Sample records for accurate phylogenetic classification

  1. Accurate phylogenetic classification of DNA fragments based onsequence composition

    SciTech Connect

    McHardy, Alice C.; Garcia Martin, Hector; Tsirigos, Aristotelis; Hugenholtz, Philip; Rigoutsos, Isidore

    2006-05-01

    Metagenome studies have retrieved vast amounts of sequenceout of a variety of environments, leading to novel discoveries and greatinsights into the uncultured microbial world. Except for very simplecommunities, diversity makes sequence assembly and analysis a verychallenging problem. To understand the structure a 5 nd function ofmicrobial communities, a taxonomic characterization of the obtainedsequence fragments is highly desirable, yet currently limited mostly tothose sequences that contain phylogenetic marker genes. We show that forclades at the rank of domain down to genus, sequence composition allowsthe very accurate phylogenetic 10 characterization of genomic sequence.We developed a composition-based classifier, PhyloPythia, for de novophylogenetic sequence characterization and have trained it on adata setof 340 genomes. By extensive evaluation experiments we show that themethodis accurate across all taxonomic ranks considered, even forsequences that originate fromnovel organisms and are as short as 1kb.Application to two metagenome datasets 15 obtained from samples ofphosphorus-removing sludge showed that the method allows the accurateclassification at genus level of most sequence fragments from thedominant populations, while at the same time correctly characterizingeven larger parts of the samples at higher taxonomic levels.

  2. Phylogenetics and classification of the pantropical fern family Lindsaeaceae

    E-print Network

    Phylogenetics and classification of the pantropical fern family Lindsaeaceae SAMULI LEHTONEN1 for publication 2 June 2010 The classification and generic definition in the tropical­subtropical fern family, and c. 73% of the currently accepted species. The phylogenetic relationships of the lindsaeoid ferns

  3. Protein Classification Using Transductive Learning On Phylogenetic Profiles

    E-print Network

    Liao, Li

    Protein Classification Using Transductive Learning On Phylogenetic Profiles Roger Craig and Li Liao Phylogenetic profiles of proteins - strings of ones and zeros encoding respectively the presence and absence of proteins in a group of genomes - have recently been used to identify homologous proteins and/or proteins

  4. A higher-level phylogenetic classification of the Fungi.

    PubMed

    Hibbett, David S; Binder, Manfred; Bischoff, Joseph F; Blackwell, Meredith; Cannon, Paul F; Eriksson, Ove E; Huhndorf, Sabine; James, Timothy; Kirk, Paul M; Lücking, Robert; Thorsten Lumbsch, H; Lutzoni, François; Matheny, P Brandon; McLaughlin, David J; Powell, Martha J; Redhead, Scott; Schoch, Conrad L; Spatafora, Joseph W; Stalpers, Joost A; Vilgalys, Rytas; Aime, M Catherine; Aptroot, André; Bauer, Robert; Begerow, Dominik; Benny, Gerald L; Castlebury, Lisa A; Crous, Pedro W; Dai, Yu-Cheng; Gams, Walter; Geiser, David M; Griffith, Gareth W; Gueidan, Cécile; Hawksworth, David L; Hestmark, Geir; Hosaka, Kentaro; Humber, Richard A; Hyde, Kevin D; Ironside, Joseph E; Kőljalg, Urmas; Kurtzman, Cletus P; Larsson, Karl-Henrik; Lichtwardt, Robert; Longcore, Joyce; Miadlikowska, Jolanta; Miller, Andrew; Moncalvo, Jean-Marc; Mozley-Standridge, Sharon; Oberwinkler, Franz; Parmasto, Erast; Reeb, Valérie; Rogers, Jack D; Roux, Claude; Ryvarden, Leif; Sampaio, José Paulo; Schüssler, Arthur; Sugiyama, Junta; Thorn, R Greg; Tibell, Leif; Untereiner, Wendy A; Walker, Christopher; Wang, Zheng; Weir, Alex; Weiss, Michael; White, Merlin M; Winka, Katarina; Yao, Yi-Jian; Zhang, Ning

    2007-05-01

    A comprehensive phylogenetic classification of the kingdom Fungi is proposed, with reference to recent molecular phylogenetic analyses, and with input from diverse members of the fungal taxonomic community. The classification includes 195 taxa, down to the level of order, of which 16 are described or validated here: Dikarya subkingdom nov.; Chytridiomycota, Neocallimastigomycota phyla nov.; Monoblepharidomycetes, Neocallimastigomycetes class. nov.; Eurotiomycetidae, Lecanoromycetidae, Mycocaliciomycetidae subclass. nov.; Acarosporales, Corticiales, Baeomycetales, Candelariales, Gloeophyllales, Melanosporales, Trechisporales, Umbilicariales ords. nov. The clade containing Ascomycota and Basidiomycota is classified as subkingdom Dikarya, reflecting the putative synapomorphy of dikaryotic hyphae. The most dramatic shifts in the classification relative to previous works concern the groups that have traditionally been included in the Chytridiomycota and Zygomycota. The Chytridiomycota is retained in a restricted sense, with Blastocladiomycota and Neocallimastigomycota representing segregate phyla of flagellated Fungi. Taxa traditionally placed in Zygomycota are distributed among Glomeromycota and several subphyla incertae sedis, including Mucoromycotina, Entomophthoromycotina, Kickxellomycotina, and Zoopagomycotina. Microsporidia are included in the Fungi, but no further subdivision of the group is proposed. Several genera of 'basal' Fungi of uncertain position are not placed in any higher taxa, including Basidiobolus, Caulochytrium, Olpidium, and Rozella. PMID:17572334

  5. Polarimetric Scattering Feature Estimation for Accurate Vegetation Area Classification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryoichi Sato; Yoshio Yamaguchi; Hiroyoshi Yamada

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes an accuracy improvement of the vegetation area classification based on the POLSAR image analysis, when vegetation and man-made areas are both included in the radar target region. Here we introduce a simple compensate polarimetric marker, T13 or T31, to accurately distinguish the unexpected scattering from the obliquely oriented man-made targets and the complex volume scattering generated from

  6. An enhanced representation of time series which allows fast and accurate classification, clustering and relevance feedback

    E-print Network

    Zordan, Victor

    An enhanced representation of time series which allows fast and accurate classification, clustering an extended representation of time series that allows fast, accurate classification and clustering in addition: · Cardiologists view electrocardiograms to diagnose arrhythmias. · Chartists examine stock market data, searching

  7. An enhanced representation of time series which allows fast and accurate classification, clustering and relevance feedback

    E-print Network

    Zordan, Victor

    An enhanced representation of time series which allows fast and accurate classification, clustering an extended representation of time series that allows fast, accurate classification and clustering in addition: . Cardiologists view electrocardiograms to diagnose arrhythmias. . Chartists examine stock market data, searching

  8. Fast and accurate text classification via multiple linear discriminant projections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soumen Chakrabarti; Shourya Roy; Mahesh V. Soundalgekar

    2002-01-01

    Support vector machines (SVMs) have shown superb\\u000a performance for text classification tasks. They are\\u000a accurate, robust, and quick to apply to test instances.\\u000a Their only potential drawback is their training time and\\u000a memory requirement. For n training instances held in\\u000a memory, the best-known SVM implementations take time\\u000a proportional to n a , where a is typically between 1.8 and\\u000a 2.1.

  9. An accurate fault classification technique for power system monitoring devices

    SciTech Connect

    Adu, T.; Chattopadhyay, B. [Mehta Tech, Inc., Eldridge, IA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Monitoring is vital to the reliable operation of an electric power system. The performance of the power system as well as the individual components can be evaluated by analyzing data captured by monitoring devices. Monitoring devices, such as fault recorders, capture specified portions of normal data, abnormal data and data for post-abnormal conditions. The major abnormality in a power system is a fault condition. In most instances, fault analysis requires that the fault type be classified accurately. It is, therefore, important that power system monitoring devices be equipped with an accurate fault classification algorithm. The purpose of this paper is to present a ne wand accurate algorithm that is compatible with a fault recorder monitoring several connected feeders. The proposed algorithm is based on the measurement of phase angles between the positive and negative sequence components of the current phasor. It also uses the relative magnitudes of the zero and negative sequence quantities present in the current waveforms to differentiate between grounded and ungrounded faults. The proposed technique is independent of the isolation device, system configuration and conditions during faults. The technique is computationally efficient and is not dependent on the type of trigger mechanism. The algorithm was tested with EMTP-generated data as well as field data obtained from users. The test results, presented in this paper, reveal that the proposed algorithm can accurately identify all power system faults.

  10. Phylogenetic Classification of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Sir2-like Proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roy A. Frye

    2000-01-01

    Sirtuins (Sir2-like proteins) are present in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Here, two new human sirtuins (SIRT6 and SIRT7) are found to be similar to a particular subset of insect, nematode, plant, and protozoan sirtuins. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of 60 sirtuin conserved core domain sequences from a diverse array of organisms (including archaeans, bacteria, yeasts, plants, protozoans, and metazoans) shows that eukaryotic

  11. Short Interspersed Elements (SINEs) in Plants: Origin, Classification, and Use as Phylogenetic Markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Marc Deragon; Xiaoyu Zhang

    2006-01-01

    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are a class of dispersed mobile sequences that use RNA as an intermedi- ate in an amplification process called retroposition. The presence-absence of a SINE at a given locus has been used as a meaningful classification criterion to evaluate phylogenetic relations among species. We review here recent developments in the characterisation of plant SINEs and their

  12. The ABC of ABCs: a phylogenetic and functional classification of ABC systems in living organisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elie Dassa; Philippe Bouige

    2001-01-01

    ATP binding cassette (ABC) systems constitute one of the most abundant superfamilies of proteins. They are involved not only in the transport of a wide variety of substances, but also in many cellular processes and in their regulation. In this paper, we made a comparative analysis of the properties of ABC systems and we provide a phylogenetic and functional classification.

  13. Phylogenetic classification of Aureobasidium pullulans strains for production of pullulan and xylanase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study tests the hypothesis that phylogenetic classification can predict whether A. pullulans strains will produce useful levels of the commercial polysaccharide, pullulan, or the valuable enzyme, xylanase. To test this hypothesis, 19 strains of A. pullulans with previously described phenotypes...

  14. Phylogenetics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Katrin Becker

    2005-01-01

    This activity lets learners participate in the process of reconstructing a phylogenetic tree and introduces them to several core bioinformatics concepts, particularly in relation to evolution. Groups of learners (at least 10) repeat a secret message (five to seven similar-sounding words) like the game "Telephone". In this version of the game, however, learners write and then code what they hear, creating a model of a phylogenetic tree and using a species distance matrix. This resource includes background information about phylogenetic trees, maximum parsimony, and matrix theory (see page 6-7 of PDF).

  15. An enhanced representation of time series which allows fast and accurate classification, clustering and relevance feedback

    E-print Network

    Pazzani, Michael J.

    An enhanced representation of time series which allows fast and accurate classification, clustering an extended representation of time series that allows fast, accurate classification and clustering in addition arrhythmias. · Chartists examine stock market data, searching for certain shapes, which are thought

  16. An enhanced representation of time series which allows fast and accurate classification, clustering and relevance feedback

    E-print Network

    Pazzani, Michael J.

    An enhanced representation of time series which allows fast and accurate classification, clustering an extended representation of time series that allows fast, accurate classification and clustering in addition arrhythmias. . Chartists examine stock market data, searching for certain shapes, which are thought

  17. Molecular phylogenetic perspectives for character classification and convergence: Framing some issues with nematode vulval appendages and telotylenchid tail termini

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Characters flagged as convergent based on newer molecular phylogenetic trees inform both practical identification and more esoteric classification. Nematode morphological characters such as lateral lines, bullae and laciniae are quite independent structures from those similarly named in other organi...

  18. Precomputing search features for fast and accurate query classification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Venkatesh Ganti; Arnd Christian König; Xiao Li

    2010-01-01

    Query intent classification is crucial for web search and advertising. It is known to be challenging because web queries contain less than three words on average, and so provide little signal to base classification decisions on. At the same time, the vocabulary used in search queries is vast: thus, classifiers based on word-occurrence have to deal with a very sparse

  19. A bootstrap based analysis pipeline for efficient classification of phylogenetically related animal miRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yong; Gu, Xun

    2007-01-01

    Background Phylogenetically related miRNAs (miRNA families) convey important information of the function and evolution of miRNAs. Due to the special sequence features of miRNAs, pair-wise sequence identity between miRNA precursors alone is often inadequate for unequivocally judging the phylogenetic relationships between miRNAs. Most of the current methods for miRNA classification rely heavily on manual inspection and lack measurements of the reliability of the results. Results In this study, we designed an analysis pipeline (the Phylogeny-Bootstrap-Cluster (PBC) pipeline) to identify miRNA families based on branch stability in the bootstrap trees derived from overlapping genome-wide miRNA sequence sets. We tested the PBC analysis pipeline with the miRNAs from six animal species, H. sapiens, M. musculus, G. gallus, D. rerio, D. melanogaster, and C. elegans. The resulting classification was compared with the miRNA families defined in miRBase. The two classifications were largely consistent. Conclusion The PBC analysis pipeline is an efficient method for classifying large numbers of heterogeneous miRNA sequences. It requires minimum human involvement and provides measurements of the reliability of the classification results. PMID:17341314

  20. The phagotrophic origin of eukaryotes and phylogenetic classification of Protozoa.

    PubMed

    Cavalier-Smith, T

    2002-03-01

    Eukaryotes and archaebacteria form the clade neomura and are sisters, as shown decisively by genes fragmented only in archaebacteria and by many sequence trees. This sisterhood refutes all theories that eukaryotes originated by merging an archaebacterium and an alpha-proteobacterium, which also fail to account for numerous features shared specifically by eukaryotes and actinobacteria. I revise the phagotrophy theory of eukaryote origins by arguing that the essentially autogenous origins of most eukaryotic cell properties (phagotrophy, endomembrane system including peroxisomes, cytoskeleton, nucleus, mitosis and sex) partially overlapped and were synergistic with the symbiogenetic origin of mitochondria from an alpha-proteobacterium. These radical innovations occurred in a derivative of the neomuran common ancestor, which itself had evolved immediately prior to the divergence of eukaryotes and archaebacteria by drastic alterations to its eubacterial ancestor, an actinobacterial posibacterium able to make sterols, by replacing murein peptidoglycan by N-linked glycoproteins and a multitude of other shared neomuran novelties. The conversion of the rigid neomuran wall into a flexible surface coat and the associated origin of phagotrophy were instrumental in the evolution of the endomembrane system, cytoskeleton, nuclear organization and division and sexual life-cycles. Cilia evolved not by symbiogenesis but by autogenous specialization of the cytoskeleton. I argue that the ancestral eukaryote was uniciliate with a single centriole (unikont) and a simple centrosomal cone of microtubules, as in the aerobic amoebozoan zooflagellate Phalansterium. I infer the root of the eukaryote tree at the divergence between opisthokonts (animals, Choanozoa, fungi) with a single posterior cilium and all other eukaryotes, designated 'anterokonts' because of the ancestral presence of an anterior cilium. Anterokonts comprise the Amoebozoa, which may be ancestrally unikont, and a vast ancestrally biciliate clade, named 'bikonts'. The apparently conflicting rRNA and protein trees can be reconciled with each other and this ultrastructural interpretation if long-branch distortions, some mechanistically explicable, are allowed for. Bikonts comprise two groups: corticoflagellates, with a younger anterior cilium, no centrosomal cone and ancestrally a semi-rigid cell cortex with a microtubular band on either side of the posterior mature centriole; and Rhizaria [a new infrakingdom comprising Cercozoa (now including Ascetosporea classis nov.), Retaria phylum nov., Heliozoa and Apusozoa phylum nov.], having a centrosomal cone or radiating microtubules and two microtubular roots and a soft surface, frequently with reticulopodia. Corticoflagellates comprise photokaryotes (Plantae and chromalveolates, both ancestrally with cortical alveoli) and Excavata (a new protozoan infrakingdom comprising Loukozoa, Discicristata and Archezoa, ancestrally with three microtubular roots). All basal eukaryotic radiations were of mitochondrial aerobes; hydrogenosomes evolved polyphyletically from mitochondria long afterwards, the persistence of their double envelope long after their genomes disappeared being a striking instance of membrane heredity. I discuss the relationship between the 13 protozoan phyla recognized here and revise higher protozoan classification by updating as subkingdoms Lankester's 1878 division of Protozoa into Corticata (Excavata, Alveolata; with prominent cortical microtubules and ancestrally localized cytostome--the Parabasalia probably secondarily internalized the cytoskeleton) and Gymnomyxa [infrakingdoms Sarcomastigota (Choanozoa, Amoebozoa) and Rhizaria; both ancestrally with a non-cortical cytoskeleton of radiating singlet microtubules and a relatively soft cell surface with diffused feeding]. As the eukaryote root almost certainly lies within Gymnomyxa, probably among the Sarcomastigota, Corticata are derived. Following the single symbiogenetic origin of chloroplasts in a corticoflagellate host with cortical alveoli, this ancestral plant radiated

  1. Traffic Classification - Towards Accurate Real Time Network Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhu Li; Ruixi Yuan; Xiaohong Guan

    2007-01-01

    Timely traffic identification is critical in network security monitoring and traffic engineering. Traditional methods using\\u000a well-known ports, protocols and precise signature matching are no longer accurate with the proliferation of new applications.\\u000a Recently, applying pattern recognition methods to classify network application traffic based on the flow parameters (e.g.\\u000a port, flow duration, etc.) has become increasing popular. However, many methods developed

  2. Accurate Arrhythmia classification using auto-associative neural network.

    PubMed

    Chakroborty, Sandipan

    2013-01-01

    Currently about one in eighteen of the American population suffer from cardiac Arrhythmias that lead to Coronary Heart Diseases and this rate is steadily increasing. An early monitoring and diagnosis of Arrhythmia based on Electrocardiogram signals can help in reducing mortality. This paper primarily focuses on the application of Auto Associative Neural Network as a new classification approach, which does not require feature extraction task. The weights of a trained Neural Network are stored as class representative models that results in high compression gain with respect to the size of training data. The evaluation of the proposed technique is tested on segmented ECG beats of four different classes of Arrhythmia excluding normal pattern. These beats have been extracted from the MIT/BIH Arrhythmia database and compared against the state-of-the art template matching technique such as Dynamic Time Warping. The proposed technique yields an average accuracy of more than 97% and a relative compression gain of above 90%. PMID:24110670

  3. Cellulose-degrading potentials and phylogenetic classification of carboxymethyl-cellulose decomposing bacteria isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Stephan; Ulrich, Andreas

    2002-12-01

    In a previous study, culturable carboxymethyl-cellulose (CMC) decomposing soil bacteria isolated from different sampling positions across an agricultural encatchment have been classified into 31 pattern groups by digestion of amplified 16S rDNA using a single restriction enzyme (Ulrich and Wirth: Microb. Ecol. 37, 238-247, 1999). In order to reveal relationships between phylogenetic diversity and phenotypic functions, a further differentiation of two selected site-specific pattern groups (I and H) was performed, resulting in a sub-classification of four and three ARDRA groups, respectively. Based on sequencing a representative isolate of each ARDRA group, the isolates were assigned to the genus Streptomyces. The ARDRA groups were dispersed across various clades of the genus with a direct affiliation to species known for cellulolytic activity in one group, only. The isolates differed in potentials to degrade colloidal, native or highly crystalline cellulose derivatives. Out of 39 isolates, 11 were capable of degrading all substrates, 17 were restricted to degrade CMC only, and 11 were active decomposers of exclusively both CMC and colloidal cellulose. In most cases, the genetic classification of the isolates corresponded with groupings based on cellulose degrading capabilities. Thus, isolates of four ARDRA groups were restricted to the degradation of CMC, while two further isolates which efficiently degraded all cellulose derivatives formed two separate ARDRA groups. The major ARDRA group, however; displayed a high variability of degradation capabilities. The study of additional phenotypic features revealed a broad potential to decompose a set of various carbon substrates, which matched the phylogenetic classification in several cases. PMID:12583719

  4. Accurate crop classification using hierarchical genetic fuzzy rule-based systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topaloglou, Charalampos A.; Mylonas, Stelios K.; Stavrakoudis, Dimitris G.; Mastorocostas, Paris A.; Theocharis, John B.

    2014-10-01

    This paper investigates the effectiveness of an advanced classification system for accurate crop classification using very high resolution (VHR) satellite imagery. Specifically, a recently proposed genetic fuzzy rule-based classification system (GFRBCS) is employed, namely, the Hierarchical Rule-based Linguistic Classifier (HiRLiC). HiRLiC's model comprises a small set of simple IF-THEN fuzzy rules, easily interpretable by humans. One of its most important attributes is that its learning algorithm requires minimum user interaction, since the most important learning parameters affecting the classification accuracy are determined by the learning algorithm automatically. HiRLiC is applied in a challenging crop classification task, using a SPOT5 satellite image over an intensively cultivated area in a lake-wetland ecosystem in northern Greece. A rich set of higher-order spectral and textural features is derived from the initial bands of the (pan-sharpened) image, resulting in an input space comprising 119 features. The experimental analysis proves that HiRLiC compares favorably to other interpretable classifiers of the literature, both in terms of structural complexity and classification accuracy. Its testing accuracy was very close to that obtained by complex state-of-the-art classification systems, such as the support vector machines (SVM) and random forest (RF) classifiers. Nevertheless, visual inspection of the derived classification maps shows that HiRLiC is characterized by higher generalization properties, providing more homogeneous classifications that the competitors. Moreover, the runtime requirements for producing the thematic map was orders of magnitude lower than the respective for the competitors.

  5. Toward a stable classification of genera within the Entolomataceae: a phylogenetic re-evaluation of the Rhodocybe-Clitopilus clade.

    PubMed

    Kluting, Kerri L; Baroni, Timothy J; Bergemann, Sarah E

    2014-01-01

    Despite the recent molecular systematic analyses of the Entolomataceae (Agaricales, Basidiomycota), a robust classification of genera supported by morphological and phylogenetic evidence remains unresolved for this cosmopolitan family of pink-spored fungi. Here, a phylogenetic analysis for one of the two major clades (Rhodocybe-Clitopilus) was conducted using three nuclear protein-coding gene regions, the mitochondrial ATP synthase subunit 6 (atp6), the nuclear RNA polymerase subunit II (rpb2) and the nuclear translation elongation factor subunit 1-? (tef1). Five monophyletic groups are resolved with strong statistical support and a set of morphological features for delineation of genera is presented. In the revised classification proposed here, Clitopilus is retained, Rhodocybe is emended, two genera previously accepted as synonyms of Rhodocybe (Clitopilopsis and Rhodophana) are resurrected and Clitocella is described as new. PMID:24987124

  6. Towards a formal genealogical classification of the Lezgian languages (North Caucasus): testing various phylogenetic methods on lexical data.

    PubMed

    Kassian, Alexei

    2015-01-01

    A lexicostatistical classification is proposed for 20 languages and dialects of the Lezgian group of the North Caucasian family, based on meticulously compiled 110-item wordlists, published as part of the Global Lexicostatistical Database project. The lexical data have been subsequently analyzed with the aid of the principal phylogenetic methods, both distance-based and character-based: Starling neighbor joining (StarlingNJ), Neighbor joining (NJ), Unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA), Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), Unweighted maximum parsimony (UMP). Cognation indexes within the input matrix were marked by two different algorithms: traditional etymological approach and phonetic similarity, i.e., the automatic method of consonant classes (Levenshtein distances). Due to certain reasons (first of all, high lexicographic quality of the wordlists and a consensus about the Lezgian phylogeny among Caucasologists), the Lezgian database is a perfect testing area for appraisal of phylogenetic methods. For the etymology-based input matrix, all the phylogenetic methods, with the possible exception of UMP, have yielded trees that are sufficiently compatible with each other to generate a consensus phylogenetic tree of the Lezgian lects. The obtained consensus tree agrees with the traditional expert classification as well as some of the previously proposed formal classifications of this linguistic group. Contrary to theoretical expectations, the UMP method has suggested the least plausible tree of all. In the case of the phonetic similarity-based input matrix, the distance-based methods (StarlingNJ, NJ, UPGMA) have produced the trees that are rather close to the consensus etymology-based tree and the traditional expert classification, whereas the character-based methods (Bayesian MCMC, UMP) have yielded less likely topologies. PMID:25719456

  7. Guide to the various phylogenetic classification schemes for Escherichia coli and the correspondence among schemes.

    PubMed

    Clermont, Olivier; Gordon, David; Denamur, Erick

    2015-05-01

    Numerous tools allowing the rapid and universal identification of the clones/clonal complexes/phylogroups of Escherichia coli have been developed, as it is a commensal of the vertebrate gut, a major pathogen in veterinary and human medicine, and a bacterial indicator of faecal contamination. The ability to identify clones/clonal complexes/phylogroups is crucial, as a strain's ecological niche, lifestyle and propensity to cause disease vary with its phylogenetic origins. There are currently three multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) schemes for E. coli, as well as several PCR-based assays for determining a strain's phylogroup or clonal complex. In this work, we present data that will enable investigators to determine the correspondence between the PCR-based assays and the three MLST schemes, and provide the means for assigning a sequence type (ST) to a phylogroup when no other data on the strain phylogroup membership are available. Such information will help the scientific community to accurately identify the E. coli clones reported in various publications. Although whole-genome sequencing will replace classical MLST and most alternative PCR-based methods, the ST nomenclature of the MLST scheme hosted at the University of Warwick will largely persist. PMID:25714816

  8. Infrafamilial classifications and characters in Araliaceae: Insights from the phylogenetic analysis of nuclear (ITS) and plastid ( trn L -trn F) sequence data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory M. Plunkett; Jun Wen; Porter P. Lowry II

    2004-01-01

    Traditional classifications of Araliaceae have stressed a relatively small number of morphological characters in the circumscription of infrafamilial groups (usually recognized as tribes). These systems remain largely untested from a phylogenetic perspective, and only a single previous study has explicitly explored intergeneric relationships throughout this family. To test these infrafamilial classification systems, parsimony and Bayesian-inference analyses were conducted using a

  9. Maximum-Likelihood Estimation of Site-Specific Mutation Rates in Human Mitochondrial DNA From Partial Phylogenetic Classification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saharon Rosset; R. Spencer Wells; David F. Soria-Hernanz; Chris Tyler-Smith; Ajay K. Royyuru; Doron M. Behar

    2008-01-01

    The mitochondrial DNA hypervariable segment I (HVS-I) is widely used in studies of human evolutionary genetics, and therefore accurate estimates of mutation rates among nucleotide sites in this region are essential. We have developed a novel maximum-likelihood methodology for estimating site-specific mutation rates from partial phylogenetic information, such as haplogroup association. The resulting estimation problem is a generalized linear model,

  10. Comparative detailed morphology of the Heteroderinae Filip'ev & Schuurmans Stekhoven, 1941, sensu Luc et al. (1988): phylogenetic systematics and revised classification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Baldwin; L. P. Schouest Jr

    1990-01-01

    Taxonomic schemes for the Heteroderinae Filip'ev & Schuurmans Stekhoven, 1941, sensu Luc et al., (1988) have been unstable due to the large number of genera and the paucity of known reliable characters. Reliable characters are essential when using phylogenetic inference in developing a natural classification. Morphological and developmental studies using light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy have revealed the new

  11. Can the World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies Classification Accurately Predict Outcomes in Intracerebral Hemorrhage?

    PubMed Central

    Behrouz, Réza; Zakaria, Asma

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Many scoring systems have been developed for the purpose of estimating of mortality and outcomes in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). However, the utility of the World Federation of Neurosurgical Society (WFNS) classification, which is routinely used in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, has never been specifically assessed in ICH. METHODS A retrospective review of the records of consecutive ICH patients admitted over a 2-year period was carried out. Collected data included ICH size, location, intraventricular hemorrhage, age, admission Glasgow Coma Scale scores, and outcomes on discharge. Linear regression was performed to confirm correlations of the WFNS scale and the ICH score separately with good outcome, poor outcome, and in-hospital mortality. Receiver–operator characteristic (ROC) curve was employed to plot WFNS and ICH scores each in relation to in-hospital mortality and poor outcome. Accuracy was estimated by calculating the area under the curves (AUC). RESULTS In this study, 128 patients were included. The overall mortality rate was 34.4%. Linear regression showed appropriate fit for both the ICH Score and the WFNS in relation to poor outcome and mortality. The ROC curves for the scales in relation to in-hospital death produced an AUC estimate 0.93 for WFNS and 0.92 for the ICH Score (p = 0.81). For poor outcome, the AUC values were 0.91 and 0.90 for the WFNS and the ICH Score, respectively (p = 0.9). For good outcome, the AUC for WFNS was 0.86 and for the ICH score, 0.85 (p = 0.74). CONCLUSION The WFNS classification is as accurate as the ICH score in predicting discharge outcomes and in-hospital mortality. It is a simple clinical scale that can be used to predict outcomes in both ICH and subarachnoid hemorrhage patients.

  12. Photometric brown-dwarf classification. I. A method to identify and accurately classify large samples of brown dwarfs without spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrzypek, N.; Warren, S. J.; Faherty, J. K.; Mortlock, D. J.; Burgasser, A. J.; Hewett, P. C.

    2015-02-01

    Aims: We present a method, named photo-type, to identify and accurately classify L and T dwarfs onto the standard spectral classification system using photometry alone. This enables the creation of large and deep homogeneous samples of these objects efficiently, without the need for spectroscopy. Methods: We created a catalogue of point sources with photometry in 8 bands, ranging from 0.75 to 4.6 ?m, selected from an area of 3344 deg2, by combining SDSS, UKIDSS LAS, and WISE data. Sources with 13.0 0.8, were then classified by comparison against template colours of quasars, stars, and brown dwarfs. The L and T templates, spectral types L0 to T8, were created by identifying previously known sources with spectroscopic classifications, and fitting polynomial relations between colour and spectral type. Results: Of the 192 known L and T dwarfs with reliable photometry in the surveyed area and magnitude range, 189 are recovered by our selection and classification method. We have quantified the accuracy of the classification method both externally, with spectroscopy, and internally, by creating synthetic catalogues and accounting for the uncertainties. We find that, brighter than J = 17.5, photo-type classifications are accurate to one spectral sub-type, and are therefore competitive with spectroscopic classifications. The resultant catalogue of 1157 L and T dwarfs will be presented in a companion paper.

  13. Phylogenetic classification of the frog pathogen Amphibiothecum (Dermosporidium) penneri based on small ribosomal subunit sequencing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feldman, S.H.; Wimsatt, J.H.; Green, D.E.

    2005-01-01

    We determined 1,600 base pairs of DNA sequence in the 18S small ribosomal subunit from two geographically distinct isolates of Dermosporidium penneri. Maximum likelihood and parsimony analysis of these sequences place D. penneri in the order Dermocystida of the class Mesomycetozoea. The 18S rRNA sequences from these two isolates only differ within a single region of 16 contiguous nucleotides. Based on the distant phylogenetic relationship of these organisms to Amphibiocystidium ranae and similarity to Sphaerothecum destruens we propose the organism be renamed Amphibiothecum penneri.

  14. Deceptive desmas: molecular phylogenetics suggests a new classification and uncovers convergent evolution of lithistid demosponges.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Astrid; Erpenbeck, Dirk; Pisera, Andrzej; Hooper, John; Bryce, Monika; Fromont, Jane; Wörheide, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Reconciling the fossil record with molecular phylogenies to enhance the understanding of animal evolution is a challenging task, especially for taxa with a mostly poor fossil record, such as sponges (Porifera). 'Lithistida', a polyphyletic group of recent and fossil sponges, are an exception as they provide the richest fossil record among demosponges. Lithistids, currently encompassing 13 families, 41 genera and >300 recent species, are defined by the common possession of peculiar siliceous spicules (desmas) that characteristically form rigid articulated skeletons. Their phylogenetic relationships are to a large extent unresolved and there has been no (taxonomically) comprehensive analysis to formally reallocate lithistid taxa to their closest relatives. This study, based on the most comprehensive molecular and morphological investigation of 'lithistid' demosponges to date, corroborates some previous weakly-supported hypotheses, and provides novel insights into the evolutionary relationships of the previous 'order Lithistida'. Based on molecular data (partial mtDNA CO1 and 28S rDNA sequences), we show that 8 out of 13 'Lithistida' families belong to the order Astrophorida, whereas Scleritodermidae and Siphonidiidae form a separate monophyletic clade within Tetractinellida. Most lithistid astrophorids are dispersed between different clades of the Astrophorida and we propose to formally reallocate them, respectively. Corallistidae, Theonellidae and Phymatellidae are monophyletic, whereas the families Pleromidae and Scleritodermidae are polyphyletic. Family Desmanthidae is polyphyletic and groups within Halichondriidae--we formally propose a reallocation. The sister group relationship of the family Vetulinidae to Spongillida is confirmed and we propose here for the first time to include Vetulina into a new Order Sphaerocladina. Megascleres and microscleres possibly evolved and/or were lost several times independently in different 'lithistid' taxa, and microscleres might at least be four times more likely lost than megascleres. Desma spicules occasionally may have undergone secondary losses too. Our study provides a framework for further detailed investigations of this important demosponge group. PMID:25565279

  15. Phylogenetic analysis and classification of the Brassica rapa SET-domain protein family

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The SET (Su(var)3-9, Enhancer-of-zeste, Trithorax) domain is an evolutionarily conserved sequence of approximately 130-150 amino acids, and constitutes the catalytic site of lysine methyltransferases (KMTs). KMTs perform many crucial biological functions via histone methylation of chromatin. Histone methylation marks are interpreted differently depending on the histone type (i.e. H3 or H4), the lysine position (e.g. H3K4, H3K9, H3K27, H3K36 or H4K20) and the number of added methyl groups (i.e. me1, me2 or me3). For example, H3K4me3 and H3K36me3 are associated with transcriptional activation, but H3K9me2 and H3K27me3 are associated with gene silencing. The substrate specificity and activity of KMTs are determined by sequences within the SET domain and other regions of the protein. Results Here we identified 49 SET-domain proteins from the recently sequenced Brassica rapa genome. We performed sequence similarity and protein domain organization analysis of these proteins, along with the SET-domain proteins from the dicot Arabidopsis thaliana, the monocots Oryza sativa and Brachypodium distachyon, and the green alga Ostreococcus tauri. We showed that plant SET-domain proteins can be grouped into 6 distinct classes, namely KMT1, KMT2, KMT3, KMT6, KMT7 and S-ET. Apart from the S-ET class, which has an interrupted SET domain and may be involved in methylation of nonhistone proteins, the other classes have characteristics of histone methyltransferases exhibiting different substrate specificities: KMT1 for H3K9, KMT2 for H3K4, KMT3 for H3K36, KMT6 for H3K27 and KMT7 also for H3K4. We also propose a coherent and rational nomenclature for plant SET-domain proteins. Comparisons of sequence similarity and synteny of B. rapa and A. thaliana SET-domain proteins revealed recent gene duplication events for some KMTs. Conclusion This study provides the first characterization of the SET-domain KMT proteins of B. rapa. Phylogenetic analysis data allowed the development of a coherent and rational nomenclature of this important family of proteins in plants, as in animals. The results obtained in this study will provide a base for nomenclature of KMTs in other plant species and facilitate the functional characterization of these important epigenetic regulatory genes in Brassica crops. PMID:22168908

  16. Phylogenetic analysis, genomic diversity and classification of M class gene segments of turkey reoviruses.

    PubMed

    Mor, Sunil K; Marthaler, Douglas; Verma, Harsha; Sharafeldin, Tamer A; Jindal, Naresh; Porter, Robert E; Goyal, Sagar M

    2015-03-23

    From 2011 to 2014, 13 turkey arthritis reoviruses (TARVs) were isolated from cases of swollen hock joints in 2-18-week-old turkeys. In addition, two isolates from similar cases of turkey arthritis were received from another laboratory. Eight turkey enteric reoviruses (TERVs) isolated from fecal samples of turkeys were also used for comparison. The aims of this study were to characterize turkey reovirus (TRV) based on complete M class genome segments and to determine genetic diversity within TARVs in comparison to TERVs and chicken reoviruses (CRVs). Nucleotide (nt) cut off values of 84%, 83% and 85% for the M1, M2 and M3 gene segments were proposed and used for genotype classification, generating 5, 7, and 3 genotypes, respectively. Using these nt cut off values, we propose M class genotype constellations (GCs) for avian reoviruses. Of the seven GCs, GC1 and GC3 were shared between the TARVs and TERVs, indicating possible reassortment between turkey and chicken reoviruses. The TARVs and TERVs were divided into three GCs, and GC2 was unique to TARVs and TERVs. The proposed new GC approach should be useful in identifying reassortant viruses, which may ultimately be used in the design of a universal vaccine against both chicken and turkey reoviruses. PMID:25655814

  17. Maximum-likelihood estimation of site-specific mutation rates in human mitochondrial DNA from partial phylogenetic classification.

    PubMed

    Rosset, Saharon; Wells, R Spencer; Soria-Hernanz, David F; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Royyuru, Ajay K; Behar, Doron M

    2008-11-01

    The mitochondrial DNA hypervariable segment I (HVS-I) is widely used in studies of human evolutionary genetics, and therefore accurate estimates of mutation rates among nucleotide sites in this region are essential. We have developed a novel maximum-likelihood methodology for estimating site-specific mutation rates from partial phylogenetic information, such as haplogroup association. The resulting estimation problem is a generalized linear model, with a nonstandard link function. We develop inference and bias correction tools for our estimates and a hypothesis-testing approach for site independence. We demonstrate our methodology using 16,609 HVS-I samples from the Genographic Project. Our results suggest that mutation rates among nucleotide sites in HVS-I are highly variable. The 16,400-16,500 region exhibits significantly lower rates compared to other regions, suggesting potential functional constraints. Several loci identified in the literature as possible termination-associated sequences (TAS) do not yield statistically slower rates than the rest of HVS-I, casting doubt on their functional importance. Our tests do not reject the null hypothesis of independent mutation rates among nucleotide sites, supporting the use of site-independence assumption for analyzing HVS-I. Potential extensions of our methodology include its application to estimation of mutation rates in other genetic regions, like Y chromosome short tandem repeats. PMID:18791242

  18. Maximum-Likelihood Estimation of Site-Specific Mutation Rates in Human Mitochondrial DNA From Partial Phylogenetic Classification

    PubMed Central

    Rosset, Saharon; Wells, R. Spencer; Soria-Hernanz, David F.; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Royyuru, Ajay K.; Behar, Doron M.

    2008-01-01

    The mitochondrial DNA hypervariable segment I (HVS-I) is widely used in studies of human evolutionary genetics, and therefore accurate estimates of mutation rates among nucleotide sites in this region are essential. We have developed a novel maximum-likelihood methodology for estimating site-specific mutation rates from partial phylogenetic information, such as haplogroup association. The resulting estimation problem is a generalized linear model, with a nonstandard link function. We develop inference and bias correction tools for our estimates and a hypothesis-testing approach for site independence. We demonstrate our methodology using 16,609 HVS-I samples from the Genographic Project. Our results suggest that mutation rates among nucleotide sites in HVS-I are highly variable. The 16,400–16,500 region exhibits significantly lower rates compared to other regions, suggesting potential functional constraints. Several loci identified in the literature as possible termination-associated sequences (TAS) do not yield statistically slower rates than the rest of HVS-I, casting doubt on their functional importance. Our tests do not reject the null hypothesis of independent mutation rates among nucleotide sites, supporting the use of site-independence assumption for analyzing HVS-I. Potential extensions of our methodology include its application to estimation of mutation rates in other genetic regions, like Y chromosome short tandem repeats. PMID:18791242

  19. Accurate, Fine-Grained Classification of P2P-TV Applications by Simply Counting Packets

    E-print Network

    classification [1,2] is a novel approach which aims at identifying the traffic generated by network hosts or end-points by the sole examination of their traffic patterns (e.g. number of hosts con- tacted, transport layer protocol the inspection of packet payload as in [3, 4], nor operations on a per-packet basis as in [7, 8]. However, so far

  20. Fast and accurate text classification via multiple linear discriminant projections pp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soumen Chakrabarti; Shourya Roy; Mahesh V. Soundalgekar

    2003-01-01

    as containing or not containing material relevant to a given topic; the label is denoted c 2 Support vector machines (SVMs) have shown superb performance for text classi cation tasks. They are accurate, robust, and quick to apply to test instances. Their only potential drawback is their training time and memory requirement. For n training instances held in memory, the

  1. Classification algorithms with multi-modal data fusion could accurately distinguish neuromyelitis optica from multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Eshaghi, Arman; Riyahi-Alam, Sadjad; Saeedi, Roghayyeh; Roostaei, Tina; Nazeri, Arash; Aghsaei, Aida; Doosti, Rozita; Ganjgahi, Habib; Bodini, Benedetta; Shakourirad, Ali; Pakravan, Manijeh; Ghana'ati, Hossein; Firouznia, Kavous; Zarei, Mojtaba; Azimi, Amir Reza; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) exhibits substantial similarities to multiple sclerosis (MS) in clinical manifestations and imaging results and has long been considered a variant of MS. With the advent of a specific biomarker in NMO, known as anti-aquaporin 4, this assumption has changed; however, the differential diagnosis remains challenging and it is still not clear whether a combination of neuroimaging and clinical data could be used to aid clinical decision-making. Computer-aided diagnosis is a rapidly evolving process that holds great promise to facilitate objective differential diagnoses of disorders that show similar presentations. In this study, we aimed to use a powerful method for multi-modal data fusion, known as a multi-kernel learning and performed automatic diagnosis of subjects. We included 30 patients with NMO, 25 patients with MS and 35 healthy volunteers and performed multi-modal imaging with T1-weighted high resolution scans, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and resting-state functional MRI (fMRI). In addition, subjects underwent clinical examinations and cognitive assessments. We included 18 a priori predictors from neuroimaging, clinical and cognitive measures in the initial model. We used 10-fold cross-validation to learn the importance of each modality, train and finally test the model performance. The mean accuracy in differentiating between MS and NMO was 88%, where visible white matter lesion load, normal appearing white matter (DTI) and functional connectivity had the most important contributions to the final classification. In a multi-class classification problem we distinguished between all of 3 groups (MS, NMO and healthy controls) with an average accuracy of 84%. In this classification, visible white matter lesion load, functional connectivity, and cognitive scores were the 3 most important modalities. Our work provides preliminary evidence that computational tools can be used to help make an objective differential diagnosis of NMO and MS. PMID:25610795

  2. FLD-SIFT: Class Based Scale Invariant Feature Transform for Accurate Classification of Faces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. H. Shekar; M. Sharmila Kumari; Leonid M. Mestetskiy; Natalia Dyshkant

    \\u000a In this paper, a new model called FLD-SIFT is devised for compact representation and accurate recognition of faces. Unlike\\u000a scale invariant feature transform model that uses smoothed weighted histogram and massive dimension of feature vectors, in\\u000a the proposed model, an image patch centered around the keypoint has been considered and linear discriminant analysis (FLD)\\u000a is employed for compact representation of

  3. Novel exomphalos genetic mouse model: The importance of accurate phenotypic classification

    PubMed Central

    Carnaghan, Helen; Roberts, Tom; Savery, Dawn; Norris, Francesca C.; McCann, Conor J.; Copp, Andrew J.; Scambler, Peter J.; Lythgoe, Mark F.; Greene, Nicholas D.; DeCoppi, Paolo; Burns, Alan J.; Pierro, Agustino; Eaton, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Background Rodent models of abdominal wall defects (AWD) may provide insight into the pathophysiology of these conditions including gut dysfunction in gastroschisis, or pulmonary hypoplasia in exomphalos. Previously, a Scribble mutant mouse model (circletail) was reported to exhibit gastroschisis. We further characterise this AWD in Scribble knockout mice. Method Homozygous Scrib knockout mice were obtained from heterozygote matings. Fetuses were collected at E17.5–18.5 with intact amniotic membranes. Three mutants and two control fetuses were imaged by in amnio micro-MRI. Remaining fetuses were dissected, photographed and gut length/weight measured. Ileal specimens were stained for interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), imaged using confocal microscopy and ICC quantified. Results 127 fetuses were collected, 15 (12%) exhibited AWD. Microdissection revealed 3 mutants had characteristic exomphalos phenotype with membrane-covered gut/liver herniation into the umbilical cord. A further 12 exhibited extensive AWD, with eviscerated abdominal organs and thin covering membrane (intact or ruptured). Micro-MRI confirmed these phenotypes. Gut was shorter and heavier in AWD group compared to controls but morphology/number of ICC was not different. Discussion The Scribble knockout fetus exhibits exomphalos (intact and ruptured), in contrast to the original published phenotype of gastroschisis. Detailed dissection of fetuses is essential ensuring accurate phenotyping and result reporting. PMID:24094954

  4. Molecular phylogenetic evidence for the monophyly of Fritillaria and Lilium (Liliaceae; Liliales) and the infrageneric classification of Fritillaria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nina Rřnsted; Steve Law; Hannah Thornton; Michael F. Fay; Mark W. Chase

    2005-01-01

    We present phylogenetic analyses of 37 taxa of Fritillaria (Liliaceae), 15 species of Lilium, and several outgroup taxa from Liliaceae s.s. to investigate the generic delimitation of Fritillaria in relation to Lilium as well as infrageneric relationships within Fritillaria. We used DNA sequences from the maturase-coding plastid matK gene and the trnK intron, the intron of the ribosomal protein-coding rpl16

  5. Increasing the data size to accurately reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships between nine subgroups of the Drosophila melanogaster species group (Drosophilidae, Diptera).

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong; Hou, Zhuo-Cheng; Qian, Yuan-Huai; Kang, Han; Zeng, Qing-Tao

    2012-01-01

    Previous phylogenetic analyses of the melanogaster species group have led to conflicting hypotheses concerning their relationship; therefore the addition of new sequence data is necessary to discover the phylogeny of this species group. Here we present new data derived from 17 genes and representing 48 species to reconstruct the phylogeny of the melanogaster group. A variety of statistical tests, as well as maximum likelihood mapping analysis, were performed to estimate data quality, suggesting that all genes had a high degree of contribution to resolve the phylogeny. Individual locus was analyzed using maximum likelihood (ML), and the concatenated dataset (12,988 bp) were analyzed using partitioned maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian analyses. Separated analysis produced various phylogenetic relationships, however, phylogenetic topologies from ML and Bayesian analysis based on concatenated dataset, at the subgroup level, were completely identical to each other with high levels of support. Our results recovered three major clades: the ananassae subgroup, followed by the montium subgroup, the melanogaster subgroup and the oriental subgroups form the third monophyletic clade, in which melanogaster (takahashii, suzukii) forms one subclade and ficusphila [eugracilis (elegans, rhopaloa)] forms another. However, more data are necessary to determine the phylogenetic position of Drosophila lucipennis which proved difficult to place. PMID:21985965

  6. Phylogenetic Classification and Species Identification of Dermatophyte Strains Based on DNA Sequences of Nuclear Ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 Regions

    PubMed Central

    Makimura, Koichi; Tamura, Yoshiko; Mochizuki, Takashi; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Tajiri, Yoshito; Hanazawa, Ryo; Uchida, Katsuhisa; Saito, Hiuga; Yamaguchi, Hideyo

    1999-01-01

    The mutual phylogenetic relationships of dermatophytes of the genera Trichophyton, Microsporum, and Epidermophyton were demonstrated by using internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region ribosomal DNA sequences. Trichophyton spp. and Microsporum spp. form a cluster in the phylogenetic tree with Epidermophyton floccosum as an outgroup, and within this cluster, all Trichophyton spp. except Trichophyton terrestre form a nested cluster (100% bootstrap support). Members of dermatophytes in the cluster of Trichophyton spp. were classified into three groups with ITS1 homologies, with each of them being a monophyletic cluster (100% bootstrap support). The Arthroderma vanbreuseghemii-Arthroderma simii group consists of A. vanbreuseghemii, A. simii, Trichophyton mentagrophytes isolates from humans, T. mentagrophytes var. quinckeanum, Trichophyton tonsurans, and Trichophyton schoenleinii. Arthroderma benhamiae, T. mentagrophytes var. erinacei, and Trichophyton verrucosum are members of the Arthroderma benhamiae group. Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton violaceum form the T. rubrum group. This suggests that these “species” of dermatophytes have been overclassified. The ITS1 sequences of 11 clinical isolates were also determined to identify the species, and all strains were successfully identified by comparison of their base sequences with those in the ITS1 DNA sequence database. PMID:10074502

  7. DEFLATE Compression Algorithm Corrects for Overestimation of Phylogenetic Diversity by Grantham Approach to Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Classification

    PubMed Central

    Schlosberg, Arran; Lam, Brian Y. H.; Yeo, Giles S. H.; Clifton-Bligh, Roderick J.

    2014-01-01

    Improvements in speed and cost of genome sequencing are resulting in increasing numbers of novel non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) in genes known to be associated with disease. The large number of nsSNPs makes laboratory-based classification infeasible and familial co-segregation with disease is not always possible. In-silico methods for classification or triage are thus utilised. A popular tool based on multiple-species sequence alignments (MSAs) and work by Grantham, Align-GVGD, has been shown to underestimate deleterious effects, particularly as sequence numbers increase. We utilised the DEFLATE compression algorithm to account for expected variation across a number of species. With the adjusted Grantham measure we derived a means of quantitatively clustering known neutral and deleterious nsSNPs from the same gene; this was then used to assign novel variants to the most appropriate cluster as a means of binary classification. Scaling of clusters allows for inter-gene comparison of variants through a single pathogenicity score. The approach improves upon the classification accuracy of Align-GVGD while correcting for sensitivity to large MSAs. Open-source code and a web server are made available at https://github.com/aschlosberg/CompressGV. PMID:24828207

  8. Expression profiles of switch-like genes accurately classify tissue and infectious disease phenotypes in model-based classification

    PubMed Central

    Gormley, Michael; Tozeren, Aydin

    2008-01-01

    Background Large-scale compilation of gene expression microarray datasets across diverse biological phenotypes provided a means of gathering a priori knowledge in the form of identification and annotation of bimodal genes in the human and mouse genomes. These switch-like genes consist of 15% of known human genes, and are enriched with genes coding for extracellular and membrane proteins. It is of interest to determine the prediction potential of bimodal genes for class discovery in large-scale datasets. Results Use of a model-based clustering algorithm accurately classified more than 400 microarray samples into 19 different tissue types on the basis of bimodal gene expression. Bimodal expression patterns were also highly effective in differentiating between infectious diseases in model-based clustering of microarray data. Supervised classification with feature selection restricted to switch-like genes also recognized tissue specific and infectious disease specific signatures in independent test datasets reserved for validation. Determination of "on" and "off" states of switch-like genes in various tissues and diseases allowed for the identification of activated/deactivated pathways. Activated switch-like genes in neural, skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle tissue tend to have tissue-specific roles. A majority of activated genes in infectious disease are involved in processes related to the immune response. Conclusion Switch-like bimodal gene sets capture genome-wide signatures from microarray data in health and infectious disease. A subset of bimodal genes coding for extracellular and membrane proteins are associated with tissue specificity, indicating a potential role for them as biomarkers provided that expression is altered in the onset of disease. Furthermore, we provide evidence that bimodal genes are involved in temporally and spatially active mechanisms including tissue-specific functions and response of the immune system to invading pathogens. PMID:19014681

  9. CLASSIFICATION

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Kirby

    2009-09-23

    Students will learn about classification Go into the Carnivorous Plant site and find 5 facts about carnivorous plants and write them in your science journal. Carnivorous Plants Using the animal classification site, click on the animals shown and write information about 2 of them in your journal. animal classification Use the animal diversity web page and write down ...

  10. Accurate classification and hemagglutinin amino acid signatures for influenza A virus host-origin association and subtyping.

    PubMed

    ElHefnawi, Mahmoud; Sherif, Fayroz F

    2014-01-20

    Host-origin classification and signatures of influenza A viruses were investigated based on the HA protein for tracking of the HA host of origin. Hidden Markov models (HMMs), decision trees and associative classification for each influenza A virus subtype and its major hosts (human, avian, swine) were generated. Features of the HA protein signatures that were host-and subtype-specific were sought. Host-associated signatures that occurred in different subtypes of the virus were identified. Evaluation of the classification models based on ROC curves and support and confidence ratings for the amino acid class-association rules was performed. Host classification based on the HA subtype achieved accuracies between 91.2% and 100% using decision trees after feature selection. Host-specific class association rules for avian-host origins gave better support and confidence ratings, followed by human and finally swine origin. This finding indicated the lower specificity of the swine host, perhaps pointing to its ability to mix different strains. PMID:24418567

  11. A non-contact method based on multiple signal classification algorithm to reduce the measurement time for accurately heart rate detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechet, P.; Mitran, R.; Munteanu, M.

    2013-08-01

    Non-contact methods for the assessment of vital signs are of great interest for specialists due to the benefits obtained in both medical and special applications, such as those for surveillance, monitoring, and search and rescue. This paper investigates the possibility of implementing a digital processing algorithm based on the MUSIC (Multiple Signal Classification) parametric spectral estimation in order to reduce the observation time needed to accurately measure the heart rate. It demonstrates that, by proper dimensioning the signal subspace, the MUSIC algorithm can be optimized in order to accurately assess the heart rate during an 8-28 s time interval. The validation of the processing algorithm performance was achieved by minimizing the mean error of the heart rate after performing simultaneous comparative measurements on several subjects. In order to calculate the error the reference value of heart rate was measured using a classic measurement system through direct contact.

  12. Modeling body size evolution in Felidae under alternative phylogenetic hypotheses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Alexandre Felizola Diniz-Filho; Joăo Carlos Nabout

    2009-01-01

    The use of phylogenetic comparative methods in ecological research has advanced during the last twenty years, mainly due to accurate phylogenetic reconstructions based on molecular data and computational and statistical ad- vances. We used phylogenetic correlograms and phylogenetic eigenvector regression (PVR) to model body size evolution in 35 worldwide Felidae (Mammalia, Carnivora) species using two alternative phylogenies and published body

  13. CLASSIFICATION

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Ballew

    2010-10-17

    Project Overview: Classification is grouping similar objects together. When you go into a grocery store, you see fresh fruits and vegetables, frozen food, cereal, and pet suplies in different aisles. Imagine how difficult life would be if you went into a store, and the aisles were not labeled to tell you where to find the items! You don't have to be a scientist to use classification! You use classification when you group your IPOD music into different genres and when you divide your dark colored clothing from light colors to do laundry. You might even use it to sort Halloween candy into 4 groups: chocolate candy, hard candy, chewy candy, and gum. The science of classification is called taxonomy. Taxonomy classifies organisms based on evolutionary relationships and describes and names organisms with a two-part name: genus and species. Scientists use taxonomy to identify unknown organisms by using books called field guides or by using taxonomic keys (also called dichomotous keys). Project Objective: As a class,you will be previewing and answering some questions about some classification resources to learn how to use a dichotomous key, how to key a specimen, and to help you write your own dichotomous key for school items. Project: Get a sheet of notebook paper and pencil and refer to the websites to find the answers to the questions. One way to classify objects is to create a "tree" to group similar objects together.Open hierarchical classfication of objects to the second page and find the diagram of common household objects. See how all the ...

  14. GB Virus C/Hepatitis G Virus Groups and Subgroups: Classification by a Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Method Based on Phylogenetic Analysis of the 5? Untranslated Region

    PubMed Central

    Quarleri, J. F.; Mathet, V. L.; Feld, M.; Ferrario, D.; della Latta, M. P.; Verdun, R.; Sánchez, D. O.; Oubińa, J. R.

    1999-01-01

    A phylogenetic tree based on 150 5? untranslated region sequences deposited in GenBank database allowed segregation of the sequences into three major groups, including two subgroups, i.e., 1, 2a, 2b, and 3, supported by bootstrap analysis. Restriction site analysis of these sequences predicted that HinfI and either AatII or AciI could be used for genomic typing with 99.4% accuracy. cDNA sequencing and subsequent alignment of 21 Argentine GB virus C/hepatitis G virus strains confirmed restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns theoretically predicted. This method may be useful for a rapid screening of samples when either epidemiological or transmission studies of this agent are carried out. PMID:10203483

  15. Organic anion transporting polypeptides of the OATP\\/ SLC21 family: phylogenetic classification as OATP\\/ SLCO superfamily, new nomenclature and molecular\\/functional properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruno Hagenbuch; Peter J. Meier

    2004-01-01

    The organic anion transporting polypeptides (rodents: Oatps, human: OATPs) form a superfamily of sodium-independent transport systems that mediate the transmembrane transport of a wide range of amphipathic endogenous and exogenous organic compounds. Since the traditional SLC21 gene classification does not permit an unequivocal and species-independent identification of genes and gene products, all Oatps\\/OATPs are newly classified within the OATP\\/ SLCO

  16. An Exploration of Hyperion Hyperspectral Imagery Combined with Different Supervised Classification Approaches Towards Obtaining More Accurate Land Use/Cover Cartography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igityan, Nune

    2014-05-01

    Land use and land cover (LULC) constitutes a key variable of the Earth's system that has in general shown a close correlation with human activities and the physical environment. Describing the pattern and the spatial distribution of LULC is traditionally based on remote sensing data analysis and, evidently, one of the most commonly techniques applied has been image classification. The main objective of the present study has been to evaluate the combined use of Hyperion hyperspectral imagery with a range of supervised classification algorithms widely available today for discriminating LULC classes in a typical Mediterranean setting. Accuracy assessment of the derived thematic maps was based on the analysis of the classification confusion matrix statistics computed for each classification map, using for consistency the same set of validation points. Those were selected on the basis of photo-interpretation of high resolution aerial imagery and of panchromatic imagery available for the studied region at the time of the Hyperion overpass. Results indicated close classification accuracy between the different classifiers with the SVMs outperforming the other classification approaches. The higher classification accuracy by SVMs was attributed principally to the ability of this classifier to identify an optimal separating hyperplane for classes' separation which allows a low generalisation error, thus producing the best possible classes' separation. Although all classifiers produced close results, SVMs generally appeared most useful in describing the spatial distribution and the cover density of each land cover category. All in all, this study demonstrated that, provided that a Hyperion hyperspectral imagery can be made available at regular time intervals over a given region, when combined with SVMs classifiers, can potentially enable a wider approach in land use/cover mapping. This can be of particular importance, especially for regions like in the Mediterranean basin, since it can be related to mapping and monitoring of land degradation and desertification phenomena which are evident in such areas. KEYWORDS: land cover/use mapping, Hyperion, classification, Mediterranean

  17. Large-scale phylogenetic classification of fungal chitin synthases and identification of a putative cell-wall metabolism gene cluster in Aspergillus genomes.

