Sample records for acetate buffer solution

  1. Graphene ultrathin film electrode for detection of lead ions in acetate buffer solution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaomeng; Liu, Erjia

    2013-01-15

    Few-layer graphene ultrathin films were synthesized via solid-state carbon diffusion from amorphous carbon (a-C) thin layers sputtering coated on Si substrates with or without a SiO(2) layer, which an a-C layer was covered by a nickel (Ni) layer as a catalyst. When the Ni/a-C bilayer coated samples were heated at 1000°C the carbon (C) atoms from the a-C layers diffused into the top Ni layers to form a C rich surface. Upon rapid cooling, the C atoms accumulated on the surface of the Ni layers and formed graphene ultrathin films through nucleation and growth processes. The formation of graphene ultrathin films was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), electron diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and 4-point probe. The synthesized graphene ultrathin films were used as working electrodes for detection of trace heavy metal ions (Pb(2+), as low as 7 nM) in acetate buffer solutions (pH 5.3) using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV). The effects of substrate surface condition and Ni layer thickness on the structure and electrochemical properties of graphene ultrathin film electrodes were investigated in detail. Compared to conventional diamond-like carbon (DLC) electrodes, the graphene electrodes developed in this study had better repeatability, higher sensitivity and higher resistance to passivation caused by surface active species. PMID:23200357

  2. Tested Demonstrations: Buffer Capacity of Various Acetic Acid-Sodium Acetate Systems: A Lecture Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, Craig J.; Panek, Mary G.

    1985-01-01

    Background information and procedures are provided for a lecture experiment which uses indicators to illustrate the concept of differing buffer capacities by titrating acetic acid/sodium acetate buffers with 1.0 molar hydrochloric acid and 1.0 molar sodium hydroxide. A table with data used to plot the titration curve is included. (JN)

  3. Nanofiltration of model acetate solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. S. Han; M. Cheryan

    1995-01-01

    Several nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes were screened for separating acetic acid from model solutions. Flux increased with pressure and temperature and decreased with pH and concentration of acetate. Rejection increased with pH, probably depending on the degree of dissociation of the acetate. At higher pH, acetate rejection could be correlated with NaCl rejection. Of all the membranes screened, the

  4. Electrodialysis operation with buffer solution

    DOEpatents

    Hryn, John N. (Naperville, IL); Daniels, Edward J. (Orland Park, IL); Krumdick, Greg K. (Crete, IL)

    2009-12-15

    A new method for improving the efficiency of electrodialysis (ED) cells and stacks, in particular those used in chemical synthesis. The process entails adding a buffer solution to the stack for subsequent depletion in the stack during electrolysis. The buffer solution is regenerated continuously after depletion. This buffer process serves to control the hydrogen ion or hydroxide ion concentration so as to protect the active sites of electrodialysis membranes. The process enables electrodialysis processing options for products that are sensitive to pH changes.

  5. The Effects of Acetate Buffer Concentration on Lysozyme Solubility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Pusey, Marc L.

    1996-01-01

    The micro-solubility column technique was employed to systematically investigate the effects of buffer concentration on tetragonal lysozyme solubility. While keeping the NaCl concentrations constant at 2%, 3%, 4%, 5% and 7%, and the pH at 4.0, we have studied the solubility of tetragonal lysozyme over an acetate buffer concentration range of 0.01M to 0.5M as a function of temperature. The lysozyme solubility decreased with increasing acetate concentration from 0.01M to 0.1M. This decrease may simply be due to the net increase in solvent ionic strength. Increasing the acetate concentration beyond 0.1M resulted in an increase in the lysozyme solubility, which reached a peak at - 0.3M acetate concentration. This increase was believed to be due to the increased binding of acetate to the anionic binding sites of lysozyme, preventing their occupation by chloride. In keeping with the previously observed reversal of the Hoffmeister series for effectiveness of anions in crystallizing lysozyme, acetate would be a less effective precipitant than chloride. Further increasing the acetate concentration beyond 0.3M resulted in a subsequent gradual decrease in the lysozyme solubility at all NaCl concentrations.

  6. Studies on chemical bath deposited cadmium sulphide films by buffer solution technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. G. Dhere; D. L. Waterhouse; K. B. Sundaram; O. Melendez; N. R. Parikh; B. Patnaik

    1995-01-01

    Cadmium sulphide films were grown by a chemical bath technique using cadmium acetate and cadmium chloride as the Cd ion source and thiourea as the sulphur source. The solution growth process was carried out with and without buffer solutions containing ammonium acetate and ammonium chloride onto glass substrates. Various properties of the films such as surface morphology, crystallinity, composition, optical

  7. A nitrilo-tri-acetic-acid/acetic acid route for the deposition of epitaxial cerium oxide films as high temperature superconductor buffer layers

    SciTech Connect

    Thuy, T.T.; Lommens, P.; Narayanan, V.; Van de Velde, N.; De Buysser, K.; Herman, G.G.; Cloet, V. [Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 - S3, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Van Driessche, I., E-mail: Isabel.Vandriessche@UGent.b [Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 - S3, 9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2010-09-15

    A water based cerium oxide precursor solution using nitrilo-tri-acetic-acid (NTA) and acetic acid as complexing agents is described in detail. This precursor solution is used for the deposition of epitaxial CeO{sub 2} layers on Ni-5at%W substrates by dip-coating. The influence of the complexation behavior on the formation of transparent, homogeneous solutions and gels has been studied. It is found that ethylenediamine plays an important role in the gelification. The growth conditions for cerium oxide films were Ar-5% gas processing atmosphere, a solution concentration level of 0.25 M, a dwell time of 60 min at 900 {sup o}C and 5-30 min at 1050 {sup o}C. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), pole figures and spectroscopic ellipsometry were used to characterize the CeO{sub 2} films with different thicknesses. Attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) was used to determine the carbon residue level in the surface of the cerium oxide film, which was found to be lower than 0.01%. Textured films with a thickness of 50 nm were obtained. - Graphical abstract: Study of the complexation and hydrolysis behavior of Ce{sup 4+} ions in the presence of nitrilo-tri-acetic acid and the subsequent development of an aqueous chemical solution deposition route suited for the processing of textured CeO{sub 2} buffer layers on Ni-W tapes.

  8. Concentrating aqueous acetate solutions with tertiary amines

    E-print Network

    Lee, Champion

    1993-01-01

    = I'7o(w/wk) 11 Liquid-liquid equilibrium data for the calcium acetate/water/amuie system with various extractants. (T= TEA, D= DEMA. Initial aqueous-phase calcium acetate concentration= 2%(w/w). ) 27 28 31 34 via FIGURE Page 12 Liquid.... (Calcium acetate/water /amine, TEA:DEMA= I mL:2 mL, initial aqueous calcium acetate= 1% (w/w). ) Equilibrium calcium acetate concentrations in the aqueous phase determined by FTIR and AA measurements. (Calcium acetate/water /amine, TEA:DEMA= I mL;2 m...

  9. Ozone decomposition in aqueous acetate solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Sehested, K.; Holcman, J.; Bjergbakke, E.; Hart, E.J.

    1987-01-01

    The acetate radical ion reacts with ozone with a rate constant of k = (1.5 +/- 0.5) x 10Z dmT mol s . The products from this reaction are CO2, HCHO, and O2 . By subsequent reaction of the peroxy radical with ozone the acetate radical ion is regenerated through the OH radical. A chain decomposition of ozone takes place. It terminates when the acetate radical ion reacts with oxygen forming the unreactive peroxy acetate radical. The chain is rather short as oxygen is developed, as a result of the ozone consumption. The inhibiting effect of acetate on the ozone decay is rationalized by OH scavenging by acetate and successive reaction of the acetate radical ion with oxygen. Some products from the bimolecular disappearance of the peroxy acetate radicals, however, react further with ozone, reducing the effectiveness of the stabilization.

  10. Sample Questions (1) Phosphate buffered saline (PBS) is a buffer solution commonly used in biological research.

    E-print Network

    California at San Diego, University of

    Sample Questions (1) Phosphate buffered saline (PBS) is a buffer solution commonly used in biological research. It is a water-based salt solution containing sodium phosphate, sodium chloride and, in some formulations, potassium chloride and potassium phosphate. The osmolarity and ion concentrations

  11. Nucleophilic catalysis of the hydrolysis of phenyl acetates by the succinimide anion in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, R.W.

    1982-09-10

    Kinetic studies were conducted on the disappearance of some phenyl acetates in aqueous solutoins buffered by succinimide/succinimide anion at 30/sup 0/C. The most reasonable mechanistic scheme, compatible with the data, involved nucleophilic displacement by the succinimide anion on the ester. Phenyl acetate was the only substrate that had no buffer-dependent disappearance. Although succinimide is converted to succinamic acid by hydrolysis in the buffered solutions used, only about 6% or less of succinimide is lost during the time required for substrate disappearance. The nucleophilic role for the succinimide anion was assigned on the basis of a high Hammett rho value (2.25) for the three phenyl acetates studied and the low solvent deuterium isotope rate effect of 1.13 obtained for the p-nitrophenyl acetate substrate. The low value for the nucleophilic rate constant obtained by p-nitrophenyl acetate cannot be ascribed to ground-state charge delocalization as estimated by MINDO-3 calculations utilizing frontier molecular orbital theory. This observed low reactivity is therefore thought to be the result of a tight anionic solvation shell in the aqueous solutions employed. Media studies in different salts on this reaction show little effects. Finally, the absence of third-order rate terms involving succinimide in this reaction is due to the inability of the succinimide anion to have its nucleophilicity increased by proton removal in the transition state.

  12. Antimicrobial activity of borate-buffered solutions.

    PubMed Central

    Houlsby, R D; Ghajar, M; Chavez, G O

    1986-01-01

    A minimal salts medium adjusted to physiological pH and osmolality was buffered with either 0.3% phosphate or 1.2% borate and evaluated for antimicrobial activity. The borate-buffered medium, either with or without a carbon source, exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against 15 Pseudomonas strains, 12 strains of enteric bacteria, and 7 strains of staphylococci. The borate-buffered system appears suitable for use as a generic vehicle for ophthalmic pharmaceutical agents. PMID:3729341

  13. What’s in your buffer? Solute altered millisecond motions detected by solution NMR

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Madeline; Khirich, Gennady; Loria, J. Patrick

    2014-01-01

    To date, little work has been conducted on the relationship between solute and buffer molecules and conformational exchange motion in enzymes. This study uses solution NMR to examine the effects of phosphate, sulfate, and acetate, in comparison to MES- and HEPES-buffered references, on the chemical shift perturbation and millisecond, chemical or conformational exchange motions in the enzyme Ribonuclease A (RNase A), Triosephosphate Isomerase (TIM) and HisF. The results indicate that addition of these solutes has a small effect on 1H and 15N chemical shifts for RNase A and TIM but significant effects for HisF. For RNase A and TIM, Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill relaxation dispersion experiments, however, show significant solute-dependent changes in conformational exchange motions. Some residues show loss of millisecond (ms) motions relative to the reference sample upon addition of solute, while others experience an enhancement. Comparison of exchange parameters obtained from fits of dispersion data indicates changes in either or both equilibrium populations and chemical shifts between conformations. Furthermore, the exchange kinetics are altered in many cases. The results demonstrate that common solute molecules can alter observed enzyme ms motions and play a more active role than what is routinely believed. PMID:23991940

  14. Solution behavior and surface properties of carboxymethylcellulose acetate butyrate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge Amim Jr; Denise F. S. Petri; Francisco C. B. Maia; Paulo B. Miranda

    2009-01-01

    Solution behavior of carboxymethylcellulose acetate butyrate (CMCAB) in acetone and ethyl acetate has been investigated by\\u000a small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and capillary viscometry and correlated with the characteristics of CMCAB films. Viscosity\\u000a and SAXS measurements showed that ethyl acetate is a better solvent than acetone for CMCAB. Thin films of CMCAB were deposited\\u000a onto silicon wafers (Si\\/SiO2) by spin coating.

  15. Seed layer, solution concentration and thickness effects on CSD-derived La 2Zr 2O 7 buffer layers for coated conductors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. B. Zhu; H. C. Lei; D. Q. Shi; L. Zhang; L. Wang; Y. P. Sun; W. H. Song; Z. R. Yang; J. H. Kim; R. Zeng; S. X. Dou; J. Yang; H. W. Gu

    2007-01-01

    La2Zr2O7\\/NiW buffer layers as very promising buffer layers for coated conductors were fabricated by chemical solution deposition using cheap precursors, La-acetate and Zr-(IV) n-propoxide (70% w\\/w in n-propanol). The effects on the orientation and microstructure of La2Zr2O7 buffer layers, including seed layer, thickness and solution concentration, were investigated. The results showed that insertion of a seed layer could obviously improve

  16. On the Preparation of Buffer Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Bruce M.; Kessick, Michael A.

    1981-01-01

    Presents a method, suitable for use on programmable calculators, which allows calculation of the pH and ionic strength (I) of a mixed solution of salts of an acid or amounts necessary to produce a solution of a particular pH and I. Includes limitations when using the calculations described. (SK)

  17. Efflux of Red Cell Water into Buffered Hypertonic Solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    EDWIN G. OLMSTEAD

    1960-01-01

    Buffered NaCI solutions hypertonic to rabbit serum were prepared and freezing point depressions of each determined after dilution with measured amounts of water. Freezing point depression of these dilutions was a linear function of the amount of water added. One ml. of rabbit red cells was added to each 4 ml. of the hypertonic solutions and after incubation at 38°C.

  18. Use of buffered hypochlorite solution for disinfecting fibrescopes.

    PubMed Central

    Coates, D; Death, J E

    1982-01-01

    The possible use of sodium hypochlorite solution buffered to pH 7.6 and containing 100 ppm available chlorine (avCl) for disinfecting fibrescopes was investigated. A flexible fibrescope experimentally contaminated with Pseudomonas putida, Mycobacterium fortuitum, or Bacillus subtilis spores was effectively disinfected within 10 m in repeatedly and without any observable adverse effect on the instrument. The corrosive nature of buffered hypochlorite was investigated by immersing various fibrescope components and metal wires in solutions of different strength for long periods and examining them for damage. Stainless steel, platinum, glass, Teflon, polythene and epoxy resin were apparently unaffected whereas polyurethane, rubber and other metals tested were damaged to different extents. Buffered hypochlorite solutions may have many applications pertaining to the disinfection of items which are either thermolabile or require rapid effective disinfection. PMID:6802880

  19. CHEMICAL SOLUTION DEPOSITION BASED OXIDE BUFFERS AND YBCO COATED CONDUCTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    We have reviewed briefly the growth of buffer and high temperature superconducting oxide thin films using a chemical solution deposition (CSD) method. In the Rolling-Assisted Biaxially Textured Substrates (RABiTS) process, developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, utilizes the thermo mechanical processing to obtain the flexible, biaxially oriented copper, nickel or nickel-alloy substrates. Buffers and Rare Earth Barium Copper Oxide (REBCO) superconductors have been deposited epitaxially on the textured nickel alloy substrates. The starting substrate serves as a template for the REBCO layer, which has substantially fewer weak links. Buffer layers play a major role in fabricating the second generation REBCO wire technology. The main purpose of the buffer layers is to provide a smooth, continuous and chemically inert surface for the growth of the REBCO film, while transferring the texture from the substrate to the superconductor layer. To achieve this, the buffer layers need to be epitaxial to the substrate, i.e. they have to nucleate and grow in the same bi-axial texture provided by the textured metal foil. The most commonly used RABiTS multi-layer architectures consist of a starting template of biaxially textured Ni-5 at.% W (Ni-W) substrate with a seed (first) layer of Yttrium Oxide (Y2O3), a barrier (second) layer of Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ), and a Cerium Oxide (CeO2) cap (third) layer. These three buffer layers are generally deposited using physical vapor deposition (PVD) techniques such as reactive sputtering. On top of the PVD template, REBCO film is then grown by a chemical solution deposition. This article reviews in detail about the list of oxide buffers and superconductor REBCO films grown epitaxially on single crystal and/or biaxially textured Ni-W substrates using a CSD method.

  20. Role of the buffer solution in the chemical deposition of CdS films for CIGS solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sooho; Kim, Donguk; Baek, Dohyun; Hong, Byoungyou; Yi, Junsin; Lee, Jaehyeong; Park, Yong Seob; Choi, Wonseok

    2014-05-01

    In this work, the effects of NH4Ac on the structural and the electro-optical properties of CdS films were investigated. CdS thin films were deposited on soda-lime glass and indium-tin-oxide (ITO) coated glass from a chemical bath containing 0.025 M cadmium acetate, 0 M ~ 0.2 M ammonium acetate, 0.5 M thiourea, and ammonia. Cadmium acetate was the cadmium source, ammonium acetate served as a buffer, ammonia was the complexing agent, and thiourea was the source of sulfur. A commonl- available chemical bath deposition system was successfully modified to obtain precise control over the pH of the solution at 75 °C during the deposition. Chemically deposited CdS films were studied by using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical transmittance, and electrical resistivity measurements.

  1. Finding the lost open-circuit voltage in polymer solar cells by UV-ozone treatment of the nickel acetate anode buffer layer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fuzhi; Sun, Gang; Li, Cong; Liu, Jiyan; Hu, Siqian; Zheng, Hua; Tan, Zhan'ao; Li, Yongfang

    2014-06-25

    Efficient polymer solar cells (PSCs) with enhanced open-circuit voltage (Voc) are fabricated by introducing solution-processed and UV-ozone (UVO)-treated nickel acetate (O-NiAc) as an anode buffer layer. According to X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data, NiAc partially decomposed to NiOOH during the UVO treatment. NiOOH is a dipole species, which leads to an increase in the work function (as confirmed by ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy), thus benefitting the formation of ohmic contact between the anode and photoactive layer and leading to increased Voc. In addition, the UVO treatment improves the wettability between the substrate and solvent of the active layer, which facilitates the formation of an upper photoactive layer with better morphology. Further, the O-NiAc layer can decrease the series resistance (Rs) and increase the parallel resistance (Rp) of the devices, inducing enhanced Voc in comparison with the as-prepared NiAc-buffered control devices without UVO treatment. For PSCs based on the P3HT:PCBM system, Voc increases from 0.50 to 0.60 V after the NiAc buffer layer undergoes UVO treatment. Similarly, in the P3HT:ICBA system, the Voc value of the device with a UVO-treated NiAc buffer layer increases from 0.78 to 0.88 V, showing an enhanced power conversion efficiency of 6.64%. PMID:24878826

  2. Pyrite oxidation in carbonate-buffered solution: 1. Experimental kinetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. V. Nicholson; R. W. Gillham; E. J. Reardon

    1988-01-01

    The kinetic behavior of pyrite oxidation in carbonate-buffered solution was investigated in the laboratory. Oxygen concentration, surface area and temperature were varied while pH values were limited to the range of 6.7-8.5. The rate experiments were performed on crushed and sieved size-fractions of pyrite that were carefully cleaned and mixed with similar-size silica sand. Oxidation occurred in a moisture-suction device

  3. Evaporation kinetics of acetic acid-water solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffey, K.; Wong, N.; Saykally, R.; Cohen, R. C.

    2012-12-01

    The transport of water molecules across vapor-liquid interfaces in the atmosphere is a crucial step in the formation and evolution of cloud droplets. Despite decades of study, the effects of solutes on the mechanism and rate of evaporation and condensation remain poorly characterized. The present work aims to determine the effect of atmospherically-relevant solutes on the evaporation rate of water. In our experiments, we create a train of micron-sized droplets and measure their temperature via Raman thermometry as they undergo evaporation without condensation. Analysis of the cooling rate yields the evaporation coefficient (?). Previous work has shown that inorganic salts have little effect on ?, with surface-adsorbing anions causing a slight reduction in the coefficient from that measured for pure water. Organic acids are ubiquitous in aqueous aerosol and have been shown to disrupt the surface structure of water. Here we describe measurements of the evaporation rate of acetic acid solutions, showing that acetic acid reduces ? to a larger extent than inorganic ions, and that ? decreases with increasing acetic acid concentration.

  4. Advanced titania buffer layer architectures prepared by chemical solution deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunert, J.; Bäcker, M.; Brunkahl, O.; Wesolowski, D.; Edney, C.; Clem, P.; Thomas, N.; Liersch, A.

    2011-08-01

    Chemical solution deposition (CSD) was used to grow high-quality (100) oriented films of SrTiO3 (STO) on CSD CaTiO3 (CTO), Ba0.1Ca0.9TiO3 (BCT) and STO seed and template layers. These template films bridge the lattice misfit between STO and the nickel-tungsten (NiW) substrate, assisting in dense growth of textured STO. Additional niobium (Nb) doping of the STO buffer layer reduces oxygen diffusion which is necessary to avoid undesired oxidation of the NiW. The investigated templates offer suitable alternatives to established standard buffer systems like La2Zr2O7 (LZO) and CeO2 for coated conductors.

  5. Efflux of red cell water into buffered hypertonic solutions.

    PubMed

    OLMSTEAD, E G

    1960-03-01

    Buffered NaCl solutions hypertonic to rabbit serum were prepared and freezing point depressions of each determined after dilution with measured amounts of water. Freezing point depression of these dilutions was a linear function of the amount of water added. One ml. of rabbit red cells was added to each 4 ml. of the hypertonic solutions and after incubation at 38 degrees C. for 30 minutes the mixture was centrifuged and a freezing point depression determined on the supernatant fluid. The amount of water added to the hypertonic solutions by the red cells was calcuated from this freezing point depression. For each decrease in the freezing point of -0.093 degrees C. of the surrounding solution red cells gave up approximately 5 ml. of water per 100 ml. of red cells in the range of -0.560 to -0.930 degrees C. Beyond -0.930 degrees C. the amount of water given up by 100 ml. of red cells fits best a parabolic equation. The maximum of this equation occurred at a freezing point of the hypertonic solution of -2.001 degrees C. at which time the maximum amount of water leaving the red cells would be 39.9 ml. per 100 ml. of red cells. The data suggest that only about 43 per cent of the red cell water is available for exchange into solutions of increasing tonicity. PMID:14428774

  6. Electrochemical reduction of uranyl nitrate in acetic acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Fedoseev, A.M.; Shilov, V.P. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-07-01

    Electrochemical reduction of UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} has been studied by polarography on a mercury cathodes in CH{sub 3}COOH solutions. It has been found that UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}) is reduced to U(IV) by a mechanism similar to reduction in nitric acid solutions at pH>2. The polarograms have been recorded with various solid cathodes. The cathodes having current density of uranyl reduction close to that on mercury cathode have been further investigated. The most suitable cathode materials for reducing 1-2 M UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} solutions have been found to be Hg, Ti, and stainless steel. The use of a stainless steel cathode is complicated by minor corrosion; as a result, iron ions appear in the solution, which catalyze the oxidation of U(IV) with air oxygen and nitrate ions. On a titanium cathode at a potential of -0.24 V 1.6 M UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} solution in 5 m CH{sub 3}COOH is reduced in the presence of 0.5 g 1{sup -1} of N{sub 2}H{sub 4} with 90% current efficiency and 99.3% extent of reduction. In the case of a mercury cathode 1.9 M UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} solution in 4-6 M CH{sub 3}COOH is reduced to U(IV) in the presence of 0.5 g 1{sup -1} of N{sub 2}H{sub 4} with 97{plus_minus}2% current efficiency and 99.7% extent of reduction. The formal potential of the U(VI)/U(IV) couple is equal to 0.32{plus_minus}0.01 V and only slightly depends on temperature T and concentration of acetic acid [CH{sub 3}COOH] over 20-0{degrees}C and 0.5-4 M ranges respectively. The acetic acid solutions of U(IV) thus obtained from UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} are considerably more stable than nitric acid solutions of U(IV), even in the presence of much smaller amounts of N{sub 2}H{sub 4} or other stabilizers.

  7. Electrodeposition of lead from aqueous acetate and chloride solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghali, Edward; Girgis, Magdy

    1985-09-01

    Electrodeposition of Pb from electrolyte containing CH3COONH4, CH3COOH, and Cl- was in-vestigated at 25 ‡C in stirred and quiescent solutions on different substrates: Pb, Cu, Al, and C. The deposited lead from the acetate bath was crystalline and showed a marked tendency to form dendrites. The addition of organic additives, phenol, ethyl alcohol, and gelatine, was found necessary in order to obtain a bright, smooth, and compact lead deposit on Pb and Cu electrode. Even with the additives, dendritic lead was observed on Al and C electrodes. Systematic studies of electrodeposition of Pb from these media—such as investigation of the effect of concentration of chemicals in the electrolyte, the effect of temperature, the effect of current density, and the nature of the subtrates—were carried out. Electrochemical techniques such as cyclic voltammetry, potentiodynamic studies, chrono-amperometry, and chronopotentiometry have been employed to shed light on the nature of the reaction mechanism. The deposit quality and purity was examined by X-ray diffraction analysis, SEM, and Auger spectroscopy. The results were compared with those obtained from a fluoborate bath. The quality of a lead deposit from fluoborate bath proved to be similar to that obtained from acetate bath in the presence of organic additives where the deposit was always of a compact, dense, and smooth form.

  8. In situ XANES study of the passive film formed on iron in borate buffer and in sodium acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Oblonsky, L.J.; Ryan, M.P.; Isaacs, S. [and others

    1996-12-31

    The passive film formed on Fe in pH 8.4 borate buffer (0. 1 36 M) over a broad potential range was characterized by in situ XANES (x-ray absorption near edge structure). On stepping the potential to a value between -0.6 V and +0.4 V (MSE), a passive film forms without detectable dissolution. The edge position indicates that the valence state of Fe in the film is 10 {+-} 5% Fe{sup 2+} and 90 {+-} 5% Fe{sup 3+}. Formation of a passive film at potentials between -0.8 V and -0.65 V is associated with dissolution prior to passivation, and a lower average valence state of 17 {+-} 5% Fe{sup 2+} and 83 {+-} 5% Fe{sup 3+}. At -0.9 V, the Fe did not passivate. The passive film that forms in pH 8.2 sodium acetate (0.1 M) at +0.4 V gives an edge similar to the high potential passive film formed in borate buffer, but dissolution occurs prior to passivation.

  9. Seed layer, solution concentration and thickness effects on CSD-derived La 2Zr 2O 7 buffer layers for coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, X. B.; Lei, H. C.; Shi, D. Q.; Zhang, L.; Wang, L.; Sun, Y. P.; Song, W. H.; Yang, Z. R.; Kim, J. H.; Zeng, R.; Dou, S. X.; Yang, J.; Gu, H. W.

    2007-12-01

    La 2Zr 2O 7/NiW buffer layers as very promising buffer layers for coated conductors were fabricated by chemical solution deposition using cheap precursors, La-acetate and Zr-(IV) n-propoxide (70% w/w in n-propanol). The effects on the orientation and microstructure of La 2Zr 2O 7 buffer layers, including seed layer, thickness and solution concentration, were investigated. The results showed that insertion of a seed layer could obviously improve the crystallization and orientation, and decrease of single layer thickness could also obviously improve the in-plane orientation. The results of all metalorganic depositions derived YBCO/CeO 2/La 2Zr 2O 7/NiW showed that the prepared La 2Zr 2O 7 buffer layers were suitable for coated conductors using all metalorganic depositions.

  10. Photocatalytic decomposition of cortisone acetate in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Romão, Joana Sobral; Hamdy, Mohamed S; Mul, Guido; Baltrusaitis, Jonas

    2015-01-23

    The photocatalytic decomposition of cortisone 21-acetate (CA), a model compound for the commonly used steroid, cortisone, was studied. CA was photocatalytically decomposed in a slurry reactor with the initial rates between 0.11 and 0.46 mg L(-1)min(-1) at 10 mg L(-1) concentration, using the following heterogeneous photocatalysts in decreasing order of their catalytic activity: ZnO>Evonik TiO2 P25>Hombikat TiO2>WO3. Due to the lack of ZnO stability in aqueous solutions, TiO2 P25 was chosen for further experiments. The decomposition reaction was found to be pseudo-first order and the rate constant decreased as a function of increasing initial CA concentration. Changing the initial pH of the CA solution did not affect the reaction rate significantly. The decomposition reaction in the presence of the oxidizing sacrificial agent sodium persulfate showed an observed decomposition rate constant of 0.004 min(-1), lower than that obtained for TiO2 P25 (0.040 min(-1)). The highest photocatalytic degradation rate constant was obtained combining both TiO2 P25 and S2O8(2-) (0.071 min(-1)) showing a synergistic effect. No reactive intermediates were detected using LC-MS showing fast photocatalytic decomposition kinetics of CA. PMID:24953705

  11. Phosphate and Tris Buffered Saline Solutions Use ACS grade chemicals. Use Sigma Trizma Tris Base and Tris-HCl for all buffers.

    E-print Network

    Aris, John P.

    1 Phosphate and Tris Buffered Saline Solutions Use ACS grade chemicals. Use Sigma Trizma Tris BaseH of 1X phosphate buffers should be 7.2-7.3. pH of 1X Tris buffers should be 7.5 or 8. The pH of 10X and Tris-HCl for all buffers. To check pH, dilute 10X stock solution to 1X. Use calibrated pH meter. p

  12. Enzymatic degradation of poly(?-caprolactone) film in phosphate buffer solution containing lipases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhihua Gan; Qizhi Liang; Jie Zhang; Xiabin Jing

    1997-01-01

    The enzymatic degradation of poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) films in phosphate buffer solution containing lipases has been studied by DSC, WAXD and SEM. Three Upases, pseudomonas lipase (PS), porcine pancreatic lipase (PP), and Candida cylindracea lipase (AY), were used. The results showed that the degradation of PCL films in phosphate buffer solution containing PP or AY was very slow: no weight loss

  13. In Vitro Structural Changes of Nano-Bacterial Cellulose immersed in Phosphate Buffer Solution

    E-print Network

    Zheng, Yufeng

    In Vitro Structural Changes of Nano-Bacterial Cellulose immersed in Phosphate Buffer Solution-bacterial cellulose, Structural changes, Degradation, Phosphate buffer solution Abstract. Nano-bacterial cellulose (nBC), secreted by Acetobacter xylinum, is expected to have potential applications in tissue engineering

  14. Rheological study of chitosan acetate solutions containing chitin nanofibrils.

    PubMed

    Mikešová, Jana; Hašek, Jind?ich; Tishchenko, Galina; Morganti, Pierfrancesco

    2014-11-01

    Rheological properties of chitosan acetate solutions containing chitin nanofibrils (n-chitin) and biocompatible plasticizers intended for preparation of biodegradable films are reported in the steady, oscillatory and transient shear flow. The experiments were performed on slurries with an optimum proportion of 65/35 wt.% between chitosan and n-chitin in the films which was determined from our results of mechanical properties and absorption of water vapor. The time-dependent dynamic experiments revealed the chitin nanofibrils as an effective "gelling agent" of chitosan phase. The phenomenon is explained by a chitosan-like surface of n-chitin and by the interactions inducing orientational cooperativity of chitosan molecules dissolved in close neighborhood of the anisotropic chitin nanofibrils. Additions of glycerol or poly(ethylene glycol), improving mechanical properties of the films, delay significantly the onset of gelation of chitosan/n-chitin slurries. The effect is induced by an increase in viscosity of the slurries and by their enhanced chaotropic character. PMID:25129805

  15. The comparison of fluorescent spectra on acetic acid and ethanol solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying; Lan, Xiufeng; Gao, Shumei; Shen, Zhonghua; Lu, Jian; Ni, Xiao-Wu

    2003-12-01

    Acetic acid and ethanol solutions can emit fluorescence when induced by 253.7nm UV-light. In this paper, fluorescence spectral characteristics of acetic acid and ethanol solutions are analyzed and studied in theory and in experiment. The results indicate that both acetic acid and ethanol can emit two fluorescence spectral bands, one is from 330nm to 493nm and the other is from 534nm to 665nm. The emitting fluorescence intensity is very sensitive to the solutions concentrations, and fluorescence quenching occurs in some solutions of the two samples. Furthermore, the physical mechanism of fluorescence emission of acetic acid and ethanol molecules is analyzed based on the theory of molecule orbital structure, and the quenching mechanism are studied by the dynamic process. Investigation on the native fluorescence spectrum of the two solvent and their characteristics will contribute to the study of the fluorescence spectra when they serve as solute, hydrolysis catalyst and food additive.

  16. The Determination of the pH of Standard Buffer Solution: A Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, K. R.

    1985-01-01

    Describes an experiment which shows: (1) how measurements of the reaction electromotive force for the cell (Pt/glass/NaCl(aq,m),buffer/AgCl/Ag/Pt) can be utilized in determining the absolute pH of the buffer; and (2) the demonstration of the use of the Debye-Huckel model of an electrolyte solution in solving an important electrochemical problem.…

  17. Development of buffer layers by chemical solution deposition for YBCO coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akin, Yalcin

    Short length YBCO coated conductors have been fabricated by vacuum thin film deposition techniques. However, the fabrication process increases the cost, and makes them impractical to use for commercial applications even if they are fabricated in kilometer lengths. YBCO coated conductors could be available in the market with a cheaper price by developing non-vacuum deposition techniques. The objective of this research was to investigate development of buffer layers by chemical solution deposition technique for YBCO coated conductors. Buffer layer structures are mainly used to prevent metal ion diffusion, and to reduce the lattice mismatch between YBCO and the metallic substrate. The technical approach, which was adapted here, is the reel-to-reel sol-gel dip coating process to fabricate long length coatings by developing buffer layers' chemical solutions. Rolling assisted biaxially textured Ni substrates were used for deposition of buffer layers. Cold rolled Ni strips were heat-treated at certain conditions to form biaxially textured structure, which became templates for textured growth of buffer layers that is necessary to obtain high critical current in the coated conductors. CeO2 was chosen as a buffer layers because it has been recognized as one of the best cap layers. Growth of highly textured, crack free, pinhole free and smooth CeO2 buffer layers have been demonstrated by chemical solution deposition technique on biaxially textured substrates. A new buffer layer with pseudocubic lattice parameters matching YBCO, (Eu0.893Yb0.107)2O3, was developed for the first time by using a mixture of Eu2O 3 and Yb2O3 to eliminate lattice mismatch, which adversely affected the critical current of the coated conductors. Highly textured (Eu0.893Yb0.107)2O3 buffer layers were deposited on biaxially textured Ni substrates by chemical solution deposition technique. Finally, the growth of CeO2 and (Eu0.893Yb 0.107)2O3 buffer layers were investigated on oxide layers because both CeO2 and (Eu0.893Yb0.107) 2O3 are used as cap layers. CeO2 buffer layers were deposited on Gd2O3 buffer layers and (Eu0.993 Yb0.107)2O3 buffer layers were deposited on CeO2/Gd2O3 buffer layers structure. It has been demonstrated that biaxially textured buffer layers can be grown on both biaxially textured metallic substrates and oxide thin films. These results are very promising for applicability of chemical solution deposition technique for coated conductors fabrication.

  18. Optimization of buffer solutions to analyze inflammatory cytokines in gingival crevicular fluid by multiplex flow cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Ríos-Lugo, María-Judith; Martin, Conchita; Alarcón, José-Antonio; Esquifino, Ana; Solano, Patricia; Sanz, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    Objective: the aim of this study was to test two buffer solutions in order to attain a reliable and reproducible analysis of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6, TNF-?, OPG, OPN and OC), in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) by flow cytometry. Material and Methods: GCF samples from healthy volunteers were collected with perio-paper strips and diluted either in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or Tris-HCl buffer, with and without protease inhibitors (PI). Cytokine immunoassays were carried out by flow cytometry (Luminex Xmap 200) generating standard curves. Results: standards curves generated with the use of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) demonstrated best adjustment for cytokines IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF- ? levels, when using Tris-HCl (p<0.05). Conclusions: The use of PBS buffer with the addition of PI provided reliable measurements of inflammatory biomarkers in GCF samples of healthy volunteers. Key words:Curve fitting, flow cytometer, immunoassay buffer, crevicular fluid, cytokines. PMID:24880451

  19. The potentiometric determination of stability constants for zinc acetate complexes in aqueous solutions to 295C

    SciTech Connect

    Giordano, T.H. (New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces (United States)); Drummond, S.E. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1991-09-01

    A potentiometric method was used to determine the formation quotients of zinc acetate complexes in aqueous solutions from 50 to 295C at ionic strengths of 0.03, 0.3, and 1.0 m. The potentiometric titrations were carried out in an externally heated, Teflon-lined concentration cell fitted with hydrogen electrodes. Formal sodium acetate concentrations of the experimental solutions ranged from 0.001 to 0.1 m with acetic acid to sodium acetate ratios ranging from 30 to 300. Sodium trifluoromethanesulfonate (F{sub 3}CSO{sub 3}Na) was used as a supporting electrolyte. Stoichiometries and formation quotients for the complexes ZnCH{sub 3}COO{sup +}, Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}, and Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 3}{sup {minus}} were derived from the titration data by regression analysis. Stability constants at infinite dilution (K{sub n}) and other relevant thermodynamic quantities were calculated for these three complexes. Calculations of zinc speciation in acetate-chloride solutions show that zinc acetate complexes should have an importance similar to zinc chloride complexes in high acetate waters where chloride to acetate molal ratios are less than about 10.

  20. Low-temperature solution-processed metal oxide buffer layers fulfilling large area production requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stubhan, T.; Litzov, I.; Li, Ning; Wang, H. Q.; Krantz, J.; Machui, F.; Steidl, M.; Oh, H.; Matt, G. J.; Brabec, C. J.

    2012-09-01

    This paper is a review of our previous work on the field of low temperature, solution processed metal oxide buffer layers published in various journals. Our work focuses on zinc oxide (ZnO) and aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) as n-type and molybdenum oxide (MoO3) as p-type solution processed buffer layer. In addition to that, we investigate the surface modification of AZO using phosphonic acid-anchored aliphatic and fullerene self assembled monolayers (SAMs).

  1. [Influence of buffer solutions on the performance of microbial fuel cell electricity generation].

    PubMed

    Qiang, Lin; Yuan, Lin-jiang; Ding, Qing

    2011-05-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a potential green technology due to its application in wastewater treatment and renewable energy generation. Phosphate buffer solution (PBS) has been commonly used in MFC studies to maintain a suitable pH for electricity generating bacteria and/or to increase the solution conductivity. However, it has some drawbacks using PBS in MFC: One is that the addition of a high concentration of phosphate buffer in MFCs is expensive, especially for the application in wastewater treatment; the other is that phosphates can contribute to the eutrophication conditions of water bodies if the effluents are discharged without the removal of phosphates. By adding PBS buffer as the comparison, the study investigated the effect of borax buffer and in the absence of buffer on the performance of electrical power, coulomb efficiency and effluent pH. 200 mmol/L PBS was the best, conductivity was 1.973 mS/cm,the maximum power density was 36.4 mW/m2 and the maximum coulomb efficiency was 2.92%, effluent pH was almost at (7.00 +/- 0.05). 100 mmol/L borax buffer solution, conductivity was 1.553 mS/cm; the maximum power density was 26.2 mW/m2 coulomb efficiency of 6.26%, which was 2.14 times to PBS and greatly increased the electron recovery efficiency with the effluent pH was (7.35 +/- 0.05). While free buffer solution conductivity was 0.314 mS/cm, maximum power density was 27.64 mW/m2; coulomb efficiency was 2.82% and the effluent pH of approximately 7.43. The electrolyte which in absence of buffer solution conductivity was 1/6 of adding PBS buffer, 1/5 of borax buffer, while its power density lower 8.76 mW/mr2 than adding PBS and higher 1.24 mW/m2 than borax buffer. The results showed that adding the suitable concentration of borax buffer may improve the electron recovery efficiency and under batch conditions, MFC run successfully without adding buffer solution to MFC. PMID:21780615

  2. Physicochemical properties and ion-solvent interactions in aqueous sodium, ammonium, and lead acetate solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deosarkar, S. D.; Mendkudle, M. S.

    2014-09-01

    Densities (?), viscosities (?) and refractive indices ( n D) of aqueous sodium acetate (SA), ammonium acetate (AA), and lead acetate (LA) solutions have been measured for different concentrations of salts at 302.15 K. Apparent molar volumes (?v) for studied solutions were calculated from density data, and fitted to Masson's relation and partial molar volume (?{v/o}) was determined. Viscosity data were fitted to Jones-Dole equation and viscosity A- and B-coefficients were determined. Refractive index and density data were fitted to Lorentz and Lorenz equation and specific refraction ( R D) were calculated. Behavior of various physicochemical properties indicated presence of strong ion-solvent interactions in present systems and the acetate salts structure maker in water.

  3. Differential effect of buffering agents on the crystallization of gemcitabine hydrochloride in frozen solutions.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mehulkumar; Munjal, Bhushan; Bansal, Arvind K

    2014-08-25

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the differential effect of buffering agents on the crystallization of gemcitabine hydrochloride (GHCl) in frozen solutions. Four buffering agents, viz. citric acid (CA), malic acid (MA), succinic acid (SA) and tartaric acid (TA) were selected and their effect on GHCl crystallization was monitored using standard DSC and low temperature XRD. Onset of GHCl crystallization during heating run in DSC was measured to compare the differential effect of buffering agents. Glass transition temperature (Tg'), unfrozen water content in the freeze concentrate and crystallization propensity of the buffering agents was also determined for mechanistic understanding of the underlying effects. CA and MA inhibited while SA facilitated crystallization of GHCl even at 25 mM concentration. Increasing the concentration enhanced their effect. However, TA inhibited GHCl crystallization at concentrations <100mM and facilitated it at concentrations ?100 mM. Lyophilization of GHCl with either SA or TA yielded elegant cakes, while CA and MA caused collapse. Tg' failed to explain the inhibitory effects of CA, MA and TA as all buffering agents lowered the Tg' of the system. Differential effect of buffering agents on GHCl crystallization could be explained by consideration of two opposing factors: (i) their own crystallization tendency and (ii) unfrozen water content in the freeze concentrate. In conclusion, it was established that API crystallization in frozen solution is affected by the type and concentration of the buffering agents. PMID:24836665

  4. Preparation of Buffer Layers on Textured Ni5W Substrates by Chemical Solution Deposition Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanling Cheng; Hongli Suo; Dong He; Yue Zhao; Mangmang Gao; Min Liu; Ye Shuai; Yonghua Zhu; Rong Wang; Lin Ma; Meiling Zhou

    2009-01-01

    CeO2 caped La2Zr2O7 (LZO) buffer layers on cube-textured Ni5W substrates were fabricated by the method of chemical solution deposition(CSD). The orientation of both LZO film and CeO2\\/LZO buffer layer was investigated using conventional XRD and X-ray four circle diffractometers, respectively. The results reveal that both the LZO film on Ni5W substrates and CeO2 film on LZO buffer layer are grown

  5. Pyrite oxidation in carbonate-buffered solution: 2. Rate control by oxide coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. V. Nicholson; R. W. Gillham; E. J. Reardon

    1990-01-01

    The kinetic behavior of pyrite oxidation in the laboratory was studied over a period of about 10,000 hours in reactors through which a carbonate-buffered solution and air (20% Oâ) flowed continuously. Three grain size fractions were monitored. The concentration of sulfate and the mass of the effluent solution were measured periodically to calculate oxidation rates. The results indicate that the

  6. Myocardial protection against global ischemia with Krebs-Henseleit buffer-based cardioplegic solution

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Krebs-Henseleit buffer is the best perfusion solution for isolated mammalian hearts. We hypothesized that a Krebs-Henseleit buffer-based cardioplegic solution might provide better myocardial protection than well-known crystalloid cardioplegic solutions because of its optimal electrolyte and glucose levels, presence of buffer systems, and mild hyperosmolarity. Methods Isolated Langendorff-perfused rat hearts were subjected to either global ischemia without cardioplegia (controls) or cardioplegic arrest for either 60 or 180 min, followed by 120 min of reperfusion. The modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer-based cardioplegic solution (mKHB) and St. Thomas’ Hospital solution No. 2 (STH2) were studied. During global ischemia, the temperatures of the heart and the cardioplegic solutions were maintained at either 37°C (60 min of ischemia) or 22°C (moderate hypothermia, 180 min of ischemia). Hemodynamic parameters were registered throughout the experiments. The infarct size was determined through histochemical examination. Results Cardioplegia with the mKHB solution at moderate hypothermia resulted in a minimal infarct size (5 ± 3%) compared to that in the controls and STH2 solution (35 ± 7% and 19 ± 9%, respectively; P < 0.001, for both groups vs. the mKHB group). In contrast to the control and STH2-treated hearts, no ischemic contracture was registered in the mKHB group during the 180-min global ischemia. At normothermia, the infarct sizes were 4 ± 3%, 72 ± 6%, and 70 ± 12% in the mKHB, controls, and STH2 groups, respectively (P < 0.0001). In addition, cardioplegia with mKHB at normothermia prevented ischemic contracture and improved the postischemic functional recovery of the left ventricle (P < 0.001, vs. STH2). Conclusions The data suggest that the Krebs-Henseleit buffer-based cardioplegic might be superior to the standard crystalloid solution (STH2). PMID:23547937

  7. Simultaneous pollutant removal and electricity generation in denitrifying microbial fuel cell with boric acid-borate buffer solution.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Zhang, Shaohui; Li, Meng; Wei, Yan

    2015-03-01

    A double-chamber denitrifying microbial fuel cell (MFC), using boric acid-borate buffer solution as an alternative to phosphate buffer solution, was set up to investigate the influence of buffer solution concentration, temperature and external resistance on electricity generation and pollutant removal efficiency. The result revealed that the denitrifying MFC with boric acid-borate buffer solution was successfully started up in 51 days, with a stable cell voltage of 205.1 ± 1.96 mV at an external resistance of 50 ?. Higher concentration of buffer solution favored nitrogen removal and electricity generation. The maximum power density of 8.27 W/m(3) net cathodic chamber was obtained at a buffer solution concentration of 100 mmol/L. An increase in temperature benefitted electricity generation and nitrogen removal. A suitable temperature for this denitrifying MFC was suggested to be 25 °C. Decreasing the external resistance favored nitrogen removal and organic matter consumption by exoelectrogens. PMID:25768227

  8. Electrochemical reduction of uranyl nitrate in acetic acid solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Fedoseev; V. P. Shilov

    1995-01-01

    Electrochemical reduction of UOâ(NOâ)â has been studied by polarography on a mercury cathodes in CHâCOOH solutions. It has been found that UOâ(NOâ) is reduced to U(IV) by a mechanism similar to reduction in nitric acid solutions at pH>2. The polarograms have been recorded with various solid cathodes. The cathodes having current density of uranyl reduction close to that on mercury

  9. CCMR: Investigation of Potential Buffer Solutions and Concentrations for an Electrochemical Microfluidic Biosensor

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Wiles, Laura K.

    2009-08-15

    Biosensors are analytical devices that are being used to detect a variety of analytes including pathogens via antibody recognition. Liposomes have been used in the Baeumner research group for signal generation and amplification. In one detection strategy, electrochemical signals are being reported by entrapping a redox couple in the inner cavity of the liposomes and releasing them upon detection of the pathogen. The main task of this research was the optimization of a buffer system that can be used for the entrapment of the redox couple and does not inhibit the oxidation and reduction reactions on a gold electrode. Potassium ferrihexacyanide and potassium ferrohexacyanide (ferri/ferrohexacyanide) were used as redox couple and dissolved in 0.01M bicarbonate buffer, pH 7.0; 0.01M and 0.1M sodium borate buffers, pH 7.0; and 0.01M and 0.1M phosphate buffers, pH 7.0. The current produced by flowing each of these solutions through a 500?m long by 50?m deep channel in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) over the interdigitated ultramicroelectrode array (IDUA) was measured using amperometry. The resulting signal peaks created by the redox cycling of ferri/ferrohexacyanide on the electrode were compared. A 10?M solution of ferri/ferrohexacyanide gave signals of 0.44nA in 0.01M phosphate buffer, 0.41nA in sodium borate, 0.37nA in sodium borate diluted in phosphate buffer, and 0.04nA in 0.01M bicarbonate. Since the phosphate buffer cannot be used for liposome synthesis, it was determined that the sodium borate buffer might be the best alternative.

  10. Thick lanthanum zirconate buffer layers from water-based precursor solutions on Ni-5%W substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Narayanan, Vyshnavi; Lommens, Petra; De Buysser, Klaartje [SCRIPTS, Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281-S3, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Huehne, Ruben [IFW Dresden, Institute for Metallic Materials, Helmholtzstrasse 20, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Van Driessche, Isabel, E-mail: Isabel.Vandriessche@UGent.Be [SCRIPTS, Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281-S3, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2011-11-15

    In this work, water-based precursor solutions suitable for dip-coating of thick La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} (LZO) buffer layers for coated conductors on Ni-5%W substrates were developed. The solutions were prepared based on chelate chemistry using water as the main solvent. The effect of polymer addition on the maximum crack-free thickness of the deposited films was investigated. This novel solution preparation method revealed the possibility to grow single, crack-free layers with thicknesses ranging 100-280 nm with good crystallinity and an in-plane grain misalignment with average FWHM of 6.55{sup o}. TEM studies illustrated the presence of nanovoids, typical for CSD-LZO films annealed under Ar-5%H{sub 2} gas flow. The appropriate buffer layer action of the film in preventing the Ni diffusion was studied using XPS. It was found that the Ni diffusion was restricted to the first 30 nm of a 140 nm thick film. The surface texture of the film was improved using a seed layer. - Graphical abstract: Thick LZO buffer layers from water-based precursor solutions were synthesized and their crystallinity, microstructure and buffer layer action were studied. The buffer layer action of the LZO layer was substantial to restrict the Ni penetration within 30 nm of a 140 nm thick film. Highlights: > LZO buffer layers with high thicknesses for use in coated conductors were prepared. > Prepared from water-based solutions. > Polymeric PVP increases the crack-free critical thickness of thick films. > Thick films showed good barrier action against Ni penetration. > Seed layers promote epitaxial growth of thick layers.

  11. Nacre surface transformation to hydroxyapatite in a phosphate buffer solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming Ni; Buddy D. Ratner

    2003-01-01

    Nacre, also known as mother-of-pearl, constitutes the inner layer of mollusc shells. Nacre is a natural composite material consisting mostly of calcium carbonate in the aragonite crystal form and some organic matter. Previous studies have shown that geological aragonite, coral and nacre can convert hydrothermally to hydroxyapatite (HAP) in phosphate solution by a solid-state topotactic ion-exchange reaction. This conversion typically

  12. Enzymatic degradation of poly(?-caprolactone)\\/poly( dl-lactide) blends in phosphate buffer solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhihua Gan; Donghong Yu; Zhiyuan Zhong; Qizhi Liang; Xiabin Jing

    1999-01-01

    Blend films of poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(dl-lactide) (PDLLA) with 0.5 weight fraction of PCL were prepared by means of solution casting and their degradation behavior was studied in phosphate buffer solution containing Pseudomonas (PS) lipase. Enzymatic degradation of the blend films occurred continuously within the first 6days and finally stopped when the film weight loss reached 50%, showing that only

  13. Influence of Fluoride on the Rate of Dissolution of Hydroxyapatite in Acidic Buffer Solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. S. Magrill

    1975-01-01

    The solubility of powdered hydroxyapatite (HA) in acidic buffer solution (pH 4.65) was reduced by 71% by adding sufficient fluoride (F––; either by previously treating the HA with NaF solution or by introducing NaF at the start of the dissolution) to replace approximately 25% of all surface unit cell OH–– ions. The same amount of F–– was less effective if

  14. The Cu(II) complex of Abeta40 peptide in ammonium acetate solutions. Evidence for ternary species formation.

    PubMed

    Rózga, Ma?gorzata; Protas, Anna M; Jab?onowska, Agnieszka; Dadlez, Micha?; Bal, Wojciech

    2009-03-21

    Fluorimetric Cu(ii) titrations of Alzheimer's disease (AD) Abeta40 peptide at various ammonium acetate concentrations demonstrated that ternary Cu(Abeta40)L complexes are formed with buffer components L, thereby providing a novel perspective on Cu(ii)-Abeta interactions. PMID:19259592

  15. Catalytic Deprotection of Acetals In Strongly Basic Solution Usinga Self-Assembled Supramolecular 'Nanozyme'

    SciTech Connect

    Pluth, Michael D.; Bergman, Robert G.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2007-07-26

    Acetals are among the most commonly used protecting groups for aldehydes and ketones in organic synthesis due to their ease of installation and resistance to cleavage in neutral or basic solution.[1] The common methods for hydrolyzing acetals almost always involve the use of either Broensted acid or Lewis acid catalysts.[2] Usually aqueous acids or organic solutions acidified with organic or inorganic acids have been used for reconversion of the acetal functionality to the corresponding carbonyl group; however, recently a number of reports have documented a variety of strategies for acetal cleavage under mild conditions. These include the use of Lewis acids such as bismuth(III)[3] or cerium(IV),[4, 5] functionalized silica gel, such as silica sulfuric acid[6] or silica-supported pyridinium p-toluene sulfonate,[7] or the use of silicon-based reagents such as TESOTf-2,6-Lutidine.[8] Despite these mild reagents, all of the above conditions require either added acid or overall acidic media. Marko and co-workers recently reported the first example of acetal deprotection under mildly basic conditions using catalytic cerium ammonium nitrate at pH 8 in a water-acetonitrile solution.[5] Also recently, Rao and co-workers described a purely aqueous system at neutral pH for the deprotection of acetals using {beta}-cyclodextrin as the catalyst.[9] Herein, we report the hydrolysis of acetals in strongly basic aqueous solution using a self-assembled supramolecular host as the catalyst. During the last decade, we have used metal-ligand interactions for the formation of well-defined supramolecular assemblies with the stoichiometry M{sub 4}L{sub 6}6 (M = Ga{sup III} (1 refers to K{sub 12}[Ga{sub 4}L{sub 6}]), Al{sup III}, In{sup III}, Fe{sup III}, Ti{sup IV}, or Ge{sup IV}, L = N,N{prime}-bis(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-1,5-diaminonaphthalene) (Figure 1).[10] The metal ions occupy the vertices of the tetrahedron and the bisbidentate catecholamide ligands span the edges. The strong mechanical coupling of the ligands transfers the chirality from one metal center to the other, thereby requiring the {Delta}{Delta}{Delta}{Delta} or {Lambda}{Lambda}{Lambda}{Lambda} configurations of the assembly. While the 12- overall charge imparts water solubility, the naphthalene walls of the assembly provide a hydrophobic environment which is isolated from the bulk aqueous solution. This hydrophobic cavity has been utilized to kinetically stabilize a variety of water-sensitive guests such as tropylium,[11] iminium ions,[12] diazonium ions,[13] and reactive phosphonium species.[14] Furthermore, 1 has been used to encapsulate catalysts[15] for organic transformations as well as act as a catalyst for the 3-aza-Cope rearrangement of enammonium substrates[16] and the hydrolysis of acid-labile orthoformates.[17] Our recent work using 1 as a catalyst for orthoformate hydrolysis prompted our investigation of the ability of 1 to catalyze the deprotection of acetals (Scheme 1). With the ability of 1 to favor encapsulation of monocationic guests, we anticipated that the rates of acetal hydrolysis could be accelerated by stabilization of any of the cationic protonated intermediates along the mechanistic pathway upon encapsulation in 1. In contrast to the stability of 2,2-dimethoxypropane in H{sub 2}O at pH 10, addition of the acetal to a solution of 1 at this pH quickly yielded the products of hydrolysis (acetone and methanol). Addition of a strongly binding inhibitor for the interior cavity of 1, such as NEt{sub 4}{sup +} (log (K{sub a}) = 4.55), inhibited the overall reaction, confirming that 1 is active in the catalysis.

