Multiphysics Thermal-Fluid Analysis of a Non-Nuclear Tester for Hot-Hydrogen Materials Development
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, Ten-See; Foote, John; Litchford, Ron
2006-01-01
The objective of this effort is to analyze the thermal field of a non-nuclear tester, as a first step towards developing efficient and accurate multiphysics, thermo-fluid computational methodology to predict environments for hypothetical solid-core, nuclear thermal engine thrust chamber design and analysis. The computational methodology is based on a multidimensional, finite-volume, turbulent, chemically reacting, radiating, unstructured-grid, and pressure-based formulation. The multiphysics invoked in this study include hydrogen dissociation kinetics and thermodynamics, turbulent flow, convective, radiative and conjugate heat transfers.
Computational thermo-fluid analysis of a disk brake
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takizawa, Kenji; Tezduyar, Tayfun E.; Kuraishi, Takashi; Tabata, Shinichiro; Takagi, Hirokazu
2016-06-01
We present computational thermo-fluid analysis of a disk brake, including thermo-fluid analysis of the flow around the brake and heat conduction analysis of the disk. The computational challenges include proper representation of the small-scale thermo-fluid behavior, high-resolution representation of the thermo-fluid boundary layers near the spinning solid surfaces, and bringing the heat transfer coefficient (HTC) calculated in the thermo-fluid analysis of the flow to the heat conduction analysis of the spinning disk. The disk brake model used in the analysis closely represents the actual configuration, and this adds to the computational challenges. The components of the method we have developed for computational analysis of the class of problems with these types of challenges include the Space-Time Variational Multiscale method for coupled incompressible flow and thermal transport, ST Slip Interface method for high-resolution representation of the thermo-fluid boundary layers near spinning solid surfaces, and a set of projection methods for different parts of the disk to bring the HTC calculated in the thermo-fluid analysis. With the HTC coming from the thermo-fluid analysis of the flow around the brake, we do the heat conduction analysis of the disk, from the start of the breaking until the disk spinning stops, demonstrating how the method developed works in computational analysis of this complex and challenging problem.
Multiphysics Nuclear Thermal Rocket Thrust Chamber Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, Ten-See
2005-01-01
The objective of this effort is t o develop an efficient and accurate thermo-fluid computational methodology to predict environments for hypothetical thrust chamber design and analysis. The current task scope is to perform multidimensional, multiphysics analysis of thrust performance and heat transfer analysis for a hypothetical solid-core, nuclear thermal engine including thrust chamber and nozzle. The multiphysics aspects of the model include: real fluid dynamics, chemical reactivity, turbulent flow, and conjugate heat transfer. The model will be designed to identify thermal, fluid, and hydrogen environments in all flow paths and materials. This model would then be used to perform non- nuclear reproduction of the flow element failures demonstrated in the Rover/NERVA testing, investigate performance of specific configurations and assess potential issues and enhancements. A two-pronged approach will be employed in this effort: a detailed analysis of a multi-channel, flow-element, and global modeling of the entire thrust chamber assembly with a porosity modeling technique. It is expected that the detailed analysis of a single flow element would provide detailed fluid, thermal, and hydrogen environments for stress analysis, while the global thrust chamber assembly analysis would promote understanding of the effects of hydrogen dissociation and heat transfer on thrust performance. These modeling activities will be validated as much as possible by testing performed by other related efforts.
Standardization of Thermo-Fluid Modeling in Modelica.Fluid
Franke, Rudiger; Casella, Francesco; Sielemann, Michael; Proelss, Katrin; Otter, Martin; Wetter, Michael
2009-09-01
This article discusses the Modelica.Fluid library that has been included in the Modelica Standard Library 3.1. Modelica.Fluid provides interfaces and basic components for the device-oriented modeling of onedimensional thermo-fluid flow in networks containing vessels, pipes, fluid machines, valves and fittings. A unique feature of Modelica.Fluid is that the component equations and the media models as well as pressure loss and heat transfer correlations are decoupled from each other. All components are implemented such that they can be used for media from the Modelica.Media library. This means that an incompressible or compressible medium, a single or a multiple substance medium with one or more phases might be used with one and the same model as long as the modeling assumptions made hold. Furthermore, trace substances are supported. Modeling assumptions can be configured globally in an outer System object. This covers in particular the initialization, uni- or bi-directional flow, and dynamic or steady-state formulation of mass, energy, and momentum balance. All assumptions can be locally refined for every component. While Modelica.Fluid contains a reasonable set of component models, the goal of the library is not to provide a comprehensive set of models, but rather to provide interfaces and best practices for the treatment of issues such as connector design and implementation of energy, mass and momentum balances. Applications from various domains are presented.
Wang, T.-S.; Foote, John; Litchford, Ron
2006-01-20
The objective of this effort is to perform design analyses for a non-nuclear hot-hydrogen materials tester, as a first step towards developing efficient and accurate multiphysics, thermo-fluid computational methodology to predict environments for hypothetical solid-core, nuclear thermal engine thrust chamber design and analysis. The computational methodology is based on a multidimensional, finite-volume, turbulent, chemically reacting, thermally radiating, unstructured-grid, and pressure-based formulation. The multiphysics invoked in this study include hydrogen dissociation kinetics and thermodynamics, turbulent flow, convective, and thermal radiative heat transfers. The goals of the design analyses are to maintain maximum hot-hydrogen jet impingement energy and to minimize chamber wall heating. The results of analyses on three test fixture configurations and the rationale for final selection are presented. The interrogation of physics revealed that reactions of hydrogen dissociation and recombination are highly correlated with local temperature and are necessary for accurate prediction of the hot-hydrogen jet temperature.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, Ten-See; Foote, John; Litchford, Ron
2006-01-01
The objective of this effort is to perform design analyses for a non-nuclear hot-hydrogen materials tester, as a first step towards developing efficient and accurate multiphysics, thermo-fluid computational methodology to predict environments for hypothetical solid-core, nuclear thermal engine thrust chamber design and analysis. The computational methodology is based on a multidimensional, finite-volume, turbulent, chemically reacting, thermally radiating, unstructured-grid, and pressure-based formulation. The multiphysics invoked in this study include hydrogen dissociation kinetics and thermodynamics, turbulent flow, convective, and thermal radiative heat transfers. The goals of the design analyses are to maintain maximum hot-hydrogen jet impingement energy and to minimize chamber wall heating. The results of analyses on three test fixture configurations and the rationale for final selection are presented. The interrogation of physics revealed that reactions of hydrogen dissociation and recombination are highly correlated with local temperature and are necessary for accurate prediction of the hot-hydrogen jet temperature.
Multiphysics Thrust Chamber Modeling for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, Ten-See; Cheng, Gary; Chen, Yen-Sen
2006-01-01
The objective of this effort is to develop an efficient and accurate thermo-fluid computational methodology to predict environments for a solid-core, nuclear thermal engine thrust chamber. The computational methodology is based on an unstructured-grid, pressure-based computational fluid dynamics formulation. A two-pronged approach is employed in this effort: A detailed thermo-fluid analysis on a multi-channel flow element for mid-section corrosion investigation; and a global modeling of the thrust chamber to understand the effect of heat transfer on thrust performance. Preliminary results on both aspects are presented.
PREFACE: 32nd UIT (Italian Union of Thermo-fluid-dynamics) Heat Transfer Conference
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2014-11-01
The annual Conference of the ''Unione Italiana di Termofluidodinamica'' (UIT) aims to promote cooperation in the field of heat transfer and thermal sciences by bringing together scientists and engineers working in related areas. The 32nd UIT Conference was held in Pisa, from the 23rd to the 25th of June, 2014 in the buildings of the School of Engineering, just a few months after the celebration of the 100th anniversary of the first Institution of the School of Engineering at the University of Pisa. The response was very good, with more than 100 participants and 80 high-quality contributions from 208 authors on seven different heat transfer related topics: Heat transfer and efficiency in energy systems, environmental technologies, and buildings (25 papers); Micro and nano scale thermo-fluid dynamics (9 papers); Multi-phase fluid dynamics, heat transfer and interface phenomena (14 papers); Computational fluid dynamics and heat transfer (10 papers); Heat transfer in nuclear plants (8 papers); Natural, forced and mixed convection (10 papers) and Conduction and radiation (4 papers). To encourage the debate, the Conference Program scheduled 16 oral sessions (44 papers), three ample poster sessions (36 papers) and four invited lectures given by experts in the various fields both from Industry and from University. Keynote Lectures were given by Dr. Roberto Parri (ENEL, Italy), Prof. Peter Stephan (TU Darmstadt, Germany), Prof. Bruno Panella (Politecnico di Torino), and Prof. Sara Rainieri (Universit;aacute; di Parma). This special volume collects a selection of the scientific contributions discussed during this conference. A total of 46 contributions, two keynote lectures and 44 papers both from oral and poster sessions, have been selected for publication in this special issue, after a second accurate revision process. These works give a good overview of the state of the art of Italian research in the field of Heat Transfer related topics at the date. The editors of the
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Majumdar, Alok; Leclair, Andre; Moore, Ric; Schallhorn, Paul
2011-01-01
GFSSP stands for Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program. It is a general-purpose computer program to compute pressure, temperature and flow distribution in a flow network. GFSSP calculates pressure, temperature, and concentrations at nodes and calculates flow rates through branches. It was primarily developed to analyze Internal Flow Analysis of a Turbopump Transient Flow Analysis of a Propulsion System. GFSSP development started in 1994 with an objective to provide a generalized and easy to use flow analysis tool for thermo-fluid systems.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Perrell, Eric R.
2005-01-01
The recent bold initiatives to expand the human presence in space require innovative approaches to the design of propulsion systems whose underlying technology is not yet mature. The space propulsion community has identified a number of candidate concepts. A short list includes solar sails, high-energy-density chemical propellants, electric and electromagnetic accelerators, solar-thermal and nuclear-thermal expanders. For each of these, the underlying physics are relatively well understood. One could easily cite authoritative texts, addressing both the governing equations, and practical solution methods for, e.g. electromagnetic fields, heat transfer, radiation, thermophysics, structural dynamics, particulate kinematics, nuclear energy, power conversion, and fluid dynamics. One could also easily cite scholarly works in which complete equation sets for any one of these physical processes have been accurately solved relative to complex engineered systems. The Advanced Concepts and Analysis Office (ACAO), Space Transportation Directorate, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, has recently released the first alpha version of a set of computer utilities for performing the applicable physical analyses relative to candidate deep-space propulsion systems such as those listed above. PARSEC, Preliminary Analysis of Revolutionary in-Space Engineering Concepts, enables rapid iterative calculations using several physics tools developed in-house. A complete cycle of the entire tool set takes about twenty minutes. PARSEC is a level-zero/level-one design tool. For PARSEC s proof-of-concept, and preliminary design decision-making, assumptions that significantly simplify the governing equation sets are necessary. To proceed to level-two, one wishes to retain modeling of the underlying physics as close as practical to known applicable first principles. This report describes results of collaboration between ACAO, and Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University (ERAU), to begin building a set of
Multiphysics simulations for LWR analysis
Hamilton, S.; Clarno, K.; Berrill, M.; Evans, T.; Davidson, G.; Lefebvre, R.; Sampath, R.; Hansel, J.; Ragusa, J.; Josey, C.
2013-07-01
Accurate prediction of the neutron and temperature distributions within an operating nuclear reactor requires the solution of multiple coupled physics equations. In a light water reactor (LWR), there is a very strong coupling between the power distribution (described by the radiation transport equation) and the temperature and density distributions (described by a thermal diffusion equation in combination with a fluid flow model). This study aims to begin to quantify the impact of such feedback mechanisms as well as identify numerical difficulties associated with such multiphysics problems. A description of the multiphysics model and current solution strategy within the Exnihilo code package for coupling between 3-D radiation transport and 3-D heat transfer is given. Numerical results detailing the effects of varying the nature of the coupling and the impact of mesh refinement for a representative 3x3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) 'mini-assembly' are presented. (authors)
PREFACE: 33rd UIT (Italian Union of Thermo-fluid dynamics) Heat Transfer Conference
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paoletti, Domenica; Ambrosini, Dario; Sfarra, Stefano
2015-11-01
The 33rd UIT (Italian Union of Thermo-Fluid Dynamics) Heat Transfer Conference was organized by the Dept. of Industrial and Information Engineering and Economics, University of L'Aquila (Italy) and was held at the Engineering Campus of Monteluco di Roio, L'Aquila, June 22-24, 2015. The annual UIT conference, which has grown over time, came back to L'Aquila after 21 years. The scope of the conference covers a range of major topics in theoretical, numerical and experimental heat transfer and related areas, ranging from energy efficiency to nuclear plants. This year, there was an emphasis on IR thermography, which is growing in importance both in scientific research and industrial applications. 2015 is also the International Year of Light. The Organizing Committee honored this event by introducing a new section, Technical Seminars, which in this edition was mainly devoted to optical flow visualization (also the subject of three different national workshops organized in L'Aquila by UIT in 2003, 2005 and 2008). The conference was held in the recently repaired Engineering buildings, six years after the 2009 earthquake and 50 years after the beginning of the Engineering courses in L'Aquila. Despite some logistical difficulties, 92 papers were submitted by about 270 authors, on eight different topics: heat transfer and efficiency in energy systems, environmental technologies and buildings (32 papers); micro and nano scale thermo-fluid dynamics (5 papers); multi-phase fluid dynamics, heat transfer and interface phenomena (16 papers); computational fluid dynamics and heat transfer (15 papers); heat transfer in nuclear plants (6 papers); natural, forced and mixed convection (6 papers); IR thermography (4 papers); conduction and radiation (3 papers). The conference program scheduled plenary, oral and poster sessions. The three invited plenary Keynote Lectures were given by Prof. Antonio Barletta (University of Bologna, Italy), Prof. Jean-Christophe Batsale (Arts et Metiers
Effects of finiteness on the thermo-fluid-dynamics of natural convection above horizontal plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guha, Abhijit; Sengupta, Sayantan
2016-06-01
A rigorous and systematic computational and theoretical study, the first of its kind, for the laminar natural convective flow above rectangular horizontal surfaces of various aspect ratios ϕ (from 1 to ∞) is presented. Two-dimensional computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations (for ϕ → ∞) and three-dimensional CFD simulations (for 1 ≤ ϕ < ∞) are performed to establish and elucidate the role of finiteness of the horizontal planform on the thermo-fluid-dynamics of natural convection. Great care is taken here to ensure grid independence and domain independence of the presented solutions. The results of the CFD simulations are compared with experimental data and similarity theory to understand how the existing simplified results fit, in the appropriate limiting cases, with the complex three-dimensional solutions revealed here. The present computational study establishes the region of a high-aspect-ratio planform over which the results of the similarity theory are approximately valid, the extent of this region depending on the Grashof number. There is, however, a region near the edge of the plate and another region near the centre of the plate (where a plume forms) in which the similarity theory results do not apply. The sizes of these non-compliance zones decrease as the Grashof number is increased. The present study also shows that the similarity velocity profile is not strictly obtained at any location over the plate because of the entrainment effect of the central plume. The 3-D CFD simulations of the present paper are coordinated to clearly reveal the separate and combined effects of three important aspects of finiteness: the presence of leading edges, the presence of planform centre, and the presence of physical corners in the planform. It is realised that the finiteness due to the presence of physical corners in the planform arises only for a finite value of ϕ in the case of 3-D CFD simulations (and not in 2-D CFD simulations or similarity theory
Multiphysics Analysis of a Solid-Core Nuclear Thermal Engine Thrust Chamber
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, Ten-See; Canabal, Francisco; Cheng, Gary; Chen, Yen-Sen
2006-01-01
The objective of this effort is to develop an efficient and accurate thermo-fluid computational methodology to predict environments for a hypothetical solid-core, nuclear thermal engine thrust chamber. The computational methodology is based on an unstructured-grid, pressure-based computational fluid dynamics methodology. Formulations for heat transfer in solids and porous media were implemented and anchored. A two-pronged approach was employed in this effort: A detailed thermo-fluid analysis on a multi-channel flow element for mid-section corrosion investigation; and a global modeling of the thrust chamber to understand the effect of hydrogen dissociation and recombination on heat transfer and thrust performance. The formulations and preliminary results on both aspects are presented.
Multiphysics Application Coupling Toolkit
Campbell, Michael T.
2013-12-02
This particular consortium implementation of the software integration infrastructure will, in large part, refactor portions of the Rocstar multiphysics infrastructure. Development of this infrastructure originated at the University of Illinois DOE ASCI Center for Simulation of Advanced Rockets (CSAR) to support the center's massively parallel multiphysics simulation application, Rocstar, and has continued at IllinoisRocstar, a small company formed near the end of the University-based program. IllinoisRocstar is now licensing these new developments as free, open source, in hopes to help improve their own and others' access to infrastructure which can be readily utilized in developing coupled or composite software systems; with particular attention to more rapid production and utilization of multiphysics applications in the HPC environment. There are two major pieces to the consortium implementation, the Application Component Toolkit (ACT), and the Multiphysics Application Coupling Toolkit (MPACT). The current development focus is the ACT, which is (will be) the substrate for MPACT. The ACT itself is built up from the components described in the technical approach. In particular, the ACT has the following major components: 1.The Component Object Manager (COM): The COM package provides encapsulation of user applications, and their data. COM also provides the inter-component function call mechanism. 2.The System Integration Manager (SIM): The SIM package provides constructs and mechanisms for orchestrating composite systems of multiply integrated pieces.
Multiphysics Application Coupling Toolkit
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2013-12-02
This particular consortium implementation of the software integration infrastructure will, in large part, refactor portions of the Rocstar multiphysics infrastructure. Development of this infrastructure originated at the University of Illinois DOE ASCI Center for Simulation of Advanced Rockets (CSAR) to support the center's massively parallel multiphysics simulation application, Rocstar, and has continued at IllinoisRocstar, a small company formed near the end of the University-based program. IllinoisRocstar is now licensing these new developments as free, openmore » source, in hopes to help improve their own and others' access to infrastructure which can be readily utilized in developing coupled or composite software systems; with particular attention to more rapid production and utilization of multiphysics applications in the HPC environment. There are two major pieces to the consortium implementation, the Application Component Toolkit (ACT), and the Multiphysics Application Coupling Toolkit (MPACT). The current development focus is the ACT, which is (will be) the substrate for MPACT. The ACT itself is built up from the components described in the technical approach. In particular, the ACT has the following major components: 1.The Component Object Manager (COM): The COM package provides encapsulation of user applications, and their data. COM also provides the inter-component function call mechanism. 2.The System Integration Manager (SIM): The SIM package provides constructs and mechanisms for orchestrating composite systems of multiply integrated pieces.« less
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Majumdar, Alok; Schallhorn, Paul
1998-01-01
This paper describes a finite volume computational thermo-fluid dynamics method to solve for Navier-Stokes equations in conjunction with energy equation and thermodynamic equation of state in an unstructured coordinate system. The system of equations have been solved by a simultaneous Newton-Raphson method and compared with several benchmark solutions. Excellent agreements have been obtained in each case and the method has been found to be significantly faster than conventional Computational Fluid Dynamic(CFD) methods and therefore has the potential for implementation in Multi-Disciplinary analysis and design optimization in fluid and thermal systems. The paper also describes an algorithm of design optimization based on Newton-Raphson method which has been recently tested in a turbomachinery application.
Mingus Discontinuous Multiphysics
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2014-05-13
Mingus provides hybrid coupled local/non-local mechanics analysis capabilities that extend several traditional methods to applications with inherent discontinuities. Its primary features include adaptations of solid mechanics, fluid dynamics and digital image correlation that naturally accommodate dijointed data or irregular solution fields by assimilating a variety of discretizations (such as control volume finite elements, peridynamics and meshless control point clouds). The goal of this software is to provide an analysis framework form multiphysics engineering problems withmore » an integrated image correlation capability that can be used for experimental validation and model« less
Mingus Discontinuous Multiphysics
Pat Notz, Dan Turner
2014-05-13
Mingus provides hybrid coupled local/non-local mechanics analysis capabilities that extend several traditional methods to applications with inherent discontinuities. Its primary features include adaptations of solid mechanics, fluid dynamics and digital image correlation that naturally accommodate dijointed data or irregular solution fields by assimilating a variety of discretizations (such as control volume finite elements, peridynamics and meshless control point clouds). The goal of this software is to provide an analysis framework form multiphysics engineering problems with an integrated image correlation capability that can be used for experimental validation and model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Juárez, R.; Zanzi, C.; Hernández, J.; Sanz, J.
2015-09-01
The HiPER reactor is the HiPER project phase devoted to power production. To reach a preliminary reactor design, tritium breeding schemes need to be adapted to the HiPER project technologies selection: direct drive ignition, 150 \\text{MJ}/\\text{shot}× 10 Hz of power released through fusion reactions, and the dry first wall scheme. In this paper we address the main challenge of the HiPER EUROFER-based self cooled lead lithium blanket, which is related to the corrosive behavior of Pb-15.7Li in contact with EUROFER. We evaluate the cooling and corrosion behavior of the so-called separated first wall blanket (SFWB) configuration by performing thermo-fluid dynamics simulations using a large eddy simulation approach. Despite the expected improvement over the integrated first wall blanket, we still find an unsatisfactory cooling performance, expressed as a low outlet Pb-15.7Li temperature plus too high corrosion rates derived from local Pb-15.7Li high temperature and velocity, which can mainly be attributed to the geometry of the channels. Nevertheless, the analysis allowed us to devise future modifications of the SFWB to overcome the limitations found with the present design.
PREFACE: 31st UIT (Italian Union of Thermo-fluid-dynamics) Heat Transfer Conference 2013
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vitali, Luigi; Niro, Alfonso; Colombo, Luigi; Sotgia, Giorgio
2014-04-01
The annual Conference of the ''Unione Italiana di Termofluidodinamica'' (UIT) aims at promoting cooperation in the field of heat transfer and thermal sciences, by bringing together scientists and engineers working in related areas. The 31st UIT Conference was held in Moltrasio (Como), Italy, 25-27 June, 2013 at the Grand Hotel Imperiale. The response has been enthusiastic, with more than 70 quality contributions from 224 authors on heat transfer related topics: natural, forced and mixed convection, conduction, radiation, multi-phase fluid dynamics and interface phenomena, computational fluid dynamics, micro- and nano-scales, efficiency in energy systems, environmental technologies and buildings. To encourage the debate, the Conference Program has scheduled ample poster sessions and invited lectures from the best experts in the field along with a few of the most talented researchers. Keynote Lectures were given by Professor Roberto Mauri (University of Pisa), Professor Lounés Tadrist (Polytech Marseille) and Professor Maurizio Quadrio (Politecnico di Milano). This special volume collects a selection of the scientific contributions discussed during this conference; these works give a good overview of the state-of-the art Italian research in the field of Heat Transfer related topics. I would like to thank sincerely the authors for presenting their works at the conference and in this special issue. I would also like to extend my thanks to the Scientific Committee and the authors for their accurate review process of each paper for this special issue. Special thanks go to the organizing committee and to our sponsors. As a professor of Politecnico di Milano, let me say I am very proud to have been the chair of this conference in the 150th anniversary of my university. Professor Alfonso Niro Details of organizers, sponsors and committees, as well as further information, are available in the PDF
Multiphysics Simulations: Challenges and Opportunities
Keyes, David; McInnes, Lois C.; Woodward, Carol; Gropp, William; Myra, Eric; Pernice, Michael; Bell, John; Brown, Jed; Clo, Alain; Connors, Jeffrey; Constantinescu, Emil; Estep, Don; Evans, Kate; Farhat, Charbel; Hakim, Ammar; Hammond, Glenn E.; Hansen, Glen; Hill, Judith; Isaac, Tobin; Jiao, Xiangmin; Jordan, Kirk; Kaushik, Dinesh; Kaxiras, Efthimios; Koniges, Alice; Lee, Ki Hwan; Lott, Aaron; Lu, Qiming; Magerlein, John; Maxwell, Reed M.; McCourt, Michael; Mehl, Miriam; Pawlowski, Roger; Randles, Amanda; Reynolds, Daniel; Riviere, Beatrice; Rude, Ulrich; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Shadid, John; Sheehan, Brendan; Shephard, Mark; Siegel, Andrew; Smith, Barry; Tang, Xianzhu; Wilson, Cian; Wohlmuth, Barbara
2013-02-12
We consider multiphysics applications from algorithmic and architectural perspectives, where ‘‘algorithmic’’ includes both mathematical analysis and computational complexity, and ‘‘architectural’’ includes both software and hardware environments. Many diverse multiphysics applications can be reduced, en route to their computational simulation, to a common algebraic coupling paradigm. Mathematical analysis of multiphysics coupling in this form is not always practical for realistic applications, but model problems representative of applications discussed herein can provide insight. A variety of software frameworks for multiphysics applications have been constructed and refined within disciplinary communities and executed on leading-edge computer systems. We examine several of these, expose some commonalities among them, and attempt to extrapolate best practices to future systems. From our study, we summarize challenges and forecast opportunities.
Multiphysics Simulations: Challenges and Opportunities
Keyes, David E; McInnes, Lois; Woodward, Carol; Evans, Katherine J; Hill, Judith C
2013-01-01
We consider multiphysics applications from algorithmic and architectural perspectives, where algorithmic in- cludes both mathematical analysis and computational complexity and architectural includes both software and hard- ware environments. Many diverse multiphysics applications can be reduced, en route to their computational simu- lation, to a common algebraic coupling paradigm. Mathematical analysis of multiphysics coupling in this form is not always practical for realistic applications, but model problems representative of applications discussed herein can provide insight. A variety of software frameworks for multiphysics applications have been constructed and refined within disciplinary communities and executed on leading-edge computer systems. We examine several of these, ex- pose some commonalities among them, and attempt to extrapolate best practices to future systems. From our study, we summarize challenges and forecast opportunities. We also initiate a modest suite of test problems encompassing features present in many applications.
Multiphysics simulations: challenges and opportunities.
Keyes, D.; McInnes, L. C.; Woodward, C.; Gropp, W.; Myra, E.; Pernice, M.
2012-11-29
This report is an outcome of the workshop Multiphysics Simulations: Challenges and Opportunities, sponsored by the Institute of Computing in Science (ICiS). Additional information about the workshop, including relevant reading and presentations on multiphysics issues in applications, algorithms, and software, is available via https://sites.google.com/site/icismultiphysics2011/. We consider multiphysics applications from algorithmic and architectural perspectives, where 'algorithmic' includes both mathematical analysis and computational complexity and 'architectural' includes both software and hardware environments. Many diverse multiphysics applications can be reduced, en route to their computational simulation, to a common algebraic coupling paradigm. Mathematical analysis of multiphysics coupling in this form is not always practical for realistic applications, but model problems representative of applications discussed herein can provide insight. A variety of software frameworks for multiphysics applications have been constructed and refined within disciplinary communities and executed on leading-edge computer systems. We examine several of these, expose some commonalities among them, and attempt to extrapolate best practices to future systems. From our study, we summarize challenges and forecast opportunities. We also initiate a modest suite of test problems encompassing features present in many applications.
Multiphysics analysis of liquid metal annular linear induction pumps: A project overview
Maidana, Carlos Omar; Nieminen, Juha E.
2016-03-14
Liquid metal-cooled fission reactors are both moderated and cooled by a liquid metal solution. These reactors are typically very compact and they can be used in regular electric power production, for naval and space propulsion systems or in fission surface power systems for planetary exploration. The coupling between the electromagnetics and thermo-fluid mechanical phenomena observed in liquid metal thermo-magnetic systems for nuclear and space applications gives rise to complex engineering magnetohydrodynamics and numerical problems. It is known that electromagnetic pumps have a number of advantages over rotating mechanisms: absence of moving parts, low noise and vibration level, simplicity of flowmore » rate regulation, easy maintenance and so on. However, while developing annular linear induction pumps, we are faced with a significant problem of magnetohydrodynamic instability arising in the device. The complex flow behavior in this type of devices includes a time-varying Lorentz force and pressure pulsation due to the time-varying electromagnetic fields and the induced convective currents that originates from the liquid metal flow, leading to instability problems along the device geometry. The determinations of the geometry and electrical configuration of liquid metal thermo-magnetic devices give rise to a complex inverse magnetohydrodynamic field problem were techniques for global optimization should be used, magnetohydrodynamics instabilities understood –or quantified- and multiphysics models developed and analyzed. Lastly, we present a project overview as well as a few computational models developed to study liquid metal annular linear induction pumps using first principles and the a few results of our multi-physics analysis.« less
Donald Estep; Michael Holst; Simon Tavener
2010-02-08
This project was concerned with the accurate computational error estimation for numerical solutions of multiphysics, multiscale systems that couple different physical processes acting across a large range of scales relevant to the interests of the DOE. Multiscale, multiphysics models are characterized by intimate interactions between different physics across a wide range of scales. This poses significant computational challenges addressed by the proposal, including: (1) Accurate and efficient computation; (2) Complex stability; and (3) Linking different physics. The research in this project focused on Multiscale Operator Decomposition methods for solving multiphysics problems. The general approach is to decompose a multiphysics problem into components involving simpler physics over a relatively limited range of scales, and then to seek the solution of the entire system through some sort of iterative procedure involving solutions of the individual components. MOD is a very widely used technique for solving multiphysics, multiscale problems; it is heavily used throughout the DOE computational landscape. This project made a major advance in the analysis of the solution of multiscale, multiphysics problems.
Rao, T S; Kora, Aruna Jyothi; Chandramohan, P; Panigrahi, B S; Narasimhan, S V
2009-10-01
This article discusses aspects of biofouling and corrosion in the thermo-fluid heat exchanger (TFHX) and in the cooling water system of a nuclear test reactor. During inspection, it was observed that >90% of the TFHX tube bundle was clogged with thick fouling deposits. Both X-ray diffraction and Mossbauer analyses of the fouling deposit demonstrated iron corrosion products. The exterior of the tubercle showed the presence of a calcium and magnesium carbonate mixture along with iron oxides. Raman spectroscopy analysis confirmed the presence of calcium carbonate scale in the calcite phase. The interior of the tubercle contained significant iron sulphide, magnetite and iron-oxy-hydroxide. A microbiological assay showed a considerable population of iron oxidizing bacteria and sulphate reducing bacteria (10(5) to 10(6) cfu g(-1) of deposit). As the temperature of the TFHX is in the range of 45-50 degrees C, the microbiota isolated/assayed from the fouling deposit are designated as thermo-tolerant bacteria. The mean corrosion rate of the CS coupons exposed online was approximately 2.0 mpy and the microbial counts of various corrosion causing bacteria were in the range 10(3) to 10(5) cfu ml(-1) in the cooling water and 10(6) to 10(8) cfu ml(-1) in the biofilm. PMID:20183117
Multiphysics Integrated Coupling Environment (MICE) User Manual
Varija Agarwal; Donna Post Guillen
2013-08-01
The complex, multi-part nature of waste glass melters used in nuclear waste vitrification poses significant modeling challenges. The focus of this project has been to couple a 1D MATLAB model of the cold cap region within a melter with a 3D STAR-CCM+ model of the melter itself. The Multiphysics Integrated Coupling Environment (MICE) has been developed to create a cohesive simulation of a waste glass melter that accurately represents the cold cap. The one-dimensional mathematical model of the cold cap uses material properties, axial heat, and mass fluxes to obtain a temperature profile for the cold cap, the region where feed-to-glass conversion occurs. The results from Matlab are used to update simulation data in the three-dimensional STAR-CCM+ model so that the cold cap is appropriately incorporated into the 3D simulation. The two processes are linked through ModelCenter integration software using time steps that are specified for each process. Data is to be exchanged circularly between the two models, as the inputs and outputs of each model depend on the other.
Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2014-02-12
The Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) software library developed at Idaho National Laboratory is a tool. MOOSE, like other tools, doesnt actually complete a task. Instead, MOOSE seeks to reduce the effort required to create engineering simulation applications. MOOSE itself is a software library: a blank canvas upon which you write equations and then MOOSE can help you solve them. MOOSE is comparable to a spreadsheet application. A spreadsheet, by itself, doesnt do anything.more » Only once equations are entered into it will a spreadsheet application compute anything. Such is the same for MOOSE. An engineer or scientist can utilize the equation solvers within MOOSE to solve equations related to their area of study. For instance, a geomechanical scientist can input equations related to water flow in underground reservoirs and MOOSE can solve those equations to give the scientist an idea of how water could move over time. An engineer might input equations related to the forces in steel beams in order to understand the load bearing capacity of a bridge. Because MOOSE is a blank canvas it can be useful in many scientific and engineering pursuits.« less
Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment
2014-02-12
The Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) software library developed at Idaho National Laboratory is a tool. MOOSE, like other tools, doesnt actually complete a task. Instead, MOOSE seeks to reduce the effort required to create engineering simulation applications. MOOSE itself is a software library: a blank canvas upon which you write equations and then MOOSE can help you solve them. MOOSE is comparable to a spreadsheet application. A spreadsheet, by itself, doesnt do anything. Only once equations are entered into it will a spreadsheet application compute anything. Such is the same for MOOSE. An engineer or scientist can utilize the equation solvers within MOOSE to solve equations related to their area of study. For instance, a geomechanical scientist can input equations related to water flow in underground reservoirs and MOOSE can solve those equations to give the scientist an idea of how water could move over time. An engineer might input equations related to the forces in steel beams in order to understand the load bearing capacity of a bridge. Because MOOSE is a blank canvas it can be useful in many scientific and engineering pursuits.
Multiphysics Applications of ACE3P
K.H. Lee, C. Ko, Z. Li, C.-K. Ng, L. Xiao, G. Cheng, H. Wang
2012-07-01
The TEM3P module of ACE3P, a parallel finite-element electromagnetic code suite from SLAC, focuses on the multiphysics simulation capabilities, including thermal and mechanical analysis for accelerator applications. In this pa- per, thermal analysis of coupler feedthroughs to supercon- ducting rf (SRF) cavities will be presented. For the realistic simulation, internal boundary condition is implemented to capture RF heating effects on the surface shared by a di- electric and a conductor. The multiphysics simulation with TEM3P matched the measurement within 0.4%.