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Arjona, Jose Ramon; Ramirez-Prado, Jorge Humberto

    2014-01-01

    The cell wall is a protective and versatile structure distributed in all fungi. The component responsible for its rigidity is chitin, a product of chitin synthase (Chsp) enzymes. There are seven classes of chitin synthase genes (CHS) and the amount and type encoded in fungal genomes varies considerably from one species to another. Previous Chsp sequence analyses focused on their study as individual units, regardless of genomic context. The identification of blocks of conserved genes between genomes can provide important clues about the interactions and localization of chitin synthases. On the present study, we carried out an in silico search of all putative Chsp encoded in 54 full fungal genomes, encompassing 21 orders from five phyla. Phylogenetic studies of these Chsp were able to confidently classify 347 out of the 369 Chsp identified (94%). Patterns in the distribution of Chsp related to taxonomy were identified, the most prominent being related to the type of fungal growth. More importantly, a synteny analysis for genomic blocks centered on class IV Chsp (the most abundant and widely distributed Chsp class) identified a putative cell wall metabolism gene cluster in members of the genus Aspergillus, the first such association reported for any fungal genome. PMID:25148134

  18. A classification for extant ferns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan R. Smith; Kathleen M. Pryer; Eric Schuettpelz; Petra Korall; Harald Schneider; Paul G. Wolf

    2006-01-01

    We present a revised classification for extant ferns, with emphasis on ordinal and familial ranks, and a synop- sis of included genera. Our classification reflects recently published phylogenetic hypotheses based on both morphological and molecular data. Within our new classification, we recognize four monophyletic classes, 11 monophyletic orders, and 37 families, 32 of which are strongly supported as monophyletic. One

  19. On the Use of Normalized Edit Distances and an Efficient k-NN Search Technique (k-AESA) for Fast and Accurate String Classification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfons Juan; Enrique Vidal

    2000-01-01

    Classification based on Nearest Neighbours (NN) is a uniformly good approach to many Pattern Recognition (PR) tasks. However, two important aspects need to be taken into account to actually achieve good performance in practice. The first one is the metric or dissimilarity measure adopted to compare the considered patterns. The second is thecom- putational cost incurred by the NN searching

  20. Phylogenetic Relationships of the Acanthocephala Inferred from 18S Ribosomal DNA Sequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James R. Garey; Steven A. Nadler

    1998-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships within the Acanthocephala have remained unresolved. Past systematic efforts have focused on creating classifications with little consideration of phylogenetic methods. The Acanthocephala are currently divided into three major taxonomic groups: Archiacanthocephala, Palaeacanthocephala, and Eoacanthocephala. These groups are characterized by structural features in addition to the taxonomy and habitat of hosts parasitized. In this study the phylogenetic relationships of

  1. The phylogenetic position of Apterosperma (Theaceae) based on morphological and karyotype characters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. H. Wang; H. He; T. L. Min; L. H. Zhou; P. W. Fritsch

    2006-01-01

    Classifications of Theaceae have usually placed the endangered monotypic genus Apterosperma in tribe Schimeae (x=18), whereas recent molecular phylogenetic evidence supports its transfer to tribe Theeae (x=15). Molecular data have not resolved the phylogenetic position of Apterosperma within Theeae. We investigated the chromosome number and karyotype of Apterosperma in the context of molecular and morphological phylogenetic evidence to provide further

  2. A preliminary phylogenetic analysis of the New World Helopini (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Tenebrioninae) indicates the need for profound rearrangements of the classification

    PubMed Central

    Cifuentes-Ruiz, Paulina; Zaragoza-Caballero, Santiago; Ochoterena-Booth, Helga; Morón, Miguel Ángel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Helopini is a diverse tribe in the subfamily Tenebrioninae with a worldwide distribution. The New World helopine species have not been reviewed recently and several doubts emerge regarding their generic assignment as well as the naturalness of the tribe and subordinate taxa. To assess these questions, a preliminary cladistic analysis was conducted with emphasis on sampling the genera distributed in the New World, but including representatives from other regions. The parsimony analysis includes 30 ingroup species from America, Europe and Asia of the subtribes Helopina and Cylindrinotina, plus three outgroups, and 67 morphological characters. Construction of the matrix resulted in the discovery of morphological character states not previously reported for the tribe, particularly from the genitalia of New World species. A consensus of the 12 most parsimonious trees supports the monophyly of the tribe based on a unique combination of characters, including one synapomorphy. None of the subtribes or the genera of the New World represented by more than one species (Helops Fabricius, Nautes Pascoe and Tarpela Bates) were recovered as monophyletic. Helopina was recovered as paraphyletic in relation to Cylindrinotina. One Nearctic species of Helops and one Palearctic species of Tarpela (subtribe Helopina) were more closely related to species of Cylindrinotina. A relatively derived clade, mainly composed by Neotropical species, was found; it includes seven species of Tarpela, seven species of Nautes, and three species of Helops, two Nearctic and one Neotropical. Our results reveal the need to deeply re-evaluate the current classification of the tribe and subordinated taxa, but a broader taxon sampling and further character exploration is needed in order to fully recognize monophyletic groups at different taxonomic levels (from subtribes to genera). PMID:25009428

  3. ICGA-PSO-ELM Approach for Accurate Multiclass Cancer Classification Resulting in Reduced Gene Sets in Which Genes Encoding Secreted Proteins Are Highly Represented

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saras Saraswathi; Suresh Sundaram; Narasimhan Sundararajan; Michael Zimmermann; Marit Nilsen-Hamilton

    2011-01-01

    A combination of Integer-Coded Genetic Algorithm (ICGA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), coupled with the neural-network-based Extreme Learning Machine (ELM), is used for gene selection and cancer classification. ICGA is used with PSO-ELM to select an optimal set of genes, which is then used to build a classifier to develop an algorithm (ICGA_PSO_ELM) that can handle sparse data and sample

  4. Directional biases in phylogenetic structure quantification: a Mediterranean case study

    PubMed Central

    Molina-Venegas, Rafael; Roquet, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen an increasing effort to incorporate phylogenetic hypotheses to the study of community assembly processes. The incorporation of such evolutionary information has been eased by the emergence of specialized software for the automatic estimation of partially resolved supertrees based on published phylogenies. Despite this growing interest in the use of phylogenies in ecological research, very few studies have attempted to quantify the potential biases related to the use of partially resolved phylogenies and to branch length accuracy, and no work has examined how tree shape may affect inference of community phylogenetic metrics. In this study, using a large plant community and elevational dataset, we tested the influence of phylogenetic resolution and branch length information on the quantification of phylogenetic structure; and also explored the impact of tree shape (stemminess) on the loss of accuracy in phylogenetic structure quantification due to phylogenetic resolution. For this purpose, we used 9 sets of phylogenetic hypotheses of varying resolution and branch lengths to calculate three indices of phylogenetic structure: the mean phylogenetic distance (NRI), the mean nearest taxon distance (NTI) and phylogenetic diversity (stdPD) metrics. The NRI metric was the less sensitive to phylogenetic resolution, stdPD showed an intermediate sensitivity, and NTI was the most sensitive one; NRI was also less sensitive to branch length accuracy than NTI and stdPD, the degree of sensitivity being strongly dependent on the dating method and the sample size. Directional biases were generally towards type II errors. Interestingly, we detected that tree shape influenced the accuracy loss derived from the lack of phylogenetic resolution, particularly for NRI and stdPD. We conclude that well-resolved molecular phylogenies with accurate branch length information are needed to identify the underlying phylogenetic structure of communities, and also that sensitivity of phylogenetic structure measures to low phylogenetic resolution can strongly differ depending on phylogenetic tree shape. PMID:25076812

  5. Combining multiple hypothesis testing and affinity propagation clustering leads to accurate, robust and sample size independent classification on gene expression data

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A feature selection method in microarray gene expression data should be independent of platform, disease and dataset size. Our hypothesis is that among the statistically significant ranked genes in a gene list, there should be clusters of genes that share similar biological functions related to the investigated disease. Thus, instead of keeping N top ranked genes, it would be more appropriate to define and keep a number of gene cluster exemplars. Results We propose a hybrid FS method (mAP-KL), which combines multiple hypothesis testing and affinity propagation (AP)-clustering algorithm along with the Krzanowski & Lai cluster quality index, to select a small yet informative subset of genes. We applied mAP-KL on real microarray data, as well as on simulated data, and compared its performance against 13 other feature selection approaches. Across a variety of diseases and number of samples, mAP-KL presents competitive classification results, particularly in neuromuscular diseases, where its overall AUC score was 0.91. Furthermore, mAP-KL generates concise yet biologically relevant and informative N-gene expression signatures, which can serve as a valuable tool for diagnostic and prognostic purposes, as well as a source of potential disease biomarkers in a broad range of diseases. Conclusions mAP-KL is a data-driven and classifier-independent hybrid feature selection method, which applies to any disease classification problem based on microarray data, regardless of the available samples. Combining multiple hypothesis testing and AP leads to subsets of genes, which classify unknown samples from both, small and large patient cohorts with high accuracy. PMID:23075381

  6. Phylogenetic molecular function annotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelhardt, Barbara E.; Jordan, Michael I.; Repo, Susanna T.; Brenner, Steven E.

    2009-07-01

    It is now easier to discover thousands of protein sequences in a new microbial genome than it is to biochemically characterize the specific activity of a single protein of unknown function. The molecular functions of protein sequences have typically been predicted using homology-based computational methods, which rely on the principle that homologous proteins share a similar function. However, some protein families include groups of proteins with different molecular functions. A phylogenetic approach for predicting molecular function (sometimes called "phylogenomics") is an effective means to predict protein molecular function. These methods incorporate functional evidence from all members of a family that have functional characterizations using the evolutionary history of the protein family to make robust predictions for the uncharacterized proteins. However, they are often difficult to apply on a genome-wide scale because of the time-consuming step of reconstructing the phylogenies of each protein to be annotated. Our automated approach for function annotation using phylogeny, the SIFTER (Statistical Inference of Function Through Evolutionary Relationships) methodology, uses a statistical graphical model to compute the probabilities of molecular functions for unannotated proteins. Our benchmark tests showed that SIFTER provides accurate functional predictions on various protein families, outperforming other available methods.

  7. Rapid and accurate taxonomic classification of insect (class Insecta) cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) DNA barcode sequences using a naďve Bayesian classifier

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Teresita M; Gibson, Joel F; Shokralla, Shadi; Baird, Donald J; Golding, G Brian; Hajibabaei, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    Current methods to identify unknown insect (class Insecta) cytochrome c oxidase (COI barcode) sequences often rely on thresholds of distances that can be difficult to define, sequence similarity cut-offs, or monophyly. Some of the most commonly used metagenomic classification methods do not provide a measure of confidence for the taxonomic assignments they provide. The aim of this study was to use a naďve Bayesian classifier (Wang et al. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 2007; 73: 5261) to automate taxonomic assignments for large batches of insect COI sequences such as data obtained from high-throughput environmental sequencing. This method provides rank-flexible taxonomic assignments with an associated bootstrap support value, and it is faster than the blast-based methods commonly used in environmental sequence surveys. We have developed and rigorously tested the performance of three different training sets using leave-one-out cross-validation, two field data sets, and targeted testing of Lepidoptera, Diptera and Mantodea sequences obtained from the Barcode of Life Data system. We found that type I error rates, incorrect taxonomic assignments with a high bootstrap support, were already relatively low but could be lowered further by ensuring that all query taxa are actually present in the reference database. Choosing bootstrap support cut-offs according to query length and summarizing taxonomic assignments to more inclusive ranks can also help to reduce error while retaining the maximum number of assignments. Additionally, we highlight gaps in the taxonomic and geographic representation of insects in public sequence databases that will require further work by taxonomists to improve the quality of assignments generated using any method.

  8. Phylogenetic Inference From Conserved sites Alignments

    SciTech Connect

    grundy, W.N.; Naylor, G.J.P.

    1999-08-15

    Molecular sequences provide a rich source of data for inferring the phylogenetic relationships among species. However, recent work indicates that even an accurate multiple alignment of a large sequence set may yield an incorrect phylogeny and that the quality of the phylogenetic tree improves when the input consists only of the highly conserved, motif regions of the alignment. This work introduces two methods of producing multiple alignments that include only the conserved regions of the initial alignment. The first method retains conserved motifs, whereas the second retains individual conserved sites in the initial alignment. Using parsimony analysis on a mitochondrial data set containing 19 species among which the phylogenetic relationships are widely accepted, both conserved alignment methods produce better phylogenetic trees than the complete alignment. Unlike any of the 19 inference methods used before to analyze this data, both methods produce trees that are completely consistent with the known phylogeny. The motif-based method employs far fewer alignment sites for comparable error rates. For a larger data set containing mitochondrial sequences from 39 species, the site-based method produces a phylogenetic tree that is largely consistent with known phylogenetic relationships and suggests several novel placements.

  9. The illogical basis of phylogenetic nomenclature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto A. Keller; Richard N. Boyd; Quentin D. Wheeler

    2003-01-01

    The current advocacy for the so-called PhyloCode has a history rooted in twentieth-century arguments among biologists and\\u000a philosophers regarding a putative distinction between classes and individuals. From this seemingly simple and innocuous discussion\\u000a have come supposed distinctions between definitions and diagnosis, classification and systematization, and now Linnaean and\\u000a “phylogenetic” nomenclature. Nevertheless, the metaphysical dichotomy of class versus individual, insofar as

  10. CREST – Classification Resources for Environmental Sequence Tags

    PubMed Central

    Lanzén, Anders; Jřrgensen, Steffen L.; Huson, Daniel H.; Gorfer, Markus; Grindhaug, Svenn Helge; Jonassen, Inge; Řvreĺs, Lise; Urich, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Sequencing of taxonomic or phylogenetic markers is becoming a fast and efficient method for studying environmental microbial communities. This has resulted in a steadily growing collection of marker sequences, most notably of the small-subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA gene, and an increased understanding of microbial phylogeny, diversity and community composition patterns. However, to utilize these large datasets together with new sequencing technologies, a reliable and flexible system for taxonomic classification is critical. We developed CREST (Classification Resources for Environmental Sequence Tags), a set of resources and tools for generating and utilizing custom taxonomies and reference datasets for classification of environmental sequences. CREST uses an alignment-based classification method with the lowest common ancestor algorithm. It also uses explicit rank similarity criteria to reduce false positives and identify novel taxa. We implemented this method in a web server, a command line tool and the graphical user interfaced program MEGAN. Further, we provide the SSU rRNA reference database and taxonomy SilvaMod, derived from the publicly available SILVA SSURef, for classification of sequences from bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes. Using cross-validation and environmental datasets, we compared the performance of CREST and SilvaMod to the RDP Classifier. We also utilized Greengenes as a reference database, both with CREST and the RDP Classifier. These analyses indicate that CREST performs better than alignment-free methods with higher recall rate (sensitivity) as well as precision, and with the ability to accurately identify most sequences from novel taxa. Classification using SilvaMod performed better than with Greengenes, particularly when applied to environmental sequences. CREST is freely available under a GNU General Public License (v3) from http://apps.cbu.uib.no/crest and http://lcaclassifier.googlecode.com. PMID:23145153

  11. Phylogenetic relationships among arecoid palms (Arecaceae: Arecoideae)

    PubMed Central

    Baker, William J.; Norup, Maria V.; Clarkson, James J.; Couvreur, Thomas L. P.; Dowe, John L.; Lewis, Carl E.; Pintaud, Jean-Christophe; Savolainen, Vincent; Wilmot, Tomas; Chase, Mark W.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims The Arecoideae is the largest and most diverse of the five subfamilies of palms (Arecaceae/Palmae), containing >50 % of the species in the family. Despite its importance, phylogenetic relationships among Arecoideae are poorly understood. Here the most densely sampled phylogenetic analysis of Arecoideae available to date is presented. The results are used to test the current classification of the subfamily and to identify priority areas for future research. Methods DNA sequence data for the low-copy nuclear genes PRK and RPB2 were collected from 190 palm species, covering 103 (96 %) genera of Arecoideae. The data were analysed using the parsimony ratchet, maximum likelihood, and both likelihood and parsimony bootstrapping. Key Results and Conclusions Despite the recovery of paralogues and pseudogenes in a small number of taxa, PRK and RPB2 were both highly informative, producing well-resolved phylogenetic trees with many nodes well supported by bootstrap analyses. Simultaneous analyses of the combined data sets provided additional resolution and support. Two areas of incongruence between PRK and RPB2 were strongly supported by the bootstrap relating to the placement of tribes Chamaedoreeae, Iriarteeae and Reinhardtieae; the causes of this incongruence remain uncertain. The current classification within Arecoideae was strongly supported by the present data. Of the 14 tribes and 14 sub-tribes in the classification, only five sub-tribes from tribe Areceae (Basseliniinae, Linospadicinae, Oncospermatinae, Rhopalostylidinae and Verschaffeltiinae) failed to receive support. Three major higher level clades were strongly supported: (1) the RRC clade (Roystoneeae, Reinhardtieae and Cocoseae), (2) the POS clade (Podococceae, Oranieae and Sclerospermeae) and (3) the core arecoid clade (Areceae, Euterpeae, Geonomateae, Leopoldinieae, Manicarieae and Pelagodoxeae). However, new data sources are required to elucidate ambiguities that remain in phylogenetic relationships among and within the major groups of Arecoideae, as well as within the Areceae, the largest tribe in the palm family. PMID:21325340

  12. Phylogenetic Relationships of Some Filamentous Cyanoprokaryotic Species

    PubMed Central

    Stoyanov, Plamen; Moten, Dzhemal; Mladenov, Rumen; Dzhambazov, Balik; Teneva, Ivanka

    2014-01-01

    The polyphasic approach is the most progressive system that has been suggested for distinguishing and phylogenetically classifying Cyanoprokaryota (Cyanobacteria/Cyanophyta). Several oscillatorialean genera (Lyngbya, Phormidium, Plectonema, and Leptolyngbya) have problematic phylogenetic position and taxonomic state because of their heterogeneity and polyphyletic nature. To accurately resolve the phylogenetic relationship of some filamentous species (Nodosilinea bijugata, Phormidium molle, Phormidium papyraceum), we have performed phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene and the phycocyanin operon (PC-IGS) by using maximum-likelihood (ML) tree inference methods. These analyses were combined with morphological re-evaluation. Our phylogenetic analyses support the taxonomic separation of genus Nodosilinea from the polyphyletic genus Leptolyngbya. Investigated Nodosilinea strains always formed a coherent genetic cluster supported with a high bootstrap value. The molecular phylogeny confirmed also the monophyly of the Wilmottia group. In addition, data reveal that although P. papyraceum is morphologically similar to Wilmottia murrayi, this species is genetically distinct. Strains from the newly formed genus Phormidesmis and some Phormidium priestleyi strains were clustered in a separate clade different from the typical Phormidium species, but without strong bootstrap support. PMID:24596450

  13. Phylogenetic relationships of butterflies of the tribe Acraeini (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae)

    E-print Network

    Wahlberg, Niklas

    families, but preferentially to Passiflor- aceae, and all Neotropical species with a known life cycle feedPhylogenetic relationships of butterflies of the tribe Acraeini (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae; Passifloraceae; Urticaceae 1. Introduction The classification of the Nymphalidae butterflies of the tribe

  14. Phylogenetic relationships among cultivated Allium species from restriction enzyme analysis of the chloroplast genome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Havey

    1991-01-01

    The genus Allium contains many economically important species, including the bulb onion, chive, garlic, Japanese bunching onion, and leek. Phylogenetic relationships among the cultivated alliums are not well understood, and taxonomic classifications are based on relatively few morphological characters. Chloroplast DNA is highly conserved and useful in determining phylogenetic relationships. The size of the chloroplast genome of Allium cepa was

  15. Phylogenetic lineages in Entomophthoromycota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Entomophthoromycota Humber is one of five major phylogenetic lineages among the former phylum Zygomycota. These early terrestrial fungi share evolutionarily ancestral characters such as coenocytic mycelium and gametangiogamy as a sexual process resulting in zygospore formation. Previous molecular st...

  16. Phylogenetic Relationships in Bupleurum (Apiaceae) Based on Nuclear

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ribosomal DNA; SUSANA S. N EVES; M ARK F. W ATSON

    2004-01-01

    d Backgroud and Aims The genus Bupleurum has long been recognized as a natural group, but its infrageneric classification is controversial and has not yet been studied in the light of sequence data. d Methods Phylogenetic relationships among 32 species (35 taxa) of the genus Bupleurum were investigated by comparative sequencing of the ITS region of the 18-26S nuclear ribosomal

  17. A molecular phylogenetic study of armoured scale insects (Hemiptera: Diaspididae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GEOFFREY E. MORSE; BENJAMIN B. NORMARK

    2006-01-01

    Armoured scale insects are economically important parasites of woody plants and grasses. They are promising subjects for the evolutionary study of physiology (no complete gut), genetics (chimerism, paternal genome elimination, frequent parthenogenesis) and coevolution (with host plants, para- sitoids, Septobasidium fungi, endosymbiotic bacteria). Little phylogenetic work has been accomplished with armoured scales, and uncertainty surrounds their classification. Here, we report

  18. Host specificity and phylogenetic relationships of chicken and turkey parvoviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous reports indicate that the newly discovered chicken parvoviruses (ChPV) and turkey parvoviruses (TuPV) are very similar to each other, yet they represent different species within a new genus of Parvoviridae. Currently, strain classification is based on the phylogenetic analysis of a 561 bas...

  19. Phylogenetics of an antibiotic producing Streptomyces strain isolated from soil

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vineeta; Praveen, Vandana; Khan, Feroz; Tripathi, Chandra Kant Mani

    2009-01-01

    Traditional methods of species classification and identification of the organism are based on morphological, physiological, biochemical, developmental and nutritional characteristics. Accurate assignment of taxonomic status to the new biologically active microbial isolates through existing bioinformatics methods is now very essential and also helpful in chemical characterization of the active molecule produced by microorganisms. The bacterial strain M4 (ckm7) was isolated from the pre-treated soil sample collected from the agricultural field of Eastern Uttar Pradesh (U.P.), India and was found to be producing antibacterial and antifungal antibiotics. Taxonomic identification of the isolate belongs to the genus Streptomyces which was done with the help of sequence analysis and later confirmed by biological activity. Sequence comparison study of ckm7 showed 98% identical similarity with 16S rRNA gene sequences of Streptomyces spinichromogenes, Streptomyces triostinicus and Streptomyces capoamus. On the basis of both biological activity and phylogenetic analysis of ckm7, it was concluded that the isolated strain is a new variant of S. triostinicus. PMID:20198168

  20. The phylogenetic likelihood library.

    PubMed

    Flouri, T; Izquierdo-Carrasco, F; Darriba, D; Aberer, A J; Nguyen, L-T; Minh, B Q; Von Haeseler, A; Stamatakis, A

    2015-03-01

    We introduce the Phylogenetic Likelihood Library (PLL), a highly optimized application programming interface for developing likelihood-based phylogenetic inference and postanalysis software. The PLL implements appropriate data structures and functions that allow users to quickly implement common, error-prone, and labor-intensive tasks, such as likelihood calculations, model parameter as well as branch length optimization, and tree space exploration. The highly optimized and parallelized implementation of the phylogenetic likelihood function and a thorough documentation provide a framework for rapid development of scalable parallel phylogenetic software. By example of two likelihood-based phylogenetic codes we show that the PLL improves the sequential performance of current software by a factor of 2-10 while requiring only 1 month of programming time for integration. We show that, when numerical scaling for preventing floating point underflow is enabled, the double precision likelihood calculations in the PLL are up to 1.9 times faster than those in BEAGLE. On an empirical DNA dataset with 2000 taxa the AVX version of PLL is 4 times faster than BEAGLE (scaling enabled and required). The PLL is available at http://www.libpll.org under the GNU General Public License (GPL). PMID:25358969

  1. Canopy phylogenetic, chemical and spectral assembly in a lowland Amazonian forest.

    PubMed

    Asner, Gregory P; Martin, Roberta E

    2011-03-01

    • Canopy chemistry and spectroscopy offer insight into community assembly and ecosystem processes in high-diversity tropical forests, but phylogenetic and environmental factors controlling chemical traits underpinning spectral signatures remain poorly understood. • We measured 21 leaf chemical traits and spectroscopic signatures of 594 canopy individuals on high-fertility Inceptisols and low-fertility Ultisols in a lowland Amazonian forest. The spectranomics approach, which explicitly connects phylogenetic, chemical and spectral patterns in tropical canopies, provided the basis for analysis. • Intracrown and intraspecific variation in chemical traits varied from 1.4 to 36.7% (median 9.3%), depending upon the chemical constituent. Principal components analysis showed that 14 orthogonal combinations were required to explain 95% of the variation among 21 traits, indicating the high dimensionality of canopy chemical signatures among taxa. Inceptisols and lianas were associated with high leaf nutrient concentrations and low concentrations of defense compounds. Independent of soils or plant habit, an average 70% (maximum 89%) of chemical trait variation was explained by taxonomy. At least 10 traits were quantitatively linked to remotely sensed signatures, which provided highly accurate species classification. • The results suggest that taxa found on fertile soils carry chemical portfolios with a deep evolutionary history, whereas taxa found on low-fertility soils have undergone trait evolution at the species level. Spectranomics provides a new connection between remote sensing and community assembly theory in high-diversity tropical canopies. PMID:21118261

  2. Phenotypic and phylogenetic characterization of an abamectin-degrading bacterial strain isolated from a citrus orchard.

    PubMed

    Ali, Shinawar Waseem; Yu, Fang-Bo; Haider, Muhammad Saleem; Yan, Xin; Li, Shun-Peng

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial strain GB-01 was isolated from abamectin-contaminated soils by continuous enrichment culture. The preliminary identification of strain GB-01 as a Burkholderia species was based mainly on simple biochemical and substrate utilization tests; however, these tests alone cannot accurately differentiate all the species within the genus Burkholderia. The strain GB-01 was subjected to taxonomic analysis through a polyphasic approach, in which phenotypic, genotypic, and phylogenetic information was gathered to conclude the classification of this microbe. Phenotypic information comes from basic bacteriological tests and substrate utilization patterns using the Biolog GN2 MicroPlating system and automated miniature biochemical test kits, i.e. API 20 NE, ID 32 GN and API 50 CH, as well as analyzing the whole cell fatty acid profile. Genotypic information was gathered from whole genome DNA base composition (G+C mol%), and DNA-DNA hybridization with its closest species, while phylogenetic information was collected from the comparative analysis of 16S rRNA and recA gene sequences. The results of polyphasic analysis concluded that strain GB-01 is an atypical strain of the Burkholderia diffusa species. PMID:23863292

  3. Phylogenetic assessment of characters proposed for the generic classification of Recent Scissurellidae (Gastropoda:Vetigastropoda) with a description of one new genus and six new species from Easter Island and Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel L. Geiger

    Twenty-five nominal generic names have been proposed for the approximately 150 Recent species described in the family Scissurellidae (Mollusca : Gastropoda : Vetigastropoda). The generic diagnosing characters have not been uniformly applied and the value of these characters for scissurellid classification remains to be demonstrated. Here, the characters used are reviewed, including those of the shell, slit and selenizone, radula,

  4. Constructing Phylogenetic Networks from Trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergey Bereg; Kathryn Bean

    2005-01-01

    We present a new method of constructing a phylogenetic network from a given phylogenetic tree. It is based on a procedure that locally improves the tree. The procedure is quite general and can be applied to phylogenetic networks. By repeating local improvements user can introduce a given number of recombination cycles. A sequence of networks with decreasing distance deviation can

  5. Insights into the evolution of sorbitol metabolism: phylogenetic analysis of SDR196C family

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Short chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDR) are NAD(P)(H)-dependent oxidoreductases with a highly conserved 3D structure and of an early origin, which has allowed them to diverge into several families and enzymatic activities. The SDR196C family (http://www.sdr-enzymes.org) groups bacterial sorbitol dehydrogenases (SDH), which are of great industrial interest. In this study, we examine the phylogenetic relationship between the members of this family, and based on the findings and some sequence conserved blocks, a new and a more accurate classification is proposed. Results The distribution of the 66 bacterial SDH species analyzed was limited to Gram-negative bacteria. Six different bacterial families were found, encompassing ?-, ?- and ?-proteobacteria. This broad distribution in terms of bacteria and niches agrees with that of SDR, which are found in all forms of life. A cluster analysis of sorbitol dehydrogenase revealed different types of gene organization, although with a common pattern in which the SDH gene is surrounded by sugar ABC transporter proteins, another SDR, a kinase, and several gene regulators. According to the obtained trees, six different lineages and three sublineages can be discerned. The phylogenetic analysis also suggested two different origins for SDH in ?-proteobacteria and four origins for ?-proteobacteria. Finally, this subdivision was further confirmed by the differences observed in the sequence of the conserved blocks described for SDR and some specific blocks of SDH, and by a functional divergence analysis, which made it possible to establish new consensus sequences and specific fingerprints for the lineages and sub lineages. Conclusion SDH distribution agrees with that observed for SDR, indicating the importance of the polyol metabolism, as an alternative source of carbon and energy. The phylogenetic analysis pointed to six clearly defined lineages and three sub lineages, and great variability in the origin of this gene, despite its well conserved 3D structure. This suggests that SDH are very old and emerged early during the evolution. This study also opens up a new and more accurate classification of SDR196C family, introducing two numbers at the end of the family name, which indicate the lineage and the sublineage of each member, i.e, SDR196C6.3. PMID:22899811

  6. A Comparison of Phylogenetic Reconstruction Methods on an IE Dataset Luay Nakhleh Tandy Warnow

    E-print Network

    Evans, Steven N.

    A Comparison of Phylogenetic Reconstruction Methods on an IE Dataset Luay Nakhleh Tandy Warnow Dept the dataset, we study the consequences for phylogenetic reconstruction of restricting the data to lexical datasets that use only lexical characters being probably less accurate than analyses based upon datasets

  7. Phylogenetic Analysis of Salmonella, Shigella, and Escherichia coli Strains on the Basis of the gyrB Gene Sequence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masao Fukushima; Kenichi Kakinuma; Ryuji Kawaguchi

    2002-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of about 200 strains of Salmonella, Shigella, and Escherichia coli was carried out using the nucleotide sequence of the gene for DNA gyrase B (gyrB), which was determined by directly sequencing PCR fragments. The results establish a new phylogenetic tree for the classification of Salmonella, Shigella, and Escherichia coli in which Salmonella forms a cluster separate from but

  8. Phylogenetic comparative methods complement discriminant function analysis in ecomorphology.

    PubMed

    Barr, W Andrew; Scott, Robert S

    2014-04-01

    In ecomorphology, Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA) has been used as evidence for the presence of functional links between morphometric variables and ecological categories. Here we conduct simulations of characters containing phylogenetic signal to explore the performance of DFA under a variety of conditions. Characters were simulated using a phylogeny of extant antelope species from known habitats. Characters were modeled with no biomechanical relationship to the habitat category; the only sources of variation were body mass, phylogenetic signal, or random "noise." DFA on the discriminability of habitat categories was performed using subsets of the simulated characters, and Phylogenetic Generalized Least Squares (PGLS) was performed for each character. Analyses were repeated with randomized habitat assignments. When simulated characters lacked phylogenetic signal and/or habitat assignments were random, <5.6% of DFAs and <8.26% of PGLS analyses were significant. When characters contained phylogenetic signal and actual habitats were used, 33.27 to 45.07% of DFAs and <13.09% of PGLS analyses were significant. False Discovery Rate (FDR) corrections for multiple PGLS analyses reduced the rate of significance to <4.64%. In all cases using actual habitats and characters with phylogenetic signal, correct classification rates of DFAs exceeded random chance. In simulations involving phylogenetic signal in both predictor variables and predicted categories, PGLS with FDR was rarely significant, while DFA often was. In short, DFA offered no indication that differences between categories might be explained by phylogenetic signal, while PGLS did. As such, PGLS provides a valuable tool for testing the functional hypotheses at the heart of ecomorphology. PMID:24382658

  9. Community Phylogenetics: Assessing Tree Reconstruction Methods and the Utility of DNA Barcodes

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Elizabeth E.; Adamowicz, Sarah J.

    2015-01-01

    Studies examining phylogenetic community structure have become increasingly prevalent, yet little attention has been given to the influence of the input phylogeny on metrics that describe phylogenetic patterns of co-occurrence. Here, we examine the influence of branch length, tree reconstruction method, and amount of sequence data on measures of phylogenetic community structure, as well as the phylogenetic signal (Pagel’s ?) in morphological traits, using Trichoptera larval communities from Churchill, Manitoba, Canada. We find that model-based tree reconstruction methods and the use of a backbone family-level phylogeny improve estimations of phylogenetic community structure. In addition, trees built using the barcode region of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) alone accurately predict metrics of phylogenetic community structure obtained from a multi-gene phylogeny. Input tree did not alter overall conclusions drawn for phylogenetic signal, as significant phylogenetic structure was detected in two body size traits across input trees. As the discipline of community phylogenetics continues to expand, it is important to investigate the best approaches to accurately estimate patterns. Our results suggest that emerging large datasets of DNA barcode sequences provide a vast resource for studying the structure of biological communities. PMID:26110886

  10. The evolution of HIV: Inferences using phylogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Nallar, Eduardo; Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Burton, Gregory F.; Crandall, Keith A.

    2011-01-01

    Molecular phylogenetics has revolutionized the study of not only evolution but also disparate fields such as genomics, bioinformatics, epidemiology, ecology, microbiology, molecular biology and biochemistry. Particularly significant are its achievements in population genetics as a result of the development of coalescent theory, which have contributed to more accurate model-based parameter estimation and explicit hypothesis testing. The study of the evolution of many microorganisms, and HIV in particular, have benefited from these new methodologies. HIV is well suited for such sophisticated population analyses because of its large population sizes, short generation times, high substitution rates and relatively small genomes. All these factors make HIV an ideal and fascinating model to study molecular evolution in real time. Here we review the significant advances made in HIV evolution through the application of phylogenetic approaches. We first examine the relative roles of mutation and recombination on the molecular evolution of HIV and its adaptive response to drug therapy and tissue allocation. We then review some of the fundamental questions in HIV evolution in relation to its origin and diversification and describe some of the insights gained using phylogenies. Finally, we show how phylogenetic analysis has advanced our knowledge of HIV dynamics (i.e., phylodynamics). PMID:22138161

  11. The phylogenetic diversity of metagenomes.

    PubMed

    Kembel, Steven W; Eisen, Jonathan A; Pollard, Katherine S; Green, Jessica L

    2011-01-01

    Phylogenetic diversity--patterns of phylogenetic relatedness among organisms in ecological communities--provides important insights into the mechanisms underlying community assembly. Studies that measure phylogenetic diversity in microbial communities have primarily been limited to a single marker gene approach, using the small subunit of the rRNA gene (SSU-rRNA) to quantify phylogenetic relationships among microbial taxa. In this study, we present an approach for inferring phylogenetic relationships among microorganisms based on the random metagenomic sequencing of DNA fragments. To overcome challenges caused by the fragmentary nature of metagenomic data, we leveraged fully sequenced bacterial genomes as a scaffold to enable inference of phylogenetic relationships among metagenomic sequences from multiple phylogenetic marker gene families. The resulting metagenomic phylogeny can be used to quantify the phylogenetic diversity of microbial communities based on metagenomic data sets. We applied this method to understand patterns of microbial phylogenetic diversity and community assembly along an oceanic depth gradient, and compared our findings to previous studies of this gradient using SSU-rRNA gene and metagenomic analyses. Bacterial phylogenetic diversity was highest at intermediate depths beneath the ocean surface, whereas taxonomic diversity (diversity measured by binning sequences into taxonomically similar groups) showed no relationship with depth. Phylogenetic diversity estimates based on the SSU-rRNA gene and the multi-gene metagenomic phylogeny were broadly concordant, suggesting that our approach will be applicable to other metagenomic data sets for which corresponding SSU-rRNA gene sequences are unavailable. Our approach opens up the possibility of using metagenomic data to study microbial diversity in a phylogenetic context. PMID:21912589

  12. The Phylogenetic Diversity of Metagenomes

    PubMed Central

    Kembel, Steven W.; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Pollard, Katherine S.; Green, Jessica L.

    2011-01-01

    Phylogenetic diversity—patterns of phylogenetic relatedness among organisms in ecological communities—provides important insights into the mechanisms underlying community assembly. Studies that measure phylogenetic diversity in microbial communities have primarily been limited to a single marker gene approach, using the small subunit of the rRNA gene (SSU-rRNA) to quantify phylogenetic relationships among microbial taxa. In this study, we present an approach for inferring phylogenetic relationships among microorganisms based on the random metagenomic sequencing of DNA fragments. To overcome challenges caused by the fragmentary nature of metagenomic data, we leveraged fully sequenced bacterial genomes as a scaffold to enable inference of phylogenetic relationships among metagenomic sequences from multiple phylogenetic marker gene families. The resulting metagenomic phylogeny can be used to quantify the phylogenetic diversity of microbial communities based on metagenomic data sets. We applied this method to understand patterns of microbial phylogenetic diversity and community assembly along an oceanic depth gradient, and compared our findings to previous studies of this gradient using SSU-rRNA gene and metagenomic analyses. Bacterial phylogenetic diversity was highest at intermediate depths beneath the ocean surface, whereas taxonomic diversity (diversity measured by binning sequences into taxonomically similar groups) showed no relationship with depth. Phylogenetic diversity estimates based on the SSU-rRNA gene and the multi-gene metagenomic phylogeny were broadly concordant, suggesting that our approach will be applicable to other metagenomic data sets for which corresponding SSU-rRNA gene sequences are unavailable. Our approach opens up the possibility of using metagenomic data to study microbial diversity in a phylogenetic context. PMID:21912589

  13. Bacterial taxonomics: finding the wood through the phylogenetic trees.

    PubMed

    Owen, Robert J

    2004-01-01

    Bacterial taxonomy comprises systematics (theory of classification), nomenclature (formal process of naming), and identification. There are two basic approaches to classification. Similarities may be derived between microorganisms by numerical taxonomic methods based on a range of present-day observable characteristics (phenetics), drawing in particular on conventional morphological and physiological test characters as well as chemotaxonomic markers such as whole-cell protein profiles, mol% G+C content, and DNA-DNA homologies. By contrast, phylogenetics, the process of reconstructing possible evolutionary relationships, uses nucleotide sequences from conserved genes that act as molecular chronometers. A combination of both phenetics and phylogenetics is referred to as polyphasic taxonomy, and is the recommended strategy in description of new species and genera. Numerical analysis of small-subunit ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) leading to the construction of branching trees representing the distance of divergence from a common ancestor has provided the mainstay of microbial phylogenetics. The approach has some limitations, particularly in the discrimination of closely related taxa, and there is a growing interest in the use of alternative loci as molecular chronometers, such as gyrA and RNAase P sequences. Comparison of the degree of congruence between phylogenetic trees derived from different genes provides a valuable test of the extent they represent gene trees or species trees. Rapid expansion in genome sequences will provide a rich source of data for future taxonomic analysis that should take into account population structure of taxa and novel methods for analysis of nonclonal bacterial populations. PMID:15148427

  14. Phylogenetic trees in bioinformatics

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, Tom L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Genetic data is often used to infer evolutionary relationships among a collection of viruses, bacteria, animal or plant species, or other operational taxonomic units (OTU). A phylogenetic tree depicts such relationships and provides a visual representation of the estimated branching order of the OTUs. Tree estimation is unique for several reasons, including: the types of data used to represent each OTU; the use ofprobabilistic nucleotide substitution models; the inference goals involving both tree topology and branch length, and the huge number of possible trees for a given sample of a very modest number of OTUs, which implies that fmding the best tree(s) to describe the genetic data for each OTU is computationally demanding. Bioinformatics is too large a field to review here. We focus on that aspect of bioinformatics that includes study of similarities in genetic data from multiple OTUs. Although research questions are diverse, a common underlying challenge is to estimate the evolutionary history of the OTUs. Therefore, this paper reviews the role of phylogenetic tree estimation in bioinformatics, available methods and software, and identifies areas for additional research and development.

  15. Phylogenetic constraints on ecosystem functioning.

    PubMed

    Gravel, Dominique; Bell, Thomas; Barbera, Claire; Combe, Marine; Pommier, Thomas; Mouquet, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    There is consensus that biodiversity losses will result in declining ecosystem functioning if species have different functional traits. Phylogenetic diversity has recently been suggested as a predictor of ecosystem functioning because it could approximate the functional complementarity among species. Here we describe an experiment that takes advantage of the rapid evolutionary response of bacteria to disentangle the role of phylogenetic and species diversity. We impose a strong selection regime on marine bacterial lineages and assemble the ancestral and evolved lines in microcosms of varying lineage and phylogenetic diversity. We find that the relationship between phylogenetic diversity and productivity is strong for the ancestral lineages but brakes down for the evolved lineages. Our results not only emphasize the potential of using phylogeny to evaluate ecosystem functioning, but also they warn against using phylogenetics as a proxy for functional diversity without good information on species evolutionary history. PMID:23047675

  16. [Foundations of the new phylogenetics].

    PubMed

    Pavlinov, I Ia

    2004-01-01

    Evolutionary idea is the core of the modern biology. Due to this, phylogenetics dealing with historical reconstructions in biology takes a priority position among biological disciplines. The second half of the 20th century witnessed growth of a great interest to phylogenetic reconstructions at macrotaxonomic level which replaced microevolutionary studies dominating during the 30s-60s. This meant shift from population thinking to phylogenetic one but it was not revival of the classical phylogenetics; rather, a new approach emerged that was baptized The New Phylogenetics. It arose as a result of merging of three disciplines which were developing independently during 60s-70s, namely cladistics, numerical phyletics, and molecular phylogenetics (now basically genophyletics). Thus, the new phylogenetics could be defined as a branch of evolutionary biology aimed at elaboration of "parsimonious" cladistic hypotheses by means of numerical methods on the basis of mostly molecular data. Classical phylogenetics, as a historical predecessor of the new one, emerged on the basis of the naturphilosophical worldview which included a superorganismal idea of biota. Accordingly to that view, historical development (the phylogeny) was thought an analogy of individual one (the ontogeny) so its most basical features were progressive parallel developments of "parts" (taxa), supplemented with Darwinian concept of monophyly. Two predominating traditions were diverged within classical phylogenetics according to a particular interpretation of relation between these concepts. One of them (Cope, Severtzow) belittled monophyly and paid most attention to progressive parallel developments of morphological traits. Such an attitude turned this kind of phylogenetics to be rather the semogenetics dealing primarily with evolution of structures and not of taxa. Another tradition (Haeckel) considered both monophyletic and parallel origins of taxa jointly: in the middle of 20th century it was split into phylistics (Rasnitsyn's term; close to Simpsonian evolutionary taxonomy) belonging rather to the classical realm, and Hennigian cladistics that pays attention to origin of monophyletic taxa exclusively. In early of the 20th century, microevolutionary doctrine became predominating in evolutionary studies. Its core is the population thinking accompanied by the phenetic one based on equation of kinship to overall similarity. They were connected to positivist philosophy and hence were characterized by reductionism at both ontological and epistemological levels. It led to fall of classical phylogenetics but created the prerequisites for the new phylogenetics which also appeared to be full of reductionism. The new rise of phylogenetic (rather than tree) thinking during the last third of the 20th century was caused by lost of explanatory power of population one and by development of the new worldview and new epistemological premises. That new worldview is based on the synergetic (Prigoginian) model of development of non-equilibrium systems: evolution of the biota, a part of which is phylogeny, is considered as such a development. At epistemological level, the principal premise appeared to be fall of positivism which was replaced by post-positivism argumentation schemes. Input of cladistics into new phylogenetics is twofold. On the one hand, it reduced phylogeny to cladistic history lacking any adaptivist interpretation and presuming minimal evolution model. From this it followed reduction of kinship relation to sister-group relation lacking any reference to real time scale and to ancestor-descendant relation. On the other hand, cladistics elaborated methodology of phylogenetic reconstructions based on the synapomorphy principle, the outgroup concept became its part. The both inputs served as premises of incorporation of both numerical techniques and molecular data into phylogenetic reconstruction. Numerical phyletics provided the new phylogenetics with easily manipulated algorithms of cladogram construing and thus made phylogenetic reconstructions o

  17. Learning Weighted Naive Bayes with Accurate Ranking Harry Zhang

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Huajie "Harry"

    Learning Weighted Naive Bayes with Accurate Ranking Harry Zhang Faculty of Computer Science Bayes is one of most effective classification algo- rithms. In many applications, however, a ranking of exam- ples are more desirable than just classification. How to ex- tend naive Bayes to improve its

  18. Phylogenetic Analysis of a Spontaneous Cocoa Bean Fermentation Metagenome Reveals New Insights into Its Bacterial and Fungal Community Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Illeghems, Koen; De Vuyst, Luc; Papalexandratou, Zoi; Weckx, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    This is the first report on the phylogenetic analysis of the community diversity of a single spontaneous cocoa bean box fermentation sample through a metagenomic approach involving 454 pyrosequencing. Several sequence-based and composition-based taxonomic profiling tools were used and evaluated to avoid software-dependent results and their outcome was validated by comparison with previously obtained culture-dependent and culture-independent data. Overall, this approach revealed a wider bacterial (mainly ?-Proteobacteria) and fungal diversity than previously found. Further, the use of a combination of different classification methods, in a software-independent way, helped to understand the actual composition of the microbial ecosystem under study. In addition, bacteriophage-related sequences were found. The bacterial diversity depended partially on the methods used, as composition-based methods predicted a wider diversity than sequence-based methods, and as classification methods based solely on phylogenetic marker genes predicted a more restricted diversity compared with methods that took all reads into account. The metagenomic sequencing analysis identified Hanseniaspora uvarum, Hanseniaspora opuntiae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Acetobacter pasteurianus as the prevailing species. Also, the presence of occasional members of the cocoa bean fermentation process was revealed (such as Erwinia tasmaniensis, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactococcus lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Oenococcus oeni). Furthermore, the sequence reads associated with viral communities were of a restricted diversity, dominated by Myoviridae and Siphoviridae, and reflecting Lactobacillus as the dominant host. To conclude, an accurate overview of all members of a cocoa bean fermentation process sample was revealed, indicating the superiority of metagenomic sequencing over previously used techniques. PMID:22666442

  19. Orthologous Repeats and Mammalian Phylogenetic Inference

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali BashirChun Ye; Alkes L. Price; Vineet Bafna

    2008-01-01

    Determining phylogenetic relationships between species is a difficult problem, and many phylogenetic relationships remain unresolved, even among eutherian mammals. Repetitive elements provide excellent markers for phylogenetic analysis, because their mode of evolution is predominantly homoplasy-free and unidirectional. Historically, phylogenetic studies using repetitive elements have relied on biological methods such as PCR analysis, and computational inference is limited to a few

  20. Phylogenetic Toric Varieties on Graphs 

    E-print Network

    Buczynska, Weronika J.

    2010-10-12

    of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Approved by: Chair of Committee, Frank Sottile Committee Members, Gabriel Dos-Reis Paulo Lima-Filho Laura Felicia Matusevich Head of Department, Al Boggess August 2010 Major Subject: Mathematics iii ABSTRACT Phylogenetic...

  1. Weighted quartets phylogenetics.

    PubMed

    Avni, Eliran; Cohen, Reuven; Snir, Sagi

    2015-03-01

    Despite impressive technical and theoretical developments, reconstruction of phylogenetic trees for enormous quantities of molecular data is still a challenging task. A key tool in analyses of large data sets has been the construction of separate trees for subsets (e.g., quartets) of sequences, and subsequent combination of these subtrees into a single tree for the full set (i.e., supertree analysis). Unfortunately, even amalgamating quartets into a supertree remains a computationally daunting task. Assigning weights to quartets to indicate importance or reliability was proposed more than a decade ago, but handling weighted quartets is even more challenging and has scarcely been attempted in the past. In this work, we focus on weighted quartet-based approaches. We propose a scheme to assign weights to quartets coming from weighted trees and devise a tree similarity measure for weighted trees based on weighted quartets. We also extend the quartet MaxCut (QMC algorithm) to handle weighted quartets. We evaluate these tools on simulated and real data. Our simulated data analysis highlights the additional information that is conveyed when using the new weighted tree similarity measure, and shows that extending QMC to a weighted setting improves the quality of tree reconstruction. Our analyses of a cyanobacterial data set with weighted QMC reinforce previous results achieved with other tools. PMID:25414175

  2. Quantum Simulation of Phylogenetic Trees

    E-print Network

    Demosthenes Ellinas; Peter Jarvis

    2011-05-09

    Quantum simulations constructing probability tensors of biological multi-taxa in phylogenetic trees are proposed, in terms of positive trace preserving maps, describing evolving systems of quantum walks with multiple walkers. Basic phylogenetic models applying on trees of various topologies are simulated following appropriate decoherent quantum circuits. Quantum simulations of statistical inference for aligned sequences of biological characters are provided in terms of a quantum pruning map operating on likelihood operator observables, utilizing state-observable duality and measurement theory.

  3. Factors that affect large subunit ribosomal DNA amplicon sequencing studies of fungal communities: classification method, primer choice, and error.

    PubMed

    Porter, Teresita M; Golding, G Brian

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA is widely used in fungal phylogenetics and to an increasing extent also amplicon-based environmental sequencing. The relatively short reads produced by next-generation sequencing, however, makes primer choice and sequence error important variables for obtaining accurate taxonomic classifications. In this simulation study we tested the performance of three classification methods: 1) a similarity-based method (BLAST + Metagenomic Analyzer, MEGAN); 2) a composition-based method (Ribosomal Database Project naďve bayesian classifier, NBC); and, 3) a phylogeny-based method (Statistical Assignment Package, SAP). We also tested the effects of sequence length, primer choice, and sequence error on classification accuracy and perceived community composition. Using a leave-one-out cross validation approach, results for classifications to the genus rank were as follows: BLAST + MEGAN had the lowest error rate and was particularly robust to sequence error; SAP accuracy was highest when long LSU query sequences were classified; and, NBC runs significantly faster than the other tested methods. All methods performed poorly with the shortest 50-100 bp sequences. Increasing simulated sequence error reduced classification accuracy. Community shifts were detected due to sequence error and primer selection even though there was no change in the underlying community composition. Short read datasets from individual primers, as well as pooled datasets, appear to only approximate the true community composition. We hope this work informs investigators of some of the factors that affect the quality and interpretation of their environmental gene surveys. PMID:22558215

  4. Molecular identification of hepatitis B virus genotypes/subgenotypes: revised classification hurdles and updated resolutions.

    PubMed

    Pourkarim, Mahmoud Reza; Amini-Bavil-Olyaee, Samad; Kurbanov, Fuat; Van Ranst, Marc; Tacke, Frank

    2014-06-21

    The clinical course of infections with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) substantially varies between individuals, as a consequence of a complex interplay between viral, host, environmental and other factors. Due to the high genetic variability of HBV, the virus can be categorized into different HBV genotypes and subgenotypes, which considerably differ with respect to geographical distribution, transmission routes, disease progression, responses to antiviral therapy or vaccination, and clinical outcome measures such as cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. However, HBV (sub)genotyping has caused some controversies in the past due to misclassifications and incorrect interpretations of different genotyping methods. Thus, an accurate, holistic and dynamic classification system is essential. In this review article, we aimed at highlighting potential pitfalls in genetic and phylogenetic analyses of HBV and suggest novel terms for HBV classification. Analyzing full-length genome sequences when classifying genotypes and subgenotypes is the foremost prerequisite of this classification system. Careful attention must be paid to all aspects of phylogenetic analysis, such as bootstrapping values and meeting the necessary thresholds for (sub)genotyping. Quasi-subgenotype refers to subgenotypes that were incorrectly suggested to be novel. As many of these strains were misclassified due to genetic differences resulting from recombination, we propose the term "recombino-subgenotype". Moreover, immigration is an important confounding facet of global HBV distribution and substantially changes the geographic pattern of HBV (sub)genotypes. We therefore suggest the term "immigro-subgenotype" to distinguish exotic (sub)genotypes from native ones. We are strongly convinced that applying these two proposed terms in HBV classification will help harmonize this rapidly progressing field and allow for improved prophylaxis, diagnosis and treatment. PMID:24966586

  5. Evaluating Support for the Current Classification of Eukaryotic Diversity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Wegener Parfrey; Erika Barbero; Elyse Lasser; Micah Dunthorn; Debashish Bhattacharya; David J Patterson; Laura A Katz

    2006-01-01

    Perspectives on the classification of eukaryotic diversity have changed rapidly in recent years, as the four eukaryotic groups within the five-kingdom classification—plants, animals, fungi, and protists—have been transformed through numerous permutations into the current system of six “supergroups.” The intent of the supergroup classification system is to unite microbial and macroscopic eukaryotes based on phylogenetic inference. This supergroup approach is

  6. Contextual classification of multispectral image data: Approximate algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, J. C. (principal investigator)

    1980-01-01

    An approximation to a classification algorithm incorporating spatial context information in a general, statistical manner is presented which is computationally less intensive. Classifications that are nearly as accurate are produced.

  7. PoInTree: a polar and interactive phylogenetic tree.

    PubMed

    Carreras, Marco; Marco, Cerreras; Gianti, Eleonora; Eleonora, Gianti; Sartori, Luca; Luca, Sartori; Plyte, Simon Edward; Edward, Plyte Simon; Isacchi, Antonella; Antonella, Isacchi; Bosotti, Roberta; Roberta, Bosotti

    2005-02-01

    PoInTree (Polar and Interactive Tree) is an application that allows to build, visualize and customize phylogenetic trees in a polar interactive and highly flexible view. It takes as input a FASTA file or multiple alignment formats. Phylogenetic tree calculation is based on a sequence distance method and utilizes the Neighbor Joining (NJ) algorithm. It also allows displaying precalculated trees of the major protein families based on Pfam classification. In PoInTree, nodes can be dynamically opened and closed and distances between genes are graphically represented. Tree root can be centered on a selected leaf. Text search mechanism, color-coding and labeling display are integrated. The visualizer can be connected to an Oracle database containing information on sequences and other biological data, helping to guide their interpretation within a given protein family across multiple species. The application is written in Borland Delphi and based on VCL Teechart Pro 6 graphical component (Steema software). PMID:16144524

  8. Spectral classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaschek, C.

    Taxonomic classification of astronomically observed stellar objects is described in terms of spectral properties. Stars receive a classification containing a letter, number, and a Roman numeral, which relates the star to other stars of higher or lower Roman numerals. The citation indicates the stellar chromatic emission in relation to the wavelengths of other stars. Standards are chosen from the available objects detected. Various classification schemes such as the MK, HD, and the Barbier-Chalonge-Divan systems are defined, including examples of indexing differences. Details delineating the separations between classifications are discussed with reference to the information content in spectral and in photometric classification schemes. The parameters usually used for classification include the temperature, luminosity, reddening, binarity, rotation, magnetic field, and elemental abundance or composition. The inclusion of recently discovered extended wavelength characteristics in nominal classifications is outlined, together with techniques involved in automated classification.

  9. Fastphylo: Fast tools for phylogenetics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Distance methods are ubiquitous tools in phylogenetics. Their primary purpose may be to reconstruct evolutionary history, but they are also used as components in bioinformatic pipelines. However, poor computational efficiency has been a constraint on the applicability of distance methods on very large problem instances. Results We present fastphylo, a software package containing implementations of efficient algorithms for two common problems in phylogenetics: estimating DNA/protein sequence distances and reconstructing a phylogeny from a distance matrix. We compare fastphylo with other neighbor joining based methods and report the results in terms of speed and memory efficiency. Conclusions Fastphylo is a fast, memory efficient, and easy to use software suite. Due to its modular architecture, fastphylo is a flexible tool for many phylogenetic studies. PMID:24255987

  10. [Phylogenetic analysis of Pleurotus species].

    PubMed

    Shnyreva, A A; Shnyreva, A V

    2015-02-01

    We performed phylogenetic analysis for ten Pleurotus species, based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of rDNA. A phylogenetic tree was constructed on the basis of 31 oyster fungi strains of different origin and 10 reference sequences from GenBank. Our analysis demonstrates that the tested Pleurotus species are of monophyletic origin. We evaluated the evolutionary distances between these species. Classic genetic analysis of sexual compatibility based on monocaryon (mon)-mon crosses showed no reproductive barriers within the P. cornucopiae-P. euosmus species complex. Thus, despite the divergence (subclustering) between commercial strains and natural isolates of P. ostreatus revealed by phylogenetic analysis, there is no reproductive isolation between these groups. A common allele of the matB locus was identified for the commercial strains Sommer and L/4, supporting the common origin of these strains. PMID:25966583

  11. Interpreting the universal phylogenetic tree.

    PubMed

    Woese, C R

    2000-07-18

    The universal phylogenetic tree not only spans all extant life, but its root and earliest branchings represent stages in the evolutionary process before modern cell types had come into being. The evolution of the cell is an interplay between vertically derived and horizontally acquired variation. Primitive cellular entities were necessarily simpler and more modular in design than are modern cells. Consequently, horizontal gene transfer early on was pervasive, dominating the evolutionary dynamic. The root of the universal phylogenetic tree represents the first stage in cellular evolution when the evolving cell became sufficiently integrated and stable to the erosive effects of horizontal gene transfer that true organismal lineages could exist. PMID:10900003

  12. A Phylogenetic Re-Analysis of Groupers with Applications for Ciguatera Fish Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Schoelinck, Charlotte; Hinsinger, Damien D.; Dettaď, Agnčs; Cruaud, Corinne; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2014-01-01

    Background Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a significant public health problem due to dinoflagellates. It is responsible for one of the highest reported incidence of seafood-borne illness and Groupers are commonly reported as a source of CFP due to their position in the food chain. With the role of recent climate change on harmful algal blooms, CFP cases might become more frequent and more geographically widespread. Since there is no appropriate treatment for CFP, the most efficient solution is to regulate fish consumption. Such a strategy can only work if the fish sold are correctly identified, and it has been repeatedly shown that misidentifications and species substitutions occur in fish markets. Methods We provide here both a DNA-barcoding reference for groupers, and a new phylogenetic reconstruction based on five genes and a comprehensive taxonomical sampling. We analyse the correlation between geographic range of species and their susceptibility to ciguatera accumulation, and the co-occurrence of ciguatoxins in closely related species, using both character mapping and statistical methods. Results Misidentifications were encountered in public databases, precluding accurate species identifications. Epinephelinae now includes only twelve genera (vs. 15 previously). Comparisons with the ciguatera incidences show that in some genera most species are ciguateric, but statistical tests display only a moderate correlation with the phylogeny. Atlantic species were rarely contaminated, with ciguatera occurrences being restricted to the South Pacific. Conclusions The recent changes in classification based on the reanalyses of the relationships within Epinephelidae have an impact on the interpretation of the ciguatera distribution in the genera. In this context and to improve the monitoring of fish trade and safety, we need to obtain extensive data on contamination at the species level. Accurate species identifications through DNA barcoding are thus an essential tool in controlling CFP since meal remnants in CFP cases can be easily identified with molecular tools. PMID:25093850

  13. A phylogenetic analysis of Legionella

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang Ludwig; Erko Stackebrandt

    1983-01-01

    Four species of Legionella, L. pneumophila NCTC 11192, L. bozemanii NCTC 11368, L. micdadei NCTC 11371 and L. jordanis ATCC 33623 have been characterized by oligonucleotide cataloguing of their 16S ribosomal RNA. All four species are phylogenetically closely related, while no specific relationship could be detected with any other group of organisms investigated so far with respect to this method.