  16. Aluminum elution and precipitation in glass vials: effect of pH and buffer species.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Toru; Miyajima, Makoto; Wakiyama, Naoki; Terada, Katsuhide

    2015-02-01

    Inorganic extractables from glass vials may cause particle formation in the drug solution. In this study, the ability of eluting Al ion from borosilicate glass vials, and tendencies of precipitation containing Al were investigated using various pHs of phosphate, citrate, acetate and histidine buffer. Through heating, all of the buffers showed that Si and Al were eluted from glass vials in ratios almost the same as the composition of borosilicate glass, and the amounts of Al and Si from various buffer solutions at pH 7 were in the following order: citrate?>?phosphate?>?acetate?>?histidine. In addition, during storage after heating, the Al concentration at certain pHs of phosphate and acetate buffer solution decreased, suggesting the formation of particles containing Al. In citrate buffer, Al did not decrease in spite of the high elution amount. Considering that the solubility profile of aluminum oxide and the Al eluting profile of borosilicate glass were different, it is speculated that Al ion may be forced to leach into the buffer solution according to Si elution on the surface of glass vials. When Al ions were added to the buffer solutions, phosphate, acetate and histidine buffer showed a decrease of Al concentration during storage at a neutral range of pHs, indicating the formation of particles containing Al. In conclusion, it is suggested that phosphate buffer solution has higher possibility of forming particles containing Al than other buffer solutions. PMID:24261406

  17. Low temperature heteroepitaxy of InP on Si(111) substrates treated with buffered HF solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ababou, Y.; Masut, R. A.; Yelon, A.; Poulin, S.

    1995-06-01

    Low temperature metalorganic vapor phase heteroepitaxy of InP on Si(111) using buffered HF solutions for preparation of the Si surface is reported. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed no presence of chemisorbed contaminants on the substrate surface after surface preparation. We used high-resolution x-ray diffraction to characterize the quality of the InP epilayers. Optimum InP layers were obtained when the surface was treated with a buffered HF solution with a pH of 6.2, which produces the minimum substrate surface roughness, as reported in the literature. The InP layers grown on normally oriented Si(111) show the presence of large antiphase domains.

  18. Mitigation of chromatography adsorbent lot performance variability through control of buffer solution design space.

    PubMed

    Aono, Hiromasa; Iliescu, Ionela; Cecchini, Doug; Wood, Susanne; McCue, Justin T

    2013-11-29

    The separation of undesired product-related impurities often poses a challenge in the purification of protein therapeutic species. Product-related impurity species, which may consist of undesirable isoforms, aggregated, or misfolded variants of the desired monomeric form of the product, can be challenging to remove using preparatory scale chromatographic techniques. When using anion exchange chromatography to remove undesirable product-related impurities, the separation can be highly sensitive to relatively small changes in the chromatography operating conditions, including changes to buffer solution pH, buffer solution conductivity protein loading, and operating temperature. When performing difficult separations, slight changes to the chemical and physical properties of the anion exchange adsorbent lot may also impact the separation profile. Such lot-to-lot variability may not be readily measurable by the adsorbent manufacturer, since variability can be highly dependent on a specific protein separation. Consequently, manufacturers of chromatographic adsorbents may not be able to control adsorbent lot to lot variability tightly enough to prevent differences from occurring when performing difficult product-related separations at the preparatory scale. In such cases, it is desirable to design a chromatography step with a control strategy which accounts for adsorbent lot to lot variability in the separation performance. In order to avoid the undesired changes to process consistency and product quality, a proper adjustment of the column operating conditions can be implemented, based on the performance of each adsorbent lot or lot mixture. In this work, we describe how the adjustment of the column buffer solution composition can be used as a design space based-control strategy used to ensure consistent process performance and product quality are achieved for an anion exchange chromatography step susceptible to adsorbent lot to lot performance variability. In addition, a "use test" is described that can be employed to determine the optimal buffer solution compositions for different anion exchange adsorbent lots based on the retention volume of the therapeutic protein during a gradient elution. PMID:24169043

  19. Closed-form solutions of performability. [modeling of a degradable buffer/multiprocessor system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    Methods which yield closed form performability solutions for continuous valued variables are developed. The models are similar to those employed in performance modeling (i.e., Markovian queueing models) but are extended so as to account for variations in structure due to faults. In particular, the modeling of a degradable buffer/multiprocessor system is considered whose performance Y is the (normalized) average throughput rate realized during a bounded interval of time. To avoid known difficulties associated with exact transient solutions, an approximate decomposition of the model is employed permitting certain submodels to be solved in equilibrium. These solutions are then incorporated in a model with fewer transient states and by solving the latter, a closed form solution of the system's performability is obtained. In conclusion, some applications of this solution are discussed and illustrated, including an example of design optimization.

  20. Highly textured La2Zr2O7 buffer layers for YBCO-coated conductors prepared by chemical solution deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knoth, Kerstin; Hühne, Ruben; Oswald, Steffen; Schultz, Ludwig; Holzapfel, Bernhard

    2005-03-01

    Recent results of La2Zr2O7 (LZO) buffer layer development for YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO-) coated conductors are presented. The major achievement is the development of a new precursor solution starting from 2,4-pentanedionates of lanthanum and zirconium leading to the formation of highly textured LZO buffer layers at low annealing temperatures. The preparation of the precursor solution using only a carboxylic acid as the solvent is simple and can be carried out at room temperature under atmospheric conditions. Reproducible highly textured buffer layers were obtained at annealing temperatures as low as 900 °C. The simplicity of the precursor solution preparation and the low annealing temperature (similar to the processing temperature of the YBCO layer) for preparation of an LZO buffer layer are the main advantages of this new process for cost-effective buffer layer deposition on Ni-RABiTS (rolling-assisted biaxially textured substrates).

  1. Radiolysis of aqueous solutions of acetic acid in the presence of Na-montmorillonite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Negron-Mendoza, A.; Ramos, S.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1990-01-01

    The gamma-irradiation of 0.8 mol dm-3 aqueous, oxygen-free acetic acid solutions was investigated in the presence or absence of Na-montmorillonite. H2, CH4, CO, CO2, and several polycarboxylic acids were formed in all systems. The primary characteristics observed in the latter system were: (1) Higher yield of the decomposition of acetic acid; (2) Lower yield of the formation of polycarboxylic acids; (3) No effect on the formation of methane; (4) Higher yield of the formation of carbon dioxide; and (5) The reduction of Fe3+ in the octahedral sites of Na-montmorillonite. A possible reaction scheme was proposed to account for the observed changes. The results are important in understanding heterogeneous processes in radiation catalysis and might be significant to prebiotic chemistry.

  2. The Acid Hydrolysis Mechanism of Acetals Catalyzed by a Supramolecular Assembly in Basic Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Pluth, Michael D.; Bergman, Robert G.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2008-09-24

    A self-assembled supramolecular host catalyzes the hydrolysis of acetals in basic aqueous solution. The mechanism of hydrolysis is consistent with the Michaelis-Menten kinetic model. Further investigation of the rate limiting step of the reaction revealed a negative entropy of activation ({Delta}S{double_dagger} = -9 cal mol{sup -1}K{sup -1}) and an inverse solvent isotope effect (k(H{sub 2}O)/k(D{sub 2}O) = 0.62). These data suggest that the mechanism of hydrolysis that takes place inside the assembly proceeds through an A-2 mechanism, in contrast to the A-1 mechanism operating in the uncatalyzed reaction. Comparison of the rates of acetal hydrolysis in the assembly with the rate of the reaction of unencapsulated substrates reveals rate accelerations of up to 980 over the background reaction for the substrate diethoxymethane.

  3. Growth of layered basic zinc acetate in methanolic solutions and its pyrolytic transformation into porous zinc oxide films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eiji Hosono; Shinobu Fujihara; Toshio Kimura; Hiroaki Imai

    2004-01-01

    Layered basic zinc acetate (LBZA), Zn5(OH)8(CH3COO)2·2H2O, was deposited on glass substrates by a chemical bath deposition (CBD) method using methanolic solutions of zinc acetate dihydrate. The substrates were put into bottles filled with the solutions and sealed up and were kept at 60°C in a drying oven. Immersion time necessary for the deposition of LBZA films was typically more than

  4. Highly textured La2Zr2O7 buffer layers for YBCO-coated conductors prepared by chemical solution deposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kerstin Knoth; Ruben Hühne; Steffen Oswald; Ludwig Schultz; Bernhard Holzapfel

    2005-01-01

    Recent results of La2Zr2O7 (LZO) buffer layer development for YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO-) coated conductors are presented. The major achievement is the development of a new precursor solution starting from 2,4-pentanedionates of lanthanum and zirconium leading to the formation of highly textured LZO buffer layers at low annealing temperatures. The preparation of the precursor solution using only a carboxylic acid as the

  5. A Comparison of Blood Factor XII Autoactivation in Buffer, Protein Cocktail, Serum, and Plasma Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Golas, Avantika; Yeh, Chyi-Huey Josh; Pitakjakpipop, Harit; Siedlecki, Christopher A.; Vogler, Erwin A.

    2012-01-01

    Activation of blood plasma coagulation in vitro by contact with material surfaces is demonstrably dependent on plasma-volume-to-activator-surface-area ratio. The only plausible explanation consistent with current understanding of coagulation-cascade biochemistry is that procoagulant stimulus arising from the activation complex of the intrinsic pathway is dependent on activator surface area. And yet, it is herein shown that activation of the blood zymogen factor XII (Hageman factor, FXII) dissolved in buffer, protein cocktail, heat-denatured serum, and FXI deficient plasma does not exhibit activator surface-area dependence. Instead, a highly-variable burst of procoagulant-enzyme yield is measured that exhibits no measurable kinetics, sensitivity to mixing, or solution-temperature dependence. Thus, FXII activation in both buffer and protein-containing solutions does not exhibit characteristics of a biochemical reaction but rather appears to be a “mechanochemical” reaction induced by FXII molecule interactions with hydrophilic activator particles that do not formally adsorb blood proteins from solution. Results of this study strongly suggest that activator surface-area dependence observed in contact activation of plasma coagulation does not solely arise at the FXII activation step of the intrinsic pathway. PMID:23117212

  6. APPENDIX 2LABORATORY STOCK SOLUTIONS AND APPENDIX 2ACommon Stock Solutions, Buffers, and Media

    E-print Network

    Gozani, Or

    35.0 28 14.8 0.90 67.6 Formic acid 46.03 90 98 23.6 25.9 1.205 1.22 42.4 38.5 Hydrochloric acid 36, or discoloration. Acid, concentrated stock solutions See Table A.2A.1. Acid precipitation solution 1 M HCl 0.1 M sodium pyrophosphate Nucleic acids can also be precipitated with a 10% (w/v) solution of trichloroacetic

  7. Development anmd testing of electrophoresis solutions. Task I.1: Development of optimal buffer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Two buffers were explored for testing: low ionic strength electrophoresis buffer with and without density gradient material. It was found that the electrophoresis routine was better tolerated when Ficoll was present. The results of a viability study of primary human fetal kidney (HFK-1) cells at the first passage are shown. Cell strain HFK-1 was used in several experiments at the first and second passage. The HFK consisted mainly of fibroblasts, and HFK-1 has a high epithelioid cell content. The chromosomes of HFK were examined and found to be euploid. The stock medium for cell electrophoresis is described. In this solution density gradient solutes such as sucrose and Ficoll are dissolved to bring the osmolarity to 0.30. Its ionic strength is less than 0.01M, and its conductivity is usually 0.0011 mho/cm. Methods for viability determination included direct microscopic counting of the percent cells attached and spread within 24 hr of plating test cultures or electrophoretically separated fractions. The Cytograf viability assay concept was tested, and shown that blue stained cells scatter less light into the 0.8 to 3.3 deg angular interval than do unstained cells.

  8. Effect of Buffers on Aqueous Solute-Exclusion Zones around Ion-Exchange Resins

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jian-ming; Wexler, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Interaction between charged surfaces in aqueous solution is a fundamental feature of colloid science. Theoretically, surface potential falls to half its value at a distance equal to a Debye length, which is typically on the order of tens to hundreds of nanometers. This potential prevents colloids from aggregating. On the other hand, long-range surface effects have been frequently reported. Here we report additional long-range effects. We find that charged latex particles in buffer solutions are uniformly excluded from several-hundred-micron-thick shells surrounding ion-exchange beads. Exclusion is observed whether the beads are charged similarly or oppositely to the particles. Hence, electrostatic interactions between bead and microsphere do not cause particle exclusion. Rather, exclusion may be the consequence of water molecules re-orienting to produce a more ordered structure, which then excludes the particles. PMID:19185312

  9. Neutron dosimetry in boron neutron capture therapy using aqueous solutions of lithium acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakovan, L. J.; Blue, T. E.; Vest, A. L.

    This paper presents the development of a dosimetry method, based on liquid scintillation (LS) counting of the tritium that is produced in aqueous solutions of lithium acetate, for the determination of the boron and nitrogen absorbed doses in-phantom in BNCT. The dosimeter is passive, integrating, approximately tissue equivalent, and insensitive to gamma rays and the elastic scattering of fast neutrons. The dosimetry method exhibits a response which is proportional to the boron and nitrogen absorbed doses and which can be calibrated to NIST standard solutions of water spiked with tritium. For 0.2 g of lithium acetate dissolved in a milliliter of water, the measured sensitivity is (1.73±0.04)×10 -9 cpm per unit of thermal neutron fluence (in neutrons/cm 2). For the LS analyzer that was used, the background signal was 12.84±0.02 cpm, yielding a thermal neutron fluence threshold for this detection method of approximately 7×10 9 neutrons/cm 2.

  10. Advantage of buffered solutions or automated capnometry in air-filled balloons for use in gastric tonometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Temmesfeld-Wollbrück; A. Szalay; H. Olschewski; F. Grimminger; W. Seeger

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To test accuracy, reproducibility and time constants of pCO2 measurement with the tonometric technique, using different media for filling the silastic balloon (saline, phosphate buffer,\\u000a citrate buffer, air) and employing different analyzer devices (ABL3, ABL330, Nova Stat 5, automated capnometry). Design: Comparative laboratory study of different tonometric techniques, measuring test solutions with known pCO2 values due to pre-equilibration with

  11. Critical zinc[sup +2] activities for sour orange determined with chelator-buffered nutrient solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Swietlik, D.; Zhang, L. (Texas A M Univ., Weslaco, TX (United States))

    1994-07-01

    Chelator-buffered nutrient solutions were used to study the effect of different levels of Zn activity in the rhizosphere on growth and nutritive responses of various tissues of sour orange seedlings. The seedlings were grown for 3 months in a growth chamber in a hydroponic culture containing from 5 to 69 [mu]m and 5 to 101 [mu]m total Zn in Expts. 1 and 2, respectively. Zn[sup +2] activities were calculated with a computerized chemical equilibrium model, and buffered by inclusion of a chelator, diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (DTPA), at 74 and 44 [mu]m in excess of the sum of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, and Co in Expts. 1 and 2, respectively. The use of DTPA-buffered solutions proved successful in imposing varying degrees of Zn deficiency. The deficiency was confirmed by leaf symptomatology, leaf chemical analyses, i.e., <16 mg[center dot]kg[sup [minus]1] Zn, and responses to foliar sprays and application of Zn to the roots. Growth parameters varied in their sensitivity to Zn deficiency, i.e., root dry weight < leaf number and white root growth < stem dry weight < leaf dry weight < shoot elongation and leaf area. The critical activities, expressed as pZn = [minus]log(Zn[sup +2]), were [approximately]10.2 [+-] 0.2 for root dry weight, 10.1 [+-] 0.2 for leaf number and white root growth, 10.0 [+-] 0.2 for stem dry weight, 9.9 [+-] 0.2 for leaf dry weight, and 9.8 [+-] 0.2 for shoot growth and leaf area. Increases in growth were observed in response to Zn applications even in the absence of visible Zn-deficiency symptoms. Seedlings containing > 23 mg[center dot]kg[sup [minus]1] Zn in leaves did not respond to further additions of Zn to the nutrient solution. Zinc foliar sprays were less effective than Zn applications to the roots in alleviating severe Zn deficiency because foliar-absorbed Zn was not translocated from the top of the roots and thus could not correct Zn deficiency in the roots.

  12. Covalent binding of biological samples to solid supports for scanning probe microscopy in buffer solution.

    PubMed Central

    Karrasch, S; Dolder, M; Schabert, F; Ramsden, J; Engel, A

    1993-01-01

    Scanning force microscopy allows imaging of biological molecules in their native state in buffer solution. To this end samples have to be fixed to a flat solid support so that they cannot be displaced by the scanning tip. Here we describe a method to achieve the covalent binding of biological samples to glass surfaces. Coverslips were chemically modified with the photoactivatable cross-linker N-5-azido-2-nitrobenzoyloxysuccinimide. Samples are squeezed between derivatized coverslips and then cross-linked to the glass surface by irradiation with ultraviolet light. Such samples can be imaged repeatedly by the scanning force microscope without loss of image quality, whereas identical but not immobilized samples are pushed away by the stylus. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 PMID:8312482

  13. Characteristics of thin cellulose ester films spin-coated from acetone and ethyl acetate solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Amim Jr; P. M. Kosaka; D. F. S. Petri

    2008-01-01

    Spin-coated films of cellulose acetate (CA), cellulose acetate propionate (CAP), cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) and carboxymethylcellulose\\u000a acetate butyrate (CMCAB) have been characterized by ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle measurements.\\u000a The films were spin-coated onto silicon wafers, a polar surface. Mean thickness values were determined by means of ellipsometry\\u000a and AFM as a function of polymer concentration in

  14. Buffer tree synthesis with consideration of temporal locality, sink polarity requirements, solution cost, congestion, and blockages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Milos Hrkic; John Lillis

    2003-01-01

    We give an overview of a buffer tree synthesis package which pays particular attention to the following issues: routing and buffer blockages, minimization of interconnect and buffer costs, congestion, exploitation of temporal locality among the sinks, and addressing sink polarity requirements. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the tool in comparison with previously proposed techniques.

  15. Buffer tree synthesis with consideration of temporal locality, sink polarity requirements, solution cost and blockages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miloš Hrki?; John Lillis

    2002-01-01

    We give an overview of a buffer tree synthesis package which pays particular attention to the following issues: routing and buffer blockages, minimization of interconnect and buffer costs, exploitation of temporal locality among the sinks and addressing sink polarity requirements. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the tool in comparison with previously proposed techniques.

  16. Methyltrimethoxysilane-insulated piezoelectric microcantilevers for direct, all-electrical biodetection in buffered aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capobianco, Joseph A.; Shih, Wan Y.; Shih, Wei-Heng

    2006-12-01

    We have examined coating (PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3)0.63-(PbTiO3)0.37 (PMN-PT)/tin piezoelectric microcantilever sensors (PEMSs) with a thin methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS) by a simple solution method to electrically insulate the PEMS for biodetection in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solutions. The PMN-PT/tin PEMSs were constructed using PMN-PT freestanding films that exhibited an electric-field-enhanced giant piezoelectric coefficient. The insulation procedure involved spin coatings of MTMS followed by cross-linking in water, which yielded a coating layer of about 10nm in thickness on the tin side of the PEMS. We showed that the MTMS-insulated PMN-PT/tin PEMSs were capable of electrical self-excitation and self-sensing with a stable resonance spectrum exhibiting a quality factor of Q =50 when submerged in 0.1M PBS solution. Direct, all-electrical, in situ detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 at various concentrations was demonstrated at a flow rate of 0.5ml/min. A MTMS-insulated PMN-PT/tin PEMS 725?m long consisting of a 22-?m-thick PMN-PT layer and a 6-?m-thick tin layer exhibited a mass detection sensitivity ?m /?f=-3±2×10-12g/Hz and a concentration sensitivity of better than 100cells/ml in less than 1ml of liquid.

  17. Subcritical Delamination of Dielectric and Metal Films from Low-k Organosilicate Glass (OSG) Thin Films in Buffered pH Solutions

    E-print Network

    Films in Buffered pH Solutions Y. Lin1 , J.J. Vlassak1 , T.Y. Tsui2 , and A.J. McKerrow2 1 DEAS, Harvard and barrier thin films in buffered solutions of different pH value is of both technical and scientific (OSG) films in pH buffer solutions was studied in this work. Crack path and subcritical fracture

  18. La 2Zr 2O 7 and Ce–Gd–O buffer layers for YBCO coated conductors using chemical solution deposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kerstin Knoth; Brigitte Schlobach; Ruben Hühne; Ludwig Schultz; Bernhard Holzapfel

    2005-01-01

    Biaxially textured La2Zr2O7 (LZO) and Ce–Gd–O (CGO) buffer layers were grown on Ni-RABiTS (rolling-assisted biaxially textured substrates) to obtain suitable buffer layer architectures for YBa2Cu3O7?x (YBCO) coated conductors. Both buffer systems were prepared using newly developed precursor solutions containing a simple carboxylic acid as solvent. Reproducible highly textured LZO buffer layers were obtained at annealing temperatures as low as 900°C.

  19. Surface modifications of bioglass immersed in TRIS-buffered solution. A multitechnical spectroscopic study.

    PubMed

    Cerruti, Marta; Bianchi, Claudia L; Bonino, Francesca; Damin, Alessandro; Perardi, Alessandra; Morterra, Claudio

    2005-08-01

    Bioglass 45S5 is used in the medical field as a bone regenerative material. In fact, when immersed in body fluid, a layer of hydroxy carbonate apatite (HCA), an analogue to the mineral phase that bones are made of, is deposited on its surface. A mechanism that would explain this process has been hypothesized and includes cation leaching from the glass to the solution and formation of both a silica-rich layer and a Ca/P-rich surface layer, prior to the actual crystallization of HCA. The present paper analyzes the dissolution of 2-mum-size particles of Bioglass in TRIS-buffered solution, focusing on the modifications occurring at the surface of the particles. Results from Transmission FT-IR, Raman, and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy were compared in order to obtain this information. In all cases, precise spectral band assignments were obtained by comparing Bioglass spectra, before and after reaction, with the spectra registered on some selected reference samples. The results confirm the hypothesized mechanism of Bioglass reactivity and yield new insights on the surface modifications of the samples. In particular, the following is shown: the strength of the surface H-bonding system and of water coordination decreases during the reaction; surface carbonates, initially mainly bound to Na, are substituted by an increasing amount of Ca-bound carbonates; and the final calcium phosphate layer obtained is very similar, but not identical, to carbonated hydroxyapatite. PMID:16852827

  20. Comparison of peak shape in hydrophilic interaction chromatography using acidic salt buffers and simple acid solutions.

    PubMed

    Heaton, James C; Russell, Joseph J; Underwood, Tim; Boughtflower, Robert; McCalley, David V

    2014-06-20

    The retention and peak shape of neutral, basic and acidic solutes was studied on hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) stationary phases that showed both strong and weak ionic retention characteristics, using aqueous-acetonitrile mobile phases containing either formic acid (FA), ammonium formate (AF) or phosphoric acid (PA). The effect of organic solvent concentration on the results was also studied. Peak shape was good for neutrals under most mobile phase conditions. However, peak shapes for ionised solutes, particularly for basic compounds, were considerably worse in FA than AF. Even neutral compounds showed deterioration in performance with FA when the mobile phase water concentration was reduced. The poor performance in FA cannot be entirely attributed to the negative impact of ionic retention on ionised silanols on the underlying silica base materials, as results using PA at lower pH (where their ionisation is suppressed) were inferior to those in AF. Besides the moderating influence of the salt cation on ionic retention, it is likely that salt buffers improve peak shape due to the increased ionic strength of the mobile phase and its impact on the formation of the water layer on the column surface. PMID:24813934

  1. Acid buffering a high pH soil for zinc diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Shackelford, C.D.; Cotten, T.E.; Rohal, K.M.; Strauss, S.H. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1997-03-01

    The effective use of an aqueous buffer solution of acetic acid and sodium acetate (1.0 M HOAc/1.4 M NaOAc, pH = 4.8) to lower the pH of a sand-attapulgite clay mixture from 9.4 to 4.8 is demonstrated. Soil buffering is necessary to prevent precipitation of Zn{sup 2+} as Zn(OH){sub 2(s)} during zinc diffusion tests. The choice of the acetic acid/sodium acetate buffer solution is based on results of batch-type tests and permeation tests performed to evaluate the soil-mixture pH lowering and buffering capacity of dilute solutions of HNO{sub 3} (a strong acid), 0.057 M HOAc (a weak acid), potassium hydrogen phthalate (a pH {approximately} 4 buffer), and the 1.0 M HOAc/1.4 MNaOAc buffer solution. Measured values of effective diffusion coefficients D* for zinc on unconfined, compacted test specimens of the buffered soil mixture ranged from 0.54 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} cm{sup 2}/s to 6.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} cm{sup 2}/s. This range of D*-values is within the range of D*-values reported for most reactive inorganic solutes in saturated clay soils and at the lower end of the range of D*-values for zinc in saturated clay soils.

  2. CHLORIDEDETERMINATION IN HIGH IONIC STRENGTH SOLUTION OF AMMONIUM ACETATE USING NEGATIVE ION ELECTRON SPRAY IONIZATION (HPLC/MS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A precise ion chromatography method has been developed for the determination of chloride in high ionic strength ammonium acetate solutions (10-5 M-5 M) using sodium carbonate/sodium bicarbonate as eluent. Negative ion electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry was used for q...

  3. THE EFFECT OF THE PH OF PH BUFFERED NUTRIENT SOLUTIONS ON NICKEL HYPERACCUMULATION BY ALYSSUM CORSICUM AND BERKHEYA CODDII

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is hypothesized that plant hyperaccumulation of Ni evolved as a defense mechanism against diseases and insects. Two hyperaccumulators, Alyssum corsicum and Berkheya coddii, were compared to cabbage (Brassica oleracea) grown in MES-HEPES buffered nutrient solutions and maintained at four pH levels...

  4. Work in progress report - Cardiopulmonary bypass Bicarbonate buffered ultrafiltration leads to a physiologic priming solution in pediatric cardiac surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wilhelm Alexander Osthaus; Jan Sievers; Thomas Breymann; Robert Suempelmann

    Pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) involves a high ratio of priming blood volume to patient blood volume. The composition of packed red blood cells (RBCs) is very unphysiological in terms of acid-base, electrolyte and metabolite values. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis whether ultrafiltration of the prime and replacement with bicarbonate buffered hemofiltration solution (BB-HS) is sufficient for reducing the metabolic load

  5. Electrochemical and XPS studies of the passive film formed on stainless steels in borate buffer and chloride solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aleksandra Kocijan; ?rtomir Donik; Monika Jenko

    2007-01-01

    The passivity of AISI 304L and AISI 316L stainless steels in a borate buffer solution, with and without the addition of chloride ions, was studied using cyclic voltammetry and potentiodynamic measurements. The passive layers formed by electrochemical oxidation at different passivation potentials on both the stainless steels were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, their compositions were analysed as a function

  6. The formation of stable pH gradients with weak monovalent buffers for isoelectric focusing in free solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mosher, Richard A.; Thormann, Wolfgang; Graham, Aly; Bier, Milan

    1985-01-01

    Two methods which utilize simple buffers for the generation of stable pH gradients (useful for preparative isoelectric focusing) are compared and contrasted. The first employs preformed gradients comprised of two simple buffers in density-stabilized free solution. The second method utilizes neutral membranes to isolate electrolyte reservoirs of constant composition from the separation column. It is shown by computer simulation that steady-state gradients can be formed at any pH range with any number of components in such a system.

  7. Enhancement of the absorption of CO{sub 2} in alkaline buffer solutions: Joint action of two enhancers

    SciTech Connect

    Vazquez, G.; Chenlo, F.; Pereira, G.; Vazquez, P. [Univ. of Santiago de Compostela (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Santiago de Compostela (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1999-05-01

    The authors measured the absorption of CO{sub 2} in alkaline 0.5 M/0.5 M sodium carbonate/bicarbonate buffers containing either saccharose and sodium arsenite or saccharose and formaldehyde. Absorption enhancement increased upon increasing the concentration of either of the catalysts, but the joint action of the two was always less than the sum of their individual effects, the difference being a function of the acidities and concentrations of the catalysts and the pH of the carbonate/bicarbonate buffer solution

  8. Removal and recovery of furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and acetic acid from aqueous solutions using a soluble polyelectrolyte.

    PubMed

    Carter, Brian; Gilcrease, Patrick C; Menkhaus, Todd J

    2011-09-01

    In the cellulosic ethanol process, furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), and acetic acid are formed during the high temperature acidic pretreatment step needed to convert biomass into fermentable sugars. These compounds can inhibit cellulase enzymes and fermentation organisms at relatively low concentrations (? 1 g/L). Effective removal of these inhibitory compounds would allow the use of more severe pretreatment conditions to improve sugar yields and lead to more efficient fermentations; if recovered and purified, they could also be sold as valuable by-products. This study investigated the separation of aldhehydes (furfural and HMF) and organic acid (acetic acid) inhibitory compounds from simple aqueous solutions by using polyethyleneimene (PEI), a soluble cationic polyelectrolyte. PEI added to simple solutions of each inhibitor at a ratio of 1 mol of functional group to 1 mol inhibitor removed up to 89.1, 58.6, and 81.5 wt% of acetic acid, HMF, and furfural, respectively. Furfural and HMF were recovered after removal by washing the polyelectrolyte/inhibitor complex with dilute sulfuric acid solution. Recoveries up to 81.0 and 97.0 wt% were achieved for furfural and HMF, respectively. The interaction between PEI and acetic acid was easily disrupted by the addition of chloride ions, sulfate ions, or hydroxide ions. The use of soluble polymers for the removal and recovery of inhibitory compounds from biomass slurries is a promising approach to enhance the efficiency and economics of an envisioned biorefinery. PMID:21455937

  9. Monolayer formation of luminescent germanium nanoparticles on silica surface in aqueous buffer solution.

    PubMed

    Shirahata, Naoto

    2014-03-01

    The present paper reports monolayer formation of germanium nanoparticles (Ge NPs) on silica substrate. The NPs were prepared by hydride reduction of GeCl4, which is encapsulated with an inverse micelle of dimethyldioctylammonium bromide, with lithium aluminum hydride, and subsequent hydrogermylation of allylamine in the presence of platinum catalyst. The resultant NPs showed the blue photoluminescence property. Due to the terminal amine, the NPs were soluble highly in aqueous buffer solution. To fabricate a monolayer of Ge NPs, the chemical reactivity of the NPs was studied using a multi-functional microarray in which different kinds of siloxane monolayers were periodically aligned on a silica substrate. We observed using fluorescence microscope whether the terminal amines of the NPs recognize the specific monolayers in the microarray. In terms of fluorescence observation, the entire surface of the monolayer-covered microsize-domains emits uniformly the blue light. This suggests a high degree of coverage of the luminescent NPs covering over the monolayer regions in the microarray, and implies the non-occurrence of quenching through energy transfer between adjacent NPs. PMID:24745276

  10. Solution-processed MoS(x) as an efficient anode buffer layer in organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaodong; Zhang, Wenjun; Wu, Yulei; Min, Chao; Fang, Junfeng

    2013-09-25

    We reported a facile solution-processed method to fabricate a MoSx anode buffer layer through thermal decomposition of (NH4)2MoS4. Organic solar cells (OSCs) based on in situ growth MoSx as the anode buffer layer showed impressive improvements, and the power conversion efficiency was higher than that of conventional PEDOT:PSS-based device. The MoSx films obtained at different temperatures and the corresponding device performance were systematically studied. The results indicated that both MoS3 and MoS2 were beneficial to the device performance. MoS3 could result in higher Voc, while MoS2 could lead to higher Jsc. Our results proved that, apart from MoO3, molybdenum sulfides and Mo(4+) were also promising candidates for the anode buffer materials in OSCs. PMID:24018132

  11. Structural and optical characterizations of ZnO aerogel nanopowder synthesized from zinc acetate ethanolic solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djouadi, D.; Meddouri, M.; Chelouche, A.

    2014-11-01

    ZnO aerogel powder has been synthesized by a modified sol-gel process using zinc acetate ethanolic solution. XRD, SEM, EDAX, FTIR, UV-visible absorption and photoluminescence (PL) techniques have been used to characterize the as-prepared and the annealed ZnO aerogel powders. The as-prepared ZnO powder has a well-defined polycrystalline hexagonal wurtzite structure. This measurement has demonstrated that the lattice parameters are lower than the standard ones indicating that drying in supercritical conditions of ethanol does not affect the crystallinity but acts as a compressive agent. EDAX measurements show that the obtained aerogel contains only O and Zn elements. Annealing improves the crystallinity in the low DRX angles and decreases the crystalline quality in the high diffraction angles. Also, annealing acts as a tensile agent and increases the lattice parameters. FTIR spectra confirm the annealing effect by the apparition of the strong Zn-O vibration band. The ZnO absorption band shifts to lower wave numbers after annealing indicating an increase in the Zn-O bond length and confirms the XRD results. UV-visible results show a decrease of the ZnO aerogel optical band gap after annealing and confirm the thermal decompression effect on the lattice parameters. The photoluminescence measurements show that the annealing of ZnO aerogel favors the thermal generation of zinc interstitials and oxygen vacancies defects existing in the as-prepared zinc oxide aerogel and shifts the emission toward lower energies.

  12. The use of 5% mafenide acetate solution in the postgraft treatment of necrotizing fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Heinle, E C; Dougherty, W R; Garner, W L; Reilly, D A

    2001-01-01

    Twenty-nine patients with necrotizing fasciitis who were treated with 5% mafenide acetate solution (MAS) as an adjunct after grafting were compared with 45 patients treated without MAS. Statistical analysis of differences was obtained through P values by chi2 testing. The MAS+ (M) and MAS- (C) groups were similar in percent skin deficit (M = 7.5%; C = 9.8%), with the extremity being the most common area of infection. Streptococcus was the most common single organism but polymicrobial infections were the most prevalent (M = 48%; C = 58%). Patients with necrotizing fasciitis treated with MAS had fewer debridements per patient (M = 3.7; C = 5.4), fewer closure procedures (average per patient: M = 1.2; C = 1.73) and a higher percent of first-time closures (83 vs 59%; chi2 = 4.26; P = 0.039). There is a trend toward a lower mortality rate (3.4 vs 13%; chi2 = 2.00; P = 0.158). We conclude that MAS is a useful adjunct in necrotizing fasciitis wound care protocols. PMID:11227682

  13. Enhanced efficiency of inverted polymer solar cells by using solution-processed TiOx/CsOx cathode buffer layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiaodong; Fan, Xi; Sun, Xianke; Zhang, Yunli; Zhu, Ziqiang

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a double-buffer film of TiOx coated with CsOx (TiOx/CsOx) was solution prepared to be applied in poly(3-hexylthiophene):indene-C60 bisadduct (P3HT:ICBA) and P3HT:[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs). Compared with TiOx films and CsOx films, the TiOx/CsOx double-buffer film exhibited a favorable energy-level alignment among TiOx, CsOx, and the electron acceptor of PCBM or ICBA a better surface morphology; and an enhanced wetting and adhesion property with a contact angle of 21.0°, leading to a higher electron mobility of 5.52 × 10-3 cm2 V-1·s-1. Moreover, the P3HT:ICBA and P3HT:PCBM photovoltaic devices with the double-buffer film showed the best power conversion efficiency up to 5.65% and 3.76%, respectively. Our results not only present that the double-buffer film is superior than the single film of TiOx and CsOx, but also imply that the solution-processed film has a potential to be generally used in roll-to-roll processed organic photovoltaic devices.

  14. Extraction of mineralizable organic nitrogen from soils by a neutral phosphate buffer solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shingo Matsumoto; Noriharu Ae; Makoto Yamagata

    2000-01-01

    The availability of soil nitrogen is often evaluated based on the amount of released inorganic N during incubation of a soil at 30°C under field moisture conditions (called the “incubation method”). In place of the incubation method, however, we have developed a phosphate buffer extraction method, as phosphate buffer-extractable organic nitrogen (PEON) appears to correlate strongly (r=0.92???) with the inorganic

  15. The stability of DLC film on nitrided CoCrMo alloy in phosphate buffer solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, T. F.; Liu, B.; Wu, B. J.; Liu, J.; Sun, H.; Leng, Y. X.; Huang, N.

    2014-07-01

    CoCrMo alloy is often used as the material for metal artificial joint, but metal debris and metal ions are the main concern on tissue inflammation or tissue proliferation for metal prosthesis. In this paper, nitrogen ion implantation and diamond like carbon (DLC) film composite treatment was used to reduce the wear and ion release of biomedical CoCrMo substrate. The mechanical properties and stability of N-implanted/DLC composite layer in phosphate buffer solution (PBS) was evaluated to explore the full potential of N-implanted/DLC composite layer as an artificial joint surface modification material. The results showed that the DLC film on N implanted CoCrMo (N-implanted/DLC composite layer) had the higher surface hardness and wear resistance than the DLC film on virgin CoCrMo alloy, which was resulted from the strengthen effect of the N implanted layer on CoCrMo alloy. After 30 days immersion in PBS, the structure of DLC film on virgin CoCrMo or on N implanted CoCrMo had no visible change. But the adhesion and corrosion resistance of DLC on N implanted CoCrMo (N-implanted/DLC composite layer) was weakened due to the dissolution of the N implanted layer after 30 days immersion in PBS. The adhesion reduction of N-implanted/DLC composite layer was adverse for in vivo application in long term. So researcher should be cautious to use N implanted layer as an inter-layer for increasing CoCrMo alloy load carrying capacity in vivo environment.

  16. Decontamination of aquatic vegetable leaves by removing trace toxic metals during pickling process with acetic acid solution.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenbiao; Yang, Yixing

    2011-01-01

    The heavy-metal content of aquatic plants is mainly dependent upon their ecological system. This study indicated that although the toxic heavy-metal contents could be above the recommended maximum levels depending upon their concentrations in growing water, they can be decontaminated by pickling with 5% acetic acid solution. Almost all Cd, Hg, Ba, or Sb and 99.5% Pb, 96.7% Ag, or 97.1% Al were removed from Water Spinach leaves by soaking in acetic acid solution. For Water-Shield leaves, almost all Cd, Hg, Pb, Ba, or Sb and 95.0% Ag or 96.1% Al were removed. For Watercress leaves, almost all Cd, Hg, Ba, or Sb and 99.0% Pb or 99.7% Ag were removed. For Water Hyacinth leaves, almost all Cd, Ba, or Sb and 99.0% Hg, 98.5% Pb, 95.0% Ag, or 98.7% Al were removed. PMID:21888602

  17. Stabilizing effect of citrate buffer on the photolysis of riboflavin in aqueous solution

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Iqbal; Sheraz, Muhammad Ali; Ahmed, Sofia; Kazi, Sadia Hafeez; Mirza, Tania; Aminuddin, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    In the present investigation the photolysis of riboflavin (RF) in the presence of citrate species at pH 4.0–7.0 has been studied. A specific multicomponent spectrophotometric method has been used to assay RF in the presence of photoproducts during the reactions. The overall first-order rate constants (kobs) for the photolysis of RF range from 0.42 to 1.08×10–2 min?1 in the region. The values of kobs have been found to decrease with an increase in citrate concentration indicating an inhibitory effect of these species on the rate of reaction. The second-order rate constants for the interaction of RF with total citrate species causing inhibition range from 1.79 to 5.65×10–3 M?1 min?1 at pH 4.0–7.0. The log k–pH profiles for the reactions at 0.2–1.0 M citrate concentration show a gradual decrease in kobs and the value at 1.0 M is more than half compared to that of k0, i.e., in the absence of buffer, at pH 5.0. Divalent citrate ions cause a decrease in RF fluorescence due to the quenching of the excited singlet state resulting in a decrease in the rate of reaction and consequently leading to the stabilization of RF solutions. The greater quenching of fluorescence at pH 4.0 compared to that of 7.0 is in accordance with the greater concentration of divalent citrate ions (99.6%) at that pH. The trivalent citrate ions exert a greater inhibitory effect on the rate of RF photolysis compared to that of the divalent citrate ions probably as a result of excited triplet state quenching. The values of second-order rate constants for the interaction of divalent and trivalent citrate ions are 0.44×10–2 and 1.06×10–3 M–1 min–1, respectively, indicating that the trivalent ions exert a greater stabilizing effect, compared to the divalent ions, on RF solutions.

  18. Degradation mechanism of poly(lactic- co-glycolic) acid block copolymer cast films in phosphate buffer solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elisabeth Vey; Caroline Roger; Liz Meehan; Jonathan Booth; Mike Claybourn; Aline F. Miller; Alberto Saiani

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated the degradation of poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid copolymer with a lactic to glycolic ratio of 50:50. Solvent-cast films were incubated at 37°C in phosphate buffered saline solution and their degradation was followed using potentiometry, light microscopy, gravimetry, size exclusion chromatography, differential scanning calorimetry and infrared spectroscopy. The degradation process was found to have two main steps. The first step

  19. Hydration numbers of some metal acetates, monochloroacetates and trichloroacetates in solution from ultrasonic velocity and compressibility measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D K Koppikar; M V Lele; S Soundararajan

    1981-01-01

    Ultrasonic velocities in aqueous solutions of some metal acetates, monochloroacetates and trichloroacetates, and the respective\\u000a acids have been measured at 1 MHz frequency using the pulse technique. The ultrasonic velocity, adiabatic compressibility\\u000a and apparent molal compressibility were measured as a function of concentration. The apparent molal compressibility values\\u000a at infinite dilution were calculated and used to determine the hydration numbers.

  20. Solvent effects of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate: solvation and dynamic behavior of polar and apolar solutes.

    PubMed

    Lesch, Volker; Heuer, Andreas; Holm, Christian; Smiatek, Jens

    2015-04-01

    We study the solvation properties of the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMIM](+)[ACE](-)) and the resulting dynamic behavior for differently charged model solutes at room temperature via atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of 300 ns length and 200 ns equilibration time. The solutes are simple model spheres which are either positively or negatively charged with a valency of one, or uncharged. The numerical findings indicate a distinct solvation behavior with the occurrence of well-pronounced solvation shells whose composition significantly depends on the charge of the solute. All the results of our simulations evidence the existence of a long-range perturbation effect in presence of the solutes. Our findings validate the dominance of electrostatic interactions with regard to unfavorable entropic ordering effects which elucidates the enthalpic character of the solvation process in ionic liquids for charged solutes. PMID:25680082

  1. The Effect of Crystallizing and Non-crystallizing Cosolutes on Succinate Buffer Crystallization and the Consequent pH Shift in Frozen Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Sundaramurthi, Prakash; Suryanarayanan, Raj (UMM)

    2011-09-06

    To effectively inhibit succinate buffer crystallization and the consequent pH changes in frozen solutions. Using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD), the crystallization behavior of succinate buffer in the presence of either (i) a crystallizing (glycine, mannitol, trehalose) or (ii) a non-crystallizing cosolute (sucrose) was evaluated. Aqueous succinate buffer solutions, 50 or 200 mM, at pH values 4.0 or 6.0 were cooled from room temperature to -25 C at 0.5 C/min. The pH of the solution was measured as a function of temperature using a probe designed to function at low temperatures. The final lyophiles prepared from these solutions were characterized using synchrotron radiation. When the succinic acid solution buffered to pH 4.0, in the absence of a cosolute, was cooled, there was a pronounced shift in the freeze-concentrate pH. Glycine and mannitol, which have a tendency to crystallize in frozen solutions, remained amorphous when the initial pH was 6.0. Under this condition, they also inhibited buffer crystallization and prevented pH change. At pH 4.0 (50 mM initial concentration), glycine and mannitol crystallized and did not prevent pH change in frozen solutions. While sucrose, a non-crystallizing cosolute, did not completely prevent buffer crystallization, the extent of crystallization was reduced. Sucrose decomposition, based on XRD peaks attributable to {beta}-D-glucose, was observed in frozen buffer solutions with an initial pH of 4.0. Trehalose completely inhibited crystallization of the buffer components when the initial pH was 6.0 but not at pH 4.0. At the lower pH, the crystallization of both trehalose dihydrate and buffer components was evident. When retained amorphous, sucrose and trehalose effectively inhibited succinate buffer component crystallization and the consequent pH shift. However, when trehalose crystallized or sucrose degraded to yield a crystalline decomposition product, crystallization of buffer was observed. Similarly, glycine and mannitol, two widely used bulking agents, inhibited buffer component crystallization only when retained amorphous. In addition to stabilizing the active pharmaceutical ingredient, lyoprotectants may prevent solution pH shift by inhibiting buffer crystallization.

  2. Effect of Initial Buffer Composition on pH Changes During Far-From-Equilibrium Freezing of Sodium Phosphate Buffer Solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerardo Gómez; Michael J Pikal; Naír Rodríguez-Hornedo

    2001-01-01

    Purpose. This study aims to assess the pH changes induced by salt precipitation during far-from-equilibrium freezing of sodium phosphate buffers as a function of buffer composition, under experimental conditions relevant to pharmaceutical applications—sample volumes larger than a few microliters, experiencing large degrees of undercooling and supersaturation.

  3. Proposing buffer zones and simple technical solutions for safeguarding river water quality and public health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podimata, M. V.; Bekri, E. S.; Yannopoulos, P. C.

    2012-04-01

    Alfeios River Basin (ARB) constitutes one of the major hydrologic basins (?3650km2) of Peloponnisos peninsula in Southern Greece. It is drained by Alfeios River and its tributaries, such as Lousios, Ladhon, Erymanthos, Kladheos, Selinous etc. The present manuscript takes a closer look at the importance of tributary basins and focuses on Erymanthos sub-basin that covers about 360 km2. Erymanthos River springs from Erymanthos Mountain that reaches altitudes of 2200 m and discharges 10 m3/sec, approximately, during the winter period, presenting a sound decrease from half to about an order of magnitude during summertime. Two factors stand out as reasons to select Erymanthos sub-basin as a case study. First, the sub-basin presents a significant variety of ecosystems and comprises a very important river system, since Erymanthos Tributary satisfies, among other uses, drinking water supply for a great majority of citizens in the region. Second, authors' experience of the study area in Research Program Pythagoras II, funded by the European Social Fund (ESF) and the Operational Program for Educational and Vocational Training II (EPEAEK II) of Greece, offers a basis for better understanding of the real problems in the area. Erymanthos watershed, in fact, faces a lot of pressures, in several levels, provoked by human activities and Erymanthos Tributary is vulnerable to pollution. Recognizing the importance of clean water for healthy people, a developing economy, and a sustainable environment, the challenge of the present paper is elaborating human-induced pressures in the study area, analyzing their effects, estimating pollution factors and proposing integrated solutions/tools and a number of methodologies/initiatives used to overcome the problem of contaminating water supply in a catchment that lacks of wastewater treatment and disposal systems. The preservation of a good ecological status in Erymanthos River is not only a necessity for achieving the goals of EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) 2000/60, but a practical necessity for the safeguarding of public health and ecosystem health, in general. The present study aims at developing a simple methodology for assessing spatial distribution characteristics of pollution in Erymanthos catchment. Pollution loads at various sites in Erymanthos watershed were illustrated with Geographical Information System (GIS). Flow rates of Erymanthos River were also taken into consideration. Based on previous studies, in situ river discharges have been compared to simulated discharges in order to calibrate the rainfall-runoff model ENNS which can then predict future scenarios regarding the river flow rates with consideration of climate change effects. The goal of this study is to detect the pertinent points and suggest a) suitable buffer zones in areas with high pollution risk and b) simple technical works in order to prevent the main channel of Erymanthos River from direct polluting discharges. The above systems could also act supportively in groundwater enrichment, forest protection and soil erosion prevention. Authors believe that the results of the study could assist authorities and engineers to design and develop strategies of improving river water quality and safeguarding public health. The proposed measures may be applicable to other catchments as well.

  4. Stability of curcumin in buffer solutions and characterization of its degradation products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying-Jan Wang; Min-Hsiung Pan; Ann-Lii Cheng; Liang-In Lin; Yuan-Soon Ho; Chang-Yao Hsieh; Jen-Kun Lin

    1997-01-01

    The degradation kinetics of curcumin under various pH conditions and the stability of curcumin in physiological matrices were investigated. When curcumin was incubated in 0.1 M phosphate buffer and serum-free medium, pH 7.2 at 37°C, about 90% decomposed within 30 min. A series of pH conditions ranging from 3 to 10 were tested and the result showed that decomposition was

  5. Removal of dicyclohexyl acetic acid from aqueous solution using ultrasound, ozone and their combination.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pardeep; Headley, John; Peru, Kerry; Bailey, Jon; Dalai, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    Naphthenic acids are a complex mixture of organic components, some of which include saturated alkyl-substituted cycloaliphatic carboxylic acids and acyclic aliphatic acids. They are naturally found in hydrocarbon deposits like oil sand, petroleum, bitumen and crude oil. In this study, the oxidation of a relatively high molecular weight naphthenic acid (Dicyclohexyl acetic acid) was investigated using ozonation, ultrasonication and hydrogen peroxide alone and their combinations. Effects on oxidation of dicyclohexyl acetic acid (DAA) were measured for different concentrations of ozone ranging between 0.7 to 3.3 mg L(-1) and pH in the range 6 to 10. Ultrasonication and hydrogen peroxide alone were not effective to oxidize dicyclohexyl acetic acid, but combining ultrasonication with H2O2 had a significant effect on oxidation of dicyclohexyl acetic acid with maximum removal reaching to 84 ± 2.2% with 81 ± 2.1% reduction in chemical oxygen demand (COD). Synergistic effects were observed for combining ultrasonication with ozonation and resulted in 100% DAA removal with 98 ± 0.8% reduction in COD within 15 min at 3.3 mg L(-1) ozone concentration and 130 Watts ultrasonication power. The reaction conditions obtained for the maximum oxidation of DAA and COD removal were used for the degradation of naphthenic acids mixture extracted from oil sands process water (OSPW). The percentage oxidation of NAs mixture extracted from OSPW was 89.3 ± 1.1% in ozonation and combined ozonation and ultrasonication, but COD removal observed was 65 ± 1.2% and 78 ± 1.4% for ozonation and combined ozonation and ultrasonication treatments, respectively. PMID:25137539

  6. Synthesis and Spectroscopic Analysis of a Cyclic Acetal: A Dehydration Performed in Aqueous Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collard, David M.; Jones, Adolphus G.; Kriegel, Robert M.

    2001-01-01

    The treatment of aldehydes (and ketones) with diols in the presence of acid gives acetals (and ketals) in an equilibrium reaction. Treatment of pentaerythritol with benzaldehyde in aqueous acid gives the monoacetal, 5,5-bis(hydroxymethyl)-2-phenyl-1,3-dioxane. The reaction has a number of interesting features. The isolated product is the monobenzal not the dibenzal, and the reaction, a dehydration, is performed in water. The reaction proceeds to provide the acetal owing to the insolubility of the product in the aqueous reaction medium, thus removing the product from the equilibrium. This experiment is suitable for incorporation into the undergraduate organic laboratory as the synthesis of a product for characterization by melting point, solubility, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance. Only through recognition of the three-dimensional structure of the dioxane ring can students explain the appearance of the 1H NMR spectrum of the product. The hydroxymethyl groups of the product are inequivalent, as are the hydrogens of the methylenes in the ring. The experiment may also be presented as a group exercise to optimize the conditions of a reaction to maximize the yield of the desired product.

  7. Nanofiltration of rhodium tris(triphenylphosphine) catalyst in ethyl acetate solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaharun, Maizatul S.; Mustafa, Ahmad K.; Taha, Mohd F.

    2012-09-01

    Solvent resistant nanofiltration (SRNF) using polymer membranes has recently received enhanced attention due to the search for cleaner and more energy-efficient technologies. The large size of the rhodium tris(triphenylphosphine) [HRh(CO)(PPh3)3] catalyst (>400 Da) - relative to other components of the hydroformylation reaction provides the opportunity for a membrane separation based on retention of the catalyst species while permeating the solvent. The compatibility of the solvent-polyimide membrane (DuraMem{trade mark, serif} 200 and DuraMem{trade mark, serif} 500) combinations was assessed in terms of the membrane stability in solvent plus non-zero solvent flux at 2.0 MPa. Good HRh(CO)(PPh3)3 rejection (>0.95) and solvent fluxes of 9.9 L/m2?h1 at 2.0 MPa were obtained in the catalyst-ethyl acetate-DuraMem 500 system. The effect of pressure and catalyst concentration on the solvent flux and catalyst rejection was conducted on the catalyst-ethyl acetate-membrane systems. Increasing pressure substantially improved both solvent flux and catalyst rejection, while increasing catalyst concentration was found to be beneficial in terms of substantial increases in catalyst rejection without significantly affecting solvent flux.

  8. Better preservation of peritoneal morphologic features and defense in rats after long-term exposure to a bicarbonate/lactate-buffered solution.

    PubMed

    Hekking, L H; Zareie, M; Driesprong, B A; Faict, D; Welten, A G; de Greeuw, I; Schadee-Eestermans, I L; Havenith, C E; van den Born, J; ter Wee, P M; Beelen, R H

    2001-12-01

    The long-term effects of a standard lactate-buffered dialysis fluid and a new, two-chamber, bicarbonate/lactate-buffered dialysis fluid (with fewer glucose degradation products and a neutral pH) were compared in an in vivo peritoneal exposure model. Rats were given daily injections, via an access port, of 10 ml of standard solution or bicarbonate/lactate-buffered solution for 9 to 10 wk. The omentum, peritoneum, and mesothelial cell layer were screened for morphologic changes. In addition, the bacterial clearing capacity of the peritoneal cells was studied. Significantly more milky spots and blood vessels were observed in the omenta of animals treated with standard solution (P < 0.03 for both parameters). Electron-microscopic analysis demonstrated dramatic changes in the appearance of the vascular endothelial cells of the milky spots and a severely damaged or even absent mesothelium on the peritoneal membrane of the standard solution-treated animals. In contrast, the mesothelium was still present in the bicarbonate/lactate-buffered solution group, although the cells lost microvilli. Both peritoneal dialysis fluids significantly increased the density of mesothelial cells (per square millimeter) on the surface of the liver and the thickness of the submesothelial extracellular matrix of the peritoneum (both P < 0.04 for both fluids versus control). A significantly better ex vivo bacterial clearing capacity was observed with peritoneal cells from the bicarbonate/lactate-buffered solution group, compared with the standard solution group (P < 0.05 in both experiments). These results demonstrate that instillation of bicarbonate/lactate-buffered solution into rats for 9 to 10 wk preserves both morphologic and immune parameters much more effectively, compared with standard solution. These findings may be of considerable clinical importance. PMID:11729248

  9. Chemical solution deposition of La2Zr2O7 and Y2Ti2O7 buffer layers on NiW substrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. B. Zhu; Y. P. Sun; W. H. Song; J. Yang; H. W. Gu

    2006-01-01

    La2Zr2O7 and Y2Ti2O7 buffer layers with similar lattice constant and cubic structure were successfully deposited on NiW(2 0 0) substrates using propionic acid as unique chelate through chemical solution deposition method. The results showed that using 900 °C-annealing temperature one could obtain highly (4 0 0)-oriented LZO buffer layers with relatively sharp out-of-plane and in-plane orientation and flat microstructure; However,

  10. Capillary electrophoresis–electrospray ionization mass spectrometry using uncoated fused-silica capillaries and alkaline buffer solution for the analysis of small carboxylic acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hirokazu Sawada; Chika Nogami

    2004-01-01

    A simple and cost-effective capillary electrophoresis\\/mass spectrometric (CE\\/MS) method for the analysis of small carboxylic acids including succinate, malate, tartarate, maleinate and citrate, is described. All CE\\/MS experiments were performed with uncoated fused-silica capillaries and with alkaline volatile buffer solution (ammonium formate buffer, pH 10). Since sheath liquids have significant effects on the sensitivity in typical CE\\/MS applications, the effects

  11. Use of aqueous solutions of sodium alginate and calcium acetate as quenching liquids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. G. Kurmashov

    1982-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of SA are prepared from a film of it obtained from an algal extract. The algai extract is prepared from seaweed of the species Lc~inaria saccharina and digitata. For the quenching solution 1--3% of the dried seaweeds is infused for 3--5 days in a 1% aqueous sodium carbonate solution. To obtain the SA film sulfuric or hydrochloric acid

  12. Interfacial energetics of globular–blood protein adsorption to a hydrophobic interface from aqueous-buffer solution

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Anandi; Liu, Yi-Hsiu; Cha, Paul; Allara, David; Vogler, Erwin A

    2005-01-01

    Adsorption isotherms of nine globular proteins with molecular weight (MW) spanning 10–1000?kDa confirm that interfacial energetics of protein adsorption to a hydrophobic solid/aqueous-buffer (solid–liquid, SL) interface are not fundamentally different than adsorption to the water–air (liquid–vapour, LV) interface. Adsorption dynamics dampen to a steady-state (equilibrium) within a 1?h observation time and protein adsorption appears to be reversible, following expectations of Gibbs' adsorption isotherm. Adsorption isotherms constructed from concentration-dependent advancing contact angles ?a of buffered-protein solutions on methyl-terminated, self-assembled monolayer surfaces show that maximum advancing spreading pressure, ?amax, falls within a relatively narrow 10

  13. Growth and Characterization of La2Zr2O7 Buffer Layers Deposited by Chemical Solution Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armenio, A. Angrisani; Augieri, A.; Fabbri, F.; Freda, R.; Galluzzi, V.; Mancini, A.; Rizzo, F.; Rufoloni, A.; Vannozzi, A.; Sotgiu, G.; Pompeo, N.; Torokhtii, K.; Silva, E.; Bemporad, E.; Contini, G.; Celentano, G.