Integration of Advanced Probabilistic Analysis Techniques with Multi-Physics Models
Cetiner, Mustafa Sacit; none,; Flanagan, George F.; Poore III, Willis P.; Muhlheim, Michael David
2014-07-30
An integrated simulation platform that couples probabilistic analysis-based tools with model-based simulation tools can provide valuable insights for reactive and proactive responses to plant operating conditions. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the benefits of a partial implementation of the Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) Detailed Framework Specification through the coupling of advanced PRA capabilities and accurate multi-physics plant models. Coupling a probabilistic model with a multi-physics model will aid in design, operations, and safety by providing a more accurate understanding of plant behavior. This represents the first attempt at actually integrating these two types of analyses for a control system used for operations, on a faster than real-time basis. This report documents the development of the basic communication capability to exchange data with the probabilistic model using Reliability Workbench (RWB) and the multi-physics model using Dymola. The communication pathways from injecting a fault (i.e., failing a component) to the probabilistic and multi-physics models were successfully completed. This first version was tested with prototypic models represented in both RWB and Modelica. First, a simple event tree/fault tree (ET/FT) model was created to develop the software code to implement the communication capabilities between the dynamic-link library (dll) and RWB. A program, written in C#, successfully communicates faults to the probabilistic model through the dll. A systems model of the Advanced Liquid-Metal Reactor–Power Reactor Inherently Safe Module (ALMR-PRISM) design developed under another DOE project was upgraded using Dymola to include proper interfaces to allow data exchange with the control application (ConApp). A program, written in C+, successfully communicates faults to the multi-physics model. The results of the example simulation were successfully plotted.
Multiphysics simulation of corona discharge induced ionic wind
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cagnoni, Davide; Agostini, Francesco; Christen, Thomas; Parolini, Nicola; Stevanović, Ivica; de Falco, Carlo
2013-12-01
Ionic wind devices or electrostatic fluid accelerators are becoming of increasing interest as tools for thermal management, in particular for semiconductor devices. In this work, we present a numerical model for predicting the performance of such devices; its main benefit is the ability to accurately predict the amount of charge injected from the corona electrode. Our multiphysics numerical model consists of a highly nonlinear, strongly coupled set of partial differential equations including the Navier-Stokes equations for fluid flow, Poisson's equation for electrostatic potential, charge continuity, and heat transfer equations. To solve this system we employ a staggered solution algorithm that generalizes Gummel's algorithm for charge transport in semiconductors. Predictions of our simulations are verified and validated by comparison with experimental measurements of integral physical quantities, which are shown to closely match.
Multiphysics simulation of corona discharge induced ionic wind
Cagnoni, Davide; Agostini, Francesco; Christen, Thomas; Parolini, Nicola; Stevanović, Ivica; Falco, Carlo de
2013-12-21
Ionic wind devices or electrostatic fluid accelerators are becoming of increasing interest as tools for thermal management, in particular for semiconductor devices. In this work, we present a numerical model for predicting the performance of such devices; its main benefit is the ability to accurately predict the amount of charge injected from the corona electrode. Our multiphysics numerical model consists of a highly nonlinear, strongly coupled set of partial differential equations including the Navier-Stokes equations for fluid flow, Poisson's equation for electrostatic potential, charge continuity, and heat transfer equations. To solve this system we employ a staggered solution algorithm that generalizes Gummel's algorithm for charge transport in semiconductors. Predictions of our simulations are verified and validated by comparison with experimental measurements of integral physical quantities, which are shown to closely match.
Structure-coupled multiphysics imaging in geophysical sciences
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gallardo, Luis A.; Meju, Max A.
2011-03-01
Multiphysics imaging or data inversion is of growing importance in many branches of science and engineering. In geophysical sciences, there is a need for combining information from multiple images acquired using different imaging devices and/or modalities because of the potential for accurate predictions. The major challenges are how to combine disparate data from unrelated physical phenomena, taking into account the different spatial scales of the measurement devices, model complexities, and how to quantify the associated uncertainties. This review paper summarizes the role played by the structural gradients-based approach for coupling fundamentally different physical fields in (mainly) geophysical inversion, develops further understanding of this approach to guide newcomers to the field, and defines the main challenges and directions for future research that may be useful in other fields of science and engineering.
Massive hybrid parallelism for fully implicit multiphysics
Gaston, D. R.; Permann, C. J.; Andrs, D.; Peterson, J. W.
2013-07-01
As hardware advances continue to modify the supercomputing landscape, traditional scientific software development practices will become more outdated, ineffective, and inefficient. The process of rewriting/retooling existing software for new architectures is a Sisyphean task, and results in substantial hours of development time, effort, and money. Software libraries which provide an abstraction of the resources provided by such architectures are therefore essential if the computational engineering and science communities are to continue to flourish in this modern computing environment. The Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) framework enables complex multiphysics analysis tools to be built rapidly by scientists, engineers, and domain specialists, while also allowing them to both take advantage of current HPC architectures, and efficiently prepare for future supercomputer designs. MOOSE employs a hybrid shared-memory and distributed-memory parallel model and provides a complete and consistent interface for creating multiphysics analysis tools. In this paper, a brief discussion of the mathematical algorithms underlying the framework and the internal object-oriented hybrid parallel design are given. Representative massively parallel results from several applications areas are presented, and a brief discussion of future areas of research for the framework are provided. (authors)
MASSIVE HYBRID PARALLELISM FOR FULLY IMPLICIT MULTIPHYSICS
Cody J. Permann; David Andrs; John W. Peterson; Derek R. Gaston
2013-05-01
As hardware advances continue to modify the supercomputing landscape, traditional scientific software development practices will become more outdated, ineffective, and inefficient. The process of rewriting/retooling existing software for new architectures is a Sisyphean task, and results in substantial hours of development time, effort, and money. Software libraries which provide an abstraction of the resources provided by such architectures are therefore essential if the computational engineering and science communities are to continue to flourish in this modern computing environment. The Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) framework enables complex multiphysics analysis tools to be built rapidly by scientists, engineers, and domain specialists, while also allowing them to both take advantage of current HPC architectures, and efficiently prepare for future supercomputer designs. MOOSE employs a hybrid shared-memory and distributed-memory parallel model and provides a complete and consistent interface for creating multiphysics analysis tools. In this paper, a brief discussion of the mathematical algorithms underlying the framework and the internal object-oriented hybrid parallel design are given. Representative massively parallel results from several applications areas are presented, and a brief discussion of future areas of research for the framework are provided.
Schlbeiri, T. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)
1990-03-01
The results of the study of the optimum thermo-fluid dynamic design concept are presented for turbine units operating within the open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC) systems. The concept is applied to the first OC-OTEC net power producing experiment (NPPE) facility to be installed at Hawaii's natural energy laboratory. Detailed efficiency and performance calculations were performed for the radial turbine design concept with single and double-inflow arrangements. To complete the study, the calculation results for a single-stage axial steam turbine design are also presented. In contrast to the axial flow design with a relatively low unit efficiency, higher efficiency was achieved for single-inflow turbines. Highest efficiency was calculated for a double-inflow radial design, which opens new perspectives for energy generation from OC-OTEC systems.
Invisible Sensors: Simultaneous Sensing and Camouflaging in Multiphysical Fields.
Yang, Tianzhi; Bai, Xue; Gao, Dongliang; Wu, Linzhi; Li, Baowen; Thong, John T L; Qiu, Cheng-Wei
2015-12-16
The first multiphysical invisible sensor is theoretically and experimentally presented. An ultrathin, homogeneous, and isotropic shell is designed to simultaneously manipulate heat flux and DC current and eliminate the multiphysical perturbation, while maintaining the receiving and transmitting properties of the sensor. PMID:26501206
Multiphysics Code Demonstrated for Propulsion Applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lawrence, Charles; Melis, Matthew E.
1998-01-01
The utility of multidisciplinary analysis tools for aeropropulsion applications is being investigated at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The goal of this project is to apply Spectrum, a multiphysics code developed by Centric Engineering Systems, Inc., to simulate multidisciplinary effects in turbomachinery components. Many engineering problems today involve detailed computer analyses to predict the thermal, aerodynamic, and structural response of a mechanical system as it undergoes service loading. Analysis of aerospace structures generally requires attention in all three disciplinary areas to adequately predict component service behavior, and in many cases, the results from one discipline substantially affect the outcome of the other two. There are numerous computer codes currently available in the engineering community to perform such analyses in each of these disciplines. Many of these codes are developed and used in-house by a given organization, and many are commercially available. However, few, if any, of these codes are designed specifically for multidisciplinary analyses. The Spectrum code has been developed for performing fully coupled fluid, thermal, and structural analyses on a mechanical system with a single simulation that accounts for all simultaneous interactions, thus eliminating the requirement for running a large number of sequential, separate, disciplinary analyses. The Spectrum code has a true multiphysics analysis capability, which improves analysis efficiency as well as accuracy. Centric Engineering, Inc., working with a team of Lewis and AlliedSignal Engines engineers, has been evaluating Spectrum for a variety of propulsion applications including disk quenching, drum cavity flow, aeromechanical simulations, and a centrifugal compressor flow simulation.
High-Fidelity Simulations of Multiphysics Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ham, Frank
2014-11-01
A pacing theme in the high-fidelity simulations of multi-physics flows is the continual push towards constitutive models that reflect the underlying physics more closely than ever before. At the same time, to impact the design and understanding of real fluidic devices, these models must ultimately be developed in the setting of a highly flexible computational infrastructure capable of both massive parallelism and geometric flexibility. This theme is illustrated using two multi-physics simulations that provide new incite into the behavior of complex fluidic devices. In the first, a novel unstructured Volume-of-Fluid (VoF) method is applied to simulate the liquid fuel atomization processes in a complex high shear nozzle typical of realistic gas turbine injectors. The simulation make aggressive use of directional grid adaptation to support the local resolution of critical instability mechanisms associated with the atomization process. In a companion example, the prediction of flow field and noise in a subsonic jet is linked critically to modeling and resolution of the nozzle boundary layers.
Multidimensional multiphysics simulation of TRISO particle fuel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hales, J. D.; Williamson, R. L.; Novascone, S. R.; Perez, D. M.; Spencer, B. W.; Pastore, G.
2013-11-01
Multidimensional multiphysics analysis of TRISO-coated particle fuel using the BISON finite element nuclear fuels code is described. The governing equations and material models applicable to particle fuel and implemented in BISON are outlined. Code verification based on a recent IAEA benchmarking exercise is described, and excellent comparisons are reported. Multiple TRISO-coated particles of increasing geometric complexity are considered. The code's ability to use the same algorithms and models to solve problems of varying dimensionality from 1D through 3D is demonstrated. The code provides rapid solutions of 1D spherically symmetric and 2D axially symmetric models, and its scalable parallel processing capability allows for solutions of large, complex 3D models. Additionally, the flexibility to easily include new physical and material models and straightforward ability to couple to lower length scale simulations makes BISON a powerful tool for simulation of coated-particle fuel. Future code development activities and potential applications are identified.
Multidimensional Multiphysics Simulation of TRISO Particle Fuel
J. D. Hales; R. L. Williamson; S. R. Novascone; D. M. Perez; B. W. Spencer; G. Pastore
2013-11-01
Multidimensional multiphysics analysis of TRISO-coated particle fuel using the BISON finite-element based nuclear fuels code is described. The governing equations and material models applicable to particle fuel and implemented in BISON are outlined. Code verification based on a recent IAEA benchmarking exercise is described, and excellant comparisons are reported. Multiple TRISO-coated particles of increasing geometric complexity are considered. It is shown that the code's ability to perform large-scale parallel computations permits application to complex 3D phenomena while very efficient solutions for either 1D spherically symmetric or 2D axisymmetric geometries are straightforward. Additionally, the flexibility to easily include new physical and material models and uncomplicated ability to couple to lower length scale simulations makes BISON a powerful tool for simulation of coated-particle fuel. Future code development activities and potential applications are identified.
Multi-physical Simulation of Laser Welding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vázquez, Rodrigo Gómez; Koch, Holger M.; Otto, Andreas
Laser welding is a highly demanded technology for manufacturing of body parts in the automotive industry. Application of powerful multi-physical simulation models permits detailed investigation of the laser process avoiding intricate experimental setups and procedures. Features like the degree of power coupling, keyhole evolution or currents inside the melt pool can be analyzed easily. The implementation of complex physical phenomena, like multi-reflection absorption provides insight into process characteristics under selectable conditions and yields essential information concerning the driving mechanisms. The implementation of additional physical models e. g. for diffusion discloses new potential for investigating welding of dissimilar materials. In this paper we present a computational study of laser welding for different conditions. Applied to a real case model predictions show good agreement with experimental results. Initial tests including species diffusion during welding of dissimilar materials are also presented.
Scalable Adaptive Multilevel Solvers for Multiphysics Problems
Xu, Jinchao
2014-12-01
In this project, we investigated adaptive, parallel, and multilevel methods for numerical modeling of various real-world applications, including Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), complex fluids, Electromagnetism, Navier-Stokes equations, and reservoir simulation. First, we have designed improved mathematical models and numerical discretizaitons for viscoelastic fluids and MHD. Second, we have derived new a posteriori error estimators and extended the applicability of adaptivity to various problems. Third, we have developed multilevel solvers for solving scalar partial differential equations (PDEs) as well as coupled systems of PDEs, especially on unstructured grids. Moreover, we have integrated the study between adaptive method and multilevel methods, and made significant efforts and advances in adaptive multilevel methods of the multi-physics problems.
Multiphysics and Multiscale Analysis for Chemotherapeutic Drug
Zhang, Linan; Kim, Sung Youb; Kim, Dongchoul
2015-01-01
This paper presents a three-dimensional dynamic model for the chemotherapy design based on a multiphysics and multiscale approach. The model incorporates cancer cells, matrix degrading enzymes (MDEs) secreted by cancer cells, degrading extracellular matrix (ECM), and chemotherapeutic drug. Multiple mechanisms related to each component possible in chemotherapy are systematically integrated for high reliability of computational analysis of chemotherapy. Moreover, the fidelity of the estimated efficacy of chemotherapy is enhanced by atomic information associated with the diffusion characteristics of chemotherapeutic drug, which is obtained from atomic simulations. With the developed model, the invasion process of cancer cells in chemotherapy treatment is quantitatively investigated. The performed simulations suggest a substantial potential of the presented model for a reliable design technology of chemotherapy treatment. PMID:26491672
COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS MODEL FOR DWPF CANISTER FILLING
Kesterson, M.
2011-03-31
The purpose of this work was to develop a model that can be used to predict temperatures of the glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canisters during filling and cooldown. Past attempts to model these processes resulted in large (>200K) differences in predicted temperatures compared to experimentally measured temperatures. This work was therefore intended to also generate a model capable of reproducing the experimentally measured trends of the glass/canister temperature during filling and subsequent cooldown of DWPF canisters. To accomplish this, a simplified model was created using the finite element modeling software COMSOL Multiphysics which accepts user defined constants or expressions to describe material properties. The model results were compared to existing experimental data for validation. A COMSOL Multiphysics model was developed to predict temperatures of the glass within DWPF canisters during filling and cooldown. The model simulations and experimental data were in good agreement. The largest temperature deviations were {approx}40 C for the 87inch thermocouple location at 3000 minutes and during the initial cooldown at the 51 inch location occurring at approximately 600 minutes. Additionally, the model described in this report predicts the general trends in temperatures during filling and cooling observed experimentally. However, the model was developed using parameters designed to fit a single set of experimental data. Therefore, Q-loss is not currently a function of pour rate and pour temperature. Future work utilizing the existing model should include modifying the Q-loss term to be variable based on flow rate and pour temperature. Further enhancements could include eliminating the Q-loss term for a user defined convection where Navier-Stokes does not need to be solved in order to have convection heat transfer.
Multiscale multiphysics and multidomain models—Flexibility and rigidity
Xia, Kelin; Opron, Kristopher; Wei, Guo-Wei
2013-01-01
The emerging complexity of large macromolecules has led to challenges in their full scale theoretical description and computer simulation. Multiscale multiphysics and multidomain models have been introduced to reduce the number of degrees of freedom while maintaining modeling accuracy and achieving computational efficiency. A total energy functional is constructed to put energies for polar and nonpolar solvation, chemical potential, fluid flow, molecular mechanics, and elastic dynamics on an equal footing. The variational principle is utilized to derive coupled governing equations for the above mentioned multiphysical descriptions. Among these governing equations is the Poisson-Boltzmann equation which describes continuum electrostatics with atomic charges. The present work introduces the theory of continuum elasticity with atomic rigidity (CEWAR). The essence of CEWAR is to formulate the shear modulus as a continuous function of atomic rigidity. As a result, the dynamics complexity of a macromolecular system is separated from its static complexity so that the more time-consuming dynamics is handled with continuum elasticity theory, while the less time-consuming static analysis is pursued with atomic approaches. We propose a simple method, flexibility-rigidity index (FRI), to analyze macromolecular flexibility and rigidity in atomic detail. The construction of FRI relies on the fundamental assumption that protein functions, such as flexibility, rigidity, and energy, are entirely determined by the structure of the protein and its environment, although the structure is in turn determined by all the interactions. As such, the FRI measures the topological connectivity of protein atoms or residues and characterizes the geometric compactness of the protein structure. As a consequence, the FRI does not resort to the interaction Hamiltonian and bypasses matrix diagonalization, which underpins most other flexibility analysis methods. FRI's computational complexity is of
Multiscale multiphysics and multidomain models—Flexibility and rigidity
Xia, Kelin; Opron, Kristopher; Wei, Guo-Wei
2013-11-21
The emerging complexity of large macromolecules has led to challenges in their full scale theoretical description and computer simulation. Multiscale multiphysics and multidomain models have been introduced to reduce the number of degrees of freedom while maintaining modeling accuracy and achieving computational efficiency. A total energy functional is constructed to put energies for polar and nonpolar solvation, chemical potential, fluid flow, molecular mechanics, and elastic dynamics on an equal footing. The variational principle is utilized to derive coupled governing equations for the above mentioned multiphysical descriptions. Among these governing equations is the Poisson-Boltzmann equation which describes continuum electrostatics with atomic charges. The present work introduces the theory of continuum elasticity with atomic rigidity (CEWAR). The essence of CEWAR is to formulate the shear modulus as a continuous function of atomic rigidity. As a result, the dynamics complexity of a macromolecular system is separated from its static complexity so that the more time-consuming dynamics is handled with continuum elasticity theory, while the less time-consuming static analysis is pursued with atomic approaches. We propose a simple method, flexibility-rigidity index (FRI), to analyze macromolecular flexibility and rigidity in atomic detail. The construction of FRI relies on the fundamental assumption that protein functions, such as flexibility, rigidity, and energy, are entirely determined by the structure of the protein and its environment, although the structure is in turn determined by all the interactions. As such, the FRI measures the topological connectivity of protein atoms or residues and characterizes the geometric compactness of the protein structure. As a consequence, the FRI does not resort to the interaction Hamiltonian and bypasses matrix diagonalization, which underpins most other flexibility analysis methods. FRI's computational complexity is of O
The Role of Multiphysics Simulation in Multidisciplinary Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rifai, Steven M.; Ferencz, Robert M.; Wang, Wen-Ping; Spyropoulos, Evangelos T.; Lawrence, Charles; Melis, Matthew E.
1998-01-01
This article describes the applications of the Spectrum(Tm) Solver in Multidisciplinary Analysis (MDA). Spectrum, a multiphysics simulation software based on the finite element method, addresses compressible and incompressible fluid flow, structural, and thermal modeling as well as the interaction between these disciplines. Multiphysics simulation is based on a single computational framework for the modeling of multiple interacting physical phenomena. Interaction constraints are enforced in a fully-coupled manner using the augmented-Lagrangian method. Within the multiphysics framework, the finite element treatment of fluids is based on Galerkin-Least-Squares (GLS) method with discontinuity capturing operators. The arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian method is utilized to account for deformable fluid domains. The finite element treatment of solids and structures is based on the Hu-Washizu variational principle. The multiphysics architecture lends itself naturally to high-performance parallel computing. Aeroelastic, propulsion, thermal management and manufacturing applications are presented.
Paralel Multiphysics Algorithms and Software for Computational Nuclear Engineering
D. Gaston; G. Hansen; S. Kadioglu; D. A. Knoll; C. Newman; H. Park; C. Permann; W. Taitano
2009-08-01
There is a growing trend in nuclear reactor simulation to consider multiphysics problems. This can be seen in reactor analysis where analysts are interested in coupled flow, heat transfer and neutronics, and in fuel performance simulation where analysts are interested in thermomechanics with contact coupled to species transport and chemistry. These more ambitious simulations usually motivate some level of parallel computing. Many of the coupling efforts to date utilize simple 'code coupling' or first-order operator splitting, often referred to as loose coupling. While these approaches can produce answers, they usually leave questions of accuracy and stability unanswered. Additionally, the different physics often reside on separate grids which are coupled via simple interpolation, again leaving open questions of stability and accuracy. Utilizing state of the art mathematics and software development techniques we are deploying next generation tools for nuclear engineering applications. The Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov (JFNK) method combined with physics-based preconditioning provide the underlying mathematical structure for our tools. JFNK is understood to be a modern multiphysics algorithm, but we are also utilizing its unique properties as a scale bridging algorithm. To facilitate rapid development of multiphysics applications we have developed the Multiphysics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE). Examples from two MOOSE based applications: PRONGHORN, our multiphysics gas cooled reactor simulation tool and BISON, our multiphysics, multiscale fuel performance simulation tool will be presented.
Parallel multiphysics algorithms and software for computational nuclear engineering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaston, D.; Hansen, G.; Kadioglu, S.; Knoll, D. A.; Newman, C.; Park, H.; Permann, C.; Taitano, W.
2009-07-01
There is a growing trend in nuclear reactor simulation to consider multiphysics problems. This can be seen in reactor analysis where analysts are interested in coupled flow, heat transfer and neutronics, and in fuel performance simulation where analysts are interested in thermomechanics with contact coupled to species transport and chemistry. These more ambitious simulations usually motivate some level of parallel computing. Many of the coupling efforts to date utilize simple code coupling or first-order operator splitting, often referred to as loose coupling. While these approaches can produce answers, they usually leave questions of accuracy and stability unanswered. Additionally, the different physics often reside on separate grids which are coupled via simple interpolation, again leaving open questions of stability and accuracy. Utilizing state of the art mathematics and software development techniques we are deploying next generation tools for nuclear engineering applications. The Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov (JFNK) method combined with physics-based preconditioning provide the underlying mathematical structure for our tools. JFNK is understood to be a modern multiphysics algorithm, but we are also utilizing its unique properties as a scale bridging algorithm. To facilitate rapid development of multiphysics applications we have developed the Multiphysics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE). Examples from two MOOSE-based applications: PRONGHORN, our multiphysics gas cooled reactor simulation tool and BISON, our multiphysics, multiscale fuel performance simulation tool will be presented.
Multiphysics Simulation of Active Hypersonic Lip Cooling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Melis, Matthew E.; Wang, Wen-Ping
1999-01-01
This article describes the application of the Multidisciplinary Analysis (MDA) solver, Spectrum, in analyzing a hydrogen-cooled hypersonic cowl leading-edge structure. Spectrum, a multiphysics simulation code based on the finite element method, addresses compressible and incompressible fluid flow, structural, and thermal modeling, as well as the interactions between these disciplines. Fluid-solid-thermal interactions in a hydrogen impingement-cooled leading edge are predicted using Spectrum. Two- and semi-three-dimensional models are considered for a leading edge impingement coolant, concept under either specified external heat flux or aerothermodynamic heating from a Mach 5 external flow interaction. The solution accuracy is demonstrated from mesh refinement analysis. With active cooling, the leading edge surface temperature is drastically reduced from 1807 K of the adiabatic condition to 418 K. The internal coolant temperature profile exhibits a sharp gradient near channel/solid interface. Results from two different cooling channel configurations are also presented to illustrate the different behavior of alternative active cooling schemes.
A novel phenomenological multi-physics model of Li-ion battery cells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oh, Ki-Yong; Samad, Nassim A.; Kim, Youngki; Siegel, Jason B.; Stefanopoulou, Anna G.; Epureanu, Bogdan I.
2016-09-01
A novel phenomenological multi-physics model of Lithium-ion battery cells is developed for control and state estimation purposes. The model can capture electrical, thermal, and mechanical behaviors of battery cells under constrained conditions, e.g., battery pack conditions. Specifically, the proposed model predicts the core and surface temperatures and reaction force induced from the volume change of battery cells because of electrochemically- and thermally-induced swelling. Moreover, the model incorporates the influences of changes in preload and ambient temperature on the force considering severe environmental conditions electrified vehicles face. Intensive experimental validation demonstrates that the proposed multi-physics model accurately predicts the surface temperature and reaction force for a wide operational range of preload and ambient temperature. This high fidelity model can be useful for more accurate and robust state of charge estimation considering the complex dynamic behaviors of the battery cell. Furthermore, the inherent simplicity of the mechanical measurements offers distinct advantages to improve the existing power and thermal management strategies for battery management.
Matthew Ellis; Derek Gaston; Benoit Forget; Kord Smith
2011-07-01
In recent years the use of Monte Carlo methods for modeling reactors has become feasible due to the increasing availability of massively parallel computer systems. One of the primary challenges yet to be fully resolved, however, is the efficient and accurate inclusion of multiphysics feedback in Monte Carlo simulations. The research in this paper presents a preliminary coupling of the open source Monte Carlo code OpenMC with the open source Multiphysics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE). The coupling of OpenMC and MOOSE will be used to investigate efficient and accurate numerical methods needed to include multiphysics feedback in Monte Carlo codes. An investigation into the sensitivity of Doppler feedback to fuel temperature approximations using a two dimensional 17x17 PWR fuel assembly is presented in this paper. The results show a functioning multiphysics coupling between OpenMC and MOOSE. The coupling utilizes Functional Expansion Tallies to accurately and efficiently transfer pin power distributions tallied in OpenMC to unstructured finite element meshes used in MOOSE. The two dimensional PWR fuel assembly case also demonstrates that for a simplified model the pin-by-pin doppler feedback can be adequately replicated by scaling a representative pin based on pin relative powers.
Optimization of coupled multiphysics methodology for safety analysis of pebble bed modular reactor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mkhabela, Peter Tshepo
The research conducted within the framework of this PhD thesis is devoted to the high-fidelity multi-physics (based on neutronics/thermal-hydraulics coupling) analysis of Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR), which is a High Temperature Reactor (HTR). The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will be a HTR design. The core design and safety analysis methods are considerably less developed and mature for HTR analysis than those currently used for Light Water Reactors (LWRs). Compared to LWRs, the HTR transient analysis is more demanding since it requires proper treatment of both slower and much longer transients (of time scale in hours and days) and fast and short transients (of time scale in minutes and seconds). There is limited operation and experimental data available for HTRs for validation of coupled multi-physics methodologies. This PhD work developed and verified reliable high fidelity coupled multi-physics models subsequently implemented in robust, efficient, and accurate computational tools to analyse the neutronics and thermal-hydraulic behaviour for design optimization and safety evaluation of PBMR concept The study provided a contribution to a greater accuracy of neutronics calculations by including the feedback from thermal hydraulics driven temperature calculation and various multi-physics effects that can influence it. Consideration of the feedback due to the influence of leakage was taken into account by development and implementation of improved buckling feedback models. Modifications were made in the calculation procedure to ensure that the xenon depletion models were accurate for proper interpolation from cross section tables. To achieve this, the NEM/THERMIX coupled code system was developed to create the system that is efficient and stable over the duration of transient calculations that last over several tens of hours. Another achievement of the PhD thesis was development and demonstration of full-physics, three-dimensional safety analysis
Plank, G; Prassl, AJ; Augustin, C
2014-01-01
Despite the evident multiphysics nature of the heart – it is an electrically controlled mechanical pump – most modeling studies considered electrophysiology and mechanics in isolation. In no small part, this is due to the formidable modeling challenges involved in building strongly coupled anatomically accurate and biophyically detailed multi-scale multi-physics models of cardiac electro-mechanics. Among the main challenges are the selection of model components and their adjustments to achieve integration into a consistent organ-scale model, dealing with technical difficulties such as the exchange of data between electro-physiological and mechanical model, particularly when using different spatio-temporal grids for discretization, and, finally, the implementation of advanced numerical techniques to deal with the substantial computational. In this study we report on progress made in developing a novel modeling framework suited to tackle these challenges. PMID:24043050
Tightly Coupled Multiphysics Algorithm for Pebble Bed Reactors
HyeongKae Park; Dana Knoll; Derek Gaston; Richard Martineau
2010-10-01
We have developed a tightly coupled multiphysics simulation tool for the pebble-bed reactor (PBR) concept, a type of Very High-Temperature gas-cooled Reactor (VHTR). The simulation tool, PRONGHORN, takes advantages of the Multiphysics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment library, and is capable of solving multidimensional thermal-fluid and neutronics problems implicitly with a Newton-based approach. Expensive Jacobian matrix formation is alleviated via the Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov method, and physics-based preconditioning is applied to minimize Krylov iterations. Motivation for the work is provided via analysis and numerical experiments on simpler multiphysics reactor models. We then provide detail of the physical models and numerical methods in PRONGHORN. Finally, PRONGHORN's algorithmic capability is demonstrated on a number of PBR test cases.
FEM and Multiphysics Applications at NASA/GSFC
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Loughlin, James
2004-01-01
FEM software available to the Mechanical Systems Analysis and Simulation Branch at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) include: 1) MSC/Nastran; 2) Abaqus; 3) Ansys/Multiphysics; 4) COSMOS/M; 5) 'Home-grown' programs; 6) Pre/post processors such as Patran and FEMAP. This viewgraph presentation provides additional information on MSC/Nastran and Ansys/Multiphysics, and includes screen shots of analyzed equipment, including the Wilkinson Microwave Anistropy Probe, a micro-mirror, a MEMS tunable filter, and a micro-shutter array. The presentation also includes information on the verification of results.
Final Report: Quantifying Prediction Fidelity in Multiscale Multiphysics Simulations
Long, Kevin
2014-09-30
We have developed algorithms and software in support of uncertainty quantification in nonlinear multiphysics simulations. This work includes high-level, high-performance software for large-scale, matrix-free linear algebra and a new algorithm for fast computation of transcendental functions of stochastic variables.
A theory manual for multi-physics code coupling in LIME.
Belcourt, Noel; Bartlett, Roscoe Ainsworth; Pawlowski, Roger Patrick; Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Hooper, Russell Warren
2011-03-01
The Lightweight Integrating Multi-physics Environment (LIME) is a software package for creating multi-physics simulation codes. Its primary application space is when computer codes are currently available to solve different parts of a multi-physics problem and now need to be coupled with other such codes. In this report we define a common domain language for discussing multi-physics coupling and describe the basic theory associated with multiphysics coupling algorithms that are to be supported in LIME. We provide an assessment of coupling techniques for both steady-state and time dependent coupled systems. Example couplings are also demonstrated.
Solid Rocket Motor Combustion Instability Modeling in COMSOL Multiphysics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fischbach, Sean R.
2015-01-01
Combustion instability modeling of Solid Rocket Motors (SRM) remains a topic of active research. Many rockets display violent fluctuations in pressure, velocity, and temperature originating from the complex interactions between the combustion process, acoustics, and steady-state gas dynamics. Recent advances in defining the energy transport of disturbances within steady flow-fields have been applied by combustion stability modelers to improve the analysis framework [1, 2, 3]. Employing this more accurate global energy balance requires a higher fidelity model of the SRM flow-field and acoustic mode shapes. The current industry standard analysis tool utilizes a one dimensional analysis of the time dependent fluid dynamics along with a quasi-three dimensional propellant grain regression model to determine the SRM ballistics. The code then couples with another application that calculates the eigenvalues of the one dimensional homogenous wave equation. The mean flow parameters and acoustic normal modes are coupled to evaluate the stability theory developed and popularized by Culick [4, 5]. The assumption of a linear, non-dissipative wave in a quiescent fluid remains valid while acoustic amplitudes are small and local gas velocities stay below Mach 0.2. The current study employs the COMSOL multiphysics finite element framework to model the steady flow-field parameters and acoustic normal modes of a generic SRM. The study requires one way coupling of the CFD High Mach Number Flow (HMNF) and mathematics module. The HMNF module evaluates the gas flow inside of a SRM using St. Robert's law to model the solid propellant burn rate, no slip boundary conditions, and the hybrid outflow condition. Results from the HMNF model are verified by comparing the pertinent ballistics parameters with the industry standard code outputs (i.e. pressure drop, thrust, ect.). These results are then used by the coefficient form of the mathematics module to determine the complex eigenvalues of the
Evaluation of HFIR LEU Fuel Using the COMSOL Multiphysics Platform
Primm, Trent; Ruggles, Arthur; Freels, James D
2009-03-01
A finite element computational approach to simulation of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) Core Thermal-Fluid behavior is developed. These models were developed to facilitate design of a low enriched core for the HFIR, which will have different axial and radial flux profiles from the current HEU core and thus will require fuel and poison load optimization. This report outlines a stepwise implementation of this modeling approach using the commercial finite element code, COMSOL, with initial assessment of fuel, poison and clad conduction modeling capability, followed by assessment of mating of the fuel conduction models to a one dimensional fluid model typical of legacy simulation techniques for the HFIR core. The model is then extended to fully couple 2-dimensional conduction in the fuel to a 2-dimensional thermo-fluid model of the coolant for a HFIR core cooling sub-channel with additional assessment of simulation outcomes. Finally, 3-dimensional simulations of a fuel plate and cooling channel are presented.
Advanced Mesh-Enabled Monte carlo capability for Multi-Physics Reactor Analysis
Wilson, Paul; Evans, Thomas; Tautges, Tim
2012-12-24
This project will accumulate high-precision fluxes throughout reactor geometry on a non- orthogonal grid of cells to support multi-physics coupling, in order to more accurately calculate parameters such as reactivity coefficients and to generate multi-group cross sections. This work will be based upon recent developments to incorporate advanced geometry and mesh capability in a modular Monte Carlo toolkit with computational science technology that is in use in related reactor simulation software development. Coupling this capability with production-scale Monte Carlo radiation transport codes can provide advanced and extensible test-beds for these developments. Continuous energy Monte Carlo methods are generally considered to be the most accurate computational tool for simulating radiation transport in complex geometries, particularly neutron transport in reactors. Nevertheless, there are several limitations for their use in reactor analysis. Most significantly, there is a trade-off between the fidelity of results in phase space, statistical accuracy, and the amount of computer time required for simulation. Consequently, to achieve an acceptable level of statistical convergence in high-fidelity results required for modern coupled multi-physics analysis, the required computer time makes Monte Carlo methods prohibitive for design iterations and detailed whole-core analysis. More subtly, the statistical uncertainty is typically not uniform throughout the domain, and the simulation quality is limited by the regions with the largest statistical uncertainty. In addition, the formulation of neutron scattering laws in continuous energy Monte Carlo methods makes it difficult to calculate adjoint neutron fluxes required to properly determine important reactivity parameters. Finally, most Monte Carlo codes available for reactor analysis have relied on orthogonal hexahedral grids for tallies that do not conform to the geometric boundaries and are thus generally not well
Numerical Simulations of Single Flow Element in a Nuclear Thermal Thrust Chamber
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cheng, Gary; Ito, Yasushi; Ross, Doug; Chen, Yen-Sen; Wang, Ten-See
2007-01-01
The objective of this effort is to develop an efficient and accurate computational methodology to predict both detailed and global thermo-fluid environments of a single now element in a hypothetical solid-core nuclear thermal thrust chamber assembly, Several numerical and multi-physics thermo-fluid models, such as chemical reactions, turbulence, conjugate heat transfer, porosity, and power generation, were incorporated into an unstructured-grid, pressure-based computational fluid dynamics solver. The numerical simulations of a single now element provide a detailed thermo-fluid environment for thermal stress estimation and insight for possible occurrence of mid-section corrosion. In addition, detailed conjugate heat transfer simulations were employed to develop the porosity models for efficient pressure drop and thermal load calculations.
