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Sample records for acesso superior ou

  1. Pictorial Superiority Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Douglas L.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Pictures generally show superior recognition relative to their verbal labels. This experiment was designed to link this pictorial superiority effect to sensory or meaning codes associated with the two types of symbols. (Editor)

  2. CONTOURITES IN LAKE SUPERIOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contour currents influence sedimentation in an area 15 km wide and 65 km long at the base of the slope off the Keweenaw Peninsula in Lake Superior, northwestern Michigan. Seismic-reflection profiles (3.5 kHz) from this area show distinct wavy reflectors in a scoured trough at a d...

  3. Lake Superior, Duluth, MN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This view shows the west end of Lake Superior and Duluth, MN (47.0N, 91.0W). Portions of Minnesota, Michigan and Ontario, Canada are in the scene. The Duluth metropolitan area is at the west end of the lake. The discoloration plume in the water at Duluth is the result of tailings from the iron ore smelters that process the iron ore from the nearby open pit mines seen near the upper left corner of the photo.

  4. Bright superior mirages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehn, Waldemar H.

    2003-01-01

    Superior mirages of unusual brightness are occasionally observed. Two such cases, photographed over the frozen surface of Lake Winnipeg, Canada, are documented. Visually, these mirages appear as featureless bright barriers far out on the lake. They are just images of the lake ice, yet the luminance in one case was 2.5 times (in the other, 1.7 times) the luminance of the ice surface in front of the mirage. The mirage itself can be modeled by means of a conduction inversion, but a proper explanation of the brightness is not yet available.

  5. Superior Sagittal Sinus Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Nakase, Hiroyuki; Takeshima, Toshikazu; Sakaki, Toshisuke; Heimann, Axel; Kempski, Oliver

    1998-01-01

    Sinus-vein thrombosis is increasingly recognized as a much more frequent neurological disorder than was anticipated before. We examined the pathophysiology of superior sagittal sinus thrombosis (SSST) from 19 patients and a rat SSST model. We treated 19 cases with SSST who were diagnosed by angiography. The symptoms of nine patients, who suffered multiple intracerebral hemorrhage, were abrupt. In another ten patients who recovered satisfactorily, the condition progressed slowly and they were treated with heparin and urokinase. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that female, sudden onset (<24 hours) and posterior 1/3 occlusion are related to bad outcome. Experimentally, SSST was induced by ligation and slow injection of kaolin-cephalin suspension into SSS in rats. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and tissue hemoglobin oxygen saturation (Hb Sao2) using a “scanning” technique were measured at 48 locations, and fluorescence angiography was performed before and until 90 min after SSST induction. After 48 hours the animals were sacrificed for histological studies. Decrease of rCBF and tissue Hb SO2 and brain damage were seen in group B (n = 10) with an extension of thrombosis from SSS into cortical veins. Brain injury was not observed in group A (n = 8) with SSS thrombus alone and sham-operated animals (n = 5). In conclusion, a brain with acute extension of thrombus from SSS into cortical veins becomes critical for cerebral blood supply and metabolism. CBF, tissue HbSO2 and repeated angiography can be helpful monitors for the early detection of critical conditions after SSST. As to the therapy, restraint on the ongoing thrombus is essential to protect the brain with SSST, and we encourage the use of combination therapy of heparin and urokinase as early as possible in cases without intracerebral hemorrhage. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:17171061

  6. Tunable, nonlinear Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oehri, D.; Pletyukhov, M.; Gritsev, V.; Blatter, G.; Schmidt, S.

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the two-photon scattering properties of a Jaynes-Cummings (JC) nonlinearity consisting of a two-level system (qubit) interacting with a single-mode cavity, which is coupled to two waveguides, each containing a single incident photon wave packet initially. In this scattering setup, we study the interplay between the Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) effect arising due to quantum interference and effective photon-photon interactions induced by the presence of the qubit. We calculate the two-photon scattering matrix of this system analytically and identify signatures of interference and interaction in the second-order auto- and cross-correlation functions of the scattered photons. In the dispersive regime, when qubit and cavity are far detuned from each other, we find that the JC nonlinearity can be used as an almost linear, in situ tunable beam splitter giving rise to ideal Hong-Ou-Mandel interference, generating a highly path-entangled two-photon NOON state of the scattered photons. The latter manifests itself in strongly suppressed waveguide cross-correlations and Poissonian photon number statistics in each waveguide. If the two-level system and the cavity are on resonance, the JC nonlinearity strongly modifies the ideal HOM conditions leading to a smaller degree of path entanglement and sub-Poissonian photon number statistics. In the latter regime, we find that photon blockade is associated with bunched autocorrelations in both waveguides, while a two-polariton resonance can lead to bunched as well as antibunched correlations.

  7. Bimodal Hong-Ou-Mandel Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundarraman, Deepika; Gilliss, Thomas; Leary, Cody

    2013-03-01

    We investigate two-photon Hong-Ou-Mandel interference in several interferometric systems, in which each of the two interfering input photons exist in arbitrary linear superpositions of the first-order Hermite-Gaussian modes HG10 and HG01 . We find that if both input photons are in balanced superpositions of the HG10 and HG01 modes, the resulting two-photon interference can be engineered to transform these diagonal Hermite-Gaussian inputs into output modes of the Laguerre Gaussian type, which are entangled with respect to both output path and transverse spatial mode. We show that such two-photon interference effects can occur even if the input photons are prepared with distinguishable transverse spatial states. This work was supported in part by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.

  8. Atomic Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, R.; Imanaliev, A.; Aspect, A.; Cheneau, M.; Boiron, D.; Westbrook, C. I.

    2015-04-01

    Two-particle interference is a fundamental feature of quantum mechanics, and is even less intuitive than wave-particle duality for a single particle. In this duality, classical concepts--wave or particle--are still referred to, and interference happens in ordinary space-time. On the other hand, two-particle interference takes place in a mathematical space that has no classical counterpart. Entanglement lies at the heart of this interference, as it does in the fundamental tests of quantum mechanics involving the violation of Bell's inequalities. The Hong, Ou and Mandel experiment is a conceptually simpler situation, in which the interference between two-photon amplitudes also leads to behaviour impossible to describe using a simple classical model. Here we report the realization of the Hong, Ou and Mandel experiment using atoms instead of photons. We create a source that emits pairs of atoms, and cause one atom of each pair to enter one of the two input channels of a beam-splitter, and the other atom to enter the other input channel. When the atoms are spatially overlapped so that the two inputs are indistinguishable, the atoms always emerge together in one of the output channels. This result opens the way to testing Bell's inequalities involving mechanical observables of massive particles, such as momentum, using methods inspired by quantum optics, and to testing theories of the quantum-to-classical transition. Our work also demonstrates a new way to benchmark non-classical atom sources that may be of interest for quantum information processing and quantum simulation.

  9. 75 FR 28542 - Superior Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... orient the new Superior Resource Advisory Committee members on their roles and responsibilities. DATES... of the roles and responsibilities of the Superior Resource Advisory Committee members; Election...

  10. The letter height superiority illusion.

    PubMed

    New, Boris; Doré-Mazars, Karine; Cavézian, Céline; Pallier, Christophe; Barra, Julien

    2016-02-01

    Letters are identified better when they are embedded within words rather than within pseudowords, a phenomenon known as the word superiority effect (Reicher in Journal of Experimental Psychology, 81, 275-280, 1969). This effect is, inter alia, accounted for by the interactive-activation model (McClelland & Rumelhart in Psychological Review, 88, 375-407, 1981) through feedback from word to letter nodes. In this study, we investigated whether overactivation of features could lead to perceptual bias, wherein letters would be perceived as being taller than pseudoletters, or words would be perceived as being taller than pseudowords. In two experiments, we investigated the effects of letter and lexical status on the perception of size. Participants who had to compare the heights of letters and pseudoletters, or of words and pseudowords, indeed perceived the former stimuli as being taller than the latter. Possible alternative interpretations of this height superiority effect for letters and words are discussed. PMID:26370216

  11. Writing superiority in cued recall.

    PubMed

    Fueller, Carina; Loescher, Jens; Indefrey, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In list learning paradigms with free recall, written recall has been found to be less susceptible to intrusions of related concepts than spoken recall when the list items had been visually presented. This effect has been ascribed to the use of stored orthographic representations from the study phase during written recall (Kellogg, 2001). In other memory retrieval paradigms, by contrast, either better recall for modality-congruent items or an input-independent writing superiority effect have been found (Grabowski, 2005). In a series of four experiments using a paired associate learning paradigm we tested (a) whether output modality effects on verbal recall can be replicated in a paradigm that does not involve the rejection of semantically related intrusion words, (b) whether a possible superior performance for written recall was due to a slower response onset for writing as compared to speaking in immediate recall, and (c) whether the performance in paired associate word recall was correlated with performance in an additional episodic memory recall task. We observed better written recall in the first half of the recall phase, irrespective of the modality in which the material was presented upon encoding. An explanation for this effect based on longer response latencies for writing and hence more time for memory retrieval could be ruled out by showing that the effect persisted in delayed response versions of the task. Although there was some evidence that stored additional episodic information may contribute to the successful retrieval of associate words, this evidence was only found in the immediate response experiments and hence is most likely independent from the observed output modality effect. In sum, our results from a paired associate learning paradigm suggest that superior performance for written vs. spoken recall cannot be (solely) explained in terms of additional access to stored orthographic representations from the encoding phase. Our findings rather

  12. Superior sulcus tumors (Pancoast tumors)

    PubMed Central

    Battistella, Lucia; Mammana, Marco; Calabrese, Francesca; Rea, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Superior Sulcus Tumors, frequently termed as Pancoast tumors, are a wide range of tumors invading the apical chest wall. Due to its localization in the apex of the lung, with the potential invasion of the lower part of the brachial plexus, first ribs, vertebrae, subclavian vessels or stellate ganglion, the superior sulcus tumors cause characteristic symptoms, like arm or shoulder pain or Horner’s syndrome. The management of superior sulcus tumors has dramatically evolved over the past 50 years. Originally deemed universally fatal, in 1956, Shaw and Paulson introduced a new treatment paradigm with combined radiotherapy and surgery ensuring 5-year survival of approximately 30%. During the 1990s, following the need to improve systemic as well as local control, a trimodality approach including induction concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by surgical resection was introduced, reaching 5-year survival rates up to 44% and becoming the standard of care. Many efforts have been persecuted, also, to obtain higher complete resection rates using appropriate surgical approaches and involving multidisciplinary team including spine surgeon or vascular surgeon. Other potential treatment options are under consideration like prophylactic cranial irradiation or the addition of other chemotherapy agents or biologic agents to the trimodality approach. PMID:27429965

  13. Superior sulcus tumors (Pancoast tumors).

    PubMed

    Marulli, Giuseppe; Battistella, Lucia; Mammana, Marco; Calabrese, Francesca; Rea, Federico

    2016-06-01

    Superior Sulcus Tumors, frequently termed as Pancoast tumors, are a wide range of tumors invading the apical chest wall. Due to its localization in the apex of the lung, with the potential invasion of the lower part of the brachial plexus, first ribs, vertebrae, subclavian vessels or stellate ganglion, the superior sulcus tumors cause characteristic symptoms, like arm or shoulder pain or Horner's syndrome. The management of superior sulcus tumors has dramatically evolved over the past 50 years. Originally deemed universally fatal, in 1956, Shaw and Paulson introduced a new treatment paradigm with combined radiotherapy and surgery ensuring 5-year survival of approximately 30%. During the 1990s, following the need to improve systemic as well as local control, a trimodality approach including induction concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by surgical resection was introduced, reaching 5-year survival rates up to 44% and becoming the standard of care. Many efforts have been persecuted, also, to obtain higher complete resection rates using appropriate surgical approaches and involving multidisciplinary team including spine surgeon or vascular surgeon. Other potential treatment options are under consideration like prophylactic cranial irradiation or the addition of other chemotherapy agents or biologic agents to the trimodality approach. PMID:27429965

  14. The Arthroscopic Superior Capsular Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Adams, Christopher R; Denard, Patrick J; Brady, Paul C; Hartzler, Robert U; Burkhart, Stephen S

    2016-01-01

    In a subset of patients with rotator cuff tears, the glenohumeral joint has minimal degenerative changes and the rotator cuff tendon is either irreparable or very poor quality and unlikely to heal. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) is often considered for these patients despite the lack of glenohumeral arthritis. However, due to the permanent destruction of the glenohumeral articular surfaces, complication rates, and concerns about implant longevity with RSA, we believe the superior capsular reconstruction (SCR) is a viable alternative. In this article, we describe our technique for the SCR. PMID:27552457

  15. INTERDEPENDENT SUPERIORITY AND INFERIORITY FEELINGS

    PubMed Central

    Ingham, Harrington V.

    1949-01-01

    It is postulated that in neurotic persons who have unrealistic feelings of superiority and inferiority the two are interdependent. This is a departure from the concept of previous observers that either one or the other is primary and its opposite is overcompensation. The author postulates considerable parallelism, with equal importance for each. He submits that the neurotic person forms two logic-resistant compartments for the two opposed self-estimates and that treatment which makes inroads of logic upon one compartment, simultaneously does so upon the other. Two examples are briefly reported. The neurotic benefits sought in exaggeration of capability are the same as those sought in insistence upon inferiority: Presumption of superiority at once bids for approbation and delivers the subject from the need to prove himself worthy of it in dreaded competition; exaggeration of incapability baits sympathy and makes competition unnecessary because failure is conceded. Some of the characteristics of abnormal self-estimates that distinguish them from normal are: Preoccupation with self, resistance to logical explanation of personality problems, inconsistency in reasons for beliefs in adequacy on the one hand and inadequacy on the other, unreality, rationalization of faults, and difficulty and vacillation in the selection of adequate goals. PMID:15390573

  16. 76 FR 11193 - Superior Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Superior Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Superior Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Duluth, Minnesota. The...

  17. 75 FR 65296 - Superior Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Superior Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Superior Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Duluth, Minnesota. The...

  18. Carbon cycling in Lake Superior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, N. R.; Auer, M. T.; Green, S. A.; Lu, X.; Apul, D. S.; Powell, K. D.; Bub, L.

    2005-06-01

    Carbon (C) cycling in Lake Superior was studied within the Keweenaw Interdisciplinary Transport Experiment in Superior (KITES) project to assess (1) whether the lake is net heterotrophic, (2) sources, sinks and residence time for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), (3) importance of terrigenous organic C subsidies, and (4) factors limiting C flow through bacteria. During 3 years of fieldwork, measurements were made of spatial and temporal distributions of C pools and rates of photosynthesis, community respiration, and bacterial production. Measurements were made of the composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM), rates of DOM photolysis, lability of DOM toward microbial consumption, and river inputs of DOM. All measurements suggest the lake is net heterotrophic. The C:N ratios of DOM suggest that it is primarily of terrigenous origin, but other characteristics (size distribution, UV absorption) point to the presence of autochthonous DOM and to alteration of terrigenous material. The lake mass balance indicates that the residence time (˜8 years) of the DOC pool (17 Tg) is short relative to the hydrologic residence time (170 years). The known flux of terrigenous DOC (˜1 Tg/yr) is too low to support annual bacterial carbon demand (6-38 Tg/yr), but microbial respiration is the major sink for terrigenous DOC. A rapidly cycling, autochthonous DOC pool must exist. Microbial activity was correlated with temperature, phosphorus availability, and DOC concentration but not with photosynthesis rates. Measurements of respiration (˜40 Tg/yr), photosynthesis (2-7 Tg/yr), and bacterial production (0.5-2 Tg/yr) are not all mutually compatible and result in a discrepancy in the organic carbon budget.

  19. Real and potential nickel hydrogen superiority

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betz, F. E.

    1983-01-01

    Events from the development and orbital flight experience with a nickel hydrogen battery are described. The events highlight characteristics of nickel hydrogen which afford superior capability in overcharge, overdischarge and state of charge evaluation, when compared to the nickel cadmium electrochemical system. Some developments in nickel hydrogen technology that provide the potential of furthering nickel hydrogen superiority for satellite applications are also discussed.

  20. Lake Effects: The Lake Superior Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beery, Tom; And Others

    This curriculum guide was launched in response to a need for Lake Superior-specific educational materials and contains lessons and activities that can be used to teach about Lake Superior. The lessons in this book are divided into four sections. Each of the first three sections has a background section that provides basic information about Lake…

  1. Rehearsal Characteristics of "Superior" Band Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juchniewicz, Jay; Kelly, Steven N.; Acklin, Amy I.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the rehearsal characteristics of "superior" middle and high school band directors. A total of 131 respondents from Florida, Kentucky, and North Carolina who received a "superior" rating for 4 out of the past 5 years, completed an open-ended essay question online asking them to…

  2. Remodelling of the Superior Caval Vein After Angioplasty in an Infant with Superior Caval Vein Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Mert, Murat Saltik, Levent; Gunay, Ilhan

    2004-08-15

    An 8-month old girl was presented with superior caval vein syndrome early after cardiac surgery. Angiography showed severe stenosis of the superior caval vein with 50 mmHg pressure gradient. Following balloon angioplasty, the pressure gradient was reduced to 7 mmHg with some residual stenosis of the superior caval vein. When the patient was reevaluated 5 months after the procedure, angiography revealed a normal diameter of the superior caval vein without a pressure gradient.

  3. Teaching quantum mechanics with the Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armendáriz, Gustavo; Cravioto-Lagos, Jorge; Velázquez, Victor; Grether, Marcela; López-Moreno, Enrique; Galvez, E. J.

    2014-07-01

    The Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer is an optical device which allows us to prove experimentally the quantum nature of light via the quantum amplitude superposition of two indistinguishable photons. We have implemented this experiment as an advanced undergraduate laboratory experience. We were able to overcome well known difficulties with this experiment using recently reported techniques by Thomas et al. [Rev. Sci. Instr. 80, 036101 (2009), ].

  4. Eielson Air Force Base OU-1 baseline risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvis, M.T.; Jarvis, T.T.; Van Houten, N.C.; Lewis, R.E.

    1993-09-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment report is the second volume in a set of three volumes for operable Unit 1 (OU-1). The companion documents contain the Remedial Investigation and the Feasibility Study. Operable Unit 1 (OU-1) is one of several groups of hazardous waste sites located at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB) near Fairbanks, Alaska. The operable units at Eielson are typically characterized by petroleum, oil, lubricant/solvent contamination, and by the presence of organics floating at the water table. In 1989 and 1990, firms under contract to the Air Force conducted field studies to gather information about the extent of chemical contamination in soil, groundwater, and soil air pore space (soil gas) at the site. This report documents the results of a baseline risk assessment, which uses the 1989 and 1991 site characterization database to quantify the potential human health risk associated with past Base industrial activities in the vicinity of OU-1. Background data collected in 1992 were also used in the preparation of this report.

  5. Graduated recession of the superior oblique muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Caldeira, J A

    1975-01-01

    Recession of the superior oblique was performed bilaterally in 12 patients with the A phenomenon and unilaterally in four patients with vertical imbalance. The results are discussed. Images PMID:1191613

  6. Superior sagittal sinus thrombosis. Still a killer.

    PubMed Central

    Schell, C L; Rathe, R J

    1988-01-01

    Following treating a case of superior sagittal sinus thrombosis, we did an extensive search of the literature, eliciting 795 cases of the disorder. An analysis showed that even after the introduction of antibiotics, the preponderance of these cases have been diagnosed at autopsy. Our findings raise questions about the current methods of diagnosis and management of superior sagittal sinus thrombosis: Can the correct diagnosis be made earlier? Does a distinction between partial and complete thrombosis call for a different management? Images PMID:3051676

  7. Whisker-related afferents in superior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Castro-Alamancos, Manuel A; Favero, Morgana

    2016-05-01

    Rodents use their whiskers to explore the environment, and the superior colliculus is part of the neural circuits that process this sensorimotor information. Cells in the intermediate layers of the superior colliculus integrate trigeminotectal afferents from trigeminal complex and corticotectal afferents from barrel cortex. Using histological methods in mice, we found that trigeminotectal and corticotectal synapses overlap somewhat as they innervate the lower and upper portions of the intermediate granular layer, respectively. Using electrophysiological recordings and optogenetics in anesthetized mice in vivo, we showed that, similar to rats, whisker deflections produce two successive responses that are driven by trigeminotectal and corticotectal afferents. We then employed in vivo and slice experiments to characterize the response properties of these afferents. In vivo, corticotectal responses triggered by electrical stimulation of the barrel cortex evoke activity in the superior colliculus that increases with stimulus intensity and depresses with increasing frequency. In slices from adult mice, optogenetic activation of channelrhodopsin-expressing trigeminotectal and corticotectal fibers revealed that cells in the intermediate layers receive more efficacious trigeminotectal, than corticotectal, synaptic inputs. Moreover, the efficacy of trigeminotectal inputs depresses more strongly with increasing frequency than that of corticotectal inputs. The intermediate layers of superior colliculus appear to be tuned to process strong but infrequent trigeminal inputs and weak but more persistent cortical inputs, which explains features of sensory responsiveness, such as the robust rapid sensory adaptation of whisker responses in the superior colliculus. PMID:26864754

  8. Exploring the Superior Colliculus In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The superior colliculus plays an important role in the translation of sensory signals that encode the location of objects in space into motor signals that encode vectors of the shifts in gaze direction called saccades. Since the late 1990s, our two laboratories have been applying whole cell patch-clamp techniques to in vitro slice preparations of rodent superior colliculus to analyze the structure and function of its circuitry at the cellular level. This review describes the results of these experiments and discusses their contributions to our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for sensorimotor integration in the superior colliculus. The experiments analyze vertical interactions between its superficial visuosensory and intermediate premotor layers and propose how they might contribute to express saccades and to saccadic suppression. They also compare and contrast the circuitry within each of these layers and propose how this circuitry might contribute to the selection of the targets for saccades and to the build-up of the premotor commands that precede saccades. Experiments also explore in vitro the roles of extrinsic inputs to the superior colliculus, including cholinergic inputs from the parabigeminal and parabrachial nuclei and GABAergic inputs from the substantia nigra pars reticulata, in modulating the activity of the collicular circuitry. The results extend and clarify our understanding of the multiple roles the superior colliculus plays in sensorimotor integration. PMID:19710376

  9. Electron and hole Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonckheere, T.; Rech, J.; Wahl, C.; Martin, T.

    2012-09-01

    We consider the electronic analog of the quantum optics Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer in a realistic condensed matter device based on single electron emission in chiral edge states. For electron-electron collisions we show that the measurement of the zero-frequency current correlations at the output of a quantum point contact produces a dip giving precious information on the electronic wave packets and coherence. As a feature truly unique to Fermi statistics and condensed matter, we show that two-particle interferences between electron and hole in the Fermi sea can produce a positive peak in the current correlations, which we study for realistic experimental parameters.

  10. Differentiation in Coregonus zenithicus in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todd, Thomas N.; Smith, Gerald R.

    1980-01-01

    Morphological variation in Coregonus zenithicus has long plagued biologists working on Lake Superior ciscoes. Some of this variation is due to allometric growth; earlier workers incorrectly recognized large C. zenithicus as a distinct species, C. nigripinnis cyanopterus. Coregonus reighardi dymondi is a variant of C. zenithicus in northern bays of Lake Superior and Lake Nipigon. The morphological differences between members of spring and fall spawning populations of C. zenithicus in Lake Superior are no greater than those between geographically separate populations. We conclude that spawning time and geographic isolation act similarly in effecting differentiation of coregonine populations, and that populations with different spawning times do not necessarily represent different species.Key words: Coregonus zenithicus, cisco, Great Lakes, multivariate morphometrics, endangered species, taxonomy

  11. Significant Reading Experiences of Superior English Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitman, Robert S.

    1964-01-01

    Superior high school students (975 finalists in the NCTE Achievement Awards Program) were surveyed to find what one book was most significant to each of them in their high school experiences, and the reason for the significance. In response to questionnaires, the students cited 416 different titles, 72% of which were novels. The top 10 books were…

  12. 78 FR 21116 - Superior Supplier Incentive Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ..., performance, quality, and business relations would be granted Superior Supplier Status (SSS). Contractors that achieve SSS could receive more favorable contract terms and conditions in DoN contracts. In addition to recognition of SSS at the business unit level, multi-business unit corporations, that have several...

  13. Major Histocompatibility Complex Heterozygote Superiority during Coinfection

    PubMed Central

    McClelland, Erin E.; Penn, Dustin J.; Potts, Wayne K.

    2003-01-01

    Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) play a critical role in immune recognition, and many alleles confer susceptibility to infectious and autoimmune diseases. How these deleterious alleles persist in populations is controversial. One hypothesis postulates that MHC heterozygote superiority emerges over multiple infections because MHC-mediated resistance is generally dominant and many allele-specific susceptibilities to pathogens will be masked by the resistant allele in heterozygotes. We tested this hypothesis by using experimental coinfections with Salmonella enterica (serovar Typhimurium C5TS) and Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) in MHC-congenic mouse strains where one haplotype was resistant to Salmonella and the other was resistant to TMEV. MHC heterozygotes were superior to both homozygotes in 7 out of 8 comparisons (P = 0.0024), and the mean standardized pathogen load of heterozygotes was reduced by 41% over that of homozygotes (P = 0.01). In contrast, no heterozygote superiority was observed when the MHC haplotype combinations had similar susceptibility profiles to the two pathogens. This is the first experimental evidence for MHC heterozygote superiority against multiple pathogens, a mechanism that would contribute to the evolution of MHC diversity and explain the persistence of alleles conferring susceptibility to disease. PMID:12654829

  14. COSEE Superior Creates Passion for Science

    EPA Science Inventory

    COSEE was a transformative educational experience that has changed the way I teach. In July, I participated in the COSEE Lake Superior Shipboard and Shoreline Science program. I spent a week on the US EPA’s R/V Lake Guardian with 14 other teachers and a crew of sailors and scient...

  15. Ecology of Lake Superior: Preface and Prospectus

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Special Issue of Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management (AEHM) is the first of a two-volume set based on papers presented at a three-day International Conference in Duluth MN held in June 2010, and titled “Ecology of Lake Superior: Integrated Approaches and Challenges for t...

  16. Superior Visual Search in Adults with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Riordan, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that children with autism perform better than matched controls on visual search tasks and that this stems from a superior visual discrimination ability. This study assessed whether these findings generalize from children to adults with autism. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that, like children, adults with autism were…

  17. Hong-Ou-Mandel Interference with a Single Atom

    PubMed Central

    Ralley, K. A.; Lerner, I. V.; Yurkevich, I. V.

    2015-01-01

    The Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) effect is widely regarded as the quintessential quantum interference phenomenon in optics. In this work we examine how nonlinearity can smear statistical photon bunching in the HOM interferometer. We model both the nonlinearity and a balanced beam splitter with a single two-level system and calculate a finite probability of anti-bunching arising in this geometry. We thus argue that the presence of such nonlinearity would reduce the visibility in the standard HOM setup, offering some explanation for the diminution of the HOM visibility observed in many experiments. We use the same model to show that the nonlinearity affects a resonant two-photon propagation through a two-level impurity in a waveguide due to a “weak photon blockade” caused by the impossibility of double-occupancy and argue that this effect might be stronger for multi-photon propagation. PMID:26365761

  18. Hong-Ou-Mandel Interference with a Single Atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralley, K. A.; Lerner, I. V.; Yurkevich, I. V.

