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1

Accurate phylogenetic classification of DNA fragments based onsequence composition  

SciTech Connect

Metagenome studies have retrieved vast amounts of sequenceout of a variety of environments, leading to novel discoveries and greatinsights into the uncultured microbial world. Except for very simplecommunities, diversity makes sequence assembly and analysis a verychallenging problem. To understand the structure a 5 nd function ofmicrobial communities, a taxonomic characterization of the obtainedsequence fragments is highly desirable, yet currently limited mostly tothose sequences that contain phylogenetic marker genes. We show that forclades at the rank of domain down to genus, sequence composition allowsthe very accurate phylogenetic 10 characterization of genomic sequence.We developed a composition-based classifier, PhyloPythia, for de novophylogenetic sequence characterization and have trained it on adata setof 340 genomes. By extensive evaluation experiments we show that themethodis accurate across all taxonomic ranks considered, even forsequences that originate fromnovel organisms and are as short as 1kb.Application to two metagenome datasets 15 obtained from samples ofphosphorus-removing sludge showed that the method allows the accurateclassification at genus level of most sequence fragments from thedominant populations, while at the same time correctly characterizingeven larger parts of the samples at higher taxonomic levels.

McHardy, Alice C.; Garcia Martin, Hector; Tsirigos, Aristotelis; Hugenholtz, Philip; Rigoutsos, Isidore

2006-05-01

2

Phylogenetics and classification of the pantropical fern family Lindsaeaceae  

E-print Network

Phylogenetics and classification of the pantropical fern family Lindsaeaceae SAMULI LEHTONEN1 for publication 2 June 2010 The classification and generic definition in the tropical­subtropical fern family, and c. 73% of the currently accepted species. The phylogenetic relationships of the lindsaeoid ferns

3

A higher-level phylogenetic classification of the Fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive phylogenetic classification of the kingdom Fungi is proposed, with reference to recent molecular phylogenetic analyses, and with input from diverse members of the fungal taxonomic community. The classification includes 195 taxa, down to the level of order, of which 16 are described or validated here: Dikarya subkingdom nov.; Chytridiomycota, Neocallimastigomycota phyla nov.; Monoblepharidomycetes, Neocallimastigomycetes class. nov.; Eurotiomycetidae, Lecanoromycetidae,

David S. Hibbett; Manfred Binder; Joseph F. Bischoff; Meredith Blackwell; F. Cannon; Ove E. Eriksson; Sabine Huhndorf; Timothy James; Paul M. Kirk; Robert Lu Cking; H. Thorsten Lumbsch; François Lutzoni; P. Brandon Matheny; David J. McLaughlin; Martha J. Powell; Scott Redhead; Conrad L. Schoch; Joseph W. Spatafora; Joost A. Stalpers; Rytas Vilgalys; M. Catherine Aime; André Aptroot; Robert Bauer; Dominik Begerow; Gerald L. Benny; A Lisa; Pedro W. Crous; Yu-Cheng Dai; Walter Gams; David M. Geiser; Gareth W. Griffith; Cécile Gueidan; David L. Hawksworth; Geir Hestmark; Kentaro Hosaka; Richard A. Humber; Kevin D. Hyde; Joseph E. Ironside; Ko Ljalg; Cletus P. Kurtzman; Karl-Henrik Larsson; Robert Lichtwardt; Jolanta Mia Þ Dlikowska; Jolanta Mi?dlikowska; Andrew Miller; Jean-Marc Moncalvo; Sharon Mozley-Standridge; Franz Oberwinkler; Erast Parmasto; Valérie Reeb; Jack D. Rogers; Claude Roux; Leif Ryvarden; José Paulo Sampaio; Arthur Schüßler; Junta Sugiyama; R. Greg Thorn; Leif Tibell; Wendy A. Untereiner; Christopher Walker; Zheng Wang; Alex Weir; Michael Weiss; Merlin M. White; Katarina Winka; Yi-Jian Yao; Ning Zhang

2007-01-01

4

Scaling up accurate phylogenetic reconstruction from gene-order data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivation: Phylogenetic reconstruction from gene-order data has attracted increasing attention from both biologists and computer scientists over the last few years. Methods used in reconstruction include distance-based methods (such as neighbor-joining), parsimony methods using sequence-based encodings, Bayesian approaches, and direct optimization. The latter, pioneered by Sankoff and extended by us with the software suite GRAPPA, is the most accurate approach,

Jijun Tang; Bernard M. E. Moret

2003-01-01

5

A Functional-Phylogenetic Classification System for Transmembrane Solute Transporters  

PubMed Central

A comprehensive classification system for transmembrane molecular transporters has been developed and recently approved by the transport panel of the nomenclature committee of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. This system is based on (i) transporter class and subclass (mode of transport and energy coupling mechanism), (ii) protein phylogenetic family and subfamily, and (iii) substrate specificity. Almost all of the more than 250 identified families of transporters include members that function exclusively in transport. Channels (115 families), secondary active transporters (uniporters, symporters, and antiporters) (78 families), primary active transporters (23 families), group translocators (6 families), and transport proteins of ill-defined function or of unknown mechanism (51 families) constitute distinct categories. Transport mode and energy coupling prove to be relatively immutable characteristics and therefore provide primary bases for classification. Phylogenetic grouping reflects structure, function, mechanism, and often substrate specificity and therefore provides a reliable secondary basis for classification. Substrate specificity and polarity of transport prove to be more readily altered during evolutionary history and therefore provide a tertiary basis for classification. With very few exceptions, a phylogenetic family of transporters includes members that function by a single transport mode and energy coupling mechanism, although a variety of substrates may be transported, sometimes with either inwardly or outwardly directed polarity. In this review, I provide cross-referencing of well-characterized constituent transporters according to (i) transport mode, (ii) energy coupling mechanism, (iii) phylogenetic grouping, and (iv) substrates transported. The structural features and distribution of recognized family members throughout the living world are also evaluated. The tabulations should facilitate familial and functional assignments of newly sequenced transport proteins that will result from future genome sequencing projects. PMID:10839820

Saier, Milton H.

2000-01-01

6

Phylogenetic and functional classification of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) systems.  

PubMed

ATP binding cassette (ABC) systems constitute one of the most abundant superfamilies of proteins. They are involved in the transport of a wide variety of substances, but also in many cellular processes and in their regulation. In this paper, we made a comparative analysis of the properties of ABC systems and we provide a phylogenetic and functional classification. This analysis will be helpful to accurately annotate ABC systems discovered during the sequencing of the genome of living organisms and to identify the partners of the ABC ATPases. PMID:12370001

Bouige, Philippe; Laurent, David; Piloyan, Linda; Dassa, Elie

2002-10-01

7

The ABC of ABCS: a phylogenetic and functional classification of ABC systems in living organisms.  

PubMed

ATP binding cassette (ABC) systems constitute one of the most abundant superfamilies of proteins. They are involved not only in the transport of a wide variety of substances, but also in many cellular processes and in their regulation. In this paper, we made a comparative analysis of the properties of ABC systems and we provide a phylogenetic and functional classification. This analysis will be helpful to accurately annotate ABC systems discovered during the sequencing of the genome of living organisms and to identify the partners of the ABC ATPases. PMID:11421270

Dassa, E; Bouige, P

2001-01-01

8

Selection of Accurate and Robust Classification Model for Binary Classification Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paper we aim to investigate the trade off in selection of an accurate, robust and cost-effective classification model\\u000a for binary classification problem. With empirical observation we present the evaluation of one-class and two-class classification\\u000a model. We have experimented with four two-class and one-class classifier models on five UCI datasets. We have evaluated the\\u000a classification models with Receiver Operating

Muhammad A. Khan; Zahoor Jan; M. Ishtiaq; M. Asif Khan

9

A phylogenetic analysis of the mycoplasmas: basis for their classification.  

PubMed Central

Small-subunit rRNA sequences were determined for almost 50 species of mycoplasmas and their walled relatives, providing the basis for a phylogenetic systematic analysis of these organisms. Five groups of mycoplasmas per se were recognized (provisional names are given): the hominis group (which included species such as Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma lipophilum, Mycoplasma pulmonis, and Mycoplasma neurolyticum), the pneumoniae group (which included species such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Mycoplasma muris), the spiroplasma group (which included species such as Mycoplasma mycoides, Spiroplasma citri, and Spiroplasma apis), the anaeroplasma group (which encompassed the anaeroplasmas and acholeplasmas), and a group known to contain only the isolated species Asteroleplasma anaerobium. In addition to these five mycoplasma groups, a sixth group of variously named gram-positive, walled organisms (which included lactobacilli, clostridia, and other organisms) was also included in the overall phylogenetic unit. In each of these six primary groups, subgroups were readily recognized and defined. Although the phylogenetic units identified by rRNA comparisons are difficult to recognize on the basis of mutually exclusive phenotypic characters alone, phenotypic justification can be given a posteriori for a number of them. PMID:2592342

Weisburg, W G; Tully, J G; Rose, D L; Petzel, J P; Oyaizu, H; Yang, D; Mandelco, L; Sechrest, J; Lawrence, T G; Van Etten, J

1989-01-01

10

Two accurate sequence, structure, and phylogenetic template-based RNA alignment systems  

PubMed Central

Background The analysis of RNA sequences, once a small niche field for a small collection of scientists whose primary emphasis was the structure and function of a few RNA molecules, has grown most significantly with the realizations that 1) RNA is implicated in many more functions within the cell, and 2) the analysis of ribosomal RNA sequences is revealing more about the microbial ecology within all biological and environmental systems. The accurate and rapid alignment of these RNA sequences is essential to decipher the maximum amount of information from this data. Methods Two computer systems that utilize the Gutell lab's RNA Comparative Analysis Database (rCAD) were developed to align sequences to an existing template alignment available at the Gutell lab's Comparative RNA Web (CRW) Site. Multiple dimensions of cross-indexed information are contained within the relational database - rCAD, including sequence alignments, the NCBI phylogenetic tree, and comparative secondary structure information for each aligned sequence. The first program, CRWAlign-1 creates a phylogenetic-based sequence profile for each column in the alignment. The second program, CRWAlign-2 creates a profile based on phylogenetic, secondary structure, and sequence information. Both programs utilize their profiles to align new sequences into the template alignment. Results The accuracies of the two CRWAlign programs were compared with the best template-based rRNA alignment programs and the best de-novo alignment programs. We have compared our programs with a total of eight alternative alignment methods on different sets of 16S rRNA alignments with sequence percent identities ranging from 50% to 100%. Both CRWAlign programs were superior to these other programs in accuracy and speed. Conclusions Both CRWAlign programs can be used to align the very extensive amount of RNA sequencing that is generated due to the rapid next-generation sequencing technology. This latter technology is augmenting the new paradigm that RNA is intimately implicated in a significant number of functions within the cell. In addition, the use of bacterial 16S rRNA sequencing in the identification of the microbiome in many different environmental systems creates a need for rapid and highly accurate alignment of bacterial 16S rRNA sequences. PMID:24565058

2013-01-01

11

Accurate, Rapid Taxonomic Classification of Fungal Large-Subunit rRNA Genes  

PubMed Central

Taxonomic and phylogenetic fingerprinting based on sequence analysis of gene fragments from the large-subunit rRNA (LSU) gene or the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region is becoming an integral part of fungal classification. The lack of an accurate and robust classification tool trained by a validated sequence database for taxonomic placement of fungal LSU genes is a severe limitation in taxonomic analysis of fungal isolates or large data sets obtained from environmental surveys. Using a hand-curated set of 8,506 fungal LSU gene fragments, we determined the performance characteristics of a naïve Bayesian classifier across multiple taxonomic levels and compared the classifier performance to that of a sequence similarity-based (BLASTN) approach. The naïve Bayesian classifier was computationally more rapid (>460-fold with our system) than the BLASTN approach, and it provided equal or superior classification accuracy. Classifier accuracies were compared using sequence fragments of 100 bp and 400 bp and two different PCR primer anchor points to mimic sequence read lengths commonly obtained using current high-throughput sequencing technologies. Accuracy was higher with 400-bp sequence reads than with 100-bp reads. It was also significantly affected by sequence location across the 1,400-bp test region. The highest accuracy was obtained across either the D1 or D2 variable region. The naïve Bayesian classifier provides an effective and rapid means to classify fungal LSU sequences from large environmental surveys. The training set and tool are publicly available through the Ribosomal Database Project (http://rdp.cme.msu.edu/classifier/classifier.jsp). PMID:22194300

Liu, Kuan-Liang; Porras-Alfaro, Andrea; Eichorst, Stephanie A.

2012-01-01

12

Fast, Accurate Event Classification on Resource-Lean Embedded Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In wireless sensing applications, it is often necessary to identify high-level events based on low-level sensor signals. Due\\u000a to the limited computing and energy resources available on existing hardware platforms, achieving high precision classification\\u000a of high-level events in-network is a challenge. In this paper, we present a new classification technique for identifying events of interest on resource-lean\\u000a sensors. The approach

Hao Jiang; Jason O. Hallstrom

2011-01-01

13

Phylogenetics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity lets learners participate in the process of reconstructing a phylogenetic tree and introduces them to several core bioinformatics concepts, particularly in relation to evolution. Groups of learners (at least 10) repeat a secret message (five to seven similar-sounding words) like the game "Telephone". In this version of the game, however, learners write and then code what they hear, creating a model of a phylogenetic tree and using a species distance matrix. This resource includes background information about phylogenetic trees, maximum parsimony, and matrix theory (see page 6-7 of PDF).

Becker, Katrin; Becker, Jim; University, Truman S.

2005-01-01

14

The COG database: new developments in phylogenetic classification of proteins from complete genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The database of Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COGs), which represents an attempt on a phylogenetic classification of the proteins encoded in complete genomes, currently consists of 2791 COGs including 45 350 proteins from 30 genomes of bacteria, archaea and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (http:\\/\\/www.ncbi.nlm.nih. gov\\/COG). In addition, a supplement to the COGs is available, in which proteins encoded

Roman L. Tatusov; Darren A. Natale; Igor V. Garkavtsev; Tatiana A. Tatusova; Uma T. Shankavaram; Bachoti S. Rao; Boris Kiryutin; M. Y. Galperin; Natalie D. Fedorova; Eugene V. Koonin

2001-01-01

15

Use of structural phylogenetic networks for classification of the ferritin-like superfamily.  

PubMed

In the postgenomic era, bioinformatic analysis of sequence similarity is an immensely powerful tool to gain insight into evolution and protein function. Over long evolutionary distances, however, sequence-based methods fail as the similarities become too low for phylogenetic analysis. Macromolecular structure generally appears better conserved than sequence, but clear models for how structure evolves over time are lacking. The exponential growth of three-dimensional structural information may allow novel structure-based methods to drastically extend the evolutionary time scales amenable to phylogenetics and functional classification of proteins. To this end, we analyzed 80 structures from the functionally diverse ferritin-like superfamily. Using evolutionary networks, we demonstrate that structural comparisons can delineate and discover groups of proteins beyond the "twilight zone" where sequence similarity does not allow evolutionary analysis, suggesting that considerable and useful evolutionary signal is preserved in three-dimensional structures. PMID:22535960

Lundin, Daniel; Poole, Anthony M; Sjöberg, Britt-Marie; Högbom, Martin

2012-06-01

16

Use of Structural Phylogenetic Networks for Classification of the Ferritin-like Superfamily*  

PubMed Central

In the postgenomic era, bioinformatic analysis of sequence similarity is an immensely powerful tool to gain insight into evolution and protein function. Over long evolutionary distances, however, sequence-based methods fail as the similarities become too low for phylogenetic analysis. Macromolecular structure generally appears better conserved than sequence, but clear models for how structure evolves over time are lacking. The exponential growth of three-dimensional structural information may allow novel structure-based methods to drastically extend the evolutionary time scales amenable to phylogenetics and functional classification of proteins. To this end, we analyzed 80 structures from the functionally diverse ferritin-like superfamily. Using evolutionary networks, we demonstrate that structural comparisons can delineate and discover groups of proteins beyond the “twilight zone” where sequence similarity does not allow evolutionary analysis, suggesting that considerable and useful evolutionary signal is preserved in three-dimensional structures. PMID:22535960

Lundin, Daniel; Poole, Anthony M.; Sjoberg, Britt-Marie; Hogbom, Martin

2012-01-01

17

Rapid phylogenetic and functional classification of short genomic fragments with signature peptides  

PubMed Central

Background Classification is difficult for shotgun metagenomics data from environments such as soils, where the diversity of sequences is high and where reference sequences from close relatives may not exist. Approaches based on sequence-similarity scores must deal with the confounding effects that inheritance and functional pressures exert on the relation between scores and phylogenetic distance, while approaches based on sequence alignment and tree-building are typically limited to a small fraction of gene families. We describe an approach based on finding one or more exact matches between a read and a precomputed set of peptide 10-mers. Results At even the largest phylogenetic distances, thousands of 10-mer peptide exact matches can be found between pairs of bacterial genomes. Genes that share one or more peptide 10-mers typically have high reciprocal BLAST scores. Among a set of 403 representative bacterial genomes, some 20 million 10-mer peptides were found to be shared. We assign each of these peptides as a signature of a particular node in a phylogenetic reference tree based on the RNA polymerase genes. We classify the phylogeny of a genomic fragment (e.g., read) at the most specific node on the reference tree that is consistent with the phylogeny of observed signature peptides it contains. Using both synthetic data from four newly-sequenced soil-bacterium genomes and ten real soil metagenomics data sets, we demonstrate a sensitivity and specificity comparable to that of the MEGAN metagenomics analysis package using BLASTX against the NR database. Phylogenetic and functional similarity metrics applied to real metagenomics data indicates a signal-to-noise ratio of approximately 400 for distinguishing among environments. Our method assigns ~6.6 Gbp/hr on a single CPU, compared with 25 kbp/hr for methods based on BLASTX against the NR database. Conclusions Classification by exact matching against a precomputed list of signature peptides provides comparable results to existing techniques for reads longer than about 300 bp and does not degrade severely with shorter reads. Orders of magnitude faster than existing methods, the approach is suitable now for inclusion in analysis pipelines and appears to be extensible in several different directions. PMID:22925230

2012-01-01

18

Cloning, in vitro expression, and novel phylogenetic classification of a channel catfish estrogen receptor.  

PubMed

We obtained two channel catfish estrogen receptor (ccER) cDNA from liver of female fish using RT-PCR. The two fragments were identical in sequence except that the smaller one had an out-of-frame deletion in the E domain, suggesting the existence of ccER splice variants. The larger fragment was used to screen a cDNA library from liver of a prepubescent female. A cDNA was obtained that encoded a 581-amino-acid ER with a deduced molecular weight of 63.8 kDa. Extracts of COS-7 cells transfected with ccER cDNA bound estrogen with high affinity (Kd = 4.7 nM) and specificity. Maximum parsimony and Neighbor Joining analyses were used to generate a phylogenetic classification of ccER on the basis of 18 full-length ER sequences. The tree suggested the existence of two major ER branches. One branch contained two clearly divergent clades which included all piscine ER (except Japanese eel ER) and all tetrapod ERalpha, respectively. The second major branch contained the eel ER and the mammalian ERbeta. The high degree of divergence between the eel ER and mammalian ERbeta suggested that they also represent distinct piscine and tetrapod ER. These data suggest that ERalpha and ERbeta are present throughout vertebrates and that these two major ER types evolved by duplication of an ancestral ER gene. Sequence alignments with other members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily indicated the presence of 8 amino acids in the E domain that align exclusively among ER. Four of these amino acids have not received prior research attention and their function is unknown. The novel finding of putative ER splice variants in a nonmammalian vertebrate and the novel phylogenetic classification of ER offer new perspectives in understanding the diversification and function of ER. PMID:10068497

Xia, Z; Patiño, R; Gale, W L; Maule, A G; Densmore, L D

1999-03-01

19

Evaluation of recA gene as a phylogenetic marker in the classification of dairy propionibacteria.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of recA gene as a molecular marker for the reliable discrimination and classification of dairy propionibacteria and the closely related species. Regions of the recA gene, varying in size between 613 and 677 nucleotides, were sequenced for Propionibacterium acidipropionici, P. cyclohexanicum, P. freudenreichii, P. jensenii, P. microaerophilum and P. thoenii using degenerate consensus primers constructed by aligning recA sequences of some actinobacteria. The 16S rRNA encoding genes for the type and reference strains of the species P. acidipropionici, P. jensenii and P. thoenii were also sequenced to remove ambiguous positions present in the current database reports, such to improve the classification scheme of reference. As found for other bacterial species, recA sequences permitted a better distinction among the dairy propionibacteria considered than 16S rRNA gene. However, the topology of phylogenetic trees constructed on the recA gene regions sequenced and their putative translations appeared rather different and less statistically valid than the 16S rRNA gene tree. In addition, the possibility of designing PCR-based identification and detection tests on the new recA sequences was demonstrated by assessing specific amplification protocols for P. cyclohexanicum and P. microaerophilum. PMID:16458468

Rossi, Franca; Dellaglio, Franco; Torriani, Sandra

2006-09-01

20

Phylogenetic Classification at Generic Level in the Absence of Distinct Phylogenetic Patterns of Phenotypical Variation: A Case Study in Graphidaceae (Ascomycota)  

PubMed Central

Molecular phylogenies often reveal that taxa circumscribed by phenotypical characters are not monophyletic. While re-examination of phenotypical characters often identifies the presence of characters characterizing clades, there is a growing number of studies that fail to identify diagnostic characters, especially in organismal groups lacking complex morphologies. Taxonomists then can either merge the groups or split taxa into smaller entities. Due to the nature of binomial nomenclature, this decision is of special importance at the generic level. Here we propose a new approach to choose among classification alternatives using a combination of morphology-based phylogenetic binning and a multiresponse permutation procedure to test for morphological differences among clades. We illustrate the use of this method in the tribe Thelotremateae focusing on the genus Chapsa, a group of lichenized fungi in which our phylogenetic estimate is in conflict with traditional classification and the morphological and chemical characters do not show a clear phylogenetic pattern. We generated 75 new DNA sequences of mitochondrial SSU rDNA, nuclear LSU rDNA and the protein-coding RPB2. This data set was used to infer phylogenetic estimates using maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches. The genus Chapsa was found to be polyphyletic, forming four well-supported clades, three of which clustering into one unsupported clade, and the other, supported clade forming two supported subclades. While these clades cannot be readily separated morphologically, the combined binning/multiresponse permutation procedure showed that accepting the four clades as different genera each reflects the phenotypical pattern significantly better than accepting two genera (or five genera if splitting the first clade). Another species within the Thelotremateae, Thelotrema petractoides, a unique taxon with carbonized excipulum resembling Schizotrema, was shown to fall outside Thelotrema. Consequently, the new genera Astrochapsa, Crutarndina, Pseudochapsa, and Pseudotopeliopsis are described here and 39 new combinations are proposed. PMID:23251515

Parnmen, Sittiporn; Lucking, Robert; Lumbsch, H. Thorsten

2012-01-01

21

Accurate Molecular Classification of Renal Tumors Using MicroRNA Expression  

PubMed Central

Subtypes of renal tumors have different genetic backgrounds, prognoses, and responses to surgical and medical treatment, and their differential diagnosis is a frequent challenge for pathologists. New biomarkers can help improve the diagnosis and hence the management of renal cancer patients. We extracted RNA from 71 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) renal tumor samples and measured expression of more than 900 microRNAs using custom microarrays. Clustering revealed similarity in microRNA expression between oncocytoma and chromophobe subtypes as well as between conventional (clear-cell) and papillary tumors. By basing a classification algorithm on this structure, we followed inherent biological correlations and could achieve accurate classification using few microRNAs markers. We defined a two-step decision-tree classifier that uses expression levels of six microRNAs: the first step uses expression levels of hsa-miR-210 and hsa-miR-221 to distinguish between the two pairs of subtypes; the second step uses either hsa-miR-200c with hsa-miR-139-5p to identify oncocytoma from chromophobe, or hsa-miR-31 with hsa-miR-126 to identify conventional from papillary tumors. The classifier was tested on an independent set of FFPE tumor samples from 54 additional patients, and identified correctly 93% of the cases. Validation on qRT-PCR platform demonstrated high correlation with microarray results and accurate classification. MicroRNA expression profiling is a very effective molecular bioassay for classification of renal tumors and can offer a quantitative standardized complement to current methods of tumor classification. PMID:20595629

Fridman, Eddie; Dotan, Zohar; Barshack, Iris; David, Miriam Ben; Dov, Avital; Tabak, Sarit; Zion, Orit; Benjamin, Sima; Benjamin, Hila; Kuker, Hagit; Avivi, Camila; Rosenblatt, Kinneret; Polak-Charcon, Sylvie; Ramon, Jacob; Rosenfeld, Nitzan; Spector, Yael

2010-01-01

22

Highly accurate recognition of human postures and activities through classification with rejection.  

PubMed

Monitoring of postures and activities is used in many clinical and research applications, some of which may require highly reliable posture and activity recognition with desired accuracy well above 99% mark. This paper suggests a method for performing highly accurate recognition of postures and activities from data collected by a wearable shoe monitor (SmartShoe) through classification with rejection. Signals from pressure and acceleration sensors embedded in SmartShoe are used either as raw sensor data or after feature extraction. The Support vector machine (SVM) and multilayer perceptron (MLP) are used to implement classification with rejection. Unreliable observations are rejected by measuring the distance from the decision boundary and eliminating those observations that reside below rejection threshold. The results show a significant improvement (from 97.3% ± 2.3% to 99.8% ± 0.1%) in the classification accuracy after the rejection, using MLP with raw sensor data and rejecting 31.6% of observations. The results also demonstrate that MLP outperformed the SVM, and the classification accuracy based on raw sensor data was higher than the accuracy based on extracted features. The proposed approach will be especially beneficial in applications where high accuracy of recognition is desired while not all observations need to be assigned a class label. PMID:24403429

Tang, Wenlong; Sazonov, Edward S

2014-01-01

23

[An accurate approach to hyperspectral mineral identification based on naive bayesian classification model].  

PubMed

The spectral absorption features are very similar between some minerals, especially hydrothermal alteration minerals related to mineralization, and they are also influenced by other factors such as spectral mixture. As a result, many of the spectral identification approaches for the minerals with similar spectral absorption features are prone to confusion and misjudgment. Therefore, to solve the phenomenon of "same mineral has different spectrums, and same spectrum belongs to different minerals", this paper proposes an accurate approach to hyperspectral mineral identification based on naive bayesian classification model. By testing and analyzing muscovite and kaolinite, the two typical alteration minerals, and comparing this approach with spectral angle matching, binary encoding and spectral feature fitting, the three popular spectral identification approaches, the results show that this approach can make more obvious differences among different minerals having similar spectrums, and has higher classification accuracy, since it is based on the position of absorption feature, absorption depth and the slope of continuum. PMID:24822429

He, Jin-Xin; Chen, Sheng-Bo; Wang, Yang; Wu, Yan-Fan

2014-02-01

24

Infrafamilial classifications and characters in Araliaceae: Insights from the phylogenetic analysis of nuclear (ITS) and plastid ( trn L -trn F) sequence data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional classifications of Araliaceae have stressed a relatively small number of morphological characters in the circumscription of infrafamilial groups (usually recognized as tribes). These systems remain largely untested from a phylogenetic perspective, and only a single previous study has explicitly explored intergeneric relationships throughout this family. To test these infrafamilial classification systems, parsimony and Bayesian-inference analyses were conducted using a

Gregory M. Plunkett; Jun Wen; Porter P. Lowry II

2004-01-01

25

Phylogeny and phylogenetic classification of the antbirds, ovenbirds, woodcreepers, and allies (Aves: Passeriformes: infraorder Furnariides)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The infraorder Furnariides is a diverse group of suboscine passerine birds comprising a substantial component of the Neotropical avifauna. The included species encompass a broad array of morphologies and behaviours, making them appealing for evolutionary studies, but the size of the group (ca. 600 species) has limited well-sampled higher-level phylogenetic studies. Using DNA sequence data from the nuclear RAG-1 and

Robert G. Moyle; R. Terry Chesser; Robb T. Brumfield; Jose G. Tello; Daniel J. Marchese; Joel Cracraft

2009-01-01

26

Updating the taxonomic toolbox: classification of Alteromonas spp. using multilocus phylogenetic analysis and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Bacteria of the genus Alteromonas are Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, motile, heterotrophic marine bacteria known for their versatile metabolic activities. Identification and classification of novel species belonging to the genus Alteromonas generally involves DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) as distinct species often fail to be resolved at the 97 % threshold value of the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. In this study, the applicability of Multilocus Phylogenetic Analysis (MLPA) and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for the differentiation of Alteromonas species has been evaluated. Phylogenetic analysis incorporating five house-keeping genes (dnaK, sucC, rpoB, gyrB, and rpoD) revealed a threshold value of 98.9 % that could be considered as the species cut-off value for the delineation of Alteromonas spp. MALDI-TOF MS data analysis reconfirmed the Alteromonas species clustering. MLPA and MALDI-TOF MS both generated data that were comparable to that of the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and may be considered as useful complementary techniques for the description of new Alteromonas species. PMID:22965754

Ng, Hooi Jun; Webb, Hayden K; Crawford, Russell J; Malherbe, François; Butt, Henry; Knight, Rachel; Mikhailov, Valery V; Ivanova, Elena P

2013-02-01

27

Classification of the Indo-European Languages Using a Phylogenetic Network Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Discovering the origin of the Indo-European (IE) language family is one of the most intensively studied problems in historical\\u000a linguistics. Gray and Atkinson (2003) inferred a phylogenetic tree (i.e., additive tree or X-tree, Barthelémy and Guénoche\\u000a 1991) of the IE family, using bayesian inference and rate-smoothing algorithms, based on the 87 Indo-European language data\\u000a set collected by Dyen et al.

Alix Boc; Anna Maria Di Sciullo; Vladimir Makarenkov

28

Toward a Phylogenetic Classification of Primates Based on DNA Evidence Complemented by Fossil Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

A highly resolved primate cladogram based on DNA evidence is congruent with extant and fossil osteological evidence. A provisional primate classification based on this cladogram and the time scale provided by fossils and the model of local molecular clocks has all named taxa represent clades and assigns the same taxonomic rank to those clades of roughly equivalent age. Order Primates

Morris Goodman; Calvin A. Porter; John Czelusniak; Scott L. Page; Horacio Schneider; Jeheskel Shoshani; Gregg Gunnell; Colin P. Groves

1998-01-01

29

Comparative detailed morphology of the Heteroderinae Filip'ev & Schuurmans Stekhoven, 1941, sensu Luc et al. (1988): phylogenetic systematics and revised classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taxonomic schemes for the Heteroderinae Filip'ev & Schuurmans Stekhoven, 1941, sensu Luc et al., (1988) have been unstable due to the large number of genera and the paucity of known reliable characters. Reliable characters are essential when using phylogenetic inference in developing a natural classification. Morphological and developmental studies using light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy have revealed the new

J. G. Baldwin; L. P. Schouest Jr

1990-01-01

30

From learning taxonomies to phylogenetic learning: Integration of 16S rRNA gene data into FAME-based bacterial classification  

PubMed Central

Background Machine learning techniques have shown to improve bacterial species classification based on fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) data. Nonetheless, FAME analysis has a limited resolution for discrimination of bacteria at the species level. In this paper, we approach the species classification problem from a taxonomic point of view. Such a taxonomy or tree is typically obtained by applying clustering algorithms on FAME data or on 16S rRNA gene data. The knowledge gained from the tree can then be used to evaluate FAME-based classifiers, resulting in a novel framework for bacterial species classification. Results In view of learning in a taxonomic framework, we consider two types of trees. First, a FAME tree is constructed with a supervised divisive clustering algorithm. Subsequently, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, phylogenetic trees are inferred by the NJ and UPGMA methods. In this second approach, the species classification problem is based on the combination of two different types of data. Herein, 16S rRNA gene sequence data is used for phylogenetic tree inference and the corresponding binary tree splits are learned based on FAME data. We call this learning approach 'phylogenetic learning'. Supervised Random Forest models are developed to train the classification tasks in a stratified cross-validation setting. In this way, better classification results are obtained for species that are typically hard to distinguish by a single or flat multi-class classification model. Conclusions FAME-based bacterial species classification is successfully evaluated in a taxonomic framework. Although the proposed approach does not improve the overall accuracy compared to flat multi-class classification, it has some distinct advantages. First, it has better capabilities for distinguishing species on which flat multi-class classification fails. Secondly, the hierarchical classification structure allows to easily evaluate and visualize the resolution of FAME data for the discrimination of bacterial species. Summarized, by phylogenetic learning we are able to situate and evaluate FAME-based bacterial species classification in a more informative context. PMID:20113515

2010-01-01

31

Archaeal-eubacterial mergers in the origin of Eukarya: phylogenetic classification of life.  

PubMed Central

A symbiosis-based phylogeny leads to a consistent, useful classification system for all life. "Kingdoms" and "Domains" are replaced by biological names for the most inclusive taxa: Prokarya (bacteria) and Eukarya (symbiosis-derived nucleated organisms). The earliest Eukarya, anaerobic mastigotes, hypothetically originated from permanent whole-cell fusion between members of Archaea (e.g., Thermoplasma-like organisms) and of Eubacteria (e.g., Spirochaeta-like organisms). Molecular biology, life-history, and fossil record evidence support the reunification of bacteria as Prokarya while subdividing Eukarya into uniquely defined subtaxa: Protoctista, Animalia, Fungi, and Plantae. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8577716

Margulis, L

1996-01-01

32

Archaeal-eubacterial mergers in the origin of Eukarya: phylogenetic classification of life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A symbiosis-based phylogeny leads to a consistent, useful classification system for all life. "Kingdoms" and "Domains" are replaced by biological names for the most inclusive taxa: Prokarya (bacteria) and Eukarya (symbiosis-derived nucleated organisms). The earliest Eukarya, anaerobic mastigotes, hypothetically originated from permanent whole-cell fusion between members of Archaea (e.g., Thermoplasma-like organisms) and of Eubacteria (e.g., Spirochaeta-like organisms). Molecular biology, life-history, and fossil record evidence support the reunification of bacteria as Prokarya while subdividing Eukarya into uniquely defined subtaxa: Protoctista, Animalia, Fungi, and Plantae.

Margulis, L.

1996-01-01

33

Assignment of Calibration Information to Deeper Phylogenetic Nodes is More Effective in Obtaining Precise and Accurate Divergence Time Estimates.  

PubMed

Divergence time estimation has become an essential tool for understanding macroevolutionary events. Molecular dating aims to obtain reliable inferences, which, within a statistical framework, means jointly increasing the accuracy and precision of estimates. Bayesian dating methods exhibit the propriety of a linear relationship between uncertainty and estimated divergence dates. This relationship occurs even if the number of sites approaches infinity and places a limit on the maximum precision of node ages. However, how the placement of calibration information may affect the precision of divergence time estimates remains an open question. In this study, relying on simulated and empirical data, we investigated how the location of calibration within a phylogeny affects the accuracy and precision of time estimates. We found that calibration priors set at median and deep phylogenetic nodes were associated with higher precision values compared to analyses involving calibration at the shallowest node. The results were independent of the tree symmetry. An empirical mammalian dataset produced results that were consistent with those generated by the simulated sequences. Assigning time information to the deeper nodes of a tree is crucial to guarantee the accuracy and precision of divergence times. This finding highlights the importance of the appropriate choice of outgroups in molecular dating. PMID:24855333

Mello, Beatriz; Schrago, Carlos G

2014-01-01

34

Phylogenetic and functional classification of mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinases.  

PubMed

All currently sequenced stress-activated protein kinases (SAPKs), extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), and other mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) were analyzed by sequence alignment, phylogenetic tree construction, and three-dimensional structure modeling in order to classify members of the MAPK family. Based on this analysis the MAPK family was divided into three subgroups (SAPKs, ERKs, and MAPK3) that consist of at least nine subfamilies. Members of a given subfamily were exclusively from animals, plants, or yeast/fungi. A single signature sequence, [LIVM][TS]XX[LIVM]XT[RK][WY]YRXPX[LIVM] [LIVM], was identified that is characteristic for all MAPKs and sufficient to distinguish MAPKs from other members of the protein kinase superfamily. This signature sequence contains the phosphorylation site and is located on loop 12 of the three-dimensional structure of MAPKs. I also identified signature sequences that are characteristic for each of the nine subfamilies of MAPKs. By modeling the three-dimensional structure of three proteins for each MAPK subfamily based on the resolved atomic structures of rat ERK2 and murine p38, it is demonstrated that amino acids conserved in all MAPKs are located primarily in the center of the protein around the catalytic cleft. I conclude that these residues are important for maintaining proper folding into the gross structure common to all MAPKs. On the other hand, amino acids conserved in a given subfamily are located mainly in the periphery of MAPKs, indicating their possible importance for defining interactions with substrates, activators, and inhibitors. Within these subfamily-specific regions, amino acids were identified that represent unique residues occurring in only a single subfamily and their location was mapped in three-dimensional structure models. These unique residues are likely to be crucial for subfamily-specific interactions of MAPKs with substrates, inhibitors, or activators and, therefore, represent excellent targets for site-directed mutagenesis experiments. PMID:9545468

Kültz, D

1998-05-01

35

A Comprehensive Guide for the Accurate Classification of Murine Hair Follicles in Distinct Hair Cycle Stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous strains of mice with defined mutations display pronounced abnormalities of hair follicle cycling, even in the absence of overt alterations of the skin and hair phenotype; however, in order to recognize even subtle, hair cycle-related abnormalities, it is critically important to be able to determine accurately and classify the major stages of the normal murine hair cycle. In this

Sven Müller-Röver; Bori Handjiski; Carina van der Veen; Stefan Eichmüller; Kerstin Foitzik; Ian A. McKay; Kurt S. Stenn; Ralf Paus

2001-01-01

36

Towards a phylogenetic classification of Cordyceps: ITS nrDNA sequence data confirm divergent lineages and paraphyly.  

PubMed

The ascomycetous genus Cordyceps accommodates endoparasitic species that attack arthropods or other fungi. Analyses of ITS nrDNA sequence data of 72 taxa from the teleomorph genera Cordyceps, Claviceps, Epichloë, and the anamorph genera Akanthomyces, Beauveria, Metarhizium, Hirsutella, Hymenostilbe, Paecilomyces, Polycephalomyces, and Tolypocladium assigned the taxa to four main evolutionary lineages not reflected in the current classification of Cordyceps. Ten subclades were recognized from separate analyses of data subsets. Judged from the ITS phylogenies, Cordyceps spp. with branched stromata were highly supported as a divergent lineage. Host specificity was found to be of limited phylogenetic significance, and several host shifts are suggested to have occurred during the evolution of Cordyceps. Similar ascospore morphology was not reflected in the phyletic groups, and closely related taxa showed large interspecific variation with respect to the number of segments in which the ascospores are divided. However, combinations of selected characters were found to delimitate some lineages, e.g. all Cordyceps spp. that attack hosts in the insect orders Coleoptera and Lepidoptera, and with non-immersed perithecia and clavate to acicular, brightly yellowish to reddish stromata, constituted a separate clade. Furthermore, all Cordyceps spp. with perithecia obliquely immersed in the stroma were recognized as a distinct monophyletic group. This clade is additionally characterized by the formation of anamorphs ascribable to the genus Hymenostilbe. The mycogenous Cordyceps spp. grouped in a separate subclade, interspersed by two cicadaen parasites and all Tolypocladium spp. except T. parasiticum. Tolypocladium and Beauveria were found to be polyphyletic. The included Claviceps and Epichloë taxa appeared to be derived within Cordyceps, thus making Cordyceps paraphyletic as suggested in other studies. PMID:15736862

Stensrud, Oyvind; Hywel-Jones, Nigel L; Schumacher, Trond

2005-01-01

37

Protein clustering and RNA phylogenetic reconstruction of the influenza A [corrected] virus NS1 protein allow an update in classification and identification of motif conservation.  

PubMed

The non-structural protein 1 (NS1) of influenza A virus (IAV), coded by its third most diverse gene, interacts with multiple molecules within infected cells. NS1 is involved in host immune response regulation and is a potential contributor to the virus host range. Early phylogenetic analyses using 50 sequences led to the classification of NS1 gene variants into groups (alleles) A and B. We reanalyzed NS1 diversity using 14,716 complete NS IAV sequences, downloaded from public databases, without host bias. Removal of sequence redundancy and further structured clustering at 96.8% amino acid similarity produced 415 clusters that enhanced our capability to detect distinct subgroups and lineages, which were assigned a numerical nomenclature. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic reconstruction using RNA sequences indicated the previously identified deep branching separating group A from group B, with five distinct subgroups within A as well as two and five lineages within the A4 and A5 subgroups, respectively. Our classification model proposes that sequence patterns in thirteen amino acid positions are sufficient to fit >99.9% of all currently available NS1 sequences into the A subgroups/lineages or the B group. This classification reduces host and virus bias through the prioritization of NS1 RNA phylogenetics over host or virus phenetics. We found significant sequence conservation within the subgroups and lineages with characteristic patterns of functional motifs, such as the differential binding of CPSF30 and crk/crkL or the availability of a C-terminal PDZ-binding motif. To understand selection pressures and evolution acting on NS1, it is necessary to organize the available data. This updated classification may help to clarify and organize the study of NS1 interactions and pathogenic differences and allow the drawing of further functional inferences on sequences in each group, subgroup and lineage rather than on a strain-by-strain basis. PMID:23667580

Sevilla-Reyes, Edgar E; Chavaro-Pérez, David A; Piten-Isidro, Elvira; Gutiérrez-González, Luis H; Santos-Mendoza, Teresa

2013-01-01

38

Increasing the data size to accurately reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships between nine subgroups of the Drosophila melanogaster species group (Drosophilidae, Diptera).  

PubMed

Previous phylogenetic analyses of the melanogaster species group have led to conflicting hypotheses concerning their relationship; therefore the addition of new sequence data is necessary to discover the phylogeny of this species group. Here we present new data derived from 17 genes and representing 48 species to reconstruct the phylogeny of the melanogaster group. A variety of statistical tests, as well as maximum likelihood mapping analysis, were performed to estimate data quality, suggesting that all genes had a high degree of contribution to resolve the phylogeny. Individual locus was analyzed using maximum likelihood (ML), and the concatenated dataset (12,988 bp) were analyzed using partitioned maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian analyses. Separated analysis produced various phylogenetic relationships, however, phylogenetic topologies from ML and Bayesian analysis based on concatenated dataset, at the subgroup level, were completely identical to each other with high levels of support. Our results recovered three major clades: the ananassae subgroup, followed by the montium subgroup, the melanogaster subgroup and the oriental subgroups form the third monophyletic clade, in which melanogaster (takahashii, suzukii) forms one subclade and ficusphila [eugracilis (elegans, rhopaloa)] forms another. However, more data are necessary to determine the phylogenetic position of Drosophila lucipennis which proved difficult to place. PMID:21985965

Yang, Yong; Hou, Zhuo-Cheng; Qian, Yuan-Huai; Kang, Han; Zeng, Qing-Tao

2012-01-01

39

Analysis of genetic diversity in banana cultivars (Musa cvs.) from the South of Oman using AFLP markers and classification by phylogenetic, hierarchical clustering and principal component analyses*  

PubMed Central

Banana is an important crop grown in Oman and there is a dearth of information on its genetic diversity to assist in crop breeding and improvement programs. This study employed amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) to investigate the genetic variation in local banana cultivars from the southern region of Oman. Using 12 primer combinations, a total of 1094 bands were scored, of which 1012 were polymorphic. Eighty-two unique markers were identified, which revealed the distinct separation of the seven cultivars. The results obtained show that AFLP can be used to differentiate the banana cultivars. Further classification by phylogenetic, hierarchical clustering and principal component analyses showed significant differences between the clusters found with molecular markers and those clusters created by previous studies using morphological analysis. Based on the analytical results, a consensus dendrogram of the banana cultivars is presented. PMID:20443211

Opara, Umezuruike Linus; Jacobson, Dan; Al-Saady, Nadiya Abubakar

2010-01-01

40

CLASSIFICATION  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Project Overview: Classification is grouping similar objects together. When you go into a grocery store, you see fresh fruits and vegetables, frozen food, cereal, and pet suplies in different aisles. Imagine how difficult life would be if you went into a store, and the aisles were not labeled to tell you where to find the items! You don't have to be a scientist to use classification! You use classification when you group your IPOD music into different genres and when you divide your dark colored clothing from light colors to do laundry. You might even use it to sort Halloween candy into 4 groups: chocolate candy, hard candy, chewy candy, and gum. The science of classification is called taxonomy. Taxonomy classifies organisms based on evolutionary relationships and describes and names organisms with a two-part name: genus and species. Scientists use taxonomy to identify unknown organisms by using books called field guides or by using taxonomic keys (also called dichomotous keys). Project Objective: As a class,you will be previewing and answering some questions about some classification resources to learn how to use a dichotomous key, how to key a specimen, and to help you write your own dichotomous key for school items. Project: Get a sheet of notebook paper and pencil and refer to the websites to find the answers to the questions. One way to classify objects is to create a "tree" to group similar objects together.Open hierarchical classfication of objects to the second page and find the diagram of common household objects. See how all the ...

Ballew, Mrs.

2010-10-17

41

Is the SIOP-2001 Classification of Renal Tumors of Childhood accurate with regard to prognosis? A problem revisited  

PubMed Central

Introduction The goal of this study was to analyze morbidity and mortality of Wilms’ tumor based on the revised SIOP-2001 classification. Material and methods Sixty-four patients with unilateral Wilms’ tumor, 33 girls (51.5%) and 31 boys (48.5%), aged 1 to 144 months (mean: 42.8 months) were treated between 1993 and 2009. All patients underwent multimodal therapy according to the SIOP protocols. The follow-up period ranged from 2 to 18 years (mean: 11.6 years). Results Thirty-three patients (51.6%) had intermediate-risk, 6 (9.4%) low-risk and 25 (39%) high-risk tumors. Stage I disease was diagnosed in 28 (43.7%), stage II in 19 (29.7%), stage III in 8 (12.5%) and stage IV in 9 patients (14.1%). Event-free survival (EFS) in the entire group was 78.1% and OS was 92.2%. The EFS in stage IV (44.4%) was significantly lower than in stage I (82.1%, p = 0.04), stage II (89.5%, p = 0.02) and in the entire group (78.1%, p = 0.04). Sixteen complications were observed in 14 children (21.9%); metastases in 7 cases (10.9%), 8 relapses (12.5%) and 5 deaths (7.8%). Blastemal (20/24 – 83.3%) and anaplastic (3/24 – 12.5%) subtypes were responsible for mortality in high-risk tumors (OS – 87.5%), while poorly differentiated epithelial (7/34 – 20.6%) and regressive (8/34 – 23.5%) subtypes decreased OS (94.1%) in the intermediate-risk tumors. Conclusions The results of our study show that epithelial and regressive subtypes were responsible for mortality in the intermediate-risk Wilms’ tumors. PMID:23056081

Taran, Katarzyna; Mlynarski, Wojciech; Sitkiewicz, Anna

2012-01-01

42

Rapid identification and classification of Mycobacterium spp. using whole-cell protein barcodes with matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry in comparison with multigene phylogenetic analysis.  