Unsteady Cascade Aerodynamic Response Using a Multiphysics Simulation Code
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lawrence, C.; Reddy, T. S. R.; Spyropoulos, E.
2000-01-01
The multiphysics code Spectrum(TM) is applied to calculate the unsteady aerodynamic pressures of oscillating cascade of airfoils representing a blade row of a turbomachinery component. Multiphysics simulation is based on a single computational framework for the modeling of multiple interacting physical phenomena, in the present case being between fluids and structures. Interaction constraints are enforced in a fully coupled manner using the augmented-Lagrangian method. The arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian method is utilized to account for deformable fluid domains resulting from blade motions. Unsteady pressures are calculated for a cascade designated as the tenth standard, and undergoing plunging and pitching oscillations. The predicted unsteady pressures are compared with those obtained from an unsteady Euler co-de refer-red in the literature. The Spectrum(TM) code predictions showed good correlation for the cases considered.
Recent developments in multiphysics computational models of physiological flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eldredge, Jeff D.; Mittal, Rajat
2016-04-01
A mini-symposium on computational modeling of fluid-structure interactions and other multiphysics in physiological flows was held at the 11th World Congress on Computational Mechanics in July 2014 in Barcelona, Spain. This special issue of Theoretical and Computational Fluid Dynamics contains papers from among the participants of the mini-symposium. The present paper provides an overview of the mini-symposium and the special issue.
COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS MODEL FOR DWPF CANISTER FILLING, REVISION 1
Kesterson, M.
2011-09-08
This revision is an extension of the COMSOL Multiphysics model previously developed and documented to simulate the temperatures of the glass during pouring a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. In that report the COMSOL Multiphysics model used a lumped heat loss term derived from experimental thermocouple data based on a nominal pour rate of 228 lbs./hr. As such, the model developed using the lumped heat loss term had limited application without additional experimental data. Therefore, the COMSOL Multiphysics model was modified to simulate glass pouring and subsequent heat input which, replaced the heat loss term in the initial model. This new model allowed for changes in flow geometry based on pour rate as well as the ability to increase and decrease flow and stop and restart flow to simulate varying process conditions. A revised COMSOL Multiphysics model was developed to predict temperatures of the glass within DWPF canisters during filling and cooldown. The model simulations and experimental data were in good agreement. The largest temperature deviations were {approx} 40 C for the 87 inch thermocouple location at 3000 minutes and during the initial cool down at the 51 inch location occurring at approximately 600 minutes. Additionally, the model described in this report predicts the general temperature trends during filling and cooling as observed experimentally. The revised model incorporates a heat flow region corresponding to the glass pouring down the centerline of the canister. The geometry of this region is dependent on the flow rate of the glass and can therefore be used to see temperature variations for various pour rates. The equations used for this model were developed by comparing simulation output to experimental data from a single pour rate. Use of the model will predict temperature profiles for other pour rates but the accuracy of the simulations is unknown due to only a single flow rate comparison.
A MULTIDIMENSIONAL AND MULTIPHYSICS APPROACH TO NUCLEAR FUEL BEHAVIOR SIMULATION
R. L. Williamson; J. D. Hales; S. R. Novascone; M. R. Tonks; D. R. Gaston; C. J. Permann; D. Andrs; R. C. Martineau
2012-04-01
Important aspects of fuel rod behavior, for example pellet-clad mechanical interaction (PCMI), fuel fracture, oxide formation, non-axisymmetric cooling, and response to fuel manufacturing defects, are inherently multidimensional in addition to being complicated multiphysics problems. Many current modeling tools are strictly 2D axisymmetric or even 1.5D. This paper outlines the capabilities of a new fuel modeling tool able to analyze either 2D axisymmetric or fully 3D models. These capabilities include temperature-dependent thermal conductivity of fuel; swelling and densification; fuel creep; pellet fracture; fission gas release; cladding creep; irradiation growth; and gap mechanics (contact and gap heat transfer). The need for multiphysics, multidimensional modeling is then demonstrated through a discussion of results for a set of example problems. The first, a 10-pellet rodlet, demonstrates the viability of the solution method employed. This example highlights the effect of our smeared cracking model and also shows the multidimensional nature of discrete fuel pellet modeling. The second example relies on our the multidimensional, multiphysics approach to analyze a missing pellet surface problem. As a final example, we show a lower-length-scale simulation coupled to a continuum-scale simulation.
Coupling Schemes for Multiphysics Reactor Simulation
Vijay Mahadeven; Jean Ragusa
2007-11-01
This report documents the progress of the student Vijay S. Mahadevan from the Nuclear Engineering Department of Texas A&M University over the summer of 2007 during his visit to the INL. The purpose of his visit was to investigate the physics-based preconditioned Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov method applied to physics relevant to nuclear reactor simulation. To this end he studied two test problems that represented reaction-diffusion and advection-reaction. These two test problems will provide the basis for future work in which neutron diffusion, nonlinear heat conduction, and a twophase flow model will be tightly coupled to provide an accurate model of a BWR core.
Mathematical and algorithmic issues in multiphysics coupling.
Gai, Xiuli; Stone, Charles Michael; Wheeler, Mary Fanett
2004-06-01
The modeling of fluid/structure interaction is of growing importance in both energy and environmental applications. Because of the inherent complexity, these problems must be simulated on parallel machines in order to achieve high resolution. The purpose of this research was to investigate techniques for coupling flow and geomechanics in porous media that are suitable for parallel computation. In particular, our main objective was to develop an iterative technique which can be as accurate as a fully coupled model but which allows for robust and efficient coupling of existing complex models (software). A parallel linear elastic module was developed which was coupled to a three phase three-component black oil model in IPARS (Integrated Parallel Accurate Reservoir Simulator). An iterative de-coupling technique was introduced at each time step. The resulting nonlinear iteration involved solving for displacements and flow sequentially. Rock compressibility was used in the flow model to account for the effect of deformation on the pore volume. Convergence was achieved when the mass balance for each component satisfied a given tolerance. This approach was validated by comparison with a fully coupled approach implemented in the British PetroledAmoco ACRES simulator. Another objective of this work was to develop an efficient parallel solver for the elasticity equations. A preconditioned conjugate gradient solver was implemented to solve the algebraic system arising from tensor product linear Galerkin approximations for the displacements. Three preconditioners were developed: LSOR (line successive over-relaxation), block Jacobi, and agglomeration multi-grid. The latter approach involved coarsening the 3D system to 2D and using LSOR as a smoother that is followed by applying geometric multi-grid with SOR (successive over-relaxation) as a smoother. Preliminary tests on a 64-node Beowulf cluster at CSM indicate that the agglomeration multi-grid approach is robust and efficient.
Lithium-Ion Battery Safety Study Using Multi-Physics Internal Short-Circuit Model (Presentation)
Kim, G-.H.; Smith, K.; Pesaran, A.
2009-06-01
This presentation outlines NREL's multi-physics simulation study to characterize an internal short by linking and integrating electrochemical cell, electro-thermal, and abuse reaction kinetics models.
Solid Rocket Motor Combustion Instability Modeling in COMSOL Multiphysics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fischbach, S. R.
2015-01-01
Combustion instability modeling of Solid Rocket Motors (SRM) remains a topic of active research. Many rockets display violent fluctuations in pressure, velocity, and temperature originating from the complex interactions between the combustion process, acoustics, and steady-state gas dynamics. Recent advances in defining the energy transport of disturbances within steady flow-fields have been applied by combustion stability modelers to improve the analysis framework. Employing this more accurate global energy balance requires a higher fidelity model of the SRM flow-field and acoustic mode shapes. The current industry standard analysis tool utilizes a one dimensional analysis of the time dependent fluid dynamics along with a quasi-three dimensional propellant grain regression model to determine the SRM ballistics. The code then couples with another application that calculates the eigenvalues of the one dimensional homogenous wave equation. The mean flow parameters and acoustic normal modes are coupled to evaluate the stability theory developed and popularized by Culick. The assumption of a linear, non-dissipative wave in a quiescent fluid remains valid while acoustic amplitudes are small and local gas velocities stay below Mach 0.2. The current study employs the COMSOL Multiphysics finite element framework to model the steady flow-field parameters and acoustic normal modes of a generic SRM. This work builds upon previous efforts to verify the use of the acoustic velocity potential equation (AVPE) laid out by Campos. The acoustic velocity potential (psi) describing the acoustic wave motion in the presence of an inhomogeneous steady high-speed flow is defined by, del squared psi - (lambda/c) squared psi - M x [M x del((del)(psi))] - 2((lambda)(M)/c + M x del(M) x (del)(psi) - 2(lambda)(psi)[M x del(1/c)] = 0. with M as the Mach vector, c as the speed of sound, and ? as the complex eigenvalue. The study requires one way coupling of the CFD High Mach Number Flow (HMNF
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tizzani, Pietro
2013-04-01
Ground deformation signals in caldera region are the expression of near-surface and/or deep-seated physical processes. As most of the geophysical analysis, the interpretation of the deformation data is usually performed setting up inverse problems, which often use Monte Carlo optimization techniques like the Simulated Annealing and the Genetic Algorithm, in order to constrain the nature of the causative sources at depth. Usually, these methods exploit the problem's solution space by iterating forward analytical models, which consider simplified geometries and homogeneous linear elastic material properties. However, several recent studies have shown that oversimplified forward models may lead to misinterpretations of the retrieved source parameters. To overcome these limitations we consider the Finite Element (FE) method as a powerful numerical tool that allows implementing models with complex geometries, material heterogeneities, as well as time dependent physical processes. For this reason, FE models are a suitable candidate to fill the gap between the accuracy achieved on the observation of ground deformation in volcanic areas and the models used for its interpretation. In this context, we investigate the driving forces responsible of the long-term ground deformation of the Campi Flegrei (CF) caldera, Southern Italy, during the 1982-2010 time interval. To this purpose, we propose a new multiphysics numerical model that takes into account both the mechanical heterogeneities of the crust and the thermal conditions of geothermal system beneath the volcano. We perform a numerical Chain Rule Optimization Procedure (CROP) in a FEM environment, that considers different physical contexts linked along a common evolution line: starting from the thermal proprieties and mechanical heterogeneities of the upper crust, we develop a 3D time dependent thermo-fluid dynamic model of CF caldera. More specifically, by carrying out two subsequent optimization procedures based on
Advanced multiphysics coupling for LWR fuel performance analysis
Hales, J. D.; Tonks, M. R.; Gleicher, F. N.; Spencer, B. W.; Novascone, S. R.; Williamson, R. L.; Pastore, G.; Perez, D. M.
2015-10-01
Even the most basic nuclear fuel analysis is a multiphysics undertaking, as a credible simulation must consider at a minimum coupled heat conduction and mechanical deformation. The need for more realistic fuel modeling under a variety of conditions invariably leads to a desire to include coupling between a more complete set of the physical phenomena influencing fuel behavior, including neutronics, thermal hydraulics, and mechanisms occurring at lower length scales. This paper covers current efforts toward coupled multiphysics LWR fuel modeling in three main areas. The first area covered in this paper concerns thermomechanical coupling. The interaction of these two physics, particularly related to the feedback effect associated with heat transfer and mechanical contact at the fuel/clad gap, provides numerous computational challenges. An outline is provided of an effective approach used to manage the nonlinearities associated with an evolving gap in BISON, a nuclear fuel performance application. A second type of multiphysics coupling described here is that of coupling neutronics with thermomechanical LWR fuel performance. DeCART, a high-fidelity core analysis program based on the method of characteristics, has been coupled to BISON. DeCART provides sub-pin level resolution of the multigroup neutron flux, with resonance treatment, during a depletion or a fast transient simulation. Two-way coupling between these codes was achieved by mapping fission rate density and fast neutron flux fields from DeCART to BISON and the temperature field from BISON to DeCART while employing a Picard iterative algorithm. Finally, the need for multiscale coupling is considered. Fission gas production and evolution significantly impact fuel performance by causing swelling, a reduction in the thermal conductivity, and fission gas release. The mechanisms involved occur at the atomistic and grain scale and are therefore not the domain of a fuel performance code. However, it is possible to use
Multi-Physics Analysis of the Fermilab Booster RF Cavity
Awida, M.; Reid, J.; Yakovlev, V.; Lebedev, V.; Khabiboulline, T.; Champion, M.; /Fermilab
2012-05-14
After about 40 years of operation the RF accelerating cavities in Fermilab Booster need an upgrade to improve their reliability and to increase the repetition rate in order to support a future experimental program. An increase in the repetition rate from 7 to 15 Hz entails increasing the power dissipation in the RF cavities, their ferrite loaded tuners, and HOM dampers. The increased duty factor requires careful modelling for the RF heating effects in the cavity. A multi-physic analysis investigating both the RF and thermal properties of Booster cavity under various operating conditions is presented in this paper.
Advanced multiphysics coupling for LWR fuel performance analysis
Hales, J. D.; Tonks, M. R.; Gleicher, F. N.; Spencer, B. W.; Novascone, S. R.; Williamson, R. L.; Pastore, G.; Perez, D. M.
2015-10-01
Even the most basic nuclear fuel analysis is a multiphysics undertaking, as a credible simulation must consider at a minimum coupled heat conduction and mechanical deformation. The need for more realistic fuel modeling under a variety of conditions invariably leads to a desire to include coupling between a more complete set of the physical phenomena influencing fuel behavior, including neutronics, thermal hydraulics, and mechanisms occurring at lower length scales. This paper covers current efforts toward coupled multiphysics LWR fuel modeling in three main areas. The first area covered in this paper concerns thermomechanical coupling. The interaction of these two physics,more » particularly related to the feedback effect associated with heat transfer and mechanical contact at the fuel/clad gap, provides numerous computational challenges. An outline is provided of an effective approach used to manage the nonlinearities associated with an evolving gap in BISON, a nuclear fuel performance application. A second type of multiphysics coupling described here is that of coupling neutronics with thermomechanical LWR fuel performance. DeCART, a high-fidelity core analysis program based on the method of characteristics, has been coupled to BISON. DeCART provides sub-pin level resolution of the multigroup neutron flux, with resonance treatment, during a depletion or a fast transient simulation. Two-way coupling between these codes was achieved by mapping fission rate density and fast neutron flux fields from DeCART to BISON and the temperature field from BISON to DeCART while employing a Picard iterative algorithm. Finally, the need for multiscale coupling is considered. Fission gas production and evolution significantly impact fuel performance by causing swelling, a reduction in the thermal conductivity, and fission gas release. The mechanisms involved occur at the atomistic and grain scale and are therefore not the domain of a fuel performance code. However, it is
High-Fidelity Space-Time Adaptive Multiphysics Simulations in Nuclear Engineering
Solin, Pavel; Ragusa, Jean
2014-03-09
We delivered a series of fundamentally new computational technologies that have the potential to significantly advance the state-of-the-art of computer simulations of transient multiphysics nuclear reactor processes. These methods were implemented in the form of a C++ library, and applied to a number of multiphysics coupled problems relevant to nuclear reactor simulations.
A multiphysics and multiscale software environment for modeling astrophysical systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Portegies Zwart, Simon; McMillan, Steve; Harfst, Stefan; Groen, Derek; Fujii, Michiko; Nualláin, Breanndán Ó.; Glebbeek, Evert; Heggie, Douglas; Lombardi, James; Hut, Piet; Angelou, Vangelis; Banerjee, Sambaran; Belkus, Houria; Fragos, Tassos; Fregeau, John; Gaburov, Evghenii; Izzard, Rob; Jurić, Mario; Justham, Stephen; Sottoriva, Andrea; Teuben, Peter; van Bever, Joris; Yaron, Ofer; Zemp, Marcel
2009-05-01
We present MUSE, a software framework for combining existing computational tools for different astrophysical domains into a single multiphysics, multiscale application. MUSE facilitates the coupling of existing codes written in different languages by providing inter-language tools and by specifying an interface between each module and the framework that represents a balance between generality and computational efficiency. This approach allows scientists to use combinations of codes to solve highly coupled problems without the need to write new codes for other domains or significantly alter their existing codes. MUSE currently incorporates the domains of stellar dynamics, stellar evolution and stellar hydrodynamics for studying generalized stellar systems. We have now reached a "Noah's Ark" milestone, with (at least) two available numerical solvers for each domain. MUSE can treat multiscale and multiphysics systems in which the time- and size-scales are well separated, like simulating the evolution of planetary systems, small stellar associations, dense stellar clusters, galaxies and galactic nuclei. In this paper we describe three examples calculated using MUSE: the merger of two galaxies, the merger of two evolving stars, and a hybrid N-body simulation. In addition, we demonstrate an implementation of MUSE on a distributed computer which may also include special-purpose hardware, such as GRAPEs or GPUs, to accelerate computations. The current MUSE code base is publicly available as open source at http://muse.li.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bishay, Peter L.; Dong, Leiting; Atluri, Satya N.
2014-11-01
Conceptually simple and computationally most efficient polygonal computational grains with voids/inclusions are proposed for the direct numerical simulation of the micromechanics of piezoelectric composite/porous materials with non-symmetrical arrangement of voids/inclusions. These are named "Multi-Physics Computational Grains" (MPCGs) because each "mathematical grain" is geometrically similar to the irregular shapes of the physical grains of the material in the micro-scale. So each MPCG element represents a grain of the matrix of the composite and can include a pore or an inclusion. MPCG is based on assuming independent displacements and electric-potentials in each cell. The trial solutions in each MPCG do not need to satisfy the governing differential equations, however, they are still complete, and can efficiently model concentration of electric and mechanical fields. MPCG can be used to model any generally anisotropic material as well as nonlinear problems. The essential idea can also be easily applied to accurately solve other multi-physical problems, such as complex thermal-electro-magnetic-mechanical materials modeling. Several examples are presented to show the capabilities of the proposed MPCGs and their accuracy.
Fracture Characterization through Multi-Physics Joint Inversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Finsterle, S.; Edmiston, J. K.; Zhang, Y.
2014-12-01
Natural and man-made fractures tend to significantly impact the behavior of a subsurface system - with both desirable and undesirable consequences. Thus, the description, characterization, and prediction of fractured systems requires careful conceptualization and a defensible modeling approach that is tailored to the objectives of a specific application. We review some of these approaches and the related data needs, and discuss the use of multi-physics joint inversion techniques to identify and characterize the relevant features of the fracture system. In particular, we demonstrate the potential use of a non-isothermal, multiphase flow simulator coupled to a thermo-poro-elastic model for the calculation of observable deformations during injection-production operations. This model is integrated into a joint inversion framework for the estimation of geometrical, hydrogeological, rockmechanical, thermal, and statistical parameters representing the fractured porous medium.
Multiscale Multiphysics Developments for Accident Tolerant Fuel Concepts
Gamble, K. A.; Hales, J. D.; Yu, J.; Zhang, Y.; Bai, X.; Andersson, D.; Patra, A.; Wen, W.; Tome, C.; Baskes, M.; Martinez, E.; Stanek, C. R.; Miao, Y.; Ye, B.; Hofman, G. L.; Yacout, A. M.; Liu, W.
2015-09-01
U_{3}Si_{2} and iron-chromium-aluminum (Fe-Cr-Al) alloys are two of many proposed accident-tolerant fuel concepts for the fuel and cladding, respectively. The behavior of these materials under normal operating and accident reactor conditions is not well known. As part of the Department of Energy’s Accident Tolerant Fuel High Impact Problem program significant work has been conducted to investigate the U_{3}Si_{2} and FeCrAl behavior under reactor conditions. This report presents the multiscale and multiphysics effort completed in fiscal year 2015. The report is split into four major categories including Density Functional Theory Developments, Molecular Dynamics Developments, Mesoscale Developments, and Engineering Scale Developments. The work shown here is a compilation of a collaborative effort between Idaho National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory and Anatech Corp.
Solid Oxide Fuel Cell - Multi-Physics and GUI
2013-10-10
SOFC-MP is a simulation tool developed at PNNL to evaluate the tightly coupled multi-physical phenomena in SOFCs. The purpose of the tool is to allow SOFC manufacturers to numerically test changes in planar stack design to meet DOE technical targets. The SOFC-MP 2D module is designed for computational efficiency to enable rapid engineering evaluations for operation of tall symmetric stacks. It can quickly compute distributions for the current density, voltage, temperature, and species composition in tall stacks with co-flow or counter-flow orientations. The 3D module computes distributions in entire 3D domain and handles all planner configurations: co-flow, counter-flow, and cross-flow. The detailed data from 3D simulation can be used as input for structural analysis. SOFC-MP GUI integrates both 2D and 3D modules, and it provides user friendly pre-processing and post-processing capabilities.
Actuating the deformable mirror: a multiphysics design approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Del Vecchio, Ciro; Biasi, Roberto; Gallieni, Daniele; Riccardi, Armando; Spairani, Roberto
2008-07-01
The crucial component of an Adaptive Optics unit is the actuation system of the deformable mirror. One possible implementation comprehends a linear force motor and a capacitive sensor providing the feedback measure signal. Due to the extreme accuracy required by the optics, a proper design of the actuator is essential in order to fulfill the specifications. In the device, mechanics, electrostatics, electromagnetism and thermal effects are mutually related, and they have to be properly considered in the design phase. This paper analyzes such a multiphysics behavior of the actuation system, providing an inter-disciplinary approach able to define the optimized device: a capacitive sensor measuring the displacements at the nanometer accuracy and a closed loop linear motor delivering the requested force with the lowest possible power dissipation, in order to minimize the degrading of the optical waves propagation.
Multiphysics modeling of the steel continuous casting process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hibbeler, Lance C.
This work develops a macroscale, multiphysics model of the continuous casting of steel. The complete model accounts for the turbulent flow and nonuniform distribution of superheat in the molten steel, the elastic-viscoplastic thermal shrinkage of the solidifying shell, the heat transfer through the shell-mold interface with variable gap size, and the thermal distortion of the mold. These models are coupled together with carefully constructed boundary conditions with the aid of reduced-order models into a single tool to investigate behavior in the mold region, for practical applications such as predicting ideal tapers for a beam-blank mold. The thermal and mechanical behaviors of the mold are explored as part of the overall modeling effort, for funnel molds and for beam-blank molds. These models include high geometric detail and reveal temperature variations on the mold-shell interface that may be responsible for cracks in the shell. Specifically, the funnel mold has a column of mold bolts in the middle of the inside-curve region of the funnel that disturbs the uniformity of the hot face temperatures, which combined with the bending effect of the mold on the shell, can lead to longitudinal facial cracks. The shoulder region of the beam-blank mold shows a local hot spot that can be reduced with additional cooling in this region. The distorted shape of the funnel mold narrow face is validated with recent inclinometer measurements from an operating caster. The calculated hot face temperatures and distorted shapes of the mold are transferred into the multiphysics model of the solidifying shell. The boundary conditions for the first iteration of the multiphysics model come from reduced-order models of the process; one such model is derived in this work for mold heat transfer. The reduced-order model relies on the physics of the solution to the one-dimensional heat-conduction equation to maintain the relationships between inputs and outputs of the model. The geometric
A Global Sensitivity Analysis Methodology for Multi-physics Applications
Tong, C H; Graziani, F R
2007-02-02
Experiments are conducted to draw inferences about an entire ensemble based on a selected number of observations. This applies to both physical experiments as well as computer experiments, the latter of which are performed by running the simulation models at different input configurations and analyzing the output responses. Computer experiments are instrumental in enabling model analyses such as uncertainty quantification and sensitivity analysis. This report focuses on a global sensitivity analysis methodology that relies on a divide-and-conquer strategy and uses intelligent computer experiments. The objective is to assess qualitatively and/or quantitatively how the variabilities of simulation output responses can be accounted for by input variabilities. We address global sensitivity analysis in three aspects: methodology, sampling/analysis strategies, and an implementation framework. The methodology consists of three major steps: (1) construct credible input ranges; (2) perform a parameter screening study; and (3) perform a quantitative sensitivity analysis on a reduced set of parameters. Once identified, research effort should be directed to the most sensitive parameters to reduce their uncertainty bounds. This process is repeated with tightened uncertainty bounds for the sensitive parameters until the output uncertainties become acceptable. To accommodate the needs of multi-physics application, this methodology should be recursively applied to individual physics modules. The methodology is also distinguished by an efficient technique for computing parameter interactions. Details for each step will be given using simple examples. Numerical results on large scale multi-physics applications will be available in another report. Computational techniques targeted for this methodology have been implemented in a software package called PSUADE.
Reliability-based design optimization of multiphysics, aerospace systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allen, Matthew R.
Aerospace systems are inherently plagued by uncertainties in their design, fabrication, and operation. Safety factors and expensive testing at the prototype level traditionally account for these uncertainties. Reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) can drastically decrease life-cycle development costs by accounting for the stochastic nature of the system response in the design process. The reduction in cost is amplified for conceptually new designs, for which no accepted safety factors currently exist. Aerospace systems often operate in environments dominated by multiphysics phenomena, such as the fluid-structure interaction of aeroelastic wings or the electrostatic-mechanical interaction of sensors and actuators. The analysis of such phenomena is generally complex and computationally expensive, and therefore is usually simplified or approximated in the design process. However, this leads to significant epistemic uncertainties in modeling, which may dominate the uncertainties for which the reliability analysis was intended. Therefore, the goal of this thesis is to present a RBDO framework that utilizes high-fidelity simulation techniques to minimize the modeling error for multiphysics phenomena. A key component of the framework is an extended reduced order modeling (EROM) technique that can analyze various states in the design or uncertainty parameter space at a reduced computational cost, while retaining characteristics of high-fidelity methods. The computational framework is verified and applied to the RBDO of aeroelastic systems and electrostatically driven sensors and actuators, utilizing steady-state analysis and design criteria. The framework is also applied to the design of electrostatic devices with transient criteria, which requires the use of the EROM technique to overcome the computational burden of multiple transient analyses.
Developing Discontinuous Galerkin Methods for Solving Multiphysics Problems in General Relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kidder, Lawrence; Field, Scott; Teukolsky, Saul; Foucart, Francois; SXS Collaboration
2016-03-01
Multi-messenger observations of the merger of black hole-neutron star and neutron star-neutron star binaries, and of supernova explosions will probe fundamental physics inaccessible to terrestrial experiments. Modeling these systems requires a relativistic treatment of hydrodynamics, including magnetic fields, as well as neutrino transport and nuclear reactions. The accuracy, efficiency, and robustness of current codes that treat all of these problems is not sufficient to keep up with the observational needs. We are building a new numerical code that uses the Discontinuous Galerkin method with a task-based parallelization strategy, a promising combination that will allow multiphysics applications to be treated both accurately and efficiently on petascale and exascale machines. The code will scale to more than 100,000 cores for efficient exploration of the parameter space of potential sources and allowed physics, and the high-fidelity predictions needed to realize the promise of multi-messenger astronomy. I will discuss the current status of the development of this new code.
Assessment of PCMI Simulation Using the Multidimensional Multiphysics BISON Fuel Performance Code
Stephen R. Novascone; Jason D. Hales; Benjamin W. Spencer; Richard L. Williamson
2012-09-01
irradiation level, while the power at the top of the rod is at about 20% of the base irradiation power level. 2D BISON simulations of the Bump Test GE7 were run using both discrete and smeared pellet geometry. Comparisons between these calculations and experimental measurements are presented for clad diameter and elongation after the base irradiation and clad profile along the length of the test section after the bump test. Preliminary comparisons between calculations and measurements are favorable, supporting the use of BISON as an accurate multiphysics fuel simulation tool.
An introduction to LIME 1.0 and its use in coupling codes for multiphysics simulations.
Belcourt, Noel; Pawlowski, Roger Patrick; Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Hooper, Russell Warren
2011-11-01
LIME is a small software package for creating multiphysics simulation codes. The name was formed as an acronym denoting 'Lightweight Integrating Multiphysics Environment for coupling codes.' LIME is intended to be especially useful when separate computer codes (which may be written in any standard computer language) already exist to solve different parts of a multiphysics problem. LIME provides the key high-level software (written in C++), a well defined approach (with example templates), and interface requirements to enable the assembly of multiple physics codes into a single coupled-multiphysics simulation code. In this report we introduce important software design characteristics of LIME, describe key components of a typical multiphysics application that might be created using LIME, and provide basic examples of its use - including the customized software that must be written by a user. We also describe the types of modifications that may be needed to individual physics codes in order for them to be incorporated into a LIME-based multiphysics application.
Multiscale and Multiphysics Modeling of Additive Manufacturing of Advanced Materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liou, Frank; Newkirk, Joseph; Fan, Zhiqiang; Sparks, Todd; Chen, Xueyang; Fletcher, Kenneth; Zhang, Jingwei; Zhang, Yunlu; Kumar, Kannan Suresh; Karnati, Sreekar
2015-01-01
The objective of this proposed project is to research and develop a prediction tool for advanced additive manufacturing (AAM) processes for advanced materials and develop experimental methods to provide fundamental properties and establish validation data. Aircraft structures and engines demand materials that are stronger, useable at much higher temperatures, provide less acoustic transmission, and enable more aeroelastic tailoring than those currently used. Significant improvements in properties can only be achieved by processing the materials under nonequilibrium conditions, such as AAM processes. AAM processes encompass a class of processes that use a focused heat source to create a melt pool on a substrate. Examples include Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication and Direct Metal Deposition. These types of additive processes enable fabrication of parts directly from CAD drawings. To achieve the desired material properties and geometries of the final structure, assessing the impact of process parameters and predicting optimized conditions with numerical modeling as an effective prediction tool is necessary. The targets for the processing are multiple and at different spatial scales, and the physical phenomena associated occur in multiphysics and multiscale. In this project, the research work has been developed to model AAM processes in a multiscale and multiphysics approach. A macroscale model was developed to investigate the residual stresses and distortion in AAM processes. A sequentially coupled, thermomechanical, finite element model was developed and validated experimentally. The results showed the temperature distribution, residual stress, and deformation within the formed deposits and substrates. A mesoscale model was developed to include heat transfer, phase change with mushy zone, incompressible free surface flow, solute redistribution, and surface tension. Because of excessive computing time needed, a parallel computing approach was also tested. In addition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khuwaileh, Bassam
High fidelity simulation of nuclear reactors entails large scale applications characterized with high dimensionality and tremendous complexity where various physics models are integrated in the form of coupled models (e.g. neutronic with thermal-hydraulic feedback). Each of the coupled modules represents a high fidelity formulation of the first principles governing the physics of interest. Therefore, new developments in high fidelity multi-physics simulation and the corresponding sensitivity/uncertainty quantification analysis are paramount to the development and competitiveness of reactors achieved through enhanced understanding of the design and safety margins. Accordingly, this dissertation introduces efficient and scalable algorithms for performing efficient Uncertainty Quantification (UQ), Data Assimilation (DA) and Target Accuracy Assessment (TAA) for large scale, multi-physics reactor design and safety problems. This dissertation builds upon previous efforts for adaptive core simulation and reduced order modeling algorithms and extends these efforts towards coupled multi-physics models with feedback. The core idea is to recast the reactor physics analysis in terms of reduced order models. This can be achieved via identifying the important/influential degrees of freedom (DoF) via the subspace analysis, such that the required analysis can be recast by considering the important DoF only. In this dissertation, efficient algorithms for lower dimensional subspace construction have been developed for single physics and multi-physics applications with feedback. Then the reduced subspace is used to solve realistic, large scale forward (UQ) and inverse problems (DA and TAA). Once the elite set of DoF is determined, the uncertainty/sensitivity/target accuracy assessment and data assimilation analysis can be performed accurately and efficiently for large scale, high dimensional multi-physics nuclear engineering applications. Hence, in this work a Karhunen-Loeve (KL
Multiscale Multiphysics and Multidomain Models I: Basic Theory
Wei, Guo-Wei
2013-01-01
This work extends our earlier two-domain formulation of a differential geometry based multiscale paradigm into a multidomain theory, which endows us the ability to simultaneously accommodate multiphysical descriptions of aqueous chemical, physical and biological systems, such as fuel cells, solar cells, nanofluidics, ion channels, viruses, RNA polymerases, molecular motors and large macromolecular complexes. The essential idea is to make use of the differential geometry theory of surfaces as a natural means to geometrically separate the macroscopic domain of solvent from the microscopic domain of solute, and dynamically couple continuum and discrete descriptions. Our main strategy is to construct energy functionals to put on an equal footing of multiphysics, including polar (i.e., electrostatic) solvation, nonpolar solvation, chemical potential, quantum mechanics, fluid mechanics, molecular mechanics, coarse grained dynamics and elastic dynamics. The variational principle is applied to the energy functionals to derive desirable governing equations, such as multidomain Laplace-Beltrami (LB) equations for macromolecular morphologies, multidomain Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) equation or Poisson equation for electrostatic potential, generalized Nernst-Planck (NP) equations for the dynamics of charged solvent species, generalized Navier-Stokes (NS) equation for fluid dynamics, generalized Newton's equations for molecular dynamics (MD) or coarse-grained dynamics and equation of motion for elastic dynamics. Unlike the classical PB equation, our PB equation is an integral-differential equation due to solvent-solute interactions. To illustrate the proposed formalism, we have explicitly constructed three models, a multidomain solvation model, a multidomain charge transport model and a multidomain chemo-electro-fluid-MD-elastic model. Each solute domain is equipped with distinct surface tension, pressure, dielectric function, and charge density distribution. In addition to long
A Multiphysics and Multiscale Software Environment for Modeling Astrophysical Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Portegies Zwart, Simon; McMillan, Steve; O'Nualláin, Breanndán; Heggie, Douglas; Lombardi, James; Hut, Piet; Banerjee, Sambaran; Belkus, Houria; Fragos, Tassos; Fregeau, John; Fuji, Michiko; Gaburov, Evghenii; Glebbeek, Evert; Groen, Derek; Harfst, Stefan; Izzard, Rob; Jurić, Mario; Justham, Stephen; Teuben, Peter; van Bever, Joris; Yaron, Ofer; Zemp, Marcel
We present MUSE, a software framework for tying together existing computational tools for different astrophysical domains into a single multiphysics, multiscale workload. MUSE facilitates the coupling of existing codes written in different languages by providing inter-language tools and by specifying an interface between each module and the framework that represents a balance between generality and computational efficiency. This approach allows scientists to use combinations of codes to solve highly-coupled problems without the need to write new codes for other domains or significantly alter their existing codes. MUSE currently incorporates the domains of stellar dynamics, stellar evolution and stellar hydrodynamics for a generalized stellar systems workload. MUSE has now reached a "Noah's Ark" milestone, with two available numerical solvers for each domain. MUSE can treat small stellar associations, galaxies and everything in between, including planetary systems, dense stellar clusters and galactic nuclei. Here we demonstrate an examples calculated with MUSE: the merger of two galaxies. In addition we demonstrate the working of MUSE on a distributed computer. The current MUSE code base is publicly available as open source at http://muse.li.