    2015-09-01

    The Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) effect is widely regarded as the quintessential quantum interference phenomenon in optics. In this work we examine how nonlinearity can smear statistical photon bunching in the HOM interferometer. We model both the nonlinearity and a balanced beam splitter with a single two-level system and calculate a finite probability of anti-bunching arising in this geometry. We thus argue that the presence of such nonlinearity would reduce the visibility in the standard HOM setup, offering some explanation for the diminution of the HOM visibility observed in many experiments. We use the same model to show that the nonlinearity affects a resonant two-photon propagation through a two-level impurity in a waveguide due to a “weak photon blockade” caused by the impossibility of double-occupancy and argue that this effect might be stronger for multi-photon propagation.

  19. Geology and hydrocarbon potential of the Oued Mya basin, Algeria

    SciTech Connect

    Benamrane, O.; Messaoudi, M.; Messelles, H. )

    1993-09-01

    The Oued Mya hydrocarbon system is located in the Sahara basin. It is one of the best producing basins in Algeria, along with the Ghadames and Illizi basins. The stratigraphic section consists of Paleozoic and Mesozoic, and is about 5000 m thick. This intracratonic basin is limited to the north by the Toughourt saddle, and to the west and east it is flanked by regional arches, Allal-Tilghemt and Amguid-Hassi Messaoud, which culminate in the super giant Hassi Messaoud and Hassi R'mel hydrocarbon accumulations, respectively, producing oil from the Cambrian sands and gas from the Trissic sands. The primary source rock in this basin is lower Silurian shale, with an average thickness of 50 m and a total organic carbon of 6% (14% in some cases). Results of maturation modeling indicate that the lower Silurian source is in the oil window. The Ordovician shales are also source rocks, but in a second order. Clastic reservoirs are in the Trissic sequence, which is mainly fluvial deposits with complex alluvial channels, and the main target in the basin. Clastic reservoirs in the lower Devonian section have a good hydrocarbon potential east of the basin through a southwest-northwest orientation. The Late Trissic-Early Jurassic evaporites that overlie the Triassic clastic interval and extend over the entire Oued Mya basin, are considered to be a super-seal evaporite package, which consists predominantly of anhydrite and halite. For paleozoic targets, a large number of potential seals exist within the stratigraphic column. This super seal does not present oil dismigration possibilities. We can infer that a large amount of the oil generated by the Silurian source rock from the beginning of Cretaceous until now still is not discovered and significantly greater volumes could be trapped within structure closures and mixed or stratigraphic traps related to the fluvial Triassic sandstones, marine Devonian sands, and Cambrian-Ordovician reservoirs.

  20. Superior peroneal retinacular injuries in calcaneal fractures.

    PubMed

    Kwaadu, Kwasi Yiadom; Fleming, Justin James; Florek, Derek

    2015-01-01

    Calcaneal fractures are injuries that occur generally as the result of high-energy mechanisms, and, as such, the presence of concurrent injuries should be suspected. The presence of peroneal tendon and superior retinacular injuries has been underreported. We sought to report the incidence of peroneal tendon pathologic features in our population of patients with calcaneal fractures, with emphasis on the method of identification. Furthermore, we sought to identify whether specific fracture patterns were more commonly associated with this pathologic finding. Of the 97 cases, 13 (13.4%) required repair of the superior peroneal retinaculum, 11 of which demonstrated the Sanders A fracture line. Our findings have demonstrated an incidence of pathologic features, in particular, with the presence of the Sanders A fracture line, that warrants attention to potentially help improve the outcome of these devastating injuries. PMID:25726126

  1. Longevity of Lake Superior lake trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schram, Stephen T.; Fabrizio, Mary C.

    1998-01-01

    The age structure of mature lake trout Salvelinus namaycush from the Wisconsin waters of Lake Superior increased following a population recovery that has taken place since the 1960s. As the population aged, it became apparent that scales were unreliable aging structures. Beginning in 1986, we examined both scale and sagittal otolith ages from tagged fish with a known period at liberty. We found large discrepancies in scale and sagittal otolith ages of mature fish, such that scale ages were biased low. We estimated lake trout living up to 42 years, which is greater than previously reported from Lake Superior. Investigators studying lake trout population dynamics in the Great Lakes should be aware that lake trout can live longer than previously thought.

  2. Birds of Isle Royale in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krefting, L.W.; Lee, F.B.; Shelton, P.C.; Gilbert, K.T.

    1966-01-01

    This report constitutes an annotated list of 197 species of birds reported from Isle Royale National Park, a 210-square-mile archipelago in northwestern Lake Superior including some 200 islets and rock outcrops. The island is 45 miles long and 8 miles wide at its widest point. Bird distribution and habitats are described, along with geography and vegetation; 62 species are known to have bred at least once, 26 are thought to be breeders, and the rest are migrants.

  3. Gamma rays produce superior seedless citrus

    SciTech Connect

    Pyrah, D.

    1984-10-01

    Using gamma radiation, seedless forms of some varieties of oranges and grapefruit are being produced. Since it has long been known that radiation causes mutations in plants and animals, experiments were conducted to determine if seediness could be altered by exposing seeds or budwood to higher than natural doses of gamma radiation. Orange and grapefruit seeds and cuttings exposed to gamma rays in the early 1970's have produced trees that bear fruit superior to that now on the market.

  4. The Holocene Paleolimnology of Lake Superior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyodo, A.; Longstaffe, F. J.

    2010-12-01

    This study describes contributions of glacial meltwater to Lake Superior over the last 11,000 cal BP. Rhythmites (interpreted as varves), lithological and mineralogical variations, and radiocarbon dating were used to establish chronostratigraphic correlation among four sediment cores from Lake Superior (Duluth, Caribou and Ile Parisienne basins, Thunder Bay Trough). Glacial sediments were deposited between 10,850 and 8,800 cal BP. The oxygen-isotope compositions of ostracodes record the presence of glacial meltwater in ancient Lake Superior as the Laurentide Ice Sheet waxed and waned. Glacial meltwater was increasingly dominant between ~10,850 and ~9,250 cal BP, particularly as thick varves formed in northern portions of the Lake Superior Basin (10,400-10,200, 9,900 and 9,300-9,200 cal BP). Glacial meltwater supply was reduced in the Thunder Bay Trough between 9,250 and 8,950 cal BP, but returned from 8,950 to 8,800 cal BP. Glacial meltwater flow from the Lake Superior Basin probably bypassed the Huron Basin several times during this period. Final termination of glacial meltwater supply occurred at 8,800 cal BP - coincident with cessation of varve formation and inception of ancient Lakes Agassiz-Ojibway and Houghton. Primary productivity was very low and algal growth occurred under conditions of extreme nitrogen deficiency - as determined using TOC, TN and C/N ratios - until glacial meltwater supply to the Basin was ended. The postglacial sediments are non-calcareous. The diatom silica proxy record shows that oxygen-isotope compositions of water rapidly increased after glacial meltwater termination, reaching -10 per mil during the Holocene Thermal Maximum. The oxygen-isotope compositions of water decreased at 3,000 cal BP in response to the Holocene Neoglacial Interval before gradually rising to Lake Superior’s modern value of -8.7 per mil. Aquatic primary productivity, inferred using TOC, TN, and the carbon- and nitrogen isotope compositions, has increased

  5. Ultrasound Detection of Superior Vena Cava Thrombus

    PubMed Central

    Birch, Aaron; Um, David; Laselle, Brooks

    2014-01-01

    Superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome is most commonly the insidious result of decreased vascular flow through the SVC due to malignancy, spontaneous thrombus, infections, and iatrogenic etiologies. Clinical suspicion usually leads to computed tomography to confirm the diagnosis. However, when a patient in respiratory distress requires emergent airway management, travel outside the emergency department is not ideal. With the growing implementation of point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS), clinicians may make critical diagnoses rapidly and safely. We present a case of SVC syndrome due to extensive thrombosis of the deep venous system cephalad to the SVC diagnosed by POCUS. PMID:25247051

  6. Motor Functions of the Superior Colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Neeraj J.; Katnani, Husam A.

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian superior colliculus (SC) and its nonmammalian homolog, the optic tectum, constitute a major node in processing sensory information, incorporating cognitive factors, and issuing motor commands. The resulting action—to orient toward or away from a stimulus—can be accomplished as an integrated movement across oculomotor, cephalomotor, and skeletomotor effectors. The SC also participates in preserving fixation during intersaccadic intervals. This review highlights the repertoire of movements attributed to SC function and analyzes the significance of results obtained from causality-based experiments (microstimulation and inactivation). The mechanisms potentially used to decode the population activity in the SC into an appropriate movement command are also discussed. PMID:21456962

  7. Management of superior subperiosteal orbital abscess.

    PubMed

    Gavriel, Haim; Jabrin, Basel; Eviatar, Ephraim

    2016-01-01

    A superior subperiosteal orbital abscess (SSPOA) is a collection of purulent material between the periorbit and the superior bony orbital wall, and is typically a complication of frontal sinusitis. SSPOA is characteristically managed by classic external surgical drainage. The aim of our study was to assess the role of surgical intervention in SSPOA. A retrospective medical chart review of patients diagnosed with SSPOA secondary to rhinosinusitis between the year 2005 and 2013 was conducted. Collected data included age, gender, co-morbidity, clinical presentation, prior antibiotic management, CT scans, surgical approach, outcome and complications. Six patients were included in our study, three males and three females with a mean age of 22.8 (range 9-58). Two patients were treated with amoxicillin clavulanic acid for 3 days prior to admission. Only the youngest patient with the smallest abscess responded successfully to conservative treatment, while the rest were managed surgically: three patients were treated successfully by the endonasal endoscopic approach and two patients were treated by utilizing the combined endonasal endoscopic and external approach. In patients who underwent the combined approach, the abscess was located in a more antero-lateral position than those treated endonasal endoscopically only. The location of a SSPOA dictates the surgical approach. The most antero-lateral SSPOAs should be drained by the combined approach, while more posterior abscesses should be approached endoscopically. Furthermore, a small SSPOA is first to be reported to resolve with conservative treatment. Level 4 (case series). PMID:25700832

  8. 18. Detroit Superior Bridge, Foundation for west pier of river ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Detroit Superior Bridge, Foundation for west pier of river span, dated 2/4/14. Drawing courtesy Office of the Cuyahoga County Engineer, Cleveland, Ohio. - Detroit Superior High Level Bridge, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  9. 15. Stress Sheet, Truss number 2, span number 6, Superior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Stress Sheet, Truss number 2, span number 6, Superior Avenue viaduct. Drawing courtesy Engineering Dept., City of Cleveland. - Superior Avenue Viaduct, Cleveland East & West side, Cuyahoga Valley Vicinity, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  10. Monitoring Land Cover Change in the Lake Superior Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lake Superior is the largest freshwater lake in the world by area and the third largest by volume. It is also the most pristine of the Great Lakes (Lake Superior Lakewide Management Plan 2006). Even still, Lake Superior is not without its threats ranging from chemical contamina...

  11. 14 CFR 385.7 - Exercise of authority by superiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exercise of authority by superiors. 385.7... Exercise of authority by superiors. Any assignment of authority to a staff member other than the Chief... Department's principle of management responsibility, the superior may choose to exercise the assigned...

  12. 14 CFR 385.7 - Exercise of authority by superiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exercise of authority by superiors. 385.7... Exercise of authority by superiors. Any assignment of authority to a staff member other than the Chief... Department's principle of management responsibility, the superior may choose to exercise the assigned...

  13. 14 CFR 385.7 - Exercise of authority by superiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exercise of authority by superiors. 385.7... Exercise of authority by superiors. Any assignment of authority to a staff member other than the Chief... Department's principle of management responsibility, the superior may choose to exercise the assigned...

  14. 14 CFR 385.7 - Exercise of authority by superiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exercise of authority by superiors. 385.7... Exercise of authority by superiors. Any assignment of authority to a staff member other than the Chief... Department's principle of management responsibility, the superior may choose to exercise the assigned...

  15. 14 CFR 385.7 - Exercise of authority by superiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exercise of authority by superiors. 385.7... Exercise of authority by superiors. Any assignment of authority to a staff member other than the Chief... Department's principle of management responsibility, the superior may choose to exercise the assigned...

  16. Feeling superior is a bipartisan issue: extremity (not direction) of political views predicts perceived belief superiority.

    PubMed

    Toner, Kaitlin; Leary, Mark R; Asher, Michael W; Jongman-Sereno, Katrina P

    2013-12-01

    Accusations of entrenched political partisanship have been launched against both conservatives and liberals. But is feeling superior about one's beliefs a partisan issue? Two competing hypotheses exist: the rigidity-of-the-right hypothesis (i.e., conservatives are dogmatic) and the ideological-extremism hypothesis (i.e., extreme views on both sides predict dogmatism). We measured 527 Americans' attitudes about nine contentious political issues, the degree to which they thought their beliefs were superior to other people's, and their level of dogmatism. Dogmatism was higher for people endorsing conservative views than for people endorsing liberal views, which replicates the rigidity-of-the-right hypothesis. However, curvilinear effects of ideological attitude on belief superiority (i.e., belief that one's position is more correct than another's) supported the ideological-extremism hypothesis. Furthermore, responses reflecting the greatest belief superiority were obtained on conservative attitudes for three issues and liberal attitudes for another three issues. These findings capture nuances in the relationship between political beliefs and attitude entrenchment that have not been revealed previously. PMID:24096379

  17. Hemodialysis through persistent left superior vena cava

    PubMed Central

    Kute, V. B.; Vanikar, A. V.; Gumber, M. R.; Shah, P. R.; Goplani, K. R.; Trivedi, H. L.

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of end stage renal disease patient who displayed a persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) after placement of hemodialysis (HD) catheter through left internal jugular vein, as revealed by routine post-procedure X-ray chest. The diagnosis of PLSVC was confirmed by arterial blood gas, two-dimensional echocardiography, computed tomography thorax and angiographic examination. This anomaly is rather rare; few studies on safety of PLSVC for HD have been reported. The catheter was uneventfully used for HD for 2 months with careful continuous monitoring and removed after arteriovenous fistula was successfully cannulated. Physicians who place HD catheters in the left jugular/subclavian vein should be aware of the existence of PLSVC. PMID:21633545

  18. Lightning Activity During the 1999 Superior Derecho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, C. G.; Murphy, B. P.

    2002-12-01

    On 4 July 1999, a severe convective windstorm, known as a derecho, caused extensive damage to forested regions along the United States/Canada border, west of Lake Superior. There were 665,000 acres of forest destroyed in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (BWCAW) in Minnesota and Quetico Provincial Park in Canada, with approximately 12.5 million trees blown down. This storm resulted in additional severe weather before and after the occurrence of the derecho, with continuous cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning occurring for more than 34 hours during its path across North America. At the time of the derecho the percentage of positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) lightning measured by the Canadian Lightning Detection Network (CLDN) was greater than 70% for more than three hours, with peak values reaching 97% positive CG lightning. Such high ratios of +CG are rare, and may be useful indicators of severe weather.

  19. Lightning activity during the 1999 Superior derecho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Colin G.; Murphy, Brian P.

    2002-12-01

    On 4 July 1999, a severe convective windstorm, known as a derecho, caused extensive damage to forested regions along the United States/Canada border, west of Lake Superior. There were 665,000 acres of forest destroyed in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (BWCAW) in Minnesota and Quetico Provincial Park in Canada, with approximately 12.5 million trees blown down. This storm resulted in additional severe weather before and after the occurrence of the derecho, with continuous cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning occurring for more than 34 hours during its path across North America. At the time of the derecho the percentage of positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) lightning measured by the Canadian Lightning Detection Network (CLDN) was greater than 70% for more than three hours, with peak values reaching 97% positive CG lightning. Such high ratios of +CG are rare, and may be useful indicators of severe weather.

  20. Binocular interaction in the cat's superior colliculus.

    PubMed Central

    Berman, N; Blakemore, C; Cynader, M

    1975-01-01

    1. Binocularly driven neurones with small receptive fields near the area centralis were recorded in the cat's superior colliculus. 2. Binocular interaction was tested by stimulating both eyes simultaneously with a single moving stimulus at various retinal disparities. 3. Collicular cells in general showed strong summation or even facilitation when the images of the stimulus were in exact correspondence on the receptive fields, sometimes with occlusion when they were out of register. The range of retinal disparity over which there was additive interaction could be as little as 1 or 2 deg, almost as narrow as for the most precisely tuned neurones in the visual cortex. Even cells with large receptive fields sometimes showed a narrow range of binocular interaction. 4. Non-directional cells generally exhibited weaker summation and broader disparity selectivity than did direction-selective cells. 5. Some neurones with virtually no response to a stimulus in one of the eyes can exhibit marked binocular interaction. Other apparently monocular cells show little or no binocular interaction. 6. The disparity of the centres of the receptive fields was measured after correcting for small eye movements, which were assessed by two different techniques. For 132 cells the measured distribution of horizontal disparity (range 4.5 deg; S.D. 0.93 deg) was significantly broader than that of vertical disparity (range 2.2 deg; S.D. 0.52 deg). Sources of error in these measurements are considered. 7. The results are discussed in relation to the known connexions between visual cortex and superior colliculus and the possible role of the latter in the regulation of eye movements. PMID:1133788

  1. [When and how to perform the superior oblique tucking surgery].

    PubMed

    Zhang, W

    2016-08-01

    Either superior oblique weakening or strengthening surgery is the most complicated and most difficult to perform in the field of strabismus surgery. The effect of superior oblique surgery is also unpredictable. In addition, improper superior oblique strengthening surgery may produce limited elevation in adduction (iatrogenic Brown syndrome). In this article, we reviewed the history of superior oblique surgery, especially on when and how to perform the superior oblique strengthening surgery for providing reference to the clinicians in the field of strabismus and pediatric ophthalmology. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2016, 52: 565-567). PMID:27562275

  2. Characterization and flocculability of a novel proteoglycan produced by Talaromyces trachyspermus OU5.

    PubMed

    Fang, Di; Shi, Cuicui

    2016-01-01

    A filamentous fungus strain OU5 was isolated from a soil sample for its ability to produce rich exopolymers (EPS), with high flocculation capability towards kaolin suspension and swine wastewater, at low-carbon source conditions. EPS from strain OU5 was extracted and characterized to determine its flocculating behavior and active constituents involved in the flocculation. Strain OU5 was identified as Talaromyces trachyspermus by 18S rDNA-ITS gene sequencing and morphological observation. The extracted EPS was a novel proteoglycan (designated as BF-OU5) composed of 84.6% (w/w) polysaccharides and 15.2% (w/w) proteins. The enzymatic digestion tests revealed that the polysaccharides in BF-OU5, composed of 67% glucose, 16.4% mannose, 8.6% xylose and 8% galactose, contributed to 99.7% of flocculating capacity and were the major active ingredients in the flocculation. By contrast, the proteins in BF-OU5 only had minor roles in the flocculation. The presence of hydroxyl, amide, carboxyl and methoxyl functional groups in BF-OU5, and the high molecular weight (1.053 × 10(5)-2.970 × 10(5) Da) as well as the structure of a spherical conformation with inner pores and channels made of cross-linked netted textures contributed to the flocculation. A dosage of 20 mg/l BF-OU5 initiated more than 92.5% of flocculating efficiency towards kaolin suspension without any added coagulants; its flocculability was stable over a wide range of pH (4.0-8.0) and temperature (20°C-100°C). Treatment of swine wastewater using BF-OU5 achieved 52.1% flocculating removal for chemical oxygen demand, 39.7% for Kjeldahl nitrogen, 18.6% for NH4(+)-N, 21.5% for total phosphorus, and 75% for turbidity. PMID:26073312

  3. Classification of persistent left superior vena cava considering presence and development of both superior venae cavae, the anastomotic ramus between superior venae cavae, and the azygos venous system.

    PubMed

    Uemura, Mamoru; Suwa, Fumihiko; Takemura, Akimichi; Toda, Isumi; Morishita, Ayaka

    2012-12-01

    Subjects with persistent left superior vena cava were classified on the basis of the presence and thickness of both superior venae cavae, the anastomotic ramus between the superior venae cavae (anastomotic ramus), and the presence of both azygos veins. Among subjects with persistent left superior vena cava, the percentage of those with weak development of the anastomotic ramus (41.5 %) or absence of an anastomotic ramus (35.8 %) was 77.3 %. In addition, 54.7 % of subjects had a left azygos vein. However, 88.7 % of subjects had a right azygos vein. In this classification, the most frequently observed types included the presence of both superior venae cavae, an anastomotic ramus, and both azygos veins (20.8 %). During student dissection practice sessions performed on 337 cadavers that were carried out from 2002 through 2010, a subject having a left superior vena cava (in 2002) and a subject having both superior venae cavae (in 2003) were detected. The former case was reported previously. The latter case is reported in this paper. The incidence of persistent left superior vena cava was 0.59 % (2/337 cadavers). PMID:22948517

  4. Carbon phosphide monolayers with superior carrier mobility.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gaoxue; Pandey, Ravindra; Karna, Shashi P

    2016-04-28

    Two dimensional (2D) materials with a finite band gap and high carrier mobility are sought after materials from both fundamental and technological perspectives. In this paper, we present the results based on the particle swarm optimization method and density functional theory which predict three geometrically different phases of the carbon phosphide (CP) monolayer consisting of sp2 hybridized C atoms and sp3 hybridized P atoms in hexagonal networks. Two of the phases, referred to as α-CP and β-CP with puckered or buckled surfaces are semiconducting with highly anisotropic electronic and mechanical properties. More remarkably, they have the lightest electrons and holes among the known 2D semiconductors, yielding superior carrier mobility. The γ-CP has a distorted hexagonal network and exhibits a semi-metallic behavior with Dirac cones. These theoretical findings suggest that the binary CP monolayer is a yet unexplored 2D material holding great promise for applications in high-performance electronics and optoelectronics. PMID:27067002

  5. Morphological characteristics of the superior cerebellar artery.

    PubMed

    Dodevski, A; Tosovska Lazarova, D; Zhivadinovik, J; Lazareska, M; Stojovska-Jovanovska, E

    2015-01-01

    With the introduction of new techniques in diagnostic and interventional radiology and progress in micro neurosurgery, accurate knowledge of the brain blood vessels is essential for daily clinical work. The aim of this study was to describe the morphological characteristics of the superior cerebellar artery and to emphasize their clinical significance. In this study we examined radiographs of 109 patients who had CT angiography at the University Clinic for Radiology in Skopje, R. Macedonia. This study included 49 females and 60 males, ranging in age from 27 to 83 years; mean age 57.4 ± 11.8 years. In 105 patients SCA arose from the basilar artery on both sides as a single vessel. In two patients SCA arose as a duplicate trunk from the basilar artery. We found unilateral duplication on the right SCA in one patient, and bilateral duplication in one patient. In two patients was noticed origin of the SCA from PCA as a single trunk from adult type of the PCA. Through knowledge of the anatomy and variations of SCA is important for clinicians as well as basic scientists who deal with problems related to intracranial vasculature in daily basis for save performance of diagnostic and interventional procedures. PMID:26076777

  6. Text legibility and the letter superiority effect.

    PubMed

    Sheedy, James E; Subbaram, Manoj V; Zimmerman, Aaron B; Hayes, John R

    2005-01-01

    Effects of font design and electronic display parameters upon text legibility were determined using a threshold size method. Participants' visual acuity (inverse of the minimum detection size, representing the threshold legibility for each condition) was measured using upper- and lowercase letters and lowercase words in combinations of 6 fonts, 3 font-smoothing modes, 4 font sizes, 10 pixel heights, and 4 stroke widths. Individual lowercase letters were 10% to 20% more legible than lowercase words (i.e., lowercase words must be 10%-20% larger to have the same threshold legibility). This letter superiority effect suggests that individual letters play a large role and word shape plays a smaller role, if any, in word identification at threshold. Pixel height, font, stroke width, and font smoothing had significant main effects on threshold legibility. Optimal legibility was attained at 9 pixels (10 points). Verdana and Arial were the most legible fonts; Times New Roman and Franklin were least legible. Subpixel rendering (ClearType) improved threshold legibility for some fonts and, in combination with Verdana, was the most legible condition. Increased stroke width (bold) improved threshold legibility but only at the thinnest width tested. Potential applications of this research include optimization of font design for legibility and readability. PMID:16553067

  7. Left-Sided Persistent Superior Vena Cava with Superior Hemiazygos Arch

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Huban R.; Das, Aswin; Kumar, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    Persistent Left-side Superior Vena Cava (PLSVC) is the congenital central venous anomaly draining into the right atrium in 82-90% of cases via coronary sinus produce no haemodynamically significant consequences. In few cases it may drain into the left atrium directly or through the pulmonary veins resulting in right to left shunt. During routine undergraduate dissection, we found a PLSVC formed by the union of left subclavian and left internal jugular veins behind the left sternoclavicular joint was terminated into the right atrium through a larger coronary sinus ostium. Before its termination, PLSVC received a left hemiazygos vein formed by the continuation of the superior and inferior hemiazygos veins. A larger but thin communicating vein was noted between the right superior vena cava and PLSVC. Prior knowledge about such variations is essential in all the intervention procedures on right atrium through the left subclavian approach and also like in our case, the larger coronary sinus ostium if found during transthoracic echocardiography should be considered as an indication for the diagnosis of PLSVC.

  8. Dynamique sédimentaire comparative dans les bassins stéphano-permiens des Ida Ou Zal et Ida Ou Ziki, haut Atlas Occidental, MarocDynamic sedimentology of two Upper Stephano-Lower Permian basins: Ida Ou Zal and Ida Ou Ziki, western High Atlas, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saber, H.; El-Wartiti, M.; Broutin, J.

    2001-05-01

    The intra-mountainous Ida Ou Zal Basin developed as a graben during the Stephanian (Carboniferous) and Lower Permian. Along its borders from east to west are the remnants of basal conglomerates. Passing laterally towards the centre of the basin are fine-grained fluvial-lacustrine sediments or flood-plain deposits. The important accumulation (1800 m) of sediments, associated with climatic and tectonic changes, caused substantial subsidence in a late orogenic setting. The remnants of sporadic volcanic products (shards) found in the Ida Ou Zal and the Ida Ou Zika Basins suggest nearby simultaneous magmatic activity. A comparison between the basins of Ida Ou Zal and Ida Ou Ziki suggest that the two basins formed a single unit, called the Souss Basin, ultimately terminated between the Lower Permian and Upper Permian times by a sinistral movement of the N70-80° Agadir Ou Anzizen Fault (west branch of the Tizi N'Test Fault) at the very end of the Hercynian Orogeny in Morocco.

  9. Carbon phosphide monolayers with superior carrier mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gaoxue; Pandey, Ravindra; Karna, Shashi P.