  14. Early dinosaurs: A phylogenetic study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Max C. Langer; Michael J. Benton

    2006-01-01

    Early dinosaur evolution has been the subject of several phylogenetic studies and the position of certain basal forms is currently debated. This is the case for the oldest known members of the group, excavated from the Late Triassic Ischigualastian beds of South America, such as Herrerasaurus, Eoraptor, Pisanosaurus, Saturnalia and Staurikosaurus. A new cladistic analysis of the early dinosaur radiation

  15. Phylogenetic signals in morphometric data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norman MacLeod

    Although many of the goals and concepts of qualitative morphological analysis and morphometrics are similar, systematists have largely rejected the use of morphometric methods in phylogenetic analysis on a variety of grounds. This review finds that (1) the concepts of a cladistic character and a morphometric vari- able are essentially identical, (2) morphometric methods can be instrumental in discovering and

  16. Phylogenetic patterns in the Uredinales

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rusts (Basidiomycetes: Uredinales) are a large, diverse group of obligate biotrophic fungi that include many important plant pathogens. Phylogenetic relationships within the group are poorly understood, with between two and 14 families being recognised on morphological and host taxonomic grounds. We report the first analysis of broad-scale relationships within the Uredinales using DNA sequence data from the small subunit gene

  17. Phylogenetic Relationships Among Lepidium Papilliferum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous phylogenetic analyses of Lepidium included only a few acessions of L. montanum, L. flavum, and L. fremontii to represent western North Amrican species. Two additional species endemic to southwest Idaho have posed both taxonomic and conservation questions regarding their species status. Le...

  18. Increased Taxon Sampling Greatly Reduces Phylogenetic Error

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derrick J. Zwickl; David M. Hillis

    2002-01-01

    Several authors have argued recently that extensive taxon sampling has a positive and important effect on the accuracy of phylogenetic estimates. However, other authors have argued that there is little beneét of extensive taxon sampling, and so phylogenetic problems can or should be reduced to a few exemplar taxa as a means of reducing the computational complexity of the phylogenetic

  19. Phylogenetic Properties of RNA Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Pompei, Simone; Loreto, Vittorio; Tria, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    A new word, phylodynamics, was coined to emphasize the interconnection between phylogenetic properties, as observed for instance in a phylogenetic tree, and the epidemic dynamics of viruses, where selection, mediated by the host immune response, and transmission play a crucial role. The challenges faced when investigating the evolution of RNA viruses call for a virtuous loop of data collection, data analysis and modeling. This already resulted both in the collection of massive sequences databases and in the formulation of hypotheses on the main mechanisms driving qualitative differences observed in the (reconstructed) evolutionary patterns of different RNA viruses. Qualitatively, it has been observed that selection driven by the host immune response induces an uneven survival ability among co-existing strains. As a consequence, the imbalance level of the phylogenetic tree is manifestly more pronounced if compared to the case when the interaction with the host immune system does not play a central role in the evolutive dynamics. While many imbalance metrics have been introduced, reliable methods to discriminate in a quantitative way different level of imbalance are still lacking. In our work, we reconstruct and analyze the phylogenetic trees of six RNA viruses, with a special emphasis on the human Influenza A virus, due to its relevance for vaccine preparation as well as for the theoretical challenges it poses due to its peculiar evolutionary dynamics. We focus in particular on topological properties. We point out the limitation featured by standard imbalance metrics, and we introduce a new methodology with which we assign the correct imbalance level of the phylogenetic trees, in agreement with the phylodynamics of the viruses. Our thorough quantitative analysis allows for a deeper understanding of the evolutionary dynamics of the considered RNA viruses, which is crucial in order to provide a valuable framework for a quantitative assessment of theoretical predictions. PMID:23028645

  20. Phylogenetic positions of RH blood group-related genes in cyclostomes.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Akinori; Endo, Kouhei; Kitano, Takashi

    2014-06-10

    The RH gene family in vertebrates consists of four major genes (RH, RHAG, RHBG, and RHCG). They are thought to have emerged in the common ancestor of vertebrates after two rounds of whole genome duplication (2R-WGD). To analyze the detailed phylogenetic relationships within the RH gene family, we determined three types of cDNA sequence that belong to the RH gene family in lamprey (Lethenteron reissneri) and designated them as RHBG-like, RHCG-like1, and RHCG-like2. Phylogenetic analyses clearly showed that RHCG-like1 and RHCG-like2 genes, which were probably duplicated in the lamprey lineage, are orthologs of gnathostome RHCG. In contrast, the clear phylogenetic position of the RHBG-like gene could not be obtained. Probably some convergent events for cyclostome RHBG-like genes prevented the accurate identification of their phylogenetic positions. PMID:24720951

  1. Phylogenetic structure and host abundance drive disease pressure in communities.

    PubMed

    Parker, Ingrid M; Saunders, Megan; Bontrager, Megan; Weitz, Andrew P; Hendricks, Rebecca; Magarey, Roger; Suiter, Karl; Gilbert, Gregory S

    2015-04-23

    Pathogens play an important part in shaping the structure and dynamics of natural communities, because species are not affected by them equally. A shared goal of ecology and epidemiology is to predict when a species is most vulnerable to disease. A leading hypothesis asserts that the impact of disease should increase with host abundance, producing a 'rare-species advantage'. However, the impact of a pathogen may be decoupled from host abundance, because most pathogens infect more than one species, leading to pathogen spillover onto closely related species. Here we show that the phylogenetic and ecological structure of the surrounding community can be important predictors of disease pressure. We found that the amount of tissue lost to disease increased with the relative abundance of a species across a grassland plant community, and that this rare-species advantage had an additional phylogenetic component: disease pressure was stronger on species with many close relatives. We used a global model of pathogen sharing as a function of relatedness between hosts, which provided a robust predictor of relative disease pressure at the local scale. In our grassland, the total amount of disease was most accurately explained not by the abundance of the focal host alone, but by the abundance of all species in the community weighted by their phylogenetic distance to the host. Furthermore, the model strongly predicted observed disease pressure for 44 novel host species we introduced experimentally to our study site, providing evidence for a mechanism to explain why phylogenetically rare species are more likely to become invasive when introduced. Our results demonstrate how the phylogenetic and ecological structure of communities can have a key role in disease dynamics, with implications for the maintenance of biodiversity, biotic resistance against introduced weeds, and the success of managed plants in agriculture and forestry. PMID:25903634

  2. Reflectance Function Approximation for Material Classification

    E-print Network

    Dyer, Charles R.

    Reflectance Function Approximation for Material Classification Edward Wild CS 766 Final Project Report Abstract Reflectance functions are approximated from data using kernel re- gression and used results show that some reflectance functions can be approximated quite accurately with kernel regression

  3. Approaching Real-time Network Traffic Classification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Li; Kaysar Abdin; Robert Dann; Andrew Moore

    Abstract. Recent research explored the feasibility of using,Machine Learning methods,to provide accurate network traffic classification. We further believe that these methods,can work on real-time Internet traffic with sufficient accuracy for practical applications. In this paper we present ANTc, a framework,for quasi-realtime statistical traffic classification. It essentially demultiplexes ,network flows, collects statistical features of the flows, and then allows classification of

  4. Classification of Instructional Programs: 2000 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Robert L.; Hunt, E. Stephen

    This third revision of the Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP) updates and modifies education program classifications, providing a taxonomic scheme that supports the accurate tracking, assessment, and reporting of field of study and program completions activity. This edition has also been adopted as the standard field of study taxonomy…

  5. Modulation Features for Speech and Music Classification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Omer Mohsin Mubarak; Eliathamby Ambikairajah; Julien Epps; Teddy Surya Gunawan

    2006-01-01

    Many attempts to accurately classify speech and music have been investigated over the years. This paper presents modulation features for effective speech and music classification. A Gammatone filter bank is used as a front-end for this classification system, where amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM) features are extracted from the critical band outputs of the Gammatone filters. In addition,

  6. Multiple Sparse Representations Classification

    PubMed Central

    Plenge, Esben; Klein, Stefan S.; Niessen, Wiro J.; Meijering, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Sparse representations classification (SRC) is a powerful technique for pixelwise classification of images and it is increasingly being used for a wide variety of image analysis tasks. The method uses sparse representation and learned redundant dictionaries to classify image pixels. In this empirical study we propose to further leverage the redundancy of the learned dictionaries to achieve a more accurate classifier. In conventional SRC, each image pixel is associated with a small patch surrounding it. Using these patches, a dictionary is trained for each class in a supervised fashion. Commonly, redundant/overcomplete dictionaries are trained and image patches are sparsely represented by a linear combination of only a few of the dictionary elements. Given a set of trained dictionaries, a new patch is sparse coded using each of them, and subsequently assigned to the class whose dictionary yields the minimum residual energy. We propose a generalization of this scheme. The method, which we call multiple sparse representations classification (mSRC), is based on the observation that an overcomplete, class specific dictionary is capable of generating multiple accurate and independent estimates of a patch belonging to the class. So instead of finding a single sparse representation of a patch for each dictionary, we find multiple, and the corresponding residual energies provides an enhanced statistic which is used to improve classification. We demonstrate the efficacy of mSRC for three example applications: pixelwise classification of texture images, lumen segmentation in carotid artery magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and bifurcation point detection in carotid artery MRI. We compare our method with conventional SRC, K-nearest neighbor, and support vector machine classifiers. The results show that mSRC outperforms SRC and the other reference methods. In addition, we present an extensive evaluation of the effect of the main mSRC parameters: patch size, dictionary size, and sparsity level. PMID:26177106

  7. Phylogenetic analysis of AAA proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tancred Frickey; Andrei N Lupas

    2004-01-01

    AAA ATPases form a large protein family with manifold cellular roles. They belong to the AAA+ superfamily of ringshaped P-loop NTPases, which exert their activity through the energy-dependent unfolding of macromolecules. Phylogenetic analyses have suggested the existence of five major clades of AAA domains (proteasome subunits, metalloproteases, domains D1 and D2 of ATPases with two AAA domains, and the MSP1\\/katanin\\/spastin

  8. Phylogenetic patterns in the Uredinales

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brenda D. Wingfield; Lars Ericson; Timothy Szaro; Jeremy J. Burdor

    2004-01-01

    Rusts (Basidiomycetes: Uredinales) are a large, diverse group of obligate biotrophic fungi that include many important plant\\u000a pathogens. Phylogenetic relationships within the group are poorly understood, with between two and 14 families being recognised\\u000a on morphological and host taxonomic grounds. We report the first analysis of broad-scale relationships within the Uredinales\\u000a using DNA sequence data from the small subunit gene

  9. Phylogenetic inference of Indian malaria vectors from multilocus DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Jyotsana; Srivastava, Hemlata; Sharma, Meenu; Das, Manoj K; Singh, O P; Raghavendra, K; Nanda, Nutan; Dash, Aditya P; Saksena, D N; Das, Aparup

    2010-08-01

    Inferences on the taxonomic positions, phylogenetic interrelationships and divergence time among closely related species of medical importance is essential to understand evolutionary patterns among species, and based on which, disease control measures could be devised. To this respect, malaria is one of the important mosquito borne diseases of tropical and sub-tropical parts of the globe. Taxonomic status of malaria vectors has been so far documented based on morphological, cytological and few molecular genetic features. However, utilization of multilocus DNA sequences in phylogenetic inferences are still in dearth. India contains one of the richest resources of mosquito species diversity but little molecular taxonomic information is available in Indian malaria vectors. We herewith utilized the whole genome sequence information of An. gambiae to amplify and sequence three orthologous nuclear genetic regions in six Indian malaria vector species (An. culicifacies, An. minimus, An. sundaicus, An. fluviatilis, An. annularis and An. stephensi). Further, we utilized the previously published DNA sequence information on the COII and ITS2 genes in all the six species, making the total number of loci to five. Multilocus molecular phylogenetic study of Indian anophelines and An. gambiae was conducted at each individual genetic region using Neighbour Joining (NJ), Maximum Likelihood (ML), Maximum Parsimony (MP) and Bayesian approaches. Although tree topologies with COII, and ITS2 genes were similar, for no other three genetic regions similar tree topologies were observed. In general, the reconstructed phylogenetic status of Indian malaria vectors follows the pattern based on morphological and cytological classifications that was reconfirmed with COII and ITS2 genetic regions. Further, divergence times based on COII gene sequences were estimated among the seven Anopheles species which corroborate the earlier hypothesis on the radiation of different species of the Anopheles genus during the late Cretaceous period. PMID:20435167

  10. Phylogenetic analysis of AAA proteins.

    PubMed

    Frickey, Tancred; Lupas, Andrei N

    2004-01-01

    AAA ATPases form a large protein family with manifold cellular roles. They belong to the AAA+ superfamily of ringshaped P-loop NTPases, which exert their activity through the energy-dependent unfolding of macromolecules. Phylogenetic analyses have suggested the existence of five major clades of AAA domains (proteasome subunits, metalloproteases, domains D1 and D2 of ATPases with two AAA domains, and the MSP1/katanin/spastin group), as well as a number of deeply branching minor clades. These analyses however have been characterized by a lack of consistency in defining the boundaries of the AAA family. We have used cluster analysis to delineate unambiguously the group of AAA sequences within the AAA+ superfamily. Phylogenetic and cluster analysis of this sequence set revealed the existence of a sixth major AAA clade, comprising the mitochondrial, membrane-bound protein BCS1 and its homologues. In addition, we identified several deep branches consisting mainly of hypothetical proteins resulting from genomic projects. Analysis of the AAA N-domains provided direct support for the obtained phylogeny for most branches, but revealed some deep splits that had not been apparent from phylogenetic analysis and some unexpected similarities between distant clades. It also revealed highly degenerate D1 domains in plant MSP1 sequences and in at least one deeply branching group of hypothetical proteins (YC46), showing that AAA proteins with two ATPase domains arose at least three times independently. PMID:15037233

  11. Spectral classification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Jaschek

    1982-01-01

    Taxonomic classification of astronomically observed stellar objects is described in terms of spectral properties. Stars receive a classification containing a letter, number, and a Roman numeral, which relates the star to other stars of higher or lower Roman numerals. The citation indicates the stellar chromatic emission in relation to the wavelengths of other stars. Standards are chosen from the available

  12. A fast and accurate \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven M. Schimmel; Martin F. Müller; Norbert Dillier

    2009-01-01

    We present a new ldquoshoeboxrdquo room acoustics simulator that is designed to support research into signal processing algorithms that are robust to reverberation. It is an improvement over existing room acoustics simulators because it is computationally fast, portable to many kinds of research environments, and flexible to use. The proposed simulator is also perceptually accurate because it models both specular

  13. LABEL: Fast and Accurate Lineage Assignment with Assessment of H5N1 and H9N2 Influenza A Hemagglutinins

    PubMed Central

    Shepard, Samuel S.; Davis, C. Todd; Bahl, Justin; Rivailler, Pierre; York, Ian A.; Donis, Ruben O.

    2014-01-01

    The evolutionary classification of influenza genes into lineages is a first step in understanding their molecular epidemiology and can inform the subsequent implementation of control measures. We introduce a novel approach called Lineage Assignment By Extended Learning (LABEL) to rapidly determine cladistic information for any number of genes without the need for time-consuming sequence alignment, phylogenetic tree construction, or manual annotation. Instead, LABEL relies on hidden Markov model profiles and support vector machine training to hierarchically classify gene sequences by their similarity to pre-defined lineages. We assessed LABEL by analyzing the annotated hemagglutinin genes of highly pathogenic (H5N1) and low pathogenicity (H9N2) avian influenza A viruses. Using the WHO/FAO/OIE H5N1 evolution working group nomenclature, the LABEL pipeline quickly and accurately identified the H5 lineages of uncharacterized sequences. Moreover, we developed an updated clade nomenclature for the H9 hemagglutinin gene and show a similarly fast and reliable phylogenetic assessment with LABEL. While this study was focused on hemagglutinin sequences, LABEL could be applied to the analysis of any gene and shows great potential to guide molecular epidemiology activities, accelerate database annotation, and provide a data sorting tool for other large-scale bioinformatic studies. PMID:24466291

  14. FUZZY CLASSIFICATION OF HETEROGENEOUS VEGETATION IN A COMPLEX ARID ECOSYSTEM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ben McMahan; Keith T. Weber; Joel Sauder

    Traditional methods of remote sensing classification may not accurately portray the complexity of ecosystems where vegetation type and structure is diverse and variable. We used fuzzy classification to better characterize the complexity and heterogeneity of sagebrush- steppe vegetation on the Upper Snake River Plain in southeast Idaho. Unlike supervised classification where pixels are classified into discrete categories, fuzzy systems classify

  15. Classifying and counting linear phylogenetic invariants for the Jukes-Cantor model.

    PubMed

    Steel, M A; Fu, Y X

    1995-01-01

    Linear invariants are useful tools for testing phylogenetic hypotheses from aligned DNA/RNA sequences, particularly when the sites evolve at different rates. Here we give a simple, graph theoretic classification for each phylogenetic tree T, of its associated vector space I(T) of linear invariants under the Jukes-Cantor one-parameter model of nucleotide substitution. We also provide an easily described basis for I(T), and show that if I is a binary (fully resolved) phylogenetic tree with n sequences at its leaves then: dim[I(T)] = 4n-F2n-2 where Fn is the nth Fibonacci number. Our method applies a recently developed Hadamard matrix-based technique to describe elements of I(T) in terms of edge-disjoint packings of subtrees in T, and thereby complements earlier more algebraic treatments. PMID:7497119

  16. Phylogenetic significance of morphological characters in the taxonomy of Pestalotiopsis species.

    PubMed

    Jeewon, Rajesh; Liew, Edward C Y; Simpson, Jack A; Hodgkiss, I John; Hyde, Kevin D

    2003-06-01

    There has been considerable disagreement regarding the relationships among Pestalotiopsis species and their delimitations. A molecular phylogenetic analysis was conducted on 32 species of Pestalotiopsis in order to evaluate the utility of morphological characters currently used in their taxonomy. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred from nucleotide sequences in the ITS regions and 5.8S gene of the rDNA under four optimality criteria: maximum parsimony, weighted parsimony, maximum likelihood, and neighbor joining. Phylogenies estimated from all analyses yielded trees of essentially similar topology and revealed 3 major groups that correspond with morphology-based classification systems. Molecular data indicated that the genus contains two distinct lineages based on pigmentation of median cells and four distinct groupings based on morphology of apical appendages. The analyses did not support reliability of other phenotypic characters of this genus, such as spore dimensions. Characters with particular phylogenetic significance are discussed in relation to the taxonomy of Pestalotiopsis. PMID:12742743

  17. Phylogenetic Signal Dissection Identifies the Root of Starfishes

    PubMed Central

    Feuda, Roberto; Smith, Andrew B.

    2015-01-01

    Relationships within the class Asteroidea have remained controversial for almost 100 years and, despite many attempts to resolve this problem using molecular data, no consensus has yet emerged. Using two nuclear genes and a taxon sampling covering the major asteroid clades we show that non-phylogenetic signal created by three factors - Long Branch Attraction, compositional heterogeneity and the use of poorly fitting models of evolution – have confounded accurate estimation of phylogenetic relationships. To overcome the effect of this non-phylogenetic signal we analyse the data using non-homogeneous models, site stripping and the creation of subpartitions aimed to reduce or amplify the systematic error, and calculate Bayes Factor support for a selection of previously suggested topological arrangements of asteroid orders. We show that most of the previous alternative hypotheses are not supported in the most reliable data partitions, including the previously suggested placement of either Forcipulatida or Paxillosida as sister group to the other major branches. The best-supported solution places Velatida as the sister group to other asteroids, and the implications of this finding for the morphological evolution of asteroids are presented. PMID:25955729

  18. Phylogenetic signal dissection identifies the root of starfishes.

    PubMed

    Feuda, Roberto; Smith, Andrew B

    2015-01-01

    Relationships within the class Asteroidea have remained controversial for almost 100 years and, despite many attempts to resolve this problem using molecular data, no consensus has yet emerged. Using two nuclear genes and a taxon sampling covering the major asteroid clades we show that non-phylogenetic signal created by three factors - Long Branch Attraction, compositional heterogeneity and the use of poorly fitting models of evolution - have confounded accurate estimation of phylogenetic relationships. To overcome the effect of this non-phylogenetic signal we analyse the data using non-homogeneous models, site stripping and the creation of subpartitions aimed to reduce or amplify the systematic error, and calculate Bayes Factor support for a selection of previously suggested topological arrangements of asteroid orders. We show that most of the previous alternative hypotheses are not supported in the most reliable data partitions, including the previously suggested placement of either Forcipulatida or Paxillosida as sister group to the other major branches. The best-supported solution places Velatida as the sister group to other asteroids, and the implications of this finding for the morphological evolution of asteroids are presented. PMID:25955729

  19. Accurate Classification of Protein Structural Families Using Coherent Subgraph Analysis

    E-print Network

    Prins, Jan

    The Laboratory for Molecular Modeling, Division of Medicinal Chemistry and Natural Products, School of Pharmacy is challenging for a number reasons: (1) protein graphs are large and complex, (2) current protein databases annotated in the SCOP database (Murzin et al, 1995). The Support Vector Machine algorithm was used

  20. A perl package and an alignment tool for phylogenetic networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriel Cardona; Francesc Rosselló; Gabriel Valiente

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Phylogenetic networks are a generalization of phylogenetic trees that allow for the representation of evolutionary events acting at the population level, like recombination between genes, hybridization between lineages, and lateral gene transfer. While most phylogenetics tools implement a wide range of algorithms on phylogenetic trees, there exist only a few applications to work with phylogenetic networks, none of which

  1. A Perl Package and an Alignment Tool for Phylogenetic Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriel Cardona; Francesc Rossello; Gabriel Valiente

    2007-01-01

    Phylogenetic networks are a generalization of phylogenetic trees that allow for the representation of evolutionary events acting at the population level, like recombina- tion between genes, hybridization between lineages, and lateral gene transfer. While most phylogenetics tools implement a wide range of algorithms on phylogenetic trees, there exist only a few applications to work with phylogenetic networks, and there are

  2. HIV classification using coalescent theory

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ming [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Letiner, Thomas K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Korber, Bette T [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Algorithms for subtype classification and breakpoint detection of HIV-I sequences are based on a classification system of HIV-l. Hence, their quality highly depend on this system. Due to the history of creation of the current HIV-I nomenclature, the current one contains inconsistencies like: The phylogenetic distance between the subtype B and D is remarkably small compared with other pairs of subtypes. In fact, it is more like the distance of a pair of subsubtypes Robertson et al. (2000); Subtypes E and I do not exist any more since they were discovered to be composed of recombinants Robertson et al. (2000); It is currently discussed whether -- instead of CRF02 being a recombinant of subtype A and G -- subtype G should be designated as a circulating recombination form (CRF) nd CRF02 as a subtype Abecasis et al. (2007); There are 8 complete and over 400 partial HIV genomes in the LANL-database which belong neither to a subtype nor to a CRF (denoted by U). Moreover, the current classification system is somehow arbitrary like all complex classification systems that were created manually. To this end, it is desirable to deduce the classification system of HIV systematically by an algorithm. Of course, this problem is not restricted to HIV, but applies to all fast mutating and recombining viruses. Our work addresses the simpler subproblem to score classifications of given input sequences of some virus species (classification denotes a partition of the input sequences in several subtypes and CRFs). To this end, we reconstruct ancestral recombination graphs (ARG) of the input sequences under restrictions determined by the given classification. These restritions are imposed in order to ensure that the reconstructed ARGs do not contradict the classification under consideration. Then, we find the ARG with maximal probability by means of Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. The probability of the most probable ARG is interpreted as a score for the classification. To our knowledge, this particular problem was not addressed up to now. The software package Lamarc Kuhner et al. (2000) allows for sampling ARGs, but it assumes that recombination events only involve one breakpoint. However, in HIV recombinants usually have more than one breakpoint. Moreover, Lamarc does not perform an explicit breakpoint detection, but tries to find them by chance. Although this approach is suitable for most situations, it will not lead to satisfying results in case of highly recombining viruses with multiple breakpoints.

  3. ATV: display and manipulation of annotated phylogenetic trees ATV: display and manipulation of annotated phylogenetic trees

    E-print Network

    Eddy, Sean

    ATV: display and manipulation of annotated phylogenetic trees 8/10/01 1 ATV: display and manipulation of annotated phylogenetic trees Christian M. Zmasek and Sean R. Eddy Howard Hughes Medical: {zmasek,eddy}@genetics.wustl.edu Key words: tree display, tree viewer, phylogenetic tree, java

  4. Mineral Classification

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This problem set challenges students to determine the chemical classification of minerals based on their chemical formula (provided). For oxygen-bearing minerals, students must also provide the valences of the various cations.

  5. Molecular phylogenetics and character evolution of morphologically diverse groups, Dendrobium section Dendrobium and allies.

    PubMed

    Takamiya, Tomoko; Wongsawad, Pheravut; Sathapattayanon, Apirada; Tajima, Natsuko; Suzuki, Shunichiro; Kitamura, Saki; Shioda, Nao; Handa, Takashi; Kitanaka, Susumu; Iijima, Hiroshi; Yukawa, Tomohisa

    2014-01-01

    It is always difficult to construct coherent classification systems for plant lineages having diverse morphological characters. The genus Dendrobium, one of the largest genera in the Orchidaceae, includes ?1100 species, and enormous morphological diversification has hindered the establishment of consistent classification systems covering all major groups of this genus. Given the particular importance of species in Dendrobium section Dendrobium and allied groups as floriculture and crude drug genetic resources, there is an urgent need to establish a stable classification system. To clarify phylogenetic relationships in Dendrobium section Dendrobium and allied groups, we analysed the macromolecular characters of the group. Phylogenetic analyses of 210 taxa of Dendrobium were conducted on DNA sequences of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of 18S-26S nuclear ribosomal DNA and the maturase-coding gene (matK) located in an intron of the plastid gene trnK using maximum parsimony and Bayesian methods. The parsimony and Bayesian analyses revealed 13 distinct clades in the group comprising section Dendrobium and its allied groups. Results also showed paraphyly or polyphyly of sections Amblyanthus, Aporum, Breviflores, Calcarifera, Crumenata, Dendrobium, Densiflora, Distichophyllae, Dolichocentrum, Holochrysa, Oxyglossum and Pedilonum. On the other hand, the monophyly of section Stachyobium was well supported. It was found that many of the morphological characters that have been believed to reflect phylogenetic relationships are, in fact, the result of convergence. As such, many of the sections that have been recognized up to this point were found to not be monophyletic, so recircumscription of sections is required. PMID:25107672

  6. Learning classification trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buntine, Wray

    1991-01-01

    Algorithms for learning classification trees have had successes in artificial intelligence and statistics over many years. How a tree learning algorithm can be derived from Bayesian decision theory is outlined. This introduces Bayesian techniques for splitting, smoothing, and tree averaging. The splitting rule turns out to be similar to Quinlan's information gain splitting rule, while smoothing and averaging replace pruning. Comparative experiments with reimplementations of a minimum encoding approach, Quinlan's C4 and Breiman et al. Cart show the full Bayesian algorithm is consistently as good, or more accurate than these other approaches though at a computational price.

  7. Phylogenetic relationships among cultivated Allium species from restriction enzyme analysis of the chloroplast genome.

    PubMed

    Havey, M J

    1991-06-01

    The genus Allium contains many economically important species, including the bulb onion, chive, garlic, Japanese bunching onion, and leek. Phylogenetic relationships among the cultivated alliums are not well understood, and taxonomic classifications are based on relatively few morphological characters. Chloroplast DNA is highly conserved and useful in determining phylogenetic relationships. The size of the chloroplast genome of Allium cepa was estimated at 140 kb and restriction enzyme sites were mapped for KpnI, PstI, PvuII, SalI, XbaI, and XhoI. Variability at restriction enzyme sites in the chloroplast DNA was studied for at least three accessions of each of six cultivated, old-world Allium species. Of 189 restriction enzyme sites detected with 12 enzymes, 15 mutations were identified and used to estimate phylogenetic relationships. Cladistic analysis based on Wagner and Dollo parsimony resulted in a single, most-parsimonious tree of 16 steps and supported division of the species into sections. Allium species in section Porrum were distinguished from species in sections Cepa and Phyllodolon. Two species in section Rhiziridium, A. schoenoprasum and A. tuberosum, differed by five mutations and were placed in separate lineages. Allium cepa and A. fistulosum shared the loss of a restriction enzyme site and were phylogenetically closer to each other than to A. schoenoprasum. This study demonstrates the usefulness of restriction enzyme site analysis of the chloroplast genome in the elucidation of phylogenetic relationships in Allium. PMID:24221436

  8. Orthologous Repeats and Mammalian Phylogenetic Inference Alkes L. Price

    E-print Network

    Bafna, Vineet

    phylogenetic relationships remain unresolved, even among eutherian mammals. Repetitive elements provide Bafna§ Abstract Determining phylogenetic relationships between species is a difficult problem, and many a novel computational method for inferring phylogenetic relationships from partial se- quence data using

  9. Combining Data Sets with Different Phylogenetic Histories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHN J. WIENS

    1998-01-01

    The possibility that two data sets may have different underlying phylogenetic histories (such as gene trees that deviate from species trees) has become an important argument against combining data in phylogenetic analysis. However, two data sets sampled for a large number of taxamay differ in only partof theirhistories. This isa realisticscenarioand onein which therelative advantages of combined, separate, and consensus

  10. Pinniped phylogenetic relationships inferred using AFLP markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K K Dasmahapatra; J I Hoffman; W Amos

    2009-01-01

    Amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) are widely used for phylogenetic reconstruction in plants but their use in animal taxa has been limited, and in mammals rare. In addition, their use has been largely limited to shallow relationships amongst species or subspecies. Here, we genotype 23 pinniped species for 310 AFLP markers and find a strong phylogenetic signal, with individuals coclustering

  11. FORM, FUNCTION AND PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS OF

    E-print Network

    Lowenberger, Carl

    FORM, FUNCTION AND PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS OF MOSQUITO IMMUNE PEPTIDES Carl A. Lowenberger encapsulation of metazoan parasites (5,6) or the use ofpotent antimicrobial peptides (7,8). Phylogenetic, mammals, birds, amphibians, fish and many classes of invertebrates, and we would anticipate

  12. Phylogenetic relationships in the family Alloherpesviridae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas B. Waltzek; Garry O. Kelley; Michael E. Alfaro; Tomofumi Kurobe; Ronald P. Hedrick

    2009-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among herpesviruses (HVs) of mammals, birds, and reptiles have been studied extensively, whereas those among other HVs are relatively unexplored. We have reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships among 13 fish and amphibian HVs using maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses of amino acid sequences predicted from parts of the DNA poly- merase and terminase genes. The relationships among 6 of

  13. Taxonomy, Phylogenetics, and Philip S. Ward

    E-print Network

    Ward, Philip S.

    Chapter 1 Taxonomy, Phylogenetics, and Evolution Philip S. Ward 1.1 Introduction Since their origin features of evolutionary history. Species-level taxonomy has advanced more fitfully than ant phylogenetics and features of their biology are dis- cussed. The state of species-level taxonomy is eval- uated

  14. RESEARCH Open Access Reconciling taxonomy and phylogenetic

    E-print Network

    Matsen, Frederick A. "Erick"

    RESEARCH Open Access Reconciling taxonomy and phylogenetic inference: formalism and algorithms: Although taxonomy is often used informally to evaluate the results of phylogenetic inference and the root that solves a "subcoloring" problem to express the difference between a taxonomy and a phylogeny at a given

  15. A Novel Approach for Compressing Phylogenetic Trees

    E-print Network

    Williams, Tiffani

    A Novel Approach for Compressing Phylogenetic Trees Suzanne J. Matthews, Seung-Jin Sul, and Tiffani,sulsj,tlw}@cse.tamu.edu Abstract. Phylogenetic trees are tree structures that depict relation- ships between organisms. Popular analysis techniques often produce large collections of candidate trees, which are expensive to store. We

  16. Accurate and Reliable Cancer Classi cation Based on Pathway-Markers and Subnetwork-Markers 

    E-print Network

    Su, Junjie

    2012-02-14

    Finding reliable gene markers for accurate disease classification is very challenging due to a number of reasons, including the small sample size of typical clinical data, high noise in gene expression measurements, and the heterogeneity across...

  17. Accurate and Reliable Cancer Classi cation Based on Pathway-Markers and Subnetwork-Markers

    E-print Network

    Su, Junjie

    2012-02-14

    Finding reliable gene markers for accurate disease classification is very challenging due to a number of reasons, including the small sample size of typical clinical data, high noise in gene expression measurements, and the heterogeneity across...

  18. Phylogenetic analysis of the spirochetes.

    PubMed Central

    Paster, B J; Dewhirst, F E; Weisburg, W G; Tordoff, L A; Fraser, G J; Hespell, R B; Stanton, T B; Zablen, L; Mandelco, L; Woese, C R

    1991-01-01

    The 16S rRNA sequences were determined for species of Spirochaeta, Treponema, Borrelia, Leptospira, Leptonema, and Serpula, using a modified Sanger method of direct RNA sequencing. Analysis of aligned 16S rRNA sequences indicated that the spirochetes form a coherent taxon composed of six major clusters or groups. The first group, termed the treponemes, was divided into two subgroups. The first treponeme subgroup consisted of Treponema pallidum, Treponema phagedenis, Treponema denticola, a thermophilic spirochete strain, and two species of Spirochaeta, Spirochaeta zuelzerae and Spirochaeta stenostrepta, with an average interspecies similarity of 89.9%. The second treponeme subgroup contained Treponema bryantii, Treponema pectinovorum, Treponema saccharophilum, Treponema succinifaciens, and rumen strain CA, with an average interspecies similarity of 86.2%. The average interspecies similarity between the two treponeme subgroups was 84.2%. The division of the treponemes into two subgroups was verified by single-base signature analysis. The second spirochete group contained Spirochaeta aurantia, Spirochaeta halophila, Spirochaeta bajacaliforniensis, Spirochaeta litoralis, and Spirochaeta isovalerica, with an average similarity of 87.4%. The Spirochaeta group was related to the treponeme group, with an average similarity of 81.9%. The third spirochete group contained borrelias, including Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia anserina, Borrelia hermsii, and a rabbit tick strain. The borrelias formed a tight phylogenetic cluster, with average similarity of 97%. THe borrelia group shared a common branch with the Spirochaeta group and was closer to this group than to the treponemes. A single spirochete strain isolated fromt the shew constituted the fourth group. The fifth group was composed of strains of Serpula (Treponema) hyodysenteriae and Serpula (Treponema) innocens. The two species of this group were closely related, with a similarity of greater than 99%. Leptonema illini, Leptospira biflexa, and Leptospira interrogans formed the sixth and most deeply branching group. The average similarity within this group was 83.2%. This study represents the first demonstration that pathogenic and saprophytic Leptospira species are phylogenetically related. The division of the spirochetes into six major phylogenetic clusters was defined also by sequence signature elements. These signature analyses supported the conclusion that the spirochetes represent a monophylectic bacterial phylum. PMID:1917844

  19. Phylogenetic Analysis of the Kinesin Superfamily from Physcomitrella

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Zhiyuan; Collatos, Angelo R.; Bibeau, Jeffrey P.; Furt, Fabienne; Vidali, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Kinesins are an ancient superfamily of microtubule dependent motors. They participate in an extensive and diverse list of essential cellular functions, including mitosis, cytokinesis, cell polarization, cell elongation, flagellar development, and intracellular transport. Based on phylogenetic relationships, the kinesin superfamily has been subdivided into 14 families, which are represented in most eukaryotic phyla. The functions of these families are sometimes conserved between species, but important variations in function across species have been observed. Plants possess most kinesin families including a few plant specific families. With the availability of an ever increasing number of genome sequences from plants, it is important to document the complete complement of kinesins present in a given organism. This will help develop a molecular framework to explore the function of each family using genetics, biochemistry, and cell biology. The moss Physcomitrella patens has emerged as a powerful model organism to study gene function in plants, which makes it a key candidate to explore complex gene families, such as the kinesin superfamily. Here we report a detailed phylogenetic characterization of the 71 kinesins of the kinesin superfamily in Physcomitrella. We found a remarkable conservation of families and subfamily classes with Arabidopsis, which is important for future comparative analysis of function. Some of the families, such as kinesins 14s are composed of fewer members in moss, while other families, such as the kinesin 12s are greatly expanded. To improve the comparison between species, and to simplify communication between research groups, we propose a classification of subfamilies based on our phylogenetic analysis. PMID:23087697

  20. Phylogenetic analysis of the Kinesin superfamily from physcomitrella.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhiyuan; Collatos, Angelo R; Bibeau, Jeffrey P; Furt, Fabienne; Vidali, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Kinesins are an ancient superfamily of microtubule dependent motors. They participate in an extensive and diverse list of essential cellular functions, including mitosis, cytokinesis, cell polarization, cell elongation, flagellar development, and intracellular transport. Based on phylogenetic relationships, the kinesin superfamily has been subdivided into 14 families, which are represented in most eukaryotic phyla. The functions of these families are sometimes conserved between species, but important variations in function across species have been observed. Plants possess most kinesin families including a few plant specific families. With the availability of an ever increasing number of genome sequences from plants, it is important to document the complete complement of kinesins present in a given organism. This will help develop a molecular framework to explore the function of each family using genetics, biochemistry, and cell biology. The moss Physcomitrella patens has emerged as a powerful model organism to study gene function in plants, which makes it a key candidate to explore complex gene families, such as the kinesin superfamily. Here we report a detailed phylogenetic characterization of the 71 kinesins of the kinesin superfamily in Physcomitrella. We found a remarkable conservation of families and subfamily classes with Arabidopsis, which is important for future comparative analysis of function. Some of the families, such as kinesins 14s are composed of fewer members in moss, while other families, such as the kinesin 12s are greatly expanded. To improve the comparison between species, and to simplify communication between research groups, we propose a classification of subfamilies based on our phylogenetic analysis. PMID:23087697

  1. SUNPLIN: Simulation with Uncertainty for Phylogenetic Investigations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Phylogenetic comparative analyses usually rely on a single consensus phylogenetic tree in order to study evolutionary processes. However, most phylogenetic trees are incomplete with regard to species sampling, which may critically compromise analyses. Some approaches have been proposed to integrate non-molecular phylogenetic information into incomplete molecular phylogenies. An expanded tree approach consists of adding missing species to random locations within their clade. The information contained in the topology of the resulting expanded trees can be captured by the pairwise phylogenetic distance between species and stored in a matrix for further statistical analysis. Thus, the random expansion and processing of multiple phylogenetic trees can be used to estimate the phylogenetic uncertainty through a simulation procedure. Because of the computational burden required, unless this procedure is efficiently implemented, the analyses are of limited applicability. Results In this paper, we present efficient algorithms and implementations for randomly expanding and processing phylogenetic trees so that simulations involved in comparative phylogenetic analysis with uncertainty can be conducted in a reasonable time. We propose algorithms for both randomly expanding trees and calculating distance matrices. We made available the source code, which was written in the C++ language. The code may be used as a standalone program or as a shared object in the R system. The software can also be used as a web service through the link: http://purl.oclc.org/NET/sunplin/. Conclusion We compare our implementations to similar solutions and show that significant performance gains can be obtained. Our results open up the possibility of accounting for phylogenetic uncertainty in evolutionary and ecological analyses of large datasets. PMID:24229408

  2. PRec-I-DCM3: A Parallel Framework for Fast and Accurate Large Scale Phylogeny Reconstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cristian Coarfa; Yuri Dotsenko; John M. Mellor-crummey; Luay Nakhleh; Usman Roshan

    2005-01-01

    Accurate reconstruction of phylogenetic trees very of- ten involves solving hard optimization problems, partic- ularly the maximum parsimony (MP) and maximum like- lihood (ML) problems. Various heuristics have been de- vised for solving these two problems; however, they ob- tain good results within reasonable time only on small datasets. This has been a major impediment for large- scale phylogeny reconstruction,

  3. Phylogenetic Relationships Matter: Antifungal Susceptibility among Clinically Relevant Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Schmalreck, A. F.; Becker, K.; Fegeler, W.; Czaika, V.; Ulmer, H.; Lass-Flörl, C.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was 2-fold: to evaluate whether phylogenetically closely related yeasts share common antifungal susceptibility profiles (ASPs) and whether these ASPs can be predicted from phylogeny. To address this question, 9,627 yeast strains were collected and tested for their antifungal susceptibility. Isolates were reidentified by considering recent changes in taxonomy and nomenclature. A phylogenetic (PHYLO) code based on the results of multilocus sequence analyses (large-subunit rRNA, small-subunit rRNA, translation elongation factor 1?, RNA polymerase II subunits 1 and 2) and the classification of the cellular neutral sugar composition of coenzyme Q and 18S ribosomal DNA was created to group related yeasts into PHYLO groups. The ASPs were determined for fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole in each PHYLO group. The majority (95%) of the yeast strains were Ascomycetes. After reclassification, a total of 23 genera and 54 species were identified, resulting in an increase of 64% of genera and a decrease of 5% of species compared with the initial identification. These taxa were assigned to 17 distinct PHYLO groups (Ascomycota, n = 13; Basidiomycota, n = 4). ASPs for azoles were similar among members of the same PHYLO group and different between the various PHYLO groups. Yeast phylogeny may be an additional tool to significantly enhance the assessment of MIC values and to predict antifungal susceptibility, thereby more rapidly initiating appropriate patient management. PMID:24366735

  4. Classification Fun

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Shubinski, Carol

    2012-06-11

    Taxonomic information shows the evolutionary relationships between organisms. In this lesson plan, students will classify organisms by kingdom and apply their own understanding of classification to identify organisms. The students should already have an understanding of the basics of the five kindoms and the seven categories of classification. The document includes a pre-test on the topic to gauge student understanding and two classroom activities. The activity is intended for sixth grade students, and should take three to four class periods to complete.

  5. Neuromuscular disease classification system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sáez, Aurora; Acha, Begońa; Montero-Sánchez, Adoración; Rivas, Eloy; Escudero, Luis M.; Serrano, Carmen

    2013-06-01

    Diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases is based on subjective visual assessment of biopsies from patients by the pathologist specialist. A system for objective analysis and classification of muscular dystrophies and neurogenic atrophies through muscle biopsy images of fluorescence microscopy is presented. The procedure starts with an accurate segmentation of the muscle fibers using mathematical morphology and a watershed transform. A feature extraction step is carried out in two parts: 24 features that pathologists take into account to diagnose the diseases and 58 structural features that the human eye cannot see, based on the assumption that the biopsy is considered as a graph, where the nodes are represented by each fiber, and two nodes are connected if two fibers are adjacent. A feature selection using sequential forward selection and sequential backward selection methods, a classification using a Fuzzy ARTMAP neural network, and a study of grading the severity are performed on these two sets of features. A database consisting of 91 images was used: 71 images for the training step and 20 as the test. A classification error of 0% was obtained. It is concluded that the addition of features undetectable by the human visual inspection improves the categorization of atrophic patterns.

  6. Discriminating the effects of phylogenetic hypothesis, tree resolution and clade age estimates on phylogenetic signal measurements.

    PubMed

    Seger, G D S; Duarte, L D S; Debastiani, V J; Kindel, A; Jarenkow, J A

    2013-09-01

    Understanding how species traits evolved over time is the central question to comprehend assembly rules that govern the phylogenetic structure of communities. The measurement of phylogenetic signal (PS) in ecologically relevant traits is a first step to understand phylogenetically structured community patterns. The different methods available to estimate PS make it difficult to choose which is most appropriate. Furthermore, alternative phylogenetic tree hypotheses, node resolution and clade age estimates might influence PS measurements. In this study, we evaluated to what extent these parameters affect different methods of PS analysis, and discuss advantages and disadvantages when selecting which method to use. We measured fruit/seed traits and flowering/fruiting phenology of endozoochoric species occurring in Southern Brazilian Araucaria forests and evaluated their PS using Mantel regressions, phylogenetic eigenvector regressions (PVR) and K statistic. Mantel regressions always gave less significant results compared to PVR and K statistic in all combinations of phylogenetic trees constructed. Moreover, a better phylogenetic resolution affected PS, independently of the method used to estimate it. Morphological seed traits tended to show higher PS than diaspores traits, while PS in flowering/fruiting phenology depended mostly on the method used to estimate it. This study demonstrates that different PS estimates are obtained depending on the chosen method and the phylogenetic tree resolution. This finding has implications for inferences on phylogenetic niche conservatism or ecological processes determining phylogenetic community structure. PMID:23368095

  7. Explaining Diversity in Metagenomic Datasets by Phylogenetic-Based Feature Weighting

    PubMed Central

    Albanese, Davide; De Filippo, Carlotta; Cavalieri, Duccio; Donati, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Metagenomics is revolutionizing our understanding of microbial communities, showing that their structure and composition have profound effects on the ecosystem and in a variety of health and disease conditions. Despite the flourishing of new analysis methods, current approaches based on statistical comparisons between high-level taxonomic classes often fail to identify the microbial taxa that are differentially distributed between sets of samples, since in many cases the taxonomic schema do not allow an adequate description of the structure of the microbiota. This constitutes a severe limitation to the use of metagenomic data in therapeutic and diagnostic applications. To provide a more robust statistical framework, we introduce a class of feature-weighting algorithms that discriminate the taxa responsible for the classification of metagenomic samples. The method unambiguously groups the relevant taxa into clades without relying on pre-defined taxonomic categories, thus including in the analysis also those sequences for which a taxonomic classification is difficult. The phylogenetic clades are weighted and ranked according to their abundance measuring their contribution to the differentiation of the classes of samples, and a criterion is provided to define a reduced set of most relevant clades. Applying the method to public datasets, we show that the data-driven definition of relevant phylogenetic clades accomplished by our ranking strategy identifies features in the samples that are lost if phylogenetic relationships are not considered, improving our ability to mine metagenomic datasets. Comparison with supervised classification methods currently used in metagenomic data analysis highlights the advantages of using phylogenetic information. PMID:25815895

  8. Ebolavirus classification based on natural vectors.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hui; Yin, Changchuan; Hoang, Tung; He, Rong Lucy; Yang, Jie; Yau, Stephen S-T

    2015-06-01

    According to the WHO, ebolaviruses have resulted in 8818 human deaths in West Africa as of January 2015. To better understand the evolutionary relationship of the ebolaviruses and infer virulence from the relationship, we applied the alignment-free natural vector method to classify the newest ebolaviruses. The dataset includes three new Guinea viruses as well as 99 viruses from Sierra Leone. For the viruses of the family of Filoviridae, both genus label classification and species label classification achieve an accuracy rate of 100%. We represented the relationships among Filoviridae viruses by Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) phylogenetic trees and found that the filoviruses can be separated well by three genera. We performed the phylogenetic analysis on the relationship among different species of Ebolavirus by their coding-complete genomes and seven viral protein genes (glycoprotein [GP], nucleoprotein [NP], VP24, VP30, VP35, VP40, and RNA polymerase [L]). The topology of the phylogenetic tree by the viral protein VP24 shows consistency with the variations of virulence of ebolaviruses. The result suggests that VP24 be a pharmaceutical target for treating or preventing ebolaviruses. PMID:25803489

  9. Familial filicide and filicide classification.

    PubMed

    Guileyardo, J M; Prahlow, J A; Barnard, J J

    1999-09-01

    Filicide is the killing of a child by his or her parent. Despite the disturbing nature of these crimes, a study of filicide classification can provide insight into their causes. Furthermore, a study of filicide classification provides information essential to accurate death certification. We report a rare case of familial filicide in which twin sisters both attempted to kill their respective children. We then suggest a detailed classification of filicide subtypes that provides a framework of motives and precipitating factors leading to filicide. We identify 16 subtypes of filicide, each of which is sufficiently characteristic to warrant a separate category. We describe in some detail the characteristic features of these subtypes. A knowledge of filicide subtypes contributes to interpretation of difficult cases. Furthermore, to protect potential child homicide victims, it is necessary to know how and why they are killed. Epidemiologic studies using filicide subtypes as their basis could provide information leading to strategies for prevention. PMID:10507800

  10. Reanalysis and Simulation Suggest a Phylogenetic Microarray Does Not Accurately Profile Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Midgley, David J.; Greenfield, Paul; Shaw, Janet M.; Oytam, Yalchin; Li, Dongmei; Kerr, Caroline A.; Hendry, Philip

    2012-01-01

    The second generation (G2) PhyloChip is designed to detect over 8700 bacteria and archaeal and has been used over 50 publications and conference presentations. Many of those publications reveal that the PhyloChip measures of species richness greatly exceed statistical estimates of richness based on other methods. An examination of probes downloaded from Greengenes suggested that the system may have the potential to distort the observed community structure. This may be due to the sharing of probes by taxa; more than 21% of the taxa in that downloaded data have no unique probes. In-silico simulations using these data showed that a population of 64 taxa representing a typical anaerobic subterranean community returned 96 different taxa, including 15 families incorrectly called present and 19 families incorrectly called absent. A study of nasal and oropharyngeal microbial communities by Lemon et al (2010) found some 1325 taxa using the G2 PhyloChip, however, about 950 of these taxa have, in the downloaded data, no unique probes and cannot be definitively called present. Finally, data from Brodie et al (2007), when re-examined, indicate that the abundance of the majority of detected taxa, are highly correlated with one another, suggesting that many probe sets do not act independently. Based on our analyses of downloaded data, we conclude that outputs from the G2 PhyloChip should be treated with some caution, and that the presence of taxa represented solely by non-unique probes be independently verified. PMID:22457798

  11. Phylogenetics of Hydroidolina (Hydrozoa: paulyn cartwright1

    E-print Network

    Dunn, Casey

    Phylogenetics of Hydroidolina (Hydrozoa: Cnidaria) paulyn cartwright1 , nathaniel m. evans1 , casey, Cnidaria Submitted 30 November 2007; accepted 12 May 2008 I N T R O D U C T I O N Hydroidolina (ĽLeptolina

  12. PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS VIA DC PROGRAMMING 1 ...

    E-print Network

    2005-06-15

    For a fixed topology and an assumed probabilistic model of nucleotide substitution, we show that the ...... specially tailored for large scale phylogenetic analysis. ... PHYLIP: Phylogeny Inference Package (Version 3.63), Department of Genome.

  13. Phylogenetic and Functional Assessment of Orthologs Inference Projects and Methods

    PubMed Central

    Altenhoff, Adrian M.; Dessimoz, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    Accurate genome-wide identification of orthologs is a central problem in comparative genomics, a fact reflected by the numerous orthology identification projects developed in recent years. However, only a few reports have compared their accuracy, and indeed, several recent efforts have not yet been systematically evaluated. Furthermore, orthology is typically only assessed in terms of function conservation, despite the phylogeny-based original definition of Fitch. We collected and mapped the results of nine leading orthology projects and methods (COG, KOG, Inparanoid, OrthoMCL, Ensembl Compara, Homologene, RoundUp, EggNOG, and OMA) and two standard methods (bidirectional best-hit and reciprocal smallest distance). We systematically compared their predictions with respect to both phylogeny and function, using six different tests. This required the mapping of millions of sequences, the handling of hundreds of millions of predicted pairs of orthologs, and the computation of tens of thousands of trees. In phylogenetic analysis or in functional analysis where high specificity is required, we find that OMA and Homologene perform best. At lower functional specificity but higher coverage level, OrthoMCL outperforms Ensembl Compara, and to a lesser extent Inparanoid. Lastly, the large coverage of the recent EggNOG can be of interest to build broad functional grouping, but the method is not specific enough for phylogenetic or detailed function analyses. In terms of general methodology, we observe that the more sophisticated tree reconstruction/reconciliation approach of Ensembl Compara was at times outperformed by pairwise comparison approaches, even in phylogenetic tests. Furthermore, we show that standard bidirectional best-hit often outperforms projects with more complex algorithms. First, the present study provides guidance for the broad community of orthology data users as to which database best suits their needs. Second, it introduces new methodology to verify orthology. And third, it sets performance standards for current and future approaches. PMID:19148271

  14. TCS: a web server for multiple sequence alignment evaluation and phylogenetic reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jia-Ming; Di Tommaso, Paolo; Lefort, Vincent; Gascuel, Olivier; Notredame, Cedric

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces the Transitive Consistency Score (TCS) web server; a service making it possible to estimate the local reliability of protein multiple sequence alignments (MSAs) using the TCS index. The evaluation can be used to identify the aligned positions most likely to contain structurally analogous residues and also most likely to support an accurate phylogenetic reconstruction. The TCS scoring scheme has been shown to be accurate predictor of structural alignment correctness among commonly used methods. It has also been shown to outperform common filtering schemes like Gblocks or trimAl when doing MSA post-processing prior to phylogenetic tree reconstruction. The web server is available from http://tcoffee.crg.cat/tcs. PMID:25855806

  15. TCS: a web server for multiple sequence alignment evaluation and phylogenetic reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jia-Ming; Di Tommaso, Paolo; Lefort, Vincent; Gascuel, Olivier; Notredame, Cedric

    2015-07-01

    This article introduces the Transitive Consistency Score (TCS) web server; a service making it possible to estimate the local reliability of protein multiple sequence alignments (MSAs) using the TCS index. The evaluation can be used to identify the aligned positions most likely to contain structurally analogous residues and also most likely to support an accurate phylogenetic reconstruction. The TCS scoring scheme has been shown to be accurate predictor of structural alignment correctness among commonly used methods. It has also been shown to outperform common filtering schemes like Gblocks or trimAl when doing MSA post-processing prior to phylogenetic tree reconstruction. The web server is available from http://tcoffee.crg.cat/tcs. PMID:25855806

  16. Genome 570, Phylogenetic Inference January 2010

    E-print Network

    Borenstein, Elhanan

    , Phylogenetic Inference ­ p.1/43 #12;A simple data set Characters Species 1 2 3 4 5 6 Alpha 1 0 0 1 1 0 Beta 0 0 ­ p.2/43 #12;The tree we will evaluate Alpha Delta Gamma Beta Epsilon Genome 570, Phylogenetic Inference ­ p.3/43 #12;Character 1 1 Alpha Beta Gamma Delta Epsilon 1 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0

  17. Advances in phylogenetic studies of Nematoda

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jihua Wu; Yanling Liang; Yang Zhong; Cuizhang Fu; Jiakuan Chen

    2002-01-01

    Nematoda is a metazoan group with extremely high diversity only next to Insecta. Caenorhabditis elegans is now a favorable experimental model animal in modern developmental biology, genetics and genomics studies. However, the\\u000a phylogeny of Nematoda and the phylogenetic position of the phylum within animal kingdom have long been in debate. Recent molecular\\u000a phylogenetic studies gave great challenges to the traditional

  18. Following phylogenetic tracks of Astragalus cicer microsymbionts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylwia Wdowiak-Wróbel; Wanda Ma?ek

    2010-01-01

    A multilocus phylogenetic approach was applied to elucidate the phylogeny of Astragalus cicer rhizobia derived from Poland, Ukraine, and Canada. The strains selected for the studies represented three main geographically\\u000a different phenons of these bacteria. Phylogenetic analyses were performed with three chromosomal housekeeping loci (16S rRNA,\\u000a atpD, glnII) and three symbiotic genes located on a plasmid (nodA, nodC, nifH). The

  19. Maximizing the phylogenetic diversity of seed banks.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Kate E; Balding, Sharon T; Dickie, John B; Lewis, Gwilym P; Pearce, Tim R; Grenyer, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Ex situ conservation efforts such as those of zoos, botanical gardens, and seed banks will form a vital complement to in situ conservation actions over the coming decades. It is therefore necessary to pay the same attention to the biological diversity represented in ex situ conservation facilities as is often paid to protected-area networks. Building the phylogenetic diversity of ex situ collections will strengthen our capacity to respond to biodiversity loss. Since 2000, the Millennium Seed Bank Partnership has banked seed from 14% of the world's plant species. We assessed the taxonomic, geographic, and phylogenetic diversity of the Millennium Seed Bank collection of legumes (Leguminosae). We compared the collection with all known legume genera, their known geographic range (at country and regional levels), and a genus-level phylogeny of the legume family constructed for this study. Over half the phylogenetic diversity of legumes at the genus level was represented in the Millennium Seed Bank. However, pragmatic prioritization of species of economic importance and endangerment has led to the banking of a less-than-optimal phylogenetic diversity and prioritization of range-restricted species risks an underdispersed collection. The current state of the phylogenetic diversity of legumes in the Millennium Seed Bank could be substantially improved through the strategic banking of relatively few additional taxa. Our method draws on tools that are widely applied to in situ conservation planning, and it can be used to evaluate and improve the phylogenetic diversity of ex situ collections. PMID:25196170

  20. Phylogenetic structure in tropical hummingbird communities

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Catherine H.; Parra, Juan L.; Rahbek, Carsten; McGuire, Jimmy A.