PubMed

The need of quick diagnostics and increasing number of bacterial species isolated necessitate development of a rapid and effective phenotypic identification method. Mass spectrometry (MS) profiling of whole cell proteins has potential to satisfy the requirements. The genus Mycobacterium contains more than 154 species that are taxonomically very close and require use of multiple genes including 16S rDNA for phylogenetic identification and classification. Six strains of five Mycobacterium species were selected as model bacteria in the present study because of their 16S rDNA similarity (98.4-99.8%) and the high similarity of the concatenated 16S rDNA, rpoB and hsp65 gene sequences (95.9-99.9%), requiring high identification resolution. The classification of the six strains by MALDI TOF MS protein barcodes was consistent with, but at much higher resolution than, that of the multi-locus sequence analysis of using 16S rDNA, rpoB and hsp65. The species were well differentiated using MALDI TOF MS and MALDI BioTyper™ software after quick preparation of whole-cell proteins. Several proteins were selected as diagnostic markers for species confirmation. An integration of MALDI TOF MS, MALDI BioTyper™ software and diagnostic protein fragments provides a robust phenotypic approach for bacterial identification and classification. PMID:22284888

Wang, Jun; Chen, Wen Feng; Li, Qing X

2012-02-24

43

Organic anion transporting polypeptides of the OATP\\/ SLC21 family: phylogenetic classification as OATP\\/ SLCO superfamily, new nomenclature and molecular\\/functional properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The organic anion transporting polypeptides (rodents: Oatps, human: OATPs) form a superfamily of sodium-independent transport systems that mediate the transmembrane transport of a wide range of amphipathic endogenous and exogenous organic compounds. Since the traditional SLC21 gene classification does not permit an unequivocal and species-independent identification of genes and gene products, all Oatps\\/OATPs are newly classified within the OATP\\/ SLCO

Bruno Hagenbuch; Peter J. Meier

2004-01-01

44

Classification of Hepatitis C Viruses Based on Phylogenetic Analysis of the Envelope 1 and Nonstructural 5B Regions and Identification of Five Additional Subtypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genotyping of hepatitis C virus-positive sera by means of a line probe assay indicated that <3% of European samples, but up to 30% of Gabonese sera, could not be classified as either 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 3a, 3b, 4c, 5a, or 6a. Such samples were analyzed in the 5' untranslated region and in the nonstructural 5 (NS5) region. Classification based

Lieven Stuyver; Wouter van Arnhem; Ann Wyseur; Francisco Hernandez; Eric Delaporte; Geert Maertens

1994-01-01

45

Accurate Video Text Detection Through Classification of Low and High Contrast Palaiahnakote Shivakumara, Weihua Huang, Trung Quy Phan and Chew Lim Tan  

E-print Network

, and vice versa for low contrast video images. In order to demonstrate the use of this classification in video images. Experiments are conducted using video images containing both graphic text and scene text, is a type of important source that is useful for this task. For example, text in web images can reflect

Tan, Chew Lim

46

Experimental results on marine targets classification with surveillance HRR by means of non coherent techniques based on hot spots accurate location  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the experimental results are presented of applying a new non coherent and non statistic technique that allows us to endow the coastal surveillance high resolution radars (HRR) with a significant capacity for target classification and identification; making possible the estimation of their size, and also obtaining information about their structure by analyzing the intensity and position of

Felix Perez Martinez; Javier Garcia Fominaya; Jaime Calvo Gallego

2003-01-01

47

Factors That Affect Large Subunit Ribosomal DNA Amplicon Sequencing Studies of Fungal Communities: Classification Method, Primer Choice, and Error  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA is widely used in fungal phylogenetics and to an increasing extent also amplicon-based environmental sequencing. The relatively short reads produced by next-generation sequencing, however, makes primer choice and sequence error important variables for obtaining accurate taxonomic classifications. In this simulation study we tested the performance of three classification methods: 1) a similarity-based method (BLAST +

Teresita M. Porter; G. Brian Golding

2012-01-01

48

Endometriosis fertility index score maybe more accurate for predicting the outcomes of in vitro fertilisation than r-AFS classification in women with endometriosis  

PubMed Central

Background Endometriosis is a common disease. The most widely used staging system of endometriosis is the revised American Fertility Society classification (r-AFS classification) which has limited predictive ability for pregnancy after surgery. The endometriosis fertility index (EFI) is used to predict fecundity after endometriosis surgery. This diagnostic accuracy study was designed to compare the predictive value of the EFI with that of the r-AFS classification for IVF outcomes in patients with endometriosis. Methods 199 women with endometriosis receiving IVF treatment after surgery were analysis. The EFI score and r-AFS classification in their ability to predict these IVF outcomes were compared in the same population. ROC curves were used to analyse the predictive values of the EFI and r-AFS indices for clinical pregnancy, and their accuracies were evaluated by sensitivity, specificity, and the Youden’s index. Results The Area Under the Curve (AUC) of the EFI score (AUC?=?0.641, Standard Error(SE)?=?0.039, P?=?0.001, 95% CI?=?0.564-0.717, cut-off score?=?6) was significantly larger than that of the r-AFS classification (AUC?=?0.445, SE?=?0.041, P?=?0.184, and 95% CI?=?0.364-0.526). The antral follicle count, oestradiol level on day of hCG, number of oocytes retrieved, number of oocytes fertilised, and number of cleaved embryos in the greater than or equal to 6 EFI score group was greater than that of the lower than or equal to 5 EFI score group, and the dose of gonadotropin of the greater than or equal to 6 EFI score group were less than that in the lower than or equal to 5 EFI score group. Implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate, and cumulative pregnancy rate in the greater than or equal to 6 EFI score group were higher than in the lower than or equal to 5 EFI score group. Conclusions It suggests that the EFI has more predictive power for IVF outcomes in endometriosis patients than the r-AFS classification. The clinical pregnancy rate was higher in patients with EFI greater than or equal to 6 score than with EFI lower than or equal to 5 score. PMID:24330552

2013-01-01

49

Large-Scale Phylogenetic Classification of Fungal Chitin Synthases and Identification of a Putative Cell-Wall Metabolism Gene Cluster in Aspergillus Genomes  

PubMed Central

The cell wall is a protective and versatile structure distributed in all fungi. The component responsible for its rigidity is chitin, a product of chitin synthase (Chsp) enzymes. There are seven classes of chitin synthase genes (CHS) and the amount and type encoded in fungal genomes varies considerably from one species to another. Previous Chsp sequence analyses focused on their study as individual units, regardless of genomic context. The identification of blocks of conserved genes between genomes can provide important clues about the interactions and localization of chitin synthases. On the present study, we carried out an in silico search of all putative Chsp encoded in 54 full fungal genomes, encompassing 21 orders from five phyla. Phylogenetic studies of these Chsp were able to confidently classify 347 out of the 369 Chsp identified (94%). Patterns in the distribution of Chsp related to taxonomy were identified, the most prominent being related to the type of fungal growth. More importantly, a synteny analysis for genomic blocks centered on class IV Chsp (the most abundant and widely distributed Chsp class) identified a putative cell wall metabolism gene cluster in members of the genus Aspergillus, the first such association reported for any fungal genome. PMID:25148134

Pacheco-Arjona, Jose Ramon; Ramirez-Prado, Jorge Humberto

2014-01-01

50

ICGA-PSO-ELM Approach for Accurate Multiclass Cancer Classification Resulting in Reduced Gene Sets in Which Genes Encoding Secreted Proteins Are Highly Represented  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combination of Integer-Coded Genetic Algorithm (ICGA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), coupled with the neural-network-based Extreme Learning Machine (ELM), is used for gene selection and cancer classification. ICGA is used with PSO-ELM to select an optimal set of genes, which is then used to build a classifier to develop an algorithm (ICGA_PSO_ELM) that can handle sparse data and sample

Saras Saraswathi; Suresh Sundaram; Narasimhan Sundararajan; Michael Zimmermann; Marit Nilsen-Hamilton

2011-01-01

51

A classification for extant ferns  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a revised classification for extant ferns, with emphasis on ordinal and familial ranks, and a synop- sis of included genera. Our classification reflects recently published phylogenetic hypotheses based on both morphological and molecular data. Within our new classification, we recognize four monophyletic classes, 11 monophyletic orders, and 37 families, 32 of which are strongly supported as monophyletic. One

Alan R. Smith; Kathleen M. Pryer; Eric Schuettpelz; Petra Korall; Harald Schneider; Paul G. Wolf

2006-01-01

52

Phylogenetic Models: Algebra and Evolution  

E-print Network

Phylogenetic Models: Algebra and Evolution Elizabeth S. Allman Dept. of Mathematics and Statistics evolutionary tree 2. sequence evolution probabilistic models on trees 3. phylogenetic ideals and varieties history. IMA -- Phylogenetic Models: Algebra and Evolution Slide 1 #12;For phylogenetic inference

Allman, Elizabeth S.

53

Directional biases in phylogenetic structure quantification: a Mediterranean case study  

PubMed Central

Recent years have seen an increasing effort to incorporate phylogenetic hypotheses to the study of community assembly processes. The incorporation of such evolutionary information has been eased by the emergence of specialized software for the automatic estimation of partially resolved supertrees based on published phylogenies. Despite this growing interest in the use of phylogenies in ecological research, very few studies have attempted to quantify the potential biases related to the use of partially resolved phylogenies and to branch length accuracy, and no work has examined how tree shape may affect inference of community phylogenetic metrics. In this study, using a large plant community and elevational dataset, we tested the influence of phylogenetic resolution and branch length information on the quantification of phylogenetic structure; and also explored the impact of tree shape (stemminess) on the loss of accuracy in phylogenetic structure quantification due to phylogenetic resolution. For this purpose, we used 9 sets of phylogenetic hypotheses of varying resolution and branch lengths to calculate three indices of phylogenetic structure: the mean phylogenetic distance (NRI), the mean nearest taxon distance (NTI) and phylogenetic diversity (stdPD) metrics. The NRI metric was the less sensitive to phylogenetic resolution, stdPD showed an intermediate sensitivity, and NTI was the most sensitive one; NRI was also less sensitive to branch length accuracy than NTI and stdPD, the degree of sensitivity being strongly dependent on the dating method and the sample size. Directional biases were generally towards type II errors. Interestingly, we detected that tree shape influenced the accuracy loss derived from the lack of phylogenetic resolution, particularly for NRI and stdPD. We conclude that well-resolved molecular phylogenies with accurate branch length information are needed to identify the underlying phylogenetic structure of communities, and also that sensitivity of phylogenetic structure measures to low phylogenetic resolution can strongly differ depending on phylogenetic tree shape. PMID:25076812

Molina-Venegas, Rafael; Roquet, Cristina

2014-01-01

54

Phylogenetic molecular function annotation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is now easier to discover thousands of protein sequences in a new microbial genome than it is to biochemically characterize the specific activity of a single protein of unknown function. The molecular functions of protein sequences have typically been predicted using homology-based computational methods, which rely on the principle that homologous proteins share a similar function. However, some protein families include groups of proteins with different molecular functions. A phylogenetic approach for predicting molecular function (sometimes called "phylogenomics") is an effective means to predict protein molecular function. These methods incorporate functional evidence from all members of a family that have functional characterizations using the evolutionary history of the protein family to make robust predictions for the uncharacterized proteins. However, they are often difficult to apply on a genome-wide scale because of the time-consuming step of reconstructing the phylogenies of each protein to be annotated. Our automated approach for function annotation using phylogeny, the SIFTER (Statistical Inference of Function Through Evolutionary Relationships) methodology, uses a statistical graphical model to compute the probabilities of molecular functions for unannotated proteins. Our benchmark tests showed that SIFTER provides accurate functional predictions on various protein families, outperforming other available methods.

Engelhardt, Barbara E.; Jordan, Michael I.; Repo, Susanna T.; Brenner, Steven E.

2009-07-01

55

Complete chloroplast genome of the genus Cymbidium: lights into the species identification, phylogenetic implications and population genetic analyses  

PubMed Central

Background Cymbidium orchids, including some 50 species, are the famous flowers, and they possess high commercial value in the floricultural industry. Furthermore, the values of different orchids are great differences. However, species identification is very difficult. To a certain degree, chloroplast DNA sequence data are a versatile tool for species identification and phylogenetic implications in plants. Different chloroplast loci have been utilized for evaluating phylogenetic relationships at each classification level among plant species, including at the interspecies and intraspecies levels. However, there is no evidence that a short sequence can distinguish all plant species from each other in order to infer phylogenetic relationships. Molecular markers derived from the complete chloroplast genome can provide effective tools for species identification and phylogenetic resolution. Results The complete nucleotide sequences of eight individuals from a total of five Cymbidium species’ chloroplast (cp) genomes were determined using Illumina sequencing technology of the total DNA via a combination of de novo and reference-guided assembly. The length of the Cymbidium cp genome is about 155 kb. The cp genomes contain 123 unique genes, and the IR regions contain 24 duplicates. Although the genomes, including genome structure, gene order and orientation, are similar to those of other orchids, they are not evolutionarily conservative. The cp genome of Cymbidium evolved moderately with more than 3% sequence divergence, which could provide enough information for phylogeny. Rapidly evolving chloroplast genome regions were identified and 11 new divergence hotspot regions were disclosed for further phylogenetic study and species identification in Orchidaceae. Conclusions Phylogenomic analyses were conducted using 10 complete chloroplast genomes from seven orchid species. These data accurately identified the individuals and established the phylogenetic relationships between the species. The results reveal that phylogenomics based on organelle genome sequencing lights the species identification—organelle-scale “barcodes”, and is also an effective approach for studying whole populations and phylogenetic characteristics of Cymbidium. PMID:23597078

2013-01-01

56

Introduction to Statistical Phylogenetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of molecular phylogenetics is to reconstruct the evolutionary relationships among different species or strains from biological sequence alignments and present them in an appropriate, usually tree-structured, graph. Besides being of fundamental importance in itself — aiming to estimate, for instance, the ancestry of the human race or to infer the whole tree of life — phylogenetics has recently

Dirk Husmeier

57

Phylogenetic Inference From Conserved sites Alignments  

SciTech Connect

Molecular sequences provide a rich source of data for inferring the phylogenetic relationships among species. However, recent work indicates that even an accurate multiple alignment of a large sequence set may yield an incorrect phylogeny and that the quality of the phylogenetic tree improves when the input consists only of the highly conserved, motif regions of the alignment. This work introduces two methods of producing multiple alignments that include only the conserved regions of the initial alignment. The first method retains conserved motifs, whereas the second retains individual conserved sites in the initial alignment. Using parsimony analysis on a mitochondrial data set containing 19 species among which the phylogenetic relationships are widely accepted, both conserved alignment methods produce better phylogenetic trees than the complete alignment. Unlike any of the 19 inference methods used before to analyze this data, both methods produce trees that are completely consistent with the known phylogeny. The motif-based method employs far fewer alignment sites for comparable error rates. For a larger data set containing mitochondrial sequences from 39 species, the site-based method produces a phylogenetic tree that is largely consistent with known phylogenetic relationships and suggests several novel placements.

grundy, W.N.; Naylor, G.J.P.

1999-08-15

58

Phylogenetic relationships among arecoid palms (Arecaceae: Arecoideae)  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The Arecoideae is the largest and most diverse of the five subfamilies of palms (Arecaceae/Palmae), containing >50 % of the species in the family. Despite its importance, phylogenetic relationships among Arecoideae are poorly understood. Here the most densely sampled phylogenetic analysis of Arecoideae available to date is presented. The results are used to test the current classification of the subfamily and to identify priority areas for future research. Methods DNA sequence data for the low-copy nuclear genes PRK and RPB2 were collected from 190 palm species, covering 103 (96 %) genera of Arecoideae. The data were analysed using the parsimony ratchet, maximum likelihood, and both likelihood and parsimony bootstrapping. Key Results and Conclusions Despite the recovery of paralogues and pseudogenes in a small number of taxa, PRK and RPB2 were both highly informative, producing well-resolved phylogenetic trees with many nodes well supported by bootstrap analyses. Simultaneous analyses of the combined data sets provided additional resolution and support. Two areas of incongruence between PRK and RPB2 were strongly supported by the bootstrap relating to the placement of tribes Chamaedoreeae, Iriarteeae and Reinhardtieae; the causes of this incongruence remain uncertain. The current classification within Arecoideae was strongly supported by the present data. Of the 14 tribes and 14 sub-tribes in the classification, only five sub-tribes from tribe Areceae (Basseliniinae, Linospadicinae, Oncospermatinae, Rhopalostylidinae and Verschaffeltiinae) failed to receive support. Three major higher level clades were strongly supported: (1) the RRC clade (Roystoneeae, Reinhardtieae and Cocoseae), (2) the POS clade (Podococceae, Oranieae and Sclerospermeae) and (3) the core arecoid clade (Areceae, Euterpeae, Geonomateae, Leopoldinieae, Manicarieae and Pelagodoxeae). However, new data sources are required to elucidate ambiguities that remain in phylogenetic relationships among and within the major groups of Arecoideae, as well as within the Areceae, the largest tribe in the palm family. PMID:21325340

Baker, William J.; Norup, Maria V.; Clarkson, James J.; Couvreur, Thomas L. P.; Dowe, John L.; Lewis, Carl E.; Pintaud, Jean-Christophe; Savolainen, Vincent; Wilmot, Tomas; Chase, Mark W.

2011-01-01

59

Phylogenetic assessment of characters proposed for the generic classification of Recent Scissurellidae (Gastropoda:Vetigastropoda) with a description of one new genus and six new species from Easter Island and Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-five nominal generic names have been proposed for the approximately 150 Recent species described in the family Scissurellidae (Mollusca : Gastropoda : Vetigastropoda). The generic diagnosing characters have not been uniformly applied and the value of these characters for scissurellid classification remains to be demonstrated. Here, the characters used are reviewed, including those of the shell, slit and selenizone, radula,

Daniel L. Geiger

60

PRACTICE AND PREJUDICE IN LICHEN CLASSIFICATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organismal species exist as historical entities, and essentialistic thinking about ‘defining’ species and higher taxa should be avoided. Lichens are biological phenomena that are best understood as processes, and they behave very differently from the model organisms of most systematic theories. Classification and phylo-genetic reconstructions are seen as different endeavours, having different aims and languages. A hierarchical classification is supported,

Leif TIBELL

1998-01-01

61

Genome-Wide Analysis of the Cyclin Family in Arabidopsis and Comparative Phylogenetic  

E-print Network

cyclin genes in terms of evolution and classification, serving as a guide for further functional study on phylogenetic analysis, we define 10 classes of plant cyclins, four of which are plant-specific, and a fifth-type Arabidopsis plants. Comparative phylogenetic studies of 174 plant cyclins were also performed

dePamphilis, Claude

62

Phylogenetic relationships and infraspecific variation in Canadian Arctic Poa based on chloroplast DNA restriction site data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infraspecific variation and phylogenetic relationships of Canadian Arctic species of the genus Poa were stud- ied based on chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) variation. Restriction site analysis of polymerase chain reaction amplified cpDNA was used to reexamine the status of infraspecific taxa, reconstruct phylogenetic relationships, and reexamine previous classification systems and hypotheses of relationships. Infraspecific variation was detected in three species, but

Lynn J. Gillespie; Ruben Boles

2001-01-01

63

Journey into Phylogenetic Systematics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This straightforward and informative site from the Museum of Paleontology (UCMP) at the University of California at Berkeley offers an excellent introduction to Phylogenetic Systematics, the reconstruction of "the pattern of events that have led to the distribution and diversity of life." The site is organized into several sections, addressing "the philosophy, methodology, and implications of cladistic analysis." Descriptive summaries are made more useful with links to the UCMP Glossary of Phylogenetic Terms, and interested users may seek greater depth by linking directly to the UCMP's additional resources.

64

A Universal Phylogenetic Tree.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a universal phylogenetic tree suitable for use in high school and college-level biology classrooms. Illustrates the antiquity of life and that all life is related, even if it dates back 3.5 billion years. Reflects important evolutionary relationships and provides an exciting way to learn about the history of life. (SAH)

Offner, Susan

2001-01-01

65

Classification 1: Classification Scheme  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science NetLinks lesson, first of a two-part series will show students that many kinds of living things can be sorted into groups in many ways using various features to decide which things belong to which group and that classification schemes will vary with purpose.ContextThis lesson is the first of a two-part series on classification. This lesson is intended to supplement students' direct investigations by using the Internet to expose students to a variety of living organisms, as well as encourage them to start developing classification schemes of their own.

Science Netlinks;

2001-10-20

66

Phylogenetic Analysis of the Oriental-Palearctic-Afrotropical Members of Anopheles (Culicidae: Diptera) Based on Nuclear rDNA and Mitochondrial DNA Characteristics.  

PubMed

The phylogenetic relationships of Anopheles spp. at the junction of Oriental, Palearctic, and Afrotropical regions in the Iranian plateau were investigated using molecular markers. A 711-bp mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase C subunit I (COI) fragment and the entire second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) region (286-576 bp) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA-ITS2) were sequenced from 14 and 28 taxa, respectively. The analyses included 12 species within Anopheles and 4 within the Myzorhynchus Series of the subgenus Anopheles, 8 within Neocellia, 6 within Myzomyia, 3 within Paramyzomyia, and 1 within the Pyretophorus Series of the subgenus Cellia. The congruent tree topologies of both molecular markers strongly supported monophyly of subgenera Anopheles and Cellia. Phylogenetic trees constructed on the basis of ITS2 sequences could accurately categorize all of the series according to the classical taxonomy but could not distinguish Pyretophorus (Anopheles subpictus) from Paramyzomyia Series. Although sequence data of the COI region were available for only 14 species, the inferred trees revealed good classification among the series but could not show the monophyletic relationship of Cellia spp. Except for a few cases, the tree inferred from ITS2 sequences revealed the best classification for the species studied. The molecular data could significantly improve our understanding of the phylogenetic position of the taxa. PMID:25241686

Karimian, Fateh; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mahdi; Waterhouse, Robert M; Vatandoost, Hasan; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Ravasan, Naseh Maleki; Chavshin, Ali Reza

2014-01-01

67

Charles Darwin, beetles and phylogenetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here, we review Charles Darwin’s relation to beetles and developments in coleopteran systematics in the last two centuries. Darwin was an enthusiastic beetle collector. He used beetles to illustrate different evolutionary phenomena in his major works, and astonishingly, an entire sub-chapter is dedicated to beetles in “The Descent of Man”. During his voyage on the Beagle, Darwin was impressed by the high diversity of beetles in the tropics, and he remarked that, to his surprise, the majority of species were small and inconspicuous. However, despite his obvious interest in the group, he did not get involved in beetle taxonomy, and his theoretical work had little immediate impact on beetle classification. The development of taxonomy and classification in the late nineteenth and earlier twentieth century was mainly characterised by the exploration of new character systems (e.g. larval features and wing venation). In the mid-twentieth century, Hennig’s new methodology to group lineages by derived characters revolutionised systematics of Coleoptera and other organisms. As envisioned by Darwin and Ernst Haeckel, the new Hennigian approach enabled systematists to establish classifications truly reflecting evolution. Roy A. Crowson and Howard E. Hinton, who both made tremendous contributions to coleopterology, had an ambivalent attitude towards the Hennigian ideas. The Mickoleit school combined detailed anatomical work with a classical Hennigian character evaluation, with stepwise tree building, comparatively few characters and a priori polarity assessment without explicit use of the outgroup comparison method. The rise of cladistic methods in the 1970s had a strong impact on beetle systematics. Cladistic computer programs facilitated parsimony analyses of large data matrices, mostly morphological characters not requiring detailed anatomical investigations. Molecular studies on beetle phylogeny started in the 1990s with modest taxon sampling and limited DNA data. This has changed dramatically. With very large data sets and high throughput sampling, phylogenetic questions can be addressed without prior knowledge of morphological characters. Nevertheless, molecular studies have not lead to the great breakthrough in beetle systematics—yet. Especially the phylogeny of the extremely species rich suborder Polyphaga remains incompletely resolved. Coordinated efforts of molecular workers and of morphologists using innovative techniques may lead to more profound insights in the near future. The final aim is to develop a well-founded phylogeny, which truly reflects the evolution of this immensely species rich group of organisms.

Beutel, Rolf G.; Friedrich, Frank; Leschen, Richard A. B.

2009-11-01

68

PAL: Phylogenetic Analysis Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by researchers at the Universities of Auckland (New Zealand) and Oxford (UK), PAL (Phylogenetic Analysis Library) is a Java library intended for use in molecular evolution and phylogenetics. PAL currently consists of thirteen packages with "ready-to-use objects" for reading/writing sequence alignments, distance matrices, and trees; substitution models for nucleotides and amino acids; efficient maximum-likelihood estimation of pairwise distances and tree branch lengths; numerous statistical tests; and options for constructing neighbor-joining and UPGMA trees; among many other features. The program may be downloaded as a .tar.gz or .hqx file, but users who are only interested in accessing the library and not in programming may want simply to download a user front end; conditions for use and instructions are included on-site.

1999-01-01

69

Generic delimitation and phylogenetic uncertainty: an example from a group that has undergone an explosive radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phylogenetic trees can provide a stable basis for a higher-level classification of organisms that reflects evolutionary relationships. However, some lineages have a complex evolutionary history that involves explosive radiation or hybridisation. Such histories have become increasingly apparent with the use of DNA sequence data for phylogeny estimation and explain, in part, past difficulties in producing stable morphology-based classifications for some

L. A. OrthiaA; L. G. CookA; M. D. CrispA

2005-01-01

70

Caminalcule Phylogenetic Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To prepare students to think about the data, assumptions, and interpretations that are part of a phylogenetic analysis. This exercise comes in five parts. The first part is all of the data â all specimens and age dates for all specimens. This simulates the impossible â a complete fossil record. The second part has 10% of the specimens randomly removed (an imperfect fossil record), but all age information is provided for the 90% given. Similarly, the third and fourth parts have 20% (different 20%s) of the data randomly removed, and all information is provided for the 80% of remaining specimens (a more imperfect fossil record). The fifth part has dates only for the modern forms â all other dates are removed. This simulates the situation for a group lacking a fossil record or a situation where the fossil record is ignored. Depending on the class size, students either individually or in groups develop a phylogeny from their data prior to class time. In class we lay everything out on tables and compare and contrast the various phylogenies and in the process discuss many of the basic assumptions, practices, biases, etc. of phylogenetic reconstruction. You could make this more complex and have students code things into MacClade, Paup, etc.; however, I use this for the concepts of phylogenetic reconstruction only.

Ausich, Bill

71

Classification 1: Classification Scheme  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson shows students that living things can be sorted into groups in many ways using various features to decide which things belong to which group and that classification schemes will vary with purpose. It is the first of a two-part series on classification. At this grade level, students should have the opportunity to learn about an increasing variety of living organisms, both the familiar and the exotic, and should become more precise in identifying similarities and differences among them. Firsthand observation of the living environment is essential for students to gain an understanding of the differences among organisms. This lesson is intended to supplement direct investigations made by students by using the Internet to expose them to a variety of living organisms, as well as encourage them to start developing classification schemes of their own.

72

Canopy phylogenetic, chemical and spectral assembly in a lowland Amazonian forest.  

PubMed

• Canopy chemistry and spectroscopy offer insight into community assembly and ecosystem processes in high-diversity tropical forests, but phylogenetic and environmental factors controlling chemical traits underpinning spectral signatures remain poorly understood. • We measured 21 leaf chemical traits and spectroscopic signatures of 594 canopy individuals on high-fertility Inceptisols and low-fertility Ultisols in a lowland Amazonian forest. The spectranomics approach, which explicitly connects phylogenetic, chemical and spectral patterns in tropical canopies, provided the basis for analysis. • Intracrown and intraspecific variation in chemical traits varied from 1.4 to 36.7% (median 9.3%), depending upon the chemical constituent. Principal components analysis showed that 14 orthogonal combinations were required to explain 95% of the variation among 21 traits, indicating the high dimensionality of canopy chemical signatures among taxa. Inceptisols and lianas were associated with high leaf nutrient concentrations and low concentrations of defense compounds. Independent of soils or plant habit, an average 70% (maximum 89%) of chemical trait variation was explained by taxonomy. At least 10 traits were quantitatively linked to remotely sensed signatures, which provided highly accurate species classification. • The results suggest that taxa found on fertile soils carry chemical portfolios with a deep evolutionary history, whereas taxa found on low-fertility soils have undergone trait evolution at the species level. Spectranomics provides a new connection between remote sensing and community assembly theory in high-diversity tropical canopies. PMID:21118261

Asner, Gregory P; Martin, Roberta E

2011-03-01

73

Modeling body size evolution in Felidae under alternative phylogenetic hypotheses  

PubMed Central

The use of phylogenetic comparative methods in ecological research has advanced during the last twenty years, mainly due to accurate phylogenetic reconstructions based on molecular data and computational and statistical advances. We used phylogenetic correlograms and phylogenetic eigenvector regression (PVR) to model body size evolution in 35 worldwide Felidae (Mammalia, Carnivora) species using two alternative phylogenies and published body size data. The purpose was not to contrast the phylogenetic hypotheses but to evaluate how analyses of body size evolution patterns can be affected by the phylogeny used for comparative analyses (CA). Both phylogenies produced a strong phylogenetic pattern, with closely related species having similar body sizes and the similarity decreasing with increasing distances in time. The PVR explained 65% to 67% of body size variation and all Moran's I values for the PVR residuals were non-significant, indicating that both these models explained phylogenetic structures in trait variation. Even though our results did not suggest that any phylogeny can be used for CA with the same power, or that “good” phylogenies are unnecessary for the correct interpretation of the evolutionary dynamics of ecological, biogeographical, physiological or behavioral patterns, it does suggest that developments in CA can, and indeed should, proceed without waiting for perfect and fully resolved phylogenies. PMID:21637664

2009-01-01

74

Phylogenetic trees in bioinformatics  

SciTech Connect

Genetic data is often used to infer evolutionary relationships among a collection of viruses, bacteria, animal or plant species, or other operational taxonomic units (OTU). A phylogenetic tree depicts such relationships and provides a visual representation of the estimated branching order of the OTUs. Tree estimation is unique for several reasons, including: the types of data used to represent each OTU; the use ofprobabilistic nucleotide substitution models; the inference goals involving both tree topology and branch length, and the huge number of possible trees for a given sample of a very modest number of OTUs, which implies that fmding the best tree(s) to describe the genetic data for each OTU is computationally demanding. Bioinformatics is too large a field to review here. We focus on that aspect of bioinformatics that includes study of similarities in genetic data from multiple OTUs. Although research questions are diverse, a common underlying challenge is to estimate the evolutionary history of the OTUs. Therefore, this paper reviews the role of phylogenetic tree estimation in bioinformatics, available methods and software, and identifies areas for additional research and development.

Burr, Tom L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

75

The evolution of HIV: Inferences using phylogenetics  

PubMed Central

Molecular phylogenetics has revolutionized the study of not only evolution but also disparate fields such as genomics, bioinformatics, epidemiology, ecology, microbiology, molecular biology and biochemistry. Particularly significant are its achievements in population genetics as a result of the development of coalescent theory, which have contributed to more accurate model-based parameter estimation and explicit hypothesis testing. The study of the evolution of many microorganisms, and HIV in particular, have benefited from these new methodologies. HIV is well suited for such sophisticated population analyses because of its large population sizes, short generation times, high substitution rates and relatively small genomes. All these factors make HIV an ideal and fascinating model to study molecular evolution in real time. Here we review the significant advances made in HIV evolution through the application of phylogenetic approaches. We first examine the relative roles of mutation and recombination on the molecular evolution of HIV and its adaptive response to drug therapy and tissue allocation. We then review some of the fundamental questions in HIV evolution in relation to its origin and diversification and describe some of the insights gained using phylogenies. Finally, we show how phylogenetic analysis has advanced our knowledge of HIV dynamics (i.e., phylodynamics). PMID:22138161

Castro-Nallar, Eduardo; Perez-Losada, Marcos; Burton, Gregory F.; Crandall, Keith A.

2011-01-01

76

A Multichannel Approach to Fingerprint Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fingerprint classification provides an important indexing mechanism in a fingerprint database. An accurate and consistent classification can greatly reduce fingerprint matching time for a large database. We present a fingerprint classification algorithm which is able to achieve an accuracy better than previously reported in the literature. We classify fingerprints into five categories: whorl, right loop, left loop, arch, and tented

Anil K. Jain; Salil Prabhakar; Lin Hong

1999-01-01

77

Multistrategical image classification for image data mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

For an efficient image data mining, accurately finding and retrieving various types of images are required. Therefore, there is a need for an image classification method which can be widely applicable to image data mining tasks. But traditional methods can be applied only limited domains. In this paper, we propose a flexible and accurate image classification method. Our method adopts

Hiroki Nomiya; Kuniaki Uehara

2007-01-01

78

Construct a phylogenetic tree  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page will construct a phylogenetic tree of the creatures you select below. It will use the protein sequences of the protein cytochrome c from each of these organisms to construct the tree. Select the desired creatures from the lists below. To select more than one in the same list, hold down the apple key (on Macs); the control key (on PCs); on the Suns, you just click. If you want to clear your selections and start over, click the "Clear all selections" button. You must also choose one and only one outgroup organism so that your tree will have a root. This is especially important for the parsimony analysis. The outgroup organism should not be closely related to the other organisms. When you have made the selections you want, click the "calculate tree" button. Your request will then be processed. This may take a while, so please be patient.

White, Brian

2012-06-28

79

Phylogenetic Quantification of Intra-tumour Heterogeneity  

PubMed Central

Intra-tumour genetic heterogeneity is the result of ongoing evolutionary change within each cancer. The expansion of genetically distinct sub-clonal populations may explain the emergence of drug resistance, and if so, would have prognostic and predictive utility. However, methods for objectively quantifying tumour heterogeneity have been missing and are particularly difficult to establish in cancers where predominant copy number variation prevents accurate phylogenetic reconstruction owing to horizontal dependencies caused by long and cascading genomic rearrangements. To address these challenges, we present MEDICC, a method for phylogenetic reconstruction and heterogeneity quantification based on a Minimum Event Distance for Intra-tumour Copy-number Comparisons. Using a transducer-based pairwise comparison function, we determine optimal phasing of major and minor alleles, as well as evolutionary distances between samples, and are able to reconstruct ancestral genomes. Rigorous simulations and an extensive clinical study show the power of our method, which outperforms state-of-the-art competitors in reconstruction accuracy, and additionally allows unbiased numerical quantification of tumour heterogeneity. Accurate quantification and evolutionary inference are essential to understand the functional consequences of tumour heterogeneity. The MEDICC algorithms are independent of the experimental techniques used and are applicable to both next-generation sequencing and array CGH data. PMID:24743184

Schwarz, Roland F.; Trinh, Anne; Sipos, Botond; Brenton, James D.; Goldman, Nick; Markowetz, Florian

2014-01-01

80

Phylogenetic and Biogeographic Analysis of Sphaerexochine Trilobites  

PubMed Central

Background Sphaerexochinae is a speciose and widely distributed group of cheirurid trilobites. Their temporal range extends from the earliest Ordovician through the Silurian, and they survived the end Ordovician mass extinction event (the second largest mass extinction in Earth history). Prior to this study, the individual evolutionary relationships within the group had yet to be determined utilizing rigorous phylogenetic methods. Understanding these evolutionary relationships is important for producing a stable classification of the group, and will be useful in elucidating the effects the end Ordovician mass extinction had on the evolutionary and biogeographic history of the group. Methodology/Principal Findings Cladistic parsimony analysis of cheirurid trilobites assigned to the subfamily Sphaerexochinae was conducted to evaluate phylogenetic patterns and produce a hypothesis of relationship for the group. This study utilized the program TNT, and the analysis included thirty-one taxa and thirty-nine characters. The results of this analysis were then used in a Lieberman-modified Brooks Parsimony Analysis to analyze biogeographic patterns during the Ordovician-Silurian. Conclusions/Significance The genus Sphaerexochus was found to be monophyletic, consisting of two smaller clades (one composed entirely of Ordovician species and another composed of Silurian and Ordovician species). By contrast, the genus Kawina was found to be paraphyletic. It is a basal grade that also contains taxa formerly assigned to Cydonocephalus. Phylogenetic patterns suggest Sphaerexochinae is a relatively distinctive trilobite clade because it appears to have been largely unaffected by the end Ordovician mass extinction. Finally, the biogeographic analysis yields two major conclusions about Sphaerexochus biogeography: Bohemia and Avalonia were close enough during the Silurian to exchange taxa; and during the Ordovician there was dispersal between Eastern Laurentia and the Yangtze block (South China) and between Eastern Laurentia and Avalonia. PMID:21738632

Congreve, Curtis R.; Lieberman, Bruce S.

2011-01-01

81

A phylogenomics approach for selecting robust sets of phylogenetic markers  

PubMed Central

Reconstructing the evolutionary relationships of species is a major goal in biology. Despite the increasing number of completely sequenced genomes, a large number of phylogenetic projects rely on targeted sequencing and analysis of a relatively small sample of marker genes. The selection of these phylogenetic markers should ideally be based on accurate predictions of their combined, rather than individual, potential to accurately resolve the phylogeny of interest. Here we present and validate a new phylogenomics strategy to efficiently select a minimal set of stable markers able to reconstruct the underlying species phylogeny. In contrast to previous approaches, our methodology does not only rely on the ability of individual genes to reconstruct a known phylogeny, but it also explores the combined power of sets of concatenated genes to accurately infer phylogenetic relationships of species not previously analyzed. We applied our approach to two broad sets of cyanobacterial and ascomycetous fungal species, and provide two minimal sets of six and four genes, respectively, necessary to fully resolve the target phylogenies. This approach paves the way for the informed selection of phylogenetic markers in the effort of reconstructing the tree of life. PMID:24476915

Capella-Gutierrez, Salvador; Kauff, Frank; Gabaldon, Toni

2014-01-01

82

Editor's Note: Classification Matters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Classification skills, so foundational to science, must be taught. While children have a passion and drive to organize and categorize their experiences, sometimes the way they organize them doesn't lead to a worthwhile or accurate scientific understanding. Just as putting a pencil in the hands of a child doesn't automatically teach them to write, having a child sort rocks won't lead to an understanding of classification. The articles in this issue aim to help you teach students how to classify successfully and with purpose.

Ohana, Chris

2009-03-01

83

A Supra-Ordinal Classification of the Brachiopoda  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new classification of the Brachiopoda is proposed to take into account recent advances in our understanding of the anatomy, shell morphology, ontogeny and phylogeny of the phylum. The use of phylogenetic analysis to help rationalize this new information did not obviate the dilemma facing all previous classifications of how best to reconcile fossil and living data. Over 95% of

Alwyn Williams; Sandra J. Carlson; C. Howard C. Brunton; Lars E. Holmer; Leonid Popov

1996-01-01

84

Phylogenetic lineages in Pseudocercospora  

PubMed Central

Pseudocercospora is a large cosmopolitan genus of plant pathogenic fungi that are commonly associated with leaf and fruit spots as well as blights on a wide range of plant hosts. They occur in arid as well as wet environments and in a wide range of climates including cool temperate, sub-tropical and tropical regions. Pseudocercospora is now treated as a genus in its own right, although formerly recognised as either an anamorphic state of Mycosphaerella or having mycosphaerella-like teleomorphs. The aim of this study was to sequence the partial 28S nuclear ribosomal RNA gene of a selected set of isolates to resolve phylogenetic generic limits within the Pseudocercospora complex. From these data, 14 clades are recognised, six of which cluster in Mycosphaerellaceae. Pseudocercospora s. str. represents a distinct clade, sister to Passalora eucalypti, and a clade representing the genera Scolecostigmina, Trochophora and Pallidocercospora gen. nov., taxa formerly accommodated in the Mycosphaerella heimii complex and characterised by smooth, pale brown conidia, as well as the formation of red crystals in agar media. Other clades in Mycosphaerellaceae include Sonderhenia, Microcyclosporella, and Paracercospora. Pseudocercosporella resides in a large clade along with Phloeospora, Miuraea, Cercospora and Septoria. Additional clades represent Dissoconiaceae, Teratosphaeriaceae, Cladosporiaceae, and the genera Xenostigmina, Strelitziana, Cyphellophora and Thedgonia. The genus Phaeomycocentrospora is introduced to accommodate Mycocentrospora cantuariensis, primarily distinguished from Pseudocercospora based on its hyaline hyphae, broad conidiogenous loci and hila. Host specificity was considered for 146 species of Pseudocercospora occurring on 115 host genera from 33 countries. Partial nucleotide sequence data for three gene loci, ITS, EF-1?, and ACT suggest that the majority of these species are host specific. Species identified on the basis of host, symptomatology and general morphology, within the same geographic region, frequently differed phylogenetically, indicating that the application of European and American names to Asian taxa, and vice versa, was often not warranted. Taxonomic novelties: New genera - Pallidocercospora Crous, Phaeomycocentrospora Crous, H.D. Shin & U. Braun; New species - Cercospora eucommiae Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Microcyclospora quercina Crous & Verkley, Pseudocercospora ampelopsis Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora cercidicola Crous, U. Braun & C. Nakash., Pseudocercospora crispans G.C. Hunter & Crous, Pseudocercospora crocea Crous, U. Braun, G.C. Hunter & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora haiweiensis Crous & X. Zhou, Pseudocercospora humulicola Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora marginalis G.C. Hunter, Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora ocimi-basilici Crous, M.E. Palm & U. Braun, Pseudocercospora plectranthi G.C. Hunter, Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora proteae Crous, Pseudocercospora pseudostigmina-platani Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora pyracanthigena Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora ravenalicola G.C. Hunter & Crous, Pseudocercospora rhamnellae G.C. Hunter, H.D. Shin, U. Braun & Crous, Pseudocercospora rhododendri-indici Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora tibouchinigena Crous & U. Braun, Pseudocercospora xanthocercidis Crous, U. Braun & A. Wood, Pseudocercosporella koreana Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin; New combinations - Pallidocercospora acaciigena (Crous & M.J. Wingf.) Crous & M.J. Wingf., Pallidocercospora crystallina (Crous & M.J. Wingf.) Crous & M.J. Wingf., Pallidocercospora heimii (Crous) Crous, Pallidocercospora heimioides (Crous & M.J. Wingf.) Crous & M.J. Wingf., Pallidocercospora holualoana (Crous, Joanne E. Taylor & M.E. Palm) Crous, Pallidocercospora konae (Crous, Joanne E. Taylor & M.E. Palm) Crous, Pallidoocercospora irregulariramosa (Crous & M.J. Wingf.) Crous & M.J. Wingf., Phaeomycocentrospora cantuariensis (E.S. Salmon & Wormald) Crous, H.D. Shin & U. Braun, Pseudocercospora hakeae (U. Braun & Cr

Crous, P.W.; Braun, U.; Hunter, G.C.; Wingfield, M.J.; Verkley, G.J.M.; Shin, H.-D.; Nakashima, C.; Groenewald, J.Z.

2013-01-01

85

Uncovering epidemiological dynamics in heterogeneous host populations using phylogenetic methods  

PubMed Central

Host population structure has a major influence on epidemiological dynamics. However, in particular for sexually transmitted diseases, quantitative data on population contact structure are hard to obtain. Here, we introduce a new method that quantifies host population structure based on phylogenetic trees, which are obtained from pathogen genetic sequence data. Our method is based on a maximum-likelihood framework and uses a multi-type branching process, under which each host is assigned to a type (subpopulation). In a simulation study, we show that our method produces accurate parameter estimates for phylogenetic trees in which each tip is assigned to a type, as well for phylogenetic trees in which the type of the tip is unknown. We apply the method to a Latvian HIV-1 dataset, quantifying the impact of the intravenous drug user epidemic on the heterosexual epidemic (known tip states), and identifying superspreader dynamics within the men-having-sex-with-men epidemic (unknown tip states). PMID:23382421

Stadler, Tanja; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian

2013-01-01

86

SIMULTANEOUS FAULT DETECTION AND CLASSIFICATION FOR SEMICONDUCTOR MANUFACTURING TOOLS  

E-print Network

SIMULTANEOUS FAULT DETECTION AND CLASSIFICATION FOR SEMICONDUCTOR MANUFACTURING TOOLS Brian E, accurate, and sensitive detection of equipment and process faults to maintain high process yields and rapid fault classification (diagnosis) of the cause to minimize tool downtime in semiconductor manufacturing

Boning, Duane S.

87

Classification of hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus-1 sequences with the branching index.  

PubMed

Classification of viral sequences should be fast, objective, accurate and reproducible. Most methods that classify sequences use either pair-wise distances or phylogenetic relations, but cannot discern when a sequence is unclassifiable. The branching index (BI) combines distance and phylogeny methods to compute a ratio that quantifies how closely a query sequence clusters with a subtype clade. In the hypothesis-testing framework of statistical inference, the BI is compared with a threshold to test whether sufficient evidence exists for the query sequence to be classified among known sequences. If above the threshold, the null hypothesis of no support for the subtype relation is rejected and the sequence is taken as belonging to the subtype clade with which it clusters on the tree. This study evaluates statistical properties of the BI for subtype classification in hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1). Pairs of BI values with known positive- and negative-test results were computed from 10,000 random fragments of reference alignments. Sampled fragments were of sufficient length to contain phylogenetic signals that grouped reference sequences together properly into subtype clades. For HCV, a threshold BI of 0.71 yields 95.1% agreement with reference subtypes, with equal false-positive and false-negative rates. For HIV-1, a threshold of 0.66 yields 93.5% agreement. Higher thresholds can be used where lower false-positive rates are required. In synthetic recombinants, regions without breakpoints are recognized accurately; regions with breakpoints do not represent any known subtype uniquely. Web-based services for viral subtype classification with the BI are available online. PMID:18753218

Hraber, Peter; Kuiken, Carla; Waugh, Mark; Geer, Shaun; Bruno, William J; Leitner, Thomas

2008-09-01

88

Molecular identification of hepatitis B virus genotypes/subgenotypes: Revised classification hurdles and updated resolutions  

PubMed Central

The clinical course of infections with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) substantially varies between individuals, as a consequence of a complex interplay between viral, host, environmental and other factors. Due to the high genetic variability of HBV, the virus can be categorized into different HBV genotypes and subgenotypes, which considerably differ with respect to geographical distribution, transmission routes, disease progression, responses to antiviral therapy or vaccination, and clinical outcome measures such as cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. However, HBV (sub)genotyping has caused some controversies in the past due to misclassifications and incorrect interpretations of different genotyping methods. Thus, an accurate, holistic and dynamic classification system is essential. In this review article, we aimed at highlighting potential pitfalls in genetic and phylogenetic analyses of HBV and suggest novel terms for HBV classification. Analyzing full-length genome sequences when classifying genotypes and subgenotypes is the foremost prerequisite of this classification system. Careful attention must be paid to all aspects of phylogenetic analysis, such as bootstrapping values and meeting the necessary thresholds for (sub)genotyping. Quasi-subgenotype refers to subgenotypes that were incorrectly suggested to be novel. As many of these strains were misclassified due to genetic differences resulting from recombination, we propose the term “recombino-subgenotype”. Moreover, immigration is an important confounding facet of global HBV distribution and substantially changes the geographic pattern of HBV (sub)genotypes. We therefore suggest the term “immigro-subgenotype” to distinguish exotic (sub)genotypes from native ones. We are strongly convinced that applying these two proposed terms in HBV classification will help harmonize this rapidly progressing field and allow for improved prophylaxis, diagnosis and treatment. PMID:24966586

Pourkarim, Mahmoud Reza; Amini-Bavil-Olyaee, Samad; Kurbanov, Fuat; Van Ranst, Marc; Tacke, Frank

2014-01-01

89

Accurately determining inflationary perturbations  

E-print Network

Cosmic microwave anisotropy satellites promise extremely accurate measures of the amplitude of perturbations in the universe. We use a numerical code to test the accuracy of existing approximate expressions for the amplitude of perturbations produced by single-field inflation models. We find that the second-order Stewart-Lyth calculation gives extremely accurate results, typically better than one percent. We use our code to carry out an expansion about the general power-law inflation solution, providing a fitting function giving results of even higher accuracy.

Andrew R Liddle; Ian J Grivell

1997-01-08

90

Absolute Pitch in Boreal Chickadees and Humans: Exceptions that Test a Phylogenetic Rule  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examined generality of the phylogenetic rule that birds discriminate frequency ranges more accurately than mammals. Human absolute pitch chroma possessors accurately tracked transitions between frequency ranges. Independent tests showed that they used note naming (pitch chroma) to remap the tones into ranges; neither possessors nor…

Weisman, Ronald G.; Balkwill, Laura-Lee; Hoeschele, Marisa; Moscicki, Michele K.; Bloomfield, Laurie L.; Sturdy, Christopher B.

2010-01-01

91

Fingerprint classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fingerprint classification algorithm is presented in this paper. Fingerprints are classified into five categories: arch, tented arch, left loop, right loop and whorl. The algorithm extracts singular points (cores and deltas) in a fingerprint image and performs classification based on the number and locations of the detected singular points. The classifier is invariant to rotation, translation and small amounts

Kalle Karu; Anil K. Jain

1996-01-01

92

Phylogenetic analysis of a spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation metagenome reveals new insights into its bacterial and fungal community diversity.  

PubMed

This is the first report on the phylogenetic analysis of the community diversity of a single spontaneous cocoa bean box fermentation sample through a metagenomic approach involving 454 pyrosequencing. Several sequence-based and composition-based taxonomic profiling tools were used and evaluated to avoid software-dependent results and their outcome was validated by comparison with previously obtained culture-dependent and culture-independent data. Overall, this approach revealed a wider bacterial (mainly ?-Proteobacteria) and fungal diversity than previously found. Further, the use of a combination of different classification methods, in a software-independent way, helped to understand the actual composition of the microbial ecosystem under study. In addition, bacteriophage-related sequences were found. The bacterial diversity depended partially on the methods used, as composition-based methods predicted a wider diversity than sequence-based methods, and as classification methods based solely on phylogenetic marker genes predicted a more restricted diversity compared with methods that took all reads into account. The metagenomic sequencing analysis identified Hanseniaspora uvarum, Hanseniaspora opuntiae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Acetobacter pasteurianus as the prevailing species. Also, the presence of occasional members of the cocoa bean fermentation process was revealed (such as Erwinia tasmaniensis, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactococcus lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Oenococcus oeni). Furthermore, the sequence reads associated with viral communities were of a restricted diversity, dominated by Myoviridae and Siphoviridae, and reflecting Lactobacillus as the dominant host. To conclude, an accurate overview of all members of a cocoa bean fermentation process sample was revealed, indicating the superiority of metagenomic sequencing over previously used techniques. PMID:22666442

Illeghems, Koen; De Vuyst, Luc; Papalexandratou, Zoi; Weckx, Stefan

2012-01-01

93

Avian vocalizations and phylogenetic signal  

PubMed Central

The difficulty of separating genetic and ecological components of vocalizations has discouraged biologists from using vocal characters to reconstruct phylogenetic and ecological history. By considering the physics of vocalizations in terms of habitat structure, we predict which of five vocal characters of herons are most likely to be influenced by ecology and which by phylogeny, and test this prediction against a molecular-based phylogeny. The characters most subject to ecological convergence, and thus of least phylogenetic value, are first peak-energy frequency and frequency range, because sound penetration through vegetation depends largely on frequency. The most phylogenetically informative characters are number of syllables, syllable structure, and fundamental frequency, because these are more reflective of behavior and syringeal structure. Continued study of the physical principles that distinguish between potentially informative and convergent vocal characters and general patterns of homology in such characters should lead to wider use of vocalizations in the study of evolutionary history. PMID:9108064

McCracken, Kevin G.; Sheldon, Frederick H.

1997-01-01

94

Phylogenetic Approaches Toward Crocodylian History  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review of crocodylian phylogeny reveals a more complex history than might have been anticipated from a direct reading of the fossil record without consideration of phylogenetic relationships. The three main extant crocodylian lineagesGavialoidea, Alligatoroidea, Crocodyloideaare known from fossils in the Late Cretaceous, and the group is found nearly worldwide during the Cenozoic. Some groups have distributions that are best explained by the crossing of marine barriers during the Tertiary. Early Tertiary crocodylian faunas are phylogenetically composite, and clades tend to be morphologically uniform and geographically widespread. Later in the Tertiary, Old World crocodylian faunas are more endemic. Crocodylian phylogeneticists face numerous challenges, the most important being the phylogenetic relationships and time of divergence of the two living gharials (Gavialis gangeticus and Tomistoma schlegelii), the relationships among living true crocodiles (Crocodylus), and the relationships among caimans.

Brochu, Christopher A.

95

Fastphylo: Fast tools for phylogenetics  

PubMed Central

Background Distance methods are ubiquitous tools in phylogenetics. Their primary purpose may be to reconstruct evolutionary history, but they are also used as components in bioinformatic pipelines. However, poor computational efficiency has been a constraint on the applicability of distance methods on very large problem instances. Results We present fastphylo, a software package containing implementations of efficient algorithms for two common problems in phylogenetics: estimating DNA/protein sequence distances and reconstructing a phylogeny from a distance matrix. We compare fastphylo with other neighbor joining based methods and report the results in terms of speed and memory efficiency. Conclusions Fastphylo is a fast, memory efficient, and easy to use software suite. Due to its modular architecture, fastphylo is a flexible tool for many phylogenetic studies. PMID:24255987

2013-01-01

96

Diabetes mellitus classification.  

PubMed

The right classification for diabetes mellitus (DM) allows a more adequate treatment and comprises four categories: type 1 DM, type 2 DM, other types, and gestational diabetes. In some cases, there might be a superposition of situations, especially with regard to the DM that initiates in the young adult or is initially presented with diabetic ketoacidosis intermediately to type 1 and 2 DM. Thus, additions to the classic classification system have been proposed as assessing the presence of autoimmunity (antibody) and b cell function (C-peptide) to precisely define the subtypes. The aim of this literature review was to analyze these diagnostic indexes` performance in the DM classification and to describe subtypes with details. The antibodies against pancreas confirm autoimmunity, and the antibody against insulin is more accurate before 5 years old, while the anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase is more accurate after 20 years old, a test which remains positive for a longer period. The measurement of C-peptide evaluates the pancreatic insulin reserve, and the most largely used methods of stimulation are the measurement after meals or after intravenous glucagon. C-peptide values < 1.5 ng/ml define a patient with absent pancreatic function and, above this value, patients with preserved function. When the presence of antibodies (A+) directed to the pancreas is combined to its insulin secretion capability (?+), it is possible to subdivide DM`s classification in type 1A (A+?-) and 1B (A+?-); and type 2A (A+?+) and 2B (A-?+), which allows a more precise classification and treatment besides opening horizons for the understanding of DM pathogenesis. PMID:20857049

Maraschin, Jorge de Faria; Murussi, Nádia; Witter, Vanessa; Silveiro, Sandra Pinho

2010-08-01

97

Accurate monotone cubic interpolation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Monotone piecewise cubic interpolants are simple and effective. They are generally third-order accurate, except near strict local extrema where accuracy degenerates to second-order due to the monotonicity constraint. Algorithms for piecewise cubic interpolants, which preserve monotonicity as well as uniform third and fourth-order accuracy are presented. The gain of accuracy is obtained by relaxing the monotonicity constraint in a geometric framework in which the median function plays a crucial role.

Huynh, Hung T.

1991-01-01

98

Accurate Finite Difference Algorithms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two families of finite difference algorithms for computational aeroacoustics are presented and compared. All of the algorithms are single step explicit methods, they have the same order of accuracy in both space and time, with examples up to eleventh order, and they have multidimensional extensions. One of the algorithm families has spectral like high resolution. Propagation with high order and high resolution algorithms can produce accurate results after O(10(exp 6)) periods of propagation with eight grid points per wavelength.

Goodrich, John W.