    The deposition and characterization of La2Zr2O7 thin films deposited by metal-organic decomposition method on both single crystal SrTiO3 and cube textured Ni-5 at.%W substrates are presented. Metal acetylacetonates in propionic acid solution was used. The results showed that LZO films are epitaxially grown with smooth surface with rms roughness around 2 nm. YBa2Cu3O7-? films, deposited by pulsed laser deposition technique on LZO buffer layers, showed critical temperature of 90 K and critical current density in self magnetic field Jc = 1.6 and 13 MA/cm2 at 77 K and 4.2 K, respectively. A better Jc retention in magnetic field for YBCO films deposited on LZO/STO than YBCO on bare STO is observed indicating a rather strong vortex pinning as confirmed by microwave measurements.

  14. Influence of NiO anode buffer layer prepared by solution on performance of bulk-heterojunction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyung Ho; Takahashi, Chiaki; Okubo, Takashi; Abe, Yoshio; Kawamura, Midori

    2012-08-01

    We investigate the properties of NiO thin films prepared by sol-gel solution and the photovoltaic performance of bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells based on NiO thin films as anode buffer layers with various film thickness and amorphous-crystalline phase. Optoelectronic properties and surface morphology of NiO films strongly depend on the thickness and phase of the NiO. The performance of solar cells based on nanocrystaline (nc-) NiO exhibits better photovoltaic characteristics in comparison to those employing an amorphous (a-) NiO. The obtained power conversion efficiency (PCE, ?) of a solar cell with a 20-nm-thick nc-NiO is 2.24%, with a short-circuit density (JSC) of 7.77 mA/cm2, open-circuit voltage (VOC) of 0.57 V, and fill factor (FF) of 0.50.

  15. Electrochemical investigation of copper deposition onto silicon from hydrofluoric acid and buffered hydrofluoric acid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guangming

    For the fabrication of ULSI circuits, the silicon surface should be free of metallic and particulate contamination and be atomically smooth. Heavy metal contaminants have detrimental effects on the yield of microelectronic processing and reliability of solid state devices by increasing the junction leakage current, degrading the integrity of gate oxide and reducing the oxide breakdown voltage. It has been demonstrated that the contamination level for most metals has to be controlled below 10sp{10} atoms/cmsp2 for sub-quarter micron processing. Some transition and noble metal ions such as copper, silver and gold are known to deposit on silicon surfaces in acidic fluoride based solutions. Among them, copper has been the focus of most research due to the widespread use of copper in microelectronic industry. To investigate the mechanisms by which copper deposits on silicon surfaces in HF and BHF solutions, different electrochemical techniques were used, including dc polarization and ac impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results of electrochemical measurements, in conjunction with various surface characterization techniques, such as TXRF, AFM and TEM, reveal the rates of reactions that occur at silicon/solution interface can be affected by many factors, such as silicon dopant type and doping levels, ionic strength of electrolytes, illumination conditions and the use of additives. For example, under darkness, the amount of copper deposition is nearly one order of magnitude less than that under illumination for p-type silicon in both HF and BHF solutions and n-type silicon in HF solutions. In BHF solutions, n-type silicon is very close to its flat band condition where illumination plays little role. The addition of copper ions in BHF solutions not only causes metal contamination, but also generates severe surface roughness due to the masking effect of copper on the anisotropic etching of silicon in BHF solutions. Local etching rate of 1nm/min was measured on the silicon sample prepared in 100 ppb Cusp{2+} BHF solutions. Some additives such as surfactants and hydrochloric acid can effectively reduce the reaction rates of silicon corrosion and copper deposition by either blocking the active reaction sites or form copper ion complexes.

  16. Morphological and phase evolution of TiO 2 nanocrystals prepared from peroxotitanate complex aqueous solution: Influence of acetic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jeong Ah; Vithal, Muga; Baek, In Chan; Seok, Sang Il

    2009-04-01

    Nanosized anatase and rutile TiO 2 having different shape, phase and size have been prepared from aqueous solutions of peroxo titanium complex starting from titanium(IV) isopropoxide (TTIP), acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide (H 2O 2) in water/isopropanol media by a facile sol-gel process. The TiO 2 nanocrystals are characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, TEM, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) techniques. The influence of pH and the sequence of addition of reaction contents on the phase and morphology of TiO 2 are studied. The reasons for the observation of only anatase and/or mixture of anatase and rutile are given.

  17. Vasodilator effects of the sodium acetate in pooled protein fraction.

    PubMed Central

    Olinger, G N; Werner, P H; Bonchek, L I; Boerboom, L E

    1979-01-01

    Paradoxical hypotension during rapid infusion of plasma protein fraction (PPF) has been attributed to vasodilation by bradykinin in PPF. This study employed a canine, controlled right heart bypass preparation to assess changes in systemic vascular resistance and venous capacitance during infusion of PPF and other possibly vasoactive mediators. Plasma protein fraction caused consistent vasodilation, whereas purified human albumin did not. This vasodilation could be ascribed entirely to acetate, present in PPF as a buffer. Bradykinin in PPF had no effect during venous infusion. Acetate is used widely as a buffer in intravenous and dialysate solutions. Its vasoactive properties must be recognized when such solutions are administered to patients with limited capacity to compensate for sudden vasodilation. PMID:485604

  18. PHOTOLUMINESCENT DISTINCTION AMONG PLANT LIFE FORMS USING PHOSPHATE BUFFERED SALINE EXTRACT SOLUTIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Photoluminescence of plant extract solutions has been investigated for discrimination of plant life forms (grasses, forbs and shrubs) using principle componet analysis (PCA). Clippings from each of six plant species representing three different plant life forms potentially found in the diets of fre...

  19. Effect of phosphate salts concentrations, supporting electrolytes, and calcium phosphate salt precipitation on the pH of phosphate buffer solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sook Heun Kim; Sadis Matalon; Nien-Hwa Linda Wang; Elias I. Franses

    2009-01-01

    A monobasic and a dibasic phosphate salt are usually added to water to form a standard phosphate buffer solution. The solution pH depends primarily on the concentration ratio R of the two salts, and secondarily on their concentrations and on the concentrations of the supporting electrolytes such as NaCl or KCl. Various ideal and non-ideal solution thermodynamic models are presented.

  20. Removal of chromium from aqueous solution using cellulose acetate and sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) blend ultrafiltration membranes.

    PubMed

    Arthanareeswaran, G; Thanikaivelan, P; Jaya, N; Mohan, D; Raajenthiren, M

    2007-01-01

    A process for purifying aqueous solutions containing heavy and toxic metals such as chromium has been investigated. Chromium salts are largely used in various industries including leather-manufacturing industry. Ultrafiltration processes are largely being applied for macromolecular and heavy metal ion separation from aqueous streams. Cellulose acetate and sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) blend ultrafiltration membranes were prepared by precipitation phase inversion technique in 100/0, 90/10, 80/20 and 70/30% polymer blend compositions and subjected to the rejection of chromium at different concentrations such as 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 ppm with a water-soluble macroligand (polyvinylalcohol). Factors affecting the percentage rejection and permeate flux such as pH, concentration of solute, concentration of PVA, transmembrane pressure and composition of blend membranes were investigated. It was found that percentage rejection improved at a pH 6 and a macroligand concentration of 2 wt.%. The transmembrane pressure and concentration of solute also have an effect on the separation and product rate efficiencies of the blend membranes. PMID:16860465

  1. Solution-free, in situ preparation of nano/micro CuO/ZnO in dielectric barrier discharge for sensitive cataluminescence sensing of acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Xia, Hui; Zhou, Ronghui; Zheng, Chengbin; Wu, Peng; Tian, Yunfei; Hou, Xiandeng

    2013-07-01

    The present work describes a new solution-free strategy for preparation of cluster-like nano/micro CuO/ZnO particles in dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in which the brass acts as the inner electrode. The cataluminescence (CTL) behaviour of such prepared material for acetic acid was studied for analytical application. Under the optimized conditions, the linear range of CTL intensity versus concentration of acetic acid are 6 mg L(-1) to 500 mg L(-1) with the limit of detection (LOD) of 3 mg L(-1), no significant interference was found. The new method shows great advantages because it is a process without any solution and complex equipment. The synthetic material was directly used for the cataluminescence sensing of acetic acid without other preliminary treatment and it shows high selectivity, satisfactory stability, and better sensitivity and linearity. PMID:23671903

  2. Amidolytic, Procoagulant, and Activation-Suppressing Proteins Produced by Contact Activation of Blood Factor XII in Buffer Solution

    PubMed Central

    Golas, Avantika; Yeh, Chyi-Huey Joshua; Siedlecki, Christopher A.; Vogler, Erwin A.

    2011-01-01

    The relative proportions of enzymes with amidolytic or procoagulant activity produced by contact activation of the blood zymogen factor XII (FXII, Hageman factor) in buffer solution depends on activator surface chemistry/energy. As a consequence, chromogenic assay of amidolytic activity (cleavage of amino acid bonds in s-2302 chromogen) does not correlate with the traditional plasma-coagulation-time assay for procoagulant activity (protease activity inducing clotting of blood plasma). Amidolytic activity did not vary significantly with activator-particle surface energy, herein measured as water adhesion tension ?°=?lv°cos?a; where ?lv° is pure buffer interfacial tension and ?a is the advancing contact angle. By contrast, procoagulant activity varied as a parabolic-like function of ?o, high at both hydrophobic and hydrophilic extremes of activator surface energy and falling through a broad minimum within a 20

  3. Acid neutralizing processes in an alpine watershed front range, Colorado, U.S.A.-1: Buffering capacity of dissolved organic carbon in soil solutions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iggy, Litaor M.; Thurman, E.M.

    1988-01-01

    Soil interstitial waters in the Green Lakes Valley, Front Range, Colorado were studied to evaluate the capacity of the soil system to buffer acid deposition. In order to determine the contribution of humic substances to the buffering capacity of a given soil, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and pH of the soil solutions were measured. The concentration of the organic anion, Ai-, derived from DOC at sample pH and the concentration of organic anion, Ax- at the equivalence point were calculated using carboxyl contents from isolated and purified humic material from soil solutions. Subtracting Ax- from Ai- yields the contribution of humic substances to the buffering capacity (Aequiv.-). Using this method, one can evaluate the relative contribution of inorganic and organic constituents to the acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) of the soil solutions. The relative contribution of organic acids to the overall ANC was found to be extremely important in the alpine wetland (52%) and the forest-tundra ecotone (40%), and somewhat less important in the alpine tundra sites (20%). A failure to recognize the importance of organic acids in soil solutions to the ANC will result in erroneous estimates of the buffering capacity in the alpine environment of the Front Range, Colorado. ?? 1988.

  4. Ink-jet printing of SrTiO3 buffer layers from aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollefeyt, G.; Clerick, S.; Vermeir, P.; Feys, J.; Hühne, R.; Lommens, P.; Van Driessche, I.

    2014-09-01

    In this work, fully a-axis oriented SrTiO3 thin films were synthesized by ink-jet printing of water-based precursor inks. The developed precursor solution or ‘ink’ was optimized in terms of rheology, leading to the ejection of single droplets showing a maximum contact angle of 12° on (100) oriented single crystal LaAlO3 substrates. By using the appropriate ink-jet deposition parameters and thermal treatment, well-textured and dense SrTiO3 films of 130 nm thickness were obtained. The biaxial texture is maintained up to the surface of the films, leading to the formation of (h00)-oriented terraces. As shown by transmission electron microscopy, excellent texture transfer was achieved from the SrTiO3 film to the YBa2Cu3O7 - ? layer deposited by pulsed laser deposition. Outstanding superconducting properties were obtained with critical current densities up to 3.6 MA cm-2 in self-field at 77 K, demonstrating that these sustainable SrTiO3 films meet the requirements to be used as growing template for high quality superconducting coatings.

  5. Influence of temperature, chloride ions and chromium element on the electronic property of passive film formed on carbon steel in bicarbonate\\/carbonate buffer solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. G. Li; Y. R. Feng; Z. Q. Bai; J. W. Zhu; M. S. Zheng

    2007-01-01

    The influences of temperature, chloride ions and chromium element on the electronic property of passive film formed on carbon steel in NaHCO3\\/Na2CO3 buffer solution are investigated by capacitance measurement and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results show that the passive film appears n-type semiconductive character; with increasing the solution temperature, the addition of chromium into carbon steel and increasing the

  6. Diffusion of 1-Ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium Acetate in Glucose, Cellobiose, and Cellulose Solutions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Solutions of glucose, cellobiose and microcrystalline cellulose in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium ([C2mim][OAc]) have been examined using pulsed-field gradient 1H NMR. Diffusion coefficients of the cation and anion across the temperature range 20–70 °C have been determined for a range of concentrations (0–15% w/w) of each carbohydrate in [C2mim][OAc]. These systems behave as an “ideal mixture” of free ions and ions that are associated with the carbohydrate molecules. The molar ratio of carbohydrate OH groups to ionic liquid molecules, ?, is the key parameter in determining the diffusion coefficients of the ions. Master curves for the diffusion coefficients of cation, anion and their activation energies are generated upon which all our data collapses when plotted against ?. Diffusion coefficients are found to follow an Arrhenius type behavior and the difference in translational activation energy between free and associated ions is determined to be 9.3 ± 0.9 kJ/mol. PMID:24405090

  7. Acetate free biofiltration. Effects on peripheral blood monocyte activation and cytokine release.

    PubMed

    Carozzi, S; Nasini, M G; Caviglia, P M; Schelotto, C; Santoni, O; Atti, M

    1992-01-01

    Acetate free biofiltration (AFB), a new hemodiafiltration (HDF) technique characterized by a buffer free dialysate and postdilution infusion of a sterile HCO3 solution, was recently proposed as an alternative to HDF performed with acetate or bicarbonate dialysate. To evaluate the effects of dialysate buffer on immune cell activation, release of interleukin-1 (IL-1), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) from peripheral blood monocytes was studied in 12 uremic patients before and after HDF with polyacrylonitrile membranes (Filtral 12, Hospal Laboratories, Bologna, Italy) and consecutive dialysis with acetate, bicarbonate, and AFB. Data were correlated with the monocyte cytoplasmic concentration of Ca++, an index of early cell activation. Levels of bacterial endotoxins in the acetate, bicarbonate, buffer free dialysate, and infusate for AFB were also determined. Results showed that release of IL-1, PGE2, and LTB4, was greater after HDF with acetate than with bicarbonate; after bicarbonate dialysis, however, TNF production was significantly higher. On the other hand, after AFB, minimal production of these cytokines was seen and TNF, in particular, was undetectable. There was a direct correlation between release of cytokines in the monocytes and cytoplasmic Ca++ content. In the bicarbonate dialysate, detectable levels of bacterial endotoxins were found, whereas the acetate, buffer free dialysate, and infusate were endotoxin free. It was concluded that acetate dialysis directly activates peripheral blood monocytes to produce IL-1, PGE2, and LTB4, whereas bicarbonate induced TNF activation occurs through endotoxins. In AFB, which uses a buffer free dialysate and sterile bicarbonate infusion, monocyte activation is negligible. PMID:1313318

  8. Toward understanding the chloroquine action at the molecular level in antimalarial therapy--X-ray absorption studies in acetic acid solution.

    PubMed

    Walczak, Monika S; Lawniczak-Jablonska, Krystyna; Wolska, Anna; Sikora, Marcin; Sienkiewicz, Andrzej; Suárez, Liliana; Kosar, Aaron J; Bellemare, Marie-Josee; Bohle, D Scott

    2011-04-21

    The local atomic structure around the central iron of the synthetic soluble analog of malarial pigment in acetic acid solution and with addition of chloroquine as found by X-ray absorption spectroscopy is reported. The special interest was drawn to the axial linkage between the central iron atom of the ferriprotoporphyrin IX (FePPIX) coordinated axially to the propionate group of the adjacent FePPIX. This kind of bonding is typical for hematin anhydride. Detailed analysis revealed differences in oxygen coordination sphere (part of dimer linkage bond) between synthetic equivalent of hemozoin in the powder state and dissolved in acetic acid and water at different concentrations mimicking the physiological condition of the parasite's food vacuole. The results of performed studies suggest that the molecular structure of synthetic analogue of hemozoin is no longer dimer-like in acidic solution. Further changes in atomic order around Fe are seen after addition of the antimalarial drug chloroquine. PMID:21434658

  9. Detailed investigations on La 2Zr 2O 7 buffer layers for YBCO-coated conductors prepared by chemical solution deposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Knoth; R. Hühne; S. Oswald; L. Schultz; B. Holzapfel

    2007-01-01

    An extensive study of the growth and properties of La2Zr2O7 (LZO) buffer layers prepared by chemical solution deposition on Ni–5at.%W rolling-assisted biaxially textured substrates, which is presently of great interest for the preparation of YBa2Cu3O7?x-coated conductors, is presented. The main focus was on the understanding of the decomposition of the precursor layers, and their growth and texture formation, as well

  10. Electrochemical behavior of glassy carbon electrodes modified by multi-walled carbon nanotube\\/surfactant films in a buffer solution and an ionic liquid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi Li; Xingwang Shi; Jingcheng Hao

    2006-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of glassy carbon (GC) electrodes coated with multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)\\/surfactant films was studied in an ionic liquid and a phosphate buffer solution (pH=6.86), using cyclic voltammetry. The dispersion of MWCNTs in different media was investigated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Cast films of MWCNT\\/zwitterionic dodecyldimethylamine oxide on a GC electrode show a typical redox couple

  11. Comparative observation of accelerated degradation of poly( l-lactic acid) fibres in phosphate buffered saline and a dilute alkaline solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoyan Yuan; Arthur F. T Mak; Kangde Yao

    2002-01-01

    Accelerated degradation of poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) fibres was carried out in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) (pH 7.4) and a dilute NaOH solution (pH 11.0) at 80 °C for up to 7–8 days. Characterization of the viscosity-average molecular weight, the mass loss, the thermal behaviours, the morphology and the tensile properties of the PLLA fibres was performed. The results suggested that the

  12. Properties and morphology of poly( l-lactide) 4. Effects of structural parameters on long-term hydrolysis of poly( l-lactide) in phosphate-buffered solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hideto Tsuji; Yoshito Ikada

    2000-01-01

    Hydrolysis of poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) films with different crystallinities (xc's), crystalline thicknesses (Lc's), and spherulite sizes, was studied in phosphate-buffered solution at 37°C. The films were prepared by altering the annealing or crystallization temperatures (Ta's) from the melt without or with quenching before annealing. The initial xc and Lc of PLLA films increased as they were prepared at higher Ta. The

  13. Contribution of solution pH and buffer capacity to suppress intergranular stress corrosion cracking of sensitized type 304 stainless steel at 95 C

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, S.; Shibata, T.; Haruna, T. (Osaka Univ., Suita, Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Materials Science and Processing)

    1999-05-01

    Controlling pH of high-temperature water to [approximately]pH 7 at 300 C by adding lithium hydroxide (LiOH) into the coolant system of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) successfully has been mitigating the corrosion of PWR component materials. The effects of solution pH and buffer capacity on intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of sensitized type 304 stainless steel ([SS] UNS S30400) was examined at 95 C by slow strain rate technique (SSRT) with an in-situ cracking observation system. It was found that an increase in solution pH or buffer capacity increased crack initiation time and decreased mean crack initiation frequency, but exerted almost no effect on crack propagation. This inhibition effect on IGSCC initiation was explained as resulting from a retarding effect of solution pH and buffer capacity on the decrease in pH at crack nuclei caused by the hydrolysis of metal ions dissolved when the passive film was ruptured by strain in SSRT.

  14. Molecular Structure of Sodium acetate

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-08-26

    Sodium acetate is known for its ability to supercool. It freezes at 130 degrees, but can exist as a liquid at a much lower temperature. In order to melt solidified sodium acetate, however, every single crystal must liquify, otherwise the material will recrystallize. Sodium acetate has been used as a deicer for roads and runways. It is also used a component of buffer systems and in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals and heat pads. The compound is quite stable. It may act as an irritant and be harmful if inhaled or absorbed through the skin.

  15. Mesoxalaldehyde acetals

    SciTech Connect

    Gordeeva, G.N.; Kalashnikov, S.M.; Popov, Yu.N.; Kruglov, E.A.; Imashev, U.B.

    1987-11-10

    The treatment of methylglyoxal acetals by alkyl nitrites in the presence of the corresponding aliphatic alcohols and hydrochloric acid leads to the formation of linear mesoxalaldehyde acetals, whose structure was established by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The major pathways for the decomposition of these molecules upon electron impact were established.

  16. Effect of chloride ion on the anodic polarization behavior of the Zr 65Al 7.5Ni 10Cu 17.5 amorphous alloy in phosphate buffered solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Hiromoto; A.-P. Tsai; M. Sumita; T. Hanawa

    2000-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of the Zr65Al7.5Ni10Cu17.5 amorphous alloy was investigated in a phosphate buffered saline solution and in phosphate–citric acid buffered solutions with various chloride-ion concentrations from 0 to 1.0 M, to examine the performance of the alloy as a biomaterial. The surface condition of the non-polarized and polarized alloy in the passive region was characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  17. In vitro corrosion behaviour of Mg alloys in a phosphate buffered solution for bone implant application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liping Xu; Erlin Zhang; Dongsong Yin; Songyan Zeng; Ke Yang

    2008-01-01

    The corrosion behaviour of Mg–Mn and Mg–Mn–Zn magnesium alloy in a phosphate buffered simulated body fluid (SBF) has been\\u000a investigated by electrochemical testing and weight loss experiment for bone implant application. Long passivation stage and\\u000a noble breakdown potential in the polarization curves indicated that a passive layer could be rapidly formed on the surface\\u000a of magnesium alloy in the phosphate

  18. A Buffer Space Optimal Solution for Re-establishing the Packet Order in a MPSoC Network Processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genius, Daniela; Munier Kordon, Alix; Zine El Abidine, Khouloud

    We consider a multi-processor system-on-chip destined for streaming applications. An application is composed of one input and one output queue and in-between, several levels of identical tasks. Data arriving at the input are treated in parallel in an arbitrary order, but have to leave the system in the order of arrival. This scenario is particularly important in the context of telecommunication applications, where the duration of treatment depends on the packets’ contents. We present an algorithm which re-establishes the packet order: packets are dropped if their earliness or lateness exceeds a limit previously fixed by experimentation; otherwise, they are stored in a buffer on the output side. Write operations to this buffer are random access, whereas read operations are in FIFO order. Our algorithm guarantees that no data is removed from the queue before it has been read. For a given throughput, we guarantee a minimum buffer size. We implemented our algorithm within the output coprocessor in the form of communicating finite state machines and validated it on a multi-processor telecommunication platform.

  19. Buffer Effects in the Solubility, Nucleation and Growth of Chicken Egg White Lysozyme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Ursula J.

    1999-01-01

    The growth of protein crystals is important for determination of their three-dimensional structure, which relates to their biochemical functions and to the practical goal of designing pharmaceuticals to modify that function. While many proteins have been successfully crystallized by a variety of methods, there is still limited understanding of the process of nucleation and growth of even the simplest proteins. Chicken egg-white lysozyme (CEWL) is readily crystallized under a variety of conditions, and studies underway at MSFC are designed to elucidate the mechanisms by which the crystals nucleate and grow. We have investigated the effect of buffer choice on the solubility, nucleation and growth of CEWL. CEWL was purified by dialysis against a .05M phosphate buffer and chromatographic separation from contaminants in a sepharose column. Solubility studies were made as a function of buffer concentration for phosphate and formate buffers, and the nucleation and growth of crystals at 10 C was studied as a function of pH for oxalate, succinate, formate, butyrate, carbonate, phosphate and acetate buffer solutions. The solubility data support the conclusion that there is a solubility minimum as a function of buffer concentration for amphiphilic molecules, while no minimum is observed for a phosphate buffer. Nucleation is suppressed at pH greater than pKa for all buffers except phosphate. The aspect ratio of the (110) faces is shown to be a function of crystal size, rather than pH.

  20. Free flow cell electrophoresis using zwitterionic buffer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodkey, R. Scott

    1990-01-01

    Studies of a zwitterionic buffer formulated for cell electrophoresis were done using the McDonnell-Douglas Continuous Flow Electrophoresis System. Standard buffers were analyzed for their stability in the electrical field and the results showed that both buffers tested were inherently unstable. Further, titration studies showed that the standards buffers buffered poorly at the pH employed for electrophoresis. The zwitterionic buffer buffered well at its nominal pH and was shown to be stable in the electrical field. Comparative studies of the buffer with standard cell separation buffers using formalin fixed rabbit and goose red blood cells showed that the zwitterionic buffer gave better resolution of the fixed cells. Studies with viable hybridoma cells showed that buffer Q supported cell viability equal to Hank's Balanced Salt Solution and that hybridoma cells in different stages of the growth cycle demonstrated reproducible differences in electrophoretic mobility.

  1. Natural dissolved organic matter mobilizes Cd but does not affect the Cd uptake by the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (Korschikov) in resin buffered solutions.

    PubMed

    Verheyen, Liesbeth; Versieren, Liske; Smolders, Erik

    2014-09-01

    Natural dissolved organic matter (DOM) can have contrasting effects on metal bioaccumulation in algae because of complexation reactions that reduce free metal ion concentrations and because of DOM adsorption to algal surfaces which promote metal adsorption. This study was set up to reveal the role of different natural DOM samples on cadmium (Cd) uptake by the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (Korschikov). Six different DOM samples were collected from natural freshwater systems and isolated by reverse osmosis. In addition, one (13)C enriched DOM sample was isolated from soil to trace DOM adsorption to algae. Algae were exposed to standardized solutions with or without these DOM samples, each exposed at equal DOM concentrations and at equal non-toxic Cd(2+) activity (?4 nM) that was buffered with a resin. The DOM increased total dissolved Cd by factors 3-16 due to complexation reactions at equal Cd(2+) activity. In contrast, the Cd uptake was unaffected by DOM or increased maximally 1.6 fold ((13)C enriched DOM). The (13)C analysis revealed that maximally 6% of algal C was derived from DOM and that this can explain the small increase in biomass Cd. It is concluded that free Cd(2+) and not DOM-complexed Cd is the main bioavailable form of Cd when solution Cd(2+) is well buffered. PMID:24874007

  2. Buffer Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Kelly

    2000-01-01

    Presents a science experiment in which students test the buffering capacity of household products such as shampoo, hand lotion, fizzies candy, and cola. Lists the standards addressed in this experiment and gives an example of a student lab write-up. (YDS)

  3. The use of ethylene glycol solution as the running buffer for highly efficient microchip-based electrophoresis in unmodified cyclic olefin copolymer microchips.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qin; Zhang, Yuan; Ding, Hui; Wu, Jing; Wang, Lili; Zhou, Lei; Pu, Qiaosheng

    2011-12-30

    An ethylene glycol solution was used as the electrophoretic running buffer in unmodified cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) microchips to minimize the interactions between the analytes and the hydrophobic walls of the plastic microchannels, enhance the resolution of the analytes and eliminate the uncontrollable dispersion caused by uneven liquid levels and non-uniform surfaces of the separation channels. Five amino acids that were labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) were used as model analytes to examine the separation efficiency. The effects of ethylene glycol concentration, pH and sodium tetraborate concentration were systematically investigated. The five FITC-labeled amino acids were effectively resolved using a COC microchip with an effective length of 2.5 cm under optimum conditions, which included using a running buffer of 20 mmol/L sodium tetraborate in ethylene glycol:water (80:20, v/v), pH 6.7. A theoretical plate number of 4.8 × 10(5)/m was obtained for aspartic acid. The system exhibited good repeatability, and the relative standard deviations (n=5) of the peak areas and migration times were no more than 3.4% and 0.7%, respectively. Furthermore, the system was successfully applied to elucidate these five amino acids in human saliva. PMID:22099226

  4. In-line desalting of proteins from buffer and synthetic urine solution prior to ESI-MS analysis via a capillary-channeled polymer fiber microcolumn.

    PubMed

    Burdette, Carolyn Q; Marcus, R Kenneth

    2013-06-01

    Presented here is a novel in-line solid phase extraction (SPE) method utilizing a capillary-channeled polymer (C-CP) fiber microcolumn prior to introduction to an electrospray ionization (ESI) source. The high permeability of the microcolumn allows for operation under syringe pump or HPLC driven flow, ultimately providing greater mass spectral clarity and accurate molecular weight determinations for different protein/buffer combinations. Studies presented here focus on the desalting of several target proteins from a standard phosphate buffered saline (PBS) matrix and a synthetic urine solution prior to ESI-MS determinations. In every case, responses for ?M-level proteins in PBS improve from the situation of not permitting molecular weight determinations to values that are precise to better than ±10 Da, without internal standards, with relative improvements in the signal-to-background ratios (S/B) on the order of 3,000×. De-salting of a myoglobin-spiked (12 ?M) synthetic urine results in equally-improved spectral quality. PMID:23463546

  5. Morphological and phase evolution of TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals prepared from peroxotitanate complex aqueous solution: Influence of acetic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Jeong Ah; Vithal, Muga; Baek, In Chan [KRICT-EPFL Global Research Laboratory, Advanced Materials Division, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, 19 Sinseongno, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Seok, Sang Il, E-mail: seoksi@krict.re.k [KRICT-EPFL Global Research Laboratory, Advanced Materials Division, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, 19 Sinseongno, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-04-15

    Nanosized anatase and rutile TiO{sub 2} having different shape, phase and size have been prepared from aqueous solutions of peroxo titanium complex starting from titanium(IV) isopropoxide (TTIP), acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) in water/isopropanol media by a facile sol-gel process. The TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals are characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, TEM, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) techniques. The influence of pH and the sequence of addition of reaction contents on the phase and morphology of TiO{sub 2} are studied. The reasons for the observation of only anatase and/or mixture of anatase and rutile are given. - Graphical abstract: The morphology of TiO{sub 2} depends on the sequence of addition of AcOH and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} from the system of titanium isopropoxide and acetic acid (AcOH) in the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}.

  6. Cathode buffer layers based on vacuum and solution deposited poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) for efficient inverted organic solar cells

    E-print Network

    Barr, Miles C.

    Vacuum and solution processed versions of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) are used as cathode interlayers in inverted organic photovoltaic cells comprising tetraphenyldibenzoperiflanthene as the electron donor and ...

  7. Solid-state and solution-state coordination chemistry of lanthanide(III) complexes with (pyrazol-1-yl)acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Yan; Goff, George S; Scott, Brian L; Janicke, Michael T; Runde, Wolfgang

    2013-03-18

    As a precursor of carboxyl-functionalized task-specific ionic liquids (TSILs) for f-element separations, (pyrazol-1-yl)acetic acid (L) can be deprotonated as a functionalized pyrazolate anion to coordinate with hard metal cations. However, the coordination chemistry of L with f-elements remains unexplored. We reacted L with lanthanides in aqueous solution at pH = 5 and synthesized four lanthanide complexes of general formula [Ln(L)3(H2O)2]·nH2O (1, Ln = La, n = 2; 2, Ln = Ce, n = 2; 3, Ln = Pr, n = 2; 4, Ln = Nd, n = 1). All complexes were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis revealing one-dimensional chain formations. Two distinct crystallographic structures are governed by the different coordination modes of carboxylate groups in L: terminal bidentate and bridging tridentate (1-3); terminal bidentate, bridging bidentate, and tridentate coordination in 4. Comparison of the solid state UV-vis-NIR diffuse reflectance spectra with solution state UV-vis-NIR spectra suggests a different species in solution and solid state. The different coordination in solid state and solution was verified by distinctive (13)C NMR signals of the carboxylate groups in the solid state NMR. PMID:23458903

  8. Solution Processing of Cadmium Sulfide Buffer Layer and Aluminum-Doped Zinc Oxide Window Layer for Thin Films Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Mahboob; Islam, Mohammad; Achour, Amine; Hayat, Ansar; Ahsan, Bilal; Rasheed, Haroon; Salam, Shahzad; Mujahid, Mohammad

    2014-07-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) and aluminum-doped zinc oxide (Al:ZnO) thin films are used as buffer layer and front window layer, respectively, in thin film solar cells. CdS and Al:ZnO thin films were produced using chemical bath deposition (CBD) and sol-gel technique, respectively. For CBD CdS, the effect of bath composition and temperature, dipping time and annealing temperature on film properties was investigated. The CdS films are found to be polycrystalline with metastable cubic crystal structure, dense, crack-free surface morphology and the crystallite size of either few nanometers or 12-17 nm depending on bath composition. In case of CdS films produced with 1:2 ratio of Cd and S precursors, spectrophotometer studies indicate quantum confinement effect, owing to extremely small crystallite size, with an increase in Eg value from 2.42 eV (for bulk CdS) to 3.76 eV along with a shift in the absorption edge toward 330 nm wavelength. The optimum annealing temperature is 400°C beyond which film properties deteriorate through S evaporation and CdO formation. On the other hand, Al:ZnO films prepared via spin coating of precursor sols containing 0.90-1.10 at.% Al show that, with an increase in Al concentration, the average grain size increases from 28 nm to 131 nm with an associated decrease in root-mean-square roughness. The minimum value of electrical resistivity, measured for the films prepared using 0.95 at.% Al in the precursor sol, is 2.7 × 10-4 ? ? cm. The electrical resistivity value rises upon further increase in Al doping level due to introduction of lattice defects and Al segregation to the grain boundary area, thus limiting electron transport through it.

  9. In vitro effects of bicarbonate and bicarbonate-lactate buffered peritoneal dialysis solutions on mesothelial and neutrophil function.

    PubMed

    Topley, N; Kaur, D; Petersen, M M; Jörres, A; Williams, J D; Faict, D; Holmes, C J

    1996-02-01

    The inclusion of bicarbonate in the formulation of peritoneal dialysis solutions may avoid the in vitro impairment of certain cell functions seen with acidic lactate-based fluids. The supranormal physiological levels of HCO3- and PCO2 inherent in such formulations may, however, not be biocompatible. This study compared the in vitro biocompatibility of a pH 5.2 lactate-based formulation with formulations containing either 40 mM lactate at pH 7.4, 38 mM HCO3- at pH 6.8 (PCO2 at approximately 240 mm Hg) or 7.4 (PCO2 at approximately 60 mm Hg), and 25 mM HCO3- plus 15 mM lactate at pH 6.8 (PCO2 at approximately 160 mm Hg) or 7.4 (PCO2 at approximately 40 mm Hg). Significant release of lactate dehydrogenase or decreases in ATP content by human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMC) and human peripheral polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) after a 30-min exposure to each test solution was only seen with the pH 5.2 lactate-based fluid. The ATP content of HPMC exposed to this fluid returned to control levels after 30 min of recovery in M199 control medium but showed a trend toward decreasing ATP content at 240 min. Similarly, interleukin (IL)-1 beta-induced IL-6 synthesis by HPMC was also only significantly reduced by the pH 5.2 lactate solution. PMN chemiluminescence was unaffected by 30-min exposure to all test solutions except for the pH 5.2 lactate formulation. Staphylococcus epidermidis phagocytosis was reduced to between 46 to 57% of control with all test solutions except the pH 5.2 lactate solution, which further suppressed the chemiluminescence response to 17% of control. These data suggest that short exposure to supranormal physiological levels of HCO3- and PCO2 does not impair HPMC or PMN viability and function. Furthermore, neutral pH lactate-containing solutions show equivalent biocompatibility to bicarbonate-based ones. PMID:8785390

  10. Effect of different concentrations of acetic, citric, and propionic acid dipping solutions on bacterial contamination of raw chicken skin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial contamination of raw, processed poultry may include spoilage bacteria and foodborne pathogens. We evaluated different combinations of organic acid (OA) wash solutions for their ability to reduce bacterial contamination of raw chicken skin and to inhibit growth of spoilage bacteria and path...

  11. Electrochemical Reduction of CO2 at Polycrystalline Copper in Aqueous Phosphate Buffered Solution: pH and Temperature Dependence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jumat Salimon; Maher Kalaji

    The effect of electrolyte solution pH and temperature on the reduction of CO2 at a copper electrode was investigated using cyclic voltammetry and SNIFTIR spectroscopy. The results indicated that CO2 was reduced over a wide pH range (2.5 to 9.0); and over a wide temperature range (0 to 80 o C). Reduction products, adsorbed CO and copper carbonyl showed the

  12. Molecular Structure of Phenylmercuric acetate

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2004-11-10

    Phenylmercuric acetate is white to white-yellow crystalline powder that is odorless. This phenyl mercury compound is used mainly as a fungicide, herbicide, slimicide and bacteriocide. Phenylmercuric acid serves as a preservative in canned paint, eye ointments and drops, injectable solutions, skin disinfectants and in cosmetics products such as hair shampoos, mouthwashes and toothpastes. It is also used in contraceptive gels and foams. Phenylmercuric acetate is prepared by interaction of benzene with mercuric acetate in glacial acetic acid. Phenylmercuric acetate's former production and use as a fungicide and as a mildew inhibitor in paints may have resulted in its direct release to the environment. This substance is very toxic to aquatic organisms and may be hazardous to the environment.

  13. Reevaluation of the First and Second Stoichiometric Dissociation Constants of Oxalic Acid at Temperatures from 0 to 60?°C in Aqueous Oxalate Buffer Solutions with or without Sodium or Potassium Chloride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaakko I. Partanen; Pekka M. Juusola; Arthur K. Covington

    2009-01-01

    Equations were developed for the calculation of the first stoichiometric (molality scale) dissociation constant (K\\u000a m1) of oxalic acid in buffer solutions containing oxalic acid, potassium hydrogen oxalate, and potassium chloride from the determined\\u000a thermodynamic values of this dissociation constant (K\\u000a a1) and the molalities of the components in the solutions. Similar equations were also developed for the second stoichiometric

  14. Effect of pH on the polarization behavior of Zr 65Al 7.5Ni 10Cu 17.5 amorphous alloy in a phosphate-buffered solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Hiromoto; A.-P. Tsai; M. Sumita; T. Hanawa

    2000-01-01

    For the biomedical use of amorphous alloys, the effect of pH on the polarization behavior of Zr65Al7.5Ni10Cu17.5 amorphous alloy was evaluated in phosphate-buffered solutions with and without chloride ion. In the solution without chloride ion, the corrosion resistance at open-circuit potential decreased with a decrease in pH. The open-circuit potential was ennobled with a decrease in pH by the acceleration

  15. Kinetics of chemical degradation of isoxaflutole: influence of the nature of aqueous buffers (alkanoic acid/sodium salt vs phosphate).

    PubMed

    Beltran, E; Fenet, H; Cooper, J F; Coste, C M

    2001-04-01

    A kinetic study of the chemical degradation of isoxaflutole (5-cyclopropyl-1,2-oxazol-4-yl alpha alpha alpha-trifluoro-2-mesyl-p-tolyl ketone) into its diketonitrile derivative (DKN), which is its active herbicide principle, in organic buffers at different pH values was carried out using a HPLC/UV detection method. The values of the pseudo-first-order rate constants Kobs for the reaction were calculated and compared with those previously obtained in inorganic buffers. In both cases, Kobs was found to be dependent on pH and temperature, but at pH 5.2 the degradation of isoxaflutole in CH3COOH/CH3COONa buffers was considerably faster than in KH2PO4/Na2HPO4 buffers, indicating that the compound was sensitive to the nature of the reagents used to prepare buffered solutions. The influence of phosphate and acetate concentrations and the influence of the R-substituent in RCOOH/RCOONa buffers were investigated. For the HA/A- buffers studied, the values of Kobs were linearly dependent on HA and A- concentrations, which meant that the degradation of isoxaflutole was subject to general catalysis. The values of Kobs were also found to be dependent on the number and the position of the CH3 groups of the R-substituent. The known degradation product of DKN (a benzoic acid derivative) was not detected throughout this study. PMID:11455816

  16. Freezing points and enthalpies of dilution of aqueous formic, acetic, propionic, and butyric acids. Free energies and enthalpies of solute—Solute interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander L. Harris; Peter T. Thompson; Robert H. Wood

    1980-01-01

    Freezing-point depressions and enthalpies of dilution for aqueous solutions of the straight chain, aliphatic carboxylic acids, C1 through C4, have been measured. These data, together with the corresponding apparent molal heat capacities, have been used to calculate the pairwise free energy and enthalpy of interaction of undissociated acid molecules at 298.150K. As expected, the effect of dimer and triplet interaction

  17. Some Observations on the Emulsion Polymerization of Ethyl Methacrylate Initiated by Potassium Persulfate at 50°C in a Phosphate Buffer Solution of pH 6.85 and at a Low Monomer\\/Water Ratio

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. K. Paul; M. Banerjee; R. S. Konar

    1981-01-01

    The emulsion polymerization of ethyl methacrylate initiated by the potassium persulfate (I) at 50°C in the presence of an anionic detergent (S), i.e., sodium lauryl sulfate at a low monomer\\/water ratio, has been ineestigated kinetically by the coneentional dilatometric and graeimetric methods in a phosphate buffer solution of pH 6.85. The number of latex particles per mL of the aqueous

  18. Poly( l-lactide): XII. Formation, growth, and morphology of crystalline residues as extended-chain crystallites through hydrolysis of poly( l-lactide) films in phosphate-buffered solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hideto Tsuji; Kensaku Ikarashi; Norio Fukuda

    2004-01-01

    The poly(l-lactide) [i.e. poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA)] films prepared by crystallization or annealing at different temperatures (Tas) were hydrolyzed at 97°C in a phosphate-buffered solution (PBS) and changes in their long period (L), lamellae thickness (lc), physical properties, and morphology were investigated by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), light-scattering (LS) measurements, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and scanning

  19. Effects of surface finishing and dissolved oxygen on the polarization behavior of Zr 65Al 7.5Ni 10Cu 17.5 amorphous alloy in phosphate buffered solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Hiromoto; A.-P Tsai; M Sumita; T Hanawa

    2000-01-01

    The present study evaluates the effects of surface finishing and dissolved oxygen in phosphate buffered saline solution on the corrosion behavior of Zr65Al7.5Ni10Cu17.5 amorphous alloy for the application of the alloy to biomaterials. Non-polished and polished alloys were polarized in deaerated electrolyte, and the polished alloy was also polarized with various concentrations of dissolved oxygen. The surface of the alloy

  20. In vitro hydrolysis of poly( l-lactide) crystalline residues as extended-chain crystallites. Part I: long-term hydrolysis in phosphate-buffered solution at 37°C

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hideto Tsuji; Kensaku Ikarashi

    2004-01-01

    Poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) crystalline residues or extended-chain crystallites containing a trace amount of chains in an amorphous state were prepared by hydrolysis of crystallized PLLA films in a phosphate-buffered solution (PBS) at 97°C for 40h. Their in vitro hydrolysis behavior and mechanism were investigated in PBS at 37°C for the periods of time up to 512 days using gel permeation chromatography

  1. Oxidized cellulose esters: I. Preparation and characterization of oxidized cellulose acetates--a new class of biodegradable polymers.

    PubMed

    Kumar, V; Yang, D

    2002-01-01

    Oxidized cellulose acetates (OCA), with a degree of substitution (DS) value ranging between 1.1 and 2.3 and a free carboxylic acid group content of 20% (w/w), have been prepared by reacting oxidized cellulose (OC, COOH content 20% w/w) with a mixture of acetic acid and acetic anhydride in the presence of sulfuric acid as a catalyst. The DS of OCA, in general, increased with increasing reaction temperature, reaction time, and concentration of acetic anhydride in the reaction mixture. The yield of OCA, in contrast, increased with increasing concentration of acetic anhydride and decreased with increasing reaction time and temperature. The intrinsic viscosity of OCA varied between 0.100 and 0.275, depending on the reaction conditions used during its preparation. In general, an increase in reaction temperature and the use of a prolonged reaction time decreased the intrinsic viscosity of OCA. No correlation was found between DS and intrinsic viscosity of OCA. The apparent pKa of OCA is 3.7-3.9. The new OCA polymers are practically insoluble in water and slowly dissolve in pH 7.4 phosphate buffer solution. They are, however, soluble in a range of organic solvents (e.g. ethyl acetate, acetone, acetone/water, chloroform/methylene chloride, dimethylsulfoxide, dimethylformamide, and/or chloroform/methanol). PMID:12102594

  2. Buffered Steiner trees for difficult instances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles J. Alpert; Miloš Hrki?; Jiang Hu; Andrew B. Kahng; John Lillis; Bao Liu; Stephen T. Quay; Sachin S. Sapatnekar; A. J. Sullivan; Paul Villarrubia

    2001-01-01

    Buffer insertion has become an increasingly critical optimization in high performance design. The problem of finding a delay-optimal buffered Steiner tree has been an active area of research, and excellent solutions exist for most instances. However, current approaches fail to adequately solve a particular class of real-world “difficult” instances which are characterized by a large number of sinks, variations in

  3. An improvement to the ligand optimisation method (LOM) for measuring the apparent dissociation constant and ligand purity in Ca2+ and Mg2+ buffer solutions.

    PubMed

    McGuigan, John A S; Kay, James W; Elder, Hugh Y

    2014-01-01

    In Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) buffers the calculated ionised concentrations ([X(2+)]) can vary by up to a factor of seven. Since there are no defined standards it is impossible to check calculated [X(2+)], making measurement essential. The ligand optimisation method (LOM) is an accurate method to measure [X(2+)] in Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) buffers; independent estimation of ligand purity extends the method to pK(/) < 4. To simplify calculation, Excel programs ALE and AEC were compiled for LOM and its extension. This paper demonstrates that the slope of the electrode in the pX range 2.000-3.301 deviates from Nernstian behaviour as it depends on the value of the lumped interference, ?. ALE was modified to include this effect; this modified program SALE, and the programs ALE and AEC were used on simulated data for Ca(2+)-EGTA and Mg(2+)-ATP buffers, to calculate electrode and buffer characteristics as a function of ?. Ca(2+)-electrodes have a ? < 10(-6) mol/l and there was no difference amongst the three methods. The ? for Mg(2+)-electrodes lies between 10(-5) and 1.5 (?) 10(-5) mol/l and calculated [Mg(2+)] with ALE were around 3% less than the true value. SALE and AEC correctly predicted [Mg(2+)]. SALE was used to recalculate K(/) and pK(/) on measured data for Ca(2+)-EGTA and Mg(2+)-EDTA buffers. These results demonstrated that it is pK(/) that is normally distributed. Until defined standards are available, [X(2+)] in Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) buffers have to be measured. The most appropriate method is to use Ca(2+)/Mg(2) electrodes combined with the Excel programs SALE or AEC. PMID:24836054

  4. Adaptively biased sequential importance sampling for rare events in reaction networks with comparison to exact solutions from finite buffer dCME method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Youfang; Liang, Jie

    2013-07-01

    Critical events that occur rarely in biological processes are of great importance, but are challenging to study using Monte Carlo simulation. By introducing biases to reaction selection and reaction rates, weighted stochastic simulation algorithms based on importance sampling allow rare events to be sampled more effectively. However, existing methods do not address the important issue of barrier crossing, which often arises from multistable networks and systems with complex probability landscape. In addition, the proliferation of parameters and the associated computing cost pose significant problems. Here we introduce a general theoretical framework for obtaining optimized biases in sampling individual reactions for estimating probabilities of rare events. We further describe a practical algorithm called adaptively biased sequential importance sampling (ABSIS) method for efficient probability estimation. By adopting a look-ahead strategy and by enumerating short paths from the current state, we estimate the reaction-specific and state-specific forward and backward moving probabilities of the system, which are then used to bias reaction selections. The ABSIS algorithm can automatically detect barrier-crossing regions, and can adjust bias adaptively at different steps of the sampling process, with bias determined by the outcome of exhaustively generated short paths. In addition, there are only two bias parameters to be determined, regardless of the number of the reactions and the complexity of the network. We have applied the ABSIS method to four biochemical networks: the birth-death process, the reversible isomerization, the bistable Schlögl model, and the enzymatic futile cycle model. For comparison, we have also applied the finite buffer discrete chemical master equation (dCME) method recently developed to obtain exact numerical solutions of the underlying discrete chemical master equations of these problems. This allows us to assess sampling results objectively by comparing simulation results with true answers. Overall, ABSIS can accurately and efficiently estimate rare event probabilities for all examples, often with smaller variance than other importance sampling algorithms. The ABSIS method is general and can be applied to study rare events of other stochastic networks with complex probability landscape.

  5. Method for regeneration of electroless nickel plating solution

    DOEpatents

    Eisenmann, Erhard T. (5423 Vista Sandia, NE., Albuquerque, NM 87111)

    1997-01-01

    An electroless nickel(EN)/hypophosphite plating bath is provided employing acetic acid/acetate as a buffer and which is, as a result, capable of perpetual regeneration while avoiding the production of hazardous waste. A regeneration process is provided to process the spent EN plating bath solution. A concentrated starter and replenishment solution is provided for ease of operation of the plating bath. The regeneration process employs a chelating ion exchange system to remove nickel cations from spent EN plating solution. Phosphites are then removed from the solution by precipitation. The nickel cations are removed from the ion exchange system by elution with hypophosphorous acid and the nickel concentration of the eluate adjusted by addition of nickel salt. The treated solution and adjusted eluate are combined, stabilizer added, and the volume of resulting solution reduced by evaporation to form the bath starter and replenishing solution.

  6. Method for regeneration of electroless nickel plating solution

    DOEpatents

    Eisenmann, E.T.

    1997-03-11

    An electroless nickel(EN)/hypophosphite plating bath is provided employing acetic acid/acetate as a buffer and which is, as a result, capable of perpetual regeneration while avoiding the production of hazardous waste. A regeneration process is provided to process the spent EN plating bath solution. A concentrated starter and replenishment solution is provided for ease of operation of the plating bath. The regeneration process employs a chelating ion exchange system to remove nickel cations from spent EN plating solution. Phosphites are then removed from the solution by precipitation. The nickel cations are removed from the ion exchange system by elution with hypophosphorus acid and the nickel concentration of the eluate adjusted by addition of nickel salt. The treated solution and adjusted eluate are combined, stabilizer added, and the volume of resulting solution reduced by evaporation to form the bath starter and replenishing solution. 1 fig.

  7. Dissolution reaction and surface iron speciation of UICC crocidolite in buffered solution at pH 7.4: A combined ICP-OES, XPS and TEM investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacella, Alessandro; Fantauzzi, Marzia; Turci, Francesco; Cremisini, Carlo; Montereali, Maria Rita; Nardi, Elisa; Atzei, Davide; Rossi, Antonella; Andreozzi, Giovanni B.

    2014-02-01

    The dissolution reaction and the surface modifications of crocidolite asbestos fibres incubated for 0.5, 1, 24, 48, 168 and 1440 h in a phosphate buffered solution at pH 7.4 with and without hydrogen peroxide were investigated. Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) was used to monitor the ion release into solution, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) was performed to unveil the chemistry of the leached surface, and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM) was carried out to monitor the structural modifications of the fibres. No significant differences were observed between dissolution experiments carried out with and without H2O2 with the exception of results after the first hour, from which it may be inferred that the dissolution proceeds faster in the presence of H2O2 but only in its very early steps. Congruent mobilization of Si and Mg from crocidolite was observed, increasing with time especially in the range between 1 and 48 h, while Ca decreased after 48 h and Fe was not detected at any incubation time. In the undersaturated conditions (0-48 h), dissolution rate of UICC crocidolite fibres has been estimated to be d(Si)/dt = 0.079 ?mol h-1. The fibre surface modification is continuous with time: XPS results showed a regular depletion of Si and Mg and enrichment of Fe along dissolution. The Fe2p3/2 signal on the surface was fitted with four components at 709.0, 710.5, 711.6 and 712.8 eV binding energy values corresponding to: (i) Fe(II)-O and (ii) Fe(III)-O surrounded by oxygen atoms in the silicate structure, (iii) Fe(III)-OOH as a product of the dissolution process, and (iv) Fe in a phosphate precipitate (Fe-P), respectively. The evolution of Fe speciation on the crocidolite surface was followed by integrating the four photoemission peaks, and results showed that the oxidative environment promotes the formation of Fe(III)-O (up to 37% Fetot) and of Fe-P species (up to 16% Fetot), which are found on the fibre surface at the end of the dissolution experiment. HR-TEM showed that the crocidolite lattice structure, the fibrous habit and the high aspect ratio are preserved upon leaching, while Fe-bearing nanoparticles, likely amorphous and possibly displaced on top of the fibres, become clearly visible. As a conclusion, coating of the crocidolite fibres was demonstrated to occur due to precipitation of Fe-rich phases (both phosphates and oxide-hydroxides). The occurrence of such iron armouring may modulate asbestos toxicity and possibly be the initial step in the formation of asbestos ferruginous bodies.