    2009-01-01

    How biotic interactions, current and historical environment, and biogeographic barriers determine community structure is a fundamental question in ecology and evolution, especially in diverse tropical regions. To evaluate patterns of local and regional diversity, we quantified the phylogenetic composition of 189 hummingbird communities in Ecuador. We assessed how species and phylogenetic composition changed along environmental gradients and across biogeographic barriers. We show that humid, low-elevation communities are phylogenetically overdispersed (coexistence of distant relatives), a pattern that is consistent with the idea that competition influences the local composition of hummingbirds. At higher elevations communities are phylogenetically clustered (coexistence of close relatives), consistent with the expectation of environmental filtering, which may result from the challenge of sustaining an expensive means of locomotion at high elevations. We found that communities in the lowlands on opposite sides of the Andes tend to be phylogenetically similar despite their large differences in species composition, a pattern implicating the Andes as an important dispersal barrier. In contrast, along the steep environmental gradient between the lowlands and the Andes we found evidence that species turnover is comprised of relatively distantly related species. The integration of local and regional patterns of diversity across environmental gradients and biogeographic barriers provides insight into the potential underlying mechanisms that have shaped community composition and phylogenetic diversity in one of the most species-rich, complex regions of the world. PMID:19805042

  1. A close phylogenetic relationship between Sipuncula and Annelida evidenced from the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Phascolosoma esculenta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xin Shen; Xiaoyin Ma; Jianfeng Ren; Fangqing Zhao

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are many advantages to the application of complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes in the accurate reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships in Metazoa. Although over one thousand metazoan genomes have been sequenced, the taxonomic sampling is highly biased, left with many phyla without a single representative of complete mitochondrial genome. Sipuncula (peanut worms or star worms) is a small taxon of

  2. Staghorn classification: Platform for morphometry assessment

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Shashikant; Bhattu, Amit S.; Sabnis, Ravindra B.; Desai, Mahesh R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The majority of staghorn classifications do not incorporate volumetric stone burden assessment. Accurate volumetric data can easily be acquired with the ever-increasingly available computerized tomography (CT) scan. This manuscript reviews the available staghorn stone classifications and rationalizes the morphometry-based classification. Materials and Methods: A Pubmed search was performed for articles concerning staghorn classification and morphometry. Twenty abstracts were shortlisted from a total of 43 published abstracts. In view of the paucity of manuscripts on staghorn morphometry (4), older staghorn classifications were analyzed with the aim to determine the most optimum one having relevance to the percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) monotherapy outcome. Results: All available staghorn classifications are limited with non-widespread applicability. The traditional partial and complete staghorn are limited due to non-descript stone volumetric data and considerable overlap of the intermediate ones in either group. A lack of standardized definition limits intergroup comparison as well. Staghorn morphometry is a recent addition to the clinical classification profiling of a staghorn calculus. It comprises extensive CT volumetric stone distribution assessment of a staghorn in a given pelvi–calyceal anatomy. It allowsmeaningful clinical classification of staghorn stones from a contemporary PCNL monotherapy perspective. Conclusions: Morphometry-based classification affords clinically relevant nomenclature in predicting the outcome of PCNL for staghorn stones. Further research is required to reduce the complexity associated with measuring the volumetric stone distribution in a given calyceal system. PMID:24497688

  3. Triangle Classification

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-12-29

    This geometry lesson from Illuminations presents the Triangle Classification problem. Students will attempt to classify the triangles formed in a plane when a randomly selected point is connected to the endpoints of a given line segment. Students should have access to a computer with internet access for the lesson. The material is intended for grades 9-12 and should require 1 class period to complete.

  4. Multilocus assessment of phylogenetic relationships in Alytes (Anura, Alytidae).

    PubMed

    Maia-Carvalho, Bruno; Gonçalves, Helena; Ferrand, Nuno; Martínez-Solano, Ińigo

    2014-10-01

    With the advent of large multilocus datasets, molecular systematics is experiencing very rapid progress, but important challenges remain regarding data analysis and interpretation. Midwife toads (genus Alytes) exemplify two of the most widespread problems for accurate phylogenetic reconstruction: discerning the causes of discordance between gene trees, and resolving short internodes produced during rapid, successive splitting events. The three species in subgenus Baleaphryne (A. maurus, A. dickhilleni and A. muletensis), the sister group to A. obstetricans, have disjunct and highly restricted geographical ranges, which are thought to result from old vicariant events affecting their common ancestor, but their phylogenetic relationships are still unresolved. In this study we re-address the phylogeny of Alytes with a special focus on the relationships in Baleaphryne with a multilocus dataset including >9000 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA and four nuclear markers (3142bp) in all recognized taxa, including all subspecies of A. obstetricans. Both concatenation and species tree analyses suggest that A. muletensis, endemic to the Balearic island of Mallorca, is the sister taxon to a clade comprising the southeastern Iberian endemic A. dickhilleni and the North African A. maurus. This scenario is consistent with palaeogeological evidence associated with the fragmentation of the Betic-Rifean Massif, followed by the opening of the Strait of Gibraltar. On the other hand, analyses of intraspecific variation in A. obstetricans are inconclusive regarding relationships between major clades and conflict with current subspecific taxonomy. PMID:24931729

  5. CORE: A Phylogenetically-Curated 16S rDNA Database of the Core Oral Microbiome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann L. Griffen; Clifford J. Beall; Noah D. Firestone; Erin L. Gross; James M. DiFranco; Jori H. Hardman; Bastienne Vriesendorp; Russell A. Faust; Daniel A. Janies; Eugene J. Leys

    2011-01-01

    Comparing bacterial 16S rDNA sequences to GenBank and other large public databases via BLAST often provides results of little use for identification and taxonomic assignment of the organisms of interest. The human microbiome, and in particular the oral microbiome, includes many taxa, and accurate identification of sequence data is essential for studies of these communities. For this purpose, a phylogenetically

  6. Constraint Classification for Multiclass Classification and Ranking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sariel Har-peled; Dan Roth; Dav Zimak

    2002-01-01

    The constraint classification framework captures many flavors of mul- ticlass classification including winner-take-all multiclass classification, multilabel classification and ranking. We present a meta-algorithm for learning in this framework that learns via a single linear classifier in high dimension. We discuss distribution independent as well as margin-based generalization bounds and present empirical and theoretical evidence showing that constraint classification benefits over

  7. Characterization of a branch of the phylogenetic tree

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel, Stuart A.; Weng, Gezhi

    2003-04-11

    We use a combination of analytic models and computer simulations to gain insight into the dynamics of evolution. Our results suggest that certain interesting phenomena should eventually emerge from the fossil record. For example, there should be a ''tortoise and hare effect'': Those genera with the smallest species death rate are likely to survive much longer than genera with large species birth and death rates. A complete characterization of the behavior of a branch of the phylogenetic tree corresponding to a genus and accurate mathematical representations of the various stages are obtained. We apply our results to address certain controversial issues that have arisen in paleontology such as the importance of punctuated equilibrium and whether unique Cambrian phyla have survived to the present.

  8. Internet Traffic Classification Using Bayesian Analysis Andrew W. Moore

    E-print Network

    Hand, Steven

    or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit for traffic/flow classification that are often no-more accurate than 50­70% [1, 2, 3]. Our work uses

  9. A Primer of Phylogenetic ProceduresA Primer of Phylogenetic Procedures THE UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS

    E-print Network

    Sikes, Derek S.

    A Primer of Phylogenetic ProceduresA Primer of Phylogenetic Procedures THE UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS. R. BROOKS V. A. FUNK TTHEHE CCOMPLEATOMPLEAT CCLADISTLADIST #12;THE UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS MUSEUM) to Publications, Museum of Natural History, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045-2454, USA. To order

  10. Phylogenetics of the Phlebotomine Sand Fly Group Verrucarum (Diptera: Psychodidae: Lutzomyia)

    PubMed Central

    Cohnstaedt, Lee W.; Beati, Lorenza; Caceres, Abraham G.; Ferro, Cristina; Munstermann, Leonard E.

    2011-01-01

    Within the sand fly genus Lutzomyia, the Verrucarum species group contains several of the principal vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis and human bartonellosis in the Andean region of South America. The group encompasses 40 species for which the taxonomic status, phylogenetic relationships, and role of each species in disease transmission remain unresolved. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) phylogenetic analysis of a 667-bp fragment supported the morphological classification of the Verrucarum group into series. Genetic sequences from seven species were grouped in well-supported monophyletic lineages. Four species, however, clustered in two paraphyletic lineages that indicate conspecificity—the Lutzomyia longiflocosa–Lutzomyia sauroida pair and the Lutzomyia quasitownsendi–Lutzomyia torvida pair. COI sequences were also evaluated as a taxonomic tool based on interspecific genetic variability within the Verrucarum group and the intraspecific variability of one of its members, Lutzomyia verrucarum, across its known distribution. PMID:21633028

  11. Accurate detection of demosaicing regularity for digital image forensics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong Cao; Alex C. Kot

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel accurate detection framework of demosaicing regularity from different source images. The proposed framework first reversely classifies the demosaiced samples into several categories and then estimates the underlying demosaicing formulas for each category based on partial second-order derivative correlation models, which detect both the intrachannel and the cross-channel demosaicing correlation. An expectation-maximization reverse classification

  12. Berkleasmium crunisia sp. nov. and its phylogenetic affinities to the Pleosporales based on 18S and 28S rDNA sequence analyses.

    PubMed

    Pinnoi, Aom; Jeewon, Rajesh; Sakayaroj, Jariya; Hyde, Kevin D; Jones, E B Gareth

    2007-01-01

    Berkleasmium crunisia sp. nov. is described from a decaying rachis of Calamus sp. (Arecaceae) from Khuan Ka Long, Satun Province, Thailand. This Berkleasmium species differs morphologically from other species in possessing subtending cells and larger conidia. The phylogenetic relationship of the genus Berkleasmium among sexual ascomycetes also was examined. Sequence analyses from 18S, 28S and ITS-5.8S rDNA were analyzed phylogenetically under maximum parsimony, Bayesian and neighbor joining criteria. Phylogenies revealed that Berkleasmium is not monophyletic. Berkleasmium micronesicum and B. nigroapicale are related to Westerdykella cylindrica and Sporormia australis, which are members of the family Sporormiaceae (Pleosporales). Other species, including our new taxon, appear to share phylogenetic affinities with other anamorphic fungi, whose classification within the Pleosporales is still obscure. Analyses of 18S, 28S, ITS (+5.8S) rDNA and combined (18S+28S) gene sequences fail to give sufficient phylogenetic resolution within the Pleosporales. PMID:17883029

  13. The State of the Art in Fingerprint Classification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Cappelli; D. Maio

    Fingerprint classification is an effective technique that allows the number of comparisons necessary to retrieve a fingerprint\\u000a in a large database to be strongly reduced: In fact, if a reliable and accurate classification is performed, an unknown fingerprint\\u000a needs to be compared only to the fingerprints belonging to the same class. Automatic fingerprint classification is a very\\u000a difficult pattern recognition

  14. Improving Automatic Query Classification via Semi-Supervised Learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven M. Beitzel; Eric C. Jensen; Ophir Frieder; David D. Lewis; Abdur Chowdhury; Aleksander Kolcz

    2005-01-01

    Accurate topical classification of user queries allows for increased effectiveness and efficiency in general-purpose web search systems. Such classification becomes critical if the system is to return results not just from a general web collection but from topic-specific back-end databases as well. Maintaining sufficient classification recall is very difficult as web queries are typically short, yielding few features per query.

  15. A User's Guide to a Data Base of the Diversity of Pseudomonas syringae and Its Application to Classifying Strains in This Phylogenetic Complex

    PubMed Central

    Berge, Odile; Monteil, Caroline L.; Bartoli, Claudia; Chandeysson, Charlotte; Guilbaud, Caroline; Sands, David C.; Morris, Cindy E.

    2014-01-01

    The Pseudomonas syringae complex is composed of numerous genetic lineages of strains from both agricultural and environmental habitats including habitats closely linked to the water cycle. The new insights from the discovery of this bacterial species in habitats outside of agricultural contexts per se have led to the revelation of a wide diversity of strains in this complex beyond what was known from agricultural contexts. Here, through Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) of 216 strains, we identified 23 clades within 13 phylogroups among which the seven previously described P. syringae phylogroups were included. The phylogeny of the core genome of 29 strains representing nine phylogroups was similar to the phylogeny obtained with MLST thereby confirming the robustness of MLST-phylogroups. We show that phenotypic traits rarely provide a satisfactory means for classification of strains even if some combinations are highly probable in some phylogroups. We demonstrate that the citrate synthase (cts) housekeeping gene can accurately predict the phylogenetic affiliation for more than 97% of strains tested. We propose a list of cts sequences to be used as a simple tool for quickly and precisely classifying new strains. Finally, our analysis leads to predictions about the diversity of P. syringae that is yet to be discovered. We present here an expandable framework mainly based on cts genetic analysis into which more diversity can be integrated. PMID:25184292

  16. Threat Diversity Will Erode Mammalian Phylogenetic Diversity in the Near Future

    PubMed Central

    Jono, Clémentine M. A.; Pavoine, Sandrine

    2012-01-01

    To reduce the accelerating rate of phylogenetic diversity loss, many studies have searched for mechanisms that could explain why certain species are at risk, whereas others are not. In particular, it has been demonstrated that species might be affected by both extrinsic threat factors as well as intrinsic biological traits that could render a species more sensitive to extinction; here, we focus on extrinsic factors. Recently, the International Union for Conservation of Nature developed a new classification of threat types, including climate change, urbanization, pollution, agriculture and aquaculture, and harvesting/hunting. We have used this new classification to analyze two main factors that could explain the expected future loss of mammalian phylogenetic diversity: 1. differences in the type of threats that affect mammals and 2. differences in the number of major threats that accumulate for a single species. Our results showed that Cetartiodactyla, Diprotodontia, Monotremata, Perissodactyla, Primates, and Proboscidea could lose a high proportion of their current phylogenetic diversity in the coming decades. In contrast, Chiroptera, Didelphimorphia, and Rodentia could lose less phylogenetic diversity than expected if extinctions were random. Some mammalian clades, including Marsupiala, Chiroptera, and a subclade of Primates, are affected by particular threat types, most likely due solely to their geographic locations and associations with particular habitats. However, regardless of the geography, habitat, and taxon considered, it is not the threat type, but the threat diversity that determines the extinction risk for species and clades. Thus, some mammals might be randomly located in areas subjected to a large diversity of threats; they might also accumulate detrimental traits that render them sensitive to different threats, which is a characteristic that could be associated with large body size. Any action reducing threat diversity is expected to have a significant impact on future mammalian phylogeny. PMID:23029443

  17. Worldwide phylogenetic relationship of avian poxviruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gyuranecz, Miklós; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Dán, Ádám; Ip, Hon S.; Egstad, Kristina F.; Parker, Patricia G.; Higashiguchi, Jenni M.; Skinner, Michael A.; Höfle, Ursula; Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Dorrestein, Gerry M.; Solt, Szabolcs; Sós, Endre; Kim, Young Jun; Uhart, Marcela; Pereda, Ariel; González-Hein, Gisela; Hidalgo, Hector; Blanco, Juan-Manuel; Erdélyi, Károly

    2013-01-01

    Poxvirus infections have been found in 230 species of wild and domestic birds worldwide in both terrestrial and marine environments. This ubiquity raises the question of how infection has been transmitted and globally dispersed. We present a comprehensive global phylogeny of 111 novel poxvirus isolates in addition to all available sequences from GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis of Avipoxvirus genus has traditionally relied on one gene region (4b core protein). In this study we have expanded the analyses to include a second locus (DNA polymerase gene), allowing for a more robust phylogenetic framework, finer genetic resolution within specific groups and the detection of potential recombination. Our phylogenetic results reveal several major features of avipoxvirus evolution and ecology and propose an updated avipoxvirus taxonomy, including three novel subclades. The characterization of poxviruses from 57 species of birds in this study extends the current knowledge of their host range and provides the first evidence of the phylogenetic effect of genetic recombination of avipoxviruses. The repeated occurrence of avian family or order-specific grouping within certain clades (e.g. starling poxvirus, falcon poxvirus, raptor poxvirus, etc.) indicates a marked role of host adaptation, while the sharing of poxvirus species within prey-predator systems emphasizes the capacity for cross-species infection and limited host adaptation. Our study provides a broad and comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the Avipoxvirus genus, an ecologically and environmentally important viral group, to formulate a genome sequencing strategy that will clarify avipoxvirus taxonomy.

  18. Phylogenetic utility of protein (RPB2, ?-tubulin) and ribosomal (LSU, SSU) gene sequences in the systematics of Sordariomycetes (Ascomycota, Fungi)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alvin M. C. Tang; Rajesh Jeewon; Kevin D. Hyde

    2007-01-01

    The Sordariomycetes is an important group of fungi whose taxonomic relationships and classification is obscure. There is presently\\u000a no multi-gene molecular phylogeny that addresses evolutionary relationships among different classes and orders. In this study,\\u000a phylogenetic analyses with a broad taxon sampling of the Sordariomycetes were conducted to evaluate the utility of four gene\\u000a regions (LSU rDNA, SSU rDNA, ?-tubulin and

  19. Classification and knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    Automated procedures to classify objects are discussed. The classification problem is reviewed, and the relation of epistemology and classification is considered. The classification of stellar spectra and of resolved images of galaxies is addressed.

  20. Construction of the Platform for Phylogenetic Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Zhen; Lin, Xiaoguang; He, Xing; Gao, Yanping; Liu, Hongmei; Liu, Yong; Zhou, Yuanchun; Li, Jianhui; Chen, Zhiduan; Zhang, Shouzhou; Li, Yong

    Based on discussing the history of advancement to building the tree of life using genetic and genomic information, effective strategies and methods for the construction of the tree of life, this paper carried out business process analysis and application design. It implements a phylogenetic analysis platform for the land plants based on this analysis. The platform extracts molecular data from the international public databases in batch, which is automated acquisition, cleaning function for users to understand the situation of peer data. The process of phylogenetic reconstruction includes several public modes and tools, such as batch extraction, multiple sequence alignment, cleaning & editing, tree reconstruction, phylogeny evaluation and visualization. All these procedures demand a number of interactive interfaces for phylogenetic tree automatic generation and decision-making aids experiment.

  1. Comparative genomic analysis and phylogenetic position of Theileria equi

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Transmission of arthropod-borne apicomplexan parasites that cause disease and result in death or persistent infection represents a major challenge to global human and animal health. First described in 1901 as Piroplasma equi, this re-emergent apicomplexan parasite was renamed Babesia equi and subsequently Theileria equi, reflecting an uncertain taxonomy. Understanding mechanisms by which apicomplexan parasites evade immune or chemotherapeutic elimination is required for development of effective vaccines or chemotherapeutics. The continued risk of transmission of T. equi from clinically silent, persistently infected equids impedes the goal of returning the U. S. to non-endemic status. Therefore comparative genomic analysis of T. equi was undertaken to: 1) identify genes contributing to immune evasion and persistence in equid hosts, 2) identify genes involved in PBMC infection biology and 3) define the phylogenetic position of T. equi relative to sequenced apicomplexan parasites. Results The known immunodominant proteins, EMA1, 2 and 3 were discovered to belong to a ten member gene family with a mean amino acid identity, in pairwise comparisons, of 39%. Importantly, the amino acid diversity of EMAs is distributed throughout the length of the proteins. Eight of the EMA genes were simultaneously transcribed. As the agents that cause bovine theileriosis infect and transform host cell PBMCs, we confirmed that T. equi infects equine PBMCs, however, there is no evidence of host cell transformation. Indeed, a number of genes identified as potential manipulators of the host cell phenotype are absent from the T. equi genome. Comparative genomic analysis of T. equi revealed the phylogenetic positioning relative to seven apicomplexan parasites using deduced amino acid sequences from 150 genes placed it as a sister taxon to Theileria spp. Conclusions The EMA family does not fit the paradigm for classical antigenic variation, and we propose a novel model describing the role of the EMA family in persistence. T. equi has lost the putative genes for host cell transformation, or the genes were acquired by T. parva and T. annulata after divergence from T. equi. Our analysis identified 50 genes that will be useful for definitive phylogenetic classification of T. equi and closely related organisms. PMID:23137308

  2. Classification of the acanthocephala.

    PubMed

    Amin, Omar M

    2013-09-01

    In 1985, Amin presented a new system for the classification of the Acanthocephala in Crompton and Nickol's (1985) book 'Biology of the Acanthocephala' and recognized the concepts of Meyer (1931, 1932, 1933) and Van Cleave (1936, 1941, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1951, 1952). This system became the standard for the taxonomy of this group and remains so to date. Many changes have taken place and many new genera and species, as well as higher taxa, have been described since. An updated version of the 1985 scheme incorporating new concepts in molecular taxonomy, gene sequencing and phylogenetic studies is presented. The hierarchy has undergone a total face lift with Amin's (1987) addition of a new class, Polyacanthocephala (and a new order and family) to remove inconsistencies in the class Palaeacanthocephala. Amin and Ha (2008) added a third order (and a new family) to the Palaeacanthocephala, Heteramorphida, which combines features from the palaeacanthocephalan families Polymorphidae and Heteracanthocephalidae. Other families and subfamilies have been added but some have been eliminated, e.g. the three subfamilies of Arythmacanthidae: Arhythmacanthinae Yamaguti, 1935; Neoacanthocephaloidinae Golvan, 1960; and Paracanthocephaloidinae Golvan, 1969. Amin (1985) listed 22 families, 122 genera and 903 species (4, 4 and 14 families; 13, 28 and 81 genera; 167, 167 and 569 species in Archiacanthocephala, Eoacanthocephala and Palaeacanthocephala, respectively). The number of taxa listed in the present treatment is 26 families (18% increase), 157 genera (29%), and 1298 species (44%) (4, 4 and 16; 18, 29 and 106; 189, 255 and 845, in the same order), which also includes 1 family, 1 genus and 4 species in the class Polyacanthocephala Amin, 1987, and 3 genera and 5 species in the fossil family Zhijinitidae. PMID:24261131

  3. Probabilistic graphical model representation in phylogenetics.

    PubMed

    Höhna, Sebastian; Heath, Tracy A; Boussau, Bastien; Landis, Michael J; Ronquist, Fredrik; Huelsenbeck, John P

    2014-09-01

    Recent years have seen a rapid expansion of the model space explored in statistical phylogenetics, emphasizing the need for new approaches to statistical model representation and software development. Clear communication and representation of the chosen model is crucial for: (i) reproducibility of an analysis, (ii) model development, and (iii) software design. Moreover, a unified, clear and understandable framework for model representation lowers the barrier for beginners and nonspecialists to grasp complex phylogenetic models, including their assumptions and parameter/variable dependencies. Graphical modeling is a unifying framework that has gained in popularity in the statistical literature in recent years. The core idea is to break complex models into conditionally independent distributions. The strength lies in the comprehensibility, flexibility, and adaptability of this formalism, and the large body of computational work based on it. Graphical models are well-suited to teach statistical models, to facilitate communication among phylogeneticists and in the development of generic software for simulation and statistical inference. Here, we provide an introduction to graphical models for phylogeneticists and extend the standard graphical model representation to the realm of phylogenetics. We introduce a new graphical model component, tree plates, to capture the changing structure of the subgraph corresponding to a phylogenetic tree. We describe a range of phylogenetic models using the graphical model framework and introduce modules to simplify the representation of standard components in large and complex models. Phylogenetic model graphs can be readily used in simulation, maximum likelihood inference, and Bayesian inference using, for example, Metropolis-Hastings or Gibbs sampling of the posterior distribution. PMID:24951559

  4. Measuring effectiveness of a dynamic artificial neural network algorithm for classification problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ghiassi; C. Burnley

    2010-01-01

    Classification is the process of assigning an object to one of a set of classes based on its attributes. Classification problems have been examined in fields as diverse as biology, medicine, business, image recognition, and forensics. Developing more accurate and widely applicable classification methods has significant implications in these and many other fields.This paper presents a dynamic artificial neural network

  5. A statistical approach to root system classification

    PubMed Central

    Bodner, Gernot; Leitner, Daniel; Nakhforoosh, Alireza; Sobotik, Monika; Moder, Karl; Kaul, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Plant root systems have a key role in ecology and agronomy. In spite of fast increase in root studies, still there is no classification that allows distinguishing among distinctive characteristics within the diversity of rooting strategies. Our hypothesis is that a multivariate approach for “plant functional type” identification in ecology can be applied to the classification of root systems. The classification method presented is based on a data-defined statistical procedure without a priori decision on the classifiers. The study demonstrates that principal component based rooting types provide efficient and meaningful multi-trait classifiers. The classification method is exemplified with simulated root architectures and morphological field data. Simulated root architectures showed that morphological attributes with spatial distribution parameters capture most distinctive features within root system diversity. While developmental type (tap vs. shoot-borne systems) is a strong, but coarse classifier, topological traits provide the most detailed differentiation among distinctive groups. Adequacy of commonly available morphologic traits for classification is supported by field data. Rooting types emerging from measured data, mainly distinguished by diameter/weight and density dominated types. Similarity of root systems within distinctive groups was the joint result of phylogenetic relation and environmental as well as human selection pressure. We concluded that the data-define classification is appropriate for integration of knowledge obtained with different root measurement methods and at various scales. Currently root morphology is the most promising basis for classification due to widely used common measurement protocols. To capture details of root diversity efforts in architectural measurement techniques are essential. PMID:23914200

  6. Understanding phylogenetic incongruence: lessons from phyllostomid bats.

    PubMed

    Dávalos, Liliana M; Cirranello, Andrea L; Geisler, Jonathan H; Simmons, Nancy B

    2012-11-01

    All characters and trait systems in an organism share a common evolutionary history that can be estimated using phylogenetic methods. However, differential rates of change and the evolutionary mechanisms driving those rates result in pervasive phylogenetic conflict. These drivers need to be uncovered because mismatches between evolutionary processes and phylogenetic models can lead to high confidence in incorrect hypotheses. Incongruence between phylogenies derived from morphological versus molecular analyses, and between trees based on different subsets of molecular sequences has become pervasive as datasets have expanded rapidly in both characters and species. For more than a decade, evolutionary relationships among members of the New World bat family Phyllostomidae inferred from morphological and molecular data have been in conflict. Here, we develop and apply methods to minimize systematic biases, uncover the biological mechanisms underlying phylogenetic conflict, and outline data requirements for future phylogenomic and morphological data collection. We introduce new morphological data for phyllostomids and outgroups and expand previous molecular analyses to eliminate methodological sources of phylogenetic conflict such as taxonomic sampling, sparse character sampling, or use of different algorithms to estimate the phylogeny. We also evaluate the impact of biological sources of conflict: saturation in morphological changes and molecular substitutions, and other processes that result in incongruent trees, including convergent morphological and molecular evolution. Methodological sources of incongruence play some role in generating phylogenetic conflict, and are relatively easy to eliminate by matching taxa, collecting more characters, and applying the same algorithms to optimize phylogeny. The evolutionary patterns uncovered are consistent with multiple biological sources of conflict, including saturation in morphological and molecular changes, adaptive morphological convergence among nectar-feeding lineages, and incongruent gene trees. Applying methods to account for nucleotide sequence saturation reduces, but does not completely eliminate, phylogenetic conflict. We ruled out paralogy, lateral gene transfer, and poor taxon sampling and outgroup choices among the processes leading to incongruent gene trees in phyllostomid bats. Uncovering and countering the possible effects of introgression and lineage sorting of ancestral polymorphism on gene trees will require great leaps in genomic and allelic sequencing in this species-rich mammalian family. We also found evidence for adaptive molecular evolution leading to convergence in mitochondrial proteins among nectar-feeding lineages. In conclusion, the biological processes that generate phylogenetic conflict are ubiquitous, and overcoming incongruence requires better models and more data than have been collected even in well-studied organisms such as phyllostomid bats. PMID:22891620

  7. Understanding phylogenetic incongruence: lessons from phyllostomid bats

    PubMed Central

    Dávalos, Liliana M; Cirranello, Andrea L; Geisler, Jonathan H; Simmons, Nancy B

    2012-01-01

    All characters and trait systems in an organism share a common evolutionary history that can be estimated using phylogenetic methods. However, differential rates of change and the evolutionary mechanisms driving those rates result in pervasive phylogenetic conflict. These drivers need to be uncovered because mismatches between evolutionary processes and phylogenetic models can lead to high confidence in incorrect hypotheses. Incongruence between phylogenies derived from morphological versus molecular analyses, and between trees based on different subsets of molecular sequences has become pervasive as datasets have expanded rapidly in both characters and species. For more than a decade, evolutionary relationships among members of the New World bat family Phyllostomidae inferred from morphological and molecular data have been in conflict. Here, we develop and apply methods to minimize systematic biases, uncover the biological mechanisms underlying phylogenetic conflict, and outline data requirements for future phylogenomic and morphological data collection. We introduce new morphological data for phyllostomids and outgroups and expand previous molecular analyses to eliminate methodological sources of phylogenetic conflict such as taxonomic sampling, sparse character sampling, or use of different algorithms to estimate the phylogeny. We also evaluate the impact of biological sources of conflict: saturation in morphological changes and molecular substitutions, and other processes that result in incongruent trees, including convergent morphological and molecular evolution. Methodological sources of incongruence play some role in generating phylogenetic conflict, and are relatively easy to eliminate by matching taxa, collecting more characters, and applying the same algorithms to optimize phylogeny. The evolutionary patterns uncovered are consistent with multiple biological sources of conflict, including saturation in morphological and molecular changes, adaptive morphological convergence among nectar-feeding lineages, and incongruent gene trees. Applying methods to account for nucleotide sequence saturation reduces, but does not completely eliminate, phylogenetic conflict. We ruled out paralogy, lateral gene transfer, and poor taxon sampling and outgroup choices among the processes leading to incongruent gene trees in phyllostomid bats. Uncovering and countering the possible effects of introgression and lineage sorting of ancestral polymorphism on gene trees will require great leaps in genomic and allelic sequencing in this species-rich mammalian family. We also found evidence for adaptive molecular evolution leading to convergence in mitochondrial proteins among nectar-feeding lineages. In conclusion, the biological processes that generate phylogenetic conflict are ubiquitous, and overcoming incongruence requires better models and more data than have been collected even in well-studied organisms such as phyllostomid bats. PMID:22891620

  8. Assessing Approximations for Gaussian Process Classification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Malte Kuss; Carl Edward Rasmussen

    2005-01-01

    Gaussian processes are attractive models for probabilistic classification but unfortunately exact inference is analytically intractable. We com- pare Laplace's method and Expectation Propagation (EP) focusing on marginal likelihood estimates and predictive performance. We explain theoretically and corroborate empirically that EP is superior to Laplace. We also compare to a sophisticated MCMC scheme and show that EP is surprisingly accurate. In

  9. Accurate Monitor 1.2

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    With many computer users developing their own Web sites, some of them may be interested in monitoring how search engines may be ranking their site. This latest edition of Accurate Monitor may prove useful, as it allows individuals to find the position of their Web site in search engines like Altavista and Google. Additionally, Accurate Monitor can generate advanced statistics and monitor plugins, along with providing a flexible interface system. This version of Accurate Monitor is compatible with all systems running Windows 95 and higher.

  10. Comparative evolutionary diversity and phylogenetic structure across multiple forest dynamics plots: a mega-phylogeny approach

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, David L.; Jones, Frank A.; Swenson, Nathan G.; Pei, Nancai; Bourg, Norman A.; Chen, Wenna; Davies, Stuart J.; Ge, Xue-jun; Hao, Zhanqing; Howe, Robert W.; Huang, Chun-Lin; Larson, Andrew J.; Lum, Shawn K. Y.; Lutz, James A.; Ma, Keping; Meegaskumbura, Madhava; Mi, Xiangcheng; Parker, John D.; Fang-Sun, I.; Wright, S. Joseph; Wolf, Amy T.; Ye, W.; Xing, Dingliang; Zimmerman, Jess K.; Kress, W. John

    2014-01-01

    Forest dynamics plots, which now span longitudes, latitudes, and habitat types across the globe, offer unparalleled insights into the ecological and evolutionary processes that determine how species are assembled into communities. Understanding phylogenetic relationships among species in a community has become an important component of assessing assembly processes. However, the application of evolutionary information to questions in community ecology has been limited in large part by the lack of accurate estimates of phylogenetic relationships among individual species found within communities, and is particularly limiting in comparisons between communities. Therefore, streamlining and maximizing the information content of these community phylogenies is a priority. To test the viability and advantage of a multi-community phylogeny, we constructed a multi-plot mega-phylogeny of 1347 species of trees across 15 forest dynamics plots in the ForestGEO network using DNA barcode sequence data (rbcL, matK, and psbA-trnH) and compared community phylogenies for each individual plot with respect to support for topology and branch lengths, which affect evolutionary inference of community processes. The levels of taxonomic differentiation across the phylogeny were examined by quantifying the frequency of resolved nodes throughout. In addition, three phylogenetic distance (PD) metrics that are commonly used to infer assembly processes were estimated for each plot [PD, Mean Phylogenetic Distance (MPD), and Mean Nearest Taxon Distance (MNTD)]. Lastly, we examine the partitioning of phylogenetic diversity among community plots through quantification of inter-community MPD and MNTD. Overall, evolutionary relationships were highly resolved across the DNA barcode-based mega-phylogeny, and phylogenetic resolution for each community plot was improved when estimated within the context of the mega-phylogeny. Likewise, when compared with phylogenies for individual plots, estimates of phylogenetic diversity in the mega-phylogeny were more consistent, thereby removing a potential source of bias at the plot-level, and demonstrating the value of assessing phylogenetic relationships simultaneously within a mega-phylogeny. An unexpected result of the comparisons among plots based on the mega-phylogeny was that the communities in the ForestGEO plots in general appear to be assemblages of more closely related species than expected by chance, and that differentiation among communities is very low, suggesting deep floristic connections among communities and new avenues for future analyses in community ecology. PMID:25414723

  11. Comparative evolutionary diversity and phylogenetic structure across multiple forest dynamics plots: a mega-phylogeny approach.

    PubMed

    Erickson, David L; Jones, Frank A; Swenson, Nathan G; Pei, Nancai; Bourg, Norman A; Chen, Wenna; Davies, Stuart J; Ge, Xue-Jun; Hao, Zhanqing; Howe, Robert W; Huang, Chun-Lin; Larson, Andrew J; Lum, Shawn K Y; Lutz, James A; Ma, Keping; Meegaskumbura, Madhava; Mi, Xiangcheng; Parker, John D; Fang-Sun, I; Wright, S Joseph; Wolf, Amy T; Ye, W; Xing, Dingliang; Zimmerman, Jess K; Kress, W John

    2014-01-01

    Forest dynamics plots, which now span longitudes, latitudes, and habitat types across the globe, offer unparalleled insights into the ecological and evolutionary processes that determine how species are assembled into communities. Understanding phylogenetic relationships among species in a community has become an important component of assessing assembly processes. However, the application of evolutionary information to questions in community ecology has been limited in large part by the lack of accurate estimates of phylogenetic relationships among individual species found within communities, and is particularly limiting in comparisons between communities. Therefore, streamlining and maximizing the information content of these community phylogenies is a priority. To test the viability and advantage of a multi-community phylogeny, we constructed a multi-plot mega-phylogeny of 1347 species of trees across 15 forest dynamics plots in the ForestGEO network using DNA barcode sequence data (rbcL, matK, and psbA-trnH) and compared community phylogenies for each individual plot with respect to support for topology and branch lengths, which affect evolutionary inference of community processes. The levels of taxonomic differentiation across the phylogeny were examined by quantifying the frequency of resolved nodes throughout. In addition, three phylogenetic distance (PD) metrics that are commonly used to infer assembly processes were estimated for each plot [PD, Mean Phylogenetic Distance (MPD), and Mean Nearest Taxon Distance (MNTD)]. Lastly, we examine the partitioning of phylogenetic diversity among community plots through quantification of inter-community MPD and MNTD. Overall, evolutionary relationships were highly resolved across the DNA barcode-based mega-phylogeny, and phylogenetic resolution for each community plot was improved when estimated within the context of the mega-phylogeny. Likewise, when compared with phylogenies for individual plots, estimates of phylogenetic diversity in the mega-phylogeny were more consistent, thereby removing a potential source of bias at the plot-level, and demonstrating the value of assessing phylogenetic relationships simultaneously within a mega-phylogeny. An unexpected result of the comparisons among plots based on the mega-phylogeny was that the communities in the ForestGEO plots in general appear to be assemblages of more closely related species than expected by chance, and that differentiation among communities is very low, suggesting deep floristic connections among communities and new avenues for future analyses in community ecology. PMID:25414723

  12. Molecular phylogeny of Arcoidea with emphasis on Arcidae species (Bivalvia: Pteriomorphia) along the coast of China: challenges to current classification of arcoids.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yanwei; Li, Qi; Kong, Lingfeng

    2015-04-01

    The current classifications of arcoids are based on phenetic similarity, which display considerable convergence in several shell and anatomical characters, challenging phylogenetic analysis. Independent molecular analysis of DNA sequences is often necessary for accurate taxonomic assignments of arcoids, especially when morphological characters are equivocal. Here we present molecular evidence of the phylogenetic relationships among arcoid species based on Bayesian inference and Maximum Likelihood analyses of three nuclear genes (18SrRNA, 28SrRNA, and histone H3) and two mitochondrial genes (COI and 12S). Tree topologies are discussed by considering traditional arrangements of taxonomic units and previous molecular studies. The results confirm the monophyly of the order Arcoida, the family Noetiidae, and the subfamilies Anadarinae and Striarcinae, with support for the inclusion of the Glycymerididae in the Arcoidea. The subfamily Arcinae and the genera Arca, Barbatia, Scapharca, Anadara, and Glycymeris are non-monophyletic, suggesting that taxonomic issues still remain. The families Noetiidae, Cucullaeidae, and Glycymerididae appear as subgroups within, rather than sister groups to, the Arcidae. This study strongly suggests the need to carry out a taxonomic revision of the Arcoidea, especially the Arcidae, through combined analysis of morphological, paleontological, and molecular data. PMID:25721537

  13. PRec-I-DCM3: a parallel framework for fast and accurate large-scale phylogeny reconstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuri Dotsenko; Cristian Coarfa; Luay Nakhleh; John M. Mellor-crummey; Usman Roshan

    2006-01-01

    Accurate reconstruction of phylogenetic trees very often involves solv- ing hard optimization problems, particularly the maximum parsimony (MP) and maximum likelihood (ML) problems. Various heuristics have been devised for solving these two problems; however, they obtain good results within reasonable time only on small datasets. This has been a major impediment for large-scale phylogeny reconstruction, particu- larly for the effort

  14. Accurate Evaluation of Quantum Integrals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galant, David C.; Goorvitch, D.

    1994-01-01

    Combining an appropriate finite difference method with Richardson's extrapolation results in a simple, highly accurate numerical method for solving a Schr\\"{o}dinger's equation. Important results are that error estimates are provided, and that one can extrapolate expectation values rather than the wavefunctions to obtain highly accurate expectation values. We discuss the eigenvalues, the error growth in repeated Richardson's extrapolation, and show that the expectation values calculated on a crude mesh can be extrapolated to obtain expectation values of high accuracy.

  15. Accurate Evaluation of Quantum Integrals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galant, D. C.; Goorvitch, D.; Witteborn, Fred C. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Combining an appropriate finite difference method with Richardson's extrapolation results in a simple, highly accurate numerical method for solving a Schrodinger's equation. Important results are that error estimates are provided, and that one can extrapolate expectation values rather than the wavefunctions to obtain highly accurate expectation values. We discuss the eigenvalues, the error growth in repeated Richardson's extrapolation, and show that the expectation values calculated on a crude mesh can be extrapolated to obtain expectation values of high accuracy.

  16. MOLECULAR PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS AMONG DIABROTICA SPECIES (ACCESSION NO. AF195195)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn rootworms of the genus Diabrotica (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are the most serious pest of corn in midwestern United States. Despite their economic importance, phylogenetic relationships within the genus remain unclear. Phylogenetic analysis of five Diabrotica was undertaken using DNA sequences...

  17. MOLECULAR PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS AMONG DIABROTICA SPECIES (ACCESSION NO. AF195196)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn rootworms of the genus Diabrotica (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are the most serious pest of corn in midwestern United States. Despite their economic importance, phylogenetic relationships within the genus remain unclear. Phylogenetic analysis of five Diabrotica was undertaken using DNA sequences...

  18. ORIGINAL PAPER Disentangling phylogenetic constraints from selective

    E-print Network

    Poulin, Robert

    -swimming cercariae. The sizes of these stages are under strong phylogenetic constraints. Our results show of the cercarial tail. In species where they encyst on substrates, cercariae have significantly larger bodies than. Keywords Body size Á Cercariae Á Latitude Á Habitat type Á Host type Á Tail size Introduction Individual

  19. Molecular phylogenetics of the hummingbird genus Coeligena

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Luis Parra; J. V. Remsen Jr.; Mauricio Alvarez-Rebolledo; Jimmy A. McGuire

    2009-01-01

    Advances in the understanding of biological radiations along tropical mountains depend on the knowledge of phylogenetic relationships among species. Here we present a species-level molecular phylogeny based on a multilocus dataset for the Andean hummingbird genus Coeligena. We compare this phylogeny to previous hypotheses of evolutionary relationships and use it as a framework to understand patterns in the evolution of

  20. Mitochondrial phylogenetics and evolution of mysticete whales.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Takeshi; Nikaido, Masato; Hamilton, Healy; Goto, Mutsuo; Kato, Hidehiro; Kanda, Naohisa; Pastene, Luis; Cao, Ying; Fordyce, R; Hasegawa, Masami; Okada, Norihiro

    2005-02-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among baleen whales (Order: Cetacea) remain uncertain despite extensive research in cetacean molecular phylogenetics and a potential morphological sample size of over 2 million animals harvested. Questions remain regarding the number of species and the monophyly of genera, as well as higher order relationships. Here, we approach mysticete phylogeny with complete mitochondrial genome sequence analysis. We determined complete mtDNA sequences of 10 extant Mysticeti species, inferred their phylogenetic relationships, and estimated node divergence times. The mtDNA sequence analysis concurs with previous molecular studies in the ordering of the principal branches, with Balaenidae (right whales) as sister to all other mysticetes base, followed by Neobalaenidae (pygmy right whale), Eschrichtiidae (gray whale), and finally Balaenopteridae (rorquals + humpback whale). The mtDNA analysis further suggests that four lineages exist within the clade of Eschrichtiidae + Balaenopteridae, including a sister relationship between the humpback and fin whales, and a monophyletic group formed by the blue, sei, and Bryde's whales, each of which represents a newly recognized phylogenetic relationship in Mysticeti. We also estimated the divergence times of all extant mysticete species, accounting for evolutionary rate heterogeneity among lineages. When the mtDNA divergence estimates are compared with the mysticete fossil record, several lineages have molecular divergence estimates strikingly older than indicated by paleontological data. We suggest this discrepancy reflects both a large amount of ancestral polymorphism and long generation times of ancestral baleen whale populations. PMID:15805012

  1. Quantifying MCMC exploration of phylogenetic tree space.

    PubMed

    Whidden, Chris; Matsen, Frederick A

    2015-05-01

    In order to gain an understanding of the effectiveness of phylogenetic Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), it is important to understand how quickly the empirical distribution of the MCMC converges to the posterior distribution. In this article, we investigate this problem on phylogenetic tree topologies with a metric that is especially well suited to the task: the subtree prune-and-regraft (SPR) metric. This metric directly corresponds to the minimum number of MCMC rearrangements required to move between trees in common phylogenetic MCMC implementations. We develop a novel graph-based approach to analyze tree posteriors and find that the SPR metric is much more informative than simpler metrics that are unrelated to MCMC moves. In doing so, we show conclusively that topological peaks do occur in Bayesian phylogenetic posteriors from real data sets as sampled with standard MCMC approaches, investigate the efficiency of Metropolis-coupled MCMC (MCMCMC) in traversing the valleys between peaks, and show that conditional clade distribution (CCD) can have systematic problems when there are multiple peaks. PMID:25631175

  2. The challenge of constructing large phylogenetic trees

    E-print Network

    Sanderson, Mike

    .2500 species [6]. Plant phylogenetic analyses have also become large in the genome `direction'. The large number of plant model systems has spawned numerous EST (expressed sequence tag) projects, which of this distribution for all plant proteins in a recent release of GenBank. A few species have been sequenced for many

  3. Causes, consequences and solutions of phylogenetic incongruence.

    PubMed

    Som, Anup

    2015-05-01

    Phylogenetic analysis is used to recover the evolutionary history of species, genes or proteins. Understanding phylogenetic relationships between organisms is a prerequisite of almost any evolutionary study, as contemporary species all share a common history through their ancestry. Moreover, it is important because of its wide applications that include understanding genome organization, epidemiological investigations, predicting protein functions, and deciding the genes to be analyzed in comparative studies. Despite immense progress in recent years, phylogenetic reconstruction involves many challenges that create uncertainty with respect to the true evolutionary relationships of the species or genes analyzed. One of the most notable difficulties is the widespread occurrence of incongruence among methods and also among individual genes or different genomic regions. Presence of widespread incongruence inhibits successful revealing of evolutionary relationships and applications of phylogenetic analysis. In this article, I concisely review the effect of various factors that cause incongruence in molecular phylogenies, the advances in the field that resolved some factors, and explore unresolved factors that cause incongruence along with possible ways for tackling them. PMID:24872401

  4. On the analysis of phylogenetically paired designs

    PubMed Central

    Funk, Jennifer L; Rakovski, Cyril S; Macpherson, J Michael

    2015-01-01

    As phylogenetically controlled experimental designs become increasingly common in ecology, the need arises for a standardized statistical treatment of these datasets. Phylogenetically paired designs circumvent the need for resolved phylogenies and have been used to compare species groups, particularly in the areas of invasion biology and adaptation. Despite the widespread use of this approach, the statistical analysis of paired designs has not been critically evaluated. We propose a mixed model approach that includes random effects for pair and species. These random effects introduce a “two-layer” compound symmetry variance structure that captures both the correlations between observations on related species within a pair as well as the correlations between the repeated measurements within species. We conducted a simulation study to assess the effect of model misspecification on Type I and II error rates. We also provide an illustrative example with data containing taxonomically similar species and several outcome variables of interest. We found that a mixed model with species and pair as random effects performed better in these phylogenetically explicit simulations than two commonly used reference models (no or single random effect) by optimizing Type I error rates and power. The proposed mixed model produces acceptable Type I and II error rates despite the absence of a phylogenetic tree. This design can be generalized to a variety of datasets to analyze repeated measurements in clusters of related subjects/species. PMID:25750719

  5. Molecular Epidemiology of PRRSV: A Phylogenetic Perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since its first discovery two decades ago, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been the subject of intensive research due to its huge impact on the worldwide swine industry. Thanks to phylogenetic analyses, much has been learned about the genetic diversity and evolution h...

  6. Phylogenetic Study of the Genus Campylobacter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LOUIS M. THOMPSON; ROBERT M. SMIBERT; JOHN L. JOHNSON; NOEL R. KRIEG

    The phylogenetic relationships of all species in the genus Cantpylobacter, Wolinella succinogenes, and other gram-negative bacteria were determined by comparison of partial 16s ribosomal ribonucleic acid sequences. The results of this study indicate that species now recognized in the genus Campylobacter make up three separate ribosomal ribonucleic acid sequence homology groups. Homology group I contains the following true Campylobacter species:

  7. Generic circumscription in menyanthaceae: A phylogenetic evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas P. Tippery; Donald H. Les; Donald J. Padgett; Surrey W. L. Jacobs

    2008-01-01

    Menyanthaceae consist of five genera of aquatic and wetland plants distributed worldwide. The three monotypic genera (Liparophyllum, Menyanthes, and Nephrophyllidium) are clearly differentiated morphologically, but the two larger genera (Nymphoides and Villarsia) contain several taxa of uncertain affinity. We undertook a phylogenetic analysis, using a combination of morphological and molecular data, to resolve relationships among species and to evaluate the

  8. Understanding mammalian evolution using Bayesian phylogenetic inference

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CLINT D. KELLY

    2005-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees are critical in addressing evolutionary hypotheses; however, the recon- struction of a phylogeny is no easy task. This process has recently been made less arduous by using a Bayesian statistical approach. This method offers the advantage that one can determine the probability of some hypothesis (i.e. a phylogeny), conditional on the observed data (i.e. nucleotide sequences). 2. By

  9. Phylogenetic Relationships Among Megabats, Microbats, and Primates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David P. Mindell; Christopher W. Dick; Robert J. Baker

    1991-01-01

    We present 744 nucleotide base positions from the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene and 236 base positions from the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene for a microbat, Brachyphylla cavernarum, and a megabat, Pteropus capestratus, in phylogenetic analyses with homologous DNA sequences from Homo sapiens, Mus musculus (house mouse), and Gallus gallus (chicken). We use information on evolutionary rate differences for

  10. CRUSTACEAN ISSUES ] 3 Decapod Crustacean Phylogenetics

    E-print Network

    Wetzer, Regina

    . Crandall, and Darryl L. Felder Ł\\ CRC Press J Taylor & Francis Group #12;Decapod Crustacean Phylogenetics, U. S. A. CRC Press is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Croup, an informa business #12;CRC Press by Taylor & Francis Group, I.I.G CRC Press is an imprint of'Taylor & Francis Group, an In forma business

  11. Osteology and phylogenetic interrelationships of sturgeons (Acipenseridae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric K. Findeis

    Sturgeons (Acipenseridae) are anancient and unique assemblage of fishes historically important to discussions of actinopterygian evolution. Despite their basal position within Actinopterygii, rigorous comparative morphological studies of acipenserids have never been made, and most ideas about acipenserid evolution hinge on an untested impression that shovelnose sturgeons (Scaphirhynchini) are phylogenetically primitive. This impression promoted ideas that: (1) the earliest acipenserids were

  12. Large-Scale Inference of Phylogenetic Trees

    E-print Network

    Poirazi, Yiota

    Large-Scale Inference of Phylogenetic Trees Alexandros Stamatakis Institute of Computer Science Trees Alexandros Stamatakis As of July 1st 2006 Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics at Lausanne #12 Tree-of-life New insights in medical & biological research #12;© Alexandros Stamatakis, March 2006 7

  13. A structural phylogenetic map for chloroplast photosynthesis

    E-print Network

    Allen, John F.

    A structural phylogenetic map for chloroplast photosynthesis John F. Allen, Wilson B.M. de Paula of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS, UK Chloroplasts are cytoplasmic organelles and the sites those encoded in the chloroplast. We find no defining struc- tural feature that is common to all

  14. Introduction 1.1 Genealogical and Phylogenetic and Networks

    E-print Network

    Gusfield, Daniel M.

    Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 Genealogical and Phylogenetic and Networks "All DNA is recombinant DNA be represented as a tree. [42]" Genealogical and Phylogenetic Networks are graph-theoretic models of evo- lution that go beyond Phylogenetic Trees, the traditional representation of evo- lutionary history. Genealogical

  15. Phylogenetic Hidden Markov Models Adam Siepel and David Haussler

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    Phylogenetic Hidden Markov Models Adam Siepel and David Haussler Center for Biomolecular Science and Engineering University of California, Santa Cruz Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA Phylogenetic hidden Markov models. In addition, we discuss how hidden Markov models (HMMs), phylogenetic models, and phylo-HMMs all can

  16. Multilocus phylogeny of the New-World mud turtles (Kinosternidae) supports the traditional classification of the group.

    PubMed

    Spinks, Phillip Q; Thomson, Robert C; Gidi?, Müge; Bradley Shaffer, H

    2014-07-01

    A goal of modern taxonomy is to develop classifications that reflect current phylogenetic relationships and are as stable as possible given the inherent uncertainties in much of the tree of life. Here, we provide an in-depth phylogenetic analysis, based on 14 nuclear loci comprising 10,305 base pairs of aligned sequence data from all but two species of the turtle family Kinosternidae, to determine whether recent proposed changes to the group's classification are justified and necessary. We conclude that those proposed changes were based on (1) mtDNA gene tree anomalies, (2) preliminary analyses that do not fully capture the breadth of geographic variation necessary to motivate taxonomic changes, and (3) changes in rank that are not motivated by non-monophyletic groups. Our recommendation, for this and other similar cases, is that taxonomic changes be made only when phylogenetic results that are statistically well-supported and corroborated by multiple independent lines of genetic evidence indicate that non-monophyletic groups are currently recognized and need to be corrected. We hope that other members of the phylogenetics community will join us in proposing taxonomic changes only when the strongest phylogenetic data demand such changes, and in so doing that we can move toward stable, phylogenetically informed classifications of lasting value. PMID:24704303

  17. Compression-based classification of biological sequences and structures via the Universal Similarity Metric: experimental assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo Ferragina; Raffaele Giancarlo; Valentina Greco; Giovanni Manzini; Gabriel Valiente

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Similarity of sequences is a key mathematical notion for Classification and Phylogenetic studies in Biology. It is currently primarily handled using alignments. However, the alignment methods seem inadequate for post-genomic studies since they do not scale well with data set size and they seem to be confined only to genomic and proteomic sequences. Therefore, alignment-free similarity measures are actively

  18. Ribosomal DNA phylogenies of Cyathus: Is the current infrageneric classification appropriate?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rui-Lin Zhao; Rajesh Jeewon; Dennis E. Desjardin; K. Soytong; K. D. Hyde

    2007-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships within the ge- nus Cyathus (bird's nest fungi) were investigated with neighbor joining, maximum likelihood, weighted maximum parsimony and MrBayes analyses of ITS and LSU ribosomal DNA sequences datasets. Twenty- two taxa of Cyathus were used in the analyses based primarily on type and authentic specimens. The current infrageneric classification system of Brodie recognizes seven infrageneric groups based

  19. DNA sequence support for a close phylogenetic relationship between some storks and New World vultures.

    PubMed Central

    Avise, J C; Nelson, W S; Sibley, C G

    1994-01-01

    Nucleotide sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene were used to address a controversial suggestion that New World vultures are related more closely to storks than to Old World vultures. Phylogenetic analyses of 1-kb sequences from 18 relevant avian species indicate that the similarities in morphology and behavior between New World and Old World vultures probably manifest convergent adaptations associated with carrion-feeding, rather than propinquity of descent. Direct sequence evidence for a close phylogenetic alliance between at least some New World vultures and storks lends support to conclusions reached previously from DNA.DNA hybridization methods and detailed morphology-based appraisals, and it illustrates how mistaken assumptions of homology for organismal adaptations can compromise biological classifications. However, there was a lack of significant resolution for most other branches in the cytochrome b phylogenetic reconstructions. This irresolution is most likely attributable to a close temporal clustering of nodes, rather than to ceiling effects (mutational saturation) producing an inappropriate window of resolution for the cytochrome b sequences. Images PMID:8197203

  20. Diversity of Clonostachys species assessed by molecular phylogenetics and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Lucas M; Moreira, Gláucia M; Ferreira, Douglas; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson; Pfenning, Ludwig H

    2014-12-01

    We assessed the species diversity among 45 strains of Clonostachys from different substrates and localities in Brazil using molecular phylogenetics, and compared the results with the phenotypic classification of strains obtained from matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Phylogenetic analyses were based on beta tubulin (Tub), ITS-LSU rDNA, and a combined Tub-ITS DNA dataset. MALDI-TOF MS analyses were performed using intact conidia and conidiophores of strains cultivated on oatmeal agar and 4% malt extract agar. Six known species were identified: Clonostachys byssicola, Clonostachys candelabrum, Clonostachys pseudochroleuca, Clonostachys rhizophaga, Clonostachys rogersoniana, and Clonostachys rosea. Two clades and two singleton lineages did not correspond to known species represented in the reference DNA dataset and were identified as Clonostachys sp. 1-4. Multivariate cluster analyses of MALDI-TOF MS data classified the strains into eight clusters and three singletons, corresponding to the ten identified species plus one additional cluster containing two strains of C. rogersoniana that split from the other co-specific strains. The consistent results of MALDI-TOF MS supported the identification of strains assigned to C. byssicola and C. pseudochroleuca, which did not form well supported clades in all phylogenetic analyses, but formed distinct clusters in the MALDI-TOF dendrograms. PMID:25457948

  1. Highly Incomplete Taxa Can Rescue Phylogenetic Analyses from the Negative Impacts of Limited Taxon Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Wiens, John J.; Tiu, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Background Phylogenies are essential to many areas of biology, but phylogenetic methods may give incorrect estimates under some conditions. A potentially common scenario of this type is when few taxa are sampled and terminal branches for the sampled taxa are relatively long. However, the best solution in such cases (i.e., sampling more taxa versus more characters) has been highly controversial. A widespread assumption in this debate is that added taxa must be complete (no missing data) in order to save analyses from the negative impacts of limited taxon sampling. Here, we evaluate whether incomplete taxa can also rescue analyses under these conditions (empirically testing predictions from an earlier simulation study). Methodology/Principal Findings We utilize DNA sequence data from 16 vertebrate species with well-established phylogenetic relationships. In each replicate, we randomly sample 4 species, estimate their phylogeny (using Bayesian, likelihood, and parsimony methods), and then evaluate whether adding in the remaining 12 species (which have 50, 75, or 90% of their data replaced with missing data cells) can improve phylogenetic accuracy relative to analyzing the 4 complete taxa alone. We find that in those cases where sampling few taxa yields an incorrect estimate, adding taxa with 50% or 75% missing data can frequently (>75% of relevant replicates) rescue Bayesian and likelihood analyses, recovering accurate phylogenies for the original 4 taxa. Even taxa with 90% missing data can sometimes be beneficial. Conclusions We show that adding taxa that are highly incomplete can improve phylogenetic accuracy in cases where analyses are misled by limited taxon sampling. These surprising empirical results confirm those from simulations, and show that the benefits of adding taxa may be obtained with unexpectedly small amounts of data. These findings have important implications for the debate on sampling taxa versus characters, and for studies attempting to resolve difficult phylogenetic problems. PMID:22900065

  2. Thirteen Camellia chloroplast genome sequences determined by high-throughput sequencing: genome structure and phylogenetic relationships

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Camellia is an economically and phylogenetically important genus in the family Theaceae. Owing to numerous hybridization and polyploidization, it is taxonomically and phylogenetically ranked as one of the most challengingly difficult taxa in plants. Sequence comparisons of chloroplast (cp) genomes are of great interest to provide a robust evidence for taxonomic studies, species identification and understanding mechanisms that underlie the evolution of the Camellia species. Results The eight complete cp genomes and five draft cp genome sequences of Camellia species were determined using Illumina sequencing technology via a combined strategy of de novo and reference-guided assembly. The Camellia cp genomes exhibited typical circular structure that was rather conserved in genomic structure and the synteny of gene order. Differences of repeat sequences, simple sequence repeats, indels and substitutions were further examined among five complete cp genomes, representing a wide phylogenetic diversity in the genus. A total of fifteen molecular markers were identified with more than 1.5% sequence divergence that may be useful for further phylogenetic analysis and species identification of Camellia. Our results showed that, rather than functional constrains, it is the regional constraints that strongly affect sequence evolution of the cp genomes. In a substantial improvement over prior studies, evolutionary relationships of the section Thea were determined on basis of phylogenomic analyses of cp genome sequences. Conclusions Despite a high degree of conservation between the Camellia cp genomes, sequence variation among species could still be detected, representing a wide phylogenetic diversity in the genus. Furthermore, phylogenomic analysis was conducted using 18 complete cp genomes and 5 draft cp genome sequences of Camellia species. Our results support Chang’s taxonomical treatment that C. pubicosta may be classified into sect. Thea, and indicate that taxonomical value of the number of ovaries should be reconsidered when classifying the Camellia species. The availability of these cp genomes provides valuable genetic information for accurately identifying species, clarifying taxonomy and reconstructing the phylogeny of the genus Camellia. PMID:25001059

  3. Complete mitochondrial genomes elucidate phylogenetic relationships of the deep-sea octocoral families Coralliidae and Paragorgiidae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa, Diego F.; Baco, Amy R.

