion of mobile charge carriers) and the ?-relaxation have the same temperature dependence. Below TA a decoupling is found in agreement with recent tracer diffusion experiments (M. Lohfink and H. Sillescu, in: Proc. of the 1st Tohwa University Int. Symp., Fukuoka, Japan, 4-8.11.1991, Am. Inst. Phys. Conf. Series). For the ?-relaxation, the relaxation time distribution shows a pronounced temperature dependence below TA, while it is only weakly varying with temperature above TA.

  17. Spontaneous Hemocholecyst in an End-Stage Renal Failure Patient on Low Molecular Weight Heparin Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Blouhos, Konstantinos; Boulas, Konstantinos A.; Tselios, Dimitrios G.; Hatzigeorgiadis, Anestis

    2012-01-01

    The present paper describes a case of spontaneous hemocholecyst in a patient with end-stage renal failure on low molecular weight heparin hemodialysis. The patient presented with acute right upper quadrant pain. An initial ultrasound scan demonstrated a distended gallbladder containing echogenic bile without stones. During hospitalization the patient became febrile, and jaundiced, developed leukocytosis, and had an elevation in serum bilirubin, transaminases, and alkaline phosphatase. A new ultrasound demonstrated a thick-walled gallbladder containing echogenic bile and pericholecystic fluid. MRI depicted a distended gallbladder containing material of mixed signal intensity and a normal biliary tract. Open cholecystectomy revealed a gallbladder filled with blood and clots, and transcystic common bile duct exploration flushed blood clots out of the bile duct. To our knowledge this is the second case of spontaneous hemocholecyst reported in the literature as a consequence of uremic bleeding and LMWH hemodialysis in the absence of other pathology. PMID:23304616

  18. Spontaneous hemocholecyst in an end-stage renal failure patient on low molecular weight heparin hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Blouhos, Konstantinos; Boulas, Konstantinos A; Tselios, Dimitrios G; Hatzigeorgiadis, Anestis

    2012-01-01

    The present paper describes a case of spontaneous hemocholecyst in a patient with end-stage renal failure on low molecular weight heparin hemodialysis. The patient presented with acute right upper quadrant pain. An initial ultrasound scan demonstrated a distended gallbladder containing echogenic bile without stones. During hospitalization the patient became febrile, and jaundiced, developed leukocytosis, and had an elevation in serum bilirubin, transaminases, and alkaline phosphatase. A new ultrasound demonstrated a thick-walled gallbladder containing echogenic bile and pericholecystic fluid. MRI depicted a distended gallbladder containing material of mixed signal intensity and a normal biliary tract. Open cholecystectomy revealed a gallbladder filled with blood and clots, and transcystic common bile duct exploration flushed blood clots out of the bile duct. To our knowledge this is the second case of spontaneous hemocholecyst reported in the literature as a consequence of uremic bleeding and LMWH hemodialysis in the absence of other pathology. PMID:23304616

  19. Absorption and effectiveness of orally administered low molecular weight collagen hydrolysate in rats.

    PubMed

    Watanabe-Kamiyama, Mari; Shimizu, Muneshige; Kamiyama, Shin; Taguchi, Yasuki; Sone, Hideyuki; Morimatsu, Fumiki; Shirakawa, Hitoshi; Furukawa, Yuji; Komai, Michio

    2010-01-27

    Collagen, a major extracellular matrix macromolecule, is widely used for biomedical purposes. We investigated the absorption mechanism of low molecular weight collagen hydrolysate (LMW-CH) and its effects on osteoporosis in rats. When administered to Wistar rats with either [(14)C]proline (Pro group) or glycyl-[(14)C]prolyl-hydroxyproline (CTp group), LMW-CH rapidly increased plasma radioactivity. LMW-CH was absorbed into the blood of Wistar rats in the peptide form. Glycyl-prolyl-hydroxyproline tripeptide remained in the plasma and accumulated in the kidney. In both groups, radioactivity was retained at a high level in the skin until 14 days after administration. Additionally, the administration of LMW-CH to ovariectomized stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats increased the organic substance content and decreased the water content of the left femur. Our findings show that LMW-CH exerts a beneficial effect on osteoporosis by increasing the organic substance content of bone. PMID:19957932

  20. Determination of nanoparticle size distribution together with density or molecular weight by 2D analytical ultracentrifugation

    PubMed Central

    Carney, Randy P.; Kim, Jin Young; Qian, Huifeng; Jin, Rongchao; Mehenni, Hakim; Stellacci, Francesco; Bakr, Osman M.

    2011-01-01

    Nanoparticles are finding many research and industrial applications, yet their characterization remains a challenge. Their cores are often polydisperse and coated by a stabilizing shell that varies in size and composition. No single technique can characterize both the size distribution and the nature of the shell. Advances in analytical ultracentrifugation allow for the extraction of the sedimentation (s) and diffusion coefficients (D). Here we report an approach to transform the s and D distributions of nanoparticles in solution into precise molecular weight (M), density (?P) and particle diameter (dp) distributions. M for mixtures of discrete nanocrystals is found within 4% of the known quantities. The accuracy and the density information we achieve on nanoparticles are unparalleled. A single experimental run is sufficient for full nanoparticle characterization, without the need for standards or other auxiliary measurements. We believe that our method is of general applicability and we discuss its limitations. PMID:21654635

  1. Low molecular weight carbohydrates in pine nuts from Pinus pinea L.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Aceituno, L; Ramos, L; Martinez-Castro, I; Sanz, M L

    2012-05-16

    Low molecular weight carbohydrates in pine nuts from Pinus pinea L. (n = 7) have been studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as their trimethylsilyl oximes. Besides previously reported components, such as glucose, fructose, sucrose, and raffinose, several soluble carbohydrates have been identified for the first time in this product, including saccharides (galactose, maltose, and planteose) and cyclitols (pinitol, galactinol, galactopinitol A1, fagopyritol B1, and other glycosyl-inositols). Most abundant cyclitols were chiro-inositol, fagopyritol B1, and pinitol, with concentrations ranging from 126.7 to 222.1 mg (100 g)(-1), 94.2 to 177.1 mg (100 g)(-1), and 51.2 to 282.8 mg (100 g)(-1), respectively. PMID:22533651

  2. Control of molecular weight distribution of petroleum pitches via multistage supercritical extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Cervo, Eduardo [Clemson University; Thies, Mark C [Clemson University

    2010-01-01

    Packed-column supercritical extraction (SCE), followed by low-pressure gas stripping, was used to produce a dimer-rich pitch fraction from an oligomeric petroleum pitch, Marathon M-50, of broad molecular weight distribution (MWD). Both solvent-to-pitch ratios (S/P) >5 and a positive retrograde temperature gradient of 380 330 C at 70 bar were found to reduce significantly the amount of trimer+ oligomers in the overhead product from the SCE column. This monomer- and dimer-rich overhead was subsequently stripped of monomer with gaseous toluene in a second packed column at 380 C and 1.5 bar to obtain an 80+ mol% dimer product with an overall yield, based on the original feed, of 30%. To our knowledge, this is the first reported fractionation of a dimer-rich cut from a petroleum pitch with a demonstrably low level of both lower and higher mol wt impurities.

  3. Tribological properties of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene at ultra-low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongtao; Ji, Hongmin; Wang, Xuemei

    2013-12-01

    The hardness, compression properties, creep resistance and tribological properties of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene at ultra-low temperature were researched in this paper, and the feasibility of its use in low temperature components was explored. Studies had shown that the UHMWPE sample at ultra-low temperature had a brittle tendency, and its compression curve was similar to the brittle material, for which the brittle fracture occurred in the 20% compression. Besides, the creep resistance of the sample at low temperature got worse, and its hardness showed an increasing tendency. With the increased experimental load, the friction coefficient varied seriously, and during the same load, the friction coefficient at low temperature was higher than that at room temperature. According to the worn morphology, the sample at low temperature showed a typical feature of fatigue wear and abrasive wear, while at room temperature it mainly for abrasive wear.

  4. Surface modification of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene fibers via the sequential photoinduced graft polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhi; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xinwei; Mai, Yongyi; Zhang, Yumei

    2011-06-01

    In this study, a sequential photoinduced graft polymerization process was proposed to improve the poor interfacial bonding property of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibers. The polymerization was initiated by dormant semipinacol (SP) groups and carried out in a thin liquid layer. Methacrylic acid (MAA) and acryl amide (AM) were grafted stepwise onto the surface of UHMWPE fibers. Attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) confirmed the grafting. The analysis result of pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) indicated the structure of grafted chains. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and atomic force microscopy (AFM) images revealed the apparent morphology changing, and the grafted layers were observed. Interfacial shear stress (IFSS) test of the modified fibers showed an extensively improved interfacial bonding property. The active groups grafted onto the fibers would supply enough anchor points for the chemical bonding with various resins or further reactions.

  5. In vitro and in vivo imaging of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene orbital implants.

    PubMed

    Olszycki, Marek; Kozakiewicz, Marcin; Elgalal, Marcin; Majos, Agata; Stefanczyk, Ludomir

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with computed tomography (CT) for visualization of an orbital alloplastic prosthesis made of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE) both in vitro and in vivo. A study of 15 test implants from UHMW-PE visualized in vitro in CT and MRI and an in vivo visualization in a patient who suffered from orbital injury and underwent reconstructive surgery is presented. The postsurgery MRI showed the UHMW-PE material clearly, with no significant artifacts. The surrounding tissues could be satisfactorily evaluated. The CT scans did not present the graft material. Both techniques were sufficient tools for in vitro evaluation of the shape and measurement of the prosthesis. PMID:25830408

  6. Low-molecular-weight heparin in the treatment of deep venous thrombosis.

    PubMed Central

    Hauer, K E

    1998-01-01

    Traditionally, acute deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is treated with intravenous heparin followed by oral anticoagulants. With the advent of the low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs), this strategy is changing dramatically. LMWHs are compounds derived from standard unfractionated heparin that offer distinct clinical advantages over unfractionated heparin, including better bioavailability, longer half-life, and a more predictable anticoagulant response that obviates the need for laboratory monitoring. The common side effects of unfractionated heparin, including bleeding, thrombocytopenia, and osteoporosis, may be less common with LMWH. For the treatment of established venous thromboembolism, LMWH is at least as safe and effective as unfractionated heparin. Recent studies demonstrate that home therapy of DVT with LMWH, compared with inpatient therapy with unfractionated heparin, produces comparable clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction, with dramatic cost savings. With careful patient selection, home therapy of venous thromboembolism is quickly becoming the new standard of care. PMID:9795594

  7. Purification of concentrate of low-molecular-weight acids as a fodder preservative

    SciTech Connect

    Filippov, N.A.; Baidin, I.I.; Bondarev, V.A.; Dudkova, L.I.; Panov, A.A.

    1984-04-01

    This article describes the recovery of low-molecular-weight acids (LMAs) in the form of a purified 70% concentrate, with subsequent utilization as a preservative for fodder in the agricultural industry. The acid water is distilled azeotropically, with butyl alcohol as the azeotropic agent. The entrainer is a mixture of butyl alcohol and butyl formate, which forms a ternary azeotrope with a boiling point of 83.6/sup 0/C. The purified 70% LMA concentrate that is obtained is a transparent liquid at 20/sup 0/C, clear or light yellow, with an odor of acetic acid. The addition of 0.4% of the LMA concentrate to a silage mixture with a moisture content of 84.12% (harvested in rainy weather) resulted in the reduction of the contents of protein and ash in the silage after four months, whereas the content of cellulose increased in comparison with the content in the original green mass.