    2016-04-01

    Two dimensional (2D) materials with a finite band gap and high carrier mobility are sought after materials from both fundamental and technological perspectives. In this paper, we present the results based on the particle swarm optimization method and density functional theory which predict three geometrically different phases of the carbon phosphide (CP) monolayer consisting of sp2 hybridized C atoms and sp3 hybridized P atoms in hexagonal networks. Two of the phases, referred to as α-CP and β-CP with puckered or buckled surfaces are semiconducting with highly anisotropic electronic and mechanical properties. More remarkably, they have the lightest electrons and holes among the known 2D semiconductors, yielding superior carrier mobility. The γ-CP has a distorted hexagonal network and exhibits a semi-metallic behavior with Dirac cones. These theoretical findings suggest that the binary CP monolayer is a yet unexplored 2D material holding great promise for applications in high-performance electronics and optoelectronics.Two dimensional (2D) materials with a finite band gap and high carrier mobility are sought after materials from both fundamental and technological perspectives. In this paper, we present the results based on the particle swarm optimization method and density functional theory which predict three geometrically different phases of the carbon phosphide (CP) monolayer consisting of sp2 hybridized C atoms and sp3 hybridized P atoms in hexagonal networks. Two of the phases, referred to as α-CP and β-CP with puckered or buckled surfaces are semiconducting with highly anisotropic electronic and mechanical properties. More remarkably, they have the lightest electrons and holes among the known 2D semiconductors, yielding superior carrier mobility. The γ-CP has a distorted hexagonal network and exhibits a semi-metallic behavior with Dirac cones. These theoretical findings suggest that the binary CP monolayer is a yet unexplored 2D material holding great

  10. Multi-Objective Lake Superior Regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadzadeh, M.; Razavi, S.; Tolson, B.

    2011-12-01

    At the direction of the International Joint Commission (IJC) the International Upper Great Lakes Study (IUGLS) Board is investigating possible changes to the present method of regulating the outflows of Lake Superior (SUP) to better meet the contemporary needs of the stakeholders. In this study, a new plan in the form of a rule curve that is directly interpretable for regulation of SUP is proposed. The proposed rule curve has 18 parameters that should be optimized. The IUGLS Board is also interested in a regulation strategy that considers potential effects of climate uncertainty. Therefore, the quality of the rule curve is assessed simultaneously for multiple supply sequences that represent various future climate scenarios. The rule curve parameters are obtained by solving a computationally intensive bi-objective simulation-optimization problem that maximizes the total increase in navigation and hydropower benefits of the new regulation plan and minimizes the sum of all normalized constraint violations. The objective and constraint values are obtained from a Microsoft Excel based Shared Vision Model (SVM) that compares any new SUP regulation plan with the current regulation policy. The underlying optimization problem is solved by a recently developed, highly efficient multi-objective optimization algorithm called Pareto Archived Dynamically Dimensioned Search (PA-DDS). To further improve the computational efficiency of the simulation-optimization problem, the model pre-emption strategy is used in a novel way to avoid the complete evaluation of regulation plans with low quality in both objectives. Results show that the generated rule curve is robust and typically more reliable when facing unpredictable climate conditions compared to other SUP regulation plans.

  11. Vocal premotor activity in the superior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Shiva R; Moss, Cynthia F

    2007-01-01

    Chronic neural recordings were taken from the midbrain superior colliculus (SC) of echolocating bats while they were engaged in one of two distinct behavioral tasks: virtual target amplitude discrimination (VTAD) and real oscillating target tracking (ROTT). In the VTAD task, bats used a limited range of sonar call features to discriminate the amplitude category of echoes, whereas in the ROTT task, the bat produced dynamically modulated sonar calls to track a moving target. Newly developed methods for chronic recordings in unrestrained, behaving bats reveal two consistent bouts of SC neural activity preceding the onset of sonar vocalizations in both tasks. A short lead bout occurs tightly coupled to vocal onset (VTAD, -5.1 to -2.2 ms range, -3.6 +/- 0.7 ms mean lead time; ROTT, -3.0 to + 0.4 ms range, -1.2 +/- 1.3 ms mean lead time), and this activity may play a role in marking the time of each sonar emission. A long lead bout in SC activity occurs earlier and spreads over a longer interval (VTAD, -40.6 to -8.4 ms range, -22.2 +/- 3.9 ms mean lead time; ROTT, -29.8 to -7.1 ms range, -17.5 +/- 9.1 ms mean lead time) when compared with short lead events. In the goal-directed ROTT task, the timing of long lead event times vary with the bat's sonar call duration. This finding, along with behavioral studies demonstrating that bats adjust sonar call duration as they track targets at changing distance, suggests the bat SC contributes to range-dependent adjustments of sonar call duration. PMID:17202477

  12. The Business Value of Superior Energy Performance

    SciTech Connect

    McKane, Aimee; Scheihing, Paul; Evans, Tracy; Glatt, Sandy; Meffert, William

    2015-08-04

    Industrial facilities participating in the U.S. Department of Energy’s (US DOE) Superior Energy Performance (SEP) program are finding that it provides them with significant business value. This value starts with the implementation of ISO 50001-Energy management system standard, which provides an internationally-relevant framework for integration of energy management into an organization’s business processes. The resulting structure emphasizes effective use of available data and supports continual improvement of energy performance. International relevance is particularly important for companies with a global presence or trading interests, providing them with access to supporting ISO standards and a growing body of certified companies representing the collective knowledge of communities of practice. This paper examines the business value of SEP, a voluntary program that builds on ISO 50001, inviting industry to demonstrate an even greater commitment through third-party verification of energy performance improvement to a specified level of achievement. Information from 28 facilities that have already achieved SEP certification will illustrate key findings concerning both the value and the challenges from SEP/ISO 50001 implementation. These include the facilities’ experience with implementation, internal and external value of third-party verification of energy performance improvement; attractive payback periods and the importance of SEP tools and guidance. US DOE is working to bring the program to scale, including the Enterprise-Wide Accelerator (SEP for multiple facilities in a company), the Ratepayer-Funded Program Accelerator (supporting tools for utilities and program administrators to include SEP in their program offerings), and expansion of the program to other sectors and industry supply chains.

  13. Algoma-, Superior-, and oolitic-type iron deposits of the Islamic Republic of Mauritania (phase V, deliverable 83): Chapter O in Second projet de renforcement institutionnel du secteur minier de la République Islamique de Mauritanie (PRISM-II)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Cliff D.; Finn, Carol A.; Anderson, Eric D.; Joud, M. Y.; Taleb, M. A.; Horton, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Phanerozoic oolitic ironstones are hosted in the upper Silurian and lower Devonian rocks of the Gara Bouya Ali Group and the Zemmour Group in the Tindouf Basin in northern Mauritania and in the end Ordovician Tichit Group, the Silurian Oued Chig Group, and the lower Devonian Tenemouj Group in the Taoudeni Basin near Tidjikja. These rock groups define 11 permissive tracts for Algoma-, Superior-, and oolitic-type iron deposits in Mauritania.

  14. Food of lake trout in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dryer, William R.; Erkkila, Leo F.; Tetzloff, Clifford L.

    1965-01-01

    Stomachs were examined from 1,492 lake trout and 83 siscowets collected from Lake Superior. Data are given on the food of lake trout of legal size (17 inches or longer) by year, season, and depth of water, and on the relation between food and size among smaller lake trout. Fish contributed 96.7 to 99.9 per cent of the total volume of food in the annual samples. Ciscoes (Coregonus spp.) were most common (52.2 to 87.5 per cent of the volume) in 1950 to 1953 and American smelt ranked first (65.6 per cent of the volume) in 1963. Cottids were in 8.9 to 12.3 per cent of the stomachs in 1950 to 1953 but in only 4.3 per cent in 1963. Insects ranked second to fish in occurrence (9.6 per cent for the combined samples) and crustaceans followed at 3.9 per cent. The greatest seasonal changes in the food of lake trout were among fish caught at 35 fathoms and shallower. The occurrence of Coregonus increased from 34.6 per cent in February-March to 71.1 per cent in October-December. Smelt were in 76.9 per cent of the stomachs in February-March but in only 2.2 per cent in October-December. Cottids, Mysis relicta, and insects were most common in the July-September collections. Lake trout taken at depths greater than 35 fathoms had eaten a higher percentage of Cottidae and Coregonus than had those captured in shallower water. Smelt, ninespine sticklebacks, Mysis, and insects were more frequent in stomachs of lake trout from less than 35 fathoms. Crustaceans comprised more than 70 per cent of the total volume of food for 4.0- to 7.9-inch lake trout but their importance decreased as the lake trout grew larger. Pontoporeia affinis was the most common in the stomachs of 4.0- to 6.9-inch lake trout and Mysis held first rank at 7.0 to 12.9 inches. Ostracods were important only to 4.0- to 4.9-inch lake trout. As the lake trout became larger, the importance of fish grew from 4.4-per cent occurrence at 5.0 to 5.9 inches to 93.9 per cent at 16.0 to 16.9 inches. Smelt were most commonly eaten by

  15. Crashworthy Seats Would Afford Superior Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gohmert, Dustin

    2009-01-01

    Seats to prevent or limit crash injuries to astronauts aboard the crew vehicle of the Orion spacecraft are undergoing development. The design of these seats incorporates and goes beyond crash-protection concepts embodied in prior spacecraft and racing-car seats to afford superior protection against impacts. Although the seats are designed to support astronauts in a recumbent, quasi-fetal posture that would likely not be suitable for non-spacecraft applications, parts of the design could be adapted to military and some civilian aircraft seats and to racing car seats to increase levels of protection. The main problem in designing any crashworthy seat is to provide full support of the occupant against anticipated crash and emergency-landing loads so as to safely limit motion, along any axis, of any part of the occupant s body relative to (1) any other part of the occupant s body, (2) the spacecraft or other vehicle, and (3) the seat itself. In the original Orion spacecraft application and in other applications that could easily be envisioned, the problem is complicated by severe limits on space available for the seat, a requirement to enable rapid egress by the occupant after a crash, and a requirement to provide for fitting of the seat to a wide range of sizes and shapes of a human body covered by a crash suit, space suit, or other protective garment. The problem is further complicated by other Orion-application-specific requirements that must be omitted here for the sake of brevity. To accommodate the wide range of crewmember body lengths within the limits on available space in the original Orion application, the design provides for taller crewmembers to pull their legs back closer toward their chests, while shorter crewmembers can allow their legs to stretch out further. The range of hip-support seat adjustments needed to effect this accommodation, as derived from NASA s Human Systems Integration Standard, was found to define a parabolic path along which the knees

  16. 33 CFR 117.495 - Superior Oil Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Superior Oil Canal. 117.495 Section 117.495 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.495 Superior Oil Canal. The draw...

  17. 33 CFR 117.495 - Superior Oil Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Superior Oil Canal. 117.495 Section 117.495 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.495 Superior Oil Canal. The draw...

  18. 33 CFR 117.495 - Superior Oil Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Superior Oil Canal. 117.495 Section 117.495 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.495 Superior Oil Canal. The draw...

  19. 77 FR 50079 - Meeting of the Superior Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... Forest Service Meeting of the Superior Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Superior Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Duluth, Minnesota. The... review, selection, prioritization and recommendation projects submitted by August 27, 2012, under...

  20. 28 CFR 2.60 - Superior program achievement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Superior program achievement. 2.60 Section 2.60 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS, YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.60 Superior program achievement. (a)...

  1. FORAGE FISH AND ZOOPLANKTON COMMUNITY COMPOSITION IN WESTERN LAKE SUPERIOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    We assessed the abundance, size, and species composition of the fish and zooplankton communities of western Lake Superior during 1996 and 1997. Data were analyzed for 3 ecoregions (Duluth-Superior (1), Apostle Islands (2), Minnesota coast (3) differing in lake bathymetry, phsiodo...

  2. 45 CFR 73.735-504 - Gifts to official superiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gifts to official superiors. 73.735-504 Section 73.735-504 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Gifts, Entertainment, and Favors § 73.735-504 Gifts to official superiors. An employee shall...

  3. The Development of the Picture-Superiority Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Maybery, Murray T.; Durkin, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    When pictures and words are presented serially in an explicit memory task, recall of the pictures is superior. While this effect is well established in the adult population, little is known of the development of this picture-superiority effect in typical development. This task was administered to 80 participants from middle childhood to…

  4. Word superiority, pseudoword superiority, and learning to read: a comparison of dyslexic and normal readers.

    PubMed

    Grainger, Jonathan; Bouttevin, Sébastien; Truc, Cathy; Bastien, Mireille; Ziegler, Johannes

    2003-12-01

    Identification of letters embedded in briefly presented words (e.g., TABLE), pseudowords (e.g., TOBLE), and illegal nonwords (e.g., TPBFE) was measured using the Reicher-Wheeler paradigm. Children diagnosed as dyslexic and showing a clear disadvantage in recognizing and reading aloud words and pseudowords (compared to chronological age-matched controls) showed a pattern of results that was qualitatively identical to both reading age and chronological age control children. In all three groups a small nonsignificant advantage was obtained for letter identification in words compared to pseudowords, and a massive advantage for letter identification in pseudowords compared to illegal nonwords. A group of adult participants tested with the same materials showed the classic word superiority effect as well as a pseudoword advantage over illegal nonwords. These results suggest that the pseudoword superiority effect is subtended by regularities operating at the level of sublexical orthographic representations (orthotactic constraints). This phenomenon could provide a useful tool for future investigations of the development of orthotactic constraints during reading acquisition. PMID:14642545

  5. The Hong-Ou-Mandel effect in the context of few-photon scattering.

    PubMed

    Longo, Paolo; Cole, Jared H; Busch, Kurt

    2012-05-21

    The Hong-Ou-Mandel effect is studied in the context of two-photon transport in a one-dimensional waveguide with a single scatterer. We numerically investigate the scattering problem within a time-dependent, wave-function-based framework. Depending on the realization of the scatterer and its properties, we calculate the joint probability of finding both photons on either side of the waveguide after scattering. We specifically point out how Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometry techniques could be exploited to identify effective photon-photon interactions which are mediated by the scatterer. The Hong-Ou-Mandel dip is discussed in detail for the case of a single two-level atom embedded in the waveguide, and dissipation and dephasing are taken into account by means of a quantum jump approach. PMID:22714220

  6. Absence of the superior petrosal veins and sinus: Surgical considerations

    PubMed Central

    Matsushima, Ken; Ribas, Eduardo Santamaria Carvalhal; Kiyosue, Hiro; Komune, Noritaka; Miki, Koichi; Rhoton, Albert L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The superior petrosal vein, one of the most constant and largest drainage pathways in the posterior fossa, may result in complications if occluded. This study calls attention to a unique variant in which the superior petrosal veins and sinus were absent unilaterally, and the venous drainage was through the galenic and tentorial drainage groups. Methods: This study examines one venogram and another anatomic specimen in which the superior petrosal vein and sinus were absent. Results: The superior petrosal veins, described as 1–3 bridging veins, emptying into the superior petrosal sinus, are the major drainage pathways of the petrosal group of posterior fossa veins. In the cases presented, the superior petrosal vein and sinus were absent and venous drainage was through the galenic and tentorial groups, including the lateral mesencephalic or bridging vein on the tentorial cerebellar surface. Conclusions: In cases in which the superior petrosal sinus and veins are absent, care should be directed to preserving the collateral drainage through the galenic and tentorial tributaries. Although surgical strategies for intraoperative management and preservation of venous structures are still controversial, knowledge of the possible anatomical variations is considered to be essential to improve surgical outcomes. PMID:25745589

  7. LIMNOLOGY OF MICHIGAN'S NEARSHORE WATERS OF LAKES SUPERIOR AND HURON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Limnological assessments, including water and sediment chemistry, bacterial densities, zoo- and phyto-plankton and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure, and fish contaminants, were performed at 24 locations in Michigan's nearshore waters of Lakes Superior and Huron in 19...

  8. FISH ASSEMBLAGES AS INDICATORS OF LAKE SUPERIOR COASTAL WETLAND CONDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish assemblages associated with coastal wetlands in Lake Superior are poorly described. Understanding the environmental factors structuring the biota in these habitats is essential to developing robust indicators of their condition. To identify key environmental influences struc...

  9. DO GRAZING CATTLE SEEK NUTRITIONALLY SUPERIOR PORTIONS OF PASTURES?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the hypothesis that grazing cattle will most often frequent nutritionally superior portions of large pastures. Forage quantity/quality characteristics were mapped among three pastures and cattle grazing patterns subsequently tracked with GPS collars. Cattle preferred locations...

  10. 28 CFR 2.60 - Superior program achievement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... substance abuse program of at least 500 hours will be given prompt review by the Commission for a possible... or a case with both superior program achievement and minor disciplinary infraction(s))....

  11. 28 CFR 2.60 - Superior program achievement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... substance abuse program of at least 500 hours will be given prompt review by the Commission for a possible... or a case with both superior program achievement and minor disciplinary infraction(s))....

  12. 28 CFR 2.60 - Superior program achievement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... substance abuse program of at least 500 hours will be given prompt review by the Commission for a possible... or a case with both superior program achievement and minor disciplinary infraction(s))....

  13. 28 CFR 2.60 - Superior program achievement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... substance abuse program of at least 500 hours will be given prompt review by the Commission for a possible... or a case with both superior program achievement and minor disciplinary infraction(s))....

  14. Sonographically guided superior laryngeal nerve block during awake fiberoptic intubation.

    PubMed

    Sawka, Andrew; Tang, Raymond; Vaghadia, Himat

    2015-04-15

    We report 5 patients who underwent ultrasound-guided superior laryngeal nerve block before awake intubation and general anesthesia. We used a 8- to 15-MHz hockey stick-shaped ultrasound transducer (HST15-8/20 linear probe, Ultrasonix) to visualize the superior laryngeal nerve. A 3.8-cm 25-G needle was inserted in real time and directed toward the superior laryngeal nerve followed by circumferential placement of local anesthetic. All 5 patients tolerated subsequent awake fiberoptic intubation with either minimal or no sedation. Sonographically guided superior laryngeal nerve block may be useful in patients where identification of landmarks in the neck is difficult as a result of patient anatomy. PMID:25867195

  15. 2. View of pier #3, West approach, Detroit Superior High ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View of pier #3, West approach, Detroit Superior High Level bridge (1914-1917). Pier #3 and #4 support the steel rive span. They are 116 feet by 80 feet at the base and rest on stiff blue clay 45 feet below the surface of the river. Cast-steel bolsters of the three-hinge steel arch are anchored by structural steel grillage to the masory piers. - Detroit Superior High Level Bridge, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  16. Superior Mesenteric Artery Embolism Treated with Percutaneous Mechanical Thrombectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Popovic, Peter Kuhelj, Dimitrij; Bunc, Matjaz

    2011-02-15

    A case of acute superior mesenteric artery embolism treated with percutaneous thrombus aspiration is described. A 63-year-old man with chronic atrial fibrillation was admitted to the hospital with progressive abdominal pain. Computed tomography angiography revealed an occlusion of the distal part of the superior mesenteric artery. The patient was effectively treated using transaxillary percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy using a 6F Aspirex thrombectomy catheter.

  17. Superior vena cava syndrome: A radiation oncologist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Talapatra, Kaustav; Panda, Soumadip; Goyle, Sandeep; Bhadra, Kallol; Mistry, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Superior vena cava syndrome is referred to as a constellation of symptoms and signs caused by obstruction of superior vena cava. It can occur due to both benign and malignant causes with the latter being the predominant. There is a paradigm shift in the approach to manage this condition. It is no longer considered a medical emergency and histological diagnosis is necessary before treatment. This article reviews the causes, symptoms, pathophysiology, and overall management policy which have changed over decades. PMID:27461602

  18. PHYSICAL MAPS OF 'AUTOGRAPHA CALIFORNICA' AND 'RACHIPLUSIA OU' NUCLEAR POLYHEDROSIS VIRUS RECOMBINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    TN-368 cells were infected simultaneously with the closely related Autographa californica (AcMNPV) and Rachiplusia ou (RoMNPV) nuclear polyhedrosis viruses. Progeny viral isolates were plaque purified, and their DNAs were analyzed with restriction endonucleases. Of 100 randomly c...

  19. FIELD SCALE EVALUATION OF TREATMENT OF TCE IN A BIOWALL AT THE OU-1 SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A passive reactive barrier (Biowall) was installed at the OU-1 site at Altus Air Force Base, Oklahoma to treat TCE contamination in ground water from a landfill. Depth to ground water varies from 1.8 to 2.4 meters below land surface. To intercept and treat the plume of contamin...

  20. Superior memorizers employ different neural networks for encoding and recall.

    PubMed

    Mallow, Johannes; Bernarding, Johannes; Luchtmann, Michael; Bethmann, Anja; Brechmann, André

    2015-01-01

    Superior memorizers often employ the method of loci (MoL) to memorize large amounts of information. The MoL, known since ancient times, relies on a complex process where information to be memorized is bound to landmarks along mental routes in a previously memorized environment. However, functional magnetic resonance imaging data on groups of trained superior memorizer are rare. Based on the memorizing strategy reported by superior memorizers, we developed a scheme of the processes successively employed during memorizing and recalling digits and relate these to brain activation that is specific for the encoding and recall period. In the examined superior memorizers several regions, suggested to be involved in mental navigation and digit-to-word processing, were specifically activated during encoding: bilateral early visual cortex, retrosplenial cortex, left parahippocampus, left visual cortex, and left superior parietal cortex. Although the scheme suggests that some steps during encoding and recall seem to be analog, none of the encoding areas were specifically activated during the recall. Instead, we found strong activation in left anterior superior temporal gyrus, which we relate to recalling the sequential order of the digits, and right motor cortex that may be related to reciting the digits. PMID:26441560

  1. Achieving success with the silicone expander for overacting superior obliques.

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, Z F; Greenberg, M

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: To report the results of and complications with silicone expander surgery for the overacting superior oblique. METHODS: A total of 26 patients with bilateral overaction of the superior oblique and A-pattern strabismus and 5 patients with unilateral overacting superior oblique secondary to inferior oblique palsy were treated with a 7 mm silicone expander. Care was taken not to enter the sub-Tenon's space. RESULTS: The group that underwent bilateral superior oblique surgery had an average preoperative pattern of 37.42 diopters (D) and an average correction of 35.37 D. Three patients had a severe unilateral postoperative inflammatory incident that was successfully treated with oral and topical corticosteroids. One of these patient developed Brown's syndrome. Another patient, who had no postoperative inflammatory incident, also developed Brown's syndrome. In these 4 patients, the sub-Tenon's space was inadvertently entered during surgery. CONCLUSION: The silicone expander surgery has a very high success rate in treating the A-pattern associated with the bilateral overacting superior oblique. This procedure also works well for the unilateral superior oblique that overacts owing to an inferior oblique palsy. No cyclotorsion symptoms occurred after this surgery. However, 4 patients had complications because the sub-Tenon's space was exposed during surgery. With this procedure, there is a learning curve to obtain the skill not to enter the sub-Tenon's space. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 PMID:10703132

  2. Superior memorizers employ different neural networks for encoding and recall

    PubMed Central

    Mallow, Johannes; Bernarding, Johannes; Luchtmann, Michael; Bethmann, Anja; Brechmann, André

    2015-01-01

    Superior memorizers often employ the method of loci (MoL) to memorize large amounts of information. The MoL, known since ancient times, relies on a complex process where information to be memorized is bound to landmarks along mental routes in a previously memorized environment. However, functional magnetic resonance imaging data on groups of trained superior memorizer are rare. Based on the memorizing strategy reported by superior memorizers, we developed a scheme of the processes successively employed during memorizing and recalling digits and relate these to brain activation that is specific for the encoding and recall period. In the examined superior memorizers several regions, suggested to be involved in mental navigation and digit-to-word processing, were specifically activated during encoding: bilateral early visual cortex, retrosplenial cortex, left parahippocampus, left visual cortex, and left superior parietal cortex. Although the scheme suggests that some steps during encoding and recall seem to be analog, none of the encoding areas were specifically activated during the recall. Instead, we found strong activation in left anterior superior temporal gyrus, which we relate to recalling the sequential order of the digits, and right motor cortex that may be related to reciting the digits. PMID:26441560

  3. Gas physical conditions and kinematics of the giant outflow Ou4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corradi, Romano L. M.; Grosso, Nicolas; Acker, Agnès; Greimel, Robert; Guillout, Patrick

    2014-10-01

    Context. The recently discovered bipolar outflow Ou4 has a projected size of more than one degree in the plane of the sky. It is apparently centred on the young stellar cluster - whose most massive representative is the triple system HR 8119 - inside the H ii region Sh 2-129. The driving source, the nature, and the distance of Ou4 are not known. Aims: The basic properties of Ou4 and its environment are investigated to shed light on the origin of this remarkable outflow. Methods: Deep narrow-band imagery of the whole nebula at arcsecond resolution was obtained to study the details of its morphology. Long-slit spectroscopy of the bipolar lobe tips was secured to determine the gas ionisation mechanism, physical conditions, and line-of-sight velocities. An estimate of the proper motions at the tip of the south lobe using archival plate images was attempted. The existing multi-wavelength data for Sh 2-129 and HR 8119 were also comprehensively reviewed. Results: The observed morphology of Ou4, its emission-line spatial distribution, line flux ratios, and the kinematic modelling developed adopting a bow-shock parabolic geometry, illustrate the expansion of a shock-excited fast collimated outflow. The observed radial velocities of Ou4 and its reddening are consistent with those of Sh 2-129 and HR 8119. The improved determination of the distance to HR 8119 (composed of two B0 V and one B0.5 V stars) and Sh 2-129 is 712 pc. We identify in WISE images at 22 μm an emission bubble of 5' radius (1 pc at the distance above) emitted by hot (107 K) dust grains, located inside the central part of Ou4 and corresponding to several [O iii] emission features of Ou4. Conclusions: The apparent position of Ou4 and the properties studied in this work are consistent with the hypothesis that Ou4 is located inside the Sh 2-129 H ii region, suggesting that it was launched some 90 000 yr ago by HR 8119. The outflow total kinetic energy is estimated to be ≈4 × 1047 ergs. However, we cannot

  4. Specialization along the Left Superior Temporal Sulcus for Auditory Categorization

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Rutvik; Ellingson, Michael M.; Ramachandran, Brinda; Desai, Anjali; Binder, Jeffrey R.