1996-01-01

99

Accurate Unlexicalized Parsing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate that an unlexicalized PCFG can parse much more accurately than previously shown, by making use of simple, linguistically motivated state splits, which break down false independence assumptions latent in a vanilla treebank grammar. Indeed, its performance of 86.36% (LP\\/LR F PCFG models, and surprisingly close to the current state-of-the-art. This result has potential uses beyond establishing a strong

Dan Klein; Christopher D. Manning

2003-01-01

100

Interpreting the universal phylogenetic tree  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The universal phylogenetic tree not only spans all extant life, but its root and earliest branchings represent stages in the evolutionary process before modern cell types had come into being. The evolution of the cell is an interplay between vertically derived and horizontally acquired variation. Primitive cellular entities were necessarily simpler and more modular in design than are modern cells. Consequently, horizontal gene transfer early on was pervasive, dominating the evolutionary dynamic. The root of the universal phylogenetic tree represents the first stage in cellular evolution when the evolving cell became sufficiently integrated and stable to the erosive effects of horizontal gene transfer that true organismal lineages could exist.

Woese, C. R.

2000-01-01

101

Spectral classification at ultra-low dispersion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate here the possibility of using very low dispersion (10000 Å mm-1) slitless spectroscopy of stars for a fairly accurate spectral classification. The technique is shown to be very useful in studies of star clusters.

R. Rajamohan

1984-01-01

102

Detection of Genomic Idiosyncrasies Using Fuzzy Phylogenetic Profiles  

PubMed Central

Phylogenetic profiles express the presence or absence of genes and their homologs across a number of reference genomes. They have emerged as an elegant representation framework for comparative genomics and have been used for the genome-wide inference and discovery of functionally linked genes or metabolic pathways. As the number of reference genomes grows, there is an acute need for faster and more accurate methods for phylogenetic profile analysis with increased performance in speed and quality. We propose a novel, efficient method for the detection of genomic idiosyncrasies, i.e. sets of genes found in a specific genome with peculiar phylogenetic properties, such as intra-genome correlations or inter-genome relationships. Our algorithm is a four-step process where genome profiles are first defined as fuzzy vectors, then discretized to binary vectors, followed by a de-noising step, and finally a comparison step to generate intra- and inter-genome distances for each gene profile. The method is validated with a carefully selected benchmark set of five reference genomes, using a range of approaches regarding similarity metrics and pre-processing stages for noise reduction. We demonstrate that the fuzzy profile method consistently identifies the actual phylogenetic relationship and origin of the genes under consideration for the majority of the cases, while the detected outliers are found to be particular genes with peculiar phylogenetic patterns. The proposed method provides a time-efficient and highly scalable approach for phylogenetic stratification, with the detected groups of genes being either similar to their own genome profile or different from it, thus revealing atypical evolutionary histories. PMID:23341912

Psomopoulos, Fotis E.; Mitkas, Pericles A.; Ouzounis, Christos A.

2013-01-01

103

Integrating Classification and Association Rule Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classification rule mining aims to discover a small set of rules in the database that forms an accurate classifier. Association rule mining finds all the rules existing in the database that satisfy some minimum support and minimum confidence constraints. For association rule mining, the target of discovery is not pre-determined, while for classification rule mining there is one and only

Bing Liu; Wynne Hsu; Yiming Ma

1998-01-01

104

Modulation Features for Speech and Music Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many attempts to accurately classify speech and music have been investigated over the years. This paper presents modulation features for effective speech and music classification. A Gammatone filter bank is used as a front-end for this classification system, where amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM) features are extracted from the critical band outputs of the Gammatone filters. In addition,

Omer Mohsin Mubarak; Eliathamby Ambikairajah; Julien Epps; Teddy Surya Gunawan

2006-01-01

105

Molecular Evolution and Phylogenetic Analysis  

E-print Network

Molecular Evolution and Phylogenetic Analysis David Pollock and Richard Goldstein© Introduction All of biology is based on evolution. Evolution is the organizing principle for understanding the shared history of all biological organisms. Evolution describes the similarities between different organisms, as well

Pollock, David

106

Phylogenetic Models of Language Diversication  

E-print Network

of the Indo-European languages is an example. We model lexical change by a point process on a phylogenetic of Indo-European languages and estimate the age of Proto-Indo-European. Our main analysis gives a 95-called Anatolian hypothesis for the expansion of the Indo- European languages. We discuss why we are not concerned

Ryder, Robin

107

Horizontal gene transfer and phylogenetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The initial analysis of complete genomes has suggested that horizontal gene transfer events are very frequent between microorganisms. This could potentially render the inference, and even the concept itself, of the organismal phylogeny impossible. However, a coherent phylogenetic pattern has recently emerged from an analysis of about a hundred genes, the so-called ‘core’, strongly suggesting that it is possible to

Hervé Philippe; Christophe J Douady

2003-01-01

108

BIODIVERSITY Imperilled phylogenetic endemism of  

E-print Network

where in Madagascar the phylogenetically and spatially rare lemur species at risk of extinction, endemism, lemurs, Madagascar, phylogeny, risk. INTRODUCTION Endemic species, species unique to a specific of genetic diversity represented by sets of species found at different locales (Faith, 1992), and this has

Mooers, Arne

109

A phylogenetic analysis of Legionella  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four species of Legionella, L. pneumophila NCTC 11192, L. bozemanii NCTC 11368, L. micdadei NCTC 11371 and L. jordanis ATCC 33623 have been characterized by oligonucleotide cataloguing of their 16S ribosomal RNA. All four species are phylogenetically closely related, while no specific relationship could be detected with any other group of organisms investigated so far with respect to this method.

Wolfgang Ludwig; Erko Stackebrandt

1983-01-01

110

Molecular identification and phylogenetic study of Demodex caprae.  

PubMed

The DNA barcode has been widely used in species identification and phylogenetic analysis since 2003, but there have been no reports in Demodex. In this study, to obtain an appropriate DNA barcode for Demodex, molecular identification of Demodex caprae based on mitochondrial cox1 was conducted. Firstly, individual adults and eggs of D. caprae were obtained for genomic DNA (gDNA) extraction; Secondly, mitochondrial cox1 fragment was amplified, cloned, and sequenced; Thirdly, cox1 fragments of D. caprae were aligned with those of other Demodex retrieved from GenBank; Finally, the intra- and inter-specific divergences were computed and the phylogenetic trees were reconstructed to analyze phylogenetic relationship in Demodex. Results obtained from seven 429-bp fragments of D. caprae showed that sequence identities were above 99.1 % among three adults and four eggs. The intraspecific divergences in D. caprae, Demodex folliculorum, Demodex brevis, and Demodex canis were 0.0-0.9, 0.5-0.9, 0.0-0.2, and 0.0-0.5 %, respectively, while the interspecific divergences between D. caprae and D. folliculorum, D. canis, and D. brevis were 20.3-20.9, 21.8-23.0, and 25.0-25.3, respectively. The interspecific divergences were 10 times higher than intraspecific ones, indicating considerable barcoding gap. Furthermore, the phylogenetic trees showed that four Demodex species gathered separately, representing independent species; and Demodex folliculorum gathered with canine Demodex, D. caprae, and D. brevis in sequence. In conclusion, the selected 429-bp mitochondrial cox1 gene is an appropriate DNA barcode for molecular classification, identification, and phylogenetic analysis of Demodex. D. caprae is an independent species and D. folliculorum is closer to D. canis than to D. caprae or D. brevis. PMID:25132566

Zhao, Ya-E; Cheng, Juan; Hu, Li; Ma, Jun-Xian

2014-10-01

111

Accurate searching using XML and topic maps.  

PubMed

Most clinical data is narrative text and often not accessible and searchable at the clinical workstation. We have therefore developed a search engine that allows indexing, searching and linking different kinds of data using web technologies. Text matching methods fail to represent implicit relationships between data, e.g. the relationship between HIV and AIDS. The ISO topic maps standard provides a data model that allows representing arbitrary relationships between resources. Such relationships form the basis for context sensitive searching and accurate search results. XML standards are used for the interchange of data relationships. Our approach has been applied to medical classification systems and clinical practice guidelines with promising results. PMID:14664036

Schweiger, Ralf; Hölzer, Simon; Dudeck, Joachim

2003-01-01

112

Classification and designation of emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The world's community of frequency administrators has been able to reach agreement on a modern, useful method of designating emissions (transmissions) according to their necessary bandwidth and their classification. The method will become effective on January 1, 1982. With the new system 480 times as many emissions can be accurately classified than with the old. It is believed that now

W. A. Luther

1981-01-01

113

Cloud Classification Before Luke Howard.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A brief outline of the history of cloud painting prior to the first cloud classification schemes of Luke Howard and Lamarck is presented. It is shown that European painters had accurately represented most of the different cloud forms between about 1425 and 1675.

Gedzelman, Stanely David

1989-04-01

114

Phylogenetically Acquired Representations and Hybrid Evolutionary Algorithms  

E-print Network

information by introducing inheritance of acquired traits and Horizontal Gene Transfer, a good tool for handlePhylogenetically Acquired Representations and Hybrid Evolutionary Algorithms Adrianna Wozniak to avoid the Symbol Grounding Problem. We give a definition of Phylogenetically Acquired Representations

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

115

Increased Taxon Sampling Greatly Reduces Phylogenetic Error  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several authors have argued recently that extensive taxon sampling has a positive and important effect on the accuracy of phylogenetic estimates. However, other authors have argued that there is little beneét of extensive taxon sampling, and so phylogenetic problems can or should be reduced to a few exemplar taxa as a means of reducing the computational complexity of the phylogenetic

Derrick J. Zwickl; David M. Hillis

2002-01-01

116

FUZZY CLASSIFICATION OF HETEROGENEOUS VEGETATION IN A COMPLEX ARID ECOSYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional methods of remote sensing classification may not accurately portray the complexity of ecosystems where vegetation type and structure is diverse and variable. We used fuzzy classification to better characterize the complexity and heterogeneity of sagebrush- steppe vegetation on the Upper Snake River Plain in southeast Idaho. Unlike supervised classification where pixels are classified into discrete categories, fuzzy systems classify

Ben McMahan; Keith T. Weber; Joel Sauder

117

Form classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of form classification is to assign a single-page form image to one of a set of predefined form types or classes. We classify the form images using low level pixel density information from the binary images of the documents. In this paper, we solve the form classification problem with a classifier based on the k-means algorithm, supported by adaptive boosting. Our classification method is tested on the NIST scanned tax forms data bases (special forms databases 2 and 6) which include machine-typed and handwritten documents. Our method improves the performance over published results on the same databases, while still using a simple set of image features.

Reddy, K. V. Umamaheswara; Govindaraju, Venu

2008-01-01

118

Learning classification trees  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Algorithms for learning classification trees have had successes in artificial intelligence and statistics over many years. How a tree learning algorithm can be derived from Bayesian decision theory is outlined. This introduces Bayesian techniques for splitting, smoothing, and tree averaging. The splitting rule turns out to be similar to Quinlan's information gain splitting rule, while smoothing and averaging replace pruning. Comparative experiments with reimplementations of a minimum encoding approach, Quinlan's C4 and Breiman et al. Cart show the full Bayesian algorithm is consistently as good, or more accurate than these other approaches though at a computational price.

Buntine, Wray

1991-01-01

119

HIV classification using coalescent theory  

SciTech Connect

Algorithms for subtype classification and breakpoint detection of HIV-I sequences are based on a classification system of HIV-l. Hence, their quality highly depend on this system. Due to the history of creation of the current HIV-I nomenclature, the current one contains inconsistencies like: The phylogenetic distance between the subtype B and D is remarkably small compared with other pairs of subtypes. In fact, it is more like the distance of a pair of subsubtypes Robertson et al. (2000); Subtypes E and I do not exist any more since they were discovered to be composed of recombinants Robertson et al. (2000); It is currently discussed whether -- instead of CRF02 being a recombinant of subtype A and G -- subtype G should be designated as a circulating recombination form (CRF) nd CRF02 as a subtype Abecasis et al. (2007); There are 8 complete and over 400 partial HIV genomes in the LANL-database which belong neither to a subtype nor to a CRF (denoted by U). Moreover, the current classification system is somehow arbitrary like all complex classification systems that were created manually. To this end, it is desirable to deduce the classification system of HIV systematically by an algorithm. Of course, this problem is not restricted to HIV, but applies to all fast mutating and recombining viruses. Our work addresses the simpler subproblem to score classifications of given input sequences of some virus species (classification denotes a partition of the input sequences in several subtypes and CRFs). To this end, we reconstruct ancestral recombination graphs (ARG) of the input sequences under restrictions determined by the given classification. These restritions are imposed in order to ensure that the reconstructed ARGs do not contradict the classification under consideration. Then, we find the ARG with maximal probability by means of Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. The probability of the most probable ARG is interpreted as a score for the classification. To our knowledge, this particular problem was not addressed up to now. The software package Lamarc Kuhner et al. (2000) allows for sampling ARGs, but it assumes that recombination events only involve one breakpoint. However, in HIV recombinants usually have more than one breakpoint. Moreover, Lamarc does not perform an explicit breakpoint detection, but tries to find them by chance. Although this approach is suitable for most situations, it will not lead to satisfying results in case of highly recombining viruses with multiple breakpoints.

Zhang, Ming [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Letiner, Thomas K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Korber, Bette T [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

120

Classification Fun  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Taxonomic information shows the evolutionary relationships between organisms. In this lesson plan, students will classify organisms by kingdom and apply their own understanding of classification to identify organisms. The students should already have an understanding of the basics of the five kindoms and the seven categories of classification. The document includes a pre-test on the topic to gauge student understanding and two classroom activities. The activity is intended for sixth grade students, and should take three to four class periods to complete.

Shubinski, Carol

2012-06-11

121

Phylogenetic relationships of cyphelloid homobasidiomycetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The homobasidiomycetes includes the mushroom-forming fungi. Members of the homobasidiomycetes produce the largest, most complex fruiting bodies in the fungi, such as gilled mushrooms (“agarics”), boletes, polypores, and puffballs. The homobasidiomycetes also includes species that produce minute, cup- or tube-shaped “cyphelloid” fruiting bodies, that rarely exceed 1–2mm diameter. The goal of this study was to estimate the phylogenetic placements of

Philomena Bodensteiner; Manfred Binder; Jean-Marc Moncalvo; Reinhard Agerer; David S. Hibbett

2004-01-01

122

Phylogenetic methods in natural product research.  

PubMed

Natural products researchers are increasingly employing evolutionary analyses of genes and gene products that rely on phylogenetic trees. The field of phylogenetic inference and of evolutionary analyses based on phylogenies is growing at an amazing rate, making it difficult to keep up with the latest methodologies. Here, we summarize phylogenetic applications in natural products research, and review methods and software useful for carrying out analyses inferring or using phylogenetic trees. We include an updated overview of available alignment methods and programs, as well as a selection of some useful phylogenetic analysis tools. This review covers primarily the period 2000-2009 for applications of phylogenetic methods in natural product research, and 1990-2009 for phylogenetic methods, with some references going back to the 1960s. PMID:19936388

Schmitt, Imke; Barker, F Keith

2009-12-01

123

Accurate positioning based on acoustic and optical sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unattended laser target designator (ULTD) was designed to partly take the place of conventional LTDs for accurate positioning and laser marking. Analyzed the precision, accuracy and errors of acoustic sensor array, the requirements of laser generator, and the technology of image analysis and tracking, the major system modules were determined. The target's classification, velocity and position can be measured by

Kerong Cai; Jiahao Deng; Hualing Guo

2009-01-01

124

Accurate and efficient reconstruction of deep phylogenies from structured RNAs  

PubMed Central

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes are probably the most frequently used data source in phylogenetic reconstruction. Individual columns of rRNA alignments are not independent as a consequence of their highly conserved secondary structures. Unless explicitly taken into account, these correlation can distort the phylogenetic signal and/or lead to gross overestimates of tree stability. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches are of course amenable to using RNA-specific substitution models that treat conserved base pairs appropriately, but require accurate secondary structure models as input. So far, however, no accurate and easy-to-use tool has been available for computing structure-aware alignments and consensus structures that can deal with the large rRNAs. The RNAsalsa approach is designed to fill this gap. Capitalizing on the improved accuracy of pairwise consensus structures and informed by a priori knowledge of group-specific structural constraints, the tool provides both alignments and consensus structures that are of sufficient accuracy for routine phylogenetic analysis based on RNA-specific substitution models. The power of the approach is demonstrated using two rRNA data sets: a mitochondrial rRNA set of 26 Mammalia, and a collection of 28S nuclear rRNAs representative of the five major echinoderm groups. PMID:19723687

Stocsits, Roman R.; Letsch, Harald; Hertel, Jana; Misof, Bernhard; Stadler, Peter F.

2009-01-01

125

Higher-Level Phylogenetic Relationships of Homobasidiomycetes (Mushroom-Forming Fungi) Inferred from Four rDNA Regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homobasidiomycetes include approximately 13,000 described species of mushroom-forming fungi and related taxa. The higher-level classification of this ecologically important group has been unsettled for over 100 years. The goals of the present study were to evaluate a recent phylogenetic classification by Hibbett and Thorn that divided the homobasidiomycetes into eight major unranked clades, and to infer the higher-order relationships among

Manfred Binder; David S. Hibbett

2002-01-01

126

LABEL: Fast and Accurate Lineage Assignment with Assessment of H5N1 and H9N2 Influenza A Hemagglutinins  

PubMed Central

The evolutionary classification of influenza genes into lineages is a first step in understanding their molecular epidemiology and can inform the subsequent implementation of control measures. We introduce a novel approach called Lineage Assignment By Extended Learning (LABEL) to rapidly determine cladistic information for any number of genes without the need for time-consuming sequence alignment, phylogenetic tree construction, or manual annotation. Instead, LABEL relies on hidden Markov model profiles and support vector machine training to hierarchically classify gene sequences by their similarity to pre-defined lineages. We assessed LABEL by analyzing the annotated hemagglutinin genes of highly pathogenic (H5N1) and low pathogenicity (H9N2) avian influenza A viruses. Using the WHO/FAO/OIE H5N1 evolution working group nomenclature, the LABEL pipeline quickly and accurately identified the H5 lineages of uncharacterized sequences. Moreover, we developed an updated clade nomenclature for the H9 hemagglutinin gene and show a similarly fast and reliable phylogenetic assessment with LABEL. While this study was focused on hemagglutinin sequences, LABEL could be applied to the analysis of any gene and shows great potential to guide molecular epidemiology activities, accelerate database annotation, and provide a data sorting tool for other large-scale bioinformatic studies. PMID:24466291

Shepard, Samuel S.; Davis, C. Todd; Bahl, Justin; Rivailler, Pierre; York, Ian A.; Donis, Ruben O.

2014-01-01

127

A classification of the grouse (Aves: Tetraoninae) based on mitochondrial DNA sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new classification of the grouse that brings their taxonomy into agreement with our molecular phylogenetic studies. Our analyses provide, for the first time, a robust estimate of the evolutionary history of these birds. These analyses are based on aligned sequences of 3,809 basepairs of five complete mitochondrial genes. Our classification does not require novel genera and gen-

R. J. Gutiérrez; George F. Barrowclough; Jeffrey G. Groth

128

Primate Classification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students learn how classification of organisms is based on evolutionary relationships. They will also learn how primates are categorized, and how they are related. Students transfer examples (names) of primates from their location in an outline hierarchy of primate groups into a set of nested boxes reflecting that same hierarchy. A cladogram can then be drawn illustrating how these groups are related in an evolutionary way.

129

Phylogenetic Origins of Brain Organisers  

PubMed Central

The regionalisation of the nervous system begins early in embryogenesis, concomitant with the establishment of the anteroposterior (AP) and dorsoventral (DV) body axes. The molecular mechanisms that drive axis induction appear to be conserved throughout the animal kingdom and may be phylogenetically older than the emergence of bilateral symmetry. As a result of this process, groups of patterning genes that are equally well conserved are expressed at specific AP and DV coordinates of the embryo. In the emerging nervous system of vertebrate embryos, this initial pattern is refined by local signalling centres, secondary organisers, that regulate patterning, proliferation, and axonal pathfinding in adjacent neuroepithelium. The main secondary organisers for the AP neuraxis are the midbrain-hindbrain boundary, zona limitans intrathalamica, and anterior neural ridge and for the DV neuraxis the notochord, floor plate, and roof plate. A search for homologous secondary organisers in nonvertebrate lineages has led to controversy over their phylogenetic origins. Based on a recent study in hemichordates, it has been suggested that the AP secondary organisers evolved at the base of the deuterostome superphylum, earlier than previously thought. According to this view, the lack of signalling centres in some deuterostome lineages is likely to reflect a secondary loss due to adaptive processes. We propose that the relative evolutionary flexibility of secondary organisers has contributed to a broader morphological complexity of nervous systems in different clades. PMID:24278699

Robertshaw, Ellen; Kiecker, Clemens

2012-01-01

130

Automated analysis of phylogenetic clusters  

PubMed Central

Background As sequence data sets used for the investigation of pathogen transmission patterns increase in size, automated tools and standardized methods for cluster analysis have become necessary. We have developed an automated Cluster Picker which identifies monophyletic clades meeting user-input criteria for bootstrap support and maximum genetic distance within large phylogenetic trees. A second tool, the Cluster Matcher, automates the process of linking genetic data to epidemiological or clinical data, and matches clusters between runs of the Cluster Picker. Results We explore the effect of different bootstrap and genetic distance thresholds on clusters identified in a data set of publicly available HIV sequences, and compare these results to those of a previously published tool for cluster identification. To demonstrate their utility, we then use the Cluster Picker and Cluster Matcher together to investigate how clusters in the data set changed over time. We find that clusters containing sequences from more than one UK location at the first time point (multiple origin) were significantly more likely to grow than those representing only a single location. Conclusions The Cluster Picker and Cluster Matcher can rapidly process phylogenetic trees containing tens of thousands of sequences. Together these tools will facilitate comparisons of pathogen transmission dynamics between studies and countries. PMID:24191891

2013-01-01

131

The Number of Replications Needed for Accurate Estimation of the Bootstrap P Value in Phylogenetic Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bootstrap is a statistical method for obtaining a nonparametric estimate of error (Efron 1979, 1982). Felsenstein ( 1985) was the first to apply this method to phylogeny estimation, and his approach is now widely used. Taxa are held constant, and the characters (for sequence data, nucleotide or amino acid sites) are resampled randomly with replacement. A phylogeny is constructed

S. Blair Hedges

132

Phylogenetic Reconstruction of Orthology, Paralogy, and Conserved Synteny for Dog and Human  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate predictions of orthology and paralogy relationships are necessary to infer human molecular function from experiments in model organisms. Previous genome-scale approaches to predicting these relationships have been limited by their use of protein similarity and their failure to take into account multiple splicing events and gene prediction errors. We have developed PhyOP, a new phylogenetic orthology prediction pipeline based

Leo Goodstadt; Chris P. Ponting

2006-01-01

133

Updated phylogenetic description of the Mycoplasma hominis cluster (Weisburg et al. 1989) based on 16S rDNA sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fastidious nature of the mollicutes (mycoplasmas), their lack of a classic bacterial cell wall, and their very small genome, make phylogenetic placements of new species in this enlarging group of prokaryotes an important and valuable aid in their classification. In this report we have determined the phylogeny of the Mycoplasma hominis cluster of the hominis group. The 16S rDNA

Bertil Pettersson; Joseph G. Tully; Karl-Erik Johansson

2000-01-01

134

Wavelengths, Energy Level Classifications, and Energy Levels for the Spectrum of Neutral Mercury  

E-print Network

Wavelengths, Energy Level Classifications, and Energy Levels for the Spectrum of Neutral Mercury E A comprehensive critically evaluated compilation of the most accurate wavelength measurements for classified lines wavelengths; atomic wave numbers; energy level classifications; infrared wavelengths; mercury; ultraviolet

Magee, Joseph W.

135

Using a multigene phylogenetic analysis to assess generic delineation and character evolution in Verrucariaceae (Verrucariales, Ascomycota).  

PubMed

Verrucariaceae are a family of mostly crustose lichenized ascomycetes colonizing various habitats ranging from marine and fresh water to arid environments. Phylogenetic relationships among members of the Verrucariaceae are mostly unknown and the current morphology-based classification has never been confronted to molecular data. A multilocus phylogeny (nuLSU, nuSSU and RPB1) was reconstructed for 83 taxa representing all main genera of this family to provide a molecular phylogenetic framework necessary to assess the current morphology-based classification. Four main well-supported monophyletic groups were recovered, one of which contains seven robust monophyletic subgroups. Most genera, as traditionally delimited, were not monophyletic. A few taxonomic changes are proposed here to reconcile the morphology-based classification with the molecular phylogeny (Endocarpon diffractellum comb. nov., Heteroplacidium fusculum comb. nov., and Bagliettoa marmorea comb. nov.). Ancestral state reconstructions show that the most recent common ancestor of the Verrucariaceae was most likely crustose with a weakly differentiated upper cortex, simple ascospores, and hymenium free of algae. As shown in this study, the use of symplesiomorphic traits to define Verrucaria, the largest and type genus for the Verrucariaceae, as well as the non monophyly of the genera Polyblastia, Staurothele and Thelidium, explain most of the discrepancies between the current classification based on morphological similarity and a classification using monophyly as a grouping criterion. PMID:17981450

Gueidan, Cécile; Roux, Claude; Lutzoni, François

2007-10-01

136

Phylogenetic analysis of the spirochetes.  

PubMed Central

The 16S rRNA sequences were determined for species of Spirochaeta, Treponema, Borrelia, Leptospira, Leptonema, and Serpula, using a modified Sanger method of direct RNA sequencing. Analysis of aligned 16S rRNA sequences indicated that the spirochetes form a coherent taxon composed of six major clusters or groups. The first group, termed the treponemes, was divided into two subgroups. The first treponeme subgroup consisted of Treponema pallidum, Treponema phagedenis, Treponema denticola, a thermophilic spirochete strain, and two species of Spirochaeta, Spirochaeta zuelzerae and Spirochaeta stenostrepta, with an average interspecies similarity of 89.9%. The second treponeme subgroup contained Treponema bryantii, Treponema pectinovorum, Treponema saccharophilum, Treponema succinifaciens, and rumen strain CA, with an average interspecies similarity of 86.2%. The average interspecies similarity between the two treponeme subgroups was 84.2%. The division of the treponemes into two subgroups was verified by single-base signature analysis. The second spirochete group contained Spirochaeta aurantia, Spirochaeta halophila, Spirochaeta bajacaliforniensis, Spirochaeta litoralis, and Spirochaeta isovalerica, with an average similarity of 87.4%. The Spirochaeta group was related to the treponeme group, with an average similarity of 81.9%. The third spirochete group contained borrelias, including Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia anserina, Borrelia hermsii, and a rabbit tick strain. The borrelias formed a tight phylogenetic cluster, with average similarity of 97%. THe borrelia group shared a common branch with the Spirochaeta group and was closer to this group than to the treponemes. A single spirochete strain isolated fromt the shew constituted the fourth group. The fifth group was composed of strains of Serpula (Treponema) hyodysenteriae and Serpula (Treponema) innocens. The two species of this group were closely related, with a similarity of greater than 99%. Leptonema illini, Leptospira biflexa, and Leptospira interrogans formed the sixth and most deeply branching group. The average similarity within this group was 83.2%. This study represents the first demonstration that pathogenic and saprophytic Leptospira species are phylogenetically related. The division of the spirochetes into six major phylogenetic clusters was defined also by sequence signature elements. These signature analyses supported the conclusion that the spirochetes represent a monophylectic bacterial phylum. PMID:1917844

Paster, B J; Dewhirst, F E; Weisburg, W G; Tordoff, L A; Fraser, G J; Hespell, R B; Stanton, T B; Zablen, L; Mandelco, L; Woese, C R

1991-01-01

137

Phylogenetic analysis of the spirochetes.  

PubMed

The 16S rRNA sequences were determined for species of Spirochaeta, Treponema, Borrelia, Leptospira, Leptonema, and Serpula, using a modified Sanger method of direct RNA sequencing. Analysis of aligned 16S rRNA sequences indicated that the spirochetes form a coherent taxon composed of six major clusters or groups. The first group, termed the treponemes, was divided into two subgroups. The first treponeme subgroup consisted of Treponema pallidum, Treponema phagedenis, Treponema denticola, a thermophilic spirochete strain, and two species of Spirochaeta, Spirochaeta zuelzerae and Spirochaeta stenostrepta, with an average interspecies similarity of 89.9%. The second treponeme subgroup contained Treponema bryantii, Treponema pectinovorum, Treponema saccharophilum, Treponema succinifaciens, and rumen strain CA, with an average interspecies similarity of 86.2%. The average interspecies similarity between the two treponeme subgroups was 84.2%. The division of the treponemes into two subgroups was verified by single-base signature analysis. The second spirochete group contained Spirochaeta aurantia, Spirochaeta halophila, Spirochaeta bajacaliforniensis, Spirochaeta litoralis, and Spirochaeta isovalerica, with an average similarity of 87.4%. The Spirochaeta group was related to the treponeme group, with an average similarity of 81.9%. The third spirochete group contained borrelias, including Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia anserina, Borrelia hermsii, and a rabbit tick strain. The borrelias formed a tight phylogenetic cluster, with average similarity of 97%. THe borrelia group shared a common branch with the Spirochaeta group and was closer to this group than to the treponemes. A single spirochete strain isolated fromt the shew constituted the fourth group. The fifth group was composed of strains of Serpula (Treponema) hyodysenteriae and Serpula (Treponema) innocens. The two species of this group were closely related, with a similarity of greater than 99%. Leptonema illini, Leptospira biflexa, and Leptospira interrogans formed the sixth and most deeply branching group. The average similarity within this group was 83.2%. This study represents the first demonstration that pathogenic and saprophytic Leptospira species are phylogenetically related. The division of the spirochetes into six major phylogenetic clusters was defined also by sequence signature elements. These signature analyses supported the conclusion that the spirochetes represent a monophylectic bacterial phylum. PMID:1917844

Paster, B J; Dewhirst, F E; Weisburg, W G; Tordoff, L A; Fraser, G J; Hespell, R B; Stanton, T B; Zablen, L; Mandelco, L; Woese, C R

1991-10-01

138

Phylogenetic position of Coronastrum ellipsoideum and description of Parachlorella hussii sp. nov  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following traditional morphological concepts, the genus Coronastrum is considered to be a rare member of the Scenedesmaceae (Chorophyceae). This classification may be called into question when\\u000a molecular data are taken into account as well. Recent molecular phylogenetic studies revealed the polyphyletic origin of the\\u000a family Scenedesmaceae within the Chlorophyceae and Trebouxiophyceae. In a combined approach of morphological analyses, SSU\\/ITS\\u000a rRNA

Christina Bock; Marie Pažoutová; Lothar Krienitz

2011-01-01

139

Use of whole genome sequences to develop a molecular phylogenetic framework for Rhodococcus fascians and the Rhodococcus genus  

PubMed Central

The accurate diagnosis of diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria requires a stable species classification. Rhodococcus fascians is the only documented member of its ill-defined genus that is capable of causing disease on a wide range of agriculturally important plants. Comparisons of genome sequences generated from isolates of Rhodococcus associated with diseased plants revealed a level of genetic diversity consistent with them representing multiple species. To test this, we generated a tree based on more than 1700 homologous sequences from plant-associated isolates of Rhodococcus, and obtained support from additional approaches that measure and cluster based on genome similarities. Results were consistent in supporting the definition of new Rhodococcus species within clades containing phytopathogenic members. We also used the genome sequences, along with other rhodococcal genome sequences to construct a molecular phylogenetic tree as a framework for resolving the Rhodococcus genus. Results indicated that Rhodococcus has the potential for having 20 species and also confirmed a need to revisit the taxonomic groupings within Rhodococcus.

Creason, Allison L.; Davis, Edward W.; Putnam, Melodie L.; Vandeputte, Olivier M.; Chang, Jeff H.

2014-01-01

140

Taxonomy, Phylogenetics, and Philip S. Ward  

E-print Network

Chapter 1 Taxonomy, Phylogenetics, and Evolution Philip S. Ward 1.1 Introduction Since their origin features of evolutionary history. Species-level taxonomy has advanced more fitfully than ant phylogenetics and features of their biology are dis- cussed. The state of species-level taxonomy is eval- uated

Ward, Philip S.

141

Consequences of Recombination on Traditional Phylogenetic Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the shape of a phylogenetic tree reconstructed from sequences evolving under the coalescent with recombination. The motivation is that evolutionary inferences are often made from phylogenetic trees reconstructed from population data even though recombination may well occur (mtDNA or viral sequences) or does occur (nuclear sequences). We investigate the size and direction of biases when a single tree

Mikkel H. Schierup; Jotun Hein

2000-01-01

142

Molecular phylogenetics and character evolution of morphologically diverse groups, Dendrobium section Dendrobium and allies  

PubMed Central

It is always difficult to construct coherent classification systems for plant lineages having diverse morphological characters. The genus Dendrobium, one of the largest genera in the Orchidaceae, includes ?1100 species, and enormous morphological diversification has hindered the establishment of consistent classification systems covering all major groups of this genus. Given the particular importance of species in Dendrobium section Dendrobium and allied groups as floriculture and crude drug genetic resources, there is an urgent need to establish a stable classification system. To clarify phylogenetic relationships in Dendrobium section Dendrobium and allied groups, we analysed the macromolecular characters of the group. Phylogenetic analyses of 210 taxa of Dendrobium were conducted on DNA sequences of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of 18S–26S nuclear ribosomal DNA and the maturase-coding gene (matK) located in an intron of the plastid gene trnK using maximum parsimony and Bayesian methods. The parsimony and Bayesian analyses revealed 13 distinct clades in the group comprising section Dendrobium and its allied groups. Results also showed paraphyly or polyphyly of sections Amblyanthus, Aporum, Breviflores, Calcarifera, Crumenata, Dendrobium, Densiflora, Distichophyllae, Dolichocentrum, Holochrysa, Oxyglossum and Pedilonum. On the other hand, the monophyly of section Stachyobium was well supported. It was found that many of the morphological characters that have been believed to reflect phylogenetic relationships are, in fact, the result of convergence. As such, many of the sections that have been recognized up to this point were found to not be monophyletic, so recircumscription of sections is required. PMID:25107672

Takamiya, Tomoko; Wongsawad, Pheravut; Sathapattayanon, Apirada; Tajima, Natsuko; Suzuki, Shunichiro; Kitamura, Saki; Shioda, Nao; Handa, Takashi; Kitanaka, Susumu; Iijima, Hiroshi; Yukawa, Tomohisa

2014-01-01

143

Intersections between development and evolution in the classification of emotions.  

PubMed

In this article, I use the example of emotions to illustrate how various concepts of homology can play a role in developmental psychology by showing how developmental and evolutionary approaches to the classification of psychological traits complement and constrain one another. In order to do this I argue against the "Standard Model" of emotional classification according to which basic and higher cognitive emotions belong to radically different classes of emotions. Neither developmental nor evolutionary considerations support the Standard Model, and a combined ontogenetic and phylogenetic approach presents a stronger case for the revision of this model than does either of these taken alone. Recent attempts to integrate developmental and evolutionary factors in the explanation of other psychological traits can guide research in these areas. I argue that a consideration of various neglected forms of homology that are closely tied to development resolves some outstanding problems in ontogenetic and phylogenetic classification of emotion. PMID:22753140

Clark, Jason A

2013-01-01

144

Quartet-based methods to reconstruct phylogenetic networks  

PubMed Central

Background Phylogenetic networks are employed to visualize evolutionary relationships among a group of nucleotide sequences, genes or species when reticulate events like hybridization, recombination, reassortant and horizontal gene transfer are believed to be involved. In comparison to traditional distance-based methods, quartet-based methods consider more information in the reconstruction process and thus have the potential to be more accurate. Results We introduce QuartetSuite, which includes a set of new quartet-based methods, namely QuartetS, QuartetA, and QuartetM, to reconstruct phylogenetic networks from nucleotide sequences. We tested their performances and compared them with other popular methods on two simulated nucleotide sequence data sets: one generated from a tree topology and the other from a complicated evolutionary history containing three reticulate events. We further validated these methods to two real data sets: a bacterial data set consisting of seven concatenated genes of 36 bacterial species and an influenza data set related to recently emerging H7N9 low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in China. Conclusion QuartetS, QuartetA, and QuartetM have the potential to accurately reconstruct evolutionary scenarios from simple branching trees to complicated networks containing many reticulate events. These methods could provide insights into the understanding of complicated biological evolutionary processes such as bacterial taxonomy and reassortant of influenza viruses. PMID:24555518

2014-01-01

145

A phylogenetic model for understanding the effect of gene duplication on cancer progression  

PubMed Central

As biotechnology advances rapidly, a tremendous amount of cancer genetic data has become available, providing an unprecedented opportunity for understanding the genetic mechanisms of cancer. To understand the effects of duplications and deletions on cancer progression, two genomes (normal and tumor) were sequenced from each of five stomach cancer patients in different stages (I, II, III and IV). We developed a phylogenetic model for analyzing stomach cancer data. The model assumes that duplication and deletion occur in accordance with a continuous time Markov Chain along the branches of a phylogenetic tree attached with five extended branches leading to the tumor genomes. Moreover, coalescence times of the phylogenetic tree follow a coalescence process. The simulation study suggests that the maximum likelihood approach can accurately estimate parameters in the phylogenetic model. The phylogenetic model was applied to the stomach cancer data. We found that the expected number of changes (duplication and deletion) per gene for the tumor genomes is significantly higher than that for the normal genomes. The goodness-of-fit test suggests that the phylogenetic model with constant duplication and deletion rates can adequately fit the duplication data for the normal genomes. The analysis found nine duplicated genes that are significantly associated with stomach cancer. PMID:24371277

Ma, Qin; Reeves, Jaxk H.; Liberles, David A.; Yu, Lili; Chang, Zheng; Zhao, Jing; Cui, Juan; Xu, Ying; Liu, Liang

2014-01-01

146

SUNPLIN: Simulation with Uncertainty for Phylogenetic Investigations  

PubMed Central

Background Phylogenetic comparative analyses usually rely on a single consensus phylogenetic tree in order to study evolutionary processes. However, most phylogenetic trees are incomplete with regard to species sampling, which may critically compromise analyses. Some approaches have been proposed to integrate non-molecular phylogenetic information into incomplete molecular phylogenies. An expanded tree approach consists of adding missing species to random locations within their clade. The information contained in the topology of the resulting expanded trees can be captured by the pairwise phylogenetic distance between species and stored in a matrix for further statistical analysis. Thus, the random expansion and processing of multiple phylogenetic trees can be used to estimate the phylogenetic uncertainty through a simulation procedure. Because of the computational burden required, unless this procedure is efficiently implemented, the analyses are of limited applicability. Results In this paper, we present efficient algorithms and implementations for randomly expanding and processing phylogenetic trees so that simulations involved in comparative phylogenetic analysis with uncertainty can be conducted in a reasonable time. We propose algorithms for both randomly expanding trees and calculating distance matrices. We made available the source code, which was written in the C++ language. The code may be used as a standalone program or as a shared object in the R system. The software can also be used as a web service through the link: http://purl.oclc.org/NET/sunplin/. Conclusion We compare our implementations to similar solutions and show that significant performance gains can be obtained. Our results open up the possibility of accounting for phylogenetic uncertainty in evolutionary and ecological analyses of large datasets. PMID:24229408

2013-01-01

147

Staghorn classification: Platform for morphometry assessment  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The majority of staghorn classifications do not incorporate volumetric stone burden assessment. Accurate volumetric data can easily be acquired with the ever-increasingly available computerized tomography (CT) scan. This manuscript reviews the available staghorn stone classifications and rationalizes the morphometry-based classification. Materials and Methods: A Pubmed search was performed for articles concerning staghorn classification and morphometry. Twenty abstracts were shortlisted from a total of 43 published abstracts. In view of the paucity of manuscripts on staghorn morphometry (4), older staghorn classifications were analyzed with the aim to determine the most optimum one having relevance to the percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) monotherapy outcome. Results: All available staghorn classifications are limited with non-widespread applicability. The traditional partial and complete staghorn are limited due to non-descript stone volumetric data and considerable overlap of the intermediate ones in either group. A lack of standardized definition limits intergroup comparison as well. Staghorn morphometry is a recent addition to the clinical classification profiling of a staghorn calculus. It comprises extensive CT volumetric stone distribution assessment of a staghorn in a given pelvi–calyceal anatomy. It allowsmeaningful clinical classification of staghorn stones from a contemporary PCNL monotherapy perspective. Conclusions: Morphometry-based classification affords clinically relevant nomenclature in predicting the outcome of PCNL for staghorn stones. Further research is required to reduce the complexity associated with measuring the volumetric stone distribution in a given calyceal system. PMID:24497688

Mishra, Shashikant; Bhattu, Amit S.; Sabnis, Ravindra B.; Desai, Mahesh R.

2014-01-01

148

Selecting Species Traits for Biomonitoring Applications in light of Phylogenetic Relationships among Lotic Insects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of species traits as indicators of environmental disturbance is being considered for biomonitoring programs globally. As such, methods to select relevant and informative traits for inclusion in biometrics need to be developed. In this research, we identified 20 traits of aquatic insects within six trait groups: morphology, mobility, life-history strategy, thermal tolerance, feeding guild and ecology (e.g., habitat preference). We constructed phylogenetic trees for 1) all lotic insect species of North America and 2) all Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera species based on morphology- and molecular-based analyses and classifications. We then measured variability (i.e., plasticity) of the 20 traits and six trait groups across the two phylogenetic trees. Traits with higher degrees of plasticity indicated traits that were less phylogenetically constrained, and were considered informative for biomonitoring purposes. Thermal tolerance, rheophily, body size at maturity and feeding guild showed the highest plasticity across both phylogenetic trees. Two mobility traits, occurrence in drift and adult dispersal distance, showed moderate plasticity. By contrast, adult exiting ability, degree of attachment, adult lifespan and body shape showed low variability and were thus less informative. Plastic species traits that are less phylogenetically constrained may be most useful in detecting community change along environmental gradients.

Poff, N.; Vieira, N. K.; Simmons, M. P.; Olden, J. D.; Kondratieff, B. C.; Finn, D. S.

2005-05-01

149

MINI REVIEW Tempo and mode in evolution: phylogenetic inertia, adaptation  

E-print Network

MINI REVIEW Tempo and mode in evolution: phylogenetic inertia, adaptation and comparative methods S; phylogenetic inertia; statistics. Abstract Before the Evolutionary Synthesis, `phylogenetic inertia principle. The concept in the modern literature dates to Simpson (1944), who used `evolutionary inertia

Garland Jr., Theodore

150

Classification and knowledge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automated procedures to classify objects are discussed. The classification problem is reviewed, and the relation of epistemology and classification is considered. The classification of stellar spectra and of resolved images of galaxies is addressed.

Kurtz, Michael J.

1989-01-01

151

Signature classification development system  

SciTech Connect

Discontinuities of various types and sizes may be introduced into a material or component during the manufacturing process or during the service life. During a nondestructive evaluation (NDE), the inspector must accept or reject the material/component based on the interpretation of signatures recorded by the inspection equipment. In certain cases, the NDE signature has nuances that cannot be recognized by a trained inspector, thus the ability to accurately determine the presence of a discontinuity or undesirable property in the material is diminished. Advanced advisor systems are desired to assist the inspector in determining the acceptability of a part during inspection. In order to meet this need, the US Army Material Technology Laboratory funded the Applied Physics Laboratory of the Johns Hopkins University and the Carderock Division of the Naval Surface Warfare Center to jointly develop a prototype Signature Classification Development System (SCDS). The objective of the SCDS is to provide computer analysis tools to classify signatures from generic inspection systems. The SCDS organizes the sensor data, performs digital signal processing and generates user defined feature parameters for input to classification algorithms. Features are calculated from the time-domain and the power spectrum of the signature. By applying artificial neural network algorithms, the SCDs will classify the recorded signature. Future enhancements include the addition of classical statistic techniques for feature selection and generation of run-time classifiers for field inspections.

Brown, L.M. [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Annapolis, MD (United States). Carderock Div.; Lin, J.S.; Newman, R.W. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Laurel, MD (United States). Applied Physics Lab.

1993-12-31

152

[Comparative leaf anatomy and phylogenetic relationships of 11 species of Laeliinae with emphasis on Brassavola (Orchidaceae)].  

PubMed

Brassavola inhabits a wide altitude range and habitat types from Northern Mexico to Northern Argentina. Classification schemes in plants have normally used vegetative and floral characters, but when species are very similar, as in this genus, conflicts arise in species delimitation, and alternative methods should be applied. In this study we explored the taxonomic and phylogenetic value of the anatomical structure of leaves in Brassavola; as ingroup, seven species of Brassavola were considered, and as an outgroup Guarianthe skinneri, Laelia anceps, Rhyncholaelia digbyana and Rhyncholaelia glauca were evaluated. Leaf anatomical characters were studied in freehand cross sections of the middle portion with a light microscope. Ten vegetative anatomical characters were selected and coded for the phylogenetic analysis. Phylogenetic reconstruction was carried out under maximum parsimony using the program NONA through WinClada. Overall, Brassavola species reveal a wide variety of anatomical characters, many of them associated with xeromorphic plants: thick cuticle, hypodermis and cells of the mesophyll with spiral thickenings in the secondary wall. Moreover, mesophyll is either homogeneous or heterogeneous, often with extravascular bundles of fibers near the epidermis at both terete and flat leaves. All vascular bundles are collateral, arranged in more than one row in the mesophyll. The phylogenetic analysis did not resolve internal relationships of the genus; we obtained a polytomy, indicating that the anatomical characters by themselves have little phylogenetic value in Brassavola. We concluded that few anatomical characters are phylogenetically important; however, they would provide more support to elucidate the phylogenetic relantionships in the Orchidaceae and other plant groups if they are used in conjunction with morphological and/or molecular characters. PMID:22017111

Noguera-Savelli, Eliana; Jáuregui, Damelis

2011-09-01

153

Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial outer membrane ?-barrel channels.  

PubMed

Transport of molecules across mitochondrial outer membrane is pivotal for a proper function of mitochondria. The transport pathways across the membrane are formed by ion channels that participate in metabolite exchange between mitochondria and cytoplasm (voltage-dependent anion-selective channel, VDAC) as well as in import of proteins encoded by nuclear genes (Tom40 and Sam50/Tob55). VDAC, Tom40, and Sam50/Tob55 are present in all eukaryotic organisms, encoded in the nuclear genome, and have ?-barrel topology. We have compiled data sets of these protein sequences and studied their phylogenetic relationships with a special focus on the position of Amoebozoa. Additionally, we identified these protein-coding genes in Acanthamoeba castellanii and Dictyostelium discoideum to complement our data set and verify the phylogenetic position of these model organisms. Our analysis show that mitochondrial ?-barrel channels from Archaeplastida (plants) and Opisthokonta (animals and fungi) experienced many duplication events that resulted in multiple paralogous isoforms and form well-defined monophyletic clades that match the current model of eukaryotic evolution. However, in representatives of Amoebozoa, Chromalveolata, and Excavata (former Protista), they do not form clearly distinguishable clades, although they locate basally to the plant and algae branches. In most cases, they do not posses paralogs and their sequences appear to have evolved quickly or degenerated. Consequently, the obtained phylogenies of mitochondrial outer membrane ?-channels do not entirely reflect the recent eukaryotic classification system involving the six supergroups: Chromalveolata, Excavata, Archaeplastida, Rhizaria, Amoebozoa, and Opisthokonta. PMID:22155732

Wojtkowska, Ma?gorzata; J?kalski, Marcin; Pie?kowska, Joanna R; Stobienia, Olgierd; Karachitos, Andonis; Przytycka, Teresa M; Weiner, January; Kmita, Hanna; Maka?owski, Wojciech

2012-01-01

154

Phylogenetic placement of Hydra and relationships within Aplanulata (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa).  

PubMed

The model organism Hydra belongs to the hydrozoan clade Aplanulata. Despite being a popular model system for development, little is known about the phylogenetic placement of this taxon or the relationships of its closest relatives. Previous studies have been conflicting regarding sister group relationships and have been unable to resolve deep nodes within the clade. In addition, there are several putative Aplanulata taxa that have never been sampled for molecular data or analyzed using multiple markers. Here, we combine the fast-evolving cytochrome oxidase 1 (CO1) mitochondrial marker with mitochondrial 16S, nuclear small ribosomal subunit (18S, SSU) and large ribosomal subunit (28S, LSU) sequences to examine relationships within the clade Aplanulata. We further discuss the relative contribution of four different molecular markers to resolving phylogenetic relationships within Aplanulata. Lastly, we report morphological synapomorphies for some of the major Aplanulata genera and families, and suggest new taxonomic classifications for two species of Aplanulata, Fukaurahydra anthoformis and Corymorpha intermedia, based on a preponderance of molecular and morphological data that justify the designation of these species to different genera. PMID:23280366

Nawrocki, Annalise M; Collins, Allen G; Hirano, Yayoi M; Schuchert, Peter; Cartwright, Paulyn

2013-04-01

155

Phylogenetic analysis of the genus Hordeum using repetitive DNA sequences.  

PubMed

A set of six cloned barley (Hordeum vulgare) repetitive DNA sequences was used for the analysis of phylogenetic relationships among 31 species (46 taxa) of the genus Hordeum, using molecular hybridization techniques. in situ hybridization experiments showed dispersed organization of the sequences over all chromosomes of H. vulgare and the wild barley species H. bulbosum, H. marinum and H. murinum. Southern blot hybridization revealed different levels of polymorphism among barley species and the RFLP data were used to generate a phylogenetic tree for the genus Hordeum. Our data are in a good agreement with the classification system which suggests the division of the genus into four major groups, containing the genomes I, X, Y, and H. However, our investigation also supports previous molecular studies of barley species where the unique position of H. bulbosum has been pointed out. In our experiments, H. bulbosum generally had hybridization patterns different from those of H. vulgare, although both carry the I genome. Based on our results we present a hypothesis concerning the possible origin and phylogeny of the polyploid barley species H. secalinum, H. depressum and the H. brachyantherum complex. PMID:24178086

Svitashev, S; Bryngelsson, T; Vershinin, A; Pedersen, C; Säll, T; von Bothmer, R

1994-12-01

156

Accurate determination of inflationary perturbations  

E-print Network

We use a numerical code for accurate computation of the amplitude of linear density perturbations and gravitational waves generated by single-field inflation models to study the accuracy of existing analytic results based on the slow-roll approximation. We use our code to calculate the coefficient of an expansion about the exact analytic result for power-law inflation; this generates a fitting function which can be applied to all inflationary models to obtain extremely accurate results. In the appropriate limit our results confirm the Stewart--Lyth analytic second-order calculation, and we find that their results are very accurate for inflationary models favoured by current observational constraints.

Ian J Grivell; Andrew R Liddle

1996-07-18

157

Phylogenetic mapping of bacterial morphology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The availability of a meaningful molecular phylogeny for bacteria provides a context for examining the historical significance of various developments in bacterial evolution. Herein, the classical morphological descriptions of selected members of the domain Bacteria are mapped upon the genealogical ancestry deduced from comparison of small-subunit rRNA sequences. For the species examined in this study, a distinct pattern emerges which indicates that the coccus shape has arisen and accumulated independently multiple times in separate lineages and typically survived as a persistent end-state morphology. At least two other morphologies persist but have evolved only once. This study demonstrates that although bacterial morphology is not useful in defining bacterial phylogeny, it is remarkably consistent with that phylogeny once it is known. An examination of the experimental evidence available for morphogenesis as well as microbial fossil evidence corroborates these findings. It is proposed that the accumulation of persistent morphologies is a result of the biophysical properties of peptidoglycan and their genetic control, and that an evolved body-plan strategy based on peptidoglycan may have been a fate-sealing step in the evolution of Bacteria. More generally, this study illustrates that significant evolutionary insights can be obtained by examining biological and biochemical data in the context of a reliable phylogenetic structure.

