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1

Pallidol hexa­acetate ethyl acetate monosolvate  

PubMed Central

The entire mol­ecule of pallidol hexa­acetate {systematic name: (±)-(4bR,5R,9bR,10R)-5,10-bis­[4-(acet­yloxy)phen­yl]-4b,5,9b,10-tetra­hydro­indeno­[2,1-a]indene-1,3,6,8-tetrayl tetra­acetate} is completed by the application of twofold rotational symmetry in the title ethyl acetate solvate, C40H34O12·C4H8O2. The ethyl acetate mol­ecule was highly disordered and was treated with the SQUEEZE routine [Spek (2009 ?). Acta Cryst. D65, 148–155]; the crystallographic data take into account the presence of the solvent. In pallidol hexa­acetate, the dihedral angle between the fused five-membered rings (r.m.s. deviation = 0.100?Å) is 54.73?(6)°, indicating a significant fold in the mol­ecule. Significant twists between residues are also evident as seen in the dihedral angle of 80.70?(5)° between the five-membered ring and the pendent benzene ring to which it is attached. Similarly, the acetate residues are twisted with respect to the benzene ring to which they are attached [C—O(carb­oxy)—C—C torsion angles = ?70.24?(14), ?114.43?(10) and ?72.54?(13)°]. In the crystal, a three-dimensional architecture is sustained by C—H?O inter­actions which encompass channels in which the disordered ethyl acetate mol­ecules reside. PMID:24046702

Mao, Qinyong; Taylor, Dennis K.; Ng, Seik Weng; Tiekink, Edward R. T.

2013-01-01

2

Molecular Structure of Ethyl acetate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ethyl acetate is a colorless, volatile liquid with a mild and fragrant odor. It is used as solvent in chemistry laboratories but can also be found in many household products such as paints, coatings, and adhesives. The compound is also used in some extraction processes such as decaffeination or purification of antibiotics. It is present in both nail polish and removers. Some synthetic fruit essences may contain this and other esters. Etymologists like to use this solvent for insect collecting as the vapor kill the insect quickly and keep it soft for mounting.

2006-03-08

3

Manufacturing Ethyl Acetate From Fermentation Ethanol  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conceptual process uses dilute product of fermentation instead of concentrated ethanol. Low-concentration ethanol, extracted by vacuum from fermentation tank, and acetic acid constitutes feedstock for catalytic reaction. Product of reaction goes through steps that increases ethyl acetate content to 93 percent by weight. To conserve energy, heat exchangers recycle waste heat to preheat process streams at various points.

Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Ingham, John D.

1991-01-01

4

Kinetics of Ethyl Acetate Synthesis Catalyzed by Acidic Resins  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A low-cost experiment to carry out the second-order reversible reaction of acetic acid esterification with ethanol to produce ethyl acetate is presented to illustrate concepts of kinetics and reactor modeling. The reaction is performed in a batch reactor, and the acetic acid concentration is measured by acid-base titration versus time. The…

Antunes, Bruno M.; Cardoso, Simao P.; Silva, Carlos M.; Portugal, Ines

2011-01-01

5

Fragrance material review on 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate.  

PubMed

A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes physical properties data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22414652

McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

2012-09-01

6

Recycling Solvent Mixtures of Ethyl Acetate and Hexanes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method to recycle ethyl acetate-hexanes mixtures from thin-layer or column chromatography experiments is described. The procedure consists of co-distillation of the mixture followed by estimation of the composition by reference to an Rf vs percent composite graph. The mixture is then diluted with the appropriate solvent to achieve the desired composition.

Wilkinson, Timothy J.

1998-12-01

7

Fragrance material review on ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate.  

PubMed

A toxicologic and dermatologic review of ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties; acute toxicity; skin irritation; and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22433983

McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

2012-09-01

8

Hydrolysis of ethyl acetate:a pervaporation study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of temperature on the separation factor, diffusion process, permeation rate, and permeability coefficient (k) for hydrolysis of ethyl acetate using a standard poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) membrane by pervaporation was investigated. The preliminary data presented in this work was obtained using a simple pervaporation technique built in-house. The experiments were conducted at 80, 65, 50 and 35°C. The initial

Habib I. Shaban

1998-01-01

9

Crystal structure of azilsartan methyl ester ethyl acetate hemisolvate  

PubMed Central

The title compound, C26H22N4O5 (systematic name: methyl 2-eth­oxy-1-{4-[2-(5-oxo-4,5-di­hydro-1,2,4-oxa­diazol-3-yl)phenyl]benz­yl}-1H-1,3-benzo­diazole-7-carboxyl­ate ethyl acetate hemisolvate), was obtained via cyclization of methyl (Z)-2-eth­oxy-1-{(2?-(N?-hy­droxy­carbamimido­yl)-[1,1?-biphen­yl]-4-yl)meth­yl}-1H-benzo[d]imidazole-7-carboxyl­ate with diphen­yl carbonate. There are two independent mol­ecules (A and B) with different conformations and an ethyl acetate solvent mol­ecule in the asymmetric unit. In mol­ecule A, the dihedral angle between the benzene ring and its attached oxa­diazole ring is 59.36?(17); the dihedral angle between the benzene rings is 43.89?(15) and that between the benzene ring and its attached imidazole ring system is 80.06?(11)°. The corres­ponding dihedral angles in mol­ecule B are 58.45?(18), 50.73?(16) and 85.37?(10)°, respectively. The C—O—C—Cm (m = meth­yl) torsion angles for the eth­oxy side chains attached to the imidazole rings in mol­ecules A and B are 93.9?(3) and ?174.6?(3)°, respectively. In the crystal, the components are linked by N—H?N and C—H?O hydrogen bonds, generating a three-dimensional network. Aromatic ?–? stacking inter­actions [shortest centroid–centroid separation = 3.536?(3)Å] are also observed.

Li, Zhengyi; Liu, Rong; Zhu, Meilan; Chen, Liang; Sun, Xiaoqiang

2015-01-01

10

STRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ASPHALTENES AND ETHYL ACETATE INSOLUBLE FRACTIONS OF PETROLEUM VACUUM RESIDUES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Asphaltenes and insoluble fractions of vacuum residues (VRs) of two Indian crude oils (viz. Heera and Jodhpur) of different specific gravity were obtained by precipitation of VRs in n-hexane, n-heptane and ethyl acetate, and also by subsequent reprecipitation of n-heptane and ethyl acetate soluble f...

11

EthylAcetate as a Substitute forDiethyl Etherinthe Formalin-Ether Sedimentation Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethyl acetate appearstobeasatisfactory substitute solvent fordiethyl ether in theFormalin-ether sedimentation technique. Incomparative studies, concentra- tion oforganisms withethyl acetate was equal toorgreater thanthat withdiethyl ether. Nodistortion oralteration ofmorphology was observed witheither solvent, andpreparations were comparable inappearanceandease ofexamination. In addition, ethyl acetate isless flammable andless hazardous tousethandiethyl ether. The Formalin-ether (F-E)sedimentation technique (1), widely usedforconcentrating eggs, larvae, andcysts infecal specimens, isan efficient

KIRKH. YOUNG; SANDRA L. BULLOCK; DOROTHY M. MELVIN

1979-01-01

12

Ethyl acetate-n-butanol gradient solvent system for high-speed countercurrent chromatography to screen bioactive substances in okra.  

PubMed

High-speed countercurrent chromatographic separation (HSCCC) possesses the property of zero-loss of sample, which is very useful for the screening of bioactive components. In the present study, the ethyl acetate-n-butanol gradient HSCCC solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-n-butanol-water was investigated for the screening of bioactive substances. To screen the antiproliferative compounds in okra extract, we used the stationary phase ethyl acetate-n-butanol-water (1:1:10) as the stationary phase, and eluted the antiproliferative components by 6-steps of gradient using mobile phases n-hexane-ethyl acetate (1:2), n-hexane-ethyl acetate (1:4), n-hexane-ethyl acetate (0:4), n-butanol-ethyl acetate (1:4) n-butanol-ethyl acetate (1:2), n-butanol-ethyl acetate (2:2), and n-butanol-ethyl acetate (2:1). The fractions collected from HSCCC separation with the gradient solvent system were assayed for antiproliferative activity against cancer cells. Bioactive components were identified: a major anti-cancer compound, 4'-hydroxy phenethyl trans-ferulate, with middle activity, and a minor anti-cancer compound, carolignan, with strong activity. The result shows that the gradient solvent system is potential for the screening of bioactive compounds from natural products. PMID:25069743

Ying, Hao; Jiang, Heyuan; Liu, Huan; Chen, Fangjuan; Du, Qizhen

2014-09-12

13

Enzymatic Production of Biodiesel from Microalgal Oil using Ethyl Acetate as an Acyl Acceptor.  

PubMed

Microalgae have become an important source of biomass for biodiesel production. In enzymatic transesterification reaction, the enzyme activity is decreased in presence of alcohols. The use of different acyl acceptors such as methyl/ethyl acetate is suggested as an alternative and effective way to overcome this problem. In this study, ethyl acetate was used for the first time in the enzymatic production of biodiesel by using microalga, Chlorella vulgaris, as a triglyceride source. Enzymatic conversion of such fatty acids to biodiesel was catalyzed by Novozym 435 as an efficient immobilized lipase which is extensively used in biodiesel production. The best conversion yield of 66.71% was obtained at the ethyl acetate to oil molar ratio of 13:1 and Novozym 435 concentration of 40%, based on the amount of oil, and a time period of 72 h at 40?. The results showed that ethyl acetate have no adverse effect on lipase activity and the biodiesel amount was not decreased even after seven transesterification cycles, so ethyl acetate has a great potential to be substituted for short-chain alcohols in transesterification reaction. PMID:25742923

Alavijeh, Razieh Shafiee; Tabandeh, Fatemeh; Tavakoli, Omid; Karkhane, Aliasghar; Shariati, Parvin

2015-01-01

14

Antihyperglycemic effect of Hypericum perforatum ethyl acetate extract on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the antihyperglycemic activity of ethyl acetate extract of Hypericum perforatum (H. perforatum) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Methods Acute toxicity and oral glucose tolerance test were performed in normal rats. Male albino rats were rendered diabetic by STZ (40 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). H. perforatum ethyl acetate extract was orally administered to diabetic rats at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg doses for 15 days to determine the antihyperglycemic activity. Biochemical parameters were determined at the end of the treatment. Results H. perforatum ethyl acetate extract showed dose dependant fall in fasting blood glucose (FBG). After 30 min of extract administration, FBG was reduced significantly when compared with normal rats. H. perforatum ethyl acetate extract produced significant reduction in plasma glucose level, serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose-6-phosphatase levels. Tissue glycogen content, HDL-cholesterol, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were significantly increased compared with diabetic control. No death or lethal effect was observed in the toxic study. Conclusions The results demonstrate that H. perforatum ethyl acetate extract possesses potent antihyperglycemic activity in STZ induced diabetic rats. PMID:23569798

Arokiyaraj, S; Balamurugan, R; Augustian, P

2011-01-01

15

Characterization and Antioxidant Properties of Six Algerian Propolis Extracts: Ethyl Acetate Extracts Inhibit Myeloperoxidase Activity  

PubMed Central

Because propolis contains many types of antioxidant compounds such as polyphenols and flavonoids, it can be useful in preventing oxidative damages. Ethyl acetate extracts of propolis from several Algerian regions show high activity by scavenging free radicals, preventing lipid peroxidation and inhibiting myeloperoxidase (MPO). By fractioning and assaying ethyl acetate extracts, it was observed that both polyphenols and flavonoids contribute to these activities. A correlation was observed between the polyphenol content and the MPO inhibition. However, it seems that kaempferol, a flavonoid, contributes mainly to the MPO inhibition. This molecule is in a high amount in the ethyl acetate extract and demonstrates the best efficiency towards the enzyme with an inhibiting concentration at 50% of 4 ± 2 ?M. PMID:24514562

Boufadi, Yasmina Mokhtaria; Soubhye, Jalal; Riazi, Ali; Rousseau, Alexandre; Vanhaeverbeek, Michel; Nève, Jean; Boudjeltia, Karim Zouaoui; Van Antwerpen, Pierre

2014-01-01

16

Characterization and antioxidant properties of six Algerian propolis extracts: ethyl acetate extracts inhibit myeloperoxidase activity.  