    2010-01-01

    The affinity and temporal course of functional fields in middle and posterior superior temporal cortex for the categorization of complex sounds was examined using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and event-related potentials (ERPs) recorded simultaneously. Data were compared before and after subjects were trained to categorize a continuum of unfamiliar nonphonemic auditory patterns with speech-like properties (NP) and a continuum of familiar phonemic patterns (P). fMRI activation for NP increased after training in left posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS). The ERP P2 response to NP also increased with training, and its scalp topography was consistent with left posterior superior temporal generators. In contrast, the left middle superior temporal sulcus (mSTS) showed fMRI activation only for P, and this response was not affected by training. The P2 response to P was also independent of training, and its estimated source was more anterior in left superior temporal cortex. Results are consistent with a role for left pSTS in short-term representation of relevant sound features that provide the basis for identifying newly acquired sound categories. Categorization of highly familiar phonemic patterns is mediated by long-term representations in left mSTS. Results provide new insight regarding the function of ventral and dorsal auditory streams. PMID:20382643

  5. Design of a fifth generation air superiority fighter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atique, Md. Saifuddin Ahmed; Barman, Shuvrodeb; Nafi, Asif Shahriar; Bellah, Masum; Salam, Md. Abdus

    2016-07-01

    Air Superiority Fighter is considered to be an effective dogfighter which is stealthy & highly maneuverable to surprise enemy along with improve survivability against the missile fire. This new generation fighter aircraft requires fantastic aerodynamics design, low wing loading (W/S), high thrust to weight ratio (T/W) with super cruise ability. Conceptual design is the first step to design an aircraft. In this paper conceptual design of an Air Superiority Fighter Aircraft is proposed to carry 1 crew member (pilot) that can fly at maximum Mach No of 2.3 covering a range of 1500 km with maximum ceiling of 61,000 ft. Payload capacity of this proposed aircraft is 6000 lb that covers two advanced missiles & one advanced gun. The Air Superiority Fighter Aircraft was designed to undertake all the following missions like: combat air petrol, air to air combat, maritime attack, close air support, suppression, destruction of enemy air defense and reconnaissance.

  6. Status of the shortjaw cisco (Coregonus zenithicus) in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoff, Michael H.; Todd, Thomas N.

    2004-01-01

    The shortjaw cisco (Coregonus zenithicus) was historically found in Lakes Huron, Michigan, and Superior, but has been extirpated in Lakes Huron and Michigan apparently as the result of commercial overharvest. During 1999-2001, we conducted an assessment of shortjaw cisco abundance in five areas, spanning the U.S. waters of Lake Superior, and compared our results with the abundance measured at those areas in 1921-1922. The shortjaw cisco was found at four of the five areas sampled, but abundances were so low that they were not significantly different from zero. In the four areas where shortjaw ciscoes were found, abundance declined significantly by 99% from the 1920s to the present. To increase populations of this once economically and ecologically important species in Lake Superior, an interagency rehabilitation effort is needed. Population monitoring is recommended to assess population trends and to evaluate success of rehabilitation efforts.

  7. Revealing the superior perceptibility of words in Arabic.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Timothy R; Paterson, Kevin B; Almabruk, Abubaker A A

    2010-01-01

    When alphabetic stimuli are presented very briefly, people perceive real words better than nonwords. It is generally accepted that this word superiority effect reflects the efficiency of visual word perception. However, much of what is known about this effect comes from research conducted in languages using the Latin alphabet (eg English, French, Italian), and little is known about whether alphabetic languages with visual properties fundamentally different from Latinate languages also produce word superiority effects. We report an experiment in which stimuli (words, illegal nonwords, and pseudowords) were presented in Arabic, which is a cursive script, read from right to left. The findings revealed advantages for words over pseudowords and illegal nonwords, and for pseudowords over illegal nonwords, indicating that the superiority effects reported for Latinate languages are also observed in Arabic. Implications of these findings for understanding the processes involved in word recognition are discussed. PMID:20465177

  8. Do high functioning persons with autism present superior spatial abilities?

    PubMed

    Caron, M-J; Mottron, L; Rainville, C; Chouinard, S

    2004-01-01

    This series of experiments was aimed at assessing spatial abilities in high functioning individuals with autism (HFA), using a human-size labyrinth. In the context of recent findings that the performance of individuals with HFA was superior to typically developing individuals in several non-social cognitive operations, it was expected that the HFA group would outperform a typically developing comparison group matched on full-scale IQ. Results showed that individuals with autism performed all spatial tasks at a level at least equivalent to the typically developing comparison group. No differences between groups were found in route and survey tasks. Superior performance for individuals with HFA was found in tasks involving maps, in the form of superior accuracy in graphic cued recall of a path, and shorter learning times in a map learning task. We propose that a superior ability to detect [Human Perception and Performance 27 (3) (2001) 719], match [Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 34 (1993) 1351] and reproduce [Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 40 (5) (1999) 743] simple visual elements yields superior performance in tasks relying on the detection and graphic reproduction of the visual elements composing a map. Enhanced discrimination, detection, and memory for visually simple patterns in autism may account for the superior performance of persons with autism on visuo-spatial tasks that heavily involve pattern recognition, either in the form of recognizing and memorizing landmarks or in detecting the similarity between map and landscape features. At a neuro-anatomical level, these findings suggest an intact dorso-lateral pathway, and enhanced performance in non social tasks relying on the infero-temporal pathway. PMID:14728920

  9. Spectral correlation measurements at the Hong-Ou-Mandel interference dip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerrits, T.; Marsili, F.; Verma, V. B.; Shalm, L. K.; Shaw, M.; Mirin, R. P.; Nam, S. W.

    2015-01-01

    We present an efficient tool capable of measuring the spectral correlations between photons emerging from a Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer. We show that for our spectrally factorizable spontaneous down-conversion source, the Hong-Ou-Mandel interference visibility decreases as the photons' frequency spread is increased to a maximum of 165 nm. Unfiltered, we obtained a visibility of 92.0 %±0.2 %. The maximum visibility was 97 %±0.2 % after applying filtering. We show that the tool can be useful for the study of spectral correlations that impair high-visibility and high-fidelity multisource interference applications. The nature of this tool also allows for arbitrary post-selective spectral filtering and high-rate multiphoton spectral correlation measurements.

  10. Is Automated Weaning Superior to Manual Spontaneous Breathing Trials?

    PubMed

    Holets, Steven R; Marini, John J

    2016-06-01

    Weaning from mechanical ventilation involves the reduction or withdrawal of ventilatory support in proportion to the patient's ability to sustain spontaneous ventilation. Protocolized weaning has been shown to reduce weaning duration; however, its weakness lies in the reliance on human intervention. Automated weaning is theoretically superior to manual weaning because of its ability to rapidly recognize deviations from desired behavior and enforce compliance with a standardized weaning strategy unencumbered by external influences. Whether currently available methods for automated weaning fulfill that potential to achieve superiority depends on patient type, care environment, and cause of ventilator dependence. PMID:27235311

  11. Large hemangioma in a persistent left superior vena cava.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wen; Wang, Xiang; Tan, Sichuang; Fan, Songqing; Liu, Jun; Yu, Fenglei; Tang, Jingqun

    2012-12-01

    Cardiac hemangiomas represent 1 to 2% of all detected benign heart tumors. Tumors in the coronary sinus have been reported; however, to our knowledge, there have been no reports of masses in a persistent left superior vena cava. We report here the first case of a 58-year-old man with a rare huge unicamerate cardiac hemangiomas in a persistent left superior vena cava. A communication vein between the coronary sinus and hemangiomas could be identified, and thrombus formation was found in the hemangiomas as well. PMID:23180384

  12. Endoscopic-Assisted Repair of Superior Canal Dehiscence.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yew Song; Kozin, Elliott D; Lee, Daniel J

    2016-10-01

    Superior canal dehiscence (SCD) is a bony defect of the superior canal that can cause vestibular and/or auditory symptoms. Surgical repair of SCD provides effective relief from symptoms, and the middle fossa craniotomy approach with binocular microscopy offers direct visualization and surgical access to the arcuate eminence. However, for SCDs located along the downsloping tegmen medial to the peak of the arcuate eminence, a direct light of sight may be obscured, rendering visualization with traditional microscopy difficult. The endoscope is the ideal adjunct in middle fossa craniotomy approach SCD surgery and offers a safe, effective means to identify and repair arcuate eminence defects hidden from microscopic view. PMID:27565386

  13. Fatal Pericardial Tamponade After Superior Vena Cava Stenting

    SciTech Connect

    Ploegmakers, Marieke J. M. Rutten, Matthieu J. C. M.

    2009-05-15

    We discuss a fatal complication of percutaneous superior vena cava (SVC) self-expandable stent placement in a patient with superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS). The SVCS was caused by a malignant mediastinal mass with total occlusion of the SVC. Twenty-four hours after the procedure, the patient died of a hemopericardial tamponade. In the literature, only seven cases have been described with this life-threatening complication. Patients with a necrotic tumor mass are more likely to develop this complication. Knowledge of this complication may increase patient survival.

  14. Ruptured superior gluteal artery pseudoaneurysm with hemorrhagic shock: Case report.

    PubMed

    Corbacioglu, Kerem Seref; Aksel, Gokhan; Yildiz, Altan

    2016-03-01

    Pseudoaneurysm of the superior gluteal artery (SGA) is very rare and the most common causes are blunt or penetrating pelvic traumas. Although pseudoaneurysm can be asymptomatic at the time of initial trauma, it can be symptomatic weeks, months, even years after initial trauma. We present a case of a ruptured superior gluteal artery pseudoaneurysm with hemorrhagic shock twenty days after a bomb injury in the Syria civil war. In addition, we review the anatomy of the SGA, clinical presentation and pitfalls of pseudoaneurysm, and imaging and treatment options. PMID:27239635

  15. ZOOBENTHOS ASSEMBLAGES AS INDICATORS OF LAKE SUPERIOR COASTAL WETLAND CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Little is known about the diversity or structure of zoobenthos assemblages in Great Lakes coastal wetlands. As part of a comparative study in western Lake Superior we wanted to investigate whether these assemblages might be useful as indicators of wetland condition. We also wante...

  16. 7. Photocopy of map (from Superior Court of Chatham County ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of map (from Superior Court of Chatham County Land Records, Book 2G, p. 299) John McKinnon (County Surveyor), delineator 11 January 1817 PLAT OF SITE, SHOWING EASTERN PORTION OF BUILDING - William Taylor Store, 204 West Bay Street, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  17. Early detection of non-indigenous fishes in Lake Superior

    EPA Science Inventory

    Invasive species pose a serious threat to the ecological stability of the Great Lakes warranting continual monitoring for the arrival of new species. Three locations in Lake Superior were identified as “high risk” for new introductions: St. Louis River near Duluth, M...

  18. Early detection of invasive fishes in Lake Superior

    EPA Science Inventory

    Invasive species pose a serious threat to the Great Lakes warranting continual monitoring for the arrival of new species. Three locations in Lake Superior were identified as "high risk" for new introductions: St. Louis River near Duluth, MN, Upper St. Marys River near S...

  19. Water resources of the Lake Superior watershed, northeastern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olcott, Perry G.; Ericson, D.W.; Felsheim, P.E.; Broussard, W.L.

    1978-01-01

    The Nemadji River and tributaries drain the Nemadji Basin, the southern detached part of the watershed. Topographically, the Nemadji Basin is roughly spoon shaped with maximum total relief in Minnesota of about 800 ft (244 m). More than half of the approximately 55-mi (88-km) long river flows northeastward through Wisconsin before reaching Lake Superior.

  20. Cationic amphiphilic non-hemolytic polyacrylates with superior antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Punia, Ashish; He, Edward; Lee, Kevin; Banerjee, Probal; Yang, Nan-Loh

    2014-07-01

    Acrylic copolymers with appropriate compositions of counits having cationic charge with 2-carbon and 6-carbon spacer arms can show superior antibacterial activities with concomitant very low hemolytic effect. These amphiphilic copolymers represent one of the most promising synthetic polymer antibacterial systems reported. PMID:24854366

  1. Protein tyrosine phosphatases expression during development of mouse superior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Reinhard, Jacqueline; Horvat-Bröcker, Andrea; Illes, Sebastian; Zaremba, Angelika; Knyazev, Piotr; Ullrich, Axel; Faissner, Andreas

    2009-12-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are key regulators of different processes during development of the central nervous system. However, expression patterns and potential roles of PTPs in the developing superior colliculus remain poorly investigated. In this study, a degenerate primer-based reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) approach was used to isolate seven different intracellular PTPs and nine different receptor-type PTPs (RPTPs) from embryonic E15 mouse superior colliculus. Subsequently, the expression patterns of 11 PTPs (TC-PTP, PTP1C, PTP1D, PTP-MEG2, PTP-PEST, RPTPJ, RPTPε, RPTPRR, RPTPσ, RPTPκ and RPTPγ) were further analyzed in detail in superior colliculus from embryonic E13 to postnatal P20 stages by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Each of the 11 PTPs exhibits distinct spatiotemporal regulation of mRNAs and proteins in the developing superior colliculus suggesting their versatile roles in genesis of neuronal and glial cells and retinocollicular topographic mapping. At E13, additional double-immunohistochemical analysis revealed the expression of PTPs in collicular nestin-positive neural progenitor cells and RC-2-immunoreactive radial glia cells, indicating the potential functional importance of PTPs in neurogenesis and gliogenesis. PMID:19727691

  2. Depth-specific Analyses of the Lake Superior Food Web

    EPA Science Inventory

    Characteristics of large, deep aquatic systems include depth gradients in community composition, in the quality and distribution of food resources, and in the strategies that organisms use to obtain their nutrition. In Lake Superior, nearshore communities that rely upon a combina...

  3. Area contingency plan western lake Superior Coastal zone. (COTP Duluth)

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-15

    The Area Contingency Plan, mandated under the Oil Pollution Act, was developed by the Western Lake Superior Area Committee, which is chaired by the Coast Guard and consists of local, state, federal, and private members. The plan prepares in advance for an oil or hazardous substance spill in the COTP Duluth Coastal Zone.

  4. Benthic and Pelagic Contributions to Mysis Nutrition across Lake Superior

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantification of the sources of nutrition to Mysis diluviana is needed to better understand the basis for production in Mysis lakes and to improve models of migration-driven nutrient and contaminant transport. We collected Mysis, plankton, and benthos across Lake Superior using ...

  5. Why Is Visual Search Superior in Autism Spectrum Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Robert M.; Keehn, Brandon; Connolly, Christine; Wolfe, Jeremy M.; Horowitz, Todd S.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the possibility that enhanced memory for rejected distractor locations underlies the superior visual search skills exhibited by individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We compared the performance of 21 children with ASD and 21 age- and IQ-matched typically developing (TD) children in a standard static search task…

  6. Pushing the Limits: Achieving Superior Arabic Fluency in America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaty, Kevin James

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the current situation of Arabic education in the United States with an overarching question of, "What is the best way for a student of Arabic in the United States to achieve Superior proficiency?" This study focuses on two elite institutions of Arabic education in the United States. This study is based on 3 sources of…

  7. Denitrification Rates in a Lake Superior Coastal Wetland

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inputs of anthropogenic nitrogen to the Nation’s aquatic ecosystems have increased substantially over the past several decades. Nitrogen inputs to Lake Superior since about 1900 have increased at a rate of about 2% per year, doubling about every 35 years (Bennett, 1986), althoug...

  8. A new look at the Lake Superior biomass size spectrum

    EPA Science Inventory

    We synthesized data from multiple sampling programs and years to describe the Lake Superior pelagic biomass size structure for two time periods separated by 5 years. The data consisted of water analyzed on a Coulter counter for algae, in situ measurements with a laser optical pl...

  9. SUPERIOR COLLICULUS LESIONS AND FLASH EVOKED POTENTIALS FROM RAT CORTEX

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is generally assumed that the primary response of the rat flash evoked potential (FEP) is activated by a retino-geniculate pathway, and that the second response reflects input to the cortex by way of the superior colliculus (SC) or other brainstem structures. In the present st...

  10. A thermal scanning study of coastal upwelling in Lake Superior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarpace, F. L.; Green, T., III; Madding, R. P.

    1979-01-01

    The use of a thermal scanner to monitor the time evolution of the thermal structure of the coastal waters in Lake Superior during an upwelling event is described. Mosaics of thermal imagery from ten different times are described. Qualitative descriptions of the imagery give insight into the upwelling event. Recommendations for future use of a thermal scanner to monitor an upwelling event are discussed.

  11. LAND USE ACTIVITIES AND WESTERN LAKE SUPERIOR WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geographic Information Systems (GlS), computer systems which can analyze mapped information, can help reduce nonpoint source pollution in the Lake Superior basin by providing researchers and managers with a tool for predicting the consequences of land use change. n an EPA-funded ...

  12. Mesenteric castleman disease mimicking superior mesenteric artery aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji-Soo; Park, Yang Jin; Kim, Young-Wook

    2015-02-01

    Castleman disease (CD) is known as a lymphoproliferative disorder, which is most commonly located in the mediastinum. CD occurring in the mesentery is very rare. We report a case of CD in the mesentery, which is mimicking a superior mesenteric artery aneurysm on computed tomography image. PMID:25463333

  13. The Quagga mussel invades the Lake Superior basin - journal article

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prior studies recognized the presence of a single dreissenid species in Lake Superior--the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha. However, taxonomic keys based on traditional shell morphology are not always able to differentiate dreissenid species with confidence. We thus employed ge...

  14. Biological Motion Task Performance Predicts Superior Temporal Sulcus Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrington, John D.; Nymberg, Charlotte; Schultz, Robert T.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies implicate superior temporal sulcus (STS) in the perception of human movement. More recent theories hold that STS is also involved in the "understanding" of human movement. However, almost no studies to date have associated STS function with observable variability in action understanding. The present study directly associated STS…

  15. 77 FR 48856 - Safety Zone; Superior Bay, Duluth, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ... Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Regulatory History... spectators during the Superior Man Triathlon. DATES: This rule is effective from 6 a.m. to 8:30 a.m. on... Triathlon, which are discussed further below. Under 5 U.S.C. 553(d)(3), the Coast Guard finds that...

  16. Impairments in Tactile Search Following Superior Parietal Damage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skakoon-Sparling, Shayna P.; Vasquez, Brandon P.; Hano, Kate; Danckert, James

    2011-01-01

    The superior parietal cortex is critical for the control of visually guided actions. Research suggests that visual stimuli relevant to actions are preferentially processed when they are in peripersonal space. One recent study demonstrated that visually guided movements towards the body were more impaired in a patient with damage to superior…

  17. The pygmy whitefish, Coregonus coulteri, in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eschmeyer, Paul H.; Bailey, Reeve M.

    1955-01-01

    Other cold-water fishes–cottids, ninespine sticklebacks, smelt, and four species of coregonines–were the most frequent associates of the pygmy whitefish. Lake trout and trout-perch were also taken with it at the same stations or in the same trawl hauls. Its closest relative in Lake Superior, the round whitefish, was not an ecological associate.

  18. Exchange Between Superiors and Subordinates in Large Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Philip M.; House, James S.

    1973-01-01

    Social exchange theory is used to formulate hypotheses about superior-subordinate relations in large complex organizations. Data from self-administered questionnaires are used to support the hypotheses derived from the theoretical model and suggest the utility of further research using social exchange theory. (Author)

  19. Visuospatial Superiority in Developmental Dyslexia: Myth or Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunswick, Nicola; Martin, G. Neil; Marzano, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence indicates that dyslexia is positively associated with superior visuospatial ability but empirical evidence is inconsistent. We explicitly tested the hypothesis that dyslexia is associated with visuospatial advantage in 20 dyslexic and 21 unimpaired adult readers using paper-and-pencil measures and tests of "everyday"…

  20. Word and pseudoword superiority effects reflected in the ERP waveform.

    PubMed

    Coch, Donna; Mitra, Priya

    2010-05-01

    A variant of the Reicher-Wheeler task was used to determine when in the event-related potential (ERP) waveform indices of word and pseudoword superiority effects might be present, and whether ERP measures of superiority effects correlated with standardized behavioral measures of orthographic fluency and single word reading. ERPs were recorded to briefly presented, masked letter strings that included real words (DARK/PARK), pseudowords (DARL/PARL), nonwords (RDKA/RPKA), and letter-in-xs (DXXX, PXXX) stimuli. Participants decided which of two letters occurred at a given position in the string (here, forced-choice alternatives D and P). Behaviorally, both word (more accurate choices for letters in words than in baseline nonwords or letter-in-xs) and pseudoword (more accurate choices for letters in pseudowords than in baseline conditions) superiority effects were observed. Electrophysiologically, effects of orthographic regularity and familiarity were apparent as early as the P150 time window (100-160ms), an effect of lexicality was observed as early as the N200 time window (160-200ms), and peak amplitude of the N300 and N400 also differentiated word and pseudoword as compared to baseline stimuli. Further, the size of the P150 and N400 ERP word superiority effects was related to standardized behavioral measures of fluency and reading. Results suggest that orthographic fluency is reflected in both lower-level, sublexical, perceptual processing and higher-level, lexical processing in fluently reading adults. PMID:20211607

  1. Memory for Pictorial Information and the Picture Superiority Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maisto, Albert A.; Queen, Debbie Elaine

    1992-01-01

    The performance of 53 younger adults (mean age 20.7) and 52 older adults (mean age 68.3) was compared in a memory task involving pictures, words, and pictures-plus-words. Results showed (1) significantly higher recall scores for younger adults; (2) equivalent picture superiority effect for both groups; and (3) decline in older adults' performance…

  2. A Developmental, Interactive Activation Model of the Word Superiority Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Christopher H.; Tallal, Paula

    1990-01-01

    Examined effects of orthographic context on the letter recognition skills of dyslexic children, comparing their performance to that of adults and of chronological and reading age-matched groups. Results showed that the two matched groups showed strong word superiority effect (WSE) for words and pseudowords over nonwords. Dyslexic readers did not…

  3. Ileocolic Arteriovenous Fistula with Superior Mesenteric Vein Aneurism: Endovascular Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Gregorio, Miguel Angel de; Gimeno, Maria Jose; Medrano, Joaquin; Schoenholz, Caudio; Rodriguez, Juan; D'Agostino, Horacio

    2004-09-15

    We report a case of a venous aneurysm secondary to an acquired ileocolic arteriovenous fistula in a 64-year-old woman with recurrent abdominal pain and history of appendectomy. The aneurysm was diagnosed by ultrasound and computed tomography. Angiography showed an arteriovenous fistula between ileocolic branches of the superior mesenteric artery and vein. This vascular abnormality was successfully treated with coil embolization.

  4. Superiority of Vicarious over Direct Experience in Interpersonal Conflict Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braver, Sanford L.; Rohrer, Van

    1978-01-01

    A laboratory experiment compared the relative effects of observing and participating in a first Prisoner's Dilemma Game (PDG) on subsequent PDG encounters by the original observer and participant. Concludes that vicarious experience is superior to direct experience in producing responses that reduce interpersonal conflict. Available from: Sage…

  5. AIRBORNE MERCURY IN PRECIPITATION IN THE LAKE SUPERIOR REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mercury was measured in accumulated snow (March 1982) sampled from around Lake Superior and in rainfall from Duluth, Minnesota (June-September 1982 and March-November 1983), Forbes Township, and Dorset in northwestern and central Ontario, respectively (May-September 1983). Method...

  6. Lake Superior Phytoplankton Characterization from the 2006 Probability Based Survey

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a late summer probability based survey of Lake Superior in 2006 which consisted of 52 sites stratified across 3 depth zones. As part of this effort, we collected composite phytoplankton samples from the epilimnion and the fluorescence maxima (Fmax) at 29 of the site...

  7. Total variation superiorization schemes in proton computed tomography image reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Penfold, S. N.; Schulte, R. W.; Censor, Y.; Rosenfeld, A. B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Iterative projection reconstruction algorithms are currently the preferred reconstruction method in proton computed tomography (pCT). However, due to inconsistencies in the measured data arising from proton energy straggling and multiple Coulomb scattering, the noise in the reconstructed image increases with successive iterations. In the current work, the authors investigated the use of total variation superiorization (TVS) schemes that can be applied as an algorithmic add-on to perturbation-resilient iterative projection algorithms for pCT image reconstruction. Methods: The block-iterative diagonally relaxed orthogonal projections (DROP) algorithm was used for reconstructing GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulated pCT data sets. Two TVS schemes added on to DROP were investigated; the first carried out the superiorization steps once per cycle and the second once per block. Simplifications of these schemes, involving the elimination of the computationally expensive feasibility proximity checking step of the TVS framework, were also investigated. The modulation transfer function and contrast discrimination function were used to quantify spatial and density resolution, respectively. Results: With both TVS schemes, superior spatial and density resolution was achieved compared to the standard DROP algorithm. Eliminating the feasibility proximity check improved the image quality, in particular image noise, in the once-per-block superiorization, while also halving image reconstruction time. Overall, the greatest image quality was observed when carrying out the superiorization once per block and eliminating the feasibility proximity check. Conclusions: The low-contrast imaging made possible with TVS holds a promise for its incorporation into future pCT studies. PMID:21158301

  8. Bioaccumulation of toxaphene congeners in the lake superior food web

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muir, D.C.G.; Whittle, D.M.; De Vault, D. S.; Bronte, C.R.; Karlsson, H.; Backus, S.; Teixeira, C.

    2004-01-01

    The bioaccumulation and biotransformation of toxaphene was examined in the food webs of Lake Superior and Siskiwit Lake (Isle Royale) using congener specific analysis as well as stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen to characterize food webs. Toxaphene concentrations (calculated using technical toxaphene) in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from the western basin of Lake Superior (N = 95) averaged (±SD) 889 ± 896 ng/g wet wt and 60 ± 34 ng/g wet wt in Siskiwit Lake. Major congeners in lake trout were B8-789 (P38), B8-2226 (P44), B9-1679 (P50), and B9-1025 (P62). Toxaphene concentrations were found to vary seasonally, especially in lower food web organisms in Lake Superior and to a lesser extent in Siskiwit Lake. Toxaphene concentrations declined significantly in lake herring (Coregonus artedii), rainbow smelt (Omerus mordax), and slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus) as well as in zooplankton (> 102 &mn;m) and Mysis (Mysis relicta) between May and October. The seasonal variation may reflect seasonal shifts in the species abundance within the zooplankton community. Trophic magnification factors (TMF) derived from regressions of toxaphene congener concentrations versus δ15N were > 1 for most octa- and nonachlorobornanes in Lake Superior except B8-1413 (P26) and B9-715. Log bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) for toxaphene congeners in lake trout (ng/g lipid/ng/L dissolved) ranged from 4.54 to 9.7 and were significantly correlated with log octanol-water partition coefficients. TMFs observed for total toxaphene and congener B9-1679 in Lake Superior were similar to those in Arctic lakes, as well as to previous studies in the Great Lakes, which suggests that the bioaccumulation behavior of toxaphene is similar in pelagic food webs of large, cold water systems. However, toxaphene concentrations were lower in lake trout from Siskiwit Lake and lakes in northwestern Ontario than in Lake Superior possibly because of shorter food chains and greater reliance on zooplankton or

  9. [Mediastinal Mature Teratoma Necessitating Resection of Superior Vena Cava].

    PubMed

    Aragaki, Masato; Iimura, Yasuaki; Hasegawa, Naoto; Kaga, Kichizo

    2015-09-01

    A 43-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for an abnormal shadow on chest X-ray. Computed tomography revealed a tumor with calcification of 9.8 cm in size at the anterior mediastinum. The infiltration into the left brachiocephalic vein and superior vena cava by tumor was suspected. Surgery was performed under a diagnosis of mature teratoma. The tumor was found to adhere firmly to superior vena cava (SVC), left brachiocephalic vein, right phrenic nerve, and the arch of the azygos vein. To ensure the blood flow, an artificial blood vessel was placed between left brachiocephalic vein and right atrium. Then SVC was clamped and the tumor was resected with the part of SVC. PMID:26329629

  10. Geology and tectonics of the Archean Superior Province, Canadian Shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, K. D.