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, molecular phylogenetic analyses of octocorals have shown that the current morphological taxonomic classification of these organisms needs to be revised. The latest phylogenetic analyses show that most octocorals can be divided into three main clades. One of these clades contains the families Coralliidae and Paragorgiidae. These families share several taxonomically important characters and it has been suggested that they may not be monophyletic; with the possibility of the Coralliidae being a derived branch of the Paragorgiidae. Uncertainty exists not only in the relationship of these two families, but also in the classification of the two genera that make up the Coralliidae, Corallium and Paracorallium. Molecular analyses suggest that the genus Corallium is paraphyletic, and it can be divided into two main clades, with the Paracorallium as members of one of these clades. In this study we sequenced the whole mitochondrial genome of five species of Paragorgia and of five species of Corallium to use in a phylogenetic analysis to achieve two main objectives; the first to elucidate the phylogenetic relationship between the Paragorgiidae and Coralliidae and the second to determine whether the genera Corallium and Paracorallium are monophyletic. Our results show that other members of the Coralliidae share the two novel mitochondrial gene arrangements found in a previous study in Corallium konojoi and Paracorallium japonicum; and that the Corallium konojoi arrangement is also found in the Paragorgiidae. Our phylogenetic reconstruction based on all the protein coding genes and ribosomal RNAs of the mitochondrial genome suggest that the Coralliidae are not a derived branch of the Paragorgiidae, but rather a monophyletic sister branch to the Paragorgiidae. While our manuscript was in review a study was published using morphological data and several fragments from mitochondrial genes to redefine the taxonomy of the Coralliidae. Paracorallium was subsumed into Corallium and the genus Hemicorallium was resurrected. This left two disjunct clades as Corallium, making that genus paraphyletic. One of the clades includes the type specimens of Corallium, indicating that clade should remain Corallium. For the other clade, we support the resurrection of the genus Pleurocorallium to fix the paraphyly of Corallium. Based on congruent phylogenies in both studies, the genus Pleurocorallium includes the species C. secundum, C. kishinouyei, C. konojoi, C. elatius, and C. niveum.

  4. Classification challenges in perfectionism.

    PubMed

    Rice, Kenneth G; Richardson, Clarissa M E

    2014-10-01

    High performance expectations are central to perfectionism, but because most participants endorse high standards, it becomes difficult for practitioners and researchers to accurately screen for perfectionists. We addressed problems linked to the measurement and classification of perfectionism by testing various strategies aimed at broadening the range and skew of scores on the Standards subscale from the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised (APS-R; Slaney, Mobley, Trippi, Ashby, & Johnson, 1996). Randomly assigned participants (N = 506) completed the APS-R following standard instructions or 1 of 2 variations, one prompting participants to consider their responses in light of a normal distribution of scores and another in which participants used a visual analog (slider) scale. The visual analog scale produced more differentiated scores, but range restrictions and skewed distributions remained for all 3 variations. Statistical transformations improved skew. Factor mixture modeling was conducted using transformed and nontransformed perfectionism scores along with criterion indicators of emotion regulation (reappraisal or suppression), perceived stress, and depression. Results supported a 3-class model, although more balanced distributions of classes emerged than were previously reported. Perfectionists were differentiated from nonperfectionists by their higher standards scores. Maladaptive perfectionists scored highest among the classes on most self-critical perfectionism indicators, suppression, perceived stress, and depression. Adaptive perfectionists had the lowest levels of perceived stress and depression and scored highest on reappraisal. Both perfectionist classes had generally comparable concerns about mistakes, but criterion indicators suggested those were more problematic for maladaptive perfectionists. Results supported the value of incorporating adaptive and maladaptive criterion indicators in classification models. PMID:25111705

  5. Classification of pmoA amplicon pyrosequences using BLAST and the lowest common ancestor method in MEGAN

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, Marc G.; Lüke, Claudia; Deng, Yongcui; Frenzel, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The classification of high-throughput sequencing data of protein-encoding genes is not as well established as for 16S rRNA. The objective of this work was to develop a simple and accurate method of classifying large datasets of pmoA sequences, a common marker for methanotrophic bacteria. A taxonomic system for pmoA was developed based on a phylogenetic analysis of available sequences. The taxonomy incorporates the known diversity of pmoA present in public databases, including both sequences from cultivated and uncultivated organisms. Representative sequences from closely related genes, such as those encoding the bacterial ammonia monooxygenase, were also included in the pmoA taxonomy. In total, 53 low-level taxa (genus-level) are included. Using previously published datasets of high-throughput pmoA amplicon sequence data, we tested two approaches for classifying pmoA: a naďve Bayesian classifier and BLAST. Classification of pmoA sequences based on BLAST analyses was performed using the lowest common ancestor (LCA) algorithm in MEGAN, a software program commonly used for the analysis of metagenomic data. Both the naďve Bayesian and BLAST methods were able to classify pmoA sequences and provided similar classifications; however, the naďve Bayesian classifier was prone to misclassifying contaminant sequences present in the datasets. Another advantage of the BLAST/LCA method was that it provided a user-interpretable output and enabled novelty detection at various levels, from highly divergent pmoA sequences to genus-level novelty. PMID:22558000

  6. A phylogenetic analysis of Diurideae (Orchidaceae) based on plastid DNA sequence data.

    PubMed

    Kores, P J; Molvray, M; Weston, P H; Hopper, S D; Brown, A P; Cameron, K M; Chase, M W

    2001-10-01

    DNA sequence data from plastid matK and trnL-F regions were used in phylogenetic analyses of Diurideae, which indicate that Diurideae are not monophyletic as currently delimited. However, if Chloraeinae and Pterostylidinae are excluded from Diurideae, the remaining subtribes form a well-supported, monophyletic group that is sister to a "spiranthid" clade. Chloraea, Gavilea, and Megastylis pro parte (Chloraeinae) are all placed among the spiranthid orchids and form a grade with Pterostylis leading to a monophyletic Cranichideae. Codonorchis, previously included among Chloraeinae, is sister to Orchideae. Within the more narrowly delimited Diurideae two major lineages are apparent. One includes Diuridinae, Cryptostylidinae, Thelymitrinae, and an expanded Drakaeinae; the other includes Caladeniinae s.s., Prasophyllinae, and Acianthinae. The achlorophyllous subtribe Rhizanthellinae is a member of Diurideae, but its placement is otherwise uncertain. The sequence-based trees indicate that some morphological characters used in previous classifications, such as subterranean storage organs, anther position, growth habit, fungal symbionts, and pollination syndromes have more complex evolutionary histories than previously hypothesized. Treatments based upon these characters have produced conflicting classifications, and molecular data offer a tool for reevaluating these phylogenetic hypotheses. PMID:21669623

  7. Identifying Early Events of Gene Expression in Breast Cancer with Systems Biology Phylogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Asab, M.S.; Abu-Asab, N.; Loffredo, C.A.; Clarke, R.; Amri, H.

    2013-01-01

    Advanced omics technologies such as deep sequencing and spectral karyotyping are revealing more of cancer heterogeneity at the genetic, genomic, gene expression, epigenetic, proteomic, and metabolomic levels. With this increasing body of emerging data, the task of data analysis becomes critical for mining and modeling to better understand the relevant underlying biological processes. However, the multiple levels of heterogeneity evident within and among populations, healthy and diseased, complicate the mining and interpretation of biological data, especially when dealing with hundreds to tens of thousands of variables. Heterogeneity occurs in many diseases, such as cancers, autism, macular degeneration, and others. In cancer, heterogeneity has hampered the search for validated biomarkers for early detection, and it has complicated the task of finding clonal (driver) and nonclonal (nonexpanded or passenger) aberrations. We show that subtyping of cancer (classification of specimens) should be an a priori step to the identification of early events of cancers. Studying early events in oncogenesis can be done on histologically normal tissues from diseased individuals (HNTDI), since they most likely have been exposed to the same mutagenic insults that caused the cancer in their neighboring tissues. Polarity assessment of HNTDI data variables by using healthy specimens as outgroup(s), followed by the application of parsimony phylogenetic analysis, produces a hierarchical classification of specimens that reveals the early events of the disease ontogeny within its subtypes as shared derived changes (abnormal changes) or synapomorphies in phylogenetic terminology. PMID:23548567

  8. Choosing and Using Introns in Molecular Phylogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Creer, Simon

    2007-01-01

    Introns are now commonly used in molecular phylogenetics in an attempt to recover gene trees that are concordant with species trees, but there are a range of genomic, logistical and analytical considerations that are infrequently discussed in empirical studies that utilize intron data. This review outlines expedient approaches for locus selection, overcoming paralogy problems, recombination detection methods and the identification and incorporation of LVHs in molecular systematics. A range of parsimony and Bayesian analytical approaches are also described in order to highlight the methods that can currently be employed to align sequences and treat indels in subsequent analyses. By covering the main points associated with the generation and analysis of intron data, this review aims to provide a comprehensive introduction to using introns (or any non-coding nuclear data partition) in contemporary phylogenetics. PMID:19461984

  9. Genetic and phylogenetic clustering of enteroviruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Poyry; L. Kinnunen; T. Hyypia; B. Brown; C. Horsnell; T. Hovi; G. Stanway

    1996-01-01

    Genetic and phylogenetic analysis of enteroviruses showed that in the 5'NCR enteroviruses formed three clusters: polioviruses (PVs), coxsackievirus A type 21 (CAV21), CAV24 and enterovirus type 70 (ENV70) formed one cluster; coxsackievirus B isolates (CBVs), CAV9, CAV16, ENV71, echovirus type 11 (EV11), EV12 and all partially sequenced echoviruses and swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) belonged to another cluster and bovine

  10. Host-Range Phylogenetic Grouping of Capripoxviruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Le Goff; Emna Fakhfakh; Amelie Chadeyras; Elexpeter Aba Adulugba; Genevičve Libeau; Salah Hammami; Adama Diallo; Emmanuel Albina

    Because of their close relationship, specific identification of the CaPVs genus inside the Poxviridae family relies mainly\\u000a on molecular tools rather than on classical serology. We describe the suitability of the G protein-coupled chemokine receptor\\u000a (GPCR), for host range phylogenetic grouping. The analysis of 26 CaPVs shows 3 tight genetic clusters consisting of goatpox\\u000a virus (GPV), lumpy skin disease virus

  11. Clann: investigating phylogenetic information through supertree analyses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Creevey; James O. Mcinerney

    2005-01-01

    Summary: Clann has been developed in order to provide methods of investigating phylogenetic information through the application of supertrees. Availability: Clann has been precompiled for Linux, Apple Macintosh and Windows operating systems and is avail- able from http:\\/\\/bioinf.may.ie\\/software\\/clann. Source code is available on request from the authors. Supplementary information: Clann has been written in the C programming language. Source code

  12. Phylogenetic Analyses of Andromedeae (Ericaceae Subfam. Vaccinioideae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathleen A. Kron; Walter S. Judd; Darren M. Crayn

    1999-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships within the Andromedeae and closely related taxa were investigated by means of cladistic analyses based on phenotypic (morphology, anatomy, chromosome number, and secondary chemistry) and molecular (rbcL and matK nucleotide sequences) characters. An analysis based on combined molecular and phenotypic characters indicates that the tribe is composed of two major clades—the Gaultheria group (incl. Andromeda, Chamaedaphne, Diplycosia, Gaul-

  13. Molecular Phylogenetics of a Protein Repair Methyltransferase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ron M. Kagan; Helen J. McFadden; Philip N. McFadden; Clare O'Connor; Steven Clarke

    1997-01-01

    Protein-l-isoaspartyl (d-aspartyl) O-methyltransferase (E.C. 2.1.1.77) is a well-conserved and widely distributed protein repair enzyme that methylates isomerized or racemized aspartyl residues in age-damaged proteins. We exploited the availability of protein sequences from 10 diverse animal, plant and bacterial taxa to construct a phylogenetic tree and determine the rates of amino acid substitution for this enzyme. We used a likelihood ratio

  14. Phylogenetic analysis of the Briza Complex (Poaceae).

    PubMed

    Essi, Liliana; Longhi-Wagner, Hilda Maria; de Souza-Chies, Tatiana Teixeira

    2008-06-01

    A phylogenetic analysis of the Briza Complex was carried out using three DNA regions (ITS, GBSSI and trnL-trnL-trnF, a total of 2980bp). The searches were performed by three distinct phylogenetic methods, using plastid and nuclear data in separate matrices. All methods produced similar trees per matrix. However there were conflicts when trees resulting from distinct datasets were compared. Phylogenetic relationships were found did not completely fit any circumscription previously proposed for the complex. The early divergence of the Eurasiatic species (B. media, B. maxima and B. minor), and the monophyly of the South American group (including Erianthecium, Rhombolytrum and Gymnachne) support Briza L. sensu stricto, and a single genus for the American group. Briza sensu lato is not supported in most trees, and the American genera cannot be split due to unresolved polytomies. Conflict between chloroplast and nuclear data suggests past reticulation events, although lineage sorting or ITS paralogy cannot be ruled out. Polytomies in the American group may indicate rapid species radiation. PMID:18439843

  15. A Consistent Phylogenetic Backbone for the Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Ebersberger, Ingo; de Matos Simoes, Ricardo; Kupczok, Anne; Gube, Matthias; Kothe, Erika; Voigt, Kerstin; von Haeseler, Arndt

    2012-01-01

    The kingdom of fungi provides model organisms for biotechnology, cell biology, genetics, and life sciences in general. Only when their phylogenetic relationships are stably resolved, can individual results from fungal research be integrated into a holistic picture of biology. However, and despite recent progress, many deep relationships within the fungi remain unclear. Here, we present the first phylogenomic study of an entire eukaryotic kingdom that uses a consistency criterion to strengthen phylogenetic conclusions. We reason that branches (splits) recovered with independent data and different tree reconstruction methods are likely to reflect true evolutionary relationships. Two complementary phylogenomic data sets based on 99 fungal genomes and 109 fungal expressed sequence tag (EST) sets analyzed with four different tree reconstruction methods shed light from different angles on the fungal tree of life. Eleven additional data sets address specifically the phylogenetic position of Blastocladiomycota, Ustilaginomycotina, and Dothideomycetes, respectively. The combined evidence from the resulting trees supports the deep-level stability of the fungal groups toward a comprehensive natural system of the fungi. In addition, our analysis reveals methodologically interesting aspects. Enrichment for EST encoded data—a common practice in phylogenomic analyses—introduces a strong bias toward slowly evolving and functionally correlated genes. Consequently, the generalization of phylogenomic data sets as collections of randomly selected genes cannot be taken for granted. A thorough characterization of the data to assess possible influences on the tree reconstruction should therefore become a standard in phylogenomic analyses. PMID:22114356

  16. Posterior Predictive Bayesian Phylogenetic Model Selection

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Paul O.; Xie, Wangang; Chen, Ming-Hui; Fan, Yu; Kuo, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    We present two distinctly different posterior predictive approaches to Bayesian phylogenetic model selection and illustrate these methods using examples from green algal protein-coding cpDNA sequences and flowering plant rDNA sequences. The Gelfand–Ghosh (GG) approach allows dissection of an overall measure of model fit into components due to posterior predictive variance (GGp) and goodness-of-fit (GGg), which distinguishes this method from the posterior predictive P-value approach. The conditional predictive ordinate (CPO) method provides a site-specific measure of model fit useful for exploratory analyses and can be combined over sites yielding the log pseudomarginal likelihood (LPML) which is useful as an overall measure of model fit. CPO provides a useful cross-validation approach that is computationally efficient, requiring only a sample from the posterior distribution (no additional simulation is required). Both GG and CPO add new perspectives to Bayesian phylogenetic model selection based on the predictive abilities of models and complement the perspective provided by the marginal likelihood (including Bayes Factor comparisons) based solely on the fit of competing models to observed data. [Bayesian; conditional predictive ordinate; CPO; L-measure; LPML; model selection; phylogenetics; posterior predictive.] PMID:24193892

  17. Big MACS: Accurate photometric calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, P. L.; von der Linden, A.; Applegate, D.; Allen, M.; Allen, S. W.; Burchat, P. R.; Burke, D. L.; Ebeling, H.; Capak, P.; Czoske, O.; Donovan, D.; Mantz, A.; Morris, R. G.

    2012-08-01

    Big MACS is a Python program that estimates an accurate photometric calibration from only an input catalog of stellar magnitudes and filter transmission functions. The user does not have to measure color terms which can be difficult to characterize. Supplied with filter transmission functions, Big MACS synthesizes an expected stellar locus for your data and then simultaneously solves for all unknown zeropoints when fitting to the instrumental locus. The code uses a spectroscopic model for the SDSS stellar locus in color-color space and filter functions to compute expected locus. The stellar locus model is corrected for Milky Way reddening. If SDSS or 2MASS photometry is available for stars in field, Big MACS can yield a highly accurate absolute calibration.

  18. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion...

  19. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion...

  20. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion...

  1. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion...

  2. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion...

  3. Structured Multimedia Document Classification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ludovic Denoyer; Jean-Noel Vittaut; Patrick Gallinari; Sylvie Brunesseaux; Stephan Brunesseaux

    2003-01-01

    We propose a new statistical model for the classification of structured documents and consider its use for multimedia document classification. Its main originality is its ability to simultaneously take into account the structural and the content information present in a structured document, and also to cope with different types of content (text, image, etc). We present experiments on the classification

  4. Government Classification: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Karen M.

    Classification of government documents (confidential, secret, top secret) is a system used by the executive branch to, in part, protect national security and foreign policy interests. The systematic use of classification markings with precise definitions was established during World War I, and since 1936 major changes in classification have…

  5. Phylogenetic relatedness and the determinants of competitive outcomes.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Oscar; Kraft, Nathan J B; Levine, Jonathan M

    2014-07-01

    Recent hypotheses argue that phylogenetic relatedness should predict both the niche differences that stabilise coexistence and the average fitness differences that drive competitive dominance. These still largely untested predictions complicate Darwin's hypothesis that more closely related species less easily coexist, and challenge the use of community phylogenetic patterns to infer competition. We field parameterised models of competitor dynamics with pairs of 18 California annual plant species, and then related species' niche and fitness differences to their phylogenetic distance. Stabilising niche differences were unrelated to phylogenetic distance, while species' average fitness showed phylogenetic structure. This meant that more distant relatives had greater competitive asymmetry, which should favour the coexistence of close relatives. Nonetheless, coexistence proved unrelated to phylogeny, due in part to increasing variance in fitness differences with phylogenetic distance, a previously overlooked property of such relationships. Together, these findings question the expectation that distant relatives should more readily coexist. PMID:24766326

  6. The Impact of Plant Enemies Shows a Phylogenetic Signal

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Gregory S.; Briggs, Heather M.; Magarey, Roger

    2015-01-01

    The host ranges of plant pathogens and herbivores are phylogenetically constrained, so that closely related plant species are more likely to share pests and pathogens. Here we conducted a reanalysis of data from published experimental studies to test whether the severity of host-enemy interactions follows a similar phylogenetic signal. The impact of herbivores and pathogens on their host plants declined steadily with phylogenetic distance from the most severely affected focal hosts. The steepness of this phylogenetic signal was similar to that previously measured for binary-response host ranges. Enemy behavior and development showed similar, but weaker phylogenetic signal, with oviposition and growth rates declining with evolutionary distance from optimal hosts. Phylogenetic distance is an informative surrogate for estimating the likely impacts of a pest or pathogen on potential plant hosts, and may be particularly useful in early assessing risk from emergent plant pests, where critical decisions must be made with incomplete host records. PMID:25893581

  7. Novel multi-sample scheme for inferring phylogenetic markers from whole genome tumor profiles

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Ayshwarya; Shackney, Stanley; Schwartz, Russell

    2013-01-01

    Computational cancer phylogenetics seeks to enumerate the temporal sequences of aberrations in tumor evolution, thereby delineating the evolution of possible tumor progression pathways, molecular subtypes and mechanisms of action. We previously developed a pipeline for constructing phylogenies describing evolution between major recurring cell types computationally inferred from whole-genome tumor profiles. The accuracy and detail of the phylogenies, however, depends on the identification of accurate, high-resolution molecular markers of progression, i.e., reproducible regions of aberration that robustly differentiate different subtypes and stages of progression. Here we present a novel hidden Markov model (HMM) scheme for the problem of inferring such phylogenetically significant markers through joint segmentation and calling of multi-sample tumor data. Our method classifies sets of genome-wide DNA copy number measurements into a partitioning of samples into normal (diploid) or amplified at each probe. It differs from other similar HMM methods in its design specifically for the needs of tumor phylogenetics, by seeking to identify robust markers of progression conserved across a set of copy number profiles. We show an analysis of our method in comparison to other methods on both synthetic and real tumor data, which confirms its effectiveness for tumor phylogeny inference and suggests avenues for future advances. PMID:24407301

  8. Cloud field classification based on textural features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sengupta, Sailes Kumar

    1989-01-01

    An essential component in global climate research is accurate cloud cover and type determination. Of the two approaches to texture-based classification (statistical and textural), only the former is effective in the classification of natural scenes such as land, ocean, and atmosphere. In the statistical approach that was adopted, parameters characterizing the stochastic properties of the spatial distribution of grey levels in an image are estimated and then used as features for cloud classification. Two types of textural measures were used. One is based on the distribution of the grey level difference vector (GLDV), and the other on a set of textural features derived from the MaxMin cooccurrence matrix (MMCM). The GLDV method looks at the difference D of grey levels at pixels separated by a horizontal distance d and computes several statistics based on this distribution. These are then used as features in subsequent classification. The MaxMin tectural features on the other hand are based on the MMCM, a matrix whose (I,J)th entry give the relative frequency of occurrences of the grey level pair (I,J) that are consecutive and thresholded local extremes separated by a given pixel distance d. Textural measures are then computed based on this matrix in much the same manner as is done in texture computation using the grey level cooccurrence matrix. The database consists of 37 cloud field scenes from LANDSAT imagery using a near IR visible channel. The classification algorithm used is the well known Stepwise Discriminant Analysis. The overall accuracy was estimated by the percentage or correct classifications in each case. It turns out that both types of classifiers, at their best combination of features, and at any given spatial resolution give approximately the same classification accuracy. A neural network based classifier with a feed forward architecture and a back propagation training algorithm is used to increase the classification accuracy, using these two classes of features. Preliminary results based on the GLDV textural features alone look promising.

  9. Automatic lexical classification: bridging research and practice.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, Anna

    2010-08-13

    Natural language processing (NLP)--the automatic analysis, understanding and generation of human language by computers--is vitally dependent on accurate knowledge about words. Because words change their behaviour between text types, domains and sub-languages, a fully accurate static lexical resource (e.g. a dictionary, word classification) is unattainable. Researchers are now developing techniques that could be used to automatically acquire or update lexical resources from textual data. If successful, the automatic approach could considerably enhance the accuracy and portability of language technologies, such as machine translation, text mining and summarization. This paper reviews the recent and on-going research in automatic lexical acquisition. Focusing on lexical classification, it discusses the many challenges that still need to be met before the approach can benefit NLP on a large scale. PMID:20603372

  10. How accurate is molecular dynamics?

    E-print Network

    Christian Bayer; Hĺkon Hoel; Petr Plechá?; Anders Szepessy; Raúl Tempone

    2011-09-20

    Born-Oppenheimer dynamics is shown to provide an accurate approximation of time-independent Schr\\"odinger observables for a molecular system with an electron spectral gap, in the limit of large ratio of nuclei and electron masses, without assuming that the nuclei are localized to vanishing domains. The derivation, based on a Hamiltonian system interpretation of the Schr\\"odinger equation and stability of the corresponding Hamilton-Jacobi equation, bypasses the usual separation of nuclei and electron wave functions, includes caustic states and gives a different perspective on the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, Schr\\"odinger Hamiltonian systems and numerical simulation in molecular dynamics modeling at constant energy microcanonical ensembles.

  11. Modularized evolution in archaeal methanogens phylogenetic forest.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Wong, Chi-Fat; Wong, Mabel Ting; Huang, He; Leung, Frederick C

    2014-12-01

    Methanogens are methane-producing archaea that plays a key role in the global carbon cycle. To date, the evolutionary history of methanogens and closely related nonmethanogen species remains unresolved among studies conducted upon different genetic markers, attributing to horizontal gene transfers (HGTs). With an effort to decipher both congruent and conflicting evolutionary events, reconstruction of coevolved gene clusters and hierarchical structure in the archaeal methanogen phylogenetic forest, comprehensive evolution, and network analyses were performed upon 3,694 gene families from 41 methanogens and 33 closely related archaea. Our results show that 1) greater than 50% of genes are in topological dissonance with others; 2) the prevalent interorder HGTs, even for core genes, in methanogen genomes led to their scrambled phylogenetic relationships; 3) most methanogenesis-related genes have experienced at least one HGT; 4) greater than 20% of the genes in methanogen genomes were transferred horizontally from other archaea, with genes involved in cell-wall synthesis and defense system having been transferred most frequently; 5) the coevolution network contains seven statistically robust modules, wherein the central module has the highest average node strength and comprises a majority of the core genes; 6) different coevolutionary module genes boomed in different time and evolutionary lineage, constructing diversified pan-genome structures; 7) the modularized evolution is also closely related to the vertical evolution signals and the HGT rate of the genes. Overall, this study presented a modularized phylogenetic forest that describes a combination of complicated vertical and nonvertical evolutionary processes for methanogenic archaeal species. PMID:25502908

  12. Phylogenetic Interrelationships of Ginglymodian Fishes (Actinopterygii: Neopterygii)

    PubMed Central

    López-Arbarello, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    The Ginglymodi is one of the most common, though poorly understood groups of neopterygians, which includes gars, macrosemiiforms, and “semionotiforms.” In particular, the phylogenetic relationships between the widely distributed “semionotiforms,” and between them and other ginglymodians have been enigmatic. Here, the phylogenetic relationships between eight of the 11 “semionotiform” genera, five genera of living and fossil gars and three macrosemiid genera, are analysed through cladistic analysis, based on 90 morphological characters and 37 taxa, including 7 out-group taxa. The results of the analysis show that the Ginglymodi includes two main lineages: Lepisosteiformes and †Semionotiformes. The genera †Pliodetes, †Araripelepidotes, †Lepidotes, †Scheenstia, and †Isanichthys are lepisosteiforms, and not semionotiforms, as previously thought, and these taxa extend the stratigraphic range of the lineage leading to gars back up to the Early Jurassic. A monophyletic †Lepidotes is restricted to the Early Jurassic species, whereas the strongly tritoral species previously referred to †Lepidotes are referred to †Scheenstia. Other species previously referred to †Lepidotes represent other genera or new taxa. The macrosemiids are well nested within semionotiforms, together with †Semionotidae, here restricted to †Semionotus, and a new family including †Callipurbeckia n. gen. minor (previously referred to †Lepidotes), †Macrosemimimus, †Tlayuamichin, †Paralepidotus, and †Semiolepis. Due to the numerous taxonomic changes needed according to the phylogenetic analysis, this article also includes formal taxonomic definitions and diagnoses for all generic and higher taxa, which are new or modified. The study of Mesozoic ginglymodians led to confirm Patterson’s observation that these fishes show morphological affinities with both halecomorphs and teleosts. Therefore, the compilation of large data sets including the Mesozoic ginglymodians and the re-evaluation of several hypotheses of homology are essential to test the hypotheses of the Halecostomi vs. the Holostei, which is one of the major topics in the evolution of Mesozoic vertebrates and the origin of modern fish faunas. PMID:22808031

  13. Quantifying counts and costs via classification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George Forman

    2008-01-01

    Many business applications track changes over time, for example, measuring the monthly prevalence of influenza incidents.\\u000a In situations where a classifier is needed to identify the relevant incidents, imperfect classification accuracy can cause\\u000a substantial bias in estimating class prevalence. The paper defines two research challenges for machine learning. The ‘quantification’\\u000a task is to accurately estimate the number of positive cases

  14. Ultrametric networks: a new tool for phylogenetic analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The large majority of optimization problems related to the inference of distance?based trees used in phylogenetic analysis and classification is known to be intractable. One noted exception is found within the realm of ultrametric distances. The introduction of ultrametric trees in phylogeny was inspired by a model of evolution driven by the postulate of a molecular clock, now dismissed, whereby phylogeny could be represented by a weighted tree in which the sum of the weights of the edges separating any given leaf from the root is the same for all leaves. Both, molecular clocks and rooted ultrametric trees, fell out of fashion as credible representations of evolutionary change. At the same time, ultrametric dendrograms have shown good potential for purposes of classification in so far as they have proven to provide good approximations for additive trees. Most of these approximations are still intractable, but the problem of finding the nearest ultrametric distance matrix to a given distance matrix with respect to the L? distance has been long known to be solvable in polynomial time, the solution being incarnated in any minimum spanning tree for the weighted graph subtending to the matrix. Results This paper expands this subdominant ultrametric perspective by studying ultrametric networks, consisting of the collection of all edges involved in some minimum spanning tree. It is shown that, for a graph with n vertices, the construction of such a network can be carried out by a simple algorithm in optimal time O(n2) which is faster by a factor of n than the direct adaptation of the classical O(n3) paradigm by Warshall for computing the transitive closure of a graph. This algorithm, called UltraNet, will be shown to be easily adapted to compute relaxed networks and to support the introduction of artificial points to reduce the maximum distance between vertices in a pair. Finally, a few experiments will be discussed to demonstrate the applicability of subdominant ultrametric networks. Availability http://www.dei.unipd.it/~ciompin/main/Ultranet/Ultranet.html PMID:23497437

  15. Strong phylogenetic signals and phylogenetic niche conservatism in ecophysiological traits across divergent lineages of Magnoliaceae.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Xu, Qiuyuan; He, Pengcheng; Santiago, Louis S; Yang, Keming; Ye, Qing

    2015-01-01

    The early diverged Magnoliaceae shows a historical temperate-tropical distribution among lineages indicating divergent evolution, yet which ecophysiological traits are phylogenetically conserved, and whether these traits are involved in correlated evolution remain unclear. Integrating phylogeny and 20 ecophysiological traits of 27 species, from the four largest sections of Magnoliaceae, we tested the phylogenetic signals of these traits and the correlated evolution between trait pairs. Phylogenetic niche conservatism (PNC) in water-conducting and nutrient-use related traits was identified, and correlated evolution of several key functional traits was demonstrated. Among the three evergreen sections of tropical origin, Gwillimia had the lowest hydraulic-photosynthetic capacity and the highest drought tolerance compared with Manglietia and Michelia. Contrastingly, the temperate centred deciduous section, Yulania, showed high rates of hydraulic conductivity and photosynthesis at the cost of drought tolerance. This study elucidated the regulation of hydraulic and photosynthetic processes in the temperate-tropical adaptations for Magnoliaceae species, which led to strong phylogenetic signals and PNC in ecophysiological traits across divergent lineages of Magnoliaceae. PMID:26179320

  16. Strong phylogenetic signals and phylogenetic niche conservatism in ecophysiological traits across divergent lineages of Magnoliaceae

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Xu, Qiuyuan; He, Pengcheng; Santiago, Louis S.; Yang, Keming; Ye, Qing

    2015-01-01

    The early diverged Magnoliaceae shows a historical temperate-tropical distribution among lineages indicating divergent evolution, yet which ecophysiological traits are phylogenetically conserved, and whether these traits are involved in correlated evolution remain unclear. Integrating phylogeny and 20 ecophysiological traits of 27 species, from the four largest sections of Magnoliaceae, we tested the phylogenetic signals of these traits and the correlated evolution between trait pairs. Phylogenetic niche conservatism (PNC) in water-conducting and nutrient-use related traits was identified, and correlated evolution of several key functional traits was demonstrated. Among the three evergreen sections of tropical origin, Gwillimia had the lowest hydraulic-photosynthetic capacity and the highest drought tolerance compared with Manglietia and Michelia. Contrastingly, the temperate centred deciduous section, Yulania, showed high rates of hydraulic conductivity and photosynthesis at the cost of drought tolerance. This study elucidated the regulation of hydraulic and photosynthetic processes in the temperate-tropical adaptations for Magnoliaceae species, which led to strong phylogenetic signals and PNC in ecophysiological traits across divergent lineages of Magnoliaceae. PMID:26179320

  17. Parameters for accurate genome alignment

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Genome sequence alignments form the basis of much research. Genome alignment depends on various mundane but critical choices, such as how to mask repeats and which score parameters to use. Surprisingly, there has been no large-scale assessment of these choices using real genomic data. Moreover, rigorous procedures to control the rate of spurious alignment have not been employed. Results We have assessed 495 combinations of score parameters for alignment of animal, plant, and fungal genomes. As our gold-standard of accuracy, we used genome alignments implied by multiple alignments of proteins and of structural RNAs. We found the HOXD scoring schemes underlying alignments in the UCSC genome database to be far from optimal, and suggest better parameters. Higher values of the X-drop parameter are not always better. E-values accurately indicate the rate of spurious alignment, but only if tandem repeats are masked in a non-standard way. Finally, we show that ?-centroid (probabilistic) alignment can find highly reliable subsets of aligned bases. Conclusions These results enable more accurate genome alignment, with reliability measures for local alignments and for individual aligned bases. This study was made possible by our new software, LAST, which can align vertebrate genomes in a few hours http://last.cbrc.jp/. PMID:20144198

  18. Horny sponges and their affairs: on the phylogenetic relationships of keratose sponges.

    PubMed

    Erpenbeck, Dirk; Sutcliffe, Patricia; Cook, Steve de C; Dietzel, Andreas; Maldonado, Manuel; van Soest, Rob W M; Hooper, John N A; Wörheide, Gert

    2012-06-01

    The demosponge orders Dictyoceratida and Dendroceratida are historically assigned to the keratose (or "horny") sponges, which are mostly devoid of primary skeletal elements, but possess an elaborate skeleton of organic fibres instead. This paucity of complex mineral skeletal elements makes their unambiguous classification and phylogenetic reconstruction based on morphological features difficult. Here we present the most comprehensive molecular phylogeny to date for the Dendroceratida, Dictyoceratida, and also other sponge orders that largely lack a mineral skeleton or skeletal elements at all (i.e. Verongida, Halisarcida, Chondrosida), based on independent mitochondrial and nuclear markers. We used molecular data to validate the coherence of all recognised orders, families and subfamilies that are currently defined using morphological characteristics. We discussed the significance of morphological and chemotaxonomic characters for keratose sponges, and suggested adapted definitions for the classification of dendroceratid, dictyoceratid, and verongid higher taxa. Also, we found that chondrosid sponges are non-monophyletic with respect to Halisarcida. Verongida and Dendroceratida were monophyletic, however most of their classically recognised families were not recovered. This indicated that the current distinction between dendritic and mesh-like fibre skeletons is not significant at this level of classification. Dysideidae were found to be the sister-group to the remaining Dictyoceratida. Irciniidae formed a distinct clade, however Thorectidae and Spongiidae could not be separated with the molecular markers used. Finally, we are establishing the name Verongimorpha for the clade combining verongid, chondrosid and halisarcid taxa and readjust the content of its sister-clade Keratosa. PMID:22406528

  19. Phylogenetic relationships of typical antbirds (Thamnophilidae) and test of incongruence based on Bayes factors

    PubMed Central

    Irestedt, Martin; Fjeldsĺ, Jon; Nylander, Johan AA; Ericson, Per GP

    2004-01-01

    Background The typical antbirds (Thamnophilidae) form a monophyletic and diverse family of suboscine passerines that inhabit neotropical forests. However, the phylogenetic relationships within this assemblage are poorly understood. Herein, we present a hypothesis of the generic relationships of this group based on Bayesian inference analyses of two nuclear introns and the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. The level of phylogenetic congruence between the individual genes has been investigated utilizing Bayes factors. We also explore how changes in the substitution models affected the observed incongruence between partitions of our data set. Results The phylogenetic analysis supports both novel relationships, as well as traditional groupings. Among the more interesting novel relationship suggested is that the Terenura antwrens, the wing-banded antbird (Myrmornis torquata), the spot-winged antshrike (Pygiptila stellaris) and the russet antshrike (Thamnistes anabatinus) are sisters to all other typical antbirds. The remaining genera fall into two major clades. The first includes antshrikes, antvireos and the Herpsilochmus antwrens, while the second clade consists of most antwren genera, the Myrmeciza antbirds, the "professional" ant-following antbirds, and allied species. Our results also support previously suggested polyphyly of Myrmotherula antwrens and Myrmeciza antbirds. The tests of phylogenetic incongruence, using Bayes factors, clearly suggests that allowing the gene partitions to have separate topology parameters clearly increased the model likelihood. However, changing a component of the nucleotide substitution model had much higher impact on the model likelihood. Conclusions The phylogenetic results are in broad agreement with traditional classification of the typical antbirds, but some relationships are unexpected based on external morphology. In these cases their true affinities may have been obscured by convergent evolution and morphological adaptations to new habitats or food sources, and genera like Myrmeciza antbirds and the Myrmotherula antwrens obviously need taxonomic revisions. Although, Bayes factors seem promising for evaluating the relative contribution of components to an evolutionary model, the results suggests that even if strong evidence for a model allowing separate topology parameters is found, this might not mean strong evidence for separate gene phylogenies, as long as vital components of the substitution model are still missing. PMID:15283860

  20. Molecular classification of Pakistani collared dove through DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Awan, Ali Raza; Umar, Emma; Zia ul Haq, Muhammad; Firyal, Sehrish

    2013-11-01

    Pakistan is bestowed by a diversified array of wild bird species including collared doves of which the taxonomy has been least studied and reported. DNA barcoding is a geno-taxonomic tool that has been used for characterization of bird species using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene (COI). This study aimed to identify taxonomic order of Pakistani collared dove using DNA barcoding. Purposely herein, we present a phylogenetic analysis of Pakistani collared dove based on 650 base pairs of COI gene sequences. Analysis of phylogenetic tree revealed that Pakistani collared dove shared a common clade with Eurasian collared dove (Streptopelia decaocto) and African collared dove (Streptopelia roseogrisea) which indicated a super-species group in Streptopelia genus. This is the first report of molecular classification of Pakistani collared dove using DNA barcoding. PMID:24072655

  1. Posterior predictive Bayesian phylogenetic model selection.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Paul O; Xie, Wangang; Chen, Ming-Hui; Fan, Yu; Kuo, Lynn

    2014-05-01

    We present two distinctly different posterior predictive approaches to Bayesian phylogenetic model selection and illustrate these methods using examples from green algal protein-coding cpDNA sequences and flowering plant rDNA sequences. The Gelfand-Ghosh (GG) approach allows dissection of an overall measure of model fit into components due to posterior predictive variance (GGp) and goodness-of-fit (GGg), which distinguishes this method from the posterior predictive P-value approach. The conditional predictive ordinate (CPO) method provides a site-specific measure of model fit useful for exploratory analyses and can be combined over sites yielding the log pseudomarginal likelihood (LPML) which is useful as an overall measure of model fit. CPO provides a useful cross-validation approach that is computationally efficient, requiring only a sample from the posterior distribution (no additional simulation is required). Both GG and CPO add new perspectives to Bayesian phylogenetic model selection based on the predictive abilities of models and complement the perspective provided by the marginal likelihood (including Bayes Factor comparisons) based solely on the fit of competing models to observed data. PMID:24193892

  2. Babesiosis: new insights from phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Persing, D H; Conrad, P A

    1995-12-01

    Piroplasms of the genus Babesia, along with their relatives to the Theileridae, comprise a genetically and antigenically diverse group of tick-transmitted intraerythrocytic pathogens that together have considerable veterinary, medical, and economic importance. Since the first description of a human case of babesiosis in 1957, this zoonotic infection has now attained a worldwide distribution. In the northeastern and upper midwestern United States, the transmission cycle of Babesia microti overlaps that of another well-known zoonotic agent, Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease. Phylogenetic analysis of Babesia and Babesia-like piroplasms from human and animal sources has shown that many of the small Babesia spp., including B. microti, B. equi, B. gibsoni, and a recently described piroplasm infectious for humans known as WA1, may be phylogenetically related to Theileria. Implications of this observation may include the possible existence of an exoerythrocytic stage of parasite development and attendant features of chronicity, immune suppression, and perhaps lymphoproliferation. In this review, we provide a brief summary of recent developments in the study of Babesia and related piroplasms and speculate on the ramifications of chronic babesial infection in humans. PMID:8665084

  3. Genetic and phylogenetic clustering of enteroviruses.

    PubMed

    Pöyry, T; Kinnunen, L; Hyypiä, T; Brown, B; Horsnell, C; Hovi, T; Stanway, G

    1996-08-01

    Genetic and phylogenetic analysis of enteroviruses showed that in the 5'NCR enteroviruses formed three clusters: polioviruses (PVs), coxsackievirus A type 21 (CAV21), CAV24 and enterovirus type 70 (ENV70) formed one cluster; coxsackievirus B isolates (CBVs), CAV9, CAV16, ENV71, echovirus type 11 (EV11), EV12 and all partially sequenced echoviruses and swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) belonged to another cluster and bovine enteroviruses (BEVs) formed the third cluster. In the capsid coding region five clusters were seen: PVs, CAV21 and CAV24 formed one cluster (PV-like); ENV70 formed a cluster of its own; all CBVs, CAV9, EV11, EV12 and SVDV formed the third cluster (CBV-like); CAV16, CAV2 and ENV71 belonged to the fourth cluster (CAV16-like) and BEVs formed their own cluster (BEV-like). In the 3'NCR the same clusters were seen as in the coding region suggesting a close association of the 3'NCR with viral proteins while the cellular environment may be more important in the evolution of the 5'NCR. Secondary structures were predicted in the 3'NCR, which showed two different patterns among the five clusters. A potential pseudoknot region common in all five clusters was identified. Although the BEV-like viruses formed a separate cluster in all genomic regions, in the coding region they seem to be phylogenetically related to the CAV16-like viruses. PMID:8760417

  4. Phylogenetics in the Bioinformatics Culture of Understanding

    PubMed Central

    Allaby, Robin G.

    2004-01-01

    Bioinformatics, as a relatively young discipline, has grown up in a world of high-throughput large volume data that requires automatic analysis to enable us to stay on top of it all. As a response, the bioinformatics discipline has developed strategies to find patterns in a ‘low signal : noise ratio’ environment. While the need to process large amounts of information and extract hypotheses is both laudable and inescapable, the pressures that such requirements have introduced can lead to short cuts and misapprehensions. This is particularly the case with reference to assumptions about the underlying evolutionary theories that are implicitly invoked by the algorithms utilised in the analysis pipelines. The classic example is the misuse of the term ‘homologous’ to mean ‘similar’ or even ‘functionally similar’, rather than the correct definition of ‘having the same evolutionary origin’, which may or may not imply similarity of function. In this review, we outline some of the common phylogenetic questions from a bioinformatics perspective that can be better addressed with a deeper understanding of evolutionary principles and show, with examples from the amidohydrolase and Toll families, that quite different conclusions can be drawn if such approaches are taken. This review focuses on the importance of the underlying evolutionary biology, rather than assessing the merits of different phylogenetic techniques. The relative merits of a priori and a posteriori inclusion of biological information are discussed. PMID:18629061

  5. Phylogenetically-Informed Priorities for Amphibian Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Isaac, Nick J. B.; Redding, David W.; Meredith, Helen M.; Safi, Kamran

    2012-01-01

    The amphibian decline and extinction crisis demands urgent action to prevent further large numbers of species extinctions. Lists of priority species for conservation, based on a combination of species’ threat status and unique contribution to phylogenetic diversity, are one tool for the direction and catalyzation of conservation action. We describe the construction of a near-complete species-level phylogeny of 5713 amphibian species, which we use to create a list of evolutionarily distinct and globally endangered species (EDGE list) for the entire class Amphibia. We present sensitivity analyses to test the robustness of our priority list to uncertainty in species’ phylogenetic position and threat status. We find that both sources of uncertainty have only minor impacts on our ‘top 100‘ list of priority species, indicating the robustness of the approach. By contrast, our analyses suggest that a large number of Data Deficient species are likely to be high priorities for conservation action from the perspective of their contribution to the evolutionary history. PMID:22952807

  6. Francolin phylogenetics: molecular, morphobehavioral, and combined evidence.

    PubMed

    Bloomer, P; Crowe, T M

    1998-04-01

    The phylogenetics of francolins (Francolinus species) were reassessed by obtaining 660 bp of sequence of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b gene from 20 species, the Common Quail Coturnix coturnix africana, and the Madagascar Partridge Margaroperdix madagarensis. Published sequences of the Japanese Quail C. c. japonica, Alectoris partridges, and the Junglefowl Gallus gallus were also included. Separate analysis of the 200 phylogenetically informative cytochrome b characters and the 25 informative morphobehavioral characters, as well as a combined analysis of molecular and morphobehavioral data, do not support francolin monophyly but provide strong evidence for two previously suggested clades--the quail-francolins (or partridges) and the partridge-francolins (pheasants/francolins). The quail-francolin clade comprises three groups of African francolins and three Asian species that were previously considered more closely related to the partridge-francolins. The partridge-francolin clade, which includes four groups of African francolins, forms a sister group to the Coturnix quails, the Madagascar Partridge, and the Alectoris partridges. The molecular data suggest that the two francolin clades diverged approximately 3-6 MYA. Climatic fluctuations of the past 2.5 MYA may have led to the diversification of the ecologically different francolin species groups and speciation within them. PMID:9562983

  7. Following phylogenetic tracks of Astragalus cicer microsymbionts.

    PubMed

    Wdowiak-Wróbel, Sylwia; Ma?ek, Wanda

    2010-01-01

    A multilocus phylogenetic approach was applied to elucidate the phylogeny of Astragalus cicer rhizobia derived from Poland, Ukraine, and Canada. The strains selected for the studies represented three main geographically different phenons of these bacteria. Phylogenetic analyses were performed with three chromosomal housekeeping loci (16S rRNA, atpD, glnII) and three symbiotic genes located on a plasmid (nodA, nodC, nifH). The "core" and "auxiliary" gene trees revealed that A. cicer nodule isolates were intermingled with the strains of Mesorhizobium species, which implies that they are descendents of the same ancestor as mesorhizobia and fall into the Mesorhizobium genus. The noted congruence of the housekeeping and symbiotic gene phylogenies of A. cicer microsymbionts indicates that sym loci are transferred to these bacteria through vertical transmission without a significant participation of intergeneric horizontal gene spread. All the three sym gene sequences of the Polish and Ukrainian A. cicer nodule isolates were more closely related to one another than to the corresponding sequences of the Canadian isolates. The phylogeographic patterns of the sym genes of intercontinental strains point to their relatively long, separate, evolutionary history. PMID:19821140

  8. Methodology for hyperspectral image classification using novel neural network

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, S., Gat, N., Sheffield, M., [Opto-Knowledge, Systems, Inc., Manhattan Beach, CA (United States); Barhen, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Toomarian, N. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    A novel feed forward neural network is used to classify hyperspectral data from the AVIRIS sector. The network applies an alternating direction singular value decomposition technique to achieve rapid training times (few seconds per class). Very few samples (10-12) are required for training. 100% accurate classification is obtained using test data sets. The methodology combines this rapid training neural network together with data reduction and maximal feature separation techniques such as principal component analysis and simultaneous diagonalization of covariance matrices, for rapid and accurate classification of large hyperspectral images. The results are compared to those of standard statistical classifiers. 21 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. New insights into myosin evolution and classification

    PubMed Central

    Foth, Bernardo J.; Goedecke, Marc C.; Soldati, Dominique

    2006-01-01

    Myosins are eukaryotic actin-dependent molecular motors important for a broad range of functions like muscle contraction, vision, hearing, cell motility, and host cell invasion of apicomplexan parasites. Myosin heavy chains consist of distinct head, neck, and tail domains and have previously been categorized into 18 different classes based on phylogenetic analysis of their conserved heads. Here we describe a comprehensive phylogenetic examination of many previously unclassified myosins, with particular emphasis on sequences from apicomplexan and other chromalveolate protists including the model organism Toxoplasma, the malaria parasite Plasmodium, and the ciliate Tetrahymena. Using different phylogenetic inference methods and taking protein domain architectures, specific amino acid polymorphisms, and organismal distribution into account, we demonstrate a hitherto unrecognized common origin for ciliate and apicomplexan class XIV myosins. Our data also suggest common origins for some apicomplexan myosins and class VI, for classes II and XVIII, for classes XII and XV, and for some microsporidian myosins and class V, thereby reconciling evolutionary history and myosin structure in several cases and corroborating the common coevolution of myosin head, neck, and tail domains. Six novel myosin classes are established to accommodate sequences from chordate metazoans (class XIX), insects (class XX), kinetoplastids (class XXI), and apicomplexans and diatom algae (classes XXII, XXIII, and XXIV). These myosin (sub)classes include sequences with protein domains (FYVE, WW, UBA, ATS1-like, and WD40) previously unknown to be associated with myosin motors. Regarding the apicomplexan “myosome,” we significantly update class XIV classification, propose a systematic naming convention, and discuss possible functions in these parasites. PMID:16505385

  10. New insights into myosin evolution and classification.

    PubMed

    Foth, Bernardo J; Goedecke, Marc C; Soldati, Dominique

    2006-03-01

    Myosins are eukaryotic actin-dependent molecular motors important for a broad range of functions like muscle contraction, vision, hearing, cell motility, and host cell invasion of apicomplexan parasites. Myosin heavy chains consist of distinct head, neck, and tail domains and have previously been categorized into 18 different classes based on phylogenetic analysis of their conserved heads. Here we describe a comprehensive phylogenetic examination of many previously unclassified myosins, with particular emphasis on sequences from apicomplexan and other chromalveolate protists including the model organism Toxoplasma, the malaria parasite Plasmodium, and the ciliate Tetrahymena. Using different phylogenetic inference methods and taking protein domain architectures, specific amino acid polymorphisms, and organismal distribution into account, we demonstrate a hitherto unrecognized common origin for ciliate and apicomplexan class XIV myosins. Our data also suggest common origins for some apicomplexan myosins and class VI, for classes II and XVIII, for classes XII and XV, and for some microsporidian myosins and class V, thereby reconciling evolutionary history and myosin structure in several cases and corroborating the common coevolution of myosin head, neck, and tail domains. Six novel myosin classes are established to accommodate sequences from chordate metazoans (class XIX), insects (class XX), kinetoplastids (class XXI), and apicomplexans and diatom algae (classes XXII, XXIII, and XXIV). These myosin (sub)classes include sequences with protein domains (FYVE, WW, UBA, ATS1-like, and WD40) previously unknown to be associated with myosin motors. Regarding the apicomplexan "myosome," we significantly update class XIV classification, propose a systematic naming convention, and discuss possible functions in these parasites. PMID:16505385

  11. Intraregional classification of wine via ICP-MS elemental fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Coetzee, P P; van Jaarsveld, F P; Vanhaecke, F

    2014-12-01

    The feasibility of elemental fingerprinting in the classification of wines according to their provenance vineyard soil was investigated in the relatively small geographical area of a single wine district. Results for the Stellenbosch wine district (Western Cape Wine Region, South Africa), comprising an area of less than 1,000 km(2), suggest that classification of wines from different estates (120 wines from 23 estates) is indeed possible using accurate elemental data and multivariate statistical analysis based on a combination of principal component analysis, cluster analysis, and discriminant analysis. This is the first study to demonstrate the successful classification of wines at estate level in a single wine district in South Africa. The elements B, Ba, Cs, Cu, Mg, Rb, Sr, Tl and Zn were identified as suitable indicators. White and red wines were grouped in separate data sets to allow successful classification of wines. Correlation between wine classification and soil type distributions in the area was observed. PMID:24996361

  12. Finding single copy genes out of sequenced genomes for multilocus phylogenetics in non-model fungi.

    PubMed

    Feau, Nicolas; Decourcelle, Thibaut; Husson, Claude; Desprez-Loustau, Marie-Laure; Dutech, Cyril

    2011-01-01

    Historically, fungal multigene phylogenies have been reconstructed based on a small number of commonly used genes. The availability of complete fungal genomes has given rise to a new wave of model organisms that provide large number of genes potentially useful for building robust gene genealogies. Unfortunately, cross-utilization of these resources to study phylogenetic relationships in the vast majority of non-model fungi (i.e. "orphan" species) remains an unexamined question. To address this problem, we developed a method coupled with a program named "PHYLORPH" (PHYLogenetic markers for ORPHans). The method screens fungal genomic databases (107 fungal genomes fully sequenced) for single copy genes that might be easily transferable and well suited for studies at low taxonomic levels (for example, in species complexes) in non-model fungal species. To maximize the chance to target genes with informative regions, PHYLORPH displays a graphical evaluation system based on the estimation of nucleotide divergence relative to substitution type. The usefulness of this approach was tested by developing markers in four non-model groups of fungal pathogens. For each pathogen considered, 7 to 40% of the 10-15 best candidate genes proposed by PHYLORPH yielded sequencing success. Levels of polymorphism of these genes were compared with those obtained for some genes traditionally used to build fungal phylogenies (e.g. nuclear rDNA, ?-tubulin, ?-actin, Elongation factor EF-1?). These genes were ranked among the best-performing ones and resolved accurately taxa relationships in each of the four non-model groups of fungi considered. We envision that PHYLORPH will constitute a useful tool for obtaining new and accurate phylogenetic markers to resolve relationships between closely related non-model fungal species. PMID:21533204

  13. Recursive heuristic classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, David C.

    1994-01-01

    The author will describe a new problem-solving approach called recursive heuristic classification, whereby a subproblem of heuristic classification is itself formulated and solved by heuristic classification. This allows the construction of more knowledge-intensive classification programs in a way that yields a clean organization. Further, standard knowledge acquisition and learning techniques for heuristic classification can be used to create, refine, and maintain the knowledge base associated with the recursively called classification expert system. The method of recursive heuristic classification was used in the Minerva blackboard shell for heuristic classification. Minerva recursively calls itself every problem-solving cycle to solve the important blackboard scheduler task, which involves assigning a desirability rating to alternative problem-solving actions. Knowing these ratings is critical to the use of an expert system as a component of a critiquing or apprenticeship tutoring system. One innovation of this research is a method called dynamic heuristic classification, which allows selection among dynamically generated classification categories instead of requiring them to be prenumerated.

  14. Accurately modeling the internet topology.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shi; Mondragón, Raúl J

    2004-12-01

    Based on measurements of the internet topology data, we found that there are two mechanisms which are necessary for the correct modeling of the internet topology at the autonomous systems (AS) level: the interactive growth of new nodes and new internal links, and a nonlinear preferential attachment, where the preference probability is described by a positive-feedback mechanism. Based on the above mechanisms, we introduce the positive-feedback preference (PFP) model which accurately reproduces many topological properties of the AS-level internet, including degree distribution, rich-club connectivity, the maximum degree, shortest path length, short cycles, disassortative mixing, and betweenness centrality. The PFP model is a phenomenological model which provides an insight into the evolutionary dynamics of real complex networks. PMID:15697435

  15. Accurate extraction of the News

    E-print Network

    Shrirang S. Deshingkar

    2006-09-14

    We propose a new scheme for extracting gravitational radiation from a characteristic numerical simulation of a spacetime. This method is similar in conception to our earlier work but analytical and numerical implementation is different. The scheme is based on direct transformation to the Bondi coordinates and the gravitational waves are extracted by calculating the Bondi news function in Bondi coordinates. The entire calculation is done in a way which will make the implementation easy when we use uniform Bondi angular grid at $\\mathcal I^+$. Using uniform Bondi grid for news calculation has added advantage that we have to solve only ordinary differential equations instead of partial differential equation. For the test problems this new scheme allows us to extract gravitational radiation much more accurately than the previous schemes.

  16. Accurate and superaccurate gene mapping.

    PubMed Central

    Lange, K; Kunkel, L; Aldridge, J; Latt, S A

    1985-01-01

    Highly accurate gene mapping techniques need to be developed to clone disease genes with unknown defective products. The classical pedigree method and methods based on cytologically observable chromosome aberrations share definite limits in resolution. We quantify the limits in resolution for the pedigree method. We also discuss a technique for gene localization that exploits the possible presence of minute depletions overlapping the disease locus. One can search for such submicroscopic deletions by aiming random probes at them. We show quantitatively that relatively few probes may suffice to hit a target deletion. Choosing which probes to aim should be guided by pedigree studies and by close examination of relevant cytologically observable translocations and deletions. PMID:2931976

  17. Applying species-tree analyses to deep phylogenetic histories: challenges and potential suggested from a survey of empirical phylogenetic studies.