Siefert, J. L.; Fox, G. E.

1998-01-01

158

Accurate Evaluation of Quantum Integrals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Combining an appropriate finite difference method with Richardson's extrapolation results in a simple, highly accurate numerical method for solving a Schrodinger's equation. Important results are that error estimates are provided, and that one can extrapolate expectation values rather than the wavefunctions to obtain highly accurate expectation values. We discuss the eigenvalues, the error growth in repeated Richardson's extrapolation, and show that the expectation values calculated on a crude mesh can be extrapolated to obtain expectation values of high accuracy.

Galant, D. C.; Goorvitch, D.; Witteborn, Fred C. (Technical Monitor)

1995-01-01

159

Classification of the acanthocephala.  

PubMed

In 1985, Amin presented a new system for the classification of the Acanthocephala in Crompton and Nickol's (1985) book 'Biology of the Acanthocephala' and recognized the concepts of Meyer (1931, 1932, 1933) and Van Cleave (1936, 1941, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1951, 1952). This system became the standard for the taxonomy of this group and remains so to date. Many changes have taken place and many new genera and species, as well as higher taxa, have been described since. An updated version of the 1985 scheme incorporating new concepts in molecular taxonomy, gene sequencing and phylogenetic studies is presented. The hierarchy has undergone a total face lift with Amin's (1987) addition of a new class, Polyacanthocephala (and a new order and family) to remove inconsistencies in the class Palaeacanthocephala. Amin and Ha (2008) added a third order (and a new family) to the Palaeacanthocephala, Heteramorphida, which combines features from the palaeacanthocephalan families Polymorphidae and Heteracanthocephalidae. Other families and subfamilies have been added but some have been eliminated, e.g. the three subfamilies of Arythmacanthidae: Arhythmacanthinae Yamaguti, 1935; Neoacanthocephaloidinae Golvan, 1960; and Paracanthocephaloidinae Golvan, 1969. Amin (1985) listed 22 families, 122 genera and 903 species (4, 4 and 14 families; 13, 28 and 81 genera; 167, 167 and 569 species in Archiacanthocephala, Eoacanthocephala and Palaeacanthocephala, respectively). The number of taxa listed in the present treatment is 26 families (18% increase), 157 genera (29%), and 1298 species (44%) (4, 4 and 16; 18, 29 and 106; 189, 255 and 845, in the same order), which also includes 1 family, 1 genus and 4 species in the class Polyacanthocephala Amin, 1987, and 3 genera and 5 species in the fossil family Zhijinitidae. PMID:24261131

Amin, Omar M

2013-09-01

160

Machine learning for patient-adaptive ectopic beat classification  

E-print Network

Physicians require automated techniques to accurately analyze the vast amount of physiological data collected by continuous monitoring devices. In this thesis, we consider one analysis task in particular, the classification ...

Wiens, Jenna Marleau

2010-01-01

161

Effect of nonindependent substitution on phylogenetic accuracy.  

PubMed

All current phylogenetic methods assume that DNA substitutions are independent among sites. However, ample empirical evidence suggests that the process of substitution is not independent but is, in fact, temporally and spatially correlated. The robustness of several commonly used phylogenetic methods to the assumption of independent substitution is examined. A compound Poisson process is used to model DNA substitution. This model assumes that substitution events are Poisson-distributed in time and that the number of substitutions associated with each event is geometrically distributed. The asymptotic properties of phylogenetic methods do not appear to change under a compound Poisson process of DNA substitution. Moreover, the rank order of the performance of different methods does not change. However, all phylogenetic methods become less efficient when substitution follows a compound Poisson process. PMID:12066710

Huelsenbeck, J P; Nielsen, R

1999-06-01

162

Phylogenetic Networks that Display a Tree Twice.  

PubMed

In the last decade, the use of phylogenetic networks to analyze the evolution of species whose past is likely to include reticulation events, such as horizontal gene transfer or hybridization, has gained popularity among evolutionary biologists. Nevertheless, the evolution of a particular gene can generally be described without reticulation events and therefore be represented by a phylogenetic tree. While this is not in contrast to each other, it places emphasis on the necessity of algorithms that analyze and summarize the tree-like information that is contained in a phylogenetic network. We contribute to the toolbox of such algorithms by investigating the question of whether or not a phylogenetic network embeds a tree twice and give a quadratic-time algorithm to solve this problem for a class of networks that is more general than tree-child networks. PMID:25245396

Cordue, Paul; Linz, Simone; Semple, Charles

2014-10-01

163

Evolutionary Trees and phylogenetics: An algebraic perspective  

E-print Network

. MBE (1988) 5:626-644. Gorilla AAGCTTCACCGGCGCAGTTGTTCTTATAATTGCCCACGGACTTACATCAT... Orangutan_Mac. Chimpanzee Human Gorilla Orangutan Gibbon Squirrel_Monkey Tarsier 0.1 Evolutionary trees and phylogenetics 6 sequences: Gorilla AAGCTTCACCGGCGCAGTTGTTCTTATAATTGCCCACGGACTTACATCAT... Orangutan

Allman, Elizabeth S.

164

Distribution of phylogenetic diversity under random extinction  

E-print Network

Phylogenetic diversity is a measure for describing how much of an evolutionary tree is spanned by a subset of species. If one applies this to the (unknown) subset of current species that will still be present at some future time, then this `future phylogenetic diversity' provides a measure of the impact of various extinction scenarios in biodiversity conservation. In this paper we study the distribution of future phylogenetic diversity under a simple model of extinction (a generalized `field of bullets' model). We show that the distribution of future phylogenetic diversity converges to a normal distribution as the number of species grows (under mild conditions, which are necessary). We also describe an algorithm to compute the distribution efficiently, provided the edge lengths are integral, and briefly outline the significance of our findings for biodiversity conservation.

Beata Faller; Fabio Pardi; Mike Steel

2007-08-02

165

A Phylogenetic analysis of the Southern Shift  

E-print Network

A PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF THE SOUTHERN SHIFT A Thesis by ERIK ROBERT THOMAS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS December 1989... Major Subject: English A PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF THE SOUTHERN SHIFT A Thesis by ERIK ROBERT THOMAS Approved as to style and content by: Guy Bailey (Chair of Committee) Barbara Johnstone (Member) Robert H. Benson (Member) J. Lawrence Mitchell...

Thomas, Erik Robert

2012-06-07

166

Phylogenetic relationships of Termitomyces and related taxa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phylogenetic relationships of termitophilic fungi were estimated with Bayesian as well as other phylogenetic methods from partial sequences of the nuclear encoded large subunit ribosomal DNA (nLSU-rDNA) and the mitochondrial encoded small subunit ribosomal DNA (mtSSU-rDNA). Sequences were obtained from basidiomes covering the morphological, taxonomical, and geographical span of termitophilic mushroom-forming fungi, and analysed together with sequences from termite nests

Tobias G. FRØSLEV; Duur K. AANEN; Thomas LÆSSØE; Søren ROSENDAHL

2003-01-01

167

Statistical Classification of Spatial Relationships among Mathematical Symbols  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a statistical decision method for automatic classification of spatial relationships between each adjacent pair is proposed. Each pair is composed of mathematical symbols and\\/or alphabetical characters. Special treatment of mathematical symbols with variable size is important. This classification is important to recognize an accurate structure analysis module of math OCR. Experimental re- sults on a very large

Walaa Aly; Seiichi Uchida; Akio Fujiyoshi; Masakazu Suzuki

2009-01-01

168

Classification of Islamic literature in Pakistani libraries : A survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to draw an exact and accurate picture of classification problems being faced by libraries having a reasonable amount of collections on Islam. Different classification systems have been developed during the last two centuries to organize library materials. Where these systems provided libraries with better solution for organization of materials, the systems have

Haroon Idrees; Khalid Mahmood

2010-01-01

169

Phylogenetic diversity measures based on Hill numbers  

PubMed Central

We propose a parametric class of phylogenetic diversity (PD) measures that are sensitive to both species abundance and species taxonomic or phylogenetic distances. This work extends the conventional parametric species-neutral approach (based on ‘effective number of species’ or Hill numbers) to take into account species relatedness, and also generalizes the traditional phylogenetic approach (based on ‘total phylogenetic length’) to incorporate species abundances. The proposed measure quantifies ‘the mean effective number of species’ over any time interval of interest, or the ‘effective number of maximally distinct lineages’ over that time interval. The product of the measure and the interval length quantifies the ‘branch diversity’ of the phylogenetic tree during that interval. The new measures generalize and unify many existing measures and lead to a natural definition of taxonomic diversity as a special case. The replication principle (or doubling property), an important requirement for species-neutral diversity, is generalized to PD. The widely used Rao's quadratic entropy and the phylogenetic entropy do not satisfy this essential property, but a simple transformation converts each to our measures, which do satisfy the property. The proposed approach is applied to forest data for interpreting the effects of thinning. PMID:20980309

Chao, Anne; Chiu, Chun-Huo; Jost, Lou

2010-01-01

170

Phylogenetic structure in tropical hummingbird communities  

PubMed Central

How biotic interactions, current and historical environment, and biogeographic barriers determine community structure is a fundamental question in ecology and evolution, especially in diverse tropical regions. To evaluate patterns of local and regional diversity, we quantified the phylogenetic composition of 189 hummingbird communities in Ecuador. We assessed how species and phylogenetic composition changed along environmental gradients and across biogeographic barriers. We show that humid, low-elevation communities are phylogenetically overdispersed (coexistence of distant relatives), a pattern that is consistent with the idea that competition influences the local composition of hummingbirds. At higher elevations communities are phylogenetically clustered (coexistence of close relatives), consistent with the expectation of environmental filtering, which may result from the challenge of sustaining an expensive means of locomotion at high elevations. We found that communities in the lowlands on opposite sides of the Andes tend to be phylogenetically similar despite their large differences in species composition, a pattern implicating the Andes as an important dispersal barrier. In contrast, along the steep environmental gradient between the lowlands and the Andes we found evidence that species turnover is comprised of relatively distantly related species. The integration of local and regional patterns of diversity across environmental gradients and biogeographic barriers provides insight into the potential underlying mechanisms that have shaped community composition and phylogenetic diversity in one of the most species-rich, complex regions of the world. PMID:19805042

Graham, Catherine H.; Parra, Juan L.; Rahbek, Carsten; McGuire, Jimmy A.

2009-01-01

171

Phylogenetic heterogeneity of the species Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans.  

PubMed

Polyphasic genotypic analysis of 25 Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans strains isolated from ores and ore concentrates collected in different regions of the world showed considerable strain heterogeneity. Restriction patterns of the chromosomal DNA of these strains obtained by PFGE were specific for each strain. According to the degree of DNA relatedness, 17 of the 23 strains studied were divided into four genomovars. Six independent, considerably divergent strains could not be assigned to any of the genomovars. A comparison of nearly complete nucleotide sequences of the 16S rDNA of five representatives of the genomovars (including the type strain of A. ferrooxidans, ATCC 23270T) with those of species of the genus Acidithiobacillus available from GenBank showed that most of the A. ferrooxidans strains, together with the type strain and some other strains of the species Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, comprised a monophyletic cluster. Within this major cluster, A. ferrooxidans strains fell into four phylogenetic groups that were equidistant from the phylogenetic group of A. thiooxidans strains. In general, the distribution of strains among the phylogenetic groups correlated with their distribution among the genomovars, except that the representatives of two different genomovars fell into one phylogenetic group. Thus, at least two levels of phylogenetic heterogeneity for A. ferrooxidans have been found. The phylogenetic heterogeneity of A. ferrooxidans strains, which are phenotypically indistinguishable, suggests the occurrence of microevolutionary processes in different econiches. This should be taken into account in the biohydrometallurgical applications of A. ferrooxidans strains. PMID:12656161

Karavaiko, Grigorii I; Turova, Tat'yana P; Kondrat'eva, Tamara F; Lysenko, Anatoli M; Kolganova, Tat'yana V; Ageeva, Svetlana N; Muntyan, Lyudmila N; Pivovarova, Tatyana A

2003-01-01

172

Genome-Wide Comparative Gene Family Classification  

PubMed Central

Correct classification of genes into gene families is important for understanding gene function and evolution. Although gene families of many species have been resolved both computationally and experimentally with high accuracy, gene family classification in most newly sequenced genomes has not been done with the same high standard. This project has been designed to develop a strategy to effectively and accurately classify gene families across genomes. We first examine and compare the performance of computer programs developed for automated gene family classification. We demonstrate that some programs, including the hierarchical average-linkage clustering algorithm MC-UPGMA and the popular Markov clustering algorithm TRIBE-MCL, can reconstruct manual curation of gene families accurately. However, their performance is highly sensitive to parameter setting, i.e. different gene families require different program parameters for correct resolution. To circumvent the problem of parameterization, we have developed a comparative strategy for gene family classification. This strategy takes advantage of existing curated gene families of reference species to find suitable parameters for classifying genes in related genomes. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this novel strategy, we use TRIBE-MCL to classify chemosensory and ABC transporter gene families in C. elegans and its four sister species. We conclude that fully automated programs can establish biologically accurate gene families if parameterized accordingly. Comparative gene family classification finds optimal parameters automatically, thus allowing rapid insights into gene families of newly sequenced species. PMID:20976221

Frech, Christian; Chen, Nansheng

2010-01-01

173

WN: Gene functional classification from heterogeneous data  

E-print Network

In our attempts to understand cellular function at the molecular level, we must be able to synthesize information from disparate types of genomic data. We consider the problem of inferring gene functional classifications from a heterogeneous data set consisting of DNA microarray expression measurements and phylogenetic profiles from whole-genome sequence comparisons. We demonstrate the application of the support vector machine (SVM) learning algorithm to this functional inference task. Our results suggest the importance of exploiting prior information about the heterogeneity of the data. In particular, we propose an SVM kernel function that is explicitly heterogeneous. We also show how to use knowledge about heterogeneity to aid in feature selection. 1

Paul Pavlidis; Jinsong Cai; Jason Weston; William Noble Grundy

174

Acclimatizing Taxonomic Semantics for Hierarchical Content Classification  

E-print Network

its structure for better classi- fication. By scrutinizing typical cases, we elucidate why a given that modify the given taxonomy for accurate classification. We conduct extensive experiments on both toy that can block children's access at- tempts to certain undesirable web sites and guide them to child

Liu, Huan

175

A Lazy Approach to Associative Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Associative classification is a promising technique to build accurate classifiers. However, in large or correlated data sets, association rule mining may yield huge rule sets. Hence, several pruning techniques have been proposed to select a small subset of high-quality rules. Since the availability of a \\

Elena Baralis; Silvia Chiusano; Paolo Garza

2008-01-01

176

Making Sense of Arson Through Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arson classification efforts are an attempt to make sense of a complex whole. To a greater or lesser extent typologies offered to date have relied on assumed motive. More recently, systems that combine information about offender characteristics and\\/or offence features have become increasingly popular. The ability to categorise arsonists accurately has significant implications for both mental health professionals and fire

Rebekah Doley

2003-01-01

177

Making sense of arson through classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arson classification efforts are an attempt to make sense of a complex whole. To a greater or lesser extent typologies offered to date have relied on assumed motive. More recently, systems that combine information about offender characteristics and\\/or offence features have become increasingly popular. The ability to categorise arsonists accurately has significant implications for both mental health professionals and fire

Rebekah Doley

2003-01-01

178

A statistical approach to root system classification  

PubMed Central

Plant root systems have a key role in ecology and agronomy. In spite of fast increase in root studies, still there is no classification that allows distinguishing among distinctive characteristics within the diversity of rooting strategies. Our hypothesis is that a multivariate approach for “plant functional type” identification in ecology can be applied to the classification of root systems. The classification method presented is based on a data-defined statistical procedure without a priori decision on the classifiers. The study demonstrates that principal component based rooting types provide efficient and meaningful multi-trait classifiers. The classification method is exemplified with simulated root architectures and morphological field data. Simulated root architectures showed that morphological attributes with spatial distribution parameters capture most distinctive features within root system diversity. While developmental type (tap vs. shoot-borne systems) is a strong, but coarse classifier, topological traits provide the most detailed differentiation among distinctive groups. Adequacy of commonly available morphologic traits for classification is supported by field data. Rooting types emerging from measured data, mainly distinguished by diameter/weight and density dominated types. Similarity of root systems within distinctive groups was the joint result of phylogenetic relation and environmental as well as human selection pressure. We concluded that the data-define classification is appropriate for integration of knowledge obtained with different root measurement methods and at various scales. Currently root morphology is the most promising basis for classification due to widely used common measurement protocols. To capture details of root diversity efforts in architectural measurement techniques are essential. PMID:23914200

Bodner, Gernot; Leitner, Daniel; Nakhforoosh, Alireza; Sobotik, Monika; Moder, Karl; Kaul, Hans-Peter

2013-01-01

179

Multilocus assessment of phylogenetic relationships in Alytes (Anura, Alytidae).  

PubMed

With the advent of large multilocus datasets, molecular systematics is experiencing very rapid progress, but important challenges remain regarding data analysis and interpretation. Midwife toads (genus Alytes) exemplify two of the most widespread problems for accurate phylogenetic reconstruction: discerning the causes of discordance between gene trees, and resolving short internodes produced during rapid, successive splitting events. The three species in subgenus Baleaphryne (A. maurus, A. dickhilleni and A. muletensis), the sister group to A. obstetricans, have disjunct and highly restricted geographical ranges, which are thought to result from old vicariant events affecting their common ancestor, but their phylogenetic relationships are still unresolved. In this study we re-address the phylogeny of Alytes with a special focus on the relationships in Baleaphryne with a multilocus dataset including >9000 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA and four nuclear markers (3142bp) in all recognized taxa, including all subspecies of A. obstetricans. Both concatenation and species tree analyses suggest that A. muletensis, endemic to the Balearic island of Mallorca, is the sister taxon to a clade comprising the southeastern Iberian endemic A. dickhilleni and the North African A. maurus. This scenario is consistent with palaeogeological evidence associated with the fragmentation of the Betic-Rifean Massif, followed by the opening of the Strait of Gibraltar. On the other hand, analyses of intraspecific variation in A. obstetricans are inconclusive regarding relationships between major clades and conflict with current subspecific taxonomy. PMID:24931729

Maia-Carvalho, Bruno; Gonçalves, Helena; Ferrand, Nuno; Martínez-Solano, Iñigo

2014-10-01

180

Probabilistic Graphical Model Representation in Phylogenetics  

PubMed Central

Recent years have seen a rapid expansion of the model space explored in statistical phylogenetics, emphasizing the need for new approaches to statistical model representation and software development. Clear communication and representation of the chosen model is crucial for: (i) reproducibility of an analysis, (ii) model development, and (iii) software design. Moreover, a unified, clear and understandable framework for model representation lowers the barrier for beginners and nonspecialists to grasp complex phylogenetic models, including their assumptions and parameter/variable dependencies. Graphical modeling is a unifying framework that has gained in popularity in the statistical literature in recent years. The core idea is to break complex models into conditionally independent distributions. The strength lies in the comprehensibility, flexibility, and adaptability of this formalism, and the large body of computational work based on it. Graphical models are well-suited to teach statistical models, to facilitate communication among phylogeneticists and in the development of generic software for simulation and statistical inference. Here, we provide an introduction to graphical models for phylogeneticists and extend the standard graphical model representation to the realm of phylogenetics. We introduce a new graphical model component, tree plates, to capture the changing structure of the subgraph corresponding to a phylogenetic tree. We describe a range of phylogenetic models using the graphical model framework and introduce modules to simplify the representation of standard components in large and complex models. Phylogenetic model graphs can be readily used in simulation, maximum likelihood inference, and Bayesian inference using, for example, Metropolis–Hastings or Gibbs sampling of the posterior distribution. [Computation; graphical models; inference; modularization; statistical phylogenetics; tree plate.] PMID:24951559

Hohna, Sebastian; Heath, Tracy A.; Boussau, Bastien; Landis, Michael J.; Ronquist, Fredrik; Huelsenbeck, John P.

2014-01-01

181

Euclidean nature of phylogenetic distance matrices.  

PubMed

Phylogenies are fundamental to comparative biology as they help to identify independent events on which statistical tests rely. Two groups of phylogenetic comparative methods (PCMs) can be distinguished: those that take phylogenies into account by introducing explicit models of evolution and those that only consider phylogenies as a statistical constraint and aim at partitioning trait values into a phylogenetic component (phylogenetic inertia) and one or multiple specific components related to adaptive evolution. The way phylogenetic information is incorporated into the PCMs depends on the method used. For the first group of methods, phylogenies are converted into variance-covariance matrices of traits following a given model of evolution such as Brownian motion (BM). For the second group of methods, phylogenies are converted into distance matrices that are subsequently transformed into Euclidean distances to perform principal coordinate analyses. Here, we show that simply taking the elementwise square root of a distance matrix extracted from a phylogenetic tree ensures having a Euclidean distance matrix. This is true for any type of distances between species (patristic or nodal) and also for trees harboring multifurcating nodes. Moreover, we illustrate that this simple transformation using the square root imposes less geometric distortion than more complex transformations classically used in the literature such as the Cailliez method. Given the Euclidean nature of the elementwise square root of phylogenetic distance matrices, the positive semidefinitiveness of the phylogenetic variance-covariance matrix of a trait following a BM model, or related models of trait evolution, can be established. In that way, we build a bridge between the two groups of statistical methods widely used in comparative analysis. These results should be of great interest for ecologists and evolutionary biologists performing statistical analyses incorporating phylogenies. PMID:21804094

de Vienne, Damien M; Aguileta, Gabriela; Ollier, Sébastien

2011-12-01

182

Genotypic Identification of Fusarium Species from Ocular Sources: Comparison to Morphologic Classification and Antifungal Sensitivity Testing (An AOS Thesis)  

PubMed Central

Purpose Ocular infections caused by fungal organisms can cause significant ocular morbidity, particularly when diagnosis and treatment are delayed. Rapid and accurate identification of Fusarium species at the subgenus level using current diagnostic standards is timely and insensitive. The purpose of this study is to examine the usefulness of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions (ITS1, 5.8S, and ITS2) in detecting and differentiating Fusarium species from isolates of ocular infections, and to assess the correlation between the genotypic and morphologic classification. Methods Fifty-eight isolates from 52 patients diagnosed with Fusarium ocular infections were retrieved from storage at the Bascom Palmer Eye Institute’s ocular microbiology laboratory. Morphologic classification was determined at both a general and a reference microbiology laboratory. DNA was extracted and purified, and the ITS region was amplified and sequenced. Following DNA sequences, alignment and phylogenetic analysis were done. Susceptibility to antifungal drugs was measured according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute reference method. Results Sequence analysis demonstrated 15 unique sequences among the 58 isolates. The grouping showed that the 58 isolates were distributed among 4 main species complexes. At the species level, morphologic classification correlated with genotypic classification in 25% and 97% of the isolates in a general microbiology and a reference mycology laboratory, respectively. Conclusions The sequence variation within the ITS provides a sufficient quantitative basis for the development of a molecular diagnostic approach to the Fusarium pathogens isolated from ocular infections. Morphology based on microscopic and macroscopic observations yields inconsistent results, particularly at nonreference laboratories, emphasizing the need for a more reproducible test with less user-dependent variability. Fusarium solani tends to be more resistant to certain antifungals (azoles). PMID:19277239

Alfonso, Eduardo C.

2008-01-01

183

Classification challenges in perfectionism.  

PubMed

High performance expectations are central to perfectionism, but because most participants endorse high standards, it becomes difficult for practitioners and researchers to accurately screen for perfectionists. We addressed problems linked to the measurement and classification of perfectionism by testing various strategies aimed at broadening the range and skew of scores on the Standards subscale from the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised (APS-R; Slaney, Mobley, Trippi, Ashby, & Johnson, 1996). Randomly assigned participants (N = 506) completed the APS-R following standard instructions or 1 of 2 variations, one prompting participants to consider their responses in light of a normal distribution of scores and another in which participants used a visual analog (slider) scale. The visual analog scale produced more differentiated scores, but range restrictions and skewed distributions remained for all 3 variations. Statistical transformations improved skew. Factor mixture modeling was conducted using transformed and nontransformed perfectionism scores along with criterion indicators of emotion regulation (reappraisal or suppression), perceived stress, and depression. Results supported a 3-class model, although more balanced distributions of classes emerged than were previously reported. Perfectionists were differentiated from nonperfectionists by their higher standards scores. Maladaptive perfectionists scored highest among the classes on most self-critical perfectionism indicators, suppression, perceived stress, and depression. Adaptive perfectionists had the lowest levels of perceived stress and depression and scored highest on reappraisal. Both perfectionist classes had generally comparable concerns about mistakes, but criterion indicators suggested those were more problematic for maladaptive perfectionists. Results supported the value of incorporating adaptive and maladaptive criterion indicators in classification models. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25111705

Rice, Kenneth G; Richardson, Clarissa M E

2014-10-01

184

Ensemble Sparse Classification of Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

The high-dimensional pattern classification methods, e.g., support vector machines (SVM), have been widely investigated for analysis of structural and functional brain images (such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)) to assist the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) including its prodromal stage, i.e., mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Most existing classification methods extract features from neuroimaging data and then construct a single classifier to perform classification. However, due to noise and small sample size of neuroimaging data, it is challenging to train only a global classifier that can be robust enough to achieve good classification performance. In this paper, instead of building a single global classifier, we propose a local patch-based subspace ensemble method which builds multiple individual classifiers based on different subsets of local patches and then combines them for more accurate and robust classification. Specifically, to capture the local spatial consistency, each brain image is partitioned into a number of local patches and a subset of patches is randomly selected from the patch pool to build a weak classifier. Here, the sparse representation-based classification (SRC) method, which has shown effective for classification of image data (e.g., face), is used to construct each weak classifier. Then, multiple weak classifiers are combined to make the final decision. We evaluate our method on 652 subjects (including 198 AD patients, 225 MCI and 229 normal controls) from Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database using MR images. The experimental results show that our method achieves an accuracy of 90.8% and an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 94.86% for AD classification and an accuracy of 87.85% and an AUC of 92.90% for MCI classification, respectively, demonstrating a very promising performance of our method compared with the state-of-the-art methods for AD/MCI classification using MR images. PMID:22270352

Liu, Manhua; Zhang, Daoqiang; Shen, Dinggang

2012-01-01

185

Teaching Molecular Phylogenetics through Investigating a Real-World Phylogenetic Problem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A phylogenetics exercise is incorporated into the "Introduction to biocomputing" course, a junior-level course at Savannah State University. This exercise is designed to help students learn important concepts and practical skills in molecular phylogenetics through solving a real-world problem. In this application, students are required to identify…

Zhang, Xiaorong

2012-01-01

186

Teaching molecular phylogenetics through investigating a real-world phylogenetic problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

A phylogenetics exercise is incorporated into the ‘Introduction to biocomputing’ course, a junior-level course at Savannah State University. This exercise is designed to help students learn important concepts and practical skills in molecular phylogenetics through solving a real-world problem. In this application, students are required to identify orthologous protein sequences of the human (Homo sapiens) cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator

Xiaorong Zhang

2011-01-01

187

Teaching molecular phylogenetics through investigating a real-world phylogenetic problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

A phylogenetics exercise is incorporated into the ‘Introduction to biocomputing’ course, a junior-level course at Savannah State University. This exercise is designed to help students learn important concepts and practical skills in molecular phylogenetics through solving a real-world problem. In this application, students are required to identify orthologous protein sequences of the human (Homo sapiens) cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator

Xiaorong Zhang

2012-01-01

188

ATV: display and manipulation of annotated phylogenetic trees ATV: display and manipulation of annotated phylogenetic trees  

E-print Network

ATV: display and manipulation of annotated phylogenetic trees 8/10/01 1 ATV: display and manipulation of annotated phylogenetic trees Christian M. Zmasek and Sean R. Eddy Howard Hughes Medical Institute Department of Genetics Washington University School of Medicine St. Louis, MO 63110 USA Email

Eddy, Sean

189

Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Cambridge, UK Phylogenetics: New data, new Phylogenetic challenges  

E-print Network

Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Cambridge, UK Phylogenetics: New data, new molecular evolution. The workshop is taking place at the Isaac Newton Institute, where the highly Phylogenetic challenges Follow-up Meeting 20 ­ 24 JUNE 2011 in association with the Newton Institute programme

Warnow,Tandy

190

Characterization of a branch of the phylogenetic tree  

SciTech Connect

We use a combination of analytic models and computer simulations to gain insight into the dynamics of evolution. Our results suggest that certain interesting phenomena should eventually emerge from the fossil record. For example, there should be a ''tortoise and hare effect'': Those genera with the smallest species death rate are likely to survive much longer than genera with large species birth and death rates. A complete characterization of the behavior of a branch of the phylogenetic tree corresponding to a genus and accurate mathematical representations of the various stages are obtained. We apply our results to address certain controversial issues that have arisen in paleontology such as the importance of punctuated equilibrium and whether unique Cambrian phyla have survived to the present.

Samuel, Stuart A.; Weng, Gezhi

2003-04-11

191

Inter-rater reliability of the EPUAP pressure ulcer classification system using photographs  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Many classification systems for grading pressure ulcers are discussed in the literature. Correct identification and classification of a pressure ulcer is important for accurate reporting of the magnitude of the problem, and for timely prevention. The reliability of pressure ulcer classification systems has rarely been tested. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this paper is to examine the inter-rater

Tom Defloor; Lisette Schoonhoven

2004-01-01

192

rbcL sequence divergence and phylogenetic relationships in Saxifragaceae sensu lato.  

PubMed Central

Phylogenetic relationships are often poorly understood at higher taxonomic levels (family and above) despite intensive morphological analysis. An excellent example is Saxifragaceae sensu lato, which represents one of the major phylogenetic problems in angiosperms at higher taxonomic levels. As originally defined, the family is a heterogeneous assemblage of herbaceous and woody taxa comprising 15 subfamilies. Although more recent classifications fundamentally modified this scheme, little agreement exists regarding the circumscription, taxonomic rank, or relationships of these subfamilies. The recurrent discrepancies in taxonomic treatments of the Saxifragaceae prompted an investigation of the power of chloroplast gene sequences to resolve phylogenetic relationships within this family and between the Saxifragaceae and other major plant lineages. Sequence data from the gene rbcL (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase, large subunit) reveal that (i) Saxifragaceae sensu lato is at least paraphyletic, and probably polyphyletic, (ii) the genera Parnassia and Brexia are only distantly related to other members of Saxifragaceae, and (iii) representatives of the Solanaceae (subclass Asteridae) appear more closely related to Saxifragaceae (subclass Rosidase) than traditionally maintained. These data illustrate the value of chloroplast gene sequence data in resolving genetic, and hence phylogenetic, relationships among members of the most taxonomically complex groups. PMID:2352941

Soltis, D E; Soltis, P S; Clegg, M T; Durbin, M

1990-01-01

193

Phylogenetic Modeling of Heterogeneous Gene-Expression Microarray Data from Cancerous Specimens  

PubMed Central

Abstract The qualitative dimension of gene expression data and its heterogeneous nature in cancerous specimens can be accounted for by phylogenetic modeling that incorporates the directionality of altered gene expressions, complex patterns of expressions among a group of specimens, and data-based rather than specimen-based gene linkage. Our phylogenetic modeling approach is a double algorithmic technique that includes polarity assessment that brings out the qualitative value of the data, followed by maximum parsimony analysis that is most suitable for the data heterogeneity of cancer gene expression. We demonstrate that polarity assessment of expression values into derived and ancestral states, via outgroup comparison, reduces experimental noise; reveals dichotomously expressed asynchronous genes; and allows data pooling as well as comparability of intra- and interplatforms. Parsimony phylogenetic analysis of the polarized values produces a multidimensional classification of specimens into clades that reveal shared derived gene expressions (the synapomorphies); provides better assessment of ontogenic pathways and phyletic relatedness of specimens; efficiently utilizes dichotomously expressed genes; produces highly predictive class recognition; illustrates gene linkage and multiple developmental pathways; provides higher concordance between gene lists; and projects the direction of change among specimens. Further implication of this phylogenetic approach is that it may transform microarray into diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive tool. PMID:18699725

Abu-Asab, Mones S.; Chaouchi, Mohamed

2008-01-01

194

Accurate prediction of protein structural class.  

PubMed

Because of the increasing gap between the data from sequencing and structural genomics, the accurate prediction of the structural class of a protein domain solely from the primary sequence has remained a challenging problem in structural biology. Traditional sequence-based predictors generally select several sequence features and then feed them directly into a classification program to identify the structural class. The current best sequence-based predictor achieved an overall accuracy of 74.1% when tested on a widely used, non-homologous benchmark dataset 25PDB. In the present work, we built a multiple linear regression (MLR) model to convert the 440-dimensional (440D) sequence feature vector extracted from the Position Specific Scoring Matrix (PSSM) of a protein domain to a 4-dimensinal (4D) structural feature vector, which could then be used to predict the four major structural classes. We performed 10-fold cross-validation and jackknife tests of the method on a large non-homologous dataset containing 8,244 domains distributed among the four major classes. The performance of our approach outperformed all of the existing sequence-based methods and had an overall accuracy of 83.1%, which is even higher than the results of those predicted secondary structure-based methods. PMID:22723837

Xia, Xia-Yu; Ge, Meng; Wang, Zhi-Xin; Pan, Xian-Ming

2012-01-01

195

Worldwide Phylogenetic Relationship of Avian Poxviruses  

PubMed Central

Poxvirus infections have been found in 230 species of wild and domestic birds worldwide in both terrestrial and marine environments. This ubiquity raises the question of how infection has been transmitted and globally dispersed. We present a comprehensive global phylogeny of 111 novel poxvirus isolates in addition to all available sequences from GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis of the Avipoxvirus genus has traditionally relied on one gene region (4b core protein). In this study we expanded the analyses to include a second locus (DNA polymerase gene), allowing for a more robust phylogenetic framework, finer genetic resolution within specific groups, and the detection of potential recombination. Our phylogenetic results reveal several major features of avipoxvirus evolution and ecology and propose an updated avipoxvirus taxonomy, including three novel subclades. The characterization of poxviruses from 57 species of birds in this study extends the current knowledge of their host range and provides the first evidence of the phylogenetic effect of genetic recombination of avipoxviruses. The repeated occurrence of avian family or order-specific grouping within certain clades (e.g., starling poxvirus, falcon poxvirus, raptor poxvirus, etc.) indicates a marked role of host adaptation, while the sharing of poxvirus species within prey-predator systems emphasizes the capacity for cross-species infection and limited host adaptation. Our study provides a broad and comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the Avipoxvirus genus, an ecologically and environmentally important viral group, to formulate a genome sequencing strategy that will clarify avipoxvirus taxonomy. PMID:23408635

Foster, Jeffrey T.; Dán, Ádám; Ip, Hon S.; Egstad, Kristina F.; Parker, Patricia G.; Higashiguchi, Jenni M.; Skinner, Michael A.; Höfle, Ursula; Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Dorrestein, Gerry M.; Solt, Szabolcs; Sós, Endre; Kim, Young Jun; Uhart, Marcela; Pereda, Ariel; González-Hein, Gisela; Hidalgo, Hector; Blanco, Juan-Manuel; Erdélyi, Károly

2013-01-01

196

Worldwide phylogenetic relationship of avian poxviruses  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Poxvirus infections have been found in 230 species of wild and domestic birds worldwide in both terrestrial and marine environments. This ubiquity raises the question of how infection has been transmitted and globally dispersed. We present a comprehensive global phylogeny of 111 novel poxvirus isolates in addition to all available sequences from GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis of Avipoxvirus genus has traditionally relied on one gene region (4b core protein). In this study we have expanded the analyses to include a second locus (DNA polymerase gene), allowing for a more robust phylogenetic framework, finer genetic resolution within specific groups and the detection of potential recombination. Our phylogenetic results reveal several major features of avipoxvirus evolution and ecology and propose an updated avipoxvirus taxonomy, including three novel subclades. The characterization of poxviruses from 57 species of birds in this study extends the current knowledge of their host range and provides the first evidence of the phylogenetic effect of genetic recombination of avipoxviruses. The repeated occurrence of avian family or order-specific grouping within certain clades (e.g. starling poxvirus, falcon poxvirus, raptor poxvirus, etc.) indicates a marked role of host adaptation, while the sharing of poxvirus species within prey-predator systems emphasizes the capacity for cross-species infection and limited host adaptation. Our study provides a broad and comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the Avipoxvirus genus, an ecologically and environmentally important viral group, to formulate a genome sequencing strategy that will clarify avipoxvirus taxonomy.

Gyuranecz, Miklós; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Dán, Ádám; Ip, Hon S.; Egstad, Kristina F.; Parker, Patricia G.; Higashiguchi, Jenni M.; Skinner, Michael A.; Höfle, Ursula; Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Dorrestein, Gerry M.; Solt, Szabolcs; Sós, Endre; Kim, Young Jun; Uhart, Marcela; Pereda, Ariel; González-Hein, Gisela; Hidalgo, Hector; Blanco, Juan-Manuel; Erdélyi, Károly

2013-01-01

197

Phylogenetic tree shapes resolve disease transmission patterns  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives: Whole-genome sequencing is becoming popular as a tool for understanding outbreaks of communicable diseases, with phylogenetic trees being used to identify individual transmission events or to characterize outbreak-level overall transmission dynamics. Existing methods to infer transmission dynamics from sequence data rely on well-characterized infectious periods, epidemiological and clinical metadata which may not always be available, and typically require computationally intensive analysis focusing on the branch lengths in phylogenetic trees. We sought to determine whether the topological structures of phylogenetic trees contain signatures of the transmission patterns underlying an outbreak. Methodology: We use simulated outbreaks to train and then test computational classifiers. We test the method on data from two real-world outbreaks. Results: We show that different transmission patterns result in quantitatively different phylogenetic tree shapes. We describe topological features that summarize a phylogeny’s structure and find that computational classifiers based on these are capable of predicting an outbreak’s transmission dynamics. The method is robust to variations in the transmission parameters and network types, and recapitulates known epidemiology of previously characterized real-world outbreaks. Conclusions and implications: There are simple structural properties of phylogenetic trees which, when combined, can distinguish communicable disease outbreaks with a super-spreader, homogeneous transmission and chains of transmission. This is possible using genome data alone, and can be done during an outbreak. We discuss the implications for management of outbreaks. PMID:24916411

Colijn, Caroline; Gardy, Jennifer

2014-01-01

198

Toward the Accurate Identification of Network Applications  

E-print Network

a classification methodology that re- lies on the full packet payload. We describe the building blocks of this methodology and elaborate on the complications that arise in that con- text. A classification technique of the causal application. Nevertheless, the benefits gained from a content-based classification approach

Hand, Steven

199

The ‘requirement of total evidence’ and its role in phylogenetic systematics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question of whether or not to partition data for the purposes of inferring phylogenetic hypotheses remains controversial.\\u000a Opinions have been especially divided since Kluge's (1989, Systematic Zoology 38, 7–25) claim that data partitioning violates the requirement of total evidence (RTE). Unfortunately, advocacy for or against\\u000a the RTE has not been based on accurate portrayals of the requirement. The RTE

Kirk Fitzhugh

2006-01-01

200

pplacer: linear time maximum-likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic placement of sequences onto a fixed reference tree  

PubMed Central

Background Likelihood-based phylogenetic inference is generally considered to be the most reliable classification method for unknown sequences. However, traditional likelihood-based phylogenetic methods cannot be applied to large volumes of short reads from next-generation sequencing due to computational complexity issues and lack of phylogenetic signal. "Phylogenetic placement," where a reference tree is fixed and the unknown query sequences are placed onto the tree via a reference alignment, is a way to bring the inferential power offered by likelihood-based approaches to large data sets. Results This paper introduces pplacer, a software package for phylogenetic placement and subsequent visualization. The algorithm can place twenty thousand short reads on a reference tree of one thousand taxa per hour per processor, has essentially linear time and memory complexity in the number of reference taxa, and is easy to run in parallel. Pplacer features calculation of the posterior probability of a placement on an edge, which is a statistically rigorous way of quantifying uncertainty on an edge-by-edge basis. It also can inform the user of the positional uncertainty for query sequences by calculating expected distance between placement locations, which is crucial in the estimation of uncertainty with a well-sampled reference tree. The software provides visualizations using branch thickness and color to represent number of placements and their uncertainty. A simulation study using reads generated from 631 COG alignments shows a high level of accuracy for phylogenetic placement over a wide range of alignment diversity, and the power of edge uncertainty estimates to measure placement confidence. Conclusions Pplacer enables efficient phylogenetic placement and subsequent visualization, making likelihood-based phylogenetics methodology practical for large collections of reads; it is freely available as source code, binaries, and a web service. PMID:21034504

2010-01-01

201

Big MACS: Accurate photometric calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Big MACS is a Python program that estimates an accurate photometric calibration from only an input catalog of stellar magnitudes and filter transmission functions. The user does not have to measure color terms which can be difficult to characterize. Supplied with filter transmission functions, Big MACS synthesizes an expected stellar locus for your data and then simultaneously solves for all unknown zeropoints when fitting to the instrumental locus. The code uses a spectroscopic model for the SDSS stellar locus in color-color space and filter functions to compute expected locus. The stellar locus model is corrected for Milky Way reddening. If SDSS or 2MASS photometry is available for stars in field, Big MACS can yield a highly accurate absolute calibration.

Kelly, P. L.; von der Linden, A.; Applegate, D.; Allen, M.; Allen, S. W.; Burchat, P. R.; Burke, D. L.; Ebeling, H.; Capak, P.; Czoske, O.; Donovan, D.; Mantz, A.; Morris, R. G.

2012-08-01

202

Evaluating Support for the Current Classification of Eukaryotic Diversity  

PubMed Central

Perspectives on the classification of eukaryotic diversity have changed rapidly in recent years, as the four eukaryotic groups within the five-kingdom classification—plants, animals, fungi, and protists—have been transformed through numerous permutations into the current system of six “supergroups.” The intent of the supergroup classification system is to unite microbial and macroscopic eukaryotes based on phylogenetic inference. This supergroup approach is increasing in popularity in the literature and is appearing in introductory biology textbooks. We evaluate the stability and support for the current six-supergroup classification of eukaryotes based on molecular genealogies. We assess three aspects of each supergroup: (1) the stability of its taxonomy, (2) the support for monophyly (single evolutionary origin) in molecular analyses targeting a supergroup, and (3) the support for monophyly when a supergroup is included as an out-group in phylogenetic studies targeting other taxa. Our analysis demonstrates that supergroup taxonomies are unstable and that support for groups varies tremendously, indicating that the current classification scheme of eukaryotes is likely premature. We highlight several trends contributing to the instability and discuss the requirements for establishing robust clades within the eukaryotic tree of life. PMID:17194223

Parfrey, Laura Wegener; Barbero, Erika; Lasser, Elyse; Dunthorn, Micah; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Patterson, David J; Katz, Laura A

2006-01-01

203

A close phylogenetic relationship between Sipuncula and Annelida evidenced from the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Phascolosoma esculenta  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There are many advantages to the application of complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes in the accurate reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships in Metazoa. Although over one thousand metazoan genomes have been sequenced, the taxonomic sampling is highly biased, left with many phyla without a single representative of complete mitochondrial genome. Sipuncula (peanut worms or star worms) is a small taxon of

Xin Shen; Xiaoyin Ma; Jianfeng Ren; Fangqing Zhao

2009-01-01

204

Visualizing Phylogenetic Treespace Using Cartographic Projections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phylogenetic analysis is becoming an increasingly important tool for biological research. Applications include epidemiological studies, drug development, and evolutionary analysis. Phylogenetic search is a known NP-Hard problem. The size of the data sets which can be analyzed is limited by the exponential growth in the number of trees that must be considered as the problem size increases. A better understanding of the problem space could lead to better methods, which in turn could lead to the feasible analysis of more data sets. We present a definition of phylogenetic tree space and a visualization of this space that shows significant exploitable structure. This structure can be used to develop search methods capable of handling much larger datasets.

Sundberg, Kenneth; Clement, Mark; Snell, Quinn

205

A Comprehensive Phylogenetic Analysis of Deadenylases  

PubMed Central

Deadenylases catalyze the shortening of the poly(A) tail at the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) 3?-end in eukaryotes. Therefore, these enzymes influence mRNA decay, and constitute a major emerging group of promising anti-cancer pharmacological targets. Herein, we conducted full phylogenetic analyses of the deadenylase homologs in all available genomes in an effort to investigate evolutionary relationships between the deadenylase families and to identify invariant residues, which probably play key roles in the function of deadenylation across species. Our study includes both major Asp-Glu-Asp-Asp (DEDD) and exonuclease-endonuclease-phospatase (EEP) deadenylase superfamilies. The phylogenetic analysis has provided us with important information regarding conserved and invariant deadenylase amino acids across species. Knowledge of the phylogenetic properties and evolution of the domain of deadenylases provides the foundation for the targeted drug design in the pharmaceutical industry and modern exonuclease anti-cancer scientific research. PMID:24348009

Pavlopoulou, Athanasia; Vlachakis, Dimitrios; Balatsos, Nikolaos A.A.; Kossida, Sophia

2013-01-01

206

Construction of the Platform for Phylogenetic Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on discussing the history of advancement to building the tree of life using genetic and genomic information, effective strategies and methods for the construction of the tree of life, this paper carried out business process analysis and application design. It implements a phylogenetic analysis platform for the land plants based on this analysis. The platform extracts molecular data from the international public databases in batch, which is automated acquisition, cleaning function for users to understand the situation of peer data. The process of phylogenetic reconstruction includes several public modes and tools, such as batch extraction, multiple sequence alignment, cleaning & editing, tree reconstruction, phylogeny evaluation and visualization. All these procedures demand a number of interactive interfaces for phylogenetic tree automatic generation and decision-making aids experiment.

Meng, Zhen; Lin, Xiaoguang; He, Xing; Gao, Yanping; Liu, Hongmei; Liu, Yong; Zhou, Yuanchun; Li, Jianhui; Chen, Zhiduan; Zhang, Shouzhou; Li, Yong

207

Phylogenetics of the Phlebotomine Sand Fly Group Verrucarum (Diptera: Psychodidae: Lutzomyia)  

PubMed Central

Within the sand fly genus Lutzomyia, the Verrucarum species group contains several of the principal vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis and human bartonellosis in the Andean region of South America. The group encompasses 40 species for which the taxonomic status, phylogenetic relationships, and role of each species in disease transmission remain unresolved. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) phylogenetic analysis of a 667-bp fragment supported the morphological classification of the Verrucarum group into series. Genetic sequences from seven species were grouped in well-supported monophyletic lineages. Four species, however, clustered in two paraphyletic lineages that indicate conspecificity—the Lutzomyia longiflocosa–Lutzomyia sauroida pair and the Lutzomyia quasitownsendi–Lutzomyia torvida pair. COI sequences were also evaluated as a taxonomic tool based on interspecific genetic variability within the Verrucarum group and the intraspecific variability of one of its members, Lutzomyia verrucarum, across its known distribution. PMID:21633028

Cohnstaedt, Lee W.; Beati, Lorenza; Caceres, Abraham G.; Ferro, Cristina; Munstermann, Leonard E.

2011-01-01

208

Phylogenetic analysis of the species Theilovirus: emerging murine and human pathogens.  

PubMed

The Cardiovirus genus of the family Picornaviridae includes two distinct species, Encephalomyocarditis virus and Theilovirus. We now report the complete nucleotide sequences of three Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) strains (TO Yale, TOB15, and Vie 415HTR) and of Vilyuisk human encephalomyelitis virus (VHEV). This information, together with the recently reported sequences of divergent theiloviruses (Theiler's-like rat virus [TRV] and Saffold viruses 1 and 2 [SAFV-1 and SAFV-2]), enables an updated phylogenetic analysis as well as a reexamination of several gene products important in the pathogenesis of this emerging group of viruses. In the light of the known neurotropism of TMEV and the new human SAFV-1 and SAFV-2, the resulting data suggest the existence of theiloviruses that cause human central nervous system infections. Our phylogenetic analyses point to the classification of presently known theiloviruses into five types: TMEV, VHEV, TRV, SAFV-1, and SAFV-2. PMID:18815294

Liang, Zhiguo; Kumar, A S Manoj; Jones, Morris S; Knowles, Nick J; Lipton, Howard L

2008-12-01

209

[Phylogenetic relationships among Viperidae, Crotalinae based on mitochondrial 12S rRNA sequence variations].  

PubMed

This paper analyzed the phylogenetic relationships and classification of pit vipers (Viperidae, Crotalinae) based on mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene sequence variations. We have sequenced mtDNA 12S rRNA gene about 370 bp fragment from Gloydius saxatilis Emelianov, Gloydius shedaoensis Zhao, Gloydius ussurriensis (Emelianov), Trimeresurus stejnegeri Schmidt and Deinagkistrodon acutus, Gloydius brevicaudus (Stejneger) from two different localities, respectively. Combined with the sequence of Dinodon semicarinatus from GenBank, we have constructed two molecular phylogenetic trees using both Maximum-parsimony analysis and Neighbor-joining. Our results support the following conclusions: (1) Deinagkistrodon is a valid genus; (2) we also discussed the origin of Gloydius shedaoensis and showed it is a subspecies of Gloydius saxatilis; (3) Gloydius brevicaudsu and Gloydius ussurriensis are classified two species. PMID:11147345

Zhou, J L; Yao, Y G; Huang, M H; Yang, D T; Lü, S Q; Zhang, Y P

2000-01-01

210

Analysis of the peroxiredoxin family: using active-site structure and sequence information for global classification and residue analysis.  

PubMed

Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are a widespread and highly expressed family of cysteine-based peroxidases that react very rapidly with H?O?, organic peroxides, and peroxynitrite. Correct subfamily classification has been problematic because Prx subfamilies are frequently not correlated with phylogenetic distribution and diverge in their preferred reductant, oligomerization state, and tendency toward overoxidation. We have developed a method that uses the Deacon Active Site Profiler (DASP) tool to extract functional-site profiles from structurally characterized proteins to computationally define subfamilies and to identify new Prx subfamily members from GenBank(nr). For the 58 literature-defined Prx test proteins, 57 were correctly assigned, and none were assigned to the incorrect subfamily. The >3500 putative Prx sequences identified were then used to analyze residue conservation in the active site of each Prx subfamily. Our results indicate that the existence and location of the resolving cysteine vary in some subfamilies (e.g., Prx5) to a greater degree than previously appreciated and that interactions at the A interface (common to Prx5, Tpx, and higher order AhpC/Prx1 structures) are important for stabilization of the correct active-site geometry. Interestingly, this method also allows us to further divide the AhpC/Prx1 into four groups that are correlated with functional characteristics. The DASP method provides more accurate subfamily classification than PSI-BLAST for members of the Prx family and can now readily be applied to other large protein families. PMID:21287625

Nelson, Kimberly J; Knutson, Stacy T; Soito, Laura; Klomsiri, Chananat; Poole, Leslie B; Fetrow, Jacquelyn S

2011-03-01

211

Analysis of the peroxiredoxin family: using active site structure and sequence information for global classification and residue analysis  

PubMed Central

Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are a widespread and highly expressed family of cysteine-based peroxidases that react very rapidly with H2O2, organic peroxides, and peroxynitrite. Correct subfamily classification has been problematic since Prx subfamilies are frequently not correlated with phylogenetic distribution and diverge in their preferred reductant, oligomerization state, and tendency towards overoxidation. We have developed a method that uses the Deacon Active Site Profiler (DASP) tool to extract functional site profiles from structurally characterized proteins, to computationally define subfamilies, and to identify new Prx subfamily members from GenBank(nr). For the 58 literature-defined Prx test proteins, 57 were correctly assigned and none were assigned to the incorrect subfamily. The >3500 putative Prx sequences identified were then used to analyze residue conservation in the active site of each Prx subfamily. Our results indicate that the existence and location of the resolving cysteine varies in some subfamilies (e.g. Prx5) to a greater degree than previously appreciated and that interactions at the A interface (common to Prx5, Tpx and higher order AhpC/Prx1 structures) are important for stabilization of the correct active site geometry. Interestingly, this method also allows us to further divide the AhpC/Prx1 into four groups that are correlated with functional characteristics. The DASP method provides more accurate subfamily classification than PSI-BLAST for members of the Prx family and can now readily be applied to other large protein families. PMID:21287625

Nelson, Kimberly J.; Knutson, Stacy T.; Soito, Laura; Klomsiri, Chananat; Poole, Leslie B.; Fetrow, Jacquelyn S.