Multiphysics methods development for high temperature gas reactor analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seker, Volkan
Multiphysics computational methods were developed to perform design and safety analysis of the next generation Pebble Bed High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors. A suite of code modules was developed to solve the coupled thermal-hydraulics and neutronics field equations. The thermal-hydraulics module is based on the three dimensional solution of the mass, momentum and energy equations in cylindrical coordinates within the framework of the porous media method. The neutronics module is a part of the PARCS (Purdue Advanced Reactor Core Simulator) code and provides a fine mesh finite difference solution of the neutron diffusion equation in three dimensional cylindrical coordinates. Coupling of the two modules was performed by mapping the solution variables from one module to the other. Mapping is performed automatically in the code system by the use of a common material mesh in both modules. The standalone validation of the thermal-hydraulics module was performed with several cases of the SANA experiment and the standalone thermal-hydraulics exercise of the PBMR-400 benchmark problem. The standalone neutronics module was validated by performing the relevant exercises of the PBMR-268 and PBMR-400 benchmark problems. Additionally, the validation of the coupled code system was performed by analyzing several steady state and transient cases of the OECD/NEA PBMR-400 benchmark problem.
Multiphysics/Multiscale Coupling of Microturbulence and MHD Equiliria
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, W. W.; Startsev, E. A.; Hudson, S. R.; Wang, W. X.; Ethier, S.
2015-11-01
We propose to investigate the multiphysics and multiscale coupling between a time-dependent gyrokinetic ``microscopic'' code for studying gyroradius-scale turbulence, associated with global ion-acoustic and shear-Alfven waves, and a ``macroscopic'' code for computing large-scale global equilibria based on the time-independent MHD equations, in order to identify a family of self-consistent global MHD equilibria that can minimize the electrostatic potentials responsible for turbulent transport by passing global parameters between the two codes. The codes involved are 1) the electromagnetic version of the GTS code for studying microturbulence, and 2) the SPEC code for calculating three-dimensional MHD equilibria with or without chaotic fields. This concept is based on a newly found correlation between the gyrokinetic evolution and the MHD equilibrium when the electrostatic potential vanishes. The proposed work involves the scales ranging from the electron skin depth to the machine size, and includes the physics of both gyrokinetics and MHD. This work is supported by US DoE # DE-AC02-09CH11466.
Solid Oxide Fuel Cell - Multi-Physics and GUI
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2013-10-10
SOFC-MP is a simulation tool developed at PNNL to evaluate the tightly coupled multi-physical phenomena in SOFCs. The purpose of the tool is to allow SOFC manufacturers to numerically test changes in planar stack design to meet DOE technical targets. The SOFC-MP 2D module is designed for computational efficiency to enable rapid engineering evaluations for operation of tall symmetric stacks. It can quickly compute distributions for the current density, voltage, temperature, and species composition inmore » tall stacks with co-flow or counter-flow orientations. The 3D module computes distributions in entire 3D domain and handles all planner configurations: co-flow, counter-flow, and cross-flow. The detailed data from 3D simulation can be used as input for structural analysis. SOFC-MP GUI integrates both 2D and 3D modules, and it provides user friendly pre-processing and post-processing capabilities.« less
A General Framework for Multiphysics Modeling Based on Numerical Averaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lunati, I.; Tomin, P.
2014-12-01
In the last years, multiphysics (hybrid) modeling has attracted increasing attention as a tool to bridge the gap between pore-scale processes and a continuum description at the meter-scale (laboratory scale). This approach is particularly appealing for complex nonlinear processes, such as multiphase flow, reactive transport, density-driven instabilities, and geomechanical coupling. We present a general framework that can be applied to all these classes of problems. The method is based on ideas from the Multiscale Finite-Volume method (MsFV), which has been originally developed for Darcy-scale application. Recently, we have reformulated MsFV starting with a local-global splitting, which allows us to retain the original degree of coupling for the local problems and to use spatiotemporal adaptive strategies. The new framework is based on the simple idea that different characteristic temporal scales are inherited from different spatial scales, and the global and the local problems are solved with different temporal resolutions. The global (coarse-scale) problem is constructed based on a numerical volume-averaging paradigm and a continuum (Darcy-scale) description is obtained by introducing additional simplifications (e.g., by assuming that pressure is the only independent variable at the coarse scale, we recover an extended Darcy's law). We demonstrate that it is possible to adaptively and dynamically couple the Darcy-scale and the pore-scale descriptions of multiphase flow in a single conceptual and computational framework. Pore-scale problems are solved only in the active front region where fluid distribution changes with time. In the rest of the domain, only a coarse description is employed. This framework can be applied to other important problems such as reactive transport and crack propagation. As it is based on a numerical upscaling paradigm, our method can be used to explore the limits of validity of macroscopic models and to illuminate the meaning of
Modelling transport phenomena in a multi-physics context
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marra, Francesco
2015-01-01
Innovative heating research on cooking, pasteurization/sterilization, defrosting, thawing and drying, often focuses on areas which include the assessment of processing time, evaluation of heating uniformity, studying the impact on quality attributes of the final product as well as considering the energy efficiency of these heating processes. During the last twenty years, so-called electro-heating-processes (radio-frequency - RF, microwaves - MW and ohmic - OH) gained a wide interest in industrial food processing and many applications using the above mentioned technologies have been developed with the aim of reducing processing time, improving process efficiency and, in many cases, the heating uniformity. In the area of innovative heating, electro-heating accounts for a considerable portion of both the scientific literature and commercial applications, which can be subdivided into either direct electro-heating (as in the case of OH heating) where electrical current is applied directly to the food or indirect electro-heating (e.g. MW and RF heating) where the electrical energy is firstly converted to electromagnetic radiation which subsequently generates heat within a product. New software packages, which make easier solution of PDEs based mathematical models, and new computers, capable of larger RAM and more efficient CPU performances, allowed an increasing interest about modelling transport phenomena in systems and processes - as the ones encountered in food processing - that can be complex in terms of geometry, composition, boundary conditions but also - as in the case of electro-heating assisted applications - in terms of interaction with other physical phenomena such as displacement of electric or magnetic field. This paper deals with the description of approaches used in modelling transport phenomena in a multi-physics context such as RF, MW and OH assisted heating.
Modelling transport phenomena in a multi-physics context
Marra, Francesco
2015-01-22
Innovative heating research on cooking, pasteurization/sterilization, defrosting, thawing and drying, often focuses on areas which include the assessment of processing time, evaluation of heating uniformity, studying the impact on quality attributes of the final product as well as considering the energy efficiency of these heating processes. During the last twenty years, so-called electro-heating-processes (radio-frequency - RF, microwaves - MW and ohmic - OH) gained a wide interest in industrial food processing and many applications using the above mentioned technologies have been developed with the aim of reducing processing time, improving process efficiency and, in many cases, the heating uniformity. In the area of innovative heating, electro-heating accounts for a considerable portion of both the scientific literature and commercial applications, which can be subdivided into either direct electro-heating (as in the case of OH heating) where electrical current is applied directly to the food or indirect electro-heating (e.g. MW and RF heating) where the electrical energy is firstly converted to electromagnetic radiation which subsequently generates heat within a product. New software packages, which make easier solution of PDEs based mathematical models, and new computers, capable of larger RAM and more efficient CPU performances, allowed an increasing interest about modelling transport phenomena in systems and processes - as the ones encountered in food processing - that can be complex in terms of geometry, composition, boundary conditions but also - as in the case of electro-heating assisted applications - in terms of interaction with other physical phenomena such as displacement of electric or magnetic field. This paper deals with the description of approaches used in modelling transport phenomena in a multi-physics context such as RF, MW and OH assisted heating.
Derek Gaston; Luanjing Guo; Glen Hansen; Hai Huang; Richard Johnson; Dana Knoll; Chris Newman; Hyeong Kae Park; Robert Podgorney; Michael Tonks; Richard Williamson
2012-09-01
This paper is the second part of a two part sequence on multiphysics algorithms and software. The first [1] focused on the algorithms; this part treats the multiphysics software framework and applications based on it. Tight coupling is typically designed into the analysis application at inception, as such an application is strongly tied to a composite nonlinear solver that arrives at the final solution by treating all equations simultaneously. The application must also take care to minimize both time and space error between the physics, particularly if more than one mesh representation is needed in the solution process. This paper presents an application framework that was specifically designed to support tightly coupled multiphysics analysis. The Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) is based on the Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov (JFNK) method combined with physics-based preconditioning to provide the underlying mathematical structure for applications. The report concludes with the presentation of a host of nuclear, energy, and environmental applications that demonstrate the efficacy of the approach and the utility of a well-designed multiphysics framework.
Jean C. Ragusa; Vijay Mahadevan; Vincent A. Mousseau
2009-05-01
High-fidelity modeling of nuclear reactors requires the solution of a nonlinear coupled multi-physics stiff problem with widely varying time and length scales that need to be resolved correctly. A numerical method that converges the implicit nonlinear terms to a small tolerance is often referred to as nonlinearly consistent (or tightly coupled). This nonlinear consistency is still lacking in the vast majority of coupling techniques today. We present a tightly coupled multiphysics framework that tackles this issue and present code-verification and convergence analyses in space and time for several models of nonlinear coupled physics.
ACME algorithms for contact in a multiphysics environment API version 2.2.
Heinstein, Martin Wilhelm; Glass, Micheal W.; Gullerud, Arne S.; Brown, Kevin H.; Voth, Thomas Eugene; Jones, Reese E.
2004-07-01
An effort is underway at Sandia National Laboratories to develop a library of algorithms to search for potential interactions between surfaces represented by analytic and discretized topological entities. This effort is also developing algorithms to determine forces due to these interactions for transient dynamics applications. This document describes the Application Programming Interface (API) for the ACME (Algorithms for Contact in a Multiphysics Environment) library.
Optimal Control of Thermo--Fluid Phenomena in Variable Domains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Volkov, Oleg; Protas, Bartosz
2008-11-01
This presentation concerns our continued research on adjoint--based optimization of viscous incompressible flows (the Navier--Stokes problem) coupled with heat conduction involving change of phase (the Stefan problem), and occurring in domains with variable boundaries. This problem is motivated by optimization of advanced welding techniques used in automotive manufacturing, where the goal is to determine an optimal heat input, so as to obtain a desired shape of the weld pool surface upon solidification. We argue that computation of sensitivities (gradients) in such free--boundary problems requires the use of the shape--differential calculus as a key ingredient. We also show that, with such tools available, the computational solution of the direct and inverse (optimization) problems can in fact be achieved in a similar manner and in a comparable computational time. Our presentation will address certain mathematical and computational aspects of the method. As an illustration we will consider the two--phase Stefan problem with contact point singularities where our approach allows us to obtain a thermodynamically consistent solution.
Electronic properties of graphene: A multiphysics simulation approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sule, Nishant
Graphene is a single atomic layer of hexagonally arranged carbon atoms. Since the experimental discovery of graphene in 2004, a wealth of research has been conducted on studying its electronic and optical properties, as well as on developing novel applications. To explaining the typically observed electronic properties of graphene and to evaluate its potential in novel applications it is vital to quantitatively examine the intrinsic limits and the influence of the dominant extrinsic factors on the electromagnetic response of this material. The two-dimensional nature of graphene makes it vulnerable to the influence of a host of extrinsic factors, such as the interface phonons from the supporting substrate and trapped charged impurities near the interface between graphene and the substrate. In this dissertation, the electronic transport properties of graphene are examined in detail using multiphysics numerical simulations. Specifically, the following three aspects are studied: electron-phonon scattering rates and the intrinsic mobility, effect of clustered impurities on carrier transport, and substrate-dependent THz-frequency carrier transport. To calculate the electron-phonon scattering rates and predict the intrinsic mobility of graphene, the overlap between the electronic tight-binding Bloch wave functions (TB BWF), up to the third nearest neighbors, are used. Room-temperature carrier dynamics in suspended and supported graphene in the presence of different impurity distributions and densities is simulated using a numerical method that combines semiclassical carrier transport, using ensemble Monte-Carlo (EMC), with electrodynamics, using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique and molecular dynamics (MD). The electron-phonon scattering rates calculated using TB BWFs provide a better estimate of the ``bare'' acoustic and optical deformation potential constants (Dac = 12eV, Dop = 5 x 109 eV cm-1), while the intrinsic mobility calculated exceeds
Procassini, R.J.
1997-12-31
The fine-scale, multi-space resolution that is envisioned for accurate simulations of complex weapons systems in three spatial dimensions implies flop-rate and memory-storage requirements that will only be obtained in the near future through the use of parallel computational techniques. Since the Monte Carlo transport models in these simulations usually stress both of these computational resources, they are prime candidates for parallelization. The MONACO Monte Carlo transport package, which is currently under development at LLNL, will utilize two types of parallelism within the context of a multi-physics design code: decomposition of the spatial domain across processors (spatial parallelism) and distribution of particles in a given spatial subdomain across additional processors (particle parallelism). This implementation of the package will utilize explicit data communication between domains (message passing). Such a parallel implementation of a Monte Carlo transport model will result in non-deterministic communication patterns. The communication of particles between subdomains during a Monte Carlo time step may require a significant level of effort to achieve a high parallel efficiency.
Gasmi, A.; Sprague, M. A.; Jonkman, J. M.; Jones, W. B.
2013-02-01
In this paper we examine the stability and accuracy of numerical algorithms for coupling time-dependent multi-physics modules relevant to computer-aided engineering (CAE) of wind turbines. This work is motivated by an in-progress major revision of FAST, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) premier aero-elastic CAE simulation tool. We employ two simple examples as test systems, while algorithm descriptions are kept general. Coupled-system governing equations are framed in monolithic and partitioned representations as differential-algebraic equations. Explicit and implicit loose partition coupling is examined. In explicit coupling, partitions are advanced in time from known information. In implicit coupling, there is dependence on other-partition data at the next time step; coupling is accomplished through a predictor-corrector (PC) approach. Numerical time integration of coupled ordinary-differential equations (ODEs) is accomplished with one of three, fourth-order fixed-time-increment methods: Runge-Kutta (RK), Adams-Bashforth (AB), and Adams-Bashforth-Moulton (ABM). Through numerical experiments it is shown that explicit coupling can be dramatically less stable and less accurate than simulations performed with the monolithic system. However, PC implicit coupling restored stability and fourth-order accuracy for ABM; only second-order accuracy was achieved with RK integration. For systems without constraints, explicit time integration with AB and explicit loose coupling exhibited desired accuracy and stability.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Di Luca, Alejandro; Flaounas, Emmanouil; Drobinski, Philippe; Brossier, Cindy Lebeaupin
2014-11-01
The use of high resolution atmosphere-ocean coupled regional climate models to study possible future climate changes in the Mediterranean Sea requires an accurate simulation of the atmospheric component of the water budget (i.e., evaporation, precipitation and runoff). A specific configuration of the version 3.1 of the weather research and forecasting (WRF) regional climate model was shown to systematically overestimate the Mediterranean Sea water budget mainly due to an excess of evaporation (~1,450 mm yr-1) compared with observed estimations (~1,150 mm yr-1). In this article, a 70-member multi-physics ensemble is used to try to understand the relative importance of various sub-grid scale processes in the Mediterranean Sea water budget and to evaluate its representation by comparing simulated results with observed-based estimates. The physics ensemble was constructed by performing 70 1-year long simulations using version 3.3 of the WRF model by combining six cumulus, four surface/planetary boundary layer and three radiation schemes. Results show that evaporation variability across the multi-physics ensemble (˜10 % of the mean evaporation) is dominated by the choice of the surface layer scheme that explains more than ˜70 % of the total variance and that the overestimation of evaporation in WRF simulations is generally related with an overestimation of surface exchange coefficients due to too large values of the surface roughness parameter and/or the simulation of too unstable surface conditions. Although the influence of radiation schemes on evaporation variability is small (˜13 % of the total variance), radiation schemes strongly influence exchange coefficients and vertical humidity gradients near the surface due to modifications of temperature lapse rates. The precipitation variability across the physics ensemble (˜35 % of the mean precipitation) is dominated by the choice of both cumulus (˜55 % of the total variance) and planetary boundary layer (˜32 % of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Tian; Yu, Wenbin
2009-12-01
A multiphysics micromechanics model is developed to predict the effective properties as well as the local fields of periodic smart materials responsive to fully coupled electric, magnetic, thermal and mechanical fields. This work is based on the framework of the variational asymptotic method for unit cell homogenization (VAMUCH), a recently developed micromechanics modeling scheme. To treat the general microstructure of smart materials, we implemented this model using the finite element technique. Several examples of smart materials are used to demonstrate the application of the proposed model for prediction of multiphysical behavior. A preliminary version of this paper was presented at the 2008 ASME Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems, Ellicott City, MD, USA.
Analysis of image formation in optical coherence elastography using a multiphysics approach
Chin, Lixin; Curatolo, Andrea; Kennedy, Brendan F.; Doyle, Barry J.; Munro, Peter R. T.; McLaughlin, Robert A.; Sampson, David D.
2014-01-01
Image formation in optical coherence elastography (OCE) results from a combination of two processes: the mechanical deformation imparted to the sample and the detection of the resulting displacement using optical coherence tomography (OCT). We present a multiphysics model of these processes, validated by simulating strain elastograms acquired using phase-sensitive compression OCE, and demonstrating close correspondence with experimental results. Using the model, we present evidence that the approximation commonly used to infer sample displacement in phase-sensitive OCE is invalidated for smaller deformations than has been previously considered, significantly affecting the measurement precision, as quantified by the displacement sensitivity and the elastogram signal-to-noise ratio. We show how the precision of OCE is affected not only by OCT shot-noise, as is usually considered, but additionally by phase decorrelation due to the sample deformation. This multiphysics model provides a general framework that could be used to compare and contrast different OCE techniques. PMID:25401007
Verification of a Multiphysics Toolkit against the Magnetized Target Fusion Concept
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thomas, Scott; Perrell, Eric; Liron, Caroline; Chiroux, Robert; Cassibry, Jason; Adams, Robert B.
2005-01-01
In the spring of 2004 the Advanced Concepts team at MSFC embarked on an ambitious project to develop a suite of modeling routines that would interact with one another. The tools would each numerically model a portion of any advanced propulsion system. The tools were divided by physics categories, hence the name multiphysics toolset. Currently most of the anticipated modeling tools have been created and integrated. Results are given in this paper for both a quarter nozzle with chemically reacting flow and the interaction of two plasma jets representative of a Magnetized Target Fusion device. The results have not been calibrated against real data as of yet, but this paper demonstrates the current capability of the multiphysics tool and planned future enhancements
COMSOL-based Multiphysics Simulations to Support HFIR s Conversion to LEU Fuel
Jain, Prashant K; Freels, James D; Cook, David Howard
2011-01-01
In this paper, development of at least one form of the COMSOL-based modeling framework for the HFIR is presented, key simulation steps are identified and several milestones achieved towards a coupled multi-physics capability are highlighted. COMSOL-based multi-physics simulation capability is able to answer the need for predictive 3D simulations of HFIR s involute plate and channels. Step-by-step development and analyses of the COMSOL models for the single and multi-channels will lead towards the desired full-core simulation capability for the HFIR. With very few experiments planned to support the conversion process, these 3D simulations will become the basis for the nuclear safety analysis of the HFIR s LEU fuel core.
Multiphysics design optimization for aerospace applications: Case study on helicopter loading hanger
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xue, Hui; Khawaja, H.; Moatamedi, M.
2014-12-01
This paper presents the Multiphysics technique applied in the design optimization of a loading hanger for an aerial crane. In this study, design optimization is applied on the geometric modelling of a part being used in an aerial crane operation. A set of dimensional and loading requirements are provided. Various geometric models are built using SolidWorks® Computer Aided Design (CAD) Package. In addition, Finite Element Method (FEM) is applied to study these geometric models using ANSYS® Multiphysics package. Appropriate material is chosen based on the strength to weight ratio. Efforts are made to optimize the geometry to reduce the weight of the part. Based on the achieved results, conclusions are drawn.
Statistical modeling support for calibration of a multiphysics model of subcooled boiling flows
Bui, A. V.; Dinh, N. T.; Nourgaliev, R. R.; Williams, B. J.
2013-07-01
Nuclear reactor system analyses rely on multiple complex models which describe the physics of reactor neutronics, thermal hydraulics, structural mechanics, coolant physico-chemistry, etc. Such coupled multiphysics models require extensive calibration and validation before they can be used in practical system safety study and/or design/technology optimization. This paper presents an application of statistical modeling and Bayesian inference in calibrating an example multiphysics model of subcooled boiling flows which is widely used in reactor thermal hydraulic analysis. The presence of complex coupling of physics in such a model together with the large number of model inputs, parameters and multidimensional outputs poses significant challenge to the model calibration method. However, the method proposed in this work is shown to be able to overcome these difficulties while allowing data (observation) uncertainty and model inadequacy to be taken into consideration. (authors)
Applications of ANSYS/Multiphysics at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Loughlin, Jim
2007-01-01
This viewgraph presentation reviews some of the uses that the ANSYS/Multiphysics system is used for at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Some of the uses of the ANSYS system is used for is MEMS Structural Analysis of Micro-mirror Array for the James Web Space Telescope (JWST), Micro-shutter Array for JWST, MEMS FP Tunable Filter, AstroE2 Micro-calorimeter. Various views of these projects are shown in this presentation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rutqvist, Jonny; Tsang, Chin-Fu
2012-09-01
The site investigations at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, have provided us with an outstanding data set, one that has significantly advanced our knowledge of multiphysics processes in partially saturated fractured geological media. Such advancement was made possible, foremost, by substantial investments in multiyear field experiments that enabled the study of thermally driven multiphysics and testing of numerical models at a large spatial scale. The development of coupled-process models within the project have resulted in a number of new, advanced multiphysics numerical models that are today applied over a wide range of geoscientific research and geoengineering applications. Using such models, the potential impact of thermal-hydrological-mechanical (THM) multiphysics processes over the long-term (e.g., 10,000 years) could be predicted and bounded with some degree of confidence. The fact that the rock mass at Yucca Mountain is intensively fractured enabled continuum models to be used, although discontinuum models were also applied and are better suited for analyzing some issues, especially those related to predictions of rockfall within open excavations. The work showed that in situ tests (rather than small-scale laboratory experiments alone) are essential for determining appropriate input parameters for multiphysics models of fractured rocks, especially related to parameters defining how permeability might evolve under changing stress and temperature. A significant laboratory test program at Yucca Mountain also made important contributions to the field of rock mechanics, showing a unique relation between porosity and mechanical properties, a time dependency of strength that is significant for long-term excavation stability, a decreasing rock strength with sample size using very large core experiments, and a strong temperature dependency of the thermal expansion coefficient for temperatures up to 200°C. The analysis of in situ heater experiments showed that fracture
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rom, Mark Carl
2011-01-01
Grades matter. College grading systems, however, are often ad hoc and prone to mistakes. This essay focuses on one factor that contributes to high-quality grading systems: grading accuracy (or "efficiency"). I proceed in several steps. First, I discuss the elements of "efficient" (i.e., accurate) grading. Next, I present analytical results…
Accurate monotone cubic interpolation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huynh, Hung T.
1991-01-01
Monotone piecewise cubic interpolants are simple and effective. They are generally third-order accurate, except near strict local extrema where accuracy degenerates to second-order due to the monotonicity constraint. Algorithms for piecewise cubic interpolants, which preserve monotonicity as well as uniform third and fourth-order accuracy are presented. The gain of accuracy is obtained by relaxing the monotonicity constraint in a geometric framework in which the median function plays a crucial role.
Accurate Finite Difference Algorithms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goodrich, John W.
1996-01-01
Two families of finite difference algorithms for computational aeroacoustics are presented and compared. All of the algorithms are single step explicit methods, they have the same order of accuracy in both space and time, with examples up to eleventh order, and they have multidimensional extensions. One of the algorithm families has spectral like high resolution. Propagation with high order and high resolution algorithms can produce accurate results after O(10(exp 6)) periods of propagation with eight grid points per wavelength.
Multi-Scale Multi-physics Methods Development for the Calculation of Hot-Spots in the NGNP
Downar, Thomas; Seker, Volkan
2013-04-30
Radioactive gaseous fission products are released out of the fuel element at a significantly higher rate when the fuel temperature exceeds 1600°C in high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). Therefore, it is of paramount importance to accurately predict the peak fuel temperature during all operational and design-basis accident conditions. The current methods used to predict the peak fuel temperature in HTGRs, such as the Next-Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), estimate the average fuel temperature in a computational mesh modeling hundreds of fuel pebbles or a fuel assembly in a pebble-bed reactor (PBR) or prismatic block type reactor (PMR), respectively. Experiments conducted in operating HTGRs indicate considerable uncertainty in the current methods and correlations used to predict actual temperatures. The objective of this project is to improve the accuracy in the prediction of local "hot" spots by developing multi-scale, multi-physics methods and implementing them within the framework of established codes used for NGNP analysis.The multi-scale approach which this project will implement begins with defining suitable scales for a physical and mathematical model and then deriving and applying the appropriate boundary conditions between scales. The macro scale is the greatest length that describes the entire reactor, whereas the meso scale models only a fuel block in a prismatic reactor and ten to hundreds of pebbles in a pebble bed reactor. The smallest scale is the micro scale--the level of a fuel kernel of the pebble in a PBR and fuel compact in a PMR--which needs to be resolved in order to calculate the peak temperature in a fuel kernel.
Analysis of Material Sample Heated by Impinging Hot Hydrogen Jet in a Non-Nuclear Tester
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, Ten-See; Foote, John; Litchford, Ron
2006-01-01
A computational conjugate heat transfer methodology was developed and anchored with data obtained from a hot-hydrogen jet heated, non-nuclear materials tester, as a first step towards developing an efficient and accurate multiphysics, thermo-fluid computational methodology to predict environments for hypothetical solid-core, nuclear thermal engine thrust chamber. The computational methodology is based on a multidimensional, finite-volume, turbulent, chemically reacting, thermally radiating, unstructured-grid, and pressure-based formulation. The multiphysics invoked in this study include hydrogen dissociation kinetics and thermodynamics, turbulent flow, convective and thermal radiative, and conjugate heat transfers. Predicted hot hydrogen jet and material surface temperatures were compared with those of measurement. Predicted solid temperatures were compared with those obtained with a standard heat transfer code. The interrogation of physics revealed that reactions of hydrogen dissociation and recombination are highly correlated with local temperature and are necessary for accurate prediction of the hot-hydrogen jet temperature.
Specification of the Advanced Burner Test Reactor Multi-Physics Coupling Demonstration Problem
Shemon, E. R.; Grudzinski, J. J.; Lee, C. H.; Thomas, J. W.; Yu, Y. Q.
2015-12-21
This document specifies the multi-physics nuclear reactor demonstration problem using the SHARP software package developed by NEAMS. The SHARP toolset simulates the key coupled physics phenomena inside a nuclear reactor. The PROTEUS neutronics code models the neutron transport within the system, the Nek5000 computational fluid dynamics code models the fluid flow and heat transfer, and the DIABLO structural mechanics code models structural and mechanical deformation. The three codes are coupled to the MOAB mesh framework which allows feedback from neutronics, fluid mechanics, and mechanical deformation in a compatible format.
Progress on the Multiphysics Capabilities of the Parallel Electromagnetic ACE3P Simulation Suite
Kononenko, Oleksiy
2015-03-26
ACE3P is a 3D parallel simulation suite that is being developed at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. Effectively utilizing supercomputer resources, ACE3P has become a key tool for the coupled electromagnetic, thermal and mechanical research and design of particle accelerators. Based on the existing finite-element infrastructure, a massively parallel eigensolver is developed for modal analysis of mechanical structures. It complements a set of the multiphysics tools in ACE3P and, in particular, can be used for the comprehensive study of microphonics in accelerating cavities ensuring the operational reliability of a particle accelerator.
Parallel adaptive Cartesian upwind methods for shock-driven multiphysics simulation
Deiterding, Ralf
2011-01-01
The multiphysics fluid-structure interaction simulation of shock-loaded thin-walled structures requires the dynamic coupling of a shock-capturing flow solver to a solid mechanics solver for large deformations. By combining a Cartesian embedded boundary approach with dynamic mesh adaptation a generic software framework for such flow solvers has been constructed that allows easy exchange of the specific hydrodynamic finite volume upwind scheme and coupling to various explicit finite element solid dynamics solvers. The paper gives an overview of the computational approach and presents first simulations that couple the software to the general purpose solid dynamics code DYNA3D.
Thermal Analysis of SRF Cavity Couplers Using Parallel Multiphysics Tool TEM3P
Akcelik, V; Lee, L.-Q.; Li, Z.; Ng, C.-K.; Ko, K.; Cheng, G.; Rimmer, R.; Wang, H.; /Jefferson Lab
2009-05-20
SLAC has developed a multi-physics simulation code TEM3P for simulating integrated effects of electromagnetic, thermal and structural loads. TEM3P shares the same software infrastructure with SLAC's parallel finite element electromagnetic codes, thus enabling all physics simulations within a single framework. The finite-element approach allows high-fidelity, high-accuracy simulations and the parallel implementation facilitates large-scale computation with fast turnaround times. In this paper, TEM3P is used to analyze thermal loading at coupler end of the JLAB SRF cavity.
Thermal Analysis of SRF Cavity Couplers Using Parallel Multiphysics Tool TEM3P
Akcelik, V, Lee, L.-Q., Li, Z., Ng, C.-K., Ko, K.,Cheng, G., Rimmer, R., Wang, H.
2009-05-01
SLAC has developed a multi-physics simulation code TEM3P for simulating integrated effects of electromagnetic, thermal and structural loads. TEM3P shares the same software infrastructure with SLAC’s paralell finite element electromagnetic codes, thus enabling all physics simulations within a single framework. The finite-element approach allows high fidelity, high-accuracy simulations and the parallel implementation facilitates large-scale computation with fast turnaround times. In this paper, TEM3P is used to analyze thermal loading at coupler end of the JLAB SRF cavity.
Object-oriented design patterns for multiphysics modeling in Fortran 2003.
Adalsteinsson, Helgi; Rouson, Damian; Xia, Jim
2008-04-01
The objectives of this presentation are to: catalog object-oriented software design patterns for multiphysics modeling; demonstrate them in Fortran 2003 and C++; and compare the capabilities of the two languages. The conclusions are: the presented patterns integrate multiple abstractions, allowing much of the numerics and physics to be determined at compile-time or runtime; negligible lines of Fortran emulate the required C++ features; and C++ requires considerable effort (or considerable reliance on libraries to relive that effort) to emulate the required Fortran 2003 features.
Design and multiphysics analysis of a 176Â MHz continuous-wave radio-frequency quadrupole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kutsaev, S. V.; Mustapha, B.; Ostroumov, P. N.; Barcikowski, A.; Schrage, D.; Rodnizki, J.; Berkovits, D.
2014-07-01
We have developed a new design for a 176 MHz cw radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) for the SARAF upgrade project. At this frequency, the proposed design is a conventional four-vane structure. The main design goals are to provide the highest possible shunt impedance while limiting the required rf power to about 120 kW for reliable cw operation, and the length to about 4 meters. If built as designed, the proposed RFQ will be the first four-vane cw RFQ built as a single cavity (no resonant coupling required) that does not require π-mode stabilizing loops or dipole rods. For this, we rely on very detailed 3D simulations of all aspects of the structure and the level of machining precision achieved on the recently developed ATLAS upgrade RFQ. A full 3D model of the structure including vane modulation was developed. The design was optimized using electromagnetic and multiphysics simulations. Following the choice of the vane type and geometry, the vane undercuts were optimized to produce a flat field along the structure. The final design has good mode separation and should not need dipole rods if built as designed, but their effect was studied in the case of manufacturing errors. The tuners were also designed and optimized to tune the main mode without affecting the field flatness. Following the electromagnetic (EM) design optimization, a multiphysics engineering analysis of the structure was performed. The multiphysics analysis is a coupled electromagnetic, thermal and mechanical analysis. The cooling channels, including their paths and sizes, were optimized based on the limiting temperature and deformation requirements. The frequency sensitivity to the RFQ body and vane cooling water temperatures was carefully studied in order to use it for frequency fine-tuning. Finally, an inductive rf power coupler design based on the ATLAS RFQ coupler was developed and simulated. The EM design optimization was performed using cst Microwave Studio and the results were verified using
Henson, V E
2003-02-06
The purpose of this research project was to investigate, design, and implement new algebraic multigrid (AMG) algorithms to enable the effective use of AMG in large-scale multiphysics simulation codes. These problems are extremely large; storage requirements and excessive run-time make direct solvers infeasible. The problems are highly ill-conditioned, so that existing iterative solvers either fail or converge very slowly. While existing AMG algorithms have been shown to be robust and stable for a large class of problems, there are certain problems of great interest to the Laboratory for which no effective algorithm existed prior to this research.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Itano, Wayne M.; Ramsey, Norman F.
1993-07-01
The paper discusses current methods for accurate measurements of time by conventional atomic clocks, with particular attention given to the principles of operation of atomic-beam frequency standards, atomic hydrogen masers, and atomic fountain and to the potential use of strings of trapped mercury ions as a time device more stable than conventional atomic clocks. The areas of application of the ultraprecise and ultrastable time-measuring devices that tax the capacity of modern atomic clocks include radio astronomy and tests of relativity. The paper also discusses practical applications of ultraprecise clocks, such as navigation of space vehicles and pinpointing the exact position of ships and other objects on earth using the GPS.
Accurate quantum chemical calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.