    PubMed

    Lanier, Hayley C; Knowles, L Lacey

    2015-02-01

    Coalescent-based methods for species-tree estimation are becoming a dominant approach for reconstructing species histories from multi-locus data, with most of the studies examining these methodologies focused on recently diverged species. However, deeper phylogenies, such as the datasets that comprise many Tree of Life (ToL) studies, also exhibit gene-tree discordance. This discord may also arise from the stochastic sorting of gene lineages during the speciation process (i.e., reflecting the random coalescence of gene lineages in ancestral populations). It remains unknown whether guidelines regarding methodologies and numbers of loci established by simulation studies at shallow tree depths translate into accurate species relationships for deeper phylogenetic histories. We address this knowledge gap and specifically identify the challenges and limitations of species-tree methods that account for coalescent variance for deeper phylogenies. Using simulated data with characteristics informed by empirical studies, we evaluate both the accuracy of estimated species trees and the characteristics associated with recalcitrant nodes, with a specific focus on whether coalescent variance is generally responsible for the lack of resolution. By determining the proportion of coalescent genealogies that support a particular node, we demonstrate that (1) species-tree methods account for coalescent variance at deep nodes and (2) mutational variance - not gene-tree discord arising from the coalescent - posed the primary challenge for accurate reconstruction across the tree. For example, many nodes were accurately resolved despite predicted discord from the random coalescence of gene lineages and nodes with poor support were distributed across a range of depths (i.e., they were not restricted to a particular recent divergences). Given their broad taxonomic scope and large sampling of taxa, deep level phylogenies pose several potential methodological complications including difficulties with MCMC convergence and estimation of requisite population genetic parameters for coalescent-based approaches. Despite these difficulties, the findings generally support the utility of species-tree analyses for the estimation of species relationships throughout the ToL. We discuss strategies for successful application of species-tree approaches to deep phylogenies. PMID:25450097

  18. Comparison of Phylogenetic Trees of Multiple Protein Sequence Alignment Methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nadia Essoussi; Mohamed Limam

    2008-01-01

    Multiple sequence alignment is a fundamental part in many bioinformatics applications such as phylogenetic analysis. Many alignment methods have been proposed. Each method gives a different result for the same data set, and consequently generates a different phylogenetic tree. Hence, the chosen alignment method affects the resulting tree. However in the literature, there is no evaluation of multiple alignment methods

  19. BranchClust: a phylogenetic algorithm for selecting gene families

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria S. Poptsova; J. Peter Gogarten

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Automated methods for assembling families of orthologous genes include those based on sequence similarity scores and those based on phylogenetic approaches. The first are easy to automate but usually they do not distinguish between paralogs and orthologs or have restriction on the number of taxa. Phylogenetic methods often are based on reconciliation of a gene tree with a known

  20. Molecular evolutionary phylogenetic trees based on minimum description length principle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fengrong Ren; Hiroshi Tanaka; Noria Fukuda; Takashi Gojobori

    1995-01-01

    Ever since the discovery of a molecular clock, many methods have been developed to reconstruct the molec- ular evolutionary phylogenetic trees. In this paper, we deal with this problem from the viewpoint of an induc- tive inference and apply Rissanen's minimum descrip- tion length principle to extract the minimum complex- sty phylogenetic tree. OUT method describes the com- plexity of

  1. Developmental Data and Phylogenetic Systematics: Evolution of the Vertebrate Limb

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paula M. Mabee

    2000-01-01

    SYNOPSIS. Among the primary contributions of phylogenetic systematics to the synthesis of developmental biology and evolution are phylogenetic hypotheses. Phy- logenetic hypotheses are critical in interpreting the patterns of evolution of devel- opmental genes and processes, as are morphological data. Using a robust phylog- eny, the evolutionary history of individual morphological or developmental fea- tures can be traced and ancestral

  2. Revised Phylogenetic Relationships among Herpesviruses Isolated from Sturgeons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomofumi Kurobe; Garry O. Kelley; Thomas B. Waltzek; Ronald P. Hedrick

    2008-01-01

    Initial phylogenetic comparisons based on a region of the DNA polymerase of seven herpes-like viruses found in sturgeons in North America and Europe indicated the presence of three distinct clades. A revised phylogenetic analysis of the same viruses, based on corrected DNA polymerase sequences and newly obtained sequence data from the putative ATP subunit of the terminase gene, indicate only

  3. Theoretical Basis of Likelihood Methods in Molecular Phylogenetic Inference

    E-print Network

    Das, Rhiju

    ), the relationship of mammals to birds and dinosaurs (Hedges et al., 1990; Hedges, 1994), and the primordialTheoretical Basis of Likelihood Methods in Molecular Phylogenetic Inference Rhiju Das, Centre of tables, figure captions, appendices, and references. #12;#12;Abstract Phylogenetic inference

  4. Combining Phylogenetic and Hidden Markov Models in Biosequence Analysis

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    Combining Phylogenetic and Hidden Markov Models in Biosequence Analysis Adam Siepel Center models of molecular evolution, which apply to individual sites, and hidden Markov models, which allow of secondary structure. In this paper, we review progress on combined phylogenetic and hidden Markov models

  5. Expectation Maximization for Combined Phylogenetic and Hidden Markov Models

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    Expectation Maximization for Combined Phylogenetic and Hidden Markov Models Adam Siepel December 5 with a combined phylogenetic and hidden Markov model. An efficient method is also shown for computing gradients be combined with hidden Markov models to create a very powerful hybrid model that captures spatial as well

  6. Student Interpretations of Phylogenetic Trees in an Introductory Biology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dees, Jonathan; Momsen, Jennifer L.; Niemi, Jarad; Montplaisir, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees are widely used visual representations in the biological sciences and the most important visual representations in evolutionary biology. Therefore, phylogenetic trees have also become an important component of biology education. We sought to characterize reasoning used by introductory biology students in interpreting taxa…

  7. Gene tree discordance, phylogenetic inference and the multispecies

    E-print Network

    Rosenberg, Noah

    Gene tree discordance, phylogenetic inference and the multispecies coalescent James H. Degnan1, USA The field of phylogenetics is entering a new era in which trees of historical relationships for incorporating such large amounts of data into inference of species trees is that conflicting genealogical

  8. Automatic Classification of Web Queries Using Very Large Unlabeled Query Logs

    E-print Network

    CHOWDHURY and OPHIR FRIEDER Illinois Institute of Technology Accurate topical classification of user queries, 10 West 31st Street, Room 236, Chicago, IL 60616-3793; email: {ej,abdur,ophir}@ir.iit.edu; D. D

  9. Abstract--To accurately identify the site of origin of a tumor is crucial to cancer diagnosis and treatment. With the

    E-print Network

    Anagnostopoulos, Georgios C.

    Abstract--To accurately identify the site of origin of a tumor is crucial to cancer diagnosis expression profiles. Keywords--Gene expression data, Semi-supervised Ellipsoid ARTMAP, Cancer classification], cancer classification through identification of the corresponding gene expression profiles has already

  10. Student interpretations of phylogenetic trees in an introductory biology course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dees, Jonathan Andrew

    Phylogenetic trees are a common visual representation in biology, and the most important visual representation used in evolutionary biology. Thus, phylogenetic trees have also become an important component of biology education. We sought to determine what forms of reasoning are utilized by introductory biology students to interpret taxa relatedness on phylogenetic trees, what percentage of students correctly interpret taxa relatedness, and how these results alter in response to instruction and over time. Our students demonstrated a tendency for counting synapomorphies and nodes, rather than more common misinterpretations found in current literature. Students also struggled mightily with correctly interpreting phylogenetic trees, including many who exhibited memorization of correct reasoning. Broad initial instruction achieved little for phylogenetic tree understanding. More targeted instruction on evolutionary relationships improved understanding, but to a still unacceptable level. It appears these visual representations, which can directly affect student understanding of evolution, represent a formidable challenge for instructors.

  11. Open reading frame phylogenetic analysis on the cloud.

    PubMed

    Hung, Che-Lun; Lin, Chun-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis has become essential in researching the evolutionary relationships between viruses. These relationships are depicted on phylogenetic trees, in which viruses are grouped based on sequence similarity. Viral evolutionary relationships are identified from open reading frames rather than from complete sequences. Recently, cloud computing has become popular for developing internet-based bioinformatics tools. Biocloud is an efficient, scalable, and robust bioinformatics computing service. In this paper, we propose a cloud-based open reading frame phylogenetic analysis service. The proposed service integrates the Hadoop framework, virtualization technology, and phylogenetic analysis methods to provide a high-availability, large-scale bioservice. In a case study, we analyze the phylogenetic relationships among Norovirus. Evolutionary relationships are elucidated by aligning different open reading frame sequences. The proposed platform correctly identifies the evolutionary relationships between members of Norovirus. PMID:23671843

  12. Predicting rates of interspecific interaction from phylogenetic trees.

    PubMed

    Nuismer, Scott L; Harmon, Luke J

    2015-01-01

    Integrating phylogenetic information can potentially improve our ability to explain species' traits, patterns of community assembly, the network structure of communities, and ecosystem function. In this study, we use mathematical models to explore the ecological and evolutionary factors that modulate the explanatory power of phylogenetic information for communities of species that interact within a single trophic level. We find that phylogenetic relationships among species can influence trait evolution and rates of interaction among species, but only under particular models of species interaction. For example, when interactions within communities are mediated by a mechanism of phenotype matching, phylogenetic trees make specific predictions about trait evolution and rates of interaction. In contrast, if interactions within a community depend on a mechanism of phenotype differences, phylogenetic information has little, if any, predictive power for trait evolution and interaction rate. Together, these results make clear and testable predictions for when and how evolutionary history is expected to influence contemporary rates of species interaction. PMID:25349102

  13. Accurate models for EUV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrickx, Eric; Lorusso, Gian F.; Jiang, Jiong; Chen, Luoqi; Liu, Wei; Van Setten, Eelco; Hansen, Steve

    2009-10-01

    Accurate modeling of EUV Lithography is a mandatory step in driving the technology towards its foreseen insertion point for 22-16nm node patterning. The models are needed to correct EUV designs for imaging effects, and to understand and improve the CD fingerprint of the exposure tools. With a full-field EUV ADT from ASML now available in the IMEC cleanroom, wafer data can be collected to calibrate accurate models and check if the existing modeling infrastructure can be extended to EUV lithography. As a first topic, we have measured the CD on wafer of a typical OPC dataset at different flare levels and modeled the evolution of wafer CD through flare, reticle CD, and pitch using Brion's Tachyon OPC engine. The modeling first requires the generation of a flare map using long-range kernels to model the EUV specific long-range flare. The accuracy of the flare map can be established independently from the CD measurements, by using the traditional disappearing pad test for flare determination (Kirk test). The flare map is then used as background intensity in the calibration of the traditional optical models with short-range kernels. For a structure set of 600 features and over a flare range of 4-6%, an rms fit value of 0.9nm was obtained. As a second aspect of the modeling, we have calibrated a full resist model to process window data. The full resist model is then used in a combination with experimental measurements of reticle CD, slit intensity uniformity, focal plane behavior, and EUV thick mask effects to model the evolution of wafer CD across the exposure field. The modeled evolution of CD across the exposure field was found to be a good match to the experimentally seen evolution of CD across the field, and confirms that the 4 factors mentioned above are main contributions to the CD uniformity across the field. As such the modeling work enables a better understanding of the errors contributing to CD variation across the field for EUV technology.

  14. Analysis of complete mitochondrial genomes from extinct and extant rhinoceroses reveals lack of phylogenetic resolution

    PubMed Central

    Willerslev, Eske; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Binladen, Jonas; Ho, Simon YW; Campos, Paula F; Ratan, Aakrosh; Tomsho, Lynn P; da Fonseca, Rute R; Sher, Andrei; Kuznetsova, Tatanya V; Nowak-Kemp, Malgosia; Roth, Terri L; Miller, Webb; Schuster, Stephan C

    2009-01-01

    Background The scientific literature contains many examples where DNA sequence analyses have been used to provide definitive answers to phylogenetic problems that traditional (non-DNA based) approaches alone have failed to resolve. One notable example concerns the rhinoceroses, a group for which several contradictory phylogenies were proposed on the basis of morphology, then apparently resolved using mitochondrial DNA fragments. Results In this study we report the first complete mitochondrial genome sequences of the extinct ice-age woolly rhinoceros (Coelodonta antiquitatis), and the threatened Javan (Rhinoceros sondaicus), Sumatran (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis), and black (Diceros bicornis) rhinoceroses. In combination with the previously published mitochondrial genomes of the white (Ceratotherium simum) and Indian (Rhinoceros unicornis) rhinoceroses, this data set putatively enables reconstruction of the rhinoceros phylogeny. While the six species cluster into three strongly supported sister-pairings: (i) The black/white, (ii) the woolly/Sumatran, and (iii) the Javan/Indian, resolution of the higher-level relationships has no statistical support. The phylogenetic signal from individual genes is highly diffuse, with mixed topological support from different genes. Furthermore, the choice of outgroup (horse vs tapir) has considerable effect on reconstruction of the phylogeny. The lack of resolution is suggestive of a hard polytomy at the base of crown-group Rhinocerotidae, and this is supported by an investigation of the relative branch lengths. Conclusion Satisfactory resolution of the rhinoceros phylogeny may not be achievable without additional analyses of substantial amounts of nuclear DNA. This study provides a compelling demonstration that, in spite of substantial sequence length, there are significant limitations with single-locus phylogenetics. We expect further examples of this to appear as next-generation, large-scale sequencing of complete mitochondrial genomes becomes commonplace in evolutionary studies. "The human factor in classification is nowhere more evident than in dealing with this superfamily (Rhinocerotoidea)." G. G. Simpson (1945) PMID:19432984

  15. Reconstruction of Family-Level Phylogenetic Relationships within Demospongiae (Porifera) Using Nuclear Encoded Housekeeping Genes

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Malcolm S.; Hill, April L.; Lopez, Jose; Peterson, Kevin J.; Pomponi, Shirley; Diaz, Maria C.; Thacker, Robert W.; Adamska, Maja; Boury-Esnault, Nicole; Cárdenas, Paco; Chaves-Fonnegra, Andia; Danka, Elizabeth; De Laine, Bre-Onna; Formica, Dawn; Hajdu, Eduardo; Lobo-Hajdu, Gisele; Klontz, Sarah; Morrow, Christine C.; Patel, Jignasa; Picton, Bernard; Pisani, Davide; Pohlmann, Deborah; Redmond, Niamh E.; Reed, John; Richey, Stacy; Riesgo, Ana; Rubin, Ewelina; Russell, Zach; Rützler, Klaus; Sperling, Erik A.; di Stefano, Michael; Tarver, James E.; Collins, Allen G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Demosponges are challenging for phylogenetic systematics because of their plastic and relatively simple morphologies and many deep divergences between major clades. To improve understanding of the phylogenetic relationships within Demospongiae, we sequenced and analyzed seven nuclear housekeeping genes involved in a variety of cellular functions from a diverse group of sponges. Methodology/Principal Findings We generated data from each of the four sponge classes (i.e., Calcarea, Demospongiae, Hexactinellida, and Homoscleromorpha), but focused on family-level relationships within demosponges. With data for 21 newly sampled families, our Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian-based approaches recovered previously phylogenetically defined taxa: Keratosap, Myxospongiaep, Spongillidap, Haploscleromorphap (the marine haplosclerids) and Democlaviap. We found conflicting results concerning the relationships of Keratosap and Myxospongiaep to the remaining demosponges, but our results strongly supported a clade of Haploscleromorphap+Spongillidap+Democlaviap. In contrast to hypotheses based on mitochondrial genome and ribosomal data, nuclear housekeeping gene data suggested that freshwater sponges (Spongillidap) are sister to Haploscleromorphap rather than part of Democlaviap. Within Keratosap, we found equivocal results as to the monophyly of Dictyoceratida. Within Myxospongiaep, Chondrosida and Verongida were monophyletic. A well-supported clade within Democlaviap, Tetractinellidap, composed of all sampled members of Astrophorina and Spirophorina (including the only lithistid in our analysis), was consistently revealed as the sister group to all other members of Democlaviap. Within Tetractinellidap, we did not recover monophyletic Astrophorina or Spirophorina. Our results also reaffirmed the monophyly of order Poecilosclerida (excluding Desmacellidae and Raspailiidae), and polyphyly of Hadromerida and Halichondrida. Conclusions/Significance These results, using an independent nuclear gene set, confirmed many hypotheses based on ribosomal and/or mitochondrial genes, and they also identified clades with low statistical support or clades that conflicted with traditional morphological classification. Our results will serve as a basis for future exploration of these outstanding questions using more taxon- and gene-rich datasets. PMID:23372644

  16. Bayesian models for comparative analysis integrating phylogenetic uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Uncertainty in comparative analyses can come from at least two sources: a) phylogenetic uncertainty in the tree topology or branch lengths, and b) uncertainty due to intraspecific variation in trait values, either due to measurement error or natural individual variation. Most phylogenetic comparative methods do not account for such uncertainties. Not accounting for these sources of uncertainty leads to false perceptions of precision (confidence intervals will be too narrow) and inflated significance in hypothesis testing (e.g. p-values will be too small). Although there is some application-specific software for fitting Bayesian models accounting for phylogenetic error, more general and flexible software is desirable. Methods We developed models to directly incorporate phylogenetic uncertainty into a range of analyses that biologists commonly perform, using a Bayesian framework and Markov Chain Monte Carlo analyses. Results We demonstrate applications in linear regression, quantification of phylogenetic signal, and measurement error models. Phylogenetic uncertainty was incorporated by applying a prior distribution for the phylogeny, where this distribution consisted of the posterior tree sets from Bayesian phylogenetic tree estimation programs. The models were analysed using simulated data sets, and applied to a real data set on plant traits, from rainforest plant species in Northern Australia. Analyses were performed using the free and open source software OpenBUGS and JAGS. Conclusions Incorporating phylogenetic uncertainty through an empirical prior distribution of trees leads to more precise estimation of regression model parameters than using a single consensus tree and enables a more realistic estimation of confidence intervals. In addition, models incorporating measurement errors and/or individual variation, in one or both variables, are easily formulated in the Bayesian framework. We show that BUGS is a useful, flexible general purpose tool for phylogenetic comparative analyses, particularly for modelling in the face of phylogenetic uncertainty and accounting for measurement error or individual variation in explanatory variables. Code for all models is provided in the BUGS model description language. PMID:22741602

  17. Phylogenetics and Molecular Evolution of Cetaceans with Emphasis on the Rapid Radiation of Oceanic Dolphins (Delphinidae)

    E-print Network

    McGowen, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among delphinid cetaceans based on full cytochrome b sequences. Mar. MammalPhylogenetic relationships among delphinid cetaceans based on full cytochrome b sequences. Mar. Mammal

  18. Empirical Analysis of Application-Level Traffic Classification Using Supervised Machine Learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young J. Won; Mi-jung Choi; Myung-sup Kim; James W. Hong

    2008-01-01

    Accurate application traffic classification and identification are important for network monitoring and analysis. The accuracy\\u000a of traditional Internet application traffic classification approaches is rapidly decreasing due to the diversity of today’s\\u000a Internet application traffic, such as ephemeral port allocation, proprietary protocol, and traffic encryption. This paper\\u000a presents an empirical evaluation of application-level traffic classification using supervised machine learning techniques.\\u000a Our

  19. Direct estimation of class membership probabilities for multiclass classification using multiple scores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuko Takahashi; Hiroya Takamura; Manabu Okumura

    2009-01-01

    Accurate estimation of class membership probability is needed for many applications in data mining and decision-making, to\\u000a which multiclass classification is often applied. Since existing methods for estimation of class membership probability are\\u000a designed for binary classification, in which only a single score outputted from a classifier can be used, an approach for\\u000a multiclass classification requires both a decomposition of

  20. A framework for protein structure classification and identification of novel protein structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    You Jung Kim; Jignesh M. Patel

    2006-01-01

    Background: Protein structure classification plays a central role in understanding the function of a protein molecule with respect to all known proteins in a structure database. With the rapid increase in the number of new protein structures, the need for automated and accurate methods for protein classification is increasingly important. Results: In this paper we present a unified framework for

  1. Use of the WHO lymphoma classification in a population-based epidemiological study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Turner; A. M. Hughes; A. Kricker; S. Milliken; A. Grulich; J. Kaldor; B. Armstrong

    2004-01-01

    Background: Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is pathologically diverse. Epidemiological investigations into its increasing incidence and aetiology require accurate subtype classification. Patients and methods: Available pathology reports of 717 cases aged from 20 to 74 years in an Australian, population-based epidemiological study of NHL were reviewed by one anatomical pathologist to assign a World Health Organization (WHO) classification category. High or low

  2. Phylogenetic study of Fulgensia and allied Caloplaca and Xanthoria species (Teloschistaceae, lichen-forming ascomycota).

    PubMed

    Gaya, Ester; Lutzoni, François; Zoller, Stefan; Navarro-Rosinés, Pere

    2003-07-01

    Fulgensia Massal. & De Not. is a widespread genus with considerable morphological and ecological heterogeneity across species. For this reason, the taxonomic delimitation of this genus has been controversial. Relationships among species of Fulgensia, Caloplaca Th. Fr., and Xanthoria (Fr.) Th. Fr. (Lecanorales) were investigated based on a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of 62 DNA sequences from the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region using maximum parsimony (MP) and likelihood (ML). Ambiguously aligned (INAASE coded characters) and unambiguous regions were analyzed separately and combined when using MP as the optimization criterion. All our analyses confirm the polyphyly of this genus as three distinct lineages: Fulgensia sensu stricto, F. australis, and F. schistidii. We report here that Caloplaca, Fulgensia, and Xanthoria together form two main sister lineages. One lineage includes Fulgensia schistidii (part of the C. saxicola group), Xanthoria, and most of the lobed Caloplaca species belonging to the Gasparrinia group. A second main lineage comprises the remaining Caloplaca species, Fulgensia sensu stricto, and F. australis. Therefore, the traditional generic level classification schemes for the family Teloschistaceae appear to be highly artificial. All three genera were found to be nonmonophyletic. We demonstrate here that the ITS is appropriate to resolve relationships across the Teloschistaceae. However, a combination of an MP analysis, in which ambiguously aligned regions are accommodated using INAASE, with an ML analysis, in which phylogenetic confidence is estimated using a Bayesian approach, is needed. PMID:21659209

  3. Weighted morphology: a new approach towards phylogenetic assessment of Nostocales (Cyanobacteria).

    PubMed

    Mishra, Swati; Bhargava, Poonam; Adhikary, Siba Prasad; Pradeep, Anubhav; Rai, Lal Chand

    2015-01-01

    The classification of order Nostocales (Cyanobacteria) and inter relationships of morphologically similar taxa is still debatable due to ever changing morphological features. No attempt has been made to improve the morphological taxonomy despite the fact that it is the morphology that represents the totality of genes. To test the validity of morphological taxonomy and fine tune the phylogenetic relationships within the order Nostocales a new weighted morphology approach was applied by using 76 isolates and their 16S rRNA gene sequences. Further, the study was extended with morphological data set of the remaining 232 taxa for which no molecular data are yet available. Trichome aggregation, heterocyst shape, and akinete shape are suggested as important and stable features for identification. At 30% weight assignment to the selected morphological characters, morphological taxonomy found 36% compatible with 16S tree. Adding weight to the morphological characters considerably improved the congruence between the morphology and 16S rRNA-based phylogenetic trees of the order Nostocales. When the weighting procedure was extended to all the Nostocalean members irrespective of molecular data availability, it was found that Nostoc sphaericum and Nostoc microscopicum closely assembled in a single clade. Closer arrangement of Aulosira and Nodularia represent the subfamily aulosirae (Bornet and Flahault Ann Sci Nat Bot 7:223-224, 1888) while taxonomic affiliation of Cylindrospermum with Nostoc, Anabaena, and Raphidiopsis representing the subfamily anabaenae (Bornet and Flahault Ann Sci Nat Bot 7:223-224, 1888) was resolved. PMID:24965370

  4. Accurate polyp segmentation for 3D CT colongraphy using multi-staged probabilistic binary learning and compositional model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Le Lu; Adrian Barbu; Matthias Wolf; Jianming Liang; Marcos Salganicoff; Dorin Comaniciu

    2008-01-01

    Accurate and automatic colonic polyp segmentation and measurement in Computed Tomography (CT) has significant importance for 3D polyp detection, classification, and more generally computer aided diagnosis of colon cancers. In this paper, we propose a three-staged probabilistic binary classification approach for automatically segmenting polyp voxels from their surrounding tissues in CT. Our system in- tegrates low-, and mid-level information for

  5. The Shapley value of phylogenetic trees.

    PubMed

    Haake, Claus-Jochen; Kashiwada, Akemi; Su, Francis Edward

    2008-04-01

    Every weighted tree corresponds naturally to a cooperative game that we call a tree game; it assigns to each subset of leaves the sum of the weights of the minimal subtree spanned by those leaves. In the context of phylogenetic trees, the leaves are species and this assignment captures the diversity present in the coalition of species considered. We consider the Shapley value of tree games and suggest a biological interpretation. We determine the linear transformation M that shows the dependence of the Shapley value on the edge weights of the tree, and we also compute a null space basis of M. Both depend on the split counts of the tree. Finally, we characterize the Shapley value on tree games by four axioms, a counterpart to Shapley's original theorem on the larger class of cooperative games. We also include a brief discussion of the core of tree games. PMID:17805545

  6. How Accurate Is Peer Grading?

    PubMed Central

    Parks, John W.

    2010-01-01

    Previously we showed that weekly, written, timed, and peer-graded practice exams help increase student performance on written exams and decrease failure rates in an introductory biology course. Here we analyze the accuracy of peer grading, based on a comparison of student scores to those assigned by a professional grader. When students graded practice exams by themselves, they were significantly easier graders than a professional; overall, students awarded ?25% more points than the professional did. This difference represented ?1.33 points on a 10-point exercise, or 0.27 points on each of the five 2-point questions posed. When students graded practice exams as a group of four, the same student-expert difference occurred. The student-professional gap was wider for questions that demanded higher-order versus lower-order cognitive skills. Thus, students not only have a harder time answering questions on the upper levels of Bloom's taxonomy, they have a harder time grading them. Our results suggest that peer grading may be accurate enough for low-risk assessments in introductory biology. Peer grading can help relieve the burden on instructional staff posed by grading written answers—making it possible to add practice opportunities that increase student performance on actual exams. PMID:21123695

  7. A More Accurate Fourier Transform

    E-print Network

    Courtney, Elya

    2015-01-01

    Fourier transform methods are used to analyze functions and data sets to provide frequencies, amplitudes, and phases of underlying oscillatory components. Fast Fourier transform (FFT) methods offer speed advantages over evaluation of explicit integrals (EI) that define Fourier transforms. This paper compares frequency, amplitude, and phase accuracy of the two methods for well resolved peaks over a wide array of data sets including cosine series with and without random noise and a variety of physical data sets, including atmospheric $\\mathrm{CO_2}$ concentrations, tides, temperatures, sound waveforms, and atomic spectra. The FFT uses MIT's FFTW3 library. The EI method uses the rectangle method to compute the areas under the curve via complex math. Results support the hypothesis that EI methods are more accurate than FFT methods. Errors range from 5 to 10 times higher when determining peak frequency by FFT, 1.4 to 60 times higher for peak amplitude, and 6 to 10 times higher for phase under a peak. The ability t...

  8. Structured sparse models for classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castrodad, Alexey

    The main focus of this thesis is the modeling and classification of high dimensional data using structured sparsity. Sparse models, where data is assumed to be well represented as a linear combination of a few elements from a dictionary, have gained considerable attention in recent years, and its use has led to state-of-the-art results in many signal and image processing tasks. The success of sparse modeling is highly due to its ability to efficiently use the redundancy of the data and find its underlying structure. On a classification setting, we capitalize on this advantage to properly model and separate the structure of the classes. We design and validate modeling solutions to challenging problems arising in computer vision and remote sensing. We propose both supervised and unsupervised schemes for the modeling of human actions from motion imagery under a wide variety of acquisition condi- tions. In the supervised case, the main goal is to classify the human actions in the video given a predefined set of actions to learn from. In the unsupervised case, the main goal is to an- alyze the spatio-temporal dynamics of the individuals in the scene without having any prior information on the actions themselves. We also propose a model for remotely sensed hysper- spectral imagery, where the main goal is to perform automatic spectral source separation and mapping at the subpixel level. Finally, we present a sparse model for sensor fusion to exploit the common structure and enforce collaboration of hyperspectral with LiDAR data for better mapping capabilities. In all these scenarios, we demonstrate that these data can be expressed as a combination of atoms from a class-structured dictionary. These data representation becomes essentially a "mixture of classes," and by directly exploiting the sparse codes, one can attain highly accurate classification performance with relatively unsophisticated classifiers.

  9. Phylogenetic and environmental diversity of DsrAB-type dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductases.

    PubMed

    Müller, Albert Leopold; Kjeldsen, Kasper Urup; Rattei, Thomas; Pester, Michael; Loy, Alexander

    2015-05-01

    The energy metabolism of essential microbial guilds in the biogeochemical sulfur cycle is based on a DsrAB-type dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase that either catalyzes the reduction of sulfite to sulfide during anaerobic respiration of sulfate, sulfite and organosulfonates, or acts in reverse during sulfur oxidation. Common use of dsrAB as a functional marker showed that dsrAB richness in many environments is dominated by novel sequence variants and collectively represents an extensive, largely uncharted sequence assemblage. Here, we established a comprehensive, manually curated dsrAB/DsrAB database and used it to categorize the known dsrAB diversity, reanalyze the evolutionary history of dsrAB and evaluate the coverage of published dsrAB-targeted primers. Based on a DsrAB consensus phylogeny, we introduce an operational classification system for environmental dsrAB sequences that integrates established taxonomic groups with operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at multiple phylogenetic levels, ranging from DsrAB enzyme families that reflect reductive or oxidative DsrAB types of bacterial or archaeal origin, superclusters, uncultured family-level lineages to species-level OTUs. Environmental dsrAB sequences constituted at least 13 stable family-level lineages without any cultivated representatives, suggesting that major taxa of sulfite/sulfate-reducing microorganisms have not yet been identified. Three of these uncultured lineages occur mainly in marine environments, while specific habitat preferences are not evident for members of the other 10 uncultured lineages. In summary, our publically available dsrAB/DsrAB database, the phylogenetic framework, the multilevel classification system and a set of recommended primers provide a necessary foundation for large-scale dsrAB ecology studies with next-generation sequencing methods. PMID:25343514

  10. Phylogenetic and environmental diversity of DsrAB-type dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductases

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Albert Leopold; Kjeldsen, Kasper Urup; Rattei, Thomas; Pester, Michael; Loy, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The energy metabolism of essential microbial guilds in the biogeochemical sulfur cycle is based on a DsrAB-type dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase that either catalyzes the reduction of sulfite to sulfide during anaerobic respiration of sulfate, sulfite and organosulfonates, or acts in reverse during sulfur oxidation. Common use of dsrAB as a functional marker showed that dsrAB richness in many environments is dominated by novel sequence variants and collectively represents an extensive, largely uncharted sequence assemblage. Here, we established a comprehensive, manually curated dsrAB/DsrAB database and used it to categorize the known dsrAB diversity, reanalyze the evolutionary history of dsrAB and evaluate the coverage of published dsrAB-targeted primers. Based on a DsrAB consensus phylogeny, we introduce an operational classification system for environmental dsrAB sequences that integrates established taxonomic groups with operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at multiple phylogenetic levels, ranging from DsrAB enzyme families that reflect reductive or oxidative DsrAB types of bacterial or archaeal origin, superclusters, uncultured family-level lineages to species-level OTUs. Environmental dsrAB sequences constituted at least 13 stable family-level lineages without any cultivated representatives, suggesting that major taxa of sulfite/sulfate-reducing microorganisms have not yet been identified. Three of these uncultured lineages occur mainly in marine environments, while specific habitat preferences are not evident for members of the other 10 uncultured lineages. In summary, our publically available dsrAB/DsrAB database, the phylogenetic framework, the multilevel classification system and a set of recommended primers provide a necessary foundation for large-scale dsrAB ecology studies with next-generation sequencing methods. PMID:25343514

  11. A Perl Package and an Alignment Tool for Phylogenetic Networks

    E-print Network

    Cardona, Gabriel; Valiente, Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    Phylogenetic networks are a generalization of phylogenetic trees that allow for the representation of evolutionary events acting at the population level, like recombination between genes, hybridization between lineages, and lateral gene transfer. While most phylogenetics tools implement a wide range of algorithms on phylogenetic trees, there exist only a few applications to work with phylogenetic networks, and there are no open-source libraries either. In order to improve this situation, we have developed a Perl package that relies on the BioPerl bundle and implements many algorithms on phylogenetic networks. We have also developed a Java applet that makes use of the aforementioned Perl package and allows the user to make simple experiments with phylogenetic networks without having to develop a program or Perl script by herself. The Perl package has been accepted as part of the BioPerl bundle. It can be downloaded from http://dmi.uib.es/~gcardona/BioInfo/Bio-PhyloNetwork.tgz. The web-based application is avai...

  12. Phylogeny and classification of the Catantopidae at the tribal level (Orthoptera, Acridoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Baoping; Liu, Zhiwei; Zheng, Zhe-Min

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The grasshopper family Catantopidae is a well-known group, whose members include some of the most notorious agricultural pests. The existing classifications of the family are mostly utilitarian rather than being based on phylogenetic analysis and therefore unable to provide the stability desired for such an economically important group. In the present study, we present the first comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the family based on morphology. By extensively sampling from the Chinese fauna, we included in the present analysis multiple representatives of each of the previously recognized tribes in the family. In total, we examined 94 genera represented by 240 species and evaluated 116 characters, including 84 for external morphology and 32 for male genitalia. The final matrix consists of 86 ingroup taxa and 88 characters. Our phylogenetic analyses resulted in a high resolution of the basal relationships of the family while showed considerable uncertainty about the relationships among some crown taxa. We further evaluated the usefulness of morphological characters in phylogeny reconstruction of the catantopids by examining character fit to the shortest trees found, and contrary to previous suggestions, our results suggest that genitalia characters are not as informative as external morphology in inferring higher-level relationship. We further suggest that earlier classification systems of grasshoppers in general and Catantopidae in particular most probably consist of many groups that are not natural due the heavy reliance on genitalia features and need to be revised in the light of future phylogenetic studies. Finally, we outlined a tentative classification scheme based on the results of our phylogenetic analysis. PMID:22287899

  13. Library Classification 2020

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    In this article the author explores how a new library classification system might be designed using some aspects of the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) and ideas from other systems to create something that works for school libraries in the year 2020. By examining what works well with the Dewey Decimal System, what features should be carried…

  14. Tradeoffs for Packet Classification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anja Feldmann; S. Muthukrishnan

    2000-01-01

    We present an algorithmic framework for solving the packet classification problem that allows various access time vs. memory tradeoffs. It reduces the multi-dimensional packet classification problem to solving a few instances of the one-dimensional IP lookup problem. It gives the best known lookup performance with moderately large memory space. Further- more, it efficiently supports a reasonable number of additions and

  15. Learning for anytime classification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geoffrey I. Webb; Janice R. Boughton; Ying Yang

    Many on-line applications of machine learning require that the learned classifiers complete classification within stri ct real-time constraints. In consequence, efficient classifie rs such as naive Bayes (NB) are often employed that can com- plete the required classification tasks even under peak comp u- tational loads. While NB provides acceptable accuracy, more computationally intensive approaches can improve thereon. The current

  16. Engineering rock mass classifications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. T. Bieniawski

    1989-01-01

    This book is a reference on rock mass classification, consolidating into one handy source information widely scattered through the literature. Includes new, unpublished material and case histories. Presents the fundamental concepts of classification schemes and critically appraises their practical application in industrial projects such as tunneling and mining.

  17. DUTY STATEMENT CLASSIFICATION

    E-print Network

    studies, environmental impact reports, and Commission reports. (E) #12;CLASSIFICATION: Planner I - EFS of Environmental Impact Reports submitted to the Commission and prepares assessments of those sections. (M) 5DUTY STATEMENT CLASSIFICATION: Planner I - EFS POSITION NUMBER: 760-4734-XXX CBID: R01 WORKING

  18. Functions of Library Classification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nitecki, Andre

    This discussion of the nature of classification schemes and their functions focuses on the differing classification systems of North American and European-type libraries. The functions are bibliothecal, bibliographical, and cognitive. The bibliothecal function concerns the physical location of items within a library (e.g., the Dewey Decimal and…

  19. Classification: Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Painter, Ann F., Ed.

    1974-01-01

    In response to recent trends towards automated bibliographic control, this issue of "Drexel Library Quarterly" discusses present day bibliographic classification schemes and offers some insight into the future. This volume contains essays which: (1) define "classification"; (2) provide historical background; (3) examine the Dewey Decimal System,…

  20. Security classification of information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Quist

    1993-01-01

    This document is the second of a planned four-volume work that comprehensively discusses the security classification of information. The main focus of Volume 2 is on the principles for classification of information. Included herein are descriptions of the two major types of information that governments classify for national security reasons (subjective and objective information), guidance to use when determining whether

  1. A Novel Vehicle Classification Using Embedded Strain Gauge Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenbin; Wang, Qi; Suo, Chunguang

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a new vehicle classification and develops a traffic monitoring detector to provide reliable vehicle classification to aid traffic management systems. The basic principle of this approach is based on measuring the dynamic strain caused by vehicles across pavement to obtain the corresponding vehicle parameters – wheelbase and number of axles – to then accurately classify the vehicle. A system prototype with five embedded strain sensors was developed to validate the accuracy and effectiveness of the classification method. According to the special arrangement of the sensors and the different time a vehicle arrived at the sensors one can estimate the vehicle's speed accurately, corresponding to the estimated vehicle wheelbase and number of axles. Because of measurement errors and vehicle characteristics, there is a lot of overlap between vehicle wheelbase patterns. Therefore, directly setting up a fixed threshold for vehicle classification often leads to low-accuracy results. Using the machine learning pattern recognition method to deal with this problem is believed as one of the most effective tools. In this study, support vector machines (SVMs) were used to integrate the classification features extracted from the strain sensors to automatically classify vehicles into five types, ranging from small vehicles to combination trucks, along the lines of the Federal Highway Administration vehicle classification guide. Test bench and field experiments will be introduced in this paper. Two support vector machines classification algorithms (one-against-all, one-against-one) are used to classify single sensor data and multiple sensor combination data. Comparison of the two classification method results shows that the classification accuracy is very close using single data or multiple data. Our results indicate that using multiclass SVM-based fusion multiple sensor data significantly improves the results of a single sensor data, which is trained on the whole multisensor data set.

  2. Disentangling the phylogenetic and ecological components of spider phenotypic variation.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves-Souza, Thiago; Diniz-Filho, José Alexandre Felizola; Romero, Gustavo Quevedo

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of how the degree of phylogenetic relatedness influences the ecological similarity among species is crucial to inferring the mechanisms governing the assembly of communities. We evaluated the relative importance of spider phylogenetic relationships and ecological niche (plant morphological variables) to the variation in spider body size and shape by comparing spiders at different scales: (i) between bromeliads and dicot plants (i.e., habitat scale) and (ii) among bromeliads with distinct architectural features (i.e., microhabitat scale). We partitioned the interspecific variation in body size and shape into phylogenetic (that express trait values as expected by phylogenetic relationships among species) and ecological components (that express trait values independent of phylogenetic relationships). At the habitat scale, bromeliad spiders were larger and flatter than spiders associated with the surrounding dicots. At this scale, plant morphology sorted out close related spiders. Our results showed that spider flatness is phylogenetically clustered at the habitat scale, whereas it is phylogenetically overdispersed at the microhabitat scale, although phylogenic signal is present in both scales. Taken together, these results suggest that whereas at the habitat scale selective colonization affect spider body size and shape, at fine scales both selective colonization and adaptive evolution determine spider body shape. By partitioning the phylogenetic and ecological components of phenotypic variation, we were able to disentangle the evolutionary history of distinct spider traits and show that plant architecture plays a role in the evolution of spider body size and shape. We also discussed the relevance in considering multiple scales when studying phylogenetic community structure. PMID:24651264

  3. Progressive Classification Using Support Vector Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagstaff, Kiri; Kocurek, Michael

    2009-01-01

    An algorithm for progressive classification of data, analogous to progressive rendering of images, makes it possible to compromise between speed and accuracy. This algorithm uses support vector machines (SVMs) to classify data. An SVM is a machine learning algorithm that builds a mathematical model of the desired classification concept by identifying the critical data points, called support vectors. Coarse approximations to the concept require only a few support vectors, while precise, highly accurate models require far more support vectors. Once the model has been constructed, the SVM can be applied to new observations. The cost of classifying a new observation is proportional to the number of support vectors in the model. When computational resources are limited, an SVM of the appropriate complexity can be produced. However, if the constraints are not known when the model is constructed, or if they can change over time, a method for adaptively responding to the current resource constraints is required. This capability is particularly relevant for spacecraft (or any other real-time systems) that perform onboard data analysis. The new algorithm enables the fast, interactive application of an SVM classifier to a new set of data. The classification process achieved by this algorithm is characterized as progressive because a coarse approximation to the true classification is generated rapidly and thereafter iteratively refined. The algorithm uses two SVMs: (1) a fast, approximate one and (2) slow, highly accurate one. New data are initially classified by the fast SVM, producing a baseline approximate classification. For each classified data point, the algorithm calculates a confidence index that indicates the likelihood that it was classified correctly in the first pass. Next, the data points are sorted by their confidence indices and progressively reclassified by the slower, more accurate SVM, starting with the items most likely to be incorrectly classified. The user can halt this reclassification process at any point, thereby obtaining the best possible result for a given amount of computation time. Alternatively, the results can be displayed as they are generated, providing the user with real-time feedback about the current accuracy of classification.

  4. Spatial-Visual Label Propagation for Local Feature Classification

    E-print Network

    Elgammal, Ahmed

    Spatial-Visual Label Propagation for Local Feature Classification Tarek El-Gaaly Department approach to inte- grate feature similarity and spatial consistency of local features to achieve the goal of localizing an object of interest in an image. The goal is to achieve coherent and accurate labeling

  5. ICA MIXTURE MODELS FOR UNSUPERVISED CLASSIFICATION AND AUTOMATIC CONTEXT SWITCHING

    E-print Network

    Lee, Te-Won

    mixture model. We generalize the Gaussian mixture model by modeling each class with a mixture mixture model so that the clusters can have non­Gaussian structure. Performance on a standard classification accurately over stan­ dard Gaussian mixture models. We also show that the algorithm can be applied

  6. Discrete wavelet and neural network for transmission line fault classification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Shaaban; T. Hiyama

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an efficient wavelet and neural network (WNN) based algorithm for fault classification in single circuit transmission line. The first level discrete wavelet transform is applied to decompose the post fault current signals of the transmission line into a series of coefficient components (approximation and detail). The values of the approximation coefficients obtained can accurately discriminate between all

  7. Progressive self-learning photomask defect classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynn, Eric C.; Chen, Shih-Ying; Hsu, Tyng-Hao; Hung, Chang-Cheng; Lin, Chin-Hsiang

    2002-07-01

    Following mask inspection, mask-defect classification is a process of reviewing and classifying each captured defect according to prior-defined printability rules. With the current hardware configuration in manufacturing environments, this review and classification process is a mandatory manual task. For cases with a relatively small number of captured defects, defect classification itself does not put too much burden to operators or engineers. With a moderate increase of defects, it would however, become a time-consuming process and prolong the total mask-making cycle time. Should too many nuisance defects be caught under a given detection sensitivity, engineers would generally loosed the detection sensitivity in order to reduce the number of nuisance defects. By doing that however, there exists potential threat of missing real defects. The present study describes a 'progressive self-learning' (PSL) algorithm for defect classification to relieve loading from operators or engineers and further accelerate defect review/classification process. Basically, the PSL algorithm involves with image extraction, digitization, alignment and matching. One key concept of this PSL algorithm is that there is not any pre-stored defect library in the first place of a particular run. In turn, a defect library is 'progressively' built during the initial stage of defect review and classification at each run. The merit of this design can be realized by its flexibility. An additional benefit is that all defect images are stored and suitable for network transfer. The C language is adopted to implement the present algorithm to avoid the porting issue, so as not bound to a particular machine. Assessment of the PSL algorithm is examined in terms of efficiency and the accurate rate.

  8. Land use/cover classification in the Brazilian Amazon using satellite images

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Dengsheng; Batistella, Mateus; Li, Guiying; Moran, Emilio; Hetrick, Scott; Freitas, Corina da Costa; Dutra, Luciano Vieira; Sant’Anna, Sidnei Joăo Siqueira

    2013-01-01

    Land use/cover classification is one of the most important applications in remote sensing. However, mapping accurate land use/cover spatial distribution is a challenge, particularly in moist tropical regions, due to the complex biophysical environment and limitations of remote sensing data per se. This paper reviews experiments related to land use/cover classification in the Brazilian Amazon for a decade. Through comprehensive analysis of the classification results, it is concluded that spatial information inherent in remote sensing data plays an essential role in improving land use/cover classification. Incorporation of suitable textural images into multispectral bands and use of segmentation-based method are valuable ways to improve land use/cover classification, especially for high spatial resolution images. Data fusion of multi-resolution images within optical sensor data is vital for visual interpretation, but may not improve classification performance. In contrast, integration of optical and radar data did improve classification performance when the proper data fusion method was used. Of the classification algorithms available, the maximum likelihood classifier is still an important method for providing reasonably good accuracy, but nonparametric algorithms, such as classification tree analysis, has the potential to provide better results. However, they often require more time to achieve parametric optimization. Proper use of hierarchical-based methods is fundamental for developing accurate land use/cover classification, mainly from historical remotely sensed data. PMID:24353353

  9. Land use/cover classification in the Brazilian Amazon using satellite images.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dengsheng; Batistella, Mateus; Li, Guiying; Moran, Emilio; Hetrick, Scott; Freitas, Corina da Costa; Dutra, Luciano Vieira; Sant'anna, Sidnei Joăo Siqueira

    2012-09-01

    Land use/cover classification is one of the most important applications in remote sensing. However, mapping accurate land use/cover spatial distribution is a challenge, particularly in moist tropical regions, due to the complex biophysical environment and limitations of remote sensing data per se. This paper reviews experiments related to land use/cover classification in the Brazilian Amazon for a decade. Through comprehensive analysis of the classification results, it is concluded that spatial information inherent in remote sensing data plays an essential role in improving land use/cover classification. Incorporation of suitable textural images into multispectral bands and use of segmentation-based method are valuable ways to improve land use/cover classification, especially for high spatial resolution images. Data fusion of multi-resolution images within optical sensor data is vital for visual interpretation, but may not improve classification performance. In contrast, integration of optical and radar data did improve classification performance when the proper data fusion method was used. Of the classification algorithms available, the maximum likelihood classifier is still an important method for providing reasonably good accuracy, but nonparametric algorithms, such as classification tree analysis, has the potential to provide better results. However, they often require more time to achieve parametric optimization. Proper use of hierarchical-based methods is fundamental for developing accurate land use/cover classification, mainly from historical remotely sensed data. PMID:24353353

  10. Evaluating Phylogenetic Informativeness as a Predictor of Phylogenetic Signal for Metazoan, Fungal, and Mammalian Phylogenomic Data Sets

    PubMed Central

    López-Giráldez, Francesc; Moeller, Andrew H.; Townsend, Jeffrey P.

    2013-01-01

    Phylogenetic research is often stymied by selection of a marker that leads to poor phylogenetic resolution despite considerable cost and effort. Profiles of phylogenetic informativeness provide a quantitative measure for prioritizing gene sampling to resolve branching order in a particular epoch. To evaluate the utility of these profiles, we analyzed phylogenomic data sets from metazoans, fungi, and mammals, thus encompassing diverse time scales and taxonomic groups. We also evaluated the utility of profiles created based on simulated data sets. We found that genes selected via their informativeness dramatically outperformed haphazard sampling of markers. Furthermore, our analyses demonstrate that the original phylogenetic informativeness method can be extended to trees with more than four taxa. Thus, although the method currently predicts phylogenetic signal without specifically accounting for the misleading effects of stochastic noise, it is robust to the effects of homoplasy. The phylogenetic informativeness rankings obtained will allow other researchers to select advantageous genes for future studies within these clades, maximizing return on effort and investment. Genes identified might also yield efficient experimental designs for phylogenetic inference for many sister clades and outgroup taxa that are closely related to the diverse groups of organisms analyzed. PMID:23878813

  11. Dental characters of the Quaternary tapirs in China, their significance in classification and phylogenetic assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haowen Tong

    2005-01-01

    Most of the Quaternary tapir fossils from China are isolated teeth. The purpose of this paper is to identify them and to extract systematic and evolutionary information from them. Based on morphology and W\\/L ratio, isolated teeth can be identified successfully. On the whole, the identification of P1, M3 and P2 is believed to be reliable, while it is difficult

  12. Complete generic-level phylogenetic analyses of palms (Arecaceae) with comparisons of supertree and supermatrix approaches.

    PubMed

    Baker, William J; Savolainen, Vincent; Asmussen-Lange, Conny B; Chase, Mark W; Dransfield, John; Forest, Félix; Harley, Madeline M; Uhl, Natalie W; Wilkinson, Mark

    2009-04-01

    Supertree and supermatrix methods have great potential in the quest to build the tree of life and yet they remain controversial, with most workers opting for one approach or the other, but rarely both. Here, we employed both methods to construct phylogenetic trees of all genera of palms (Arecaceae/Palmae), an iconic angiosperm family of great economic importance. We assembled a supermatrix consisting of 16 partitions, comprising DNA sequence data, plastid restriction fragment length polymorphism data, and morphological data for all genera, from which a highly resolved and well-supported phylogenetic tree was built despite abundant missing data. To construct supertrees, we used variants of matrix representation with parsimony (MRP) analysis based on input trees generated directly from subsamples of the supermatrix. All supertrees were highly resolved. Standard MRP with bootstrap-weighted matrix elements performed most effectively in this case, generating trees with the greatest congruence with the supermatrix tree and fewest clades unsupported by any input tree. Nonindependence due to input trees based on combinations of data partitions was an acceptable trade-off for improvements in supertree performance. Irreversible MRP and the use of strictly independent input trees only provided no obvious benefits. Contrary to previous claims, we found that unsupported clades are not infrequent under some MRP implementations, with up to 13% of clades lacking support from any input tree in some irreversible MRP supertrees. To build a formal synthesis, we assessed the cross-corroboration between supermatrix trees and the variant supertrees using semistrict consensus, enumerating shared clades and compatible clades. The semistrict consensus of the supermatrix tree and the most congruent supertree contained 160 clades (of a maximum of 204), 137 of which were present in both trees. The relationships recovered by these trees strongly support the current phylogenetic classification of palms. We evaluate 2 composite supertree support measures (rQS and V) and conclude that it is more informative to report numbers of input trees that support or conflict with a given supertree clade. This study demonstrates that supertree and supermatrix methods can provide effective, explicit, and complimentary mechanisms for synthesizing disjointed phylogenetic evidence while emphasizing the need for further refinement of supertree methods. PMID:20525581

  13. Evolution and Classification of P-loop Kinases and Related Proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Detlef D. Leipe; Eugene V. Koonin; L. Aravind

    2003-01-01

    Sequences and structures of all P-loop-fold proteins were compared with the aim of reconstructing the principal events in the evolution of P-loop-containing kinases. It is shown that kinases and some related proteins comprise a monophyletic assemblage within the P-loop NTPase fold. An evolutionary classification of these proteins was developed using standard phylogenetic methods, analysis of shared sequence and structural signatures,

  14. Molecular data reveal convergence in fruit characters used in the classification of Thlaspi s. l. (Brassicaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KLAUS MUMMENHOFF; ANDREAS FRANZKE; MARCUS KOCH

    1997-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of 18Thlaspi s. l.species were inferred from nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence data. These species represent all sections of the basic classification system of Schulz primarily based on fruit characters. The molecular phylogeny supported six clades that are largely congruent with species groups recognized by Meyer on the basis of differences in seed coat anatomy, i.e.Thlaspi

  15. Constraint Classification: A New Approach to Multiclass Classification and Ranking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sariel Har-Peled; Dan Roth; Dav Zimak

    We introduce constraint classification, a framework capturing many flavors of multiclass classification including multilabel classification and ranking, and present a meta-algorithm for learning in this framework. We provide generalization bounds when using a collection of k linear functions to represent each hypothesis. We also present empirical and theoretical evidence that constraint classification is more powerful than existing methods of multiclass

  16. Scale-dependence of phylogenetic signal in ecological traits of ectoparasites

    E-print Network

    Poulin, Robert

    parasitic on small mammals in 19 regions of the Palaearctic and Nearctic, and a phylogenetic tree and processes may produce similar phylogenetic signals. The relationship between phylogenetic relatednessScale-dependence of phylogenetic signal in ecological traits of ectoparasites Boris R. Krasnov

  17. Phylogenetic discovery bias in Bacillus anthracis using single-nucleotide polymorphisms from whole-genome sequencing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Talima Pearson; Joseph D. Busch; Jacques Ravel; Timothy D. Read; Shane D. Rhoton; Jana M. U'Ren; Tatum S. Simonson; Sergey M. Kachur; Rebecca R. Leadem; Michelle L. Cardon; Matthew N. van Ert; Lynn Y. Huynh; Claire M. Fraser; Paul Keim

    2004-01-01

    Phylogenetic reconstruction using molecular data is often subject to homoplasy, leading to inaccurate conclusions about phylogenetic relationships among operational taxonomic units. Compared with other molecular markers, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) exhibit extremely low mutation rates, making them rare in recently emerged pathogens, but they are less prone to homoplasy and thus extremely valuable for phylogenetic analyses. Despite their phylogenetic potential, ascertainment

  18. Position: Postdoctoral Research Associate Position Available in Honey Bee Phylogenetics

    E-print Network

    Ferrara, Katherine W.

    Position: Postdoctoral Research Associate Position Available in Honey Bee Phylogenetics Date Available: immediately Location: Honey Bee Research and Extension Laboratory (HBREL) Department's research in the area of honey bee ecology and conservation. Additionally, the successful candidate

  19. Phylogenetic signal and linear regression on species data

    E-print Network

    Revell, Liam

    1985, 2005, 2008; Cheverud, Dow & Leute- negger 1985; Grafen 1989; Pagel & Harvey 1989; Maddison 1990 of species is the phylogenetic regression (Felsenstein 1985; Grafen 1989). Typical linear regression analysis

  20. Phylogenetic and functional diversity in large carnivore assemblages

    PubMed Central

    Dalerum, F.

    2013-01-01

    Large terrestrial carnivores are important ecological components and prominent flagship species, but are often extinction prone owing to a combination of biological traits and high levels of human persecution. This study combines phylogenetic and functional diversity evaluations of global and continental large carnivore assemblages to provide a framework for conservation prioritization both between and within assemblages. Species-rich assemblages of large carnivores simultaneously had high phylogenetic and functional diversity, but species contributions to phylogenetic and functional diversity components were not positively correlated. The results further provide ecological justification for the largest carnivore species as a focus for conservation action, and suggests that range contraction is a likely cause of diminishing carnivore ecosystem function. This study highlights that preserving species-rich carnivore assemblages will capture both high phylogenetic and functional diversity, but that prioritizing species within assemblages will involve trade-offs between optimizing contemporary ecosystem function versus the evolutionary potential for future ecosystem performance. PMID:23576787

  1. Phylogenetic conservatism in plant phenology T. Jonathan Davies1

    E-print Network

    Davies, Jonathan

    Phylogenetic conservatism in plant phenology T. Jonathan Davies1 *, Elizabeth M. Wolkovich2, Swedish National Phenology Network, Lund, Sweden; 11 Ecology, Behavior & Evolution Section, University Phenology Network, Tucson, AZ, USA; 15 Department of Ecology, Evolution and Marine Biology, University

  2. A combined morphometric and phylogenetic analysis of an ecomorphological trend

    E-print Network

    Klingenberg, Christian Peter

    use information on phylogeny, allometric growth, and diet composition for an integrated analysis morphlogy and diet composition . . . . . . . . . . . 159 Phylogenetic reconstruction of habitat shifts in Antarctic fishes (Perciformes: Nototheniidae) CHRISTIAN PETER KLINGENBERG Department of Biological Sciences

  3. Trees from trees: construction of phylogenetic supertrees using clann.

    PubMed

    Creevey, Christopher J; McInerney, James O

    2009-01-01

    Supertree methods combine multiple phylogenetic trees to produce the overall best "supertree." They can be used to combine phylogenetic information from datasets only partially overlapping and from disparate sources (like molecular and morphological data), or to break down problems thought to be computationally intractable. Some of the longest standing phylogenetic conundrums are now being brought to light using supertree approaches. We describe the most widely used supertree methods implemented in the software program "clann" and provide a step by step tutorial for investigating phylogenetic information and reconstructing the best supertree. Clann is freely available for Windows, Mac and Unix/Linux operating systems under the GNU public licence at (http://bioinf.nuim.ie/software/clann). PMID:19378143

  4. RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Phylogenetic relationships among Staphylococcus

    E-print Network

    Parkinson, Christopher L.

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Phylogenetic relationships among Staphylococcus species and refinement of relationships among Staphylococcus species have been hampered by poor and inconsistent resolution of phylogenies approaches that incorporate nearly all recognized Staphylococcus taxa. Results: We estimated the phylogeny

  5. A Survey of Combinatorial Methods for Phylogenetic Networks

    PubMed Central

    Huson, Daniel H.; Scornavacca, Celine

    2011-01-01

    The evolutionary history of a set of species is usually described by a rooted phylogenetic tree. Although it is generally undisputed that bifurcating speciation events and descent with modifications are major forces of evolution, there is a growing belief that reticulate events also have a role to play. Phylogenetic networks provide an alternative to phylogenetic trees and may be more suitable for data sets where evolution involves significant amounts of reticulate events, such as hybridization, horizontal gene transfer, or recombination. In this article, we give an introduction to the topic of phylogenetic networks, very briefly describing the fundamental concepts and summarizing some of the most important combinatorial methods that are available for their computation. PMID:21081312

  6. RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Chasing the hare -Evaluating the phylogenetic

    E-print Network

    dePamphilis, Claude

    . Therefore, Tildenia is a perfect test case for applying new phylogenetic tools. Results: We show that are members of gene families of all sizes, lab effort, such as cloning, can be kept to a minimum. They also

  7. Large-scale analysis of phylogenetic search behavior 

    E-print Network

    Park, Hyun Jung

    2009-05-15

    Phylogenetic analysis is used in all branches of biology by inferring evolutionary trees. Applications include designing more effective drugs, tracing the transmission of deadly viruses, and guiding conservation and biodiversity efforts. Most...

  8. LifePrint: a novel k-tuple distance method for construction of phylogenetic trees

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Prieto, Fabián; García-Chéquer, Adda J; Jaimes-Díaz, Hueman; Casique-Almazán, Janet; Espinosa-Lara, Juana M; Palma-Orozco, Rosaura; Méndez-Tenorio, Alfonso; Maldonado-Rodríguez, Rogelio; Beattie, Kenneth L

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Here we describe LifePrint, a sequence alignment-independent k-tuple distance method to estimate relatedness between complete genomes. Methods We designed a representative sample of all possible DNA tuples of length 9 (9-tuples). The final sample comprises 1878 tuples (called the LifePrint set of 9-tuples; LPS9) that are distinct from each other by at least two internal and noncontiguous nucleotide differences. For validation of our k-tuple distance method, we analyzed several real and simulated viroid genomes. Using different distance metrics, we scrutinized diverse viroid genomes to estimate the k-tuple distances between these genomic sequences. Then we used the estimated genomic k-tuple distances to construct phylogenetic trees using the neighbor-joining algorithm. A comparison of the accuracy of LPS9 and the previously reported 5-tuple method was made using symmetric differences between the trees estimated from each method and a simulated “true” phylogenetic tree. Results The identified optimal search scheme for LPS9 allows only up to two nucleotide differences between each 9-tuple and the scrutinized genome. Similarity search results of simulated viroid genomes indicate that, in most cases, LPS9 is able to detect single-base substitutions between genomes efficiently. Analysis of simulated genomic variants with a high proportion of base substitutions indicates that LPS9 is able to discern relationships between genomic variants with up to 40% of nucleotide substitution. Conclusion Our LPS9 method generates more accurate phylogenetic reconstructions than the previously proposed 5-tuples strategy. LPS9-reconstructed trees show higher bootstrap proportion values than distance trees derived from the 5-tuple method. PMID:21918634

  9. Phylogenetic affiliations of members of the heterogeneous lichen-forming fungi of the genus Lecidea sensu Zahlbruckner (Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota).