2010-01-01

212

Understanding phylogenetic incongruence: lessons from phyllostomid bats  

PubMed Central

All characters and trait systems in an organism share a common evolutionary history that can be estimated using phylogenetic methods. However, differential rates of change and the evolutionary mechanisms driving those rates result in pervasive phylogenetic conflict. These drivers need to be uncovered because mismatches between evolutionary processes and phylogenetic models can lead to high confidence in incorrect hypotheses. Incongruence between phylogenies derived from morphological versus molecular analyses, and between trees based on different subsets of molecular sequences has become pervasive as datasets have expanded rapidly in both characters and species. For more than a decade, evolutionary relationships among members of the New World bat family Phyllostomidae inferred from morphological and molecular data have been in conflict. Here, we develop and apply methods to minimize systematic biases, uncover the biological mechanisms underlying phylogenetic conflict, and outline data requirements for future phylogenomic and morphological data collection. We introduce new morphological data for phyllostomids and outgroups and expand previous molecular analyses to eliminate methodological sources of phylogenetic conflict such as taxonomic sampling, sparse character sampling, or use of different algorithms to estimate the phylogeny. We also evaluate the impact of biological sources of conflict: saturation in morphological changes and molecular substitutions, and other processes that result in incongruent trees, including convergent morphological and molecular evolution. Methodological sources of incongruence play some role in generating phylogenetic conflict, and are relatively easy to eliminate by matching taxa, collecting more characters, and applying the same algorithms to optimize phylogeny. The evolutionary patterns uncovered are consistent with multiple biological sources of conflict, including saturation in morphological and molecular changes, adaptive morphological convergence among nectar-feeding lineages, and incongruent gene trees. Applying methods to account for nucleotide sequence saturation reduces, but does not completely eliminate, phylogenetic conflict. We ruled out paralogy, lateral gene transfer, and poor taxon sampling and outgroup choices among the processes leading to incongruent gene trees in phyllostomid bats. Uncovering and countering the possible effects of introgression and lineage sorting of ancestral polymorphism on gene trees will require great leaps in genomic and allelic sequencing in this species-rich mammalian family. We also found evidence for adaptive molecular evolution leading to convergence in mitochondrial proteins among nectar-feeding lineages. In conclusion, the biological processes that generate phylogenetic conflict are ubiquitous, and overcoming incongruence requires better models and more data than have been collected even in well-studied organisms such as phyllostomid bats. PMID:22891620

Davalos, Liliana M; Cirranello, Andrea L; Geisler, Jonathan H; Simmons, Nancy B

2012-01-01

213

Threat Diversity Will Erode Mammalian Phylogenetic Diversity in the Near Future  

PubMed Central

To reduce the accelerating rate of phylogenetic diversity loss, many studies have searched for mechanisms that could explain why certain species are at risk, whereas others are not. In particular, it has been demonstrated that species might be affected by both extrinsic threat factors as well as intrinsic biological traits that could render a species more sensitive to extinction; here, we focus on extrinsic factors. Recently, the International Union for Conservation of Nature developed a new classification of threat types, including climate change, urbanization, pollution, agriculture and aquaculture, and harvesting/hunting. We have used this new classification to analyze two main factors that could explain the expected future loss of mammalian phylogenetic diversity: 1. differences in the type of threats that affect mammals and 2. differences in the number of major threats that accumulate for a single species. Our results showed that Cetartiodactyla, Diprotodontia, Monotremata, Perissodactyla, Primates, and Proboscidea could lose a high proportion of their current phylogenetic diversity in the coming decades. In contrast, Chiroptera, Didelphimorphia, and Rodentia could lose less phylogenetic diversity than expected if extinctions were random. Some mammalian clades, including Marsupiala, Chiroptera, and a subclade of Primates, are affected by particular threat types, most likely due solely to their geographic locations and associations with particular habitats. However, regardless of the geography, habitat, and taxon considered, it is not the threat type, but the threat diversity that determines the extinction risk for species and clades. Thus, some mammals might be randomly located in areas subjected to a large diversity of threats; they might also accumulate detrimental traits that render them sensitive to different threats, which is a characteristic that could be associated with large body size. Any action reducing threat diversity is expected to have a significant impact on future mammalian phylogeny. PMID:23029443

Jono, Clementine M. A.; Pavoine, Sandrine

2012-01-01

214

Cirrhosis Classification Based on Texture Classification of Random Features  

PubMed Central

Accurate staging of hepatic cirrhosis is important in investigating the cause and slowing down the effects of cirrhosis. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) can provide doctors with an alternative second opinion and assist them to make a specific treatment with accurate cirrhosis stage. MRI has many advantages, including high resolution for soft tissue, no radiation, and multiparameters imaging modalities. So in this paper, multisequences MRIs, including T1-weighted, T2-weighted, arterial, portal venous, and equilibrium phase, are applied. However, CAD does not meet the clinical needs of cirrhosis and few researchers are concerned with it at present. Cirrhosis is characterized by the presence of widespread fibrosis and regenerative nodules in the hepatic, leading to different texture patterns of different stages. So, extracting texture feature is the primary task. Compared with typical gray level cooccurrence matrix (GLCM) features, texture classification from random features provides an effective way, and we adopt it and propose CCTCRF for triple classification (normal, early, and middle and advanced stage). CCTCRF does not need strong assumptions except the sparse character of image, contains sufficient texture information, includes concise and effective process, and makes case decision with high accuracy. Experimental results also illustrate the satisfying performance and they are also compared with typical NN with GLCM. PMID:24707317

Shao, Ying; Guo, Dongmei; Zheng, Yuanjie; Zhao, Zuowei; Qiu, Tianshuang

2014-01-01

215

Classification Line-up  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity was designed for blind learners, but all types of learners can use it to organize an interactive model for learning the classification system (taxonomy) of living things. Learners with visual impairments as well as sighted learners can explore the classification categories (kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species) and practice the classification of organisms.

Blind, Perkins S.

2011-11-16

216

Structured Multimedia Document Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new statistical model for the classification of structured documents and consider its use for multimedia document classification. Its main originality is its ability to simultaneously take into account the structural and the content information present in a structured document, and also to cope with different types of content (text, image, etc). We present experiments on the classification

Ludovic Denoyer; Jean-Noel Vittaut; Patrick Gallinari; Sylvie Brunesseaux; Stephan Brunesseaux

2003-01-01

217

Government Classification: An Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Classification of government documents (confidential, secret, top secret) is a system used by the executive branch to, in part, protect national security and foreign policy interests. The systematic use of classification markings with precise definitions was established during World War I, and since 1936 major changes in classification have…

Brown, Karen M.

218

Ensemble sparse classification of Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

The high-dimensional pattern classification methods, e.g., support vector machines (SVM), have been widely investigated for analysis of structural and functional brain images (such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)) to assist the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) including its prodromal stage, i.e., mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Most existing classification methods extract features from neuroimaging data and then construct a single classifier to perform classification. However, due to noise and small sample size of neuroimaging data, it is challenging to train only a global classifier that can be robust enough to achieve good classification performance. In this paper, instead of building a single global classifier, we propose a local patch-based subspace ensemble method which builds multiple individual classifiers based on different subsets of local patches and then combines them for more accurate and robust classification. Specifically, to capture the local spatial consistency, each brain image is partitioned into a number of local patches and a subset of patches is randomly selected from the patch pool to build a weak classifier. Here, the sparse representation-based classifier (SRC) method, which has shown to be effective for classification of image data (e.g., face), is used to construct each weak classifier. Then, multiple weak classifiers are combined to make the final decision. We evaluate our method on 652 subjects (including 198 AD patients, 225 MCI and 229 normal controls) from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database using MR images. The experimental results show that our method achieves an accuracy of 90.8% and an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 94.86% for AD classification and an accuracy of 87.85% and an AUC of 92.90% for MCI classification, respectively, demonstrating a very promising performance of our method compared with the state-of-the-art methods for AD/MCI classification using MR images. PMID:22270352

Liu, Manhua; Zhang, Daoqiang; Shen, Dinggang

2012-04-01

219

Efficient and accurate fragmentation methods.  

PubMed

Conspectus Three novel fragmentation methods that are available in the electronic structure program GAMESS (general atomic and molecular electronic structure system) are discussed in this Account. The fragment molecular orbital (FMO) method can be combined with any electronic structure method to perform accurate calculations on large molecular species with no reliance on capping atoms or empirical parameters. The FMO method is highly scalable and can take advantage of massively parallel computer systems. For example, the method has been shown to scale nearly linearly on up to 131?000 processor cores for calculations on large water clusters. There have been many applications of the FMO method to large molecular clusters, to biomolecules (e.g., proteins), and to materials that are used as heterogeneous catalysts. The effective fragment potential (EFP) method is a model potential approach that is fully derived from first principles and has no empirically fitted parameters. Consequently, an EFP can be generated for any molecule by a simple preparatory GAMESS calculation. The EFP method provides accurate descriptions of all types of intermolecular interactions, including Coulombic interactions, polarization/induction, exchange repulsion, dispersion, and charge transfer. The EFP method has been applied successfully to the study of liquid water, ?-stacking in substituted benzenes and in DNA base pairs, solvent effects on positive and negative ions, electronic spectra and dynamics, non-adiabatic phenomena in electronic excited states, and nonlinear excited state properties. The effective fragment molecular orbital (EFMO) method is a merger of the FMO and EFP methods, in which interfragment interactions are described by the EFP potential, rather than the less accurate electrostatic potential. The use of EFP in this manner facilitates the use of a smaller value for the distance cut-off (Rcut). Rcut determines the distance at which EFP interactions replace fully quantum mechanical calculations on fragment-fragment (dimer) interactions. The EFMO method is both more accurate and more computationally efficient than the most commonly used FMO implementation (FMO2), in which all dimers are explicitly included in the calculation. While the FMO2 method itself does not incorporate three-body interactions, such interactions are included in the EFMO method via the EFP self-consistent induction term. Several applications (ranging from clusters to proteins) of the three methods are discussed to demonstrate their efficacy. The EFMO method will be especially exciting once the analytic gradients have been completed, because this will allow geometry optimizations, the prediction of vibrational spectra, reaction path following, and molecular dynamics simulations using the method. PMID:24810424

Pruitt, Spencer R; Bertoni, Colleen; Brorsen, Kurt R; Gordon, Mark S

2014-09-16

220

A User's Guide to a Data Base of the Diversity of Pseudomonas syringae and Its Application to Classifying Strains in This Phylogenetic Complex  

PubMed Central

The Pseudomonas syringae complex is composed of numerous genetic lineages of strains from both agricultural and environmental habitats including habitats closely linked to the water cycle. The new insights from the discovery of this bacterial species in habitats outside of agricultural contexts per se have led to the revelation of a wide diversity of strains in this complex beyond what was known from agricultural contexts. Here, through Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) of 216 strains, we identified 23 clades within 13 phylogroups among which the seven previously described P. syringae phylogroups were included. The phylogeny of the core genome of 29 strains representing nine phylogroups was similar to the phylogeny obtained with MLST thereby confirming the robustness of MLST-phylogroups. We show that phenotypic traits rarely provide a satisfactory means for classification of strains even if some combinations are highly probable in some phylogroups. We demonstrate that the citrate synthase (cts) housekeeping gene can accurately predict the phylogenetic affiliation for more than 97% of strains tested. We propose a list of cts sequences to be used as a simple tool for quickly and precisely classifying new strains. Finally, our analysis leads to predictions about the diversity of P. syringae that is yet to be discovered. We present here an expandable framework mainly based on cts genetic analysis into which more diversity can be integrated. PMID:25184292

Berge, Odile; Monteil, Caroline L.; Bartoli, Claudia; Chandeysson, Charlotte; Guilbaud, Caroline; Sands, David C.; Morris, Cindy E.

2014-01-01

221

A Bayesian Approach for Fast and Accurate Gene Tree Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Recent sequencing and computing advances have enabled phylogenetic analyses to expand to both entire genomes and large clades, thus requiring more efficient and accurate methods designed specifically for the phylogenomic context. Here, we present SPIMAP, an efficient Bayesian method for reconstructing gene trees in the presence of a known species tree. We observe many improvements in reconstruction accuracy, achieved by modeling multiple aspects of evolution, including gene duplication and loss (DL) rates, speciation times, and correlated substitution rate variation across both species and loci. We have implemented and applied this method on two clades of fully sequenced species, 12 Drosophila and 16 fungal genomes as well as simulated phylogenies and find dramatic improvements in reconstruction accuracy as compared with the most popular existing methods, including those that take the species tree into account. We find that reconstruction inaccuracies of traditional phylogenetic methods overestimate the number of DL events by as much as 2–3-fold, whereas our method achieves significantly higher accuracy. We feel that the results and methods presented here will have many important implications for future investigations of gene evolution. PMID:20660489

Rasmussen, Matthew D.; Kellis, Manolis

2011-01-01

222

Hydrometor classification from 2 dimensional videodisdrometer data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a hydrometeor classification technique based on two-dimensional video disdrometer (2DVD) data. The method provides an estimate of the dominant hydrometeor type falling over time intervals of 60 s during precipitation, using as input the statistical behavior of a set of particle descriptors, calculated for each particle image. The employed supervised algorithm is a support vector machine (SVM), trained over precipitation time steps labeled by visual inspection. In this way, 8 dominant hydrometeor classes could be discriminated. The algorithm achieves accurate classification performances, with median overall accuracies (Cohen's K) of 90% (0.88), and with accuracies higher than 84% for each hydrometeor class.

Grazioli, J.; Tuia, D.; Monhart, S.; Schneebeli, M.; Raupach, T.; Berne, A.

2014-02-01

223

Tutorial on Phylogenetic Tree Estimation Junhyong Kim  

E-print Network

Tutorial on Phylogenetic Tree Estimation Junhyong Kim Department of Ecology and Evolutionary of Computer Science University of Texas Austin, TX e-mail: tandy@cs.utexas.edu 1 Tutorial Summary All polynomial time methods that can handle large evolutionary datasets. This tutorial will present

Kim, Junhyong

224

Phylogenetic Inference from Conserved Sites Alignments  

E-print Network

Biology Lab This is a preprint of an article published in Molecular and Developmental Evolution section). Includes 8 figures and 3 tables. Running head: Phylogenetic Inference from Conserved Alignments Abstract Introduction The Human Genome Project and similar work on other species are producing molecular sequence data

Noble, William Stafford

225

Phylogeny of Macrobrachium PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS IN SOME  

E-print Network

and one species,Macrobrachium rosenbergii (DeMan) 1scultivated worldwide. The alpha taxonomy of the gePhylogeny of Macrobrachium I 1 PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS IN SOME SPECIES OF THE GENUS MACROBRACHIUM 1 BASED ON NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCES OF THE MITOCHONDRIAL GENE CYTOCHROME OXIDASE I Guido Pereira

Farrell, Brian D.

226

REPRODUCTIVE EFFORT IN SQUIRRELS: ECOLOGICAL, PHYLOGENETIC, ALLOMETRIC,  

E-print Network

REPRODUCTIVE EFFORT IN SQUIRRELS: ECOLOGICAL, PHYLOGENETIC, ALLOMETRIC, AND LATITUDINAL PATTERNS The distinctive features of reproduction in squirrels are the lack of allometric influences on the duration of reproductive investment; the strong allometric influences on offspring mass; and a trade-off between number

Hayssen, Virginia

227

Multiple Sequence Alignment Accuracy and Phylogenetic Inference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phylogenies are often thought to be more dependent upon the specifics of the sequence alignment rather than on the method of reconstruction. Simulation of sequences containing insertion and deletion events was performed in order to determine the role that alignment accuracy plays during phylogenetic inference. Data sets were simulated for pectinate, balanced, and random tree shapes under different conditions (ultrametric

T. Heath Ogden; Michael S. Rosenberg

2006-01-01

228

Probabilistic phylogenetic inference with insertions and deletions.  

PubMed

A fundamental task in sequence analysis is to calculate the probability of a multiple alignment given a phylogenetic tree relating the sequences and an evolutionary model describing how sequences change over time. However, the most widely used phylogenetic models only account for residue substitution events. We describe a probabilistic model of a multiple sequence alignment that accounts for insertion and deletion events in addition to substitutions, given a phylogenetic tree, using a rate matrix augmented by the gap character. Starting from a continuous Markov process, we construct a non-reversible generative (birth-death) evolutionary model for insertions and deletions. The model assumes that insertion and deletion events occur one residue at a time. We apply this model to phylogenetic tree inference by extending the program dnaml in phylip. Using standard benchmarking methods on simulated data and a new "concordance test" benchmark on real ribosomal RNA alignments, we show that the extended program dnamlepsilon improves accuracy relative to the usual approach of ignoring gaps, while retaining the computational efficiency of the Felsenstein peeling algorithm. PMID:18787703

Rivas, Elena; Eddy, Sean R

2008-01-01

229

Mitochondrial phylogenetics and evolution of mysticete whales.  

PubMed

The phylogenetic relationships among baleen whales (Order: Cetacea) remain uncertain despite extensive research in cetacean molecular phylogenetics and a potential morphological sample size of over 2 million animals harvested. Questions remain regarding the number of species and the monophyly of genera, as well as higher order relationships. Here, we approach mysticete phylogeny with complete mitochondrial genome sequence analysis. We determined complete mtDNA sequences of 10 extant Mysticeti species, inferred their phylogenetic relationships, and estimated node divergence times. The mtDNA sequence analysis concurs with previous molecular studies in the ordering of the principal branches, with Balaenidae (right whales) as sister to all other mysticetes base, followed by Neobalaenidae (pygmy right whale), Eschrichtiidae (gray whale), and finally Balaenopteridae (rorquals + humpback whale). The mtDNA analysis further suggests that four lineages exist within the clade of Eschrichtiidae + Balaenopteridae, including a sister relationship between the humpback and fin whales, and a monophyletic group formed by the blue, sei, and Bryde's whales, each of which represents a newly recognized phylogenetic relationship in Mysticeti. We also estimated the divergence times of all extant mysticete species, accounting for evolutionary rate heterogeneity among lineages. When the mtDNA divergence estimates are compared with the mysticete fossil record, several lineages have molecular divergence estimates strikingly older than indicated by paleontological data. We suggest this discrepancy reflects both a large amount of ancestral polymorphism and long generation times of ancestral baleen whale populations. PMID:15805012

Sasaki, Takeshi; Nikaido, Masato; Hamilton, Healy; Goto, Mutsuo; Kato, Hidehiro; Kanda, Naohisa; Pastene, Luis; Cao, Ying; Fordyce, R; Hasegawa, Masami; Okada, Norihiro

2005-02-01

230

Accurate positioning based on acoustic and optical sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unattended laser target designator (ULTD) was designed to partly take the place of conventional LTDs for accurate positioning and laser marking. Analyzed the precision, accuracy and errors of acoustic sensor array, the requirements of laser generator, and the technology of image analysis and tracking, the major system modules were determined. The target's classification, velocity and position can be measured by sensors, and then coded laser beam will be emitted intelligently to mark the excellent position at the excellent time. The conclusion shows that, ULTD can not only avoid security threats, be deployed massively, and accomplish battle damage assessment (BDA), but also be fit for information-based warfare.

Cai, Kerong; Deng, Jiahao; Guo, Hualing

2009-11-01

231

Untangling the influences of unmodeled evolutionary processes on phylogenetic signal in a forensically important HIV-1 transmission cluster.  

PubMed

Stochastic models of sequence evolution have been developed to reflect many biologically important processes, allowing for accurate phylogenetic reconstruction when an appropriate model is selected. However, commonly used models do not incorporate several potentially important biological processes. Spurious phylogenetic inference may result if these processes play an important role in the evolution of a dataset yet are not incorporated into assumed models. Few studies have attempted to assess the relative importance of multiple processes in producing spurious inferences. The application of phylogenetic methods to infer the source of HIV-1 transmission clusters depends upon accurate phylogenetic results, yet there are several relevant unmodeled biological processes (e.g., recombination and convergence) that may cause complications. Here, through analyses of HIV-1 env sequences from a small, forensically important transmission cluster, we tease apart the impact of these processes and present evidence suggesting that convergent evolution and high rates of insertions and deletions (causing alignment uncertainty) led to spurious phylogenetic signal with forensic relevance. Previous analyses show paraphyly of HIV-1 lineages sampled from an individual who, based on non-phylogenetic evidence, had never acted as a source of infection for others in this transmission cluster. If true, this pattern calls into question assumptions underlying phylogenetic approaches to source and recipient identification. By systematically assessing the contribution of different unmodeled processes, we demonstrate that removal of sites likely influenced by strong positive selection both reduces the alignment-wide signal supporting paraphyly of viruses sampled from this individual and eliminates support for the effects of recombination. Additionally, the removal of ambiguously aligned sites alters strongly supported relationships among viruses sampled from different individuals. These observations highlight the need to jointly consider multiple unmodeled evolutionary processes and motivate a phylogenomic perspective when inferring viral transmission histories. PMID:24589520

Doyle, Vinson P; Andersen, John J; Nelson, Bradley J; Metzker, Michael L; Brown, Jeremy M

2014-06-01

232

Phylogenetic analyses of Vitis (Vitaceae) based on complete chloroplast genome sequences: effects of taxon sampling and phylogenetic methods on resolving relationships among rosids  

PubMed Central

Background The Vitaceae (grape) is an economically important family of angiosperms whose phylogenetic placement is currently unresolved. Recent phylogenetic analyses based on one to several genes have suggested several alternative placements of this family, including sister to Caryophyllales, asterids, Saxifragales, Dilleniaceae or to rest of rosids, though support for these different results has been weak. There has been a recent interest in using complete chloroplast genome sequences for resolving phylogenetic relationships among angiosperms. These studies have clarified relationships among several major lineages but they have also emphasized the importance of taxon sampling and the effects of different phylogenetic methods for obtaining accurate phylogenies. We sequenced the complete chloroplast genome of Vitis vinifera and used these data to assess relationships among 27 angiosperms, including nine taxa of rosids. Results The Vitis vinifera chloroplast genome is 160,928 bp in length, including a pair of inverted repeats of 26,358 bp that are separated by small and large single copy regions of 19,065 bp and 89,147 bp, respectively. The gene content and order of Vitis is identical to many other unrearranged angiosperm chloroplast genomes, including tobacco. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood were performed on DNA sequences of 61 protein-coding genes for two datasets with 28 or 29 taxa, including eight or nine taxa from four of the seven currently recognized major clades of rosids. Parsimony and likelihood phylogenies of both data sets provide strong support for the placement of Vitaceae as sister to the remaining rosids. However, the position of the Myrtales and support for the monophyly of the eurosid I clade differs between the two data sets and the two methods of analysis. In parsimony analyses, the inclusion of Gossypium is necessary to obtain trees that support the monophyly of the eurosid I clade. However, maximum likelihood analyses place Cucumis as sister to the Myrtales and therefore do not support the monophyly of the eurosid I clade. Conclusion Phylogenies based on DNA sequences from complete chloroplast genome sequences provide strong support for the position of the Vitaceae as the earliest diverging lineage of rosids. Our phylogenetic analyses support recent assertions that inadequate taxon sampling and incorrect model specification for concatenated multi-gene data sets can mislead phylogenetic inferences when using whole chloroplast genomes for phylogeny reconstruction. PMID:16603088

Jansen, Robert K; Kaittanis, Charalambos; Saski, Christopher; Lee, Seung-Bum; Tomkins, Jeffrey; Alverson, Andrew J; Daniell, Henry

2006-01-01

233

Cnidarian phylogenetic relationships as revealed by mitogenomics  

PubMed Central

Background Cnidaria (corals, sea anemones, hydroids, jellyfish) is a phylum of relatively simple aquatic animals characterized by the presence of the cnidocyst: a cell containing a giant capsular organelle with an eversible tubule (cnida). Species within Cnidaria have life cycles that involve one or both of the two distinct body forms, a typically benthic polyp, which may or may not be colonial, and a typically pelagic mostly solitary medusa. The currently accepted taxonomic scheme subdivides Cnidaria into two main assemblages: Anthozoa (Hexacorallia?+?Octocorallia) – cnidarians with a reproductive polyp and the absence of a medusa stage – and Medusozoa (Cubozoa, Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa, Staurozoa) – cnidarians that usually possess a reproductive medusa stage. Hypothesized relationships among these taxa greatly impact interpretations of cnidarian character evolution. Results We expanded the sampling of cnidarian mitochondrial genomes, particularly from Medusozoa, to reevaluate phylogenetic relationships within Cnidaria. Our phylogenetic analyses based on a mitochogenomic dataset support many prior hypotheses, including monophyly of Hexacorallia, Octocorallia, Medusozoa, Cubozoa, Staurozoa, Hydrozoa, Carybdeida, Chirodropida, and Hydroidolina, but reject the monophyly of Anthozoa, indicating that the Octocorallia?+?Medusozoa relationship is not the result of sampling bias, as proposed earlier. Further, our analyses contradict Scyphozoa [Discomedusae?+?Coronatae], Acraspeda [Cubozoa?+?Scyphozoa], as well as the hypothesis that Staurozoa is the sister group to all the other medusozoans. Conclusions Cnidarian mitochondrial genomic data contain phylogenetic signal informative for understanding the evolutionary history of this phylum. Mitogenome-based phylogenies, which reject the monophyly of Anthozoa, provide further evidence for the polyp-first hypothesis. By rejecting the traditional Acraspeda and Scyphozoa hypotheses, these analyses suggest that the shared morphological characters in these groups are plesiomorphies, originated in the branch leading to Medusozoa. The expansion of mitogenomic data along with improvements in phylogenetic inference methods and use of additional nuclear markers will further enhance our understanding of the phylogenetic relationships and character evolution within Cnidaria. PMID:23302374

2013-01-01

234

Fly pollination in Ceropegia (Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae): biogeographic and phylogenetic perspectives  

E-print Network

Fly pollination in Ceropegia (Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae): biogeographic and phylogenetic-shaped flowers that temporarily trap pollinators. The taxo- nomic diversity of pollinators, biogeographic and phylogenetic patterns of pollinator exploitation, and the level of specificity of interactions were assessed

Northampton, University of

235

On numerically accurate finite element  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A general criterion for testing a mesh with topologically similar repeat units is given, and the analysis shows that only a few conventional element types and arrangements are, or can be made suitable for computations in the fully plastic range. Further, a new variational principle, which can easily and simply be incorporated into an existing finite element program, is presented. This allows accurate computations to be made even for element designs that would not normally be suitable. Numerical results are given for three plane strain problems, namely pure bending of a beam, a thick-walled tube under pressure, and a deep double edge cracked tensile specimen. The effects of various element designs and of the new variational procedure are illustrated. Elastic-plastic computation at finite strain are discussed.

Nagtegaal, J. C.; Parks, D. M.; Rice, J. R.

1974-01-01

236

Classification of Nuclear Receptors Based on Amino Acid Composition and Dipeptide Composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear receptors are key transcription factors that regulate crucial gene networks responsible for cell growth, differentiation, and homeostasis. Nuclear re- ceptors form a superfamily of phylogenetically related proteins and control functions associated with major diseases (e.g. diabetes, osteoporosis, and cancer). In this study, a novel method has been developed for classifying the subfamilies of nuclear receptors. The classification was achieved

Manoj Bhasin; Gajendra P. S. Raghava

2004-01-01

237

A multigene phylogenetic synthesis for the class Lecanoromycetes (Ascomycota): 1307 fungi representing 1139 infrageneric taxa, 317 genera and 66 families.  

PubMed

The Lecanoromycetes is the largest class of lichenized Fungi, and one of the most species-rich classes in the kingdom. Here we provide a multigene phylogenetic synthesis (using three ribosomal RNA-coding and two protein-coding genes) of the Lecanoromycetes based on 642 newly generated and 3329 publicly available sequences representing 1139 taxa, 317 genera, 66 families, 17 orders and five subclasses (four currently recognized: Acarosporomycetidae, Lecanoromycetidae, Ostropomycetidae, Umbilicariomycetidae; and one provisionarily recognized, 'Candelariomycetidae'). Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses on four multigene datasets assembled using a cumulative supermatrix approach with a progressively higher number of species and missing data (5-gene, 5+4-gene, 5+4+3-gene and 5+4+3+2-gene datasets) show that the current classification includes non-monophyletic taxa at various ranks, which need to be recircumscribed and require revisionary treatments based on denser taxon sampling and more loci. Two newly circumscribed orders (Arctomiales and Hymeneliales in the Ostropomycetidae) and three families (Ramboldiaceae and Psilolechiaceae in the Lecanorales, and Strangosporaceae in the Lecanoromycetes inc. sed.) are introduced. The potential resurrection of the families Eigleraceae and Lopadiaceae is considered here to alleviate phylogenetic and classification disparities. An overview of the photobionts associated with the main fungal lineages in the Lecanoromycetes based on available published records is provided. A revised schematic classification at the family level in the phylogenetic context of widely accepted and newly revealed relationships across Lecanoromycetes is included. The cumulative addition of taxa with an increasing amount of missing data (i.e., a cumulative supermatrix approach, starting with taxa for which sequences were available for all five targeted genes and ending with the addition of taxa for which only two genes have been sequenced) revealed relatively stable relationships for many families and orders. However, the increasing number of taxa without the addition of more loci also resulted in an expected substantial loss of phylogenetic resolving power and support (especially for deep phylogenetic relationships), potentially including the misplacements of several taxa. Future phylogenetic analyses should include additional single copy protein-coding markers in order to improve the tree of the Lecanoromycetes. As part of this study, a new module ("Hypha") of the freely available Mesquite software was developed to compare and display the internodal support values derived from this cumulative supermatrix approach. PMID:24747130

Miadlikowska, Jolanta; Kauff, Frank; Högnabba, Filip; Oliver, Jeffrey C; Molnár, Katalin; Fraker, Emily; Gaya, Ester; Hafellner, Josef; Hofstetter, Valérie; Gueidan, Cécile; Otálora, Mónica A G; Hodkinson, Brendan; Kukwa, Martin; Lücking, Robert; Björk, Curtis; Sipman, Harrie J M; Burgaz, Ana Rosa; Thell, Arne; Passo, Alfredo; Myllys, Leena; Goward, Trevor; Fernández-Brime, Samantha; Hestmark, Geir; Lendemer, James; Lumbsch, H Thorsten; Schmull, Michaela; Schoch, Conrad L; Sérusiaux, Emmanuël; Maddison, David R; Arnold, A Elizabeth; Lutzoni, François; Stenroos, Soili

2014-10-01

238

Chapter 7. Phylogenetic analysis Homework for chapter 7  

E-print Network

Chapter 7. Phylogenetic analysis Homework for chapter 7 Bioinformatics - Lecture 7 Louis Wehenkel - Bioinformatique (1/16) #12;Chapter 7. Phylogenetic analysis Homework for chapter 7 Chapter 7. Phylogenetic analysis On trees and evolution Inferring trees from data Homework for chapter 7 Louis Wehenkel GBIO0009

Wehenkel, Louis

239

Phylogenetic Species Recognition and Species Concepts in Fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phylogenetic species recognition and species concepts in fungi. Fungal Genetics and Biology 31, 000–000. The operational species concept, i.e., the one used to recognize species, is contrasted to the theoretical species concept. A phylogenetic approach to recognize fungal species based on concordance of multiple gene genealogies is compared to those based on morphology and reproductive behavior. Examples where Phylogenetic Species

John W. Taylor; David J. Jacobson; Scott Kroken; Takao Kasuga; David M. Geiser; David S. Hibbett; Matthew C. Fisher

2000-01-01

240

Comparative evolutionary diversity and phylogenetic structure across multiple forest dynamics plots: a mega-phylogeny approach  

PubMed Central

Forest dynamics plots, which now span longitudes, latitudes, and habitat types across the globe, offer unparalleled insights into the ecological and evolutionary processes that determine how species are assembled into communities. Understanding phylogenetic relationships among species in a community has become an important component of assessing assembly processes. However, the application of evolutionary information to questions in community ecology has been limited in large part by the lack of accurate estimates of phylogenetic relationships among individual species found within communities, and is particularly limiting in comparisons between communities. Therefore, streamlining and maximizing the information content of these community phylogenies is a priority. To test the viability and advantage of a multi-community phylogeny, we constructed a multi-plot mega-phylogeny of 1347 species of trees across 15 forest dynamics plots in the ForestGEO network using DNA barcode sequence data (rbcL, matK, and psbA-trnH) and compared community phylogenies for each individual plot with respect to support for topology and branch lengths, which affect evolutionary inference of community processes. The levels of taxonomic differentiation across the phylogeny were examined by quantifying the frequency of resolved nodes throughout. In addition, three phylogenetic distance (PD) metrics that are commonly used to infer assembly processes were estimated for each plot [PD, Mean Phylogenetic Distance (MPD), and Mean Nearest Taxon Distance (MNTD)]. Lastly, we examine the partitioning of phylogenetic diversity among community plots through quantification of inter-community MPD and MNTD. Overall, evolutionary relationships were highly resolved across the DNA barcode-based mega-phylogeny, and phylogenetic resolution for each community plot was improved when estimated within the context of the mega-phylogeny. Likewise, when compared with phylogenies for individual plots, estimates of phylogenetic diversity in the mega-phylogeny were more consistent, thereby removing a potential source of bias at the plot-level, and demonstrating the value of assessing phylogenetic relationships simultaneously within a mega-phylogeny. An unexpected result of the comparisons among plots based on the mega-phylogeny was that the communities in the ForestGEO plots in general appear to be assemblages of more closely related species than expected by chance, and that differentiation among communities is very low, suggesting deep floristic connections among communities and new avenues for future analyses in community ecology.

Erickson, David L.; Jones, Frank A.; Swenson, Nathan G.; Pei, Nancai; Bourg, Norman A.; Chen, Wenna; Davies, Stuart J.; Ge, Xue-jun; Hao, Zhanqing; Howe, Robert W.; Huang, Chun-Lin; Larson, Andrew J.; Lum, Shawn K. Y.; Lutz, James A.; Ma, Keping; Meegaskumbura, Madhava; Mi, Xiangcheng; Parker, John D.; Fang-Sun, I.; Wright, S. Joseph; Wolf, Amy T.; Ye, W.; Xing, Dingliang; Zimmerman, Jess K.; Kress, W. John

2014-01-01

241

Cloud field classification based on textural features  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An essential component in global climate research is accurate cloud cover and type determination. Of the two approaches to texture-based classification (statistical and textural), only the former is effective in the classification of natural scenes such as land, ocean, and atmosphere. In the statistical approach that was adopted, parameters characterizing the stochastic properties of the spatial distribution of grey levels in an image are estimated and then used as features for cloud classification. Two types of textural measures were used. One is based on the distribution of the grey level difference vector (GLDV), and the other on a set of textural features derived from the MaxMin cooccurrence matrix (MMCM). The GLDV method looks at the difference D of grey levels at pixels separated by a horizontal distance d and computes several statistics based on this distribution. These are then used as features in subsequent classification. The MaxMin tectural features on the other hand are based on the MMCM, a matrix whose (I,J)th entry give the relative frequency of occurrences of the grey level pair (I,J) that are consecutive and thresholded local extremes separated by a given pixel distance d. Textural measures are then computed based on this matrix in much the same manner as is done in texture computation using the grey level cooccurrence matrix. The database consists of 37 cloud field scenes from LANDSAT imagery using a near IR visible channel. The classification algorithm used is the well known Stepwise Discriminant Analysis. The overall accuracy was estimated by the percentage or correct classifications in each case. It turns out that both types of classifiers, at their best combination of features, and at any given spatial resolution give approximately the same classification accuracy. A neural network based classifier with a feed forward architecture and a back propagation training algorithm is used to increase the classification accuracy, using these two classes of features. Preliminary results based on the GLDV textural features alone look promising.

Sengupta, Sailes Kumar

1989-01-01

242

Security classification of information  

SciTech Connect

This document is the second of a planned four-volume work that comprehensively discusses the security classification of information. The main focus of Volume 2 is on the principles for classification of information. Included herein are descriptions of the two major types of information that governments classify for national security reasons (subjective and objective information), guidance to use when determining whether information under consideration for classification is controlled by the government (a necessary requirement for classification to be effective), information disclosure risks and benefits (the benefits and costs of classification), standards to use when balancing information disclosure risks and benefits, guidance for assigning classification levels (Top Secret, Secret, or Confidential) to classified information, guidance for determining how long information should be classified (classification duration), classification of associations of information, classification of compilations of information, and principles for declassifying and downgrading information. Rules or principles of certain areas of our legal system (e.g., trade secret law) are sometimes mentioned to .provide added support to some of those classification principles.

Quist, A.S.

1993-04-01

243

Accurate gene-tree reconstruction by learning gene- and species-specific substitution rates across multiple complete genomes  

PubMed Central

Comparative genomics provides a general methodology for discovering functional DNA elements and understanding their evolution. The availability of many related genomes enables more powerful analyses, but requires rigorous phylogenetic methods to resolve orthologous genes and regions. Here, we use 12 recently sequenced Drosophila genomes and nine fungal genomes to address the problem of accurate gene-tree reconstruction across many complete genomes. We show that existing phylogenetic methods that treat each gene tree in isolation show large-scale inaccuracies, largely due to insufficient phylogenetic information in individual genes. However, we find that gene trees exhibit common properties that can be exploited for evolutionary studies and accurate phylogenetic reconstruction. Evolutionary rates can be decoupled into gene-specific and species-specific components, which can be learned across complete genomes. We develop a phylogenetic reconstruction methodology that exploits these properties and achieves significantly higher accuracy, addressing the species-level heterotachy and enabling studies of gene evolution in the context of species evolution. PMID:17989260

Rasmussen, Matthew D.; Kellis, Manolis

2007-01-01

244

A standardized framework for accurate, high-throughput genotyping of recombinant and non-recombinant viral sequences.  

PubMed

Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1), hepatitis B and C and other rapidly evolving viruses are characterized by extremely high levels of genetic diversity. To facilitate diagnosis and the development of prevention and treatment strategies that efficiently target the diversity of these viruses, and other pathogens such as human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1), human herpes virus type-8 (HHV8) and human papillomavirus (HPV), we developed a rapid high-throughput-genotyping system. The method involves the alignment of a query sequence with a carefully selected set of pre-defined reference strains, followed by phylogenetic analysis of multiple overlapping segments of the alignment using a sliding window. Each segment of the query sequence is assigned the genotype and sub-genotype of the reference strain with the highest bootstrap (>70%) and bootscanning (>90%) scores. Results from all windows are combined and displayed graphically using color-coded genotypes. The new Virus-Genotyping Tools provide accurate classification of recombinant and non-recombinant viruses and are currently being assessed for their diagnostic utility. They have incorporated into several HIV drug resistance algorithms including the Stanford (http://hivdb.stanford.edu) and two European databases (http://www.umcutrecht.nl/subsite/spread-programme/ and http://www.hivrdb.org.uk/) and have been successfully used to genotype a large number of sequences in these and other databases. The tools are a PHP/JAVA web application and are freely accessible on a number of servers including: http://bioafrica.mrc.ac.za/rega-genotype/html/, http://lasp.cpqgm.fiocruz.br/virus-genotype/html/, http://jose.med.kuleuven.be/genotypetool/html/. PMID:19483099

Alcantara, Luiz Carlos Junior; Cassol, Sharon; Libin, Pieter; Deforche, Koen; Pybus, Oliver G; Van Ranst, Marc; Galvão-Castro, Bernardo; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; de Oliveira, Tulio

2009-07-01

245

How Accurate Is Peer Grading?  

PubMed Central

Previously we showed that weekly, written, timed, and peer-graded practice exams help increase student performance on written exams and decrease failure rates in an introductory biology course. Here we analyze the accuracy of peer grading, based on a comparison of student scores to those assigned by a professional grader. When students graded practice exams by themselves, they were significantly easier graders than a professional; overall, students awarded ?25% more points than the professional did. This difference represented ?1.33 points on a 10-point exercise, or 0.27 points on each of the five 2-point questions posed. When students graded practice exams as a group of four, the same student-expert difference occurred. The student-professional gap was wider for questions that demanded higher-order versus lower-order cognitive skills. Thus, students not only have a harder time answering questions on the upper levels of Bloom's taxonomy, they have a harder time grading them. Our results suggest that peer grading may be accurate enough for low-risk assessments in introductory biology. Peer grading can help relieve the burden on instructional staff posed by grading written answers—making it possible to add practice opportunities that increase student performance on actual exams. PMID:21123695

Parks, John W.

2010-01-01

246

How accurate is Limber's equation?  

E-print Network

The so-called Limber equation is widely used in the literature to relate the projected angular clustering of galaxies to the spatial clustering of galaxies in an approximate way. This paper gives estimates of where the regime of applicability of Limber's equation stops. Limber's equation is accurate for small galaxy separations but breaks down beyond a certain separation that depends mainly on the ratio sigma/R and to some degree on the power-law index, gamma, of spatial clustering xi; sigma is the one-sigma width of the galaxy distribution in comoving distance, and R the mean comoving distance. As rule-of-thumb, a 10% relative error is reached at 260 sigma/R arcmin for gamma~1.6, if the spatial clustering is a power-law. More realistic xi are discussed in the paper. Limber's equation becomes increasingly inaccurate for larger angular separations. Ignoring this effect and blindly applying Limber's equation can possibly bias results for the inferred spatial correlation. It is suggested to use in cases of doubt, or maybe even in general, the exact equation that can easily be integrated numerically in the form given in the paper.

P. Simon

2006-09-06

247

Molecular phylogenetics of Caenogastropoda (Gastropoda: Mollusca)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caenogastropoda is the dominant group of marine gastropods in terms of species numbers, diversity of habit and habitat and ecological importance. This paper reports the first comprehensive multi-gene phylogenetic study of the group. Data were collected from up to six genes comprising parts of 18S rRNA, 28S rRNA (five segments), 12S rRNA, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, histone H3 and

D. J. Colgan; W. F. Ponder; E. Beacham; J. Macaranas

2007-01-01

248

A Distance Measure for Genome Phylogenetic Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phylogenetic analyses of species based on single genes or parts of the genomes are often inconsistent because of factors such\\u000a as variable rates of evolution and horizontal gene transfer. The availability of more and more sequenced genomes allows phylogeny\\u000a construction from complete genomes that is less sensitive to such inconsistency. For such long sequences, construction methods\\u000a like maximum parsimony and

Minh Duc Cao; Lloyd Allison; Trevor I. Dix

2009-01-01

249

Building a classification system that works.  

PubMed

The process one nursing department used to develop, test, implement, and monitor a definitive patient classification system that accurately predicts needed nursing staff and correlates with department budget is described. The author demonstrates that staff nurses with ordinary skills and experience, using limited resources of time and money, can build a valid, reliable, workable system amenable to computerization and future use in costing out nursing care on an individual patient or diagnosis related group (DRG) basis. PMID:3926964

Unger, J

1985-01-01

250

A Consistent Phylogenetic Backbone for the Fungi  

PubMed Central

The kingdom of fungi provides model organisms for biotechnology, cell biology, genetics, and life sciences in general. Only when their phylogenetic relationships are stably resolved, can individual results from fungal research be integrated into a holistic picture of biology. However, and despite recent progress, many deep relationships within the fungi remain unclear. Here, we present the first phylogenomic study of an entire eukaryotic kingdom that uses a consistency criterion to strengthen phylogenetic conclusions. We reason that branches (splits) recovered with independent data and different tree reconstruction methods are likely to reflect true evolutionary relationships. Two complementary phylogenomic data sets based on 99 fungal genomes and 109 fungal expressed sequence tag (EST) sets analyzed with four different tree reconstruction methods shed light from different angles on the fungal tree of life. Eleven additional data sets address specifically the phylogenetic position of Blastocladiomycota, Ustilaginomycotina, and Dothideomycetes, respectively. The combined evidence from the resulting trees supports the deep-level stability of the fungal groups toward a comprehensive natural system of the fungi. In addition, our analysis reveals methodologically interesting aspects. Enrichment for EST encoded data—a common practice in phylogenomic analyses—introduces a strong bias toward slowly evolving and functionally correlated genes. Consequently, the generalization of phylogenomic data sets as collections of randomly selected genes cannot be taken for granted. A thorough characterization of the data to assess possible influences on the tree reconstruction should therefore become a standard in phylogenomic analyses. PMID:22114356

Ebersberger, Ingo; de Matos Simoes, Ricardo; Kupczok, Anne; Gube, Matthias; Kothe, Erika; Voigt, Kerstin; von Haeseler, Arndt

2012-01-01

251

Consequences of recombination on traditional phylogenetic analysis.  

PubMed Central

We investigate the shape of a phylogenetic tree reconstructed from sequences evolving under the coalescent with recombination. The motivation is that evolutionary inferences are often made from phylogenetic trees reconstructed from population data even though recombination may well occur (mtDNA or viral sequences) or does occur (nuclear sequences). We investigate the size and direction of biases when a single tree is reconstructed ignoring recombination. Standard software (PHYLIP) was used to construct the best phylogenetic tree from sequences simulated under the coalescent with recombination. With recombination present, the length of terminal branches and the total branch length are larger, and the time to the most recent common ancestor smaller, than for a tree reconstructed from sequences evolving with no recombination. The effects are pronounced even for small levels of recombination that may not be immediately detectable in a data set. The phylogenies when recombination is present superficially resemble phylogenies for sequences from an exponentially growing population. However, exponential growth has a different effect on statistics such as Tajima's D. Furthermore, ignoring recombination leads to a large overestimation of the substitution rate heterogeneity and the loss of the molecular clock. These results are discussed in relation to viral and mtDNA data sets. PMID:11014833

Schierup, M H; Hein, J

2000-01-01

252

Marine turtle mitogenome phylogenetics and evolution.  

PubMed

The sea turtles are a group of cretaceous origin containing seven recognized living species: leatherback, hawksbill, Kemp's ridley, olive ridley, loggerhead, green, and flatback. The leatherback is the single member of the Dermochelidae family, whereas all other sea turtles belong in Cheloniidae. Analyses of partial mitochondrial sequences and some nuclear markers have revealed phylogenetic inconsistencies within Cheloniidae, especially regarding the placement of the flatback. Population genetic studies based on D-Loop sequences have shown considerable structuring in species with broad geographic distributions, shedding light on complex migration patterns and possible geographic or climatic events as driving forces of sea-turtle distribution. We have sequenced complete mitogenomes for all sea-turtle species, including samples from their geographic range extremes, and performed phylogenetic analyses to assess sea-turtle evolution with a large molecular dataset. We found variation in the length of the ATP8 gene and a highly variable site in ND4 near a proton translocation channel in the resulting protein. Complete mitogenomes show strong support and resolution for phylogenetic relationships among all sea turtles, and reveal phylogeographic patterns within globally-distributed species. Although there was clear concordance between phylogenies and geographic origin of samples in most taxa, we found evidence of more recent dispersal events in the loggerhead and olive ridley turtles, suggesting more recent migrations (<1 Myr) in these species. Overall, our results demonstrate the complexity of sea-turtle diversity, and indicate the need for further research in phylogeography and molecular evolution. PMID:22750111

Duchene, Sebastián; Frey, Amy; Alfaro-Núñez, Alonzo; Dutton, Peter H; Thomas P Gilbert, M; Morin, Phillip A

2012-10-01

253

Automated Manifold Surgery: Constructing Geometrically Accurate and Topologically Correct Models of the Human Cerebral Cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly accurate surface models of the cerebral cortex are becoming increasingly important as tools in the investigation of the functional organization of the human brain. The construction of such models is difficult using current neuroimaging technology due to the high degree of cortical folding. Even single voxel mis- classifications can result in erroneous connections being created between adjacent banks of

Bruce Fischl; Arthur K. Liu; Anders M. Dale

2001-01-01

254

DNA sequence support for a close phylogenetic relationship between some storks and New World vultures.  

PubMed Central

Nucleotide sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene were used to address a controversial suggestion that New World vultures are related more closely to storks than to Old World vultures. Phylogenetic analyses of 1-kb sequences from 18 relevant avian species indicate that the similarities in morphology and behavior between New World and Old World vultures probably manifest convergent adaptations associated with carrion-feeding, rather than propinquity of descent. Direct sequence evidence for a close phylogenetic alliance between at least some New World vultures and storks lends support to conclusions reached previously from DNA.DNA hybridization methods and detailed morphology-based appraisals, and it illustrates how mistaken assumptions of homology for organismal adaptations can compromise biological classifications. However, there was a lack of significant resolution for most other branches in the cytochrome b phylogenetic reconstructions. This irresolution is most likely attributable to a close temporal clustering of nodes, rather than to ceiling effects (mutational saturation) producing an inappropriate window of resolution for the cytochrome b sequences. Images PMID:8197203

Avise, J C; Nelson, W S; Sibley, C G

1994-01-01

255

Two new rapid SNP-typing methods for classifying Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex into the main phylogenetic lineages.  