  8. Optimal buffer partitioning on a multiuser wireless link

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Omur Ozel; Elif Uysal-Biyikoglu; Tolga Girici

    2010-01-01

    We consider a finite buffer shared by multiple packet queues. Throughput can be considerably improved by partitioning the buffer space among the queues judiciously, especially under a high load regime. We formulate optimal buffer partitioning as a resource allocation problem, the solution of which is found through a greedy incremental algorithm in polynomial time. The rest of the work is

  9. VIRTUAL FRAME BUFFER INTERFACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, T. L.

    1994-01-01

    Large image processing systems use multiple frame buffers with differing architectures and vendor supplied user interfaces. This variety of architectures and interfaces creates software development, maintenance, and portability problems for application programs. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface program makes all frame buffers appear as a generic frame buffer with a specified set of characteristics, allowing programmers to write code which will run unmodified on all supported hardware. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface converts generic commands to actual device commands. The virtual frame buffer consists of a definition of capabilities and FORTRAN subroutines that are called by application programs. The virtual frame buffer routines may be treated as subroutines, logical functions, or integer functions by the application program. Routines are included that allocate and manage hardware resources such as frame buffers, monitors, video switches, trackballs, tablets and joysticks; access image memory planes; and perform alphanumeric font or text generation. The subroutines for the various "real" frame buffers are in separate VAX/VMS shared libraries allowing modification, correction or enhancement of the virtual interface without affecting application programs. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface program was developed in FORTRAN 77 for a DEC VAX 11/780 or a DEC VAX 11/750 under VMS 4.X. It supports ADAGE IK3000, DEANZA IP8500, Low Resolution RAMTEK 9460, and High Resolution RAMTEK 9460 Frame Buffers. It has a central memory requirement of approximately 150K. This program was developed in 1985.

  10. Riparian Buffers for Wildlife Benefits of Riparian Buffers

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Elizabeth W.

    Riparian Buffers for Wildlife Benefits of Riparian Buffers Riparian buffers offer many benefits the buffer, the more likely it is to yield positive benefits. A riparian buffer: Traps sediment. Runoff from, which depletes oxygen levels. A good riparian buffer can remove up to 80 percent of excessive nutrient

  11. An all chemical solution deposition approach for the growth of highly textured CeO2 cap layers on La2Zr2O7-buffered long lengths of biaxially textured Ni W substrates for YBCO-coated conductors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Engel; K. Knoth; R. Hühne; L. Schultz; B. Holzapfel

    2005-01-01

    A reel-to-reel, dip coating process has been developed to continuously deposit epitaxial La2Zr2O7 (LZO) and CeO2 on 5 m long cube-textured {100} (001)Ni tapes. Recent results for La2Zr2O7 and CeO2 buffer layers deposited on long lengths of Ni substrate for the realization of YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO)-coated conductors are presented. The major achievement is the development of a new all chemical solution

  12. Pallidol hexa­acetate ethyl acetate monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Qinyong; Taylor, Dennis K.; Ng, Seik Weng; Tiekink, Edward R. T.

    2013-01-01

    The entire mol­ecule of pallidol hexa­acetate {systematic name: (±)-(4bR,5R,9bR,10R)-5,10-bis­[4-(acet­yloxy)phen­yl]-4b,5,9b,10-tetra­hydro­indeno­[2,1-a]indene-1,3,6,8-tetrayl tetra­acetate} is completed by the application of twofold rotational symmetry in the title ethyl acetate solvate, C40H34O12·C4H8O2. The ethyl acetate mol­ecule was highly disordered and was treated with the SQUEEZE routine [Spek (2009 ?). Acta Cryst. D65, 148–155]; the crystallographic data take into account the presence of the solvent. In pallidol hexa­acetate, the dihedral angle between the fused five-membered rings (r.m.s. deviation = 0.100?Å) is 54.73?(6)°, indicating a significant fold in the mol­ecule. Significant twists between residues are also evident as seen in the dihedral angle of 80.70?(5)° between the five-membered ring and the pendent benzene ring to which it is attached. Similarly, the acetate residues are twisted with respect to the benzene ring to which they are attached [C—O(carb­oxy)—C—C torsion angles = ?70.24?(14), ?114.43?(10) and ?72.54?(13)°]. In the crystal, a three-dimensional architecture is sustained by C—H?O inter­actions which encompass channels in which the disordered ethyl acetate mol­ecules reside. PMID:24046702

  13. Adsorption of phosphate from aqueous solution using activated red mud

    SciTech Connect

    Pradhan, J.; Das, J.; Das, S.; Thakur, R.S. [Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Bhubaneswar (India). Regional Research Lab.] [Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Bhubaneswar (India). Regional Research Lab.

    1998-08-01

    Adsorption of phosphate (PO{sub 4}{sup 3{minus}}) from aqueous solution on activated red mud (ARM) was studied as a function of time, pH, temperature, concentration of adsorbent and adsorbate in acetic acid-sodium acetate buffer medium. The adsorption of phosphate follows Langmuir as well as Freundlich adsorption isotherms. The process efficiency was found to be 80--90% at room temperature. This can be extended to the treatment of industrial effluents containing phosphates like that from phosphatic fertilizer plants.

  14. Chemical solution deposition (CSD) of CeO2 and La2Zr2O7 buffer layers on cube textured NiW substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotzyba, G.; Obst, B.; Nast, R.; Goldacker, W.; Holzapfel, B.

    2006-06-01

    We present results of crack free layers of CeO2 and La2Zr2O7 deposited by means of CSD on cube textured Ni-4 at.% W substrates. EBSD-data show histograms with very good inplane- and out-of-plane textures and were used to simulate the critical current density in the YBCO layer. The surface roughness, a sensitive feature for good deposition results, was analyzed with a profilometer. In the CSD process we applied, the 2, 4-pentanedionates of the metal cations in glacial acetic acid and methanol served as starting substances.

  15. Evaluation of the effect of trypsin digestion buffers on artificial deamidation.

    PubMed

    Hao, Piliang; Ren, Yan; Datta, Arnab; Tam, James P; Sze, Siu Kwan

    2015-02-01

    Nonenzymatic deamidation occurs readily under the condition of trypsin digestion, resulting in the identification of many artificial deamidation sites. To evaluate the effect of trypsin digestion buffers on artificial deamidation, we compared the three commonly used buffers Tris-HCl (pH 8), ammonium bicarbonate (ABC), and triethylammonium bicarbonate (TEAB), and ammonium acetate (pH 6), which was reported to reduce Asn deamidation. iTRAQ quantification on rat kidney tissue digested in these four buffers indicates that artificial Asn deamidation is produced in the order of ammonium acetate < Tris-HCl < ABC < TEAB, and Gln deamidation has no significant differences in all tested buffers. Label-free experiments show the same trend, while protein and unique peptide identification are comparable using these four buffers. To explain the differences of these four buffers in producing artificial Asn deamidation, we determined the half-life of Asn deamidation in these buffers using synthetic peptides containing -Asn-Gly- sequences. It is 51.4 ± 6.0 days in 50 mM of ammonium acetate (pH 6) at 37 °C, which is about 23, 104, and 137 times that in Tris-HCl, ABC, and TEAB buffers, respectively. In conclusion, ammonium acetate (pH 6) is more suitable than other tested buffers for characterizing endogenous deamidation and N-glycosylation. PMID:25495137

  16. Stability of ertapenem in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Zajac, Marianna; Cielecka-Piontek, Judyta; Jeli?ska, Anna

    2007-01-17

    The kinetics of degradation of ertapenem was studied in aqueous solutions at 303, 313, 323 and 333 K and pH 0.42-12.5. Degradation was studied using two methods: HPLC (LiChrospher RP-18 column, 5 microm, 250 mm x 4 mm; mobile phase: methanol-phosphate buffer 25 mmol l(-1), pH 6.5 (15:85, v/v); flow rate--1.2 ml/min; detection UV--298 nm) and UV (294 nm). Specific acid-base catalysis involves: (a) hydrolysis of ertapenem, catalysed by hydrogen ions; (b) hydrolysis of ertapenem dianions catalysed by hydroxide ions; (c) spontaneous hydrolysis of zwitter ions and dianions of ertapenem under the influence of water. The thermodynamic parameters of these reactions--energy, enthalpy and entropy of activation were calculated. It was observed that buffer catalysis occurred in acetate, phosphate and borate buffers. PMID:16914282

  17. The Effect of Copper Toxicity on the Growth and Root Morphology of Rhodes Grass ( Chloris gayana Knuth.) in Resin Buffered Solution Culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. R. Sheldon; N. W. Menzies

    2005-01-01

    A solution culture experiment was conducted to examine the effect of Cu toxicity on Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana Knuth.), a pasture species used in mine-site rehabilitation. The experiment used dilute, solution culture to achieve external\\u000a nutrient concentrations, which were representative of the soil solution, and an ion exchange resin to maintain stable concentrations\\u000a of Cu in solution. Copper toxicity was

  18. A computer simulation of the reactions between hydroxyapatite and fluoride in aqueous acidic solutions.

    PubMed

    Miura, H; Araki, Y; Ohno, H

    1993-12-01

    A precipitation reaction between hydroxyapatite (HAp) and fluoride solution was analyzed by computer simulation. The system comprised excess HAp and 0.05-0.2 M acetic buffer solutions containing 0.5-2.0 mM potassium fluoride. The amounts of HAp dissolved and calcium salts precipitated and activities of all the species present in the solution were calculated during the process. In the systems, calcium fluoride was initially precipitated when applying the fluoride solution to HAp, followed by precipitation of fluorapatite (FAp) and re-dissolution of the previously precipitated calcium fluoride at a critical pH at which the ion activity product exceeded the solubility product of FAp. The critical pH was increased with pH of the buffer, whereas it was scarcely affected by fluoride ion concentration, and it was necessary to introduce phosphate ions in advance into the buffer for predominant precipitation of FAp in this system. PMID:8004915

  19. Cellulose acetate electrospun fiber mats for controlled release of silymarin.

    PubMed

    Phiriyawirut, Manisara; Phaechamud, Thawatchai

    2012-01-01

    In this research, the silymarin-loaded electrospun cellulose acetate (CA) fibers were prepared which containing silymarin in various amounts (i.e., 2.5-20 wt.% based on the weight of CA powder). Incorporation of silymarin in the neat CA solution did not affect the morphology of the resulting fibers, as both the neat and the silymarin-loaded CA fibers were smooth. The average diameters of silymarin-loaded CA fiber ranged between 550-900 nm. No presence of the silymarin aggregates of any kind was observed on the surfaces of these fibers, suggesting that the silymarin was encapsulated well within the fibers. These results were confirmed by lowering the glass transition temperature and the melting temperature of the silymarin-loaded electrospun CA fibers which is determined by DSC technique. The release characteristic of silymarin from the silymarin-loaded CA fiber mats was investigated by the total immersion in the solution of 1/1 phosphate buffer/methanol medium pH 7.4 at 37 degrees C. The silymarin release from the silymarin-loaded electrospun CA fiber mat is monotonously increased to reach the maximum value at 480 min. The maximum amount of silymarin released from these materials increases with the increasing of initial silymarin loading in the spinning CA solutions. Since no aggregation of silymarin was found on the surface of the silymarin-loaded fibers, the release of the silymarin from fiber mats was mainly by the diffusion. PMID:22524059

  20. Patterned buffer layer promotes maskless lateral epitaxial overgrowth of low-dislocation-density ZnO films in aqueous solution at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hou-Guang; Shih, Yung-Hui; Yu, Ming-Yang

    2015-04-01

    In this article, we describe a facile approach, with the assistance of a stripe-patterned ZnAl2O4 buffer layer, for the maskless lateral epitaxial growth (LEO) of low-dislocation-density ZnO films. During hydrothermal processing, the selective-area epitaxial growth of ZnO mesas occurred preferentially on ZnAl2O4 stripes. The ZnO growth subsequently occurred in the lateral direction; eventually, adjacent stripe-patterned ZnO mesas coalesced to form a continuous film. The dislocation density at the coalesced LEO ZnO was 108 cm?2. The photoluminescence of LEO-grown ZnO films featured a strong near-band-edge ultraviolet emission, but other defect-related visible emissions were suppressed almost entirely, indicating a significant improvement in crystalline quality.

  1. -free buffer was subsequently flowed through the device. Control experi-

    E-print Network

    Zasadzinski, Joseph A.

    M phosphate buffers with 100 mM NaCl. Solutions were flowed through PDMS microchannels (10, 17) (100- to 200). 20. Biotin-modified SiNWs were prepared by depositing a drop ( 20 l) of phosphate-buffered solution-strepta- vidin binding were 1 mM phosphate buffer (pH 9) with 10 mM NaCl. The d-biotin­saturated streptavi- din

  2. Synthesis, optical and thermal studies on novel semi organic nonlinear optical Urea Zinc Acetate crystals by solution growth technique for the applications of optoelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chithambaram, V.; Krishnan, S.

    2014-02-01

    Urea Zinc Acetate (UZA), a novel semi organic nonlinear optical crystal having dimensions 30×28×10 mm3 has been synthesized using slow evaporation technique. The lattice parameters for the grown crystals were determined using single crystal XRD. The presence of functional groups for the grown crystals was confirmed using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The optical absorption studies show that the material has wide optical transparency in the entire visible region. The thermal stability of the crystal was determined from thermo gravimetric and differential thermal analysis curve. The second harmonic generation was confirmed by Kurtz powder method and it is found to be 3 times than that of KDP crystal.

  3. Common data buffer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrne, F.

    1981-01-01

    Time-shared interface speeds data processing in distributed computer network. Two-level high-speed scanning approach routes information to buffer, portion of which is reserved for series of "first-in, first-out" memory stacks. Buffer address structure and memory are protected from noise or failed components by error correcting code. System is applicable to any computer or processing language.

  4. Buffer Therapy for Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Maria de Lourdes C; Silva, Ariosto S.; Bailey, Kate M.; Kumar, Nagi B.; Sellers, Thomas A.; Gatenby, Robert A.; Ibrahim-Hashim, Arig; Gillies, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Oral administration of pH buffers can reduce the development of spontaneous and experimental metastases in mice, and has been proposed in clinical trials. Effectiveness of buffer therapy is likely to be affected by diet, which could contribute or interfere with the therapeutic alkalinizing effect. Little data on food pH buffering capacity was available. This study evaluated the pH and buffering capacity of different foods to guide prospective trials and test the effect of the same buffer (lysine) at two different ionization states. Food groups were derived from the Harvard Food Frequency Questionnaire. Foods were blended and pH titrated with acid from initial pH values until 4.0 to determine “buffering score”, in mmol H+/pH unit. A “buffering score” was derived as the mEq H+ consumed per serving size to lower from initial to a pH 4.0, the postprandial pH of the distal duodenum. To differentiate buffering effect from any metabolic byproduct effects, we compared the effects of oral lysine buffers prepared at either pH 10.0 or 8.4, which contain 2 and 1 free base amines, respectively. The effect of these on experimental metastases formation in mice following tail vein injection of PC-3M prostate cancer cells were monitored with in vivo bioluminescence. Carbohydrates and dairy products’ buffering score varied between 0.5 and 19. Fruits and vegetables showed a low to zero buffering score. The score of meats varied between 6 and 22. Wine and juices had negative scores. Among supplements, sodium bicarbonate and Tums® had the highest buffering capacities, with scores of 11 and 20 per serving size, respectively. The “de-buffered” lysine had a less pronounced effect of prevention of metastases compared to lysine at pH 10. This study has demonstrated the anti-cancer effects of buffer therapy and suggests foods that can contribute to or compete with this approach to manage cancer. PMID:24371544

  5. Preparation of vinyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Tustin, Gerald Charles (Kingsport, TN); Zoeller, Joseph Robert (Kingsport, TN); Depew, Leslie Sharon (Kingsport, TN)

    1998-01-01

    This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting a mixture of hydrogen and ketene with a heterogeneous catalyst containing a transition metal to produce acetaldehyde, which is then reacted with ketene in the presence of an acid catalyst to produce vinyl acetate.

  6. Preparation of vinyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Tustin, G.C.; Zoeller, J.R.; Depew, L.S.

    1998-03-24

    This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting a mixture of hydrogen and ketene with a heterogeneous catalyst containing a transition metal to produce acetaldehyde, which is then reacted with ketene in the presence of an acid catalyst to produce vinyl acetate.

  7. Optimal trellis-based buffered compression and fast approximations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Ortega; Kannan Ramchandran; Martin Vetterli

    1994-01-01

    The authors formalize the description of the buffer-constrained adaptive quantization problem. For a given set of admissible quantizers used to code a discrete nonstationary signal sequence in a buffer-constrained environment, they formulate the optimal solution. They also develop slightly suboptimal but much faster approximations. These solutions are valid for any globally minimum distortion criterion, which is additive over the individual

  8. Acetate and Formate Stress: Opposite Responses in the Proteome of Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHRISTOPHER KIRKPATRICK; LISA M. MAURER; NIKKI E. OYELAKIN; YULIYA N. YONCHEVA; RUSSELL MAURER; JOAN L. SLONCZEWSKI

    2001-01-01

    Acetate and formate are major fermentation products of Escherichia coli. Below pH 7, the balance shifts to lactate; an oversupply of acetate or formate retards growth. E. coli W3110 was grown with aeration in potassium-modified Luria broth buffered at pH 6.7 in the presence or absence of added acetate or formate, and the protein profiles were compared by two-dimensional sodium

  9. Buffers more than buffering agent: introducing a new class of stabilizers for the protein BSA.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Bhupender S; Taha, Mohamed; Lee, Ming-Jer

    2015-01-14

    In this study, we have analyzed the influence of four biological buffers on the thermal stability of bovine serum albumin (BSA) using dynamic light scattering (DLS). The investigated buffers include 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazine-1-ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES), 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazine-propanesulfonic acid (EPPS), 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazine-1-ethanesulfonic acid sodium salt (HEPES-Na), and 4-morpholinepropanesulfonic acid sodium salt (MOPS-Na). These buffers behave as a potential stabilizer for the native structure of BSA against thermal denaturation. The stabilization tendency follows the order of MOPS-Na > HEPES-Na > HEPES ? EPPS. To obtain an insight into the role of hydration layers and peptide backbone in the stabilization of BSA by these buffers, we have also explored the phase transition of a thermoresponsive polymer, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide (PNIPAM)), a model compound for protein, in aqueous solutions of HEPES, EPPS, HEPES-Na, and MOPS-Na buffers at different concentrations. It was found that the lower critical solution temperatures (LCST) of PNIPAM in the aqueous buffer solutions substantially decrease with increase in buffer concentration. The mechanism of interactions between these buffers and protein BSA was probed by various techniques, including UV-visible, fluorescence, and FTIR. The results of this series of studies reveal that the interactions are mainly governed by the influence of the buffers on the hydration layers surrounding the protein. We have also explored the possible binding sites of BSA with these buffers using a molecular docking technique. Moreover, the activities of an industrially important enzyme ?-chymotrypsin (?-CT) in 0.05 M, 0.5 M, and 1.0 M of HEPES, EPPS, HEPES-Na, and MOPS-Na buffer solutions were analyzed at pH = 8.0 and T = 25 °C. Interestingly, the activities of ?-CT were found to be enhanced in the aqueous solutions of these investigated buffers. Based upon the Jones-Dole viscosity parameters, the kosmotropic or chaotropic behaviors of the investigated buffers at 25 °C have been examined. PMID:25415385

  10. The influence of carbon dioxide, bicarbonate and other buffers on the potential of antimony microelectrodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Quehenberger; S. David

    1977-01-01

    Summary Antimony microelectrodes were calibrated at 37° C in phosphate buffers, in different bicarbonate solutions at various CO2-partial pressures and in buffers like TRIS, TES, MES and malonic acid. By use of the latter buffers (with exception of malonic acid) the most reliable calibration curves were obtained (“normal values”). The usual calibration in 67 mmol\\/l standard phosphate buffers turned out

  11. StackGuard: Automatic Adaptive Detection and Prevention of Buffer-Overflow Attacks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Crispin Cowan; Calton Pu; Dave Maier; Heather Hinton; Jonathan Walpole; Peat Bakke; Steve Beattie; Aaron Grier; Perry Wagle; Qian Zhang

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic solution to the per- sistent problem of buffer overflow attacks. Buffer over- flow attacks gained notoriety in 1988 as part of the Morris Worm incident on the Internet. While it is fairly simple to fix individual buffer overflow vulnerabilities, buffer overflow attacks continue to this day. Hundreds of at- tacks have been discovered, and while

  12. Tetragonal Chicken Egg White Lysozyme Solubility in Sodium Chloride Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Judge, Russell A.; Pusey, Marc L.

    1998-01-01

    The solubility of chicken egg white lysozyme, crystallized in the tetragonal form was measured in sodium chloride solutions from 1.6 to 30.7 C, using a miniature column solubility apparatus. Sodium chloride solution concentrations ranged from 1 to 7% (w/v). The solutions were buffered with 0.1 M sodium acetate buffer with the solubility being measured at pH values in 0.2 pH unit increments in the range pH 4.0 to 5.4, with data also included at pH 4.5. Lysozyme solubility was found to increase with increases in temperature and decreasing salt concentration. Solution pH has a varied and unpredictable effect on solubility.

  13. Combined effects of hydrostatic pressure, temperature, and pH on the inactivation of spores of Clostridium perfringens type A and Clostridium sporogenes in buffer solutions.

    PubMed

    Paredes-Sabja, D; Gonzalez, M; Sarker, M R; Torres, J A

    2007-08-01

    To develop a spore inactivation strategy, the effect of 15-min hydrostatic pressure treatments (550 and 650 MPa) at 55 and 75 degrees C in citric acid buffer (4.75 and 6.5 pH) on spores of 5 isolates of Clostridium perfringens type A carrying the gene that encodes the C. perfringens enterotoxin (cpe) on the chromosome (C-cpe), 4 isolates carrying the cpe gene on a plasmid (P-cpe), and 2 strains of C. sporogenes were investigated. Treatments at 650 MPa, 75 degrees C and pH 6.5 were moderately effective against spores of P-cpe (approximately 3.7 decimal reduction, DR) and C. sporogenes (approximately 2.1 DR) but not for C-cpe (approximately 1.0 DR) spores. Treatments at pH 4.75 were moderately effective against spores of P-cpe (approximately 3.2 DR) and C. sporogenes (approximately 2.5 DR) but not of C-cpe (approximately 1.2 DR) when combined with 550 MPa at 75 degrees C. However, when pressure was raised to 650 MPa under the same conditions, high inactivation of P-cpe (approximately 5.1 DR) and C. sporogenes (approximately 5.8 DR) spores and moderate inactivation of C-cpe (approximately 2.8 DR) spores were observed. Further advances in high-pressure treatment strategies to inactivate spores of cpe-positive C. perfringens type A and C. sporogenes more efficiently are needed. PMID:17995687

  14. Metastable Equilibrium Solubility Behavior of Carbonated Apatite in the Presence of Solution Strontium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. D. Heslop; Y. Bi; A. A. Baig; W. I. Higuchi

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use the concept of metastable equilibrium solubility (MES) to describe the anomalous solubility behavior of carbonated apatite (CAP) in the presence of solution strontium. A CAP sample (4.8 wt% CO 3, synthesized at 70°C) was prepared by precipitation. Baseline MES distributions were determined in a series of 0.1 M acetate buffers containing only

  15. Autolysis of cell walls from polygalacturonase-antisense tomato fruit in simulated apoplastic solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Domingos P. F. Almeida; Donald J. Huber

    2011-01-01

    Autolysis of cell walls from polygalacturonase (PG)-antisense tomato fruit was studied in a conventional buffer designed to maximize the catalytic activity of PG (30mM sodium acetate, 150mM NaCl, pH 4.5), and in solutions mimicking the pH and mineral composition of the fruit apoplast at the mature-green and ripe stages. Autolytic release of uronic acids was very limited under simulated apoplastic

  16. Optimal and efficient buffer insertion and wire sizing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Lillis; Chung-Kuan Cheng; Ting-Ting Y. Lin

    1995-01-01

    We present optimal solutions to the following problems: (1) post-layout buffer insertion, (2) wire-sizing and (3) simultaneous buffer insertion and wire-sizing. We optimize a practical objective function: required arrival time. To the best of our knowledge, this work represents the first sub-exponential algorithms for these problems. In experiments, we observe substantial improvements over previous results for buffer insertion, and up

  17. Highly textured La 2 Zr 2 O 7 and CeO 2 buffer layers by ink jet printing for coated conductors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Cordero-Cabrera; T. Mouganie; B. A. Glowacki; M. Bäcker; M. Falter; B. Holzapfel; J. Engell

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to prove the possibility to produce single side buffered substrates for coated conductors.\\u000a We report for the first time the production of highly textured NiW\\/La2Zr2O7\\/CeO2 system by all-chemical solution deposition means using an in-house built drop-on-demand ink-jet printer. Lanthanum zirconate\\u000a precursor ink was produced using lanthanum acetate and zirconium n-propoxide modified with propionic and

  18. The boundary lubrication of chemically grafted and cross-linked hyaluronic acid in phosphate buffered saline and lipid solutions measured by the surface forces apparatus.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jing; Banquy, Xavier; Greene, George W; Lowrey, Daniel D; Israelachvili, Jacob N

    2012-01-31

    High molecular weight hyaluronic acid (HA) is present in articular joints and synovial fluid at high concentrations; yet despite numerous studies, the role of HA in joint lubrication is still not clear. Free HA in solution does not appear to be a good lubricant, being negatively charged and therefore repelled from most biological, including cartilage, surfaces. Recent enzymatic experiments suggested that mechanically or physically (rather than chemically) trapped HA could function as an "adaptive" or "emergency" boundary lubricant to eliminate wear damage in shearing cartilage surfaces. In this work, HA was chemically grafted to a layer of self-assembled amino-propyl-triethoxy-silane (APTES) on mica and then cross-linked. The boundary lubrication behavior of APTES and of chemically grafted and cross-linked HA in both electrolyte and lipid 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) solutions was tested with a surface forces apparatus (SFA). Despite the high coefficient of friction (COF) of ? ? 0.50, the chemically grafted HA gel significantly improved the lubrication behavior of HA, particularly the wear resistance, in comparison to free HA. Adding more DOPC lipid to the solution did not improve the lubrication of the chemically grafted and cross-linked HA layer. Damage of the underlying mica surface became visible at higher loads (pressure >2 MPa) after prolonged sliding times. It has generally been assumed that damage caused by or during sliding, also known as "abrasive friction", which is the main biomedical/clinical/morphological manifestation of arthritis, is due to a high friction force and, therefore, a large COF, and that to prevent surface damage or wear (abrasion) one should therefore aim to reduce the COF, which has been the traditional focus of basic research in biolubrication, particularly in cartilage and joint lubrication. Here we combine our results with previous ones on grafted and cross-linked HA on lipid bilayers, and lubricin-mediated lubrication, and conclude that for cartilage surfaces, a high COF can be associated with good wear protection, while a low COF can have poor wear resistance. Both of these properties depend on how the lubricating molecules are attached to and organized at the surfaces, as well as the structure and mechanical, viscoelastic, elastic, and physical properties of the surfaces, but the two phenomena are not directly or simply related. We also conclude that to provide both the low COF and good wear protection of joints under physiological conditions, some or all of the four major components of joints-HA, lubricin, lipids, and the cartilage fibrils-must act synergistically in ways (physisorbed, chemisorbed, grafted and/or cross-linked) that are still to be determined. PMID:22148857

  19. Modification of textile acetate yarn with polyethylene oxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sh. Tairov; M. V. Polovnikova; D. I. Kalandarov; P. I. Baboshkin; Z. Z. Gulombaev; A. A. Saidov

    1975-01-01

    Small proportions of polyethylene oxides are known to exert a modifying effect on acetate fibre when added to the common solvent. In the case of textile yarn the effect is optimum (improved fatigue strength) when the polymer solution contains I 2% polyethylene oxide (PEO) of a molecular weight of 4000 - 5000 \\/I\\/. Several batches of modified textile acetate yarn

  20. Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Analysis of Intestinal Permeability of Loperamide in Physiological Buffer

    PubMed Central

    Rubelt, Miriam S.; Amasheh, Salah; Grobosch, Thomas; Stein, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of in vitro samples with high salt concentrations represents a major challenge for fast and specific quantification with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). To investigate the intestinal permeability of opioids in vitro employing the Ussing chamber technique, we developed and validated a fast, sensitive and selective method based on LC–MS/MS for the determination of loperamide in HEPES-buffered Ringer's solution. Chromatographic separation was achieved with an Atlantis dC18 column, 2.1 mm×20 mm, 3 µm particle size and a gradient consisting of methanol/0.1% formic acid and ammonium acetate. The flow rate was 0.7 ml/min, and the total run time was 3 min. For quantification, two mass transitions for loperamide and a deuterated internal standard (methadone-d3) were used. The lower limit of loperamide quantification was 0.2 ng/ml. This new LC-MS/MS method can be used for the detection of loperamide in any experimental setup using HEPES-buffered Ringer's solution as a matrix compound. PMID:23144895

  1. Buffer strips trap contaminants

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    benefits, such as increasing habitat for wildlife and decreasing flood damage. Three researchater Buffer strips trap contaminants Three research and demonstration projects seek to determine last summer. The strips are 250 feet long and 50 feet wide and consist of grass; grass and shrubs

  2. Virginia Tech - Buffer Pool

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Cliff Shaffer

    Allows user to select from FIFO, LRU, and LFU page replacement strategies. User then gives a series of page requests and the AV shows the decisions made regarding page replacement. Simple to use, clearly shows the process. It would be nice if the user could pick the size of the backing memory and the buffer pool. Recommended as lecture aide, standalone, self-study suppliment to tutorial or lecture.

  3. Buck Buffer Leslie Vosshall

    E-print Network

    Buck Buffer Leslie Vosshall Axel Lab 5/7/1998 For high stringency hybridization of library screens.5 M Sodium Phosphate pH 7.3 1% BSA 4% SDS For 1 liter: Prewarm about 800 ml distilled water to 65 Phosphate Dibasic: 103.21 g (Heptahydrate, FW=268.07) **OR** 54.66 g (Anhydrous, FW=141.96) Mix until

  4. Comparative study of the vasoconstrictor activity of halopredone acetate in a modified McKenzie test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Rampini; A. Rastelli; P. Cardo

    1978-01-01

    The vasoconstrictor activity of four steroids, administered in solution and in the commercially available form, were compared in healthy volunteer subjects. Evaluation was based on conventional visual observations and photometric measurement of reflectance. Statistical analysis showed that halopredone acetate had less vasoconstrictor action on healthy skin than fluocinolone acetonide, beta-methasone valerate and hydrocortisone acetate. The halopredone acetate results were identical

  5. Principles of database buffer management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang Effelsberg; Theo Haerder

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses the implementation of a database buffer manager as a component of a DBMS. The interface between calling components of higher system layers and the buffer manager is described; the principal differences between virtual memory paging and database buffer management are outlined; the notion of referencing versus addressing of database pages is introduced; and the concept of fixing

  6. Ulipristal acetate: in uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Croxtall, Jamie D

    2012-05-28

    Ulipristal acetate, a selective progesterone-receptor modulator, inhibits the proliferation and induces apoptosis of leiomyoma cells in vitro. It also modulates the expression of vascular endothelial growth factors and hormone receptors and modulates extracellular matrix breakdown in leiomyoma cells but not in myometrial cells. In two randomized, double-blind, multinational phase III trials of 13 weeks' duration in women aged 18-50 years with uterine fibroids, a once-daily regimen of oral ulipristal acetate 5 mg/day controlled excessive uterine bleeding (primary endpoint) in ?90% of patients. Ulipristal acetate 5 mg/day was more effective than placebo and was shown to be noninferior to intramuscular leuprolide acetate 3.75 mg once monthly in controlling uterine bleeding. Uterine bleeding was rapidly controlled by ulipristal acetate. Approximately half of recipients of ulipristal acetate 5 mg/day became amenorrhoeic within the first 10 days of treatment. Furthermore, uterine bleeding was controlled significantly more rapidly for recipients of ulipristal acetate than recipients of leuprolide acetate. A significantly greater median reduction from baseline in total fibroid volume was observed for recipients of ulipristal acetate 5 mg once daily than recipients of placebo following 13 weeks' treatment (coprimary endpoint). For patients who did not undergo surgery, the volume reduction was maintained for at least 6 months after discontinuing treatment. Ulipristal acetate was generally well tolerated in women with uterine fibroids. The incidence of hot flush occurred with a significantly lower frequency for recipients of ulipristal acetate than for recipients of leuprolide acetate. PMID:22568731

  7. Comparative study of perdialytic volemia variability in chronic dialysis patients between acetate- free biofiltration and bicarbonate hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Harzallah, Kais; Daiki, Mayssa; Baffoun, Anis; Salah, Mohamed Ben; Tagorti, Mohamed; Hichri, Nourredine; Hmida, Jalel

    2011-09-01

    We have developed since 1994 a new hemodialysis (HD) technique called acetate biofiltration 84% (AFB 84%) that is characterized by the absence of acetate in the dialysate and the complete correction of buffer balance by post- dilutional infusion of bicarbonate- based replacement solution. Our study aimed to compare the variability of perdialytic volemia [net ultrafiltration (UF) rate, total UF, ?weight (T4- T0)] during AFB 84% and bicarbonate dialysis (BD) for stable chronic hemodynamic patients. This was a prospective crossover study carried out on 14 patients for a total of 168 HD sessions (84 AFB 84% and 84 BD). Optical measurement of hemoglobin (Hb) concentration was incorporated into the dialysis monitor to allow the study of the relative blood volume. For both techniques, Hb measured by Hemoscan® correlated well with the laboratory measurements. Moreover, the comparison of the averages of the different indicators of the perdialytic volemia did not disclose any significant statistical differences. Nevertheless, the comparison of the variability of perdialytic volemia between both techniques showed less ? volemia (T4- T0) during the AFB 84% than the BD (- 7.909% for BD and - 6.960% for ABF 84%, P = 0.0036). We conclude that the absence of acetate and maintaining an optimal osmolarity at the origin of a better plasma refilling rate are key factors that make AFB 84% a technique assuring a better perdialyitic hemodynamic tolerance in comparison with BD in chronic HD patients. PMID:21912029

  8. Acetate dependence of tumors.

    PubMed

    Comerford, Sarah A; Huang, Zhiguang; Du, Xinlin; Wang, Yun; Cai, Ling; Witkiewicz, Agnes K; Walters, Holly; Tantawy, Mohammed N; Fu, Allie; Manning, H Charles; Horton, Jay D; Hammer, Robert E; McKnight, Steven L; Tu, Benjamin P

    2014-12-18

    Acetyl-CoA represents a central node of carbon metabolism that plays a key role in bioenergetics, cell proliferation, and the regulation of gene expression. Highly glycolytic or hypoxic tumors must produce sufficient quantities of this metabolite to support cell growth and survival under nutrient-limiting conditions. Here, we show that the nucleocytosolic acetyl-CoA synthetase enzyme, ACSS2, supplies a key source of acetyl-CoA for tumors by capturing acetate as a carbon source. Despite exhibiting no gross deficits in growth or development, adult mice lacking ACSS2 exhibit a significant reduction in tumor burden in two different models of hepatocellular carcinoma. ACSS2 is expressed in a large proportion of human tumors, and its activity is responsible for the majority of cellular acetate uptake into both lipids and histones. These observations may qualify ACSS2 as a targetable metabolic vulnerability of a wide spectrum of tumors. PMID:25525877

  9. Acid Rain Experiments: Soil Buffering

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This experiment will help students understand that soil sometimes contains substances, like limestone, that buffer acids or bases, and that some salts in soil may also act as buffers. They will collect soil samples from their lawn, garden, or school and look for buffering effects by observing the pH change of an acid mixture poured through the samples. If the water collected from the sample is less acidic than the original mixture, then the soil is buffering some of the acid. If it does not change, then the soil may not be capable of buffering acids.

  10. A stability-indicating HPLC method for medroxyprogesterone acetate in bulk drug and injection formulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jankana Burana-osot; Sooksri Ungboriboonpisal; Lawan Sriphong

    2006-01-01

    A stability-indicating HPLC assay method has been developed and validated for medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) in bulk drug and injectable suspension. An isocratic RP-HPLC was achieved on a Hichrom C18 column (150mm×4.6mm i.d., 5?m) utilizing a mobile phase of methanol 0.020M acetate buffer pH 5 (65:35, v\\/v) and a photodiode array detector at 245nm. The stress testing of MPA was carried

  11. Acetate Kinase Isozymes Confer Robustness in Acetate Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Siu Hung Joshua; Nørregaard, Lasse; Solem, Christian; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2014-01-01

    Acetate kinase (ACK) (EC no: 2.7.2.1) interconverts acetyl-phosphate and acetate to either catabolize or synthesize acetyl-CoA dependent on the metabolic requirement. Among all ACK entries available in UniProt, we found that around 45% are multiple ACKs in some organisms including more than 300 species but surprisingly, little work has been done to clarify whether this has any significance. In an attempt to gain further insight we have studied the two ACKs (AckA1, AckA2) encoded by two neighboring genes conserved in Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis) by analyzing protein sequences, characterizing transcription structure, determining enzyme characteristics and effect on growth physiology. The results show that the two ACKs are most likely individually transcribed. AckA1 has a much higher turnover number and AckA2 has a much higher affinity for acetate in vitro. Consistently, growth experiments of mutant strains reveal that AckA1 has a higher capacity for acetate production which allows faster growth in an environment with high acetate concentration. Meanwhile, AckA2 is important for fast acetate-dependent growth at low concentration of acetate. The results demonstrate that the two ACKs have complementary physiological roles in L. lactis to maintain a robust acetate metabolism for fast growth at different extracellular acetate concentrations. The existence of ACK isozymes may reflect a common evolutionary strategy in bacteria in an environment with varying concentrations of acetate. PMID:24638105

  12. On the delay analysis of a TDMA channel with finite buffer capacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, T.-Y.

    1982-01-01

    The throughput performance of a TDMA channel with finite buffer capacity for transmitting data messages is considered. Each station has limited message buffer capacity and has Poisson message arrivals. Message arrivals will be blocked if the buffers are congested. Using the embedded Markov chain model, the solution procedure for the limiting system-size probabilities is presented in a recursive fashion. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the tradeoffs between the blocking probabilities and the buffer sizing strategy.

  13. Virtual Frame Buffer Interface Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Thomas L.

    1990-01-01

    Virtual Frame Buffer Interface program makes all frame buffers appear as generic frame buffer with specified set of characteristics, allowing programmers to write codes that run unmodified on all supported hardware. Converts generic commands to actual device commands. Consists of definition of capabilities and FORTRAN subroutines called by application programs. Developed in FORTRAN 77 for DEC VAX 11/780 or DEC VAX 11/750 computer under VMS 4.X.

  14. The effect of oral sodium acetate administration on plasma acetate concentration and acid-base state in horses

    PubMed Central

    Waller, Amanda; Lindinger, Michael I

    2007-01-01

    Aim Sodium acetate (NaAcetate) has received some attention as an alkalinizing agent and possible alternative energy source for the horse, however the effects of oral administration remain largely unknown. The present study used the physicochemical approach to characterize the changes in acid-base status occurring after oral NaAcetate/acetic acid (NAA) administration in horses. Methods Jugular venous blood was sampled from 9 exercise-conditioned horses on 2 separate occasions, at rest and for 24 h following a competition exercise test (CET) designed to simulate the speed and endurance test of 3-day event. Immediately after the CETs horses were allowed water ad libitum and either: 1) 8 L of a hypertonic NaAcetate/acetic acid solution via nasogastric tube followed by a typical hay/grain meal (NAA trial); or 2) a hay/grain meal alone (Control trial). Results Oral NAA resulted in a profound plasma alkalosis marked by decreased plasma [H+] and increased plasma [TCO2] and [HCO3-] compared to Control. The primary contributor to the plasma alkalosis was an increased [SID], as a result of increased plasma [Na+] and decreased plasma [Cl-]. An increased [Atot], due to increased [PP] and a sustained increase in plasma [acetate], contributed a minor acidifying effect. Conclusion It is concluded that oral NaAcetate could be used as both an alkalinizing agent and an alternative energy source in the horse. PMID:18096070

  15. Specific ion and buffer effects on protein-protein interactions of a monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Roberts, D; Keeling, R; Tracka, M; van der Walle, C F; Uddin, S; Warwicker, J; Curtis, R

    2015-01-01

    Better predictive ability of salt and buffer effects on protein-protein interactions requires separating out contributions due to ionic screening, protein charge neutralization by ion binding, and salting-in(out) behavior. We have carried out a systematic study by measuring protein-protein interactions for a monoclonal antibody over an ionic strength range of 25 to 525 mM at 4 pH values (5, 6.5, 8, and 9) in solutions containing sodium chloride, calcium chloride, sodium sulfate, or sodium thiocyante. The salt ions are chosen so as to represent a range of affinities for protein charged and noncharged groups. The results are compared to effects of various buffers including acetate, citrate, phosphate, histidine, succinate, or tris. In low ionic strength solutions, anion binding affinity is reflected by the ability to reduce protein-protein repulsion, which follows the order thiocyanate > sulfate > chloride. The sulfate specific effect is screened at the same ionic strength required to screen the pH dependence of protein-protein interactions indicating sulfate binding only neutralizes protein charged groups. Thiocyanate specific effects occur over a larger ionic strength range reflecting adsorption to charged and noncharged regions of the protein. The latter leads to salting-in behavior and, at low pH, a nonmonotonic interaction profile with respect to sodium thiocyanate concentration. The effects of thiocyanate can not be rationalized in terms of only neutralizing double layer forces indicating the presence of an additional short-ranged protein-protein attraction at moderate ionic strength. Conversely, buffer specific effects can be explained through a charge neutralization mechanism, where buffers with greater valency are more effective at reducing double layer forces at low pH. Citrate binding at pH 6.5 leads to protein charge inversion and the formation of attractive electrostatic interactions. Throughout the report, we highlight similarities in the measured protein-protein interaction profiles with previous studies of globular proteins and of antibodies providing evidence that the behavior will be common to other protein systems. PMID:25389571

  16. [Nomegestrol acetate: clinical pharmacology].

    PubMed

    Lello, S

    2009-10-01

    Progestogens are used in clinical practice in some conditions. Their effects depend on their chemical structure, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, with important differences among various progestogens. Generally, progestins are classified according to their parent molecule, of which often they keep some features. Derivatives of 19-nor-progesterone are characterized by high selectivity of action on progestin receptor. In particular, nomegestrol acetate (NomAc) shows an important progestational potency, neutral gluco-lipid profile, and antigonadotropic activity. It is used for treating menstrual cycle disorders and for hormone replacement therapy in menopause in association with an estrogen. In future, thanks to its antigonadotropic activity, NomAc will be used in estroprogestin combinations in fertile women, thus taking advantage of its tolerability profile and obtaining numerous non-contraceptive benefits as well. PMID:19749678

  17. Hemodialysis with acetate, DL-lactate and bicarbonate: A hemodynamic and gasometric study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jose A Herrero; Juan I Trobo; Jaime Torrente; Antonio Torralbo; Fernando Tornero; Antonio Cruceyra; Francisco Coronel; Alberto Barrientos

    1994-01-01

    Hemodialysis with acetate, DL-lactate and bicarbonate: A hemodynamic and gasometric study. Using invasive techniques we have studied various hemodynamic and gasometric parameters in the course of hemodialysis (HD) with different buffers in an animal model. HD sessions of 180 minutes at zero ultrafiltration were carried out on three groups of eight uremic dogs each, under anesthesia and constant mechanical ventilation.

  18. BUFFERS AND VEGETATIVE FILTER STRIPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Buffers and filter strips are areas of permanent vegetation located within and between agricultural fields and the water courses to which they drain. These buffers are intended to intercept and slow runoff thereby providing water quality benefits. In addition, in many settings they are intended to...

  19. Mechanisms of buffer therapy resistance

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Kate M.; Wojtkowiak, Jonathan W.; Cornnell, Heather H.; Ribeiro, Maria C.; Balagurunathan, Yoganand; Hashim, Arig Ibrahim; Gillies, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have shown that the acidity of solid tumors contributes to local invasion and metastasis. Oral pH buffers can specifically neutralize the acidic pH of tumors and reduce the incidence of local invasion and metastatic formation in multiple murine models. However, this effect is not universal as we have previously observed that metastasis is not inhibited by buffers in some tumor models, regardless of buffer used. B16-F10 (murine melanoma), LL/2 (murine lung) and HCT116 (human colon) tumors are resistant to treatment with lysine buffer therapy, whereas metastasis is potently inhibited by lysine buffers in MDA-MB-231 (human breast) and PC3M (human prostate) tumors. In the current work, we confirmed that sensitive cells utilized a pH-dependent mechanism for successful metastasis supported by a highly glycolytic phenotype that acidifies the local tumor microenvironment resulting in morphological changes. In contrast, buffer-resistant cell lines exhibited a pH-independent metastatic mechanism involving constitutive secretion of matrix degrading proteases without elevated glycolysis. These results have identified two distinct mechanisms of experimental metastasis, one of which is pH-dependent (buffer therapy sensitive cells) and one which is pH-independent (buffer therapy resistant cells). Further characterization of these models has potential for therapeutic benefit. PMID:24862761

  20. Memory access buffering in multiprocessors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michel Dubois; Christoph Scheurich; Faye A. Briggs

    1986-01-01

    In highly-pipelined machines, instructions and data are prefetched and buffered in both the processor and the cache. This is done to reduce the average memory access latency and to take advantage of memory interleaving. Lock-up free caches are designed to avoid processor blocking on a cache miss. Write buffers are often included in a pipelined machine to avoid processor waiting

  1. Acid Buffering Capacity of Forest Litter from Some Important Plantation and Natural Forests in South China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LI Zhi-An; CAO Yu-Song; ZOU Bi; DING Yong-Zhen; REN Hai

    The role of forest litter as an acid-base buffering system was assessed by litter from plantation and natural forests in South China. Samples were either extracted with acid solutions or ti- trated with acid or base solutions. Litter was found to be a strong acid-base buffering system. Two legume species, Acacia mangium Willd and A. auriculaiformis A. Cunn, had very

  2. Effect of formulation on the delivery and metabolism of alpha-tocopheryl acetate.

    PubMed

    Rangarajan, M; Zatz, J L

    2001-01-01

    The effect of delivery system on the permeation and metabolism of alpha-tocopheryl acetate (alpha-TAc) was studied in micro-Yucatan pig skin, which closely resembles human skin. Various alpha-tocopheryl acetate formulations, including a simple isopropyl myristate (IPM) solution, an o/w emulsion, microemulsions, which differed in their oily phase content, and alcoholic and hydroalcoholic gels were made. A suitable HPLC method was developed and validated to separate and quantify alpha-TAc and alpha-tocopherol (alpha-T). Dulbecco's modified phosphate-buffered saline with 3% bovine serum albumin (DMPBS-BSA 3%) served as the receptor media to ensure tissue viability and to maintain skin conditions. Finite doses (5 microl) of the formulations were applied to viable pig skin using a statistically approved randomized complete block design. Data were analyzed using Tukey's studentized range test, and interday variability was estimated using an F-test. About 70% of the active was recovered from the wash, representing the amount adhering to the surface of the skin. alpha-TAc underwent metabolism in pig skin to the active antioxidant, alpha-T. The identity of the HPLC peaks were confirmed by spiking studies using known standards. The extent of metabolism was found to be formulation-dependent. No alpha-T was, however, detected in the stratum corneum. A higher extent of metabolism was obtained for the IPM solution, a microemulsion containing IPM as the oily phase, and the hydroalcoholic gel, when calculated based on the percent of total alpha-TAc permeated in the viable skin. Metabolism occurred in pig skin to the extent of 15-20% in terms of the total amount of alpha-TAc permeated in the viable skin and stratum corneum. Thus the topical delivery and metabolism of alpha-TAc were found to be dependent on formulation. PMID:11479655

  3. 21 CFR 520.1696a - Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered aqueous diluent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered aqueous diluent. 520...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696a Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered...

  4. 21 CFR 520.1696a - Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered aqueous diluent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered aqueous diluent. 520...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696a Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered...

  5. 21 CFR 520.1696a - Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered aqueous diluent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered aqueous diluent. 520...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696a Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered...

  6. Ulipristal acetate for emergency contraception.

    PubMed

    Russo, J A; Creinin, M D

    2010-09-01

    Ulipristal acetate is a progesterone receptor modulator. As an emergency contraceptive, a 30-mg micronized formulation is effective for use up to 120 h from unprotected sexual intercourse. Ulipristal acetate acts as an antagonist of the progesterone receptor at the transcriptional level and a competitive antagonist of glucocorticoid receptor function. In contrast to other contraceptives, it has little effect on sex hormone-binding globulin. Although a single small study demonstrated some potential endometrial effects after ulipristal acetate administration, the clinical relevance of these findings is unclear. The incidence of adverse events in clinical trials for emergency contraception has typically been minimal, with one study showing a higher than expected incidence of nausea upon ulipristal acetate use. Ulipristal acetate, like other emergency contraceptive products, can lengthen the time to the next expected menstruation. Ulipristal acetate may have several advantages over currently approved emergency contraceptives. When compared to levonorgestrel, ulipristal acetate maintains its efficacy for a full 120 h, whereas levonorgestrel formulations have declining efficacy over that time frame. Moreover, although the copper intrauterine device (IUD) is highly effective as an emergency contraceptive, accessibility is an issue since the IUD requires a skilled provider for insertion. PMID:20967297

  7. Ulipristal acetate: contraceptive or contragestive?

    PubMed

    Keenan, Jeffrey A

    2011-06-01

    Ulipristal acetate is the first selective progesterone receptor modulator approved for postcoital contraception in the US. It appears to be significantly more effective in inhibition of ovulation than other forms of emergency contraception. However, ulipristal acetate is structurally similar to mifepristone, and several lines of evidence suggest that a postfertilization mechanism of action is also operative. This mechanism of action is considered to be contragestive versus contraceptive. Ulipristal acetate administration is contraindicated in a known or suspected pregnancy; however, it could quite possibly be used as an effective abortifacient. Health-care providers should inform patients of the possibility of both mechanisms of action with use of this drug. PMID:21666088

  8. 1,3,5-Tris(phenyl-2-benzimidazole)-benzene cathode buffer layer thickness dependence in solution-processable organic solar cell based on 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octahexylphthalocyanine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Roméo Banoukepa, Gilles; Fujii, Akihiko; Shimizu, Yo; Ozaki, Masanori

    2015-04-01

    Studies on the insertion effects of a cathode buffer layer on bulk heterojunction organic solar cell based on 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octahexylphthalocyanine (C6PcH2) and 1-(3-methoxy-carbonyl)-propyl-1-1-phenyl-(6,6)C61 (PCBM) by using 1,3,5-tris(phenyl-2-benzimidazole)-benzene (TPBi) as a cathode buffer layer material have been carried out. The external quantum efficiency and the short-circuit current markedly increased, resulting in the enhancement of the power conversion efficiency. The solar cell performance has been discussed from the atomic force microscopy, photoelectron yield spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements.

  9. Ion selective permeation through cellulose acetate membranes in forward osmosis.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Gavin J; Rajesh, Sahadevan; Georgiadis, Michael; Phillip, William A

    2013-12-01

    Solute-solute interactions can have a dramatic impact on the permeation of solutes through dense polymeric membranes. In particular, understanding how solute-solute interactions can affect the design of osmotically driven membrane processes (ODMPs) is critical to the successful development of these emerging water treatment and energy generation processes. In this work, we investigate the influence that solute-solute interactions have on nitrate permeation through an asymmetric cellulose acetate forward osmosis membrane. A series of experiments that included systematic modifications to the cation paired with nitrate, the identity of the draw solute, and the solution pH were conducted. These experiments reveal that in the unique operating geometry of ODMPs, where solute containing solutions are present on both sides of the membrane, nitrate fluxes are significantly higher (>15 times in some cases) than predicted by existing models for solute permeation in ODMPs. The identity of the cation paired with nitrate influences the flux of nitrate; the identity of the cation in the draw solution does not affect the flux of nitrate; however, the identity of the anion in the draw solution has the most significant impact on the flux of nitrate. These results suggest that an ion exchange mechanism, which allows nitrate to switch rapidly with anions from the draw solution, is present when cellulose acetate based membranes are used in ODMPs. PMID:24152190

  10. Branch target buffer design and optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perleberg, Chris H.; Smith, Alan J.

    1993-01-01

    Consideration is given to two major issues in the design of branch target buffers (BTBs), with the goal of achieving maximum performance for a given number of bits allocated to the BTB design. The first issue is BTB management; the second is what information to keep in the BTB. A number of solutions to these problems are reviewed, and various optimizations in the design of BTBs are discussed. Design target miss ratios for BTBs are developed, making it possible to estimate the performance of BTBs for real workloads.

  11. Simultaneous determination of 2-naphthoxyacetic acid and indole-3-acetic acid by first derivation synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiangxiang; Wan, Yiqun

    2013-07-01

    A simple, rapid, sensitive and selective method for simultaneously determining 2-naphthoxyacetic acid (BNOA) and Indole-3-Acetic Acid (IAA) in mixtures has been developed using derivation synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy based on their synchronous fluorescence. The synchronous fluorescence spectra were obtained with ?? = 100 nm in a pH 8.5 NaH2PO4-NaOH buffer solution, and the detected wavelengths of quantitative analysis were set at 239 nm for BNOA and 293 nm for IAA respectively. The over lapped fluorescence spectra were well separated by the synchronous derivative method. Under optimized conditions, the limits of detection (LOD) were 0.003 ?g/mL for BNOA and 0.012 ?g/mL for IAA. This method is simple and expeditious, and it has been successfully applied to the determination of 2-naphthoxyacetic acid and indole-3-acetic acid in fruit juice samples with satisfactory results. The samples were only filtrated through a 0.45 ?m membrane filter, which was free from the tedious separation procedures. The obtaining recoveries were in the range of 83.88-87.43% for BNOA and 80.76-86.68% for IAA, and the relative standard deviations were all less than 5.0%. Statistical comparison of the results with high performance liquid chromatography Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-MS) method revealed good agreement and proved that there were no significant difference in the accuracy and precision between these two methods.

  12. Molecular Structure of Acetic acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-06-02

    Acetic Acid commonly associated with vinegar; it is the most commercially important organic acid and is used to manufacture a wide range of chemical products, such as plastics and insecticides. Acetic acid is produced naturally by Aceto bacteria but, except for making vinegar, is usually made through synthetic processes. Ethanoic acid is used as herbicide, as a micro-biocide, as a fungicide and for pH adjustment.

  13. Degradation of acetic acid with sulfate radical generated by persulfate ions photolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Justine Criquet; Nathalie Karpel Vel Leitner

    2009-01-01

    The photolysis of S2O82- was studied for the removal of acetic acid in aqueous solution and compared with the H2O2\\/UV system. The SO4- radicals generated from the UV irradiation of S2O82- ions yield a greater mineralization of acetic acid than the OH radicals. Acetic acid is oxidized by SO4- radicals without significant formation of intermediate by-products. Increasing system pH results

  14. Buffer Gas Acquisition and Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F.; Lueck, Dale E.; Jennings, Paul A.; Callahan, Richard A.; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The acquisition and storage of buffer gases (primarily argon and nitrogen) from the Mars atmosphere provides a valuable resource for blanketing and pressurizing fuel tanks and as a buffer gas for breathing air for manned missions. During the acquisition of carbon dioxide (CO2), whether by sorption bed or cryo-freezer, the accompanying buffer gases build up in the carbon dioxide acquisition system, reduce the flow of CO2 to the bed, and lower system efficiency. It is this build up of buffer gases that provide a convenient source, which must be removed, for efficient capture Of CO2 Removal of this buffer gas barrier greatly improves the charging rate of the CO2 acquisition bed and, thereby, maintains the fuel production rates required for a successful mission. Consequently, the acquisition, purification, and storage of these buffer gases are important goals of ISRU plans. Purity of the buffer gases is a concern e.g., if the CO, freezer operates at 140 K, the composition of the inert gas would be approximately 21 percent CO2, 50 percent nitrogen, and 29 percent argon. Although there are several approaches that could be used, this effort focused on a hollow-fiber membrane (HFM) separation method. This study measured the permeation rates of CO2, nitrogen (ND, and argon (Ar) through a multiple-membrane system and the individual membranes from room temperature to 193K and 10 kpa to 300 kPa. Concentrations were measured with a gas chromatograph that used a thermoconductivity (TCD) detector with helium (He) as the carrier gas. The general trend as the temperature was lowered was for the membranes to become more selective, In addition, the relative permeation rates between the three gases changed with temperature. The end result was to provide design parameters that could be used to separate CO2 from N2 and Ar.