1989-01-01
An important goal of quantum chemical calculations is to provide an understanding of chemical bonding and molecular electronic structure. A second goal, the prediction of energy differences to chemical accuracy, has been much harder to attain. First, the computational resources required to achieve such accuracy are very large, and second, it is not straightforward to demonstrate that an apparently accurate result, in terms of agreement with experiment, does not result from a cancellation of errors. Recent advances in electronic structure methodology, coupled with the power of vector supercomputers, have made it possible to solve a number of electronic structure problems exactly using the full configuration interaction (FCI) method within a subspace of the complete Hilbert space. These exact results can be used to benchmark approximate techniques that are applicable to a wider range of chemical and physical problems. The methodology of many-electron quantum chemistry is reviewed. Methods are considered in detail for performing FCI calculations. The application of FCI methods to several three-electron problems in molecular physics are discussed. A number of benchmark applications of FCI wave functions are described. Atomic basis sets and the development of improved methods for handling very large basis sets are discussed: these are then applied to a number of chemical and spectroscopic problems; to transition metals; and to problems involving potential energy surfaces. Although the experiences described give considerable grounds for optimism about the general ability to perform accurate calculations, there are several problems that have proved less tractable, at least with current computer resources, and these and possible solutions are discussed.
Development of an Efficient CFD Model for Nuclear Thermal Thrust Chamber Assembly Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cheng, Gary; Ito, Yasushi; Ross, Doug; Chen, Yen-Sen; Wang, Ten-See
2007-01-01
The objective of this effort is to develop an efficient and accurate computational methodology to predict both detailed thermo-fluid environments and global characteristics of the internal ballistics for a hypothetical solid-core nuclear thermal thrust chamber assembly (NTTCA). Several numerical and multi-physics thermo-fluid models, such as real fluid, chemically reacting, turbulence, conjugate heat transfer, porosity, and power generation, were incorporated into an unstructured-grid, pressure-based computational fluid dynamics solver as the underlying computational methodology. The numerical simulations of detailed thermo-fluid environment of a single flow element provide a mechanism to estimate the thermal stress and possible occurrence of the mid-section corrosion of the solid core. In addition, the numerical results of the detailed simulation were employed to fine tune the porosity model mimic the pressure drop and thermal load of the coolant flow through a single flow element. The use of the tuned porosity model enables an efficient simulation of the entire NTTCA system, and evaluating its performance during the design cycle.
Conductance Thin Film Model of Flexible Organic Thin Film Device using COMSOL Multiphysics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carradero-Santiago, Carolyn; Vedrine-Pauléus, Josee
We developed a virtual model to analyze the electrical conductivity of multilayered thin films placed above a graphene conducting and flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. The organic layers of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) as a hole conducting layer, poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT), as a p-type, phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and as n-type, with aluminum as a top conductor. COMSOL Multiphysics was the software we used to develop the virtual model to analyze potential variations and conductivity through the thin-film layers. COMSOL Multiphysics software allows simulation and modeling of physical phenomena represented by differential equations such as heat transfer, fluid flow, electromagnetism, and structural mechanics. In this work, using the AC/DC, electric currents module we defined the geometry of the model and properties for each of the six layers: PET/graphene/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT/PCBM/aluminum. We analyzed the model with varying thicknesses of graphene and active layers (P3HT/PCBM). This simulation allowed us to analyze the electrical conductivity, and visualize the model with varying voltage potential, or bias across the plates, useful for applications in solar cell devices.
Advanced computations of multi-physics, multi-scale effects in beam dynamics
Amundson, J.F.; Macridin, A.; Spentzouris, P.; Stern, E.G.; /Fermilab
2009-01-01
Current state-of-the-art beam dynamics simulations include multiple physical effects and multiple physical length and/or time scales. We present recent developments in Synergia2, an accelerator modeling framework designed for multi-physics, multi-scale simulations. We summarize recent several recent results in multi-physics beam dynamics, including simulations of three Fermilab accelerators: the Tevatron, the Main Injector and the Debuncher. Early accelerator simulations focused on single-particle dynamics. To a first approximation, the forces on the particles in an accelerator beam are dominated by the external fields due to magnets, RF cavities, etc., so the single-particle dynamics are the leading physical effects. Detailed simulations of accelerators must include collective effects such as the space-charge repulsion of the beam particles, the effects of wake fields in the beam pipe walls and beam-beam interactions in colliders. These simulations require the sort of massively parallel computers that have only become available in recent times. We give an overview of the accelerator framework Synergia2, which was designed to take advantage of the capabilities of modern computational resources and enable simulations of multiple physical effects. We also summarize some recent results utilizing Synergia2 and BeamBeam3d, a tool specialized for beam-beam simulations.
Taylor, C D; Chandra, A; Vera, J; Sridhar, N
2015-01-01
Organic corrosion inhibitors can provide an effective means to extend the life of equipment in aggressive environments, decrease the environmental, economic, health and safety risks associated with corrosion failures and enable the use of low cost steels in place of corrosion resistant alloys. To guide the construction of advanced models for the design and optimization of the chemical composition of organic inhibitors, and to develop predictive tools for inhibitor performance as a function of alloy and environment, a multiphysics model has been constructed following Staehle's principles of "domains and microprocesses". The multiphysics framework provides a way for science-based modelling of the various phenomena that impact inhibitor efficiency, including chemical thermodynamics and speciation, oil/water partitioning, effect of the inhibitor on multiphase flow, surface adsorption and self-assembled monolayer formation, and the effect of the inhibitor on cathodic and anodic reaction pathways. The fundamental tools required to solve the resulting modelling from a first-principles perspective are also described. Quantification of uncertainty is significant to the development of lifetime prediction models, due to their application for risk management. We therefore also discuss how uncertainty analysis can be coupled with the first-principles approach laid out in this paper. PMID:25912625
The Integrated Plasma Simulator: A Flexible Python Framework for Coupled Multiphysics Simulation
Foley, Samantha S; Elwasif, Wael R; Bernholdt, David E
2011-11-01
High-fidelity coupled multiphysics simulations are an increasingly important aspect of computational science. In many domains, however, there has been very limited experience with simulations of this sort, therefore research in coupled multiphysics often requires computational frameworks with significant flexibility to respond to the changing directions of the physics and mathematics. This paper presents the Integrated Plasma Simulator (IPS), a framework designed for loosely coupled simulations of fusion plasmas. The IPS provides users with a simple component architecture into which a wide range of existing plasma physics codes can be inserted as components. Simulations can take advantage of multiple levels of parallelism supported in the IPS, and can be controlled by a high-level ``driver'' component, or by other coordination mechanisms, such as an asynchronous event service. We describe the requirements and design of the framework, and how they were implemented in the Python language. We also illustrate the flexibility of the framework by providing examples of different types of simulations that utilize various features of the IPS.
Case studies on optimization problems in MATLAB and COMSOL multiphysics by means of the livelink
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ozana, Stepan; Pies, Martin; Docekal, Tomas
2016-06-01
LiveLink for COMSOL is a tool that integrates COMSOL Multiphysics with MATLAB to extend one's modeling with scripting programming in the MATLAB environment. It allows user to utilize the full power of MATLAB and its toolboxes in preprocessing, model manipulation, and post processing. At first, the head script launches COMSOL with MATLAB and defines initial value of all parameters, refers to the objective function J described in the objective function and creates and runs the defined optimization task. Once the task is launches, the COMSOL model is being called in the iteration loop (from MATLAB environment by use of API interface), changing defined optimization parameters so that the objective function is minimized, using fmincon function to find a local or global minimum of constrained linear or nonlinear multivariable function. Once the minimum is found, it returns exit flag, terminates optimization and returns the optimized values of the parameters. The cooperation with MATLAB via LiveLink enhances a powerful computational environment with complex multiphysics simulations. The paper will introduce using of the LiveLink for COMSOL for chosen case studies in the field of technical cybernetics and bioengineering.
Advanced Multiphysics Thermal-Hydraulics Models for the High Flux Isotope Reactor
Jain, Prashant K; Freels, James D
2015-01-01
Engineering design studies to determine the feasibility of converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from using highly enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel are ongoing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This work is part of an effort sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Reactor Conversion Program. HFIR is a very high flux pressurized light-water-cooled and moderated flux-trap type research reactor. HFIR s current missions are to support neutron scattering experiments, isotope production, and materials irradiation, including neutron activation analysis. Advanced three-dimensional multiphysics models of HFIR fuel were developed in COMSOL software for safety basis (worst case) operating conditions. Several types of physics including multilayer heat conduction, conjugate heat transfer, turbulent flows (RANS model) and structural mechanics were combined and solved for HFIR s inner and outer fuel elements. Alternate design features of the new LEU fuel were evaluated using these multiphysics models. This work led to a new, preliminary reference LEU design that combines a permanent absorber in the lower unfueled region of all of the fuel plates, a burnable absorber in the inner element side plates, and a relocated and reshaped (but still radially contoured) fuel zone. Preliminary results of estimated thermal safety margins are presented. Fuel design studies and model enhancement continue.
Modelling in conventional electroporation for model cell with organelles using COMSOL Multiphysics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sulaeman, M. Y.; Widita, R.
2016-03-01
Conventional electroporation is a formation of pores in the membrane cell due to the external electric field applied to the cell. The purpose of creating pores in the cell using conventional electroporation are to increase the effectiveness of chemotherapy (electrochemotherapy) and to kill cancer tissue using irreversible electroporation. Modeling of electroporation phenomenon on a model cell had been done by using software COMSOL Multiphysics 4.3b with the applied external electric field with intensity at 1.1 kV/cm to find transmembrane voltage and pore density. It can be concluded from the results of potential distribution and transmembrane voltage, it show that pores formation only occurs in the membrane cells and it could not penetrate into inside the model cell so there is not pores formation in its organells.
Multi-Physics Demonstration Problem with the SHARP Reactor Simulation Toolkit
Merzari, E.; Shemon, E. R.; Yu, Y. Q.; Thomas, J. W.; Obabko, A.; Jain, Rajeev; Mahadevan, Vijay; Tautges, Timothy; Solberg, Jerome; Ferencz, Robert Mark; Whitesides, R.
2015-12-21
This report describes to employ SHARP to perform a first-of-a-kind analysis of the core radial expansion phenomenon in an SFR. This effort required significant advances in the framework Multi-Physics Demonstration Problem with the SHARP Reactor Simulation Toolkit used to drive the coupled simulations, manipulate the mesh in response to the deformation of the geometry, and generate the necessary modified mesh files. Furthermore, the model geometry is fairly complex, and consistent mesh generation for the three physics modules required significant effort. Fully-integrated simulations of a 7-assembly mini-core test problem have been performed, and the results are presented here. Physics models of a full-core model of the Advanced Burner Test Reactor have also been developed for each of the three physics modules. Standalone results of each of the three physics modules for the ABTR are presented here, which provides a demonstration of the feasibility of the fully-integrated simulation.
Multiphysics Model of Palladium Hydride Isotope Exchange Accounting for Higher Dimensionality
Gharagozloo, Patricia E.; Eliassi, Mehdi; Bon, Bradley Luis
2015-03-01
This report summarizes computational model developm ent and simulations results for a series of isotope exchange dynamics experiments i ncluding long and thin isothermal beds similar to the Foltz and Melius beds and a lar ger non-isothermal experiment on the NENG7 test bed. The multiphysics 2D axi-symmetr ic model simulates the temperature and pressure dependent exchange reactio n kinetics, pressure and isotope dependent stoichiometry, heat generation from the r eaction, reacting gas flow through porous media, and non-uniformities in the bed perme ability. The new model is now able to replicate the curved reaction front and asy mmetry of the exit gas mass fractions over time. The improved understanding of the exchange process and its dependence on the non-uniform bed properties and te mperatures in these larger systems is critical to the future design of such sy stems.
Mechanical behavior simulation of MEMS-based cantilever beam using COMSOL multiphysics
Acheli, A. Serhane, R.
2015-03-30
This paper presents the studies of mechanical behavior of MEMS cantilever beam made of poly-silicon material, using the coupling of three application modes (plane strain, electrostatics and the moving mesh) of COMSOL Multi-physics software. The cantilevers playing a key role in Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) devices (switches, resonators, etc) working under potential shock. This is why they require actuation under predetermined conditions, such as electrostatic force or inertial force. In this paper, we present mechanical behavior of a cantilever actuated by an electrostatic force. In addition to the simplification of calculations, the weight of the cantilever was not taken into account. Different parameters like beam displacement, electrostatics force and stress over the beam have been calculated by finite element method after having defining the geometry, the material of the cantilever model (fixed at one of ends but is free to move otherwise) and his operational space.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kilbane, J.; Polzin, K. A.
2014-01-01
An annular linear induction pump (ALIP) that could be used for circulating liquid-metal coolant in a fission surface power reactor system is modeled in the present work using the computational COMSOL Multiphysics package. The pump is modeled using a two-dimensional, axisymmetric geometry and solved under conditions similar to those used during experimental pump testing. Real, nonlinear, temperature-dependent material properties can be incorporated into the model for both the electrically-conducting working fluid in the pump (NaK-78) and structural components of the pump. The intricate three-phase coil configuration of the pump is implemented in the model to produce an axially-traveling magnetic wave that is qualitatively similar to the measured magnetic wave. The model qualitatively captures the expected feature of a peak in efficiency as a function of flow rate.
Multiscale Multiphysics-Based Modeling and Analysis on the Tool Wear in Micro Drilling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niu, Zhichao; Cheng, Kai
2016-02-01
In micro-cutting processes, process variables including cutting force, cutting temperature and drill-workpiece interfacing conditions (lubrication and interaction, etc.) significantly affect the tool wear in a dynamic interactive in-process manner. The resultant tool life and cutting performance directly affect the component surface roughness, material removal rate and form accuracy control, etc. In this paper, a multiscale multiphysics oriented approach to modeling and analysis is presented particularly on tooling performance in micro drilling processes. The process optimization is also taken account based on establishing the intrinsic relationship between process parameters and cutting performance. The modeling and analysis are evaluated and validated through well-designed machining trials, and further supported by metrology measurements and simulations. The paper is concluded with a further discussion on the potential and application of the approach for broad micro manufacturing purposes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Yu-Ming; Lee, Shuo-Jen; Lee, Chi-Yuan; Chang, Dar-Yuan
In this study, the flow channels of a PEM fuel cell are fabricated by the EMM process. The parametric effects of the process are studied by both numerical simulation and experimental tests. For the numerical simulation, the multiphysics model, consisting of electrical field, convection, and diffusion phenomena is applied using COMSOL software. COMSOL software is used to predict the parametric effects of the channel fabrication accuracy such as pulse rate, pulse duty cycle, inter-electrode gap and electrolytic inflow velocity. The proper experimental parameters and the relationship between the parameters and the distribution of metal removal are established from the simulated results. The experimental fabrication tests showed that a shorter pulse rate and a higher pulse current improved the fabrication accuracy, and is consistent with the numerical simulation results. The proposed simulation model could be employed as a predictive tool to provide optimal parameters for better machining accuracy and process stability of the EMM process.
Multiphysics Simulations of Hot-Spot Initiation in Shocked Insensitive High-Explosive
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Najjar, Fady; Howard, W. M.; Fried, L. E.
2010-11-01
Solid plastic-bonded high-explosive materials consist of crystals with micron-sized pores embedded. Under mechanical or thermal insults, these voids increase the ease of shock initiation by generating high-temperature regions during their collapse that might lead to ignition. Understanding the mechanisms of hot-spot initiation has significant research interest due to safety, reliability and development of new insensitive munitions. Multi-dimensional high-resolution meso-scale simulations are performed using the multiphysics software, ALE3D, to understand the hot-spot initiation. The Cheetah code is coupled to ALE3D, creating multi-dimensional sparse tables for the HE properties. The reaction rates were obtained from MD Quantum computations. Our current predictions showcase several interesting features regarding hot spot dynamics including the formation of a "secondary" jet. We will discuss the results obtained with hydro-thermo-chemical processes leading to ignition growth for various pore sizes and different shock pressures.
Multi-physics nuclear reactor simulator for advanced nuclear engineering education
Yamamoto, A.
2012-07-01
Multi-physics nuclear reactor simulator, which aims to utilize for advanced nuclear engineering education, is being introduced to Nagoya Univ.. The simulator consists of the 'macroscopic' physics simulator and the 'microscopic' physics simulator. The former performs real time simulation of a whole nuclear power plant. The latter is responsible to more detail numerical simulations based on the sophisticated and precise numerical models, while taking into account the plant conditions obtained in the macroscopic physics simulator. Steady-state and kinetics core analyses, fuel mechanical analysis, fluid dynamics analysis, and sub-channel analysis can be carried out in the microscopic physics simulator. Simulation calculations are carried out through dedicated graphical user interface and the simulation results, i.e., spatial and temporal behaviors of major plant parameters are graphically shown. The simulator will provide a bridge between the 'theories' studied with textbooks and the 'physical behaviors' of actual nuclear power plants. (authors)
Complimentary single technique and multi-physics modeling tools for NDE challenges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le Lostec, Nechtan; Budyn, Nicolas; Sartre, Bernard; Glass, S. W.
2014-02-01
The challenges of modeling and simulation for Non Destructive Examination (NDE) research and development at AREVA NDE Solutions Technical Center (NETEC) are presented. In particular, the choice of a relevant software suite covering different applications and techniques and the process/scripting tools required for simulation and modeling are discussed. The software portfolio currently in use is then presented along with the limitations of the different software: CIVA for ultrasound (UT) methods, PZFlex for UT probes, Flux for eddy current (ET) probes and methods, plus Abaqus for multiphysics modeling. The finite element code, Abaqus is also considered as the future direction for many of our NDE modeling and simulation tasks. Some application examples are given on modeling of a piezoelectric acoustic phased array transducer and preliminary thermography configurations.
Module-based Hybrid Uncertainty Quantification for Multi-physics Applications: Theory and Software
Tong, Charles; Chen, Xiao; Iaccarino, Gianluca; Mittal, Akshay
2013-10-08
In this project we proposed to develop an innovative uncertainty quantification methodology that captures the best of the two competing approaches in UQ, namely, intrusive and non-intrusive approaches. The idea is to develop the mathematics and the associated computational framework and algorithms to facilitate the use of intrusive or non-intrusive UQ methods in different modules of a multi-physics multi-module simulation model in a way that physics code developers for different modules are shielded (as much as possible) from the chores of accounting for the uncertain ties introduced by the other modules. As the result of our research and development, we have produced a number of publications, conference presentations, and a software product.
An approach for coupled-code multiphysics core simulations from a common input
Schmidt, Rodney; Belcourt, Kenneth; Hooper, Russell; Pawlowski, Roger P.; Clarno, Kevin T.; Simunovic, Srdjan; Slattery, Stuart R.; Turner, John A.; Palmtag, Scott
2014-12-10
This study describes an approach for coupled-code multiphysics reactor core simulations that is being developed by the Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications (VERA) project in the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light-Water Reactors (CASL). In this approach a user creates a single problem description, called the “VERAIn” common input file, to define and setup the desired coupled-code reactor core simulation. A preprocessing step accepts the VERAIn file and generates a set of fully consistent input files for the different physics codes being coupled. The problem is then solved using a single-executable coupled-code simulation tool applicable to the problem, which ismore » built using VERA infrastructure software tools and the set of physics codes required for the problem of interest. The approach is demonstrated by performing an eigenvalue and power distribution calculation of a typical three-dimensional 17 × 17 assembly with thermal–hydraulic and fuel temperature feedback. All neutronics aspects of the problem (cross-section calculation, neutron transport, power release) are solved using the Insilico code suite and are fully coupled to a thermal–hydraulic analysis calculated by the Cobra-TF (CTF) code. The single-executable coupled-code (Insilico-CTF) simulation tool is created using several VERA tools, including LIME (Lightweight Integrating Multiphysics Environment for coupling codes), DTK (Data Transfer Kit), Trilinos, and TriBITS. Parallel calculations are performed on the Titan supercomputer at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using 1156 cores, and a synopsis of the solution results and code performance is presented. Finally, ongoing development of this approach is also briefly described.« less
Multi-Physics Markov Chain Monte Carlo Methods for Subsurface Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rigelo, J.; Ginting, V.; Rahunanthan, A.; Pereira, F.
2014-12-01
For CO2 sequestration in deep saline aquifers, contaminant transport in subsurface, and oil or gas recovery, we often need to forecast flow patterns. Subsurface characterization is a critical and challenging step in flow forecasting. To characterize subsurface properties we establish a statistical description of the subsurface properties that are conditioned to existing dynamic and static data. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm is used in a Bayesian statistical description to reconstruct the spatial distribution of rock permeability and porosity. The MCMC algorithm requires repeatedly solving a set of nonlinear partial differential equations describing displacement of fluids in porous media for different values of permeability and porosity. The time needed for the generation of a reliable MCMC chain using the algorithm can be too long to be practical for flow forecasting. In this work we develop fast and effective computational methods for generating MCMC chains in the Bayesian framework for the subsurface characterization. Our strategy consists of constructing a family of computationally inexpensive preconditioners based on simpler physics as well as on surrogate models such that the number of fine-grid simulations is drastically reduced in the generated MCMC chains. In particular, we introduce a huff-puff technique as screening step in a three-stage multi-physics MCMC algorithm to reduce the number of expensive final stage simulations. The huff-puff technique in the algorithm enables a better characterization of subsurface near wells. We assess the quality of the proposed multi-physics MCMC methods by considering Monte Carlo simulations for forecasting oil production in an oil reservoir.
An approach for coupled-code multiphysics core simulations from a common input
Schmidt, Rodney; Belcourt, Kenneth; Hooper, Russell; Pawlowski, Roger P.; Clarno, Kevin T.; Simunovic, Srdjan; Slattery, Stuart R.; Turner, John A.; Palmtag, Scott
2014-12-10
This study describes an approach for coupled-code multiphysics reactor core simulations that is being developed by the Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications (VERA) project in the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light-Water Reactors (CASL). In this approach a user creates a single problem description, called the “VERAIn” common input file, to define and setup the desired coupled-code reactor core simulation. A preprocessing step accepts the VERAIn file and generates a set of fully consistent input files for the different physics codes being coupled. The problem is then solved using a single-executable coupled-code simulation tool applicable to the problem, which is built using VERA infrastructure software tools and the set of physics codes required for the problem of interest. The approach is demonstrated by performing an eigenvalue and power distribution calculation of a typical three-dimensional 17 × 17 assembly with thermal–hydraulic and fuel temperature feedback. All neutronics aspects of the problem (cross-section calculation, neutron transport, power release) are solved using the Insilico code suite and are fully coupled to a thermal–hydraulic analysis calculated by the Cobra-TF (CTF) code. The single-executable coupled-code (Insilico-CTF) simulation tool is created using several VERA tools, including LIME (Lightweight Integrating Multiphysics Environment for coupling codes), DTK (Data Transfer Kit), Trilinos, and TriBITS. Parallel calculations are performed on the Titan supercomputer at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using 1156 cores, and a synopsis of the solution results and code performance is presented. Finally, ongoing development of this approach is also briefly described.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Slaughter, A. E.; Permann, C.; Peterson, J. W.; Gaston, D.; Andrs, D.; Miller, J.
2014-12-01
The Idaho National Laboratory (INL)-developed Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE; www.mooseframework.org), is an open-source, parallel computational framework for enabling the solution of complex, fully implicit multiphysics systems. MOOSE provides a set of computational tools that scientists and engineers can use to create sophisticated multiphysics simulations. Applications built using MOOSE have computed solutions for chemical reaction and transport equations, computational fluid dynamics, solid mechanics, heat conduction, mesoscale materials modeling, geomechanics, and others. To facilitate the coupling of diverse and highly-coupled physical systems, MOOSE employs the Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov (JFNK) method when solving the coupled nonlinear systems of equations arising in multiphysics applications. The MOOSE framework is written in C++, and leverages other high-quality, open-source scientific software packages such as LibMesh, Hypre, and PETSc. MOOSE uses a "hybrid parallel" model which combines both shared memory (thread-based) and distributed memory (MPI-based) parallelism to ensure efficient resource utilization on a wide range of computational hardware. MOOSE-based applications are inherently modular, which allows for simulation expansion (via coupling of additional physics modules) and the creation of multi-scale simulations. Any application developed with MOOSE supports running (in parallel) any other MOOSE-based application. Each application can be developed independently, yet easily communicate with other applications (e.g., conductivity in a slope-scale model could be a constant input, or a complete phase-field micro-structure simulation) without additional code being written. This method of development has proven effective at INL and expedites the development of sophisticated, sustainable, and collaborative simulation tools.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Jingyi
Ferroelectric (FE) and closely related antiferroelectric (AFE) materials have unique electromechanical properties that promote various applications in the area of capacitors, sensors, generators (FE) and high density energy storage (AFE). These smart materials with extensive applications have drawn wide interest in the industrial and scientific world because of their reliability and tunable property. However, reliability issues changes its paradigms and requires guidance from detailed mechanism theory as the materials applications are pushed for better performance. A host of modeling work were dedicated to study the macro-structural behavior and microstructural evolution in FE and AFE material under various conditions. This thesis is focused on direct observation of domain evolution under multiphysics loading for both FE and AFE material. Landau-Devonshire time-dependent phase field models were built for both materials, and were simulated in finite element software Comsol. In FE model, dagger-shape 90 degree switched domain was observed at preexisting crack tip under pure mechanical loading. Polycrystal structure was tested under same condition, and blocking effect of the growth of dagger-shape switched domain from grain orientation difference and/or grain boundary was directly observed. AFE ceramic model was developed using two sublattice theory, this model was used to investigate the mechanism of energy efficiency increase with self-confined loading in experimental tests. Consistent results was found in simulation and careful investigation of calculation results gave confirmation that origin of energy density increase is from three aspects: self-confinement induced inner compression field as the cause of increase of critical field, fringe leak as the source of elevated saturation polarization and uneven defects distribution as the reason for critical field shifting and phase transition speed. Another important affecting aspect in polycrystalline materials is the
Computation of Thermodynamic Equilibria Pertinent to Nuclear Materials in Multi-Physics Codes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piro, Markus Hans Alexander
Nuclear energy plays a vital role in supporting electrical needs and fulfilling commitments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Research is a continuing necessity to improve the predictive capabilities of fuel behaviour in order to reduce costs and to meet increasingly stringent safety requirements by the regulator. Moreover, a renewed interest in nuclear energy has given rise to a "nuclear renaissance" and the necessity to design the next generation of reactors. In support of this goal, significant research efforts have been dedicated to the advancement of numerical modelling and computational tools in simulating various physical and chemical phenomena associated with nuclear fuel behaviour. This undertaking in effect is collecting the experience and observations of a past generation of nuclear engineers and scientists in a meaningful way for future design purposes. There is an increasing desire to integrate thermodynamic computations directly into multi-physics nuclear fuel performance and safety codes. A new equilibrium thermodynamic solver is being developed with this matter as a primary objective. This solver is intended to provide thermodynamic material properties and boundary conditions for continuum transport calculations. There are several concerns with the use of existing commercial thermodynamic codes: computational performance; limited capabilities in handling large multi-component systems of interest to the nuclear industry; convenient incorporation into other codes with quality assurance considerations; and, licensing entanglements associated with code distribution. The development of this software in this research is aimed at addressing all of these concerns. The approach taken in this work exploits fundamental principles of equilibrium thermodynamics to simplify the numerical optimization equations. In brief, the chemical potentials of all species and phases in the system are constrained by estimates of the chemical potentials of the system
Monte Carlo-based multiphysics coupling analysis of x-ray pulsar telescope
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Liansheng; Deng, Loulou; Mei, Zhiwu; Zuo, Fuchang; Zhou, Hao
2015-10-01
X-ray pulsar telescope (XPT) is a complex optical payload, which involves optical, mechanical, electrical and thermal disciplines. The multiphysics coupling analysis (MCA) plays an important role in improving the in-orbit performance. However, the conventional MCA methods encounter two serious problems in dealing with the XTP. One is that both the energy and reflectivity information of X-ray can't be taken into consideration, which always misunderstands the essence of XPT. Another is that the coupling data can't be transferred automatically among different disciplines, leading to computational inefficiency and high design cost. Therefore, a new MCA method for XPT is proposed based on the Monte Carlo method and total reflective theory. The main idea, procedures and operational steps of the proposed method are addressed in detail. Firstly, it takes both the energy and reflectivity information of X-ray into consideration simultaneously. And formulate the thermal-structural coupling equation and multiphysics coupling analysis model based on the finite element method. Then, the thermalstructural coupling analysis under different working conditions has been implemented. Secondly, the mirror deformations are obtained using construction geometry function. Meanwhile, the polynomial function is adopted to fit the deformed mirror and meanwhile evaluate the fitting error. Thirdly, the focusing performance analysis of XPT can be evaluated by the RMS. Finally, a Wolter-I XPT is taken as an example to verify the proposed MCA method. The simulation results show that the thermal-structural coupling deformation is bigger than others, the vary law of deformation effect on the focusing performance has been obtained. The focusing performances of thermal-structural, thermal, structural deformations have degraded 30.01%, 14.35% and 7.85% respectively. The RMS of dispersion spot are 2.9143mm, 2.2038mm and 2.1311mm. As a result, the validity of the proposed method is verified through
Anh Bui; Nam Dinh; Brian Williams
2013-09-01
In addition to validation data plan, development of advanced techniques for calibration and validation of complex multiscale, multiphysics nuclear reactor simulation codes are a main objective of the CASL VUQ plan. Advanced modeling of LWR systems normally involves a range of physico-chemical models describing multiple interacting phenomena, such as thermal hydraulics, reactor physics, coolant chemistry, etc., which occur over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. To a large extent, the accuracy of (and uncertainty in) overall model predictions is determined by the correctness of various sub-models, which are not conservation-laws based, but empirically derived from measurement data. Such sub-models normally require extensive calibration before the models can be applied to analysis of real reactor problems. This work demonstrates a case study of calibration of a common model of subcooled flow boiling, which is an important multiscale, multiphysics phenomenon in LWR thermal hydraulics. The calibration process is based on a new strategy of model-data integration, in which, all sub-models are simultaneously analyzed and calibrated using multiple sets of data of different types. Specifically, both data on large-scale distributions of void fraction and fluid temperature and data on small-scale physics of wall evaporation were simultaneously used in this work’s calibration. In a departure from traditional (or common-sense) practice of tuning/calibrating complex models, a modern calibration technique based on statistical modeling and Bayesian inference was employed, which allowed simultaneous calibration of multiple sub-models (and related parameters) using different datasets. Quality of data (relevancy, scalability, and uncertainty) could be taken into consideration in the calibration process. This work presents a step forward in the development and realization of the “CIPS Validation Data Plan” at the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of LWRs to enable
Richard W. Johnson; Glen A. Hansen; Christopher K Newman
2011-07-01
Data transfer from one distinct mesh to another may be necessary in any number of applications, including prolongation operations supporting multigrid solution methods, spatial adaptation, remeshing, and arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) and multiphysics simulation. This data transfer process is also referred to as remapping, rezoning and interpolation. Intermesh data transfer has the potential to introduce error into a simulation; the magnitude and importance of which depends on the transfer scenario and the algorithm used to perform the transfer. For a transient analysis, data transfer may occur many times during a simulation, with possible error accumulation at each transfer. The present study develops selected scenarios that illustrate data transfer error and how it might impact an analysis. This study examines remapping error by using static analytical functions to compare various remapping schemes. It also investigates the significance and nature of data transfer error for a simple multiphysics system involving a transient coupled system of partial differential equations. It concludes that remapping error can be significant both for static functions and for coupled multiphysics systems. Aggregate error is shown to be a function of remapping scheme, mesh coarseness, nature of the remapped function and mesh disparity. In cases of extreme mesh disparity, this study shows that remapping can lead to excessive error and even to solution instability. Further, this work motivates that remapping error should be included in the estimation of numerical error, if data transfer is employed in a numerical simulation.
Becker, R; McElfresh, M; Lee, C; Balhorn, R; White, D
2003-12-01
In this white paper, a road map is presented to establish a multiphysics simulation capability for the design and optimization of sensor systems that incorporate nanomaterials and technologies. The Engineering Directorate's solid/fluid mechanics and electromagnetic computer codes will play an important role in both multiscale modeling and integration of required physics issues to achieve a baseline simulation capability. Molecular dynamic simulations performed primarily in the BBRP, CMS and PAT directorates, will provide information for the construction of multiscale models. All of the theoretical developments will require closely coupled experimental work to develop material models and validate simulations. The plan is synergistic and complimentary with the Laboratory's emerging core competency of multiscale modeling. The first application of the multiphysics computer code is the simulation of a ''simple'' biological system (protein recognition utilizing synthesized ligands) that has a broad range of applications including detection of biological threats, presymptomatic detection of illnesses, and drug therapy. While the overall goal is to establish a simulation capability, the near-term work is mainly focused on (1) multiscale modeling, i.e., the development of ''continuum'' representations of nanostructures based on information from molecular dynamics simulations and (2) experiments for model development and validation. A list of LDRDER proposals and ongoing projects that could be coordinated to achieve these near-term objectives and demonstrate the feasibility and utility of a multiphysics simulation capability is given.
NNLOPS accurate associated HW production
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Astill, William; Bizon, Wojciech; Re, Emanuele; Zanderighi, Giulia
2016-06-01
We present a next-to-next-to-leading order accurate description of associated HW production consistently matched to a parton shower. The method is based on reweighting events obtained with the HW plus one jet NLO accurate calculation implemented in POWHEG, extended with the MiNLO procedure, to reproduce NNLO accurate Born distributions. Since the Born kinematics is more complex than the cases treated before, we use a parametrization of the Collins-Soper angles to reduce the number of variables required for the reweighting. We present phenomenological results at 13 TeV, with cuts suggested by the Higgs Cross section Working Group.
Using COMSOL Multiphysics Software to Analyze the Thin Film Resistance Model of a Conductor on PET
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carradero-Santiago, Carolyn; Merced-Sanabria, Milzaida; Vedrine-Pauléus, Josee
2015-03-01
In this research work, we will develop a virtual model to analyze the electrical conductivity of a thin film with three layers, one of graphene or conducting metal film, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS). COMSOL Multiphysics will be the software use to develop the virtual model to analyze the thin-film layers. COMSOL software allows simulation and modelling of physical phenomena represented by differential equations such as that of heat transfer, fluid movement, electromagnetism and structural mechanics. In the work, we will define the geometry of the model; in this case we want three layers-PET, the conducting layer and PEDOT:PSS. We will then add the materials and assign PET as the lower layer, the above conductor as the middle layer and the PEDOT:PSS as the upper layer. We will analyze the model with varying thickness of the top conducting layer. This simulation will allow us to analyze the electrical conductivity, and visualize the model with varying voltage potential, or bias across the plates.
Coupling between a multi-physics workflow engine and an optimization framework
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Di Gallo, L.; Reux, C.; Imbeaux, F.; Artaud, J.-F.; Owsiak, M.; Saoutic, B.; Aiello, G.; Bernardi, P.; Ciraolo, G.; Bucalossi, J.; Duchateau, J.-L.; Fausser, C.; Galassi, D.; Hertout, P.; Jaboulay, J.-C.; Li-Puma, A.; Zani, L.