    PubMed

    Schmull, Michaela; Miadlikowska, Jolanta; Pelzer, Monika; Stocker-Wörgötter, Elfie; Hofstetter, Valerie; Fraker, Emily; Hodkinson, Brendan P; Reeb, Valerie; Kukwa, Martin; Lumbsch, H Thorsten; Kauff, Frank; Lutzoni, François

    2011-01-01

    The genus Lecidea Ach. sensu lato (sensu Zahlbruckner) includes almost 1200 species, out of which only 100 species represent Lecidea sensu stricto (sensu Hertel). The systematic position of the remaining species is mostly unsettled but anticipated to represent several unrelated lineages within Lecanoromycetes. This study attempts to elucidate the phylogenetic placement of members of this heterogeneous group of lichen-forming fungi and to improve the classification and phylogeny of Lecanoromycetes. Twenty-five taxa of Lecidea sensu lato and 22 putatively allied species were studied in a broad selection of 268 taxa, representing 48 families of Lecanoromycetes. Six loci, including four ribosomal and two protein-coding genes for 315- and 209-OTU datasets were subjected to maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses. The resulting well supported phylogenetic relationships within Lecanoromycetes are in agreement with published phylogenies, but the addition of new taxa revealed putative rearrangements of several families (e.g. Catillariaceae, Lecanoraceae, Lecideaceae, Megalariaceae, Pilocarpaceae and Ramalinaceae). As expected, species of Lecidea sensu lato and putatively related taxa are scattered within Lecanoromycetidae and beyond, with several species nested in Lecanoraceae and Pilocarpaceae and others placed outside currently recognized families in Lecanorales and orders in Lecanoromycetidae. The phylogenetic affiliations of Schaereria and Strangospora are outside Lecanoromycetidae, probably with Ostropomycetidae. All species referred to as Lecidea sensu stricto based on morphology (including the type species, Lecidea fuscoatra [L.] Ach.) form, with Porpidia species, a monophyletic group with high posterior probability outside Lecanorales, Peltigerales and Teloschistales, in Lecanoromycetidae, supporting the recognition of order Lecideales Vain. in this subclass. The genus name Lecidea must be redefined to apply only to Lecidea sensu stricto and to include at least some members of the genus Porpidia. Based on morphological and chemical similarities, as well as the phylogenetic relationship of Lecidea pullata sister to Frutidella caesioatra, the new combination Frutidella pullata is proposed here. PMID:21642348

  10. [Phylogenetic analysis of tyrosinase gene family in the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas Thunberg)].

    PubMed

    Yu, Xue; Yu, Hong; Kong, Lingfeng; Li, Qi

    2014-02-01

    The deduced amino acid sequence characteristics, classification and phylogeny of tyrosinase gene family in the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas Thunberg) were analyzed using bioinformatics methods. The results showed that gene duplication was the major cause of tyrosinase gene expansion in the Pacific oyster. The tyrosinase gene family in the Pacific oyster can be further classified into three types: secreted form (Type A), cytosolic form (Type B) and membrane-bound form (Type C). Based on the topology of the phylogenetic tree of the Pacific oyster tyrosinases, among Type A isoforms, tyr18 seemed divergent from other Type A tyrosinases early, while tyr2 and tyr9 appeared divergent early in Type B. In Type C tyrosinses, tyr8 was divergent early. The cluster of the Pacific oyster tyrosinasesis determined by their classifications and positions in the scaffolds. Further analysis suggested that Type A tyrosinases of C. gigas clustered with those from cephalopods and then with nematodes and cnidarians. Type B tyrosinases were generally clustered with the same type of tyrosinases from molluscas and nematodes, and then with those from platyhelminths, cnidarians and chordates. Type A tyrosinases in the Pacific oyster and the Pearl oyster expanded independently and were divergent from membrane-bound form of tyrosinases in chordata, platyhelminthes and annelida. These observations suggested that Type C tyrosinases in the bivalve had a distinct evolution direction. PMID:24846942

  11. Phylogenetic analysis of pbp genes in treponemes

    PubMed Central

    Chadha, Tejpreet; Trindade, Adăo Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    Background ?-Lactamases are the main cause of bacterial resistance to penicillin, cephalosporins, and related ?-lactam compounds. The presence of the novel penicillin-binding protein (pbp) Tp47 in Treponema pallidum has been reported to be a well-known mechanism for turnover of b-lactam antibiotics. Although, T. pallidum remains sensitive to penicillin, clinically significant resistance to macrolides has emerged in many developing countries. The genome sequence of T. pallidum has shown the presence of genes encoding pbp, but there are no current reports of the presence of mobile plasmids. Methods The phylogenetic analysis is used to study the diversity of chromosomal pbp genes and its relatedness to Tp47 in Treponema species. Results In our study, genes encoding penicillin-binding proteins that showed significant similarity to each other appeared in separate clusters. Conclusion Tp47 showed no substantial similarity to other ?-lactamases in treponemes. The relatedness of Treponema denticola to other treponemes, including T. pallidum, and the reported presence of natural mobile antibiotic determinants highlight the importance of investigating the diversity of pbp genes in Treponema species. This will lead to a greater understanding of its potential to develop additional antibiotic resistance via horizontal gene transfer that could seriously compromise the treatment and control of syphilis. PMID:23330059

  12. The phylogenetic profile of mast cells.

    PubMed

    Crivellato, Enrico; Travan, Luciana; Ribatti, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    Mast cells (MCs) are tissue-based immune cells that participate to both innate and adaptive immunities as well as to tissue-remodelling processes. Their evolutionary history appears as a fascinating process, whose outline we can only partly reconstruct according to current remnant evidence. MCs have been identified in all vertebrate classes, and a cell population with the overall characteristics of higher vertebrate MCs is identifiable even in the most evolutionarily advanced fish species. In invertebrates, cells related to vertebrate MCs have been recognized in ascidians, a class of urochordates which appeared approximately 500 million years ago. These comprise the granular hemocyte with intermediate characteristics of basophils and MCs and the "test cell" (see below). Both types of cells contain histamine and heparin, and provide defensive functions. The test cell releases tryptase after stimulation with compound 48/80. A leukocyte ancestor operating in the context of a primitive local innate immunity probably represents the MC phylogenetic progenitor. This cell was likely involved in phagocytic and killing activity against pathogens and operated as a general inducer of inflammation. This early type of defensive cell possibly expressed concomitant tissue-reparative functions. With the advent of recombinase activating gene (RAG)-mediated adaptive immunity in the Cambrian era, some 550 million years ago, and the emergence of early vertebrates, MC progenitors differentiated towards a more complex cellular entity. Early MCs probably appeared in the last common ancestor we shared with hagfish, lamprey, and sharks about 450-500 million years ago. PMID:25388242

  13. Phylogenetic biodiversity assessment based on systematic nomenclature

    PubMed Central

    Crozier, Ross H; Dunnett, Lisa J; Agapow, Paul-Michael

    2007-01-01

    Biodiversity assessment demands objective measures, because ultimately conservation decisions must prioritize the use of limited resources for preserving taxa. The most general framework for the objective assessment of conservation worth are those that assess evolutionary distinctiveness, e.g. Genetic (Crozier 1992) and Phylogenetic Diversity (Faith 1992), and Evolutionary History (Nee & May 1997). These measures all attempt to assess the conservation worth of any scheme based on how much of the encompassing phylogeny of organisms is preserved. However, their general applicability is limited by the small proportion of taxa that have been reliably placed in a phylogeny. Given that phylogenizaton of many interesting taxa or important is unlikely to occur soon, we present a framework for using taxonomy as a reasonable surrogate for phylogeny. Combining this framework with exhaustive searches for combinations of sites containing maximal diversity, we provide a proof-of-concept for assessing conservation schemes for systematized but un-phylogenised taxa spread over a series of sites. This is illustrated with data from four studies, on North Queensland flightless insects (Yeates et al. 2002), ants from a Florida Transect (Lubertazzi & Tschinkel 2003), New England bog ants (Gotelli & Ellison 2002) and a simulated distribution of the known New Zealand Lepidosauria (Daugherty et al. 1994). The results support this approach, indicating that species, genus and site numbers predict evolutionary history, to a degree depending on the size of the data set. PMID:19325850

  14. Comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of bacterial reverse transcriptases.

    PubMed

    Toro, Nicolás; Nisa-Martínez, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Much less is known about reverse transcriptases (RTs) in prokaryotes than in eukaryotes, with most prokaryotic enzymes still uncharacterized. Two surveys involving BLAST searches for RT genes in prokaryotic genomes revealed the presence of large numbers of diverse, uncharacterized RTs and RT-like sequences. Here, using consistent annotation across all sequenced bacterial species from GenBank and other sources via RAST, available from the PATRIC (Pathogenic Resource Integration Center) platform, we have compiled the data for currently annotated reverse transcriptases from completely sequenced bacterial genomes. RT sequences are broadly distributed across bacterial phyla, but green sulfur bacteria and cyanobacteria have the highest levels of RT sequence diversity (?85% identity) per genome. By contrast, phylum Actinobacteria, for which a large number of genomes have been sequenced, was found to have a low RT sequence diversity. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that bacterial RTs could be classified into 17 main groups: group II introns, retrons/retron-like RTs, diversity-generating retroelements (DGRs), Abi-like RTs, CRISPR-Cas-associated RTs, group II-like RTs (G2L), and 11 other groups of RTs of unknown function. Proteobacteria had the highest potential functional diversity, as they possessed most of the RT groups. Group II introns and DGRs were the most widely distributed RTs in bacterial phyla. Our results provide insights into bacterial RT phylogeny and the basis for an update of annotation systems based on sequence/domain homology. PMID:25423096

  15. Phylogenetic analyses of Andromedeae (Ericaceae subfam. Vaccinioideae).

    PubMed

    Kron, K A; Judd, W S; Crayn, D M

    1999-09-01

    Phylogenetic relationships within the Andromedeae and closely related taxa were investigated by means of cladistic analyses based on phenotypic (morphology, anatomy, chromosome number, and secondary chemistry) and molecular (rbcL and matK nucleotide sequences) characters. An analysis based on combined molecular and phenotypic characters indicates that the tribe is composed of two major clades-the Gaultheria group (incl. Andromeda, Chamaedaphne, Diplycosia, Gaultheria, Leucothoë, Pernettya, Tepuia, and Zenobia) and the Lyonia group (incl. Agarista, Craibiodendron, Lyonia, and Pieris). Andromedeae are shown to be paraphyletic in all analyses because the Vaccinieae link with some or all of the genera of the Gaultheria group. Oxydendrum is sister to the clade containing the Vaccinieae, Gaultheria group, and Lyonia group. The monophyly of Agarista, Lyonia, Pieris, and Gaultheria (incl. Pernettya) is supported, while that of Leucothoë is problematic. The close relationship of Andromeda and Zenobia is novel and was strongly supported in the molecular (but not morphological) analyses. Diplycosia, Tepuia, Gaultheria, and Pernettya form a well-supported clade, which can be diagnosed by the presence of fleshy calyx lobes and methyl salicylate. Recognition of Andromedeae is not reflective of our understanding of geneological relationships and should be abandoned; the Lyonia group is formally recognized at the tribal level. PMID:10487817

  16. Prostate Segmentation From 3DUS Using Regional Texture Classification and Shape

    E-print Network

    Draft Jared Vicory, Mark Foskey, Stephen Pizer May 9, 2013 1 Introduction Accurate diagnosis of prostateProstate Segmentation From 3DUS Using Regional Texture Classification and Shape Differences - Late cancer relies on an accurate biopsy procedure. The biopsy must be taken from the center of the suspected

  17. Reconstruction of phylogenetic trees of prokaryotes using maximal common intervals.

    PubMed

    Heydari, Mahdi; Marashi, Sayed-Amir; Tusserkani, Ruzbeh; Sadeghi, Mehdi

    2014-10-01

    One of the fundamental problems in bioinformatics is phylogenetic tree reconstruction, which can be used for classifying living organisms into different taxonomic clades. The classical approach to this problem is based on a marker such as 16S ribosomal RNA. Since evolutionary events like genomic rearrangements are not included in reconstructions of phylogenetic trees based on single genes, much effort has been made to find other characteristics for phylogenetic reconstruction in recent years. With the increasing availability of completely sequenced genomes, gene order can be considered as a new solution for this problem. In the present work, we applied maximal common intervals (MCIs) in two or more genomes to infer their distance and to reconstruct their evolutionary relationship. Additionally, measures based on uncommon segments (UCS's), i.e., those genomic segments which are not detected as part of any of the MCIs, are also used for phylogenetic tree reconstruction. We applied these two types of measures for reconstructing the phylogenetic tree of 63 prokaryotes with known COG (clusters of orthologous groups) families. Similarity between the MCI-based (resp. UCS-based) reconstructed phylogenetic trees and the phylogenetic tree obtained from NCBI taxonomy browser is as high as 93.1% (resp. 94.9%). We show that in the case of this diverse dataset of prokaryotes, tree reconstruction based on MCI and UCS outperforms most of the currently available methods based on gene orders, including breakpoint distance and DCJ. We additionally tested our new measures on a dataset of 13 closely-related bacteria from the genus Prochlorococcus. In this case, distances like rearrangement distance, breakpoint distance and DCJ proved to be useful, while our new measures are still appropriate for phylogenetic reconstruction. PMID:25195150

  18. Phylogenetic community ecology of soil biodiversity using mitochondrial metagenomics.

    PubMed

    Andújar, Carmelo; Arribas, Paula; Ruzicka, Filip; Crampton-Platt, Alex; Timmermans, Martijn J T N; Vogler, Alfried P

    2015-07-01

    High-throughput DNA methods hold great promise for the study of taxonomically intractable mesofauna of the soil. Here, we assess species diversity and community structure in a phylogenetic framework, by sequencing total DNA from bulk specimen samples and assembly of mitochondrial genomes. The combination of mitochondrial metagenomics and DNA barcode sequencing of 1494 specimens in 69 soil samples from three geographic regions in southern Iberia revealed >300 species of soil Coleoptera (beetles) from a broad spectrum of phylogenetic lineages. A set of 214 mitochondrial sequences longer than 3000 bp was generated and used to estimate a well-supported phylogenetic tree of the order Coleoptera. Shorter sequences, including cox1 barcodes, were placed on this mitogenomic tree. Raw Illumina reads were mapped against all available sequences to test for species present in local samples. This approach simultaneously established the species richness, phylogenetic composition and community turnover at species and phylogenetic levels. We find a strong signature of vertical structuring in soil fauna that shows high local community differentiation between deep soil and superficial horizons at phylogenetic levels. Within the two vertical layers, turnover among regions was primarily at the tip (species) level and was stronger in the deep soil than leaf litter communities, pointing to layer-mediated drivers determining species diversification, spatial structure and evolutionary assembly of soil communities. This integrated phylogenetic framework opens the application of phylogenetic community ecology to the mesofauna of the soil, among the most diverse and least well-understood ecosystems, and will propel both theoretical and applied soil science. PMID:25865150

  19. Phylogenetic Analysis of Reptilian Hemoglobins: Trees, Rates, and Divergences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas A. Gorr; Barbara K. Mable; Traute Kleinschmidt

    1998-01-01

    .   Phylogenetic relationships among reptiles were examined using previously published and newly determined hemoglobin sequences.\\u000a Trees reconstructed from these sequences using maximum-parsimony, neighbor-joining, and maximum-likelihood algorithms were\\u000a compared with a phylogenetic tree of Amniota, which was assembled on the basis of published morphological data. All analyses differentiated ? chains into ?A and ?D types, which are present in all reptiles

  20. Phylogenetic diversity of a SRB-rich marine biofilm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Zhang; H. H. P. Fang

    2001-01-01

    This study was conducted to characterize the phylogenetic diversity of a corrosive marine biofilm based on 16S rDNA. Results of phylogenetic analysis indicated that, out of the 112 clones developed, 52 clones (46.4%) were affiliated with two families of sulfate-reducing bacteria: Desulfovibrionaceae and Desulfobacteriaceae. Another 44 clones (39.3%) were affiliated with the Clostridiaceae family of low G+C, Gram-positive bacteria. Three

  1. Phylogenetic Position of Yeastlike Endosymbionts of Anobiid Beetles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HIROAKI NODA

    1996-01-01

    The Anobiid beetlesStegobium paniceumandLasioderma serricornepossess the intracellular yeastlike sym- bionts Symbiotaphrina buchneri and Symbiotaphrina kochii, respectively, in the mycetome between the foregut and midgut. The nucleotide sequences of the small-subunit rRNA-encoding genes of the symbionts were determined for phylogenetic analysis. Five group I introns were found in the small-subunit rRNA-encoding genes ofS. buchneri, butS. kochiilacked introns. The phylogenetic position of

  2. Multilocus phylogeography and phylogenetics using sequence-based markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrícia H. Brito; Scott V. Edwards

    2009-01-01

    We review recent trends in phylogeography and phylogenetics and argue that these two fields stand to be reunited by the common\\u000a yardstick provided by sequence and SNP data and by new multilocus methods for phylogenetic analysis. Whereas the modern incarnation\\u000a of both fields was spawned by PCR approaches applied to mitochondrial DNA in the late 1980s, the two fields diverged

  3. The close phylogenetic relationship of Nitrobacter and Rhodopseudomonas palustris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elke Seewaldt; Karl-Heinz Schleifer; Eberhard Bock; Erko Stackebrandt

    1982-01-01

    The phylogenetic position of Nitrobacter winogradskyi and two other nitrite-oxidizing bacteria was elucidated comparing oligonucleotides of the 16S ribosomal RNA. Nitrobacter winogradskyi and the Nitrobacter isolate ‘Yukatan’ are genetically nearly identical; Nitrobacter isolate X14 is more distantly related. Phylogenetically, Nitrobacter is a member of a group of purple non-sulfur bacteria that is defined by various species of Rhodopseudomonas, Rhodomicrobium vannielii,

  4. Proteomic applications of automated GPCR classification.

    PubMed

    Davies, Matthew N; Gloriam, David E; Secker, Andrew; Freitas, Alex A; Mendao, Miguel; Timmis, Jon; Flower, Darren R

    2007-08-01

    The G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily fulfils various metabolic functions and interacts with a diverse range of ligands. There is a lack of sequence similarity between the six classes that comprise the GPCR superfamily. Moreover, most novel GPCRs found have low sequence similarity to other family members which makes it difficult to infer properties from related receptors. Many different approaches have been taken towards developing efficient and accurate methods for GPCR classification, ranging from motif-based systems to machine learning as well as a variety of alignment-free techniques based on the physiochemical properties of their amino acid sequences. This review describes the inherent difficulties in developing a GPCR classification algorithm and includes techniques previously employed in this area. PMID:17639603

  5. Phylogenetic Diversification of the Globin Gene Superfamily in Chordates

    PubMed Central

    Storz, Jay F.; Opazo, Juan C.; Hoffmann, Federico G.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Phylogenetic reconstructions provide a means of inferring the branching relationships among members of multigene families that have diversified via successive rounds of gene duplication and divergence. Such reconstructions can illuminate the pathways by which particular expression patterns and protein functions evolved. For example, phylogenetic analyses can reveal cases in which similar expression patterns or functional properties evolved independently in different lineages, either through convergence, parallelism, or evolutionary reversals. The purpose of this paper is to provide a robust phylogenetic framework for interpreting experimental data and for generating hypotheses about the functional evolution of globin proteins in chordate animals. To do this we present a consensus phylogeny of the chordate globin gene superfamily. We document the relative roles of gene duplication and whole-genome duplication in fueling the functional diversification of vertebrate globins, and we unravel patterns of shared ancestry among globin genes from representatives of the three chordate subphyla (Craniata, Urochordata, and Cephalochordata). Our results demonstrate the value of integrating phylogenetic analyses with genomic analyses of conserved synteny to infer the duplicative origins and evolutionary histories of globin genes. We also discuss a number of case studies that illustrate the importance of phylogenetic information when making inferences about the evolution of globin gene expression and protein function. Finally, we discuss why the globin gene superfamily presents special challenges for phylogenetic analysis, and we describe methodological approaches that can be used to meet those challenges. PMID:21557448

  6. Invasive ants alter the phylogenetic structure of ant communities.

    PubMed

    Lessard, Jean-Philippe; Fordyce, James A; Gotelli, Nicholas J; Sanders, Nathan J

    2009-10-01

    Invasive species displace native species and potentially alter the structure and function of ecological communities. In this study, we compared the generic composition of intact and invaded ant communities from 12 published studies and found that invasive ant species alter the phylogenetic structure of native ant communities. Intact ant communities were phylogenetically evenly dispersed, suggesting that competition structures communities. However, in the presence of an invasive ant species, these same communities were phylogenetically clustered. Phylogenetic clustering in invaded communities suggests that invasive species may act as strong environmental filters and prune the phylogenetic tree of native species in a nonrandom manner, such that only a few closely related taxa can persist in the face of a biological invasion. Taxa that were displaced by invasive ant species were evenly dispersed in the phylogeny, suggesting that diversity losses from invasive ant species are not clustered in particular lineages. Collectively, these results suggest that there is strong phylogenetic structuring in intact native ant communities, but the spread of invasive species disassembles those communities above and beyond the effect of simple reductions in diversity. PMID:19886475

  7. Developmental characters in phylogenetic inference and their absolute timing information.

    PubMed

    Laurin, Michel; Germain, Damien

    2011-10-01

    Despite the recent surge of interest in studying the evolution of development, surprisingly little work has been done to investigate the phylogenetic signal in developmental characters. Yet, both the potential usefulness of developmental characters in phylogenetic reconstruction and the validity of inferences on the evolution of developmental characters depend on the presence of such a phylogenetic signal and on the ability of our coding scheme to capture it. In a recent study, we showed, using simulations, that a new method (called the continuous analysis) using standardized time or ontogenetic sequence data and squared-change parsimony outperformed event pairing and event cracking in analyzing developmental data on a reference phylogeny. Using the same simulated data, we demonstrate that all these coding methods (event pairing and standardized time or ontogenetic sequence data) can be used to produce phylogenetically informative data. Despite some dependence between characters (the position of an event in an ontogenetic sequence is not independent of the position of other events in the same sequence), parsimony analysis of such characters converges on the correct phylogeny as the amount of data increases. In this context, the new coding method (developed for the continuous analysis) outperforms event pairing; it recovers a lower proportion of incorrect clades. This study thus validates the use of ontogenetic data in phylogenetic inference and presents a simple coding scheme that can extract a reliable phylogenetic signal from these data. PMID:21447482

  8. Compression-based distance (CBD): a simple, rapid, and accurate method for microbiota composition comparison

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Perturbations in intestinal microbiota composition have been associated with a variety of gastrointestinal tract-related diseases. The alleviation of symptoms has been achieved using treatments that alter the gastrointestinal tract microbiota toward that of healthy individuals. Identifying differences in microbiota composition through the use of 16S rRNA gene hypervariable tag sequencing has profound health implications. Current computational methods for comparing microbial communities are usually based on multiple alignments and phylogenetic inference, making them time consuming and requiring exceptional expertise and computational resources. As sequencing data rapidly grows in size, simpler analysis methods are needed to meet the growing computational burdens of microbiota comparisons. Thus, we have developed a simple, rapid, and accurate method, independent of multiple alignments and phylogenetic inference, to support microbiota comparisons. Results We create a metric, called compression-based distance (CBD) for quantifying the degree of similarity between microbial communities. CBD uses the repetitive nature of hypervariable tag datasets and well-established compression algorithms to approximate the total information shared between two datasets. Three published microbiota datasets were used as test cases for CBD as an applicable tool. Our study revealed that CBD recaptured 100% of the statistically significant conclusions reported in the previous studies, while achieving a decrease in computational time required when compared to similar tools without expert user intervention. Conclusion CBD provides a simple, rapid, and accurate method for assessing distances between gastrointestinal tract microbiota 16S hypervariable tag datasets. PMID:23617892

  9. Phylogenetic analysis of an economically important species complex of wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) in the midwest.

    PubMed

    Lindroth, E; Clark, Thomas L

    2009-04-01

    Wireworms are a common soil-dwelling pest of maize, Zea mays L., in the midwestern United States. Wireworms are a problematic group to control and study due to the difficulty involved in identification. The objectives of this study are to identify this species complex of wireworms by using molecular diagnostic techniques and to reconstruct a phylogeny of economically important wireworm species. The cytochrome oxidase I gene of mitochondrial DNA was sequenced from > 300 individuals. The species analyzed include all economically important members of the genus Melanotus Eschscholtz as well as Conoderus lividus (De Geer). The species that are indistinguishable in the larval stage were successfully separated using nucleotide p-distances, and sequence data were then used in phylogenetic analyses. The data presented here represent an initial phylogenetic hypothesis concerning economically important wireworms. Our results indicate that the molecular phylogeny of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene provides a fast and accurate method of separating wireworm species. By increasing the ease and accuracy of identification, we hope to facilitate further investigations into their biology and control. PMID:19449656

  10. Integrating coalescent and phylogenetic approaches to delimit species in the lichen photobiont Trebouxia.

    PubMed

    Sadowska-De?, Anna D; Dal Grande, Francesco; Lumbsch, H Thorsten; Beck, Andreas; Otte, Jürgen; Hur, Jae-Seoun; Kim, Jung A; Schmitt, Imke

    2014-07-01

    The accurate assessment of species boundaries in symbiotic systems is a prerequisite for the study of speciation, co-evolution and selectivity. Many studies have shown the high genetic diversity of green algae from the genus Trebouxia, the most common photobiont of lichen-forming fungi. However, the phylogenetic relationships, and the amount of cryptic diversity of these algae are still poorly understood, and an adequate species concept for trebouxiophycean algae is still missing. In this study we used a multifaceted approach based on coalescence (GMYC, STEM) and phylogenetic relationships to assess species boundaries in the trebouxioid photobionts of the lichen-forming fungus Lasallia pustulata. We further investigated whether putative species of Trebouxia found in L. pustulata are shared with other lichen-forming fungi. We found that L. pustulata is associated with at least five species of Trebouxia and most of them are shared with other lichen-forming fungi, showing different patterns of species-to-species and species-to-community interactions. We also show that one of the putative Trebouxia species is found exclusively in association with L. pustulata and is restricted to thalli from localities with Mediterranean microclimate. We suggest that the species delimitation method presented in this study is a promising tool to address species boundaries within the heterogeneous genus Trebouxia. PMID:24685499

  11. Rubric for Content Classification

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    J.G. Brummer

    2002-11-01

    Are teaching strategies such as collaborative learning, student-centered classrooms, and guided inquiry always appropriate? How do we decide what topics to teach? The Rubric for Content Classification is a taxonomy of material covered in a general science

  12. Constitutional Classifications and the \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan J. Becker

    2002-01-01

    In this essay the author discusses the use of genetic information to classify individuals for purposes of the law, and more specifically, the impact of the so-called “gay gene” on legal classifications.

  13. Gait Analysis for Classification

    E-print Network

    Lee, Lily

    2003-06-26

    This thesis describes a representation of gait appearance for the purpose of person identification and classification. This gait representation is based on simple localized image features such as moments extracted from ...

  14. Gait analysis for classification

    E-print Network

    Lee, Lily, 1971-

    2002-01-01

    This thesis describes a representation of gait appearance for the purpose of person identification and classification. This gait representation is based on simple localized image features such as moments extracted from ...

  15. Potato Chip Classification

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1998-01-01

    This activity introduces the structure and function of a dichotomous key, in preparation for student identification of plant and animal specimens. It also reinforces the idea that there are many possible answers in science. Students will be able to classify specimens (in this case, potato chips) according to observable characteristics, prepare a key showing their classification system, use their key to identify a specimen, and recognize the validity of classmates' classification systems.

  16. Occupational Classification System Manual

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Researchers may gain insight into the Bureau of Labor Statistics and Census Bureau occupational codes via the Occupational Classification System Manual (OCSM). A list of Major Occupation Group titles (MOGs) is provided as well as links to the Census Occupation Index--an alphabetical list of approximately 30,000 occupational titles. Further guidance in locating the proper occupation classification for research queries is outlined in the articles "Using the OCSM" and "Using the Census Index."

  17. Automatic Road Environment Classification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabelle Tang; Toby P. Breckon

    2011-01-01

    The ongoing development autonomous vehicles and adaptive vehicle dynamics present in many modern vehicles has generated a need for road environment classification—i.e., the ability to determine the nature of the current road or terrain environment from an onboard vehicle sensor. In this paper, we investigate the use of a low-cost camera vision solution capable of urban, rural, or off-road classification

  18. GALSVM: Automated Morphology Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huertas-Company, Marc

    2013-04-01

    GALSVM is IDL software for automated morphology classification. It was specially designed for high redshift data but can be used at low redshift as well. It analyzes morphologies of galaxies based on a particular family of learning machines called support vector machines. The method can be seen as a generalization of the classical CAS classification but with an unlimited number of dimensions and non-linear boundaries between decision regions. It is fully automated and consequently well adapted to large cosmological surveys.

  19. Resident-Invader Phylogenetic Relatedness, Not Resident Phylogenetic Diversity, Controls Community Invasibility.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jiaqi; Pu, Zhichao; Ryberg, Wade A; Jiang, Lin

    2015-07-01

    A central goal of invasion biology is to elucidate mechanisms regulating community invasibility. Darwin's naturalization hypothesis, one of the oldest hypotheses in invasion biology, emphasizes the importance of phylogenetic relatedness (PR) between resident and invader species for predicting invasibility. Alternatively, a recent extension of the diversity-invasibility hypothesis predicts that phylogenetic diversity (PD) of resident communities influences invasibility. Neither of these hypotheses has undergone rigorous experimental testing, and the relative contributions of PR and PD to community invasibility are unknown, in part because their effects tend to be confounded with each other. Here we consider both perspectives together by independently manipulating PR and PD in laboratory bacterial assemblages. We found that, although invader abundance decreased significantly as PR increased, it was unaffected by PD. Likewise, we found that resident-invader functional similarity, not functional diversity of resident communities, was a significant predictor of invader abundance. Nevertheless, invader abundance was better predicted by PR than by functional similarity. These results highlight the importance of considering species evolutionary relationships, especially the PR between resident and invader species, for the prediction, prevention, and management of biological invasions. PMID:26098339

  20. Accurate estimation of sigma(exp 0) using AIRSAR data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holecz, Francesco; Rignot, Eric

    1995-01-01

    During recent years signature analysis, classification, and modeling of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data as well as estimation of geophysical parameters from SAR data have received a great deal of interest. An important requirement for the quantitative use of SAR data is the accurate estimation of the backscattering coefficient sigma(exp 0). In terrain with relief variations radar signals are distorted due to the projection of the scene topography into the slant range-Doppler plane. The effect of these variations is to change the physical size of the scattering area, leading to errors in the radar backscatter values and incidence angle. For this reason the local incidence angle, derived from sensor position and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data must always be considered. Especially in the airborne case, the antenna gain pattern can be an additional source of radiometric error, because the radar look angle is not known precisely as a result of the the aircraft motions and the local surface topography. Consequently, radiometric distortions due to the antenna gain pattern must also be corrected for each resolution cell, by taking into account aircraft displacements (position and attitude) and position of the backscatter element, defined by the DEM data. In this paper, a method to derive an accurate estimation of the backscattering coefficient using NASA/JPL AIRSAR data is presented. The results are evaluated in terms of geometric accuracy, radiometric variations of sigma(exp 0), and precision of the estimated forest biomass.

  1. Phylogenetic evidence for a case of misleading rather than mislabeling in caviar in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Tania Aspasia; Iyengar, Arati

    2015-01-01

    Sturgeons and paddlefish are freshwater fish which are highly valued for their caviar. Despite the fact that every single species of sturgeon and paddlefish is listed under CITES, there are reports of illegal trade in caviar where products are deliberately mislabeled. Three samples of caviar purchased in the United Kingdom were investigated for accurate CITES labeling using COI and cyt b sequencing. Initial species identification was carried out using BLAST followed by phylogenetic analyses using both maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood methods. Results showed no evidence for mislabeling with respect to CITES labels in any of the three samples, but we observed clear evidence for a case of misleading the customer in one sample. PMID:25098816

  2. [Phylogenetic analysis of bacteria of extreme ecosystems].

    PubMed

    Romanovskaia, V A; Parfenova, V V; Bel'kova, N L; Sukhanova, E V; Gladka, G V; Tashireva, A A

    2014-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of aerobic chemoorganotrophic bacteria of the two extreme regions (Dead Sea and West Antarctic) was performed on the basis of the nucleotide sequences of the 16S rRNA gene. Thermotolerant and halotolerant spore-forming bacteria 7t1 and 7t3 of terrestrial ecosystems Dead Sea identified as Bacillus licheniformis and B. subtilis subsp. subtilis, respectively. Taking into account remote location of thermotolerant strain 6t1 from closely related strains in the cluster Staphylococcus, 6t1 strain can be regarded as Staphylococcus sp. In terrestrial ecosystems, Galindez Island (Antarctic) detected taxonomically diverse psychrotolerant bacteria. From ornithogenic soil were isolated Micrococcus luteus O-1 and Microbacterium trichothecenolyticum O-3. Strains 4r5, 5r5 and 40r5, isolated from grass and lichens, can be referred to the genus Frondihabitans. These strains are taxonomically and ecologically isolated and on the tree diagram form the joint cluster with three isolates Frondihabitans sp., isolated from the lichen Austrian Alps, and psychrotolerant associated with plants F. cladoniiphilus CafT13(T). Isolates from black lichen in the different stationary observation points on the south side of a vertical cliff identified as: Rhodococcus fascians 181n3, Sporosarcina aquimarina O-7, Staphylococcus sp. 0-10. From orange biofilm of fouling on top of the vertical cliff isolated Arthrobacter sp. 28r5g1, from the moss-- Serratia sp. 6r1g. According to the results, Frondihabitans strains most frequently encountered among chemoorganotrophic aerobic bacteria in the Antarctic phytocenoses. PMID:25007437

  3. Accurate Structural Correlations from Maximum Likelihood Superpositions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas L. Theobald; Deborah S. Wuttke

    2008-01-01

    The cores of globular proteins are densely packed, resulting in complicated networks of structural interactions. These interactions in turn give rise to dynamic structural correlations over a wide range of time scales. Accurate analysis of these complex correlations is crucial for understanding biomolecular mechanisms and for relating structure to function. Here we report a highly accurate technique for inferring the

  4. Neogastropod phylogenetic relationships based on entire mitochondrial genomes

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Regina L; Grande, Cristina; Zardoya, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    Background The Neogastropoda is a highly diversified group of predatory marine snails (Gastropoda: Caenogastropoda). Traditionally, its monophyly has been widely accepted based on several morphological synapomorphies mostly related with the digestive system. However, recent molecular phylogenetic studies challenged the monophyly of Neogastropoda due to the inclusion of representatives of other caenogastropod lineages (e.g. Littorinimorpha) within the group. Neogastropoda has been classified into up to six superfamilies including Buccinoidea, Muricoidea, Olivoidea, Pseudolivoidea, Conoidea, and Cancellarioidea. Phylogenetic relationships among neogastropod superfamilies remain unresolved. Results The complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes of seven Neogastropoda (Bolinus brandaris, Cancellaria cancellata, Conus borgesi, Cymbium olla, Fusiturris similis, Nassarius reticulatus, and Terebra dimidiata) and of the tonnoidean Cymatium parthenopeum (Littorinimorpha), a putative sister group to Neogastropoda, were sequenced. In addition, the partial sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the calyptraeoidean Calyptraea chinensis (Littorinimorpha) was also determined. All sequenced neogastropod mt genomes shared a highly conserved gene order with only two instances of tRNA gene translocation. Phylogenetic relationships of Neogastropoda were inferred based on the 13 mt protein coding genes (both at the amino acid and nucleotide level) of all available caenogastropod mitochondrial genomes. Maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) phylogenetic analyses failed to recover the monophyly of Neogastropoda due to the inclusion of the tonnoidean Cymatium parthenopeum within the group. At the superfamily level, all phylogenetic analyses questioned the taxonomic validity of Muricoidea, whereas the monophyly of Conoidea was supported by most phylogenetic analyses, albeit weakly. All analyzed families were recovered as monophyletic except Turridae due to the inclusion of Terebridae. Further phylogenetic analyses based on either a four mt gene data set including two additional Littorinimorpha or combining mt and nuclear sequence data also rejected the monophyly of Neogastropoda but rendered rather unresolved topologies. The phylogenetic performance of each mt gene was evaluated under ML. The total number of resolved internal branches of the reference (whole-mt genome) topology was not recovered in any of the individual gene phylogenetic analysis. The cox2 gene recovered the highest number of congruent internal branches with the reference topology, whereas the combined tRNA genes, cox1, and atp8 showed the lowest phylogenetic performance. Conclusion Phylogenetic analyses based on complete mt genome data resolved a higher number of internal branches of the caenogastropod tree than individual mt genes. All performed phylogenetic analyses agreed in rejecting the monophyly of the Neogastropoda due to the inclusion of Littorinimorpha lineages within the group. This result challenges morphological evidence, and prompts for further re-evaluation of neogastropod morphological synapomorphies. The important increase in number of analyzed positions with respect to previous studies was not enough to achieve conclusive results regarding phylogenetic relationships within Neogastropoda. In this regard, sequencing of complete mtDNAs from all closely related caenogastropod lineages is needed. Nevertheless, the rapid radiation at the origin of Neogastropoda may not allow full resolution of this phylogeny based only on mt data, and in parallel more nuclear sequence data will also need to be incorporated into the phylogenetic analyses. PMID:19698157

  5. PhyloTreePruner: A Phylogenetic Tree-Based Approach for Selection of Orthologous Sequences for Phylogenomics

    PubMed Central

    Kocot, Kevin M.; Citarella, Mathew R.; Moroz, Leonid L.; Halanych, Kenneth M.

    2013-01-01

    Molecular phylogenetics relies on accurate identification of orthologous sequences among the taxa of interest. Most orthology inference programs available for use in phylogenomics rely on small sets of pre-defined orthologs from model organisms or phenetic approaches such as all-versus-all sequence comparisons followed by Markov graph-based clustering. Such approaches have high sensitivity but may erroneously include paralogous sequences. We developed PhyloTreePruner, a software utility that uses a phylogenetic approach to refine orthology inferences made using phenetic methods. PhyloTreePruner checks single-gene trees for evidence of paralogy and generates a new alignment for each group containing only sequences inferred to be orthologs. Importantly, PhyloTreePruner takes into account support values on the tree and avoids unnecessarily deleting sequences in cases where a weakly supported tree topology incorrectly indicates paralogy. A test of PhyloTreePruner on a dataset generated from 11 completely sequenced arthropod genomes identified 2,027 orthologous groups sampled for all taxa. Phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated supermatrix yielded a generally well-supported topology that was consistent with the current understanding of arthropod phylogeny. PhyloTreePruner is freely available from http://sourceforge.net/projects/phylotreepruner/. PMID:24250218

  6. The Diaporthe sojae species complex: Phylogenetic re-assessment of pathogens associated with soybean, cucurbits and other field crops.

    PubMed

    Udayanga, Dhanushka; Castlebury, Lisa A; Rossman, Amy Y; Chukeatirote, Ekachai; Hyde, Kevin D

    2015-05-01

    Phytopathogenic species of Diaporthe are associated with a number of soybean diseases including seed decay, pod and stem blight and stem canker and lead to considerable crop production losses worldwide. Accurate morphological identification of the species that cause these diseases has been difficult. In this study, we determined the phylogenetic relationships and species boundaries of Diaporthe longicolla, Diaporthe phaseolorum, Diaporthe sojae and closely related taxa. Species boundaries for this complex were determined based on combined phylogenetic analysis of five gene regions: partial sequences of calmodulin (CAL), beta-tubulin (TUB), histone-3 (HIS), translation elongation factor 1-? (EF1-?), and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacers (ITS). Phylogenetic analyses revealed that this large complex of taxa is comprised of soybean pathogens as well as species associated with herbaceous field crops and weeds. Diaporthe arctii, Diaporthe batatas, D. phaseolorum and D. sojae are epitypified. The seed decay pathogen D. longicolla was determined to be distinct from D. sojae. D. phaseolorum, originally associated with stem and leaf blight of Lima bean, was not found to be associated with soybean. A new species, Diaporthe ueckerae on Cucumis melo, is introduced with description and illustrations. PMID:25937066

  7. The phylogenetic component of cooperative breeding in perching birds.

    PubMed

    Edwards, S V; Naeem, S

    1993-05-01

    The appreciation by earlier workers of the importance of studying avian cooperative breeding (CB) in an explicitly phylogenetic context has waned in most recent studies of the subject. Newer statistical and conceptual methods correct for correlations among species inherent in their phylogenetic relationships and are used to study the evolution and adaptive status of CB in the context of phylogenetic trees. Statistical, simulation, and phylogenetic analyses of the taxonomic distribution of CB among passerine genera confirm the suspicion that CB is nonrandomly distributed among genera and extend the conclusion of E. Russell that CB may be ancient in some lineages, many of which include well-studied species. Phylogenetic reconstruction of ancestral states of ecological factors hypothesized to have promoted CB revealed a variety of temporal relationships between the inferred invasion of selective environments and the origin of CB that were not immediately apparent from nonphylogenetic analyses and that clarified the mechanistic relationship between these events. In some lineages the persistence of CB after substantial change in the selective environments presumed responsible for its origin suggests that "phylogenetic inertia" may partly explain the observed taxonomic distribution of CB. Phylogenetic effects cannot explain the observed plasticity and context-specific variation in many aspects of CB and helping; the joint effects of phylogeny and ecology for explaining such variation are illustrated. The data suggest that many lineages experience evolutionary forces promoting long-term stasis in life histories conducive to CB in addition to the better-characterized environmental responses modifying its short-term expression. PMID:19426009

  8. Scalable metagenomic taxonomy classification using a reference genome database

    PubMed Central

    Ames, Sasha K.; Hysom, David A.; Gardner, Shea N.; Lloyd, G. Scott; Gokhale, Maya B.; Allen, Jonathan E.

    2013-01-01

    Motivation: Deep metagenomic sequencing of biological samples has the potential to recover otherwise difficult-to-detect microorganisms and accurately characterize biological samples with limited prior knowledge of sample contents. Existing metagenomic taxonomic classification algorithms, however, do not scale well to analyze large metagenomic datasets, and balancing classification accuracy with computational efficiency presents a fundamental challenge. Results: A method is presented to shift computational costs to an off-line computation by creating a taxonomy/genome index that supports scalable metagenomic classification. Scalable performance is demonstrated on real and simulated data to show accurate classification in the presence of novel organisms on samples that include viruses, prokaryotes, fungi and protists. Taxonomic classification of the previously published 150 giga-base Tyrolean Iceman dataset was found to take <20 h on a single node 40 core large memory machine and provide new insights on the metagenomic contents of the sample. Availability: Software was implemented in C++ and is freely available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/lmat Contact: allen99@llnl.gov Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:23828782

  9. Phylogenetic aspects of the complement system.

    PubMed

    Zarkadis, I K; Mastellos, D; Lambris, J D

    2001-01-01

    During evolution two general systems of immunity have emerged: innate or, natural immunity and adaptive (acquired), or specific immunity. The innate system is phylogenetically older and is found in some form in all multicellular organisms, whereas the adaptive system appeared about 450 million years ago and is found in all vertebrates except jawless fish. The complement system in higher vertebrates plays an important role as an effector of both the innate and the acquired immune response, and also participates in various immunoregulatory processes. In lower vertebrates complement is activated by the alternative and lectin pathways and is primarily involved in the opsonization of foreign material. The Agnatha (the most primitive vertebrate species) possess the alternative and lectin pathways while cartilaginous fish are the first species in which the classical pathway appears following the emergence of immunoglobulins. The rest of the poikilothermic species, ranging from teleosts to reptilians, appear to contain a well-developed complement system resembling that of the homeothermic vertebrates. It seems that most of the complement components have appeared after the duplication of primordial genes encoding C3/C4/C5, fB/C2, C1s/C1r/MASP-1/MASP-2, and C6/C7/C8/C9 molecules, in a process that led to the formation of distinct activation pathways. However, unlike homeotherms, several species of poikilotherms (e.g. trout) have recently been shown to possess multiple forms of complement components (C3, factor B) that are structurally and functionally more diverse than those of higher vertebrates. We hypothesize that this remarkable diversity has allowed these animals to expand their innate capacity for immune recognition and response. Recent studies have also indicated the possible presence of complement receptors in protochordates and lower vertebrates. In conclusion, there is considerable evidence suggesting that the complement system is present in the entire lineage of deuterostomes, and regulatory complement components have been identified in all species beyond the protochordates, indicating that the mechanisms of complement activation and regulation have developed in parallel. PMID:11602194

  10. The power and pitfalls of HIV phylogenetics in public health.

    PubMed

    Brooks, James I; Sandstrom, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    Phylogenetics is the application of comparative studies of genetic sequences in order to infer evolutionary relationships among organisms. This tool can be used as a form of molecular epidemiology to enhance traditional population-level communicable disease surveillance. Phylogenetic study has resulted in new paradigms being created in the field of communicable diseases and this commentary aims to provide the reader with an explanation of how phylogenetics can be used in tracking infectious diseases. Special emphasis will be placed upon the application of phylogenetics as a tool to help elucidate HIV transmission patterns and the limitations to these methods when applied to forensic analysis. Understanding infectious disease epidemiology in order to prevent new transmissions is the sine qua non of public health. However, with increasing epidemiological resolution, there may be an associated potential loss of privacy to the individual. It is within this context that we aim to promote the discussion on how to use phylogenetics to achieve important public health goals, while at the same time protecting the rights of the individual. PMID:24044477

  11. The space of phylogenetic mixtures for equivariant models

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The selection of an evolutionary model to best fit given molecular data is usually a heuristic choice. In his seminal book, J. Felsenstein suggested that certain linear equations satisfied by the expected probabilities of patterns observed at the leaves of a phylogenetic tree could be used for model selection. It remained an open question, however, whether these equations were sufficient to fully characterize the evolutionary model under consideration. Results Here we prove that, for most equivariant models of evolution, the space of distributions satisfying these linear equations coincides with the space of distributions arising from mixtures of trees. In other words, we prove that the evolution of an observed multiple sequence alignment can be modeled by a mixture of phylogenetic trees under an equivariant evolutionary model if and only if the distribution of patterns at its columns satisfies the linear equations mentioned above. Moreover, we provide a set of linearly independent equations defining this space of phylogenetic mixtures for each equivariant model and for any number of taxa. Lastly, we use these results to perform a study of identifiability of phylogenetic mixtures. Conclusions The space of phylogenetic mixtures under equivariant models is a linear space that fully characterizes the evolutionary model. We provide an explicit algorithm to obtain the equations defining these spaces for a number of models and taxa. Its implementation has proved to be a powerful tool for model selection. PMID:23190710

  12. Components of phylogenetic signal in antagonistic and mutualistic networks.

    PubMed

    Rohr, Rudolf P; Bascompte, Jordi

    2014-11-01

    Recent studies have shown a phylogenetic signal in the structure of ecological networks, making the point that evolutionary history is important in explaining network architecture. However, this previous work has focused on either antagonistic (i.e., predator-prey) or mutualistic networks and has used different methodologies. Thus, a comparative assessment of both the frequency and the strength of phylogenetic signal across network types and components of network structure has been precluded. Here, we address this issue using a data set comprising 60 antagonistic and mutualistic networks. By quantifying simultaneously the matching and centrality components of network architecture-capturing the modular and nested structure, respectively-we test the presence and quantify the strength of phylogenetic signal across network types, species sets, and components of network structure. We find contrasting differences across such groups. First, phylogenetic signal is stronger in antagonistic webs than in mutualistic webs. Second, resources are more strongly constrained than consumers in food webs, while animals show more constraints than plants in mutualistic networks. Third, phylogenetic constraints are stronger for the matching component than for the centrality component of network structure. These results can shed light on the contrasting evolutionary constraints shaping network structure across interaction types and species sets. PMID:25325741

  13. Minimizing phylogenetic number to find good evolutionary trees

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, L.A.; Goldberg, P.W.; Phillips, C.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sweedyk, E. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Warnow, T. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Computer and Information Science

    1995-05-01

    Inferring phylogenetic trees is a fundamental problem in computational-biology. We present a new objective criterion, the phylogenetic number, for evaluating evolutionary trees for species defined by biomolecular sequences or other qualitative characters. The phylogenetic number of a tree T is the maximum number of times that any given character state arises in T. By contrast, the classical parsimony criterion measures the total number of times that different character states arise in T. We consider the following related problems: finding the tree with minimum phylogenetic number, and computing the phylogenetic number of a given topology in which only the leaves are labeled by species. When the number of states is bounded (as is the case for biomolecular sequence characters), we can solve the second problem in polynomial time. We can also compute a fixed-topology 2-phylogeny (when one exists) for an arbitrary number of states. This algorithm can be used to further distinguish trees that are equal under parsimony. We also consider a number of other related problems.

  14. Acoustic Classification with Single-Beam Echosounders: Processing Methods and Theory for Isolating Effects of the Seabed on Echoes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ben R. Biffard; Jon M. Preston; N. Ross Chapman

    2007-01-01

    Analyzing the details of echoes from single-beam sounders is well established as a basis for seabed classification. Both echo shape and amplitude are analyzed to make maps of seabed sediment classes. For accurate acoustic classification of the seabed, the echoes should be influenced only by properties of the seabed. This paper surveys methods to remove artifacts caused by water depth,

  15. A recursive segmentation and classification scheme for improving segmentation accuracy and detection rate in real-time machine vision applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuhira Ding; George J. Vachtsevanos; Yinchuan Zhang; Y. Wardi

    2002-01-01

    The segmentation accuracy is shown to be a critical factor in detection rate improvement. With accurate segmentation, results are easier to interpret, and classification performance is better. Therefore, it is required to have a performance measure for segmentation evaluation. However, a number of restrictions limit using existing segmentation performance measures. A recursive segmentation and classification scheme is proposed to improve

  16. Spatial Mutual Information Based Hyperspectral Band Selection for Classification

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The amount of information involved in hyperspectral imaging is large. Hyperspectral band selection is a popular method for reducing dimensionality. Several information based measures such as mutual information have been proposed to reduce information redundancy among spectral bands. Unfortunately, mutual information does not take into account the spatial dependency between adjacent pixels in images thus reducing its robustness as a similarity measure. In this paper, we propose a new band selection method based on spatial mutual information. As validation criteria, a supervised classification method using support vector machine (SVM) is used. Experimental results of the classification of hyperspectral datasets show that the proposed method can achieve more accurate results. PMID:25918742

  17. Interpretable gene expression classifier with an accurate and compact fuzzy rule base for microarray data analysis.

    PubMed

    Ho, Shinn-Ying; Hsieh, Chih-Hung; Chen, Hung-Ming; Huang, Hui-Ling

    2006-09-01

    An accurate classifier with linguistic interpretability using a small number of relevant genes is beneficial to microarray data analysis and development of inexpensive diagnostic tests. Several frequently used techniques for designing classifiers of microarray data, such as support vector machine, neural networks, k-nearest neighbor, and logistic regression model, suffer from low interpretabilities. This paper proposes an interpretable gene expression classifier (named iGEC) with an accurate and compact fuzzy rule base for microarray data analysis. The design of iGEC has three objectives to be simultaneously optimized: maximal classification accuracy, minimal number of rules, and minimal number of used genes. An "intelligent" genetic algorithm IGA is used to efficiently solve the design problem with a large number of tuning parameters. The performance of iGEC is evaluated using eight commonly-used data sets. It is shown that iGEC has an accurate, concise, and interpretable rule base (1.1 rules per class) on average in terms of test classification accuracy (87.9%), rule number (3.9), and used gene number (5.0). Moreover, iGEC not only has better performance than the existing fuzzy rule-based classifier in terms of the above-mentioned objectives, but also is more accurate than some existing non-rule-based classifiers. PMID:16490299

  18. A database for the taxonomic and phylogenetic identification of the genus Bradyrhizobium using multilocus sequence analysis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Biological nitrogen fixation, with an emphasis on the legume-rhizobia symbiosis, is a key process for agriculture and the environment, allowing the replacement of nitrogen fertilizers, reducing water pollution by nitrate as well as emission of greenhouse gases. Soils contain numerous strains belonging to the bacterial genus Bradyrhizobium, which establish symbioses with a variety of legumes. However, due to the high conservation of Bradyrhizobium 16S rRNA genes - considered as the backbone of the taxonomy of prokaryotes - few species have been delineated. The multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) methodology, which includes analysis of housekeeping genes, has been shown to be promising and powerful for defining bacterial species, and, in this study, it was applied to Bradyrhizobium, species, increasing our understanding of the diversity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Description Classification of bacteria of agronomic importance is relevant to biodiversity, as well as to biotechnological manipulation to improve agricultural productivity. We propose the construction of an online database that will provide information and tools using MLSA to improve phylogenetic and taxonomic characterization of Bradyrhizobium, allowing the comparison of genomic sequences with those of type and representative strains of each species. Conclusion A database for the taxonomic and phylogenetic identification of the Bradyrhizobium, genus, using MLSA, will facilitate the use of biological data available through an intuitive web interface. Sequences stored in the on-line database can be compared with multiple sequences of other strains with simplicity and agility through multiple alignment algorithms and computational routines integrated into the database. The proposed database and software tools are available at http://mlsa.cnpso.embrapa.br, and can be used, free of charge, by researchers worldwide to classify Bradyrhizobium, strains; the database and software can be applied to replicate the experiments presented in this study as well as to generate new experiments. The next step will be expansion of the database to include other rhizobial species. PMID:26040196

  19. Phylogenetic Relationships of Citrus and Its Relatives Based on matK Gene Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Penjor, Tshering; Uehara, Miki; Ide, Manami; Matsumoto, Natsumi; Matsumoto, Ryoji

    2013-01-01

    The genus Citrus includes mandarin, orange, lemon, grapefruit and lime, which have high economic and nutritional value. The family Rutaceae can be divided into 7 subfamilies, including Aurantioideae. The genus Citrus belongs to the subfamily Aurantioideae. In this study, we sequenced the chloroplast matK genes of 135 accessions from 22 genera of Aurantioideae and analyzed them phylogenetically. Our study includes many accessions that have not been examined in other studies. The subfamily Aurantioideae has been classified into 2 tribes, Clauseneae and Citreae, and our current molecular analysis clearly discriminate Citreae from Clauseneae by using only 1 chloroplast DNA sequence. Our study confirms previous observations on the molecular phylogeny of Aurantioideae in many aspects. However, we have provided novel information on these genetic relationships. For example, inconsistent with the previous observation, and consistent with our preliminary study using the chloroplast rbcL genes, our analysis showed that Feroniella oblata is not nested in Citrus species and is closely related with Feronia limonia. Furthermore, we have shown that Murraya paniculata is similar to Merrillia caloxylon and is dissimilar to Murraya koenigii. We found that “true citrus fruit trees” could be divided into 2 subclusters. One subcluster included Citrus, Fortunella, and Poncirus, while the other cluster included Microcitrus and Eremocitrus. Compared to previous studies, our current study is the most extensive phylogenetic study of Citrus species since it includes 93 accessions. The results indicate that Citrus species can be classified into 3 clusters: a citron cluster, a pummelo cluster, and a mandarin cluster. Although most mandarin accessions belonged to the mandarin cluster, we found some exceptions. We also obtained the information on the genetic background of various species of acid citrus grown in Japan. Because the genus Citrus contains many important accessions, we have comprehensively discussed the classification of this genus. PMID:23638116

  20. Phylogenetic relationships of turfgrasses as revealed by restriction fragment analysis of chloroplast DNA.

    PubMed

    Yaneshita, M; Ohmura, T; Sasakuma, T; Ogihara, Y

    1993-10-01

    Chloroplast DNAs (cpDNAs) were analyzed in order to clarify the phylogenetic relationships among turfgrasses. Physical maps of cpDNAs from Agrostis stolonifera and Zoysia japonica, which are representative species of cool (C3 type) and warm (C4 type) season turfgrasses, respectively, were constructed with four restriction enzymes, i.e., PstI, SalI, SacI, and XhoI. The genome structures of these cpDNAs were found to be similar to each other in terms of genome size and gene orders, showing thereby a similarity to other grass cpDNAs. CpDNAs of 5 species of cool season turfgrasses and 6 species of warm season turfgrasses as well as four species of cereals, distributed among 14 genera of Gramineae, were digested with PstI, XhoI, and BamHI, and their restriction fragment patterns were compared. Their genome sizes were estimated to be 135-140 kbp. Each species showed characteristic RFLP patterns. On the basis of the frequency of commonly shared fragments, a dendrogram showing the phylogenetic relationships among their cpDNAs was constructed. This dendrogram shows that turfgrasses can be divided into three major groups; these correspond to the subfamilies. Cool and warm season turfgrasses are clearly distinguishable from each other, and the latter can be further classified into two subgroups that correspond to Eragrostoideae and Panicoideae. Our classification of turfgrasses and cereals by RFLP analysis of cpDNA agreed in principal with their conventional taxonomy, except for the location of Festuca and Lolium. PMID:24190204

  1. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Cyclemys dentata and phylogenetic analysis of the major family Geoemydidae.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y N; Li, J; Jiang, Q Y; Shen, X S; Yan, X Y; Tang, Y B; Huang, J; Guo, Y F; Lan, G Q; Jiang, H S

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of Cyclemys dentata was determined using PCR reactions. The structural organization and gene order of C. dentata were equivalent to those of most other vertebrates. The mt genome was 16,489 bp in length, has rich A+T content, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and a control region (D-loop). All protein-coding genes started with ATG, many genes have complete stop codons, except ND2, COX3, ND3, and cyt-b genes had incomplete stop codons of T. The light-strand replication origin (OL) of C. dentata might fold into a stable stem-loop secondary structure, and its loop had 2 nt less than that of the Cyclemys atripons OL sequence. The D-Loop of C. dentata contained a central domain (CD), 2 extended termination associated sequences (ETAS1, ETAS2) and 3 conserved sequence blocks (CSB1, CSB2, CSB3). The average length of 20 turtles' mt genomes was 16,692.5 bp, including 34.1% A, 27.0% T, 26.0% C and 12.9% G. The C. dentata mitochondrial genome could provide useful data for further studies on phylogenetics and conservation genetics of this species. The phylogenetic relationships of the family Geoemydidae were analyzed by maximum-likelihood (ML) and neighbor-joining (NJ) based on concatenated sequences of 13 protein-coding genes from 20 turtle species. The ML and NJ trees had homologous topologies. The results support the existing classification of the genera of Geoemydidae, that C. dentata was a sister species of C. atripons, Pyxidea nested in Cuora, and Chinemys was synonymous with Mauremys. PMID:25966089

  2. Spatial mismatch of phylogenetic diversity across three vertebrate groups and protected areas in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Zupan, Laure; Cabeza, Mar; Maiorano, Luigi; Roquet, Cristina; Devictor, Vincent; Lavergne, Sébastien; Mouillot, David; Mouquet, Nicolas; Renaud, Julien; Thuiller, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Aim We investigate patterns of phylogenetic diversity in relation to species diversity for European birds, mammals and amphibians, to evaluate their congruence and highlight areas of particular evolutionary history. We estimate the extent to which the European network of protected areas (PAs) network retains interesting evolutionary history areas for the three groups separately and simultaneously. Location Europe Methods Phylogenetic (QEPD) and species diversity (SD) were estimated using the Rao’s quadratic entropy at 10? resolution. We determined the regional relationship between QEPD and SD for each taxa with a spatial regression model and used the tails of the residuals (QERES) distribution to identify areas of higher and lower QEPD than predicted. Spatial congruence of biodiversity between groups was assessed with Pearson’s correlation. A simple classification scheme allowed building a convergence map where a convergent pixel equalled to a QERES value of the same sign for the 3 groups. This convergence map was overlaid to the current PAs network to estimate the level of protection in convergent pixels and compared it to a null expectation built on 1000 randomization of PAs over the landscape. Results QERES patterns across vertebrates show a strong spatial mismatch highlighting different evolutionary histories. Convergent areas represent only 2.7% of the Western Palearctic, with only 8.4% of these areas being covered by the current PAs network while a random distribution would retain 10.4% of them. QERES are unequally represented within PAs: areas with higher QEPD than predicted are better covered than expected, while low QEPD areas are undersampled. Main conclusions Patterns of diversity strongly diverge between groups of vertebrates in Europe. Although Europe has the world’s most extensive PAs network, evolutionary history of terrestrial vertebrates is unequally protected. The challenge is now to reconcile effective conservation planning with a contemporary view of biodiversity integrating multiple facets. PMID:24791146

  3. Normal Cell-Type Epigenetics and Breast Cancer Classification: A Case Study of Cell Mixture–Adjusted Analysis of DNA Methylation Data from Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Houseman, Eugene Andrés; Ince, Tan A

    2014-01-01

    Historically, breast cancer classification has relied on prognostic subtypes. Thus, unlike hematopoietic cancers, breast tumor classification lacks phylogenetic rationale. The feasibility of phylogenetic classification of breast tumors has recently been demonstrated based on estrogen receptor (ER), androgen receptor (AR), vitamin D receptor (VDR) and Keratin 5 expression. Four hormonal states (HR0–3) comprising 11 cellular subtypes of breast cells have been proposed. This classification scheme has been shown to have relevance to clinical prognosis. We examine the implications of such phylogenetic classification on DNA methylation of both breast tumors and normal breast tissues by applying recently developed deconvolution algorithms to three DNA methylation data sets archived on Gene Expression Omnibus. We propose that breast tumors arising from a particular cell-of-origin essentially magnify the epigenetic state of their original cell type. We demonstrate that DNA methylation of tumors manifests patterns consistent with cell-specific epigenetic states, that these states correspond roughly to previously posited normal breast cell types, and that estimates of proportions of the underlying cell types are predictive of tumor phenotypes. Taken together, these findings suggest that the epigenetics of breast tumors is ultimately based on the underlying phylogeny of normal breast tissue. PMID:25574126

  4. Classification of mental disorders*

    PubMed Central

    Stengel, E.