PubMed

Because propolis contains many types of antioxidant compounds such as polyphenols and flavonoids, it can be useful in preventing oxidative damages. Ethyl acetate extracts of propolis from several Algerian regions show high activity by scavenging free radicals, preventing lipid peroxidation and inhibiting myeloperoxidase (MPO). By fractioning and assaying ethyl acetate extracts, it was observed that both polyphenols and flavonoids contribute to these activities. A correlation was observed between the polyphenol content and the MPO inhibition. However, it seems that kaempferol, a flavonoid, contributes mainly to the MPO inhibition. This molecule is in a high amount in the ethyl acetate extract and demonstrates the best efficiency towards the enzyme with an inhibiting concentration at 50% of 4 ± 2 µM. PMID:24514562

Boufadi, Yasmina Mokhtaria; Soubhye, Jalal; Riazi, Ali; Rousseau, Alexandre; Vanhaeverbeek, Michel; Nève, Jean; Boudjeltia, Karim Zouaoui; Van Antwerpen, Pierre

2014-01-01

17

Investigating the performance of CoxOy/activated carbon catalysts for ethyl acetate catalytic combustion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The catalytic properties of Co-supported activated carbon (AC) catalysts for ethyl acetate catalytic elimination in air were investigated. Results showed that air atmosphere promoted the generation of high-valence state cobalt oxides, and promote the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the Co3O4/AC catalyst. ROS crucially functioned in improving the catalytic activity of Co3O4/AC catalysts. Therefore, CoACA catalyst prepared in air exhibited higher catalytic activity than CoACN catalyst prepared in nitrogen, and CoACA catalyst led to high ethyl acetate conversion (>93%) and stability at a low reaction temperature (210 °C).

Xie, Hongmei; Zhao, Xiaoping; Zhou, Guilin; He, Xiaoling; Lan, Hai; Jiang, Zongxuan

2015-01-01

18

On using film boiling to thermally decompose liquid organic chemicals: Application to ethyl acetate as a model compound  

E-print Network

On using film boiling to thermally decompose liquid organic chemicals: Application to ethyl acetate 21 August 2013 Keywords: Film boiling Thermal decomposition Pyrolysis Ethyl acetate Critical heat flux (CHF) Leidenfrost point a b s t r a c t Film boiling on a horizontal tube is used to study

Walter, M.Todd

19

Ethyl acetate extract from black tea prevents neuromuscular blockade by botulinum neurotoxin type A in vitro.  

PubMed

Botulinum neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum is the strongest neurotoxin and causes botulism in mammals. The current study aimed to find an inactivator for botulinum neurotoxin in black, oolong, roasted, and green teas. The ability of the four teas to inactivate the neuromuscular blocking action of botulinum neurotoxin was determined. Water extracts from black, oolong, and roasted teas protected against the toxicity of botulinum neurotoxin type A in mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparations. The order of potency of the water extracts was black tea > oolong tea > roasted tea > green tea (no effect). The effects of several organic solvent extracts of black tea water extract were examined, and the order of potency was ethyl acetate extract > butanol extract = remaining extract > chloroform extract (no effect). Ethyl acetate extracts from oolong, roasted, and green tea water extracts also exhibited a stronger protecting effect than chloroform, butanol, and remaining extracts from these teas, but they had weaker protective effect than ethyl acetate extract from black tea water extract. These protective effects occurred only when each extract was pre-mixed with the toxin before the assay, and they were not modified by mixing each extract with bovine serum albumin (BSA) before adding the toxin. These results indicate that ethyl acetate extract from black tea is the best source for searching for tea-derived inactivating substance(s) of botulinum neurotoxin. PMID:16638658

Satoh, Eiki

2005-12-01

20

Antiplasmodial Properties and Bioassay-Guided Fractionation of Ethyl Acetate Extracts from Carica papaya Leaves.  

PubMed

We investigated the antiplasmodial properties of crude extracts from Carica papaya leaves to trace the activity through bioassay-guided fractionation. The greatest antiplasmodial activity was observed in the ethyl acetate crude extract. C. papaya showed a high selectivity for P. falciparum against CHO cells with a selectivity index of 249.25 and 185.37 in the chloroquine-sensitive D10 and chloroquine-resistant DD2 strains, respectively. Carica papaya ethyl acetate extract was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation to ascertain the most active fraction, which was purified and identified using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and GC-MS (Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry) methods. Linoleic and linolenic acids identified from the ethyl acetate fraction showed IC(50) of 6.88??g/ml and 3.58??g/ml, respectively. The study demonstrated greater antiplasmodial activity of the crude ethyl acetate extract of Carica papaya leaves with an IC(50) of 2.96 ± 0.14??g/ml when compared to the activity of the fractions and isolated compounds. PMID:22174990

Melariri, Paula; Campbell, William; Etusim, Paschal; Smith, Peter

2011-01-01

21

Crystal structures of the solvates of diethylaminogossypol with ethyl acetate and pyridine  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The crystal structures of diethylaminogossypol with ethyl acetate (DEAG-EA) and pyridine (DEAG-P) were studied by room-temperature X-ray diffraction. The host-to-guest molecule ratio in these complexes is 2:1 for DEAG-EA and 2:5 for DEAG-P. The crystal and cell parameters for DEAG-EA are C34H40N2O6...

22

Phytochemical screening and anticonvulsant studies of ethyl acetate fraction of Globimetula braunii on laboratory animals  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the phytochemical properties and the anticonvulsant potential of the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of ethanol leaf extract of Globimetula braunii, a plant used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of epilepsy. Methods The phytochemical screening was carried out using standard protocol while the anticonvulsant activity was studied using maximal electroshock test in chicks, pentylenetetrazole and 4-aminopyridine-induced seizures in mice. Results The preliminary phytochemical screening carried out on the crude ethanol extract revealed the presence of saponins, carbohydrates, flavonoids, tannins, anthraquinones and steroids. Similarly, tannins, flavonoids and steroids/terpenes were found to be present in the ethyl acetate fraction. In the pharmacological screening, 150 mg/kg of the fraction protected 83.33% of animals against pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure in mice whereas sodium valproate a standard anti-epileptic drug offered 100% protection. In the 4-aminopyridine-induced seizure model, the fraction produced a significant (P<0.05) increase in the mean onset of seizure in unprotected animals. The fraction did not exhibit a significant activity against maximal electroshock convulsion. The median lethal dose of the fraction was found to be 1?261.91 mg/kg. Conclusions These results suggest that the ethyl acetate fraction of Globimetula braunii leaves extract possesses psychoactive compound that may be useful in the management of petit mal epilepsy and lend credence to the ethnomedical use of the plant in the management of epilepsy. PMID:25182552

Aliyu, Musa Mumammad; Musa, Abdullahi Isma'il; Kamal, Muhammad Ja'afar; Mohammed, Magaji Garba

2014-01-01

23

Acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, ethyl acetate, acetonitrile and other polar aprotic solvents are strong inducers of aneuploidy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

A diploid yeast strain D61.M was used to study induction of mitotic chromosomal malsegregation, mitotic recombination and point mutation. Several ketones (including acetone and methyl ethyl ketone) and some organic acid esters (including the methyl, ethyl and 2-methoxyethyl esters of acetic acid) and acetonitrile strongly induced aneuploidy but not recombination or point mutation. Only diethyl ketone induced low levels of recombination and point mutation in addition to aneuploidy. Related compounds were weak inducers of aneuploidy: methyl n-propyl ketone, the methyl esters of propionic and butyric acid, acetic acid esters of n- and iso-propanol and ethyl propionate. No mutagenicity was found with n-butyl and isoamyl acetate, ethyl formate, acetyl acetone (2,5-dipentanone) and dioxane. Methyl isopropyl ketone induced only some recombination and point mutation but no aneuploidy. Efficient induction was only observed with a treatment protocol in which growing cells were exposed to the chemicals during a growth period of 4 h at 28 degrees C followed by incubation in ice for more than 90 min, usually overnight for 16-17 h. Aneuploid cells could be detected in such cultures during a subsequent incubation at growth temperature if the chemical was still present. Detailed analysis showed that there was a high incidence of multiple events of chromosomal malsegregation. It is proposed that the mutagenic agents act directly on tubulin during growth so that labile microtubules are formed which dissociate in the cold. When cells are brought back to temperatures above the level critical for reassembly of tubulin and allowed to grow, faulty microtubules are formed. PMID:3887145

Zimmermann, F K; Mayer, V W; Scheel, I; Resnick, M A

1985-05-01

24

Mesoxalaldehyde acetals  

SciTech Connect

The treatment of methylglyoxal acetals by alkyl nitrites in the presence of the corresponding aliphatic alcohols and hydrochloric acid leads to the formation of linear mesoxalaldehyde acetals, whose structure was established by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The major pathways for the decomposition of these molecules upon electron impact were established.

Gordeeva, G.N.; Kalashnikov, S.M.; Popov, Yu.N.; Kruglov, E.A.; Imashev, U.B.

1987-11-10

25

Protective Effect of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Stereospermum Suaveolens Against Hepatic Oxidative Stress in STZ Diabetic Rats  

PubMed Central

Stereospermum suaveolens is a folk remedy for the treatment of diabetes and liver disorders in southern parts of India. In the present study, the protective effect of the ethyl acetate fraction of ethanol extract from S. suaveolens against hepatic oxidative stress was evaluated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats for 14 days. The ethyl acetate fraction was administered orally to the STZ diabetic rats at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg. Blood glucose level was measured according to glucose oxidase method. In order to determine hepatoprotective activity, changes in the levels of serum biomarker enzymes such as aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP) were assessed in the ethyl acetate fraction treated diabetic rats and were compared with the levels in diabetic control rats. In addition, the antioxidant activity of ethyl acetate fraction was evaluated using various hepatic parameters such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT). It was found that administration of ethyl acetate fraction (200 and 400 mg/kg) produced a significant (P < 0.001) fall in fasting blood glucose level, TBARS, bilirubin, AST, ALT, and SALP, while elevating the GSH levels, and SOD and CAT activities in diabetic rats. Histopathologic studies also revealed the protective effect of ethyl acetate fraction on the liver tissues of diabetic rats. It was concluded from this study that the ethyl acetate fraction from ethanol extract of S. suaveolens modulates the activity of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants and enhances the defense against hepatic oxidative stress in STZ-induced diabetic rats. PMID:24716175

Balasubramanian, Thirumalaiswamy; Senthilkumar, G. P; Karthikeyan, M.; Chatterjee, Tapan Kumar

2013-01-01

26

Experimental Determination of Densities and Isobaric Vapor-Liquid Equilibria of Methyl Acetate and Ethyl Acetate with Alcohols (C3 and C4) at 0.3 MPa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The densities and excess volumes were determined at 298.15 K for the methyl acetate + 1-propanol, methyl acetate + 1-butanol, and ethyl acetate + 1-butanol mixtures. The vapor-liquid equilibria data at 0.3 MPa for these binary systems were obtained using a stainless steel equilibrium still. The activity coefficients were obtained from the experimental data using the Hayden and O’Connell method and the Yen and Woods equation. The binary systems in this study showed positive deviations from ideality. The experimental VLE data were verified with the point-to-point test of van Ness using the Barker routine and the Fredenslund criterion. The different versions of the UNIFAC and the ASOG group contribution models were applied.

Susial, Pedro; Estupiñan, Esteban J.; Castillo, Victor D.; Rodríguez-Henríquez, José J.; Apolinario, José C.