2016-03-01
A generic coupling method between a multi-physics workflow engine and an optimization framework is presented in this paper. The coupling architecture has been developed in order to preserve the integrity of the two frameworks. The objective is to provide the possibility to replace a framework, a workflow or an optimizer by another one without changing the whole coupling procedure or modifying the main content in each framework. The coupling is achieved by using a socket-based communication library for exchanging data between the two frameworks. Among a number of algorithms provided by optimization frameworks, Genetic Algorithms (GAs) have demonstrated their efficiency on single and multiple criteria optimization. Additionally to their robustness, GAs can handle non-valid data which may appear during the optimization. Consequently GAs work on most general cases. A parallelized framework has been developed to reduce the time spent for optimizations and evaluation of large samples. A test has shown a good scaling efficiency of this parallelized framework. This coupling method has been applied to the case of SYCOMORE (SYstem COde for MOdeling tokamak REactor) which is a system code developed in form of a modular workflow for designing magnetic fusion reactors. The coupling of SYCOMORE with the optimization platform URANIE enables design optimization along various figures of merit and constraints.
Muley, Pranjali D; Boldor, Dorin
2012-01-01
Use of advanced microwave technology for biodiesel production from vegetable oil is a relatively new technology. Microwave dielectric heating increases the process efficiency and reduces reaction time. Microwave heating depends on various factors such as material properties (dielectric and thermo-physical), frequency of operation and system design. Although lab scale results are promising, it is important to study these parameters and optimize the process before scaling up. Numerical modeling approach can be applied for predicting heating and temperature profiles including at larger scale. The process can be studied for optimization without actually performing the experiments, reducing the amount of experimental work required. A basic numerical model of continuous electromagnetic heating of biodiesel precursors was developed. A finite element model was built using COMSOL Multiphysics 4.2 software by coupling the electromagnetic problem with the fluid flow and heat transfer problem. Chemical reaction was not taken into account. Material dielectric properties were obtained experimentally, while the thermal properties were obtained from the literature (all the properties were temperature dependent). The model was tested for the two different power levels 4000 W and 4700 W at a constant flow rate of 840ml/min. The electric field, electromagnetic power density flow and temperature profiles were studied. Resulting temperature profiles were validated by comparing to the temperatures obtained at specific locations from the experiment. The results obtained were in good agreement with the experimental data. PMID:24432470
Multi-physics model of a thermo-magnetic energy harvester
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joshi, Keyur B.; Priya, Shashank
2013-05-01
Harvesting small thermal gradients effectively to generate electricity still remains a challenge. Ujihara et al (2007 Appl. Phys. Lett. 91 093508) have recently proposed a thermo-magnetic energy harvester that incorporates a combination of hard and soft magnets on a vibrating beam structure and two opposing heat transfer surfaces. This design has many advantages and could present an optimum solution to harvest energy in low temperature gradient conditions. In this paper, we describe a multi-physics numerical model for this harvester configuration that incorporates all the relevant parameters, including heat transfer, magnetic force, beam vibration, contact surface and piezoelectricity. The model was used to simulate the complete transient behavior of the system. Results are presented for the evolution of the magnetic force, changes in the internal temperature of the soft magnet (gadolinium (Gd)), thermal contact conductance, contact pressure and heat transfer over a complete cycle. Variation of the vibration frequency with contact stiffness and gap distance was also modeled. Limit cycle behavior and its bifurcations are illustrated as a function of device parameters. The model was extended to include a piezoelectric energy harvesting mechanism and, using a piezoelectric bimorph as spring material, a maximum power of 318 μW was predicted across a 100 kΩ external load.
An Object-Oriented Finite Element Framework for Multiphysics Phase Field Simulations
Michael R Tonks; Derek R Gaston; Paul C Millett; David Andrs; Paul Talbot
2012-01-01
The phase field approach is a powerful and popular method for modeling microstructure evolution. In this work, advanced numerical tools are used to create a phase field framework that facilitates rapid model development. This framework, called MARMOT, is based on Idaho National Laboratory's finite element Multiphysics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment. In MARMOT, the system of phase field partial differential equations (PDEs) are solved simultaneously with PDEs describing additional physics, such as solid mechanics and heat conduction, using the Jacobian-Free Newton Krylov Method. An object-oriented architecture is created by taking advantage of commonalities in phase fields models to facilitate development of new models with very little written code. In addition, MARMOT provides access to mesh and time step adaptivity, reducing the cost for performing simulations with large disparities in both spatial and temporal scales. In this work, phase separation simulations are used to show the numerical performance of MARMOT. Deformation-induced grain growth and void growth simulations are included to demonstrate the muliphysics capability.
Final report on LDRD project : coupling strategies for multi-physics applications.
Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; Moffat, Harry K.; Carnes, Brian; Hooper, Russell Warren; Pawlowski, Roger P.
2007-11-01
Many current and future modeling applications at Sandia including ASC milestones will critically depend on the simultaneous solution of vastly different physical phenomena. Issues due to code coupling are often not addressed, understood, or even recognized. The objectives of the LDRD has been both in theory and in code development. We will show that we have provided a fundamental analysis of coupling, i.e., when strong coupling vs. a successive substitution strategy is needed. We have enabled the implementation of tighter coupling strategies through additions to the NOX and Sierra code suites to make coupling strategies available now. We have leveraged existing functionality to do this. Specifically, we have built into NOX the capability to handle fully coupled simulations from multiple codes, and we have also built into NOX the capability to handle Jacobi Free Newton Krylov simulations that link multiple applications. We show how this capability may be accessed from within the Sierra Framework as well as from outside of Sierra. The critical impact from this LDRD is that we have shown how and have delivered strategies for enabling strong Newton-based coupling while respecting the modularity of existing codes. This will facilitate the use of these codes in a coupled manner to solve multi-physic applications.
Validation of a 3D multi-physics model for unidirectional silicon solidification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simons, Philip; Lankhorst, Adriaan; Habraken, Andries; Faber, Anne-Jans; Tiuleanu, Dumitru; Pingel, Roger
2012-02-01
A model for transient movements of solidification fronts has been added to X-stream, an existing multi-physics simulation program for high temperature processes with flow and chemical reactions. The implementation uses an enthalpy formulation and works on fixed grids. First we show the results of a 2D tin solidification benchmark case, which allows a comparison of X-stream to two other codes and to measurements. Second, a complete 3D solar silicon Heat Exchange Method (HEM) furnace, as built by PVA TePla is modeled. Here, it was necessary to model the complete geometry including the quartz crucible, radiative heaters, bottom cooling, inert flushing gas, etc. For one specific recipe of the transient heater power steering, PVA TePla conducted dip-rod measurements of the silicon solidification front position as function of time. This yields a validation of the model when applied to a real life industrial crystallization process. The results indicate that melt convection does influence the energy distribution up to the start of crystallization at the crucible bottom. But from that point on, the release of latent heat seems to dominate the solidification process, and convection in the melt does not significantly influence the transient front shape.
A novel medical image data-based multi-physics simulation platform for computational life sciences
Neufeld, Esra; Szczerba, Dominik; Chavannes, Nicolas; Kuster, Niels
2013-01-01
Simulating and modelling complex biological systems in computational life sciences requires specialized software tools that can perform medical image data-based modelling, jointly visualize the data and computational results, and handle large, complex, realistic and often noisy anatomical models. The required novel solvers must provide the power to model the physics, biology and physiology of living tissue within the full complexity of the human anatomy (e.g. neuronal activity, perfusion and ultrasound propagation). A multi-physics simulation platform satisfying these requirements has been developed for applications including device development and optimization, safety assessment, basic research, and treatment planning. This simulation platform consists of detailed, parametrized anatomical models, a segmentation and meshing tool, a wide range of solvers and optimizers, a framework for the rapid development of specialized and parallelized finite element method solvers, a visualization toolkit-based visualization engine, a Python scripting interface for customized applications, a coupling framework, and more. Core components are cross-platform compatible and use open formats. Several examples of applications are presented: hyperthermia cancer treatment planning, tumour growth modelling, evaluating the magneto-haemodynamic effect as a biomarker and physics-based morphing of anatomical models. PMID:24427518
An RCM multi-physics ensemble over Europe: multi-variable evaluation to avoid error compensation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
García-Díez, Markel; Fernández, Jesús; Vautard, Robert
2015-12-01
Regional Climate Models are widely used tools to add detail to the coarse resolution of global simulations. However, these are known to be affected by biases. Usually, published model evaluations use a reduced number of variables, frequently precipitation and temperature. Due to the complexity of the models, this may not be enough to assess their physical realism (e.g. to enable a fair comparison when weighting ensemble members). Furthermore, looking at only a few variables makes difficult to trace model errors. Thus, in many previous studies, these biases are described but their underlying causes and mechanisms are often left unknown. In this work the ability of a multi-physics ensemble in reproducing the observed climatologies of many variables over Europe is analysed. These are temperature, precipitation, cloud cover, radiative fluxes and total soil moisture content. It is found that, during winter, the model suffers a significant cold bias over snow covered regions. This is shown to be related with a poor representation of the snow-atmosphere interaction, and is amplified by an albedo feedback. It is shown how two members of the ensemble are able to alleviate this bias, but by generating a too large cloud cover. During summer, a large sensitivity to the cumulus parameterization is found, related to large differences in the cloud cover and short wave radiation flux. Results also show that small errors in one variable are sometimes a result of error compensation, so the high dimensionality of the model evaluation problem cannot be disregarded.
DAG Software Architectures for Multi-Scale Multi-Physics Problems at Petascale and Beyond
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berzins, Martin
2015-03-01
The challenge of computations at Petascale and beyond is to ensure how to make possible efficient calculations on possibly hundreds of thousands for cores or on large numbers of GPUs or Intel Xeon Phis. An important methodology for achieving this is at present thought to be that of asynchronous task-based parallelism. The success of this approach will be demonstrated using the Uintah software framework for the solution of coupled fluid-structure interaction problems with chemical reactions. The layered approach of this software makes it possible for the user to specify the physical problems without parallel code, for that specification to be translated into a parallel set of tasks. These tasks are executed using a runtime system that executes tasks asynchronously and sometimes out-of-order. The scalability and portability of this approach will be demonstrated using examples from large scale combustion problems, industrial detonations and multi-scale, multi-physics models. The challenges of scaling such calculations to the next generations of leadership class computers (with more than a hundred petaflops) will be discussed. Thanks to NSF, XSEDE, DOE NNSA, DOE NETL, DOE ALCC and DOE INCITE.
Quench-Induced Stresses in AA2618 Forgings for Impellers: A Multiphysics and Multiscale Problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chobaut, Nicolas; Saelzle, Peter; Michel, Gilles; Carron, Denis; Drezet, Jean-Marie
2015-05-01
In the fabrication of heat-treatable aluminum parts such as AA2618 compressor impellers for turbochargers, solutionizing and quenching are key steps to obtain the required mechanical characteristics. Fast quenching is necessary to avoid coarse precipitation as it reduces the mechanical properties obtained after heat treatment. However, fast quenching induces residual stresses that can cause unacceptable distortions during machining. Furthermore, the remaining residual stresses after final machining can lead to unfavorable stresses in service. Predicting and controlling internal stresses during the whole processing from heat treatment to final machining is therefore of particular interest to prevent negative impacts of residual stresses. This problem is multiphysics because processes such as heat transfer during quenching, precipitation phenomena, thermally induced deformations, and stress generation are interacting and need to be taken into account. The problem is also multiscale as precipitates of nanosize form during quenching at locations where the cooling rate is too low. This precipitation affects the local yield strength of the material and thus impacts the level of macroscale residual stresses. A thermomechanical model accounting for precipitation in a simple but realistic way is presented. Instead of modelling precipitation that occurs during quenching, the model parameters are identified using a limited number of tensile tests achieved after representative interrupted cooling paths in a Gleeble machine. The simulation results are compared with as-quenched residual stresses in a forging measured by neutron diffraction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hwang, Yong Seok
It has been found during the last decade that a nanoscale melting of metal has very distinctive features compared to its microscale counterpart. It has been observed that a highly non-equilibrium state can result in extreme superheating of a solid state, which cannot be explained well by thermodynamic theories based on equilibrium or nucleation. An endeavor to find the superheating limit and mechanisms of melting and superheating becomes more complicated when various physical phenomena are involved at the similar scales. The main goal of this research is to establish a multiphysics model and to reveal the mechanism of melting and kinetic superheating of a metal nanostructure at high heating rates. The model includes elastodynamics, a fast heating of metal considering a delayed heat transfer between electron gas and lattice phonon and couplings among physical phenomena, and phase transformation incorporated with thermal fluctuation. The model successfully reproduces two independent experiments and several novel nanoscale physical phenomena are discovered. For example, the depression of the melting temperature of Al nanolayer under plane stress condition, the threshold heating rate, 1011 K/s, for kinetic superheating, a large temperature drop in a 5 nm collision region of the two solid-melt interfaces, and a strong effect of geometry on kinetic superheating in Al core-shell nanostructure at high heating rate.
Fovargue, Daniel E; Mitran, Sorin; Smith, Nathan B; Sankin, Georgy N; Simmons, Walter N; Zhong, Pei
2013-08-01
A multiphysics computational model of the focusing of an acoustic pulse and subsequent shock wave formation that occurs during extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy is presented. In the electromagnetic lithotripter modeled in this work the focusing is achieved via a polystyrene acoustic lens. The transition of the acoustic pulse through the solid lens is modeled by the linear elasticity equations and the subsequent shock wave formation in water is modeled by the Euler equations with a Tait equation of state. Both sets of equations are solved simultaneously in subsets of a single computational domain within the BEARCLAW framework which uses a finite-volume Riemann solver approach. This model is first validated against experimental measurements with a standard (or original) lens design. The model is then used to successfully predict the effects of a lens modification in the form of an annular ring cut. A second model which includes a kidney stone simulant in the domain is also presented. Within the stone the linear elasticity equations incorporate a simple damage model. PMID:23927200
Fovargue, Daniel E.; Mitran, Sorin; Smith, Nathan B.; Sankin, Georgy N.; Simmons, Walter N.; Zhong, Pei
2013-01-01
A multiphysics computational model of the focusing of an acoustic pulse and subsequent shock wave formation that occurs during extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy is presented. In the electromagnetic lithotripter modeled in this work the focusing is achieved via a polystyrene acoustic lens. The transition of the acoustic pulse through the solid lens is modeled by the linear elasticity equations and the subsequent shock wave formation in water is modeled by the Euler equations with a Tait equation of state. Both sets of equations are solved simultaneously in subsets of a single computational domain within the BEARCLAW framework which uses a finite-volume Riemann solver approach. This model is first validated against experimental measurements with a standard (or original) lens design. The model is then used to successfully predict the effects of a lens modification in the form of an annular ring cut. A second model which includes a kidney stone simulant in the domain is also presented. Within the stone the linear elasticity equations incorporate a simple damage model. PMID:23927200
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Z.; Hou, Z.; Zang, X.
2015-09-01
As a large-scale flexible inflatable structure by a huge inner lifting gas volume of several hundred thousand cubic meters, the stratospheric airship's thermal characteristic of inner gas plays an important role in its structural performance. During the floating flight, the day-night variation of the combined thermal condition leads to the fluctuation of the flow field inside the airship, which will remarkably affect the pressure acted on the skin and the structural safety of the stratospheric airship. According to the multi-physics coupling mechanism mentioned above, a numerical procedure of structural safety analysis of stratospheric airships is developed and the thermal model, CFD model, finite element code and criterion of structural strength are integrated. Based on the computation models, the distributions of the deformations and stresses of the skin are calculated with the variation of day-night time. The effects of loads conditions and structural configurations on the structural safety of stratospheric airships in the floating condition are evaluated. The numerical results can be referenced for the structural design of stratospheric airships.
Data-driven prognosis: a multi-physics approach verified via balloon burst experiment
Chandra, Abhijit; Kar, Oliva
2015-01-01
A multi-physics formulation for data-driven prognosis (DDP) is developed. Unlike traditional predictive strategies that require controlled offline measurements or ‘training’ for determination of constitutive parameters to derive the transitional statistics, the proposed DDP algorithm relies solely on in situ measurements. It uses a deterministic mechanics framework, but the stochastic nature of the solution arises naturally from the underlying assumptions regarding the order of the conservation potential as well as the number of dimensions involved. The proposed DDP scheme is capable of predicting onset of instabilities. Because the need for offline testing (or training) is obviated, it can be easily implemented for systems where such a priori testing is difficult or even impossible to conduct. The prognosis capability is demonstrated here via a balloon burst experiment where the instability is predicted using only online visual observations. The DDP scheme never failed to predict the incipient failure, and no false-positives were issued. The DDP algorithm is applicable to other types of datasets. Time horizons of DDP predictions can be adjusted by using memory over different time windows. Thus, a big dataset can be parsed in time to make a range of predictions over varying time horizons.
Multiscale Multiphysics Caprock Seal Analysis: A Case Study of the Farnsworth Unit, Texas, USA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heath, J. E.; Dewers, T. A.; Mozley, P.
2015-12-01
Caprock sealing behavior depends on coupled processes that operate over a variety of length and time scales. Capillary sealing behavior depends on nanoscale pore throats and interfacial fluid properties. Larger-scale sedimentary architecture, fractures, and faults may govern properties of potential "seal-bypass" systems. We present the multiscale multiphysics investigation of sealing integrity of the caprock system that overlies the Morrow Sandstone reservoir, Farnsworth Unit, Texas. The Morrow Sandstone is the target injection unit for an on-going combined enhanced oil recovery-CO2 storage project by the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration (SWP). Methods include small-to-large scale measurement techniques, including: focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy; laser scanning confocal microscopy; electron and optical petrography; core examinations of sedimentary architecture and fractures; geomechanical testing; and a noble gas profile through sealing lithologies into the reservoir, as preserved from fresh core. The combined data set is used as part of a performance assessment methodology. The authors gratefully acknowledge the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory for sponsoring this project through the SWP under Award No. DE-FC26-05NT42591. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
A novel medical image data-based multi-physics simulation platform for computational life sciences.
Neufeld, Esra; Szczerba, Dominik; Chavannes, Nicolas; Kuster, Niels
2013-04-01
Simulating and modelling complex biological systems in computational life sciences requires specialized software tools that can perform medical image data-based modelling, jointly visualize the data and computational results, and handle large, complex, realistic and often noisy anatomical models. The required novel solvers must provide the power to model the physics, biology and physiology of living tissue within the full complexity of the human anatomy (e.g. neuronal activity, perfusion and ultrasound propagation). A multi-physics simulation platform satisfying these requirements has been developed for applications including device development and optimization, safety assessment, basic research, and treatment planning. This simulation platform consists of detailed, parametrized anatomical models, a segmentation and meshing tool, a wide range of solvers and optimizers, a framework for the rapid development of specialized and parallelized finite element method solvers, a visualization toolkit-based visualization engine, a Python scripting interface for customized applications, a coupling framework, and more. Core components are cross-platform compatible and use open formats. Several examples of applications are presented: hyperthermia cancer treatment planning, tumour growth modelling, evaluating the magneto-haemodynamic effect as a biomarker and physics-based morphing of anatomical models. PMID:24427518
Multi-physical model of cation and water transport in ionic polymer-metal composite sensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Zicai; Chang, Longfei; Horiuchi, Tetsuya; Takagi, Kentaro; Aabloo, Alvo; Asaka, Kinji
2016-03-01
Ion-migration based electrical potential widely exists not only in natural systems but also in ionic polymer materials. We presented a multi-physical model and investigated the transport process of cation and water of ionic polymer-metal composites based on our thorough understanding on the ionic sensing mechanisms in this paper. The whole transport process was depicted by transport equations concerning convection flux under the total pressure gradient, electrical migration by the built-in electrical field, and the inter-coupling effect between cation and water. With numerical analysis, the influence of critical material parameters, the elastic modulus Ewet, the hydraulic permeability coefficient K, the diffusion coefficient of cation dII and water dWW, and the drag coefficient of water ndW, on the distribution of cation and water was investigated. It was obtained how these parameters correlate to the voltage characteristics (both magnitude and response speed) under a step bending. Additionally, it was found that the effective relative dielectric constant ɛr has little influence on the voltage but is positively correlated to the current. With a series of optimized parameters, the predicted voltage agreed with the experimental results well, which validated our model. Based on our physical model, it was suggested that an ionic polymer sensor can benefit from a higher modulus Ewet, a higher coefficient K and a lower coefficient dII, and a higher constant ɛr.
Neidlin, Michael; Sonntag, Simon J; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Steinseifer, Ulrich; Kaufmann, Tim A S
2016-04-01
Neurological complications often occur during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Hypoperfusion of brain tissue due to diminished cerebral autoregulation (CA) and thromboembolism from atherosclerotic plaque reduce the cerebral oxygen supply and increase the risk of perioperative stroke. To improve the outcome of cardiac surgeries, patient-specific computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models can be used to investigate the blood flow during CPB. In this study, we establish a computational model of CPB which includes cerebral autoregulation and movement of aortic walls on the basis of in vivo measurements. First, the Baroreflex mechanism, which plays a leading role in CA, is represented with a 0-D control circuit and coupled to the 3-D domain with differential equations as boundary conditions. Additionally a two-way coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model with CA is set up. The wall shear stress (WSS) distribution is computed for the whole FSI domain and a comparison to rigid wall CFD is made. Constant flow and pulsatile flow CPB is considered. Rigid wall CFD delivers higher wall shear stress values than FSI simulations, especially during pulsatile perfusion. The flow rates through the supraaortic vessels are almost not affected, if considered as percentages of total cannula output. The developed multiphysic multiscale framework allows deeper insights into the underlying mechanisms during CPB on a patient-specific basis. PMID:26908181
Partitioned coupling strategies for multi-physically coupled radiative heat transfer problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wendt, Gunnar; Erbts, Patrick; Düster, Alexander
2015-11-01
This article aims to propose new aspects concerning a partitioned solution strategy for multi-physically coupled fields including the physics of thermal radiation. Particularly, we focus on the partitioned treatment of electro-thermo-mechanical problems with an additional fourth thermal radiation field. One of the main goals is to take advantage of the flexibility of the partitioned approach to enable combinations of different simulation software and solvers. Within the frame of this article, we limit ourselves to the case of nonlinear thermoelasticity at finite strains, using temperature-dependent material parameters. For the thermal radiation field, diffuse radiating surfaces and gray participating media are assumed. Moreover, we present a robust and fast partitioned coupling strategy for the fourth field problem. Stability and efficiency of the implicit coupling algorithm are improved drawing on several methods to stabilize and to accelerate the convergence. To conclude and to review the effectiveness and the advantages of the additional thermal radiation field several numerical examples are considered to study the proposed algorithm. In particular we focus on an industrial application, namely the electro-thermo-mechanical modeling of the field-assisted sintering technology.
Multiphysics modeling of two-phase film boiling within porous corrosion deposits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jin, Miaomiao; Short, Michael
2016-07-01
Porous corrosion deposits on nuclear fuel cladding, known as CRUD, can cause multiple operational problems in light water reactors (LWRs). CRUD can cause accelerated corrosion of the fuel cladding, increase radiation fields and hence greater exposure risk to plant workers once activated, and induce a downward axial power shift causing an imbalance in core power distribution. In order to facilitate a better understanding of CRUD's effects, such as localized high cladding surface temperatures related to accelerated corrosion rates, we describe an improved, fully-coupled, multiphysics model to simulate heat transfer, chemical reactions and transport, and two-phase fluid flow within these deposits. Our new model features a reformed assumption of 2D, two-phase film boiling within the CRUD, correcting earlier models' assumptions of single-phase coolant flow with wick boiling under high heat fluxes. This model helps to better explain observed experimental values of the effective CRUD thermal conductivity. Finally, we propose a more complete set of boiling regimes, or a more detailed mechanism, to explain recent CRUD deposition experiments by suggesting the new concept of double dryout specifically in thick porous media with boiling chimneys.
The Data Transfer Kit: A geometric rendezvous-based tool for multiphysics data transfer
Slattery, S. R.; Wilson, P. P. H.; Pawlowski, R. P.
2013-07-01
The Data Transfer Kit (DTK) is a software library designed to provide parallel data transfer services for arbitrary physics components based on the concept of geometric rendezvous. The rendezvous algorithm provides a means to geometrically correlate two geometric domains that may be arbitrarily decomposed in a parallel simulation. By repartitioning both domains such that they have the same geometric domain on each parallel process, efficient and load balanced search operations and data transfer can be performed at a desirable algorithmic time complexity with low communication overhead relative to other types of mapping algorithms. With the increased development efforts in multiphysics simulation and other multiple mesh and geometry problems, generating parallel topology maps for transferring fields and other data between geometric domains is a common operation. The algorithms used to generate parallel topology maps based on the concept of geometric rendezvous as implemented in DTK are described with an example using a conjugate heat transfer calculation and thermal coupling with a neutronics code. In addition, we provide the results of initial scaling studies performed on the Jaguar Cray XK6 system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for a worse-case-scenario problem in terms of algorithmic complexity that shows good scaling on 0(1 x 104) cores for topology map generation and excellent scaling on 0(1 x 105) cores for the data transfer operation with meshes of O(1 x 109) elements. (authors)
A Three-Dimensional Multi-Mesh Lattice Boltzmann Model for Multiphysics Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hashemi, Amirreza; Eshraghi, Mohsen; Felicelli, Sergio
2015-11-01
The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is known as an attractive computational method for modeling fluid flow and, more recently, transport phenomena. As any numerical method, the computational cost of LBM simulations depends on the density of the computational grids. The cost of simulations can become enormous when multiple equations are solved in three dimensions. In this work, the development of a multi-block multi-grid LBM model is discussed for three-dimensional (3D) multiphysics simulations. In a system of multiple coupled equations with different length scales, a multi-block mesh with different grids for each model would enhance the computational efficiency and stability of the model. Embedded-type grids facilitate the transfer of information between lattices while allowing larger time steps. In addition, a non-uniform mesh is considered within each mode that allows mesh refinement within each physical model when required. The multi-mesh method was developed to solve for transport phenomena including fluid flow, mass and heat transfer. The huge memory demands of LBM simulations in 3D was significantly reduced using this scheme. Moreover, by reducing the number of lattice points, cost communication in parallel processing was largely decreased.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hagmeyer, Britta; Schütte, Julia; Böttger, Jan; Gebhardt, Rolf; Stelzle, Martin
2013-03-01
Replacing animal testing with in vitro cocultures of human cells is a long-term goal in pre-clinical drug tests used to gain reliable insight into drug-induced cell toxicity. However, current state-of-the-art 2D or 3D cell cultures aiming at mimicking human organs in vitro still lack organ-like morphology and perfusion and thus organ-like functions. To this end, microfluidic systems enable construction of cell culture devices which can be designed to more closely resemble the smallest functional unit of organs. Multiphysics simulations represent a powerful tool to study the various relevant physical phenomena and their impact on functionality inside microfluidic structures. This is particularly useful as it allows for assessment of system functions already during the design stage prior to actual chip fabrication. In the HepaChip®, dielectrophoretic forces are used to assemble human hepatocytes and human endothelial cells in liver sinusoid-like structures. Numerical simulations of flow distribution, shear stress, electrical fields and heat dissipation inside the cell assembly chambers as well as surface wetting and surface tension effects during filling of the microchannel network supported the design of this human-liver-on-chip microfluidic system for cell culture applications. Based on the device design resulting thereof, a prototype chip was injection-moulded in COP (cyclic olefin polymer). Functional hepatocyte and endothelial cell cocultures were established inside the HepaChip® showing excellent metabolic and secretory performance.
A multiphysics and multiscale model for low frequency electromagnetic direct-chill casting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Košnik, N.; Guštin, A. Z.; Mavrič, B.; Šarler, B.
2016-03-01
Simulation and control of macrosegregation, deformation and grain size in low frequency electromagnetic (EM) direct-chill casting (LFEMC) is important for downstream processing. Respectively, a multiphysics and multiscale model is developed for solution of Lorentz force, temperature, velocity, concentration, deformation and grain structure of LFEMC processed aluminum alloys, with focus on axisymmetric billets. The mixture equations with lever rule, linearized phase diagram, and stationary thermoelastic solid phase are assumed, together with EM induction equation for the field imposed by the coil. Explicit diffuse approximate meshless solution procedure [1] is used for solving the EM field, and the explicit local radial basis function collocation method [2] is used for solving the coupled transport phenomena and thermomechanics fields. Pressure-velocity coupling is performed by the fractional step method [3]. The point automata method with modified KGT model is used to estimate the grain structure [4] in a post-processing mode. Thermal, mechanical, EM and grain structure outcomes of the model are demonstrated. A systematic study of the complicated influences of the process parameters can be investigated by the model, including intensity and frequency of the electromagnetic field. The meshless solution framework, with the implemented simplest physical models, will be further extended by including more sophisticated microsegregation and grain structure models, as well as a more realistic solid and solid-liquid phase rheology.
How to accurately bypass damage
Broyde, Suse; Patel, Dinshaw J.
2016-01-01
Ultraviolet radiation can cause cancer through DNA damage — specifically, by linking adjacent thymine bases. Crystal structures show how the enzyme DNA polymerase η accurately bypasses such lesions, offering protection. PMID:20577203
Accurate Evaluation of Quantum Integrals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Galant, David C.; Goorvitch, D.
1994-01-01
Combining an appropriate finite difference method with Richardson's extrapolation results in a simple, highly accurate numerical method for solving a Schr\\"{o}dinger's equation. Important results are that error estimates are provided, and that one can extrapolate expectation values rather than the wavefunctions to obtain highly accurate expectation values. We discuss the eigenvalues, the error growth in repeated Richardson's extrapolation, and show that the expectation values calculated on a crude mesh can be extrapolated to obtain expectation values of high accuracy.
Development of high-fidelity multiphysics system for light water reactor analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Magedanz, Jeffrey W.
There has been a tendency in recent years toward greater heterogeneity in reactor cores, due to the use of mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel, burnable absorbers, and longer cycles with consequently higher fuel burnup. The resulting asymmetry of the neutron flux and energy spectrum between regions with different compositions causes a need to account for the directional dependence of the neutron flux, instead of the traditional diffusion approximation. Furthermore, the presence of both MOX and high-burnup fuel in the core increases the complexity of the heat conduction. The heat transfer properties of the fuel pellet change with irradiation, and the thermal and mechanical expansion of the pellet and cladding strongly affect the size of the gap between them, and its consequent thermal resistance. These operational tendencies require higher fidelity multi-physics modeling capabilities, and this need is addressed by the developments performed within this PhD research. The dissertation describes the development of a High-Fidelity Multi-Physics System for Light Water Reactor Analysis. It consists of three coupled codes -- CTF for Thermal Hydraulics, TORT-TD for Neutron Kinetics, and FRAPTRAN for Fuel Performance. It is meant to address these modeling challenges in three ways: (1) by resolving the state of the system at the level of each fuel pin, rather than homogenizing entire fuel assemblies, (2) by using the multi-group Discrete Ordinates method to account for the directional dependence of the neutron flux, and (3) by using a fuel-performance code, rather than a Thermal Hydraulics code's simplified fuel model, to account for the material behavior of the fuel and its feedback to the hydraulic and neutronic behavior of the system. While the first two are improvements, the third, the use of a fuel-performance code for feedback, constitutes an innovation in this PhD project. Also important to this work is the manner in which such coupling is written. While coupling involves combining
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, H.
2015-12-01
In coastal Southern California, variation in solar energy production is predominantly due to the presence of stratocumulus clouds (Sc), as they greatly attenuate surface solar irradiance and cover most distributed photovoltaic systems on summer mornings. Correct prediction of the spatial coverage and lifetime of coastal Sc is therefore vital to the accuracy of solar energy forecasts in California. In Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model simulations, underprediction of Sc inherent in the initial conditions directly leads to an underprediction of Sc in the resulting forecasts. Hence, preprocessing methods were developed to create initial conditions more consistent with observational data and reduce spin-up time requirements. Mathiesen et al. (2014) previously developed a cloud data assimilation system to force WRF initial conditions to contain cloud liquid water based on CIMSS GOES Sounder cloud cover. The Well-mixed Preprocessor and Cloud Data Assimilation (WEMPPDA) package merges an initial guess of cloud liquid water content obtained from mixed-layer theory with assimilated CIMSS GOES Sounder cloud cover to more accurately represent the spatial coverage of Sc at initialization. The extent of Sc inland penetration is often constrained topographically; therefore, the low inversion base height (IBH) bias in NAM initial conditions decreases Sc inland penetration. The Inversion Base Height (IBH) package perturbs the initial IBH by the difference between model IBH and the 12Z radiosonde measurement. The performance of these multi-initial-condition configurations was evaluated over June, 2013 against SolarAnywhere satellite-derived surface irradiance data. Four configurations were run: 1) NAM initial conditions, 2) RAP initial conditions, 3) WEMPPDA applied to NAM, and 4) IBH applied to NAM. Both preprocessing methods showed significant improvement in the prediction of both spatial coverage and lifetime of coastal Sc. The best performing configuration was then
Variability of West African monsoon patterns generated by a WRF multi-physics ensemble
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klein, Cornelia; Heinzeller, Dominikus; Bliefernicht, Jan; Kunstmann, Harald
2015-11-01
The credibility of regional climate simulations over West Africa stands and falls with the ability to reproduce the West African monsoon (WAM) whose precipitation plays a pivotal role for people's livelihood. In this study, we simulate the WAM for the wet year 1999 with a 27-member multi-physics ensemble of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. We investigate the inter-member differences in a process-based manner in order to extract generalizable information on the behavior of the tested cumulus (CU), microphysics (MP), and planetary boundary layer (PBL) schemes. Precipitation, temperature and atmospheric dynamics are analyzed in comparison to the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) rainfall estimates, the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) gridded gauge-analysis, the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) gridded temperature product and the forcing data (ERA-Interim) to explore interdependencies of processes leading to a certain WAM regime. We find that MP and PBL schemes contribute most to the ensemble spread (147 mm month-1) for monsoon precipitation over the study region. Furthermore, PBL schemes have a strong influence on the movement of the WAM rainband because of their impact on the cloud fraction, that ranges from 8 to 20 % at 600 hPa during August. More low- and mid-level clouds result in less incoming radiation and a weaker monsoon. Ultimately, we identify the differing intensities of the moist Hadley-type meridional circulation that connects the monsoon winds to the Tropical Easterly Jet as the main source for inter-member differences. The ensemble spread of Sahel precipitation and associated dynamics for August 1999 is comparable to the observed inter-annual spread (1979-2010) between dry and wet years, emphasizing the strong potential impact of regional processes and the need for a careful selection of model parameterizations.
Multiphysics Modeling of Microwave Heating of a Frozen Heterogeneous Meal Rotating on a Turntable.