    1986-01-01

    Superior Province consists mainly of Late Archean rocks with Middle Archean gneisses in the south, and possibly in the north. The Late Archean supracrustal sequences are of island arc and interarc affinity and are cut by abundant plutonic rocks, including early arc-related intrusions, late synorogenic intrusions, and post-orogenic plutons that are possibly the product of crustal melting caused by thermal blanketing of newly-thickened continental crust combined with high mantle heat flux. The contemporaneity of magmatic and deformational events along the lengths of the belts is consistent with a subduction-dominated tectonic regime for assembly of the Kenoran Orogen. Successive addition of volcanic arcs accompanied and followed by voluminous plutonism resulted in crustal thickening and stabilization of the Superior craton prior to uplift of Kapuskasing granulites, emplacement of the Matachewan diabase dykes, and Early Proterozoic marginal rifting.

  11. Pancreaticoduodenal Artery Aneurysm Formation with Superior Mesenteric Artery Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Kitaoka, Tadashi; Kamiya, Chiaki; Suzuki, Jun; Sato, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    Celiac stenosis or occlusion is attributed partly to increase blood flow at pancreatic arcade from the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) system and may play a causal role in true aneurysm of pancreaticoduodenal artery (PDAA) formation. However, despite possible increased blood flow in the pancreatic arcades like celiac stenosis, PDAAs with a stenotic SMA are extremely rare, with only three cases have been reported in the literature. We report a case of PDAA with SMA stenosis and review the literature. PMID:25298835

  12. Habitat change in a perched dune system along Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loope, Walter L.; McEachern, A. Kathryn

    1998-01-01

    Episodes of habitat change, driven by changes in levels of the Great Lakes, must be considered when assessing human effects upon coastal vegetation and rare species. Paleoecological studies, baseline inventories, and long-term monitoring programs within the Grand Sable Dunes, a perched-dune system along Lake Superior, provide a window on vegetation change at different spatial and temporal scales and also provide an illustrative case study.

  13. What else is hiding behind superior mesenteric artery syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    De Angelis, Paola; Iacobelli, Barbara Daniela; Torroni, Filippo; Dall'Oglio, Luigi; Bagolan, Pietro; Fusaro, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    The superior mesenteric artery syndrome (SMAS) is an uncommon condition in children. We describe a case of a 7-year-old boy with SMAS that occurred 3 years after a Deloyers' procedure for subtotal colonic Hirschsprung who was admitted for bilious vomit, abdominal pain and diarrhea due to unrecognized celiac disease. This case emphasize that SMAS in children needs a close medical and surgical follow-up to avoid an underestimation of early clinical signs unrelated to surgery. PMID:25972411

  14. Superior mesenteric arteriovenous fistula embolisation complicated by bowel ischaemia

    PubMed Central

    Hussein, Maher; Issa, Ghada; Muhsen, Shirin; Haydar, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Superior mesenteric arteriovenous fistulas are rare, especially when iatrogenic in origin. Management of these fistulas can be surgical or endovascular. Endovascular embolisation is the preferred modality with a low rate of complications. Among the reported complications, bowel ischaemia is considered an unlikely occurrence. We report a case of a complex iatrogenic arterioportal fistula that was managed by endovascular embolisation and controlled through both its inflow and outflow, and was later complicated by bowel ischaemia. PMID:23682091

  15. Information Superiority generated through proper application of Geoinformatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teichmann, F.

    2012-04-01

    Information Superiority generated through proper application of Geoinformatics Information management and especially geoscience information delivery is a very delicate task. If it is carried out successfully, geoscientific data will provide the main foundation of Information Superiority. However, improper implementation of geodata generation, assimilation, distribution or storage will not only waste valuable resources like manpower or money, but could also give rise to crucial deficiency in knowledge and might lead to potentially extremely harmful disasters or wrong decisions. Comprehensive Approach, Effect Based Operations and Network Enabled Capabilities are the current buzz terms in the security regime. However, they also apply to various interdisciplinary tasks like catastrophe relief missions, civil task operations or even in day to day business operations where geo-science data is used. Based on experience in the application of geoscience data for defence applications the following procedure or tool box for generating geodata should lead to the desired information superiority: 1. Understand and analyse the mission, the task and the environment for which the geodata is needed 2. Carry out a Information Exchange Requirement between the user or customer and the geodata provider 3. Implementation of current interoperability standards and a coherent metadata structure 4. Execute innovative data generation, data provision, data assimilation and data storage 5. Apply a cost-effective and reasonable data life cycle 6. Implement IT security by focusing of the three pillar concepts Integrity, Availability and Confidentiality of the critical data 7. Draft and execute a service level agreement or a memorandum of understanding between the involved parties 8. Execute a Continuous Improvement Cycle These ideas from the IT world should be transferred into the geoscience community and applied in a wide set of scenarios. A standardized approach of how to generate, provide

  16. Superior Labral Anterior Posterior Lesions of the Shoulder

    PubMed Central

    Malal, Joby Jacob George; Khan, Yousaf; Farrar, Graville; Waseem, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Superior labrum anterior and posterior (SLAP) lesion is of fairly recent description and its understanding is rapidly evolving. Its incidence and need for surgical treatment has increased exponentially in line with the increase in shoulder arthroscopies. It is of particular importance in the elite over head athlete and the young. A range of arthroscopic techniques and devices have been described with good functional results. The ability to return to pre injury level of sports remains a concern. PMID:24082975

  17. Bilateral mycotic aneurysm of the superior gluteal artery.

    PubMed

    Bouarhroum, Abdellatif; El Khloufi, Samir; El Hassani, Rachid; Bensaid, Younes

    2009-01-01

    Gluteal artery aneurysms are rare and mostly secondary to blunt or penetrating trauma. As an absolute rarity, we report an exceptional presentation of bilateral mycotic aneurysm of the superior gluteal artery in a 16-year-old boy associated with bacterial endocarditis. The left pseudoaneurysm was ruptured and treated using open surgery; 1 week later, the right location was successfully treated by embolization. PMID:19540714

  18. Superior metallic alloys through rapid solidification processing (RSP) by design

    SciTech Connect

    Flinn, J.E.

    1995-05-01

    Rapid solidification processing using powder atomization methods and the control of minor elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon can provide metallic alloys with superior properties and performance compared to conventionally processing alloys. Previous studies on nickel- and iron-base superalloys have provided the baseline information to properly couple RSP with alloy composition, and, therefore, enable alloys to be designed for performance improvements. The RSP approach produces powders, which need to be consolidated into suitable monolithic forms. This normally involves canning, consolidation, and decanning of the powders. Canning/decanning is expensive and raises the fabrication cost significantly above that of conventional, ingot metallurgy production methods. The cost differential can be offset by the superior performance of the RSP metallic alloys. However, without the performance database, it is difficult to convince potential users to adopt the RSP approach. Spray casting of the atomized molten droplets into suitable preforms for subsequent fabrication can be cost competitive with conventional processing. If the fine and stable microstructural features observed for the RSP approach are preserved during spray casing, a cost competitive product can be obtained that has superior properties and performance that cannot be obtained by conventional methods.

  19. Delayed Superior Orbital Fissure Syndrome After Reconstruction of Blowout Fracture.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Joon; Choi, Woong Kyu

    2016-01-01

    The superior orbital fissure syndrome (SOFS) has been known to be a condition caused by impairment of the nerves that cross the superior orbital fissure. Traumatic SOFS is an uncommon complication which occurs usually within 48 hours after a facial injury. A 25-year-old male sustained facial trauma following an altercation. Clinical findings on presentation included swelling, ecchymosis, hyphema, subretinal hemorrhage, and mild extraocular movement limitation upon lateral gaze on his right eyelids. Facial computed tomography scan confirmed fractures of the medial walls of the right orbit and herniation of orbital soft tissue without the incarceration of medial rectus muscle. Ten days after the trauma, the operation was performed. On postoperative day 16, the patient showed ptosis of the right upper eyelid with a fixed pupil, and there was a hypoesthesia over the distribution of the right supraorbital and supratrochlear nerves. The authors diagnosed as a delayed SOFS and prescribed 4 mg of methylprednisolone q.i.d. for 30 days. After steroid therapy, extraocular movement limitations improved progressively. After 8 months, movement was completely restored. The authors experienced delayed SOFS on posttrauma day 27, and it was treated by steroid therapy. Surgical intervention is required when there is an evident etiology such as underlying hematoma or plate migration. If the reason is not clear like our case, steroid therapy can be considered as one of the options. Particularly, the authors should give special attention to the patient who has congenitally narrow superior orbital fissure, like Fujiwara et al suggested. PMID:26674904

  20. Levels of processing and picture memory: the physical superiority effect.

    PubMed

    Intraub, H; Nicklos, S

    1985-04-01

    Six experiments studied the effect of physical orienting questions (e.g., "Is this angular?") and semantic orienting questions (e.g., "Is this edible?") on memory for unrelated pictures at stimulus durations ranging from 125-2,000 ms. Results ran contrary to the semantic superiority "rule of thumb," which is based primarily on verbal memory experiments. Physical questions were associated with better free recall and cued recall of a diverse set of visual scenes (Experiments 1, 2, and 4). This occurred both when general and highly specific semantic questions were used (Experiments 1 and 2). Similar results were obtained when more simplistic visual stimuli--photographs of single objects--were used (Experiments 5 and 6). As in the case of the semantic superiority effect with words, the physical superiority effect for pictures was eliminated or reversed when the same physical questions were repeated throughout the session (Experiments 4 and 6). Conflicts with results of previous levels of processing experiments with words and nonverbal stimuli (e.g., faces) are explained in terms of the sensory-semantic model (Nelson, Reed, & McEvoy, 1977). Implications for picture memory research and the levels of processing viewpoint are discussed. PMID:3157769

  1. Ideomotor Apraxia Due to Injury of the Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus.

    PubMed

    Jang, Sung Ho; Jang, Woo Hyuk

    2016-08-01

    We report on a patient who showed ideomotor apraxia due to injury of the superior longitudinal fasciculus following brain tumor and tumor bleeding, which was demonstrated by diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). A 60-yr-old, right-handed male patient underwent removal of brain meningioma and drainage of intraventricular hemorrhage and intracerebral hemorrhage in the left fronto-parietal lobe. At the time of DTT scanning (5 wk after onset), he was able to move the right upper extremity against gravity. The patient exhibited an intact ideational plan for motor performance. In addition, he was able to use actual objects (scissors, eraser) using his right wrist and hand. However, he had difficulty in using his right upper extremity for pantomime of object use, imitating gestures (meaningless or meaningful), and movement of his right upper extremity proximal. Score on the ideomotor apraxia test for the right side was 4 (cut-off score < 32). DTTs for the left superior longitudinal fasciculus to the left premotor cortex and left inferior parietal lobule showed partial injury, compared with the right superior longitudinal fasciculus. These injuries appeared to be the reason for ideomotor apraxia in this patient. PMID:27003199

  2. Controlled movement processing: superior colliculus activity associated with countermanded saccades.

    PubMed

    Paré, Martin; Hanes, Doug P

    2003-07-23

    We investigated whether the monkey superior colliculus (SC), an important midbrain structure for the regulation of saccadic eye movements, contains neurons with activity patterns sufficient to control both the cancellation and the production of saccades. We used a countermanding task to manipulate the probability that, after the presentation of a stop signal, the monkeys canceled a saccade that was planned in response to an eccentric visual stimulus. By modeling each animal's behavioral responses, with a race between GO and STOP processes leading up to either saccade initiation or cancellation, we estimated that saccade cancellation took on average 110 msec. Neurons recorded in the superior colliculus intermediate layers during this task exhibited the discharge properties expected from neurons closely involved in behavioral control. Both saccade- and fixation-related discharged differently when saccades were counter-manded instead of executed, and the time at which they changed their activity preceded the behavioral estimate of saccade cancellation obtained from the same trials by 10 and 13 msec, respectively. Furthermore, these intervals exceed the minimal amount of time needed for SC activity to influence eye movements. The additional observation that saccade-related neurons discharged significantly less when saccades were countermanded instead of executed suggests that saccades are triggered when these neurons reach a critical activation level. Altogether, these findings provide solid evidence that the superior colliculus contains the necessary neural signals to be directly involved in the decision process that regulates whether a saccade is to be produced. PMID:12878689

  3. Prey selection by the Lake Superior fish community

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Isaac, Edmund J.; Hrabik, Thomas R.; Stockwell, Jason D.; Gamble, Allison E.

    2012-01-01

    Mysis diluviana is an important prey item to the Lake Superior fish community as found through a recent diet study. We further evaluated this by relating the quantity of prey found in fish diets to the quantity of prey available to fish, providing insight into feeding behavior and prey preferences. We describe the seasonal prey selection of major fish species collected across 18 stations in Lake Superior in spring, summer, and fall of 2005. Of the major nearshore fish species, bloater (Coregonus hoyi), rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) consumed Mysis, and strongly selected Mysis over other prey items each season. However, lake whitefish also selected Bythotrephes in the fall when Bythotrephes were numerous. Cisco (Coregonus artedi), a major nearshore and offshore species, fed largely on calanoid copepods, and selected calanoid copepods (spring) and Bythotrephes (summer and fall). Cisco also targeted prey similarly across bathymetric depths. Other major offshore fish species such as kiyi (Coregonus kiyi) and deepwater sculpin (Myoxocephalus thompsoni) fed largely on Mysis, with kiyi targeting Mysis exclusively while deepwater sculpin did not prefer any single prey organism. The major offshore predator siscowet lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush siscowet) consumed deepwater sculpin and coregonines, but selected deepwater sculpin and Mysis each season, with juveniles having a higher selection for Mysis than adults. Our results suggest that Mysis is not only a commonly consumed prey item, but a highly preferred prey item for pelagic, benthic, and piscivorous fishes in nearshore and offshore waters of Lake Superior.

  4. Arthroscopic Superior Capsule Reconstruction for Irreparable Rotator Cuff Tears

    PubMed Central

    Mihata, Teruhisa; Lee, Thay Q.; Itami, Yasuo; HASEGAWA, Akihiko; Ohue, Mutsumi; Neo, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: An arthroscopic superior capsule reconstruction, in which the fascia lata autograft attached medially to the superior glenoid and laterally to the greater tuberosity, restores shoulder stability and muscle balance in patients with irreparable rotator cuff tears; consequently, it improves shoulder function specifically deltoid muscle function and relieves pain. We assessed the clinical outcome of arthroscopic superior capsule reconstruction (Figure 1) in 100 consecutive patients with irreparable rotator cuff tears. Specifically, we focused on the rates of return to sport and work. Methods: From 2007 to 2014, we performed arthroscopic superior capsule reconstruction on 107 consecutive patients (mean 66.7 years; range, 43 to 82) with irreparable rotator cuff tears that had failed conservative treatment. Seven patients were lost to follow-up because of other medical problems or reasons. In the remaining 100 patients there were 56 supraspinatus and infraspinatus tears; 39 supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and subscapularis tears; 3 supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis tears; and 2 supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and teres minor tears. Physical examination, radiography, and MRI were performed before surgery; at 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery; and yearly thereafter. Rates of return to sport and work were also investigated in those patients who had been employed (34 patients: 21 manual workers, 10 farmers, 1 butcher, 1 cook, and 1 athletic trainer) or played sport (26 patients: 6 golf, 4 table tennis, 4 swimming, 3 martial arts, 2 baseball, 2 yoga, 1 tennis, 1 badminton, 1 skiing, 1 mountain-climbing, and 1 ground golf) before injury. Results: The average preoperative American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score was 31.6 points (range, 3.3 to 63.3 points) and the average Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score was 51.6 points (26.5 to 68.5 points). Average postoperative clinical outcome scores all improved significantly at final

  5. Nonlinear optical effects and Hong-Ou-Mandel interference in cavity quantum electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirza, Imran M.; van Enk, Steven J.

    Pure quantum interference among single photons is one of the key ingredients to perform linear optics quantum computation (LOQC). The Hong-Ou-Mandel interference (HOMI) [C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou and L. Mandel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, (18), 2044-2046 (1987)] i.e. complete destructive interference between two identical and indistinguishable photons simultaneously entering input ports of a 50/50 beam splitter, is a well-known example in this context. In this talk, I'll present our theoretical study of HOMI in a coupled Jaynes-Cummings array. In particular and by applying quantum jump/trajectory formalism, I'll focus on how partial quantum interference between two photons survive both non-linearities produced by two-level emitter and spectral filtering due to optical cavities in our coupled cavity array setup [Imran M. Mirza and Steven J. van Enk, Opt. Comm. 343, 172-177 (2015)]. Along with LOQC, this work is crucial from the perspective of exploiting coupled cavity arrays to store single photons reliably (without altering their temporal and spectral traits) [Imran M. Mirza, Steven J. van Enk and Jeff Kimble, JOSA B, 10, 2640-2649, (2013)].

  6. Decoding the superior parietal lobule connections of the superior longitudinal fasciculus/arcuate fasciculus in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Kamali, A; Sair, H I; Radmanesh, A; Hasan, K M

    2014-09-26

    The temporo-parietal (TP) white matter connections between the inferior parietal lobule and superior temporal gyrus as part of the superior longitudinal fasciculus/arcuate fasciculus (SLF/AF) or middle longitudinal fasciculus (MdLF) have been studied in prior diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) studies. However, few studies have been focusing on the higher TP connections of the superior parietal lobule with the temporal lobe. These higher TP connections have been shown to have a role in core processes such as attention, memory, emotions, and language. Our most recent study, for the first time, hinted to the possibility of a long white matter connection interconnecting the superior parietal lobule (SPL) with the posterior temporal lobe in human brain which we call the SLF/AF TP-SPL and for a shorter abbreviation, the TP-SPL. We decided to further investigate this white matter connection using fiber assignment by continuous tracking deterministic tractography and high spatial resolution diffusion tensor imaging on 3T. Five healthy right-handed men (age range 24-37 years) were studied. We delineated the SPL connections of the SLF/AF TP bilaterally in five normal adult human brains. Using a high resolution DTT technique, we demonstrate for the first time, the trajectory of a long fiber bundle connectivity between the SPL and posterior temporal lobe, called the SLF/AF TP-SPL (or the TP-SPL), bilaterally in five healthy adult human brains. We also demonstrate the trajectory of the vertically oriented posterior TP connections, interconnecting the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) with the posterior temporal lobe (TP-IPL) in relation to the TP-SPL, arcuate fasciculus and other major language pathways. In the current study, for the first time, we categorized the TP connections into the anterior and posterior connectivity groups and subcategorized each one into the SPL or IPL connections. PMID:25086308

  7. Water quality assessment of a highly polluted Mediterranean River - Oued Fez (Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, J.-L.; Bellarbi, M.; Raïs, N.; Chahinian, N.; Moulin, P.; Ijjaali, M.

    2012-04-01

    In the South of the Mediterranean basin, many rivers are characterized by an alternation of very long dry periods only cut by short flood events. Currently, the socio-economical development of these zones is limited by water scarcity and poor quality of the water resources. Indeed human activities, generally concentrated in overpopulated cities, generate large quantity of domestic and industrial effluents which are directly rejected in the environment without any treatment. In Morocco, the well known city of Fez illustrates perfectly this situation, observed in most developing countries. The oued Fez receives continuously the non-treated domestic and industrial effluents (90.000 m3/day) of the city and pollutes all the downstream water bodies. Indeed, it is a tributary of the Sebou River, a major body of great economical importance used for irrigation and freshwater supply. This study aims at characterising and quantifying the pollutant concentrations and fluxes in various points of oued Fez's hydrological network and assessing its impact on the Sebou River; this river's preservation being considered a national priority in Morocco. A coupled water quality-water quantity monitoring scheme has been implemented on oued Fez since 2008. In addition to basic hydrological data, water quality samples are collected at regular intervals at 8 locations where discharge is simultaneously measured using an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP). Water samples are analysed for different forms of nitrogen (nitrates, nitrites, ammonium and total nitrogen), phosphorus (soluble reactive phosphorus and total phosphorus) but also total chromium which is used in the leather tanning processes, one of the most important industrial production of the city of Fez, using a photospectrometer (Hach Lange DR 2800 VIS-photometer (Germany). The results of 17 sampling campaigns, carried out over 3 hydrological years, indicate that the rural areas contribute mostly to baseflow during the wet

  8. The Building of the Archean Superior Craton: Thermal Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaupart, C. P.; Mareschal, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    The building of a craton involves the extraction of continental crust from the Earth's mantle and the lateral accretion of juvenile volcanic terranes. Ascertaining which conditions allow a newborn continental assemblage to survive requires information on its mechanical strength, which depends on the amount and vertical distribution of radioactive elements in the crust. There is thus a connection between crust formation mechanisms and a successful amalgamation process. To address outstanding questions concerning Archean cratons, the Superior province in Canada is the perfect region because it contains a well preserved geological record of accretion that provides compelling evidence for plate tectonic processes at 2.7 Ga. At almost the same time, the rate of continental growth decreased significantly, which may result from either slower crust formation or enhanced destruction through erosion and subduction. These issues are linked to the strength of the newborn continent. The extensive heat flow data set now available in the Superior Province reveals a clear demarcation between a chemically depleted and differentiated craton core and weakly differentiated enriched juvenile accreted terranes. The Superior craton was thus made of a strong core surrounded by weak terranes. This dichotomy implies that the accretion process could not involve complex imbrication of the accreted belts into the craton core. Subsequently, the craton may have been protected from convective disruption or delamination by its weak margins. Differences between the craton core and accreted terranes may be due to different crustal extraction processes, such as melting in a mantle plume or magmatism in a subduction zone. If subduction started at about 3 Ga, as advocated by several authors, the assembly and survival of large cratons may well be a consequence of this key shift in mantle activity. Alternatively, the chemical depletion of the craton core may be due to a prolonged history of internal

  9. Diencephalic connections of the superior colliculus in the hedgehog tenrec.

    PubMed

    Künzle, H

    1996-10-01

    Using different tracer substances the pathways connecting the superior colliculus with the diencephalon were studied in the Madagascan hedgehog tenrec (Echinops telfairi), a nocturnal insectivore with tiny eyes, a small and little differentiated superior colliculus and a visual cortex with no obvious fourth granular layer. The most prominent tecto-thalamic projection terminated in the ipsilateral dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus. The entire region receiving contralateral retinal afferents was labeled with variable density. In addition, there was a widespread, homogeneously distributed collicular input to the lateralis posterior-pulvinar complex and a distinct tectal projection to the suprageniculate nucleus. The latter projections were bilateral with a clear ipsilateral predominance. Among the intra- and paralaminar nuclei the centralis lateralis complex was most heavily labeled on both sides, followed by the nucleus centralis medialis. The paralamellar portion of the nucleus medialis dorsalis and the nucleus parafascicularis received sparse projections. A clear projection to the nucleus ventralis medialis could not be demonstrated but its presence was not entirely excluded either. There were also projections to medial thalamic nuclei, particularly the reuniens complex and the nucleus paraventricularis thalami. The main tecto-subthalamic target regions were the zona incerta, the dorsal hypothalamus and distinct subdivisons of the ventral lateral geniculate nucleus. These regions also gave rise to projections to the superior colliculus, as did the intergeniculate leaflet. The pathways oriented toward the visual or frontal cortex and the projections possibly involved in limbic and circadian mechanisms were compared with the connectivity patterns reported in mammals with more differentiated brains. Particular attention was given to the tenrec's prominent tecto-geniculate projection, the presumed W- or K-pathway directed toward the supragranular layers. PMID:8911930

  10. Compartmental Innervation of the Superior Oblique Muscle in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Le, Alan; Poukens, Vadims; Ying, Howard; Rootman, Daniel; Goldberg, Robert A.; Demer, Joseph L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Intramuscular innervation of mammalian horizontal rectus extraocular muscles (EOMs) is compartmental. We sought evidence of similar compartmental innervation of the superior oblique (SO) muscle. Methods Three fresh bovine orbits and one human orbit were dissected to trace continuity of SO muscle and tendon fibers to the scleral insertions. Whole orbits were also obtained from four humans (two adults, a 17-month-old child, and a 33-week stillborn fetus), two rhesus monkeys, one rabbit, and one cow. Orbits were formalin fixed, embedded whole in paraffin, serially sectioned in the coronal plane at 10-μm thickness, and stained with Masson trichrome. Extraocular muscle fibers and branches of the trochlear nerve (CN4) were traced in serial sections and reconstructed in three dimensions. Results In the human, the lateral SO belly is in continuity with tendon fibers inserting more posteriorly on the sclera for infraducting mechanical advantage, while the medial belly is continuous with anteriorly inserting fibers having mechanical advantage for incycloduction. Fibers in the monkey superior SO insert more posteriorly on the sclera to favor infraduction, while the inferior portion inserts more anteriorly to favor incycloduction. In all species, CN4 bifurcates prior to penetrating the SO belly. Each branch innervates a nonoverlapping compartment of EOM fibers, consisting of medial and lateral compartments in humans and monkeys, and superior and inferior compartments in cows and rabbits. Conclusions The SO muscle of humans and other mammals is compartmentally innervated in a manner that could permit separate CN4 branches to selectively influence vertical versus torsional action. PMID:26426404

  11. Radiological Management of Superior Vena Caval Stent Migration and Infection

    SciTech Connect

    Srinathan, Sadeesh McCafferty, Ian; Wilson, Ian

    2005-01-15

    We report a case of venous obstruction secondary to Hodgkin's lymphoma. Multiple Wallstents were inserted into the superior vena cava to relieve obstructive symptoms secondary to tumor. This procedure was complicated by stent migration into the right ventricle and a presumed stent infection. We describe the percutaneous management of these complications and discuss the issues surrounding the use of stents in this setting. We conclude that these complications can be managed percutaneously. However, the technical details of stent placement are essential in minimizing complications of this type.

  12. Clipping of ipsilateral posterior communicating and superior cerebellar artery aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Welch, Babu G

    2015-01-01

    The case is a 55-year-old female who presented with dizziness as the chief complaint. She has a family history of two relatives with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Digital subtraction angiography revealed the presence of a left-sided posterior communicating artery aneurysm and an ipsilateral superior cerebellar artery (SCA) aneurysm. Due to the smaller nature of the SCA, a decision was made to proceed with surgical clipping of both lesions through a pterional approach. A narrated video with illustrations depicts the intraoperative management of these lesions with postoperative angiography results. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/HCHToSsXv-4 . PMID:25554845

  13. Superior vena cava reconstruction using bovine jugular vein conduit.

    PubMed

    Lü, Wei Dong; Yu, Feng Lei; Wu, Zhong Shi

    2007-11-01

    The glutaraldehyde-treated bovine jugular vein conduit (BJVC) is a xenograft conduit initially used for right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction and has never been used for reconstruction of superior vena cava (SVC). In September 2003, a patient with SVC obstruction underwent SVC reconstruction using BJVC. He has been alive for 42 months and free from signs and symptoms of SVC obstruction except that metastasis was found in the vertebrae. The radionuclide venography showed the graft tube was patent and only slight stenosis was found in the proximal anastomosis. The initial result supports BJVC as an acceptable alternative for SVC reconstruction. PMID:17768061

  14. Superior thermal conductivity in suspended bilayer hexagonal boron nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chengru; Guo, Jie; Dong, Lan; Aiyiti, Adili; Xu, Xiangfan; Li, Baowen

    2016-05-01

    We reported the basal-plane thermal conductivity in exfoliated bilayer hexagonal boron nitride h-BN that was measured using suspended prepatterned microstructures. The h-BN sample suitable for thermal measurements was fabricated by dry-transfer method, whose sample quality, due to less polymer residues on surfaces, is believed to be superior to that of PMMA-mediated samples. The measured room temperature thermal conductivity is around 484 Wm‑1K‑1(+141 Wm‑1K‑1/ ‑24 Wm‑1K‑1) which exceeds that in bulk h-BN, providing experimental observation of the thickness-dependent thermal conductivity in suspended few-layer h-BN.