2013-10-01

27

Characteristics of thin cellulose ester films spin-coated from acetone and ethyl acetate solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spin-coated films of cellulose acetate (CA), cellulose acetate propionate (CAP), cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) and carboxymethylcellulose\\u000a acetate butyrate (CMCAB) have been characterized by ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle measurements.\\u000a The films were spin-coated onto silicon wafers, a polar surface. Mean thickness values were determined by means of ellipsometry\\u000a and AFM as a function of polymer concentration in

J. Amim Jr; P. M. Kosaka; D. F. S. Petri

2008-01-01

28

Antifungal and antioxidant activity of Crassocephalum bauchiense (Hutch.) Milne-Redh ethyl acetate extract and fractions (Asteraceae)  

PubMed Central

Background Crassocephalum bauchiense is a flowering plant, found in the West Region of Cameroon. Previous studied has highlighted the antibacterial and the dermal toxicological safety as well as the immunomodulatory activities of the ethyl acetate extract of its dry leaves. As an extension of the previous researches, the current work has been undertaken to evaluate the in vitro antifungal and antioxidant activities of C. bauchiense dried leaves ethyl acetate extract and fractions. Methods The extract was obtained by maceration in ethyl acetate and further fractionated into six fractions labeled F1 to F6 by flash chromatography. The antifungal activity of the extract and fractions against yeasts and dermatophytes was evaluated using broth microdilution method. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO) and ?-carotene - linoleic acid assays. Results The extract (MIC = 0.125 - 4 mg/ml) was found to be more active on dermatophytes and yeasts compared to the fractions. The ethyl acetate extract and fractions exhibited strong scavenging activity on DPPH (CI50 = 28.57 - 389.38 ?g/ml). The fractions F3 and F6 expressed best antioxidant activity on DPPH radicals compared to the crude extract. Conclusion The results of these findings clearly showed that C. bauchiense ethyl acetate extract has a significant antifungal and antioxidant activity. It is therefore a source of active compounds that might be used as antifungal and antioxidant agents. PMID:24742210

2014-01-01

29

Influence of moisture on the crystal forms of niclosamide obtained from acetone and ethyl acetate.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to elucidate the formation of crystal hydrates of niclosamide and to delineate the effect of relative humidity on the crystal forms obtained from acetone and ethyl acetate. Recrystallization of niclosamide was performed in the presence and absence of moisture. Two hydrates and their corresponding anhydrates were isolated. The hydrates obtained by the process of recrystallization from acetone (Form I) and that obtained from ethyl acetate (Form II) were classified based on differences in their dehydration profile, crystal structure, shape, and morphology. Crystals obtained in the absence of moisture were unstable, and when exposed to the laboratory atmosphere transformed to their corresponding hydrates. Differential scanning calorimetry thermograms indicate that Form I changes to an anhydrate at temperatures below 100 degrees C, while Form II dehydrates in a stepwise manner above 140 degrees C. This finding was further confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis. Dehydration of Form II was accompanied by a loss of structural integrity, demonstrating that water molecules play an important role in maintaining its crystal structure. Form I, Form II, and the anhydrate of Form II showed no significant moisture sorption over the entire range of relative humidity. Although the anhydrate of Form I did not show any moisture uptake at low humidity, it converted to the monohydrate at elevated relative humidity (>95%). All forms could be interconverted depending on the solvent and humidity conditions. PMID:15198535

Manek, Rahul V; Kolling, William M

2004-03-01

30

Nanofiltration of rhodium tris(triphenylphosphine) catalyst in ethyl acetate solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solvent resistant nanofiltration (SRNF) using polymer membranes has recently received enhanced attention due to the search for cleaner and more energy-efficient technologies. The large size of the rhodium tris(triphenylphosphine) [HRh(CO)(PPh3)3] catalyst (>400 Da) - relative to other components of the hydroformylation reaction provides the opportunity for a membrane separation based on retention of the catalyst species while permeating the solvent. The compatibility of the solvent-polyimide membrane (DuraMem{trade mark, serif} 200 and DuraMem{trade mark, serif} 500) combinations was assessed in terms of the membrane stability in solvent plus non-zero solvent flux at 2.0 MPa. Good HRh(CO)(PPh3)3 rejection (>0.95) and solvent fluxes of 9.9 L/m2?h1 at 2.0 MPa were obtained in the catalyst-ethyl acetate-DuraMem 500 system. The effect of pressure and catalyst concentration on the solvent flux and catalyst rejection was conducted on the catalyst-ethyl acetate-membrane systems. Increasing pressure substantially improved both solvent flux and catalyst rejection, while increasing catalyst concentration was found to be beneficial in terms of substantial increases in catalyst rejection without significantly affecting solvent flux.

Shaharun, Maizatul S.; Mustafa, Ahmad K.; Taha, Mohd F.

2012-09-01

31

Neuromuscular effects and acute toxicity of an ethyl acetate extract of Spigelia anthelmia Linn.  

PubMed

An ethyl acetate extract of Spigelia anthelmia (EASa), with validated anthelmintic activity, was evaluated for its acute toxicity and general effects in albino Swiss mice and for neuromuscular relaxant activity in the frog sciatic-gastrocnemius and rectus abdominis preparation. The extract induced a dose-related myotonia and muscular paralysis of rapid onset at higher doses. The calculated LD50 after oral and intraperitoneal administration was 345.9 [241.4-484.7] mg/kg and 60.8 [47.4-80] mg/kg, respectively. In broilers, intramuscular injection of EASa-induced spastic paralysis qualitatively similar to that obtained after succinylcholine administration and contrasting to the flaccid paralysis induced by D-tubocurarine. The contraction elicited by direct stimulation of the gastrocnemius was blocked by EASa by 54.3+/-4.7% (IC50 = 21.4 [11.2-35.8] microg/ml) and the twitches evoked by stimulation of the sciatic nerve were blocked by 69.1+/-7.4% (IC50 = 17.9 [4.5-34.23] microg/ml). EASa also blocked acetylcholine-induced contractions in the frog rectus abdominis by 58.6+/-7.4% (IC50 = 7.4 [1.7-15.28] microg/ml) but did not decrease tonic contractions induced by a high-potassium Ringer solution. In summary, the ethyl acetate extract of Spigelia anthelmia induces tonic paralysis in vivo, and decreases amplitudes of twitches and increases tonus of skeletal muscle in vitro. PMID:15138009

Camurça-Vasconcelos, A L F; Nascimento, N R F; Sousa, C M; Melo, L M; Morais, S M; Bevilaqua, C M L; Rocha, M F G

2004-06-01

32

Antitumor and apoptotic activities of the chemical constituents from the ethyl acetate extract of Artemisia indica.  

PubMed

Cancer is one of the most eminent diseases of modern times and numerous natural products derived from medicinal plants have been identified as potential sources of antitumor drugs. A successful anticancer drug must target or inhibit tumor cells whilst causing minimal damage to healthy cells. The present study aimed to investigate the antitumor efficacy of ethyl acetate extract, and other isolated compounds from Artemisia indica, on MCF?7, BHY, Miapaca?2, Colo?205 and A?549 cell lines. The apoptotic activity of the compounds was studied using flow cytometry. The different cancer cell lines were treated with the ethyl acetate extract and varying concentrations of compounds (denoted a?g) isolated from the A. indica. The cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT assay and the apoptotic properties of the compounds and the extract were assessed using flow cytometry. In MCF?7 cells, the effect on mitochondrial membrane potential loss (??m) induced by compounds b and d was also studied. Bioassay?guided fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract from the shoot and root parts of A. indica led to the identification of the compounds a?g as: 5?hydroxy?3,7,4'?trimethoxyflavone; ludartin; maackiain; lupeol; cis?matricaria ester; trans?matricaria ester; and 6?methoxy?7,8?methylenedioxy coumarin, respectively. All the compounds exhibited mild to potent inhibition of cell proliferation in all the cell lines, with the half maximal inhibitory concentration values ranging from 25.18?88.12 µM. Ludartin and lupeol were observed to have the most potent inhibitory effects. Based on the initially identified antiproliferative effects, these two compounds were evaluated for their effects on cell cycle phase distribution, DNA damage and their effects on mitochondrial membrane potential loss (??m). The two compounds induced DNA damage and mitochondrial membrane potential loss in MCF?7 cells. The results of the current study suggest that lupeol and ludartin, isolated from A. indica, produce anticancer effects by inducing DNA damage and a reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential, and may be used as potent anticancer agents, subsequent to further study. PMID:25434991

Zeng, Ying-Tong; Jiang, Jian-Min; Lao, Hai-Yan; Guo, Jie-Wen; Lun, Yu-Ning; Yang, Min

2015-03-01

33

Hormetic effect of ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate on bacteria  

DOE PAGESBeta

The biological effect of ionic liquids (ILs) is one of the highly debated topics as they are being contemplated for various industrial applications. 1-ethyl-2-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMIM][Ac]) showed remarkable hormesis on anaerobic Clostridium sp. and aerobic Psueudomonas putida. Bacterial growth was stimulated at up to 2.5 g L-1 and inhibited at > 2.5 g L-1 of ([EMIM][Ac]). The growth of Clostridium sp. and P. putida were higher by 0.4 and 4-fold respectively, in the presense of 0.5 g L-1 of ([EMIM][Ac]). Assessment of the effect of [EMIM][Ac] under different growth conditions showed that the hormesis of [EMIM][Ac] was mediated via regulation of medium pH. Hormetic effect of [EMIM][Ac] was evident only in medium with poor buffering capacity and in the presence of a fermentable substrate as the carbon source. The hormetic effect of [EMIM][Ac] on bacterial growth is most likely associated with the buffering capacity of acetate anion. These observations have implications in ILs toxicity studies and ecological risk assessment.

Nancharaiah, Y. V. [Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Kalpakkam (India). Biofouling and Biofilm Processes Sect.; Francis, A. J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Environmental Sciences Dept.; POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Rep. of). Div. of Advanced Nuclear Engineering

2015-06-01

34

Hormetic effect of ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate on bacteria.  

PubMed

The biological effect of ionic liquids (ILs) is one of the highly debated topics as they are being contemplated for various industrial applications. 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMIM][Ac]) showed remarkable hormesis on anaerobic Clostridium sp. and aerobic Pseudomonas putida. Bacterial growth was stimulated at up to 2.5gL(-1) and inhibited at >2.5gL(-1) of [EMIM][Ac]. The growth of Clostridium sp. and P. putida were higher by 0.4 and 4-fold respectively, in the presence of 0.5gL(-1) [EMIM][Ac]. Assessment of the effect of [EMIM][Ac] under different growth conditions showed that the hormesis of [EMIM][Ac] was mediated via regulation of medium pH. Hormetic effect of [EMIM][Ac] was evident only in medium with poor buffering capacity and in the presence of a fermentable substrate as the carbon source. The hormetic effect of [EMIM][Ac] on bacterial growth is most likely associated with the buffering capacity of acetate anion. These observations have implications in ILs toxicity studies and ecological risk assessment. PMID:25703901

Nancharaiah, Y V; Francis, A J

2015-06-01

35

Enrichment, isolation and characterization of fungi tolerant to 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate  

SciTech Connect

This work aims to characterize microbial tolerance to 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim][OAc]), ionic liquid that has emerged as a novel biomass pretreatment for lignocellulosic biomass. Enrichment experiments performed using inocula treated with [C2mim][OAc] under solid and liquid cultivation yielded fungal populationsdominated by Aspergilli. Ionic liquid-tolerant Aspergillus isolates from these enrichments were capable of growing in a radial plate growth assay in the presence of 10% [C2mim][OAc]. When a [C2mim][OAc]-tolerant Aspergillus fumigatus strain was grown in the presence of switchgrass, endoglucanases and xylanases were secreted that retained residual enzymatic activity in the presence of 20% [C2mim][OAc]. The results of the study suggest tolerance to ionic liquids is a general property of Aspergilli. Tolerance to an industrially important ionic liquid was discovered in a fungal genera that is widely used in biotechnology, including biomass deconstruction.

Singer, S.W.; Reddy, A. P.; Gladden, J. M.; Guo, H.; Hazen, T.C.; Simmons, B. A.; VanderGheynst, J. S.

2010-12-15

36

Preparation of corn starch-g-polystyrene copolymer in ionic liquid: 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate.  

PubMed

The copolymer of starch grafted with polystyrene (starch-g-PS) was synthesized with high grafting percentage by utilizing the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMIM]Ac) as solvent and potassium persulfate as initiator. The effect of various parameters upon the polymerization were studied including: initiator concentration, styrene:starch weight ratio, the reaction time and temperature. Grafting percentages were calculated using an FT-IR calibration method, with values up to 114%. The resulting copolymer was characterized using FT-IR, SEM, WAXD and TGA, which demonstrated that polystyrene side chains were evenly distributed on the starch backbone. Our results indicate that ionic liquid dissolution of starch, prior to polystyrene grafting, is a versatile methodology for the synthesis of amphiphilic, polysaccharide-based graft copolymers, having high grafting percent. PMID:25659709

Men, Yongjun; Du, Xiyan; Shen, Jianan; Wang, Leli; Liu, Zhengping

2015-05-01

37

Antihyperlipidemic Activity of the Ethyl-acetate Fraction of Stereospermum Suaveolens in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Dyslipidemia in diabetes mellitus is a significant risk factor for the development of cardiovascular complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the ethyl-acetate fraction of an ethanolic extract from Streospermum suaveolens on lipid metabolism in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetes was induced by intraperitonial injection of STZ (50 mg/kg). Diabetic rats were treated with an ethyl-acetate fraction orally at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg daily for 14 days. On the 15th day, serum lipid profiles, such as total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL), were estimated in experimental rats. The atherogenic (AI) and the coronary risk (CRI) indices were also evaluated. Results: The ethyl-acetate fraction at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg significantly (P< 0.001) and dose-dependently reduced serum cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL, but increased HDL towards near normal levels as compared to diabetic control rats. The fraction also significantly (P< 0.001) lowered the atherogenic index (AI) and coronary risk index (CAI) in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that the ethyl-acetate fraction of Stereospermum suaveolens exhibits a potent antihyperlipidemic activity in hyperglycemic rats and suggests that the plant may have therapeutic value in treating the diabetic complication of hyperlipidemia.