  8. Static fracture resistance of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene using the single specimen normalization method.

    PubMed

    Varadarajan, R; Dapp, E K; Rimnac, C M

    2008-04-01

    Fracture of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) components used in total joint replacements is a clinical concern. UHMWPE materials exhibits stable crack growth under static loading, therefore, their fracture resistance is generally characterized using the J-R curve. The multiple specimen method recommended by ASTM for evaluation of the J-R curve for polymers is time and material intensive. In this study, the applicability of a single specimen method based on load normalization to predict J-R curves of UHMWPE materials is evaluated. The normalization method involves determination of a deformation function. In this study, the J-R curves obtained using a power law based deformation function and the LMN curve based deformation function were compared. The results support the use of the power law based deformation function when using the single specimen approach to predict J-R curves for UHMWPE materials. PMID:23390325

  9. Low-Molecular-Weight Sulfonates, a Major Substrate for Sulfate Reducers in Marine Microbial Mats†

    PubMed Central

    Visscher, Pieter T.; Gritzer, Rachel F.; Leadbetter, Edward R.

    1999-01-01

    Several low-molecular-weight sulfonates were added to microbial mat slurries to investigate their effects on sulfate reduction. Instantaneous production of sulfide occurred after taurine and cysteate were added to all of the microbial mats tested. The rates of production in the presence of taurine and cysteate were 35 and 24 ?M HS? h?1 in a stromatolite mat, 38 and 36 ?M HS? h?1 in a salt pond mat, and 27 and 18 ?M HS? h?1 in a salt marsh mat, respectively. The traditionally used substrates lactate and acetate stimulated the rate of sulfide production 3 to 10 times more than taurine and cysteate stimulated the rate of sulfide production in all mats, but when ethanol, glycolate, and glutamate were added to stromatolite mat slurries, the resulting increases were similar to the increases observed with taurine and cysteate. Isethionate, sulfosuccinate, and sulfobenzoate were tested only with the stromatolite mat slurry, and these compounds had much smaller effects on sulfide production. Addition of molybdate resulted in a greater inhibitory effect on acetate and lactate utilization than on sulfonate use, suggesting that different metabolic pathways were involved. In all of the mats tested taurine and cysteate were present in the pore water at nanomolar to micromolar concentrations. An enrichment culture from the stromatolite mat was obtained on cysteate in a medium lacking sulfate and incubated anaerobically. The rate of cysteate consumption by this enrichment culture was 1.6 pmol cell?1 h?1. Compared to the results of slurry studies, this rate suggests that organisms with properties similar to the properties of this enrichment culture are a major constituent of the sulfidogenic population. In addition, taurine was consumed at some of highest dilutions obtained from most-probable-number enrichment cultures obtained from stromatolite samples. Based on our comparison of the sulfide production rates found in various mats, low-molecular-weight sulfonates are important sources of C and S in these ecosystems. PMID:10427006

  10. Study of the catalytic conversion of synthesis gas to low-molecular weight hydrocarbons. [Erionite

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, T.Y.

    1981-08-01

    The search for alternative sources of energy has provided the stage for the examination of catalytic reactions which can influence the supply of low molecular weight chemical feedstocks, such as ethylene, propylene, and butadiene. Synthesis gas produced from partial oxidation of coal is considered the basic building block for all alternative chemical feedstock synthesis. However, the classical Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysts exhibit poor selectivity toward low molecular weight hydrocarbons. Utilizing non-trival bifunctional catalysts which can catalyze methanol synthesis and methanol decomposition to hydrocarbons, synthesis gas was converted to hydrocarbons with selectivity of 100% for C/sub 1/ to C/sub 4/ at reaction temperatures of 595 to 731/sup 0/K and pressures from 27 to 68 atm. Zinc oxide and copper oxide were used to promote the methanol synthesis, and the acidic-ion exchanged form of erionite was used to catalyze the subsequent methanol decomposition to hydrocarbons. Methanol and/or dimethylether which are the precursors for hydrocarbons were found in the reactor exit. The hydrocarbons produced were between C/sub 1/ and C/sub 4/ which demonstrate the shape selectivity of erionite. The olefinic content of the hydrocarbon produced was small compared to the paraffinic content. Experiments with ethylene and hydrogen indicated that the methanol synthesis component of the hybrid catalyst was highly active toward olefin hydrogenation. Addition of water into the feed of ethylene and hydrogen caused a substantial reduction of ethylene hydrogenation. The water gas shift reaction, catalyzed by methanol synthesis component, was observed to be in dynamic equilibrium. Comparison of the different catalysts showed that erionite impregnated with zinc oxide had the highest selectivity and activity toward paraffins and olefins.

  11. Improvement of toughness by stereocomplex crystal formation in optically pure polylactides of high molecular weight.

    PubMed

    López-Rodríguez, N; Martínez de Arenaza, I; Meaurio, E; Sarasua, J R

    2014-09-01

    A solution casting method followed by thermal homogenization was performed for the preparation of 1:1 blends and non-blended films from poly(d-lactide) (PDLA) and poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) of three different molecular weights, and their thermal and mechanical properties were determined via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and tensile tests. According to the literature, when Mw is below 1.0×10(5)g/mol only stereocomplex crystallization takes place, and when it is higher, both homocrystallites and stereocomplex crystallites co-exist. In order to promote crystallization as a homocrystal in neat polylactides and to promote the stereoselective crystallization as stereocomplex in the case of non-blended films, and in turn, to achieve different degrees of crystallinity, several thermal treatments of annealing were carried out in this work. Highly stereocomplexed blends were found by the stereospecific thermal treatments. As a consequence, the toughness of 1:1 blends was found significantly enhanced over those of non-blended films, irrespective of molecular weight. For instance, in B2-5050 stereocomplexed blend having poly(l-lactide) and poly(d-lactide) of Mw=1.2×10(5)g/mol, tensile strength increased from 44.0±2.1MPa to 65.1±6.1MPa, and the elongation at break from 10.8±2.5% to 33.1±8.1% with respect to its non-blended poly(l-lactide) counterpart crystallized as homocrystal. This improvement in mechanical properties in stereocomplexed blends is not attributed to the inherent properties of the type of crystal polymorph but to the presence of a higher density of intercrystalline connections through a mobile amorphous phase, i.e. tie chains in the stereocomplexed supramolecular spherulitic entities that provide in the stereocomplexed samples enhanced strength and elongation at break at the same time. PMID:24951928

  12. Effects of high molecular weight urinary macromolecules on crystallization of calcium oxalate dihydrate.

    PubMed

    Drach, G W; Kraljevich, Z; Randolph, A D

    1982-04-01

    Timed urinary collections from 8 normal (Nl) persons of 11 stone forming (SF) patients were passed through ultrafiltration apparatus to remove macromolecules in the ranges 1000-30,000 d, 30,000-50,000 d, and over 50,000 d. No macromolecules could be recovered from either group in the 30,000-50,000 d range, and no low molecular weight macromolecules (LMWMM) (less than 30,000 d) were recovered from stone forming urines. Significant amounts of LMWMM (mean 105.8 +/- 17.63 mg./l.) were recovered from normal urine, but these extracts had no effects on calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) nucleation (Bo) or linear growth (G) rates in a continuous crystallization (MSMPR) system. Urines from SF contained nearly twice the concentration of high molecular weight macromolecules (HMWMM) when compared to Nl urines. SF HMWMM differed from Nl in immunoelectrophoresis separation by absence of a dense band that was present in Nl extracts. This band reappeared in SF extract after boiling. Comparison of effects of addition of SF or Nl HMWMM to the COD-MSMPR crystallization system revealed no major quantitative differences in Bo or G, but SF HMWMM had a remarkable stabilizing effect on total mass (MT) of COD crystals produced. This effect was confirmed by analysis of oxalate residual supersaturation after crystallization. We conclude that SF excrete higher concentrations of HMWMM and almost no LMWMM when compared to normals. This higher concentration of HMWMM must contribute to increased Bo and decreased G noted in SF urine additive experiments previously reported. The mechanism of rapid removal of oxalate (i,e, stabilization) noted in experiments with SF HMWMM is not obvious at this time. PMID:7069862

  13. High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Glycol Inhibits Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xianyao; Philip, Jennifer L.; Razzaque, Md. Abdur; Lloyd, James W.; Muller, Charlie M.; Akhter, Shahab A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury remains a significant problem as there are no therapies available to minimize the cell death that can lead to impaired function and heart failure. We have shown that high-molecular-weight PEG (15–20kD) can protect cardiac myocytes in vitro from hypoxia-reoxygenation injury. In this study, we investigated the potential protective effects of PEG in vivo. Methods Adult rats underwent LAD occlusion for 60 minutes followed by 48 hrs or 4 weeks of reperfusion. One mL of 10% PEG solution or saline (PBS) control (n=10 per group) was administered intravenously (IV) immediately prior to reperfusion. Results Fluorescein-labeled PEG was robustly visualized in the myocardium 1 hr after IV delivery. The PEG group had significant recovery of LV ejection fraction at 4 wks vs. a 25% decline in the PBS group (p<0.01). There was 50% less LV fibrosis in the PEG group vs. PBS with smaller peri-infarct and remote territory fibrosis (p<0.01). Cell survival signaling was upregulated in the PEG group with increased Akt (3-fold, p<0.01) and ERK (4-fold, p<0.05) phosphorylation compared to PBS controls at 48 hrs. PEG also inhibited apoptosis as measured by TUNEL positive nuclei (56% decrease, p<0.02) and caspase-3 activity (55% decrease, p<0.05). Conclusions High-molecular-weight PEG appears to have a significant protective effect from I-R injury in the heart when administered IV immediately prior to reperfusion. This may have important clinical translation in the setting of acute coronary revascularization and myocardial protection in cardiac surgery. PMID:25455467

  14. A low molecular weight proteome comparison of fertile and male sterile 8 anthers of Zea mays

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dongxue; Adams, Christopher M.; Fernandes, John F.; Egger, Rachel L.; Walbot, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Summary During maize anther development, somatic locular cells differentiate to support meiosis in the pollen mother cells. Meiosis is an important event during anther growth and is essential for plant fertility as pollen contains the haploid sperm. A subset of maize male sterile mutants exhibit meiotic failure, including ms8 (male sterile 8) in which meiocytes arrest as dyads and the locular somatic cells exhibit multiple defects. Systematic proteomic profiles were analysed in biological triplicates plus technical triplicates comparing ms8 anthers with fertile sibling samples at both the premeiotic and meiotic stages; proteins from 3.5 to 20 kDa were fractionated by 1-D PAGE, cleaved with Lys-C and then sequenced using a LTQ Orbitrap Velos MS paradigm. Three hundred and 59proteins were identified with two or more assigned peptides in which each of those peptides were counted at least two or more times (0.4% peptide false discovery rate (FDR) and 0.2% protein FDR); 2761 proteins were identified with one or more assigned peptides (0.4% peptide FDR and 7.6% protein FDR). Stage-specific protein expression provides candidate stage markers for early anther development, and proteins specifically expressed in fertile compared to sterile anthers provide important clues about the regulation of meiosis. 49% of the proteins detected by this study are new to an independent whole anther proteome, and many small proteins missed by automated maize genome annotation were validated; these outcomes indicate the value of focusing on low molecular weight proteins. The roles of distinctive expressed proteins and methods for mass spectrometry of low molecular weight proteins are discussed. PMID:22748129

  15. Eczematous plaques related to unfractionated and low-molecular-weight heparin in pregnancy: cross-reaction with danaparoid sodium.