  15. Buffer gas acquisition and storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrish, Clyde F.; Lueck, Dale E.; Jennings, Paul A.

    2001-02-01

    The acquisition and storage of buffer gases (primarily argon and nitrogen) from the Mars atmosphere provides a valuable resource for blanketing and pressurizing fuel tanks and as a buffer gas for breathing air for manned missions. During the acquisition of carbon dioxide (CO2), whether by sorption bed or cryo-freezer, the accompanying buffer gases build up in the carbon dioxide acquisition system, reduce the flow of CO2 to the bed, and lower system efficiency. It is this build up of buffer gases that provide a convenient source, which must be removed, for efficient capture of CO2. Removal of this buffer gas barrier greatly improves the charging rate of the CO2 acquisition bed and, thereby, maintains the fuel production rates required for a successful mission. Consequently, the acquisition, purification, and storage of these buffer gases are important goals of ISRU plans. Purity of the buffer gases is a concern e.g., if the CO2 freezer operates at 140 K, the composition of the inert gas would be approximately 21 percent CO2, 50 percent nitrogen, and 29 percent argon. Although there are several approaches that could be used, this effort focused on a hollow-fiber membrane (HFM) separation method. This study measured the permeation rates of CO2, nitrogen (N2), and argon (Ar) through a multiple-membrane system and the individual membranes from room temperature to 193 K and 10 kPa to 300 kPa. Concentrations were measured with a gas chromatograph. The end result was data necessary to design a system that could separate CO2, N2, and Ar. .

  16. Microbiological preservation of cucumbers for bulk storage by the use of acetic acid and food preservatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbial growth did not occur when cucumbers were preserved without a thermal process by storage in solutions containing acetic acid, sodium benzoate, and calcium chloride to maintain tissue firmness. The concentrations of acetic acid and sodium benzoate required to assure preservation were low en...

  17. Effects of buffer layer structure on polysilicon buffer LOCOS for the isolation of submicron silicon devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jong-Ho Lee; Jong-Son Lyu; Tae Moon Roh; Bo Woo Kim

    1998-01-01

    The effects of a buffer layer structure on polysilicon buffered LOCOS were shown and analyzed. Sample wafers are classified into four groups to show the effect of the buffer layer structure. The structures of the four different buffer layers are monolayer polysilicon (typical), monolayer amorphous silicon (?-Si), double layer ?-Si, and triple layer ?-Si. Total buffer layer thickness of each

  18. Good’s buffers as a basis for developing self-buffering and biocompatible ionic liquids for biological research†

    PubMed Central

    Taha, Mohamed; e Silva, Francisca A.; Quental, Maria V.; Ventura, Sónia P. M.; Freire, Mara G.; Coutinho, João A. P.

    2014-01-01

    This work reports a promising approach to the development of novel self-buffering and biocompatible ionic liquids for biological research in which the anions are derived from biological buffers (Good’s buffers, GB). Five Good’s buffers (Tricine, TES, CHES, HEPES, and MES) were neutralized with four suitable hydroxide bases (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium, tetramethylammonium, tetraethylammonium, and tetrabutylammonium) producing 20 Good’s buffer ionic liquids (GB-ILs). The presence of the buffering action of the synthesized GB-ILs was ascertained by measuring their pH-profiles in water. Moreover, a series of mixed GB-ILs with wide buffering ranges were formulated as universal buffers. The impact of GB-ILs on bovine serum albumin (BSA), here used as a model protein, is discussed and compared with more conventional ILs using spectroscopic techniques, such as infrared and dynamic light scattering. They appear to display, in general, a greater stabilizing effect on the protein secondary structure than conventional ILs. A molecular docking study was also carried out to investigate on the binding sites of GB-IL ions to BSA. We further used the QSAR-human serum albumin binding model, log K(HSA), to calculate the binding affinity of some conventional ILs/GB-ILs to HSA. The toxicity of the GB and GB-ILs was additionally evaluated revealing that they are non-toxic against Vitro fischeri. Finally, the GB-ILs were also shown to be able to form aqueous biphasic systems when combined with aqueous solutions of inorganic or organic salts, and we tested their extraction capability for BSA. These systems were able to extract BSA with an outstanding extraction efficiency of 100% in a single step for the GB-IL-rich phase, and, as a result, the use of GB-IL-based ABS for the separation and extraction of other added-value biomolecules is highly encouraging and worthy of further investigation. PMID:25729325

  19. Short Communication Saline catholytes as alternatives to phosphate buffers in microbial

    E-print Network

    2013 Keywords: Microbial fuel cell Buffer Sodium chloride Ion exchange membrane a b s t r a c t HighlyH conditions and increase the solution conduc- tivity, including phosphate, bicarbonate, and zwitterionic (Fan into the environment. Bicarbonate buffers are more useful, but they can enhance the growth of methanogens (Fan et al

  20. Sample Buffer: ReservoirVolume

    E-print Network

    Gaudet, Rachelle

    chloride hydrate Multivalent 3. (A3) 0.1 M Calcium chloride dihydrate Multivalent 4. (A4) 0.1 M Cobalt hexahydrate Multivalent 14. (B2) 0.1 M Praseodymium(III) acetate hydrate Multivalent 15. (B3) 1.0 M Ammonium

  1. New findings about the lipase acetylation of nanofibrillated cellulose using acetic anhydride as acyl donor.

    PubMed

    Boži?, Mojca; Vivod, Vera; Kav?i?, Sabina; Leitgeb, Maja; Kokol, Vanja

    2015-07-10

    The acetylation efficiency of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) with acetic anhydride as acetyl donor was studied using lipase from Aspergillus niger in a mixture of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) and phosphate buffer solution at ambient conditions and in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2). The chemical acetylation of NFC with comparable ester content was carried out for comparison. The ATR-FTIR, solid-state CP/MAS (13)C NMR and DSC analyses revealed that, besides the enzyme-catalysed acetylation, predominantly appearing at the C-6 position of cellulose hydroxyls, a strong and stable acyl-enzyme intermediate attachment also occurred on the NFC via Maillard reaction. Enzymatic acetylation via attached acyl-enzyme complex on NFC yielded high hydophobicity (contact angle of 84±9°), whereas the chemical acetylation with comparable ester content resulted in a much lower hydrophobic surface with a contact angle of 33±3°. Finally, the adsorption capacity profiles of lysozyme and BSA proteins on native, chemically and enzymatically acetylated NFC as a function of the pH medium were determined. PMID:25857991

  2. Water-promoted One-step Anodic Acetoxylation of Benzene to Phenyl Acetate with High Selectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Juan; Qin, Song; Li, Gui-ying; Hu, Chang-wei

    2011-04-01

    One-step anodic acetoxylation of benzene to phenyl acetate was studied in acetic acid-water solution using a one-compartment electrochemical cell in galvanostatic mode. Compared to the anhydrous system, the addition of water improved the current efficiency for the electro-synthesis of phenyl acetate. The maximum efficiency reached 4.8% with the selectivity of 96% to phenyl acetate when the electrolysis was carried out under the optimal conditions. The investigation also indicated that the concentration of phenyl acetate increased linearly in 12 h and reached 1.07 g/L with the selectivity of 95%. Cyclic voltammetry experiments showed that the adsorption of benzene at Pt anode enhanced by the addition of water was critical to the formation of phenyl acetate. An activated benzene mechanism was proposed for the anodic acytoxylation, and the analysis of gas products demonstrated that Kolbe reaction was the main side reaction.

  3. Clostridium lentocellum SG6--a potential organism for fermentation of cellulose to acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Ravinder, T; Swamy, M V; Seenayya, G; Reddy, G

    2001-12-01

    A cellulolytic, acetic acid producing anaerobic bacterial isolate, Gram negative, rod-shaped, motile, terminal oval shaped endospore forming bacterium identified as Clostridium lentocellum SG6 based on physiological and biochemical characteristics. It produced acetic acid as a major end product from cellulose fermentation at 37 degrees C and pH 7.2. Acetic acid production was 0.67 g/g cellulose substrate utilized in cellulose mineral salt (CMS) medium. Yeast extract (0.4%) was the best nitrogen source among the various nitrogenous nutrients tested in production medium containing 0.8% cellulose as substrate. No additional vitamins or trace elemental solution were required for acetic acid fermentation. This is the highest acetic acid fermentation yield in monoculture fermentation for direct conversion of cellulose to acetic acid. PMID:11601540

  4. Kinetics of Imidazole Catalyzed Ester Hydrolysis: Use of Buffer Dilutions to Determine Spontaneous Rate, Catalyzed Rate, and Reaction Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardo, Anthony

    1982-01-01

    Described is an advanced undergraduate kinetics experiment using buffer dilutions to determine spontaneous rate, catalyzed rate, and reaction order. The reaction utilized is hydrolysis of p-nitro-phenyl acetate in presence of imidazole, which has been shown to enhance rate of the reaction. (Author/JN)

  5. Riparian buffers and potentially unstable ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Swee May; Montgomery, David R.

    1995-09-01

    The spatial coincidence between riparian buffers of various widths and extents and potentially unstable ground was quantified using a physically based model for shallow landslide initiation and GIS for two watersheds on the Olympic Peninsula, Washington, USA. The proportion of the potentially unstable ground in each watershed within riparian buffers is a function of both buffer width and the extent of the stream channel network being buffered. While current buffers required by Washington State cover less than 5% of the potentially unstable ground, buffering all stream channels in these watersheds with 100-m buffers covered 75%-90% of the potentially unstable areas. Our analyses further show that: (1) riparian buffers are not efficient mechanisms for protecting potentially unstable ground, and (2) identifying potentially unstable ground using a physically based model should prove more effective for designing methods to reduce shallow landsliding hazards than relying on extensive buffer zones along stream channels.

  6. Partner Buffering of Attachment Insecurity

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Jeffry A.; Overall, Nickola C.

    2014-01-01

    Insecurely attached people have less happy, unstable romantic relationships, but the quality of their relationships should depend on how their partners regulate them. Some partners find ways to buffer (emotionally and behaviorally regulate) insecurely attached individuals, which makes them feel better, behave more constructively, and improves their relationships. Understanding when and how this important interpersonal process works requires a dyad-centered approach. In this article, we describe core tenets of attachment theory and the two forms of attachment insecurity (anxiety and avoidance). We then present the Dyadic Regulation Model of Insecurity Buffering, which explains how and why certain types of buffering behaviors soothe the worries and improve the relationship perceptions and behaviors of anxious or avoidant people. We next review studies of couples trying to resolve major conflicts that illustrate some ways in which partners can successfully buffer the insecure reactions of anxious and avoidant individuals. We conclude by discussing other traits and social contexts to which our model can be applied. PMID:25214722

  7. Effects of hypertonic buffer composition on lymph node uptake and bioavailability of rituximab, after subcutaneous administration.

    PubMed

    Fathallah, Anas M; Turner, Michael R; Mager, Donald E; Balu-Iyer, Sathy V

    2015-03-01

    The subcutaneous administration of biologics is highly desirable; however, incomplete bioavailability after s.c. administration remains a major challenge. In this work we investigated the effects of excipient dependent hyperosmolarity on lymphatic uptake and plasma exposure of rituximab as a model protein. Using Swiss Webster (SW) mice as the animal model, we compared the effects of NaCl, mannitol and O-phospho-L-serine (OPLS) on the plasma concentration of rituximab over 5 days after s.c. administration. An increase was observed in plasma concentrations in animals administered rituximab in hypertonic buffer solutions, compared with isotonic buffer. Bioavailability, as estimated by our pharmacokinetic model, increased from 29% in isotonic buffer to 54% in hypertonic buffer containing NaCl, to almost complete bioavailability in hypertonic buffers containing high dose OPLS or mannitol. This improvement in plasma exposure is due to the improved lymphatic trafficking as evident from the increase in the fraction of dose trafficked through the lymph nodes in the presence of hypertonic buffers. The fraction of the dose trafficked through the lymphatics, as estimated by the model, increased from 0.05% in isotonic buffer to 13% in hypertonic buffer containing NaCl to about 30% for hypertonic buffers containing high dose OPLS and mannitol. The data suggest that hypertonic solutions may be a viable option for improving s.c. bioavailability. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25377184

  8. Desmopressin Acetate in Intracranial Haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Kapapa, Thomas; Röhrer, Stefan; Struve, Sabine; Petscher, Matthias; König, Ralph; Wirtz, Christian Rainer; Woischneck, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The secondary increase in the size of intracranial haematomas as a result of spontaneous haemorrhage or trauma is of particular relevance in the event of prior intake of platelet aggregation inhibitors. We describe the effect of desmopressin acetate as a means of temporarily stabilising the platelet function. Patients and Methods. The platelet function was analysed in 10 patients who had received single (N = 4) or multiple (N = 6) doses of acetylsalicylic acid and 3 patients (control group) who had not taken acetylsalicylic acid. All subjects had suffered intracranial haemorrhage. Analysis was performed before, half an hour and three hours after administration of desmopressin acetate. Statistical analysis was performed by applying a level of significance of P ? 0.05. Results. (1) Platelet function returned to normal 30 minutes after administration of desmopressin acetate. (2) The platelet function worsened again after three hours. (3) There were no complications related to electrolytes or fluid balance. Conclusion. Desmopressin acetate can stabilise the platelet function in neurosurgical patients who have received acetylsalicylic acid prior to surgery without causing transfusion-related side effects or a loss of time. The effect is, however, limited and influenced by the frequency of drug intake. Further controls are needed in neurosurgical patients. PMID:25610644

  9. Buffer Layer R and D for YBCO Coated Conductor Composite Wires

    SciTech Connect

    Paranthaman, M. Parans; Sathyamurthy, S.; Aytug, T.; Leonard, K.J.; Goyal, A.; Zhai, H.Y.; Kroeger, D.M.; Christen, D.K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Li, X.; Verebelyi, D.T.; Schoop, U.; Thieme, C.; Kodenkandath, T.; Zhang, W.; Rupich, M.W. [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA 01581 (United States); Ericson, R.E. [3M Company, St. Paul, MN 55144 (United States)

    2004-06-28

    Buffer layers play a key role in the YBa2Cu3O7-{delta} (YBCO) coated conductor composite wire technology. The important buffer layer characteristics are: these buffers should prevent metal diffusion into the superconductor from the substrate; possibly act as oxygen diffusion barriers; should be smooth, continuous, crack-free, highly aligned and dense. In order to develop low-cost alternative buffer layer architectures to the standard architecture of YBCO/CeO2/YSZ/Y2O3/Ni/Ni-W, LaMnO3 (LMO) and La2Zr2O7 (LZO) buffers were chosen for this study. These buffers were grown epitaxially on biaxially textured and strengthened Ni-W3% metal tapes by scalable vapor and/or solution techniques. LaMnO3 buffers were grown epitaxially on Ni-W substrates by rf sputtering, and La2Zr2O7 buffers were grown by a Metal-Organic Deposition (MOD). Detailed microstructural characterizations indicate that both of these buffers were excellent Ni diffusion barrier layers and high current YBCO films were grown on both LMO and LZO buffer templates.

  10. Inhibition of Ice Growth and Recrystallization by Zirconium Acetate and Zirconium Acetate Hydroxide

    PubMed Central

    Mizrahy, Ortal; Bar-Dolev, Maya; Guy, Shlomit; Braslavsky, Ido

    2013-01-01

    The control over ice crystal growth, melting, and shaping is important in a variety of fields, including cell and food preservation and ice templating for the production of composite materials. Control over ice growth remains a challenge in industry, and the demand for new cryoprotectants is high. Naturally occurring cryoprotectants, such as antifreeze proteins (AFPs), present one solution for modulating ice crystal growth; however, the production of AFPs is expensive and inefficient. These obstacles can be overcome by identifying synthetic substitutes with similar AFP properties. Zirconium acetate (ZRA) was recently found to induce the formation of hexagonal cavities in materials prepared by ice templating. Here, we continue this line of study and examine the effects of ZRA and a related compound, zirconium acetate hydroxide (ZRAH), on ice growth, shaping, and recrystallization. We found that the growth rate of ice crystals was significantly reduced in the presence of ZRA and ZRAH, and that solutions containing these compounds display a small degree of thermal hysteresis, depending on the solution pH. The compounds were found to inhibit recrystallization in a manner similar to that observed in the presence of AFPs. The favorable properties of ZRA and ZRAH suggest tremendous potential utility in industrial applications. PMID:23555701

  11. Variability of acid-base status in acetate-free biofiltration 84% versus bicarbonate dialysis.

    PubMed

    Harzallah, Kais; Hichri, Nourredine; Mazigh, Chakib; Tagorti, Mohamed; Hmida, Ahmed; Hmida, Jalel

    2008-03-01

    The ultimate goal of hemodialysis (HD) treatment is to achieve the highest level of efficacy in the presence of maximal clinical tolerance. With an aim to offer good hemodynamic stability, as observed during the acetate-free biofiltration 14% (AFB 14%) to patients who are intolerant to bicarbonate dialysis (BD) and with less cost, we have developed since June 1994, a new HD technique, namely AFB 84%. This study was carried out to analyze acid-base variations during the AFB 84% in comparison to BD in hemodynamically stable patients on regular HD. This was a prospective randomized crossover study carried out on 12 patients (6 males and 6 females) for a total of 144 HD sessions (72 BD and 72 AFB 84%). Patients with decompensated cardiomyopathy, respiratory diseases or uncontrolled hypertension were not included in the trial. All the patients were treated with BD or AFB 84%; the latter is characterized by the absence of acetate in the dialysate and a complete correction of buffer balance by post-dilutional infusion of bicarbonate-based replacement solution. The comparison of pre-dialysis arterial acid-base and blood-gas parameters revealed no significant differences of pH, HCO(3)(-) and paCO(2) levels between the two techniques. Analysis of post-dialysis parameters showed that, among patients dialyzed with BD, there was over correction of metabolic acidosis with a tendency towards metabolic alkalosis. In contrast, in patients dialyzed with AFB 84%, we observed a significant improvement in pH and HCO(3)(-) levels but the increase in paCO(2) level was not significant. A comparison of these parameters between the two techniques showed statistically significant difference in pH, HCO(3)(-) and paCO(2) levels, but not for paO(2) level. AFB 84% can offer some important advantages with the complete absence of acetate from the substitution fluids, and permits a better correction of metabolic acidosis than BD, without causing alkalosis. PMID:18310870

  12. Spectrophotometric flow-injection analysis of the total base number in lubricants by using acid–base buffers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keiko Jyonosono; Toshihiko Imato; Noriyuki Imazumi; Masayuki Nakanishi; Jun-ichi Yagi

    2001-01-01

    A spectrophotometric FIA method for the determination of the total base number (TBN) in a lubricant was proposed, which involved using an acid–base buffer solution prepared with a nonaqueous solvent. This method is based on measurements of the absorbance change of an indicator contained in the acid–base buffer solution, which is generated due to a neutralization reaction of base in

  13. Phytogenic biosynthesis and emission of methyl acetate.

    PubMed

    Jardine, Kolby; Wegener, Frederik; Abrell, Leif; van Haren, Joost; Werner, Christiane

    2014-02-01

    Acetylation of plant metabolites fundamentally changes their volatility, solubility and activity as semiochemicals. Here we present a new technique termed dynamic (13) C-pulse chasing to track the fate of C1-3 carbon atoms of pyruvate into the biosynthesis and emission of methyl acetate (MA) and CO2 . (13) C-labelling of MA and CO2 branch emissions respond within minutes to changes in (13) C-positionally labelled pyruvate solutions fed through the transpiration stream. Strong (13) C-labelling of MA emissions occurred only under pyruvate-2-(13) C and pyruvate-2,3-(13) C feeding, but not pyruvate-1-(13) C feeding. In contrast, strong (13) CO2 emissions were only observed under pyruvate-1-(13) C feeding. These results demonstrate that MA (and other volatile and non-volatile metabolites) derive from the C2,3 atoms of pyruvate while the C1 atom undergoes decarboxylation. The latter is a non-mitochondrial source of CO2 in the light generally not considered in studies of CO2 sources and sinks. Within a tropical rainforest mesocosm, we also observed atmospheric concentrations of MA up to 0.6 ppbv that tracked light and temperature conditions. Moreover, signals partially attributed to MA were observed in ambient air within and above a tropical rainforest in the Amazon. Our study highlights the potential importance of acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) biosynthesis as a source of acetate esters and CO2 to the atmosphere. PMID:23862653

  14. Cell buffer with built-in test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, William E. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A cell buffer with built-in testing mechanism is provided. The cell buffer provides the ability to measure voltage provided by a power cell. The testing mechanism provides the ability to test whether the cell buffer is functioning properly and thus providing an accurate voltage measurement. The testing mechanism includes a test signal-provider to provide a test signal to the cell buffer. During normal operation, the test signal is disabled and the cell buffer operates normally. During testing, the test signal is enabled and changes the output of the cell buffer in a defined way. The change in the cell buffer output can then be monitored to determine if the cell buffer is functioning correctly. Specifically, if the voltage output of the cell buffer changes in a way that corresponds to the provided test signal, then the functioning of the cell buffer is confirmed. If the voltage output of the cell buffer does not change correctly, then the cell buffer is known not to be operating correctly. Thus, the built in testing mechanism provides the ability to quickly and accurately determine if the cell buffer is operating correctly. Furthermore, the testing mechanism provides this functionality without requiring excessive device size and complexity.

  15. Preparation of transparent, electrically conducting ZnO film from zinc acetate and alkoxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Ohya; H. Saiki; Y. Takahashi

    1994-01-01

    Very uniform and transparent zinc oxide thin films doped with aluminium and indium were fabricated by the dip-coating technique using solutions prepared by the ethanolamine method. As starting materials, zinc acetate and zinc n-propoxide were used. Zinc acetate and propoxide are soluble in PriOH in the presence of diethanolamine, although they are hardly soluble without the amine. The prepared solutions

  16. Anode electrode with carbon buffer layer for improving methanol oxidation reaction in direct methanol fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Yun Sik; Jung, Namgee; Choi, Kwang-Hyun; Lee, Myeong Jae; Ahn, Minjeh; Cho, Yong-Hun; Sung, Yung-Eun

    2014-01-01

    An anode electrode with the carbon buffer layer is fabricated to increase the performance of direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). The carbon buffer layer is located in the middle of the anode catalyst layers, consists of porous carbon and Nafion ionomer. Since the porous and relatively hydrophilic carbon buffer layer absorbs methanol, the flux of the methanol solution in the anode electrode can be controlled. And methanol crossover is decreased by the effect of the carbon buffer layer. Consequently, methanol can be oxidized more efficiently and the performance of DMFC increases. Therefore, the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) with the carbon buffer layer on the anode electrode exhibits higher open circuit voltage (OCV) and maximum power density compared to those of conventional MEA. Especially with 3.0 M methanol solution, the maximum power density is increased by ?60%.

  17. Efficient organic light-emitting diodes with zinc acetate as an effective electron injection layer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhaoyue Lü; Zhenbo Deng; Jianjie Zheng; Ye Zou; Hailiang Du; Zheng Chen; Yongsheng Wang

    2009-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) using a zinc acetate ((CH3COO)2Zn) layer as the cathode buffer layer. The results show that the device containing a (CH3COO)2Zn interlayer shows improved luminance and efficiency due to the Zn–N bond formation resulting in the occurrence of Alq3 anion and also due to the band bending at the Alq3\\/Al interface,

  18. Proposed Model for the Peroxidase-Catalyzed Oxidation of Indole-3-acetic Acid in the Presence of the Inhibitor Ferulic Acid 1

    PubMed Central

    Gelinas, D. A.

    1973-01-01

    Linear increments in ferulic acid concentration produce logarithmic increases in the ferulic acid-induced lag periods prior to the peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid in a system containing 2,4-dichlorophenol and MnCl2 in acetate buffer at pH 5.6. Maintaining the ratio of indole-3-acetic acid to ferulic acid constant at 100 while linearly raising the ferulic acid concentration results in linear increases in the lag period. Both indole-3-acetic acid and ferulic acid are substrates of horseradish peroxidase in the presence of H2O2, and indole-3-acetic acid competitively inhibits the oxidation of ferulic acid. A model for the enzymatic oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid catalyzed by peroxidase is proposed. PMID:16658447

  19. Stacked Switched Capacitor Energy Buffer Architecture

    E-print Network

    Chen, Minjie

    Electrolytic capacitors are often used for energy buffering applications, including buffering between single-phase ac and dc. While these capacitors have high energy density compared to film and ceramic capacitors, their ...

  20. Stacked switched capacitor energy buffer architecture

    E-print Network

    Chen, Minjie, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    Electrolytic capacitors are often used for energy buffering applications, including buffering between single-phase ac and dc. While these capacitors have high energy density compared to film and ceramic capacitors, their ...

  1. Laser velocimeter (autocovariance) buffer interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clemmons, J. I., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A laser velocimeter (autocovariance) buffer interface (LVABI) was developed to serve as the interface between three laser velocimeter high speed burst counters and a minicomputer. A functional description is presented of the instrument and its unique features which allow the studies of flow velocity vector analysis, turbulence power spectra, and conditional sampling of other phenomena. Typical applications of the laser velocimeter using the LVABI are presented to illustrate its various capabilities.

  2. Genera and species in acetic acid bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuzo Yamada; Pattaraporn Yukphan

    2008-01-01

    Taxonomic studies of acetic acid bacteria were historically surveyed. The genus Acetobacter was first introduced in 1898 with a single species, Acetobacter aceti. The genus Gluconobacter was proposed in 1935 for strains with intense oxidation of glucose to gluconic acid rather than oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid and no oxidation of acetate. The genus “Acetomonas\\

  3. Doped LZO buffer layers for laminated conductors

    DOEpatents

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Schoop, Urs (Westborough, MA) [Westborough, MA; Goyal, Amit (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Thieme, Cornelis Leo Hans (Westborough, MA) [Westborough, MA; Verebelyi, Darren T. (Oxford, MA) [Oxford, MA; Rupich, Martin W. (Framingham, MA) [Framingham, MA

    2010-03-23

    A laminated conductor includes a metallic substrate having a surface, a biaxially textured buffer layer supported by the surface of the substrate, the biaxially textured buffer layer comprising LZO and a dopant for mitigating metal diffusion through the LZO, and a biaxially textured conductor layer supported by the biaxially textured buffer layer.

  4. Power-state-aware buffered tree construction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iris Hui-ru Jiang; Ming-hua Wu

    2008-01-01

    Interconnect delay and low power are two of the main issues in nano technology. Buffer insertion during routing effectively reduces interconnect delay; power state management and multiple supply voltage significantly lower power consumption. However, buffering without considering power states in multiple supply voltage designs may cause the signal integrity problem. This paper first considers power states into buffered tree construction.

  5. Riparian buffers and potentially unstable ground

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Swee May Tang; David R. Montgomery

    1995-01-01

    The spatial coincidence between riparian buffers of various widths and extents and potentially unstable ground was quantified using a physically based model for shallow landslide initiation and GIS for two watersheds on the Olympic Peninsula, Washington, USA. The proportion of the potentially unstable ground in each watershed within riparian buffers is a function of both buffer width and the extent

  6. An electric fence for kernel buffers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikolai Joukov; Aditya Kashyap; Gopalan Sivathanu; Erez Zadok

    2005-01-01

    Improper access of data buffers is one of the most common errors in programs written in assembler, C, C++, and several other languages. Existing programs and OSs frequently access the data beyond the allocated buffers or access buffers that were already freed. Such programs and OSs may run for years before their problems can be detected because improper memory accesses

  7. Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    , and eco- logical functions and important social benefits. #12;1 Introduction Forested riparian buffersUnderstanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: Factors Influencing Adoption #12;*Faculty Cheatham Hall, Blacksburg, VA 24061 Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: Factors

  8. Effects of buffer properties on cyclodextrin glucanotransferase reactions and cyclodextrin production from raw sago (Cycas revoluta) starch.

    PubMed

    Kamaruddin, Kamarulzaman; Illias, Rosli Md; Aziz, Suraini Abdul; Said, Mamot; Hassan, Osman

    2005-04-01

    Results from the present study have shown that the ionic species of buffers, pH values and reaction temperature can affect the enzyme unit activities and product specificity of Toruzyme (Novo Nordisk A/S Bagsvaerd, Denmark) CGTase (cyclodextrin glucanotransferase). Applying a similar reaction environment (acetate buffer, pH 6.0; temperature, 60 degrees C), the CGTase was found to be capable of producing pre dominantly beta-cyclodextrin from either raw or gelatinized sago (Cycas revoluta) starch. Changing the buffer from acetate to phosphate reduced the yield of beta-cyclodextrin from 2.48 to 1.42 mg/ml and also affected the product specificity, where production of both alpha- and beta-cyclodextrins were more pronounced. The decrease in the production of cyclodextrins in phosphate buffer was significant at both pH 6.0 and 7.0. However, changing the buffer to Tris/HCl (pH 7.0) showed a significant increase in beta-cyclodextrin production. Increasing the ionic strength of sodium acetate and Tris/HCl buffers at pH 6.0 and 7.0 to equivalent ionic strength of phosphate buffers showed no significant effects on cyclodextrin production. Higher yield of cyclodextrins at pH 7.0 when Tris/HCl was used might be due to the binding of chloride ions at the calcium-binding sites of the CGTase, resulting in the shift of the optimum pH close to physiological environment, leading to an increase in the activities and specificity. PMID:15202937

  9. On the Effect of Organic Solvent Composition on the pH of Buffered HPLC Mobile Phases and the pKa of Analytes—A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xavier Subirats; Martí Rosés; Elisabeth Bosch

    2007-01-01

    A review about the analyte pKa and buffer pH variations in RP?HPLC mobile phases with the changes in the organic modifier content (acetonitrile or methanol) is presented. A model to accurately predict the pH of particular mobile phases for several commonly used buffers (acetic, citric and phosphoric acid and ammonia systems) in acetonitrile?water and methanol?water mixtures is described. Linear relationships

  10. Reaction of nerve agents with phosphate buffer at pH 7.

    PubMed

    Creasy, William R; Fry, Roderick A; McGarvey, David J

    2012-07-12

    Chemical weapon nerve agents, including isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate (GB or Sarin), pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate (GD or Soman), and S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate (VX), are slow to react in aqueous solutions at midrange pH levels. The nerve agent reactivity increases in phosphate buffer at pH 7, relative to distilled water or acetate buffer. Reactions were studied using (31)P NMR. Phosphate causes faster reaction to the corresponding alkyl methylphosphonic acids, and produces a mixed phosphate/phosphonate compound as an intermediate reaction product. GB has the fastest reaction rate, with a bimolecular rate constant of 4.6 × 10(-3) M(-1)s(-1)[PO(4)(3-)]. The molar product branching ratio of GB acid to the pyro product (isopropyl methylphosphonate phosphate anhydride) is 1:1.4, independent of phosphate concentration, and the pyro product continues to react much slower to form GB acid. The pyro product has two doublets in the (31)P NMR spectrum. The rate of reaction for GD is slower than GB, with a rate constant of 1.26 × 10(-3) M(-1)s(-1) [PO(4)(3-)]. The rate for VX is considerably slower, with a rate constant of 1.39 × 10(-5) M(-1)s(-1) [PO(4)(3-)], about 2 orders of magnitude slower than the rate for GD. The rate constant of the reaction of GD with pyrophosphate at pH 8 is 2.04 × 10(-3) min(-1) at a concentration of 0.0145 M. The rate of reaction for diisopropyl fluorophosphate is 2.84 × 10(-3) min(-1) at a concentration of 0.153 M phosphate, a factor of 4 slower than GD and a factor of 15 slower than GB, and there is no detectable pyro product. The half-lives of secondary reaction of the GB pyro product in 0.153 and 0.046 M solution of phosphate are 23.8 and 28.0 h, respectively, which indicates little or no dependence on phosphate. PMID:22667763

  11. Biodegradation of cellulose acetate by Neisseria sicca.

    PubMed

    Sakai, K; Yamauchi, T; Nakasu, F; Ohe, T

    1996-10-01

    Bacteria capable of assimilating cellulose acetate, strains SB and SC, were isolated from soil on a medium containing cellulose acetate as a carbon source, and identified as Neisseria sicca. Both strains degraded cellulose acetate membrane filters (degree of substitution, DS, mixture of 2.8 and 2.0) and textiles (DS, 2.34) in a medium containing cellulose acetate (DS, 2.34) or its oligomer, but were not able to degrade these materials in a medium containing cellobiose octaacetate. Biodegradation of cellulose acetate (DS, 1.81 and 2.34) on the basis of biochemical oxygen demand reached 51 and 40% in the culture of N. sicca SB and 60 and 45% in the culture of N. sicca SC within 20 days. A decrease in the acetyl content of degraded cellulose acetate films and powder was confirmed by infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. After 10-day cultivation of N. sicca SB and SC, the number-average molecular weight of residual cellulose acetate decreased by 9 and 5%, respectively. Activities of enzymes that released acetic acid and produced reducing sugars from cellulose acetate were mainly present in the culture supernatant. Reactivity of enzymes for cellulose acetate (DS, 1.81) was higher than that for cellulose acetate (DS, 2.34). PMID:8987659

  12. Buffered Communication Analysis in Distributed Multiparty Sessions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deniélou, Pierre-Malo; Yoshida, Nobuko

    Many communication-centred systems today rely on asynchronous messaging among distributed peers to make efficient use of parallel execution and resource access. With such asynchrony, the communication buffers can happen to grow inconsiderately over time. This paper proposes a static verification methodology based on multiparty session types which can efficiently compute the upper bounds on buffer sizes. Our analysis relies on a uniform causality audit of the entire collaboration pattern - an examination that is not always possible from each end-point type. We extend this method to design algorithms that allocate communication channels in order to optimise the memory requirements of session executions. From these analyses, we propose two refinements methods which respect buffer bounds: a global protocol refinement that automatically inserts confirmation messages to guarantee stipulated buffer sizes and a local protocol refinement to optimise asynchronous messaging without buffer overflow. Finally our work is applied to overcome a buffer overflow problem of the multi-buffering algorithm.

  13. Acetic Acid Induces pH-Independent Cellular Energy Depletion in Salmonella enterica.

    PubMed

    Tan, Sin Mei; Lee, Sui Mae; Dykes, Gary A

    2015-03-01

    Weak organic acids are widely used as preservatives and disinfectants in the food industry. Despite their widespread use, the antimicrobial mode of action of organic acids is still not fully understood. This study investigated the effect of acetic acid on the cell membranes and cellular energy generation of four Salmonella strains. Using a nucleic acid/protein assay, it was established that acetic acid did not cause leakage of intracellular components from the strains. A scanning electron microscopy study further confirmed that membrane disruption was not the antimicrobial mode of action of acetic acid. Some elongated Salmonella cells observed in the micrographs indicated a possibility that acetic acid may inhibit DNA synthesis in the bacterial cells. Using an ATP assay, it was found that at a neutral pH, acetic acid caused cellular energy depletion with an ADP/ATP ratio in the range between 0.48 and 2.63 (p<0.05) that was apparent for the four Salmonella strains. We suggest that this effect was probably due solely to the action of undissociated acid molecules. The antimicrobial effect of acetic acid was better under acidic conditions (ADP/ATP ratio of 5.56±1.27; p<0.05), where the role of both pH and undissociated acid molecules can act together. We concluded that the inhibitory effect of acetic acid is not solely attributable to acidic pH but also to undissociated acid molecules. This finding has implication for the use of acetic acid as an antimicrobial against Salmonella on food products, such as chicken meat, which can buffer its pH. PMID:25562466

  14. Electrospun cellulose acetate-garnet nanocomposite magnetic fibers for bioseparations.

    PubMed

    Munaweera, Imalka; Aliev, Ali; Balkus, Kenneth J

    2014-01-01

    Cellulose acetate fibers with magnetic properties have recently attracted much attention because of their potential novel applications in biomedicine such as for cell and protein separations, magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents, and magnetic filters. In this work, as synthesized yttrium iron garnet and gadolinium substituted yttrium iron garnet nanoparticles have been used to generate magnetic filter paper. Garnet nanoparticles dispersed in cellulose acetate polymer solutions were electrospun as free-standing nonwoven fiber mats as well as on cellulose filter paper substrates resulting in magnetic filter papers. The magnetic fibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetic property measurements. The resulting magnetic polymer nanocomposites can be easily picked up by an external magnet from a liquid medium. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled bovine serum albumin (BSA) was separated from solution by using the magnetic filter paper. PMID:24341636

  15. Complexation of chitosan with acetic acid according to Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, G. P.; Tuchkov, S. V.; Lazarev, V. V.; Kulish, E. I.

    2014-06-01

    The results of the interaction between the protonated chitosan (CHI) macromolecule and the acetate ion in dilute acetic acid solutions were studied by Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy and quantum-chemical modeling. The complexation of CHI with the acetate ion showed itself as the 934 cm-1 band in the Raman spectrum, which suggests the formation of [CHI+ · CH3COO-] type ion pairs. It was concluded that a comparative analysis of the integrated intensities of the Raman bands in the range 880-940 cm-1 makes it possible to judge about the relative content of hydrated acetate ions, CHI macromolecules of the [CHI+ · CH3COO-] complex, and acetic acid molecules not involved in CHI protonation.

  16. Super Saturated Solution Lab Demo

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This video from the Midwest Regional Center for Nanotechnology Education (NANO-LINK) demonstrates the growth of sodium acetate crystals. The brief video runs only 2:32 long and shows what happens when a small crystal of sodium acetate is added to a solution of super saturated sodium acetate. Each step of the experiment is clearly explained in the video so that it can easily be recreated.

  17. Molecular Structure of Ethyl acetate

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2006-03-08

    Ethyl acetate is a colorless, volatile liquid with a mild and fragrant odor. It is used as solvent in chemistry laboratories but can also be found in many household products such as paints, coatings, and adhesives. The compound is also used in some extraction processes such as decaffeination or purification of antibiotics. It is present in both nail polish and removers. Some synthetic fruit essences may contain this and other esters. Etymologists like to use this solvent for insect collecting as the vapor kill the insect quickly and keep it soft for mounting.

  18. [Antiovulatory action of chlormadinone acetate].

    PubMed

    Pelissier, C; Blacker, C; Feinstein, M C; Cournot, A; Denis, C

    1994-01-01

    Antiovulatory action of chlormadinone acetate (5 mg twice daily from day 7 to day 25) has been assessed in 6 healthy volunteers by daily determination of plasma FSH, LH, estradiol and progesterone. Hormonal profiles during the second treated cycle show that preovulatory gonadotropin surge is blunted and that no significant progesterone secretion occurs. Estradiol production is variable up to the middle of the cycle, and then homogeneously low normal. Menstrual cyclicity is respected and ovarian function is restored during the first cycle after treatment disruption. PMID:7511024

  19. Buffered Electrochemical Polishing of Niobium

    SciTech Connect

    Gianluigi Ciovati, Hui Tian, Sean Corcoran

    2011-03-01

    The standard preparation of superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities made of pure niobium include the removal of a 'damaged' surface layer, by buffered chemical polishing (BCP) or electropolishing (EP), after the cavities are formed. The performance of the cavities is characterized by a sharp degradation of the quality factor when the surface magnetic field exceeds about 90 mT, a phenomenon referred to as 'Q-drop'. In cavities made of polycrystalline fine grain (ASTM 5) niobium, the Q-drop can be significantly reduced by a low-temperature ({approx} 120 C) 'in-situ' baking of the cavity if the chemical treatment was EP rather than BCP. As part of the effort to understand this phenomenon, we investigated the effect of introducing a polarization potential during buffered chemical polishing, creating a process which is between the standard BCP and EP. While preliminary results on the application of this process to Nb cavities have been previously reported, in this contribution we focus on the characterization of this novel electrochemical process by measuring polarization curves, etching rates, surface finish, electrochemical impedance and the effects of temperature and electrolyte composition. In particular, it is shown that the anodic potential of Nb during BCP reduces the etching rate and improves the surface finish.

  20. Triton X-100 Caveolae Prep Solutions needed

    E-print Network

    Pike, Linda J.

    Triton X-100 Caveolae Prep Solutions needed: MES-buffered saline (MBS): 25 mM MES, pH 6.5, 150 mM NaCl, 2 mM EDTA MES-buffered saline + 1% Triton X-100 MBS + 5% sucrose ; MBS + 30% sucrose; and, MBS ml MES-buffered saline (MBS) containing 1% Triton X-100 to cells on ice. Scrape cells into buffer

  1. Biodegradable cellulose acetate nanofiber fabrication via electrospinning.

    PubMed

    Christoforou, Theopisti; Doumanidis, Charalabos

    2010-09-01

    Nanofiber manufacturing is one of the key advancements in nanotechnology today. Over the past few years, there has been a tremendous growth of research activities to explore electrospinning for nanofiber formation from a rich variety of materials. This quite simple and cost effective process operates on the principle that the solution is extracted under the action of a high electric field. Once the voltage is sufficiently high, a charged jet is ejected following a complicated looping trajectory. During its travel, the solvent evaporates leaving behind randomly oriented nanofibers accumulated on the collector. The combination of their nanoscale dimensionality, high surface area, porosity, flexibility and superior strength makes the electrospun fibers suitable for several value-added applications, such as filters, protecting clothes, high performance structures and biomedical devices. In this study biodegradable cellulose acetate (CA) nanofibrous membranes were produced using electrospinning. The device utilized consisted of a syringe equipped with a metal needle, a microdialysis pump, a high voltage supply and a collector. The morphology of the yielded fibers was determined using SEM. The effect of various parameters, including electric field strength, tip-to-collector distance, solution feed rate and composition on the morphological features of the electrospun fibers was examined. The optimum operating conditions for the production of uniform, non-beaded fibers with submicron diameter were also explored. The biodegradable CA nanofiber membranes are suitable as tissue engineering scaffolds and as reinforcements of biopolymer matrix composites in foils by ultrasonic welding methods. PMID:21133179

  2. In vivo Actin Polymerization Assay in Developed Dictyostelium cells 2X Actin Buffer (40 mM KPO4, 20 mM PIPES, 10 mM EGTA, 4 mM MgCl2, pH

    E-print Network

    Robinson, Douglas N.

    SO4, 200 µM CaCl2, pH 6.5) PM Buffer (10 mM Phosphate Buffer, 2 mM MgSO4). Prepare from a stock of 10X Phosphate buffer, pH 6.3) Assay Buffer 1X Actin Buffer C/2 = mL 2X Actin Buffer 3.7 % Formaldehyde C/10 = mIn vivo Actin Polymerization Assay in Developed Dictyostelium cells Solutions: 2X Actin Buffer (40

  3. Degradation kinetics in aqueous solution of cefotaxime sodium, a third-generation cephalosporin.

    PubMed

    Fabre, H; Eddine, N H; Berge, G

    1984-05-01

    The degradation kinetics of a 3- acetoxymethylcephalosporin , cefotaxime sodium salt, in aqueous solution investigated by HPLC under different conditions (pH, ionic strength, temperature) and using different buffers. The scheme of degradation involves a cleavage of the beta-lactam nucleus and the deacetylation of the side chain. In highly acidic medium, the deacetylated derivative is easily converted to the lactone. The degradation rate constants were calculated at three pH values (1.9, 4.0, and 9.0) by measuring the residual cephalosporin and the main decomposition products. The degradation pathway is both supported by the results of a primary salt effect and by the agreement between the theoretical pH-rate profile and the experimental values. In the pH range from 3.0 to 7.0, the main process is a slow water-catalyzed or spontaneous cleavage of the beta-lactam nucleus with intramolecular participation of the side chain amido fraction in the 7-position. In alkaline or strongly acidic medium, the hydrolysis is a base- or acid-catalyzed reaction. Of the buffer systems investigated, carbonate buffer (pH 8.5) and borate buffers (pH 9.5 and 10.0) are found to increase the degradation rates, while acetate buffer decreases the degradation rates. The apparent activation energies determined at different pH values are compatible with a solvolysis mechanism and similar to those previously given in the literature for other cephalosporins. Cefotaxime in aqueous solution is slightly less stable than the main cephalosporin derivatives, despite its high resistance to the beta-lactamases and its remarkable biological activity. PMID:6330342

  4. Buffer strips in composites at elevated temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigelow, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    The composite material 'buffer strip' concept is presently investigated at elevated temperatures for the case of graphite/polyimide buffer strip panels using a (45/0/45/90)2S layup, where the buffer strip material was 0-deg S-glass/polyimide. Each panel was loaded in tension until it failed, and radiographs and crack opening displacements were recorded during the tests to determine fracture onset, fracture arrest, and the extent of damage in the buffer strip after crack arrest. At 177 + or - 3 C, the buffer strips increased the panel strength by at least 40 percent in comparison with panels without buffer strips. Compared to similar panels tested at room temperature, those tested at elevated temperature had lower residual strengths, but higher failure strains.

  5. Enzymatic production of glycerol acetate from glycerol.

    PubMed

    Oh, Seokhyeon; Park, Chulhwan

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we report the enzymatic production of glycerol acetate from glycerol and methyl acetate. Lipases are essential for the catalysis of this reaction. To find the optimum conditions for glycerol acetate production, sequential experiments were designed. Type of lipase, lipase concentration, molar ratio of reactants, reaction temperature and solvents were investigated for the optimum conversion of glycerol to glycerol acetate. As the result of lipase screening, Novozym 435 (Immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B) was turned out to be the optimal lipase for the reaction. Under the optimal conditions (2.5 g/L of Novozym 435, 1:40 molar ratio of glycerol to methyl acetate, 40 °C and tert-butanol as the solvent), glycerol acetate production was achieved in 95.00% conversion. PMID:25640720

  6. Migration behaviour of discontinuous buffers in capillary electrophoresis during protein enrichment.

    PubMed

    Li, Ting; Booker, Christina J; Yeung, Ken K-C

    2012-10-21

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is not only an effective separation technique, but can also serve as a sample preparation tool for enrichment and purification at sub-microliter sample volumes. Our approach is based on the use of a discontinuous buffer system consisting of an acid and a base (acetate and ammonium). Proteins and/or peptides with isoelectric points between the pH values of these two buffers will become stacked at the neutralization reaction boundary (NRB). To understand the mechanism of the NRB formation and the electrophoretic migration of various ions during the enrichment, we performed experiments using myoglobin and mesityl oxide to reveal the ion migration patterns at the buffer junction, and utilized Simul 5 to computer simulate the process. The simulated results closely resembled the experimental data, and together, they effectively revealed the characteristics of the discontinuous buffers. Importantly, the discovery allowed the manipulation of NRB behaviours by controlling the discontinuous buffer composition. To illustrate this, the removal of urea as an unwanted background molecule from the enriched protein sample was achieved based on the acquired information. PMID:22919699

  7. Thin La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} films made from a water-based solution

    SciTech Connect

    Cloet, V. [Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281-S3, 9000 Gent (Belgium)], E-mail: veerle.cloet@ugent.be; Feys, J. [Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281-S3, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Huehne, R. [Institute for Metallic Materials, IFW Dresden, Helmholtzstrasse 20, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Hoste, S.; Van Driessche, I. [Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281-S3, 9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2009-01-15

    Thin films of La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} (LZO) are highly regarded as possible buffer layers in the coated conductor configuration. This report describes a new synthesis for thin crystalline LZO films, based on a largely water-based solution, mainly containing metal acetates, acetic acid and an organic amine-base: triethanolamine. Initially, a thin layer of amorphous material is deposited on the textured Ni-5 at%W substrate by means of dip-coating. Only by careful control of the thermal treatment can the layer be transformed into a crystalline layer. Important parameters in this respect are the heating rate and the dwell time. The amorphous gel is analysed by HR-TGA/DTA and HR-TEM. The textured layers are analysed by XRD, pole figures, RHEED, AFM and SEM. - Grapical Abstract: Thin films of La2Zr2O7 (LZO) are produced via a water-based solution, containing metal acetates, acetic acid and triethanolamine. The thin layer is deposited on the textured Ni-5 at%W substrate by dip-coating. The amorphous gel is analysed by HR-TGA/DTA and HR-TEM. The textured layers are analysed by XRD, pole figures, RHEED analysis, AFM and SEM.

  8. Buffers Strips, Common-Sense Conservation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This recent publication from the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) and the National Conservation Buffer Team focuses on the practices, agricultural programs, and national programs that promote conservation buffers -- "strips or small areas of land in permanent vegetation" to help control potential pollutants and other environmental concerns. NRCS outlines specific programs and educational initiatives for many different types of "filter strips, field borders, grassed waterways, field windbreaks, shelterbelts, contour grass strips, and riparian (streamside) buffers."

  9. Riparian buffers and potentially unstable ground

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Swee May Tang; David R. Montgomery

    1995-01-01

    The spatial coincidence between riparian buffers of various widths and extents and potentially unstable ground was quantified\\u000a using a physically based model for shallow landslide initiation and GIS for two watersheds on the Olympic Peninsula, Washington,\\u000a USA. The proportion of the potentially unstable ground in each watershed within riparian buffers is a function of both buffer\\u000a width and the extent

  10. Unit 8: Buffers for Biochemical Reactions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The last of an eight-unit teaching and training module from Promega, this "introductory buffers laboratory is for use in undergraduate or highschool courses that cover basic topics in molecular biology or biochemistry" and includes "laboratories to illustrate basic chemistry concepts related to buffers and their functions." This unit is math-intensive, aimed at helping students feel comfortable performing laboratory calculations. It includes a lecture presentation ("Buffers for Biological Systems") and a students' and instructors' laboratory protocol.

  11. All-optical buffering for DPSK packets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guodong; Wu, Chongqing; Liu, Lanlan; Wang, Fu; Mao, Yaya; Sun, Zhenchao

    2013-12-01

    Advanced modulation formats, such as DPSK, DQPSK, QAM, have become the mainstream technologies in the optical network over 40Gb/s, the DPSK format is the fundamental of all advanced modulation formats. Optical buffers, as a key element for temporarily storing packets in order to synchronization or contention resolution in optical nodes, must be adapted to this new requirement. Different from other current buffers to store the NRZ or RZ format, an all-optical buffer of storing DPSK packets based on nonlinear polarization rotation in SOA is proposed and demonstrated. In this buffer, a section of PMF is used as fiber delay line to maintain the polarization states unchanged, the driver current of SOA is optimized, and no amplifier is required in the fiber loop. A packet delay resolution of 400ns is obtained and storage for tens rounds is demonstrated without significant signal degradation. Using proposed the new tunable DPSK demodulator, bit error rate has been measured after buffering for tens rounds for 10Gb/s data payload. Configurations for First-in First-out (FIFO) buffer or First-in Last-out (FILO) buffer are proposed based on this buffer. The buffer is easy control and suitable for integration. The terminal contention caused by different clients can be mitigated by managing packets delays in future all-optical network, such as optical packet switching network and WDM switching network.

  12. SODR Memory Control Buffer Control ASIC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodson, Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    The Spacecraft Optical Disk Recorder (SODR) is a state of the art mass storage system for future NASA missions requiring high transmission rates and a large capacity storage system. This report covers the design and development of an SODR memory buffer control applications specific integrated circuit (ASIC). The memory buffer control ASIC has two primary functions: (1) buffering data to prevent loss of data during disk access times, (2) converting data formats from a high performance parallel interface format to a small computer systems interface format. Ten 144 p in, 50 MHz CMOS ASIC's were designed, fabricated and tested to implement the memory buffer control function.

  13. Acetate kinase: a triple-displacement enzyme.

    PubMed

    Spector, L B

    1980-05-01

    Facts relating to the mechanism of phosphoryl transfer by acetate kinase (ATP:acetate phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.2.1) are reviewed. They point to the existence of at least one experimentally established phosphoenzyme (E-P) intermediate on the reaction pathway. Sterically, the phosphoryl transfer occurs with a net inversion of the configuration of the phosphorus atom. These facts are best in accord with a triple-displacement mode of action for acetate kinase, with two E-P intermediates and three steric inversions on phosphorus. It follows that a second E-P for acetate kinase must exist. PMID:6248856

  14. Contact dermatitis induced by glatiramer acetate.

    PubMed

    Haltmeier, S; Yildiz, M; Müller, S; Anliker, M D; Heinzerling, L

    2011-11-01

    Glatiramer acetate (Copaxone(®)) is an immunomodulatory polypeptide used in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. It represents a safe treatment option with mild side effects. In this study, we look at a 39-year-old woman who received glatiramer acetate as subcutaneous injections for two months and developed contact dermatitis. The drug had to be stopped, and treatment with topical prednisone was initiated. Prick/scratch testing was negative but the lymphocyte transformation test was highly positive for glatiramer acetate. This is the first report on contact dermatitis induced by glatiramer acetate injections. The treatment consisted of local topical steroids and cessation of the drug. PMID:21729979

  15. Buffer salt effects in off-line coupling of capillary electrophoresis and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Marák, Jozef; Stanová, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    In this work, the impact of buffer salts/matrix effects on the signal in direct injection MS with an electrospray interface (DI-ESI-MS) following pITP fractionation of the sample was studied. A range of buffers frequently used in CE analyses (pH 3-10) was prepared containing 10, 50, and 90% v/v of ACN, respectively. The sets of calibration solutions of cetirizine (an antihistaminic drug with an amphiprotic character) within a 0.05-2.0 mg/L concentration range were prepared in different buffers. The greatest enhancements in the MS signal (in terms of change in the slope of the calibration line) were obtained for the beta-alanine buffer (pH 3.5) in positive ionization and for the borate buffer (pH 9.2) in negative ionization, respectively. The procedure was successfully applied to the analysis of buserelin (a peptidic drug). The slope of the calibration line for solutions containing the beta-alanine buffer with 50% of ACN was 4 times higher than for water or urine, respectively. This study clearly demonstrates that the buffer salt/matrix effects in an offline combination of pITP and DI-ESI-MS can also play a positive role, as they can enhance the signal in MS. A similar influence of the above effects can also be presumed in the CE techniques combined on-line with ESI-MS. PMID:24868586

  16. Experimental sea water buffers for use as secondary pH standards

    E-print Network

    Smith, William Hamilton, Jr

    1962-01-01

    or pure water made to an ionic strength of 0. 7 with sodium chloride is suggested. CHAPTER III EXPERIMENTAL Sea Water for Seconder Standard Buffer Evaluation of factors entering into the construction of a secondary pH reference buffer specific... water test solutions differing in ionic strength and com- position. Sea water buffered with the weak base tris(hydroxy- methyl)aminomethane and its hydrochloride salt is proposed as secondary pH standards for the calibration of marine pH measuring...