Thirumalaisamy, Balasubramanian; Prabhakaran, Senthilkumar Gnanavadevel; Marimuthu, Karthikeyan; Chatterjee, Tapan Kumar

2013-01-01

38

Lipid-lowering and antioxidant effects of an ethyl acetate extract of fenugreek seeds in high-cholesterol-fed rats.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the lipid effects, the phenolic content, and the antioxidative effects of an ethyl acetate extract of fenugreek. Wistar rats fed a standard laboratory diet or cholesterol-rich diets for 16 weeks were used. The plasma lipid levels, total phenolics, and total flavonoid contents were measured, and the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and antioxidant activities were examined. Administration of fenugreek ethyl acetate extract significantly lowered the plasma levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), while increasing the plasma level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Furthermore, the content of TBARS and catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in liver, heart and kidney decreased significantly after oral administration of the extract compared with those of rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet. These lipid effects and in vivo antioxidative effects were correlated with the in vitro phenolic content scavenging ability. In addition, three flavonoids (kaempferol 3-O-glycoside, apigenin-7-O-rutinoside, and naringenin) were identified by using an LC-MS/MS apparatus. Naringenin was the abundant flavonoid compound in the ethyl acetate extract, and its concentration reaches 7.23 +/- 0.09 mg/g of dry extract. These results revealed significant hypocholesterolemic effects and antioxidant activity in an ethyl acetate extract of fenugreek seed, which may be partly due to the presence of flavonoids, especially naringenin. PMID:20108903

Belguith-Hadriche, Olfa; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Jamoussi, Kamel; El Feki, Abdelfattah; Sayadi, Sami; Makni-Ayedi, Fatma

2010-02-24

39

Physical insight into switchgrass dissolution in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate  

SciTech Connect

Small-angle neutron scattering was used to characterize solutions of switchgrass and the constituent biopolymers cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, as well as a physical mixture of them mimicking the composition of switchgrass, dissolved in the ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate. The results demonstrate that the IL dissolves the cellulose fibrils of switchgrass, although a supramolecular biopolymer network remains that is not present in solutions of the individual biopolymers and that does not self-assemble in a solution containing the physical mixture of the individual biopolymers. The persistence of a network-like structure indicates that dissolving switchgrass in the IL does not disrupt all of the physical entanglements and covalent linkages between the biopolymers created during plant growth. Reconstitution of the IL-dissolved switchgrass yields carbohydrate-rich material containing cellulose with a low degree of crystallinity, as determined by powder X-ray diffraction, which impacts potential down-stream uses of the biopolymers produced by the process. The data suggests that the use of chemical additives which would break bonds that exist between the lignin and hemicellulose might improve the purity of the resulting product, but may not be able to disrupt the highly physically-entangled biopolymer network sufficiently to facilitate their separation.

Wang, Hui [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa] [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa; Gurau, Gabriela [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa] [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa; Pingali, Sai Venkatesh [ORNL] [ORNL; O'Neil, Hugh [ORNL] [ORNL; Evans, Barbara R [ORNL] [ORNL; Urban, Volker S [ORNL] [ORNL; Heller, William T [ORNL] [ORNL; Rogers, Robin D [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa] [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa

2014-01-01

40

Antitussive Efficacy and Safety Profile of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Terminalia chebula  

PubMed Central

Antitussive effects of ethyl acetate fraction of Terminalia chebula on sulphur dioxide (SO2) gas induced cough have been examined in mice. Safety profile of Terminalia chebula was established by determining LD50 and acute neurotoxicity. The result showed that extract of Terminalia chebula dose dependently suppressed SO2 gas induced cough in mice. Terminalia chebula, after i.p. administration at dose level 500?mg/kg, offered maximum cough suppressive effects; that is, number of coughs at 60?min was 12 ± 1.52 (mean ± SEM) as compared to codeine 10?mg/kg; i.p., dextromethorphan 10?mg/kg; i.p., and saline, having frequency of cough 10.375 ± 0.866, 12.428 ± 0.81, and 46 ± 2.61, respectively. LD50 value of Terminalia chebula was approximately 1265?mg/kg, respectively. No sign of neural impairment was observed at antitussive doses of extract. Antitussive effect of Terminalia chebula was partly reversed with treatment by naloxone (3?mg/kg; s.c.) while rimcazole (3?mg/kg; s.c.) did not antagonize its cough suppression activity. This may suggest that opioid receptors partially contribute in antitussive action of Terminalia chebula. Along with this, the possibility of presence of single or multiple mechanisms activated by several different pharmacological actions (mainly anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, spasmolytic, antibacterial, and antiphlegmatic) could not be eliminated. PMID:24024039

Wahab, Abdul; Ayub, Khurshed; Sherkheli, M. Azhar; Khan, Rafeeq Alam; Raza, Mohsin

2013-01-01

41

Monitoring of cellulose depolymerization in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate by shear and elongational rheology.  

PubMed

The thermal stability of cellulose in the ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, [emim]OAc was investigated. For this purpose, Eucalyptus urugrandis prehydrolysis kraft pulp was first dissolved in [emim]OAc by means of a vertical kneader and then stored at three different temperatures to study the time-depended behavior of the cellulose-[emim]OAc system. Cellulose depolymerization was assessed by characterizing the precipitated cellulose and the rheological behavior of the cellulose-[emim]OAc solutions. The results show decreases in the weight average molecular mass and in the shear viscosity at temperatures exceeding 60 °C, which can be related to progressing degradation of cellulose in the IL upon storage at elevated temperature. The changes in behavior of the solutions under extensional stresses also attest the gradual depolymerization of cellulose. The degradation has been analyzed using appropriate kinetic models. Propyl gallate appeared to be an efficient stabilizer of the cellulose-[emim]OAc system during the dissolution step even though the mechanism has not been fully understood yet. PMID:25498646

Michud, Anne; Hummel, Michael; Haward, Simon; Sixta, Herbert

2015-03-01

42

Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of ethyl acetate extract, fractions and compounds from stem bark of Albizia adianthifolia (Mimosoideae)  

PubMed Central

Background Albizia adianthifolia is used traditionally in Cameroon to treat several ailments, including infectious and associated diseases. This work was therefore designed to investigate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of ethyl acetate extract, fractions and compounds isolated from the stem bark of this plant. Methods The plant extract was prepared by maceration in ethyl acetate. Its fractionation was done by column chromatography and the structures of isolated compounds were elucidated using spectroscopic data in conjunction with literature data. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays were used to detect the antioxidant activity. Broth micro-dilution method was used for antimicrobial test. Total phenol content was determined spectrophotometrically in the extracts by using Folin–Ciocalteu method. Results The fractionation of the extract afforded two known compounds: lupeol (1) and aurantiamide acetate (2) together with two mixtures of fatty acids: oleic acid and n-hexadecanoic acid (B1); n-hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid and docosanoic acid (B2). Aurantiamide acetate was the most active compound. The total phenol concentration expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE) was found to vary from 1.50 to 13.49??g/ml in the extracts. The antioxidant activities were well correlated with the total phenol content (R2?=?0.946 for the TEAC method and R2?=?0.980 for the DPPH free-radical scavenging assay). Conclusions Our results clearly reveal that the ethyl acetate extract from the stem bark of A. adianthifolia possesses antioxidant and antimicrobial principles. The antioxidant activity of this extract as well as that of compound 2 are being reported herein for the first time. These results provide promising baseline information for the potential use of this plant as well as compound 2 in the treatment of oxidative damage and infections associated with the studied microorganisms. PMID:22809287

2012-01-01

43

Vapor–liquid equilibria of carbon dioxide with isopropyl acetate, diethyl carbonate and ethyl butyrate at elevated pressures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vapor–liquid equilibria for carbon dioxide with three esters of isopropyl acetate, diethyl carbonate and ethyl butyrate were measured in this study at 308.45, 313.45 and 318.55K and at elevated pressures up to 8.9MPa. A static type phase equilibrium apparatus with visual sapphire windows was used in the experimental measurements. Equilibrium compositions in both vapor and liquid phases and the vapor–liquid

Chen-His Cheng; Yan-Ping Chen

2005-01-01

44

Enhancement of polysaccharides production in Ganoderma lucidum by the addition of ethyl acetate extracts from Eupolyphaga sinensis and Catharsius molossus  

Microsoft Academic Search

To screen stimulators from Chinese medicinal insects for mycelial growth and polysaccharides production of Ganoderma lucidum, G. lucidum was inoculated into the media with and without supplementation of medicinal insect extracts. The ethyl acetate extract of\\u000a Eupolyphaga sinensis at 55 mg l?1 lead to significant increase in both biomass and intracellular polysaccharides (IPS) concentration from 8.53??0.41 to 14.16??0.43\\u000a and 1.28??0.09 to

Gao-Qiang Liu; Ke-Chang Zhang

2007-01-01

45

Antioxidant and protective effect of ethyl acetate extract of podophyllum hexandrum rhizome on carbon tetrachloride induced rat liver injury.  

PubMed

The antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of ethyl acetate extract was carefully investigated by the methods of DPPH radical scavenging activity, Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, Superoxide radical scavenging activity, Hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity and its Reducing power ability. All these in vitro antioxidant activities were concentration dependent which were compared with standard antioxidants such as BHT, ?-tocopherol. The hepatoprotective potential of Podophyllum hexandrum extract was also evaluated in male Wistar rats against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver damage. Pre-treated rats were given ethyl acetate extract at 20, 30 and 50?mg/kg dose prior to CCl(4) administration (1?ml/kg, 1:1 in olive oil). Rats pre-treated with Podophyllum hexandrum extract remarkably prevented the elevation of serum AST, ALT, LDH and liver lipid peroxides in CCl(4)-treated rats. Hepatic glutathione levels were significantly increased by the treatment with the extract in all the experimental groups. The extract at the tested doses also restored the levels of liver homogenate enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S- transferase) significantly. This study suggests that ethyl acetate extract of P. hexandrum has a liver protective effect against CCl(4)-induced hepatotoxicity and possess in vitro antioxidant activities. PMID:21394192

Ganie, Showkat Ahmad; Haq, Ehtishamul; Masood, Akbar; Hamid, Abid; Zargar, Mohmmad Afzal

2011-01-01

46

Antioxidant effects of ethyl acetate extract of Desmodium gangeticum root on myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury in rat hearts  

PubMed Central

Background This study aims to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the ethyl acetate extract of Desmodium gangeticum root for cardioprotection from ischemia reperfusion-induced oxidative stress. Methods The in vitro antioxidant potential of the extract was in terms of hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, lipid peroxide scavenging activity, nitric oxide scavenging activity and diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity. The in vivo antioxidant potential of the extract was assessed in an isolated rat heart model. Results Free radicals were scavenged by the extract in a concentration-dependent manner within the range of the given concentrations in all models. Administration of the ethyl acetate extract of Desmodium gangeticum root (100 mg per kg body weight) before global ischemia caused a significant improvement of cardiac function and a decrease in the release of lactate dehydrogenase in coronary effluent, as well as the level of malondialdehyde in myocardial tissues. Conclusion The ethyl acetate extract of Desmodium gangeticum root protects the myocardium against ischemia-reperfusion-induced damage in rats. The effects of the extract may be related to the inhibition of lipid peroxidation. PMID:20180993

2010-01-01

47

[Chemical constituents from ethyl acetate extract of flower of Albizia julibrissin].  