PubMed

There is increasing evidence that strain variation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) might influence the outcome of tuberculosis infection and disease. To assess genotype-phenotype associations, phylogenetically robust molecular markers and appropriate genotyping tools are required. Most current genotyping methods for MTBC are based on mobile or repetitive DNA elements. Because these elements are prone to convergent evolution, the corresponding genotyping techniques are suboptimal for phylogenetic studies and strain classification. By contrast, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) are ideal markers for classifying MTBC into phylogenetic lineages, as they exhibit very low degrees of homoplasy. In this study, we developed two complementary SNP-based genotyping methods to classify strains into the six main human-associated lineages of MTBC, the "Beijing" sublineage, and the clade comprising Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium caprae. Phylogenetically informative SNPs were obtained from 22 MTBC whole-genome sequences. The first assay, referred to as MOL-PCR, is a ligation-dependent PCR with signal detection by fluorescent microspheres and a Luminex flow cytometer, which simultaneously interrogates eight SNPs. The second assay is based on six individual TaqMan real-time PCR assays for singleplex SNP-typing. We compared MOL-PCR and TaqMan results in two panels of clinical MTBC isolates. Both methods agreed fully when assigning 36 well-characterized strains into the main phylogenetic lineages. The sensitivity in allele-calling was 98.6% and 98.8% for MOL-PCR and TaqMan, respectively. Typing of an additional panel of 78 unknown clinical isolates revealed 99.2% and 100% sensitivity in allele-calling, respectively, and 100% agreement in lineage assignment between both methods. While MOL-PCR and TaqMan are both highly sensitive and specific, MOL-PCR is ideal for classification of isolates with no previous information, whereas TaqMan is faster for confirmation. Furthermore, both methods are rapid, flexible and comparably inexpensive. PMID:22911768

Stucki, David; Malla, Bijaya; Hostettler, Simon; Huna, Thembela; Feldmann, Julia; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Borrell, Sonia; Fenner, Lukas; Comas, Iñaki; Coscollà, Mireia; Gagneux, Sebastien

2012-01-01

256

Complete mitochondrial genomes elucidate phylogenetic relationships of the deep-sea octocoral families Coralliidae and Paragorgiidae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past decade, molecular phylogenetic analyses of octocorals have shown that the current morphological taxonomic classification of these organisms needs to be revised. The latest phylogenetic analyses show that most octocorals can be divided into three main clades. One of these clades contains the families Coralliidae and Paragorgiidae. These families share several taxonomically important characters and it has been suggested that they may not be monophyletic; with the possibility of the Coralliidae being a derived branch of the Paragorgiidae. Uncertainty exists not only in the relationship of these two families, but also in the classification of the two genera that make up the Coralliidae, Corallium and Paracorallium. Molecular analyses suggest that the genus Corallium is paraphyletic, and it can be divided into two main clades, with the Paracorallium as members of one of these clades. In this study we sequenced the whole mitochondrial genome of five species of Paragorgia and of five species of Corallium to use in a phylogenetic analysis to achieve two main objectives; the first to elucidate the phylogenetic relationship between the Paragorgiidae and Coralliidae and the second to determine whether the genera Corallium and Paracorallium are monophyletic. Our results show that other members of the Coralliidae share the two novel mitochondrial gene arrangements found in a previous study in Corallium konojoi and Paracorallium japonicum; and that the Corallium konojoi arrangement is also found in the Paragorgiidae. Our phylogenetic reconstruction based on all the protein coding genes and ribosomal RNAs of the mitochondrial genome suggest that the Coralliidae are not a derived branch of the Paragorgiidae, but rather a monophyletic sister branch to the Paragorgiidae. While our manuscript was in review a study was published using morphological data and several fragments from mitochondrial genes to redefine the taxonomy of the Coralliidae. Paracorallium was subsumed into Corallium and the genus Hemicorallium was resurrected. This left two disjunct clades as Corallium, making that genus paraphyletic. One of the clades includes the type specimens of Corallium, indicating that clade should remain Corallium. For the other clade, we support the resurrection of the genus Pleurocorallium to fix the paraphyly of Corallium. Based on congruent phylogenies in both studies, the genus Pleurocorallium includes the species C. secundum, C. kishinouyei, C. konojoi, C. elatius, and C. niveum.

Figueroa, Diego F.; Baco, Amy R.

2014-01-01

257

[Sequence variation of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and phylogenetic relationships among twelve species of Charadriiformes].  

PubMed

Studies of the phylogenetic relationships of the Charadriiformes have been largely based on conservative morphological characters. During the past 10 years, many studies on the evolutionary biology of birds adopted phylogenetic information obtained from mitochondrial DNA, but few work on the Charadriiformes has been reported to date. Therefore, phylogenetic relationships and classification of the Charadriiformes remains controversial. In this study, we try to shed light on these relationships via DNA sequence analysis of the mitochondrial Cyt b gene in 12 species of Charadriiformes. It was a preliminary study of the origin and evolution of the species by using nucleotide sequence data. Using the well-known PCR techniques, the complete mitochondrial Cyt b gene sequences were amplified and sequenced respectively from Charadrius mongolus, Charadrius alexandrinus, Numenius madagascariensis, Numenius arquat, Numenius phaeopus, Tringa totanus, Tringa glareola, Xenus cineres, Arenaria interpres, Calidris tenuirostris, Recurvirostra avosetts and Haematopus ostralensis. The 1143 bp long DNA sequences of the gene from these species were obtained, in which 381 variable sites were identified without insertions or deletions. The nucleic acid sequence variation of the mitochondrial Cyt b gene was 5.16%-16.01% among these species. Phylogenetic trees constructed using the NJ method, MP method and ML method with Ciconia ciconia as the outgroup indicate that the 12 species of Charadriiformes examined in this study are clustered in two major clades. The first clade includes T. totanus, T. glareola, A. interpres, C. tenuirostris, X. cineres, N. madagascariensis, N. arquata and N. phaeopus. The second one includes C. mongolus, C. alexandrinus, R. avosetts and H. ostralensis. Our molecular data show that the phylogenetic relationships among species of Scolopacidae are consistent with the classification based on morphological studies; R. avosetts and H. ostralensis are relatively closer, and form a sister group, and then form paraphyletic group with a sister group which comprised of C. mongolus and C. alexandrinus. The results support Sibley's opinion of assigning R. avosetts and H. ostralensis which form Recurvirostrinae as a taxon of the Charadriidae, and the Charadriidae dividing into two subfamilies: Recurvirostrinae and Charadriinae respectively. PMID:12924155

Chen, Xiao-Fang; Wang, Xiang; Yuan, Xiao-Dong; Tang, Min-Qian; Li, Yu-Xiang; Guo, Yu-Mei; Li, Qing-Wei

2003-05-01

258

A phylogenetic analysis of Prunus and the Amygdaloideae (Rosaceae) using ITS sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA.  

PubMed

The economically important plum or cherry genus (PRUNUS:) and the subfamily Amygdaloideae of the Rosaceae have a controversial taxonomic history due to the lack of a phylogenetic framework. Phylogenetic analysis using the ITS sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) was conducted to construct the evolutionary history and evaluate the historical classifications of PRUNUS: and the Amygdaloideae. The analyses suggest two major groups within the Amygdaloideae: (1) PRUNUS: s.l. (sensu lato) and MADDENIA:, and (2) EXOCHORDA:, Oemleria, and PRINSEPIA: The ITS phylogeny supports the recent treatment of including EXOCHORDA: (formerly in the Spiraeoideae) in the Amygdaloideae. MADDENIA: is found to be nested within PRUNUS: s.l. in the parsimony and distance analyses, but basal to PRUNUS: s.l. in the maximum likelihood analysis. Within PRUNUS:, two major groups are recognizable: (1) the AMYGDALUS:-PRUNUS: group, and (2) the CERASUS:-LAUROCERASUS:-PADUS: group. The clades in the ITS phylogeny are not congruent with most subgeneric groups in the widely used classification of PRUNUS: by Rehder. A broadly defined PRUNUS: is supported. PMID:11159135

Lee, S; Wen, J

2001-01-01

259

Phylogenetic and Biological Significance of Evolutionary Elements from Metazoan Mitochondrial Genomes  

PubMed Central

The evolutionary history of living species is usually inferred through the phylogenetic analysis of molecular and morphological information using various mathematical models. New challenges in phylogenetic analysis are centered mostly on the search for accurate and efficient methods to handle the huge amounts of sequence data generated from newer genome sequencing. The next major challenge is the determination of relationships between the evolution of structural elements and their functional implementation, which is largely ignored in previous analyses. Here, we described the discovery of structural elements in metazoan mitochondrial genomes, termed key K-strings, that can serve as a basis for phylogenetic tree construction. Although comprising only a small fraction (0.73%) of all K-strings, these key K-strings are pivotal to the tree construction because they allow for a significant reduction in the computational time required to construct phylogenetic trees, and more importantly, they make significant improvement to the results of phylogenetic inference. The trees constructed from the key K-strings were consistent overall to our current view of metazoan phylogeny and exhibited a more rational topology than the trees constructed by using other conventional methods. Surprisingly, the key K-strings tended to accumulate in the conserved regions of the original sequences, which were most likely due to strong selection pressure. Furthermore, the special structural features of the key K-strings should have some potential applications in the study of the structures and functions relationship of proteins and in the determination of evolutionary trajectory of species. The novelty and potential importance of key K-strings lead us to believe that they are essential evolutionary elements. As such, they may play important roles in the process of species evolution and their physical existence. Further studies could lead to discoveries regarding the relationship between evolution and processes of speciation. PMID:24465405

Yuan, Jianbo; Zhu, Qingming; Liu, Bin

2014-01-01

260

Musical Genre Classification  

E-print Network

Abstract — This extended abstract provides overview of the genre classification process in our submission for MIREX 2009. First, the scheme of extraction of features and use of them in the process of Musical Genre Classification is explained. In later part dataset and results obtained are described. Keywords—ISMIR, Genre, GMM, Timbre I.

Preeti Rao; Sujeet Kini

261

Intraregional classification of wine via ICP-MS elemental fingerprinting.  

PubMed

The feasibility of elemental fingerprinting in the classification of wines according to their provenance vineyard soil was investigated in the relatively small geographical area of a single wine district. Results for the Stellenbosch wine district (Western Cape Wine Region, South Africa), comprising an area of less than 1,000 km(2), suggest that classification of wines from different estates (120 wines from 23 estates) is indeed possible using accurate elemental data and multivariate statistical analysis based on a combination of principal component analysis, cluster analysis, and discriminant analysis. This is the first study to demonstrate the successful classification of wines at estate level in a single wine district in South Africa. The elements B, Ba, Cs, Cu, Mg, Rb, Sr, Tl and Zn were identified as suitable indicators. White and red wines were grouped in separate data sets to allow successful classification of wines. Correlation between wine classification and soil type distributions in the area was observed. PMID:24996361

Coetzee, P P; van Jaarsveld, F P; Vanhaecke, F

2014-12-01

262

New classification criteria for gout: a framework for progress  

PubMed Central

The definitive classification or diagnosis of gout normally relies upon the identification of MSU crystals in SF or from tophi. Where microscopic examination of SF is not available or is impractical, the best approach may differ depending upon the context. For many types of research, clinical classification criteria are necessary. The increasing prevalence of gout, advances in therapeutics and the development of international research collaborations to understand the impact, mechanisms and optimal treatment of this condition emphasize the need for accurate and uniform classification criteria for gout. Five clinical classification criteria for gout currently exist. However, none of the currently available criteria has been adequately validated. An international project is currently under way to develop new validated gout classification criteria. These criteria will be an essential step forward to advance the research agenda in the modern era of gout management. PMID:23611919

Dalbeth, Nicola; Fransen, Jaap; Jansen, Tim L.; Neogi, Tuhina; Schumacher, H. Ralph; Taylor, William J.

2013-01-01

263

The revised lung adenocarcinoma classification--an imaging guide  

PubMed Central

Advances in our understanding of the pathology, radiology and clinical behaviour of peripheral lung adenocarcinomas facilitated a more robust terminology and classification of these lesions. The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society (IASLC/ATS/ERS) classification introduced new terminology to better reflect this heterogeneous group of adenocarcinomas formerly known as bronchoalveolar cell carcinoma (BAC). There is now a clear distinction between pre-invasive, minimally invasive and frankly invasive lesions. The radiographic appearance of these ranges from pure ground glass nodules to solid mass lesions. Radiologists must be aware of the new classification in order to work alongside multidisciplinary colleagues to allow accurate staging and treatment. This article reviews the new classification of lung adenocarcinomas. Management options of these lesions with particular focus on radiological implications of the new classification will be reviewed.

Gardiner, Natasha; Jogai, Sanjay

2014-01-01

264

Phylogenetic relationships of Malaysia's long-tailed macaques, Macaca fascicularis, based on cytochrome b sequences.  

PubMed

Phylogenetic relationships among Malaysia's long-tailed macaques have yet to be established, despite abundant genetic studies of the species worldwide. The aims of this study are to examine the phylogenetic relationships of Macaca fascicularis in Malaysia and to test its classification as a morphological subspecies. A total of 25 genetic samples of M. fascicularis yielding 383 bp of Cytochrome b (Cyt b) sequences were used in phylogenetic analysis along with one sample each of M. nemestrina and M. arctoides used as outgroups. Sequence character analysis reveals that Cyt b locus is a highly conserved region with only 23% parsimony informative character detected among ingroups. Further analysis indicates a clear separation between populations originating from different regions; the Malay Peninsula versus Borneo Insular, the East Coast versus West Coast of the Malay Peninsula, and the island versus mainland Malay Peninsula populations. Phylogenetic trees (NJ, MP and Bayesian) portray a consistent clustering paradigm as Borneo's population was distinguished from Peninsula's population (99% and 100% bootstrap value in NJ and MP respectively and 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian trees). The East coast population was separated from other Peninsula populations (64% in NJ, 66% in MP and 0.53 posterior probability in Bayesian). West coast populations were divided into 2 clades: the North-South (47%/54% in NJ, 26/26% in MP and 1.00/0.80 posterior probability in Bayesian) and Island-Mainland (93% in NJ, 90% in MP and 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian). The results confirm the previous morphological assignment of 2 subspecies, M. f. fascicularis and M. f. argentimembris, in the Malay Peninsula. These populations should be treated as separate genetic entities in order to conserve the genetic diversity of Malaysia's M. fascicularis. These findings are crucial in aiding the conservation management and translocation process of M. fascicularis populations in Malaysia. PMID:24899832

Abdul-Latiff, Muhammad Abu Bakar; Ruslin, Farhani; Fui, Vun Vui; Abu, Mohd-Hashim; Rovie-Ryan, Jeffrine Japning; Abdul-Patah, Pazil; Lakim, Maklarin; Roos, Christian; Yaakop, Salmah; Md-Zain, Badrul Munir

2014-01-01

265

Phylogenetic relationships in Brassicaceae tribe Alysseae inferred from nuclear ribosomal and chloroplast DNA sequence data.  

PubMed

Numerous molecular systematic studies within Brassicaceae have resulted in a strongly improved classification of the family, as morphologically defined units at and above the generic level were often found to poorly reflect phylogenetic relationships. Here, we focus on tribe Alysseae, which despite its size (accounting for about 7% of all species) has only received limited coverage in previous phylogenetic studies. Specifically, we want to test phylogenetic hypotheses implied by current tribal and generic circumscriptions and to put diversification within tribe Alysseae into a temporal context. To this end, sequence data from the nrDNA ITS and two plastid regions (ndhF gene, trnL-F intergenic spacer) were obtained for 176 accessions, representing 16 out of 17 currently recognized genera of the tribe, and were phylogenetically analysed, among others, using a relaxed molecular clock. Due to large discrepancies with respect to published ages of Brassicaceae, age estimates concerning Alysseae are, however, burdened with considerable uncertainty. The tribe is monophyletic and contains four strongly supported major clades and Alyssum homalocarpum, whose relationships among each other remain uncertain due to incongruences between nuclear and plastid DNA markers. The largest genus of the tribe, Alyssum, is not monophyletic and contains, apart from A. homalocarpum, two distinct lineages, corresponding to sections Alyssum, Psilonema, Gamosepalum and to sections Odontarrhena and Meniocus, respectively. Clypeola, whose monophyly is supported only by the plastid data, is very closely related to and possibly nested within the second Alyssum lineage. Species of the genus Fibigia intermingle with those of Alyssoides, Clastopus, Degenia, and Physoptychis, rendering Fibigia polyphyletic. The monotypic genera Leptoplax and Physocardamum are embedded in Bornmuellera. PMID:23850498

Rešetnik, Ivana; Satovic, Zlatko; Schneeweiss, Gerald M; Liber, Zlatko

2013-12-01

266

Automated Protein Subfamily Identification and Classification  

PubMed Central

Function prediction by homology is widely used to provide preliminary functional annotations for genes for which experimental evidence of function is unavailable or limited. This approach has been shown to be prone to systematic error, including percolation of annotation errors through sequence databases. Phylogenomic analysis avoids these errors in function prediction but has been difficult to automate for high-throughput application. To address this limitation, we present a computationally efficient pipeline for phylogenomic classification of proteins. This pipeline uses the SCI-PHY (Subfamily Classification in Phylogenomics) algorithm for automatic subfamily identification, followed by subfamily hidden Markov model (HMM) construction. A simple and computationally efficient scoring scheme using family and subfamily HMMs enables classification of novel sequences to protein families and subfamilies. Sequences representing entirely novel subfamilies are differentiated from those that can be classified to subfamilies in the input training set using logistic regression. Subfamily HMM parameters are estimated using an information-sharing protocol, enabling subfamilies containing even a single sequence to benefit from conservation patterns defining the family as a whole or in related subfamilies. SCI-PHY subfamilies correspond closely to functional subtypes defined by experts and to conserved clades found by phylogenetic analysis. Extensive comparisons of subfamily and family HMM performances show that subfamily HMMs dramatically improve the separation between homologous and non-homologous proteins in sequence database searches. Subfamily HMMs also provide extremely high specificity of classification and can be used to predict entirely novel subtypes. The SCI-PHY Web server at http://phylogenomics.berkeley.edu/SCI-PHY/ allows users to upload a multiple sequence alignment for subfamily identification and subfamily HMM construction. Biologists wishing to provide their own subfamily definitions can do so. Source code is available on the Web page. The Berkeley Phylogenomics Group PhyloFacts resource contains pre-calculated subfamily predictions and subfamily HMMs for more than 40,000 protein families and domains at http://phylogenomics.berkeley.edu/phylofacts/. PMID:17708678

Brown, Duncan P; Krishnamurthy, Nandini; Sjolander, Kimmen

2007-01-01

267

Sparse Representation for Tumor Classification Based on Feature Extraction Using Latent Low-Rank Representation  

PubMed Central

Accurate tumor classification is crucial to the proper treatment of cancer. To now, sparse representation (SR) has shown its great performance for tumor classification. This paper conceives a new SR-based method for tumor classification by using gene expression data. In the proposed method, we firstly use latent low-rank representation for extracting salient features and removing noise from the original samples data. Then we use sparse representation classifier (SRC) to build tumor classification model. The experimental results on several real-world data sets show that our method is more efficient and more effective than the previous classification methods including SVM, SRC, and LASSO. PMID:24678505

Zheng, Chun-Hou; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Hong-Qiang

2014-01-01

268

New insights into myosin evolution and classification.  

PubMed

Myosins are eukaryotic actin-dependent molecular motors important for a broad range of functions like muscle contraction, vision, hearing, cell motility, and host cell invasion of apicomplexan parasites. Myosin heavy chains consist of distinct head, neck, and tail domains and have previously been categorized into 18 different classes based on phylogenetic analysis of their conserved heads. Here we describe a comprehensive phylogenetic examination of many previously unclassified myosins, with particular emphasis on sequences from apicomplexan and other chromalveolate protists including the model organism Toxoplasma, the malaria parasite Plasmodium, and the ciliate Tetrahymena. Using different phylogenetic inference methods and taking protein domain architectures, specific amino acid polymorphisms, and organismal distribution into account, we demonstrate a hitherto unrecognized common origin for ciliate and apicomplexan class XIV myosins. Our data also suggest common origins for some apicomplexan myosins and class VI, for classes II and XVIII, for classes XII and XV, and for some microsporidian myosins and class V, thereby reconciling evolutionary history and myosin structure in several cases and corroborating the common coevolution of myosin head, neck, and tail domains. Six novel myosin classes are established to accommodate sequences from chordate metazoans (class XIX), insects (class XX), kinetoplastids (class XXI), and apicomplexans and diatom algae (classes XXII, XXIII, and XXIV). These myosin (sub)classes include sequences with protein domains (FYVE, WW, UBA, ATS1-like, and WD40) previously unknown to be associated with myosin motors. Regarding the apicomplexan "myosome," we significantly update class XIV classification, propose a systematic naming convention, and discuss possible functions in these parasites. PMID:16505385

Foth, Bernardo J; Goedecke, Marc C; Soldati, Dominique

2006-03-01

269

New insights into myosin evolution and classification  

PubMed Central

Myosins are eukaryotic actin-dependent molecular motors important for a broad range of functions like muscle contraction, vision, hearing, cell motility, and host cell invasion of apicomplexan parasites. Myosin heavy chains consist of distinct head, neck, and tail domains and have previously been categorized into 18 different classes based on phylogenetic analysis of their conserved heads. Here we describe a comprehensive phylogenetic examination of many previously unclassified myosins, with particular emphasis on sequences from apicomplexan and other chromalveolate protists including the model organism Toxoplasma, the malaria parasite Plasmodium, and the ciliate Tetrahymena. Using different phylogenetic inference methods and taking protein domain architectures, specific amino acid polymorphisms, and organismal distribution into account, we demonstrate a hitherto unrecognized common origin for ciliate and apicomplexan class XIV myosins. Our data also suggest common origins for some apicomplexan myosins and class VI, for classes II and XVIII, for classes XII and XV, and for some microsporidian myosins and class V, thereby reconciling evolutionary history and myosin structure in several cases and corroborating the common coevolution of myosin head, neck, and tail domains. Six novel myosin classes are established to accommodate sequences from chordate metazoans (class XIX), insects (class XX), kinetoplastids (class XXI), and apicomplexans and diatom algae (classes XXII, XXIII, and XXIV). These myosin (sub)classes include sequences with protein domains (FYVE, WW, UBA, ATS1-like, and WD40) previously unknown to be associated with myosin motors. Regarding the apicomplexan “myosome,” we significantly update class XIV classification, propose a systematic naming convention, and discuss possible functions in these parasites. PMID:16505385

Foth, Bernardo J.; Goedecke, Marc C.; Soldati, Dominique

2006-01-01

270

Multiple sequence alignment: a major challenge to large-scale phylogenetics  

PubMed Central

Over the last decade, dramatic advances have been made in developing methods for large-scale phylogeny estimation, so that it is now feasible for investigators with moderate computational resources to obtain reasonable solutions to maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony, even for datasets with a few thousand sequences. There has also been progress on developing methods for multiple sequence alignment, so that greater alignment accuracy (and subsequent improvement in phylogenetic accuracy) is now possible through automated methods. However, these methods have not been tested under conditions that reflect properties of datasets confronted by large-scale phylogenetic estimation projects. In this paper we report on a study that compares several alignment methods on a benchmark collection of nucleotide sequence datasets of up to 78,132 sequences. We show that as the number of sequences increases, the number of alignment methods that can analyze the datasets decreases. Furthermore, the most accurate alignment methods are unable to analyze the very largest datasets we studied, so that only moderately accurate alignment methods can be used on the largest datasets. As a result, alignments computed for large datasets have relatively large error rates, and maximum likelihood phylogenies computed on these alignments also have high error rates. Therefore, the estimation of highly accurate multiple sequence alignments is a major challenge for Tree of Life projects, and more generally for large-scale systematics studies. PMID:21113338

Liu, Kevin; Linder, C. Randal; Warnow, Tandy

2011-01-01

271

Phylogenetic Interrelationships of Ginglymodian Fishes (Actinopterygii: Neopterygii)  

PubMed Central

The Ginglymodi is one of the most common, though poorly understood groups of neopterygians, which includes gars, macrosemiiforms, and “semionotiforms.” In particular, the phylogenetic relationships between the widely distributed “semionotiforms,” and between them and other ginglymodians have been enigmatic. Here, the phylogenetic relationships between eight of the 11 “semionotiform” genera, five genera of living and fossil gars and three macrosemiid genera, are analysed through cladistic analysis, based on 90 morphological characters and 37 taxa, including 7 out-group taxa. The results of the analysis show that the Ginglymodi includes two main lineages: Lepisosteiformes and †Semionotiformes. The genera †Pliodetes, †Araripelepidotes, †Lepidotes, †Scheenstia, and †Isanichthys are lepisosteiforms, and not semionotiforms, as previously thought, and these taxa extend the stratigraphic range of the lineage leading to gars back up to the Early Jurassic. A monophyletic †Lepidotes is restricted to the Early Jurassic species, whereas the strongly tritoral species previously referred to †Lepidotes are referred to †Scheenstia. Other species previously referred to †Lepidotes represent other genera or new taxa. The macrosemiids are well nested within semionotiforms, together with †Semionotidae, here restricted to †Semionotus, and a new family including †Callipurbeckia n. gen. minor (previously referred to †Lepidotes), †Macrosemimimus, †Tlayuamichin, †Paralepidotus, and †Semiolepis. Due to the numerous taxonomic changes needed according to the phylogenetic analysis, this article also includes formal taxonomic definitions and diagnoses for all generic and higher taxa, which are new or modified. The study of Mesozoic ginglymodians led to confirm Patterson’s observation that these fishes show morphological affinities with both halecomorphs and teleosts. Therefore, the compilation of large data sets including the Mesozoic ginglymodians and the re-evaluation of several hypotheses of homology are essential to test the hypotheses of the Halecostomi vs. the Holostei, which is one of the major topics in the evolution of Mesozoic vertebrates and the origin of modern fish faunas. PMID:22808031

Lopez-Arbarello, Adriana

2012-01-01

272

Book review Foundations of phylogenetic systematics  

E-print Network

with new numerical methods, to depict what these methods have in common and where they differ are treated in a fairly original fashion. The author distinguishes between the processes of classification from Mahner and Bunge's (1997) biophilosophy. Important new terms are defined in separate boxes

Franz, Nico M.

273

Ultrametric networks: a new tool for phylogenetic analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The large majority of optimization problems related to the inference of distance?based trees used in phylogenetic analysis and classification is known to be intractable. One noted exception is found within the realm of ultrametric distances. The introduction of ultrametric trees in phylogeny was inspired by a model of evolution driven by the postulate of a molecular clock, now dismissed, whereby phylogeny could be represented by a weighted tree in which the sum of the weights of the edges separating any given leaf from the root is the same for all leaves. Both, molecular clocks and rooted ultrametric trees, fell out of fashion as credible representations of evolutionary change. At the same time, ultrametric dendrograms have shown good potential for purposes of classification in so far as they have proven to provide good approximations for additive trees. Most of these approximations are still intractable, but the problem of finding the nearest ultrametric distance matrix to a given distance matrix with respect to the L? distance has been long known to be solvable in polynomial time, the solution being incarnated in any minimum spanning tree for the weighted graph subtending to the matrix. Results This paper expands this subdominant ultrametric perspective by studying ultrametric networks, consisting of the collection of all edges involved in some minimum spanning tree. It is shown that, for a graph with n vertices, the construction of such a network can be carried out by a simple algorithm in optimal time O(n2) which is faster by a factor of n than the direct adaptation of the classical O(n3) paradigm by Warshall for computing the transitive closure of a graph. This algorithm, called UltraNet, will be shown to be easily adapted to compute relaxed networks and to support the introduction of artificial points to reduce the maximum distance between vertices in a pair. Finally, a few experiments will be discussed to demonstrate the applicability of subdominant ultrametric networks. Availability http://www.dei.unipd.it/~ciompin/main/Ultranet/Ultranet.html PMID:23497437

2013-01-01

274

Mineral Classification Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise is designed to help students think about the properties of minerals that are most useful for mineral classification and identification. Students are given a set of minerals and asked to come up with a hierarchical classification scheme (a "key") that can be used to identify different mineral species. They compare their results with the products of other groups. They test the various schemes by applying them to unknown samples. While doing this exercise, the students develop observational and interpretational skill. They also begin to think about the nature of classification systems.

Perkins, Dexter

275

On phylogenetic tests of irreversible evolution.  

PubMed

"Dollo's law" states that, following loss, a complex trait cannot reevolve in an identical manner. Although the law has previously fallen into disrepute, it has only recently been challenged with statistical phylogenetic methods. We employ simulation studies of an irreversible binary character to show that rejections of Dollo's law based on likelihood-ratio tests of transition rate constraints or on reconstructions of ancestral states are frequently incorrect. We identify two major causes of errors: incorrect assignment of root state frequencies, and neglect of the effect of the character state on rates of speciation and extinction. Our findings do not necessarily overturn the conclusions of phylogenetic studies claiming reversals, but we demonstrate devastating flaws in the methods that are the foundation of all such studies. Furthermore, we show that false rejections of Dollo's law can be reduced by the use of appropriate existing models and model selection procedures. More powerful tests of irreversibility require data beyond phylogenies and character states of extant taxa, and we highlight empirical work that incorporates additional information. PMID:18764918

Goldberg, Emma E; Igi?, Boris

2008-11-01

276

A Distance Measure for Genome Phylogenetic Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phylogenetic analyses of species based on single genes or parts of the genomes are often inconsistent because of factors such as variable rates of evolution and horizontal gene transfer. The availability of more and more sequenced genomes allows phylogeny construction from complete genomes that is less sensitive to such inconsistency. For such long sequences, construction methods like maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood are often not possible due to their intensive computational requirement. Another class of tree construction methods, namely distance-based methods, require a measure of distances between any two genomes. Some measures such as evolutionary edit distance of gene order and gene content are computational expensive or do not perform well when the gene content of the organisms are similar. This study presents an information theoretic measure of genetic distances between genomes based on the biological compression algorithm expert model. We demonstrate that our distance measure can be applied to reconstruct the consensus phylogenetic tree of a number of Plasmodium parasites from their genomes, the statistical bias of which would mislead conventional analysis methods. Our approach is also used to successfully construct a plausible evolutionary tree for the ?-Proteobacteria group whose genomes are known to contain many horizontally transferred genes.

Cao, Minh Duc; Allison, Lloyd; Dix, Trevor

277

Face shape differs in phylogenetically related populations.  

PubMed

3D analysis of facial morphology has delineated facial phenotypes in many medical conditions and detected fine grained differences between typical and atypical patients to inform genotype-phenotype studies. Next-generation sequencing techniques have enabled extremely detailed genotype-phenotype correlative analysis. Such comparisons typically employ control groups matched for age, sex and ethnicity and the distinction between ethnic categories in genotype-phenotype studies has been widely debated. The phylogenetic tree based on genetic polymorphism studies divides the world population into nine subpopulations. Here we show statistically significant face shape differences between two European Caucasian populations of close phylogenetic and geographic proximity from the UK and The Netherlands. The average face shape differences between the Dutch and UK cohorts were visualised in dynamic morphs and signature heat maps, and quantified for their statistical significance using both conventional anthropometry and state of the art dense surface modelling techniques. Our results demonstrate significant differences between Dutch and UK face shape. Other studies have shown that genetic variants influence normal facial variation. Thus, face shape difference between populations could reflect underlying genetic difference. This should be taken into account in genotype-phenotype studies and we recommend that in those studies reference groups be established in the same population as the individuals who form the subject of the study. PMID:24398794

Hopman, Saskia M J; Merks, Johannes H M; Suttie, Michael; Hennekam, Raoul C M; Hammond, Peter

2014-11-01

278

TIME-INTEGRATED EXPOSURE MEASURES TO IMPROVE THE PREDICTIVE POWER OF EXPOSURE CLASSIFICATION FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Accurate exposure classification tools are required to link exposure with health effects in epidemiological studies. Although long-term integrated exposure measurements are a critical component of exposure assessment, the ability to include these measurements into epidemiologic...

279

Accurate polyp segmentation for 3D CT colongraphy using multi-staged probabilistic binary learning and compositional model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate and automatic colonic polyp segmentation and measurement in Computed Tomography (CT) has significant importance for 3D polyp detection, classification, and more generally computer aided diagnosis of colon cancers. In this paper, we propose a three-staged probabilistic binary classification approach for automatically segmenting polyp voxels from their surrounding tissues in CT. Our system in- tegrates low-, and mid-level information for

Le Lu; Adrian Barbu; Matthias Wolf; Jianming Liang; Marcos Salganicoff; Dorin Comaniciu

2008-01-01

280

Genetic diversity and phylogenetic classification of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV)  

E-print Network

rates as high as 90%. An extensive enzootic virus exists in occidental Europe, where fish farms showing epidemiology of this fish rhabdovirus. The sequences of the nonstructural (NV) protein and the transmembrane (G * Correspondence and reprints #12;INTRODUCTION Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is a fish rhabdovirus

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

281

Deterministic neural classification.  

PubMed

This letter presents a minimum classification error learning formulation for a single-layer feedforward network (SLFN). By approximating the nonlinear counting step function using a quadratic function, the classification error rate is shown to be deterministically solvable. Essentially the derived solution is related to an existing weighted least-squares method with class-specific weights set according to the size of data set. By considering the class-specific weights as adjustable parameters, the learning formulation extends the classification robustness of the SLFN without sacrificing its intrinsic advantage of being a closed-form algorithm. While the method is applicable to other linear formulations, our empirical results indicate SLFN's effectiveness on classification generalization. PMID:18194103

Toh, Kar-Ann

2008-06-01

282

Gait Analysis for Classification  

E-print Network

This thesis describes a representation of gait appearance for the purpose of person identification and classification. This gait representation is based on simple localized image features such as moments extracted from ...

Lee, Lily

2003-06-26

283

Gait analysis for classification  

E-print Network

This thesis describes a representation of gait appearance for the purpose of person identification and classification. This gait representation is based on simple localized image features such as moments extracted from ...

Lee, Lily, 1971-

2002-01-01

284

Multi-locus phylogenetic analysis reveals the pattern and tempo of bony fish evolution.  

PubMed

Over half of all vertebrates are "fishes", which exhibit enormous diversity in morphology, physiology, behavior, reproductive biology, and ecology. Investigation of fundamental areas of vertebrate biology depend critically on a robust phylogeny of fishes, yet evolutionary relationships among the major actinopterygian and sarcopterygian lineages have not been conclusively resolved. Although a consensus phylogeny of teleosts has been emerging recently, it has been based on analyses of various subsets of actinopterygian taxa, but not on a full sample of all bony fishes. Here we conducted a comprehensive phylogenetic study on a broad taxonomic sample of 61 actinopterygian and sarcopterygian lineages (with a chondrichthyan outgroup) using a molecular data set of 21 independent loci. These data yielded a resolved phylogenetic hypothesis for extant Osteichthyes, including 1) reciprocally monophyletic Sarcopterygii and Actinopterygii, as currently understood, with polypteriforms as the first diverging lineage within Actinopterygii; 2) a monophyletic group containing gars and bowfin (= Holostei) as sister group to teleosts; and 3) the earliest diverging lineage among teleosts being Elopomorpha, rather than Osteoglossomorpha. Relaxed-clock dating analysis employing a set of 24 newly applied fossil calibrations reveals divergence times that are more consistent with paleontological estimates than previous studies. Establishing a new phylogenetic pattern with accurate divergence dates for bony fishes illustrates several areas where the fossil record is incomplete and provides critical new insights on diversification of this important vertebrate group. PMID:23788273

Broughton, Richard E; Betancur-R, Ricardo; Li, Chenhong; Arratia, Gloria; Ortí, Guillermo

2013-01-01

285

Multi-locus phylogenetic analysis reveals the pattern and tempo of bony fish evolution  

PubMed Central

Over half of all vertebrates are “fishes”, which exhibit enormous diversity in morphology, physiology, behavior, reproductive biology, and ecology. Investigation of fundamental areas of vertebrate biology depend critically on a robust phylogeny of fishes, yet evolutionary relationships among the major actinopterygian and sarcopterygian lineages have not been conclusively resolved. Although a consensus phylogeny of teleosts has been emerging recently, it has been based on analyses of various subsets of actinopterygian taxa, but not on a full sample of all bony fishes. Here we conducted a comprehensive phylogenetic study on a broad taxonomic sample of 61 actinopterygian and sarcopterygian lineages (with a chondrichthyan outgroup) using a molecular data set of 21 independent loci. These data yielded a resolved phylogenetic hypothesis for extant Osteichthyes, including 1) reciprocally monophyletic Sarcopterygii and Actinopterygii, as currently understood, with polypteriforms as the first diverging lineage within Actinopterygii; 2) a monophyletic group containing gars and bowfin (= Holostei) as sister group to teleosts; and 3) the earliest diverging lineage among teleosts being Elopomorpha, rather than Osteoglossomorpha. Relaxed-clock dating analysis employing a set of 24 newly applied fossil calibrations reveals divergence times that are more consistent with paleontological estimates than previous studies. Establishing a new phylogenetic pattern with accurate divergence dates for bony fishes illustrates several areas where the fossil record is incomplete and provides critical new insights on diversification of this important vertebrate group. PMID:23788273

Broughton, Richard E.; Betancur-R., Ricardo; Li, Chenhong; Arratia, Gloria; Orti, Guillermo

2013-01-01

286

Performance of criteria for selecting evolutionary models in phylogenetics: a comprehensive study based on simulated datasets  

PubMed Central

Background Explicit evolutionary models are required in maximum-likelihood and Bayesian inference, the two methods that are overwhelmingly used in phylogenetic studies of DNA sequence data. Appropriate selection of nucleotide substitution models is important because the use of incorrect models can mislead phylogenetic inference. To better understand the performance of different model-selection criteria, we used 33,600 simulated data sets to analyse the accuracy, precision, dissimilarity, and biases of the hierarchical likelihood-ratio test, Akaike information criterion, Bayesian information criterion, and decision theory. Results We demonstrate that the Bayesian information criterion and decision theory are the most appropriate model-selection criteria because of their high accuracy and precision. Our results also indicate that in some situations different models are selected by different criteria for the same dataset. Such dissimilarity was the highest between the hierarchical likelihood-ratio test and Akaike information criterion, and lowest between the Bayesian information criterion and decision theory. The hierarchical likelihood-ratio test performed poorly when the true model included a proportion of invariable sites, while the Bayesian information criterion and decision theory generally exhibited similar performance to each other. Conclusions Our results indicate that the Bayesian information criterion and decision theory should be preferred for model selection. Together with model-adequacy tests, accurate model selection will serve to improve the reliability of phylogenetic inference and related analyses. PMID:20696057

2010-01-01

287

A simple shortcut to unsupervised alignment-free phylogenetic genome groupings, even from unassembled sequencing reads.  

PubMed

We propose an extension to alignment-free approaches that can produce reasonably accurate phylogenetic groupings starting from unaligned genomes, for example, as fast as 1 min on a standard desktop computer for 25 bacterial genomes. A 6-fold speed-up and 11-fold reduction in memory requirements compared to previous alignment-free methods is achieved by reducing the comparison space to a representative sample of k-mers of optimal length and with specific tag motifs. This approach was applied to the test case of fitting the enterohemorrhagic O104:H4 E.coli strain from the 2011 outbreak in Germany into the phylogenetic network of previously known E.coli-related strains and extend the method to allow assigning any new strain to the correct phylogenetic group even directly from unassembled short sequence reads from next generation sequencing data. Hence, this approach is also useful to quickly identify the most suitable reference genome for subsequent assembly steps. PMID:24372034

Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Gunalan, Vithiagaran; Wong, Wing-Cheong; Eisenhaber, Frank

2013-12-01

288

Automatic Road Environment Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ongoing development autonomous vehicles and adaptive vehicle dynamics present in many modern vehicles has generated a need for road environment classification—i.e., the ability to determine the nature of the current road or terrain environment from an onboard vehicle sensor. In this paper, we investigate the use of a low-cost camera vision solution capable of urban, rural, or off-road classification

Isabelle Tang; Toby P. Breckon

2011-01-01

289

Potato Chip Classification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity introduces the structure and function of a dichotomous key, in preparation for student identification of plant and animal specimens. It also reinforces the idea that there are many possible answers in science. Students will be able to classify specimens (in this case, potato chips) according to observable characteristics, prepare a key showing their classification system, use their key to identify a specimen, and recognize the validity of classmates' classification systems.

1998-01-01

290

Microscleres in demosponge classification  

E-print Network

E, to which I am contributing. The paper is zoological, but its subject is funda- mental to discussion of demosponge classifications and phylogeny. In ZITTEL ' S (1878) classification of the sponges now grouped as Demospongia (SoLLAs, 1885), those...; but microscleres of types having more than one origin can also occur without evidence of how they should be inter- preted. Examples are the euaster-like microscleres of various monaxonid sponges, or the isolated amphiasters of the lithistid Callipelta SOLLAS...

Reid, R. E. H.

1968-11-18

291

Automatic Music Genre Classification  

E-print Network

In this work, we are presenting our approach to automatic genre classification for music files, or songs, which consists of audio files represented by a time series data, where the goal is to automatically process the files, to establish a genre assignment. Such applications that require automatic genre classification include internet radio stations that play similar songs based on a user specified preference, or for automatic

unknown authors

2009-01-01

292

Automatic Classification of Spatial Relationships among Mathematical Symbols Using Geometric Features  

Microsoft Academic Search

Machine recognition of mathematical expressions on printed documents is not trivial even when all the individual characters and symbols in an expression can be recognized correctly. In this paper, an automatic classification method of spatial relationships between the adjacent symbols in a pair is presented. This classification is important to realize an accurate structure analysis module of math OCR. Experimental

Walaa Aly; Seiichi Uchida; Masakazu Suzuki

2009-01-01

293

Land cover classification of the North China Plain using MODIS EVI time series  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data have played an important role in global environmental and resource research. However, its low spatial resolution has been an impediment to researchers pursuing more accurate classification results. In this research, the high temporal resolution of MODIS was employed to improve the accuracy of land cover classification of the North China Plain using MODIS EVI

Zhang Xiaa; Sun Rui; Zhang Bing; Tong Qingxia

294

Comparison of feature selection and classification for MALDI-MS data  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: In the classification of Mass Spectrometry (MS) proteomics data, peak detection, feature selection, and learning classifiers are critical to classification accuracy. To better understand which methods are more accurate when classifying data, some publicly available peak detection algorithms for Matrix assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-MS) data were recently compared; however, the issue of different feature selection methods

Qingzhong Liu; Andrew H Sung; Mengyu Qiao; Zhongxue Chen; Jack Y Yang; Mary Qu Yang; Xudong Huang; Youping Deng

2009-01-01

295

Human papillomavirus type 16 genetic variants: phylogeny and classification based on E6 and LCR.  

PubMed

Naturally occurring genetic variants of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) are common and have previously been classified into 4 major lineages; European-Asian (EAS), including the sublineages European (EUR) and Asian (As), African 1 (AFR1), African 2 (AFR2), and North-American/Asian-American (NA/AA). We aimed to improve the classification of HPV16 variant lineages by using a large resource of HPV16-positive cervical samples collected from geographically diverse populations in studies on HPV and/or cervical cancer undertaken by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. In total, we sequenced the entire E6 genes and long control regions (LCRs) of 953 HPV16 isolates from 27 different countries worldwide. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed previously described variant lineages and subclassifications. We characterized two new sublineages within each of the lineages AFR1 and AFR2 that are robustly classified using E6 and/or the LCR. We could differentiate previously identified AA1, AA2, and NA sublineages, although they could not be distinguished by E6 alone, requiring the LCR for correct phylogenetic classification. We thus provide a classification system for HPV16 genomes based on 13 and 32 phylogenetically distinguishing positions in E6 and the LCR, respectively, that distinguish nine HPV16 variant sublineages (EUR, As, AFR1a, AFR1b, AFR2a, AFR2b, NA, AA1, and AA2). Ninety-seven percent of all 953 samples fitted this classification perfectly. Other positions were frequently polymorphic within one or more lineages but did not define phylogenetic subgroups. Such a standardized classification of HPV16 variants is important for future epidemiological and biological studies of the carcinogenic potential of HPV16 variant lineages. PMID:22491459

Cornet, Iris; Gheit, Tarik; Franceschi, Silvia; Vignat, Jerome; Burk, Robert D; Sylla, Bakary S; Tommasino, Massimo; Clifford, Gary M

2012-06-01

296

Phylogenetic and Biogeographic Analysis of Sphaerexochine Trilobites  

E-print Network

: Sphaerexochinae is a speciose and widely distributed group of cheirurid trilobites. Their temporal range extends from the earliest Ordovician through the Silurian, and they survived the end Ordovician mass extinction event (the second largest mass extinction... classification of the group, and will be useful in elucidating the effects the end Ordovician mass extinction had on the evolutionary and biogeographic history of the group. Methodology/Principal Findings: Cladistic parsimony analysis of cheirurid trilobites...

Congreve, Curtis Raymond; Lieberman, Bruce S.

2011-06-01

297

Brain extraction based on locally linear representation-based classification.  

PubMed

Brain extraction is an important procedure in brain image analysis. Although numerous brain extraction methods have been presented, enhancing brain extraction methods remains challenging because brain MRI images exhibit complex characteristics, such as anatomical variability and intensity differences across different sequences and scanners. To address this problem, we present a Locally Linear Representation-based Classification (LLRC) method for brain extraction. A novel classification framework is derived by introducing the locally linear representation to the classical classification model. Under this classification framework, a common label fusion approach can be considered as a special case and thoroughly interpreted. Locality is important to calculate fusion weights for LLRC; this factor is also considered to determine that Local Anchor Embedding is more applicable in solving locally linear coefficients compared with other linear representation approaches. Moreover, LLRC supplies a way to learn the optimal classification scores of the training samples in the dictionary to obtain accurate classification. The International Consortium for Brain Mapping and the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative databases were used to build a training dataset containing 70 scans. To evaluate the proposed method, we used four publicly available datasets (IBSR1, IBSR2, LPBA40, and ADNI3T, with a total of 241 scans). Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the four common brain extraction methods (BET, BSE, GCUT, and ROBEX), and is comparable to the performance of BEaST, while being more accurate on some datasets compared with BEaST. PMID:24525169

Huang, Meiyan; Yang, Wei; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Yao; Zhang, Yu; Chen, Wufan; Feng, Qianjin

2014-05-15

298

Parametric analysis of alignment and phylogenetic uncertainty.  

PubMed

To infer a phylogenetic tree from a set of DNA sequences, typically a multiple alignment is first used to obtain homologous bases. The inferred phylogeny can be very sensitive to how the alignment was created. We develop tools for analyzing the robustness of phylogeny to perturbations in alignment parameters in the NW algorithm. Our main tool is parametric alignment, with novel improvements that are of general interest in parametric inference. Using parametric alignment and a Gaussian distribution on alignment parameters, we derive probabilities of optimal alignment summaries and inferred phylogenies. We apply our method to analyze intronic sequences from Drosophila flies. We show that phylogeny estimates can be sensitive to the choice of alignment parameters, and that parametric alignment elucidates the relationship between alignment parameters and reconstructed trees. PMID:21409513

Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; Eriksson, Nicholas; Huggins, Peter

2011-04-01

299

Inferring phylogenetic networks from gene order data.  

PubMed

Existing algorithms allow us to infer phylogenetic networks from sequences (DNA, protein or binary), sets of trees, and distance matrices, but there are no methods to build them using the gene order data as an input. Here we describe several methods to build split networks from the gene order data, perform simulation studies, and use our methods for analyzing and interpreting different real gene order datasets. All proposed methods are based on intermediate data, which can be generated from genome structures under study and used as an input for network construction algorithms. Three intermediates are used: set of jackknife trees, distance matrix, and binary encoding. According to simulations and case studies, the best intermediates are jackknife trees and distance matrix (when used with Neighbor-Net algorithm). Binary encoding can also be useful, but only when the methods mentioned above cannot be used. PMID:24069602

Morozov, Alexey Anatolievich; Galachyants, Yuri Pavlovich; Likhoshway, Yelena Valentinovna

2013-01-01

300

Phylogenetic Framework and Molecular Signatures for the Main Clades of the Phylum Actinobacteria  

PubMed Central

Summary: The phylum Actinobacteria harbors many important human pathogens and also provides one of the richest sources of natural products, including numerous antibiotics and other compounds of biotechnological interest. Thus, a reliable phylogeny of this large phylum and the means to accurately identify its different constituent groups are of much interest. Detailed phylogenetic and comparative analyses of >150 actinobacterial genomes reported here form the basis for achieving these objectives. In phylogenetic trees based upon 35 conserved proteins, most of the main groups of Actinobacteria as well as a number of their superageneric clades are resolved. We also describe large numbers of molecular markers consisting of conserved signature indels in protein sequences and whole proteins that are specific for either all Actinobacteria or their different clades (viz., orders, families, genera, and subgenera) at various taxonomic levels. These signatures independently support the existence of different phylogenetic clades, and based upon them, it is now possible to delimit the phylum Actinobacteria (excluding Coriobacteriia) and most of its major groups in clear molecular terms. The species distribution patterns of these markers also provide important information regarding the interrelationships among different main orders of Actinobacteria. The identified molecular markers, in addition to enabling the development of a stable and reliable phylogenetic framework for this phylum, also provide novel and powerful means for the identification of different groups of Actinobacteria in diverse environments. Genetic and biochemical studies on these Actinobacteria-specific markers should lead to the discovery of novel biochemical and/or other properties that are unique to different groups of Actinobacteria. PMID:22390973

Gao, Beile

2012-01-01

301

Preprocessing remotely-sensed data for efficient analysis and classification  

SciTech Connect

Interpreting remotely-sensed data typically requires expensive, specialized computing machinery capable of storing and manipulating large amounts of data quickly. In this paper, we present a method for accurately analyzing and categorizing remotely-sensed data on much smaller, less expensive platforms. Data size is reduced in such a way an efficient, interactive method of data classification.

Kelly, P.M.; White, J.M.

1993-02-01

302

Preprocessing remotely-sensed data for efficient analysis and classification  

SciTech Connect

Interpreting remotely-sensed data typically requires expensive, specialized computing machinery capable of storing and manipulating large amounts of data quickly. In this paper, we present a method for accurately analyzing and categorizing remotely-sensed data on much smaller, less expensive platforms. Data size is reduced in such a way an efficient, interactive method of data classification.

Kelly, P.M.; White, J.M.

1993-01-01

303

Novel Artificial Neural Networks For Remote-Sensing Data Classification  

E-print Network

traditional neuron models in solving the XOR problem and image processing problems. This paper discusses with satellite multi-spectral image data and results show that this neural network model is more accurate for the classification of remote-sensing data is an important topic in digital image processing. Using these methods

Michel, Howard E.

304

Application of Genetic Programming to Induction of Linear Classification Trees  

E-print Network

an optimal decision tree for a given dataset is NP­complete. Genetic programming (GP) [5] is used as a stochastic search technique for find­ ing accurate decision trees. Genetic programming [5] is a techniqueApplication of Genetic Programming to Induction of Linear Classification Trees Martijn Bot William

Fernandez, Thomas

305

Estimating classification images with generalized linear and additive models  

PubMed Central

Conventional approaches to modeling classification image data can be described in terms of a standard linear model (LM). We show how the problem can be characterized as a Generalized Linear Model (GLM) with a Bernoulli distribution. We demonstrate via simulation that this approach is more accurate in estimating the underlying template in the absence of internal noise. With increasing internal noise, however, the advantage of the GLM over the LM decreases and GLM is no more accurate than LM. We then introduce the Generalized Additive Model (GAM), an extension of GLM that can be used to estimate smooth classification images adaptively. We show that this approach is more robust to the presence of internal noise and, finally, we demonstrate that GAM is readily adapted to estimation of higher-order (nonlinear) classification images and to testing their significance. PMID:19146276

Knoblauch, Kenneth; Maloney, Laurence T.

2008-01-01

306

Segmentation assisted food classification for dietary assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate methods and tools to assess food and nutrient intake are essential for the association between diet and health. Preliminary studies have indicated that the use of a mobile device with a built-in camera to obtain images of the food consumed may provide a less burdensome and more accurate method for dietary assessment. We are developing methods to identify food items using a single image acquired from the mobile device. Our goal is to automatically determine the regions in an image where a particular food is located (segmentation) and correctly identify the food type based on its features (classification or food labeling). Images of foods are segmented using Normalized Cuts based on intensity and color. Color and texture features are extracted from each segmented food region. Classification decisions for each segmented region are made using support vector machine methods. The segmentation of each food region is refined based on feedback from the output of classifier to provide more accurate estimation of the quantity of food consumed.

Zhu, Fengqing; Bosch, Marc; Schap, TusaRebecca; Khanna, Nitin; Ebert, David S.; Boushey, Carol J.; Delp, Edward J.