    PubMed

    Blickstein, Dorith; Hod, Moshe; Bar, Jacob

    2003-12-01

    The use of low-molecular-weight heparin has been expanded to prevent pregnancy complications such as pregnancy loss, intra-uterine growth restriction and severe early-onset pre-eclampsia in high-risk patients with evidence of acquired or congenital thrombophilia. Therefore, the number of patients with side effects from low-molecular-weight heparin is expected to increase. We describe two women with infiltrating patchy plaques that developed in reaction to low-molecular-weight heparin during pregnancy. In the first patient, a switch to other formulations of heparin and heparinoid failed; the second patient, however, did well when enoxaparin was replaced with dalteparin. This report confirms the risk of skin reactions to enoxaparin and dalteparin, and reports on a skin reaction associated with danaparoid sodium in a pregnant woman. PMID:14614358

  16. Effect of low molecular weight additives on immobilization strength, activity, and conformation of protein immobilized on PVC and UHMWPE.

    PubMed

    Kondyurin, Alexey; Nosworthy, Neil J; Bilek, Marcela M M

    2011-05-17

    Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was immobilized onto both plasticized and unplasticized polyvinylchloride (PVC) and ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). Plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) in a nitrogen plasma with 20 kV bias was used to facilitate covalent immobilization and to improve the wettability of the surfaces. The surfaces and immobilized protein were studied using attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy and water contact angle measurements. Protein elution on exposure to repeated sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) washing was used to assess the strength of HRP immobilization. The presence of low molecular weight components (plasticizer, additives in solvent, unreacted monomers, adsorbed molecules on surface) was found to have a major influence on the strength of immobilization and the conformation of the protein on the samples not exposed to the PIII treatment. A phenomenological model considering interactions between the low molecular weight components, the protein molecule, and the surface is developed to explain these observations. PMID:21491852

  17. Molecular weight determination for colloidal iron by Taguchi optimized validated gel permeation chromatography.

    PubMed

    Shah, R B; Yang, Y; Khan, M A; Faustino, P J

    2008-04-01

    Method development of gel permeation chromatography (GPC) is a time-consuming task, since finding appropriate operating conditions has traditionally been a trial-and-error process. A novel approach in the field of GPC using experimental design called Taguchi is presented. This experimental design was used to compare the net effects of various conditions which were both qualitative and quantitative in nature. Quantitative factors included mobile phase pH, flow rate, temperature of column and detector, and injection volume. The qualitative factors were treated as noise which included enclosure of GPC system and position of waste container with respect to refractive index detector. The method was efficient as opposed to a one-factor-at-a-time approach. Taguchi optimized conditions included pH of 7.2, flow rate of 0.4 mL/min, temperature of 35 degrees C for column and detector, as well as injection volume of 10 microL. The optimized factors yielded acceptable results in terms of weight average molecular weight (m.w.), standard deviation and signal-to-noise ratio. Standard curves were constructed using dextran m.w. standards (12,000-270,000 Da) over the analytical range. The method was validated according to ICH guidelines. Log-linear function was used for m.w. standard curve and weight average m.w. was calculated utilizing trapezoidal approach. A correlation coefficient of >0.99 was obtained for both intra-day and inter-day standard calibration curves. Inter-day accuracy ranged from 91 to 108% and precision was <2.0%. PMID:18226479

  18. Efficacy of oral colon-specific delivery capsule of low-molecular-weight heparin on ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jun-Yong; Zhong, Yan; Cao, Ji-Chao; Cui, Hui-Fei

    2011-03-01

    Low-molecular-weight heparin has the potential for the treatment of ulcerative colitis, and targeted drug delivery to the colon is important for topical treatment of this disease, so low-molecular-weight heparin oral colon-specific delivery capsule was prepared, and the in vitro and in vivo drug release behavior was investigated. The macroscopical and histological scoring systems, wet colon mass index and myeloperoxidase activity were assessed to evaluate the efficacy of the capsule after administered orally to experimental colitis mice. Serum levels, including tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and a link factor of blood coagulation and inflammation factor Xa (FXa) were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression of Musashi-1 (as an intestinal stem cell marker) in the colons was assessed by immunohistochemical analysis. The in vitro and in vivo drug release studies clearly indicated that the specific coated capsules were capable of protecting low-molecular-weight heparin from releasing in stomach and small intestine, while specifically delivering at colon. The oral colon-specific delivery capsule of low-molecular-weight heparin could attenuate macroscopic and histological features of colitis. The results showed that low-molecular-weight heparin oral colon-specific delivery capsule significantly decreased the serum levels of TNF-?, IL-6 as well as FXa, while increased the expression of Musashi-1 in colon compared with acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis model group. The results showed that low-molecular-weight heparin oral colon-specific delivery capsule had the potential for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:21227626

  19. Microbial synthesis of polyhydroxybutyrate from glycerol: gluconeogenesis, molecular weight and material properties of biopolyester.

    PubMed

    Tanadchangsaeng, Nuttapol; Yu, Jian

    2012-11-01

    Glycerol is considered as an ideal feedstock for producing bioplastics via bacterial fermentation due to its ubiquity, low price, and high degree of reduction substrate. In this work, we study the yield and cause of limitation in poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) production from glycerol. Compared to glucose-based PHB production, PHB produced by Cupriavidus necator grown on glycerol has a low productivity (0.92?g PHB/L/h) with a comparably low maximum specific growth rate of 0.11?h(-1) . We found that C. necator can synthesize glucose from glycerol and that the lithotrophical utilization of glycerol (non-fermentative substrate) or gluconeogenesis is an essential metabolic pathway for biosynthesis of cellular components. Here, we show that gluconeogenesis affects the reduction of cell mass, the productivity of biopolymer product, and the molecular chain size of intracellular PHB synthesized from glycerol by C. necator. We use NMR spectroscopy to show that the isolated PHB is capped by glycerol. We then characterized the physical properties of the isolated glycerol-based PHB with differential scanning calorimetry and tensile tests. We found that although the final molecular weight of the glycerol-based PHB is lower than those of glucose-based and commercial PHB, the thermal and mechanical properties of the biopolymers are similar. PMID:22566160

  20. Seminaphthofluorones are a family of water-soluble, low molecular weight, NIR-emitting fluorophores

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Youjun; Lowry, Mark; Xu, Xiangyang; Escobedo, Jorge O.; Sibrian-Vazquez, Martha; Wong, Lisa; Schowalter, Corin M.; Jensen, Timothy J.; Fronczek, Frank R.; Warner, Isiah M.; Strongin, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    A readily accessible new class of near infrared (NIR) molecular probes has been synthesized and evaluated. Specific fluorophores in this unique xanthene based regioisomeric seminaphthofluorone dye series exhibit a combination of desirable characteristics including (i) low molecular weight (339 amu), (ii) aqueous solubility, and (iii) dual excitation and emission from their fluorescent neutral and anionic forms. Importantly, systematic changes in the regiochemistry of benzannulation and the ionizable moieties afford (iv) tunable deep-red to NIR emission from anionic species and (v) enhanced Stokes shifts. Anionic SNAFR-6, exhibiting an unusually large Stokes shift of ?200 nm (5,014 cm?1) in aqueous buffer, embodies an unprecedented fluorophore that emits NIR fluorescence when excited in the blue/green wavelength region. The successful use of SNAFR-6 in cellular imaging studies demonstrates proof-of-concept that this class of dyes possesses photophysical characteristics that allow their use in practical applications. Notably, each of the new fluorophores described is a minimal template structure for evaluation of their basic spectral properties, which may be further functionalized and optimized yielding concomitant improvements in their photophysical properties. PMID:18579790

  1. Surface engineering on mesoporous silica chips for enriching low molecular weight phosphorylated proteins†

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ye; Peng, Yang; Lin, Kevin; Shen, Haifa; Brousseau, Louis C.; Sakamoto, Jason; Sun, Tong

    2012-01-01

    Phosphorylated peptides and proteins play an important role in normal cellular activities, e.g., gene expression, mitosis, differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis, as well as tumor initiation, progression and metastasis. However, technical hurdles hinder the use of common fractionation methods to capture phosphopeptides from complex biological fluids such as human sera. Herein, we present the development of a dual strategy material that offers enhanced capture of low molecular weight phosphoproteins: mesoporous silica thin films with precisely engineered pore sizes that sterically select for molecular size combined with chemically selective surface modifications (i.e. Ga3+, Ti4+ and Zr4+) that target phosphoroproteins. These materials provide high reproducibility (CV = 18%) and increase the stability of the captured proteins by excluding degrading enzymes, such as trypsin. The chemical and physical properties of the composite mesoporous thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and ellipsometry. Using mass spectroscopy and biostatistics analysis, the enrichment efficiency of different metal ions immobilized on mesoporous silica chips was investigated. The novel technology reported provides a platform capable of efficiently profiling the serum proteome for biomarker discovery, forensic sampling, and routine diagnostic applications. PMID:21135976

  2. Importance of membrane selection in the development of immunochromatographic assays for low-molecular weight compounds.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji-Ye; Kim, Young Ah; Kim, Mi Yeon; Lee, Yong Tae; Hammock, Bruce D; Lee, Hye-Sung

    2012-12-13

    This study was performed to demonstrate the importance of selecting an appropriate membrane when developing immunochromatographic assays (ICAs) for the sensitive detection of low-molecular weight compounds. Based on our findings, we propose a theoretical basis for selecting such a membrane. When eluting the sample solution for the competitive ICA using colloidal gold label for low-molecular analytes, the degree of binding inhibition is proportional to the collision frequency between the antibody-colloidal gold (Ab-CG) and analyte before Ab-CG binding to the capture antigen and a higher concentration of pesticides around the Ab-CG leads to a greater degree of inhibition. Therefore, we propose that the relative migration speed of the analyte and Ab-CG on the test strip is critically important for selecting a membrane in the development of sensitive competitive ICAs. We developed a novel method to estimate such a relative migration speed. We demonstrated the applicability of this proposal by using it to select an appropriate membrane for the development of an ICA of the pesticide diazinon. PMID:23206398

  3. Complexation of a Poly l Arginine with Low Molecular Weight Heparin Enhances Pulmonary Absorption of the Drug

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amit Rawat; Tianzhi Yang; Alamdar Hussain; Fakhrul Ahsan

    2008-01-01

    \\u000a Purpose  This study tests the hypothesis that complexation between a cationic polymer, poly-l-arginine (PLA), and an anionic drug, low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), enhances pulmonary absorption and reduces the epithelial\\u000a toxicity.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and Methods  Enoxaparin, a LMWH, was complexed with PLAs of different molecular weights at varying concentrations. The resulting complexes\\u000a were characterized by measuring particle size and zeta potential, and by

  4. Step-scan Alternating Differential Scanning Calorimetry Studies on the Crystallisation Behaviour of Low Molecular Weight Polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pielichowska, Kinga; Pielichowski, Krzysztof

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and step-scan alternating (SSA) DSC were applied to investigate the crystallisation behaviour of polyethylene (PE) with molecular weight of 4000, 15000 and 35000. It has been found that PE 15000 is characterised by the highest degree of crystallinity and by the highest crystallisation temperature, as compared with other PE samples studied in the course of this work. The non-reversing component of the crystallisation process depends strongly on the PE molecular weight; parallelly, the reversing component shows minor fluctuations only, confirming thus the irreversibility of the PE crystallisation process.