PubMed

The ethyl acetate extract of the flower of Albizia julibrissin was isolated and purified by silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and MCI GEL CHP-20P column chromatography to yield 29 compounds. Their structures were elucidated as 8-hydroxy-2, 6-dimethyl-2E, 6Z-octadienoic acid (1), 8-O-formyl-2, 6-dimethyl-2E, 6Z-octadienoic acid (la), 8-hydroxy-2, 6-dimethyl-2E, 6E-octadienoic acid (2), 8-O-formyl-2, 6-dimethyl-2E, 6E-octadienoic acid (2a), (2E, 6S)-2, 6-dimethyl-6-O-beta-D-xylpyranosyloxy-2, 7-menthia-folic acid (3), clovan-2beta, 9alpha-diol (4), 2beta-O-formyl-clovan-9alpha-ol (4a), 2beta, 9alpha-O-diformyl-clovan (4b), vomifoliol (5), (6S, 9R)-roseoside (6), vanillin (7), 4-O-ethylgallic acid (8), 3-ethoxy4-hydroxy-benzoic acid (9), p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (10), gallic acid (11), protocatechoic acid (12), stearic acid (13), palmitic acid (14), 2, 3-dihydroxypropyl hexadecanoate (15), linoleic acid (16), scopoletin (17), indole-3-carboxaldehyde (18), 2-furoic acid (19), 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde (20), (22E, 24R)-5alpha, 8alpha-epidioxy-ergosta-6, 22-dien-3beta-ol (21), (22E, 24R)-5alpha, 8alpha-epidioxy-ergosta-6, 9, 22-trien-3beta-ol (22), (+)-lariciresinol 9'-stearate (23), formononetin (24) and uridine (25). Compounds 1a, 2a, 4a and 4b were new artifacts from the separation process, and others were obtained from A. julibrissin for the first time. PMID:25282893

Rong, Guang-Qing; Geng, Chang-An; Ma, Yun-Bao; Huang, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Hong-Ling; Zhao, Yong; Zhang, Xue-Mei; Chen, Ji-Jun

2014-05-01

48

Validation and uncertainty analysis of a multi-residue method for pesticides in grapes using ethyl acetate extraction and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method was validated for the multi-residue analysis of 82 pesticides in grapes at ?25ng\\/g level. Berry samples (10g) mixed with sodium sulphate (10g) were extracted with ethyl acetate (10mL); cleaned by dispersive solid phase extraction and the results were obtained by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Reduction in sample size and proportion of ethyl acetate for extraction did not affect

Kaushik Banerjee; Dasharath P. Oulkar; Soma Dasgupta; Shubhangi B. Patil; Sangram H. Patil; Rahul Savant; Pandurang G. Adsule

2007-01-01

49

Mesoporous chromia with ordered three-dimensional structures for the complete oxidation of toluene and ethyl acetate.  

PubMed

Mesoporous chromia with ordered three-dimensional (3D) hexagonal polycrystalline structures were fabricated at 130, 180, 240, 280, and 350 degrees C in an autoclave through a novel solvent-free route using KIT-6 as the hard template. The as-obtained materials were characterized (by means of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, N(2) adsorption-desorption, temperature-programmed reduction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques) and tested as a catalyst for the complete oxidation of toluene and ethyl acetate. We found that with a high surface area of 106 m(2)/g and being multivalent (Cr(3+), Cr(5+), and Cr(6+)), the chromia (meso-Cr-240) fabricated at 240 degrees C is the best among the five in catalytic performance. According to the results of the temperature-programmed reduction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigations, it is apparent that the coexistence of multiple chromium species promotes the low-temperature reducibility of chromia. The excellent performance of meso-Cr-240 is because of good 3D mesoporosity and low-temperature reducibility as well as the high surface area of the chromia. The combustion follows a first-order reaction with respect to toluene or ethyl acetate in the presence of excess oxygen, and the corresponding average activation energy is 79.8 and 51.9 kJ/mol, respectively, over the best-performing catalyst. PMID:19924969

Xia, Yunsheng; Dai, Hongxing; Jiang, Haiyan; Deng, Jiguang; He, Hong; Au, Chak Tong

2009-11-01

50

The effects of chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of Brassica rapa L. on cell-mediated immune response in mice.  

PubMed

Turnips with a long history of usage, are helpful in preventing breast and prostate cancer, inflammation and body`s immune system dysfunction. In this study, we investigated the effects of chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of Brassica rapa L. on cell-mediated immune response in mice. Chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of B. rapa glands were prepared by maceration method. To study the effects of B. rapa on acquired immunity, groups of Balb/c mice (n=8) were used. Sheep red blood cell (SRBC) was injected (s.c., 1×10(8)cells/ml, 0.02 ml) and 5 days later, different extracts (10, 100 and 500 mg/kg), betamethasone (4 mg/kg) and Levamisol (4 mg/kg) as a positive control and normal saline as a negative control were given i.p. After 1 h SRBC was injected to footpad (s.c., 1×10(8)cells/ml, 0.02 ml) and footpad swelling was measured up to 72 h. To investigate the effects of B. rapa on innate immunity the same procedure was used, but animals only received one injection of SRBC 1 h after i.p. injection of test compounds. Our findings showed that SRBC induced an increase in paw swelling with maximum response at 6-8 and 2-4 h for innate and acquired immunity, respectively. Betamethasone inhibited and levamisol increased paw thickness in both models. In both innate and acquired immunity models, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of B. rapa glands significantly and dose-dependently reduced paw thickness. Ethyl acetate extract showed better effect. As glucosinolates are better extracted by ethyl acetate, it may be concluded that they are contributed in the more pronounced effects of ethyl acetate extract. PMID:24019825

Jafarian-Dehkordi, A; Zolfaghari, B; Mirdamadi, M

2013-07-01

51

Ethyl acetate extract of the Mauritian sponge Jaspis sp. induces cell arrest in human promyelocytic leukemia cells.  

PubMed

Marine sponges are considered as a gold mine of new natural products possessing numerous biological activities. We examined the cytotoxic properties of the ethyl acetate extract (JDE) of the previously unrecorded sponge, Jaspis sp. collected from Mauritius Waters. JDE displayed an interesting IC50 of 0.057±0.04?g/mL on HL-60 cells evaluated by MTS assay. Mitochondrial membrane potential change, microscopic analysis and DNA fragmentation assays also confirmed JDE induced apoptosis on HL-60 cells. Annexin V staining demonstrated that JDE induced apoptosis at different concentrations. Treatment with 100ng/mL of JDE led to an accumulation of cells in G2/M phase after 24 h, causing a significant increase of cells (24h: 5.84%; 48h: 13.41%) in sub-G1 phase suggesting that JDE can induce cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase. PMID:23598257

Beedessee, Girish; Ramanjooloo, Avin; Aubert, Geneviève; Eloy, Laure; Arya, Deepak; van Soest, Rob W M; Cresteil, Thierry; Marie, Daniel E P

2013-07-01

52

Solvent effects of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate: solvation and dynamic behavior of polar and apolar solutes.  

PubMed

We study the solvation properties of the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMIM](+)[ACE](-)) and the resulting dynamic behavior for differently charged model solutes at room temperature via atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of 300 ns length and 200 ns equilibration time. The solutes are simple model spheres which are either positively or negatively charged with a valency of one, or uncharged. The numerical findings indicate a distinct solvation behavior with the occurrence of well-pronounced solvation shells whose composition significantly depends on the charge of the solute. All the results of our simulations evidence the existence of a long-range perturbation effect in presence of the solutes. Our findings validate the dominance of electrostatic interactions with regard to unfavorable entropic ordering effects which elucidates the enthalpic character of the solvation process in ionic liquids for charged solutes. PMID:25680082

Lesch, Volker; Heuer, Andreas; Holm, Christian; Smiatek, Jens

2015-04-01

53

In-vivo Antioxidant Effects of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Mentha spicata L. on 4-Nitroquinoline-1-Oxide Injected Mice  

PubMed Central

Antioxidant effects of ethyl acetate fraction of Mentha spicata (L.) were evaluated against 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide injected mice. For this study, experiment setup consisted of 36 albino mice of either sex divided into 6 groups: Control (25% DMSO in water), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) alone group (80, 160 mg/Kg body weight-bwt), 4-NQO (7.5 mg/Kg bwt-IP) alone and 4-NQO + EAF. EAF and vehicles were administered orally for five consecutive days. 4-NQO (7.5 mg/Kg bwt) was injected intraperitoneally on the 6th day. After 24 h, the animals were killed; liver sample was extracted and used for bio-assay. 4-NQO alone treated group decreased (27-60%) the antioxidant activities and promoted lipid peroxidation (LPO-60%) over their respective control values. Pretreatment with EAF, at the maximum dose (160 mg/Kg bwt) brought down the LPO up to 87% enhanced by 4-NQO. Among the enzymatic antioxidants, glutathione S-transferase (GST) was the most affected enzyme with 4-NQO and the least was catalase (CAT). Pretreatment with EAF (160 mg/Kg bwt), the restoration of antioxidants like glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and CAT were found equal or less than 1.2 fold higher than that of the respective control values whereas, GST was observed to be the most restored antioxidant. Be reduced glutathione (GSH) and the least vitamin C over their control values. EAF restored the GSH and Vitamin E levels were found to be 1.2 fold higher than the respective control values. PMID:24250414

Arumugam, Ponnan; Ramesh, Arabandi

2011-01-01

54

Lewis acid catalyzed reaction of arylvinylidenecyclopropanes with ethyl (arylimino)acetates: a facile synthetic protocol for pyrrolidine and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline derivatives.  

PubMed

[reaction: see text] A number of pyrrolidine and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline derivatives are prepared selectively in moderate to good yields by the reaction of arylvinylidenecyclopropanes 1 with ethyl (arylimino)acetates 2 in the presence of Lewis acid depending on the electronic nature both of 2 and R1 or R2 aromatic groups of 1. PMID:17402743

Lu, Jian-Mei; Shi, Min

2007-04-26

55

Preparation of Ag-M (M: Fe, Co and Mn)-ZSM-5 bimetal catalysts with high performance for catalytic oxidation of ethyl acetate.  

PubMed

The catalytic combustion of ethyl acetate has been investigated in a series of mono-metal silver and bimetal Ag-M (M: Fe, Co and Mn)-modified HZSM-5 zeolites. The objective was to find a catalyst with high superior activity, selectivity towards deep oxidation product and stability. The catalyst activity was measured under excess oxygen condition in a fixed bed reactor operated at gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) = 30000 h(-1), reaction temperature between 150 and 450 degrees C and ethyl acetate inlet concentration of 1000 ppm. Both Fe-Ag-ZSM-5 and Co-Ag-ZSM-5 catalysts exhibited high activity in the oxidation of ethyl acetate. The sequences of catalytic activity and catalytic stability were as follows: Fe-Ag-ZSM-5 > Co-Ag-ZSM-5 > Mn-Ag-ZSM-5 > Ag-ZSM-5 > HZSM-5. Total conversion of ethyl acetate was achieved at above 250 degrees C. The catalysts were characterized by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. PMID:21780707

Jodaei, A; Salari, D; Niaei, A; Khatamian, M; Caylak, N

2011-01-01

56

Preparation of vinyl acetate  

DOEpatents

This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting a mixture of hydrogen and ketene with a heterogeneous catalyst containing a transition metal to produce acetaldehyde, which is then reacted with ketene in the presence of an acid catalyst to produce vinyl acetate.

Tustin, Gerald Charles (Kingsport, TN); Zoeller, Joseph Robert (Kingsport, TN); Depew, Leslie Sharon (Kingsport, TN)

1998-01-01

57

Preparation of vinyl acetate  

DOEpatents

This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting a mixture of hydrogen and ketene with a heterogeneous catalyst containing a transition metal to produce acetaldehyde, which is then reacted with ketene in the presence of an acid catalyst to produce vinyl acetate.

Tustin, G.C.; Zoeller, J.R.; Depew, L.S.

1998-03-24

58

Characteristics of starch-based films with different amylose contents plasticised by 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate.  