    1959-01-01

    One of the fundamental difficulties in devising a classification of mental disorders is the lack of agreement among psychiatrists regarding the concepts upon which it should be based: diagnoses can rarely be verified objectively and the same or similar conditions are described under a confusing variety of names. This situation militates against the ready exchange of ideas and experiences and hampers progress. As a first step towards remedying this state of affairs, the author of the article below has undertaken a critical survey of existing classifications. He shows how some of the difficulties created by lack of knowledge regarding pathology and etiology may be overcome by the use of “operational definitions” and outlines the basic principles on which he believes a generally acceptable international classification might be constructed. If this can be done it should lead to a greater measure of agreement regarding the value of specific treatments for mental disorders and greatly facilitate a broad epidemiological approach to psychiatric research. PMID:13834299

  5. Obtaining accurate measurement using redundant sensors 

    E-print Network

    Burnett, Michael Scott

    1996-01-01

    Conventional wisdom suggests to accomplish accurate measurement, the sensors used must have high precision and excellent dynamic range. This generally results in sensor systems that are complex, costly, and often sensitive to environmental factors...

  6. Mill profiler machines soft materials accurately

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauschl, J. A.

    1966-01-01

    Mill profiler machines bevels, slots, and grooves in soft materials, such as styrofoam phenolic-filled cores, to any desired thickness. A single operator can accurately control cutting depths in contour or straight line work.

  7. Phylogenetic utility of protein (RPB2, beta-tubulin) and ribosomal (LSU, SSU) gene sequences in the systematics of Sordariomycetes (Ascomycota, Fungi).

    PubMed

    Tang, Alvin M C; Jeewon, Rajesh; Hyde, Kevin D

    2007-05-01

    The Sordariomycetes is an important group of fungi whose taxonomic relationships and classification is obscure. There is presently no multi-gene molecular phylogeny that addresses evolutionary relationships among different classes and orders. In this study, phylogenetic analyses with a broad taxon sampling of the Sordariomycetes were conducted to evaluate the utility of four gene regions (LSU rDNA, SSU rDNA, beta-tubulin and RPB2) for inferring evolutionary relationships at different taxonomic ranks. Single and multi-gene genealogies inferred from Bayesian and Maximum Parsimony analyses were compared in individual and combined datasets. At the subclass level, SSU rDNA phylogenies demonstrate their utility as a marker to infer phylogenetic relationships at higher levels. All analyses with SSU rDNA alone, combined LSU rDNA and SSU rDNA, and the combined 28 S rDNA, SSU rDNA and RPB2 datasets resulted in three subclasses: Hypocreomycetidae, Sordariomycetidae and Xylariomycetidae, which correspond well to established morphological classification schemes. At the ordinal level, the best resolved phylogeny was obtained from the combined LSU rDNA and SSU rDNA datasets. Individually, the RPB2 gene dataset resulted in significantly higher number of parsimony informative characters. Our results supported the recent separation of Boliniaceae, Chaetosphaeriaceae and Coniochaetaceae from Sordariales and placement of Coronophorales in Hypocreomycetidae. Microascales was found to be paraphyletic and Ceratocystis is phylogenetically associated to Faurelina, while Microascus and Petriella formed another clade and basal to other members of Halosphaeriales. In addition, the order Lulworthiales does not appear to fit in any of the three subclasses. Congruence between morphological and molecular classification schemes is discussed. PMID:17072532

  8. jModelTest: phylogenetic model averaging.

    PubMed

    Posada, David

    2008-07-01

    jModelTest is a new program for the statistical selection of models of nucleotide substitution based on "Phyml" (Guindon and Gascuel 2003. A simple, fast, and accurate algorithm to estimate large phylogenies by maximum likelihood. Syst Biol. 52:696-704.). It implements 5 different selection strategies, including "hierarchical and dynamical likelihood ratio tests," the "Akaike information criterion," the "Bayesian information criterion," and a "decision-theoretic performance-based" approach. This program also calculates the relative importance and model-averaged estimates of substitution parameters, including a model-averaged estimate of the phylogeny. jModelTest is written in Java and runs under Mac OSX, Windows, and Unix systems with a Java Runtime Environment installed. The program, including documentation, can be freely downloaded from the software section at http://darwin.uvigo.es. PMID:18397919

  9. Minimum description principle applied to construction of molecular phylogenetic tree.

    PubMed

    Ren, F R; Tanaka, H; Fukuda, N; Gojobori, T

    1995-01-01

    Ever since the discovery of a molecular clock (constancy of molecular evolutionary rate), many methods have been developed to estimate the molecular evolutionary phylogenetic trees from the homologous nucleic sequences of different species. In this paper, we deal with this problem from the view point of an inductive inference, and apply Rissanen's minimum description length principle to extract the minimum complexity phylogenetic tree. Five mitochondrial DNA sequences from human, common chimpanzee, pygmy chimpanzee, gorilla, and orangutan are used for investigating the validity of this method. It is found that this method is superior to the traditional method in that it still shows a high degree of accuracy, even near the root of phylogenetic trees. PMID:8591579

  10. Phylogenetic analysis on the soil bacteria distributed in karst forest

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, JunPei; Huang, Ying; Mo, MingHe

    2009-01-01

    Phylogenetic composition of bacterial community in soil of a karst forest was analyzed by culture-independent molecular approach. The bacterial 16S rRNA gene was amplified directly from soil DNA and cloned to generate a library. After screening the clone library by RFLP, 16S rRNA genes of representative clones were sequenced and the bacterial community was analyzed phylogenetically. The 16S rRNA gene inserts of 190 clones randomly selected were analyzed by RFLP and generated 126 different RFLP types. After sequencing, 126 non-chimeric sequences were obtained, generating 113 phylotypes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the bacteria distributed in soil of the karst forest included the members assigning into Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Planctomycetes, Chloroflexi (Green nonsulfur bacteria), Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia, Nitrospirae, Actinobacteria (High G+C Gram-positive bacteria), Firmicutes (Low G+C Gram-positive bacteria) and candidate divisions (including the SPAM and GN08). PMID:24031430

  11. Constructing circular phylogenetic networks from weighted quartets using simulated annealing.

    PubMed

    Eslahchi, Changiz; Hassanzadeh, Reza; Mottaghi, Ehsan; Habibi, Mahnaz; Pezeshk, Hamid; Sadeghi, Mehdi

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, we present a heuristic algorithm based on the simulated annealing, SAQ-Net, as a method for constructing phylogenetic networks from weighted quartets. Similar to QNet algorithm, SAQ-Net constructs a collection of circular weighted splits of the taxa set. This collection is represented by a split network. In order to show that SAQ-Net performs better than QNet, we apply these algorithm to both the simulated and actual data sets containing salmonella, Bees, Primates and Rubber data sets. Then we draw phylogenetic networks corresponding to outputs of these algorithms using SplitsTree4 and compare the results. We find that SAQ-Net produces a better circular ordering and phylogenetic networks than QNet in most cases. SAQ-Net has been implemented in Matlab and is available for download at http://bioinf.cs.ipm.ac.ir/softwares/saq.net. PMID:22108294

  12. Approximating metrics with planar boundary-labeled phylogenetic networks.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Ruogu; Bereg, Sergey

    2012-12-01

    Phylogenetic networks are useful for visualizing evolutionary relationships between species with reticulate events such as hybridizations and horizontal gene transfers. In this paper, we consider the problem of constructing undirected phylogenetic networks that (1) are planar graphs and (2) admit embeddings in the plane where the vertices labeling all taxa are on the boundary of the network. We develop a new algorithm for constructing phylogenetic networks satisfying these constraints. First, we show that only approximate networks can be constructed for some distance matrices with at least five taxa. Then we prove that any five-point metric can be represented approximately by a planar boundary-labeled network with guaranteed fit value of 94.79. We extend the networks constructed in the proof to design an algorithm for computing planar boundary-labeled networks for any number of taxa. PMID:22845836

  13. Developing and Applying Heterogeneous Phylogenetic Models with XRate

    PubMed Central

    Westesson, Oscar; Holmes, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Modeling sequence evolution on phylogenetic trees is a useful technique in computational biology. Especially powerful are models which take account of the heterogeneous nature of sequence evolution according to the “grammar” of the encoded gene features. However, beyond a modest level of model complexity, manual coding of models becomes prohibitively labor-intensive. We demonstrate, via a set of case studies, the new built-in model-prototyping capabilities of XRate (macros and Scheme extensions). These features allow rapid implementation of phylogenetic models which would have previously been far more labor-intensive. XRate 's new capabilities for lineage-specific models, ancestral sequence reconstruction, and improved annotation output are also discussed. XRate 's flexible model-specification capabilities and computational efficiency make it well-suited to developing and prototyping phylogenetic grammar models. XRate is available as part of the DART software package: http://biowiki.org/DART. PMID:22693624

  14. A phylogenetic perspective on the distribution of plant diversity

    PubMed Central

    Donoghue, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Phylogenetic studies are revealing that major ecological niches are more conserved through evolutionary history than expected, implying that adaptations to major climate changes have not readily been accomplished in all lineages. Phylogenetic niche conservatism has important consequences for the assembly of both local communities and the regional species pools from which these are drawn. If corridors for movement are available, newly emerging environments will tend to be filled by species that filter in from areas in which the relevant adaptations have already evolved, as opposed to being filled by in situ evolution of these adaptations. Examples include intercontinental disjunctions of tropical plants, the spread of plant lineages around the Northern Hemisphere after the evolution of cold tolerance, and the radiation of northern alpine plants into the Andes. These observations highlight the role of phylogenetic knowledge and historical biogeography in explanations of global biodiversity patterns. They also have implications for the future of biodiversity. PMID:18695216

  15. An accurate method of extracting fat droplets in liver images for quantitative evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Naoki; Komagata, Hideki; Shinoda, Kazuma; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Abe, Tokiya; Hashiguchi, Akinori; Sakamoto, Michiie

    2015-03-01

    The steatosis in liver pathological tissue images is a promising indicator of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the possible risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The resulting values are also important for ensuring the automatic and accurate classification of HCC images, because the existence of many fat droplets is likely to create errors in quantifying the morphological features used in the process. In this study we propose a method that can automatically detect, and exclude regions with many fat droplets by using the feature values of colors, shapes and the arrangement of cell nuclei. We implement the method and confirm that it can accurately detect fat droplets and quantify the fat droplet ratio of actual images. This investigation also clarifies the effective characteristics that contribute to accurate detection.

  16. Phylogenetic relationships of some species of the family Echinostomatidae Odner, 1910 (Trematoda), inferred from nuclear rDNA sequences and karyological analysis

    PubMed Central

    Stanevi?i?t?, Gražina; Stunž?nas, Virmantas; Petkevi?i?t?, Romualda

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The family Echinostomatidae Looss, 1899 exhibits a substantial taxonomic diversity, morphological criteria adopted by different authors have resulted in its subdivision into an impressive number of subfamilies. The status of the subfamily Echinochasminae Odhner, 1910 was changed in various classifications. Genetic characteristics and phylogenetic analysis of four Echinostomatidae species – Echinochasmus sp., Echinochasmus coaxatus Dietz, 1909, Stephanoprora pseudoechinata (Olsson, 1876) and Echinoparyphium mordwilkoi Skrjabin, 1915 were obtained to understand well enough the homogeneity of the Echinochasminae and phylogenetic relationships within the Echinostomatidae. Chromosome set and nuclear rDNA (ITS2 and 28S) sequences of parthenites of Echinochasmus sp. were studied. The karyotype of this species (2n=20, one pair of large bi-armed chromosomes and others are smaller-sized, mainly one-armed, chromosomes) differed from that previously described for two other representatives of the Echinochasminae, Echinochasmus beleocephalus (von Linstow, 1893), 2n=14, and Episthmium bursicola (Creplin, 1937), 2n=18. In phylogenetic trees based on ITS2 and 28S datasets, a well-supported subclade with Echinochasmus sp. and Stephanoprora pseudoechinata clustered with one well-supported clade together with Echinochasmus japonicus Tanabe, 1926 (data only for 28S) and Echinochasmus coaxatus. These results supported close phylogenetic relationships between Echinochasmus Dietz, 1909 and Stephanoprora Odhner, 1902. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a clear separation of related species of Echinostomatoidea restricted to prosobranch snails as first intermediate hosts, from other species of Echinostomatidae and Psilostomidae, developing in Lymnaeoidea snails as first intermediate hosts. According to the data based on rDNA phylogeny, it was supposed that evolution of parasitic flukes linked with first intermediate hosts. Digeneans parasitizing prosobranch snails showed higher dynamic of karyotype evolution provided by different chromosomal rearrangements including Robertsonian translocations and pericentric inversions than more stable karyotype of digenean worms parasitizing lymnaeoid pulmonate snails.

  17. 78 FR 68983 - Cotton Futures Classification: Optional Classification Procedure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ...AMS-CN-13-0043] RIN 0581-AD33 Cotton Futures Classification: Optional Classification...allow for the addition of an optional cotton futures classification procedure--identified...as ``registration'' by the U.S. cotton industry and the Intercontinental...

  18. 78 FR 54970 - Cotton Futures Classification: Optional Classification Procedure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ...AMS-CN-13-0043] RIN 0581-AD33 Cotton Futures Classification: Optional Classification...allow for the addition of an optional cotton futures classification procedure--identified...as ``registration'' by the U.S. cotton industry and the Intercontinental...

  19. Nominated Texture Based Cervical Cancer Classification

    PubMed Central

    Mariarputham, Edwin Jayasingh; Stephen, Allwin

    2015-01-01

    Accurate classification of Pap smear images becomes the challenging task in medical image processing. This can be improved in two ways. One way is by selecting suitable well defined specific features and the other is by selecting the best classifier. This paper presents a nominated texture based cervical cancer (NTCC) classification system which classifies the Pap smear images into any one of the seven classes. This can be achieved by extracting well defined texture features and selecting best classifier. Seven sets of texture features (24 features) are extracted which include relative size of nucleus and cytoplasm, dynamic range and first four moments of intensities of nucleus and cytoplasm, relative displacement of nucleus within the cytoplasm, gray level cooccurrence matrix, local binary pattern histogram, tamura features, and edge orientation histogram. Few types of support vector machine (SVM) and neural network (NN) classifiers are used for the classification. The performance of the NTCC algorithm is tested and compared to other algorithms on public image database of Herlev University Hospital, Denmark, with 917 Pap smear images. The output of SVM is found to be best for the most of the classes and better results for the remaining classes. PMID:25649913

  20. Phylogenetics of modern birds in the era of genomics

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Scott V; Bryan Jennings, W; Shedlock, Andrew M

    2005-01-01

    In the 14 years since the first higher-level bird phylogenies based on DNA sequence data, avian phylogenetics has witnessed the advent and maturation of the genomics era, the completion of the chicken genome and a suite of technologies that promise to add considerably to the agenda of avian phylogenetics. In this review, we summarize current approaches and data characteristics of recent higher-level bird studies and suggest a number of as yet untested molecular and analytical approaches for the unfolding tree of life for birds. A variety of comparative genomics strategies, including adoption of objective quality scores for sequence data, analysis of contiguous DNA sequences provided by large-insert genomic libraries, and the systematic use of retroposon insertions and other rare genomic changes all promise an integrated phylogenetics that is solidly grounded in genome evolution. The avian genome is an excellent testing ground for such approaches because of the more balanced representation of single-copy and repetitive DNA regions than in mammals. Although comparative genomics has a number of obvious uses in avian phylogenetics, its application to large numbers of taxa poses a number of methodological and infrastructural challenges, and can be greatly facilitated by a ‘community genomics’ approach in which the modest sequencing throughputs of single PI laboratories are pooled to produce larger, complementary datasets. Although the polymerase chain reaction era of avian phylogenetics is far from complete, the comparative genomics era—with its ability to vastly increase the number and type of molecular characters and to provide a genomic context for these characters—will usher in a host of new perspectives and opportunities for integrating genome evolution and avian phylogenetics. PMID:16024355

  1. Phylogenetic placement of metagenomic reads using the minimum evolution principle

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background A central problem of computational metagenomics is determining the correct placement into an existing phylogenetic tree of individual reads (nucleotide sequences of varying lengths, ranging from hundreds to thousands of bases) obtained using next-generation sequencing of DNA samples from a mixture of known and unknown species. Correct placement allows us to easily identify or classify the sequences in the sample as to taxonomic position or function. Results Here we propose a novel method (PhyClass), based on the Minimum Evolution (ME) phylogenetic inference criterion, for determining the appropriate phylogenetic position of each read. Without using heuristics, the new approach efficiently finds the optimal placement of the unknown read in a reference phylogenetic tree given a sequence alignment for the taxa in the tree. In short, the total resulting branch length for the tree is computed for every possible placement of the unknown read and the placement that gives the smallest value for this total is the best (optimal) choice. By taking advantage of computational efficiencies and mathematical formulations, we are able to find the true optimal ME placement for each read in the phylogenetic tree. Using computer simulations, we assessed the accuracy of the new approach for different read lengths over a variety of data sets and phylogenetic trees. We found the accuracy of the new method to be good and comparable to existing Maximum Likelihood (ML) approaches. Conclusions In particular, we found that the consensus assignments based on ME and ML approaches are more correct than either method individually. This is true even when the statistical support for read assignments was low, which is inevitable given that individual reads are often short and come from only one gene. PMID:25923672

  2. MLVA Based Classification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Lineages for a Robust Phylogeographic Snapshot of Its Worldwide Molecular Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Véronique; Zozio, Thierry; Sadikalay, Syndia; Viegas, Sofia; Streit, Elisabeth; Kallenius, Gunilla; Rastogi, Nalin

    2012-01-01

    Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) is useful to establish transmission routes and sources of infections for various microorganisms including Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC). The recently released SITVITWEB database contains 12-loci Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units – Variable Number of Tandem DNA Repeats (MIRU-VNTR) profiles and spoligotype patterns for thousands of MTC strains; it uses MIRU International Types (MIT) and Spoligotype International Types (SIT) to designate clustered patterns worldwide. Considering existing doubts on the ability of spoligotyping alone to reveal exact phylogenetic relationships between MTC strains, we developed a MLVA based classification for MTC genotypic lineages. We studied 6 different subsets of MTC isolates encompassing 7793 strains worldwide. Minimum spanning trees (MST) were constructed to identify major lineages, and the most common representative located as a central node was taken as the prototype defining different phylogenetic groups. A total of 7 major lineages with their respective prototypes were identified: Indo-Oceanic/MIT57, East Asian and African Indian/MIT17, Euro American/MIT116, West African-I/MIT934, West African-II/MIT664, M. bovis/MIT49, M.canettii/MIT60. Further MST subdivision identified an additional 34 sublineage MIT prototypes. The phylogenetic relationships among the 37 newly defined MIRU-VNTR lineages were inferred using a classification algorithm based on a bayesian approach. This information was used to construct an updated phylogenetic and phylogeographic snapshot of worldwide MTC diversity studied both at the regional, sub-regional, and country level according to the United Nations specifications. We also looked for IS6110 insertional events that are known to modify the results of the spoligotyping in specific circumstances, and showed that a fair portion of convergence leading to the currently observed bias in phylogenetic classification of strains may be traced back to the presence of IS6110. These results shed new light on the evolutionary history of the pathogen in relation to the history of peopling and human migration. PMID:22984400

  3. Molecular phylogenetics and species delimitation of leaf-toed geckos (Phyllodactylidae: Phyllodactylus) throughout the Mexican tropical dry forest.

    PubMed

    Blair, Christopher; Méndez de la Cruz, Fausto R; Law, Christopher; Murphy, Robert W

    2015-03-01

    Methods and approaches for accurate species delimitation continue to be a highly controversial subject in the systematics community. Inaccurate assessment of species' limits precludes accurate inference of historical evolutionary processes. Recent evidence suggests that multilocus coalescent methods show promise in delimiting species in cryptic clades. We combine multilocus sequence data with coalescence-based phylogenetics in a hypothesis-testing framework to assess species limits and elucidate the timing of diversification in leaf-toed geckos (Phyllodactylus) of Mexico's dry forests. Tropical deciduous forests (TDF) of the Neotropics are among the planet's most diverse ecosystems. However, in comparison to moist tropical forests, little is known about the mode and tempo of biotic evolution throughout this threatened biome. We find increased speciation and substantial, cryptic molecular diversity originating following the formation of Mexican TDF 30-20million years ago due to orogenesis of the Sierra Madre Occidental and Mexican Volcanic Belt. Phylogenetic results suggest that the Mexican Volcanic Belt, the Rio Fuerte, and Isthmus of Tehuantepec may be important biogeographic barriers. Single- and multilocus coalescent analyses suggest that nearly every sampling locality may be a distinct species. These results suggest unprecedented levels of diversity, a complex evolutionary history, and that the formation and expansion of TDF vegetation in the Miocene may have influenced subsequent cladogenesis of leaf-toed geckos throughout western Mexico. PMID:25620603

  4. caret: Classification and Regression Training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Max

    2015-05-01

    caret (Classification And REgression Training) provides functions for training and plotting classification and regression models. It contains tools for data splitting, pre-processing, feature selection, model tuning using resampling, and variable importance estimation, as well as other functionality.

  5. Phylogenetic significance of composition and crystal morphology of magnetosome minerals

    PubMed Central

    Pósfai, Mihály; Lefčvre, Christopher T.; Trubitsyn, Denis; Bazylinski, Dennis A.; Frankel, Richard B.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) biomineralize magnetosomes, nano-scale crystals of magnetite or greigite in membrane enclosures that comprise a permanent magnetic dipole in each cell. MTB control the mineral composition, habit, size, and crystallographic orientation of the magnetosomes, as well as their arrangement within the cell. Studies involving magnetosomes that contain mineral and biological phases require multidisciplinary efforts. Here we use crystallographic, genomic and phylogenetic perspectives to review the correlations between magnetosome mineral habits and the phylogenetic affiliations of MTB, and show that these correlations have important implications for the evolution of magnetosome synthesis, and thus magnetotaxis. PMID:24324461

  6. Phylogenetic constraint on male parental care in the dabbling ducks

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, K. P.; McKinney, F.; Sorenson, M. D.

    1999-01-01

    Phylogenetic constraint and inertia, i.e. limitations on future evolutionary trajectories imposed by previous adaptation, are often invoked to explain behavioural, morphological and physiological traits that defy explanation in an adaptive context. We reconstructed historical changes in male parental care behaviour in the dabbling ducks (family: Anatidae; tribe: Anatini) using a phylogeny based on mitochondrial DNA sequences. Male parental care is observed in many tropical and Southern hemisphere dabbling ducks but is lacking in all Northern hemisphere species. Southern hemisphere species that are very recently derived from Northern hemisphere ancestors, however, are exceptions to this general pattern. Lack of male parental care in these species can be attributed to phylogenetic constraint.

  7. Hierarchical Text Classification Incremental Learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shengli Song; Xiaofei Qiao; Ping Chen

    2009-01-01

    \\u000a To classify large-scale text corpora, an incremental learning method for hierarchical text classification is proposed. Based\\u000a on the deep analysis of virtual classification tree based hierarchical text classification, combining the two application\\u000a models of single document adjustment after classification and new sample set learning, a dynamic online learning algorithm\\u000a and a sample set incremental learning algorithm are put forward. By

  8. Classification-based objective functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Rimer; Tony Martinez

    2006-01-01

    Backpropagation, similar to most learning algorithms that can form complex decision surfaces, is prone to overfitting. This work presents classification-based objective functions, an intuitive approach to training artificial neural networks on classification problems. Classification-based learning attempts to guide the network directly to correct pattern classification rather than using an implicit search of common error minimization heuristics, such as sum-squared-error (SSE)

  9. Classification Physics Abstracts

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    polymers, such as the associative polymers [3-5] and block copolymers [2, 6-9], are more versatile becauseClassification Physics Abstracts 64.70 68.45D 82.65 A pancake-to-brush transition in polymer adsorption H. Daniel Ou-Yang and Zihao Gao Physics Department and Center for Polymer Science and Engineering

  10. Faculty Assignment Classification System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whatcom Community Coll., Ferndale, WA.

    This document outlines the point-based faculty assignment classification system in effect at Whatcom Community College (Washington). The purpose of the point system is to provide an equitable and flexible means of compensating faculty members based on a system of assigning quantitative values to tasks. Teaching, which includes classroom…

  11. Classification of pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Sarner; P B Cotton

    1984-01-01

    An international group of doctors interested in pancreatic disease met in Cambridge in March 1983, under the auspices of the Pancreatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, to discuss the classification of pancreatitis in the light of developments that have taken place in the 20 years since the crucial conference in Marseille.

  12. Soil Classification and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This instructional unit was designed to enable students, primarily at the secondary level, to (1) classify soils according to current capability classifications of the Soil Conservation Service, (2) select treatments needed for a given soil class according to current recommendations provided by the Soil Conservation Service, and (3) interpret a…

  13. Classification of extraterrestrial civilizations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tong B. Tang; Grace Chang

    1991-01-01

    A scheme of classification of extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI) communities based on the scope of energy accessible to the civilization in question is proposed as an alternative to the Kardeshev (1964) scheme that includes three types of civilization, as determined by their levels of energy expenditure. The proposed scheme includes six classes: (1) a civilization that runs essentially on energy exerted

  14. Classification des maladies parodontales

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Duyninh; O. Jame; P. Bousquet; P. Gibert; V. Orti

    2005-01-01

    Periodontal diseases are multifactor disorders (numerous modifying and aggravating factors), difficult to diagnose without the help of a classification that allows comparing the patient’s data to those scientific and epidemiologic data recently published. Such diagnosis implies a therapeutic strategy, and a prognosis adapted to each clinical case, taking into account the anamnesis and the result of the clinical examination. A

  15. Classification des maladies parodontales

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Duyninh; O. Jame; P. Bousquet; P. Gibert; V. Orti

    Periodontal diseases are multifactor disorders (numerous modifying and aggravating factors), difficult to diagnose without the help of a classification that allows comparing the patient’s data to those scientific and epidemiologic data recently published. Such diagnosis implies a therapeutic strategy, and a prognosis adapted to each clinical case, taking into account the anamnesis and the result of the clinical examination. A

  16. A Classification Minicourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zipko, Stephen J.

    1975-01-01

    The utilization of minicourses as part of a regular biology curriculum is described and one unit on classification is presented. Concentration on organized thought patterns and logic is suitable for junior and senior high school students. References are cited. Titles of various minicourses are presented in tabulated form. (EB)

  17. DUTY STATEMENT CLASSIFICATION

    E-print Network

    the preparation of sections of initial studies, environmental impact reports, and Commission reports. (E) 5% Review the biological sections of Environmental Impact Reports submitted to the Commission and prepareDUTY STATEMENT CLASSIFICATION: Planner II ­ EFS POSITION NUMBER: 760-4756-060 CBID: R01 WORKING

  18. Classification images with uncertainty

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bosco S. Tjan; Anirvan S. Nandy

    pools the outputs of a large set of linear frontends with a max operator, we show analytically, in simulations, and with human experiments that the effect of intrinsic uncertainty can be limited or even eliminated by presenting a signal at a relatively high contrast in a classification-image experiment. We further argue that the subimages from different stimulus-response categories should not

  19. Classification of partial discharges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. H. Kreuger; E. Gulski; A. Krivda

    1993-01-01

    For a long time, classification of partial discharges was performed by eye, by studying discharge patterns at the ellipse of an oscilloscope screen. The introduction of digital processing techniques allowed automation of the recognition procedure. These procedures are reported and applied to a number of actual HV constructions which suffer from partial discharges. The results of these tests show that

  20. Equivalent Diagnostic Classification Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maris, Gunter; Bechger, Timo

    2009-01-01

    Rupp and Templin (2008) do a good job at describing the ever expanding landscape of Diagnostic Classification Models (DCM). In many ways, their review article clearly points to some of the questions that need to be answered before DCMs can become part of the psychometric practitioners toolkit. Apart from the issues mentioned in this article that…

  1. Classification of Malabsorption Syndromes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Massimo Montalto; Luca Santoro; Ferruccio D’Onofrio; Valentina Curigliano; Dina Visca; Antonella Gallo; Giovanni Cammarota; Antonio Gasbarrini; Giovanni Gasbarrini

    2008-01-01

    Malabsorption syndrome is usually defined as the complex of symptoms secondary to maldigestion and\\/or malabsorption, realizing when the extension of the disease exceeds the ability of intestine compensation. Several conditions have been recognized as being responsible for this syndrome. Up to now, different criteria have been used to order them, but a definitive classification is still not available because of

  2. Preschool Behavioral Classification Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Robert P.

    Children who are referred to mental health clinics in the preschool years pose problems for diagnosticians because of the lack of standardized instruments for assessing personality and measuring behavior of preschoolers. In response to this problem, the Children's Behavioral Classification Project has been extended into the preschool years and the…

  3. Astronomical Image Classification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. C. Odewahn

    1994-01-01

    A brief review of the latest automated image classification techniques employed for all-sky survey work is presented. Special emphasis is placed on the use of neural network pattern recognition techniques in the field of astronomy. In assessing the quality of image recognition derived from this method particular attention is given to the problem of star-galaxy discrimination in large digital sky

  4. Carbohydrate terminology and classification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J H Cummings; A M Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Dietary carbohydrates are a group of chemically defined substances with a range of physical and physiological properties and health benefits. As with other macronutrients, the primary classification of dietary carbohydrate is based on chemistry, that is character of individual monomers, degree of polymerization (DP) and type of linkage (? or ?), as agreed at the Food and Agriculture Organization\\/World Health

  5. Phylogenetic analysis of tribe habrolepidini and revision of Homalopoda and Ceraptroceroideus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) 

    E-print Network

    Rodriguez Velez, Beatriz

    2006-04-12

    A taxonomic and phylogenetic study of the tribe Habrolepidini is described. A cladistic analysis was carried out in order to establish the phylogenetic relationships of the supraspecific taxa of the tribe. An illustrated ...

  6. Efficient Algorithms for Comparing, Storing, and Sharing Large Collections of Phylogenetic Trees 

    E-print Network

    Matthews, Suzanne

    2012-07-16

    Evolutionary relationships between a group of organisms are commonly summarized in a phylogenetic (or evolutionary) tree. The goal of phylogenetic inference is to infer the best tree structure that represents the relationships between a group...

  7. Analyses of 32 Loci Clarify Phylogenetic Relationships among Trypanosoma cruzi Lineages and Support a

    E-print Network

    Machado, Carlos A.

    Analyses of 32 Loci Clarify Phylogenetic Relationships among Trypanosoma cruzi Lineages and Support: The genetic diversity of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, has been traditionally Clarify Phylogenetic Relationships among Trypanosoma cruzi Lineages and Support a Single Hybridization

  8. Version dated: September 26, 2011 RH: HIGH-PERFORMANCE COMPUTING FOR STATISTICAL PHYLOGENETICS

    E-print Network

    Suchard, Marc A.

    Version dated: September 26, 2011 RH: HIGH-PERFORMANCE COMPUTING FOR STATISTICAL PHYLOGENETICS BEAGLE: an Application Programming Interface and High-Performance Computing Library for Statistical floating-point computational performance to accelerate statistical phylogenetic inference. A specialized

  9. RH: Phylogeny of Glossiphoniid Leeches Phylogenetic evaluation of systematics and biogeography of the leech family

    E-print Network

    Siddall, Mark E.

    1 RH: Phylogeny of Glossiphoniid Leeches Phylogenetic evaluation of systematics and biogeography of the leech family Glossphoniidae Mark E. Siddall, Rebecca B. Budinoff and Elizabeth Borda Division 10024, USA Abstract. The phylogenetic relationships of Glossiphoniidae, a leech family characterized

  10. Multispectral rock-type separation and classification.

    SciTech Connect

    Moya, Mary M.; Fogler, Robert Joseph; Paskaleva, Biliana (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Hayat, Majeed M. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM)

    2004-06-01

    This paper explores the possibility of separating and classifying remotely-sensed multispectral data from rocks and minerals onto seven geological rock-type groups. These groups are extracted from the general categories of metamorphic, igneous and sedimentary rocks. The study is performed under ideal conditions for which the data is generated according to laboratory hyperspectral data for the members, which are, in turn, passed through the Multi-spectral Thermal Imager (MTI) filters yielding 15 bands. The main challenge in separability is the small size of the training data sets, which initially did not permit direct application of Bayesian decision theory. To enable Bayseian classification, the original training data is linearly perturbed with the addition minerals, vegetation, soil, water and other valid impurities. As a result, the size of the training data is significantly increased and accurate estimates of the covariance matrices are achieved. In addition, a set of reduced (five) linearly-extracted canonical features that are optimal in providing the most important information about the data is determined. An alternative nonlinear feature-selection method is also employed based on spectral indices comprising a small subset of all possible ratios between bands. By applying three optimization strategies, combinations of two and three ratios are found that provide reliable separability and classification between all seven groups according to the Bhattacharyya distance. To set a benchmark to which the MTI capability in rock classification can be compared, an optimization strategy is performed for the selection of optimal multispectral filters, other than the MTI filters, and an improvement in classification is predicted.

  11. Efficient Fingercode Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hong-Wei; Law, Kwok-Yan; Gollmann, Dieter; Chung, Siu-Leung; Li, Jian-Bin; Sun, Jia-Guang

    In this paper, we present an efficient fingerprint classification algorithm which is an essential component in many critical security application systems e. g. systems in the e-government and e-finance domains. Fingerprint identification is one of the most important security requirements in homeland security systems such as personnel screening and anti-money laundering. The problem of fingerprint identification involves searching (matching) the fingerprint of a person against each of the fingerprints of all registered persons. To enhance performance and reliability, a common approach is to reduce the search space by firstly classifying the fingerprints and then performing the search in the respective class. Jain et al. proposed a fingerprint classification algorithm based on a two-stage classifier, which uses a K-nearest neighbor classifier in its first stage. The fingerprint classification algorithm is based on the fingercode representation which is an encoding of fingerprints that has been demonstrated to be an effective fingerprint biometric scheme because of its ability to capture both local and global details in a fingerprint image. We enhance this approach by improving the efficiency of the K-nearest neighbor classifier for fingercode-based fingerprint classification. Our research firstly investigates the various fast search algorithms in vector quantization (VQ) and the potential application in fingerprint classification, and then proposes two efficient algorithms based on the pyramid-based search algorithms in VQ. Experimental results on DB1 of FVC 2004 demonstrate that our algorithms can outperform the full search algorithm and the original pyramid-based search algorithms in terms of computational efficiency without sacrificing accuracy.

  12. Phylogenetic relationships within the speciose family Characidae (Teleostei: Ostariophysi: Characiformes) based on multilocus analysis and extensive ingroup sampling

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background With nearly 1,100 species, the fish family Characidae represents more than half of the species of Characiformes, and is a key component of Neotropical freshwater ecosystems. The composition, phylogeny, and classification of Characidae is currently uncertain, despite significant efforts based on analysis of morphological and molecular data. No consensus about the monophyly of this group or its position within the order Characiformes has been reached, challenged by the fact that many key studies to date have non-overlapping taxonomic representation and focus only on subsets of this diversity. Results In the present study we propose a new definition of the family Characidae and a hypothesis of relationships for the Characiformes based on phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences of two mitochondrial and three nuclear genes (4,680 base pairs). The sequences were obtained from 211 samples representing 166 genera distributed among all 18 recognized families in the order Characiformes, all 14 recognized subfamilies in the Characidae, plus 56 of the genera so far considered incertae sedis in the Characidae. The phylogeny obtained is robust, with most lineages significantly supported by posterior probabilities in Bayesian analysis, and high bootstrap values from maximum likelihood and parsimony analyses. Conclusion A monophyletic assemblage strongly supported in all our phylogenetic analysis is herein defined as the Characidae and includes the characiform species lacking a supraorbital bone and with a derived position of the emergence of the hyoid artery from the anterior ceratohyal. To recognize this and several other monophyletic groups within characiforms we propose changes in the limits of several families to facilitate future studies in the Characiformes and particularly the Characidae. This work presents a new phylogenetic framework for a speciose and morphologically diverse group of freshwater fishes of significant ecological and evolutionary importance across the Neotropics and portions of Africa. PMID:21943181

  13. Four Genotyping Schemes for Phylogenetic Analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Comparison of Their Congruence with Multi-Locus Sequence Typing

    PubMed Central

    Maâtallah, Makaoui; Bakhrouf, Amina; Habeeb, Muhammed Asif; Turlej-Rogacka, Agata; Iversen, Aina; Pourcel, Christine; Sioud, Olfa; Giske, Christian G.

    2013-01-01

    Several molecular typing schemes have been proposed to differentiate among isolates and clonal groups, and hence establish epidemiological or phylogenetic links. It has been widely accepted that multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) is the gold standard for phylogenetic typing/long-term epidemiological surveillance, but other recently described methods may be easier to carry out, especially in settings with limited access to DNA sequencing. Comparing the performance of such techniques to MLST is therefore of relevance. A study was therefore carried out with a collection of P. aeruginosa strains (n?=?133) typed by four typing schemes: MLST, multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and the commercial DiversiLab microbial typing system (DL). The aim of this study was to compare the results of each typing method with MLST. The Simpson's indices of diversity were 0.989, 0.980, 0.961 and 0.906 respectively for PFGE, MLVA, DL and MLST. The congruence between techniques was measured by the adjusted Wallace index (W): this coefficient indicates the probability that a pair of isolates which is assigned to the same type by one typing method is also typed as identical by the other. In this context, the congruence between techniques was recorded as follow: MLVA-type to predict MLST-type (93%), PFGE to MLST (92%), DL to MLST (64.2%), PFGE to MLVA (63.5%) and PFGE to DL (61.7%). Conversely, for all above combinations, prediction was very poor. The congruence was increased at the clonal complex (CC) level. MLST is regarded the gold standard for phylogenetic classification of bacteria, but is rather laborious to carry out in many settings. Our data suggest that MLVA can predict the MLST-type with high accuracy, and even higher when studying the clonal complex level. Of the studied three techniques MLVA was therefore the best surrogate method to predict MLST. PMID:24349186

  14. Revisiting the phylogenetic relationships, biogeography, and taxonomy of spider monkeys (genus Ateles) in light of new molecular data.

    PubMed

    Morales-Jimenez, Alba Lucia; Disotell, Todd; Di Fiore, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Spider monkeys (Ateles) are one of the most endangered groups of primates in the Neotropics. The genus is widely distributed from Mexico to the north of Bolivia and includes many morphologically distinct forms in terms of pelage color and patterning. The taxonomy, phylogenetic relationships, and biogeographic history of the genus have been subject to much debate, making scientific communication difficult and creating challenges for conservation actions. We extracted DNA from samples of all currently recognized species of spider monkeys collected from across the geographic range of the genus, sequenced ?3.5 kilobases of coding sequence from the mitochondrial genome, and used this large dataset to (a) infer the phylogenetic relationships among the different forms of spider monkeys, (b) evaluate whether currently recognized species of spider monkeys form reciprocally monophyletic groups that are concordant with contemporary classifications, and (c) estimate divergence dates among the different lineages of Ateles. We found that all proposed species of spider monkeys for which we have samples from multiple localities indeed appear to form monophyletic groups. However, in contrast to previous studies, several of our analyses robustly inferred Ateles marginatus from northeast Brazil as the sister taxon to all other spider monkeys. A Bayesian dating analysis suggests that the most recent common ancestor of extant Ateles dates to ?6.7 Ma, in the late Miocene, and most species-level splits within the genus took place in the late Pliocene, suggesting that the modern diversity in spider monkeys cannot be explained principally by isolation and divergence of populations in forest refugia during the Pleistocene. Based on our new phylogenetic inference and dating analysis, we propose a revised biogeographic scenario for the evolution of this genus. PMID:25451801

  15. Archaea in Organic-Lean and Organic-Rich Marine Subsurface Sediments: An Environmental Gradient Reflected in Distinct Phylogenetic Lineages

    PubMed Central

    Durbin, Alan M.; Teske, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Examining the patterns of archaeal diversity in little-explored organic-lean marine subsurface sediments presents an opportunity to study the association of phylogenetic affiliation and habitat preference in uncultured marine Archaea. Here we have compiled and re-analyzed published archaeal 16S rRNA clone library datasets across a spectrum of sediment trophic states characterized by a wide range of terminal electron-accepting processes. Our results show that organic-lean marine sediments in deep marine basins and oligotrophic open ocean locations are inhabited by distinct lineages of archaea that are not found in the more frequently studied, organic-rich continental margin sediments. We hypothesize that different combinations of electron donor and acceptor concentrations along the organic-rich/organic-lean spectrum result in distinct archaeal communities, and propose an integrated classification of habitat characteristics and archaeal community structure. PMID:22666218

  16. Hierarchical Maximum Margin Learning for Multi-Class Classification

    E-print Network

    Yang, Jian-Bo

    2012-01-01

    Due to myriads of classes, designing accurate and efficient classifiers becomes very challenging for multi-class classification. Recent research has shown that class structure learning can greatly facilitate multi-class learning. In this paper, we propose a novel method to learn the class structure for multi-class classification problems. The class structure is assumed to be a binary hierarchical tree. To learn such a tree, we propose a maximum separating margin method to determine the child nodes of any internal node. The proposed method ensures that two classgroups represented by any two sibling nodes are most separable. In the experiments, we evaluate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method over other multi-class classification methods on real world large-scale problems. The results show that the proposed method outperforms benchmark methods in terms of accuracy for most datasets and performs comparably with other class structure learning methods in terms of efficiency for all datasets.

  17. Establishing a classification system and criteria for veneer preparations.

    PubMed

    LeSage, Brian

    2013-02-01

    The concept of no- or minimal-preparation veneers is more than 25 years old, yet there is no classification system categorizing the extent of preparation for different veneer treatments. The lack of veneer preparation classifications creates misunderstanding and miscommunication with patients and within the dental profession. Such a system could be indicated in various clinical scenarios and would benefit dentists and patients, providing a guide for conservatively preparing and placing veneers. A classification system is proposed to divide preparation and veneering into reduction--referred to as space requirement, working thickness, or material room--volume of enamel remaining, and percentage of dentin exposed. Using this type of metric provides an accurate measurement system to quantify tooth structure removal, with preferably no reduction, on a case-by-case basis, dissolve uncertainty, and aid with multiple aspects of treatment planning and communication. PMID:23556319

  18. The phylogenetic analysis of avipoxvirus in New Zealand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hye Jeong Ha; Laryssa Howe; Maurice Alley; Brett Gartrell

    2011-01-01

    Avipoxvirus is known to be endemic in New Zealand and it is a cause of ongoing mortalities in the endangered black robin and shore plover populations. There is no information on the strains of avipoxvirus occurring in New Zealand and their likely origin or pathogenicity. This study was designed to identify the phylogenetic relationships of pathogenic avipoxvirus strains infecting introduced,

  19. Molecular Phylogenetics and Taxonomy of the Subgenus Pika (Ochotona, Lagomorpha)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrey A. Lissovsky; Natalia V. Ivanova; Alex V. Borisenko

    2007-01-01

    A phylogenetic analysis based on partial sequences of 2 mitochondrial genes (cytochrome b and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) confirmed that Ochotona alpina (Pallas, 1773) and 0. turuchanensis Naumov, 1934, are sister taxa to all other Palearctic species of the subgenus Pika. O. hyperborea (Pallas, 1811) contains sufficient genetic heterogeneity to define 2 or 3 races within this species. Examination

  20. Phylogenetic analysis of pestiviruses from domestic and wild ruminants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Becher; Michaela Orlich; Anthony D. Shannon; Gary Horner; Matthias Ko

    1997-01-01

    Infections with pestiviruses occur in cattle, sheep, pigs and also in numerous other ungulate species. In the present study, pestiviruses from goat, buffalo, deer and giraffe were analysed at the molecular level; unusual strains from cattle and pigs were also included. A phylogenetic analysis of the respective pestiviruses was undertaken on the basis of a fragment from the 5« noncoding

  1. PFP: A Computational Framework for Phylogenetic Footprinting in Prokaryotic

    E-print Network

    Jensen, Shane T.

    PFP: A Computational Framework for Phylogenetic Footprinting in Prokaryotic Genomes Dongsheng Che1, this popular strategy may not be directly applicable to prokaryotic genomes, where typically about half binding sites in prokaryotes. The prediction software package PFP is available at http

  2. Phylogenetic profiling: how much input data is enough?

    PubMed

    Škunca, Nives; Dessimoz, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic profiling is a well-established approach for predicting gene function based on patterns of gene presence and absence across species. Much of the recent developments have focused on methodological improvements, but relatively little is known about the effect of input data size on the quality of predictions. In this work, we ask: how many genomes and functional annotations need to be considered for phylogenetic profiling to be effective? Phylogenetic profiling generally benefits from an increased amount of input data. However, by decomposing this improvement in predictive accuracy in terms of the contribution of additional genomes and of additional annotations, we observed diminishing returns in adding more than ? 100 genomes, whereas increasing the number of annotations remained strongly beneficial throughout. We also observed that maximising phylogenetic diversity within a clade of interest improves predictive accuracy, but the effect is small compared to changes in the number of genomes under comparison. Finally, we show that these findings are supported in light of the Open World Assumption, which posits that functional annotation databases are inherently incomplete. All the tools and data used in this work are available for reuse from http://lab.dessimoz.org/14_phylprof. Scripts used to analyse the data are available on request from the authors. PMID:25679783

  3. Phylogenetics of modern birds in the era of genomics

    E-print Network

    Edwards, Scott

    Review Phylogenetics of modern birds in the era of genomics Scott V. Edwards*, W. Bryan Jennings and maturation of the genomics era, the completion of the chicken genome and a suite of technologies that promise genomics strategies, including adoption of objective quality scores for sequence data, analysis

  4. Genetic variation and phylogenetic relationships of seven oreo species

    E-print Network

    Genetic variation and phylogenetic relationships of seven oreo species ITeleostei, Oreosomatidae CAllocyttus niger, black oreo; A. ver- ruCOBUS, warty orea; Neocyttus rhom- boidalis, spiky oreo; Oreosoma atlanti- cum, oxeye oreo; Pseudocyttus macu- latus, smooth oreo; and a new species Neocyttus sp., rough

  5. BigFoot: Bayesian alignment and phylogenetic footprinting with MCMC

    PubMed Central

    Satija, Rahul; Novák, Ádám; Miklós, István; Lyngsř, Rune; Hein, Jotun

    2009-01-01

    Background We have previously combined statistical alignment and phylogenetic footprinting to detect conserved functional elements without assuming a fixed alignment. Considering a probability-weighted distribution of alignments removes sensitivity to alignment errors, properly accommodates regions of alignment uncertainty, and increases the accuracy of functional element prediction. Our method utilized standard dynamic programming hidden markov model algorithms to analyze up to four sequences. Results We present a novel approach, implemented in the software package BigFoot, for performing phylogenetic footprinting on greater numbers of sequences. We have developed a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach which samples both sequence alignments and locations of slowly evolving regions. We implement our method as an extension of the existing StatAlign software package and test it on well-annotated regions controlling the expression of the even-skipped gene in Drosophila and the ?-globin gene in vertebrates. The results exhibit how adding additional sequences to the analysis has the potential to improve the accuracy of functional predictions, and demonstrate how BigFoot outperforms existing alignment-based phylogenetic footprinting techniques. Conclusion BigFoot extends a combined alignment and phylogenetic footprinting approach to analyze larger amounts of sequence data using MCMC. Our approach is robust to alignment error and uncertainty and can be applied to a variety of biological datasets. The source code and documentation are publicly available for download from PMID:19715598

  6. BigFoot: Bayesian alignment and phylogenetic footprinting with MCMC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rahul Satija; Ádám Novák; István Miklós; Rune Lyngsř; Jotun Hein

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have previously combined statistical alignment and phylogenetic footprinting to detect conserved functional elements without assuming a fixed alignment. Considering a probability-weighted distribution of alignments removes sensitivity to alignment errors, properly accommodates regions of alignment uncertainty, and increases the accuracy of functional element prediction. Our method utilized standard dynamic programming hidden markov model algorithms to analyze up to four

  7. Phylogenetic analyses of a few of Chinese yak breeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lai Songjia; Liu Yiping; Wang Ling; Fu Changxiu

    Summary Sequences of complete mitochondrial DNA D-loop in 30 Chinese yak (Bos grunniens) of four breeds were analyzed. Fifty-four variable sites and 22 haplotypes were detected. The results showed that the yak would have been domesticated in two places because there are two separate clades within the phylogenetic tree. It is also reasonable to classify the yak according the coat

  8. Reassessment of the phylogenetic interrelationships of basal turtles (Testudinata)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jérémy Anquetin

    2011-01-01

    Recent discoveries from the Late Triassic and Middle Jurassic have significantly improved the fossil record of early turtles. These new forms offer a unique opportunity to test the interrelationships of basal turtles. Nineteen fossil species are added to the taxon sample of the most comprehensive morphological phylogenetic analysis of the turtle clade. Among these additional species are recently discovered forms

  9. Stochastic Search Strategy for Estimation of Maximum Likelihood Phylogenetic Trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura A. Salter; Dennis K. Pearl

    2001-01-01

    The maximum likelihood (ML) method of phylogenetic tree construction is not as widely used as other tree construction methods (e.g., parsimony, neighbor-joining) because of the prohibitive amount of time required to énd the ML tree when the number of sequences under consideration is large. To overcome this diféculty, we propose a stochastic search strategy for estimation of the ML tree

  10. PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF DELTA-9 DESATURASES WITHIN THE HEMIPTERA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid desaturases are subdivided into two families. The first family comprises the Stearoyl-CoA desaturases (SCD), while the second family is comprised of the Stearoyl-Acyl Carrier proteins. Amino acid sequences, conserved functional motifs, and in silico analyses phylogenetic analyses delinea...

  11. Evolution of the mammalian placenta revealed by phylogenetic analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derek E. Wildman; Caoyi Chen; Offer Erez; Lawrence I. Grossman; Morris Goodman; Roberto Romero

    2006-01-01

    The placenta is essential for the success of therian mammalian reproduction. Intense selective pressure has shaped changes in placental anatomy and function during mammalian cladogenesis. Here we challenge the view that the hemochorial placenta is a derived feature in haplorhine primates. Using phylogenetic and statistical analyses of molecular and morphological data, we demonstrate that the ancestral eutherian mammalian placenta had

  12. Molecular and phylogenetic characterisation of Cryptosporidium from birds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Una M. Morgan; Paul T. Monis; Lihua Xiao; Josef Limor; Irshad Sulaiman; Shane Raidal; Peter O'Donoghue; Robin Gasser; Allan Murray; Ronald Fayer; Byron L. Blagburn; Altaf A. Lal; R. C. Andrew Thompson

    2001-01-01

    Avian isolates of Cryptosporidium species from different geographic locations were sequenced at two loci, the 18S rRNA gene and the heat shock gene (HSP-70). Phylogenetic analysis of the sequence data provided support for the existence of a new avian species of Cryptosporidium infecting finches and a second species infecting a black duck. The identity of Cryptosporidium baileyi and Cryptosporidium meleagridis

  13. A Deliberate Practice Approach to Teaching Phylogenetic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hobbs, F. Collin; Johnson, Daniel J.; Kearns, Katherine D.

    2013-01-01

    One goal of postsecondary education is to assist students in developing expert-level understanding. Previous attempts to encourage expert-level understanding of phylogenetic analysis in college science classrooms have largely focused on isolated, or “one-shot,” in-class activities. Using a deliberate practice instructional approach, we designed a set of five assignments for a 300-level plant systematics course that incrementally introduces the concepts and skills used in phylogenetic analysis. In our assignments, students learned the process of constructing phylogenetic trees through a series of increasingly difficult tasks; thus, skill development served as a framework for building content knowledge. We present results from 5 yr of final exam scores, pre- and postconcept assessments, and student surveys to assess the impact of our new pedagogical materials on student performance related to constructing and interpreting phylogenetic trees. Students improved in their ability to interpret relationships within trees and improved in several aspects related to between-tree comparisons and tree construction skills. Student feedback indicated that most students believed our approach prepared them to engage in tree construction and gave them confidence in their abilities. Overall, our data confirm that instructional approaches implementing deliberate practice address student misconceptions, improve student experiences, and foster deeper understanding of difficult scientific concepts. PMID:24297294

  14. MOLECULAR PHYLOGENETIC EXPLORATIONS OF NATURAL MICROBIAL COMMUNITY COMPOSITION AND DIVERSITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Comparative sequence analysis of ribosomal RNA molecules has let to a phylogenetic-based approach to characterize natural microbial communities. he approach has been applied to study natural communities of sulfate-reducing bacteria, hybridization probes were used to measure relat...

  15. A molecular phylogenetic study of southern African Apiaceae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CAROLINA I. CALVINO; PATRICIA M. TILNEY; BEN-ERIK VAN WYK; STEPHEN R. DOWNIE

    2006-01-01

    It has been suggested that southern Africa is the origin of the predominantly herbaceous Apiaceae subfamily Apioideae and that the woody habit is plesiomorphic. We expand previous molecular phylogenetic analyses of the family by considering all but three of the approximately 38 genera native to southern Africa, including all genera whose members, save one, have a woody habit. Representatives of

  16. Molecular phylogenetics and historical biogeography of east African chimpanzees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TONY L. GOLDBERG; MARYELLEN RUVOLO

    1997-01-01

    Two hundred and sixty eight DNA sequences (hypervariable region 1 of the mitochondrial control region) were obtained from chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in 19 natural populations within the range of the easternmost subspecies,P. t. schweinfurthii. Methods of phylogenetic reconstruction were applied at both the haplotype and population levels. Chimpanzee haplotypes do not sort into location-specific clades on any haplotype trees, indicating

  17. Phylogenetic relationships of the Eocene percomorph fishes †Priscacara and †Mioplosus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John A. Whitlock

    2010-01-01

    The early Eocene great lakes of the Green River system preserved a rich fauna, allowing detailed study of the paleoecology of the area. Two genera, †Priscacara and †Mioplosus, are interesting because they are among the earliest well-known representatives of Percoidei sensu lato, and so offer a chance to explore the evolution of the North American fish fauna. A phylogenetic analysis

  18. Plant extinctions and introductions lead to phylogenetic and taxonomic homogenization

    E-print Network

    Richner, Heinz

    October 28, 2009 (received for review June 26, 2009) Human activities have altered the composition, the floristic differentiation due to species extinction was lessened by taxonomic and phylogenetic altering the composition of biotas worldwide (1­3). The interplay of two fundamental processes

  19. Interspecific hybrids and possible phylogenetic relations in grain amaranths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. K. Gupta; S. Gudu

    1991-01-01

    Phylogenetic relations among the three species in grain amaranth need investigation to provide information for breeding experiments germplasm conservation efforts, and decision on evolutionary patterns in the grain types. Hybrid development from crosses between species was studied to find out genetic relationship between them. Interspecific crosses were made among Amaranthus hypochondriacus, A. caudatus and A. cruentus in the glasshouse. The

  20. Automated simultaneous analysis phylogenetics (ASAP): an enabling tool for phlyogenomics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Indra Neil Sarkar; Mary G. Egan; Gloria M. Coruzzi; Ernest K. Lee; Robert Desalle

    2008-01-01

    Background: The availability of sequences from whole genomes to reconstruct the tree of life has the potential to enable the development of phylogenomic hypotheses in ways that have not been before possible. A significant bottleneck in the analysis of genomic-scale views of the tree of life is the time required for manual curation of genomic data into multi-gene phylogenetic matrices.