  5. Low Molecular Weight Hydrocarbon Production at the Lost City Hydrothermal Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proskurowski, G.; Lilley, M.; Olson, E.; Kelley, D.; Frueh-Green, G.

    2005-12-01

    Here we present concentration, and stable and radiocarbon isotope data from hydrocarbons dissolved in hydrogen-rich fluids venting at the ultramafic-hosted Lost City Hydrothermal Field. The cool (<90°C) fluids venting from the spectacular carbonate chimneys at Lost City contain abundant low molecular weight hydrocarbons. A log-linear relationship (Schulz-Flory distriubution) between methane (mmol/kg), ethane (?mol/kg), propane (?mol/kg), and butane (nmol/kg) concentrations indicates synchronous production that is compatible with abiogenic formation such as Fischer-Tropsch type (FTT) genesis. However, a Schulz-Flory distribution of low-molecular weight hydrocarbons is commonly observed in the formation of petroleum via the pyrolysis of organic matter. Radiocarbon isotopic evidence suggests that the carbon source to Lost City hydrocarbons is carbon found in the host rocks, with no contribution from seawater bicarbonate. The underlying ultramafic host rocks contain <600 ppm non-carbonate carbon, most likely as a graphite found along grain boundaries, however a macro-molecular organic carbon source has not been eliminated (Delacour et al., 2004). While the absence of a large organic matter source argues for an abiogenic formation mechanism, a thermogenic source cannot yet be completely ruled out. The forthcoming carbon and hydrogen stable isotope analysis of Lost City hydrocarbons is expected to shed light on the formation mechanism. Both abiogenic FTT reactions and thermogenic formation imprint distinctive trends in the carbon isotopes of C1-C4 alkanes (Sherwood Lollar et al., 2002). Our initial findings, pending isotopic confirmation, illustrate the simple minimum requirements for extensive hydrocarbon production in nature: ultramafic rocks and water. Delacour, A. et al., 2004. Fluid-Rock Interaction in the Basement of the Lost City Vent Field: Insights from Stable and Radiogenic Isotopes. Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 85(47): Abstract B13A-0198. Sherwood Lollar, B., Westgate, T.D., Ward, J.A., Slater, G.F. and Lacrampe, C.G., 2002. Abiogenic formation of alkanes in the Earth's crust as a minor source for global hydrocarbon reservoirs. Nature (London), 416(6880): 522-524.

  6. Drop formation and breakup of low viscosity elastic fluids: Effects of molecular weight and concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirtaatmadja, V.; McKinley, G. H.; Cooper-White, J. J.

    2006-04-01

    The dynamics of drop formation and pinch-off have been investigated for a series of low viscosity elastic fluids possessing similar shear viscosities, but differing substantially in elastic properties. On initial approach to the pinch region, the viscoelastic fluids all exhibit the same global necking behavior that is observed for a Newtonian fluid of equivalent shear viscosity. For these low viscosity dilute polymer solutions, inertial and capillary forces form the dominant balance in this potential flow regime, with the viscous force being negligible. The approach to the pinch point, which corresponds to the point of rupture for a Newtonian fluid, is extremely rapid in such solutions, with the sudden increase in curvature producing very large extension rates at this location. In this region the polymer molecules are significantly extended, causing a localized increase in the elastic stresses, which grow to balance the capillary pressure. This prevents the necked fluid from breaking off, as would occur in the equivalent Newtonian fluid. Alternatively, a cylindrical filament forms in which elastic stresses and capillary pressure balance, and the radius decreases exponentially with time. A (0+1)-dimensional finitely extensible nonlinear elastic dumbbell theory incorporating inertial, capillary, and elastic stresses is able to capture the basic features of the experimental observations. Before the critical "pinch time" tp, an inertial-capillary balance leads to the expected 2/3-power scaling of the minimum radius with time: Rmin˜(tp-t)2/3. However, the diverging deformation rate results in large molecular deformations and rapid crossover to an elastocapillary balance for times t >tp. In this region, the filament radius decreases exponentially with time Rmin˜exp[(tp-t)/?1], where ?1 is the characteristic time constant of the polymer molecules. Measurements of the relaxation times of polyethylene oxide solutions of varying concentrations and molecular weights obtained from high speed imaging of the rate of change of filament radius are significantly higher than the relaxation times estimated from Rouse-Zimm theory, even though the solutions are within the dilute concentration region as determined using intrinsic viscosity measurements. The effective relaxation times exhibit the expected scaling with molecular weight but with an additional dependence on the concentration of the polymer in solution. This is consistent with the expectation that the polymer molecules are in fact highly extended during the approach to the pinch region (i.e., prior to the elastocapillary filament thinning regime) and subsequently as the filament is formed they are further extended by filament stretching at a constant rate until full extension of the polymer coil is achieved. In this highly extended state, intermolecular interactions become significant, producing relaxation times far above theoretical predictions for dilute polymer solutions under equilibrium conditions.

  7. Wear resistance of lightly cross-linked ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene crystallized from the melt under uniaxial compression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Makoto Ohta; Suong-Hyu Hyon; Masanori Oka; Sadami Tsutsumi

    1999-01-01

    Ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) was crystallized under the molecular orientation in order to improve the wear property against Co–Cr–Mo alloys for artificial joints. Commercial UHMWPE blocks of 30 mm thick were first irradiated under vacuum at room temperature to below 2.0 Mrad with ?-rays. Due to the irradiation, the lightly cross-linking is created. Next, the lightly cross-linked samples were compressed to

  8. MRI detection of VEGFR2 in vivo using a low molecular weight peptoid-(Gd)8-dendron for targeting

    PubMed Central

    De León-Rodríguez, Luis M.; Lubag, Angelo; Udugamasooriya, D. Gomika; Proneth, Bettina; Brekken, Rolf A.; Sun, Xiankai; Kodadek, Thomas; Sherry, A. Dean

    2010-01-01

    The synthesis of a polylysine dendron containing eight GdDOTA units conjugated to peptoid dimer known to have a high affinity for the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) is described. This simple low molecular weight system with a molecular r1 relaxivity of ~48 mM?1s?1 is shown to enhance MR images of tumors grown in mice in vivo. PMID:20795620

  9. Mixing processes during the evolution of red giants with moderate metal deficiencies: the role of molecular-weight barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charbonnel, Corinne; Brown, Jeffery A.; Wallerstein, George

    1998-04-01

    We have assembled accurate abundance data for Li, C, and N as well as the (12}C/({13)) C ratio for five field giants with [Fe/H] =~ - 0.6 including Arcturus and two stars in the globular cluster 47 Tuc. Using their very precise Mbol values obtained from HIPPARCOS parallaxes, we can place them into an evolutionary sequence. The sequence shows that the (12}C/({13)) C ratios drops from ~ 20 to near 7 between Mbol =3D +1 and +0.5, while Li disappears. At the same time the (12}C/({14)) N ratio diminishes by 0.2 to 0.4 dex. The two stars in 47 Tuc with Mbol near -2.0 show even lower (12}C/({14)) N ratios by 0.4 dex indicating further mixing as they evolved to the top of the red giant branch. These observations confirm the existence of an extra-mixing process that becomes efficient on the red giant branch only when the low-mass stars reach the so-called luminosity function bump. We use the values of the carbon isotopic ratio observed in our sample to get constraints on the mu -barriers that may shield the central regions of a star from extra-mixing. We show that the same value of the critical gradient of molecular weight leads to (12}C/({13)) C ratios observed at different metallicities. This ``observational critical mu -gradient'' is in very good agreement with the one which is expected to stabilize meridional circulation. This result provides strong clues on the nature of the extra-mixing which occurs on the RGB, and indicates that it is related to rotation. Based partially on observations obtained at the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, National Research Council, Canada

  10. Combining cryogenic fiber optic probes with commercial spectrofluorimeters for the synchronous fluorescence Shpol'skii spectroscopy of high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Moore, Anthony F T; Barbosa, Fernando; Campiglia, Andres D

    2014-01-01

    Cryogenic fiber optic probes are combined for the first time with a commercial spectrofluorometer for Shpol'skii spectroscopy measurements at liquid nitrogen (77 K) and liquid helium (4.2 K) temperatures. Accurate and reproducible acquisition of fluorescence spectra and signal intensities is demonstrated with three well known Shpol'skii systems, namely, anthracene/heptane, pyrene/hexane, and benzo[a]pyrene/octane. The ability to adjust the excitation and emission bandpass of the spectrofluorimeter to reach both site-resolution and analytically valuable signal-to-noise ratios was illustrated with benzo[a]pyrene in n-octane. The analytical potential of 4.2 K synchronous fluorescence Shpol'skii spectroscopy for the analysis of high molecular weight-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was then explored for the first time. The judicious optimization of wavelength offsets permitted the successful determination of dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, dibenzo[a,e]pyrene, dibenzo[a,h]pyrene, dibenzo[a,i]pyrene, and naphtho[2,3-a]pyrene without previous chromatographic separation from a soil extract with complex matrix composition. The simplicity of the experimental procedure, the competitive analytical figures of merit, and the selectivity of analysis turn 4.2 K synchronous fluorescence Shpol'skii spectroscopy into a valuable alternative for screening isomers of high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in environmental samples. PMID:24405949

  11. FROM OLIGOMERS TO MOLECULAR GIANTS OF SOYBEAN OIL IN SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE MEDIUM: 1. PREPARATION OF POLYMERS WITH LOWER MOLECULAR WEIGHT FROM SOYBEAN OIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polymers with lower molecular weight from soybean oil have been prepared in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) medium by cationic polymerization. Boron trifluoride diethyl etherate BF3.O (C2H5)2 is used as an initiator. Influences of polymerization temperature, initiator amount, and carbon dioxi...

  12. Comparative Study on a New One-Stage Clotting Assay for Heparin and Its Low Molecular Weight Derivatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Harenberg; C. Giese; A. Knödler; R. Zimmermann

    1989-01-01

    The effects of a normal and a low molecular weight (LMW) heparin fraction were compared by four coagulation methods. Plasma samples of patients were investigated who were treated with normal heparin or with a LMW heparin. The study was undertaken to analyze the interrelationship between the coagulation methods: Heptest, activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin clotting time, and S 2222 chromogenic

  13. Effect of pH, polymer concentration and molecular weight on the physical state properties of tolfenamic acid.

    PubMed

    Sheraz, Muhammad Ali; Ahmed, Sofia; Ur Rehman, Ihtesham

    2015-05-01

    Tolfenamic acid (TA) has been transformed from crystalline to amorphous state through freeze-drying by using varying ratios of polyacrylic acid (PA) at various pH values. The characterization of the films has been carried out using X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed a gradual change in the solid state properties of TA and a complete transformation into its amorphous form in 1:8, 1:4, 1:2 and 1:1 ratios at pH 3, 4, 5 and 6, respectively. FTIR spectrometry reveals the formation of a yellow polymorphic form of TA. Polymer molecular weight has also been observed to affect the drug transformation and interaction as the low molecular weight PA (Mw???1800) was found to be most effective followed by its medium (Mv???450?000) and high molecular weight (Mv???3?000?000) forms. No signs of recrystallization in the TA-PA films were noted during the 12-week storage period. PA of low molecular weight has also been found more effective in inhibiting the recrystallization of the melt upon cooling thus proving a valuable polymer in producing stable amorphous solid dispersions of TA. PMID:24417663

  14. Genetic variability of the low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits in spelt wheat ( Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta L. em Thell.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Caballero; L. M. Martín; J. B. Alvarez