  15. Infantile intracranial aneurysm of the superior cerebellar artery.

    PubMed

    Del Santo, Molly Ann; Cordina, Steve Mario

    2016-01-01

    Intracranial aneurysms in the pediatric population are rare. We report a case of a 3-month-old infant who presented with inconsolable crying, vomiting, and sunset eye sign. CT revealed a subarachnoid hemorrhage, with CT angiogram revealing a superior cerebellar artery aneurysm. An external ventricular drain was placed for acute management of hydrocephalus, with definitive treatment by endovascular technique with a total of six microcoils to embolize the aneurysm. Serial transcranial Dopplers revealed no subsequent vasospasm. Although aneurysms in the pediatric population are rare, once the diagnosis is established, early treatment results in better outcomes. PMID:26929222

  16. Current Understandings of Spontaneous Isolated Superior Mesenteric Artery Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Wook

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous isolated superior mesenteric artery dissection (SISMAD) has been known as a rare vascular disease. However it is increasingly reported in these days with the development of advanced imaging technology. Underlying etiology, natural course or an optimal management strategy of SISMAD is not exactly known at the moment. During the past 10 years, we have had an interest in this rare vascular disease and collected clinical and image data in 100 or more patients with SISMAD. In this review article, I would like to describe my current understanding of SISMAD on the base of our recent publications in the major vascular surgery journals. PMID:27386450

  17. Superior labrum anterior to posterior tears in throwing athletes.

    PubMed

    Lintner, David M

    2013-01-01

    Superior labrum anterior to posterior (SLAP) tears and partial undersurface tears of the rotator cuff are common in experienced throwers, may be adaptive, and are only occasionally symptomatic. Pain in the shoulder of a throwing athlete with an MRI-documented SLAP tear or partial undersurface tear of the rotator cuff can be managed nonsurgically, with attention to posterior capsular contracture, scapular dyskinesia, and rotator cuff strength. The results of the surgical repair of SLAP lesions in the throwing athlete, with or without rotator cuff repair, are inferior to those of nonsurgical treatment. The cause of pain in the throwing athlete must be accurately diagnosed without reliance on MRI findings. PMID:23395053

  18. [A rare cause of superior vena cava syndrome].

    PubMed

    Lepida, A; Berghmans, T; Sculier, J-P; Meert, A-P

    2011-01-01

    A 85-year old patient with an history of low grade follicular lymphoma was admitted in the hospital with a superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome. The computed tomography scan of the thorax and the trans-esophageal echocardiography revealed a voluminous mass in the right atrium, extending to the origin of the SVC. A transvenous biopsy was done under echocardiographic control. The immunohistology showed a diffuse large B cell lymphoma. He received chemotherapy associating rituximab, doxorubicine, cyclophosphamide, vincristine and prednisone. The clinical response after the second cycle was remarkable with a near complete regression of the SVC syndrome. The tumor was no longer visible in imaging after four cycles of treatment. PMID:22165527

  19. Current Understandings of Spontaneous Isolated Superior Mesenteric Artery Dissection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Wook

    2016-06-01

    Spontaneous isolated superior mesenteric artery dissection (SISMAD) has been known as a rare vascular disease. However it is increasingly reported in these days with the development of advanced imaging technology. Underlying etiology, natural course or an optimal management strategy of SISMAD is not exactly known at the moment. During the past 10 years, we have had an interest in this rare vascular disease and collected clinical and image data in 100 or more patients with SISMAD. In this review article, I would like to describe my current understanding of SISMAD on the base of our recent publications in the major vascular surgery journals. PMID:27386450

  20. Life history of lake herring in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dryer, William R.; Beil, Joseph

    1964-01-01

    The average annual commercial catch of lake herring (Coregonus artedi) in U.S. waters of Lake Superior was nearly 12 million pounds in 1929-61. This production contributed 62.4 percent of the total U.S. take of lake herring for the Great Lakes. About 90 percent of the annual catch is taken from small-mesh gill nets during the November-December spawning season. The life-history studies were based on 12,187 fish collected in 1950-62; past growth was computed for 3,779 specimens collected from commercial landings at: Duluth, Minn.; Bayfield, Wis.; and Portage Entry and Marquette, Mich.

  1. Superior Valley photovoltaic power processing and system controller evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Bonn, R.; Ginn, J.; Zirzow, J.; Sittler, G.

    1995-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management, conducts the photovoltaic balance-of-system program. Under this program, Sandia supports the Department of Defense Strategic Environmental Research Development Plan, SERDP, which is advancing the use of photovoltaics in operational DoD facilities. This report details the acceptance testing of the first of these photovoltaic hybrid systems: the Superior Valley photovoltaic-diesel hybrid system. This is the first of several photovoltaic installations for the Department of Defense. The system hardware tested at Sandia included an inverter, maximum power trackers, and a system controller.

  2. Ruptured and unruptured mycotic superior mesenteric artery aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Gaurav; Semel, Marcus E; McGillicuddy, Edward A; Ho, Karen J; Menard, Matthew T; Gates, Jonathan D

    2014-11-01

    Aneurysms of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and branches thereof are uncommon but have a high rate of rupture and mortality relative to other visceral artery aneurysms. Historically, the predominant etiology has been infectious; with a renewed rise in intravenous drug abuse rates in the last decade, we hypothesize a resurgence in septic embolic complications may occur in the coming years. Here, we describe the presentation and management of 2 cases of intravenous drug users presenting with infectious endocarditis and SMA main trunk and branch aneurysms, one of which was ruptured. In addition, we review the literature on these rare clinical entities. PMID:25017769

  3. Measurement of photon indistinguishability to a quantifiable uncertainty using a Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Peter J.; Cheung, Jessica Y.; Chunnilall, Christopher J.; Dunn, Malcolm H.

    2010-04-10

    We present a method for using the Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interference technique to quantify photon indistinguishability within an associated uncertainty. The method allows the relative importance of various experimental factors affecting the HOM visibility to be identified, and enables the actual indistinguishability, with an associated uncertainty, to be estimated from experimentally measured quantities. A measurement equation has been derived that accounts for the non-ideal performance of the interferometer. The origin of each term of the equation is explained, along with procedures for their experimental evaluation and uncertainty estimation. These uncertainties are combined to give an overall uncertainty for the derived photon indistinguishability. The analysis was applied to measurements from an interferometer sourced with photon pairs from a parametric downconversion process. The measured photon indistinguishably was found to be 0.954+/-0.036 by using the prescribed method.

  4. Interactions and Charge Fractionalization in an Electronic Hong-Ou-Mandel Interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahl, Claire; Rech, Jérôme; Jonckheere, Thibaut; Martin, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    We consider an electronic analog of the Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interferometer, where two single electrons travel along opposite chiral edge states and collide at a quantum point contact. Studying the current noise, we show that because of interactions between copropagating edge states, the degree of indistinguishability between the two electron wave packets is dramatically reduced, leading to reduced contrast for the HOM signal. This decoherence phenomenon strongly depends on the energy resolution of the packets. Insofar as interactions cause charge fractionalization, we show that charge and neutral modes interfere with each other, leading to satellite dips or peaks in the current noise. Our calculations explain recent experimental results [E. Bocquillon, et al., Science 339, 1054 (2013)] where an electronic HOM signal with reduced contrast was observed.

  5. Multiparticle Correlations in Mesoscopic Scattering: Boson Sampling, Birthday Paradox, and Hong-Ou-Mandel Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbina, Juan-Diego; Kuipers, Jack; Matsumoto, Sho; Hummel, Quirin; Richter, Klaus

    2016-03-01

    The interplay between single-particle interference and quantum indistinguishability leads to signature correlations in many-body scattering. We uncover these with a semiclassical calculation of the transmission probabilities through mesoscopic cavities for systems of noninteracting particles. For chaotic cavities we provide the universal form of the first two moments of the transmission probabilities over ensembles of random unitary matrices, including weak localization and dephasing effects. If the incoming many-body state consists of two macroscopically occupied wave packets, their time delay drives a quantum-classical transition along a boundary determined by the bosonic birthday paradox. Mesoscopic chaotic scattering of Bose-Einstein condensates is, then, a realistic candidate to build a boson sampler and to observe the macroscopic Hong-Ou-Mandel effect.

  6. Interactions between the hydrology and hydrochemistry of an intermittent southern Mediterranean River- Oued Fez (Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, J.-L.; Bellarbi, M.; Chahinian, N.; Raïs, N.; Moulin, P.; Ijjaali, M.

    2012-04-01

    Mediterranean catchments are often characterized by highly variable rainfall inputs and intermittent flows. In comparison to the existing knowledge on their hydrological behaviour, the interactions between flow conditions and pollution levels remain less documented. This study aims at filling that gap through a case study on Oued Fez (Morocco). Oued Fez is an intermittent river located in central-eastern Morocco. It has a 615 km2 catchment 10% of which corresponds to the city of Fez, the 3rd biggest in the kingdom (1.2 M inhabitants). Oued Fes is a tributary of the Sebou River, a major body of great economical importance used for irrigation and freshwater supply. A coupled water quality-water quantity monitoring scheme has been implemented on Oued Fez since 2008. In addition to basic hydrological data, water quality samples are collected at regular intervals at 8 locations where discharge is simultaneously measured using an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP). Water samples are analysed for different forms of nitrogen (nitrates, nitrites, ammonium and total nitrogen) and phosphorus (soluble reactive phosphorus and total phosphorus) using a photospectrometer (Hach Lange DR 2800 VIS-photometer (Germany). The results of the study indicate that, despite variations in annual rainfall, the catchment's hydrological response is controlled by the urban impervious zones during floods. The rural areas contribute mostly to baseflow during the wet period while non-treated anthropogenic inputs constitute most of the flow during the dry period. This in turn affects the water quality results. Indeed: - during low flow conditions the pollution levels are very high and total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations reach 45 mg/l N and 6.5 mg/l P respectively at the most polluted sites. - during average and high flow conditions the pollution levels decrease due to dilution. Total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations reach 32 mg/l N and 3.5 mg/l P respectively with

  7. Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment for temporal investigation of single-electron fractionalization

    PubMed Central

    Freulon, V.; Marguerite, A.; Berroir, J.-M.; Plaçais, B.; Cavanna, A.; Jin, Y.; Fève, G.

    2015-01-01

    Coulomb interaction has a striking effect on electronic propagation in one-dimensional conductors. The interaction of an elementary excitation with neighbouring conductors favours the emergence of collective modes, which eventually leads to the destruction of the Landau quasiparticle. In this process, an injected electron tends to fractionalize into separated pulses carrying a fraction of the electron charge. Here we use two-particle interferences in the electronic analogue of the Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment in a quantum Hall conductor at filling factor 2 to probe the fate of a single electron emitted in the outer edge channel and interacting with the inner one. By studying both channels, we analyse the propagation of the single electron and the generation of interaction-induced collective excitations in the inner channel. These complementary pieces of information reveal the fractionalization process in the time domain and establish its relevance for the destruction of the quasiparticle, which degrades into the collective modes. PMID:25896625

  8. Hong-Ou-Mandel atom interferometry in tunnel-coupled optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lester, Brian; Kaufman, Adam; Reynolds, Collin; Wall, Michael; Foss-Feig, Michael; Hazzard, Kaden; Rey, Ana Maria; Regal, Cindy

    2014-05-01

    We present recent work in which we demonstrate near-complete control over all the internal and external degrees of freedom of laser-cooled 87Rb atoms trapped in sub-micron optical tweezers. Utilizing this control for two atoms in two optical tweezers, we implement a massive-particle analog of the Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer where atom tunneling plays the role of the photon beamsplitter. The interferometer is used to probe the effect of atomic indistinguishability on the two-atom dynamics for a variety of initial conditions. These experiments demonstrate the viability of the optical tweezer platform for bottom-up generation of low-entropy quantum systems and pave the way toward the direct observation of quantum dynamics in more complex finite-sized systems.

  9. Laser cooling atoms to indistinguishability: Atomic Hong-Ou-Mandel interference and entanglement through spin exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Adam

    2016-05-01

    Motional control of neutral atoms has a rich history and increasingly interest has turned to single-atom control. In my thesis work, we created a platform to individually prepare single bosonic atoms in highly pure quantum states, by developing methods to laser cool single atoms to the vibrational ground state of optical tweezer traps. Applying this toolset, we observe the atomic Hong-Ou-Mandel effect when we arrange for atom tunneling to play the role of a balanced beam splitter between two optical tweezers. In another experiment, we utilize spin exchange to create entanglement, which we then verify after spatially separating the atoms to observe their non-local correlations. Merging these results with our recent demonstration of deterministic loading of atomic arrays, our results establish the concept of quantum gas assembly, which could be applied to a variety of systems ranging from the production of single dipolar molecules to the assembly of low-entropy arrays of atoms.

  10. Neural underpinnings of superior action prediction abilities in soccer players

    PubMed Central

    Urgesi, Cosimo

    2015-01-01

    The ability to form anticipatory representations of ongoing actions is crucial for effective interactions in dynamic environments. In sports, elite athletes exhibit greater ability than novices in predicting other players’ actions, mainly based on reading their body kinematics. This superior perceptual ability has been associated with a modulation of visual and motor areas by visual and motor expertise. Here, we investigated the causative role of visual and motor action representations in experts’ ability to predict the outcome of soccer actions. We asked expert soccer players (outfield players and goalkeepers) and novices to predict the direction of the ball after perceiving the initial phases of penalty kicks that contained or not incongruent body kinematics. During the task, we applied repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the superior temporal sulcus (STS) and the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd). Results showed that STS-rTMS disrupted performance in both experts and novices, especially in those with greater visual expertise (i.e. goalkeepers). Conversely, PMd-rTMS impaired performance only in expert players (i.e. outfield players and goalkeepers), who exhibit strong motor expertise into facing domain-specific actions in soccer games. These results provide causative evidence of the complimentary functional role of visual and motor action representations in experts’ action prediction. PMID:24771282

  11. Superior Cross-Species Reference Genes: A Blueberry Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Die, Jose V.; Rowland, Lisa J.

    2013-01-01

    The advent of affordable Next Generation Sequencing technologies has had major impact on studies of many crop species, where access to genomic technologies and genome-scale data sets has been extremely limited until now. The recent development of genomic resources in blueberry will enable the application of high throughput gene expression approaches that should relatively quickly increase our understanding of blueberry physiology. These studies, however, require a highly accurate and robust workflow and make necessary the identification of reference genes with high expression stability for correct target gene normalization. To create a set of superior reference genes for blueberry expression analyses, we mined a publicly available transcriptome data set from blueberry for orthologs to a set of Arabidopsis genes that showed the most stable expression in a developmental series. In total, the expression stability of 13 putative reference genes was evaluated by qPCR and a set of new references with high stability values across a developmental series in fruits and floral buds of blueberry were identified. We also demonstrated the need to use at least two, preferably three, reference genes to avoid inconsistencies in results, even when superior reference genes are used. The new references identified here provide a valuable resource for accurate normalization of gene expression in Vaccinium spp. and may be useful for other members of the Ericaceae family as well. PMID:24058469

  12. Visual Sensitivity of Deepwater Fishes in Lake Superior

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Kelly A.; Hrabik, Thomas R.; Mensinger, Allen F.

    2015-01-01

    The predator-prey interactions in the offshore food web of Lake Superior have been well documented, but the sensory systems mediating these interactions remain unknown. The deepwater sculpin, (Myoxocephalus thompsoni), siscowet (Salvelinus namaycush siscowet), and kiyi (Coregonus kiyi) inhabit low light level environments. To investigate the potential role of vision in predator-prey interactions, electroretinography was used to determine visual sensitivity for each species. Spectral sensitivity curves revealed peak sensitivity at 525 nm for each species which closely corresponds to the prevalent downwelling light spectrum at depth. To determine if sufficient light was available to mediate predator-prey interactions, visual sensitivity was correlated with the intensity of downwelling light in Lake Superior to construct visual depth profiles for each species. Sufficient daytime irradiance exists for visual interactions to approximately 325 m for siscowet and kiyi and 355 m for the deepwater sculpin during summer months. Under full moon conditions, sufficient irradiance exists to elicit ERG response to light available at approximately 30 m for the siscowet and kiyi and 45 m for the deepwater sculpin. Visual interactions are therefore possible at the depths and times when these organisms overlap in the water column indicating that vision may play a far greater role at depth in deep freshwater lakes than had been previously documented. PMID:25646781

  13. Designing functionally graded materials with superior load-bearing properties

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Sun, Ming-jie; Zhang, Denzil

    2011-01-01

    Ceramic prostheses often fail from fracture and wear. We hypothesize that these failures may be substantially mitigated by an appropriate grading of elastic modulus at the ceramic surface. In this study, we elucidate the effect of elastic modulus profile on the flexural damage resistance of functionally graded materials (FGMs), providing theoretical guidlines for designing FGM with superior load-bearing property. The Young's modulus of the graded structure is assumed to vary in a power-law relation with a scaling exponent n; this is in accordance with experimental observations from our laboratory and elsewhere. Based on the theory for bending of graded beams, we examine the effect of n value and bulk-to-surface modulus ratio (Eb/Es) on stress distribution through the graded layer. Theory predicts that a low exponent (0.15 < n < 0.5), coupled with a relatively small modulus ratio (3 < Eb/Es < 6), is most desirable for reducing the maximum stress and transferring it into the interior, while keeping the surface stress low. Experimentally, we demonstrate that elastically graded materials with various n values and Eb/Es ratios can be fabricated by infiltrating alumina and zirconia with a low-modulus glass. Flexural tests show that graded alumina and zirconia with suitable values of these parameters exhibit superior load-bearing capacity, 20% to 50% higher than their homogeneous counterparts. Improving load-bearing capacity of ceramic materials could have broad impacts on biomedical, civil, structural, and an array of other engineering applications. PMID:22178651

  14. Douglass Houghton and the Precambrian of Lake Superior

    SciTech Connect

    Merk, G.

    1985-01-01

    The first chronological subdivision of Precambrian rocks in the Lake Superior area was made in 1841 by Douglass Houghton for the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. In spite of the fact that the then prevailing philosophy of geologic history was quite different from that of today, Houghton's chronological subdivision became the commonly accepted framework for Precambrian studies on the south shore of Lake Superior. Using only megascopic rock analyses and the physical stratigraphic criteria of relative age, Houghton and his assistants recognized these division, in ascending order: the Primary (granite-gneiss-greenstone); the Metamorphic (slates, iron ore, quartz rock); and on the Keweenaw Peninsula, the Trap (with copper ore); the Trap Conglomerate; and the Red Sandrock. This Pioneer study demanded heroic effort and imagination because the swampy, forested terrain was barely penetrable, the outcrops are discontinuous, the rocks are often deformed, and the lithology changes locally within the formations. Houghton was aided in these accomplishments by William A. Burt, a US Linear Surveyor and the inventor of the solar compass, a sextant-like device used to supplement the surveyors compass. Together, Houghton and Burt formed the first combined geological-linear survey in the US. The combined survey was completed by the assistants Houghton had trained so well, William Burt and Bela Hubbard. Their reports (1846, 1847) supplemented Houghton's report of 1841 by showing the areal distribution of the exposed Precambrian rocks in the region thus facilitating future research, prospecting, and development.

  15. Phlegmonous gastritis secondary to superior mesenteric artery syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Kosuke; Iizuka, Toshiro; Yamashita, Satoshi; Kuribayashi, Yasutaka; Toba, Takahito; Yamada, Akihiro; Furuhata, Tsukasa; Kikuchi, Daisuke; Matsui, Akira; Mitani, Toshifumi; Ogawa, Osamu; Hoteya, Shu; Inoshita, Naoko; Kaise, Mitsuru

    2015-01-01

    We herein report a case of phlegmonous gastritis secondary to superior mesenteric artery syndrome. An 80-year-old woman visited the hospital emergency department with the chief complaints of epigastric pain and vomiting. She was hospitalized urgently following the diagnosis of superior mesenteric artery syndrome based on abdominal computed tomography findings. Conservative therapy was not effective, and phlegmonous gastritis was diagnosed based on the findings of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and biopsy performed on the 12th day of the disease. Undernutrition and reduced physical activity were observed on hospital admission, and proactive nutritional therapy with enteral nutrition was started. An upper gastrointestinal series, performed approximately 1 month later, confirmed the persistence of strictures and impaired gastric emptying. Because conservative therapy was unlikely to improve oral food intake, open total gastrectomy was performed on the 94th day of the disease. Examination of surgically resected specimens revealed marked inflammation and fibrosis, especially in the body of the stomach. Following a good postoperative recovery, the patient was able to commence oral intake and left our hospital on foot approximately 1 month after surgery. PMID:27489695

  16. Visual sensitivity of deepwater fishes in Lake Superior.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Kelly A; Hrabik, Thomas R; Mensinger, Allen F

    2015-01-01

    The predator-prey interactions in the offshore food web of Lake Superior have been well documented, but the sensory systems mediating these interactions remain unknown. The deepwater sculpin, (Myoxocephalus thompsoni), siscowet (Salvelinus namaycush siscowet), and kiyi (Coregonus kiyi) inhabit low light level environments. To investigate the potential role of vision in predator-prey interactions, electroretinography was used to determine visual sensitivity for each species. Spectral sensitivity curves revealed peak sensitivity at 525 nm for each species which closely corresponds to the prevalent downwelling light spectrum at depth. To determine if sufficient light was available to mediate predator-prey interactions, visual sensitivity was correlated with the intensity of downwelling light in Lake Superior to construct visual depth profiles for each species. Sufficient daytime irradiance exists for visual interactions to approximately 325 m for siscowet and kiyi and 355 m for the deepwater sculpin during summer months. Under full moon conditions, sufficient irradiance exists to elicit ERG response to light available at approximately 30 m for the siscowet and kiyi and 45 m for the deepwater sculpin. Visual interactions are therefore possible at the depths and times when these organisms overlap in the water column indicating that vision may play a far greater role at depth in deep freshwater lakes than had been previously documented. PMID:25646781

  17. Neural underpinnings of superior action prediction abilities in soccer players.

    PubMed

    Makris, Stergios; Urgesi, Cosimo

    2015-03-01

    The ability to form anticipatory representations of ongoing actions is crucial for effective interactions in dynamic environments. In sports, elite athletes exhibit greater ability than novices in predicting other players' actions, mainly based on reading their body kinematics. This superior perceptual ability has been associated with a modulation of visual and motor areas by visual and motor expertise. Here, we investigated the causative role of visual and motor action representations in experts' ability to predict the outcome of soccer actions. We asked expert soccer players (outfield players and goalkeepers) and novices to predict the direction of the ball after perceiving the initial phases of penalty kicks that contained or not incongruent body kinematics. During the task, we applied repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the superior temporal sulcus (STS) and the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd). Results showed that STS-rTMS disrupted performance in both experts and novices, especially in those with greater visual expertise (i.e. goalkeepers). Conversely, PMd-rTMS impaired performance only in expert players (i.e. outfield players and goalkeepers), who exhibit strong motor expertise into facing domain-specific actions in soccer games. These results provide causative evidence of the complimentary functional role of visual and motor action representations in experts' action prediction. PMID:24771282

  18. The word-superiority effect and phonological recoding.

    PubMed

    Krueger, L E

    1992-11-01

    Previous work indicates that the locus of the word-superiority effect in letter detection is nonvisual and that letter names, but not letter shapes, are more accessible in words than in nonwords, that is, scrambled collections of letters (e.g., Krueger & Shapiro, 1979; Krueger & Stadtlander, 1991; Massaro, 1979). The nonvisual (verbal or lexical) coding may be phonological, or it may be more abstract. In the present study, a word advantage in the speed of letter detection was found even when the target letter was silent in the six-letter test word (e.g., s in island). Other test words varied in their frequency of occurrence in English and number of syllables (1, 2, or 3). The word advantage was larger for higher frequency words but was not affected by syllable length. The presence of unpronounceable nonwords and silent letters in the words discouraged reliance upon the phonological code but did not thereby eliminate the word advantage. Thus, the word-superiority effect with free viewing is not based entirely upon phonological recoding. PMID:1435271

  19. An auditory analog of the picture superiority effect.

    PubMed

    Crutcher, Robert J; Beer, Jenay M

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has found that pictures (e.g., a picture of an elephant) are remembered better than words (e.g., the word "elephant"), an empirical finding called the picture superiority effect (Paivio & Csapo. Cognitive Psychology 5(2):176-206, 1973). However, very little research has investigated such memory differences for other types of sensory stimuli (e.g. sounds or odors) and their verbal labels. Four experiments compared recall of environmental sounds (e.g., ringing) and spoken verbal labels of those sounds (e.g., "ringing"). In contrast to earlier studies that have shown no difference in recall of sounds and spoken verbal labels (Philipchalk & Rowe. Journal of Experimental Psychology 91(2):341-343, 1971; Paivio, Philipchalk, & Rowe. Memory & Cognition 3(6):586-590, 1975), the experiments reported here yielded clear evidence for an auditory analog of the picture superiority effect. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that sounds were recalled better than the verbal labels of those sounds. Experiment 2 also showed that verbal labels are recalled as well as sounds when participants imagine the sound that the word labels. Experiments 3 and 4 extended these findings to incidental-processing task paradigms and showed that the advantage of sounds over words is enhanced when participants are induced to label the sounds. PMID:21264626

  20. A new look at the Lake Superior biomass size spectrum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yurista, Peder M.; Yule, Daniel L.; Balge, Matt; VanAlstine, Jon D.; Thompson, Jo A.; Gamble, Allison E.; Hrabik, Thomas R.; Kelly, John R.; Stockwell, Jason D.; Vinson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    We synthesized data from multiple sampling programs and years to describe the Lake Superior pelagic biomass size structure. Data consisted of Coulter counts for phytoplankton, optical plankton counts for zooplankton, and acoustic surveys for pelagic prey fish. The size spectrum was stable across two time periods separated by 5 years. The primary scaling or overall slope of the normalized biomass size spectra for the combined years was −1.113, consistent with a previous estimate for Lake Superior (−1.10). Periodic dome structures within the overall biomass size structure were fit to polynomial regressions based on the observed sub-domes within the classical taxonomic positions (algae, zooplankton, and fish). This interpretation of periodic dome delineation was aligned more closely with predator–prey size relationships that exist within the zooplankton (herbivorous, predacious) and fish (planktivorous, piscivorous) taxonomic positions. Domes were spaced approximately every 3.78 log10 units along the axis and with a decreasing peak magnitude of −4.1 log10 units. The relative position of the algal and herbivorous zooplankton domes predicted well the subsequent biomass domes for larger predatory zooplankton and planktivorous prey fish.