PubMed

Starch-based films plasticised by an ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([Emim][OAc]), were prepared by a simple compression moulding process, facilitated by the strong plasticisation effect of [Emim][OAc]. The effects of amylose content of starch (regular vs. high-amylose maize) and relative humidity (RH) during ageing of the samples on a range of structural and material characteristics were investigated. Surprisingly, plasticisation by [Emim][OAc] made the effect of amylose content insignificant, contrary to most previous studies when other plasticisers were used. In other words, [Emim][OAc] changed the underlying mechanism responsible for mechanical properties from the entanglement of starch macromolecules (mainly amylose), which has been reported as a main responsible factor previously. The crystallinity of the plasticised starch samples was low and thus was unlikely to have a major contribution to the material characteristics, although the amylose content impacted on the crystalline structure and the mobility of amorphous parts in the samples to some extent. Therefore, RH conditioning and thus the sample water content was the major factor influencing the mechanical properties, glass transition temperature, and electrical conductivity of the starch films. This suggests the potential application of ionic liquid-plasticised starch materials in areas where the control of properties by environmental RH is desired. PMID:25817655

Xie, Fengwei; Flanagan, Bernadine M; Li, Ming; Truss, Rowan W; Halley, Peter J; Gidley, Michael J; McNally, Tony; Shamshina, Julia L; Rogers, Robin D

2015-05-20

59

An Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Moringa oleifera Lam. Inhibits Human Macrophage Cytokine Production Induced by Cigarette Smoke  

PubMed Central

Moringa oleifera Lam. (MO) has been reported to harbor anti-oxidation and anti-inflammatory activity and useful in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. However, despite these findings there has been little work done on the effects of MO on immune cellular function. Since macrophages, TNF and related cytokines play an important pathophysiologic role in lung damage induced by cigarette smoke, we examined the effects of MO on cigarette smoke extract (CSE)—induced cytokine production by human macrophages. An ethyl acetate fraction of MO (MOEF) was prepared from fresh leaves extract of Moringa and shown to consist of high levels of phenolic and antioxidant activities. Human monocyte derived macrophages (MDM) pre-treated with varying concentrations of MOEF showed decreased production of TNF, IL-6 and IL-8 in response to both LPS and CSE. The decrease was evident at both cytokine protein and mRNA levels. Furthermore, the extract inhibited the expression of RelA, a gene implicated in the NF-?B p65 signaling in inflammation. The findings highlight the ability of MOEF to inhibit cytokines (IL-8) which promote the infiltration of neutrophils into the lungs and others (TNF, IL-6) which mediate tissue disease and damage. PMID:24553063

Kooltheat, Nateelak; Pankla Sranujit, Rungnapa; Chumark, Pilaipark; Potup, Pachuen; Laytragoon-Lewin, Nongnit; Usuwanthim, Kanchana

2014-01-01

60

Antitumor Activities of Ethyl Acetate Extracts from Selaginella doederleinii Hieron In Vitro and In Vivo and Its Possible Mechanism  

PubMed Central

The antitumor activities of ethyl acetate extracts from Selaginella doederleinii Hieron (SD extracts) in vitro and in vivo and its possible mechanism were investigated. HPLC method was developed for chemical analysis. SD extracts were submitted to 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay on different cells, flow cytometry, and RT-PCR analysis using HepG2 cell and antitumor activity in vivo using H-22 xenograft tumor mice. Six biflavonoids from SD extracts were submitted to molecular docking assay. The results showed that SD extracts had considerable antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo without obvious toxicity on normal cells and could induce cell apoptosis. The mechanisms of tumorigenesis and cell apoptosis induced by SD extracts may be associated with decreasing the ratio of bcl-2 and bax mRNA level, activating caspase-3, suppressing survivin, and decreasing the gene expression of COX-2, 5-LOX, FLAP, and 12-LOX mRNA. The main active component in SD extracts is biflavonoids and some exhibited strong interactions with COX-2, 5-LOX, 12-LOX, and 15-LOX. These results offering evidence of possible mechanisms of SD extracts suppress cell proliferation and promote apoptosis and provide the molecular theoretical basis of clinical application of S. doederleinii for cancer therapy.

Li, Juan; Zhao, Ping; Ma, Wen-tao; Feng, Xie-he; Chen, Ke-li

2015-01-01

61

Selective cytotoxic effects on human cancer cell lines of phenolic-rich ethyl-acetate fraction from Rhus verniciflua Stokes.  

PubMed

Rhus verniciflua Stokes (RVS) is a plant with a long history of medicinal use in Eastern Asia. RVS has been widely used to treat gastritis, stomach cancer and atherosclerosis. The cytotoxic effects of different solvent fractions from an RVS ethanol extract were measured in 11 human cancer cell lines. The study showed that the ethyl-acetate (EtOAC) fraction was the most cytotoxic. This fraction contains a number of phenolic compounds, and this phenolic-rich EtOAC fraction was particularly effective against gastric and breast cancer cells. A purified phenolic-rich EtOAC fraction (PPEF) had a stronger apoptotic effect on these cells. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis showed that the PPEF contained gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, fisetin, sulfuretin, butein and 8 unknown compounds. There were only small amounts of flavonoids: fisetin, sulfuretin and butein. The results showed that PPEF induces apoptosis only in gastric and breast cancer cell lines, but not in lung, colon or liver cancer cell lines. Therefore, PPEF may have a significant potential as an organ-specific anti-cancer agent. PMID:19606519

Kim, Ji Hye; Jung, Chang Hwa; Jang, Bo-Hyoung; Go, Ho Yeon; Park, Jong-Hyeong; Choi, You-Kyung; Hong, Seong Il; Shin, Yong Cheol; Ko, Seong-Gyu

2009-01-01

62

An ethyl acetate fraction of Moringa oleifera Lam. Inhibits human macrophage cytokine production induced by cigarette smoke.  

PubMed

Moringa oleifera Lam. (MO) has been reported to harbor anti-oxidation and anti-inflammatory activity and useful in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. However, despite these findings there has been little work done on the effects of MO on immune cellular function. Since macrophages, TNF and related cytokines play an important pathophysiologic role in lung damage induced by cigarette smoke, we examined the effects of MO on cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced cytokine production by human macrophages. An ethyl acetate fraction of MO (MOEF) was prepared from fresh leaves extract of Moringa and shown to consist of high levels of phenolic and antioxidant activities. Human monocyte derived macrophages (MDM) pre-treated with varying concentrations of MOEF showed decreased production of TNF, IL-6 and IL-8 in response to both LPS and CSE. The decrease was evident at both cytokine protein and mRNA levels. Furthermore, the extract inhibited the expression of RelA, a gene implicated in the NF-?B p65 signaling in inflammation. The findings highlight the ability of MOEF to inhibit cytokines (IL-8) which promote the infiltration of neutrophils into the lungs and others (TNF, IL-6) which mediate tissue disease and damage. PMID:24553063

Kooltheat, Nateelak; Sranujit, Rungnapa Pankla; Chumark, Pilaipark; Potup, Pachuen; Laytragoon-Lewin, Nongnit; Usuwanthim, Kanchana

2014-01-01

63

Diffusion of 1-Ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium Acetate in Glucose, Cellobiose, and Cellulose Solutions  

PubMed Central

Solutions of glucose, cellobiose and microcrystalline cellulose in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium ([C2mim][OAc]) have been examined using pulsed-field gradient 1H NMR. Diffusion coefficients of the cation and anion across the temperature range 20–70 °C have been determined for a range of concentrations (0–15% w/w) of each carbohydrate in [C2mim][OAc]. These systems behave as an “ideal mixture” of free ions and ions that are associated with the carbohydrate molecules. The molar ratio of carbohydrate OH groups to ionic liquid molecules, ?, is the key parameter in determining the diffusion coefficients of the ions. Master curves for the diffusion coefficients of cation, anion and their activation energies are generated upon which all our data collapses when plotted against ?. Diffusion coefficients are found to follow an Arrhenius type behavior and the difference in translational activation energy between free and associated ions is determined to be 9.3 ± 0.9 kJ/mol. PMID:24405090

2014-01-01

64

Inhibitory effect of ethyl acetate extract of the shaggy inc cap medicinal mushroom, Coprinus comatus (Higher Basidiomycetes) fruit bodies on cell growth of human ovarian cancer.  

PubMed

In a previous study, we screened organic extracts of different mushroom mycelia and picked ethyl acetate extract of Coprinus comatus as one of the most active extracts against human ovarian cancer cells. In the current study, we extracted a dry powder of C. comatus fruit bodies using ethyl acetate and examined its effect on the viability of three cell lines originated from human ovarian cancer (ES-2, SKOV-3, and SW-626). This extract was active against all tested cell lines, in a dose-dependent manner (concentrations 50-200 µg/mL, P<0.01). In an attempt to segregate the active fraction, we subjected the extract to chromatography on a silica gel column. The effect of six different fractions and of the crude extract on the viability of ES-2 cells was examined after exposure time of 24 h. Fraction F (last eluted) was significantly more effective than crude extract in the reduction of cell viability (P<0.01). Fraction F was also significantly more active than crude extract in the reduction of viability of SKOV-3 cells. We next identified some of the compounds of fraction F (mainly fatty acids) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In summary, ethyl acetate extract of C. comatus reduced viability of three lines of human ovarian cancer. Fractionation of this extract by a silica gel column enabled the selection of a fraction significantly more active than the original extract. PMID:24266371

Rouhana-Toubi, Amal; Wasser, Solomon P; Agbarya, Abed; Fares, Fuad

2013-01-01

65

The effect of pomelo mix ethyl acetate extract on CYP3A6 and P-glycoprotein gene transcripts in rabbits.  

PubMed

Pomelo fruit juice and pomelo ethylacetate extract have been shown to increase the bioavailability of some CYP3A substrates. The purpose of this study was to investigate if this effect might be contributed to by changes in CYP3A and p-glycoprotein mRNAs levels in the liver and proximal small intestine. The ethyl acetate extract of pomelo mix was administered for 7 days to 10 rabbits. Nine rabbits were administered tap water for 7 days. The administration was through oral intubation to the stomach. On the 8(th) day, the rabbits were sacrificed, and the liver and the proximal 15 cm of the small intestine were dissected. Total RNA was extracted from the specimens and cDNA was prepared by quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using specific primers. The ethyl acetate extract of pomelo mix reduced the mRNA expression of CYP3A6 almost 5-folds in the intestine and 2-folds in the liver. In contrast, a 1-fold increase to the p-glycoprotein mRNA expression was observed under the same experimental conditions. In conclusion, the ethyl acetate extract of pomelo mix reduced the mRNA expression of CYP3A6 in both intestine and liver but to different degrees, while the p-glycoprotein mRNA expression was not reduced. PMID:24856265

Irshaid, Yacoub M; Zihlef, Malek A; Zmeili, Suheil M; Al-Antary, Eman T; Zmaily, Mais G; Al-Embideen, Somya N; Amireh, Abdallah O

2014-07-01

66

In vitro ovicidal assessment of methanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts of Annona squamosa and Chenopodium album against caprine gastrointestinal nematodiosis.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was in vitro evaluation of the ovicidal efficacy of methanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts of Annona squamosa (seeds) and Chenopodium album (whole plant) in comparison to albendazole against the GI nematodes of goats using egg hatch test. Eggs of GI nematodes were incubated at 27 °C in different extracts at concentration of 100-6.25 mg/ml for 2 days. Distilled water and albendazole were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. Percentage efficacy and ED50 and ED90 values were separately evaluated with upper and lower confidence limit by log probit analysis using SAS 9.2. The ED50 and ED90 values of methanolic, ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts of A. squamosa was calculated as 1.52 and 4.56; 2.48 and 10.73; 3.02 and 12.44 mg/ml, respectively against GI nematodes if goats. Similarly, the ED50 and ED90 values of methanolic, ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts of C. album was calculated as 3.86 and 7.14; 2.73 and 8.31; 4.41 and 20.11 mg/ml, respectively This study shows that C. album and A. squamosa possess in vitro anthelmintic activities. The study also suggests further large scale pharmacological and toxicological studies for their safer use in veterinary medicine. PMID:25698862

Sachan, Arti; Shanker, Daya; Jaiswal, Amit Kumar; Sudan, Vikrant

2015-03-01

67

Modification and re-validation of the ethyl acetate-based multi-residue method for pesticides in produce  

PubMed Central

The ethyl acetate-based multi-residue method for determination of pesticide residues in produce has been modified for gas chromatographic (GC) analysis by implementation of dispersive solid-phase extraction (using primary–secondary amine and graphitized carbon black) and large-volume (20 ?L) injection. The same extract, before clean-up and after a change of solvent, was also analyzed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS–MS). All aspects related to sample preparation were re-assessed with regard to ease and speed of the analysis. The principle of the extraction procedure (solvent, salt) was not changed, to avoid the possibility invalidating data acquired over past decades. The modifications were made with techniques currently commonly applied in routine laboratories, GC–MS and LC–MS–MS, in mind. The modified method enables processing (from homogenization until final extracts for both GC and LC) of 30 samples per eight hours per person. Limits of quantification (LOQs) of 0.01 mg kg?1 were achieved with both GC–MS (full-scan acquisition, 10 mg matrix equivalent injected) and LC–MS–MS (2 mg injected) for most of the pesticides. Validation data for 341 pesticides and degradation products are presented. A compilation of analytical quality-control data for pesticides routinely analyzed by GC–MS (135 compounds) and LC–MS–MS (136 compounds) in over 100 different matrices, obtained over a period of 15 months, are also presented and discussed. At the 0.05 mg kg?1 level acceptable recoveries were obtained for 93% (GC–MS) and 92% (LC–MS–MS) of pesticide–matrix combinations. PMID:17563885

Rooseboom, Astrid; van Dam, Ruud; Roding, Marleen; Arondeus, Karin; Sunarto, Suryati

2007-01-01

68

Activation of apoptosis by ethyl acetate fraction of ethanol extract of Dianthus superbus in HepG2 cell line.  