    2004-01-01

    The low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit composition of a collection of 403 accessions of spelt wheat ( Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta L. em. Thell) was analyzed by SDS-PAGE. Extensive variation was found, including 46 different patterns for zone B and 16 for zone C. Patterns within zone B exhibited from two to six bands and patterns in zone C had between four

  15. A murine model for low molecular weight chemicals: differentiation of respiratory sensitizers (TMA) from contact sensitizers (DNFB)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denise M Sailstad; Marsha D. W Ward; Elizabeth H Boykin; MaryJane K Selgrade

    2003-01-01

    Exposure to low molecular weight (LMW) chemicals contributes to both dermal and respiratory sensitization and is an important occupational health problem. Our goal was to establish an in vivo murine model for hazard identification of LMW chemicals that have the potential to induce respiratory hypersensitivity (RH). We used a dermal sensitization protocol followed by a respiratory challenge with the evaluation

  16. Serious adverse incidents with the usage of low molecular weight heparins in patients with chronic kidney disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vasim Farooq; Janet Hegarty; Thangavelu Chandrasekar; Elizabeth H. Lamerton; Sandip Mitra; John B. Houghton; Philip A. Kalra; Stephen Waldek; Donal J. O’Donoghue; Grahame N. Wood

    2004-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study is to describe serious adverse events in patients with renal insufficiency administered low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs). Methods: Systematic case note review from July 2002 to March 2003, Hope Hospital, Salford, UK, was used. Results: Ten patients experienced an adverse incident on LMWH therapy. Five patients were on maintenance hemodialysis therapy, and 1 patient

  17. Isolation and characterization of five novel high molecular weight subunit of glutenin genes from Triticum timopheevi and Aegilops cylindrica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Wan; D. Wang; P. R. Shewry; N. G. Halford

    2002-01-01

    Analysis by SDS-PAGE of total protein fractions from single seeds of Aegilops cylindrica (genomes C and D) and Triticum timopheevi (genomes A and G) showed the presence of three bands corresponding to high molecular weight subunits of glutenin (HMW subunits) in the former and two major bands and a minor band corresponding to HMW subunits in the latter. Three Ae.

  18. Counterion adsorption theory of dilute polyelectrolyte solutions: Apparent molecular weight, second virial coefficient, and intermolecular structure factor

    PubMed Central

    Muthukumar, M.

    2012-01-01

    Polyelectrolyte chains are well known to be strongly correlated even in extremely dilute solutions in the absence of additional strong electrolytes. Such correlations result in severe difficulties in interpreting light scattering measurements in the determination of the molecular weight, radius of gyration, and the second virial coefficient of charged macromolecules at lower ionic strengths from added strong electrolytes. By accounting for charge-regularization of the polyelectrolyte by the counterions, we present a theory of the apparent molecular weight, second virial coefficient, and the intermolecular structure factor in dilute polyelectrolyte solutions in terms of concentrations of the polymer and the added strong electrolyte. The counterion adsorption of the polyelectrolyte chains to differing levels at different concentrations of the strong electrolyte can lead to even an order of magnitude discrepancy in the molecular weight inferred from light scattering measurements. Based on counterion-mediated charge regularization, the second virial coefficient of the polyelectrolyte and the interchain structure factor are derived self-consistently. The effect of the interchain correlations, dominating at lower salt concentrations, on the inference of the radius of gyration and on molecular weight is derived. Conditions for the onset of nonmonotonic scattering wave vector dependence of scattered intensity upon lowering the electrolyte concentration and interpretation of the apparent radius of gyration are derived in terms of the counterion adsorption mechanism. PMID:22830728

  19. Molecular weight relationships of the esterases in Cepaea nemoralis and Cepaea hortensis (Mollusca: Helicidae) and their genetic implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. S. Oxford

    1973-01-01

    The multiple zones of esterase activity revealed after acrylamide disc electrophoresis of hepatopancreatic extracts from the snails Cepaea nemoralis and Cepaea hortensis have been characterized according to their molecular weights by comparing their relative mobilities with those of standard proteins in acrylamide gels of varying concentrations. It was observed that zones known to be allelic from previous work had identical

  20. Effects of specific domains of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits’ on dough properties by an in vitro assay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An in vitro system for incorporating bacterially produced high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) into doughs was used to study the effects of specific domains of the HMW-GS. Synergistic effects of incorporating into doughs both the Dx5 and Dy10 subunits are localized to the N-terminal do...

  1. Two-chain high molecular weight kininogen induces endothelial cell apoptosis and inhibits angiogenesis: partial activity within domain 5

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JING-CHUAN ZHANG; KEVIN CLAFFEY; RAMASAMY SAKTHIVEL; ZBIGNIEV DARZYNKIEWICZ; DAVID ELLIOT SHAW; JUAN LEAL; YI-CHUN WANG; FENG-MIN LU; KEITH R. MCCRAE

    2000-01-01

    We previously reported that the bind- ing of two-chain high molecular weight kininogen (HKa) to endothelial cells may occur through inter- actions with endothelial urokinase receptors. Since the binding of urokinase to urokinase receptors activates signaling responses and may stimulate mi- togenesis, we assessed the effect of HKa binding on endothelial cell proliferation. Unexpectedly, HKa inhibited proliferation in response to

  2. Quality and agronomic effects of three high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit transgenic events in winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quality and agronomic effects of three transgenic high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (HMWGS) events were characterized in advanced-generation breeding lines of hard winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in three Nebraska (U.S.A.) crop years. Two of the transgenic events studied, Dy10-E and B52a-6...

  3. Low Molecular Weight Heparin Reduces Proteinuria and Modulates Glomerular TNF-? Production in the Early Phase of Adriamycin Nephropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Benchetrit; E. Golan; E. Podjarny; J. Green; G. Rashid; J. Bernheim; R. Hershkovitz

    2001-01-01

    Background\\/Aim: Heparin has been shown to be renoprotective in a number of experimental nephropathies. The inflammatory component in the early phase of Adriamycin (ADR) induced nephropathy has been established. A microdose of low molecular weight heparin (Fragmin; F) has been noted to exert immunomodulatory effects independent of its anticoagulant activity. We assessed the effects of microdoses of F on daily

  4. PRODUCTION OF LOW MOLECULAR WEIGHT CADMIUM-BINDING PROTEINS IN RABBIT LUNG FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO CADMIUM CHLORIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Low molecular weight cadmium-binding proteins were studied in lung tissue from rabbits exposed to aerosols of CdCl2. Lungs obtained from animals exposed by inhalation to aerosols of 800 or 1600 micrograms/cu.m. CdCl2 for 2-hr periods/day, every other day for a 5-day period, were ...

  5. Development of Gel-Filter Method for High Enrichment of Low-Molecular Weight Proteins from Serum

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lingsheng; Zhai, Linhui; Li, Yanchang; Li, Ning; Zhang, Chengpu; Ping, Lingyan; Chang, Lei; Wu, Junzhu; Li, Xiangping; Shi, Deshun; Xu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    The human serum proteome has been extensively screened for biomarkers. However, the large dynamic range of protein concentrations in serum and the presence of highly abundant and large molecular weight proteins, make identification and detection changes in the amount of low-molecular weight proteins (LMW, molecular weight ? 30kDa) difficult. Here, we developed a gel-filter method including four layers of different concentration of tricine SDS-PAGE-based gels to block high-molecular weight proteins and enrich LMW proteins. By utilizing this method, we identified 1,576 proteins (n = 2) from 10 ?L serum. Among them, 559 (n = 2) proteins belonged to LMW proteins. Furthermore, this gel-filter method could identify 67.4% and 39.8% more LMW proteins than that in representative methods of glycine SDS-PAGE and optimized-DS, respectively. By utilizing SILAC-AQUA approach with labeled recombinant protein as internal standard, the recovery rate for GST spiked in serum during the treatment of gel-filter, optimized-DS, and ProteoMiner was 33.1 ± 0.01%, 18.7 ± 0.01% and 9.6 ± 0.03%, respectively. These results demonstrate that the gel-filter method offers a rapid, highly reproducible and efficient approach for screening biomarkers from serum through proteomic analyses. PMID:25723528

  6. Metabolic profiling of transgenic wheat over-expressing the high-molecular weight Dx5 glutenin subunit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary aim of this work was to evaluate potential changes in the metabolic network of transgenic wheat grain due to over-expression of the gene encoding the high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenin Dx5-subunit. We used GC-MS and multivariate analyses to compare the metabolite profiles of developing...

  7. Effects of physical and chemical treatments on the molecular weight and degradation of alginate-hydroxyapatite composites.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Daniel Alves; Ulset, Ann-Sissel; Bender, Johan; Jansen, John A; Christensen, Bjørn E; Leeuwenburgh, Sander C G

    2014-06-01

    Degradation of alginate remains a critical issue to allow predictable biological performance upon implantation of alginate-based materials. Therefore, the objective of the current study is to compare the effects of ?-irradiation (dry state, 20-80?kGy), partial (1 and 4%) periodate oxidation (aqueous solution), and autoclaving (dry state) on the molecular weight of alginate, as well as the degradation behavior of alginate-based composites. The results show that ?-irradiation is by far the most destructive technique characterized by strongly reduced molecular weights and rapid loss of composite integrity upon soaking in simulated body fluid. Partial periodate oxidation is less destructive as characterized by more moderate decreases in molecular weight, but the production of hydrolytically labile bonds compromises the integrity of the resulting composites. Autoclaving is shown to be a powerful tool to reduce the molecular weight of alginate in a controllable and mild manner without compromising the integrity of the resulting alginate-hydroxyapatite composites, simply by increasing the number of repetitive autoclaving cycles. PMID:24436203

  8. The role of the picoeukaryote Aureococcus anophagefferens in cycling of marine high-molecular weight dissolved organic nitrogen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gry Mine Berg; Daniel J. Repeta; Julie LaRoche

    2003-01-01

    Environmental evidence suggests that Aureococcus anophagefferens(Pelagophyceae), a eukaryotic picoplankton that blooms in coastal seawaters, can outcompete other organisms because of its ability to use abundant dissolved organic nitrogen (DON). To test this hypothesis, we isolated A. anophagefferens in axenic culture and monitored its growth on high-molecular weight (HMW) DON collected from sediment pore waters, a putative source for DON in

  9. Analysis of Contact Stress on the UltraHigh Molecular Weight Polyethylene Cup for Different Hip Implants Dimensions and Materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Fouad; S. M. Darwish

    The subsurface fatigue that occurs in the Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) hip joint cup has been shown to be correlated with the contact stress at that cup. This cup stress is known to be affected by the implant design, dimensions and materials. In this study, 3D finite element modeling has been used to investigate the effects on the cup

  10. The Influence of Polymer Molecular Weight in Lamellar Gels Based on Heidi E. Warriner,* S. L. Keller,#

    E-print Network

    Zasadzinski, Joseph A.