  1. Hong-Ou-Mandel interference of two phonons in trapped ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyoda, Kenji; Hiji, Ryoto; Noguchi, Atsushi; Urabe, Shinji

    2015-11-01

    The quantum statistics of bosons and fermions manifest themselves in the manner in which two indistinguishable particles interfere quantum mechanically. When two photons, which are bosonic particles, enter a beam-splitter with one photon in each input port, they bunch together at either of the two output ports. The corresponding disappearance of the coincidence count is the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect. Here we show the phonon counterpart of this effect in a system of trapped-ion phonons, which are collective excitations derived by quantizing vibrational motions that obey Bose-Einstein statistics. We realize a beam-splitter transformation of the phonons by employing the mutual Coulomb repulsion between ions, and perform a two-phonon quantum interference experiment using that transformation. We observe an almost perfect disappearance of the phonon coincidence between two ion sites, confirming that phonons can be considered indistinguishable bosonic particles. The two-particle interference demonstrated here is purely a quantum effect, without a classical counterpart, hence it should be possible to demonstrate the existence of entanglement on this basis. We attempt to generate an entangled state of phonons at the centre of the Hong-Ou-Mandel dip in the coincidence temporal profile, under the assumption that the entangled phonon state is successfully generated if the fidelity of the analysis pulses is taken into account adequately. Two-phonon interference, as demonstrated here, proves the bosonic nature of phonons in a trapped-ion system. It opens the way to establishing phonon modes as carriers of quantum information in their own right, and could have implications for the quantum simulation of bosonic particles and analogue quantum computation via boson sampling.

  2. Case report of fatal complication of superior vena cava tear from balloon dilatation of iatrogenic superior vena cava narrowing

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekaran, Nivash; Thimmarayappa, Ashwini; Jagadeesh, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    The treatment options for superior vena cava (SVC) obstruction depends on the cause and severity of SVC narrowing. It ranges from conservative medical management to more elaborate endovascular and surgical repair of obstruction. There has always been a concern regarding the possibility of rupture of SVC during balloon dilatation, if the obstruction is secondary to the surgical cause. Very few cases are reported in the literature. We report a case of fatal complication of SVC tear in a 2-month-old child who had iatrogenic SVC narrowing. PMID:26440251

  3. The different origins of magnetic fields and activity in the Hertzsprung gap stars, OU Andromedae and 31 Comae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, A.; Aurière, M.; Petit, P.; Konstantinova-Antova, R.; Charbonnel, C.; Drake, N. A.

    2016-06-01

    Context. When crossing the Hertzsprung gap, intermediate-mass stars develop a convective envelope. Fast rotators on the main sequence, or Ap star descendants, are expected to become magnetic active subgiants during this evolutionary phase. Aims: We compare the surface magnetic fields and activity indicators of two active, fast rotating red giants with similar masses and spectral class but different rotation rates - OU And (Prot = 24.2 d) and 31 Com (Prot = 6.8 d) - to address the question of the origin of their magnetism and high activity. Methods: Observations were carried out with the Narval spectropolarimeter in 2008 and 2013. We used the least-squares deconvolution (LSD) technique to extract Stokes V and I profiles with high signal-to-noise ratio to detect Zeeman signatures of the magnetic field of the stars. We then provide Zeeman-Doppler imaging (ZDI), activity indicators monitoring, and a precise estimation of stellar parameters. We use state-of-the-art stellar evolutionary models, including rotation, to infer the evolutionary status of our giants, as well as their initial rotation velocity on the main sequence, and we interpret our observational results in the light of the theoretical Rossby numbers. Results: The detected magnetic field of OU Andromedae (OU And) is a strong one. Its longitudinal component Bl reaches 40 G and presents an about sinusoidal variation with reversal of the polarity. The magnetic topology of OU And is dominated by large-scale elements and is mainly poloidal with an important dipole component, as well as a significant toroidal component. The detected magnetic field of 31 Comae (31 Com) is weaker, with a magnetic map showing a more complex field geometry, and poloidal and toroidal components of equal contributions. The evolutionary models show that the progenitors of OU And and 31 Com must have been rotating at velocities that correspond to 30 and 53%, respectively, of their critical rotation velocity on the zero age main sequence

  4. 40 CFR 81.60 - Duluth (Minnesota)-Superior (Wisconsin) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duluth (Minnesota)-Superior (Wisconsin... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.60 Duluth (Minnesota)-Superior (Wisconsin) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Duluth (Minnesota)-Superior (Wisconsin) Interstate Air Quality Control...

  5. Quality Assurance Guidelines for Superior Vena Cava Stenting in Malignant Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Uberoi, Raman

    2006-06-15

    Superior vena cava stenting for the treatment of malignant superior vena cava obstruction is now well established. It offers simple, rapid, and safe palliation of a distressing and potentially fatal complication of mediastinal malignant disease and compares very favorably with standard therapies such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The following are quality assurance guidelines for superior vena cava stenting.

  6. Wilkie's Syndrome or Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome: Fact or Fantasy?

    PubMed Central

    Zaraket, Vera; Deeb, Liliane

    2015-01-01

    Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome (known as Wilkie's syndrome) is a rare cause of upper gastrointestinal obstruction. It is an acquired disorder in which acute angulation of the SMA causes compression of the third part of the duodenum between the SMA and the aorta. This is commonly due to loss of fatty tissue as a result of a variety of debilitating conditions. We report a 17-year-old female who presented with intermittent abdominal pain and intractable vomiting following significant weight loss after hospitalization for pneumonia. Symptoms persisted for 2 years and the patient underwent extensive invasive and non-invasive tests, but to no avail. Thereafter she developed acute high intestinal obstruction, which unraveled her diagnosis. This case emphasizes the challenges in the diagnosis of SMA syndrome and the need for increased awareness of this entity. This will improve early recognition in order to reduce irrelevant tests and unnecessary treatments. PMID:26120301

  7. Individual differences and correlates of highly superior autobiographical memory.

    PubMed

    Patihis, Lawrence

    2016-08-01

    Highly superior autobiographical memory (HSAM) is a recently identified ability that has been difficult to explain with existing memory science. The present study measured HSAM participants' and age/gender-matched controls' on a number of behavioural measures to test three main hypotheses: imaginative absorption, emotional arousal, and sleep. HSAM participants were significantly higher than controls on the dispositions absorption and fantasy proneness. These two dispositions also were associated with a measure of HSAM ability within the hyperthymesia participants. The emotional-arousal hypothesis yielded only weak support. The sleep hypothesis was not supported in terms of quantity, but sleep quality may be a small factor worthy of further research. Other individual differences are also documented using a predominantly exploratory analysis. Speculative pathways describing how the tendencies to absorb and fantasise could lead to enhanced autobiographical memory are discussed. PMID:26314991

  8. Superior Mesenteric Vein Thrombosis Associated with Hormonal Contraceptive Use.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Nobuatsu

    2016-01-01

    A 44-year-old woman was admitted with a 7-day history of lower abdominal pain and nausea. Physical examination demonstrated tenderness in the lower abdomen without signs of peritonitis. There were no specific findings in the laboratory evaluation. She had a history of dysmenorrhea for 15 years and was taking a combined hormonal contraceptive containing 0.02 mg ethinyl estradiol and 3 mg drospirenone for 19 months. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed superior mesenteric vein thrombosis (SMVT). Systemic anticoagulant infusion was immediately administered and the symptoms disappeared within 2 days. The thrombus disappeared after 3 months. This case report suggests that early diagnosis of SMVT and immediate systemic anticoagulant therapy may reduce the rate of intestinal infarction. PMID:27462195

  9. Superior Mesenteric Vein Thrombosis Associated with Hormonal Contraceptive Use

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, Nobuatsu

    2016-01-01

    A 44-year-old woman was admitted with a 7-day history of lower abdominal pain and nausea. Physical examination demonstrated tenderness in the lower abdomen without signs of peritonitis. There were no specific findings in the laboratory evaluation. She had a history of dysmenorrhea for 15 years and was taking a combined hormonal contraceptive containing 0.02 mg ethinyl estradiol and 3 mg drospirenone for 19 months. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed superior mesenteric vein thrombosis (SMVT). Systemic anticoagulant infusion was immediately administered and the symptoms disappeared within 2 days. The thrombus disappeared after 3 months. This case report suggests that early diagnosis of SMVT and immediate systemic anticoagulant therapy may reduce the rate of intestinal infarction. PMID:27462195

  10. Phonetic Feature Encoding in Human Superior Temporal Gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Mesgarani, Nima; Cheung, Connie; Johnson, Keith; Chang, Edward F.

    2015-01-01

    During speech perception, linguistic elements such as consonants and vowels are extracted from a complex acoustic speech signal. The superior temporal gyrus (STG) participates in high-order auditory processing of speech, but how it encodes phonetic information is poorly understood. We used high-density direct cortical surface recordings in humans while they listened to natural, continuous speech to reveal the STG representation of the entire English phonetic inventory. At single electrodes, we found response selectivity to distinct phonetic features. Encoding of acoustic properties was mediated by a distributed population response. Phonetic features could be directly related to tuning for spectrotemporal acoustic cues, some of which were encoded in a nonlinear fashion or by integration of multiple cues. These findings demonstrate the acoustic-phonetic representation of speech in human STG. PMID:24482117

  11. Superior Optical Properties of Perovskite Nanocrystals as Single Photon Emitters.

    PubMed

    Hu, Fengrui; Zhang, Huichao; Sun, Chun; Yin, Chunyang; Lv, Bihu; Zhang, Chunfeng; Yu, William W; Wang, Xiaoyong; Zhang, Yu; Xiao, Min

    2015-12-22

    The power conversion efficiency of photovoltaic devices based on semiconductor perovskites has reached ∼20% after just several years of research efforts. With concomitant discoveries of other promising applications in lasers, light-emitting diodes, and photodetectors, it is natural to anticipate what further excitement these exotic perovskites could bring about. Here we report on the observation of single photon emission from single CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) synthesized from a facile colloidal approach. Compared with traditional metal-chalcogenide NCs, these CsPbBr3 NCs exhibit nearly 2 orders of magnitude increase in their absorption cross sections at similar emission colors. Moreover, the radiative lifetime of CsPbBr3 NCs is greatly shortened at both room and cryogenic temperatures to favor an extremely fast output of single photons. The above superior optical properties have paved the way toward quantum-light applications of perovskite NCs in various quantum information processing schemes. PMID:26522082

  12. [Primary Cardiac Angiosarcoma with Superior Vena Cava Syndrome].

    PubMed

    Shimada, Naohiro; Shiomi, Daisuke; Kaki, Nobuaki; Kiyama, Hiroshi

    2016-05-01

    Primary cardiac angiosarcoma is rare and its prognosis very poor. A 34-year-old woman complained of facial edema and dyspnea. Echocardiography, chest computed tomography scan and chest magnetic resonance imaging showed a huge tumor arising in the right atrium. Surgical excision of the tumor was performed for the purpose of relieving superior vena cava syndrome and making diagnosis of the tumor. The right atrial wall, including the tumor, was resected and reconstructed with Gore Tex patch under cardiopulmonary bypass. The tumor was diagnosed as angiosarcoma. Doxorubicin hydrochloride/ifosfamide were used to treat postoperative cardiac recurrence and lung metastasis. These drugs were effective to a certain degree, but she died of brain metastasis of the tumor in the 14th postoperative month. PMID:27220927

  13. A superior edge preserving filter with a systematic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holladay, Kenneth W.; Rickman, Doug

    1991-01-01

    A new, adaptive, edge preserving filter for use in image processing is presented. It had superior performance when compared to other filters. Termed the contiguous K-average, it aggregates pixels by examining all pixels contiguous to an existing cluster and adding the pixel closest to the mean of the existing cluster. The process is iterated until K pixels were accumulated. Rather than simply compare the visual results of processing with this operator to other filters, some approaches were developed which allow quantitative evaluation of how well and filter performs. Particular attention is given to the standard deviation of noise within a feature and the stability of imagery under iterative processing. Demonstrations illustrate the performance of several filters to discriminate against noise and retain edges, the effect of filtering as a preprocessing step, and the utility of the contiguous K-average filter when used with remote sensing data.

  14. Cryptogenic mycotic aneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery.

    PubMed

    Kordzadeh, Ali; Kalyan, Jiten P; Jonas, Attila; Hanif, Muhammad A; Prionidis, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    Visceral artery aneurysms as a result of arterial degenerative disease are rare (0.1-2%), and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) accounts for 3.2% of all reported series. However, mycotic SMA aneurysms (SMAAs) are even rarer, and to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of cryptogenic mycotic aneurysm of SMA by Enterococcus faecalis (EF). We report a case of 77-year-old man with 6-week history of supra pubic/left iliac fossa pain, weight loss and fever. The computed tomography demonstrated an incidental finding of 4.4 × 3-cm SMAA with no primary foci. The subsequent serology and specimen confirmed EF. Aneurysmectomy without bypass grafting along with antimicrobial therapy resulted in full recovery of the patient. PMID:26276703

  15. [Human interaction, social cognition, and the superior temporal sulcus].

    PubMed

    Brunelle, Francis; Saitovitch, Anna; Boddaert, Nathalie; Grevent, David; Cambier, Jean; Lelord, Gilbert; Samson, Yves; Zilbovicius, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Human beings are social animals. This ability to live together is ensured by cognitive functions, the neuroanatomical bases of which are starting to be unraveled by MRI-based studies. The regions and network engaged in this process are known as the "social brain ". The core of this network is the superior temporal sulcus (STS), which integrates sensory and emotional inputs. Modeling studies of healthy volunteers have shown the role of the STS.in recognizing others as biological beings, as well as facial and eye-gaze recognition, intentionality and emotions. This cognitive capacity has been described as the "theory of mind ". Pathological models such as autism, in which the main clinical abnormality is altered social abilities and communication, have confirmed the role of the STS in the social brain. Conceptualisation of this empathic capacity has been described as "meta cognition ", which forms the basis of human social organizationand culture. PMID:25518152

  16. Rubber tires are clean burning, superior fuel, ASME told

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-07-01

    A power plant in Modesto, Calif. has turned the cliche, burning rubber, into a formula for generating electricity from the incineration of discarded tires, according to a paper presented at the 13th National Waste Processing Conference and Exhibit, held on May 1-4, 1988, at the Wyndham Franklin Plaza Hotel, Philadelphia. The tires can be a clean-burning fuel providing a heating value (approximately 14,650 Btu/lb.) superior to bituminous coal. In addition to producing energy, steel can be reclaimed from the incineration of steel belted radial tires and sold for scrap, and zinc can be smelted from fly ash collected by the plant's air pollution control equipment.

  17. Superior sagittal sinus thrombosis complicating typhoid Fever in a teenager.

    PubMed

    Okunola, P O; Ofovwe, G E; Abiodun, M T; Azunna, C P

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral venous sinus (sinovenous) thrombosis (CSVT) is a rare life-threatening disorder in childhood that is often misdiagnosed. CSVT encompasses cavernous sinus thrombosis, lateral sinus thrombosis, and superior sagittal sinus thrombosis (SSST). We present an adolescent girl who was well until two weeks earlier when she had a throbbing frontal headache and fever with chills; she later had dyspnoea, jaundice, melena stool, multiple seizures, nuchal rigidity, and monoparesis of the right lower limb a day before admission. Urine test for Salmonella typhi Vi antigen was positive, and Widal reaction was significant. Serial cranial computerized tomography scans revealed an expanding hypodense lesion in the parafalcine region consistent with SSST or a parasagittal abscess. Inadvertent left parietal limited craniectomy confirmed SSST. She recovered completely with subsequent conservative management. Beyond neuropsychiatric complications of Typhoid fever, CSVT should be highly considered when focal neurologic deficits are present. PMID:23227403

  18. Development of environmentally superior technologies in the US and policy.

    PubMed

    Williams, C M

    2009-11-01

    "Environmentally superior technology" (EST) represents a research initiative in North Carolina (NC) to develop alternatives to lagoon treatment and land application of swine manure. EST performance standards included impacts of animal waste to surface and groundwater, emission of ammonia and odor, release of disease-transmitting pathogens, and heavy metal contamination of soil and groundwater. Five technologies were shown to meet these standards: a solids separation/nitrification-denitrification/soluble phosphorus removal system; a thermophilic anaerobic digester system; a centralized composting system; a gasification system; and a fluidized bed combustion system. Economic data compiled for all EST showed annualized (10-year) costs of retrofitting existing swine farms with the technologies ranged between $90 and over $400 per 1000 lbs. steady state live-weight. Value-engineering to reduce the costs of targeted EST has been successful. Policy providing institutional incentives to incorporate EST has been enacted as a result of this study. PMID:19286371

  19. Inhibition in Superior Colliculus Neurons in a Brightness Discrimination Task?

    PubMed Central

    Ratcliff, Roger; Hasegawa, Yukako T.; Hasegawa, Ryohei P.; Childers, Russ; Smith, Philip L.; Segraves, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous recordings were collected from between two and four buildup neurons from the left and right superior colliculi in rhesus monkeys in a simple two-choice brightness discrimination task. The monkeys were required to move their eyes to one of two response targets to indicate their decision. Neurons were identified whose receptive fields were centered on the response targets. The functional role of inhibition was examined by conditionalizing firing rate on a high versus low rate in target neurons 90 ms to 30 ms before the saccade and examining the firing rate in both contralateral and ipsilateral neurons. Two models with racing diffusion processes were fit to the behavioral data, and the same analysis was performed on simulated paths in the diffusion processes that have been found to represent firing rate. The results produce converging evidence for the lack of a functional role for inhibition between neural populations corresponding to the two decisions. PMID:21492006

  20. [Persistent left superior vena cava. Implications in central venous catheterisation].

    PubMed

    Lacuey Lecumberri, G; Ureña, M; Martínez Basterra, J; Basterra, N

    2009-01-01

    The placement of central catheters through the subclavian and jugular venous path can be complicated by the cannulation of an artery or an aberrant venous path. The most frequent anomaly of the embryological development of the caval vein is the persistence of the left superior vena cava (LSVC). The implantation of catheters in the LSVC can be suspected by its anomalous route in thorax radiography. Gasometry and the pressure curve of the vessel make it possible to rule out an arterial catheterisation. Diagnostic confirmation is obtained through angiography, echocardiography, computerised tomography or cardiac resonance. The doctor who regularly implants central venous catheters must be familiar with the anatomy of the venous system and its variants and anomalies, since their presence might influence the handling of the patient. PMID:19430517

  1. Endovascular Management of Superior Mesenteric Artery Pseudoaneurysm and Fistula

    SciTech Connect

    Narayanan, Govindarajan; Barbery, Katuska; Lamus, Daniel; Nanavati, Kunal

    2008-11-15

    The uncommon presentation of an arterioportal fistula (APF) involving the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) associated with a pseudoaneurysm represents a therapeutic challenge. We present the case of a 24-year-old female admitted to the hospital after multiple gunshot wounds to the abdomen; the patient underwent multiple surgeries and, in the process, developed a SMA pseudoaneurysm and fistula. The vascular interventional radiology team was consulted for treatment of the pseudoaneurysm and fistula. A covered stent was inserted percutaneously to exclude the APF and the pseudoaneurysm in a single procedure. The patient returned to our service after 21 months for a follow-up CT scan, which demonstrated the stent and the distal vasculature to be patent.

  2. Extensions of the picture superiority effect in associative recognition.

    PubMed

    Hockley, William E; Bancroft, Tyler

    2011-12-01

    Previous research has shown that the picture superiority effect (PSE) is seen in tests of associative recognition for random pairs of line drawings compared to pairs of concrete words (Hockley, 2008). In the present study we demonstrated that the PSE for associative recognition is still observed when subjects have correctly identified the individual items of each pair as old (Experiment 1), and that this effect is not due to rehearsal borrowing (Experiment 2). The PSE for associative recognition also is shown to be present but attenuated for mixed picture-word pairs (Experiment 3), and similar in magnitude for pairs of simple black and white line drawings and coloured photographs of detailed objects (Experiment 4). The results are consistent with the view that the semantic meaning of nameable pictures is activated faster than that of words thereby affording subjects more time to generate and elaborate meaningful associations between items depicted in picture form. PMID:21728402

  3. Superior thermal conductivity in suspended bilayer hexagonal boron nitride

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chengru; Guo, Jie; Dong, Lan; Aiyiti, Adili; Xu, Xiangfan; Li, Baowen

    2016-01-01

    We reported the basal-plane thermal conductivity in exfoliated bilayer hexagonal boron nitride h-BN that was measured using suspended prepatterned microstructures. The h-BN sample suitable for thermal measurements was fabricated by dry-transfer method, whose sample quality, due to less polymer residues on surfaces, is believed to be superior to that of PMMA-mediated samples. The measured room temperature thermal conductivity is around 484 Wm−1K−1(+141 Wm−1K−1/ −24 Wm−1K−1) which exceeds that in bulk h-BN, providing experimental observation of the thickness-dependent thermal conductivity in suspended few-layer h-BN. PMID:27142571

  4. Superior optical nonlinearity of an exceptional fluorescent stilbene dye

    SciTech Connect

    He, Tingchao; Sreejith, Sivaramapanicker; Zhao, Yanli; Gao, Yang; Grimsdale, Andrew C.; Lin, Xiaodong E-mail: hdsun@ntu.edu.sg; Sun, Handong E-mail: hdsun@ntu.edu.sg

    2015-03-16

    Strong multiphoton absorption and harmonic generation in organic fluorescent chromophores are, respectively, significant in many fields of research. However, most of fluorescent chromophores fall short of the full potential due to the absence of the combination of such different nonlinear upconversion behaviors. Here, we demonstrate that an exceptional fluorescent stilbene dye could exhibit efficient two- and three-photon absorption under the excitation of femtosecond pulses in solution phase. Benefiting from its biocompatibility and strong excited state absorption behavior, in vitro two-photon bioimaging and superior optical limiting have been exploited, respectively. Simultaneously, the chromophore could generate efficient three-photon excited fluorescence and third-harmonic generation (THG) when dispersed into PMMA film, circumventing the limitations of classical fluorescent chromophores. Such chromophore may find application in the production of coherent light sources of higher photon energy. Moreover, the combination of three-photon excited fluorescence and THG can be used in tandem to provide complementary information in biomedical studies.

  5. The contamination of Lake Superior with amphibole gangue minerals.

    PubMed

    Langer, A M; Maggiore, C M; Nicholson, W J; Rohl, A N; Rubin, I B; Selikoff, I J

    1979-01-01

    Iron ore called taconite is mined in the Biwabik Iron Formation in the Eastern Mesabi region of the Mesabi Range, in eastern Minnesota. After mining, ore is shipped to Silver Bay, Minnnesota for processing and wet magnetic extraction. Tailings from the process are dumped, as a slurry, into a man-made containment delta constructed in Lake Superior. Submicroscopic amphibole fibers and/or cleavage fragments, a component of the gangue, apparently escape from the delta at Silver Bay, and enter Lake Superior. These particles contaiminate the potable water supplies of municipalities drawing directly from the lake. One of the gangue minerals is the amphibole grunerite, whose asbestiform variety is called amosite. Major emphasis of this study was directed at identification of submicroscopic particle pollutants, based on morphology, structure and chemical composition. Quantitative determination of fibrous amphibole phases, present in a range of water samples, was undertaken. Transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, and an electron microprobe technique was used for identification and enumeration and this information was compared with data sets determined from standards. Grunerite fiber and/or acicular cleavage fragments, in some instances indistinguishable from asbestiform grunerite, are present in the tailings, lake water and drinking water of a number of municipalities, a result of contamination of the lake at the Silver Bay milling operation. This amphibole is found in drinking water in concentrations which range from 0.6 to 2.8 X 10(6) fiber/liter. The risk to health, associated with direct ingestion of grunerite fiber is unknown and is extrapolated from the asbestiform grunerite (amosite) data base. The biological activity of other fibrous amphiboles observed, unrelated to any asbestiform silicate variety, is presently unknown and warrants investigation. PMID:294208

  6. Lexical factors in the word-superiority effect.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, N; Caplan, D; Sokol, S; Torreano, L

    1995-01-01

    In the Reicher-Wheeler paradigm, fluent readers can identify letters better when they appear in a word than when they appear in either a pronounceable pseudoword (a lexicality effect) or a single letter (a word-letter effect). It was predicted that if both of these effects involve a lexical factor, then adult acquired dyslexic subjects whose deficit prevents access to visual word form should show disruptions of the normal effects on the Reicher-Wheeler task. The results were that dyslexic subjects as well as matched control subjects showed a lexicality effect; however, while the control subjects showed a normal word-letter effect, the dyslexic subjects showed a reverse letter-superiority effect. Both effects, however, showed a systematic variation: As performance on lexical decision improved, the subjects' performance on words in the Reicher-Wheeler task was better than that for all the other conditions. These subject correlations were replicated by using data from a second lexical decision experiment, which utilized the same words and pseudowords that were used in the Reicher-Wheeler task. In addition, an item analysis showed that the words that the subjects had discriminated correctly in lexical decision showed a significant advantage over those that they had not, as well as an improvement relative to the other conditions. These results suggest that there is a lexical factor underlying the lexicality and word-letter effects, and it is proposed that the abnormal letter-superiority effect can be accounted for as the manifestation of other competing factors. PMID:7885263

  7. Proposal for Anatomical Classification of the Superior Pole in Thyroid Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Mizrachi, Aviram; Swartzwelder, Christina E.; Shaha, Ashok R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To propose a distinct anatomical classification for the superior thyroid pole that may serve as a surgical landmark and could help reduce complications in thyroid surgery. Materials and Methods A comprehensive anatomical study based on existing literature and surgical observations. Results The proposed superior pole classification is based on two parameters that closely interact: one is the shape of the superior pole and the other is the structure of the vascular pedicle of the superior pole. We have come up with three distinct types of superior thyroid pole anatomical structure that may be predictive of the risk for both hemorrhage and nerve injury. Conclusions Superior pole classification may serve as a guiding tool during thyroid surgery in order to reduce complications such as bleeding and injury to the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve. PMID:26186660

  8. L’identification et traitement du trouble panique avec ou sans agoraphobie

    PubMed Central

    Foldes-Busque, Guillaume; Marchand, André; Landry, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ OBJECTIF Renseigner les médecins de première ligne au sujet de l’identification précoce, du diagnostic et du traitement du trouble panique avec ou sans agoraphobie (TP/A). QUALITÉ DES DONNÉES Les données et recommandations présentées proviennent d’une recension des écrits scientifiques réalisée via les banques de données PsycLIT, PsyINFO et MEDLINE (1985 à 2006) en utilisant les descripteurs panic disorder, psychotherapy, psychosocial treatment, treatment et pharmacotherapy. Les recommandations formulées par les auteurs s’appuient sur des données probantes provenant d’études d’excellente qualité. Les informations concernant le diagnostic et l’évaluation du TP/A proviennent d’études épidémiologiques récentes, de consensus et d’opinions d’experts. PRINCIPAL MESSAGE Le TP/A est un trouble psychiatrique souvent rencontré en médecine de première ligne, mais il est fréquemment sous-diagnostiqué et sous-traité. L’identification précoce de ce trouble demande une attention particulière aux symptômes médicalement inexpliqués et, le cas échéant, le médecin doit utiliser des questions spécifiques permettant d’identifier d’éventuelles attaques de panique et de cerner leur signification pour le patient. Le traitement de premier choix pour ce trouble est une psychothérapie d’orientation cognitivo-comportementale administrée par un psychologue ou un psychiatre spécialisé. Si de telles ressources ne sont pas disponibles, le médecin peut opter pour un traitement psychopharmacologique. CONCLUSION Les médecins de famille peuvent jouer un rôle central dans l’identification et le traitement des patients souffrant d’un TP/A. PMID:17934032

  9. Landslide susceptibility modelling using Fuzzy Logic in the oued Larbaa basin (Oriental Rif, Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zezere, J. L.; Sadiki, A.; Faleh, A.; Elkoulali, E.; Garcia, R. A. C.; Oliveira, S. C.