PubMed

Dianthus superbus L. is commonly used as a traditional Chinese medicine. We recently showed that ethyl acetate fraction (EE-DS) from ethanol extract of D. superbus exhibited the strongest antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. In this study, we examined apoptosis of HepG2 cells induced by EE-DS, and the mechanism underlying apoptosis was also investigated. Treatment of HepG2 cells with EE-DS (20-80 ?g/ml) for 48 h led to a significant dose-dependent increase in the percentage of cells in sub-G1 phase by analysis of the content of DNA in cells, and a large number of apoptotic bodies containing nuclear fragments were observed in cells treated with 80 ?g/ml of EE-DS for 24 h by using Hoechst 33258 staining. These data show that EE-DS can induce apoptosis of HepG2 cells. Immunoblot analysis showed that EE-DS significantly suppressed the expressions of Bcl-2 and NF-?B. Treatment of cells with EE-DS (80 ?g/ml) for 48 h resulted in significant increase of cytochrome c in the cytosol, which indicated cytochrome c release from mitochondria. Activation of caspase-9 and -3 were also determined when the cells treated with EE-DS. The results suggest that apoptosis of HepG2 cells induced by EE-DS could be through the mitochondrial intrinsic pathway. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) data showed that the composition of EE-DS is complicated. Further studies are needed to find the effective constituents of EE-DS. PMID:21959229

Yu, Jian-Qing; Yin, Yan; Lei, Jia-Chuan; Zhang, Xiu-Qiao; Chen, Wei; Ding, Cheng-Li; Wu, Shan; He, Xiao-Yu; Liu, Yan-Wen; Zou, Guo-Lin

2012-02-01

69

Influence of ethyl acetate extract and quercetin-3-methyl ether from Polygonum amphibium on activation lymphocytes from peripheral blood of healthy donor in vitro.  

PubMed

The influence of an ethyl acetate extract from Polygonum amphibium L. and quercetin-3-methyl ether isolated from them were examined on the human immune system. The investigations were made on peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors. The cells were stimulated by plant extract and quercetin-3-methyl ether in 24 h culture and analysed inflow cytometry. The following mice monoclonal antibody anti human activate markers were used: anti HLA-DR PE, anti CD25 FITC, anti CD69 FITC and anti CD71 FITC. The level of Interleukine-2 in blood serum and in culture supernatants was measured by ELISA method. Ethyl acetate extract from Polygonum amphibium caused the rise in the number of CD25 and HLA-DR positive lymphocytes and increased the expression of CD25 and CD71 antigens. The level of IL-2 was increasing for the duration of the culture, independently from the presence of stimulators. Besides quercetin-3-methyl ether, from herb of Polygonum amphibium L., trans-taxifolin, quercetin and kaempferol were isolated The structure of the isolated compounds was determined by spectroscopic (UV, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and CI-MS) methods. PMID:12916071

Smolarz, H D; Surdacka, A; Roli?ski, J

2003-08-01

70

Nanofiltration of model acetate solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes were screened for separating acetic acid from model solutions. Flux increased with pressure and temperature and decreased with pH and concentration of acetate. Rejection increased with pH, probably depending on the degree of dissociation of the acetate. At higher pH, acetate rejection could be correlated with NaCl rejection. Of all the membranes screened, the

I. S. Han; M. Cheryan

1995-01-01

71

Solution behavior and surface properties of carboxymethylcellulose acetate butyrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solution behavior of carboxymethylcellulose acetate butyrate (CMCAB) in acetone and ethyl acetate has been investigated by\\u000a small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and capillary viscometry and correlated with the characteristics of CMCAB films. Viscosity\\u000a and SAXS measurements showed that ethyl acetate is a better solvent than acetone for CMCAB. Thin films of CMCAB were deposited\\u000a onto silicon wafers (Si\\/SiO2) by spin coating.

Jorge Amim Jr; Denise F. S. Petri; Francisco C. B. Maia; Paulo B. Miranda

2009-01-01

72

Ulipristal acetate: in uterine fibroids.  

PubMed

Ulipristal acetate, a selective progesterone-receptor modulator, inhibits the proliferation and induces apoptosis of leiomyoma cells in vitro. It also modulates the expression of vascular endothelial growth factors and hormone receptors and modulates extracellular matrix breakdown in leiomyoma cells but not in myometrial cells. In two randomized, double-blind, multinational phase III trials of 13 weeks' duration in women aged 18-50 years with uterine fibroids, a once-daily regimen of oral ulipristal acetate 5 mg/day controlled excessive uterine bleeding (primary endpoint) in ?90% of patients. Ulipristal acetate 5 mg/day was more effective than placebo and was shown to be noninferior to intramuscular leuprolide acetate 3.75 mg once monthly in controlling uterine bleeding. Uterine bleeding was rapidly controlled by ulipristal acetate. Approximately half of recipients of ulipristal acetate 5 mg/day became amenorrhoeic within the first 10 days of treatment. Furthermore, uterine bleeding was controlled significantly more rapidly for recipients of ulipristal acetate than recipients of leuprolide acetate. A significantly greater median reduction from baseline in total fibroid volume was observed for recipients of ulipristal acetate 5 mg once daily than recipients of placebo following 13 weeks' treatment (coprimary endpoint). For patients who did not undergo surgery, the volume reduction was maintained for at least 6 months after discontinuing treatment. Ulipristal acetate was generally well tolerated in women with uterine fibroids. The incidence of hot flush occurred with a significantly lower frequency for recipients of ulipristal acetate than for recipients of leuprolide acetate. PMID:22568731

Croxtall, Jamie D

2012-05-28

73

Acetate dependence of tumors.  

PubMed

Acetyl-CoA represents a central node of carbon metabolism that plays a key role in bioenergetics, cell proliferation, and the regulation of gene expression. Highly glycolytic or hypoxic tumors must produce sufficient quantities of this metabolite to support cell growth and survival under nutrient-limiting conditions. Here, we show that the nucleocytosolic acetyl-CoA synthetase enzyme, ACSS2, supplies a key source of acetyl-CoA for tumors by capturing acetate as a carbon source. Despite exhibiting no gross deficits in growth or development, adult mice lacking ACSS2 exhibit a significant reduction in tumor burden in two different models of hepatocellular carcinoma. ACSS2 is expressed in a large proportion of human tumors, and its activity is responsible for the majority of cellular acetate uptake into both lipids and histones. These observations may qualify ACSS2 as a targetable metabolic vulnerability of a wide spectrum of tumors. PMID:25525877

Comerford, Sarah A; Huang, Zhiguang; Du, Xinlin; Wang, Yun; Cai, Ling; Witkiewicz, Agnes K; Walters, Holly; Tantawy, Mohammed N; Fu, Allie; Manning, H Charles; Horton, Jay D; Hammer, Robert E; McKnight, Steven L; Tu, Benjamin P

2014-12-18

74

Acetate Kinase Isozymes Confer Robustness in Acetate Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Acetate kinase (ACK) (EC no: 2.7.2.1) interconverts acetyl-phosphate and acetate to either catabolize or synthesize acetyl-CoA dependent on the metabolic requirement. Among all ACK entries available in UniProt, we found that around 45% are multiple ACKs in some organisms including more than 300 species but surprisingly, little work has been done to clarify whether this has any significance. In an attempt to gain further insight we have studied the two ACKs (AckA1, AckA2) encoded by two neighboring genes conserved in Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis) by analyzing protein sequences, characterizing transcription structure, determining enzyme characteristics and effect on growth physiology. The results show that the two ACKs are most likely individually transcribed. AckA1 has a much higher turnover number and AckA2 has a much higher affinity for acetate in vitro. Consistently, growth experiments of mutant strains reveal that AckA1 has a higher capacity for acetate production which allows faster growth in an environment with high acetate concentration. Meanwhile, AckA2 is important for fast acetate-dependent growth at low concentration of acetate. The results demonstrate that the two ACKs have complementary physiological roles in L. lactis to maintain a robust acetate metabolism for fast growth at different extracellular acetate concentrations. The existence of ACK isozymes may reflect a common evolutionary strategy in bacteria in an environment with varying concentrations of acetate. PMID:24638105

Chan, Siu Hung Joshua; Nørregaard, Lasse; Solem, Christian; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

2014-01-01

75

40 CFR 721.10074 - Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester. 721.10074 Section 721.10074...1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant...1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester (PMN P-05-568; CAS No....

2010-07-01

76

[Nomegestrol acetate: clinical pharmacology].  

PubMed

Progestogens are used in clinical practice in some conditions. Their effects depend on their chemical structure, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, with important differences among various progestogens. Generally, progestins are classified according to their parent molecule, of which often they keep some features. Derivatives of 19-nor-progesterone are characterized by high selectivity of action on progestin receptor. In particular, nomegestrol acetate (NomAc) shows an important progestational potency, neutral gluco-lipid profile, and antigonadotropic activity. It is used for treating menstrual cycle disorders and for hormone replacement therapy in menopause in association with an estrogen. In future, thanks to its antigonadotropic activity, NomAc will be used in estroprogestin combinations in fertile women, thus taking advantage of its tolerability profile and obtaining numerous non-contraceptive benefits as well. PMID:19749678

Lello, S

2009-10-01

77

Synthesis of the perdeuterated cellulose solvents N -methylmorpholine N -oxide (NMMO-d 11 and NMMO- 15 Nd 11 ), N,N -dimethylacetamide (DMAcd 9 and DMAc 15 Nd 9 ), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIM-OAc-d 14 ) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (BMIM-OAc-d 18 )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The syntheses of several perdeuterated substances—some of them isotopically labeled (15N) in addition—are described, which act as direct solvents of cellulose either on their own, such as N-methylmorpholine N-oxide (NMMO), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (BMIM-OAc), or 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIM-OAc), or in combination\\u000a with auxiliaries, such as N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc—for the cellulose solvent DMAc\\/LiCl). NMMO-d11 (9) was obtained in an eight-step approach from non-labeled

Christian Adelwöhrer; Yuko Yoneda; Toshiyuki Takano; Fumiaki Nakatsubo; Thomas Rosenau

2009-01-01

78

Molecular Structure of Phenylmercuric acetate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Phenylmercuric acetate is white to white-yellow crystalline powder that is odorless. This phenyl mercury compound is used mainly as a fungicide, herbicide, slimicide and bacteriocide. Phenylmercuric acid serves as a preservative in canned paint, eye ointments and drops, injectable solutions, skin disinfectants and in cosmetics products such as hair shampoos, mouthwashes and toothpastes. It is also used in contraceptive gels and foams. Phenylmercuric acetate is prepared by interaction of benzene with mercuric acetate in glacial acetic acid. Phenylmercuric acetate's former production and use as a fungicide and as a mildew inhibitor in paints may have resulted in its direct release to the environment. This substance is very toxic to aquatic organisms and may be hazardous to the environment.