  17. Acetic Acid Can Catalyze Succinimide Formation from Aspartic Acid Residues by a Concerted Bond Reorganization Mechanism: A Computational Study

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Ohgi; Kirikoshi, Ryota; Manabe, Noriyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Succinimide formation from aspartic acid (Asp) residues is a concern in the formulation of protein drugs. Based on density functional theory calculations using Ace-Asp-Nme (Ace = acetyl, Nme = NHMe) as a model compound, we propose the possibility that acetic acid (AA), which is often used in protein drug formulation for mildly acidic buffer solutions, catalyzes the succinimide formation from Asp residues by acting as a proton-transfer mediator. The proposed mechanism comprises two steps: cyclization (intramolecular addition) to form a gem-diol tetrahedral intermediate and dehydration of the intermediate. Both steps are catalyzed by an AA molecule, and the first step was predicted to be rate-determining. The cyclization results from a bond formation between the amide nitrogen on the C-terminal side and the side-chain carboxyl carbon, which is part of an extensive bond reorganization (formation and breaking of single bonds and the interchange of single and double bonds) occurring concertedly in a cyclic structure formed by the amide NH bond, the AA molecule and the side-chain C=O group and involving a double proton transfer. The second step also involves an AA-mediated bond reorganization. Carboxylic acids other than AA are also expected to catalyze the succinimide formation by a similar mechanism. PMID:25588215

  18. Positron scattering from vinyl acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiari, L.; Zecca, A.; Blanco, F.; García, G.; Brunger, M. J.

    2014-09-01

    Using a Beer-Lambert attenuation approach, we report measured total cross sections (TCSs) for positron scattering from vinyl acetate (C4H6O2) in the incident positron energy range 0.15-50 eV. In addition, we also report an independent atom model with screening corrected additivity rule computation results for the TCSs, differential and integral elastic cross sections, the positronium formation cross section and inelastic integral cross sections. The energy range of these calculations is 1-1000 eV. While there is a reasonable qualitative correspondence between measurement and calculation for the TCSs, in terms of the energy dependence of those cross sections, the theory was found to be a factor of ˜2 larger in magnitude at the lower energies, even after the measured data were corrected for the forward angle scattering effect.

  19. Thermal decarboxylation of acetic acid: Implications for origin of natural gas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kharaka, Y.K.; Carothers, W.W.; Rosenbauer, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Laboratory experiments on the thermal decarboxylation of solutions of acetic acid at 200??C and 300??C were carried out in hydrothermal equipment allowing for on-line sampling of both the gas and liquid phases for chemical and stable-carbon-isotope analyses. The solutions had ambient pH values between 2.5 and 7.1; pH values and the concentrations of the various acetate species at the conditions of the experiments were computed using a chemical model. Results show that the concentrations of acetic acid, and not total acetate in solution, control the reaction rates which follow a first order equation based on decreasing concentrations of acetic acid with time. The decarboxylation rates at 200??C (1.81 ?? 10-8 per second) and 300??C (8.17 ?? 10-8 per second) and the extrapolated rates at lower temperatures are relatively high. The activation energy of decarboxylation is only 8.1 kcal/mole. These high decarboxylation rates, together with the distribution of short-chained aliphatic acid anions in formation waters, support the hypothesis that acid anions are precursors for an important portion of natural gas. Results of the ??13C values of CO2, CH4, and total acetate show a reasonably constant fractionation factor of about 20 permil between CO2 and CH4 at 300??C. The ??13C values of CO2 and CH4 are initially low and become higher as decarboxylation increases. ?? 1983.

  20. Pressure-induced aggregation of ?-lactoglobulin in ph 7.0 buffers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Funtenberger; E. Dumay; J. C. Cheftel

    1995-01-01

    Solutions of a ?-lactoglobulin isolate in water, in potassium phosphate buffer (20 or 50 mmol\\/L), and in pressure-resistant buffers, at a protein concentration of 25 g\\/kg and at pH 7.0, were processed at 150, 250, 350 or 450 MPa and 25 °C, for 15 min, then stored at 4 °C, usually for 24 h, before analysis. Bis-Tris (20 or 50

  1. Role of fluoride in accelerating the reactions of dialkylstannylene acetals.

    PubMed

    Lu, Simiao; Boyd, Russell J; Grindley, T Bruce

    2015-03-20

    The most common method for achieving the regioselective monoalkylation of diols involves formation of dialkylstannylene acetals as intermediates. Reactions of dialkylstannylene acetals with alkyl halides are slow, but rates are enhanced by addition of fluoride or other nucleophiles. The mechanism of the fluoride-accelerated alkylation of dialkylstannylene acetals was studied at several levels of theory in the gas phase, in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) solution, and in DMF solution in the presence of tetramethylammonium ions. The reactive species were adducts involving addition of fluoride to tin. Under the conditions that most closely simulated experiment, reactions from fluoridated monomers and monofluoridated dimers were calculated to have similar activation energies. In the transition states in the rate-determining steps for the two pathways, carbon-oxygen bond formation was between 60 and 75% complete while tin-oxygen bond cleavage was much less advanced, between 6 and 16% complete. A test of Sn-O bond dissociation indicated that the "Sn-O bond cleavage first" mechanism is not a minimum energy pathway. PMID:25668481

  2. Chelation and permeation of heavy metals using affinity membranes from cellulose acetate–chitosan blends

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Naim; H. E. M. Abdel Razek

    2012-01-01

    Affinity membranes have attracted the attention of membrane researchers especially in the field of wastewater treatment specifically in removing heavy metals by chelation from aqueous solutions. In the present work, several membranes are made from either cellulose di-acetate (CA) or CA together with chitosan (CS) solutions, the CS prepared in our lab from shrimp shells or from readymade shrimp or

  3. Filtrates & Residues: A "Semimicro" Spectrophotometric Determination of the Ksp of Silver Acetate at Various Temperatures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebermann, John, Jr.; Yun, Ki J.

    1988-01-01

    Examines a solubility laboratory experiment using silver acetate and spectrophotometers for an Advanced Placement chemistry course. Covers experimental procedure, analysis of saturated solutions, and a discussion of chemistry involved. Includes an absorbance curve for silver ions and solution preparation suggestions. (ML)

  4. Effects of sodium lactate and acetic acid derivatives on the quality and sensory characteristics of hot-boned pork sausage patties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sodium lactate and acetic acid derivatives were evaluated for their effects on color retention, microbial growth, and sensory attributes of hot-boned pork sausage patties. Treatments included: (a) sodium lactate (L), (b) buffered vinegar (V), (c) sodium lactate and vinegar mixture (LV), (d) control ...

  5. Addition of buffers to high quality alfalfa hay-based diets for dairy cows in early lactation.

    PubMed

    Eickelberger, R C; Muller, L D; Sweeney, T F; Abrams, S M

    1985-07-01

    Beginning 4 wk postpartum, 14 Holstein cows were paired according to expected calving date and lactation number and assigned randomly to one of two treatments in a single reversal experiment designed to study the effects of added buffers to high quality alfalfa hay-based diets. Cows were offered daily 14.5 kg of concentrate containing 0 or 2% sodium bicarbonate and .5% magnesium oxide (as fed), plus free choice high quality alfalfa hay in a ratio of forage:grain approaching 50:50 (dry matter). No differences were in milk production, milk fat percentage, fat-corrected milk, or dry matter intake. Dry matter intake of grain was decreased with addition of buffers. Kilograms fat-corrected milk per kilogram of dry matter intake were 1.41 and 1.45 for control and buffered diets. No differences were significant for rumen pH, ammonia concentration, molar proportions of acetate and propionate, or ratio of acetate: propionate. Concentrations of total volatile fatty acids were higher for cows fed the buffered diet. No differences were in blood acid-base status or in various serum metabolites. Urine pH was 8.11 and 8.20 for control and buffered diets. Fractional urinary excretion of magnesium and sodium was greater when cows consumed the buffered diet. Diet digestibilities and rate of passage were not affected by dietary buffers. Addition of sodium bicarbonate plus magnesium oxide did not improve performance of early lactation cows fed high quality alfalfa hay as the sole forage. PMID:2993390

  6. Supramolecular buffering by ring-chain competition.

    PubMed

    Paffen, Tim F E; Ercolani, Gianfranco; de Greef, Tom F A; Meijer, E W

    2015-02-01

    Recently, we reported an organocatalytic system in which buffering of the molecular catalyst by supramolecular interactions results in a robust system displaying concentration-independent catalytic activity. Here, we demonstrate the design principles of the supramolecular buffering by ring-chain competition using a combined experimental and theoretical approach. Our analysis shows that supramolecular buffering of a molecule is caused by its participation as a chain stopper in supramolecular ring-chain equilibria, and we reveal here the influence of various thermodynamic parameters. Model predictions based on independently measured equilibrium constants corroborate experimental data of several molecular systems in which buffering occurs via competition between cyclization, growth of linear chains, and end-capping by the chain-stopper. Our analysis reveals that the effective molarity is the critical parameter in optimizing the broadness of the concentration regime in which supramolecular ring-chain buffering occurs as well as the maximum concentration of the buffered molecule. To conclude, a side-by-side comparison of supramolecular ring-chain buffering, pH buffering, and molecular titration is presented. PMID:25581227

  7. DIETHANOLAMINE-CARBON DIOXIDE BUFFER PRODUCES ETHYLENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carbon dioxide concentrates in containers are frequently controlled by using a diethanolamine-bicarbonate buffer. Current studies show that this buffer produces ethylene and that the production increases with increasing pH and/or time in the incubation vessel. Ethylene is not pro...

  8. Color image quantization for frame buffer display

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Heckbert

    1982-01-01

    Algorithms for adaptive, tapered quantization of color images are described. The research is motivated by the desire to display high-quality reproductions of color images with small frame buffers. It is demonstrated that many color images which would normally require a frame buffer having 15 bits per pixel can be quantized to 8 or fewer bits per pixel with little subjective

  9. UNDERSTANDING, DERIVING, AND COMPUTING BUFFER CAPACITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Derivation and systematic calculation of buffer capacity is a topic that seems often to be neglected in chemistry courses and given minimal treatment in most texts. However, buffer capacity is very important in the chemistry of natural waters and potable water. It affects corro...

  10. FIFO Buffer for Asynchronous Data Streams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bascle, K. P.

    1985-01-01

    Variable-rate, asynchronous data signals from up to four measuring instruments or other sources combined in first-in/first-out (FIFO) buffer for transmission on single channel. Constructed in complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) logic, buffer consumes low power (only 125 mW at 5V) and conforms to aerospace standards of reliability and maintainability.

  11. Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    a Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: Effects on Plant and Animal Communities, Virginia Tech, 324 Cheatham Hall, Blacksburg, VA 24061 Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: Effects on Plant and Animal Communities by Julia C. Klapproth and James E. Johnson* The riparian

  12. Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: Benefits to Communities and Landowners, Virginia Tech, 324 Cheatham Hall, Blacksburg, VA 24061 Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: Benefits to Communities and Landowners by Julia C. Klapproth and James E. Johnson* The riparian

  13. Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: Planning, Establishment, and Maintenance Riparian Forest Buffers: Planning, Establishment, and Maintenance by Julia C. Klapproth and James E. Johnson* The riparian area is that area of land located immediately adjacent to streams, lakes, or other

  14. The buffer capacity of airway epithelial secretions

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dusik; Liao, Jie; Hanrahan, John W.

    2014-01-01

    The pH of airway epithelial secretions influences bacterial killing and mucus properties and is reduced by acidic pollutants, gastric reflux, and respiratory diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF). The effect of acute acid loads depends on buffer capacity, however the buffering of airway secretions has not been well characterized. In this work we develop a method for titrating micro-scale (30 ?l) volumes and use it to study fluid secreted by the human airway epithelial cell line Calu-3, a widely used model for submucosal gland serous cells. Microtitration curves revealed that HCO?3 is the major buffer. Peak buffer capacity (?) increased from 17 to 28 mM/pH during forskolin stimulation, and was reduced by >50% in fluid secreted by cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-deficient Calu-3 monolayers, confirming an important role of CFTR in HCO?3 secretion. Back-titration with NaOH revealed non-volatile buffer capacity due to proteins synthesized and released by the epithelial cells. Lysozyme and mucin concentrations were too low to buffer Calu-3 fluid significantly, however model titrations of porcine gastric mucins at concentrations near the sol-gel transition suggest that mucins may contribute to the buffer capacity of ASL in vivo. We conclude that CFTR-dependent HCO?3 secretion and epithelially-derived proteins are the predominant buffers in Calu-3 secretions. PMID:24917822

  15. Buffer Management Simulation in ATM Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yaprak, E.; Xiao, Y.; Chronopoulos, A.; Chow, E.; Anneberg, L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation of a new dynamic buffer allocation management scheme in ATM networks. To achieve this objective, an algorithm that detects congestion and updates the dynamic buffer allocation scheme was developed for the OPNET simulation package via the creation of a new ATM module.

  16. African American College Women's Suicide Buffers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marion, Michelle S.; Range, Lillian M.

    2003-01-01

    To examine the relationships buffers may have with suicide ideation, 300 African American female college students completed measures of suicide ideation and buffers. Three variables accounted for a significant and unique portion of the variance in suicide ideation: family support, a view that suicide is unacceptable, and a collaborative religious…

  17. 46 CFR 58.25-45 - Buffers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buffers. 58.25-45 Section 58.25-45 Shipping COAST...MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-45 Buffers. For each vessel on an ocean, coastwise, or Great...

  18. METAMORPHIC VIRUSES WITH BUILT BUFFER OVERFLOW

    E-print Network

    Stamp, Mark

    METAMORPHIC VIRUSES WITH BUILT BUFFER OVERFLOW The Faculty of the Department of Computer Science of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Computer Science by Ronak Shah Spring 2010 METAMORPHIC VIRUSES WITH BUILT WITH BUILT-IN BUFFER OVERFLOW Metamorphic computer viruses change their structure--and thereby

  19. Manufacturing Ethyl Acetate From Fermentation Ethanol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Ingham, John D.

    1991-01-01

    Conceptual process uses dilute product of fermentation instead of concentrated ethanol. Low-concentration ethanol, extracted by vacuum from fermentation tank, and acetic acid constitutes feedstock for catalytic reaction. Product of reaction goes through steps that increases ethyl acetate content to 93 percent by weight. To conserve energy, heat exchangers recycle waste heat to preheat process streams at various points.

  20. Biodegradable Plastics Based on Cellulose Acetate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Ach

    1993-01-01

    It is generally known that secondary cellulose acetate (with 53 to 56% acetyl groups) is suitable for thermoplastic processing. With appropriate plasticizers a plastic material is obtained which excels in transparency and pleasant texture, and it is therefore often used for tool handles, combs, spectacle frames, and the like. In principle, cellulose acetate with such a degree of substitution is

  1. High stability buffered phase comparator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, W. A.; Reinhardt, V. S. (inventors)

    1984-01-01

    A low noise RF signal phase comparator comprised of two high stability driver buffer amplifiers driving a double balanced mixer which operate to generate a beat frequency between the two RF input signals coupled to the amplifiers from the RF sources is described. The beat frequency output from the mixer is applied to a low noise zero crossing detector which is the phase difference between the two RF inputs. Temperature stability is provided by mounting the amplifiers and mixer on a common circuit board with the active circuit elements located on one side of a circuit board and the passive circuit elements located on the opposite side. A common heat sink is located adjacent the circuit board. The active circuit elements are embedded into the bores of the heat sink which slows the effect of ambient temperature changes and reduces the temperature gradients between the active circuit elements, thus improving the cancellation of temperature effects. The two amplifiers include individual voltage regulators, which increases RF isolation.

  2. Ulipristal acetate in emergency contraception.

    PubMed

    Goldstajn, Marina Sprem; Baldani, Dinka Pavici?; Skrgati?, Lana; Radakovi?, Branko; Vrbi?, Hrvoje; Cani?, Tomislav

    2014-03-01

    Despite the widespread availability of highly effective methods of contraception, unintended pregnancy is common. Unplanned pregnancies have been linked to a range of health, social and economic consequences. Emergency contraception reduces risk of pregnancy after unprotected intercourse, and represents an opportunity to decrease number of unplanned pregnancies and abortions. Emergency contraception pills (ECP) prevent pregnancy by delaying or inhibiting ovulation, without interfering with post fertilization events. If pregnancy has already occurred, ECPs will not be effective, therefore ECPs are not abortificants. Ulipristal acetate (17alpha-acetoxy-11beta-(4N-N,N-dymethilaminophenyl)-19-norpregna--4,9-diene-3,20-dione) is the first drug that was specifically developed and licensed for use as an emergency contraceptive. It is an orally active, synthetic, selective progesterone modulator that acts by binding with high affinity to the human progesterone receptor where it has both antagonist and partial agonist effects. It is a new molecular entity and the first compound in a new pharmacological class defined by the pristal stem. Up on the superior clinical efficacy evidence, UPA has been quickly recognized as the most effective emergency contraceptive pill, and recently recommended as the first prescription choice for all women regardless of the age and timing after intercourse. This article provides literature review of UPA and its role in emergency contraception. PMID:24851646

  3. Vesicles protect activated acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Todd, Zoe R; House, Christopher H

    2014-10-01

    Abstract Methyl thioacetate, or activated acetic acid, has been proposed to be central to the origin of life and an important energy currency molecule in early cellular evolution. We have investigated the hydrolysis of methyl thioacetate under various conditions. Its uncatalyzed rate of hydrolysis is about 3 orders of magnitude faster (K=0.00663 s(-1); 100°C, pH 7.5, concentration=0.33 mM) than published rates for its catalyzed production, making it unlikely to accumulate under prebiotic conditions. However, our experiments showed that methyl thioacetate was protected from hydrolysis when inside its own hydrophobic droplets. Further, we found that methyl thioacetate protection from hydrolysis was also possible in droplets of hexane and in the membranes of nonanoic acid vesicles. Thus, the hydrophobic regions of prebiotic vesicles and early cell membranes could have offered a refuge for this energetic molecule, increasing its lifetime in close proximity to the reactions for which it would be needed. This model of early energy storage evokes an additional critical function for the earliest cell membranes. PMID:25280019

  4. Social buffering: relief from stress and anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Kikusui, Takefumi; Winslow, James T; Mori, Yuji

    2006-01-01

    Communication is essential to members of a society not only for the expression of personal information, but also for the protection from environmental threats. Highly social mammals have a distinct characteristic: when conspecific animals are together, they show a better recovery from experiences of distress. This phenomenon, termed ‘social buffering’, has been found in rodents, birds, non-human primates and also in humans. This paper reviews classical findings on social buffering and focuses, in particular, on social buffering effects in relation to neuroendocrine stress responses. The social cues that transmit social buffering signals, the neural mechanisms of social buffering and a partner's efficacy with respect to social buffering are also detailed. Social contact appears to have a very positive influence on the psychological and the physiological aspects of social animals, including human beings. Research leading towards further understanding of the mechanisms of social buffering could provide alternative medical treatments based on the natural, individual characteristics of social animals, which could improve the quality of life. PMID:17118934

  5. 21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vitamin A acetate. 582.5933 Section 582...AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5933 Vitamin A acetate. (a) Product. Vitamin A acetate. (b) Conditions of...

  6. 21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vitamin A acetate. 582.5933 Section 582...AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5933 Vitamin A acetate. (a) Product. Vitamin A acetate. (b) Conditions of...

  7. 21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vitamin A acetate. 582.5933 Section 582...AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5933 Vitamin A acetate. (a) Product. Vitamin A acetate. (b) Conditions of...

  8. 21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitamin A acetate. 582.5933 Section 582...AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5933 Vitamin A acetate. (a) Product. Vitamin A acetate. (b) Conditions of...

  9. 21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vitamin A acetate. 582.5933 Section 582...AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5933 Vitamin A acetate. (a) Product. Vitamin A acetate. (b) Conditions of...

  10. 21 CFR 522.1881 - Sterile prednisolone acetate aqueous suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Sterile prednisolone acetate aqueous suspension. 522...ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1881 Sterile prednisolone acetate aqueous suspension. (a...suspension contains 25 milligrams of prednisolone acetate. (b) Sponsor . See...

  11. Comparative study of the vasoconstrictor activity of halopredone acetate in a modified McKenzie test.

    PubMed

    Rampini, E; Rastelli, A; Cardo, P

    1978-12-18

    The vasoconstrictor activity of four steroids, administered in solution and in the commercially available form, were compared in healthy volunteer subjects. Evaluation was based on conventional visual observations and photometric measurement of reflectance. Statistical analysis showed that halopredone acetate had less vasoconstrictor action on healthy skin than fluocinolone acetonide, beta-methasone valerate and hydrocortisone acetate. The halopredone acetate results were identical to those of th excipient, although it was found that halopredone acetate cream (Topicon) had a marked anti-inflammatory effect in animals and on human dermatoses. The validity of the McKenzie test, as an unequivocal screening procedure for the potency of topical steroids is discussed, and the accuracy and precision of photometric evaluation is emphasized. PMID:729625

  12. PEGylated starch acetate nanoparticles and its potential use for oral insulin delivery.

    PubMed

    Minimol, P F; Paul, Willi; Sharma, Chandra P

    2013-06-01

    A novel controlled release formulation has been developed with PEGylated starch acetate nanoparticles. Biodegradable polymers, such as starch, have been studied for various pharmaceutical applications because of their biocompatibility and biodegradability. Starch acetate is one of the hydrophobic biodegradable polymers currently being used or studied for controlled drug delivery. Polyethylene glycol was conjugated with starch acetate, to obtain an amphiphilic polymeric derivative. On its incubation with insulin solution at the critical micelle concentration, self-aggregated nanoparticles with mean particle size of 32 nm are formed. These self-aggregated nanoparticles with associated insulin have enhanced encapsulation efficiency. The mean particle size of these nanoparticles increased with the increase in the molecular weight of PEG. Present study indicated that PEGylated starch acetate nanoparticles are highly bioadhesive and can be utilized as a carrier system for controlled delivery of insulin or other proteins for various therapeutic applications. PMID:23618232

  13. Viscosity of Mixtures of ?-Tocopherol Acetate + Mesitylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szwajczaka, El?bieta; Stagraczy?ski, Ryszard; Herba, Henryk; ?wiergielb, Jolanta; Jad?yn, Jan

    2009-08-01

    The paper presents results of the share viscosity measurements performed as a function of temperature and concentration for mixtures of ?-tocopherol acetate (vitamine E acetate) and mesitylene, two liquids of essentially different viscosity (four order of magnitude difference at 280 K). The viscosity/ temperature dependence for pure ?-tocopherol acetate as well as for the mixtures studied can be well described with the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation. The viscosities of the mixtures exhibit a strong negative deviation from the rule of additive dependence on concentration and for increasing temperature the maximum value of the deviation shows an exponential decreasing.

  14. A molecular molybdenum electrocatalyst for generating hydrogen from acetic acid or water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jie-Ping; Zhou, Ling-Ling; Fu, Ling-Zhi; Zhan, Shuzhong

    2014-12-01

    The reaction of 2-pyridylamino-N,N-bis(2-methylene-4,6-difluorophenol) (H2L?) and MoCl5 affords a molybdenum(VI) complex [MoL?(O)2] 1, a new molecular electrocatalyst, which has been determined by X-ray crystallography. Electrochemical studies show that a molybdenum(IV) intermediate is responsible for the reductive proton to generate H2, and 1 can catalyze hydrogen evolution from acetic acid or aqueous buffer. Turnover frequency (TOF) reaches a maximum of 50.6 (in DMF) and 756 (in buffer, pH 6.0) moles of hydrogen per mole of catalyst per hour, respectively. Sustained proton reduction catalysis occurs at glassy carbon (GC) electrode to give H2 over a 72 h electrolysis period and no observable decomposition of the catalyst.

  15. Sickle hemoglobin polymer melting in high concentration phosphate buffer.

    PubMed Central

    Louderback, J G; Ballas, S K; Kim-Shapiro, D B

    1999-01-01

    Sickle cell hemoglobin (HbS) prepared in argon-saturated 1.8 M phosphate buffer was rapidly mixed with carbon monoxide (CO)-saturated buffer. The binding of CO to the sickle hemoglobin and the simultaneous melting of the hemoglobin polymers were monitored by transmission spectroscopy (optical absorption and turbidity). Changes in the absorption profile were interpreted as resulting from CO binding to deoxy-HbS while reduced scattering (turbidity) was attributed to melting (depolymerization) of the HbS polymer phase. Analysis of the data provides insight into the mechanism and kinetics of sickle hemoglobin polymer melting. Conversion of normal deoxygenated, adult hemoglobin (HbA) in high concentration phosphate buffer to the HbA-CO adduct was characterized by an average rate of 83 s-1. Under the same conditions, conversion of deoxy-HbS in the polymer phase to the HbS-CO adduct in the solution phase is characterized by an average rate of 5.8 s-1 via an intermediate species that grows in with a 36 s-1 rate. Spectral analysis of the intermediate species suggests that a significant amount of CO may bind to the polymer phase before the polymer melts. PMID:10096916

  16. Redox buffered hydrofluoric acid etchant for the reduction of galvanic attack during release etching of MEMS devices having noble material films

    DOEpatents

    Hankins, Matthew G. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-10-06

    Etchant solutions comprising a redox buffer can be used during the release etch step to reduce damage to the structural layers of a MEMS device that has noble material films. A preferred redox buffer comprises a soluble thiophosphoric acid, ester, or salt that maintains the electrochemical potential of the etchant solution at a level that prevents oxidation of the structural material. Therefore, the redox buffer preferentially oxidizes in place of the structural material. The sacrificial redox buffer thereby protects the exposed structural layers while permitting the dissolution of sacrificial oxide layers during the release etch.

  17. The pharmacology of nomegestrol acetate.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Xiangyan; Seeger, Harald; Mueck, Alfred O

    2012-04-01

    Nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC) is a 19-norprogesterone derivative with high biological activity at the progesterone receptor, a weak anti-androgenic effect, but with no binding to estrogen, glucocorticoid or mineralocorticoid receptors. At dosages of 1.5mg/day or more, NOMAC effectively suppresses gonadotropic activity and ovulation in women of reproductive age. Hemostasis, lipids and carbohydrate metabolism remain largely unchanged. In normal and cancerous human breast cells, NOMAC has shown favorable effects on estrogen metabolism. Like natural progesterone (but in contrast to some other synthetic progestogens), it does not appear stimulate the proliferation of cancerous breast cells. While there has been some experience of the use of NOMAC in combination with estrogens as a hormone replacement therapy, most of the data on the compound are reported in the context of its inclusion as a component of a new contraceptive pill comprising 2.5mg NOMAC combined with 1.5mg estradiol. Because of its strong endometrial efficacy, and due to its high antigonadotropic activity and long elimination half-life (about 50h), the contraceptive efficacy of the new pill is maintained even when dosages are missed. Furthermore, for the first time with a monophasic 24/4 regimen containing estradiol, cyclical stability can be achieved comparable with that obtained using pills containing ethinyl estradiol and progestogens like levonorgestrel or drospirenone. The addition of NOMAC to estradiol means that the beneficial effects of estrogen are not lost, which is of especial importance in relation to the cardiovascular system. On the basis both of its pharmacology and of studies performed during the development of the NOMAC/estradiol pill, involving some 4000 women in total, good long-term tolerability can be expected for NOMAC, although its safety profile is still to be fully ascertained, as the clinical endpoint studies are yet to be completed. PMID:22364709

  18. Kinetics of talampicillin decomposition in solutions.

    PubMed

    Pawe?czyk, Ewaryst; P?otkowiak, Zyta; Helska, Maria

    2002-01-01

    Talampicillin stability in aqueous solutions was studied in a broad range of pH values using as medium solutions of hydrochloric acid (pH 0.4-1.8), phosphate buffers (pH 2.05-3.13 and 6.03-8.04), acetate buffer (pH 3.87-5.28) and borate buffer (pH 8.90-9.10) as well as sodium hydroxide solution (pH 11.48). For the determination of talampicillin concentration changes in kinetic studies, two methods were used: iodometric and spectrophotometric in UV (lambda(max) = 254.5 nm). The catalytic velocity constants (k(H+), k(x), k(o)) were established, the log k-pH profile (35 degrees C) was found, thermodynamic parameters were calculated of the hydrolysis reaction of the beta-lactam bond (k(H+): E(A)= 67.9 kJ mol(-1), delta S = -92.4 J K(-1) mol(-1), delta G = 92.6 kJ mol(-1); k(x): E(A) = 31.8 kJ mol(-1), delta S = -347.1 J K(-1) mol(-1), delta G = 131.1 kJ mol(-1); k(o), pH = 5.28: E(A) = 98.0 kJ mol(-1), delta S = -50.3 J K(-1) mol(-1), delta G = 110.3 kJ mol(-1) at 20 degrees C), and the stability of the lactone bond was studied in the medium with the highest stability of beta-lactam bond of talampicillin (pH 5.28: k(o): E(A)= 32.5 kJ mol(-1), delta S = -220.5 J K(-1) mol(-1), delta G = 94.7 kJ mol(-1) in 20 degrees C), at controlled ionic strength (mu = 0.5 mol l(-1)). PMID:12026108

  19. A MICROPROCESSOR ASCII CHARACTER BUFFERING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    A microprocessor buffering system (MBS) was developed at the Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory -Cincinnati (EMSL-CI) to provide an efficient transfer for serial ASCII information between intelligent instrument systema and a Data General NOVA laboratory automation co...

  20. Buffer assignment algorithms for data driven architectures

    E-print Network

    Chatterjee, Mitrajit

    1994-01-01

    Data driven architectures designed to achieve high performance and throughput require the corresponding data flow graph to have no accumulation of data at its nodes and simultaneous arrival of all input data to a multi-input node. Buffers...

  1. Controlled chemical doping of semiconductor nanocrystals using redox buffers.

    PubMed

    Engel, Jesse H; Surendranath, Yogesh; Alivisatos, A Paul

    2012-08-15

    Semiconductor nanocrystal solids are attractive materials for active layers in next-generation optoelectronic devices; however, their efficient implementation has been impeded by the lack of precise control over dopant concentrations. Herein we demonstrate a chemical strategy for the controlled doping of nanocrystal solids under equilibrium conditions. Exposing lead selenide nanocrystal thin films to solutions containing varying proportions of decamethylferrocene and decamethylferrocenium incrementally and reversibly increased the carrier concentration in the solid by 2 orders of magnitude from their native values. This application of redox buffers for controlled doping provides a new method for the precise control of the majority carrier concentration in porous semiconductor thin films. PMID:22817112

  2. Controlled Chemical Doping of Semiconductor Nanocrystals Using Redox Buffers

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, Jesse H.; Surendranath, Yogesh; Alivisatos, Paul

    2013-07-09

    Semiconductor nanocrystal solids are attractive materials for active layers in next-generation optoelectronic devices; however, their efficient implementation has been impeded by the lack of precise control over dopant concentrations. Herein we demonstrate a chemical strategy for the controlled doping of nanocrystal solids under equilibrium conditions. Exposing lead selenide nanocrystal thin films to solutions containing varying proportions of decamethylferrocene and decamethylferrocenium incrementally and reversibly increased the carrier concentration in the solid by 2 orders of magnitude from their native values. This application of redox buffers for controlled doping provides a new method for the precise control of the majority carrier concentration in porous semiconductor thin films.

  3. Fragrance material review on 4-methylbenzyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 4-methylbenzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 4-Methylbenzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 4-methylbenzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, skin irritation, skin sensitization, and elicitation data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22414643

  4. ABS: Adaptive Buffer Sizing for Heterogeneous Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yueping Zhang; Dmitri Loguinov

    2008-01-01

    Abstract—Most existing criteria [3], [5], [9] for sizing router buffers rely on explicit formulation,of the relationship between buffer size and characteristics of Internet traffic. However, this is a non-trivial, if not impossible, task given that the number of flows, their individual RTTs, and congestion control methods, as well as flow responsiveness, are unknown. In this paper, we undertake,a completely,different approach,that

  5. Buffer Combinations for Mammalian Cell Culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harry Eagle

    1971-01-01

    The growth and metabolism of cultured mammalian cells are markedly affected by the pH variation in ordinary bicarbonate-buffered media(pH 8.0 to 6.9). Those pH swings can be reduced and the pH of the culture can be stabilized as desired in the range pH 6.4 to 8.3 by appropriate combinations of two or three organic buffers, each at 10 to 15

  6. Buffer layer for thin film structures

    DOEpatents

    Foltyn, Stephen R.; Jia, Quanxi; Arendt, Paul N.; Wang, Haiyan

    2006-10-31

    A composite structure including a base substrate and a layer of a mixture of strontium titanate and strontium ruthenate is provided. A superconducting article can include a composite structure including an outermost layer of magnesium oxide, a buffer layer of strontium titanate or a mixture of strontium titanate and strontium ruthenate and a top-layer of a superconducting material such as YBCO upon the buffer layer.

  7. Buffer layer for thin film structures

    DOEpatents

    Foltyn, Stephen R.; Jia, Quanxi; Arendt, Paul N.; Wang, Haiyan

    2010-06-15

    A composite structure including a base substrate and a layer of a mixture of strontium titanate and strontium ruthenate is provided. A superconducting article can include a composite structure including an outermost layer of magnesium oxide, a buffer layer of strontium titanate or a mixture of strontium titanate and strontium ruthenate and a top-layer of a superconducting material such as YBCO upon the buffer layer.

  8. Improvement of lipid stability of refrigerated rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillets by pre-storage ?-tocopherol acetate dipping treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ehsani, Ali; Jasour, Mohammad Sedigh

    2012-01-01

    One of the simplest methods for short-term handling and storage of fish is the refrigeration in combination with dip treatments. This study was conducted to determine the effect of pre-storage ?-tocopherol acetate dipping treatments on lipid stability of refrigerated rainbow trout fillets. Trout fillets were dipped in ?-tocopherol acetate solutions (200 and 500 mg kg-1 flesh) and subsequently stored in a refrigerator at 4 ?C for 12 days. Control samples received no ?-tocopherol acetate during dip treatment. At the end of 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 days of storage, lipid damage analysis of trout fillets was performed. A continuous notable increase (p < 0.05) in peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid (TBA) and free fatty acid (FFA) was observed for all samples throughout the storage period. Although throughout the storage period the lipid hydrolysis (FFA) of fish fillets was not affected by ?-tocopherol acetate solutions, successful (p < 0.05) inhibition of lipid oxidation (PV and TBA) in refrigerated trout fillets was possible with dip treatment in ?-tocopherol acetate solutions (200 and 500 mg kg-1 flesh). There was no significant (p > 0.05) effect of increasing ?-tocopherol acetate concentration on the lipid deterioration of fish fillets. These results indicated that ?-tocopherol acetate especially at lower level (200 mg kg-1 flesh) was very effective in retarding the lipid oxidation. PMID:25653770

  9. 21 CFR 522.960b - Flumethasone acetate solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...adjusted according to the weight of the animal, the severity of the symptoms...injection should not exceed 3 days of therapy. With chronic conditions intramuscular...of from 0.0625 to 0.25 mg per animal. (2) Indications for...

  10. Buffer regulation of calcium puff sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraiman, Daniel; Ponce Dawson, Silvina

    2014-02-01

    Puffs are localized Ca2 + signals that arise in oocytes in response to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3). They are the result of the liberation of Ca2 + from the endoplasmic reticulum through the coordinated opening of IP3 receptor/channels clustered at a functional release site. The presence of buffers that trap Ca2 + provides a mechanism that enriches the spatio-temporal dynamics of cytosolic calcium. The expression of different types of buffers along the cell's life provides a tool with which Ca2 + signals and their responses can be modulated. In this paper we extend the stochastic model of a cluster of IP3R-Ca2 + channels introduced previously to elucidate the effect of buffers on sequences of puffs at the same release site. We obtain analytically the probability laws of the interpuff time and of the number of channels that participate of the puffs. Furthermore, we show that under typical experimental conditions the effect of buffers can be accounted for in terms of a simple inhibiting function. Hence, by exploring different inhibiting functions we are able to study the effect of a variety of buffers on the puff size and interpuff time distributions. We find the somewhat counter-intuitive result that the addition of a fast Ca2 + buffer can increase the average number of channels that participate of a puff.

  11. /GaAs (001) Metamorphic Buffer Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kujofsa, T.; Ayers, J. E.

    2014-08-01

    The design of metamorphic buffer layers for semiconductor devices with reduced defect densities requires control of lattice relaxation and dislocation dynamics. Graded layers are beneficial for the design of these buffers because they reduce the threading dislocation density by (1) allowing the distribution of the misfit dislocations throughout the buffer layer therefore reducing pinning interactions, and (2) enhancing mobility from the high built-in surface strain which helps to sweep out threading arms. In this work, we considered heterostructures involving a linearly-graded (type A) or step-graded (type B) buffer grown on a GaAs (001) substrate. For each structure type, we studied the equilibrium configuration and the kinetically-limited lattice relaxation and non-equilibrium threading dislocations by utilizing a dislocation dynamics model. In this work, we have also considered heterostructures involving a constant composition ZnS y Se1- y device layer grown on top of a GaAs (001) substrate with an intermediate buffer layer of linearly-graded (type C) or step-graded (type D) ZnS y Se1- y . For each structure type, we studied the requirements on the thickness and compositional profile in the buffer layer for the elimination of all mobile threading dislocations from the device layer by the dislocation compensation mechanism.

  12. Buffer regulation of calcium puff sequences.

    PubMed

    Fraiman, Daniel; Dawson, Silvina Ponce

    2014-02-01

    Puffs are localized Ca(2 +) signals that arise in oocytes in response to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3). They are the result of the liberation of Ca(2 +) from the endoplasmic reticulum through the coordinated opening of IP3 receptor/channels clustered at a functional release site. The presence of buffers that trap Ca(2 +) provides a mechanism that enriches the spatio-temporal dynamics of cytosolic calcium. The expression of different types of buffers along the cell's life provides a tool with which Ca(2 +) signals and their responses can be modulated. In this paper we extend the stochastic model of a cluster of IP3R-Ca(2 +) channels introduced previously to elucidate the effect of buffers on sequences of puffs at the same release site. We obtain analytically the probability laws of the interpuff time and of the number of channels that participate of the puffs. Furthermore, we show that under typical experimental conditions the effect of buffers can be accounted for in terms of a simple inhibiting function. Hence, by exploring different inhibiting functions we are able to study the effect of a variety of buffers on the puff size and interpuff time distributions. We find the somewhat counter-intuitive result that the addition of a fast Ca(2 +) buffer can increase the average number of channels that participate of a puff. PMID:24476691

  13. Low noise buffer amplifiers and buffered phase comparators for precise time and frequency measurement and distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichinger, R. A.; Dachel, P.; Miller, W. H.; Ingold, J. S.

    1982-01-01

    Extremely low noise, high performance, wideband buffer amplifiers and buffered phase comparators were developed. These buffer amplifiers are designed to distribute reference frequencies from 30 KHz to 45 MHz from a hydrogen maser without degrading the hydrogen maser's performance. The buffered phase comparators are designed to intercompare the phase of state of the art hydrogen masers without adding any significant measurement system noise. These devices have a 27 femtosecond phase stability floor and are stable to better than one picosecond for long periods of time. Their temperature coefficient is less than one picosecond per degree C, and they have shown virtually no voltage coefficients.

  14. The Effects of pH on the Growth and Aspect Ratio of Chicken Egg White Lysozyme Crystals Prepared in Different Buffers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, U. J.; Horrell, E. E.; Kou, Y.; Pusey, Marc

    2000-01-01

    We have measured the nucleation and aspect ratio of CEWL crystals grown by vapor diffusion in acetate, butyrate, carbonate, succinate, and phosphate buffers in a range of pH spanning the pK(sub a) of these buffers. The nucleation numbers drop off significantly in the vicinity of pK(sub a) for each of the buffers except the phosphate system, in which we used only the pH range around the second titration point(pK2). There is a concomitant increase in the sizes of the crystals. Some typical nucleation number results are shown. These data support and extend other observations. In addition, we have examined changes in aspect ratio which accompany the suppression of nucleation within each buffer system. The length of the face in the [001] direction was measured, and compared to the width of the (110) face in the [110] type directions. We find that while the aspect ratio of the crystals is affected by pH, it is dominated by a correlation with the size of the crystals. Small crystals are longer in the [0011 direction than crystals that are larger (higher pH within a buffer system). This relationship is found to hold independent of the choice of buffer. These results are consistent with those of Judge et al, who used a batch process which resulted in uniform sizing of crystals at each pH. In these experiments, we specifically avoid agitating the protein/salt buffer mixture when combining the two. This permits the formation of a range of sizes at a given pH. The results for a .05 M acetate 5% NaCl buffer are also shown. We will discuss these results in light of a growth model.

  15. Development of a buffer system for dialysis of bovine spermatozoa before freezing. I. Effect of zwitterion buffers.

    PubMed

    Garcia, M A; Graham, E F

    1989-05-01

    The effect of N-TRIS(hydroxymethyl)methyl-2-aminoetane sulfonic acid (TES); N,N BIS (2 hydroxvethyl)-2 aminoethane sulfonic acid (BES), N-2(hydroxyethyl)piperazine-N-2-ethane sulfonic acid (HEPES), morpholinopropane sulfonic acid (MOPS), and piperazine-N-N-BIS(2-ethane sulfonic acid (PIPES) solutions on dialyzed semen was studied. Each was titrated to pH 7.0 with TRIS-(hydroxymethyl)-amino methane (TRIS) solution and the osmotic pressure was adjusted to between 320 to 325 mOsm/kg. The new solutions were identified as TEST, BEST, HEPEST, MOPST and PIPEST, respectively. The solutions were used 1) alone, 2) in a composite with equal parts (V/V) of each solution and 3) in a 1:1 (V/V) combination with isosmotic trisodium citrate solution. Later, TRIS and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) were compared as titration bases for piperazine-N-N-BIS (2-ethane sulfonic acid) (PIPES) and N-Tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl-2-aminoethane sulfonic acid (TES). Ejaculates were diluted 1:10 (V/V) in extenders containing buffer, 20% egg yolk and 5% glycerol (V/V). The samples were dialyzed (1:50) during cooling for a period of 2 h. Each sample was dialyzed against the same buffer system containing 5% glycerol without egg yolk and later it was frozen in pellets. The treatments were evaluated by observation of sperm motility in fresh and thawed semen samples. The latter were also analyzed by electronic count of cells that passed through the Sephadex column. Sperm survival was higher in PIPEST (PIPES titrated with TRIS) or the composite buffer, and the inclusion of 50% sodium citrate (Na citrate) improved significantly (P<0.05) sperm motility in fresh and frozen-thawed semen samples. There was no difference (P>0.05) between the titration bases. In the second experiment, sperm survival was superior in extenders containing PIPEST (P<0.05) than in those containing TEST independently of the inclusion of Na citrate. PMID:16726619

  16. Online Measurement of the Intramolecular Isotopic Composition of Acetate in Natural Porewater Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, R. B.; Arthur, M. A.; Freeman, K. H.

    2006-12-01

    Carbon dioxide and methane are traditionally considered to be the dominant end products of anaerobic metabolism while acetate is thought to be a rapidly consumed intermediate. However, in some settings, recent evidence has grown to suggest that, at least transiently, acetate can be a major metabolic end product. In natural systems, isotopic mass balances can be used to partition the flow of carbon to methane, CO2, and acetate. However, these isotopic estimates require intramolecular measurements of acetate in addition to isotopic measurements of the gaseous species, CO2 and CH4. In practice, the intramolecular isotopic composition of acetate is rarely measured because the analysis is technically challenging and traditionally requires prior separation and offline pyrolysis of purified acetate. As a result of these technical challenges, acetate methyl carbon is usually assumed to be a few permil depleted relative to the carbon isotopic composition of bulk organic matter. In environments where acetate may be produced by autotrophic acetogens this assumption can be devastatingly false. This work describes the use of an online method for the analysis of the intramolecular carbon isotopic composition of dissolved acetate from dilute surface water samples with a detection limit of injected sample down to 500uM. Preconcentration of samples via lyophilization has resulted in detection limits as low as 30uM. In 2002, at Penn State, Dias et al. (Organic Geochemistry Vol. 33, p161-168) reported a technique to examine the intramolecular isotopic composition of acetate from oil-prone source rocks using SPME extraction with an online GC-pyrolysis-IRMS. We have adapted the Dias method to be used with direct injection of dilute natural water samples. Briefly, this procedure protonates acetate with a .1M addition of oxalic acid and vaporizes the sample in the GC inlet at low temperatures. This prevents oxalic acid decomposition and provides sufficient separation of acetate from other volatile acids and water on a polar column (Nukol, Supelco). Following the GC, the acetic acid is reacted with either a combustion furnace (for total acetate) or a pyrolysis furnace for the carboxyl carbon only. The pyrolysis furnace operates at 600°C with Pd wire catalyst and a continuous trickle of H2. The resulting CO2 is then analyzed by conventional IRMS. This GC-PY-IRMS technique is coupled to a GC-C-IRMS such that switching between oxidation and pyrolysis is accomplished by a simple switch followed by a short stabilization period. The above pyrolysis conditions result in a small but characterizable oxidation of methyl carbon to CO2. The cross-contamination of acetate methyl into the acetate carboxyl signal is estimated to be approximately 15 to 20% of the IRMS signal and an isotope dilution series is used to estimate and correct for this contamination. Since this technique is online and allows for the injection of water samples the need for sample extraction and separation are eliminated. This method also significantly improves detection limits over the Dias 2002 method by avoiding SPME injections which have unfavorable partition coefficients for aqueous solutions of acetate.

  17. Buffer Allocation Approaches for Virtual Channel Flow Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neeraj Parik; Ozen Deniz; Paul Kim; Zheng Li

    Buffers are one of the major resources used by the routers in virtual channel flow control. It is reported that they consume 60% of routers' power and silicon (5). Architects of interconnection networks must use the buffers efficiently while assigning buffers to VCs from the fixed budget. This paper analyzes various buffer allocation approaches. All these approaches have constraint on

  18. Comparative analyses of universal extraction buffers for assay of stress related biochemical and physiological parameters.

    PubMed

    Han, Chunyu; Chan, Zhulong; Yang, Fan

    2015-10-01

    Comparative efficiency of three extraction solutions, including the universal sodium phosphate buffer (USPB), the Tris-HCl buffer (UTHB), and the specific buffers, were compared for assays of soluble protein, free proline, superoxide radical ([Formula: see text]), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and the antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and glutathione reductase (GR) in Populus deltoide. Significant differences for protein extraction were detected via sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). Between the two universal extraction buffers, the USPB showed higher efficiency for extraction of soluble protein, CAT, GR, [Formula: see text], GPX, SOD, and free proline, while the UTHB had higher efficiency for extraction of APX, POD, and H2O2. When compared with the specific buffers, the USPB showed higher extraction efficiency for measurement of soluble protein, CAT, GR, and [Formula: see text], parallel extraction efficiency for GPX, SOD, free proline, and H2O2, and lower extraction efficiency for APX and POD, whereas the UTHB had higher extraction efficiency for measurement of POD and H2O2. Further comparisons proved that 100 mM USPB buffer showed the highest extraction efficiencies. These results indicated that USPB would be suitable and efficient for extraction of soluble protein, CAT, GR, GPX, SOD, H2O2, [Formula: see text], and free proline. PMID:25036412

  19. Undergraduate Chemistry Students' Perceptions of and Misconceptions about Buffers and Buffer Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orgill, MaryKay; Sutherland, Aynsley

    2008-01-01

    Both upper- and lower-level chemistry students struggle with understanding the concept of buffers and with solving corresponding buffer problems. While it might be reasonable to expect general chemistry students to struggle with this abstract concept, it is surprising that upper-level students in analytical chemistry and biochemistry continue to…

  20. Acetic acid production from food wastes using yeast and acetic acid bacteria micro-aerobic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; He, Dongwei; Niu, Dongjie; Zhao, Youcai

    2015-05-01

    In this study, yeast and acetic acid bacteria strains were adopted to enhance the ethanol-type fermentation resulting to a volatile fatty acids yield of 30.22 g/L, and improve acetic acid production to 25.88 g/L, with food wastes as substrate. In contrast, only 12.81 g/L acetic acid can be obtained in the absence of strains. The parameters such as pH, oxidation reduction potential and volatile fatty acids were tested and the microbial diversity of different strains and activity of hydrolytic ferment were investigated to reveal the mechanism. The optimum pH and oxidation reduction potential for the acetic acid production were determined to be at 3.0-3.5 and -500 mV, respectively. Yeast can convert organic matters into ethanol, which is used by acetic acid bacteria to convert the organic wastes into acetic acid. The acetic acid thus obtained from food wastes micro-aerobic fermentation liquid could be extracted by distillation to get high-pure acetic acid. PMID:25416587

  1. Acetylation of Starch with Vinyl Acetate in Imidazolium Ionic Liquids and Characterization of Acetate Distribution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch was acetylated with vinyl acetate in different 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (BMIM) salts as solvent in effort to produce starches with different acetylation patterns. Overall degree of substitution was much higher for basic anions such as acetate and dicyanimide (dca) than for neutral anions ...

  2. Formation of biologically relevant carboxylic acids during the gamma irradiation of acetic acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Negron-Mendoza, A.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1976-01-01

    Irradiation of aqueous solutions of acetic acid with gamma rays produced several carboxylic acids in small yield. Their identification was based on the technique of gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry. Some of these acids are Krebs Cycle intermediates. Their simultaneous formation in experiments simulating the primitive conditions on the earth suggests that metabolic pathways may have had their origin in prebiotic chemical processes.

  3. EXTRACTION AND ELECTROSPINNING OF ZEIN EXTRACTED FROM CORN GLUTEN MEAL USING ACETIC ACID

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been demonstrated that zein fibers can be produced using the electrospinning technique. Fibers electrospun from acetic acid solution under suitable conditions provide fibers with a more consistent morphology (round 0.5-2.0 micro fibers) compared to fibers produced from aqueous ethanol soluti...

  4. A mammalian acetate switch regulates stress erythropoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Min; Nagati, Jason S.; Xie, Jian; Li, Jiwen; Walters, Holly; Moon, Young-Ah; Gerard, Robert D.; Huang, Chou-Long; Comerford, Sarah A.; Hammer, Robert E.; Horton, Jay D.; Chen, Rui; Garcia, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine erythropoietin (Epo), which is synthesized in the kidney or liver of adult mammals, controls erythrocyte production and is regulated by the stress-responsive transcription factor Hypoxia Inducible Factor 2 (HIF-2). We previously reported that the lysine acetyltransferase Cbp is required for HIF-2? acetylation and efficient HIF-2 dependent Epo induction during hypoxia. We now show these processes require acetate-dependent acetyl CoA synthetase 2 (Acss2). In Hep3B hepatoma cells and in Epo-generating organs of hypoxic or acutely anemic mice, acetate levels increase and Acss2 is required for HIF-2? acetylation, Cbp/HIF-2? complex formation and recruitment to the Epo enhancer, and efficient Epo induction. In acutely anemic mice, acetate supplementation augments stress erythropoiesis in an Acss2-dependent manner. In acquired and genetic chronic anemia mouse models, acetate supplementation also increases Epo expression and resting hematocrits. Thus, a mammalian stress-responsive acetate switch controls HIF-2 signaling and Epo induction during pathophysiological states marked by tissue hypoxia. PMID:25108527

  5. Hormetic effect of ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate on bacteria

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Nancharaiah, Y. V. [Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Kalpakkam (India). Biofouling and Biofilm Processes Sect.; Francis, A. J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Environmental Sciences Dept.; POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Rep. of). Div. of Advanced Nuclear Engineering

    2015-06-01

    The biological effect of ionic liquids (ILs) is one of the highly debated topics as they are being contemplated for various industrial applications. 1-ethyl-2-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMIM][Ac]) showed remarkable hormesis on anaerobic Clostridium sp. and aerobic Psueudomonas putida. Bacterial growth was stimulated at up to 2.5 g L-1 and inhibited at > 2.5 g L-1 of ([EMIM][Ac]). The growth of Clostridium sp. and P. putida were higher by 0.4 and 4-fold respectively, in the presense of 0.5 g L-1 of ([EMIM][Ac]). Assessment of the effect of [EMIM][Ac] under different growth conditions showed that the hormesis of [EMIM][Ac] was mediated via regulation of medium pH. Hormetic effect of [EMIM][Ac] was evident only in medium with poor buffering capacity and in the presence of a fermentable substrate as the carbon source. The hormetic effect of [EMIM][Ac] on bacterial growth is most likely associated with the buffering capacity of acetate anion. These observations have implications in ILs toxicity studies and ecological risk assessment.

  6. Formulation and Evaluation of Pharmaceutically Equivalent Parenteral Depot Suspension of Methyl Prednisolone Acetate

    PubMed Central

    Alam, A.; Ahuja, Alka; Baboota, Sanjula; Gidwani, S. K.; Ali, J.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to formulate and evaluate pharmaceutically equivalent injectable aqueous suspension for parenteral depot of methyl prednisolone acetate. Various aqueous suspensions were prepared by rapid stirring and colloid milling method. The prepared aqueous suspensions were subjected to particle size determination, sedimentation study, in vitro release studies (pH dependent dissolution study), and stability studies. The optimized formulation consisted of 4% w/w of methyl prednisolone acetate, 2.91% w/w of PEG-3350, 0.19% w/v of injection grade Tween-80, 0.68% w/w of monobasic sodium phosphate, 0.15% w/w of di-basic sodium phosphate, 0.91% w/v of benzyl alcohol, 0.32% w/w sodium meta bisulphate. The f2 value was calculated for innovator (DepoMedrol®, Batch No. MPH-0254) and optimized formulation at pH 6.8 and pH 7.4 phosphate buffers. The f2 values of 62.94 and 54.37 were obtained at pH 6.8 and pH 7.4 phosphate buffers respectively. The particle size ranged 23-27 ?m at D value of 0.9 for both test and innovator product. PMID:20177452

  7. Hormetic effect of ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate on bacteria.

    PubMed

    Nancharaiah, Y V; Francis, A J

    2015-06-01

    The biological effect of ionic liquids (ILs) is one of the highly debated topics as they are being contemplated for various industrial applications. 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMIM][Ac]) showed remarkable hormesis on anaerobic Clostridium sp. and aerobic Pseudomonas putida. Bacterial growth was stimulated at up to 2.5gL(-1) and inhibited at >2.5gL(-1) of [EMIM][Ac]. The growth of Clostridium sp. and P. putida were higher by 0.4 and 4-fold respectively, in the presence of 0.5gL(-1) [EMIM][Ac]. Assessment of the effect of [EMIM][Ac] under different growth conditions showed that the hormesis of [EMIM][Ac] was mediated via regulation of medium pH. Hormetic effect of [EMIM][Ac] was evident only in medium with poor buffering capacity and in the presence of a fermentable substrate as the carbon source. The hormetic effect of [EMIM][Ac] on bacterial growth is most likely associated with the buffering capacity of acetate anion. These observations have implications in ILs toxicity studies and ecological risk assessment. PMID:25703901

  8. Aqueous solution dispersement of carbon nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Jae-Woo (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Choi, Sang H. (Inventor); Lillehei, Peter T. (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are dispersed in an aqueous buffer solution consisting of at least 50 weight percent water and a remainder weight percent that includes a buffer material. The buffer material has a molecular structure defined by a first end, a second end, and a middle disposed between the first and second ends. The first end is a cyclic ring with nitrogen and oxygen heteroatomes, the middle is a hydrophobic alkyl chain, and the second end is a charged group.

  9. Determination of Unknown Concentrations of Sodium Acetate Using the Method of Standard Addition and Proton NMR: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajabzadeh, Massy

    2012-01-01

    In this experiment, students learn how to find the unknown concentration of sodium acetate using both the graphical treatment of standard addition and the standard addition equation. In the graphical treatment of standard addition, the peak area of the methyl peak in each of the sodium acetate standard solutions is found by integration using…

  10. Dichromate dosimetry. The effect of acetic acid on the radiolytic reduction yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Sheikhly, M.; Hussmann, M. H.; McLaughlin, W. L.