2011-03-01

307

PHYLO-ASP: Phylogenetic Systematics with Answer Set Programming  

E-print Network

,8,9,10]. Parasites occur worldwide, causing malnutrition, sickness, and even sometimes the death of their hosts and phylogenetic net- works, and discusses its applicability and effectiveness on some real taxa. 1 Introduction characters. Some of the phylogenetic trees and net- works computed by PHYLO-ASP are plausible from the point

Erdem, Esra

308

Searching for Convergence in Phylogenetic Markov Chain Monte Carlo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) is a methodology that is gaining widespread use in the phylogenetics community and is central to phylogenetic software packages such as MrBayes. An important issue for users of MCMC methods is how to select appropriate values for adjustable parameters such as the length of the Markov chain or chains, the sampling density, the proposal mechanism,

ROBERT G. BEIKO; JONATHAN M. KEITH; TIMOTHY J. HARLOW; Mark Ragan

2006-01-01

309

Phylogenetic relationships of the North American chorus frogs (Pseudacris: Hylidae)  

E-print Network

Phylogenetic relationships of the North American chorus frogs (Pseudacris: Hylidae) Emily C We examined phylogenetic relationships of the North American chorus frogs (Pseudacris: Hylidae) from are consistent and reveal four strongly supported clades within Pseudacris: (1) A West Coast Clade containing

310

Developmental Data and Phylogenetic Systematics: Evolution of the Vertebrate Limb  

Microsoft Academic Search

SYNOPSIS. Among the primary contributions of phylogenetic systematics to the synthesis of developmental biology and evolution are phylogenetic hypotheses. Phy- logenetic hypotheses are critical in interpreting the patterns of evolution of devel- opmental genes and processes, as are morphological data. Using a robust phylog- eny, the evolutionary history of individual morphological or developmental fea- tures can be traced and ancestral

Paula M. Mabee

2000-01-01

311

Exploration of phylogenetic data using a global sequence analysis method  

PubMed Central

Background Molecular phylogenetic methods are based on alignments of nucleic or peptidic sequences. The tremendous increase in molecular data permits phylogenetic analyses of very long sequences and of many species, but also requires methods to help manage large datasets. Results Here we explore the phylogenetic signal present in molecular data by genomic signatures, defined as the set of frequencies of short oligonucleotides present in DNA sequences. Although violating many of the standard assumptions of traditional phylogenetic analyses – in particular explicit statements of homology inherent in character matrices – the use of the signature does permit the analysis of very long sequences, even those that are unalignable, and is therefore most useful in cases where alignment is questionable. We compare the results obtained by traditional phylogenetic methods to those inferred by the signature method for two genes: RAG1, which is easily alignable, and 18S RNA, where alignments are often ambiguous for some regions. We also apply this method to a multigene data set of 33 genes for 9 bacteria and one archea species as well as to the whole genome of a set of 16 ?-proteobacteria. In addition to delivering phylogenetic results comparable to traditional methods, the comparison of signatures for the sequences involved in the bacterial example identified putative candidates for horizontal gene transfers. Conclusion The signature method is therefore a fast tool for exploring phylogenetic data, providing not only a pretreatment for discovering new sequence relationships, but also for identifying cases of sequence evolution that could confound traditional phylogenetic analysis. PMID:16280081

Chapus, Charles; Dufraigne, Christine; Edwards, Scott; Giron, Alain; Fertil, Bernard; Deschavanne, Patrick

2005-01-01

312

Disturbance drives phylogenetic community structure in coastal dune vegetation  

E-print Network

values. We calculated phylogenetic signal for Grime's C, S and R values using Blomberg's K3 and Abouheif and evolutionary time- scales. The study region was the coastal dune area along the west coast of Jutland, Denmark the relationship between Grime's CSR values and phylogenetic community structure we correlated NRI with C, S and R

Schierup, Mikkel Heide

313

Visualising very large phylogenetic trees in three dimensional hyperbolic space  

PubMed Central

Background Common existing phylogenetic tree visualisation tools are not able to display readable trees with more than a few thousand nodes. These existing methodologies are based in two dimensional space. Results We introduce the idea of visualising phylogenetic trees in three dimensional hyperbolic space with the Walrus graph visualisation tool and have developed a conversion tool that enables the conversion of standard phylogenetic tree formats to Walrus' format. With Walrus, it becomes possible to visualise and navigate phylogenetic trees with more than 100,000 nodes. Conclusion Walrus enables desktop visualisation of very large phylogenetic trees in 3 dimensional hyperbolic space. This application is potentially useful for visualisation of the tree of life and for functional genomics derivatives, like The Adaptive Evolution Database (TAED). PMID:15117420

Hughes, Timothy; Hyun, Young; Liberles, David A

2004-01-01

314

Open Reading Frame Phylogenetic Analysis on the Cloud  

PubMed Central

Phylogenetic analysis has become essential in researching the evolutionary relationships between viruses. These relationships are depicted on phylogenetic trees, in which viruses are grouped based on sequence similarity. Viral evolutionary relationships are identified from open reading frames rather than from complete sequences. Recently, cloud computing has become popular for developing internet-based bioinformatics tools. Biocloud is an efficient, scalable, and robust bioinformatics computing service. In this paper, we propose a cloud-based open reading frame phylogenetic analysis service. The proposed service integrates the Hadoop framework, virtualization technology, and phylogenetic analysis methods to provide a high-availability, large-scale bioservice. In a case study, we analyze the phylogenetic relationships among Norovirus. Evolutionary relationships are elucidated by aligning different open reading frame sequences. The proposed platform correctly identifies the evolutionary relationships between members of Norovirus. PMID:23671843

2013-01-01

315

Phylogenetic relationship among horseshoe crab species: effect of substitution models on phylogenetic analyses.  

PubMed

The horseshoe crabs, known as living fossils, have maintained their morphology almost unchanged for the past 150 million years. The little morphological differentiation among horseshoe crab lineages has resulted in substantial controversy concerning the phylogenetic relationship among the extant species of horseshoe crabs, especially among the three species in the Indo-Pacific region. Previous studies suggest that the three species constitute a phylogenetically unresolvable trichotomy, the result of a cladogenetic process leading to the formation of all three Indo-Pacific species in a short geological time. Data from two mitochondrial genes (for 16S ribosomal rRNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit I) and one nuclear gene (for coagulogen) in the four species of horseshoe crabs and outgroup species were used in a phylogenetic analysis with various substitution models. All three genes yield the same tree topology, with Tachypleus-gigas and Carcinoscorpius-rotundicauda grouped together as a monophyletic taxon. This topology is significantly better than all the alternatives when evaluated with the RELL (resampling estimated log-likelihood) method. PMID:12116485

Xia, X

2000-03-01

316

Finding Single Copy Genes Out of Sequenced Genomes for Multilocus Phylogenetics in Non-Model Fungi  

PubMed Central

Historically, fungal multigene phylogenies have been reconstructed based on a small number of commonly used genes. The availability of complete fungal genomes has given rise to a new wave of model organisms that provide large number of genes potentially useful for building robust gene genealogies. Unfortunately, cross-utilization of these resources to study phylogenetic relationships in the vast majority of non-model fungi (i.e. “orphan” species) remains an unexamined question. To address this problem, we developed a method coupled with a program named “PHYLORPH” (PHYLogenetic markers for ORPHans). The method screens fungal genomic databases (107 fungal genomes fully sequenced) for single copy genes that might be easily transferable and well suited for studies at low taxonomic levels (for example, in species complexes) in non-model fungal species. To maximize the chance to target genes with informative regions, PHYLORPH displays a graphical evaluation system based on the estimation of nucleotide divergence relative to substitution type. The usefulness of this approach was tested by developing markers in four non-model groups of fungal pathogens. For each pathogen considered, 7 to 40% of the 10–15 best candidate genes proposed by PHYLORPH yielded sequencing success. Levels of polymorphism of these genes were compared with those obtained for some genes traditionally used to build fungal phylogenies (e.g. nuclear rDNA, ?-tubulin, ?-actin, Elongation factor EF-1?). These genes were ranked among the best-performing ones and resolved accurately taxa relationships in each of the four non-model groups of fungi considered. We envision that PHYLORPH will constitute a useful tool for obtaining new and accurate phylogenetic markers to resolve relationships between closely related non-model fungal species. PMID:21533204

Feau, Nicolas; Decourcelle, Thibaut; Husson, Claude; Desprez-Loustau, Marie-Laure; Dutech, Cyril

2011-01-01

317

Land Cover Classification Using ALOS Imagery For Penang, Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the potential of integrating optical and radar remote sensing data to improve automatic land cover mapping. The analysis involved standard image processing, and consists of spectral signature extraction and application of a statistical decision rule to identify land cover categories. A maximum likelihood classifier is utilized to determine different land cover categories. Ground reference data from sites throughout the study area are collected for training and validation. The land cover information was extracted from the digital data using PCI Geomatica 10.3.2 software package. The variations in classification accuracy due to a number of radar imaging processing techniques are studied. The relationship between the processing window and the land classification is also investigated. The classification accuracies from the optical and radar feature combinations are studied. Our research finds that fusion of radar and optical significantly improved classification accuracies. This study indicates that the land cover/use can be mapped accurately by using this approach.

Sim, C. K.; Abdullah, K.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Lim, H. S.

2014-02-01

318

Accurate and Reliable Cancer Classification Based on Probabilistic Inference of Pathway Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Not Available Bibtex entry for this abstract Preferred format for this abstract (see Preferences) Find Similar Abstracts: Use: Authors Title Return: Query Results Return items starting with number Query Form Database: Astronomy Physics arXiv e-prints

Junjie Su; Byung-Jun Yoon; Edward R. Dougherty; Gustavo Stolovitzky

2009-01-01

319

Threatened Species and the Potential Loss of Phylogenetic Diversity: Conservation Scenarios Based on Estimated Extinction Probabilities and Phylogenetic Risk Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

New species conservation strategies, including the EDGE of Existence (EDGE) program, have ex- panded threatened species assessments by integrating information about species' phylogenetic distinctiveness. Distinctiveness has been measured through simple scores that assign shared credit among species for evolu- tionary heritage represented by the deeper phylogenetic branches. A species with a high score combined with a high extinction probability receives

DANIEL P. FAITH

2008-01-01

320

Phylogenetic analysis and temporal diversification of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) based on nuclear genes and morphology  

PubMed Central

Background Phylogenetic analyses provide a framework for examining the evolution of morphological and molecular diversity, interpreting patterns in biogeography, and achieving a stable classification. The generic and suprageneric relationships within mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are poorly resolved, making these subjects difficult to address. Results We carried out maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood, including Bayesian, analyses on a data set consisting of six nuclear genes and 80 morphological characters to assess their ability to resolve relationships among 25 genera. We also estimated divergence times based on sequence data and fossil calibration points, using Bayesian relaxed clock methods. Strong support was recovered for the basal position and monophyly of the subfamily Anophelinae and the tribes Aedini and Sabethini of subfamily Culicinae. Divergence times for major culicid lineages date to the early Cretaceous. Conclusions Deeper relationships within the family remain poorly resolved, suggesting the need for additional taxonomic sampling. Our results support the notion of rapid radiations early in the diversification of mosquitoes. PMID:20028549

2009-01-01

321

Neural Network Classification of Stellar Spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MK classification system as first proposed in 1943 by Morgan, Keenan & Kellman (1943) has been an important tool in stellar and galactic astrophysics. Currently, MK classification is a useful approach to obtaining general information on stellar spectra and selecting stars for further study. However, the existing manual methods of obtaining classifications are slow, making it infeasible for them to be applied to the vast numbers of spectra which will be obtained in future spectral surveys. In this project I investigate the application of artificial neural networks to the automation of MK spectral classification. For the purposes of this project, I digitized and reduced 100 objective prism plates taken from the Michigan Spectral Survey (Houk 1994). Using software I developed, I extracted a set of over 5000 spectra at a resolution of ~3 AA covering the wavelength range 3800-5200 AA (Bailer-Jones, Irwin & von Hippel 1997a). These spectra were used in conjunction with their two-dimensional classifications listed in Michigan Henry Draper Catalogue (Houk & Smith-Moore 1988 and references therein) to develop supervised neural network classifiers. I show that neural networks can give accurate spectral type classifications (1 sigma = 0.82 subtypes, sigmaRMS = 1.09 subtypes) across the full range of spectral types present in the database (B2-M7); I show also that the networks yield correct luminosity classes for over 95% of both dwarfs and giants with a high degree of confidence (Bailer-Jones, Irwin & von Hippel 1997b). The high level of reproducibility of neural network classifications is demonstrated and an analysis of the effect of the complexity of the neural network on its classifications is given. For the purposes of many analyses, stellar spectra contain a large amount of redundant (correlated) information. I investigate the application of Principal Components Analysis (PCA) to the optimal compression of spectra. I show that PCA can compress the spectra by a factor of over 30 whilst retaining more than 95% of the variance in the data set. Furthermore, this compression leads to no decrease in classifier performance, indicating that the PCA compression from 820 to 25 components results in no significant loss of relevant information. I also demonstrate how PCA acts as a filter of noise and bogus features in a spectrum and can be used to identify unusual spectra. The ultimate goal of stellar classification should be a physical parameterization of the stars. I examine the application of neural networks to the problem of obtaining physical parameters (Teff, log g etc.) directly from an observed spectrum, by training a neural network on synthetic spectra and then applying it to observed spectra (Bailer-Jones et al. 1997). By determining physical parameters in this way, any assumptions and limitations of an intermediate classification scheme are avoided. However, I have used the effective temperature (Teff) inferred by the networks to produce an accurate calibration of the MK system for dwarf, giant and sub-giant stars, based on the set of 5000 observed spectra. This calibration agrees well with a number of calibrations published in the literature. It is demonstrated through the metallicity dependence of the derived temperature calibration that the neural networks are sensitive to the metallicity features in the observed spectra. With further work it is likely that neural networks will be able to determine metallicity reliably using only the optical stellar spectrum.

Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.

1997-08-01

322

Phylogenetic and biochemical characterization of the oil-producing yeast Lipomyces starkeyi.  

PubMed

Lipomyces starkeyi is an oleaginous yeast, and has been classified in four distinct groups, i.e., sensu stricto and custers ?, ?, and ?. Recently, L. starkeyi clusters ?, ?, and ? were recognized independent species, Lipomyces mesembrius, Lipomyces doorenjongii, and Lipomyces kockii, respectively. In this study, we investigated phylogenetic relationships within L. starkeyi, including 18 Japanese wild strains, and its related species, based on internal transcribed spacer sequences and evaluated biochemical characters which reflected the phylogenetic tree. Phylogenetic analysis showed that most of Japanese wild strains formed one clade and this clade is more closely related to L. starkeyi s.s. clade including one Japanese wild strain than other clades. Only three Japanese wild strains were genetically distinct from L. starkeyi. Lipomyces mesembrius and L. doorenjongii shared one clade, while L. kockii was genetically distinct from the other three species. Strains in L. starkeyi s.s. clade converted six sugars, D-glucose, D-xylose, L-arabinose, D-galactose, D-mannose, and D-cellobiose to produce high total lipid yields. The Japanese wild strains in subclades B, C, and D converted D-glucose, D-galactose, and D-mannose to produce high total lipid yields. Lipomyces mesembrius was divided into two subclades. Lipomyces mesembrius CBS 7737 converted D-xylose, L-arabinose, D-galactose, and D-cellobiose, while the other L. mesembrius strains did not. Lipomyces doorenjongii converted all the sugars except D-cellobiose. In comparison to L. starkeyi, L. mesembrius, and L. doorenjongii, L. kockii produced higher total lipid yields from D-glucose, D-galactose, and D-mannose. The type of sugar converted depended on the subclade classification elucidated in this study. PMID:21927827

Oguri, Emiko; Masaki, Kazuo; Naganuma, Takafumi; Iefuji, Haruyuki

2012-02-01

323

Reconstruction of Family-Level Phylogenetic Relationships within Demospongiae (Porifera) Using Nuclear Encoded Housekeeping Genes  

PubMed Central

Background Demosponges are challenging for phylogenetic systematics because of their plastic and relatively simple morphologies and many deep divergences between major clades. To improve understanding of the phylogenetic relationships within Demospongiae, we sequenced and analyzed seven nuclear housekeeping genes involved in a variety of cellular functions from a diverse group of sponges. Methodology/Principal Findings We generated data from each of the four sponge classes (i.e., Calcarea, Demospongiae, Hexactinellida, and Homoscleromorpha), but focused on family-level relationships within demosponges. With data for 21 newly sampled families, our Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian-based approaches recovered previously phylogenetically defined taxa: Keratosap, Myxospongiaep, Spongillidap, Haploscleromorphap (the marine haplosclerids) and Democlaviap. We found conflicting results concerning the relationships of Keratosap and Myxospongiaep to the remaining demosponges, but our results strongly supported a clade of Haploscleromorphap+Spongillidap+Democlaviap. In contrast to hypotheses based on mitochondrial genome and ribosomal data, nuclear housekeeping gene data suggested that freshwater sponges (Spongillidap) are sister to Haploscleromorphap rather than part of Democlaviap. Within Keratosap, we found equivocal results as to the monophyly of Dictyoceratida. Within Myxospongiaep, Chondrosida and Verongida were monophyletic. A well-supported clade within Democlaviap, Tetractinellidap, composed of all sampled members of Astrophorina and Spirophorina (including the only lithistid in our analysis), was consistently revealed as the sister group to all other members of Democlaviap. Within Tetractinellidap, we did not recover monophyletic Astrophorina or Spirophorina. Our results also reaffirmed the monophyly of order Poecilosclerida (excluding Desmacellidae and Raspailiidae), and polyphyly of Hadromerida and Halichondrida. Conclusions/Significance These results, using an independent nuclear gene set, confirmed many hypotheses based on ribosomal and/or mitochondrial genes, and they also identified clades with low statistical support or clades that conflicted with traditional morphological classification. Our results will serve as a basis for future exploration of these outstanding questions using more taxon- and gene-rich datasets. PMID:23372644

Hill, Malcolm S.; Hill, April L.; Lopez, Jose; Peterson, Kevin J.; Pomponi, Shirley; Diaz, Maria C.; Thacker, Robert W.; Adamska, Maja; Boury-Esnault, Nicole; Cardenas, Paco; Chaves-Fonnegra, Andia; Danka, Elizabeth; De Laine, Bre-Onna; Formica, Dawn; Hajdu, Eduardo; Lobo-Hajdu, Gisele; Klontz, Sarah; Morrow, Christine C.; Patel, Jignasa; Picton, Bernard; Pisani, Davide; Pohlmann, Deborah; Redmond, Niamh E.; Reed, John; Richey, Stacy; Riesgo, Ana; Rubin, Ewelina; Russell, Zach; Rutzler, Klaus; Sperling, Erik A.; di Stefano, Michael; Tarver, James E.; Collins, Allen G.

2013-01-01

324

Novel accurate bacterial discrimination by MALDI-time-of-flight MS based on ribosomal proteins coding in S10-spc-alpha operon at strain level S10-GERMS.  

PubMed

Matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is one of the most widely used mass-based approaches for bacterial identification and classification because of the simple sample preparation and extremely rapid analysis within a few minutes. To establish the accurate MALDI-TOF MS bacterial discrimination method at strain level, the ribosomal subunit proteins coded in the S10-spc-alpha operon, which encodes half of the ribosomal subunit protein and is highly conserved in eubacterial genomes, were selected as reliable biomarkers. This method, named the S10-GERMS method, revealed that the strains of genus Pseudomonas were successfully identified and discriminated at species and strain levels, respectively; therefore, the S10-GERMS method was further applied to discriminate the pathovar of P. syringae. The eight selected biomarkers (L24, L30, S10, S12, S14, S16, S17, and S19) suggested the rapid discrimination of P. syringae at the strain (pathovar) level. The S10-GERMS method appears to be a powerful tool for rapid and reliable bacterial discrimination and successful phylogenetic characterization. In this article, an overview of the utilization of results from the S10-GERMS method is presented, highlighting the characterization of the Lactobacillus casei group and discrimination of the bacteria of genera Bacillus and Sphingopyxis despite only two and one base difference in the 16S rRNA gene sequence, respectively. PMID:23686278

Tamura, Hiroto; Hotta, Yudai; Sato, Hiroaki

2013-08-01

325

Text classification from positive and unlabeled documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most existing studies of text classification assume that\\u000a the training data are completely labeled. In reality,\\u000a however, many information retrieval problems can be more\\u000a accurately described as learning a binary classifier from\\u000a a set of incompletely labeled examples, where we typically\\u000a have a small number of labeled positive examples and a\\u000a very large number of unlabeled examples. In this paper,

Hwanjo Yu; ChengXiang Zhai; Jiawei Han

2003-01-01

326

Hierarchical bayesian clustering for automatic text classification  

E-print Network

Text classification, the grouping of texts into several clusters, has been used as a means of improving both the efficiency and the effective-Dess of text retrieval/categorization In this paper we propose a hierarchical clustering algorithm that constructs a Bet of clusters having the maximum Bayesian posterior probability, the probability that the given texts are classified into clusters We call the algorithm Hierarchical Bayesian Clustering (HBC) The advantages of HBC are experimentally verified from several viewpoints (1) HBC can re-construct the original clusters more accurately than do other non probabilistic algorithms (2) When

Makoto Iwayama

1995-01-01

327

Indigenous vs. International soil classification system in Ohangwena Region, Namibia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This poster will present soil diversity in North-Central Namibia, with a focus on soil fertility. It aims to show the correspondence and differences between an international and an indigenous soil classification system. International classifications, like World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB), are very helpful tools to share information in soil science and agriculture. However, these classification are meaningful for large scale soil processes understanding but local specificities cannot be understood and differentiated. On the other hand, knowledge that farmers have on cultivated soils is very accurate and adapted to local agricultural use. However, their knowledge should be properly defined and translated to be used by scientists. Once their knowledge can be read by scientists, it provides very powerful tools for soil mapping and characterization. Analysis so far has focused on the area of Ondobe (30 km West from Eenhana, Ohangwena region). This area is located between two major systems, the Cuvelai floodplain to the West and the Kalahari Woodlands to the East. While all the cultivated soils from this region would be classified as Arenosols (WRB), the local classification differentiates five major soil types (Omutunda, Ehenge, Omufitu, Elondo, Ehenene). In WRB classification, these soils correspond, roughly, to specific Arenosols, respectively Hypereutric, Albic, Haplic, Rubic and Salic Arenosols. Further work will evaluate, the local variation inside each indigenous soil types. Hierarchical classification using soil field descriptors will be used to create statistic soil groups. These new groups will then be compared to each classification system.

Prudat, Brice; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.; Bloemertz, Lena

2014-05-01

328

High intraindividual variation in internal transcibed spacer sequences in Aeschynanthus (Gesneriaceae): implications for phylogenetics.  

PubMed Central

Aeschynanthus (Gesneriaceae) is a large genus of tropical epiphytes that is widely distributed from the Himalayas and China throughout South-East Asia to New Guinea and the Solomon Islands. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) consensus sequences of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of Aeschynanthus nuclear ribosomal DNA showed sequence polymorphism that was difficult to interpret. Cloning individual sequences from the PCR product generated a phylogenetic tree of 23 Aeschynanthus species (two clones per species). The intraindividual clone pairs varied from 0 to 5.01%. We suggest that the high intraindividual sequence variation results from low molecular drive in the ITS of Aeschynanthus. However, this study shows that, despite the variation found within some individuals, it is still possible to use these data to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships of the species, suggesting that clone variation, although persistent, does not pre-date the divergence of Aeschynanthus species. The Aeschynanthus analysis revealed two major clades with different but overlapping geographic distributions and reflected classification based on morphology (particularly seed hair type). PMID:10983824

Denduangboripant, J; Cronk, Q C

2000-01-01

329

Morphological Phylogenetic Analysis of Seven Varieties of Ficus deltoidea Jack from the Malay Peninsula of Malaysia  

PubMed Central

This study is the first report to suggest a morphological phylogenetic framework for the seven varieties of Ficus deltoidea Jack (Ficus: Moraceae) from the Malay Peninsula of Malaysia. Several molecular-based classifications on the genus Ficus had been proposed, but neither had discussed the relationship between seven varieties of F. deltoidea to its allies nor within the varieties. The relationship between seven varieties of F. deltoidea is still debated due to the extreme morphological variabilities and ambiguous boundaries between taxa. Thus, the correct identification of these varieties is important as several morphological characters are variety-specific. To test the monophyly and further resolved the relationship in F. deltoidea, a morphological phylogenetic analysis was conducted based on herbarium specimens representing the seven varieties of F. deltoidea that were collected from the Malay Peninsula of Malaysia, by using related species of the genus Ficus; F. grossularioides, F. ischnopoda and F. oleifolia as the outgroups. Parsimony and neighbour-joining analyses indicated that F. deltoidea is monophyletic, in that the seven varieties of F. deltoidea nested into two clades; clade subspecies deltoidea (var. deltoidea, var. bilobata, var. angustifolia, var. kunstleri and var. trengganuensis) and clade subspecies motleyana (var. intermedia and var. motleyana). PMID:23285045

Fatihah, Hasan N. N.; Mat, Nashriyah; Zaimah, Abdul R. N.; Zuhailah, Mazlan N.; Norhaslinda, Haron; Khairil, Mahmud; Ghani, Abdul Y.; Ali, Abdul M.

2012-01-01

330

Phylogenetic study of Fulgensia and allied Caloplaca and Xanthoria species (Teloschistaceae, lichen-forming ascomycota).  

PubMed

Fulgensia Massal. & De Not. is a widespread genus with considerable morphological and ecological heterogeneity across species. For this reason, the taxonomic delimitation of this genus has been controversial. Relationships among species of Fulgensia, Caloplaca Th. Fr., and Xanthoria (Fr.) Th. Fr. (Lecanorales) were investigated based on a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of 62 DNA sequences from the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region using maximum parsimony (MP) and likelihood (ML). Ambiguously aligned (INAASE coded characters) and unambiguous regions were analyzed separately and combined when using MP as the optimization criterion. All our analyses confirm the polyphyly of this genus as three distinct lineages: Fulgensia sensu stricto, F. australis, and F. schistidii. We report here that Caloplaca, Fulgensia, and Xanthoria together form two main sister lineages. One lineage includes Fulgensia schistidii (part of the C. saxicola group), Xanthoria, and most of the lobed Caloplaca species belonging to the Gasparrinia group. A second main lineage comprises the remaining Caloplaca species, Fulgensia sensu stricto, and F. australis. Therefore, the traditional generic level classification schemes for the family Teloschistaceae appear to be highly artificial. All three genera were found to be nonmonophyletic. We demonstrate here that the ITS is appropriate to resolve relationships across the Teloschistaceae. However, a combination of an MP analysis, in which ambiguously aligned regions are accommodated using INAASE, with an ML analysis, in which phylogenetic confidence is estimated using a Bayesian approach, is needed. PMID:21659209

Gaya, Ester; Lutzoni, François; Zoller, Stefan; Navarro-Rosinés, Pere

2003-07-01

331

Phylogenetic Relationships in Bupleurum (Apiaceae) Based on Nuclear Ribosomal DNA ITS Sequence Data  

PubMed Central

• Backgroud and Aims The genus Bupleurum has long been recognized as a natural group, but its infrageneric classification is controversial and has not yet been studied in the light of sequence data. • Methods Phylogenetic relationships among 32 species (35 taxa) of the genus Bupleurum were investigated by comparative sequencing of the ITS region of the 18–26S nuclear ribosomal DNA repeat. Exemplar taxa from all currently accepted sections and subsections of the genus were included, along with outgroups from four other early branching Apioideae genera (Anginon, Heteromorpha, Physospermum and Pleurospermum). • Key Results Phylogenies generated by maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and neighbour?joining methods show similar topologies, demonstrating monophyly of Bupleurum and the division of the genus into two major clades. This division is also supported by analysis of the 5.8S coding sequence alone. The first branching clade is formed by all the species of the genus with pinnate?reticulate veined leaves and B. rigidum with a unique type of leaf venation. The other major clade includes the remaining species studied, all of which have more or less parallel?veined leaves. • Conclusions These phylogenetic results do not agree with any previous classifications of the genus. Molecular data also suggest that the endemic Macaronesian species B. salicifolium is a neoendemic, as the sequence divergence between the populations in Madeira and Canary Islands, and closer mainland relatives in north?west Africa is small. All endemic north?west African taxa are included in a single unresolved but well?supported clade, and the low nucleotide variation of ITS suggests a recent radiation within this group. The only southern hemisphere species, B. mundii (southern Africa), is shown to be a neoendemic, apparently closely related to B. falcatum, a Eurasian species. PMID:14980972

NEVES, SUSANA S.; WATSON, MARK F.

2004-01-01

332

DINOFLAJ: Dinoflagellate Classification Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Rob Fensome and colleagues at the Geological Survey of Canada (Atlantic division), Bedford Institute of Oceanography, have put together DINOFLAJ, a classification database on dinoflagellates. Best known in their relation to "red tides" and paralytic shellfish poisoning, dinoflagellates are single-celled organisms that occur worldwide. The DINOFLAJ database contains current classification information on "fossil and living dinoflagellates down to generic rank, and an index of fossil dinoflagellates at generic, specific, and infraspecific ranks." A glossary and an extensive reference list complete the site.

Fensome, Robert A.; Macrae, Andrew.; Williams, G. L. (Graham L.)

1998-01-01

333

Phylogeny and classification of the Catantopidae at the tribal level (Orthoptera, Acridoidea)  

PubMed Central

Abstract The grasshopper family Catantopidae is a well-known group, whose members include some of the most notorious agricultural pests. The existing classifications of the family are mostly utilitarian rather than being based on phylogenetic analysis and therefore unable to provide the stability desired for such an economically important group. In the present study, we present the first comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the family based on morphology. By extensively sampling from the Chinese fauna, we included in the present analysis multiple representatives of each of the previously recognized tribes in the family. In total, we examined 94 genera represented by 240 species and evaluated 116 characters, including 84 for external morphology and 32 for male genitalia. The final matrix consists of 86 ingroup taxa and 88 characters. Our phylogenetic analyses resulted in a high resolution of the basal relationships of the family while showed considerable uncertainty about the relationships among some crown taxa. We further evaluated the usefulness of morphological characters in phylogeny reconstruction of the catantopids by examining character fit to the shortest trees found, and contrary to previous suggestions, our results suggest that genitalia characters are not as informative as external morphology in inferring higher-level relationship. We further suggest that earlier classification systems of grasshoppers in general and Catantopidae in particular most probably consist of many groups that are not natural due the heavy reliance on genitalia features and need to be revised in the light of future phylogenetic studies. Finally, we outlined a tentative classification scheme based on the results of our phylogenetic analysis. PMID:22287899

Li, Baoping; Liu, Zhiwei; Zheng, Zhe-Min

2011-01-01

334

Electromechanical flowmeter accurately monitors fluid flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electromechanical flowmeter remotely and accurately monitors the flow rate and total volume of a transparent liquid discharged from a dispensing system. A dual dispensing tube system provides a relative reference level which permits compensation for temperature variations.

Grant, D. J.

1965-01-01

335

Accurate capacitive metrology for atomic force microscopy  

E-print Network

This thesis presents accurate capacitive sensing metrology designed for a prototype atomic force microscope (AFM) originally developed in the MIT Precision Motion Control Lab. The capacitive measurements use a set of ...

Mazzeo, Aaron D. (Aaron David), 1979-

2005-01-01

336

Accurate determination of distortion for smartphone cameras.  

PubMed

Smartphone camera lenses have become prevalent. Photographs, and video, taken by such lenses have many useful applications which depend on accurately knowing the distortion properties of the lens. In this paper, we present an accurate method to determine smartphone camera lens distortion to an estimated average error of 0.09%. We present a linear regression method and account for keystone distortion and conjugate change. PMID:25322404

Lee, Sukmock; Kim, Byongoh; Lee, Jiyeon; Sasian, Jose

2014-10-10

337

Investigating the performance of AIC in selecting phylogenetic models.  

PubMed

Abstract The popular likelihood-based model selection criterion, Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC), is a breakthrough mathematical result derived from information theory. AIC is an approximation to Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence with the derivation relying on the assumption that the likelihood function has finite second derivatives. However, for phylogenetic estimation, given that tree space is discrete with respect to tree topology, the assumption of a continuous likelihood function with finite second derivatives is violated. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between the expected log likelihood of a candidate model, and the expected KL divergence in the context of phylogenetic tree estimation. We find that given the tree topology, AIC is an unbiased estimator of the expected KL divergence. However, when the tree topology is unknown, AIC tends to underestimate the expected KL divergence for phylogenetic models. Simulation results suggest that the degree of underestimation varies across phylogenetic models so that even for large sample sizes, the bias of AIC can result in selecting a wrong model. As the choice of phylogenetic models is essential for statistical phylogenetic inference, it is important to improve the accuracy of model selection criteria in the context of phylogenetics. PMID:24867284

Jhwueng, Dwueng-Chwuan; Huzurbazar, Snehalata; O'Meara, Brian C; Liu, Liang

2014-08-01

338

Free classification of American English dialects by native and non-native listeners  

PubMed Central

Most second language acquisition research focuses on linguistic structures, and less research has examined the acquisition of sociolinguistic patterns. The current study explored the perceptual classification of regional dialects of American English by native and non-native listeners using a free classification task. Results revealed similar classification strategies for the native and non-native listeners. However, the native listeners were more accurate overall than the non-native listeners. In addition, the non-native listeners were less able to make use of constellations of cues to accurately classify the talkers by dialect. However, the non-native listeners were able to attend to cues that were either phonologically or sociolinguistically relevant in their native language. These results suggest that non-native listeners can use information in the speech signal to classify talkers by regional dialect, but that their lack of signal-independent cultural knowledge about variation in the second language leads to less accurate classification performance. PMID:20161400

Clopper, Cynthia G.; Bradlow, Ann R.

2009-01-01

339

Ultrastructure, biology, and phylogenetic relationships of kinorhyncha.  

PubMed

The article summarizes current knowledge mainly about the (functional) morphology and ultrastructure, but also about the biology, development, and evolution of the Kinorhyncha. The Kinorhyncha are microscopic, bilaterally symmetrical, exclusively free-living, benthic, marine animals and ecologically part of the meiofauna. They occur throughout the world from the intertidal to the deep sea, generally in sediments but sometimes associated with plants or other animals. From adult stages 141 species are known, but 38 species have been described from juvenile stages. The trunk is arranged into 11 segments as evidenced by cuticular plates, sensory spots, setae or spines, nervous system, musculature, and subcuticular glands. The ultrastructure of several organ systems and the postembryonic development are known for very few species. Almost no data are available about the embryology and only a single gene has been sequenced for a single species. The phylogenetic relationships within Kinorhyncha are unresolved. Priapulida, Loricifera, and Kinorhyncha are grouped together as Scalidophora, but arguments are found for every possible sistergroup relationship within this taxon. The recently published Ecdysozoa hypothesis suggests a closer relationship of the Scalidophora, Nematoda, Nematomorpha, Tardigrada, Onychophora, and Arthropoda. PMID:21708758

Neuhaus, Birger; Higgins, Robert P

2002-07-01

340

Phylogenetic Distribution of Potential Cellulases in Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Many microorganisms contain cellulases that are important for plant cell wall degradation and overall soil ecosystem functioning. At present, we have extensive biochemical knowledge of cellulases but little is known about the phylogenetic distribution of these enzymes. To address this, we analyzed the distribution of 21,985 genes encoding proteins related to cellulose utilization in 5,123 sequenced bacterial genomes. First, we identified the distribution of glycoside hydrolases involved in cellulose utilization and synthesis at different taxonomic levels, from the phylum to the strain. Cellulose degradation/utilization capabilities appeared in nearly all major groups and resulted in strains displaying various enzyme gene combinations. Potential cellulose degraders, having both cellulases and ?-glucosidases, constituted 24% of all genomes whereas potential opportunistic strains, having ?-glucosidases only, accounted for 56%. Finally, 20% of the bacteria have no relevant enzymes and do not rely on cellulose utilization. The latter group was primarily connected to specific bacterial lifestyles like autotrophy and parasitism. Cellulose degraders, as well as opportunists, have multiple enzymes with similar functions. However, the potential degraders systematically harbor about twice more ?-glucosidases than their potential opportunistic relatives. Although scattered, the distribution of functional types, in bacterial lineages, is not random but mostly follows a Brownian motion evolution model. Degraders form clusters of relatives at the species level, whereas opportunists are clustered at the genus level. This information can form a mechanistic basis for the linking of changes in microbial community composition to soil ecosystem processes. PMID:23263967

Berlemont, Renaud

2013-01-01

341

Phylogenetic position of the spirochetal genus Cristispira.  

PubMed Central

Comparative sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes was used to determine the phylogenetic relationship of the genus Cristispira to other spirochetes. Since Cristispira organisms cannot presently be grown in vitro, 16S rRNA genes were amplified directly from bacterial DNA isolated from Cristispira cell-laden crystalline styles of the oyster Crassostrea virginica. The amplified products were then cloned into Escherichia coli plasmids. Sequence comparisons of the gene coding for 16S rRNA (rDNA) insert of one clone, designated CP1, indicated that it was spirochetal. The sequence of the 16S rDNA insert of another clone was mycoplasmal. The CP1 sequence possessed most of the individual base signatures that are unique to 16S rRNA (or rDNA) sequences of known spirochetes. CP1 branched deeply among other spirochetal genera within the family Spirochaetaceae, and accordingly, it represents a separate genus within this family. A fluorescently labeled DNA probe designed from the CP1 sequence was used for in situ hybridization experiments to verify that the sequence obtained was derived from the observed Cristispira cells. PMID:8975621

Paster, B J; Pelletier, D A; Dewhirst, F E; Weisburg, W G; Fussing, V; Poulsen, L K; Dannenberg, S; Schroeder, I

1996-01-01

342

Phylogenetic perspectives of nitrogen-fixing actinobacteria.  

PubMed

It was assumed for a long time that the ability to catalyze atmospheric nitrogen (diazotrophy) has a narrow distribution among actinobacteria being limited to the genus Frankia. Recently, the number of nitrogen fixation (nifH) genes identified in other non-Frankia actinobacteria has dramatically increased and has opened investigation on the origin and emergence of diazotrophy among actinobacteria. During the last decade, Mycobacterium flavum, Corynebacterium autotrophicum and a fluorescent Arthrobacter sp. have been reported to have nitrogenase activity, but these studies have not been further verified. Additional reports of nitrogen fixation by Agromyces, Microbacterium, Corynebacterium and Micromonospora isolated from root nodules of leguminous and actinorhizal plants have increased. For several actinobacteria, nitrogen fixation was demonstrated by the ability to grow on nitrogen-free medium, acetylene reduction activity, 15N isotope dilution analysis and identification of a nifH gene via PCR amplification. Moreover, the analyses of draft genome sequences of actinobacteria including Slackia exigua, Rothia mucilaginosa and Gordonibacter pamelaeae have also revealed the presence of nifH-like sequences. Whether these nifH sequences are associated with effective nitrogen fixation in these actinobacteria taxa has not yet been demonstrated. These genes may be vertically or horizontally transferred and be silent sequences. These ideas merit further investigation. This minireview presents a phylogenetic comparison of nitrogen fixation gene (nifH) with the aim of elucidating the processes underlying the evolutionary history of this catalytic ability among actinobacteria. PMID:21779790

Gtari, Maher; Ghodhbane-Gtari, Faten; Nouioui, Imen; Beauchemin, Nicholas; Tisa, Louis S

2012-01-01

343

Phylogenetic analysis of fungal ABC transporters  

PubMed Central

Background The superfamily of ABC proteins is among the largest known in nature. Its members are mainly, but not exclusively, involved in the transport of a broad range of substrates across biological membranes. Many contribute to multidrug resistance in microbial pathogens and cancer cells. The diversity of ABC proteins in fungi is comparable with those in multicellular animals, but so far fungal ABC proteins have barely been studied. Results We performed a phylogenetic analysis of the ABC proteins extracted from the genomes of 27 fungal species from 18 orders representing 5 fungal phyla thereby covering the most important groups. Our analysis demonstrated that some of the subfamilies of ABC proteins remained highly conserved in fungi, while others have undergone a remarkable group-specific diversification. Members of the various fungal phyla also differed significantly in the number of ABC proteins found in their genomes, which is especially reduced in the yeast S. cerevisiae and S. pombe. Conclusions Data obtained during our analysis should contribute to a better understanding of the diversity of the fungal ABC proteins and provide important clues about their possible biological functions. PMID:20233411

2010-01-01

344

Phylogenetic analysis of pbp genes in treponemes  

PubMed Central

Background ?-Lactamases are the main cause of bacterial resistance to penicillin, cephalosporins, and related ?-lactam compounds. The presence of the novel penicillin-binding protein (pbp) Tp47 in Treponema pallidum has been reported to be a well-known mechanism for turnover of b-lactam antibiotics. Although, T. pallidum remains sensitive to penicillin, clinically significant resistance to macrolides has emerged in many developing countries. The genome sequence of T. pallidum has shown the presence of genes encoding pbp, but there are no current reports of the presence of mobile plasmids. Methods The phylogenetic analysis is used to study the diversity of chromosomal pbp genes and its relatedness to Tp47 in Treponema species. Results In our study, genes encoding penicillin-binding proteins that showed significant similarity to each other appeared in separate clusters. Conclusion Tp47 showed no substantial similarity to other ?-lactamases in treponemes. The relatedness of Treponema denticola to other treponemes, including T. pallidum, and the reported presence of natural mobile antibiotic determinants highlight the importance of investigating the diversity of pbp genes in Treponema species. This will lead to a greater understanding of its potential to develop additional antibiotic resistance via horizontal gene transfer that could seriously compromise the treatment and control of syphilis. PMID:23330059

Chadha, Tejpreet; Trindade, Adao Alexandre

2013-01-01

345

A phylogenetic study of the genus Cookeina.  

PubMed

Cookeina, with seven recognized species, is one of the commonly encountered genera of the Sarcoscyphaceae (Pezizales) in tropical and subtropical areas around the world. Morphologically the species are distinguished by combinations of several features including ascospore shape and surface relief, presence and origin of apothecial hairs and presence or absence of gelatinous material within the cortical layer of the excipular tissue. Color of the hymenium, attributed to carotenoid pigments, is particularly variable in some collections especially those referred to as C. speciosa. In this study phylogenetic analyses were carried out using rDNA ITS and rDNA LSU sequences. Forty-four collections were studied which included a broad sampling of color variants of C. speciosa from a field site in Venezuela. The genus was shown to be monophyletic with several well-supported lineages. These analyses generally support the established, morphologically distinguished taxa within a monophyletic genus Cookeina. Collections referred to as C. speciosa segregate within a clade in which hymenial color differences are associated with groups within the clade. Cookeina sinensis is sister to C. tricholoma but is distinct from it; C. indica fails to resolve with any of the major clades. The placement of C. insititia is ambiguous but it falls within Cookeina and thus is considered in the genus Cookeina rather than in a separate genus, Boedijnopeziza. PMID:21156540

Weinstein, Richard N; Pfister, Donald H; Iturriaga, Teresa

2002-01-01

346

78 FR 68983 - Cotton Futures Classification: Optional Classification Procedure  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AMS-CN-13-0043] RIN 0581-AD33 Cotton Futures Classification: Optional Classification...allow for the addition of an optional cotton futures classification procedure--identified...as ``registration'' by the U.S. cotton industry and the Intercontinental...

2013-11-18

347

78 FR 54970 - Cotton Futures Classification: Optional Classification Procedure  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AMS-CN-13-0043] RIN 0581-AD33 Cotton Futures Classification: Optional Classification...allow for the addition of an optional cotton futures classification procedure--identified...as ``registration'' by the U.S. cotton industry and the Intercontinental...

2013-09-09

348

Equivalent Diagnostic Classification Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rupp and Templin (2008) do a good job at describing the ever expanding landscape of Diagnostic Classification Models (DCM). In many ways, their review article clearly points to some of the questions that need to be answered before DCMs can become part of the psychometric practitioners toolkit. Apart from the issues mentioned in this article that…

Maris, Gunter; Bechger, Timo

2009-01-01

349

Classification of pancreatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An international group of doctors interested in pancreatic disease met in Cambridge in March 1983, under the auspices of the Pancreatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, to discuss the classification of pancreatitis in the light of developments that have taken place in the 20 years since the crucial conference in Marseille.

M Sarner; P B Cotton

1984-01-01

350

Classification by pairwise coupling  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss a strategy for polychotomous classification that involves coupling the estimating class probabilities for each pair of classes, and estimates together. The coupling model is similar to the Bradley-Terry method for paired comparisons. We study the nature of the class probability estimates that arise, and examine the performance of the procedure in real and simulated data sets. Classifiers used

Trevor Hastie; Robert Tibshirani

1998-01-01

351

Wavelet Based Texture Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Textures are one of the basic features in visual searching and computational vision. In the literature, most of the atten- tion has been focussed on the texture features with minimal consideration of the noise models. In this paper we inves- tigated the problem of texture classification from a maximum likelihood perspective. We took into account the texture model, the noise

Nicu Sebe; Michael S. Lew

2000-01-01

352

Classification of Urticaria  

PubMed Central

Classification is based on GA2LEN/EAACI/WAO/EDF guidelines (2009). These guidelines classify urticaria according to clinical manifestations. Urticaria is mediated by mast cells. According to level of mast cell degranulation clinical signs are superficial (Urticaria) or deep swelling (Angioedema). PMID:23723472

Zuberbier, Torsten

2013-01-01

353

Signature Student ID# Classification  

E-print Network

that the above________ (#) listed student-athletes are currently enrolled for the above stated credit hoursSignature Student ID# UG/GR Classification Current credits/units (Fall 11) Last First 1 UG/GR 2 UG and have paid the appropriate student fees. (Note: College/University seal of certification must be placed

354

Classification of sleep disorders.  

PubMed

The classification of sleep disorders is necessary to discriminate between disorders and to facilitate an understanding of symptoms, etiology, and pathophysiology that allows for appropriate treatment. The earliest classification systems, largely organized according to major symptoms (insomnia, excessive sleepiness, and abnormal events that occur during sleep), were unable to be based on pathophysiology because the cause of most sleep disorders was unknown. These 3 symptom-based categories are easily understood by physicians and are therefore useful for developing a differential diagnosis. The International Classification of Sleep Disorders, version 2, published in 2005 and currently undergoing revision, combines a symptomatic presentation (e.g., insomnia) with 1 organized in part on pathophysiology (e.g., circadian rhythms) and in part on body systems (e.g., breathing disorders). This organization of sleep disorders is necessary because of the varied nature and because the pathophysiology for many of the disorders is still unknown. The International Classification of Sleep Disorders, version 2 provides relevant diagnostic and epidemiological information on sleep disorders to more easily differentiate between the disorders. PMID:22976557

Thorpy, Michael J

2012-10-01

355

The Classification Conundrum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues against the five-kingdom scheme of classification as using inconsistent criteria, ending up with divisions that are forced, not natural. Advocates an approach using cell type/complexity and modification of the metabolic machinery, recommending the five-kingdom scheme as starting point for class discussion on taxonomy and its conceptual…

Granger, Charles R.

1983-01-01

356

Phylogeny and classification of Prunus sensu lato (Rosaceae).  

PubMed

The classification of the economically important genus Prunus L. sensu lato (s.l.) is controversial due to the high levels of convergent or the parallel evolution of morphological characters. In the present study, phylogenetic analyses of fifteen main segregates of Prunus s.l. represented by eighty-four species were conducted with maximum parsimony and Bayesian approaches using twelve chloroplast regions (atpB-rbcL, matK, ndhF, psbA-trnH, rbcL, rpL16, rpoC1, rps16, trnS-G, trnL, trnL-F and ycf1) and three nuclear genes (ITS, s6pdh and SbeI) to explore their infrageneric relationships. The results of these analyses were used to develop a new, phylogeny-based classification of Prunus s.l. Our phylogenetic reconstructions resolved three main clades of Prunus s.l. with strong supports. We adopted a broad-sensed genus, Prunus, and recognised three subgenera corresponding to the three main clades: subgenus Padus, subgenus Cerasus and subgenus Prunus. Seven sections of subgenus Prunus were recognised. The dwarf cherries, which were previously assigned to subgenus Cerasus, were included in this subgenus Prunus. One new section name, Prunus L. subgenus Prunus section Persicae (T. T. Yü & L. T. Lu) S. L. Zhou and one new species name, Prunus tianshanica (Pojarkov) S. Shi, were proposed. PMID:23945216

Shi, Shuo; Li, Jinlu; Sun, Jiahui; Yu, Jing; Zhou, Shiliang

2013-11-01

357

Work Classification in Ancient Times.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The divisions of labor and the classifications of work in ancient times are described, and an early four-part classification based on the "Bhagavad Gita" is compared with that of the present "Dictionary of Occupational Titles." (Author)

Hopke, William

1979-01-01

358

Compression-based distance (CBD): a simple, rapid, and accurate method for microbiota composition comparison  

PubMed Central

Background Perturbations in intestinal microbiota composition have been associated with a variety of gastrointestinal tract-related diseases. The alleviation of symptoms has been achieved using treatments that alter the gastrointestinal tract microbiota toward that of healthy individuals. Identifying differences in microbiota composition through the use of 16S rRNA gene hypervariable tag sequencing has profound health implications. Current computational methods for comparing microbial communities are usually based on multiple alignments and phylogenetic inference, making them time consuming and requiring exceptional expertise and computational resources. As sequencing data rapidly grows in size, simpler analysis methods are needed to meet the growing computational burdens of microbiota comparisons. Thus, we have developed a simple, rapid, and accurate method, independent of multiple alignments and phylogenetic inference, to support microbiota comparisons. Results We create a metric, called compression-based distance (CBD) for quantifying the degree of similarity between microbial communities. CBD uses the repetitive nature of hypervariable tag datasets and well-established compression algorithms to approximate the total information shared between two datasets. Three published microbiota datasets were used as test cases for CBD as an applicable tool. Our study revealed that CBD recaptured 100% of the statistically significant conclusions reported in the previous studies, while achieving a decrease in computational time required when compared to similar tools without expert user intervention. Conclusion CBD provides a simple, rapid, and accurate method for assessing distances between gastrointestinal tract microbiota 16S hypervariable tag datasets. PMID:23617892

2013-01-01

359

Classification-based objective functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Backpropagation, similar to most learning algorithms that can form complex decision surfaces, is prone to overfitting. This work presents classification-based objective functions, an intuitive approach to training artificial neural networks on classification problems. Classification-based learning attempts to guide the network directly to correct pattern classification rather than using an implicit search of common error minimization heuristics, such as sum-squared-error (SSE)

Michael Rimer; Tony Martinez

2006-01-01

360

Music genre classification with taxonomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic music genre classification is a fundamental component of music information retrieval systems and has been gaining importance and enjoying a growing amount of attention with the emergence of digital music on the Internet. Although considerable research has been conducted in automatic music genre classification, little has been done on hierarchical classification with taxonomies. The underlying hierarchical taxonomy identifies the

Tao Li; Mitsunori Ogihara

2005-01-01

361

A re-evaluation of phylogenetic relationships within reed warblers (Aves: Acrocephalidae) based on eight molecular loci and ISSR profiles.  