    's immune response to PEG- coated liposomes has been attributed to a polymer-brush steric repulsion betweenThe Influence of Polymer Molecular Weight in Lamellar Gels Based on PEG-Lipids Heidi E. Warriner, and PEG-DMPE mixtures, differs from traditional hydrogels, which require high MW polymer, are disordered

  11. Identification of New Inhibitors of Human Low Molecular Weight Protein Tyrosine: Phosphatase Isoform B via Virtual Screening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Seiler

    2012-01-01

    The human low molecular weight protein tyrosine phosphatase (LMW-PTP) has been identified as a target for inhibition as its overexpression leads to metastatic transformation and invasivity in several human cancers such as breast, colon, bladder, and kidney. Extra precision docking with Glide on LMW-PTP isoform B was used to virtually screen 1356 compounds from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) diversity

  12. Characterization and antioxidant activity of two low-molecular-weight polysaccharides purified from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lucidum.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Wang, Hengyu; Pang, Xiubing; Yao, Wenbing; Gao, Xiangdong

    2010-05-01

    Two low-molecular-weight polysaccharides, GLP(L)1 and GLP(L)2, purified from a crude Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide preparation GLPP were investigated for their physicochemical properties, structure characterization and antioxidant activities. The results indicated that GLP(L)1 was a glucan with an average molecular weight of 5.2kDa, while GLP(L)2 was composed of glucose, galactose and mannose in a ratio of 29:1.8:1.0 with the average molecular weight of 15.4kDa. GLP(L)1 and GLP(L)2 had similar structure characteristic which contained linkages such as -->3)-Glcp-(1-->, -->4)-Glcp-(1-->, -->6)-Glcp-(1-->, -->3,6)-Glcp-(1-->, and -->4,6)-Glcp-(1--> in the percentage ratio of 21.9:20.3:23.7:24.0:3.7 and 23.0:34.6:7.0:14.1:3.0 in the backbone or branches, respectively. Antioxidant results showed that both GLP(L)1 and GLP(L)2 exhibited antioxidant activities while GLP(L)1 was more effective in free radicals scavenging and Fe(2+) chelating. Low-molecular-weight polysaccharide seems to play an important role in the exploration of natural antioxidants in food industry and pharmaceuticals. PMID:20153767

  13. Effect of high molecular weight glutenin subunit composition in common wheat on dough properties and steamed bread quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Steamed bread is a popular staple in Asia with different flour quality requirements from pan bread. Little is known about how glutenin characteristics affect steamed bread quality. This work investigated how deletions of high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) influence gluten properties an...

  14. INFLUENCE OF GLYCOSIDIC LINKAGES AND MOLECULAR WEIGHT ON THE FERMENTATION OF MALTOSE-BASED OLIGOSACCHARIDES BY GUT BACTERIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A structure-function study was carried out to increase knowledge of how glycosidic linkages and molecular weight of carbohydrates contribute towards the selectivity of fermentation by gut bacteria. Oligosaccharides with maltose as the common carbohydrate source were used. Potentially prebiotic alt...

  15. Interaction between poly(acrylic acid) and phospholipid vesicles: effect of pH, concentration, and molecular weight.

    PubMed

    Chieng, Yu Yuan; Chen, Shing Bor

    2010-04-15

    Interactions between phospholipid vesicles and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) are of fundamental importance for pH-sensitive delivery systems in pharmaceutical applications. In this study, we investigated the behavior of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) at varied concentrations of PAA with low and high molecular weights. Differential scanning calorimetry and fluorescence microscopy experiments suggested that hydrogen bonding between the carboxyl group of PAA and the phosphodiester group of the lipid is the main driving force for association under acidic conditions. Complexation between DPPC and PAA depends on the PAA molecular weight and concentration. At high enough concentrations of the large molecular weight PAA, the polymer can completely disrupt the bilayers of DPPC. For the small molecular weight PAA, in contrast, the complexation leads to vesicle aggregation without destroying the bilayers. The difference in complex structure was detected by SEM and a UV-visible spectrophotometer. At alkaline pH, complexation did not occur because of strong dissociation of PAA. PMID:20297804

  16. Molecular weight distribution of proteins in hard red spring wheat: Relationship to quality parameters and intra-sample uniformity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular weight distribution (MWD) of proteins extracted from hard spring wheat grain was analyzed by size exclusion HPLC to investigate associations with wheat and breadmaking quality characteristics. Certain protein fractions were found to be related to associations between wheat and breadmaking ...

  17. A low molecular weight component derived from the milk of hyperimmunised cows suppresses inflammation by inhibiting neutrophil emigration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas J. Ormrod; Thomas E. Miller

    1992-01-01

    An earlier study demonstrated that hyperimmunisation of dairy cows with a polyvalent bacterial vaccine stimulated the secretion of a small molecular weight anti-inflammatory moiety in the milk. This hyperimmune milk factor (HIMF) has been further investigated in the present experiments. HIMF was found to suppress the cellular phase of the response to carrageenin and also the neutrophil-dependent reverse passive Arthus

  18. In vitro simulation of contact fatigue damage found in ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene components of knee prostheses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J H Currier; J L Duda; D K Sperling; J P Collier; B H Currier; F E Kennedy

    1998-01-01

    An in vitro simulation of fatigue loading of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene ( UHMWPE ) knee components was carried out on a knee simulator and on a rolling and sliding wear tester. Tibial components for the knee simulator were gamma-sterilized, implantable components taken from manufacturing inventory. The rolling\\/sliding UHMWPE discs were machined from bar stock and either gamma sterilized in

  19. Oxidation of UltraHigh Molecular Weight Polyethylene and Its Influence on Contact Fatigue and Pitting of Knee Bearings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. E. Kennedy; B. H. Currier; D. W. Van Citters; J. H. Currier; J. P. Collier; M. B. Mayor

    2003-01-01

    Tibial hearings of total knee replacements are generally made from ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). Failure of those hearings has been found to result in many cases from subsurface crack initiation and propagation. Two types of subsurface-originated failure modes are investigated in this study: macroscopic contact fatigue and microscopic pitting. The cracks responsible for both modes of failure initiate in

  20. Molecular weight dependent charge carrier mobility in poly(3,3' '-dioctyl-2,2':5',2' '-terthiophene).

    PubMed

    Verilhac, Jean-Marie; Pokrop, Rafal; LeBlevennec, Gilles; Kulszewicz-Bajer, Irena; Buga, Katarzyna; Zagorska, Malgorzata; Sadki, Said; Pron, Adam

    2006-07-13

    Poly(3,3' '-dioctyl-2,2':5',2' '-terthiophene), a polymer recently used for the fabrication of organic field effect transistors, has been fractionated into five fractions distinctly differing in their molecular weights (Mn), with the goal of determining the influence of the degree of polymerization (DPn) on its principal physicochemical parameters. It has been demonstrated that within the Mn range studied (from 1.5 kDa to 10.5 kDa by SEC), corresponding to DPn from 10 to 38, the polymer band gap steadily decreases with growing molecular weight, which is clearly manifested by an increasing bathochromic shift of the band originating from the pi-pi* transition. The same trend is observed for the HOMO level, determined from the onset of the p-doping in cyclic voltammetry, which shifts from -5.10 eV to -4.90 eV for the lowest and the highest molecular weight fractions, respectively. The most pronounced influence of DPn has been found for the charge carriers' mobility-one of the most important parameters of field effect transistors (FETs) fabricated from this polymer. A fourfold increase in DPn results in an increase of the carriers' mobility by more than 3 orders of magnitude. Comparison of these results with those obtained for fractionated regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) shows a strikingly similar behavior of both polymers with respect to the molecular weight. PMID:16821847

  1. Localization of low molecular weight crystallin peptides in the aging human lens using a MALDI mass spectrometry imaging approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shih-Ping Su; Jason D. McArthur; J. Andrew Aquilina

    2010-01-01

    Low molecular weight (LMW) peptides, derived from the breakdown of the major eye lens proteins, the crystallins, accumulate in the human lens with age. These LMW peptides are associated with age-related lens opacity and cataract, with some shown to inhibit the chaperone activity of ?-crystallin. However, the mechanism(s) giving rise to the production of these peptides, as well as their

  2. Airway Morphology and Function of Rats Following Dermal Sensitization and Respiratory Challenge with Low Molecular Weight Chemicals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josje H. E. Arts; C. Frieke Kuper; Stan M. Spoor; Nanne Bloksma

    1998-01-01

    Local lymph node activation and increased total serum IgE levels are suggested to be predictive parameters of airway hypersensitivity caused by low molecular weight (LMW) chemicals. Whether increases of total serum IgE are indicative of actual induction of specific airway reactions (morphological and functional) after inhalation challenge was examined in the present study. In Brown Norway (BN) and Wistar rats,

  3. Effects of Unfractionated Heparin and Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin on Colonic Anastomoses in the Presence of Experimental Peritonitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yusuf Gunerhan; Neset Koksal; Ozden Gul; Mehmet Ali Uzun; Riza Adaleti

    2006-01-01

    Background: We aimed at investigating the effects of unfractionated heparin (UFH) and low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) on the healing process of colonic anastomoses in the presence of peritonitis which is known to adversely affect the healing process. Study Design: Three groups of Wistar albino rats (n = 15 in each group) with experimental fecal peritonitis were studied. A 1-cm colonic segment

  4. Low-molecular-weight heparin (Fragmin) during instability in coronary artery disease (FRISC). FRISC Study Group.

    PubMed

    Swahn, E; Wallentin, L

    1997-09-01

    This study evaluated whether the low-molecular-weight (LMW) heparin dalteparin sodium (Fragmin) had protective effects against cardiac events in aspirin-treated patients with unstable coronary artery syndromes. Patients (n = 1,506) with unstable angina or non-Q-wave myocardial infarction were randomized to double-blind, placebo-controlled treatment with LMW heparin. The treatment was given as subcutaneous injections: 120 U/kg body weight/12 hours during the first 5-7 days and 7,500 U once daily during the following 35-45 days. The primary endpoint, death or myocardial infarction after 6 days, showed a 3% (4.7%-1.7%) absolute and a 65% relative reduction in the LMW heparin group. There was a 6.8% (15.5%-8.7%) absolute and a 47% relative reduction of urgent revascularization or need for heparin or nitroglycerin infusions in combination with the primary endpoint. After 40 days there was an absolute reduction of death or myocardial infarction of 2.8% (10.7%-7.9%) and its combination with incapacitating angina was reduced by 5.9% (30.7%-24.8%). The survival analysis indicated a reactivation of the instability soon after lowering the dose at 5-7 days. With long-term follow-up, 3-4 months after termination of LMW heparin, the differences between groups were no longer statistically significant. However, the cumulative reduction in death, myocardial infarction, and revascularization because of incapacitating angina of 5.1% (25.3%-20.4%) was maintained. No cerebral and few major bleeds occurred. Compliance was adequate. Thus, subcutaneous LMW heparin protects against cardiac events in the acute phase of unstable coronary artery disease. The subcutaneous regimen also allows prolongation of treatment in the outpatient setting, which might maintain the initial benefits over a longer period. PMID:9296466

  5. Identification and Characterization of High-Molecular-Weight Glutenin Subunits from Agropyron intermedium

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Shuanghe; Li, Zhixin; Gong, Caiyan; Xu, Hong; Yang, Ran; Hao, Shanting; Wang, Xianping; Wang, Daowen; Zhang, Xiangqi

    2014-01-01

    High-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) is a primary determinant of processing quality of wheat. Considerable progress has been made in understanding the structure, function and genetic regulation of HMW-GS in wheat and some of its related species, but less is known about their orthologs in Agropyron intermedium, a useful related species for wheat improvement. Here seven HMW-GSs in Ag. intermedium were identified using SDS-PAGE and Western blotting experiments. Subsequently, the seven genes (Glu-1Aix1?4 and Glu-1Aiy1?3) encoding the seven HMW-GSs were isolated using PCR technique with degenerate primers, and confirmed by bacterial expression and Western blotting. Sequence analysis indicated that the seven Ag. intermedium HMW-GSs shared high similarity in primary structure to those of wheat, but four of the seven subunits were unusually small compared to the representatives of HMW-GS from wheat and two of them possessed extra cysteine residues. The alignment and clustering analysis of deduced amino acid sequences revealed that 1Aix1 and 1Aiy1 subunits had special molecular structure, belonging to the hybrid type compounding between typical x- and y-type subunit. The xy-type subunit 1Aix1 is composed of the N-terminal of x-type and C-terminal of y-type, whereas yx-type subunit 1Aiy1 comprises the N-terminal of y-type and C-terminal of x-type. This result strongly supported the hypothesis of unequal crossover mechanism that might generate the novel coding sequence for the hybrid type of HMW-GSs. In addition to the aforementioned, the other novel characteristics of the seven subunits were also discussed. Finally, phylogenetic analysis based on HMW-GS genes was carried out and provided new insights into the evolutionary biology of Ag. intermedium. PMID:24503781