    The radiation chemical yield for the reduction of dichromate, Cr(VI) ? Cr 3+, in an acidic aqueous perchloric acid solution of potassium dichromate, may be increased from 0.04 to >0.2 ? mol J -1 by adding acetic acid. The increased yield, G[-(Cr 2O 7) 2-] is about the same in N 2- and O 2-saturated solutions. The molar linear absorption coefficient at 350 nm also is the same in both solutions ( ?m = 2800 M-1cm-1) at pH 0.4. The proposed mechanism to explain the enhanced response in N 2-saturated solutions involves the efficient reaction of acetic acid with hydroxyl radicals by the abstraction of H from the methyl group; the resulting acid radicals react with relatively high yield to reduce Cr(VI). In O 2-saturated solution, the acetic acid radical apparently goes through an acetic acid peroxyl radical by a bimolecular reaction to the tetroxide intermediate of acetic acid, which releases H 2O 2 with relatively high yield by a Bennett-type reaction. This additional H 2O 2, as a reducing agent, reacts slowly with dichromate and boosts the value of G[-(Cr 2O 7) 2-]. The negative slope of the response (? A vs dose) continues to increase during the period immediately after irradiation of oxygenated solution, due to slow reaction of radiolytically-produced H 2O 2 with dichromate. There is also in both O 2- and N 2-saturated solution a long-term slow reaction involving oxidation of the organic substrate (in this case, acetic acid). Because of these instabilities, the solutions cannot readily be used for dosimetry without the presence of silver ions, which in the oxidized state, Ag 2+, act to stabilize the solution after irradiation. The addition of silver dichromate at a concentration of 0.1 mM decreases the yield to G[-(Cr 2O 7) 2-] = 0.17 ?molJ-1, but greatly improves the stability of the solution after irradiation. The absorbed dose range for the modified dichromate dosimeter when analyzed spectrophotometrically at 350 nm wavelength is approx. 2 × 10 2-2 × 10 3 Gy.

  11. boxcar, width, [buffer, /decimate] Boxcar smoothing clip, datamin, datamax, [buffer, /blank] Truncate spectrum to a min and max data value

    E-print Network

    Groppi, Christopher

    Other boxcar, width, [buffer, /decimate] Boxcar smoothing clip, datamin, datamax, [buffer, /blank] Truncate spectrum to a min and max data value decimate, [nchan, startat, buffer, ok] Decimate the spectrum, /full, /quiet, ret] Find moments of the data in the PDC gsmooth, newres, [buffer, /decimate] Gaussian

  12. Effects of Alcohol and Buffer Treatments on the Activity and Enantioselectivity of Candida rugosa Lipase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Serpil Takaç; Ay?e Ezgi Ünlü

    2009-01-01

    Several treatments were employed on Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) to improve its biocatalytic performance. Besides conventional alcohol treatment conditions, the effects of pH of the buffer solution used in the treatment as well as the changes in stirring, dialysis, and centrifugation steps of the treatment procedure were investigated for the first time for the resolution of racemic naproxen methyl ester.

  13. Phosphorus Uptake During Four Years by Different Vegetative Cover Types in a Riparian Buffer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetative buffers have been shown to reduce nutrient loss associated with the transport of detached soil particles and may through plant uptake offer a means to capture dissolved nutrients moving to surface waters through the soil solution. The objective of this 4-year study was to evaluate change...

  14. The Influence of the Composition of Demineralizing Buffers on the Surface Layers of Artificial Carious Lesions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. M. Theuns; J. W. E. van Dijk; F. C. M. Driessens; A. Groeneveld

    1984-01-01

    This paper deals with the influence of (1) the pH, (2) the degree of saturation with respect to hydroxylapatite (OHA) and (3) the fluoride concentration of demineralizing buffer solutions on the development of surface layers of artificial carious lesions. The pH did not affect the surface layer during demineralization. With increasing saturation with respect to OHA, the mineral content of

  15. Calcium Gluconate in Phosphate Buffered Saline Increases Gene Delivery with Adenovirus Type 5

    E-print Network

    Hemminki, Akseli

    Calcium Gluconate in Phosphate Buffered Saline Increases Gene Delivery with Adenovirus Type 5 Marko the calcium and phosphate present in the serum mix to precipitate, and this was responsible for enhanced gene calcium and phosphate are present in many solutions. To translate this into an approach potentially

  16. A Better Reduction Theorem for Store Buffers

    E-print Network

    Cohen, Ernie

    2009-01-01

    When verifying a concurrent program, it is usual to assume that memory is sequentially consistent. However, most modern multiprocessors depend on store buffering for efficiency, and provide native sequential consistency only at a substantial performance penalty. To regain sequential consistency, a programmer has to follow an appropriate programming discipline. However, na\\"ive disciplines, such as protecting all shared accesses with locks, are not flexible enough for building high-performance multiprocessor software. We present a new discipline for concurrent programming under TSO (total store order, with store buffer forwarding). It does not depend on concurrency primitives, such as locks. Instead, threads use ghost operations to acquire and release ownership of memory addresses. A thread can write to an address only if no other thread owns it, and can read from an address only if it owns it or it is shared and the thread has flushed its store buffer since it last wrote to an address it did not own. This dis...

  17. Fabrication of Porous Metal Oxide Semiconductor Films by a Self-Template Method Using Layered Hydroxide Metal Acetates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shinobu Fujihara; Eiji Hosono; Toshio Kimura

    2004-01-01

    Porous metal oxide (Co3O4, NiO, or ZnO) films were fabricated by a self-template method using layered hydroxide metal acetates (LHMA; metal = Co, Ni, or Zn) as templates. LHMAs were initially grown on glass substrates through a chemical bath deposition in methanolic-aqueous solutions of metal acetates at 60°C. The template films had a unique, nest-like morphology consisting of interlaced flake-like

  18. Riparian forests buffer panel final report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The Chesapeake Executive Council adopted Directive 94-1 which called upon the Chesapeake Bay Program to develop a set of goals and actions to increase the focus on riparian stewardship and enhance efforts to conserve and restore riparian forest buffers. The Council appointed a panel to recommend a set of policies, recommend an accepted definition of forest buffers, and suggest quantifiable goals. The Panel was a diverse group of thirty-one members, comprised of federal, state, and local government representatives, scientists, land managers, citizens, and farming, development, forest industry, and environmental interests. This report contains our principal findings and recommendations.

  19. Inter-relationship of sodium, chloride, bicarbonate and acetate transport by the colon of the pig.

    PubMed Central

    Argenzio, R A; Whipp, S C

    1979-01-01

    1. Net transport of Na, Cl, HCO3 and acetate was examined in the temporarily isolated colon of conscious pigs weighing 46 +/- 8 kg. 2. The entire colon absorbs 4.1 ml. H2O, 0.8 m-equiv Na, 1.3 m-equiv acetate and secretes 0.5 m-equiv HCO3/min with a solution comparable to the normal contents. The absorptive capacity of the proximal and distal halves of the colon was comparable per unit dry weight of mucosa when each segment was presented with the same solution. 3. A series of studies using ion replacement solutions showed that net Na absorption and net HCO3 accumulation in the lumen solution were both increased in the presence of acetate. Cl absorption was independent of Na absorption and was accompanied by an equivalent net secretion of HCO3 in the absence of Na. When NaCl in the perfusion solution was replaced with Na2SO4, Na and HCO3 were absorbed at equal rates. 4. Final pCO2 values observed in NaCl and Na2SO4 solutions were greater than those observed in plasma while the pCO2 of the Na acetate solution after perfusion was reduced to values below plasma concentrations. 5. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that hydration of CO2 in the lumen solution or mucosal cell provides a continuous source of H ions for absorption of the more permeable undissociated acid. The evidence also suggests an additional source of H ions may be provided by a Na-H exchange process located in one of the limiting cell membranes. PMID:42782

  20. Biochar contribution to soil pH buffer capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonutare, Tonu; Krebstein, Kadri; Utso, Maarius; Rodima, Ako; Kolli, Raimo; Shanskiy, Merrit

    2014-05-01

    Biochar as ecologically clean and stable form of carbon has complex of physical and chemical properties which make it a potentially powerful soil amendment (Mutezo, 2013). Therefore during the last decade the biochar application as soil amendment has been a matter for a great number of investigations. For the ecological viewpoint the trend of decreasing of soil organic matter in European agricultural land is a major problem. Society is faced with the task to find possibilities to stabilize or increase soil organic matter content in soil and quality. The availability of different functional groups (e.g. carboxylic, phenolic, acidic, alcoholic, amine, amide) allows soil organic matter to buffer over a wide range of soil pH values (Krull et al. 2004). Therefore the loss of soil organic matter also reduces cation exchange capacity resulting in lower nutrient retention (Kimetu et al. 2008). Biochar can retain elements in soil directly through the negative charge that develops on its surfaces, and this negative charge can buffer acidity in the soil. There are lack of investigations about the effect of biochar to soil pH buffering properties, The aim of our investigation was to investigate the changes in soil pH buffer capacity in a result of addition of carbonizated material to temperate region soils. In the experiment different kind of softwood biochars, activated carbon and different soil types with various organic matter and pH were used. The study soils were Albeluvisols, Leptosols, Cambisols, Regosols and Histosols . In the experiment the series of the soil: biochar mixtures with the biochar content 0 to 100% were used. The times of equiliberation between solid and liquid phase were from 1 to 168 hours. The suspension of soil: biochar mixtures was titrated with HCl solution. The titration curves were established and pH buffer capacities were calculated for the pH interval from 3.0 to 10.0. The results demonstrate the dependence of pH buffer capacity from soil type, organic matter and type of added carbonizated material. Our study showed that the biochar content has significant role in total pH buffer capacity in soil:biochar system . References. Kimetu, J.M., Lehmann, J., Ngoze, S.O., Mugendi, D.N., Kinyangi, J., Riha, S.J., Verchot, L., Recha, J.W., Pell, A.N. 2008. Reversibility of Soil Productivity Decline with Organic Matter of Differing Quality Along a Degradation Gradient. Ecosystems, 11, 726-739. Krull, E. S., Skjemstad, J.O., Baldock, J.A. 2004 'Functions of Soil Organic Matter and the Effect on Soil Properties'. GRDC report. Project CSO 00029. Mutezo, W.T., 2013. Early crop growth and yield responses of maize (Zea mays) to biochar applied on soil. International Working Paper Series, 13/03, 50 pp.

  1. Post-harvest Riparian Buffer Response: Implications for Wood Recruitment Modeling and Buffer Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liquori, Michael K.

    2006-02-01

    Despite the importance of riparian buffers in providing aquatic functions to forested streams, few studies have sought to capture key differences in ecological and geomorphic processes between buffered sites and forested conditions. This study examines post-harvest buffer conditions from 20 randomly selected harvest sites within a managed tree farm in the Cascade Mountains of western Washington. Post-harvest wind derived treefall rates in buffers up to three years post-harvest averaged 268 trees/km/year, 26 times greater than competition-induced mortality rate estimates. Treefall rates and stem breakage were strongly tied to tree species and relatively unaffected by stream direction. Observed treefall direction is strongly biased toward the channel, irrespective of channel or buffer orientation. Fall direction bias can deliver significantly more wood recruitment relative to randomly directed treefall, suggesting that models that utilize the random fall assumption will significantly underpredict recruitment. A simple estimate of post-harvest wood recruitment from buffers can be obtained from species specific treefall and breakage rates, combined with bias corrected recruitment probability as a function of source distance from the channel. Post-harvest wind effects may reduce the standing density of trees enough to significantly reduce or eliminate competition mortality and thus indirectly alter bank erosion rates, resulting in substantially different wood recruitment dynamics from buffers as compared to unmanaged forests.

  2. Chemically deposited La2Zr2O7 buffer layers for YBCO-coated conductors: film growth and microstructure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Molina; K. Knoth; S. Engel; B. Holzapfel; O. Eibl

    2006-01-01

    An adequate buffer layer architecture is of great importance for YBa2Cu3O7-delta (YBCO)-coated conductor fabrication. We present a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of La2Zr2O7 (LZO) buffer layers on biaxially textured Ni-5 at.%W substrates for YBCO-coated conductors prepared by chemical solution deposition (CSD). The LZO thin films were heat-treated at 900 and 1050 °C respectively. Electron diffraction patterns, and bright and

  3. Metastable Equilibrium Solubility Behavior of Carbonated Apatites in the Presence of Solution Fluoride.

    PubMed

    Zhuang; Baig; Fox; Wang; Colby; Chhettry; Higuchi

    2000-02-01

    The aims of the present investigation were to assess the applicability of the metastable equilibrium solubility (MES) concept for the carbonated apatites (CAPs) over a range of pH and a wide range of solution fluoride concentrations and to examine the hypothesis that, in the presence of solution fluoride, a surface complex with the stoichiometry of fluorapatite (FAP) governs the MES behavior. Two CAP samples were prepared by precipitation from reaction media containing calcium nitrate (Ca(NO(3))(2).4H(2)O) and sodium phosphate (NaH(2)PO(4).H(2)O) at two different levels of sodium bicarbonate. The MES distributions of the two CAP preparations were determined by equilibrating approximately 10 mg of CAP powder in 2 L of 0.1 M acetate buffers (ionic strength=0.50 M) at pH 4.5 and 5.5 and at various levels of calcium, phosphate, and fluoride. The fluoride concentrations ranged from 0.03 to 12 ppm. From the compositions of the equilibrating buffer solutions, ion activity products based upon the stoichiometries of hydroxyapatite (HAP) and FAP were calculated in an attempt to determine the correct function governing the dissolution of the CAP preparations. The results of this study demonstrated that both CAP preparations exhibit the MES distribution phenomenon in solution media of varying pH and fluoride concentrations. Furthermore, the experimental MES data obtained with both CAP preparations at the lower pH (4.5) and at higher solution fluoride levels (>/=0.1 ppm) were essentially superimposable when plotted against the ion activity product based upon the stoichiometry of FAP, suggesting that in the presence of solution fluoride the MES governing surface complex may be an entity possessing a stoichiometry approximated by that of FAP. When the HAP stoichiometry was assumed to represent the surface complex, good superposition of the data was not possible. Copyright 2000 Academic Press. PMID:10655129

  4. Stability of recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFPuv) in glucose solutions at different concentrations and pH values.

    PubMed

    Penna, Thereza Christina Vessoni; Ishii, Marina; Kunimura, Juliana Sayuri; Cholewa, Olivia

    2005-01-01

    The stability at room temperature (25 degrees C) of recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFPuv), expressed by Escherichia coli cells and isolated by three-phase partitioning extraction with hydrophobic interaction column, was studied. The GFPuv was diluted in buffered (each 10 mM: Tris-HCl, pH 8.0; phosphate, pH 6.0 and 7.0 and acetate, pH 5.0) and in unbuffered (water for injection [WFI]; pH 6.70 +/- 0.40) glucose solutions (from 1.5 to 50%). By assaying the loss of fluorescence intensity as a measure of denaturation, the stability of GFPuv in these solutions was evaluated relative to glucose concentration, pH, osmolarity, density, conductivity, and viscosity. The extent of protein denaturation (loss of fluorescence intensity) was expressed in decimal reduction time (D-value), the time required to reduce 90% of the initial fluorescence intensity of GFPuv. The D-value between 56 and 83 h of GFPuv at 1.5-15% glucose in WFI was equivalent to 20-30% glucose in a phosphate. The stability of GFPuv in 50% glucose was similar for all buffers studied and four times higher than in WFI. By the convenient measure of fluorescence intensity, GFPuv can be used as an indicator to report the extent of denaturation rates of other proteins in glucose solutions. PMID:15920259

  5. How tendons buffer energy dissipation by muscle

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Thomas J.; Konow, Nicolai

    2013-01-01

    To decelerate the body and limbs, muscles actively lengthen to dissipate energy. During rapid energy-dissipating events, tendons buffer the work done on muscle by temporarily storing elastic energy, then releasing this energy to do work on the muscle. This elastic mechanism may reduce the risk of muscle damage by reducing peak forces and lengthening rates of active muscle. PMID:23873133

  6. Buffer placement improves when topography is considered

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Best Management Practices (BMPs) protect streams by excluding cattle from streambanks and by filtering the run-off flowing from animal heavy use areas like feeding and watering stations. Conservation standards recommend placing buffers and filter strips downslope from heavy use areas, but do not exp...

  7. ABS: Adaptive Buffer Sizing for Heterogeneous Networks

    E-print Network

    Loguinov, Dmitri

    for the ongoing collaborative research and development efforts (e.g., GENI and FIND) in reinventing the Internet linked to various critical performance metrics, including packet loss rate, end-to-end delay buffer management. As a consequence, there has emerged in the research community a surge of renewed

  8. Negative feedback buffers effects of regulatory variants

    PubMed Central

    Bader, Daniel M; Wilkening, Stefan; Lin, Gen; Tekkedil, Manu M; Dietrich, Kim; Steinmetz, Lars M; Gagneur, Julien

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms conferring robustness against regulatory variants have been controversial. Previous studies suggested widespread buffering of RNA misexpression on protein levels during translation. We do not find evidence that translational buffering is common. Instead, we find extensive buffering at the level of RNA expression, exerted through negative feedback regulation acting in trans, which reduces the effect of regulatory variants on gene expression. Our approach is based on a novel experimental design in which allelic differential expression in a yeast hybrid strain is compared to allelic differential expression in a pool of its spores. Allelic differential expression in the hybrid is due to cis-regulatory differences only. Instead, in the pool of spores allelic differential expression is not only due to cis-regulatory differences but also due to local trans effects that include negative feedback. We found that buffering through such local trans regulation is widespread, typically compensating for about 15% of cis-regulatory effects on individual genes. Negative feedback is stronger not only for essential genes, indicating its functional relevance, but also for genes with low to middle levels of expression, for which tight regulation matters most. We suggest that negative feedback is one mechanism of Waddington's canalization, facilitating the accumulation of genetic variants that might give selective advantage in different environments. PMID:25634765

  9. Buffer layers on biaxially textured metal substrates

    DOEpatents

    Shoup, Shara S. (Woodstock, GA); Paranthamam, Mariappan (Knoxville, TN); Beach, David B. (Knoxville, TN); Kroeger, Donald M. (Knoxville, TN); Goyal, Amit (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01

    A method is disclosed for forming a biaxially textured buffer layer on a biaxially oriented metal substrate by using a sol-gel coating technique followed by pyrolyzing/annealing in a reducing atmosphere. This method is advantageous for providing substrates for depositing electronically active materials thereon.

  10. Competitive Parallel Disk Prefetching and Buffer Management

    E-print Network

    Barve, Rakesh; Kallahalla, Mahesh; Varman, Peter J.; Vitter, Jeffrey Scott

    2000-01-01

    ) are placed on disk 1 (respectively 2, 3), and that the reference string is a27a16a33a34a27a36a35a37a27a29a38a39a27a29a40a41a30a36a33a42a32a14a33a43a27a36a44a19a30a14a35a19a32a31a35a37a27a36a45a19a30a46a38a47a32a8a38a39a27a49a48a50a30a31a40a51a32a8a40a19a32a31.../O architectures. We refer to these as the distributed buffer configuration and the shared buffer configuration respectively, and are illustrated in Figure 3. Distributed Buffer: In this configuration each disk has a local, private buffer of a25a82a81a51a24 blocks...

  11. DETERGENTS & BUFFERS 10394 Pacific Center Court

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    DETERGENTS & BUFFERS 10394 Pacific Center Court San Diego, CA 92121 (858) 450-9600 Customer Service: (800) 854-3417 Technical Service: (800) 628-8470 Fax: (800) 776-0999 CALBIOCHEM IONIC DETERGENTS BATC Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid, Sodium Salt 580549 521.7 -- -- -- 1 g 5 g TOPPS 615000 350.5 4.5 -- -- 5 g Detergent Cat. No

  12. Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: Resources for Virginia Landowners #12 Tech, 324 Cheatham Hall, Blacksburg, VA 24061; respectively Understanding the Science Behind Riparian* The riparian area is that area of land located immediately adjacent to streams, lakes, or other surface waters

  13. Negative feedback buffers effects of regulatory variants.

    PubMed

    Bader, Daniel M; Wilkening, Stefan; Lin, Gen; Tekkedil, Manu M; Dietrich, Kim; Steinmetz, Lars M; Gagneur, Julien

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms conferring robustness against regulatory variants have been controversial. Previous studies suggested widespread buffering of RNA misexpression on protein levels during translation. We do not find evidence that translational buffering is common. Instead, we find extensive buffering at the level of RNA expression, exerted through negative feedback regulation acting in trans, which reduces the effect of regulatory variants on gene expression. Our approach is based on a novel experimental design in which allelic differential expression in a yeast hybrid strain is compared to allelic differential expression in a pool of its spores. Allelic differential expression in the hybrid is due to cis-regulatory differences only. Instead, in the pool of spores allelic differential expression is not only due to cis-regulatory differences but also due to local trans effects that include negative feedback. We found that buffering through such local trans regulation is widespread, typically compensating for about 15% of cis-regulatory effects on individual genes. Negative feedback is stronger not only for essential genes, indicating its functional relevance, but also for genes with low to middle levels of expression, for which tight regulation matters most. We suggest that negative feedback is one mechanism of Waddington's canalization, facilitating the accumulation of genetic variants that might give selective advantage in different environments. PMID:25634765

  14. A Discovery Chemistry Experiment on Buffers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulevich, Suzanne E.; Herrick, Richard S.; Mills, Kenneth V.

    2014-01-01

    The Holy Cross Chemistry Department has designed and implemented an experiment on buffers as part of our Discovery Chemistry curriculum. The pedagogical philosophy of Discovery Chemistry is to make the laboratory the focal point of learning for students in their first two years of undergraduate instruction. We first pose questions in prelaboratory…

  15. Process for the preparation of vinyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Tustin, Gerald Charles (Kingsport, TN); Zoeller, Joseph Robert (Kingsport, TN); Depew, Leslie Sharon (Kingsport, TN)

    1998-01-01

    This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting within a contact zone a mixture of ketene and acetaldehyde with an acid catalyst at about one bar pressure and between about 85.degree. and 200.degree. C. and removing the reaction products from the contact zone.

  16. Process for the preparation of vinyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Tustin, G.C.; Zoeller, J.R.; Depew, L.S.

    1998-02-17

    This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting within a contact zone a mixture of ketene and acetaldehyde with an acid catalyst at about one bar pressure and between about 85 and 200 C and removing the reaction products from the contact zone.

  17. Fragrance material review on ?-methylbenzyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of ?-methylbenzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. ?-Methylbenzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for ?-methylbenzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, and repeated dose data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22406576

  18. Treatment of Pedophilia with Leuprolide Acetate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy Raymond; Bean Robinson; Chris Kraft; Barry Rittberg; Eli Coleman

    2002-01-01

    To date, the literature on the treatment of individuals who have committed sexual offenses has focused primarily on psychotherapeutic interventions and the use of antiandrogens. Recently case reports and small series supporting the efficacy of other psychiatric medication, such as serotonin reuptake inhibitors, have been published. Only a few publications have looked at the efficacy of leuprolide acetate, an LH-RH

  19. Corrosion of stainless steel during acetate production

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, J.S.; Lester, G.C. [Occidental Chemical Corp. Technology Center, Grand Island, NY (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Corrosion of types 304, 304L, 316, and 316L stainless steel (SS) during the esterification of acetic acid and alcohol or glycol ether was investigated. The catalyst for this reaction, sulfuric acid or para-toluene sulfonic acid (PTSA), was shown to cause more corrosion on reactor equipment than CH{sub 3}COOH under the process conditions commonly practiced in industry. The corrosive action of the catalyst occurred only in the presence of water. Thus, for the batch processes, corrosion occurred mostly during the initial stage of esterification, where water produced by the reaction created an aqueous environment. After water was distilled off, the corrosion rate declined to a negligible value. The corrosion inhibitor copper sulfate, often used in industrial acetate processes, was found to work well for a low-temperature process (< 95 C) such as in production of butyl acetate, but it accelerated corrosion in the glycol ether acetate processes where temperatures were > 108 C. Process conditions that imparted low corrosion rates were determined.

  20. Fragrance material review on piperonyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of piperonyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Piperonyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for piperonyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, toxicokinetics, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22445840

  1. Fragrance material review on benzyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Vitale, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of benzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Benzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for benzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, phototoxicity, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, reproductive toxicity, genotoxicity, or carcinogenicity data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Refer Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22387848

  2. Fragrance material review on 2-phenylpropyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-phenylpropyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-Phenylpropyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2-phenylpropyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22421639

  3. Heat Bonding of Irradiated Ethylene Vinyl Acetate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slack, D. H.

    1986-01-01

    Reliable method now available for joining parts of this difficult-tobond material. Heating fixture encircles ethylene vinyl acetate multiplesocket part, providing heat to it and to tubes inserted in it. Fixtures specially designed to match parts to be bonded. Tube-and-socket bonds made with this technique subjected to tensile tests. Bond strengths of 50 percent that of base material obtained consistently.

  4. Buffer Standards for the Physiological pH of the Zwitterionic Compound, ACES from 5 to 55°C

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Rabindra N.; Roy, Lakshmi N.; Fuge, Michael S.; Roy, Chandra N.; Himes, Curtis A.; Bryant, Paul A.; Robinson, Kyle T.; Kaufmann, Daniel A.; Grove, Colby H.; Ghosh, Toshi; Bwashi, Adonis

    2009-01-01

    The values of the second dissociation constant pK2 and related thermodynamic quantities of [N-(2-acetamido)-2-aminoethanesulfonic acid] (ACES) have already been reported over the temperature range 5 to 55°C including 37°C. This paper reports the paH values of four chloride ion free buffer solutions and eight buffer solutions with I = 0.16 mol·kg ?1, matching closely to that of the physiological sample. Conventional paH values for all twelve buffer solutions from 5 to 55°C, are reported. The residual liquid junction potential correction for two widely used temperatures, 25 and 37°C, has been made. The flowing-junction calomel cell method has been utilized to measure Ej, the liquid junction potential. The operational pH values for four buffer solutions at 25 and 37°C are calculated using the physiological phosphate buffer standard based on NBS/NIST convention. These solutions are recommended as pH standards in the pH range of 6.8 to 7.2 for physiological fluids. PMID:20161482

  5. Solutions : WtPercentToMolarity (4 Variations)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A common concentration unit used commercially is percent weight per volume (%W/V) which is the number of grams of solute in 100 mL of solution. A bottle of vinegar contains 5 %W/V acetic acid (CH 3 COOH). What is the molar concentration of acetic acid in the vinegar?

  6. Baroreflex buffering and susceptibility to vasoactive drugs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Jens; Tank, Jens; Shannon, John R.; Diedrich, Andre; Lipp, Axel; Schroder, Christoph; Arnold, Guy; Sharma, Arya M.; Biaggioni, Italo; Robertson, David; Luft, Friedrich C.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The overall effect of vasoactive drugs on blood pressure is determined by a combination of the direct effect on vascular tone and an indirect baroreflex-mediated effect, a baroreflex buffering of blood pressure. Differences in baroreflex function affect the responsiveness to vasoactive medications, particularly baroreflex buffering of blood pressure; however, the magnitude is not known. METHODS AND RESULTS: We characterized baroreflex function and responses to vasoactive drugs in patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance, patients with essential hypertension, patients with monogenic hypertension and brachydactyly, patients with multiple system atrophy, and control subjects. We used phenylephrine sensitivity during ganglionic blockade as a measure of baroreflex buffering. Phenylephrine (25 microg) increased systolic blood pressure 6+/-1.6 mm Hg in control subjects, 6+/-1.1 mm Hg in orthostatic intolerance patients, 18+/-3.9 mm Hg in patients with essential hypertension, 31+/-3.4 mm Hg in patients with monogenic hypertension, and 25+/-3.4 mm Hg in patients with multiple system atrophy. Similar differences in sensitivities between groups were observed with nitroprusside. The sensitivity to vasoactive drugs was highly correlated with baroreflex buffering function and to a lesser degree with baroreflex control of heart rate. In control subjects, sensitivities to nitroprusside and phenylephrine infusions were correlated with baroreflex heart rate control and sympathetic nerve traffic. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings are consistent with an important effect of baroreflex blood pressure buffering on the sensitivity to vasoactive drugs. They suggest that even moderate changes in baroreflex function may have a substantial effect on the sensitivity to vasoactive medications.

  7. Reactivity of the Quinone Methide of Butylated hydroxytoluene in Solution

    E-print Network

    Willcockson, Maren Gulsrud

    2011-08-31

    and the formation of a single product (OH-adduct); the reaction was subject to strong acid/base catalysis. The presence of acetate and TAPS buffers resulted in complicated kinetics suggesting the formation of an additional product in equilibrium with QM...

  8. Microbiological preservation of cucumbers for bulk storage using acetic acid and food preservatives.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Díaz, I M; McFeeters, R F

    2008-08-01

    Microbial growth did not occur when cucumbers were preserved without a thermal process by storage in solutions containing acetic acid, sodium benzoate, and calcium chloride to maintain tissue firmness. The concentrations of acetic acid and sodium benzoate required to ensure preservation were low enough so that stored cucumbers could be converted to the finished product without the need to wash out and discard excess acid or preservative. Since no thermal process was required, this method of preservation would be applicable for storing cucumbers in bulk containers. Acid tolerant pathogens died off in less than 24 h with the pH, acetic acid, and sodium benzoate concentrations required to assure the microbial stability of cucumbers stored at 30 degrees C. Potassium sorbate as a preservative in this application was not effective. Yeast growth was observed when sulfite was used as a preservative. PMID:19241560

  9. Acetic Acid Mediated Synthesis of Phosphonate-Substituted Titanium Oxo Clusters

    PubMed Central

    Czakler, Matthias; Artner, Christine; Schubert, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    New phosphonate/acetate-substituted titanium oxo/alkoxo clusters were prepared from Ti(OiPr)4 and bis(trimethylsilyl) phosphonates in the presence of acetic acid, which served to generate water in situ through ester formation. The process led to clusters with a higher degree of condensation than in previously known phosphonate-substituted titanium oxo clusters. The clusters [Ti6O4(OiPr)10(OAc)2(O3PR)2] (OAc = acetate) were obtained for a large variety of functional and non-functional groups R under a range of reaction conditions. This cluster type, which is also retained in solution, therefore appears to be very robust. Two other clusters, [Ti5O(OiPr)11(OAc)(O3PCH2CH2CH2Br)3] and [Ti5O3(OiPr)6(OAc)4(O3P-xylyl)2], were only isolated in special cases.

  10. Buffer layers on rolled nickel or copper as superconductor substrates

    DOEpatents

    Paranthaman, Mariappan (Knoxville, TN); Lee, Dominic F. (Knoxville, TN); Kroeger, Donald M. (Knoxville, TN); Goyal, Amit (Knoxville, TN)

    2000-01-01

    Buffer layer architectures are epitaxially deposited on biaxially-textured rolled substrates of nickel and/or copper and their alloys for high current conductors, and more particularly buffer layer architectures such as Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Ni, YSZ/Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Ni, Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Ni, Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Ni, Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /CeO.sub.2 /Ni, RE.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Ni (RE=Rare Earth), and Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /YSZ/CeO.sub.2 /Ni, Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Cu, YSZ/Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Cu, Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Cu, Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Cu, Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /CeO.sub.2 /Cu, RE.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Cu, and Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /YSZ/CeO.sub.2 /Cu. Deposition methods include physical vapor deposition techniques which include electron-beam evaporation, rf magnetron sputtering, pulsed laser deposition, thermal evaporation, and solution precursor approach, which includes chemical vapor deposition, combustion CVD, metal-organic decomposition, sol-gel processing, and plasma spray.

  11. The microwave spectrum of n-hexyl acetate and structural aspects of n-alkyl acetates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attig, T.; Kannengießer, R.; Kleiner, I.; Stahl, W.

    2014-04-01

    The microwave spectrum of n-hexyl acetate was recorded in the range of 10-13.5 GHz using the Aachen MB-FTMW spectrometer. The rotational constants of the most abundant conformer were determined to be A = 3.3591100(32) GHz, B = 0.39596553(53) GHz, and C = 0.36999804(31) GHz. Quantum chemical calculations for specific conformers were carried out at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level. The programs XIAM and BELGI were used to analyze the internal rotation of the acetyl methyl group. The observed conformer of n-hexyl acetate was compared to the lowest energy conformers of n-butyl acetate and n-pentyl acetate.

  12. Phenyl Acetate Preparation from Phenol and Acetic Acid: Reassessment of a Common Textbook Misconception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hocking, M. B.

    1980-01-01

    Reassesses a common textbook misconception that "...phenols cannot be esterified directly." Results of experiments are discussed and data tables provided of an effective method for the direct preparation of phenyl acetate. (CS)

  13. Acetic Acid Detection Threshold in Synthetic Wine Samples of a Portable Electronic Nose

    PubMed Central

    Macías, Miguel Macías; Manso, Antonio García; Orellana, Carlos Javier García; Velasco, Horacio Manuel González; Caballero, Ramón Gallardo; Chamizo, Juan Carlos Peguero

    2013-01-01

    Wine quality is related to its intrinsic visual, taste, or aroma characteristics and is reflected in the price paid for that wine. One of the most important wine faults is the excessive concentration of acetic acid which can cause a wine to take on vinegar aromas and reduce its varietal character. Thereby it is very important for the wine industry to have methods, like electronic noses, for real-time monitoring the excessive concentration of acetic acid in wines. However, aroma characterization of alcoholic beverages with sensor array electronic noses is a difficult challenge due to the masking effect of ethanol. In this work, in order to detect the presence of acetic acid in synthetic wine samples (aqueous ethanol solution at 10% v/v) we use a detection unit which consists of a commercial electronic nose and a HSS32 auto sampler, in combination with a neural network classifier (MLP). To find the characteristic vector representative of the sample that we want to classify, first we select the sensors, and the section of the sensors response curves, where the probability of detecting the presence of acetic acid will be higher, and then we apply Principal Component Analysis (PCA) such that each sensor response curve is represented by the coefficients of its first principal components. Results show that the PEN3 electronic nose is able to detect and discriminate wine samples doped with acetic acid in concentrations equal or greater than 2 g/L. PMID:23262483

  14. Shear and Extensional Rheology of Cellulose/Ionic Liquid Solutions

    E-print Network

    Haward, Simon J.

    In this study, we characterize the shear and extensional rheology of dilute to semidilute solutions of cellulose in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIAc). In steady shear flow, the semidilute solutions ...

  15. The Use of an Enzyme Electrode in the Analysis of Indole-3-acetic Acid Oxidase Activity in Avena

    PubMed Central

    McCreight, William H.; Perley, James E.

    1974-01-01

    A flexible analytical system which allows for the continuous potentiometric monitoring of the disappearance of an electrochemical species, ferrocyanide, by the peroxidase enzyme is described. The ability of peroxidase to mediate the oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid is followed by observing the competition of indole-3-acetic acid with ferrocyanide for the peroxidase enzyme. This is accomplished by examining potentiometrically the decrease in the rate of ferrocyanide oxidation with increasing indole-3-acetic acid concentration. Homogenates of Avena sativa coleoptiles are investigates for both peroxidase and indole-3-acetic acid oxidase activity. Observations are made with respect to H2O2 and ferrocyanide in the presence and absence of indole-3-acetic acid and naphthalene acetic acid and several interpretations of the reaction kinetics are postulated. Solutions previously assayed for indole-3-acetic acid oxidase activity, when dialyzed and reassayed for peroxidase activity, demonstrated an unimpaired ability to oxidize ferrocyanide peroxidatively, suggesting interpretations of the bisubstrate situation which differ slightly from interpretations given in the literature. PMID:16658775

  16. Enhanced dielectric properties from barium strontium titanate films with strontium titanate buffer layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, M. W.; Ngo, E.; Hubbard, C.; Hirsch, S. G.; Ivill, M.; Sarney, W. L.; Zhang, J.; Alpay, S. P.

    2013-10-01

    In order to enhance the permittivity and tunability of the dielectric component, a thin film dielectric composite consisting of a radio frequency sputtered SrTiO3 (STO) buffer layer and metalorganic solution deposited Mg-doped BaxSr1-xTiO3 (Mg-BST) thin film overgrowth was developed using affordable industry standard processes and materials. The effect of the STO buffer layer thickness on the dielectric response of the heterostructure was investigated. Our results demonstrate that the composite film heterostructure, evaluated in the metal-insulator-metal configuration Pt/STO/Mg-BST/Pt on sapphire substrate, with the thinner (9-17 nm) STO buffer layers possessed enhanced permittivity (?r ˜ 491) with respect to the thicker 41 nm buffer layer (?r ˜ 360) and that of a control Mg-BST film without a STO buffer layer (?r ˜ 380). Additionally, the composite film with the thinner buffer layers were shown to have low losses (tan ? ˜ 0.02), low leakage characteristics (J = 7.0 × 10-9 A/cm2), high breakdown voltage (VBR > 10 V), a large grain microstructure (˜125 nm), and smooth pin-hole free surfaces. The enhanced permittivity of the composite dielectric film resulted from three major factors: (i) the template-effect of the thin STO buffer layer on the thicker Mg-BST over-layer film to achieve a large grain microstructure, (ii) the low viscosity of the metallo-organic solution deposition (MOSD) solution, which ensured heterogeneous nucleation of the Mg-BST overgrowth film on the surface of the STO buffer layer, and (iii) minimization of the low permittivity grain boundary phase (TiO2-x phase). The dielectric response of the BST can be explained using a thermodynamic model taking into account interlayer electrostatic and electromechanical interactions. Additionally, Mg doping of the BST enabled low loss and low leakage characteristics of the heterostructure. The large permittivity, low loss, low leakage characteristics, and defect free surfaces of the composite dielectric heterostructure promote tunable device miniaturization and hold the potential to enable enhanced electromagnetic coupling in ferromagnetic/high permittivity dielectric heterostructures, which in turn would facilitate the realization of integrated charge mediated voltage controlled magnetic radio frequency/microwave communication devices.

  17. Expression of acetate permease-like (apl) genes in subsurface communities of Geobacter species under fluctuating acetate concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Elifantz, H.; N'Guessan, L.A.; Mouser, P.J.; Williams, K H.; Wilkins, M J.; Risso, C.; Holmes, D.E.; Long, P.E.; Lovley, D.R.

    2010-03-01

    The addition of acetate to uranium-contaminated aquifers in order to stimulate the growth and activity of Geobacter species that reduce uranium is a promising in situ bioremediation option. Optimizing this bioremediation strategy requires that sufficient acetate be added to promote Geobacter species growth. We hypothesized that under acetate-limiting conditions, subsurface Geobacter species would increase the expression of either putative acetate symporters genes (aplI and aplII). Acetate was added to a uranium-contaminated aquifer (Rifle, CO) in two continuous amendments separated by 5 days of groundwater flush to create changing acetate concentrations. While the expression of aplI in monitoring well D04 (high acetate) weakly correlated with the acetate concentration over time, the transcript levels for this gene were relatively constant in well D08 (low acetate). At the lowest acetate concentrations during the groundwater flush, the transcript levels of aplII were the highest. The expression of aplII decreased 2-10-fold upon acetate reintroduction. However, the overall instability of acetate concentrations throughout the experiment could not support a robust conclusion regarding the role of apl genes in response to acetate limitation under field conditions, in contrast to previous chemostat studies, suggesting that the function of a microbial community cannot be inferred based on lab experiments alone.

  18. Efficient buffer design algorithms for production line profit maximization

    E-print Network

    Shi, Chuan, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    A production line is a manufacturing system where machines are connected in series and separated by buffers. The inclusion of buffers increases the average production rate of the line by limiting the propagation of ...

  19. Detecting buffer overflows using testcase synthesis and code instrumentation

    E-print Network

    Zhivich, Michael A

    2005-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis aims to improve existing approaches to dynamic buffer overflow detection by developing a system that utilizes code instrumentation and adaptive test case synthesis to find buffer ...

  20. META-ANALYSIS OF NITROGEN REMOVAL IN RIPARIAN BUFFERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Riparian buffer zones, the vegetated region adjacent to streams and wetlands, are thought to be effective at intercepting and controlling nitrogen loads entering water bodies. Riparian buffer width may be positively related to nitrogen removal effectiveness by influencing nitrog...

  1. Dissolution control of Mg by cellulose acetate-polyelectrolyte membranes.

    PubMed

    Yliniemi, Kirsi; Wilson, Benjamin P; Singer, Ferdinand; Höhn, Sarah; Kontturi, Eero; Virtanen, Sannakaisa

    2014-12-24

    Cellulose acetate (CA)-based membranes are used for Mg dissolution control: the permeability of the membrane is adjusted by additions of the polyelectrolyte, poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA). Spin-coated films were characterized with FT-IR, and once exposed to an aqueous solution the film distends and starts acting as a membrane which controls the flow of ions and H2 gas. Electrochemical measurements (linear sweep voltammograms, open-circuit potential, and polarization) show that by altering the CA:PDMAEMA ratio the dissolution rate of Mg can be controlled. Such a control over Mg dissolution is crucial if Mg is to be considered as a viable, temporary biomedical implant material. Furthermore, the accumulation of corrosion products between the membrane and the sample diminishes the undesirable effects of high local pH and H2 formation which takes place during the corrosion process. PMID:25426707

  2. Simple buffers for 3D STORM microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Olivier, Nicolas; Keller, Debora; Rajan, Vinoth Sundar; Gönczy, Pierre; Manley, Suliana

    2013-01-01

    3D STORM is one of the leading methods for super-resolution imaging, with resolution down to 10 nm in the lateral direction, and 30–50 nm in the axial direction. However, there is one important requirement to perform this type of imaging: making dye molecules blink. This usually relies on the utilization of complex buffers, containing different chemicals and sensitive enzymatic systems, limiting the reproducibility of the method. We report here that the commercial mounting medium Vectashield can be used for STORM of Alexa-647, and yields images comparable or superior to those obtained with more complex buffers, especially for 3D imaging. We expect that this advance will promote the versatile utilization of 3D STORM by removing one of its entry barriers, as well as provide a more reproducible way to compare optical setups and data processing algorithms. PMID:23761850

  3. Buffer control technique for video coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvagno, Giancarlo; Ghirardi, C.; Mian, Gian A.; Rinaldo, R.

    1995-02-01

    In this work we develop an adaptive scheme for quantization of subband or transform coded frames in a typical video sequence coder. Using a simple statistical model for the subband or transform coefficients, we present a procedure to determine the optimum dead-zone quantizer for a given entropy of the quantizer output symbols. We find that, at low bit rates, the dead- zone quantizer offers better performance than the uniform quantizer. The model is used to develop an adaptive procedure to update the quantizer parameters on the basis of the state of a channel buffer with constant output rate and variable input rate. Experimental results show that the model can be effectively used in a practical scheme for buffer control.

  4. Spacecraft optical disk recorder memory buffer control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodson, Robert F.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the research completed under the NASA-ASEE summer faculty fellowship program. The project involves development of an Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) to be used as a Memory Buffer Controller (MBC) in the Spacecraft Optical Disk System (SODR). The SODR system has demanding capacity and data rate specifications requiring specialized electronics to meet processing demands. The system is being designed to support Gigabit transfer rates with Terabit storage capability. The complete SODR system is designed to exceed the capability of all existing mass storage systems today. The ASIC development for SODR consist of developing a 144 pin CMOS device to perform format conversion and data buffering. The final simulations of the MBC were completed during this summer's NASA-ASEE fellowship along with design preparations for fabrication to be performed by an ASIC manufacturer.

  5. Modified buffer layers for polymer photovoltaic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Chu-Jung; Lin, Yi-Kai; Chen, Fang-Chung; Chu, Chi-Wei

    2007-02-01

    The influence of anode buffer layers on the performance of polymer photovoltaic devices based on blends of poly(3-hexylthiophene) and [6,6]-phenyl-C-61-buytyric acid methyl ester has been investigated. The buffer layers consist of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT-PSS) doped with different concentrations of mannitol. Improved power conversion efficiency, up to 5.2%, has been observed by reducing the resistance of PEDOT:PSS after doping. One extrapolation method has been developed to exclude the resistance from the connection of the electrodes from the total device resistance. The results confirm that the device improvement is due to the reduction of series resistance of the PEDOT:PSS after the mannitol doping.

  6. S-Tree: a technique for buffered routing tree synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miloš Hrki?; John Lillis

    2002-01-01

    We present the S-Tree algorithm for synthesis of buffered interconnects. The approach incorporates a unique combination of real-world issues (handling of routing and buffer blockages, cost minimization, critical sink isolation, sink polarities), robustness and scalability. The algorithm is able to achieve the slack comparable to that of buffered P-Tree [7] using less resources (wire and buffers) in an order of

  7. Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fengnian Xia; Lidija Sekaric; Yurii Vlasov

    2007-01-01

    On-chip optical buffers based on waveguide delay lines might have significant implications for the development of optical interconnects in computer systems. Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) submicrometre photonic wire waveguides are used, because they can provide strong light confinement at the diffraction limit, allowing dramatic scaling of device size. Here we report on-chip optical delay lines based on such waveguides that consist of

  8. Establishing Buffers: Protocols and Toxicological Benchmarks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allan S. Felsot

    One proposed mechanism for protecting both bystanders as well as water bodies from direct exposure to sprays is the use of no-spray buffer zones. Depending on the non-target receptor requiring protection, no-spray zones can encompass an area adjacent to the last tree row or one or more unsprayed tree rows within a field or orchard. The interests of efficient farming

  9. Bisphosphonates and extrarenal acid buffering capacity.

    PubMed

    Freudiger, H; Bonjour, J P

    1989-01-01

    Both the intracellular compartment and bone mineral are supposed to play a role in acid-base balance by contributing to the extrarenal acid buffering capacity. Bisphosphonates could affect extrarenal acid buffering capacity by interfering with the formation and/or dissolution of bone mineral. In the present study, rats were pretreated with either 1-hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-bisphosphonate (HEBP, 10 mg/kg.day sc), with prevailing inhibitory action on bone mineral formation, or dichloromethylene bisphosphonate (Cl2MBP, 10 mg p/kg.day sc) with prevailing action on bone resorption, or NaCl injections (controls) for 7 days. In intact rats, blood acid-base variables were influenced by neither HEBP, nor Cl2MBP. Two hours after nephrectomy and before acute acid loading, HEBP-but not Cl2MBP-pretreated rats displayed a significant increase in both blood HCO3- and PCO2. After HCl infusion (2.5 mEq/kg), the relative decrement in blood HCO3- (difference in blood HCO3- before and after acid loading) was transiently more important in the two bisphosphonate pretreated groups than in controls. After a 24 hour fasting period, nephrectomized animals pretreated with Cl2MBP displayed significantly lower blood HCO3- and pH values than controls or HEBP-pretreated rats. These results suggest that bisphosphonates influence extrarenal buffering capacity according to their prevailing inhibitory action on either bone mineral formation and/or dissolution. These compounds could interfere with the release rate of bone proton buffers. However, in the presence of normal renal function, this effect does not disturb the blood acid-base equilibrium. PMID:2521807

  10. Numerical Modelling of EPS Seismic Buffers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Bathurst; S. Zarnani

    The paper briefly describes an experimental program of shaking table tests on reduced-scale models of seismic buffer systems used to mitigate earthquake-induced loads against rigid walls. The physical load-time responses from selected tests are compared to predictions using three different numerical approaches: (a) simple sliding wedge (block); (b) dynamic finite difference method (FLAC) using linear-elastic plastic Mohr- Coulomb model with

  11. Smooth Nb surfaces fabricated by buffered electropolishing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andy T. Wu; John Mammosser; Larry Phillips; Jean Delayen; Charles Reece; Amy Wilkerson; David Smith; Robert Ike

    2007-01-01

    It was demonstrated that smooth Nb surfaces could be obtained through buffered electropolishing (BEP) employing an electrolyte consisting of lactic, sulfuric, and hydrofluoric acids. Parameters that control the polishing process were optimized to achieve a smooth surface finish. The polishing rate of BEP was determined to be 0.646?m\\/min which was much higher than 0.381?m\\/min achieved by the conventional electropolishing (EP)

  12. Acetate concentrations and oxidation in salt marsh sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Acetate concentrations and rates of acetate oxidation and sulfate reduction were measured in S. alterniflora sediments in New Hampshire and Massachusetts. Pore water extracted from cores by squeezing or centrifugation contained in greater than 0.1 mM acetate and, in some instances, greater than 1.0 mM. Pore water sampled nondestructively contained much less acetate, often less than 0.01 mM. Acetate was associated with roots, and concentrations varied with changes in plant physiology. Acetate turnover was very low whether whole core or slurry incubations were used. Radiotracers injected directly into soils yielded rates of sulfate reduction and acetate oxidation not significantly different from core incubation techniques. Regardless of incubation method, acetate oxidation did not account for a substantial percentage of sulfate reduction. These results differ markedly from data for unvegetated coastal sediments where acetate levels are low, oxidation rate constants are high, and acetate oxication rates greatly exceed rates of sulfate reduction. The discrepancy between rates of acetate oxidation and sulfate reduction in these marsh soils may be due either to the utilization of substrates other than acetate by sulfate reducers or artifacts associated with measurements of organic utilization by rhizosphere bacteria. Care must be taken when interpreting data from salt marsh sediments since the release of material from roots during coring may affect the concentrations of certain compounds as well as influencing results obtained when sediment incubations are employed.

  13. Kinetics of Ethyl Acetate Synthesis Catalyzed by Acidic Resins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antunes, Bruno M.; Cardoso, Simao P.; Silva, Carlos M.; Portugal, Ines

    2011-01-01

    A low-cost experiment to carry out the second-order reversible reaction of acetic acid esterification with ethanol to produce ethyl acetate is presented to illustrate concepts of kinetics and reactor modeling. The reaction is performed in a batch reactor, and the acetic acid concentration is measured by acid-base titration versus time. The…

  14. Lithium acetate transformation of yeast Maitreya Dunham August 2004

    E-print Network

    Dunham, Maitreya

    Lithium acetate transformation of yeast Maitreya Dunham August 2004 Original protocol from Katja until the OD600 is around 0.7-0.8 (~7 hours). Spin down the cells. Resuspend in 5 ml lithium acetate mix. Spin. Resuspend in 0.5 ml lithium acetate mix. Transfer to an eppendorf tube. Incubate 60 minutes

  15. Influence of lead acetate on hypersensitivity. Experimental study.

    PubMed

    Laschi-Loquerie, A; Descotes, J; Tachon, P; Evreux, J C

    1984-01-01

    Recent studies showed that lead acetate has an important immunotoxicity for the phagocytic activity as well as humoral and cell-mediated immunity. We studied the influence of lead acetate on immediate and delayed hypersensitivity. The lead acetate exerts an important action on hypersensitivity reactions whether on rat mast cells degranulation (immediate hypersensitivity) or on contact hypersensitivity. PMID:6470497

  16. NCI-Frederick PHL - Fixatives and Solutions

    Cancer.gov

    Services Price List Courier Services & Shipment Procedures Scheduling Contact Information Related Links Establishing an Account PHL Forms PHL Portal Fixatives and Solutions Routine fixatives: 10% Neutral Buffered Formalin (NBF) 37 - 40% Formaldehyde………………………………………1000mL distilled

  17. Polyphosphate buffering by biomass with different phosphorus contents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Willie F. Harper; Olange Anise; Eric Brown

    2006-01-01

    Polyphosphate buffering is a novel application of enhanced biological phosphorus (P) removal (EBPR) for P-deficient wastewaters with influent organic load variability. This study investigated the effect of biomass P content on polyphosphate buffering using a membrane bioreactor (MBR) and conventional bioreactor (CBR). Increasing the biomass P content increased polyphosphate buffering and the COD removal capacity, but at high P content

  18. Further Improvements in Competitive Guarantees for QoS Buffering

    E-print Network

    Atkinson, Katie

    . Buffer space is limited, and packet loss occurs when the buffer overflows. We describe a modification of Mathematics, MIT, Cambridge MA 02139. mahdian@theory.lcs.mit.edu Abstract. We study the behavior of algorithms for buffering packets weighted by different levels of Quality of Service (QoS) guarantees in a single queue

  19. A fast algorithm for context-aware buffer insertion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashok Jagannathan; Sung-Woo Hur; John Lillis

    2002-01-01

    We study the problem of performing buffer insertion in the context of a given layout. In a practical situation, there are restrictions on where buffers may be inserted; for instance, it may be possible to route wires over a preplaced macro cell, but may not be possible to insert buffers in that region. As a result, it is desirable to

  20. Meta-Analysis of Nitrogen Removal in Riparian Buffers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul M. Mayer; Steven K. Reynolds; Marshall D. McCutchen; Timothy J. Canfield

    2007-01-01

    Riparian buffers, the vegetated region adjacent to streams and wet- lands, are thought to be effective at intercepting and reducing nitrogen loads entering water bodies. Riparian buffer width is thought to be positively related to nitrogen removal effectiveness by influencing nitrogen retention or removal. We surveyed the scientific literature containing data on riparian buffers and nitrogen concentration in streams and

  1. Use of GIS to Evaluate Riparian Buffers for Water Quality

    E-print Network

    Clark, Shirley E.

    1 1 Use of GIS to Evaluate Riparian Buffers for Water Quality Improvements on a Campus Stream has little to no riparian buffers ­ The several transportation corridors are located throughout riparian buffer along the stream would significantly improved water quality within the stream

  2. A Review of Effectiveness of Riparian Buffers in Agricultural Areas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There has been growing recognition of the importance of riparian buffers between agricultural fields and waterbodies in recent years. Riparian buffers play an important role in mitigating the impacts of land use activities on water quality and aquatic ecosystems. Riparian buffer systems have been st...

  3. Buffer block planning for interconnect-driven floorplanning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason Cong; Tianming Kong; David Zhigang Pan

    1999-01-01

    This paper studies buffer block planning for interconnect-driven floorplanning in deep submicron designs. We first introduce the concept of feasible region (FR) for buffer insertion, and derive closed-form formula for FR. We observe that the FR for a buffer is quite large in general even under fairly tight delay constraint. Therefore, FR gives us a lot of flexibility to plan

  4. Assessment Guidelines for Managing Cellulose Acetate Collections

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2001-01-01

    Photographic negatives, motion picture film, microfilm, and sound recordings produced from the 1930s into the 1950s often used cellulose acetate as the transparent plastic carrier. As anyone who has ever come in contact with it well knows, its strong vinegar-like scent is hard to miss. Unfortunately, over time, the material is prone to deterioration, which eventually renders it unusable. In an effort to help guide libraries in Australia with this problem, the National Library of Australia has created this document. It provides assistance in identification of cellulose acetate (vs. other similar materials) and establishes criteria to assess condition, cultural importance, and use within the library or storage context. The document guides readers through the first step in a strategy for preserving these collections.