Pitchai, Krishnamoorthy; Chen, Jiajia; Birla, Sohan; Jones, David; Gonzalez, Ric; Subbiah, Jeyamkondan
2015-12-01
A 3-dimensional (3-D) multiphysics model was developed to understand the microwave heating process of a real heterogeneous food, multilayered frozen lasagna. Near-perfect 3-D geometries of food package and microwave oven were used. A multiphase porous media model combining the electromagnetic heat source with heat and mass transfer, and incorporating phase change of melting and evaporation was included in finite element model. Discrete rotation of food on the turntable was incorporated. The model simulated for 6 min of microwave cooking of a 450 g frozen lasagna kept at the center of the rotating turntable in a 1200 W domestic oven. Temperature-dependent dielectric and thermal properties of lasagna ingredients were measured and provided as inputs to the model. Simulated temperature profiles were compared with experimental temperature profiles obtained using a thermal imaging camera and fiber-optic sensors. The total moisture loss in lasagna was predicted and compared with the experimental moisture loss during cooking. The simulated spatial temperature patterns predicted at the top layer was in good agreement with the corresponding patterns observed in thermal images. Predicted point temperature profiles at 6 different locations within the meal were compared with experimental temperature profiles and root mean square error (RMSE) values ranged from 6.6 to 20.0 °C. The predicted total moisture loss matched well with an RMSE value of 0.54 g. Different layers of food components showed considerably different heating performance. Food product developers can use this model for designing food products by understanding the effect of thickness and order of each layer, and material properties of each layer, and packaging shape on cooking performance. PMID:26556025
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Slattery, Stuart R.
2016-02-01
In this paper we analyze and extend mesh-free algorithms for three-dimensional data transfer problems in partitioned multiphysics simulations. We first provide a direct comparison between a mesh-based weighted residual method using the common-refinement scheme and two mesh-free algorithms leveraging compactly supported radial basis functions: one using a spline interpolation and one using a moving least square reconstruction. Through the comparison we assess both the conservation and accuracy of the data transfer obtained from each of the methods. We do so for a varying set of geometries with and without curvature and sharp features and for functions with and without smoothness and with varying gradients. Our results show that the mesh-based and mesh-free algorithms are complementary with cases where each was demonstrated to perform better than the other. We then focus on the mesh-free methods by developing a set of algorithms to parallelize them based on sparse linear algebra techniques. This includes a discussion of fast parallel radius searching in point clouds and restructuring the interpolation algorithms to leverage data structures and linear algebra services designed for large distributed computing environments. The scalability of our new algorithms is demonstrated on a leadership class computing facility using a set of basic scaling studies. These scaling studies show that for problems with reasonable load balance, our new algorithms for both spline interpolation and moving least square reconstruction demonstrate both strong and weak scalability using more than 100,000 MPI processes with billions of degrees of freedom in the data transfer operation.
Slattery, Stuart R.
2015-12-02
In this study we analyze and extend mesh-free algorithms for three-dimensional data transfer problems in partitioned multiphysics simulations. We first provide a direct comparison between a mesh-based weighted residual method using the common-refinement scheme and two mesh-free algorithms leveraging compactly supported radial basis functions: one using a spline interpolation and one using a moving least square reconstruction. Through the comparison we assess both the conservation and accuracy of the data transfer obtained from each of the methods. We do so for a varying set of geometries with and without curvature and sharp features and for functions with and without smoothnessmore » and with varying gradients. Our results show that the mesh-based and mesh-free algorithms are complementary with cases where each was demonstrated to perform better than the other. We then focus on the mesh-free methods by developing a set of algorithms to parallelize them based on sparse linear algebra techniques. This includes a discussion of fast parallel radius searching in point clouds and restructuring the interpolation algorithms to leverage data structures and linear algebra services designed for large distributed computing environments. The scalability of our new algorithms is demonstrated on a leadership class computing facility using a set of basic scaling studies. Finally, these scaling studies show that for problems with reasonable load balance, our new algorithms for both spline interpolation and moving least square reconstruction demonstrate both strong and weak scalability using more than 100,000 MPI processes with billions of degrees of freedom in the data transfer operation.« less
Slattery, Stuart R.
2015-12-02
In this study we analyze and extend mesh-free algorithms for three-dimensional data transfer problems in partitioned multiphysics simulations. We first provide a direct comparison between a mesh-based weighted residual method using the common-refinement scheme and two mesh-free algorithms leveraging compactly supported radial basis functions: one using a spline interpolation and one using a moving least square reconstruction. Through the comparison we assess both the conservation and accuracy of the data transfer obtained from each of the methods. We do so for a varying set of geometries with and without curvature and sharp features and for functions with and without smoothness and with varying gradients. Our results show that the mesh-based and mesh-free algorithms are complementary with cases where each was demonstrated to perform better than the other. We then focus on the mesh-free methods by developing a set of algorithms to parallelize them based on sparse linear algebra techniques. This includes a discussion of fast parallel radius searching in point clouds and restructuring the interpolation algorithms to leverage data structures and linear algebra services designed for large distributed computing environments. The scalability of our new algorithms is demonstrated on a leadership class computing facility using a set of basic scaling studies. Finally, these scaling studies show that for problems with reasonable load balance, our new algorithms for both spline interpolation and moving least square reconstruction demonstrate both strong and weak scalability using more than 100,000 MPI processes with billions of degrees of freedom in the data transfer operation.
Towards a multi-physics modelling framework for thrombolysis under the influence of blood flow
Piebalgs, Andris
2015-01-01
Thrombolytic therapy is an effective means of treating thromboembolic diseases but can also give rise to life-threatening side effects. The infusion of a high drug concentration can provoke internal bleeding while an insufficient dose can lead to artery reocclusion. It is hoped that mathematical modelling of the process of clot lysis can lead to a better understanding and improvement of thrombolytic therapy. To this end, a multi-physics continuum model has been developed to simulate the dissolution of clot over time upon the addition of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). The transport of tPA and other lytic proteins is modelled by a set of reaction–diffusion–convection equations, while blood flow is described by volume-averaged continuity and momentum equations. The clot is modelled as a fibrous porous medium with its properties being determined as a function of the fibrin fibre radius and voidage of the clot. A unique feature of the model is that it is capable of simulating the entire lytic process from the initial phase of lysis of an occlusive thrombus (diffusion-limited transport), the process of recanalization, to post-canalization thrombolysis under the influence of convective blood flow. The model has been used to examine the dissolution of a fully occluding clot in a simplified artery at different pressure drops. Our predicted lytic front velocities during the initial stage of lysis agree well with experimental and computational results reported by others. Following canalization, clot lysis patterns are strongly influenced by local flow patterns, which are symmetric at low pressure drops, but asymmetric at higher pressure drops, which give rise to larger recirculation regions and extended areas of intense drug accumulation. PMID:26655469
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Regenauer-Lieb, Klaus; Veveakis, Manolis; Poulet, Thomas; Paesold, Martin; Rosenbaum, Gideon; Weinberg, Roberto F.; Karrech, Ali
2015-10-01
We propose a new multi-physics, multi-scale Integrated Computational Materials Engineering framework for 'predictive' geodynamic simulations. A first multiscale application is presented that allows linking our existing advanced material characterization methods from nanoscale through laboratory-, field and geodynamic scales into a new rock simulation framework. The outcome of our example simulation is that the diachronous Australian intraplate orogenic events are found to be caused by one and the same process. This is the non-linear progression of a fundamental buckling instability of the Australian intraplate lithosphere subject to long-term compressive forces. We identify four major stages of the instability: (1) a long wavelength elasto-visco-plastic flexure of the lithosphere without localized failure (first 50 Myrs of loading); (2) an incipient thrust on the central hinge of the model (50-90 Myrs); (3) followed by a secondary and tertiary thrust (90-100 Myrs) 200 km away to either side of the central thrust; (4) a progression of subsidiary thrusts advancing towards the central thrust (? Myrs). The model is corroborated by multiscale observations which are: nano-micro CT analysis of deformed samples in the central thrust giving evidence of cavitation and creep fractures in the thrust; mm-cm size veins of melts (pseudotachylite) that are evidence of intermittent shear heating events in the thrust; and 1-10 km width of the thrust - known as the mylonitic Redbank shear zone - corresponding to the width of the steady state solution, where shear heating on the thrust exactly balances heat diffusion.
Multiphysics model of a rat ventricular myocyte: A voltage-clamp study
2012-01-01
Background The objective of this study is to develop a comprehensive model of the electromechanical behavior of the rat ventricular myocyte to investigate the various factors influencing its contractile response. Methods Here, we couple a model of Ca2 + dynamics described in our previous work, with a well-known model of contractile mechanics developed by Rice, Wang, Bers and de Tombe to develop a composite multiphysics model of excitation-contraction coupling. This comprehensive cell model is studied under voltage clamp (VC) conditions, since it allows to focus our study on the elaborate Ca2 + signaling system that controls the contractile mechanism. Results We examine the role of various factors influencing cellular contractile response. In particular, direct factors such as the amount of activator Ca2 + available to trigger contraction and the type of mechanical load applied (resulting in isosarcometric, isometric or unloaded contraction) are investigated. We also study the impact of temperature (22 to 38°C) on myofilament contractile response. The critical role of myofilament Ca2 + sensitivity in modulating developed force is likewise studied, as is the indirect coupling of intracellular contractile mechanism with the plasma membrane via the Na + /Ca2 + exchanger (NCX). Finally, we demonstrate a key linear relationship between the rate of contraction and relaxation, which is shown here to be intrinsically coupled over the full range of physiological perturbations. Conclusions Extensive testing of the composite model elucidates the importance of various direct and indirect modulatory influences on cellular twitch response with wide agreement with measured data on all accounts. Thus, the model provides mechanistic insights into whole-cell responses to a wide variety of testing approaches used in studies of cardiac myofilament contractility that have appeared in the literature over the past several decades. PMID:23171697
Osiris: A Modern, High-Performance, Coupled, Multi-Physics Code For Nuclear Reactor Core Analysis
Procassini, R J; Chand, K K; Clouse, C J; Ferencz, R M; Grandy, J M; Henshaw, W D; Kramer, K J; Parsons, I D
2007-02-26
To meet the simulation needs of the GNEP program, LLNL is leveraging a suite of high-performance codes to be used in the development of a multi-physics tool for modeling nuclear reactor cores. The Osiris code project, which began last summer, is employing modern computational science techniques in the development of the individual physics modules and the coupling framework. Initial development is focused on coupling thermal-hydraulics and neutral-particle transport, while later phases of the project will add thermal-structural mechanics and isotope depletion. Osiris will be applicable to the design of existing and future reactor systems through the use of first-principles, coupled physics models with fine-scale spatial resolution in three dimensions and fine-scale particle-energy resolution. Our intent is to replace an existing set of legacy, serial codes which require significant approximations and assumptions, with an integrated, coupled code that permits the design of a reactor core using a first-principles physics approach on a wide range of computing platforms, including the world's most powerful parallel computers. A key research activity of this effort deals with the efficient and scalable coupling of physics modules which utilize rather disparate mesh topologies. Our approach allows each code module to use a mesh topology and resolution that is optimal for the physics being solved, and employs a mesh-mapping and data-transfer module to effect the coupling. Additional research is planned in the area of scalable, parallel thermal-hydraulics, high-spatial-accuracy depletion and coupled-physics simulation using Monte Carlo transport.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Wei; Wen, Jizhou; Chao, Jiangyue; Yin, Weiyou; Shen, Chen; Lai, Dayi; Lin, Chao-Hsin; Liu, Junjie; Sun, Hejiang; Chen, Qingyan
2012-09-01
Flow fields in commercial airliner cabins are crucial for creating a thermally comfortable and healthy cabin environment. Flow fields depend on the thermo-fluid boundary conditions at the diffusers, in addition to the cabin geometry and furnishing. To study the flow fields in cabins, this paper describes a procedure to obtain the cabin geometry, boundary conditions at the diffusers, and flow fields. This investigation used a laser tracking system and reverse engineering to generate a digital model of an MD-82 aircraft cabin. Even though the measuring error by the system was very small, approximations and assumptions were needed to reduce the workload and data size. The geometric model can also be easily used to calculate the space volume. A combination of hot-sphere anemometers (HSA) and ultrasonic anemometers (UA) were applied to obtain the velocity magnitude, velocity direction, and turbulence intensity at the diffusers. The measured results indicate that the flow boundary conditions in a real cabin were rather complex and the velocity magnitude, velocity direction, and turbulence intensity varied significantly from one slot opening to another. UAs were also applied to measure the three-dimensional air velocity at 20 Hz, which could also be used to determine the turbulence intensity. Due to the instability of the flow, it should at least be measured for 4 min to obtain accurate averaged velocity and turbulence information. It was found that the flow fields were of low speed and high turbulence intensity. This study provides high quality data for validating Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models, including cabin geometry, boundary conditions of diffusers, and high-resolution flow field in the first-class cabin of a functional MD-82 commercial airliner.
Sadek, Khaled; Lueke, Jonathan; Moussa, Walied
2009-01-01
In this paper, the reliability of capacitive shunt RF MEMS switches have been investigated using three dimensional (3D) coupled multiphysics finite element (FE) analysis. The coupled field analysis involved three consecutive multiphysics interactions. The first interaction is characterized as a two-way sequential electromagnetic (EM)-thermal field coupling. The second interaction represented a one-way sequential thermal-structural field coupling. The third interaction portrayed a two-way sequential structural-electrostatic field coupling. An automated substructuring algorithm was utilized to reduce the computational cost of the complicated coupled multiphysics FE analysis. The results of the substructured FE model with coupled field analysis is shown to be in good agreement with the outcome of previously published experimental and numerical studies. The current numerical results indicate that the pull-in voltage and the buckling temperature of the RF switch are functions of the microfabrication residual stress state, the switch operational frequency and the surrounding packaging temperature. Furthermore, the current results point out that by introducing proper mechanical approaches such as corrugated switches and through-holes in the switch membrane, it is possible to achieve reliable pull-in voltages, at various operating temperatures. The performed analysis also shows that by controlling the mean and gradient residual stresses, generated during microfabrication, in conjunction with the proposed mechanical approaches, the power handling capability of RF MEMS switches can be increased, at a wide range of operational frequencies. These design features of RF MEMS switches are of particular importance in applications where a high RF power (frequencies above 10 GHz) and large temperature variations are expected, such as in satellites and airplane condition monitoring. PMID:22408490
Sadek, Khaled; Lueke, Jonathan; Moussa, Walied
2009-01-01
In this paper, the reliability of capacitive shunt RF MEMS switches have been investigated using three dimensional (3D) coupled multiphysics finite element (FE) analysis. The coupled field analysis involved three consecutive multiphysics interactions. The first interaction is characterized as a two-way sequential electromagnetic (EM)-thermal field coupling. The second interaction represented a one-way sequential thermal-structural field coupling. The third interaction portrayed a two-way sequential structural-electrostatic field coupling. An automated substructuring algorithm was utilized to reduce the computational cost of the complicated coupled multiphysics FE analysis. The results of the substructured FE model with coupled field analysis is shown to be in good agreement with the outcome of previously published experimental and numerical studies. The current numerical results indicate that the pull-in voltage and the buckling temperature of the RF switch are functions of the microfabrication residual stress state, the switch operational frequency and the surrounding packaging temperature. Furthermore, the current results point out that by introducing proper mechanical approaches such as corrugated switches and through-holes in the switch membrane, it is possible to achieve reliable pull-in voltages, at various operating temperatures. The performed analysis also shows that by controlling the mean and gradient residual stresses, generated during microfabrication, in conjunction with the proposed mechanical approaches, the power handling capability of RF MEMS switches can be increased, at a wide range of operational frequencies. These design features of RF MEMS switches are of particular importance in applications where a high RF power (frequencies above 10 GHz) and large temperature variations are expected, such as in satellites and airplane condition monitoring. PMID:22408490
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clancy, T.; Rohan, J. F.
2015-12-01
This paper reports multiphysics simulations (COMSOL) of relatively low conductive cathode oxide materials in nanoarchitectures that operate within the appropriate potential range (cut-off voltage 2.5 V) at 3 times the C-rate of micron scale thin film materials while still accessing 90% of material. This paper also reports a novel anode fabrication of Ge sputtered on a Cu nanotube current collector for lithium-ion batteries. Ge on Cu nanotubes is shown to alleviate the effect of volume expansion, enhancing mechanical stability at the nanoscale and improved the electronic characteristics for increased rate capabilities.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, J. H.; Wang, X. J.; Wang, J.
2016-02-01
The primary purpose of this paper is to propose a mathematical model of PLZT ceramic with coupled multi-physics fields, e.g. thermal, electric, mechanical and light field. To this end, the coupling relationships of multi-physics fields and the mechanism of some effects resulting in the photostrictive effect are analyzed theoretically, based on which a mathematical model considering coupled multi-physics fields is established. According to the analysis and experimental results, the mathematical model can explain the hysteresis phenomenon and the variation trend of the photo-induced voltage very well and is in agreement with the experimental curves. In addition, the PLZT bimorph is applied as an energy transducer for a photovoltaic-electrostatic hybrid actuated micromirror, and the relation of the rotation angle and the photo-induced voltage is discussed based on the novel photostrictive mathematical model.
Design and Analysis of a New Hair Sensor for Multi-Physical Signal Measurement
Yang, Bo; Hu, Di; Wu, Lei
2016-01-01
A new hair sensor for multi-physical signal measurements, including acceleration, angular velocity and air flow, is presented in this paper. The entire structure consists of a hair post, a torsional frame and a resonant signal transducer. The hair post is utilized to sense and deliver the physical signals of the acceleration and the air flow rate. The physical signals are converted into frequency signals by the resonant transducer. The structure is optimized through finite element analysis. The simulation results demonstrate that the hair sensor has a frequency of 240 Hz in the first mode for the acceleration or the air flow sense, 3115 Hz in the third and fourth modes for the resonant conversion, and 3467 Hz in the fifth and sixth modes for the angular velocity transformation, respectively. All the above frequencies present in a reasonable modal distribution and are separated from interference modes. The input-output analysis of the new hair sensor demonstrates that the scale factor of the acceleration is 12.35 Hz/g, the scale factor of the angular velocity is 0.404 nm/deg/s and the sensitivity of the air flow is 1.075 Hz/(m/s)2, which verifies the multifunction sensitive characteristics of the hair sensor. Besides, the structural optimization of the hair post is used to improve the sensitivity of the air flow rate and the acceleration. The analysis results illustrate that the hollow circular hair post can increase the sensitivity of the air flow and the II-shape hair post can increase the sensitivity of the acceleration. Moreover, the thermal analysis confirms the scheme of the frequency difference for the resonant transducer can prominently eliminate the temperature influences on the measurement accuracy. The air flow analysis indicates that the surface area increase of hair post is significantly beneficial for the efficiency improvement of the signal transmission. In summary, the structure of the new hair sensor is proved to be feasible by comprehensive
Design and Analysis of a New Hair Sensor for Multi-Physical Signal Measurement.
Yang, Bo; Hu, Di; Wu, Lei
2016-01-01
A new hair sensor for multi-physical signal measurements, including acceleration, angular velocity and air flow, is presented in this paper. The entire structure consists of a hair post, a torsional frame and a resonant signal transducer. The hair post is utilized to sense and deliver the physical signals of the acceleration and the air flow rate. The physical signals are converted into frequency signals by the resonant transducer. The structure is optimized through finite element analysis. The simulation results demonstrate that the hair sensor has a frequency of 240 Hz in the first mode for the acceleration or the air flow sense, 3115 Hz in the third and fourth modes for the resonant conversion, and 3467 Hz in the fifth and sixth modes for the angular velocity transformation, respectively. All the above frequencies present in a reasonable modal distribution and are separated from interference modes. The input-output analysis of the new hair sensor demonstrates that the scale factor of the acceleration is 12.35 Hz/g, the scale factor of the angular velocity is 0.404 nm/deg/s and the sensitivity of the air flow is 1.075 Hz/(m/s)², which verifies the multifunction sensitive characteristics of the hair sensor. Besides, the structural optimization of the hair post is used to improve the sensitivity of the air flow rate and the acceleration. The analysis results illustrate that the hollow circular hair post can increase the sensitivity of the air flow and the II-shape hair post can increase the sensitivity of the acceleration. Moreover, the thermal analysis confirms the scheme of the frequency difference for the resonant transducer can prominently eliminate the temperature influences on the measurement accuracy. The air flow analysis indicates that the surface area increase of hair post is significantly beneficial for the efficiency improvement of the signal transmission. In summary, the structure of the new hair sensor is proved to be feasible by comprehensive
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamamoto, H.; Nakajima, K.; Zhang, K.; Nanai, S.
2015-12-01
scalabilities showing almost linear speedup against number of processors up to over ten thousand cores. Generally this allows us to perform coupled multi-physics (THC) simulations on high resolution geologic models with multi-million grid in a practical time (e.g., less than a second per time step).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Jiajia; Li, Yancheng; Li, Zhaochun; Wang, Jiong
2015-10-01
This paper presents multi-physics modeling of an MR absorber considering the magnetic hysteresis to capture the nonlinear relationship between the applied current and the generated force under impact loading. The magnetic field, temperature field, and fluid dynamics are represented by the Maxwell equations, conjugate heat transfer equations, and Navier-Stokes equations. These fields are coupled through the apparent viscosity and the magnetic force, both of which in turn depend on the magnetic flux density and the temperature. Based on a parametric study, an inverse Jiles-Atherton hysteresis model is used and implemented for the magnetic field simulation. The temperature rise of the MR fluid in the annular gap caused by core loss (i.e. eddy current loss and hysteresis loss) and fluid motion is computed to investigate the current-force behavior. A group of impulsive tests was performed for the manufactured MR absorber with step exciting currents. The numerical and experimental results showed good agreement, which validates the effectiveness of the proposed multi-physics FEA model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nardi, Albert; Idiart, Andrés; Trinchero, Paolo; de Vries, Luis Manuel; Molinero, Jorge
2014-08-01
This paper presents the development, verification and application of an efficient interface, denoted as iCP, which couples two standalone simulation programs: the general purpose Finite Element framework COMSOL Multiphysics® and the geochemical simulator PHREEQC. The main goal of the interface is to maximize the synergies between the aforementioned codes, providing a numerical platform that can efficiently simulate a wide number of multiphysics problems coupled with geochemistry. iCP is written in Java and uses the IPhreeqc C++ dynamic library and the COMSOL Java-API. Given the large computational requirements of the aforementioned coupled models, special emphasis has been placed on numerical robustness and efficiency. To this end, the geochemical reactions are solved in parallel by balancing the computational load over multiple threads. First, a benchmark exercise is used to test the reliability of iCP regarding flow and reactive transport. Then, a large scale thermo-hydro-chemical (THC) problem is solved to show the code capabilities. The results of the verification exercise are successfully compared with those obtained using PHREEQC and the application case demonstrates the scalability of a large scale model, at least up to 32 threads.
Bonaccorsi, T.; Di Salvo, J.; Aggery, A.; D'Aletto, C.; Doederlein, C.; Sireta, P.; Willermoz, G.; Daniel, M.
2006-07-01
The physical phenomena involved in irradiation devices within material testing reactors are complex (neutron and photon interactions, nuclear heating, thermal hydraulics, ...). However, the simulation of these phenomena requires a high precision in order to control the condition of the experiment and the development of predictive models. Until now, physicists use different tools with several approximations at each interface. The aim of this work is to develop a calculation platform dedicated to numerical multi-physics simulations of irradiation devices in the future European Jules Horowitz Reactor [1], This platform is based on a multi-physics data model which describes geometries, materials and state parameters associated with a sequence of thematic (neutronics, thermal hydraulics...) computations of these devices. Once the computation is carried out, the results can be returned to the data model (DM). The DM is encapsulated in a dedicated module of the SALOME platform [2] and exchanges data with SALOME native modules. This method allows a parametric description of a study, independent of the code used to perform the simulation. The application proposed in this paper concerns neutronic calculation of a fuel irradiation device with the new method of characteristics implemented in the APOLLO2 code [3]. The device is located at the periphery of the OSIRIS core. This choice is motivated by the possibility to compare the calculation with experimental results, which cannot be done for the Jules Horowitz Reactor, currently in design study phase. (authors)
Multi-physics design and analyses of long life reactors for lunar outposts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schriener, Timothy M.
event of a launch abort accident. Increasing the amount of fuel in the reactor core, and hence its operational life, would be possible by launching the reactor unfueled and fueling it on the Moon. Such a reactor would, thus, not be subject to launch criticality safety requirements. However, loading the reactor with fuel on the Moon presents a challenge, requiring special designs of the core and the fuel elements, which lend themselves to fueling on the lunar surface. This research investigates examples of both a solid core reactor that would be fueled at launch as well as an advanced concept which could be fueled on the Moon. Increasing the operational life of a reactor fueled at launch is exercised for the NaK-78 cooled Sectored Compact Reactor (SCoRe). A multi-physics design and analyses methodology is developed which iteratively couples together detailed Monte Carlo neutronics simulations with 3-D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and thermal-hydraulics analyses. Using this methodology the operational life of this compact, fast spectrum reactor is increased by reconfiguring the core geometry to reduce neutron leakage and parasitic absorption, for the same amount of HEU in the core, and meeting launch safety requirements. The multi-physics analyses determine the impacts of the various design changes on the reactor's neutronics and thermal-hydraulics performance. The option of increasing the operational life of a reactor by loading it on the Moon is exercised for the Pellet Bed Reactor (PeBR). The PeBR uses spherical fuel pellets and is cooled by He-Xe gas, allowing the reactor core to be loaded with fuel pellets and charged with working fluid on the lunar surface. The performed neutronics analyses ensure the PeBR design achieves a long operational life, and develops safe launch canister designs to transport the spherical fuel pellets to the lunar surface. The research also investigates loading the PeBR core with fuel pellets on the Moon using a transient Discrete
Multi-physics design and analyses of long life reactors for lunar outposts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schriener, Timothy M.
event of a launch abort accident. Increasing the amount of fuel in the reactor core, and hence its operational life, would be possible by launching the reactor unfueled and fueling it on the Moon. Such a reactor would, thus, not be subject to launch criticality safety requirements. However, loading the reactor with fuel on the Moon presents a challenge, requiring special designs of the core and the fuel elements, which lend themselves to fueling on the lunar surface. This research investigates examples of both a solid core reactor that would be fueled at launch as well as an advanced concept which could be fueled on the Moon. Increasing the operational life of a reactor fueled at launch is exercised for the NaK-78 cooled Sectored Compact Reactor (SCoRe). A multi-physics design and analyses methodology is developed which iteratively couples together detailed Monte Carlo neutronics simulations with 3-D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and thermal-hydraulics analyses. Using this methodology the operational life of this compact, fast spectrum reactor is increased by reconfiguring the core geometry to reduce neutron leakage and parasitic absorption, for the same amount of HEU in the core, and meeting launch safety requirements. The multi-physics analyses determine the impacts of the various design changes on the reactor's neutronics and thermal-hydraulics performance. The option of increasing the operational life of a reactor by loading it on the Moon is exercised for the Pellet Bed Reactor (PeBR). The PeBR uses spherical fuel pellets and is cooled by He-Xe gas, allowing the reactor core to be loaded with fuel pellets and charged with working fluid on the lunar surface. The performed neutronics analyses ensure the PeBR design achieves a long operational life, and develops safe launch canister designs to transport the spherical fuel pellets to the lunar surface. The research also investigates loading the PeBR core with fuel pellets on the Moon using a transient Discrete
Predict amine solution properties accurately
Cheng, S.; Meisen, A.; Chakma, A.
1996-02-01
Improved process design begins with using accurate physical property data. Especially in the preliminary design stage, physical property data such as density viscosity, thermal conductivity and specific heat can affect the overall performance of absorbers, heat exchangers, reboilers and pump. These properties can also influence temperature profiles in heat transfer equipment and thus control or affect the rate of amine breakdown. Aqueous-amine solution physical property data are available in graphical form. However, it is not convenient to use with computer-based calculations. Developed equations allow improved correlations of derived physical property estimates with published data. Expressions are given which can be used to estimate physical properties of methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), monoethanolamine (MEA) and diglycolamine (DGA) solutions.
Accurate thickness measurement of graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shearer, Cameron J.; Slattery, Ashley D.; Stapleton, Andrew J.; Shapter, Joseph G.; Gibson, Christopher T.
2016-03-01
Graphene has emerged as a material with a vast variety of applications. The electronic, optical and mechanical properties of graphene are strongly influenced by the number of layers present in a sample. As a result, the dimensional characterization of graphene films is crucial, especially with the continued development of new synthesis methods and applications. A number of techniques exist to determine the thickness of graphene films including optical contrast, Raman scattering and scanning probe microscopy techniques. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), in particular, is used extensively since it provides three-dimensional images that enable the measurement of the lateral dimensions of graphene films as well as the thickness, and by extension the number of layers present. However, in the literature AFM has proven to be inaccurate with a wide range of measured values for single layer graphene thickness reported (between 0.4 and 1.7 nm). This discrepancy has been attributed to tip-surface interactions, image feedback settings and surface chemistry. In this work, we use standard and carbon nanotube modified AFM probes and a relatively new AFM imaging mode known as PeakForce tapping mode to establish a protocol that will allow users to accurately determine the thickness of graphene films. In particular, the error in measuring the first layer is reduced from 0.1-1.3 nm to 0.1-0.3 nm. Furthermore, in the process we establish that the graphene-substrate adsorbate layer and imaging force, in particular the pressure the tip exerts on the surface, are crucial components in the accurate measurement of graphene using AFM. These findings can be applied to other 2D materials.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shavezipur, M.; Li, G. H.; Laboriante, I.; Gou, W. J.; Carraro, C.; Maboudian, R.
2011-11-01
This paper reports on accurate analysis of adhesion force between polysilicon-polysilicon surfaces in micro-/nanoelectromechanical systems (M/NEMS). The measurement is carried out using double-clamped beams. Electrostatic actuation and structural restoring force are exploited to respectively initiate and terminate the contact between the two surfaces under investigation. The adhesion force is obtained by balancing the electrostatic and mechanical forces acting on the beam just before the separation of the two surfaces. Different finite element models are developed to simulate the coupled-field multiphysics problem. The effects of fringing field in the electrostatic domain and geometric nonlinearity and residual stress in the structural domain are taken into consideration. Moreover, the beam stiffness is directly obtained for the case of combined loading (electrostatic and adhesion). Therefore, the overall electrostatic and structural forces used to extract the actual adhesion force from measured data are determined with high accuracy leading to accurate values for the adhesion force. The finite element simulations presented in this paper are not limited to adhesion force measurement and can be used to design or characterize electrostatically actuated devices such as MEM tunable capacitors and micromirrors, RF switches and M/NEM relays.
Multi-physics and multi-scale characterization of shale anisotropy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sarout, J.; Nadri, D.; Delle Piane, C.; Esteban, L.; Dewhurst, D.; Clennell, M. B.
2012-12-01
Shales are the most abundant sedimentary rock type in the Earth's shallow crust. In the past decade or so, they have attracted increased attention from the petroleum industry as reservoirs, as well as more traditionally for their sealing capacity for hydrocarbon/CO2 traps or underground waste repositories. The effectiveness of both fundamental and applied shale research is currently limited by (i) the extreme variability of physical, mechanical and chemical properties observed for these rocks, and by (ii) the scarce data currently available. The variability in observed properties is poorly understood due to many factors that are often irrelevant for other sedimentary rocks. The relationships between these properties and the petrophysical measurements performed at the field and laboratory scales are not straightforward, translating to a scale dependency typical of shale behaviour. In addition, the complex and often anisotropic micro-/meso-structures of shales give rise to a directional dependency of some of the measured physical properties that are tensorial by nature such as permeability or elastic stiffness. Currently, fundamental understanding of the parameters controlling the directional and scale dependency of shale properties is far from complete. Selected results of a multi-physics laboratory investigation of the directional and scale dependency of some critical shale properties are reported. In particular, anisotropic features of shale micro-/meso-structures are related to the directional-dependency of elastic and fluid transport properties: - Micro-/meso-structure (μm to cm scale) characterization by electron microscopy and X-ray tomography; - Estimation of elastic anisotropy parameters on a single specimen using elastic wave propagation (cm scale); - Estimation of the permeability tensor using the steady-state method on orthogonal specimens (cm scale); - Estimation of the low-frequency diffusivity tensor using NMR method on orthogonal specimens (<
Accurate ab Initio Spin Densities
2012-01-01
We present an approach for the calculation of spin density distributions for molecules that require very large active spaces for a qualitatively correct description of their electronic structure. Our approach is based on the density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithm to calculate the spin density matrix elements as a basic quantity for the spatially resolved spin density distribution. The spin density matrix elements are directly determined from the second-quantized elementary operators optimized by the DMRG algorithm. As an analytic convergence criterion for the spin density distribution, we employ our recently developed sampling-reconstruction scheme [J. Chem. Phys.2011, 134, 224101] to build an accurate complete-active-space configuration-interaction (CASCI) wave function from the optimized matrix product states. The spin density matrix elements can then also be determined as an expectation value employing the reconstructed wave function expansion. Furthermore, the explicit reconstruction of a CASCI-type wave function provides insight into chemically interesting features of the molecule under study such as the distribution of α and β electrons in terms of Slater determinants, CI coefficients, and natural orbitals. The methodology is applied to an iron nitrosyl complex which we have identified as a challenging system for standard approaches [J. Chem. Theory Comput.2011, 7, 2740]. PMID:22707921
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jingsong; Yang, Qingxin; Niu, Pingjuan; Jin, Liang; Meng, Bo; Li, Yang; Xiao, Zhaoxia; Zhang, Xian
This paper obtained the average integrated heat transfer coefficient for the thermal resistance of a classic of integrated LED light source and its cooling fin-root on the basis of thermal circuit method. Simulation analysis on its steady-state temperature field distribution using COMSOL Multi-physics finite element method was carried out. This method has high precision and intuitive simulation results. The iteration method of the Numerical Analysis is introduced into method for the first time. The results have significant promotion on the LED cast light structure optimization and the affection of reduced heat coupling on the light temperature distribution. The comparison between thermocouple experimental data and calculation results proved the correctness and validity of the proposed method. This experimental study plays a guiding role to thermal analysis and design of other integrated lights.