  6. Relationship between chemical structure and the occupational asthma hazard of low molecular weight organic compounds

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, J; Seed, M; Elton, R; Sawyer, L; Agius, R

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To investigate quantitatively, relationships between chemical structure and reported occupational asthma hazard for low molecular weight (LMW) organic compounds; to develop and validate a model linking asthma hazard with chemical substructure; and to generate mechanistic hypotheses that might explain the relationships. Methods: A learning dataset used 78 LMW chemical asthmagens reported in the literature before 1995, and 301 control compounds with recognised occupational exposures and hazards other than respiratory sensitisation. The chemical structures of the asthmagens and control compounds were characterised by the presence of chemical substructure fragments. Odds ratios were calculated for these fragments to determine which were associated with a likelihood of being reported as an occupational asthmagen. Logistic regression modelling was used to identify the independent contribution of these substructures. A post-1995 set of 21 asthmagens and 77 controls were selected to externally validate the model. Results: Nitrogen or oxygen containing functional groups such as isocyanate, amine, acid anhydride, and carbonyl were associated with an occupational asthma hazard, particularly when the functional group was present twice or more in the same molecule. A logistic regression model using only statistically significant independent variables for occupational asthma hazard correctly assigned 90% of the model development set. The external validation showed a sensitivity of 86% and specificity of 99%. Conclusions: Although a wide variety of chemical structures are associated with occupational asthma, bifunctional reactivity is strongly associated with occupational asthma hazard across a range of chemical substructures. This suggests that chemical cross-linking is an important molecular mechanism leading to the development of occupational asthma. The logistic regression model is freely available on the internet and may offer a useful but inexpensive adjunct to the prediction of occupational asthma hazard. PMID:15778257

  7. Identification and characterization of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits from Agropyron intermedium.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shuanghe; Li, Zhixin; Gong, Caiyan; Xu, Hong; Yang, Ran; Hao, Shanting; Wang, Xianping; Wang, Daowen; Zhang, Xiangqi

    2014-01-01

    High-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) is a primary determinant of processing quality of wheat. Considerable progress has been made in understanding the structure, function and genetic regulation of HMW-GS in wheat and some of its related species, but less is known about their orthologs in Agropyron intermedium, a useful related species for wheat improvement. Here seven HMW-GSs in Ag. intermedium were identified using SDS-PAGE and Western blotting experiments. Subsequently, the seven genes (Glu-1Aix1 ? 4 and Glu-1Aiy1 ? 3) encoding the seven HMW-GSs were isolated using PCR technique with degenerate primers, and confirmed by bacterial expression and Western blotting. Sequence analysis indicated that the seven Ag. intermedium HMW-GSs shared high similarity in primary structure to those of wheat, but four of the seven subunits were unusually small compared to the representatives of HMW-GS from wheat and two of them possessed extra cysteine residues. The alignment and clustering analysis of deduced amino acid sequences revealed that 1Aix1 and 1Aiy1 subunits had special molecular structure, belonging to the hybrid type compounding between typical x- and y-type subunit. The xy-type subunit 1Aix1 is composed of the N-terminal of x-type and C-terminal of y-type, whereas yx-type subunit 1Aiy1 comprises the N-terminal of y-type and C-terminal of x-type. This result strongly supported the hypothesis of unequal crossover mechanism that might generate the novel coding sequence for the hybrid type of HMW-GSs. In addition to the aforementioned, the other novel characteristics of the seven subunits were also discussed. Finally, phylogenetic analysis based on HMW-GS genes was carried out and provided new insights into the evolutionary biology of Ag. intermedium. PMID:24503781

  8. Relationship between molecular weight of poly(ethylene)glycol and intermolecular interaction of Taka-amylase A monomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onuma, Kazuo; Furubayashi, Naoki; Shibata, Fujiko; Kobayashi, Yoshiko; Kaito, Sachiko; Ohnishi, Yuki; Inaka, Koji

    2010-04-01

    Dynamic and static light scattering investigations of Taka-amylase A (TAA) protein monomers were done using solutions containing poly(ethylene)glycol (PEG) with molecular weights of 1500, 4000, 8000, and 20 000. The anomalies observed in a previous study using a weight of 8000, in which the hydrodynamic TAA monomer radius at a zero protein concentration and the molecular weight of the monomers decreased when the PEG concentration was increased, were observed for all four weights. These anomalies became more pronounced as the PEG molecular weight was increased. The overall interaction parameter did not move further in the direction of the attractive force despite an increase in the PEG concentration from 6% to 12.5% for the PEG 8000 and 20 000 solutions. This was due to the change in the relative contributions of the static structure factor (direct interaction) and the hydrodynamic interaction factor (indirect interaction) against the overall interaction parameter. For the PEG 1500 and 4000 solutions, the change in the overall interaction parameter with an increase in the PEG concentration was controlled by changing the static structure factor. For the PEG 8000 and 20 000 solutions, a change in the hydrodynamic interaction factor with an increase in the PEG concentration offset the change in the static structure factor, unexpectedly resulting in the overall interaction parameter being independent of the PEG concentration. This suggests that the scale and density of a PEG network structure, which are thought to be the origin of the observed anomalies, change nonlinearly with the PEG molecular weight.

  9. Efficient and accurate approximations to the molecular spin-orbit coupling operator and their use in molecular g-tensor calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neese, Frank

    2005-01-01

    Approximations to the Breit-Pauli form of the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) operator are examined. The focus is on approximations that lead to an effective quasi-one-electron operator which leads to efficient property evaluations. In particular, the accurate spin-orbit mean-field (SOMF) method developed by Hess, Marian, Wahlgren, and Gropen is examined in detail. It is compared in detail with the "effective potential" spin-orbit operator commonly used in density functional theory (DFT) and which has been criticized for not including the spin-other orbit (SOO) contribution. Both operators contain identical one-electron and Coulomb terms since the SOO contribution to the Coulomb term vanishes exactly in the SOMF treatment. Since the DFT correlation functional only contributes negligibly to the SOC the only difference between the two operators is in the exchange part. In the SOMF approximation, the SOO part is equal to two times the spin-same orbit contribution. The DFT exchange contribution is of the wrong sign and numerically shown to be in error by a factor of 2-2.5 in magnitude. The simplest possible improvement in the DFT-SOC treatment [Veff(-2X)-SOC] is to multiply the exchange contribution to the Veff operator by -2. This is verified numerically in calculations of molecular g-tensors and one-electron SOC constants of atoms and ions. Four different ways of handling the computationally critical Coulomb part of the SOMF and Veff operators are discussed and implemented. The resolution of the identity approximation is virtually exact for the SOC with standard auxiliary basis sets which need to be slightly augmented by steep s functions for heavier elements. An almost as efficient seminumerical approximation is equally accurate. The effective nuclear charge model gives results within ˜10% (on average) of the SOMF treatment. The one-center approximation to the Coulomb and one-electron SOC terms leads to errors on the order of ˜5%. Small absolute errors are obtained for the one-center approximation to the exchange term which is consequently the method of choice [SOMF(1X)] for large molecules.

  10. Statistical studies on high molecular weight pullulan production in solid state fermentation using jack fruit seed.

    PubMed

    Sugumaran, K R; Sindhu, R V; Sukanya, S; Aiswarya, N; Ponnusami, V

    2013-10-15

    The purpose of the work was to optimize the medium variables for maximizing pullulan production using jack fruit seed as a low cost substrate by Aureobasidium pullulans in solid state fermentation. Effects of K2HPO4, KH2PO4, ZnSO4·5H2O, MgSO4·7H2O, NaCl, (NH4)2SO4·5H2O, yeast extract, moisture content (%, w/w) in the production medium on pullulan production were studied using Plackett-Burman design. Production of pullulan was significantly affected by the medium variables namely KH2PO4, ZnSO4·5H2O, NaCl and moisture content (%, w/w). Then screened variables were optimized by Box Behnken experiment design. The pullulan obtained was characterized and confirmed by FTIR, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR. Molecular weight of pullulan was found to be 1.733×10(6) g/mol by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). PMID:23987421

  11. Evolution of the structure of near-surface ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene nanolayers during orientational drawing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, D. V.; Ivan'kova, E. M.; Marikhin, V. A.; Myasnikova, L. P.; Radovanova, E. I.; Boiko, Yu. M.; Shtil'man, M. V.

    2014-06-01

    A comparative investigation of the surface structure of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene film filaments obtained with different draw ratios from xerogels prepared from 1.5 wt % polymer solutions in decaline and mineral oil has been performed using a SUPRA-55V scanning electron microscope and a nanoluminograph for recording thermoluminescence of ultrathin near-surface layers of solids. It has been found that, with an increase in the draw ratio, the luminescence intensity decreases, and the peaks responsible for the segmental mobility are shifted toward higher temperatures. It has been assumed that this is associated with the improvement of the structure of near-surface layers of the polymer (with a decrease in the number of microcavities and segments of molecules with a high degree of coiling). It has also been revealed that the peaks observed in glow curves of the oriented gel samples from polymer solutions in decaline are shifted more significantly than those of the gel samples from polymer solutions in mineral oil, and the extremely oriented films are characterized by a large discretization of kinetic units of motion.