    2009-04-01

    Together with flash floods and soil erosion, landslides are relevant natural hazards that affect marly slopes in the oued Larbaa basin, located in the Oriental Rif, Morocco. Landslides have been generated important economic, social and ecological effects, by the destruction of farming lands, and by the collapse and interruption of roads and other human infrastructures (e.g., houses). The reduction of socio-economic losses due to landslide activity needs to be accomplished through the implementation of a comprehensive mitigation landslide risk program. The first task of this program is the definition of landslide susceptible areas based on the study of relationships between spatial distribution of past landslides and the cartographic set of landslide predisposing factors. Therefore, the major aim of this work is to create a landslide susceptibility map for the study area. The oued Larbaa basin, located northwards the Taza city, has an area of 245 km2 and the elevation ranges between 450 m and 1300 m. Morphology is characterized by rounded hills cutting marly formations essentially of Cretaceous age. Land use is dominated by cereal cultures and a few sparse tree plantations. Natural vegetation shows a very high level of degradation and usually appears as shrub tufts. The inventory of instability events has been made for the study area and it includes both rainfall-triggered rotational and shallow translational slides. These landslides were included into a GIS database that comprises also the following landslide predisposing factors: slope angle, aspect and curvature, inverse wetness index, lithology and land use. The susceptibility assessment was carried out for each type of landslide (rotational slides and shallow translational slides) under the assumption that future landslides will occur under the same environmental patterns that generated landslides in the past. The modelling of landslide susceptibility was made using the Fuzzy Logic method (Fuzzy Algebraic

  10. Matter-wave quantum interference in the Hong-Ou-Mandel setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis-Swan, Robert; Kheruntsyan, Karen

    2014-05-01

    We propose an experiment to realize a matter-wave analog of the optical Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) effect. This is achieved by utilizing a pair of colliding Bose-Einstein condensates of ultracold atoms to generate a scattering halo of pair-correlated atoms via spontaneous four-wave mixing, analogous to optical parametric down-conversion used in the optical experiment to generate pairs of indistinguishable photons. Coupling the pair-correlated atoms by a π and π / 2 Bragg pulse realises the atom-optics analogs of mirror and beam-splitter elements of the optical HOM interferometer. We use a stochastic (positive- P representation) Bogoliubov approach to simulate the full dynamics of the experiment and by proposing a measurement protocol appropriate for the multimode nature of the scattering halo we predict a HOM-dip visibility of ~ 69 %, indicating strong quantum correlations between the scattered atoms and paves the way for a possible demonstration of a Bell inequality violation with matter-waves in a related Rarity-Tapster setup.

  11. Hong-Ou-Mandel interference with two independent weak coherent states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Chen; Xue-Bi, An; Juan, Wu; Zhen-Qiang, Yin; Shuang, Wang; Wei, Chen; Zhen-Fu, Han

    2016-02-01

    Recently, the Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interference between two independent weak coherent pulses (WCPs) has been paid much attention due to the measurement-device-independent (MDI) quantum key distribution (QKD). Using classical wave theory, articles reported before show that the visibility of this kind of HOM-type interference is ≤ 50%. In this work, we analyze this kind of interference using quantum optics, which reveals more details compared to the wave theory. Analyses confirm the maximum visibility of 50%. And we conclude that the maximum visibility of 50% comes from the two single-photon states in WCPs, without considering the noise. In the experiment, we successfully approach the visibility of 50% by using WCPs splitting from the single pico-second laser source and phase scanning. Since this kind of HOM interference is immune to slow phase fluctuations, both the realized and proposed experiment designs can provide stable ways of high-resolution optical distance detection. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grants Nos. 2011CBA00200 and 2011CB921200), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61201239, 61205118, 11304397, and 61475148) and the “Strategic Priority Research Program (B)” of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDB01030100 and XDB01030300).

  12. Integrated quantum photonic sensor based on Hong-Ou-Mandel interference.

    PubMed

    Basiri-Esfahani, Sahar; Myers, Casey R; Armin, Ardalan; Combes, Joshua; Milburn, Gerard J

    2015-06-15

    Photonic-crystal-based integrated optical systems have been used for a broad range of sensing applications with great success. This has been motivated by several advantages such as high sensitivity, miniaturization, remote sensing, selectivity and stability. Many photonic crystal sensors have been proposed with various fabrication designs that result in improved optical properties. In parallel, integrated optical systems are being pursued as a platform for photonic quantum information processing using linear optics and Fock states. Here we propose a novel integrated Fock state optical sensor architecture that can be used for force, refractive index and possibly local temperature detection. In this scheme, two coupled cavities behave as an "effective beam splitter". The sensor works based on fourth order interference (the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect) and requires a sequence of single photon pulses and consequently has low pulse power. Changes in the parameter to be measured induce variations in the effective beam splitter reflectivity and result in changes to the visibility of interference. We demonstrate this generic scheme in coupled L3 photonic crystal cavities as an example and find that this system, which only relies on photon coincidence detection and does not need any spectral resolution, can estimate forces as small as 10(-7) Newtons and can measure one part per million change in refractive index using a very low input power of 10(-10)W. Thus linear optical quantum photonic architectures can achieve comparable sensor performance to semiclassical devices. PMID:26193575

  13. Prise en Charge du Syndrome de Lyell ou Necrolyse Epidermique Toxique

    PubMed Central

    Siah, S.; Baite, A.; Bakkali, H.; Atmani, M.; Ababou, K.; Ihrai, H.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Le syndrome de Lyell ou nécrolyse épidermique toxique (NET) est une pathologie très grave des dermatoses bulleuses d'étiologie médicamenteuse. Il se caractérise par une nécrose aiguë de l'épiderme sur toute la hauteur du corps muqueux. L'aspect clinique de la NET est celui d'une brûlure étendue du deuxième degré profond. A ce tableau s'associent constamment des lésions muqueuses et une atteinte multiviscérale qui aggrave le pronostic. Nous rapportons deux cas de NET qui illustrent l'importance d'une prise en charge précoce et multidisciplinaire de ces patients atteints au sein d'un service de réanimation des brûlés, dont les fondements reposent sur l'asepsie rigoureuse, l'apport hydroélectrolytique et nutritionnel, la prévention de l'infection et son traitement par une antibiothérapie adaptée, et un nursing et des soins locaux. L'efficacité supposée des immunoglobulines intraveineuses ne repose que sur des cas isolés et il n'y a pas encore d'études randomisées. PMID:21991170

  14. Hong-Ou-Mandel Interference with Atomic Many-Body States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Rajibul; Lukin, Alexander; Ma, Ruichao; Preiss, Philipp; Rispoli, Matthew; Tai, M. Eric; Greiner, Markus

    2015-05-01

    Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interference experiments are a powerful probe for the indistinguishability and underlying quantum statistics of particles. In the classic HOM experiment, a pair of identical photons incident on different input ports of a beamsplitter exits via the same output port. Using the precise control and readout afforded by our quantum gas microscope, we present an implementation of this classic experiment using massive bosons in a doublewell optical potential. Identical states are prepared on each site of the doublewell and by lowering the tunnel coupling between the sites for specific times, we drive a beam splitter operation between the sites. For single-atom Fock input states, we have realized a high fidelity beamsplitter operation and observed an HOM interference contrast of >90%. By generalizing to more complex initial states on the input ports, we have been able to establish HOM experiment protocols as a robust approach towards studying the indistinguishability of many-body states as well as probe interaction-induced effects. These techniques open a path towards the measurement of purity in a quantum system and entanglement entropy in many-body states.

  15. Electronic Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometry in two-dimensional topological insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, D.; Wahl, C.; Rech, J.; Jonckheere, T.; Martin, T.

    2014-02-01

    The edge states of a two-dimensional topological insulator are characterized by their helicity, a very remarkable property which is related to the time-reversal symmetry and the topology of the underlying system. We theoretically investigate a Hong-Ou-Mandel-type setup as a tool to probe it. Collisions of two electrons with the same spin show a Pauli dip, analogous to the one obtained in the integer quantum Hall case. Moreover, the collisions between electrons of opposite spin also lead to a dip, known as Z2 dip, which is a direct consequence of the constraints imposed by time-reversal symmetry. In contrast to the integer quantum Hall case, the visibility of these dips is reduced by the presence of the additional edge channels, and crucially depends on the properties of the quantum point contact. As a unique feature of this system, we show the possibility of three-electron interference, which leads to a total suppression of the noise independently of the point contact configuration. This is assured by the peculiar interplay between Fermi statistics and topology. This work intends to extend the domain of applicability of electron quantum optics.

  16. Superior recycled fiber industries leads pack in deinked pulp market

    SciTech Connect

    Rabasca, L.

    1994-07-01

    Since President Clinton signed an executive order last October requiring the federal government to purchase recycled printing and writing paper, a number of companies across the country have announced plans to either expand or build new deinking mills. In fact, a study released in May by the American Forest Paper Association (AF PA, Washington, D.C.) predicts continued growth in capacity for paper recycling over the next four years, especially for deinking mills. At least one deinking mill is ahead of the game. Two months before Clinton signed the executive order, Superior Recycled Fiber Industries, Inc. (SRFI, Duluth, Minn.A), began producing 100% deinked market pulp. The deinked pulp, which is made from office waste paper, is sold to paper manufacturers that use the pulp to make printing and writing paper. The deinked pulp is 100% post-consumer-content material. However, the final product--printing and writing paper--has a lower post-consumer content, says Anthony Pekovitch, environmental principal for Synertec, Inc. (Duluth, Minn.), a part owner of SRFI. Clinton's executive order directs the federal government to buy printing and writing paper with a 20% post-consumer content by the end of 1994 and a 30% post-consumer content by the end of 1998.

  17. Stochastic interpolation model of the medial superior olive neural circuit.

    PubMed

    Sanda, Pavel; Marsalek, Petr

    2012-01-24

    This article presents a stochastic model of binaural hearing in the medial superior olive (MSO) circuit. This model is a variant of the slope encoding models. First, a general framework is developed describing the elementary neural operations realized on spike trains in individual parts of the circuit and how the neurons converging onto the MSO are connected. Random delay, coincidence detection of spikes, divergence and convergence of spike trains are operations implemented by the following modules: spike generator, jitter generator, and coincidence detector. Subsequent processing of spike trains computes the sound azimuth in the circuit. The circuit parameters that influence efficiency of slope encoding are studied. In order to measure the overall circuit performance the concept of an ideal observer is used instead of a detailed model of higher relays in the auditory pathway. This makes it possible to bridge the gap between psychophysical observations in humans and recordings taken of small rodents. Most of the results are obtained through numerical simulations of the model. PMID:21920505

  18. Topography of covert visual attention in human superior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Katyal, Sucharit; Zughni, Samir; Greene, Clint; Ress, David

    2010-12-01

    Experiments were performed to examine the topography of covert visual attention signals in human superior colliculus (SC), both across its surface and in its depth. We measured the retinotopic organization of SC to direct visual stimulation using a 90° wedge of moving dots that slowly rotated around fixation. Subjects (n = 5) were cued to perform a difficult speed-discrimination task in the rotating region. To measure the retinotopy of covert attention, we used a full-field array of similarly moving dots. Subjects were cued to perform the same speed-discrimination task within a 90° wedge-shaped region, and only the cue rotated around fixation. High-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, 1.2 mm voxels) data were acquired throughout SC. These data were then aligned to a high-resolution T1-weighted reference volume. The SC was segmented in this volume so that the surface of the SC could be computationally modeled and to permit calculation of a depth map for laminar analysis. Retinotopic maps were obtained for both direct visual stimulation and covert attention. These maps showed a similar spatial distribution to visual stimulation maps observed in rhesus macaque and were in registration with each other. Within the depth of SC, both visual attention and stimulation produced activity primarily in the superficial and intermediate layers, but stimulation activity extended significantly more deeply than attention. PMID:20861435

  19. Methods of systematic analysis: The relative superiority of phylogenetic systematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipscomb, Diana L.

    1984-03-01

    The superiority of cladistic methods to both synthetic and phenetic methods is briefly advanced and reviewed. Cladistics creates testable hypotheses of phylogeny that also give a highly informative summary of available data. Thus it best fits the criteria for a method for determining the general reference classification in biology. For protistologists in particular, cladistics is especially useful. Inundated by an abundance of ultrastructural, biochemical, and cell biological information, protistologists could be greatly helped by the informative way in which cladistics orders and summarizes the data. In addition to classifying protist taxa, hypotheses about the evolution of cell organelles and cellular could be scientifically formulated and tested by cladistics. Because cladistic classifications best summarize the data, they would also be best for making predictions about taxa and characters. They would, for the same reason, be the most stable. Widespread adoption of cladistic methods would serve to stabilize the now fluid state of protist taxonomy. It is for all of these reasons that such methods best suit the needs of the evolutionary protistologist.

  20. Using Lake Superior Parks to Present the Midcontinent Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, C. A.; Stein, S. A.; Blavascunas, E.

    2014-12-01

    Some of the Midwest's most spectacular scenery occurs near Lake Superior, in places like Pictured Rocks and Apostle Islands National Lakeshores, Isle Royale National Park, Interstate Park, and Porcupine Mountains State Park. These landscapes provide an enormous, but underutilized opportunity for park interpreters and educators to explain some of the most exciting concepts of modern geology. A crucial aspect of doing this is recognizing that many of the rocks and landforms in individual parks are pieces of a huge regional structure. This structure, called the Midcontinent Rift System (MCRS), is a 1.1 billion year old 3000 km (2000 mile) long scar along which the North American continent started to tear apart, just as Africa is splitting today along the East African Rift, but for some reason failed to form a new ocean. Drawing on our experience as researchers and teachers studying the MCRS (Steins) and as an interpreter at Isle Royale National Park (Blavascunas), we seek to give interpreters a brief introduction to MCRS to help them present information about what geologists know already and what they are learning from continuing research. Our goal is to help interpreters visualize how what they see at a specific site fits into an exciting regional picture spanning much of the Midwest.

  1. Endovascular Treatment of Isolated Dissection of Superior Mesenteric Artery.

    PubMed

    Sirignano, P; Setacci, F; Galzerano, G; Setacci, C

    2015-01-01

    Isolated spontaneous dissection of the superior mesenteric artery is extremely rare. In December 2012, a 45-year-old man, without significant comorbidities, presented at the emergency room of another hospital with abdominal pain. The patient was treated with medical therapy and discharged on resolution of the pain. Three months later he returned to the emergency room with a new onset of pain. CT-angiography (CTA) showed an isolated SMA dissection associated with aneurysmal dilatation. The patient was referred to our attention. We attempted endovascular exclusion of the dissecting aneurysm in May 2013. We deployed a self-expandable nitinol stent (BostonSC Adapt 4-9×32 mm) in order to simultaneously repair the dissection, preserve the branches and exclude the aneurysm. Postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged on postoperative day 2. At 10-month follow-up CTA showed excellent positioning of the stent, patency of the visceral branches and shrinkage of the aneurysm. PMID:26324038

  2. Planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells with superior reproducibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Ye-Jin; Lee, Sehyun; Kang, Rira; Kim, Jueng-Eun; Yeo, Jun-Seok; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Seok-Soon; Yun, Jin-Mun; Kim, Dong-Yu

    2014-11-01

    Perovskite solar cells (PeSCs) have been considered one of the competitive next generation power sources. To date, light-to-electric conversion efficiencies have rapidly increased to over 10%, and further improvements are expected. However, the poor device reproducibility of PeSCs ascribed to their inhomogeneously covered film morphology has hindered their practical application. Here, we demonstrate high-performance PeSCs with superior reproducibility by introducing small amounts of N-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidone (CHP) as a morphology controller into N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). As a result, highly homogeneous film morphology, similar to that achieved by vacuum-deposition methods, as well as a high PCE of 10% and an extremely small performance deviation within 0.14% were achieved. This study represents a method for realizing efficient and reproducible planar heterojunction (PHJ) PeSCs through morphology control, taking a major step forward in the low-cost and rapid production of PeSCs by solving one of the biggest problems of PHJ perovskite photovoltaic technology through a facile method.

  3. The Mesoproterozoic Midcontinent Rift System, Lake Superior Region, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojakangas, R. W.; Morey, G. B.; Green, J. C.

    2001-06-01

    Exposures in the Lake Superior region, and associated geophysical evidence, show that a 2000 km-long rift system developed within the North American craton ∽1109-1087 Ma, the age span of most of the volcanic rocks. This system is characterized by immense volumes of mafic igneous rocks, mostly subaerial plateau basalts, generated in two major pulses largely by a hot mantle plume. A new ocean basin was nearly formed before rifting ceased, perhaps due to the remote effect of the Grenville continental collision to the east. Broad sagging/subsidence, combined with a system of axial half-grabens separated along the length of the rift by accommodation zones, provided conditions for the accumulation of as much as 20 km of volcanic rocks and as much as 10 km of post-rift clastic sediments, both along the rift axis and in basins flanking a central, post-volcanic horst. Pre-rift mature, quartzose sandstones imply little or no uplift prior to the onset of rift volcanism. Early post-rift red-bed sediments consist almost entirely of intrabasinally derived volcanic sediment deposited in alluvial fan to fluvial settings; the exception is one gray to black carbon-bearing lacustrine(?) unit. This early sedimentation phase was followed by broad crustal sagging and deposition of progressively more mature red-bed, fluvial sediments with an extra-basinal provenance.

  4. The Anesthetic Effect of Anterior Middle Superior Alveolar Technique (AMSA)

    PubMed Central

    de Souza Tolentino, Lívia; Barbisan Souza, André; Girardi, Ana Alice; Romito, Giuseppe Alexandre; Araújo, Maurício Guimarães

    2015-01-01

    Anesthesia of the soft and hard tissues of the maxilla may require up to 5 injections. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the anesthetic efficacy of the anterior middle superior alveolar (AMSA) and supraperiosteal injection techniques during subgingival scaling and root planing (SRP). Thirty individuals with periodontitis were scheduled for SRP on the buccal aspect of teeth in the anterior maxilla. Before SRP, on a randomly chosen side of the maxilla, the supraperiosteal injection was performed in 1 session, while the AMSA injection was conducted in the contralateral side of the same patient in another session. Immediately after each SRP session, patients rated their pain perception during the procedure with a visual analog scale. No statistically significant differences in mean pain ratings during SRP were found after both anesthetic techniques (P > .05). This preliminary study demonstrated that the AMSA and supraperiosteal injection techniques provided similar anesthetic comfort during SRP. The AMSA injection could be an alternative to anesthetize the buccal aspect of maxilla, without the undesirable effects on facial structures such as the upper lip, nostrils, and lower eyelids. However, further randomized clinical trials with larger samples are necessary to confirm such results. PMID:26650493

  5. Action understanding in the superior temporal sulcus region.

    PubMed

    Wyk, Brent C Vander; Hudac, Caitlin M; Carter, Elizabeth J; Sobel, David M; Pelphrey, Kevin A

    2009-06-01

    The posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS) region plays an important role in the perception of social acts, although its full role has not been completely clarified. This functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment examined activity in the STS region as participants viewed actions that were congruent or incongruent with intentions established by a previous emotional context. Participants viewed an actress express either a positive or a negative emotion toward one of two objects and then subsequently pick up one of them. If the object that was picked up had received positive regard, or if the object that was not picked up had received negative regard, the action was congruent; otherwise, the action was incongruent. Activity in the right posterior STS region was sensitive to the congruency between the action and the actress's emotional expression (i.e., STS activity was greater on incongruent than on congruent trials). These findings suggest that the posterior STS represents not only biological motion, but also how another person's motion is related to his or her intentions. PMID:19422619

  6. Neonatal cortical ablation disrupts multisensory development in superior colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wan; Jiang, Huai; Stein, Barry E.

    2006-01-01

    The ability of cat superior colliculus (SC) neurons to synthesize information from different senses depends on influences from two areas of the cortex: the anterior ectosylvian sulcus (AES) and the rostral lateral suprasylvian sulcus (rLS). Reversibly deactivating the inputs to the SC from either of these areas in normal adults severely compromises this ability and the SC-mediated behaviors that depend on it. In the present study we found that removal of these areas in neonatal animals precluded the normal development of multisensory SC processes. At maturity there was a substantial decrease in the incidence of multisensory neurons, and those multisensory neurons that did develop were highly abnormal. Their cross-modal receptive field register was severely compromised, as was their ability to integrate cross-modal stimuli. Apparently, despite the impressive plasticity of the neonatal brain, it cannot compensate for the early loss of these cortices. Surprisingly, however, neonatal removal of either AES or rLS had comparatively minor consequences on these properties. At maturity multisensory SC neurons were quite common: they developed the characteristic spatial register among their unisensory receptive fields and exhibited normal adult-like multisensory integration. These observations suggest that during early ontogeny, when the multisensory properties of SC neurons are being crafted, AES and rLS may have the ability to compensate for the loss of one another’s cortico-collicular influences so that normal multisensory processes can develop in the SC. PMID:16267111

  7. Behavioral and neuroanatomical investigation of Highly Superior Autobiographical Memory (HSAM)

    PubMed Central

    LePort, Aurora K.R.; Mattfeld, Aaron T.; Dickinson-Anson, Heather; Fallon, James H.; Stark, Craig E.L.; Kruggel, Frithjof; Cahill, Larry; McGaugh, James L.

    2013-01-01

    A single case study recently documented one woman’s ability to recall accurately vast amounts of autobiographical information, spanning most of her lifetime, without the use of practiced mnemonics (Parker, Cahill, & McGaugh, 2006). The current study reports findings based on eleven participants expressing this same memory ability, now referred to as Highly Superior Autobiographical Memory (HSAM). Participants were identified and subsequently characterized based on screening for memory of public events. They were then tested for personal autobiographical memories as well as for memory assessed by laboratory memory tests. Additionally, whole-brain structural MRI scans were obtained. Results indicated that HSAM participants performed significantly better at recalling public as well as personal autobiographical events as well as the days and dates on which these events occurred. However, their performance was comparable to age- and sex-matched controls on most standard laboratory memory tests. Neuroanatomical results identified nine structures as being morphologically different from those of control participants. The study of HSAM may provide new insights into the neurobiology of autobiographical memory. PMID:22652113

  8. Food of salmonine predators in Lake Superior, 1981-87

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conner, David J.; Bronte, Charles R.; Selgeby, James H.; Collins, Hollie L.

    1993-01-01

    Diets of ten species of Lake Superior salmonines are described. Rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) were the primary prey during all seasons and years for inshore lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), brown trout (S. trutta), brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), and splake (lake trout x brook trout hybrid). Coregonines were the second most-important prey for chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha), siscowet trout (S. namaycush siscowet), and splake. Invertebrates were important to rainbow trout (O. mykiss), coho salmon (O. kisutch), and pink salmon (O. gorbuscha), especially during the summer. Diets of lake trout from inshore and offshore locations differed markedly. Rainbow smelt were the primary food of inshore lake trout, and coregonines were the main food of offshore lake trout. Chinook salmon and inshore lake trout had the most similar diets because they ate similar proportions of rainbow smelt and coregonines. Salmonines generally ate more rainbow smelt and less coregonines in proportion to the abundance of these prey in the lake. If rainbow smelt populations collapse, the ability of salmonines to convert to a diet based on lake herring (Coregonus artedi) could be important to the stability of predator populations.

  9. The mesoproterozoic midcontinent rift system, Lake Superior region, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ojakangas, R.W.; Morey, G.B.; Green, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    Exposures in the Lake Superior region, and associated geophysical evidence, show that a 2000 km-long rift system developed within the North American craton ??? 1109-1087 Ma, the age span of the most of the volcanic rocks. This system is characterized by immense volumes of mafic igneous rocks, mostly subaerial plateau basalts, generated in two major pulses largely by a hot mantle plume. A new ocean basin was nearly formed before rifting ceased, perhaps due to the remote effect of the Grenville continental collision to the east. Broad sagging/subsidence, combined with a system of axial half-grabens separated along the length of the rift by accommodation zones, provided conditions for the accumulation of as much as 20 km of volcanic rocks and as much as 10 km of post-rift clastic sediments, both along the rift axis and in basins flanking a central, post-volcanic horst. Pre-rift mature, quartzose sandstones imply little or no uplift prior to the onset of rift volcanism. Early post-rift red-bed sediments consist almost entirely of intrabasinally derived volcanic sediment deposited in alluvial fan to fluvial settings; the exception is one gray to black carbon-bearing lacustrine(?) unit. This early sedimentation phase was followed by broad crustal sagging and deposition of progressively more mature red-bed, fluvial sediments with an extra-basinal provenance. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Nigral inhibition of GABAergic neurons in mouse superior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Kaneda, Katsuyuki; Isa, Kaoru; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Isa, Tadashi

    2008-10-22

    The current dominant concept for the control of saccadic eye movements by the basal ganglia is that release from tonic GABAergic inhibition by the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) triggers burst firings of intermediate gray layer (SGI) neurons in the superior colliculus (SC) to allow saccade initiation. This hypothesis is based on the assumption that SNr cells inhibit excitatory projection neurons in the SGI. Here we show that nigrotectal fibers are connected to local GABAergic neurons in the SGI with a similar frequency to non-GABAergic neurons. This was accomplished by applying neuroanatomical tracing and slice electrophysiological experiments in GAD67-green fluorescent protein (GFP) knock-in mice, in which GABAergic neurons specifically express GFP. We also found that GABA(A), but not GABA(B), receptors subserve nigrotectal transmission. The present results revealed a novel aspect on the role of the basal ganglia in the control of saccades, e.g., the SNr not only regulates burst initiation but also modulates the spatiotemporal properties of premotor neurons via connections to local GABAergic neurons in the SC. PMID:18945914