Human heart conjugate cooling simulation: Unsteady thermo-fluid-stress analysis
Abdoli, Abas; Dulikravich, George S.; Bajaj, Chandrajit; Stowe, David F.; Jahania, M. Salik
2015-01-01
The main objective of this work was to demonstrate computationally that realistic human hearts can be cooled much faster by performing conjugate heat transfer consisting of pumping a cold liquid through the cardiac chambers and major veins while keeping the heart submerged in cold gelatin filling a cooling container. The human heart geometry used for simulations was obtained from three-dimensional, high resolution MRI scans. Two fluid flow domains for the right (pulmonic) and left (systemic) heart circulations, and two solid domains for the heart tissue and gelatin solution were defined for multi-domain numerical simulation. Detailed unsteady temperature fields within the heart tissue were calculated during the conjugate cooling process. A linear thermoelasticity analysis was performed to assess the stresses applied on the heart due to the coolant fluid shear and normal forces and to examine the thermal stress caused by temperature variation inside the heart. It was demonstrated that a conjugate cooling effort with coolant temperature at +4°C is capable of reducing the average heart temperature from +37°C to +8°C in 25 minutes for cases in which the coolant was steadily pumped only through major heart inlet veins and cavities. PMID:25045006
Modeling of plasma and thermo-fluid transport in hybrid welding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ribic, Brandon D.
Hybrid welding combines a laser beam and electrical arc in order to join metals within a single pass at welding speeds on the order of 1 m min -1. Neither autonomous laser nor arc welding can achieve the weld geometry obtained from hybrid welding for the same process parameters. Depending upon the process parameters, hybrid weld depth and width can each be on the order of 5 mm. The ability to produce a wide weld bead increases gap tolerance for square joints which can reduce machining costs and joint fitting difficulty. The weld geometry and fast welding speed of hybrid welding make it a good choice for application in ship, pipeline, and aerospace welding. Heat transfer and fluid flow influence weld metal mixing, cooling rates, and weld bead geometry. Cooling rate affects weld microstructure and subsequent weld mechanical properties. Fluid flow and heat transfer in the liquid weld pool are affected by laser and arc energy absorption. The laser and arc generate plasmas which can influence arc and laser energy absorption. Metal vapors introduced from the keyhole, a vapor filled cavity formed near the laser focal point, influence arc plasma light emission and energy absorption. However, hybrid welding plasma properties near the opening of the keyhole are not known nor is the influence of arc power and heat source separation understood. A sound understanding of these processes is important to consistently achieving sound weldments. By varying process parameters during welding, it is possible to better understand their influence on temperature profiles, weld metal mixing, cooling rates, and plasma properties. The current literature has shown that important process parameters for hybrid welding include: arc power, laser power, and heat source separation distance. However, their influence on weld temperatures, fluid flow, cooling rates, and plasma properties are not well understood. Modeling has shown to be a successful means of better understanding the influence of processes parameters on heat transfer, fluid flow, and plasma characteristics for arc and laser welding. However, numerical modeling of laser/GTA hybrid welding is just beginning. Arc and laser welding plasmas have been previously analyzed successfully using optical emission spectroscopy in order to better understand arc and laser plasma properties as a function of plasma radius. Variation of hybrid welding plasma properties with radial distance is not known. Since plasma properties can affect arc and laser energy absorption and weld integrity, a better understanding of the change in hybrid welding plasma properties as a function of plasma radius is important and necessary. Material composition influences welding plasma properties, arc and laser energy absorption, heat transfer, and fluid flow. The presence of surface active elements such as oxygen and sulfur can affect weld pool fluid flow and bead geometry depending upon the significance of heat transfer by convection. Easily vaporized and ionized alloying elements can influence arc plasma characteristics and arc energy absorption. The effects of surface active elements on heat transfer and fluid flow are well understood in the case of arc and conduction mode laser welding. However, the influence of surface active elements on heat transfer and fluid flow during keyhole mode laser welding and laser/arc hybrid welding are not well known. Modeling has been used to successfully analyze the influence of surface active elements during arc and conduction mode laser welding in the past and offers promise in the case of laser/arc hybrid welding. A critical review of the literature revealed several important areas for further research and unanswered questions. (1) The understanding of heat transfer and fluid flow during hybrid welding is still beginning and further research is necessary. (2) Why hybrid welding weld bead width is greater than that of laser or arc welding is not well understood. (3) The influence of arc power and heat source separation distance on cooling rates during hybrid welding are not known. (4) Convection during hybrid welding is not well understood despite its importance to weld integrity. (5) The influence of surface active elements on weld geometry, weld pool temperatures, and fluid flow during high power density laser and laser/arc hybrid welding are not known. (6) Although the arc power and heat source separation distance have been experimentally shown to influence arc stability and plasma light emission during hybrid welding, the influence of these parameters on plasma properties is unknown. (7) The electrical conductivity of hybrid welding plasmas is not known, despite its importance to arc stability and weld integrity. In this study, heat transfer and fluid flow are analyzed for laser, gas tungsten arc (GTA), and laser/GTA hybrid welding using an experimentally validated three dimensional phenomenological model. By evaluating arc and laser welding using similar process parameters, a better understanding of the hybrid welding process is expected. The role of arc power and heat source separation distance on weld depth, weld pool centerline cooling rates, and fluid flow profiles during CO2 laser/GTA hybrid welding of 321 stainless steel are analyzed. Laser power is varied for a constant heat source separation distance to evaluate its influence on weld temperatures, weld geometry, and fluid flow during Nd:YAG laser/GTA hybrid welding of A131 structural steel. The influence of oxygen and sulfur on keyhole and weld bead geometry, weld temperatures, and fluid flow are analyzed for high power density Yb doped fiber laser welding of (0.16 %C, 1.46 %Mn) mild steel. Optical emission spectroscopy was performed on GTA, Nd:YAG laser, and Nd:YAG laser/GTA hybrid welding plasmas for welding of 304L stainless steel. Emission spectroscopy provides a means of determining plasma temperatures and species densities using deconvoluted measured spectral intensities, which can then be used to calculate plasma electrical conductivity. In this study, hybrid welding plasma temperatures, species densities, and electrical conductivities were determined using various heat source separation distances and arc currents using an analytical method coupled calculated plasma compositions. As a result of these studies heat transfer by convection was determined to be dominant during hybrid welding of steels. The primary driving forces affecting hybrid welding fluid flow are the surface tension gradient and electromagnetic force. Fiber laser weld depth showed a negligible change when increasing the (0.16 %C, 1.46 %Mn) mild steel sulfur concentration from 0.006 wt% to 0.15 wt%. Increasing the dissolved oxygen content in weld pool from 0.0038 wt% to 0.0257 wt% increased the experimental weld depth from 9.3 mm to 10.8 mm. Calculated partial pressure of carbon monoxide increased from 0.1 atm to 0.75 atm with the 0.0219 wt% increase in dissolved oxygen in the weld metal and may explain the increase in weld depth. Nd:YAG laser/GTA hybrid welding plasma temperatures were calculated to be approximately between 7927 K and 9357 K. Increasing the Nd:YAG laser/GTA hybrid welding heat source separation distance from 4 mm to 6 mm reduced plasma temperatures between 500 K and 900 K. Hybrid welding plasma total electron densities and electrical conductivities were on the order of 1 x 1022 m-3 and 3000 S m-1, respectively.
Transient Thermo-fluid Model of Meniscus Behavior and Slag Consumption in Steel Continuous Casting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jonayat, A. S. M.; Thomas, Brian G.
2014-10-01
The behavior of the slag layer between the oscillating mold wall, the slag rim, the slag/liquid steel interface, and the solidifying steel shell, is of immense importance for the surface quality of continuous-cast steel. A computational model of the meniscus region has been developed, that includes transient heat transfer, multi-phase fluid flow, solidification of the slag, and movement of the mold during an oscillation cycle. First, the model is applied to a lab experiment done with a "mold simulator" to verify the transient temperature-field predictions. Next, the model is verified by matching with available literature and plant measurements of slag consumption. A reasonable agreement has been observed for both temperature and flow-field. The predictions show that transient temperature behavior depends on the location of the thermocouple during the oscillation relative to the meniscus. During an oscillation cycle, heat transfer variations in a laboratory frame of reference are more severe than experienced by the moving mold thermocouples, and the local heat transfer rate is increased greatly when steel overflows the meniscus. Finally, the model is applied to conduct a parametric study on the effect of casting speed, stroke, frequency, and modification ratio on slag consumption. Slag consumption per unit area increases with increase of stroke and modification ratio, and decreases with increase of casting speed while the relation with frequency is not straightforward. The match between model predictions and literature trends suggests that this methodology can be used for further investigations.
Computational thermo-fluid dynamics contributions to advanced gas turbine engine design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Graham, R. W.; Adamczyk, J. J.; Rohlik, H. E.
1984-01-01
The design practices for the gas turbine are traced throughout history with particular emphasis on the calculational or analytical methods. Three principal components of the gas turbine engine will be considered: namely, the compressor, the combustor and the turbine.
A multiscale thermo-fluid computational model for a two-phase cooling system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sacco, Riccardo; Carichino, Lucia; de Falco, Carlo; Verri, Maurizio; Agostini, Francesco; Gradinger, Thomas
2014-12-01
In this paper, we describe a mathematical model and a numerical simulation method for the condenser component of a novel two-phase thermosyphon cooling system for power electronics applications. The condenser consists of a set of roll-bonded vertically mounted fins among which air flows by either natural or forced convection. In order to deepen the understanding of the mechanisms that determine the performance of the condenser and to facilitate the further optimization of its industrial design, a multiscale approach is developed to reduce as much as possible the complexity of the simulation code while maintaining reasonable predictive accuracy. To this end, heat diffusion in the fins and its convective transport in air are modeled as 2D processes while the flow of the two-phase coolant within the fins is modeled as a 1D network of pipes. For the numerical solution of the resulting equations, a Dual Mixed-Finite Volume scheme with Exponential Fitting stabilization is used for 2D heat diffusion and convection while a Primal Mixed Finite Element discretization method with upwind stabilization is used for the 1D coolant flow. The mathematical model and the numerical method are validated through extensive simulations of realistic device structures which prove to be in excellent agreement with available experimental data.
38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...
38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...
38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...
38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...
38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caponetto, R.; De Luca, V.; Graziani, S.; Sapuppo, F.
2013-12-01
IPMCs are electroactive polymers which can be used both as sensors and as actuators. The modeling of IPMC transducers is an open issue relevant to the development of effective applications. A multiphysics model of IPMC actuators is here implemented. It integrates the description of the electrical, mechanical, chemical and thermal coupled physics domains in a unique solution and, as a novelty, it allows the study in the frequency domain and the comparison with experimental response of the IPMC device. The IPMC white box modeling requires several macro- and microscopic parameters, not always accessible via theoretical approaches or experimentation. This work presents a new model optimization procedure which integrates the Nelder-Mead simplex method with the COMSOL Multiphysics®models. The proposed procedure uses experimental data and fits model simulations to IPMC real behavior for microscopic parameters’ identification. The model is developed for IPMCs with ethylene glycol as the solvent.
William Martin
2012-11-16
A new method to obtain Doppler broadened cross sections has been implemented into MCNP, removing the need to generate cross sections for isotopes at problem temperatures. Previous work had established the scientific feasibility of obtaining Doppler-broadened cross sections "on-the-fly" (OTF) during the random walk of the neutron. Thus, when a neutron of energy E enters a material region that is at some temperature T, the cross sections for that material at the exact temperature T are immediately obtained by interpolation using a high order functional expansion for the temperature dependence of the Doppler-broadened cross section for that isotope at the neutron energy E. A standalone Fortran code has been developed that generates the OTF library for any isotope that can be processed by NJOY. The OTF cross sections agree with the NJOY-based cross sections for all neutron energies and all temperatures in the range specified by the user, e.g., 250K - 3200K. The OTF methodology has been successfully implemented into the MCNP Monte Carlo code and has been tested on several test problems by comparing MCNP with conventional ACE cross sections versus MCNP with OTF cross sections. The test problems include the Doppler defect reactivity benchmark suite and two full-core VHTR configurations, including one with multiphysics coupling using RELAP5-3D/ATHENA for the thermal-hydraulic analysis. The comparison has been excellent, verifying that the OTF libraries can be used in place of the conventional ACE libraries generated at problem temperatures. In addition, it has been found that using OTF cross sections greatly reduces the complexity of the input for MCNP, especially for full-core temperature feedback calculations with many temperature regions. This results in an order of magnitude decrease in the number of input lines for full-core configurations, thus simplifying input preparation and reducing the potential for input errors. Finally, for full-core problems with multiphysics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spiegelman, M. W.; Wilson, C. R.; Van Keken, P. E.
2013-12-01
We announce the release of a new software infrastructure, TerraFERMA, the Transparent Finite Element Rapid Model Assembler for the exploration and solution of coupled multi-physics problems. The design of TerraFERMA is driven by two overarching computational needs in Earth sciences. The first is the need for increased flexibility in both problem description and solution strategies for coupled problems where small changes in model assumptions can often lead to dramatic changes in physical behavior. The second is the need for software and models that are more transparent so that results can be verified, reproduced and modified in a manner such that the best ideas in computation and earth science can be more easily shared and reused. TerraFERMA leverages three advanced open-source libraries for scientific computation that provide high level problem description (FEniCS), composable solvers for coupled multi-physics problems (PETSc) and a science neutral options handling system (SPuD) that allows the hierarchical management of all model options. TerraFERMA integrates these libraries into an easier to use interface that organizes the scientific and computational choices required in a model into a single options file, from which a custom compiled application is generated and run. Because all models share the same infrastructure, models become more reusable and reproducible. TerraFERMA inherits much of its functionality from the underlying libraries. It currently solves partial differential equations (PDE) using finite element methods on simplicial meshes of triangles (2D) and tetrahedra (3D). The software is particularly well suited for non-linear problems with complex coupling between components. We demonstrate the design and utility of TerraFERMA through examples of thermal convection and magma dynamics. TerraFERMA has been tested successfully against over 45 benchmark problems from 7 publications in incompressible and compressible convection, magmatic solitary waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pearce, J. V.
2013-09-01
The Comsol Multiphysics{trade mark, serif} finite element simulation package is employed to simulate the freezing of a zinc fixed point for standard platinum resistance thermometer (SPRT) calibrations. The liquid-solid interface is represented by the boundary of an adaptive mesh whose geometry adjusts itself to accommodate the propagating liquid-solid interface. This means that the temperature range of freezing can be arbitrarily narrow. The evolution of the mesh as a function of time is determined by the thermal conditions. The transport of heat and impurities, particularly at the liquid-solid interface, is modeled simultaneously and the concentration of impurities in the liquid volume is evaluated as a function of time and location. Because this is a coupled simulation the influence of impurity distribution on the liquid-solid interface temperature can be characterized. Some results of the model are presented against the background of impurity effects on the freezing curves of ITS-90 fixed points. In particular, the model is employed to demonstrate the dependence of the freezing curve shape with freezing rate, and that for low freezing rates the curve shape is well described by the Scheil theory of freezing. A new method of determining the endpoint of freezing of experimental data is shown and used to compare the model with measurements.
Richard, Joshua; Galloway, Jack; Fensin, Michael; Trellue, Holly
2015-04-04
A novel object-oriented modular mapping methodology for externally coupled neutronics–thermal hydraulics multiphysics simulations was developed. The Simulator using MCNP with Integrated Thermal-Hydraulics for Exploratory Reactor Studies (SMITHERS) code performs on-the-fly mapping of material-wise power distribution tallies implemented by MCNP-based neutron transport/depletion solvers for use in estimating coolant temperature and density distributions with a separate thermal-hydraulic solver. The key development of SMITHERS is that it reconstructs the hierarchical geometry structure of the material-wise power generation tallies from the depletion solver automatically, with only a modicum of additional information required from the user. In addition, it performs the basis mapping from the combinatorial geometry of the depletion solver to the required geometry of the thermal-hydraulic solver in a generalizable manner, such that it can transparently accommodate varying levels of thermal-hydraulic solver geometric fidelity, from the nodal geometry of multi-channel analysis solvers to the pin-cell level of discretization for sub-channel analysis solvers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grujicic, M.; Ramaswami, S.; Snipes, J. S.; Yen, C.-F.; Cheeseman, B. A.; Montgomery, J. S.
2013-10-01
A multiphysics computational model has been developed for the conventional Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) joining process and used to analyze butt-welding of MIL A46100, a prototypical high-hardness armor martensitic steel. The model consists of five distinct modules, each covering a specific aspect of the GMAW process, i.e., (a) dynamics of welding-gun behavior; (b) heat transfer from the electric arc and mass transfer from the electrode to the weld; (c) development of thermal and mechanical fields during the GMAW process; (d) the associated evolution and spatial distribution of the material microstructure throughout the weld region; and (e) the final spatial distribution of the as-welded material properties. To make the newly developed GMAW process model applicable to MIL A46100, the basic physical-metallurgy concepts and principles for this material have to be investigated and properly accounted for/modeled. The newly developed GMAW process model enables establishment of the relationship between the GMAW process parameters (e.g., open circuit voltage, welding current, electrode diameter, electrode-tip/weld distance, filler-metal feed speed, and gun travel speed), workpiece material chemistry, and the spatial distribution of as-welded material microstructure and properties. The predictions of the present GMAW model pertaining to the spatial distribution of the material microstructure and properties within the MIL A46100 weld region are found to be consistent with general expectations and prior observations.
Powell, Adam; Pati, Soobhankar
2012-03-11
Solid Oxide Membrane (SOM) Electrolysis is a new energy-efficient zero-emissions process for producing high-purity magnesium and high-purity oxygen directly from industrial-grade MgO. SOM Recycling combines SOM electrolysis with electrorefining, continuously and efficiently producing high-purity magnesium from low-purity partially oxidized scrap. In both processes, electrolysis and/or electrorefining take place in the crucible, where raw material is continuously fed into the molten salt electrolyte, producing magnesium vapor at the cathode and oxygen at the inert anode inside the SOM. This paper describes a three-dimensional multi-physics finite-element model of ionic current, fluid flow driven by argon bubbling and thermal buoyancy, and heat and mass transport in the crucible. The model predicts the effects of stirring on the anode boundary layer and its time scale of formation, and the effect of natural convection at the outer wall. MOxST has developed this model as a tool for scale-up design of these closely-related processes.
Richard, Joshua; Galloway, Jack; Fensin, Michael; Trellue, Holly
2015-04-04
A novel object-oriented modular mapping methodology for externally coupled neutronics–thermal hydraulics multiphysics simulations was developed. The Simulator using MCNP with Integrated Thermal-Hydraulics for Exploratory Reactor Studies (SMITHERS) code performs on-the-fly mapping of material-wise power distribution tallies implemented by MCNP-based neutron transport/depletion solvers for use in estimating coolant temperature and density distributions with a separate thermal-hydraulic solver. The key development of SMITHERS is that it reconstructs the hierarchical geometry structure of the material-wise power generation tallies from the depletion solver automatically, with only a modicum of additional information required from the user. In addition, it performs the basis mapping from themore » combinatorial geometry of the depletion solver to the required geometry of the thermal-hydraulic solver in a generalizable manner, such that it can transparently accommodate varying levels of thermal-hydraulic solver geometric fidelity, from the nodal geometry of multi-channel analysis solvers to the pin-cell level of discretization for sub-channel analysis solvers.« less
Zhai, Y.; Loesser, G.; Smith, M.; Udintsev, V.; Giacomin, T., T.; Khodak, A.; Johnson, D,; Feder, R,
2015-07-01
ITER diagnostic first walls (DFWs) and diagnostic shield modules (DSMs) inside the port plugs (PPs) are designed to protect diagnostic instrument and components from a harsh plasma environment and provide structural support while allowing for diagnostic access to the plasma. The design of DFWs and DSMs are driven by 1) plasma radiation and nuclear heating during normal operation 2) electromagnetic loads during plasma events and associate component structural responses. A multi-physics engineering analysis protocol for the design has been established at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory and it was used for the design of ITER DFWs and DSMs. The analyses were performed to address challenging design issues based on resultant stresses and deflections of the DFW-DSM-PP assembly for the main load cases. ITER Structural Design Criteria for In-Vessel Components (SDC-IC) required for design by analysis and three major issues driving the mechanical design of ITER DFWs are discussed. The general guidelines for the DSM design have been established as a result of design parametric studies.
Le Pallec, J. C.; Crouzet, N.; Bergeaud, V.; Delavaud, C.
2012-07-01
The control of uncertainties in the field of reactor physics and their propagation in best-estimate modeling are a major issue in safety analysis. In this framework, the CEA develops a methodology to perform multi-physics simulations including uncertainties analysis. The present paper aims to present and apply this methodology for the analysis of an accidental situation such as REA (Rod Ejection Accident). This accident is characterized by a strong interaction between the different areas of the reactor physics (neutronic, fuel thermal and thermal hydraulic). The modeling is performed with CRONOS2 code. The uncertainties analysis has been conducted with the URANIE platform developed by the CEA: For each identified response from the modeling (output) and considering a set of key parameters with their uncertainties (input), a surrogate model in the form of a neural network has been produced. The set of neural networks is then used to carry out a sensitivity analysis which consists on a global variance analysis with the determination of the Sobol indices for all responses. The sensitivity indices are obtained for the input parameters by an approach based on the use of polynomial chaos. The present exercise helped to develop a methodological flow scheme, to consolidate the use of URANIE tool in the framework of parallel calculations. Finally, the use of polynomial chaos allowed computing high order sensitivity indices and thus highlighting and classifying the influence of identified uncertainties on each response of the analysis (single and interaction effects). (authors)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soleimani, Meisam; Wriggers, Peter; Rath, Henryke; Stiesch, Meike
2016-06-01
In this paper, a 3D computational model has been developed to investigate biofilms in a multi-physics framework using smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) based on a continuum approach. Biofilm formation is a complex process in the sense that several physical phenomena are coupled and consequently different time-scales are involved. On one hand, biofilm growth is driven by biological reaction and nutrient diffusion and on the other hand, it is influenced by fluid flow causing biofilm deformation and interface erosion in the context of fluid and deformable solid interaction. The geometrical and numerical complexity arising from these phenomena poses serious complications and challenges in grid-based techniques such as finite element. Here the solution is based on SPH as one of the powerful meshless methods. SPH based computational modeling is quite new in the biological community and the method is uniquely robust in capturing the interface-related processes of biofilm formation such as erosion. The obtained results show a good agreement with experimental and published data which demonstrates that the model is capable of simulating and predicting overall spatial and temporal evolution of biofilm.
Multiphysics modeling of CO2 sequestration in a faulted saline formation in Italy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castelletto, Nicola; Teatini, Pietro; Gambolati, Giuseppe; Bossie-Codreanu, Dan; Vincké, Olivier; Daniel, Jean-Marc; Battistelli, Alfredo; Marcolini, Marica; Donda, Federica; Volpi, Valentina
2013-12-01
The present work describes the results of a modeling study addressing the geological sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in an offshore multi-compartment reservoir located in Italy. The study is part of a large scale project aimed at implementing carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology in a power plant in Italy within the framework of the European Energy Programme for Recovery (EEPR). The processes modeled include multiphase flow and geomechanical effects occurring in the storage formation and the sealing layers, along with near wellbore effects, fault/thrust reactivation and land surface stability, for a CO2 injection rate of 1 × 106 ton/a. Based on an accurate reproduction of the three-dimensional geological setting of the selected structure, two scenarios are discussed depending on a different distribution of the petrophysical properties of the formation used for injection, namely porosity and permeability. The numerical results help clarify the importance of: (i) facies models at the reservoir scale, properly conditioned on wellbore logs, in assessing the CO2 storage capacity; (ii) coupled wellbore-reservoir flow in allocating injection fluxes among permeable levels; and (iii) geomechanical processes, especially shear failure, in constraining the sustainable pressure buildup of a faulted reservoir.
Multiphysics Computational Analysis of a Solid-Core Nuclear Thermal Engine Thrust Chamber
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, Ten-See; Canabal, Francisco; Cheng, Gary; Chen, Yen-Sen
2007-01-01
The objective of this effort is to develop an efficient and accurate computational heat transfer methodology to predict thermal, fluid, and hydrogen environments for a hypothetical solid-core, nuclear thermal engine - the Small Engine. In addition, the effects of power profile and hydrogen conversion on heat transfer efficiency and thrust performance were also investigated. The computational methodology is based on an unstructured-grid, pressure-based, all speeds, chemically reacting, computational fluid dynamics platform, while formulations of conjugate heat transfer were implemented to describe the heat transfer from solid to hydrogen inside the solid-core reactor. The computational domain covers the entire thrust chamber so that the afore-mentioned heat transfer effects impact the thrust performance directly. The result shows that the computed core-exit gas temperature, specific impulse, and core pressure drop agree well with those of design data for the Small Engine. Finite-rate chemistry is very important in predicting the proper energy balance as naturally occurring hydrogen decomposition is endothermic. Locally strong hydrogen conversion associated with centralized power profile gives poor heat transfer efficiency and lower thrust performance. On the other hand, uniform hydrogen conversion associated with a more uniform radial power profile achieves higher heat transfer efficiency, and higher thrust performance.
Development of Adaptive Model Refinement (AMoR) for Multiphysics and Multifidelity Problems
Turinsky, Paul
2015-02-09
This project investigated the development and utilization of Adaptive Model Refinement (AMoR) for nuclear systems simulation applications. AMoR refers to utilization of several models of physical phenomena which differ in prediction fidelity. If the highest fidelity model is judged to always provide or exceeded the desired fidelity, than if one can determine the difference in a Quantity of Interest (QoI) between the highest fidelity model and lower fidelity models, one could utilize the fidelity model that would just provide the magnitude of the QoI desired. Assuming lower fidelity models require less computational resources, in this manner computational efficiency can be realized provided the QoI value can be accurately and efficiently evaluated. This work utilized Generalized Perturbation Theory (GPT) to evaluate the QoI, by convoluting the GPT solution with the residual of the highest fidelity model determined using the solution from lower fidelity models. Specifically, a reactor core neutronics problem and thermal-hydraulics problem were studied to develop and utilize AMoR. The highest fidelity neutronics model was based upon the 3D space-time, two-group, nodal diffusion equations as solved in the NESTLE computer code. Added to the NESTLE code was the ability to determine the time-dependent GPT neutron flux. The lower fidelity neutronics model was based upon the point kinetics equations along with utilization of a prolongation operator to determine the 3D space-time, two-group flux. The highest fidelity thermal-hydraulics model was based upon the space-time equations governing fluid flow in a closed channel around a heat generating fuel rod. The Homogenous Equilibrium Mixture (HEM) model was used for the fluid and Finite Difference Method was applied to both the coolant and fuel pin energy conservation equations. The lower fidelity thermal-hydraulic model was based upon the same equations as used for the highest fidelity model but now with coarse spatial
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spiegelman, M.; Wilson, C. R.
2011-12-01
A quantitative theory of magma production and transport is essential for understanding the dynamics of magmatic plate boundaries, intra-plate volcanism and the geochemical evolution of the planet. It also provides one of the most challenging computational problems in solid Earth science, as it requires consistent coupling of fluid and solid mechanics together with the thermodynamics of melting and reactive flows. Considerable work on these problems over the past two decades shows that small changes in assumptions of coupling (e.g. the relationship between melt fraction and solid rheology), can have profound changes on the behavior of these systems which in turn affects critical computational choices such as discretizations, solvers and preconditioners. To make progress in exploring and understanding this physically rich system requires a computational framework that allows more flexible, high-level description of multi-physics problems as well as increased flexibility in composing efficient algorithms for solution of the full non-linear coupled system. Fortunately, recent advances in available computational libraries and algorithms provide a platform for implementing such a framework. We present results from a new model building system that leverages functionality from both the FEniCS project (www.fenicsproject.org) and PETSc libraries (www.mcs.anl.gov/petsc) along with a model independent options system and gui, Spud (amcg.ese.ic.ac.uk/Spud). Key features from FEniCS include fully unstructured FEM with a wide range of elements; a high-level language (ufl) and code generation compiler (FFC) for describing the weak forms of residuals and automatic differentiation for calculation of exact and approximate jacobians. The overall strategy is to monitor/calculate residuals and jacobians for the entire non-linear system of equations within a global non-linear solve based on PETSc's SNES routines. PETSc already provides a wide range of solvers and preconditioners, from
Freels, James D; Jain, Prashant K
2011-01-01
A research and development project is ongoing to convert the currently operating High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from highly-enriched Uranium (HEU U3O8) fuel to low-enriched Uranium (LEU U-10Mo) fuel. Because LEU HFIR-specific testing and experiments will be limited, COMSOL is chosen to provide the needed multiphysics simulation capability to validate against the HEU design data and calculations, and predict the performance of the LEU fuel for design and safety analyses. The focus of this paper is on the unique issues associated with COMSOL modeling of the 3D geometry, meshing, and solution of the HFIR fuel plate and assembled fuel elements. Two parallel paths of 3D model development are underway. The first path follows the traditional route through examination of all flow and heat transfer details using the Low-Reynolds number k-e turbulence model provided by COMSOL v4.2. The second path simplifies the fluid channel modeling by taking advantage of the wealth of knowledge provided by decades of design and safety analyses, data from experiments and tests, and HFIR operation. By simplifying the fluid channel, a significant level of complexity and computer resource requirements are reduced, while also expanding the level and type of analysis that can be performed with COMSOL. Comparison and confirmation of validity of the first (detailed) and second (simplified) 3D modeling paths with each other, and with available data, will enable an expanded level of analysis. The detailed model will be used to analyze hot-spots and other micro fuel behavior events. The simplified model will be used to analyze events such as routine heat-up and expansion of the entire fuel element, and flow blockage. Preliminary, coarse-mesh model results of the detailed individual fuel plate are presented. Examples of the solution for an entire fuel element consisting of multiple individual fuel plates produced by the simplified model are also presented.
Toumanidou, Themis; Noailly, Jérôme
2015-01-01
During daily activities, complex biomechanical interactions influence the biophysical regulation of intervertebral disks (IVDs), and transfers of mechanical loads are largely controlled by the stabilizing action of spine muscles. Muscle and other internal forces cannot be easily measured directly in the lumbar spine. Hence, biomechanical models are important tools for the evaluation of the loads in those tissues involved in low-back disorders. Muscle force estimations in most musculoskeletal models mainly rely, however, on inverse calculations and static optimizations that limit the predictive power of the numerical calculations. In order to contribute to the development of predictive systems, we coupled a predictive muscle model with the passive resistance of the spine tissues, in a L3–S1 musculoskeletal finite element model with osmo-poromechanical IVD descriptions. The model included 46 fascicles of the major back muscles that act on the lower spine. The muscle model interacted with activity-related loads imposed to the osteoligamentous structure, as standing position and night rest were simulated through distributed upper body mass and free IVD swelling, respectively. Calculations led to intradiscal pressure values within ranges of values measured in vivo. Disk swelling led to muscle activation and muscle force distributions that seemed particularly appropriate to counterbalance the anterior body mass effect in standing. Our simulations pointed out a likely existence of a functional balance between stretch-induced muscle activation and IVD multiphysics toward improved mechanical stability of the lumbar spine understanding. This balance suggests that proper night rest contributes to mechanically strengthen the spine during day activity. PMID:26301218
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hong, S.; Park, S. K.; Choi, Y.; Myoung, B.
2013-12-01
As the importance of the land surface models (LSMs) has been increasingly magnified due to their pivotal role in the complete Earth environmental system, linking the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere, modeling accuracy at regional scales has been important to ensure better representations of increased land surface heterogeneities with the increase of spatial resolutions. However, every model has its own weaknesses induced by such problems as the reality of physical schemes by uncertain parameterizing methods and even structural unreality by simplified model designs. One of the major uncertainties is Interrelationships between implemented physical schemes and their impact on simulation accuracy. Using the new version of Noah land surface model with multi-physics option (Noah-MP) that enables to create various scheme combinations, we examined how each scheme in different scheme combinations contributes to better simulations and how their interrelationships vary with uncertain parameter changes. Targeting long term (5 year) monthly surface hydrology of Han River watershed in South Korea, we mainly explored the simulation accuracy of runoff and evapotranspiration, and additionally that of leaf area index in order to see the vegetation impact on surface water partitioning. The result indicates that the primary contributor for simulation accuracies were the schemes of surface heat exchange coefficient. These schemes are very sensitive to vegetation amount due to their different treatment of heat transfer between on bare and vegetated surface. Showing that further improvement through uncertain parameter calibration, this study also demonstrated that the combination of analyses of scheme interrelationships and parameter calibration promises improved model calibration. In addition, revealing remained uncertainty about the vegetation effect on surface energy and water partitioning, this study also showed that the scheme interrelationship analyses is useful for model
Mill profiler machines soft materials accurately
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rauschl, J. A.
1966-01-01
Mill profiler machines bevels, slots, and grooves in soft materials, such as styrofoam phenolic-filled cores, to any desired thickness. A single operator can accurately control cutting depths in contour or straight line work.
Remote balance weighs accurately amid high radiation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eggenberger, D. N.; Shuck, A. B.
1969-01-01
Commercial beam-type balance, modified and outfitted with electronic controls and digital readout, can be remotely controlled for use in high radiation environments. This allows accurate weighing of breeder-reactor fuel pieces when they are radioactively hot.
Understanding the Code: keeping accurate records.
Griffith, Richard
2015-10-01
In his continuing series looking at the legal and professional implications of the Nursing and Midwifery Council's revised Code of Conduct, Richard Griffith discusses the elements of accurate record keeping under Standard 10 of the Code. This article considers the importance of accurate record keeping for the safety of patients and protection of district nurses. The legal implications of records are explained along with how district nurses should write records to ensure these legal requirements are met. PMID:26418404
Earthquake Rupture Dynamics using Adaptive Mesh Refinement and High-Order Accurate Numerical Methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kozdon, J. E.; Wilcox, L.
2013-12-01
Our goal is to develop scalable and adaptive (spatial and temporal) numerical methods for coupled, multiphysics problems using high-order accurate numerical methods. To do so, we are developing an opensource, parallel library known as bfam (available at http://bfam.in). The first application to be developed on top of bfam is an earthquake rupture dynamics solver using high-order discontinuous Galerkin methods and summation-by-parts finite difference methods. In earthquake rupture dynamics, wave propagation in the Earth's crust is coupled to frictional sliding on fault interfaces. This coupling is two-way, required the simultaneous simulation of both processes. The use of laboratory-measured friction parameters requires near-fault resolution that is 4-5 orders of magnitude higher than that needed to resolve the frequencies of interest in the volume. This, along with earlier simulations using a low-order, finite volume based adaptive mesh refinement framework, suggest that adaptive mesh refinement is ideally suited for this problem. The use of high-order methods is motivated by the high level of resolution required off the fault in earlier the low-order finite volume simulations; we believe this need for resolution is a result of the excessive numerical dissipation of low-order methods. In bfam spatial adaptivity is handled using the p4est library and temporal adaptivity will be accomplished through local time stepping. In this presentation we will present the guiding principles behind the library as well as verification of code against the Southern California Earthquake Center dynamic rupture code validation test problems.