PubMed

Acrocephalidae is the most monomorphic family among passerines and has seen a long history of different classifications and successive revisions. In this study, we evaluated the phylogenetic relationships among 35 species of Acrocephalidae based on DNA sequences from five nuclear loci (MB, ODC, LDH, FIB5 and RAG-1), three mitochondrial genes (CYB, ND2 and COI) and genomic fingerprinting with ISSR-PCR. We could improve the resolution of phylogenetic relationships among many species, but despite the use of 6280 nucleotides, some deep-level relationships remain enigmatic. Lack of nodal support at some branches may be the result of rapid radiation. The last common ancestor of this family dated for the Middle Miocene (14 MYA). In agreement with previous studies, we recovered the major clades of Acrocephalus, Iduna (except I. aedon), Hippolais, Nesillas and Calamonastides. We accept the current taxonomic position of Calamonastides gracilirostris as a monotypic genus and the inclusion of Iduna natalensis and I. similis within Iduna but phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial and nuclear genes as well as ISSR profiles did not support the position of I. aedon in Iduna. Therefore, we resurrect the former genus Phragamaticola for this species in order to avoid paraphyletic clades. PMID:24910156

Arbabi, Tayebeh; Gonzalez, Javier; Wink, Michael

2014-09-01

362

28 CFR 17.26 - Derivative classification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Derivative classification. 17.26 Section...Classified Information § 17.26 Derivative classification. (a) Persons...classification guides. (b) Persons who apply derivative classification markings shall...

2011-07-01

363

28 CFR 17.26 - Derivative classification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Derivative classification. 17.26 Section...Classified Information § 17.26 Derivative classification. (a) Persons...classification guides. (b) Persons who apply derivative classification markings shall...

2010-07-01

364

28 CFR 17.26 - Derivative classification.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Derivative classification. 17.26 Section...Classified Information § 17.26 Derivative classification. (a) Persons...classification guides. (b) Persons who apply derivative classification markings shall...

2014-07-01

365

28 CFR 17.26 - Derivative classification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Derivative classification. 17.26 Section...Classified Information § 17.26 Derivative classification. (a) Persons...classification guides. (b) Persons who apply derivative classification markings shall...

2013-07-01

366

28 CFR 17.26 - Derivative classification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Derivative classification. 17.26 Section...Classified Information § 17.26 Derivative classification. (a) Persons...classification guides. (b) Persons who apply derivative classification markings shall...

2012-07-01

367

15 CFR 2008.9 - Classification guides.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Classification § 2008.9 Classification guides. Classification guides shall be issued by...pursuant to section 2-2 of the order. These guides, which shall be used to direct derivative classification, shall identify the...

2011-01-01

368

15 CFR 2008.9 - Classification guides.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Classification § 2008.9 Classification guides. Classification guides shall be issued by...pursuant to section 2-2 of the order. These guides, which shall be used to direct derivative classification, shall identify the...

2010-01-01

369

32 CFR 2001.10 - Classification standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Classification § 2001.10 Classification standards. Identifying...1.1(a) of the Order specifies the conditions...be met when making classification decisions. Section...damage, should the classification decision become the...demand pursuant to the Order or...

2010-07-01

370

32 CFR 2001.10 - Classification standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Classification § 2001.10 Classification standards. Identifying...1.1(a) of the Order specifies the conditions...be met when making classification decisions. Section...damage, should the classification decision become the...demand pursuant to the Order or...

2011-07-01

371

On the reclassification of species assigned to Candida and other anamorphic ascomycetous yeast genera based on phylogenetic circumscription.  

PubMed

Multigene phylogenies have been instrumental in revising the classification of ascosporic (teleomorph) yeasts in a natural system based on lines of descent. Although many taxonomic changes have already been implemented for teleomorph taxa, this is not yet the case for the large genus Candida and smaller anascosporic (anamorph) genera. In view of the recently introduced requirement that a fungal species or higher taxon be assigned only a single valid name under the new International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Melbourne Code), the current species of Candida and other anamorph yeast genera must undergo revision to make genus membership consistent with phylogenetic affinities. A review of existing data and analyses shows that certain Candida species may be assigned to teleomorph genera with high confidence using multigene phylogenies. Candida species that form well-circumscribed phylogenetic clades without any teleomorph member justify the creation of new genera. However, a considerable number of Candida species sit at the end of isolated and often long branches, and hence cannot be assigned to larger species groups. They should be maintained in Candida sensu lato until studied by multigene analyses in datasets with comprehensive taxon sampling. The principle of name stability has to be honoured to the largest extent compatible with a natural classification of Candida species. PMID:24748333

Daniel, Heide-Marie; Lachance, Marc-André; Kurtzman, Cletus P

2014-07-01

372

PHYLOGENETIC SYSTEMATICS, TAXONOMY, AND BIOGEOGRAPHY OF JELLYFISH (CNIDARIA: MEDUSOZOA)  

E-print Network

The coastal shelf inhabiting box jellyfish (Cubozoa) represent the smallest class within Cnidaria with some 50 described species. A robust phylogenetic framework had been missing for Cubozoa. Herein, a molecular phylogeny ...

Bentlage, Bastian

2012-08-31

373

Phylogenetic and functional diversity in large carnivore assemblages.  

PubMed

Large terrestrial carnivores are important ecological components and prominent flagship species, but are often extinction prone owing to a combination of biological traits and high levels of human persecution. This study combines phylogenetic and functional diversity evaluations of global and continental large carnivore assemblages to provide a framework for conservation prioritization both between and within assemblages. Species-rich assemblages of large carnivores simultaneously had high phylogenetic and functional diversity, but species contributions to phylogenetic and functional diversity components were not positively correlated. The results further provide ecological justification for the largest carnivore species as a focus for conservation action, and suggests that range contraction is a likely cause of diminishing carnivore ecosystem function. This study highlights that preserving species-rich carnivore assemblages will capture both high phylogenetic and functional diversity, but that prioritizing species within assemblages will involve trade-offs between optimizing contemporary ecosystem function versus the evolutionary potential for future ecosystem performance. PMID:23576787

Dalerum, F

2013-06-01

374

Phylogenetic affiliation of Pseudomonas putida biovar A and B strains.  

PubMed

In the genus Pseudomonas, two main lineages and 19 phylogenetic groups or subgroups have been defined based on DNA sequence studies of 16S rRNA, gyrB and rpoD genes. In the present study, 33 strains previously classified as Pseudomonas putida were phylogenetically affiliated with their closest relatives in the genus by multilocus sequence analysis. The results demonstrated that strains assigned to biovar A of the species were located in the P. putida group, though not all belonged to the species P. putida. Biovar B strains were scattered among 6 subgroups of the Pseudomonas fluorescens group and also within the P. putida group. These results were corroborated when the entire genomes of 5 strains assigned to P. putida were analyzed. The phylogenetic results show that isolates of biovars A and B are in distinct phylogenetic groups. Thus, these biotypes are not reliable taxonomic markers. PMID:23391610

Mulet, Magdalena; García-Valdés, Elena; Lalucat, Jorge

2013-05-01

375

Phylogenetic diversity in cadmium : phosphorus ratio regulation by marine phytoplankton  

E-print Network

Phylogenetic diversity in cadmium : phosphorus ratio regulation by marine phytoplankton Z. V Abstract We examined the effect of irradiance and growth rate on cadmium : phosphorus ratio in five species

376

Molecular Phylogenetic Explorations of Natural Microbial Community Composition and Diversity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Comparative sequence analysis of ribosomal RNA molecules has led to a phylogenetic-based approach to characterize natural microbial communities. The approach has been applied to study natural communities of sulfate-reducing bacteria. Hybridization probes ...

R. Devereux, J. Kurtz, G. Mundfrom

1994-01-01

377

Phylogenetic assessment of filoviruses: how many lineages of Marburg virus?  

E-print Network

Filoviruses have to date been considered as consisting of one diverse genus (Ebola viruses) and one undifferentiated genus (Marburg virus). We reconsider this idea by means of detailed phylogenetic analyses of sequence data available...

Peterson, A. Townsend; Holder, Mark T.

2012-07-01

378

Analysis of word-order universals using Bayesian phylogenetic inference  

E-print Network

This thesis examines the novel approach by Dunn et al. (2011) that employs the Bayesian phylogenetic inference to compute the Bayes Factors that determine whether the evolutions of a set of word-order traits in four language ...

Ho, Pangus

2012-01-01

379

Trees from trees: construction of phylogenetic supertrees using clann.  

PubMed

Supertree methods combine multiple phylogenetic trees to produce the overall best "supertree." They can be used to combine phylogenetic information from datasets only partially overlapping and from disparate sources (like molecular and morphological data), or to break down problems thought to be computationally intractable. Some of the longest standing phylogenetic conundrums are now being brought to light using supertree approaches. We describe the most widely used supertree methods implemented in the software program "clann" and provide a step by step tutorial for investigating phylogenetic information and reconstructing the best supertree. Clann is freely available for Windows, Mac and Unix/Linux operating systems under the GNU public licence at (http://bioinf.nuim.ie/software/clann). PMID:19378143

Creevey, Christopher J; McInerney, James O

2009-01-01

380

Fast Image Texture Classification Using Decision Trees  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Texture analysis would permit improved autonomous, onboard science data interpretation for adaptive navigation, sampling, and downlink decisions. These analyses would assist with terrain analysis and instrument placement in both macroscopic and microscopic image data products. Unfortunately, most state-of-the-art texture analysis demands computationally expensive convolutions of filters involving many floating-point operations. This makes them infeasible for radiation- hardened computers and spaceflight hardware. A new method approximates traditional texture classification of each image pixel with a fast decision-tree classifier. The classifier uses image features derived from simple filtering operations involving integer arithmetic. The texture analysis method is therefore amenable to implementation on FPGA (field-programmable gate array) hardware. Image features based on the "integral image" transform produce descriptive and efficient texture descriptors. Training the decision tree on a set of training data yields a classification scheme that produces reasonable approximations of optimal "texton" analysis at a fraction of the computational cost. A decision-tree learning algorithm employing the traditional k-means criterion of inter-cluster variance is used to learn tree structure from training data. The result is an efficient and accurate summary of surface morphology in images. This work is an evolutionary advance that unites several previous algorithms (k-means clustering, integral images, decision trees) and applies them to a new problem domain (morphology analysis for autonomous science during remote exploration). Advantages include order-of-magnitude improvements in runtime, feasibility for FPGA hardware, and significant improvements in texture classification accuracy.

Thompson, David R.

2011-01-01

381

[Phylogenetic analysis of bacteria of extreme ecosystems].  

PubMed

Phylogenetic analysis of aerobic chemoorganotrophic bacteria of the two extreme regions (Dead Sea and West Antarctic) was performed on the basis of the nucleotide sequences of the 16S rRNA gene. Thermotolerant and halotolerant spore-forming bacteria 7t1 and 7t3 of terrestrial ecosystems Dead Sea identified as Bacillus licheniformis and B. subtilis subsp. subtilis, respectively. Taking into account remote location of thermotolerant strain 6t1 from closely related strains in the cluster Staphylococcus, 6t1 strain can be regarded as Staphylococcus sp. In terrestrial ecosystems, Galindez Island (Antarctic) detected taxonomically diverse psychrotolerant bacteria. From ornithogenic soil were isolated Micrococcus luteus O-1 and Microbacterium trichothecenolyticum O-3. Strains 4r5, 5r5 and 40r5, isolated from grass and lichens, can be referred to the genus Frondihabitans. These strains are taxonomically and ecologically isolated and on the tree diagram form the joint cluster with three isolates Frondihabitans sp., isolated from the lichen Austrian Alps, and psychrotolerant associated with plants F. cladoniiphilus CafT13(T). Isolates from black lichen in the different stationary observation points on the south side of a vertical cliff identified as: Rhodococcus fascians 181n3, Sporosarcina aquimarina O-7, Staphylococcus sp. 0-10. From orange biofilm of fouling on top of the vertical cliff isolated Arthrobacter sp. 28r5g1, from the moss-- Serratia sp. 6r1g. According to the results, Frondihabitans strains most frequently encountered among chemoorganotrophic aerobic bacteria in the Antarctic phytocenoses. PMID:25007437

Romanovskaia, V A; Parfenova, V V; Bel'kova, N L; Sukhanova, E V; Gladka, G V; Tashireva, A A

2014-01-01

382

Identifying dramatic selection shifts in phylogenetic trees  

PubMed Central

Background The rate of evolution varies spatially along genomes and temporally in time. The presence of evolutionary rate variation is an informative signal that often marks functional regions of genomes and historical selection events. There exist many tests for temporal rate variation, or heterotachy, that start by partitioning sampled sequences into two or more groups and testing rate homogeneity among the groups. I develop a Bayesian method to infer phylogenetic trees with a divergence point, or dramatic temporal shifts in selection pressure that affect many nucleotide sites simultaneously, located at an unknown position in the tree. Results Simulation demonstrates that the method is most able to detect divergence points when rate variation and the number of affected sites is high, but not beyond biologically relevant values. The method is applied to two viral data sets. A divergence point is identified separating the B and C subtypes, two genetically distinct variants of HIV that have spread into different human populations with the AIDS epidemic. In contrast, no strong signal of temporal rate variation is found in a sample of F and H genotypes, two genetic variants of HBV that have likely evolved with humans during their immigration and expansion into the Americas. Conclusion Temporal shifts in evolutionary rate of sufficient magnitude are detectable in the history of sampled sequences. The ability to detect such divergence points without the need to specify a prior hypothesis about the location or timing of the divergence point should help scientists identify historically important selection events and decipher mechanisms of evolution. PMID:17288568

Dorman, Karin S

2007-01-01

383

iPhy: an integrated phylogenetic workbench for supermatrix analyses  

PubMed Central

Background The increasing availability of molecular sequence data means that the accuracy of future phylogenetic studies is likely to by limited by systematic bias and taxon choice rather than by data. In order to take advantage of increasing datasets, user-friendly tools are required to facilitate phylogenetic analyses and to reduce duplication of dataset assembly efforts. Current phylogenetic pipelines are dependency-heavy and have significant technical barriers to use. Results Here we present iPhy, a web application that lets non-technical users assemble, share and analyse DNA sequence datasets for multigene phylogenetic investigations. Built on a simple client-server architecture, iPhy eases the collection of gene sets for analysis, facilitates alignment and reliably generates phylogenetic analysis-ready data files. Phylogenetic trees generated in external programs can be imported and stored, and iPhy integrates with iTol to allow trees to be displayed with rich data annotation. The datasets collated in iPhy can be shared through the client interface. We show how systematic biases can be addressed by using explicit criteria when selecting sequences for analysis from a large dataset. A representative instance of iPhy can be accessed at iphy.bio.ed.ac.uk, but the toolkit can also be deployed on a local server for advanced users. Conclusions iPhy provides an easy-to-use environment for the assembly, analysis and sharing of large phylogenetic datasets, while encouraging best practices in terms of phylogenetic analysis and taxon selection. PMID:21261969

2011-01-01

384

Interior-Branch and Bootstrap Tests of Phylogenetic Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have compared statistical properties of the interior-branch and bootstrap tests of phylogenetic trees when the neighbor-joining tree-building method is used. For each interior branch of a predetermined topology, the interior- branch and bootstrap tests provide the confidence values, PC and PB, respectively, that indicate the extent of statistical support of the sequence cluster generated by the branch. In phylogenetic

Tatyana Sitnikova; Andrey Rzhetsky; Masatoshi Nei

1995-01-01

385

Phylogenetic relationships of the North American chorus frogs ( Pseudacris: Hylidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined phylogenetic relationships of the North American chorus frogs (Pseudacris: Hylidae) from 38 populations using 2.4kb of 12S and 16S mtDNA to elucidate species relationships and examine congruence of previous phylogenetic hypotheses. Parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian phylogenies are consistent and reveal four strongly supported clades within Pseudacris: (1) A West Coast Clade containing regilla and cadaverina, (2) a

Emily C. Moriarty; David. C. Cannatella

2004-01-01

386

Phylogenetic affinity of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbionts in Psilotum nudum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many lineages of land plants (from lycopsids to angiosperms) have non-photosynthetic life cycle phases that involve obligate\\u000a mycoheterotrophic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) associations where the plant host gains organic carbon through glomalean symbionts.\\u000a Our goal was to isolate and phylogenetically identify the AM fungi associated with both the autotrophic and underground mycoheterotrophic\\u000a life cycle phases of Psilotum nudum. Phylogenetic analyses recovered

Jennifer L. Winther; William E. Friedman

2009-01-01

387

The close phylogenetic relationship of Nitrobacter and Rhodopseudomonas palustris  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phylogenetic position of Nitrobacter winogradskyi and two other nitrite-oxidizing bacteria was elucidated comparing oligonucleotides of the 16S ribosomal RNA. Nitrobacter winogradskyi and the Nitrobacter isolate ‘Yukatan’ are genetically nearly identical; Nitrobacter isolate X14 is more distantly related. Phylogenetically, Nitrobacter is a member of a group of purple non-sulfur bacteria that is defined by various species of Rhodopseudomonas, Rhodomicrobium vannielii,

Elke Seewaldt; Karl-Heinz Schleifer; Eberhard Bock; Erko Stackebrandt

1982-01-01

388

Conflicting phylogenetic signals at the base of the metazoan tree.  

PubMed

A phylogenetic framework is essential for under-standing the origin and evolution of metazoan development. Despite a number of recent molecular studies and a rich fossil record of sponges and cnidarians, the evolutionary relationships of the early branching metazoan groups to each other and to a putative outgroup, the choanoflagellates, remain uncertain. This situation may be the result of the limited amount of phylogenetic information found in single genes and the small number of relevant taxa surveyed. To alleviate the effect of these analytical factors in the phylogenetic recons-truction of early branching metazoan lineages, we cloned multiple protein-coding genes from two choanoflagellates and diverse sponges, cnidarians, and a ctenophore. Comparisons of sequences for alpha-tubulin, beta-tubulin, elongation factor 2, HSP90, and HSP70 robustly support the hypothesis that choanoflagellates are closely affiliated with animals. However, analyses of single and concatenated amino acid sequences fail to resolve the relationships either between early branching metazoan groups or between Metazoa and choano-flagellates. We demonstrate that variable rates of evolution among lineages, sensitivity of the analyses to taxon selection, and conflicts in the phylogenetic signal contained in different amino acid sequences obscure the phylogenetic associations among the early branching Metazoa. These factors raise concerns about the ability to resolve the phylogenetic history of animals with molecular sequences. A consensus view of animal evolution may require investigations of genome-scale characters. PMID:12823451

Rokas, Antonis; King, Nicole; Finnerty, John; Carroll, Sean B

2003-01-01

389

Fine-Scale Phylogenetic Discordance across the House Mouse Genome  

PubMed Central

Population genetic theory predicts discordance in the true phylogeny of different genomic regions when studying recently diverged species. Despite this expectation, genome-wide discordance in young species groups has rarely been statistically quantified. The house mouse subspecies group provides a model system for examining phylogenetic discordance. House mouse subspecies are recently derived, suggesting that even if there has been a simple tree-like population history, gene trees could disagree with the population history due to incomplete lineage sorting. Subspecies of house mice also hybridize in nature, raising the possibility that recent introgression might lead to additional phylogenetic discordance. Single-locus approaches have revealed support for conflicting topologies, resulting in a subspecies tree often summarized as a polytomy. To analyze phylogenetic histories on a genomic scale, we applied a recently developed method, Bayesian concordance analysis, to dense SNP data from three closely related subspecies of house mice: Mus musculus musculus, M. m. castaneus, and M. m. domesticus. We documented substantial variation in phylogenetic history across the genome. Although each of the three possible topologies was strongly supported by a large number of loci, there was statistical evidence for a primary phylogenetic history in which M. m. musculus and M. m. castaneus are sister subspecies. These results underscore the importance of measuring phylogenetic discordance in other recently diverged groups using methods such as Bayesian concordance analysis, which are designed for this purpose. PMID:19936022

White, Michael A.; Ane, Cecile; Dewey, Colin N.; Larget, Bret R.; Payseur, Bret A.

2009-01-01

390

Study on the Technology and Method of Land Cover Classification for Geographic National Conditions Surveying  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land Cover is the basis of geographic national conditions monitoring, extracting land cover information timely and accurately has become one of important tasks in the geographic national conditions surveying project. For the current situation of complex land cover type and large amount of data, there has emerged various new classification techniques and methods. However, the big difficult of classification?the large amount of data, the heavy workload of post-editing and other factors have seriously hampered the progress of the project. In this paper, it chooses high-resolution remote sensing image as original data, comprehensivly elaborates present research situation of oriented land cover classification. By the systematical analysis and summary of the basic and key problems of the land cover classification technology, relying on the geographic national information classification and standard system, discusses the available methods preliminarily to improve the accuracy of land cover classification which based on geographic national conditions surveying.

Jia, Y.; Li, H. T.; Gu, H. Y.; Han, Y. S.

2013-07-01

391

Comparisons of neural networks to standard techniques for image classification and correlation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Neural network techniques for multispectral image classification and spatial pattern detection are compared to the standard techniques of maximum-likelihood classification and spatial correlation. The neural network produced a more accurate classification than maximum-likelihood of a Landsat scene of Tucson, Arizona. Some of the errors in the maximum-likelihood classification are illustrated using decision region and class probability density plots. As expected, the main drawback to the neural network method is the long time required for the training stage. The network was trained using several different hidden layer sizes to optimize both the classification accuracy and training speed, and it was found that one node per class was optimal. The performance improved when 3x3 local windows of image data were entered into the net. This modification introduces texture into the classification without explicit calculation of a texture measure. Larger windows were successfully used for the detection of spatial features in Landsat and Magellan synthetic aperture radar imagery.

Paola, Justin D.; Schowengerdt, Robert A.

1994-01-01

392

Soil Classification Using GATree  

E-print Network

This paper details the application of a genetic programming framework for classification of decision tree of Soil data to classify soil texture. The database contains measurements of soil profile data. We have applied GATree for generating classification decision tree. GATree is a decision tree builder that is based on Genetic Algorithms (GAs). The idea behind it is rather simple but powerful. Instead of using statistic metrics that are biased towards specific trees we use a more flexible, global metric of tree quality that try to optimize accuracy and size. GATree offers some unique features not to be found in any other tree inducers while at the same time it can produce better results for many difficult problems. Experimental results are presented which illustrate the performance of generating best decision tree for classifying soil texture for soil data set.

Bhargavi, P

2010-01-01

393

Algorithms for Hyperspectral Signature Classification in Non-resolved Object Characterization Using Tabular Nearest Neighbor Encoding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate spectral signature classification is key to the nonimaging detection and recognition of spaceborne objects. In classical hyperspectral recognition applications, signature classification accuracy depends on accurate spectral endmember determination [1]. However, in selected target recognition (ATR) applications, it is possible to circumvent the endmember detection problem by employing a Bayesian classifier. Previous approaches to Bayesian classification of spectral signatures have been rule- based, or predicated on a priori parameterized information obtained from offline training, as in the case of neural networks [1,2]. Unfortunately, class separation and classifier refinement results in these methods tends to be suboptimal, and the number of signatures that can be accurately classified often depends linearly on the number of inputs. This can lead to potentially significant classification errors in the presence of noise or densely interleaved signatures. In this paper, we present an emerging technology for nonimaging spectral signature classfication based on a highly accurate but computationally efficient search engine called Tabular Nearest Neighbor Encoding (TNE) [3]. Based on prior results, TNE can optimize its classifier performance to track input nonergodicities, as well as yield measures of confidence or caution for evaluation of classification results. Unlike neural networks, TNE does not have a hidden intermediate data structure (e.g., the neural net weight matrix). Instead, TNE generates and exploits a user-accessible data structure called the agreement map (AM), which can be manipulated by Boolean logic operations to effect accurate classifier refinement algorithms. This allows the TNE programmer or user to determine parameters for classification accuracy, and to mathematically analyze the signatures for which TNE did not obtain classification matches. This dual approach to analysis (i.e., correct vs. incorrect classification) has been shown to significantly strengthen analysis of classifier performance in support of classifier optimization. We show that AM-based classification can be modified to include dynamic tracking of input statistical changes, to achieve accurate signature classification in the presence of noise, closely spaced or interleaved signatures, and simulated optical distortions. In particular, we examine two critical cases: (1) classification of multiple closely spaced signatures that are difficult to separate using distance measures, and (2) classification of materials in simulated hyperspectral images of spaceborne satellites. In each case, test data are derived from a NASA database of space material signatures. Additional analysis pertains to computational complexity and noise sensitivity, which are superior to Bayesian techniques based on classical neural networks.

Schmalz, M.; Key, G.

394

Seismic event classification system  

DOEpatents

In the computer interpretation of seismic data, the critical first step is to identify the general class of an unknown event. For example, the classification might be: teleseismic, regional, local, vehicular, or noise. Self-organizing neural networks (SONNs) can be used for classifying such events. Both Kohonen and Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) SONNs are useful for this purpose. Given the detection of a seismic event and the corresponding signal, computation is made of: the time-frequency distribution, its binary representation, and finally a shift-invariant representation, which is the magnitude of the two-dimensional Fourier transform (2-D FFT) of the binary time-frequency distribution. This pre-processed input is fed into the SONNs. These neural networks are able to group events that look similar. The ART SONN has an advantage in classifying the event because the types of cluster groups do not need to be pre-defined. The results from the SONNs together with an expert seismologist's classification are then used to derive event classification probabilities. 21 figures.

Dowla, F.U.; Jarpe, S.P.; Maurer, W.

1994-12-13

395

Seismic event classification system  

DOEpatents

In the computer interpretation of seismic data, the critical first step is to identify the general class of an unknown event. For example, the classification might be: teleseismic, regional, local, vehicular, or noise. Self-organizing neural networks (SONNs) can be used for classifying such events. Both Kohonen and Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) SONNs are useful for this purpose. Given the detection of a seismic event and the corresponding signal, computation is made of: the time-frequency distribution, its binary representation, and finally a shift-invariant representation, which is the magnitude of the two-dimensional Fourier transform (2-D FFT) of the binary time-frequency distribution. This pre-processed input is fed into the SONNs. These neural networks are able to group events that look similar. The ART SONN has an advantage in classifying the event because the types of cluster groups do not need to be pre-defined. The results from the SONNs together with an expert seismologist's classification are then used to derive event classification probabilities.

Dowla, Farid U. (Castro Valley, CA); Jarpe, Stephen P. (Brentwood, CA); Maurer, William (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01

396

Lake classification in Vermont  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to comply with the Federal Clean Water Act and, in so doing, develop a procedure to periodically update the classification, the State of Vermont evaluated the ability of LANDSAT to detect general water quality and specific water quality parameters in Vermont lakes. Unsupervised and supervised classifications as well as regression analyses were used to examine LANDSAT data from Lake Champlain and from four small nearby lakes. Unsupervised and supervised classifications were found to be of somewhat limited value. Regression analyses revealed a good correlation between depth-integrated total phosphorus concentrations and LANDSAT band 4 data (r2= 0.92) and between Secchi disk transparencies and LANDSAT band 4 data (r2 - 0.85). No correlation was found between depth-integrated chlorophyll-a samples and LANDSAT data. Vermont is expanding this LANDSAT evaluation to include the remaining lakes in the state greater than twenty acres and steps are being taken to incorporate LANDSAT into the state's ongoing water quality monitoring programs.

Garrison, V.; Bryant, N.

1981-01-01

397

A Maximum-Likelihood Analysis of Eight Phylogenetic Markers in Gallwasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae): Implications for Insect Phylogenetic Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the utility of eight DNA sequence markers (5.8S rDNA, 18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, ITS regions, long-wavelength opsin, elongation factor 1-?, cytochrome b, and cytochrome oxidase I) in reconstructing phylogenetic relationships at various levels of divergence in gallwasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae), using a set of eight exemplar taxa. We report sequence divergence values and saturation levels and compare phylogenetic results

Antonis Rokas; Johan A. A. Nylander; Fredrik Ronquist; Graham N. Stone

2002-01-01

398

Accurate time-frequency-wavenumber analysis to study coda waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An accurate method is developed to characterize the seismic coda phases recorded by small-aperture arrays. The coda is modelled as a superposition of several interfering wavelets identified by their arrival time, frequency content, backazimuth and apparent velocity of propagation. The wavelets are caused by the diffraction and refraction of the direct wavefield by heterogeneities of the propagation medium. The deterministic modelling is different from the statistical one generally used to retrieve mean parameters of the medium. As the complexity of the medium increases, separation of interfering wavelets needs an accurate time-frequency-wavenumber decomposition method that consists of detection and characterization of the different coherent wavelets propagating through the array. Detection is realized by mean time-frequency decomposition, based on the ridges algorithm. The MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm, allowing a higher separation of simultaneous wavelets in the wavenumber domain, is then used to characterize the propagation parameters of the detected components. An optimal use of the MUSIC algorithm assumes the knowledge of the number of sources that simultaneously propagate through the array. The new iterative technique presented here allows the automatic determination of this number of sources. This methodology is applied to synthetic signals simulated in a heterogeneous medium. Results obtained show that: (i) the diffracted wavefield may be more energetic than the primary direct one and (ii) the relative energy diffracted by each heterogeneity is strongly dependent on the location of the array within the medium. The well-controlled results obtained for the synthetic examples allow interpretations of the observations made during the Annot experiment in the southern French Alps in 1998, where four small-aperture arrays were deployed, with small distances between each array (~10 km). The time-azimuth-velocity evolutions determined for the earthquakes recorded during this experiment are used to characterize the heterogeneous structures of the medium.

Schisselé, Estelle; Guilbert, Jocelyn; Gaffet, Stéphane; Cansi, Yves

2004-08-01

399

Phylogenetic discovery bias in Bacillus anthracis using single-nucleotide polymorphisms from whole-genome sequencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phylogenetic reconstruction using molecular data is often subject to homoplasy, leading to inaccurate conclusions about phylogenetic relationships among operational taxonomic units. Compared with other molecular markers, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) exhibit extremely low mutation rates, making them rare in recently emerged pathogens, but they are less prone to homoplasy and thus extremely valuable for phylogenetic analyses. Despite their phylogenetic potential, ascertainment

Talima Pearson; Joseph D. Busch; Jacques Ravel; Timothy D. Read; Shane D. Rhoton; Jana M. U'Ren; Tatum S. Simonson; Sergey M. Kachur; Rebecca R. Leadem; Michelle L. Cardon; Matthew N. van Ert; Lynn Y. Huynh; Claire M. Fraser; Paul Keim

2004-01-01

400

Robust Accurate Statistical Annotation of General Text  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a robust accurate domain-independent approach to statistical parsing incorporated into the new release of the ANLT toolkit, and publicly available as a research tool. The system has been used to parse many well known corpora in order to produce data for lexical acquisition efforts; it has also been used as a component in an open-domain question answering project.

Ted Briscoe; John Carroll

2002-01-01

401

Accurate energy differences with Quantum Monte Carlo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computation of accurate energy differences is of primary importance in the study of transformations as those occurring in solid to solid phase transitions or chemical reactions. In stochastic quantum simulations this can be done efficiently, employing correlated sampling techniques whereby fluctuations cancel with each other leading to results with a much smaller statistical error. Although correlated sampling is very effective

Simone Chiesa; David Ceperley; Jeongnim Kim; Richard Martin

2006-01-01

402

A simple, accurate voltage to frequency converter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple yet accurate voltage to frequency convertor is described and its performance examined. The unit requires a stable clock frequency. Conversion is linear, predictable, and practically independent of temperature to within errors of measurement (0.05%). Power drain is low (<150 mu W).

P. J. Ross

1974-01-01

403

Smooth, Volume-Accurate Material Interface Reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new material interface reconstruction method for volume fraction data is presented. Our method is comprised of two components: first, we generate initial interface topology; then, using a combination of smoothing and volumetric forces within an active interface model, we iteratively transform the initial material interfaces into high-quality surfaces that accurately approximate the problem's volume fractions. Unlike all previous work,

John C. Anderson; Christoph Garth; Mark A. Duchaineau; Kenneth I. Joy

2010-01-01

404

Miniature telemetry system accurately measures pressure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Miniature, low power, telemetry system that can be used with commercially available strain gage pressure transducers accurately measures pressure with a small implantable pressure cell and transmitter. The system has been used to date only with pressure transducers, but the circuit is equally applicable to any measurement using a strain gage sensor.

Fryer, T. B.

1966-01-01

405

Emergency Department Medication Lists Are Not Accurate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Medication errors are a common source of adverse events. Errors in the home medication list may impact care in the Emergency Department (ED), the hospital, and the home. Medication reconciliation, a Joint Commission requirement, begins with an accurate home medication list. Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of the ED home medication list. Methods: Prospective, observational study of patients aged

Selin Caglar; Philip L. Henneman; Fidela S. Blank; Howard A. Smithline; Elizabeth A. Henneman

2011-01-01

406

Accurate blemish detection with active contour models  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel image analysis scheme for accurate detection of fruit blemishes. The detection procedure consists of two steps: initial segmentation and refinement. In the first step, blemishes are coarsely segmented out with a flooding algorithm and in the second step an active contour model, i.e. a snake algorithm, is applied to refine the segmentation so that the

Qingsheng Yang; John A. Marchant

1996-01-01

407

More Accurate and Fast SYN Flood Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

SYN flood attacks still dominate distributed denial of service attacks. It is a great challenge to accurately detect the SYN flood attacks in high speed networks. An intelligent attacker would evade the public detection methods by suitably spoofing the attack to pretend to be benign. Keeping per-flow or per-connection state could eliminate such a spoofing, but meanwhile, it also consumes

Changhua Sun; Chengchen Hu; Yi Tang; Bin Liu

2009-01-01

408

ACCURATE SPECTRAL ENVELOPE ESTIMATION FOR ARTICULATIONTOSPEECH SYNTHESIS  

E-print Network

to synthesise speech from articulator positions based on the search of a database composed of pairsACCURATE SPECTRAL ENVELOPE ESTIMATION FOR ARTICULATION­TO­SPEECH SYNTHESIS Yoshinori Shiga and Simon King Centre for Speech Technology Research, University of Edinburgh, U.K. yoshi

Edinburgh, University of

409

Accurate Synthetic Generation of Realistic Personal Information  

E-print Network

Accurate Synthetic Generation of Realistic Personal Information Agus Pudjijono and Peter Christen Department of Computer Science, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200, Australia peter, or social security numbers. Privacy and confidentiality are of great concern when such data is being

Christen, Peter

410

Phylogenetic and structural studies of a novel equine papillomavirus identified from aural plaques.  

PubMed

Papillomaviruses (PVs) infect a wide range of animal species and show great genetic diversity. To date, excluding equine sarcoids, only three species of PVs were identified associated with lesions in horses: Equus caballus papillomavirus 1 (EcPV1-cutaneous), EcPV2 (genital) and EcPV3 (aural plaques). In this study, we identified a novel equine PV from aural plaques, which we designated EcPV4. Cutaneous samples from horses with lesions that were microscopically diagnosed as aural plaques were subjected to DNA extraction, amplification and sequencing. Rolling circle amplification and inverse PCR with specific primers confirmed the presence of an approximately 8 kb circular genome. The full-length EcPV4 L1 major capsid protein sequence has 1488 nucleotides (495 amino acids). EcPV4 had a sequence identity of only 53.3%, 60.2% and 51.7% when compared with the published sequences for EcPV1, EcPV2 and EcPV3, respectively. A Bayesian phylogenetic analysis indicated that EcPV4 clusters with EcPV2, but not with EcPV1 and EcPV3. Using the current PV classification system that is based on the nucleotide sequence of L1, we could not define the genus of the newly identified virus. Therefore, a structural analysis of the L1 protein was carried out to aid in this classification because EcPV4 cause lesion similar to the lesion caused by EcPV3. A comparison of the superficial loops demonstrated a distinct amino acid conservation pattern between EcPV4/EcPV2 and EcPV4/EcPV3. These results demonstrate the presence of a new equine PV species and that structural studies could be useful in the classification of PVs. PMID:22995874

Taniwaki, Sueli A; Magro, Angelo J; Gorino, Ana Claudia; Oliveira-Filho, José P; Fontes, Marcos R M; Borges, Alexandre S; Araujo, João P

2013-02-22

411

Phylogenetic affiliations of members of the heterogeneous lichen-forming fungi of the genus Lecidea sensu Zahlbruckner (Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota).  

PubMed

The genus Lecidea Ach. sensu lato (sensu Zahlbruckner) includes almost 1200 species, out of which only 100 species represent Lecidea sensu stricto (sensu Hertel). The systematic position of the remaining species is mostly unsettled but anticipated to represent several unrelated lineages within Lecanoromycetes. This study attempts to elucidate the phylogenetic placement of members of this heterogeneous group of lichen-forming fungi and to improve the classification and phylogeny of Lecanoromycetes. Twenty-five taxa of Lecidea sensu lato and 22 putatively allied species were studied in a broad selection of 268 taxa, representing 48 families of Lecanoromycetes. Six loci, including four ribosomal and two protein-coding genes for 315- and 209-OTU datasets were subjected to maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses. The resulting well supported phylogenetic relationships within Lecanoromycetes are in agreement with published phylogenies, but the addition of new taxa revealed putative rearrangements of several families (e.g. Catillariaceae, Lecanoraceae, Lecideaceae, Megalariaceae, Pilocarpaceae and Ramalinaceae). As expected, species of Lecidea sensu lato and putatively related taxa are scattered within Lecanoromycetidae and beyond, with several species nested in Lecanoraceae and Pilocarpaceae and others placed outside currently recognized families in Lecanorales and orders in Lecanoromycetidae. The phylogenetic affiliations of Schaereria and Strangospora are outside Lecanoromycetidae, probably with Ostropomycetidae. All species referred to as Lecidea sensu stricto based on morphology (including the type species, Lecidea fuscoatra [L.] Ach.) form, with Porpidia species, a monophyletic group with high posterior probability outside Lecanorales, Peltigerales and Teloschistales, in Lecanoromycetidae, supporting the recognition of order Lecideales Vain. in this subclass. The genus name Lecidea must be redefined to apply only to Lecidea sensu stricto and to include at least some members of the genus Porpidia. Based on morphological and chemical similarities, as well as the phylogenetic relationship of Lecidea pullata sister to Frutidella caesioatra, the new combination Frutidella pullata is proposed here. PMID:21642348

Schmull, Michaela; Miadlikowska, Jolanta; Pelzer, Monika; Stocker-Wörgötter, Elfie; Hofstetter, Valerie; Fraker, Emily; Hodkinson, Brendan P; Reeb, Valerie; Kukwa, Martin; Lumbsch, H Thorsten; Kauff, Frank; Lutzoni, François

2011-01-01

412

Genetic divergence and phylogenetic independence of Far Eastern species in subfamily Leuciscinae (Pisces: Cyprinidae) inferred from mitochondrial DNA analyses.  

PubMed

Classification of freshwater fish in the subfamily Leuciscinae, Cyprinidae is hampered by complexity or lack of morphological diversity. In this study, analyses based on mtDNA sequences were undertaken to clarify phylogenetic relationships among Far Eastern, North American and European species in the Leuciscinae. Evolutionary rate in cytochrome b gene (Cyt-b) and D-loop sequences appear to be almost constant in Leuciscinae. The topology of phylogenetic trees generated by neighbor-joining (NJ) and maximum likelihood (ML) methods based on Cyt-b gene and D-loop sequences was similar. Five major clades, designated clades 1-5, and a minor clade were discriminated. Most of the Far Eastern, North American and European species were included in the major clades. Clade 1, comprised almost entirely of Far Eastern phoxinins, is monophyletic and greatly diverged from the other species of Leuciscinae. From the present phylogenetic relationships and the previous studies, we present the following hypotheses with respect to the evolutionary history of the Far Eastern phoxinins. The Far Eastern species should be classified into Far Eastern-specific genera, although ichthyologists have still insisted that the species should be included in the European genera. The Far Eastern clade 1 consists of two subclades, including genera Pseudaspius-Tribolodon and Far Eastern Phoxinus species. According to our phylogenetic analyses, Pseudaspius leptocephalus and Tribolodon species should be reclassified into the same genus. On the basis of evolutionary rate in Cyt-b gene in Cyprinidae, it is estimated that the Far Eastern lineage diverged approximately 10-14 million years ago (mya) from the common ancestor of Leuciscinae. It is deduced that speciation of the Far Eastern species occurred until approximately 4 mya, in relation to the formation of the Sea of Japan and the Japanese Islands. PMID:17895584

Sasaki, Takeshi; Kartavtsev, Yuri P; Chiba, Satoru N; Uematsu, Takayuki; Sviridov, Vladimir V; Hanzawa, Naoto

2007-08-01

413

Phylogenetic relationships of Malaysia’s long-tailed macaques, Macaca fascicularis, based on cytochrome b sequences  

PubMed Central

Abstract Phylogenetic relationships among Malaysia’s long-tailed macaques have yet to be established, despite abundant genetic studies of the species worldwide. The aims of this study are to examine the phylogenetic relationships of Macaca fascicularis in Malaysia and to test its classification as a morphological subspecies. A total of 25 genetic samples of M. fascicularis yielding 383 bp of Cytochrome b (Cyt b) sequences were used in phylogenetic analysis along with one sample each of M. nemestrina and M. arctoides used as outgroups. Sequence character analysis reveals that Cyt b locus is a highly conserved region with only 23% parsimony informative character detected among ingroups. Further analysis indicates a clear separation between populations originating from different regions; the Malay Peninsula versus Borneo Insular, the East Coast versus West Coast of the Malay Peninsula, and the island versus mainland Malay Peninsula populations. Phylogenetic trees (NJ, MP and Bayesian) portray a consistent clustering paradigm as Borneo’s population was distinguished from Peninsula’s population (99% and 100% bootstrap value in NJ and MP respectively and 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian trees). The East coast population was separated from other Peninsula populations (64% in NJ, 66% in MP and 0.53 posterior probability in Bayesian). West coast populations were divided into 2 clades: the North-South (47%/54% in NJ, 26/26% in MP and 1.00/0.80 posterior probability in Bayesian) and Island-Mainland (93% in NJ, 90% in MP and 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian). The results confirm the previous morphological assignment of 2 subspecies, M. f. fascicularis and M. f. argentimembris, in the Malay Peninsula. These populations should be treated as separate genetic entities in order to conserve the genetic diversity of Malaysia’s M. fascicularis. These findings are crucial in aiding the conservation management and translocation process of M. fascicularis populations in Malaysia. PMID:24899832

Abdul-Latiff, Muhammad Abu Bakar; Ruslin, Farhani; Fui, Vun Vui; Abu, Mohd-Hashim; Rovie-Ryan, Jeffrine Japning; Abdul-Patah, Pazil; Lakim, Maklarin; Roos, Christian; Yaakop, Salmah; Md-Zain, Badrul Munir

2014-01-01

414

Neogastropod phylogenetic relationships based on entire mitochondrial genomes  

PubMed Central

Background The Neogastropoda is a highly diversified group of predatory marine snails (Gastropoda: Caenogastropoda). Traditionally, its monophyly has been widely accepted based on several morphological synapomorphies mostly related with the digestive system. However, recent molecular phylogenetic studies challenged the monophyly of Neogastropoda due to the inclusion of representatives of other caenogastropod lineages (e.g. Littorinimorpha) within the group. Neogastropoda has been classified into up to six superfamilies including Buccinoidea, Muricoidea, Olivoidea, Pseudolivoidea, Conoidea, and Cancellarioidea. Phylogenetic relationships among neogastropod superfamilies remain unresolved. Results The complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes of seven Neogastropoda (Bolinus brandaris, Cancellaria cancellata, Conus borgesi, Cymbium olla, Fusiturris similis, Nassarius reticulatus, and Terebra dimidiata) and of the tonnoidean Cymatium parthenopeum (Littorinimorpha), a putative sister group to Neogastropoda, were sequenced. In addition, the partial sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the calyptraeoidean Calyptraea chinensis (Littorinimorpha) was also determined. All sequenced neogastropod mt genomes shared a highly conserved gene order with only two instances of tRNA gene translocation. Phylogenetic relationships of Neogastropoda were inferred based on the 13 mt protein coding genes (both at the amino acid and nucleotide level) of all available caenogastropod mitochondrial genomes. Maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) phylogenetic analyses failed to recover the monophyly of Neogastropoda due to the inclusion of the tonnoidean Cymatium parthenopeum within the group. At the superfamily level, all phylogenetic analyses questioned the taxonomic validity of Muricoidea, whereas the monophyly of Conoidea was supported by most phylogenetic analyses, albeit weakly. All analyzed families were recovered as monophyletic except Turridae due to the inclusion of Terebridae. Further phylogenetic analyses based on either a four mt gene data set including two additional Littorinimorpha or combining mt and nuclear sequence data also rejected the monophyly of Neogastropoda but rendered rather unresolved topologies. The phylogenetic performance of each mt gene was evaluated under ML. The total number of resolved internal branches of the reference (whole-mt genome) topology was not recovered in any of the individual gene phylogenetic analysis. The cox2 gene recovered the highest number of congruent internal branches with the reference topology, whereas the combined tRNA genes, cox1, and atp8 showed the lowest phylogenetic performance. Conclusion Phylogenetic analyses based on complete mt genome data resolved a higher number of internal branches of the caenogastropod tree than individual mt genes. All performed phylogenetic analyses agreed in rejecting the monophyly of the Neogastropoda due to the inclusion of Littorinimorpha lineages within the group. This result challenges morphological evidence, and prompts for further re-evaluation of neogastropod morphological synapomorphies. The important increase in number of analyzed positions with respect to previous studies was not enough to achieve conclusive results regarding phylogenetic relationships within Neogastropoda. In this regard, sequencing of complete mtDNAs from all closely related caenogastropod lineages is needed. Nevertheless, the rapid radiation at the origin of Neogastropoda may not allow full resolution of this phylogeny based only on mt data, and in parallel more nuclear sequence data will also need to be incorporated into the phylogenetic analyses. PMID:19698157

Cunha, Regina L; Grande, Cristina; Zardoya, Rafael

2009-01-01

415

Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of ascarid nematodes from twenty-one species of captive wild mammals based on mitochondrial and nuclear sequences.  

PubMed

Although ascarid nematodes are important parasites of wild animals of public health concern, few species of ascarids from wild animals have been studied at the molecular level so far. Here, the classification and phylogenetic relationships of roundworms from 21 species of captive wild animals have been studied by sequencing and analysis of parts of the ribosomal 18S and 28S genes and the mitochondrial (mt) 12S gene. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred by 3 methods (NJ/MP/ML) based on the data of single gene sequences and concatenated sequences. Homology analysis indicated that the 18S sequences were conserved among roundworms from all 21 species and that 28S showed interspecies variability. Divergence levels displayed in 12S suggested that 12S appears to be either intra- or interspecifically variable. Evolutionary trees indicated that the ascarids split into 2 families, 4 genera and 7 species, with high bootstrap support for each clade. Combined trees suggested that Baylisascaris ailuri is more closely related to B. transfuga than to B. schroederi. This study provides useful molecular markers for the classification, phylogenetic analysis and epidemiological investigation of roundworms from wild animals. PMID:22716963

Li, Yan; Niu, Lili; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Zhihe; Chen, Zhigang; Gu, Xiaobin; Xie, Yue; Yan, Ning; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

2012-09-01

416

PANTHER version 7: improved phylogenetic trees, orthologs and collaboration with the Gene Ontology Consortium.  

PubMed

Protein Analysis THrough Evolutionary Relationships (PANTHER) is a comprehensive software system for inferring the functions of genes based on their evolutionary relationships. Phylogenetic trees of gene families form the basis for PANTHER and these trees are annotated with ontology terms describing the evolution of gene function from ancestral to modern day genes. One of the main applications of PANTHER is in accurate prediction of the functions of uncharacterized genes, based on their evolutionary relationships to genes with functions known from experiment. The PANTHER website, freely available at http://www.pantherdb.org, also includes software tools for analyzing genomic data relative to known and inferred gene functions. Since 2007, there have been several new developments to PANTHER: (i) improved phylogenetic trees, explicitly representing speciation and gene duplication events, (ii) identification of gene orthologs, including least diverged orthologs (best one-to-one pairs), (iii) coverage of more genomes (48 genomes, up to 87% of genes in each genome; see http://www.pantherdb.org/panther/summaryStats.jsp), (iv) improved support for alternative database identifiers for genes, proteins and microarray probes and (v) adoption of the SBGN standard for display of biological pathways. In addition, PANTHER trees are being annotated with gene function as part of the Gene Ontology Reference Genome project, resulting in an increasing number of curated functional annotations. PMID:20015972

Mi, Huaiyu; Dong, Qing; Muruganujan, Anushya; Gaudet, Pascale; Lewis, Suzanna; Thomas, Paul D

2010-01-01

417

Integrating coalescent and phylogenetic approaches to delimit species in the lichen photobiont Trebouxia.  

PubMed

The accurate assessment of species boundaries in symbiotic systems is a prerequisite for the study of speciation, co-evolution and selectivity. Many studies have shown the high genetic diversity of green algae from the genus Trebouxia, the most common photobiont of lichen-forming fungi. However, the phylogenetic relationships, and the amount of cryptic diversity of these algae are still poorly understood, and an adequate species concept for trebouxiophycean algae is still missing. In this study we used a multifaceted approach based on coalescence (GMYC, STEM) and phylogenetic relationships to assess species boundaries in the trebouxioid photobionts of the lichen-forming fungus Lasallia pustulata. We further investigated whether putative species of Trebouxia found in L. pustulata are shared with other lichen-forming fungi. We found that L. pustulata is associated with at least five species of Trebouxia and most of them are shared with other lichen-forming fungi, showing different patterns of species-to-species and species-to-community interactions. We also show that one of the putative Trebouxia species is found exclusively in association with L. pustulata and is restricted to thalli from localities with Mediterranean microclimate. We suggest that the species delimitation method presented in this study is a promising tool to address species boundaries within the heterogeneous genus Trebouxia. PMID:24685499

Sadowska-De?, Anna D; Dal Grande, Francesco; Lumbsch, H Thorsten; Beck, Andreas; Otte, Jürgen; Hur, Jae-Seoun; Kim, Jung A; Schmitt, Imke

2014-07-01

418

Are Victoria West cores "proto-Levallois"? A phylogenetic assessment.  

PubMed

Cores from South Africa assigned to the "Victoria West" industry have long been purported as a "proto-Levallois" core form, and thus regarded as ancestral to the Levallois prepared core technologies of the Middle Paleolithic and African Middle Stone Age. Similarities in form between Victoria West cores, in terms of surface morphology and the removal of large flakes from a prepared surface, led to hypothesized schemes of technological evolution from Victoria West cores through to fully developed Levallois cores. However, the phylogenetic basis of this Victoria West "proto-Levallois" hypothesis, and the assumptions of phylogenetic homology upon which it rests, have never been tested formally. In recent years, archaeologists have begun to use phylogenetic methods drawn from biology to test hypotheses of technological and cultural evolution. Here, the phylogenetic assumptions of the Victoria West "proto-Levallois" hypothesis are tested directly using a cladistic (maximum parsimony) protocol. The cladistic analyses indicate that Victoria West cores are not the basal sister taxon of a Levallois clade, as predicted by the proto-Levallois hypothesis. Moreover, character analyses demonstrate that several characters relating to core surfaces and flake scar morphology are not phylogenetically homologous, but result from convergent technological evolution within the Acheulean techno-complex. Post hoc analyses further determine that these results are not confounded by choice of outgroup or raw material factors. The results were also shown to be robust on the basis of the ensemble retention index statistic, bootstrap analyses, and permutation tests. Hence, it is concluded that Victoria West cores do not represent a "proto-Levallois" core form, and that the term "para-Levallois" should more correctly be applied on phylogenetic grounds. It is further argued that even in cases where different technologies are found to share phylogenetically homologous features, use of the term "proto" is questionable on theoretical grounds. PMID:19062074

Lycett, St