  12. Activation of the low molecular weight protein tyrosine phosphatase in keratinocytes exposed to hyperosmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Silva, Rodrigo A; Palladino, Marcelly V; Cavalheiro, Renan P; Machado, Daisy; Cruz, Bread L G; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar J; Gomes-Marcondes, Maria C C; Zambuzzi, Willian F; Vasques, Luciana; Nader, Helena B; Souza, Ana Carolina S; Justo, Giselle Z

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we provide new contribution to the mechanisms involved in keratinocytes response to hyperosmotic shock showing, for the first time, the participation of Low Molecular Weight Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase (LMWPTP) activity in this event. We reported that sorbitol-induced osmotic stress mediates alterations in the phosphorylation of pivotal cytoskeletal proteins, particularly Src and cofilin. Furthermore, an increase in the expression of the phosphorylated form of LMWPTP, which was followed by an augment in its catalytic activity, was observed. Of particular importance, these responses occurred in an intracellular milieu characterized by elevated levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and increased expression of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase. Altogether, our results suggest that hyperosmostic stress provides a favorable cellular environment to the activation of LMWPTP, which is associated with increased expression of antioxidant enzymes, high levels of GSH and inhibition of Src kinase. Finally, the real contribution of LMWPTP in the hyperosmotic stress response of keratinocytes was demonstrated through analysis of the effects of ACP1 gene knockdown in stressed and non-stressed cells. LMWPTP knockdown attenuates the effects of sorbitol induced-stress in HaCaT cells, mainly in the status of Src kinase, Rac and STAT5 phosphorylation and activity. These results describe for the first time the participation of LMWPTP in the dynamics of cytoskeleton rearrangement during exposure of human keratinocytes to hyperosmotic shock, which may contribute to cell death. PMID:25781955

  13. Effect of substituent pattern and molecular weight of cellulose ethers on interactions with different bile salts.

    PubMed

    Torcello-Gómez, Amelia; Fernández Fraguas, Cristina; Ridout, Mike J; Woodward, Nicola C; Wilde, Peter J; Foster, Timothy J

    2015-03-11

    Some known mechanisms proposed for the reduction of blood cholesterol by dietary fibre are: binding with bile salts in the duodenum and prevention of lipid absorption, which can be partially related with the bile salt binding. In order to gain new insights into the mechanisms of the binding of dietary fibre to bile salts, the goal of this work is to study the main interactions between cellulose derivatives and two types of bile salts. Commercial cellulose ethers: methyl (MC), hydroxypropyl (HPC) and hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC), have been chosen as dietary fibre due to their highly functional properties important in manufactured food products. Two types of bile salts: sodium taurocholate (NaTC) and sodium taurodeoxycholate (NaTDC), have been chosen to understand the effect of the bile salt type. Interactions in the bulk have been investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and linear mechanical spectroscopy. Results show that both bile salts have inhibitory effects on the thermal structuring of cellulose ethers and this depends on the number and type of substitution in the derivatised celluloses, and is not dependent upon molecular weight. Concerning the bile salt type, the more hydrophobic bile salt (NaTDC) has greater effect on these interactions, suggesting more efficient adsorption onto cellulose ethers. These findings may have implications in the digestion of cellulose-stabilised food matrices, providing a springboard to develop new healthy cellulose-based food products with improved functional properties. PMID:25679293

  14. Characterization of low molecular weight allergens from English walnut (Juglans regia).

    PubMed

    Downs, Melanie L; Semic-Jusufagic, Aida; Simpson, Angela; Bartra, Joan; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Rigby, Neil M; Taylor, Steve L; Baumert, Joseph L; Mills, E N Clare

    2014-12-01

    Although English walnut is a commonly allergenic tree nut, walnut allergens have been poorly characterized to date. The objective of this work was to characterize the natural, low molecular weight (LMW) allergens from walnut. A protocol was developed to purify LMW allergens (specifically 2S albumins) from English walnuts. In addition to 2S albumins, a series of peptides from the N-terminal region of the 7S seed storage globulin proprotein were also identified and characterized. These peptides comprised a four-cysteine motif (C-X-X-X-C-X10-12-C-X-X-X-C) repeated throughout the 7S N-terminal region. Upon IgE immunoblotting, 3/11 and 5/11 sera from walnut-allergic subjects showed IgE reactivity to the 7S N-terminal fragments and 2S albumin, respectively. The mature 7S protein and the newly described 7S N-terminal peptides represent two distinct types of allergens. Because the proteolytic processing of 7S globulins has not been elucidated in many edible plant species, similar protein fragments may be present in other nuts and seeds. PMID:25388987

  15. Low molecular weight protein tyrosine phosphatase (LMWPTP) upregulation mediates malignant potential in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hoekstra, Elmer; Kodach, Liudmila L.; Das, Asha M.; Ruela-de-Sousa, Roberta R.; Ferreira, Carmen V.; Hardwick, James C.; van der Woude, C. Janneke; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; ten Hagen, Timo L.M.; Fuhler, Gwenny M.

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatases have long been regarded as tumor suppressors, however there is emerging evidence for a tumor initiating role for some phosphatases in several forms of cancer. Low Molecular Weight Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase (LMWPTP; acid phosphatase 1 [ACP1]) is an 18 kDa enzyme that influences the phosphorylation of signaling pathway mediators involved in cancer and is thus postulated to be a tumor-promoting enzyme, but neither unequivocal clinical evidence nor convincing mechanistic actions for a role of LMWPTP have been identified. In the present study, we show that LMWPTP expression is not only significantly increased in colorectal cancer (CRC), but also follows a step-wise increase in different levels of dysplasia. Chemical inhibition of LMWPTP significantly reduces CRC growth. Furthermore, downregulation of LMWPTP in CRC leads to a reduced migration ability in both 2D- and 3D-migration assays, and sensitizes tumor cells to the chemotherapeutic agent 5-FU. In conclusion, this study shows that LMWPTP is not only overexpressed in colorectal cancer, but it is correlated with the malignant potential of this cancer, suggesting that this phosphatase may act as a predictive biomaker of CRC stage and represents a rational novel target in the treatment of this disease. PMID:25811796

  16. High molecular weight adiponectin reduces apolipoprotein B and E release in human hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Neumeier, Markus [Department of Internal Medicine I, Regensburg University Medical Center, D-93042 Regensburg (Germany); Sigruener, Alexander [Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, University of Regensburg, D-93042 Regensburg (Germany); Eggenhofer, Elke [Department of Internal Medicine I, Regensburg University Medical Center, D-93042 Regensburg (Germany); Weigert, Johanna [Department of Internal Medicine I, Regensburg University Medical Center, D-93042 Regensburg (Germany); Weiss, Thomas S. [Center for Liver Cell Research, University of Regensburg, D-93042 Regensburg (Germany); Department of Surgery, University of Regensburg, D-93042 Regensburg (Germany); Schaeffler, Andreas [Department of Internal Medicine I, Regensburg University Medical Center, D-93042 Regensburg (Germany); Schlitt, Hans J. [Department of Surgery, University of Regensburg, D-93042 Regensburg (Germany); Aslanidis, Charalampos [Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, University of Regensburg, D-93042 Regensburg (Germany); Piso, Pompiliu [Department of Surgery, University of Regensburg, D-93042 Regensburg (Germany); Langmann, Thomas [Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, University of Regensburg, D-93042 Regensburg (Germany); Schmitz, Gerd [Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, University of Regensburg, D-93042 Regensburg (Germany); Schoelmerich, Juergen [Department of Internal Medicine I, Regensburg University Medical Center, D-93042 Regensburg (Germany); Buechler, Christa [Department of Internal Medicine I, Regensburg University Medical Center, D-93042 Regensburg (Germany)]. E-mail: christa.buechler@klinik.uni-regensburg.de

    2007-01-12

    Low circulating levels of high molecular weight adiponectin (HMW-Apm) have been linked to dyslipidaemia and systemic HMW-Apm negatively correlates with very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), apolipoprotein B (ApoB), and ApoE and is positively associated with ApoA-I. Therefore, it was investigated whether HMW-Apm alters the hepatic synthesis of ApoB, ApoE, and ApoA-I or the activity of the hepatic ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), as the main determinant of plasma HDL. HMW-Apm reduces hepatic ApoB and ApoE release whereas ABCA1 protein, activity and ApoA-I were not altered. Global gene expression analysis revealed that hepatic nuclear factor 4-{alpha} (HNF4-{alpha}) and HNF4-{alpha} regulated genes like ApoB are downregulated by HMW-Apm and this was confirmed at the mRNA and protein level. Therefore it is concluded that HMW-adiponectin may ameliorate dyslipidaemia by reducing the hepatic release of ApoB and ApoE, whereas ABCA1 function and ApoA-I secretion are not influenced.

  17. Contribution of low molecular weight phenols to bitter taste and mouthfeel properties in red wines.

    PubMed

    Gonzalo-Diago, Ana; Dizy, Marta; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between low molecular weight compounds present in wines and their sensory contribution. Six young red wines were fractionated by gel permeation chromatography and subsequently each fraction obtained was separated from sugars and acids by solid phase extraction. Wines and both fractions were in-mouth evaluated by a trained sensory panel and UPLC-MS analyses were performed. The lack of ethanol and proanthocyanidins greatly increased the acidity perceived. The elimination of organic acids enabled the description of the samples, which were evaluated as bitter, persistent and slightly astringent. Coutaric acid and quercetin-3-O-rutinoside appear to be relevant astringent compounds in the absence of proanthocyanidins. Bitter taste was highly correlated with the in-mouth persistence. A significant predictive model for bitter taste was built by means of PLSR. Further research must be carried out to validate the sensory contribution of the compounds involved in bitterness and astringency and to verify the sensory interactions observed. PMID:24518332

  18. Overview on guidelines and recommendations for generic low-molecular-weight heparins.

    PubMed

    Harenberg, Job

    2011-02-01

    The first generic low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) end of July 2010 for clinical use in all medical indications where the branded product enoxaparin has reached approval. Many LMWHs have been approved for prophylaxis and the treatment of venous and arterial thromboembolism based on the results of large clinical trials. Generic LMWHs are now marketed in various countries. The European Medicines Agency (EMA) has set up guidelines for the production of generic LMWHs. The International Society of Thrombosis, the North American Thrombosis Forum and other scientific organisations raised concerns regarding the safety of generic LMWHs due to the possibility of a reduced quality of the anticoagulants to ensure a lower price compared to the branded LMWHs. They have published statements for the production of generic LMWHs to ensure the quality of the products and the safety for patients. The present review describes the differences between the actual guidelines and recommendations for the production of generic version of LMWHs. PMID:21262425

  19. Collapse of a composite beam made from ultra high molecular-weight polyethylene fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, G.; Thouless, M. D.; Deshpande, V. S.; Fleck, N. A.

    2014-02-01

    Hot-pressed laminates with a [0/90]48 lay-up, consisting of 83% by volume of ultra high molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibres, and 17% by volume of polyurethane (PU) matrix, were cut into cantilever beams and subjected to transverse end-loading. The collapse mechanisms were observed both visually and by X-ray scans. Short beams deform elastically and collapse plastically in longitudinal shear, with a shear strength comparable to that observed in double notch, interlaminar shear tests. In contrast, long cantilever beams deform in bending and collapse via a plastic hinge at the built-in end of the beam. The plastic hinge is formed by two wedge-shaped microbuckle zones that grow in size and in intensity with increasing hinge rotation. This new mode of microbuckling under macroscopic bending involves both elastic bending and shearing of the plies, and plastic shear of the interface between each ply. The double-wedge pattern contrasts with the more usual parallel-sided plastic microbuckle that occurs in uniaxial compression. Finite element simulations and analytical models give additional insight into the dominant material and geometric parameters that dictate the collapse response of the UHMWPE composite beam in bending. Detailed comparisons between the observed and predicted collapse responses are used in order to construct a constitutive model for laminated UHMWPE composites.

  20. A low-molecular-weight protein from rat liver that resembles ligandin in its binding properties.

    PubMed Central

    Ketterer, B; Tipping, E; Hackney, J F; Beale, D

    1976-01-01

    A protein of S20,W 1.6S and mol.wt. 14000, which binds covalently a metabolite of the aminoazodye carcinogen NN-dimethyl-4-amino-3'-methylazobenzene, was isolated from rat liver cytosol from both carcinogen-treated and normal rats. The protein binds non-covalently palmitoyl-CoA, fatty acids, bilirubin, sex steroids and their sulphates, bile acids and salts, bromosulphophthalein, diethylstilboestrol and 20-methylcholanthrene with a wide range of affinities. The protein is isolated as three components with isoelectric points of 5.0, 5.9 and 7.6 by a method involving isoelectric focusing. All three components have closely similar amino acid analyses, tryptic-peptide 'maps' and u.v. spectra. Each single component redistributes into all three on further electrophoresis. However, the three forms differ in their binding characteristics, the form of pI 7.6 having much the highest affinity for compounds bound non-covalently. The protein was identified immunologically in rat liver, small intestine, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, myocardium and testis. The protein was compared with other hepatic binding-protein preparations of similar molecular weight. Images PLATE 1 PLATE 2 PMID:949315