  5. Modification of gel architecture and TBE/TAE buffer composition to minimize heating during agarose gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Brian A; Araki, Naoko; Lilley, Jennifer L; Guerrero, Gilberto; Lewis, L Kevin

    2014-06-01

    Agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA and RNA is routinely performed using buffers containing either Tris, acetate, and EDTA (TAE) or Tris, borate, and EDTA (TBE). Gels are run at a low, constant voltage (?10 V/cm) to minimize current and asymmetric heating effects, which can induce band artifacts and poor resolution. In this study, alterations of gel structure and conductive media composition were analyzed to identify factors causing higher electrical currents during horizontal slab gel electrophoresis. Current was reduced when thinner gels and smaller chamber buffer volumes were used, but was not influenced by agarose concentration or the presence of ethidium bromide. Current was strongly dependent on the amount and type of EDTA used and on the concentrations of the major acid-base components of each buffer. Interestingly, resolution and the mobilities of circular versus linear plasmid DNAs were also affected by the chemical form and amount of EDTA. With appropriate modifications to gel structure and buffer constituents, electrophoresis could be performed at high voltages (20-25 V/cm), reducing run times by up to 3-fold. The most striking improvements were observed with small DNAs and RNAs (10-100 bp): high voltages and short run times produced sharper bands and higher resolution. PMID:24637158

  6. Leuprolide Acetate Suppresses Pedophilic Urges and Arousability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Justine M. Schober; Phyllis J. Kuhn; Paul G. Kovacs; James H. Earle; Peter M. Byrne; Ruth A. Fries

    2005-01-01

    Cognitive–behavioral psychotherapy was compared with cognitive–behavioral psychotherapy augmented by leuprolide acetate (LA)\\u000a for suppression of pedophilic behavior. Five male pedophiles (M age, 50 years; range, 36–58) were administered LA by Depo injection for 12 months, followed by saline placebo for 12 months.\\u000a Testosterone levels, sexual interest preference by visual reaction time (Abel Assessment), penile tumescence (Monarch Penile\\u000a Plethysmography, PPG), as

  7. Interconversion studies of betamethasone acetate polymorphs.

    PubMed

    Ke, Xue; Ping, QiNeng; Shi, Hua

    2005-09-01

    The polymorph interconversions of Betamethasone Acetate (BA) were studied under various pharmaceutical conditions, such as grinding, heating and suspending in water, based on differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and X-ray powder diffraction. There existed enantiotropic relationships between the three polymorphs of BA, which were named form II, Ialpha, and Ibeta work, respectively. It was concluded that form II was the most stable form when suspended in water. PMID:16221616

  8. Corrosion of Stainless Steel During Acetate Production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Qi; G. C. Lester

    1996-01-01

    Corrosion of types 304, 304L, 316, and 316L stainless steel (SS) during the esterification of acetic acid and alcohol or glycol ether was investigated. The catalyst for this reaction, sulfuric acid or para-toluene sulfonic acid (PTSA), was shown to cause more corrosion on reactor equipment than CHâCOOH under the process conditions commonly practiced in industry. The corrosive action of the

  9. Ulipristal acetate: the newest emergency contraceptive.

    PubMed

    Wilton, Jeanne M

    2012-01-01

    More than 50 percent of pregnancies in the United States are unplanned. Emergency contraception has been shown to possibly reduce the risk of pregnancy by as much as 75 percent. Ulipristal acetate is a selective progesterone receptor modulator that was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for emergency contraceptive use in August 2010. This article reviews information on its mechanism of action, efficacy, safety and implications for women's health nurses. PMID:22900810

  10. Ultrasound-assisted dyeing of cellulose acetate.

    PubMed

    Udrescu, C; Ferrero, F; Periolatto, M

    2014-07-01

    The possibility of reducing the use of auxiliaries in conventional cellulose acetate dyeing with Disperse Red 50 using ultrasound technique was studied as an alternative to the standard procedure. Dyeing of cellulose acetate yarn was carried out by using either mechanical agitation alone, with and without auxiliaries, or coupling mechanical and ultrasound agitation in the bath where the temperature range was maintained between 60 and 80 °C. The best results of dyeing kinetics were obtained with ultrasound coupled with mechanical agitation without auxiliaries (90% of bath exhaustion value at 80 °C). Hence the corresponding half dyeing times, absorption rate constants according to Cegarra-Puente modified equation and ultrasound efficiency were calculated confirming the synergic effect of sonication on the dyeing kinetics. Moreover the apparent activation energies were also evaluated and the positive effect of ultrasound added to mechanical agitation was evidenced by the lower value (48 kJ/mol) in comparison with 112 and 169 kJ/mol for mechanical stirring alone with auxiliaries and without, respectively. Finally, the fastness tests gave good values for samples dyed with ultrasound technique even without auxiliaries. Moreover color measurements on dyed yarns showed that the color yield obtained by ultrasound-assisted dyeing at 80 °C of cellulose acetate without using additional chemicals into the dye bath reached the same value yielded by mechanical agitation, but with remarkably shorter time. PMID:24457001

  11. Whisker growth by means of cellulose acetate membranes: NaCl and KCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yellin, N.; Zelingher, N.; Ben-Dor, L.

    1985-04-01

    NaCl and KCl whiskers were successfully grown from non-concentrated solutions by means of cellulose acetate (CA) membranes. Substantial growth was obtained within several hours on the part of the membrane not submerged in the solution. It is possible to do this with the mother liquor concentration barely affected by the whisker growth. The growth rate is controlled by water evaporation from the membrane. The driving force of the process in the case of NaCl and KCl solutions is the evaporation of water and the membrane affinity for it.

  12. Studies of Solution Deposited Cerium Oxide Thin Films on Textured Ni-Alloy Substractes for YBCO Superconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Erin L [ORNL; Bhuiyan, Md S [ORNL; Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    Cerium oxide (CeO2) buffer layers play an important role for the development of YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) based superconducting tapes using the rolling assisted biaxially textured substrates (RABiTS) approach. The chemical solution deposition (CSD) approach has been used to grow epitaxial CeO2 films on textured Ni-3 a 4% W alloy substrates with various starting precursors of ceria. Precursors such as cerium acetate, cerium acetylacetonate, cerium 2-ethylhexanoate, cerium nitrate, and cerium trifluoroacetate were prepared in suitable solvents. The optimum growth conditions for these cerium precursors were Ar-4% H2 gas processing atmosphere, solution concentration levels of 0.2-0.5 M, a dwell time of 15 min, and a process temperature range of 1050-1150 degrees C. X-ray diffraction, AFM, SEM, and optical microscopy were used to characterize the CeO2 films. Highly textured CeO2 layers were obtained on Ni-W substrates with both cerium acetate and cerium acetylacetonate as starting precursors. YBCO films with a Jc of 1.5 MA/cm2 were obtained on cerium acetylacetonate-based CeO2 films with sputtered YSZ and CeO2 cap layers.

  13. Simultaneous determination of norepinephrine, serotonin, and 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid in microdialysis samples from rat brain by microbore column liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection following derivatization with benzylamine.

    PubMed

    Yoshitake, Takashi; Fujino, Kaoru; Kehr, Jan; Ishida, Junichi; Nohta, Hitoshi; Yamaguchi, Masatoshi

    2003-01-15

    A microbore column liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of norepinephrine (NE), serotonin (5-HT), and 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5HIAA) in microdialysis samples from rat brain is described. The method is based on precolumn derivatization of NE, 5HT, and 5HIAA with benzylamine in the presence of potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) resulting in the corresponding highly fluorescent and stable benzoxazole derivatives. A 15-microl sample was mixed with 15 microl derivatization reagent solution containing 0.3M 3-cyclohexylaminopropanesulfonic acid buffer (pH 12.0), 0.5M benzylamine, 10mM potassium hexacyanoferrate(III), and methanol (1/1/1/12, v/v/v/v). The derivatization was carried out at 50 degrees C for 20 min. The benzylamine derivatives of NE, 5HT, and 5HIAA were separated on a reversed-phase column (100 x 1.0mm i.d., packed with C18 silica, 5 microm) within 30 min. The mobile phase consisted of 15 mM acetate buffer (pH 5.0) and acetonitrile (31%, v/v); the flow rate was 50 microl/min. The detection limits (signal-to-noise ratio of 3) for NE, 5HT, and 5HIAA in the injection volume of 20 microl were 90, 210, and 260 amol, respectively. Microdialysis samples were collected in 7.5-min intervals from the probes implanted in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of awake rats. The basal levels of NE, 5HT, and 5HIAA in the dialysates from the hippocampus were 4.2+/-0.5, 4.9+/-0.6, and 934.1 +/- 63.4 fmol/20 microl, and those from the prefrontal cortex were 6.0+/-1.2,5.51.3, and 669.1 +/- 96.0 fmol/20 microl (mean +/- SE, n=25), respectively. The NE and 5HT levels were altered by perfusion of high-potassium or low-calcium solution and following antidepressant drugs imipramine and desipramine. It is concluded that the new fluorescence derivatization method in combination with microbore column liquid chromatography allows the simultaneous determination of NE, 5HT, and 5HIAA in the microdialysis samples at higher sensitivity, providing easier maintenance in routine use than that achieved by high-performance liquid chromatographic methods with electrochemical detection. PMID:12531196

  14. Concentrated Flow through a Riparian Buffer: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, C. B.; Nogues, J. P.; Hutchinson, S. L.

    2005-05-01

    Riparian buffers are often used for in-situ treatment of agricultural runoff. Although the benefits of riparian buffers are well recongized, concentration of flow can restrict the efficiency of contaminant removal. This study evaluates flow concentration at a agricultural site near Manhattan, Kansas. Manual and automated GIS analyses of a high-resolution digital elevation model were used to determine the fraction of runoff contributing to each buffer segment. Subsequent simulation of the system in WEPP (Water Erosion and Prediction Project) demonstrates the extent to which flow concentration affects buffer efficiency. Recommendations are presented for the design of adaptive-width buffers.

  15. Analysis of a hybrid, unidirectional buffer strip laminate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dharani, L. R.; Goree, J. G.

    1983-01-01

    A method of analysis capable of predicting accurately the fracture behavior of a unidirectional composite laminate containing symmetrically placed buffer strips is presented. As an example, for a damaged graphite/epoxy laminate, the results demonstrate the manner in which to select the most efficient combination of buffer strip properties necessary to inhibit crack growth. Ultimate failure of the laminate after crack arrest can occur under increasing load either by continued crack extension through the buffer strips or the crack can jump the buffer strips. For some typical hybrid materials it is found that a buffer strip spacing-to-width ratio of about four to one is the most efficient.

  16. Analysis of a hybrid-undirectional buffer strip laminate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dharani, L. R.; Goree, J. G.

    1983-01-01

    A method of analysis capable of predicting accurately the fracture behavior of a unidirectional composite laminate containing symmetrically placed buffer strips is presented. As an example, for a damaged graphite/epoxy laminate, the results demonstrate the manner in which to select the most efficient combination of buffer strip properties necessary to inhibit crack growth. Ultimate failure of the laminate after the arrest can occur under increasing load either by continued crack extension through the buffer strips or the crack can jump the buffer strips. For some typical hybrid materials it is found that a buffer strip spacing to width ratio of about four to one is the most efficient.

  17. Overview on mechanisms of acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Fusheng

    2015-02-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are a group of gram-negative or gram-variable bacteria which possess an obligate aerobic property with oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor, meanwhile transform ethanol and sugar to corresponding aldehydes, ketones and organic acids. Since the first genus Acetobacter of AAB was established in 1898, 16 AAB genera have been recorded so far. As the main producer of a world-wide condiment, vinegar, AAB have evolved an elegant adaptive system that enables them to survive and produce a high concentration of acetic acid. Some researches and reviews focused on mechanisms of acid resistance in enteric bacteria and made the mechanisms thoroughly understood, while a few investigations did in AAB. As the related technologies with proteome, transcriptome and genome were rapidly developed and applied to AAB research, some plausible mechanisms conferring acetic acid resistance in some AAB strains have been published. In this review, the related mechanisms of AAB against acetic acid with acetic acid assimilation, transportation systems, cell morphology and membrane compositions, adaptation response, and fermentation conditions will be described. Finally, a framework for future research for anti-acid AAB will be provided. PMID:25575804

  18. Buffer for a gamma-insensitive optical sensor with gas and a buffer assembly

    DOEpatents

    Kruger, H.W.

    1994-05-10

    A buffer assembly is disclosed for a gamma-insensitive gas avalanche focal plane array operating in the ultra-violet/visible/infrared energy wavelengths and using a photocathode and an avalanche gas located in a gap between an anode and the photocathode. The buffer assembly functions to eliminate chemical compatibility between the gas composition and the materials of the photocathode. The buffer assembly in the described embodiment is composed of two sections, a first section constructed of glass honeycomb under vacuum and a second section defining a thin barrier film or membrane constructed, for example, of Al and Be, which is attached to and supported by the honeycomb. The honeycomb section, in turn, is supported by and adjacent to the photocathode. 7 figures.

  19. The impact of acetate metabolism on yeast fermentative performance and wine quality: reduction of volatile acidity of grape musts and wines.

    PubMed

    Vilela-Moura, Alice; Schuller, Dorit; Mendes-Faia, Arlete; Silva, Rui D; Chaves, Susana R; Sousa, Maria João; Côrte-Real, Manuela

    2011-01-01

    Acetic acid is the main component of the volatile acidity of grape musts and wines. It can be formed as a by-product of alcoholic fermentation or as a product of the metabolism of acetic and lactic acid bacteria, which can metabolize residual sugars to increase volatile acidity. Acetic acid has a negative impact on yeast fermentative performance and affects the quality of certain types of wine when present above a given concentration. In this mini-review, we present an overview of fermentation conditions and grape-must composition favoring acetic acid formation, as well the metabolic pathways leading to its formation and degradation by yeast. The negative effect of acetic acid on the fermentative performance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae will also be covered, including its role as a physiological inducer of apoptosis. Finally, currently available wine deacidification processes and new proposed solutions based on zymological deacidification by select S. cerevisiae strains will be discussed. PMID:20931186

  20. Buffer layers and articles for electronic devices

    DOEpatents

    Paranthaman, Mariappan P.; Aytug, Tolga; Christen, David K.; Feenstra, Roeland; Goyal, Amit

    2004-07-20

    Materials for depositing buffer layers on biaxially textured and untextured metallic and metal oxide substrates for use in the manufacture of superconducting and other electronic articles comprise RMnO.sub.3, R.sub.1-x A.sub.x MnO.sub.3, and combinations thereof; wherein R includes an element selected from the group consisting of La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, and Y, and A includes an element selected from the group consisting of Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, and Ra.

  1. Spacecraft optical disk recorder memory buffer control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodson, Robert F.

    1992-01-01

    The goal of this project is to develop an Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) for use in the control electronics of the Spacecraft Optical Disk Recorder (SODR). Specifically, this project is to design an extendable memory buffer controller ASIC for rate matching between a system Input/Output port and the SODR's device interface. The aforementioned goal can be partitioned into the following sub-goals: (1) completion of ASIC design and simulation (on-going via ASEE fellowship); (2) ASIC Fabrication (at ASIC manufacturer); and (3) ASIC Testing (NASA/LaRC, Christopher Newport University).

  2. Preparation of Interconnected Porous Chitosan Scaffolds by Sodium Acetate Particulate Leaching

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin Ik Lim; Yong-Keun Lee; Jeon-Soo Shin; Kook-Jin Lim

    2011-01-01

    For tissue-engineering applications, a 3D porous chitosan scaffold was simply prepared from a mixture of acidic chitosan solution and sodium acetate particles as the porogen by a salt-leaching method. Differences in the porous structure in terms of pore morphology and interconnectivity between the salt-leached chitosan scaffold and phase-separated scaffold as the control were examined by using scanning electron microscopy, protein

  3. The gamma-irradiation of aqueous acetic acid-clay suspensions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alicia Negrón-Mendoza; Rafael Navarro-González

    1990-01-01

    gamma-radiolysis of 0.8 mol dm-3 aqueous, oxygen-free acetic acid solutions was investigated in the presence or absence of Na-montmorillonite (1 3 g per 10 cm-3). The systems were irradiated at their natural pH (3.5), and 25 °C in a dose range from 0.01 to 500 kGy. H2, CH4, CO, CO2, and a variety of polycarboxylic acids were formed in all

  4. Acetate supplementation attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Reisenauer, Chris J.; Bhatt, Dhaval P.; Mitteness, Dane J.; Slanczka, Evan R.; Gienger, Heidi M.; Watt, John A.; Rosenberger, Thad A.

    2011-01-01

    Glyceryl triacetate (GTA), a compound effective at increasing circulating and tissue levels of acetate was used to treat rats subjected to a continual 28 day intra-ventricular infusion of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This model produces a neuroinflammatory injury characterized by global neuroglial activation and a decrease in choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity in the basal forebrain. During the LPS infusion, rats were given a daily treatment of either water or GTA at a dose of 6g/kg by oral gavage. In parallel experiments free-CoA and acetyl-CoA levels were measured in microwave fixed brains and flash frozen heart, liver, kidney and muscle following a single oral dose of GTA. We found that a single oral dose of GTA significantly increased plasma acetate levels by 15 min and remained elevated for up to 4 hr. At 30 min the acetyl-CoA levels in microwave-fixed brain and flash frozen heart and liver were increased at least 2.2-fold. The concentrations of brain acetyl-CoA was significantly increased between 30 and 45 min following treatment and remained elevated for up to 4 hr. The concentration of free-CoA in brain was significantly decreased compared to controls at 240 min. Immunohistochemical and morphological analysis demonstrated that a daily treatment with GTA significantly reduced the percentage of reactive GFAP-positive astrocytes and activated CD11b-positive microglia by 40–50% in rats subjected to LPS-induced neuroinflammation. Further, in rats subjected to neuroinflammation, GTA significantly increased the number of ChAT-positive cells by 40% in the basal forebrain compared to untreated controls. These data suggest that acetate supplementation increases intermediary short chain acetyl-CoA metabolism and that treatment is potentially anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective with regards to attenuating neuroglial activation and increasing ChAT immunoreactivity in this model. PMID:21272004

  5. Improved textured La 2Zr 2O 7 buffer on La 3TaO 7 seed for all-MOD Buffer/YBCO coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parans Paranthaman, M.; Bhuiyan, M. S.; Sathyamurthy, S.; Heatherly, L.; Cantoni, C.; Goyal, A.

    2008-09-01

    The overall purpose of this research is to develop a potentially low-cost, high throughput, high yield, manufacturing process for buffer deposition, and to gain a fundamental understanding of buffer layers required for an all metal-organic deposition (MOD) based chemical solution approach. This understanding is critical to the development of a reliable, robust, low-cost, long-length manufacturing process of 2G wires. The standard RABiTS architectures consists of a starting template of biaxially textured Ni-W (5 at.%) substrate with a seed layer of Y 2O 3, a barrier layer of YSZ, and a CeO 2 cap. In this three-layer architecture, all the buffers are deposited using reactive sputtering. We have recently demonstrated that the barrier properties and the performance of MOD La 2Zr 2O 7 (LZO) match that of sputtered YSZ layers. In this work, the texture of MOD LZO was also improved by inserting a sputtered Y 2O 3 seed layer on which LZO grows without any degradation of texture. Significant improvement in the texture of sputtered Y 2O 3 seeds on NiW substrates is usually observed which is then transferred to the LZO layer. A key challenge for an all-solution approach is to replace the sputtered seed layer with a possible MOD seed layer with improved texture and on which no degradation of LZO texture occurs. Very recently, we have grown MOD La 3TaO 7 (LTO) seeds directly on biaxially textured Ni-W (3 at.%) with improved texture. In this study, we report a systematic investigation of the growth MOD LZO barrier layer on MOD LTO seeds. Preliminary results show that it is possible to grow MOD LZO with improved texture on MOD LTO seeds. This approach could be potentially used for future all MOD buffer/YBCO coated conductors.

  6. Protein Denaturation during Freezing and Thawing in Phosphate Buffer Systems: Monomeric and Tetrameric ?-Galactosidase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katherine A. Pikal-Cleland; Na??r Rodr??guez-Hornedo; Gordon L. Amidon; John F. Carpenter

    2000-01-01

    During freezing in sodium and potassium phosphate (NaP and KP) buffer solutions, changes in pH may impact the stability of proteins. Since the degradation pathways for the model proteins, monomeric and tetrameric ?-galactosidase (?-gal), chosen for this study are governed by conformational changes (i.e., physical instability) as opposed to chemical transformations, we explored how the stresses of freezing and thawing

  7. Using single buffers and data reorganization to implement a multi-megasample fast Fourier transform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. D.

    1992-01-01

    Data ordering in large fast Fourier transforms (FFT's) is both conceptually and implementationally difficult. Discribed here is a method of visualizing data orderings as vectors of address bits, which enables the engineer to use more efficient data orderings and reduce double-buffer memory designs. Also detailed are the difficulties and algorithmic solutions involved in FFT lengths up to 4 megasamples (Msamples) and sample rates up to 80 MHz.

  8. ZnS/Zn(O,OH)S-based buffer layer deposition for solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Bhattacharya, Raghu N. (Littleton, CO)

    2009-11-03

    The invention provides CBD ZnS/Zn(O,OH)S and spray deposited ZnS/Zn(O,OH)S buffer layers prepared from a solution of zinc salt, thiourea and ammonium hydroxide dissolved in a non-aqueous/aqueous solvent mixture or in 100% non-aqueous solvent. Non-aqueous solvents useful in the invention include methanol, isopropanol and triethyl-amine. One-step deposition procedures are described for CIS, CIGS and other solar cell devices.

  9. Factors affecting coal solubilization by the bacterium Streptomyces setonii 75Vi2 and by alkaline buffers

    SciTech Connect

    Strandberg, G.W.; Lewis, S.N.

    1987-01-01

    Streptomyces setonii 75Vi2 produces an extracellular coal-solubilizing component(s) in the absence of coal. The heat stability, relatively low molecular weight, and insensitivity to proteases of the substance(s) responsible for coal solubilization indicate that the mechanism is nonenzymatic. This report describes factors affecting the production and activity of this substance(s) and the similarity in action to alkaline buffer solutions in solubilizing coal.

  10. Stable acetate production in extreme-thermophilic (70°C) mixed culture fermentation by selective enrichment of hydrogenotrophic methanogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fang; Zhang, Yan; Ding, Jing; Dai, Kun; van Loosdrecht, Mark C. M.; Zeng, Raymond J.

    2014-06-01

    The control of metabolite production is difficult in mixed culture fermentation. This is particularly related to hydrogen inhibition. In this work, hydrogenotrophic methanogens were selectively enriched to reduce the hydrogen partial pressure and to realize efficient acetate production in extreme-thermophilic (70°C) mixed culture fermentation. The continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) was stable operated during 100 days, in which acetate accounted for more than 90% of metabolites in liquid solutions. The yields of acetate, methane and biomass in CSTR were 1.5 +/- 0.06, 1.0 +/- 0.13 and 0.4 +/- 0.05 mol/mol glucose, respectively, close to the theoretical expected values. The CSTR effluent was stable and no further conversion occurred when incubated for 14 days in a batch reactor. In fed-batch experiments, acetate could be produced up to 34.4 g/L, significantly higher than observed in common hydrogen producing fermentations. Acetate also accounted for more than 90% of soluble products formed in these fed-batch fermentations. The microbial community analysis revealed hydrogenotrophic methanogens (mainly Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus and Methanobacterium thermoaggregans) as 98% of Archaea, confirming that high temperature will select hydrogenotrophic methanogens over aceticlastic methanogens effectively. This work demonstrated a potential application to effectively produce acetate as a value chemical and methane as an energy gas together via mixed culture fermentation.

  11. Conversion of an electrospun nanofibrous cellulose acetate mat from a super-hydrophilic to super-hydrophobic surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Bin; Li, Chunrong; Hotta, Yoshio; Kim, Jinho; Kuwaki, Oriha; Shiratori, Seimei

    2006-09-01

    We report a new approach to convert an electrospun nanofibrous cellulose acetate mat surface from super-hydrophilic to super-hydrophobic. Super-hydrophilic cellulose acetate nanofibrous mats can be obtained by electrospinning hydrophilic cellulose acetate. The surface properties of the fibrous mats were modified from super-hydrophilic to super-hydrophobic with a simple sol-gel coating of decyltrimethoxysilane (DTMS) and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS). The resultant samples were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), water contact angle, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and UV-visible measurements. The results of FE-SEM and XPS showed that the sol-gel (I) films were formed on the rough fibrous mats only after immersion in sol-gel. After the sol-gel (I) coating, the cellulose acetate fibrous mats formed in both 8 and 10 wt% cellulose acetate solutions showed the super-hydrophobic surface property. Additionally, the average sol-gel film thickness coated on 10 wt% cellulose acetate fibrous mats was calculated to be 80 nm. The super-hydrophobicity of fibrous mats was attributed to the combined effects of the high surface roughness of the electrospun nanofibrous mats and the hydrophobic DTMS sol-gel coating. Additionally, hydrophobic sol-gel nanofilms were found to be transparent according to UV-visible measurements.

  12. Stable acetate production in extreme-thermophilic (70°C) mixed culture fermentation by selective enrichment of hydrogenotrophic methanogens

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fang; Zhang, Yan; Ding, Jing; Dai, Kun; van Loosdrecht, Mark C. M.; Zeng, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    The control of metabolite production is difficult in mixed culture fermentation. This is particularly related to hydrogen inhibition. In this work, hydrogenotrophic methanogens were selectively enriched to reduce the hydrogen partial pressure and to realize efficient acetate production in extreme-thermophilic (70°C) mixed culture fermentation. The continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) was stable operated during 100 days, in which acetate accounted for more than 90% of metabolites in liquid solutions. The yields of acetate, methane and biomass in CSTR were 1.5 ± 0.06, 1.0 ± 0.13 and 0.4 ± 0.05?mol/mol glucose, respectively, close to the theoretical expected values. The CSTR effluent was stable and no further conversion occurred when incubated for 14 days in a batch reactor. In fed-batch experiments, acetate could be produced up to 34.4?g/L, significantly higher than observed in common hydrogen producing fermentations. Acetate also accounted for more than 90% of soluble products formed in these fed-batch fermentations. The microbial community analysis revealed hydrogenotrophic methanogens (mainly Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus and Methanobacterium thermoaggregans) as 98% of Archaea, confirming that high temperature will select hydrogenotrophic methanogens over aceticlastic methanogens effectively. This work demonstrated a potential application to effectively produce acetate as a value chemical and methane as an energy gas together via mixed culture fermentation. PMID:24920064

  13. Would acetate (or its derivatives) be the most reliable guide to life on terraqueous globes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Michael; Martin-Torres, Javier; Yung, Yuk; Kanik, Isik

    2010-05-01

    At bottom life hydrogenates carbon dioxide. But so does serpentinization-to methane-hence the problem of diagnosing its source (Mumma et al. 2009). However, this abiotic process does not appear to produce acetate or acetic acid (CH3COOH) in measurable quantities-only the acetogenic and sulfate-reducing bacteria do that. On the early Earth it seems that the homoacetogens were the first to resolve the tension between CO2 and H2 via the autotrophic acetyl coenzyme-A pathway. The acetyl co-A pathway employs two separate redox controlled tributaries-one Ni-Fe-directed, merely reduces CO2 to CO, while the other, initially molybdenum-directed, reduces CO2 through to a methyl group. The CO and the -CH3 are then assembled on the nickel-bearing acetyl coenzyme-A synthase. Such a complex dual delivery system from contrasting redox conditions could not be prefigured by serpentinization but required a chemiosmotic drive, as did the origin of life itself (Nitschke and Russell 2009). Homoacetogens can compete successfully against the methanoarchaea for H2 and CO2 in the cold, as can the sulfate-reducing acetate-generating bacteria (Krumholz et al. 1999). Thus we argue that acetate or acetic acid effluent (depending on pH) from putative microbes on wet rocky planets would be a more reliable indicator of life. What are the difficulties? The most critical is that in ground-waters and oceans with pH >5 acetate remains in solution and would therefore not be detectable remotely. Even were the waters acidic enough to release volatile acetic acid, it would be prone to photo- and chemical oxidation. However, apart from CO2 and CH4, the products are formic (HCOOH), glycolic (HOCH2.COOH) and tartaric (HOOC.HCOH.HOCH.COOH) acids (Ogata et al. 1981). Remote sensing in the ultraviolet to near-infrared might be used for detection of all these acids, especially when their concentrations are enhanced in plumes. In situ techniques would be required for acetate detection. Krumholz, L.R. et al. (1999) Appl. Environ Microbiol. 65, 2300-2306. Ogata, Y. et al. (1981) Can. J. Chem. 59, 14-18. Mumma, M. et al. (2009) Science 323, 1041-1045. Nitschke, W., Russell, M.J. (2009) J. Molec. Evol. 69, DOI:10.1007/s00239-009-9289-3

  14. Damage tolerance of woven graphite-epoxy buffer strip panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, John M.

    1990-01-01

    Graphite-epoxy panels with S glass buffer strips were tested in tension and shear to measure their residual strengths with crack-like damage. The buffer strips were regularly spaced narrow strips of continuous S glass. Panels were made with a uniweave graphite cloth where the S glass buffer material was woven directly into the cloth. Panels were made with different width and thickness buffer strips. The panels were loaded to failure while remote strain, strain at the end of the slit, and crack opening displacement were monitoring. The notched region and nearby buffer strips were radiographed periodically to reveal crack growth and damage. Except for panels with short slits, the buffer strips arrested the propagating crack. The strength (or failing strain) of the panels was significantly higher than the strength of all-graphite panels with the same length slit. Panels with wide, thick buffer strips were stronger than panels with thin, narrow buffer strips. A shear-lag model predicted the failing strength of tension panels with wide buffer strips accurately, but over-estimated the strength of the shear panels and the tension panels with narrow buffer strips.

  15. Sorption and Microbial Uptake of Alanine, Glucose and Acetate in Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, H.; Ingwersen, J.; Kuzyakov, Y.

    2009-04-01

    Low molecular weight organic substances (LMWOS), e. g. amino acids, sugars, and carboxylic acids, are C compounds that are most rapidly turned-over in the C cycle of soil. Despite of their importance it is still unknown how sorption to the soil matrix affects their turnover in soil solution. The goals of this study were (1) to describe the dynamics of the fluxes of LMWOS (10 µmol l-1) in various pools (dissolved, adsorbed, decomposed to CO2, incorporated into microbial biomass) and (2) to assess the LMWOS distribution in these pools in dependence of very wide range of concentration (0.01 to 1000 µmol l-1). Representatives of each LMWOS group (glucose for sugars, alanine for amino acids, Na-acetate for carboxylic acids) uniformly labeled with 14C were added to sterilized or non-sterilized soil and analyzed in dif-ferent compartments between 1 min and 5.6 hours after addition. LMWOS were almost completely taken up by microorganisms within the first 30 min. Microbial uptake was much faster than the physicochemical sorption (estimated in sterilized soil), which needed to reach quasi-equilibrium 60 min for alanine and about 400 min for glucose. Only sorption of acetate was instantaneous (>1 min). While for acetate the maximum sorption capacity was reached at 100 µmol l-1 no such maximum was found for glucose and alanine in the studied concentra-tion range. At the concentration of 100 µmol l-1, microbial decomposition after 4.5 h hours was higher for alanine (76.7±1.1%) than acetate (55.2±0.9%) and glucose (28.5±1.5%). On the contrary, incorporation into microbial biomass was higher for glucose (59.8±1.2%) than for acetate (23.4±5.9%) and alanine (5.2±2.8%). Within 10 to 500 µmol l-1 the pathways of the three LMWOS transformation changed: at 500 µmol l-1 alanine and acetate were less mineralized and more incorporated into microbial biomass than at 10 µmol l-1, while glucose incorporation decreased. Consequently, the concentrations of alanine, glucose, and acetate in soil solution were the most important factor affecting the fate of the respective LMWOS. We conclude that for all three substances representing the three main groups of LMWOS in soil the most rapid process is microbial uptake which was mainly finished within 30. Thereafter, microbial utilization led to further distribution of the metabolized products and their sorption by soil matrix.

  16. Acetate-fed aerobic granular sludge for the degradation of 4-chlorophenol.

    PubMed

    Carucci, Alessandra; Milia, Stefano; De Gioannis, Giorgia; Piredda, Martina

    2009-07-15

    Chlorinated phenols are considered a critical environmental problem, due to their extreme toxicity and their widespread use both in industrial and agricultural activities. In this study, aerobic granular sludge was initially developed into an acetate-fed Granulated Sequencing Batch Reactor (GSBR) and then used for the degradation of low chlorinated 4-mono-chlorophenol (4CP), with readily biodegradable sodium acetate (NaAc) as co-substrate. Influent 4CP concentration ranged between 0 and 50mg/l, with a maximum volumetric organic loading rate of 0.20 kg(4CP)/m(3)d (0.32 kg(COD-4CP)/m(3)d). Differences in granules shape and size were observed with 4CP dosed in the influent at different concentrations, and the effects of such toxic compound on acetate removal were evaluated, with both unacclimated and acclimated biomass. Aerobic granules grown on acetate as carbon source proved to be an interesting solution for the degradation of 4CP, showing good resistance to high 4CP concentrations in the influent even if unacclimated (short term effects). Moreover, the monitoring of intermediate products and the evaluation of chloride release due to 4CP degradation proved that acclimated granular sludge could completely remove 4CP (long term effects), with high specific removal rates. PMID:19111986

  17. Immunotoxicity of trenbolone acetate in Japanese quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quinn, M.J.; McKernan, M.; Lavoie, E.T.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Trenbolone acetate is a synthetic androgen that is currently used as a growth promoter in many meat-exporting countries. Despite industry laboratories classifying trenbolone as nonteratogenic, data showed that embryonic exposure to this androgenic chemical altered development of the immune system in Japanese quail. Trenbolone is lipophilic, persistent, and released into the environment in manure used as soil fertilizer. This is the first study to date to assess this chemical's immunotoxic effects in an avian species. A one-time injection of trenbolone into yolks was administered to mimic maternal deposition, and subsequent effects on the development and function of the immune system were determined in chicks and adults. Development of the bursa of Fabricius, an organ responsible for development of the humoral arm of the immune system, was disrupted, as indicated by lower masse, and smaller and fewer follicles at day 1 of hatch. Morphological differences in the bursas persisted in adults, although no differences in either two measures of immune function were observed. Total numbers of circulating leukocytes were reduced and heterophil-lymphocyte ratios were elevated in chicks but not adults. This study shows that trenbolone acetate is teratogenic and immunotoxic in Japanese quail, and provides evidence that the quail immune system may be fairly resilient to embryonic endocrine-disrupting chemical-induced alterations following no further exposure posthatch.

  18. [Ulipristal acetate, 5mg: a new alternative].

    PubMed

    Monleón Sancho, Javier; Romaguera, Eugenia; Romero, Ainhoa; Higueras, Gema; Morcillo, Inmaculada; Fuster, Sonia

    2013-07-01

    Fibroids have a high prevalence (approaching 50%) in the female population. Although they are a benign entity, they represent a health problem of considerable magnitude, causing hemorrhaging, pain and sterility. Surgical treatment is currently safe and effective, but in recent decades numerous less invasive alternatives have appeared, such as uterine artery embolization and thermal ablation (HIFU and radiofrequency). New possibilities for medical treatment have also emerged, such as GnRh analogues, aromatase inhibitors and selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs). SPRMs act through progesterone receptors and behave as agonists or antagonists in various target organs. Among them, ulipristal acetate (UA) inhibits the proliferation and induction of apoptosis and cell death pathways in leiomyoma cells, translating at the clinical level to smaller fibroids and lower uterine volumes, with no significant side effects. UA also produces amenorrhea in most patients. Randomized, phase III (PEARL I and II) clinical trials have shown the efficacy and security of UA versus placebo and leuprolide acetate (LA). UA is similar to LA, and superior to placebo in controlling bleeding and decreasing the size of the fibroid, with fewer side effects than LA. The safety and tolerance of UA have been satisfactory. UA is a reality in the preoperative treatment of fibroids, with broad potential for further development. PMID:24314567

  19. Inhibition of enamel demineralization by buffering effect of S-PRG filler-containing dental sealant.

    PubMed

    Kaga, Masayuki; Kakuda, Shinichi; Ida, Yusuke; Toshima, Hirokazu; Hashimoto, Masanori; Endo, Kazuhiko; Sano, Hidehiko

    2014-02-01

    The buffering capacity and inhibitory effects on enamel demineralization of two commercially available dental sealants were evaluated in this study. The effects of filler particles were also examined. Disks of enamel and cured sealant materials of BeautiSealant (silica or S-PRG filler) or Teethmate F-1 were incubated in lactic acid solutions (pH 4.0) for 1-6 d. The pH changes and amounts of ions released in the solutions were assessed, and enamel surfaces were observed using a scanning electron microscope. The pH of the solution with BeautiSealant (S-PRG filler) was neutralized from pH 4.0 to pH 6.1 (after incubation for 1 d) and from pH 4.0 to pH 6.7 (after incubation for 6 d). In addition, no release of calcium ions was detected and the enamel surface was morphologically intact in scanning electron microscopy images. However, the pH of the solution with Teethmate F-1 remained below pH 4.0 during incubation from days 1 to 6. Calcium release was increased in solutions up to and after 6 d of incubation. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that the structures of hydroxyapatite rods were exposed at the specimen surfaces as a result of demineralization. Ions released from S-PRG filler-containing dental sealant rapidly buffered the lactic acid solution and inhibited enamel demineralization. PMID:24372898

  20. Second virial coefficient of amylose acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlfarth, Ch.

    This document is part of Subvolume D2 'Polymer Solutions - Physical Properties and their Relations I (Thermodynamic Properties: PVT -Data and miscellaneous Properties of polymer Solutions) of Volume 6 `Polymers' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII `Advanced Materials and Technologies'.

  1. Partial specific volume of amylose acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlfarth, Ch.

    This document is part of Subvolume D2 'Polymer Solutions - Physical Properties and their Relations I (Thermodynamic Properties: PVT -Data and miscellaneous Properties of polymer Solutions) of Volume 6 `Polymers' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII `Advanced Materials and Technologies'.

  2. Resolving the electrospinnability zones and diameter prediction for the electrospinning of the gelatin/water/acetic acid system.

    PubMed

    Erencia, Marisa; Cano, Francisco; Tornero, Jose A; Macanás, Jorge; Carrillo, Fernando

    2014-06-24

    The development of suitable biomimetic scaffolds is a fundamental requirement of tissue engineering. Although electrospinning has emerged as an effective method for producing such scaffolds of nanometer-sized fibers, the influence of solution characteristics on the morphology of the resulting nanofibers depends on each polymer solution system. In this study, gelatin nanofibers and microfibers were prepared via electrospinning using mixtures of water and acetic acid at different ratios as solvents. The viscosities of gelatin solutions before electrospinning were analyzed and two different behaviors were found as a function of the solvent composition, taking into account classic models of polymer science. A power law relationship between viscosity and gelatin concentration was found for each solvent system, and an empirical model including the influence of acetic acid was obtained for aqueous systems. Moreover, a ternary diagram considering gelatin, water, and acetic acid mass fractions was constructed as a tool to establish the electrospinnability domains in terms of fiber occurrence and morphology. Also, the isodiametric curves were defined in the fibers region. Finally, in order to correlate the diameter of electrospun nanofibers and the electrospinnability zones, the Berry number was used. However, as its only allows the range of electrospinnability to be established for a fixed solvent composition, a new dimensionless parameter (Bemod) was suggested to take into account all the acetic acid aqueous solutions as a single solvent. PMID:24870557

  3. Crystallization in the Thin and Ultrathin Films of Poly(ethylene-vinyl acetate) and Linear Low-Density Polyethylene

    E-print Network

    -Density Polyethylene Y. Wang, S. Ge, M. Rafailovich,*, J. Sokolov, Y. Zou, H. Ade, J. Lu1 ning,§ A. Lustiger, and G(ethylene-vinyl acetate) and linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) films spun-cast from the polymer/toluene solutions spherulite to sheaflike ag- gregates in polyethylene thin films at a critical thickness of 400 nm. Scho

  4. The effects of citric and acetic acids on the formation of calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite at 38 °C

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. S. Tenhuisen; P. W. Brown

    1994-01-01

    This study is concerned with the formation of calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite at physiological temperature. Isothermal calorimetry, solution chemistry, scanning electron microscopy, BET surface area analyses and FTIR spectroscopy were used to characterize the kinetics of HAp formation and the microstructure of the HAp formed in varying concentrations of citric and acetic acids, and in deionized water. The kinetics of HAp formation

  5. Novel Biocompatible and Self-buffering Ionic Liquids for Biopharmaceutical Applications.

    PubMed

    Taha, Mohamed; Almeida, Mafalda R; Silva, Francisca A E; Domingues, Pedro; Ventura, Sónia P M; Coutinho, João A P; Freire, Mara G

    2015-03-16

    Antibodies obtained from egg yolk of immunized hens, immunoglobulin?Y (IgY), are an alternative to the most focused mammal antibodies, because they can be obtained in higher titers by less invasive approaches. However, the production cost of high-quality IgY for large-scale applications remains higher than that of other drug therapies due to the lack of efficient purification methods. The search for new purification platforms is thus vital. The solution could be liquid-liquid extraction by using aqueous biphasic systems (ABS). Herein, we report the extraction and attempted purification of IgY from chicken egg yolk by using a new ABS composed of polymers and Good's buffer ionic liquids (GB-ILs). New self-buffering and biocompatible ILs based on the cholinium cation and anions derived from Good's buffers were synthesized and the self-buffering characteristics and toxicity were characterized. Moreover, when these GB-ILs are combined with PPG 400 (poly(propylene) glycol with a molecular weight of 400?g?mol(-1) ) to form ABS, extraction efficiencies, of the water-soluble fraction of proteins, ranging between 79 and 94?% were achieved in a single step. Based on computational investigations, we also demonstrate that the preferential partitioning of IgY for the GB-IL-rich phase is dominated by hydrogen-bonding and van der Waals interactions. PMID:25652351

  6. Rapid and sensitive LC-MS/MS method for determination of megestrol acetate in human plasma: application to a human pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Seo, Ji-Hyung; Park, Ji-Sun; Jo, Min-Ho; Park, Mi-Sun; Ryu, Ju-Hee; Cho, Young-Wuk; Shim, Wang-Sup; Noh, Gyu-Jeong; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2013-04-01

    A rapid, simple and fully validated LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the determination of megestrol acetate in human plasma using tolbutamide as an internal standard (IS) after one-step liquid-liquid extraction with methyl-tert-butyl-ether. Detection was performed using electrospray ionization in positive ion multiple reaction monitoring mode by monitoring the transitions m/z 385.5???267.1 for megestrol acetate and m/z 271.4???155.1 for IS. Chromatographic separation was performed on a YMC Hydrosphere C18 column with an isocratic mobile phase, which consisted of 10?mm ammonium formate buffer (adjusted to pH 5.0 with formic acid)-methanol (60:40, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.4?mL/min. The achieved lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) was 1?ng/mL (signal-to-noise ratio?>?10) and the standard calibration curve for megestrol acetate was linear (r?>?0.99) over the studied concentration range (1-2000?ng/mL). The proposed method was fully validated by determining its specificity, linearity, LLOQ, intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy, recovery, matrix effect and stability. The validated LC-MS/MS method was successfully applied for the evaluation of pharmacokinetic parameters of megestrol acetate after oral administration of a single dose 800?mg of megestrol acetate (Megace™) to five healthy Korean male volunteers under fed conditions. PMID:22961730

  7. Acetate absorption and metabolism in the rabbit hindgut.

    PubMed Central

    Marty, J F; Vernay, M Y; Abravanel, G M

    1985-01-01

    Acetate disappearance from the loops of the hindgut in the rabbit was evaluated by measuring variations in the concentration of acetate in caecocolonic loops and differences in the arterial and venous plasma. In vivo metabolism in gut and liver tissues was studied after introduction of (1-14C) acetate into caecocolonic loops. The rate of disappearance from the loops was quantitatively significant and showed little variation irrespective of the location in the hindgut. Hindgut tissue metabolised acetate and the intensity of the metabolism varied with the segment studied. The distal position of the gut showed by far the highest acetate uptake. Radioactivity was found in a certain number of free amino acids, organic acids, and sugars. Acetate was mainly converted into aspartate and glutamate. These can be considered as 'stock forms' which can be diverted either towards oxidative metabolism or towards protein synthesis. Images Fig. 1 PMID:4007603

  8. The Multimission Image Processing Laboratory's virtual frame buffer interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, T.

    1984-01-01

    Large image processing systems use multiple frame buffers with differing architectures and vendor supplied interfaces. This variety of architectures and interfaces creates software development, maintenance and portability problems for application programs. Several machine-dependent graphics standards such as ANSI Core and GKS are available, but none of them are adequate for image processing. Therefore, the Multimission Image Processing laboratory project has implemented a programmer level virtual frame buffer interface. This interface makes all frame buffers appear as a generic frame buffer with a specified set of characteristics. This document defines the virtual frame uffer interface and provides information such as FORTRAN subroutine definitions, frame buffer characteristics, sample programs, etc. It is intended to be used by application programmers and system programmers who are adding new frame buffers to a system.

  9. Mesophilic syntrophic acetate oxidation during methane formation in biogas reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Schnürer; Gerhard Zellner; Bo H. Svensson

    1999-01-01

    The reaction pathway for the formation of methane from acetate was investigated in sludge from 13 different biogas reactors. By following the conversion of [2-14C]acetate and [14C]bicarbonate it was shown that methane formation by syntrophic acetate oxidation was the dominating mechanism for acetotrophic methanogenesis in sludge containing high levels of salts, mainly ammonium, and volatile fatty acids. In one biogas

  10. Development of buffers for fast semidry transfer of proteins.

    PubMed

    Gari?, Dušan; Humbert, Laure; Fils-Aimé, Nadège; Korah, Juliana; Zarfabian, Yasaman; Lebrun, Jean-Jacques; Ali, Suhad

    2013-10-15

    Western blot is an extensively used method for protein detection in cell biology. To optimize this procedure, here we examined a panel of buffers for their ability to efficiently transfer proteins from SDS-polyacrylamide gels onto nitrocellulose membranes in a short 12-min period, designated here as fast semidry transfer. Our results show for the first time that HEPES- and HEPPS/EPPS-based buffers represent the most efficient buffers for fast semidry transfer. PMID:23872007

  11. GaN Growth Using GaN Buffer Layer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuji Nakamura

    1991-01-01

    High-quality gallium nitride (GaN) film was obtained for the first time using a GaN buffer layer on a sapphire substrate. An optically flat and smooth surface was obtained over a two-inch sapphire substrate. Hall measurement was performed on GaN films grown with a GaN buffer layer as a function of the thickness of the GaN buffer layer. For the GaN

  12. An algorithm for integrated pin assignment and buffer planning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hua Xiangt; Xiaoping Tangtt; D. F. Wongt

    2002-01-01

    The buffer block methodology has become increasingly popular as more and more buffers are needed in deep-submicron design, and it leads to many challenging problems in physical design. In this paper, we present a polynomial-time exact algorithm for integrated pin assignment and buffer planning for all two-pin nets from one macro block (source block) to all other blocks of a

  13. Non-reactive solute diffusion in unconfined and confined specimens of a compacted soil.

    PubMed

    Hong, Catherine S; Davis, Melanie M; Shackelford, Charles D

    2009-01-01

    The effect of specimen confinement on the determination of the effective diffusion coefficients, D*, for chloride, a non-reactive (non-adsorbing) solute, diffusing in a compacted soil was evaluated. The diffusion tests were performed by placing an acetic acid/sodium acetate buffer solution containing ZnCl2 (pH approximately 4.8) in a reservoir in contact with unconfined and confined specimens of a compacted sand-clay mixture for test durations of 7 or 14 d. The concentrations of chloride in the reservoir were measured as a function of time during the test, as well as a function of depth within the specimen at the end of the test. The resulting concentration distributions were analyzed using two models to Fick's second law for non-reactive solute diffusion in porous media, viz., (1) an analytical model assuming the porosity distribution could be represented by a single, weighted mean porosity and (2) a commercially available model, POLLUTE, that directly accounted for the measured porosity distribution. The D* for unconfined specimens based on the analytical model tended to be overestimated by a factor ranging from 1.13 to 1.59 relative to the D* using POLLUTE, whereas the D* values based on both methods for confined specimens typically were more consistent. In addition, the D* for unconfined specimens was greater than the D* for confined specimens when soil concentrations were used for the analysis, presumably due to the higher porosity for the unconfined specimens relative to the confined specimens. Analyses based on reservoir concentrations were inconsistent and contradictory in some cases, suggesting that the D* values based on soil concentrations were more reliable. PMID:18556191

  14. Downstream processing of acetate fermentation broths by nanofiltration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    In Soo Han; Munir Cheryan

    1996-01-01

    Acetate can be separated from fermentation broths and partially purified by nanofiltration (NF). Membrane performance was\\u000a a function of pressure, pH, concentration of acetate, temperature, and the presence of other media components. With Nitto-Denko’s\\u000a NTR729 membrane, average acetate rejection was 60%, glucose rejection was 99%, and flux was 15 L\\/m2\\/h at 200 psig, 30°C, pH 5.6, and 20 g\\/L acetic

  15. Enhancing soluble phosphorus removal within buffer strips using industrial by-products.

    PubMed

    Habibiandehkordi, Reza; Quinton, John N; Surridge, Ben W J

    2014-11-01

    Using industrial by-products (IBPs) in conjunction with buffer strips provides a potentially new strategy for enhancing soluble phosphorus (P) removal from agricultural runoff. Here, we investigate the feasibility of this approach by assessing the P sorption properties of IBPs at different solution-IBPs contact time (1-120 min) and solution pH (3, 5.5, 7.5), as well as possible adverse environmental effects including P desorption or heavy metal mobilisation from IBPs. Batch experiments were carried out on two widely available IBPs in the UK that demonstrated high P sorption capacity but different physicochemical characteristics, specifically ochre and Aluminium (Al) based water treatment residuals (Al-WTR). A series of kinetic sorption-desorption experiments alongside kinetic modelling were used to understand the rate and the mechanisms of P removal across a range of reaction times. The results of the kinetic experiments indicated that P was initially sorbed rapidly to both ochre and Al-WTR, followed by a second phase characterised by a slower sorption rate. The excellent fits of kinetic sorption data to a pseudo-second order model for both materials suggested surface chemisorption as the rate-controlling mechanism. Neither ochre nor Al-WTR released substantial quantities of either P or heavy metals into solution, suggesting that they could be applied to buffer strip soils at recommended rates (?30 g kg(-1) soil) without adverse environmental impact. Although the rate of P sorption by freshly-generated Al-WTR applied to buffer strips reduced following air-drying, this would not limit its practical application to buffer strips in the field if adequate contact time with runoff was provided. PMID:24928382

  16. Concentrated Flow through a Riparian Buffer: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, C. B.; Nogues, J. P.; Hutchinson, S. L.

    2004-05-01

    Riparian buffers are often used for in-situ treatment of agricultural runoff. Although the benefits of riparian buffers are well recongized, concentration of flow can restrict the efficiency of contaminant removal. This study evaluates flow concentration at a agricultural site near Manhattan, Kansas. Manual and automated GIS analyses of a high-resolution digital elevation model were used to determine the fraction of runoff contributing to each buffer segment. Subsequent simulation of the system in WEPP (Water Erosion and Prediction Project) demonstrates the extend to which flow concentration affects buffer efficiency.

  17. An assessment of buffer strips for improving damage tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poe, C. C., Jr.; Kennedy, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    Graphite/epoxy panels with buffer strips were tested in tension to measure their residual strength with crack-like damage. Panels were made with 45/0/-45/90(2S) and 45/0/450(2S) layups. The buffer strips were parallel to the loading directions. They were made by replacing narrow strips of the 0 deg graphite plies with strips of either 0 deg S-Glass/epoxy or Kevlar-49/epoxy on either a one for one or a two for one basis. In a third case, O deg graphite/epoxy was used as the buffer material and thin, perforated Mylar strips were placed between the 0 deg piles and the cross-plies to weaken the interfaces and thus to isolate the 0 deg plies. Some panels were made with buffer strips of different widths and spacings. The buffer strips arrested the cracks and increased the residual strengths significantly over those plain laminates without buffer strips. A shear-lag type stress analysis correctly predicted the effects of layups, buffer material, buffer strip width and spacing, and the number of plies of buffer material.

  18. Back contact buffer layer for thin-film solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Compaan, Alvin D.; Plotnikov, Victor V.

    2014-09-09

    A photovoltaic cell structure is disclosed that includes a buffer/passivation layer at a CdTe/Back contact interface. The buffer/passivation layer is formed from the same material that forms the n-type semiconductor active layer. In one embodiment, the buffer layer and the n-type semiconductor active layer are formed from cadmium sulfide (CdS). A method of forming a photovoltaic cell includes the step of forming the semiconductor active layers and the buffer/passivation layer within the same deposition chamber and using the same material source.

  19. Surface Treatments of Nb by Buffered Electropolishing

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Andy T. [JLAB; Rimmer, Robert A. [JLAB; Ciovati, Gianluigi [JLAB; Manus, Robert L. [JLAb; Reece, Charles E. [JLAB; Williams, J. S. [JLAB; Eozénou, F. [CEA, Gif-sur-Yvette; Jin, S. [PKU/IHIP, Beijing; Lin, L. [PKU/IHIP, Beijing; Lu, X.Y. [PKU/IHIP, Beijing; Mammosser, John D. [JLAB; Wang, E. [BNL

    2009-11-01

    Buffered electropolishing (BEP) is a Nb surface treatment technique developed at Jefferson Lab1. Experimental results obtained from flat Nb samples show2-4 that BEP can produce a surface finish much smoother than that produced by the conventional electropolishing (EP), while Nb removal rate can be as high as 4.67 ?m/min. This new technique has been applied to the treatments of Nb SRF single cell cavity employing a vertical polishing system5 constructed at JLab as well as a horizontal polishing system at CEA Saclay. Preliminary results show that the accelerating gradient can reach 32 MV/m for a large grain cavity and 26.7 MV/m for a regular grain cavity. In this presentation, the latest progresses from the international collaboration between Peking University, CEA Saclay, and JLab on BEP will be summarized.

  20. Photoluminescence of cellulose acetate and silica sphere composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Kwang-Sun

    2014-08-01

    Strong blue and green light emission has been observed from the cellulose acetate (CA) and silica sphere composite. Two different amounts of silica spheres were mixed in the CA solution to fabricate large area super-hydrophobic films. The silica spheres and CA solution ratios were 0.07:4.0 (SSCA-A) and 0.14:4.0 (SSCA-B). The milky color solution of SSCA-A and SSCA-B slowly turned to light yellow and red, respectively, with the time passed. The colors became intense yellow and red for the SSCA-A and SSCA-B, respectively, after 38 days. FTIR spectra show more absorption at 3478 cm-1 corresponding sbnd OH stretching vibration, at 2963 cm-1 caused by sbnd CH stretching vibration, at 1746 and 1713 cm-1 representing the Cdbnd O stretching vibration, and at 1100 cm-1 corresponding sbnd Rsbnd OH and Sisbnd Osbnd Si stretching vibration for CA and silica. Therefore, aged SSCA-A and SSCA-B have more sbnd OH, sbnd CH, sbnd Cdbnd O, and Sisbnd Osbnd Si groups than pure CA. UV-visible spectra show the absorption peaks at 410 nm for both SSCA-A and SSCA-B. Photoluminescence (PL) peaks were shifted toward longer wavelength with the increase of the excitation wavelength and became maximum at approximately 470 nm with excitation wavelength at 400 nm for the SSCA-A. There were two maximum luminescence peaks at 470 and 530 nm with the excitation wavelength at 400 and 470 nm, respectively, for the SSCA-B. The luminescence peak shift was due to the multiple emission center proved by the different excitation energy.