2004-11-10

79

Evaluation of Antiradical and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Ethyl Acetate and Butanolic Subfractions of Agelanthus dodoneifolius (DC.) Polhill & Wiens (Loranthaceae) Using Equine Myeloperoxidase and Both PMA-Activated Neutrophils and HL-60 Cells  

PubMed Central

The ethyl acetate and n-butanolic subfractions of Agelanthus dodoneifolius were investigated for their antioxidant and antimyeloperoxidase (MPO) activities. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was assessed by lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence (CL) and dichlorofluorescein- (DCF-) induced fluorescence techniques from phorbol myristate acetate- (PMA-) stimulated equine neutrophils and human myeloid cell line HL-60, respectively. In parallel, the effects of the tested subfractions were evaluated on the total MPO release by stimulated neutrophils and on the specific MPO activity by means of immunological assays. The results showed the potent activity of the butanolic subfraction, at least in respect of the chemiluminescence test (IC50 = 0.3 ± 0.1?µg/mL) and the ELISA and SIEFED assays (IC50 = 2.8 ± 1.2?µg/mL and 1.3 ± 1.0?µg/mL), respectively. However, the ethyl acetate subfraction was found to be the most potent in the DCF assay as at the highest concentration, DCF fluorescence intensity decreases of about 50%. Moreover, we demonstrated that the ethyl acetate subfraction was rich in catechin (16.51%) while it was not easy to identify the main compounds in the butanolic subfraction using the UPLC-MS/MS technique. Nevertheless, taken together, our results provide evidence that Agelanthus dodoneifolius subfractions may represent potential sources of natural antioxidants and of antimyeloperoxidase compounds.

Boly, Rainatou; Franck, Thierry; Kohnen, Stephan; Lompo, Marius; Guissou, Innocent Pierre; Dubois, Jacques; Serteyn, Didier; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange

2015-01-01

80

Ulipristal acetate for emergency contraception.  

PubMed

Ulipristal acetate is a progesterone receptor modulator. As an emergency contraceptive, a 30-mg micronized formulation is effective for use up to 120 h from unprotected sexual intercourse. Ulipristal acetate acts as an antagonist of the progesterone receptor at the transcriptional level and a competitive antagonist of glucocorticoid receptor function. In contrast to other contraceptives, it has little effect on sex hormone-binding globulin. Although a single small study demonstrated some potential endometrial effects after ulipristal acetate administration, the clinical relevance of these findings is unclear. The incidence of adverse events in clinical trials for emergency contraception has typically been minimal, with one study showing a higher than expected incidence of nausea upon ulipristal acetate use. Ulipristal acetate, like other emergency contraceptive products, can lengthen the time to the next expected menstruation. Ulipristal acetate may have several advantages over currently approved emergency contraceptives. When compared to levonorgestrel, ulipristal acetate maintains its efficacy for a full 120 h, whereas levonorgestrel formulations have declining efficacy over that time frame. Moreover, although the copper intrauterine device (IUD) is highly effective as an emergency contraceptive, accessibility is an issue since the IUD requires a skilled provider for insertion. PMID:20967297

Russo, J A; Creinin, M D

2010-09-01

81

Molecular Structure of Sodium acetate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sodium acetate is known for its ability to supercool. It freezes at 130 degrees, but can exist as a liquid at a much lower temperature. In order to melt solidified sodium acetate, however, every single crystal must liquify, otherwise the material will recrystallize. Sodium acetate has been used as a deicer for roads and runways. It is also used a component of buffer systems and in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals and heat pads. The compound is quite stable. It may act as an irritant and be harmful if inhaled or absorbed through the skin.

2002-08-26

82

Ulipristal acetate: contraceptive or contragestive?  

PubMed

Ulipristal acetate is the first selective progesterone receptor modulator approved for postcoital contraception in the US. It appears to be significantly more effective in inhibition of ovulation than other forms of emergency contraception. However, ulipristal acetate is structurally similar to mifepristone, and several lines of evidence suggest that a postfertilization mechanism of action is also operative. This mechanism of action is considered to be contragestive versus contraceptive. Ulipristal acetate administration is contraindicated in a known or suspected pregnancy; however, it could quite possibly be used as an effective abortifacient. Health-care providers should inform patients of the possibility of both mechanisms of action with use of this drug. PMID:21666088

Keenan, Jeffrey A

2011-06-01

83

Isolation and Bioactivity Analysis of Ethyl Acetate Extract from Acer tegmentosum Using In Vitro Assay and On-Line Screening HPLC-ABTS(+) System.  

PubMed

The Acer tegmentosum (3?kg) was extracted using hot water, and the freeze-dried extract powder was partitioned successively using dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EA), butyl alcohol (n-BuOH), and water. From the EA extract fraction (1.24?g), five phenolic compounds were isolated by the silica gel, octadecyl silica gel, and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. Based on spectroscopic methods such as (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, and LC/MS the chemical structures of the compounds were confirmed as feniculin (1), avicularin (2), (+)-catechin (3), (-)-epicatechin (4), and 6'-O-galloyl salidroside (5). Moreover, a rapid on-line screening HPLC-ABTS(+) system for individual bioactivity of the EA-soluble fraction (five phenolic compounds) was developed. The results indicated that compounds 1 and 2 were first isolated from the A. tegmentosum. The anti-inflammatory activities and on-line screening HPLC-ABTS(+) assay method of these compounds in LPS-stimulated murine macrophages were rapid and efficient for the investigation of bioactivity of A. tegmentosum. PMID:25386382

Lee, Kwang Jin; Song, Na-Young; Oh, You Chang; Cho, Won-Kyung; Ma, Jin Yeul

2014-01-01

84

Ethyl Acetate Extract from Celastrus aculeatus Merr. Suppresses Synovial Inflammation in Adjuvant Arthritis Rats through Apoptosis Induction of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ T Cells  

PubMed Central

Celastrus aculeatus Merr. has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in clinic. However, the main active fraction of this plant is still unclear. In this study, we attempted to evaluate the suppressive effect of ethyl acetate extract (EAE) from Celastrus aculeatus Merr. on synovial inflammation in adjuvant arthritis (AA) rats induced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra (Mtb) and to explore the underlying mechanisms. SD rats immunized with heat-killed Mtb were fed with EAE and observed for erythema, swelling, and induration of each paw. The pathologic changes in joint synovium were tested by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Apoptosis induction of synoviocytes was tested immunohistochemically. Apoptosis of peripheral lymphocytes and the level of regulatory T cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. After treatment with EAE, the joint inflammation in rats with AA was alleviated. Both apoptotic ratios of synoviocytes and peripheral lymphocytes and the ratio of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ to CD4 regulatory T cells were significantly increased. In summary, we first demonstrated that EAE of Celastrus aculeatus Merr. can inhibit synovial inflammation in AA rats through apoptosis induction of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ T cells. Our study provides a rationale for the application of Celastrus aculeatus Merr. to treat RA. PMID:25548591

Bai, Shu-tong; Chen, Pei-hong; Chen, Yu-yao; Lin, Xiao-chun; Liu, Jun-shan; Tong, Li

2014-01-01

85

Isolation and Bioactivity Analysis of Ethyl Acetate Extract from Acer tegmentosum Using In Vitro Assay and On-Line Screening HPLC-ABTS+ System  

PubMed Central

The Acer tegmentosum (3?kg) was extracted using hot water, and the freeze-dried extract powder was partitioned successively using dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EA), butyl alcohol (n-BuOH), and water. From the EA extract fraction (1.24?g), five phenolic compounds were isolated by the silica gel, octadecyl silica gel, and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. Based on spectroscopic methods such as 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and LC/MS the chemical structures of the compounds were confirmed as feniculin (1), avicularin (2), (+)-catechin (3), (?)-epicatechin (4), and 6?-O-galloyl salidroside (5). Moreover, a rapid on-line screening HPLC-ABTS+ system for individual bioactivity of the EA-soluble fraction (five phenolic compounds) was developed. The results indicated that compounds 1 and 2 were first isolated from the A. tegmentosum. The anti-inflammatory activities and on-line screening HPLC-ABTS+ assay method of these compounds in LPS-stimulated murine macrophages were rapid and efficient for the investigation of bioactivity of A. tegmentosum. PMID:25386382

Song, Na-Young; Oh, You Chang; Cho, Won-Kyung; Ma, Jin Yeul

2014-01-01

86

Crystal structure of ethyl 2-(di­eth­oxy­phosphor­yl)-2-(2,3,4-tri­meth­oxy­phen­yl)acetate  

PubMed Central

The title compound, C17H27O8P, was prepared by Michaelis–Arbuzov reaction of ethyl 2-bromo-2-(2,3,4-tri­meth­oxy­phen­yl)acetate and triethyl phosphite. Such compounds rarely crystallize, but single crystals were recovered after the initial oil was left for approximately 10 years. The bond angle of the sp 3-hybridized C atom connecting the benzene derivative with the phospho unit is widened marginally [112.5?(2)°]. The terminal P—O bond length of 1.464?(2)?Å clearly indicates a double bond, whereas the two O atoms of the eth­oxy groups connected to the phospho­rous atom have bond lengths of 1.580?(2)?Å and 1.581?(3)?Å. The three meth­oxy groups emerge out of the benzene-ring plane due to steric hindrance [C—C—O—C torsion angles = ?179.9?(3)°, ?52.9?(4)° and 115.3?(4)°]. In the crystal, inversion dimers linked by pairs of C—H?O=P hydrogen bonds generate R 2 2(14) loops. The chosen crystal was modelled as a non-merohedral twin. PMID:25309241

Schubert, Moritz; Schollmeyer, Dieter; Waldvogel, Siegfried R.

2014-01-01

87

Protective effects of ethyl acetate fraction of Lawsonia inermis fruits extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative damage in rat liver.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the antioxidant properties of different fractions obtained from the fruits of Lawsonia inermis, a widely used medicinal plant, against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced oxidative stress in rat liver. The results show that several fractions obtained from L. inermis fruits possessed important antioxidant activity. Among them, the ethyl acetate (EA) fraction showed the highest antioxidant activity. Then, EA fraction was selected for the purification of potential antioxidant compounds. The hepatoprotective effects of EA fraction and its most active constituent, gallic acid (GA), were evaluated against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. CCl4 induced oxidative stress by a significant rise in serum marker enzymes. However, pretreatment of rats with EA fraction of fruits of L. inermis at a dose of 250 mg kg(-1) body weight and GA significantly lowered some serum biochemical parameters (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase) in treated rats. A significant reduction in hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and an increase in antioxidant enzymes namely superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase by treatment with plant extract and GA, against CCl4-treated rats, were observed. Histopathological examinations showed extensive liver injuries, characterized by extensive hepatocellular necrosis, vacuolization, and inflammatory cell infiltration. This potential antioxidant activity is comparable to those of the major purified antioxidant compound, GA. Based on these results, it was observed that fruits of L. inermis protect liver from oxidative stress induced by CCl4 and thus help in evaluation of traditional claim on this plant. PMID:24215067

Ben Hsouna, Anis; Mongi, Saoudi; Culioli, Gérald; Blache, Yves; Ghlissi, Zohra; Chaabane, Rim; El Feki, Abdelfattah; Jaoua, Samir; Trigui, Mohamed

2013-11-01

88

Comparative evaluation of the metabolic effects of hydroxytyrosol and its lipophilic derivatives (hydroxytyrosyl acetate and ethyl hydroxytyrosyl ether) in hypercholesterolemic rats.  

PubMed

Hydroxytyrosol (HT), a virgin olive oil phenolic phytochemical with proven health benefits, has been used to generate new lipophilic antioxidants to preserve fats and oils against autoxidation. The aim of this work is to comparatively evaluate the physiological effects of HT and its lipophilic derivatives, hydroxytyrosyl acetate (HT-Ac) and ethyl hydroxytyrosyl ether (HT-Et), in high-cholesterol fed animals. Male Wistar rats (n = 8) were fed a standard diet (C group), a cholesterol-rich diet (Chol group) or a cholesterol-rich diet supplemented with phenolic compounds (HT group, HT-Ac group and HT-Et group) for 8 weeks. Body and tissue weights, the lipid profile, redox status, and biochemical, hormonal, and inflammatory biomarkers were evaluated. Plasma levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, glucose, insulin and leptin, as well as malondialdehyde in serum increased in Chol compared to C (p < 0.05). Rats fed the test diets had improved glucose, insulin, leptin and MDA levels and antioxidant capacity status, with HT-Ac being the most effective compound. The studied phenolic compounds also modulated TNF-? and IL-1? plasma levels compared to Chol. HT-Ac and HT-Et improved adipose tissue distribution and adipokine production, decreasing MCP-1 and IL-1? levels. Our results confirm the metabolic effects of HT, which are maintained and even improved by hydrophobic derivatives, particularly HT-Ac. PMID:24855654

Tabernero, María; Sarriá, Beatriz; Largo, Carlota; Martínez-López, Sara; Madrona, Andrés; Espartero, José Luis; Bravo, Laura; Mateos, Raquel

2014-07-25

89

In Vivo Antioxidant and Anti-Skin-Aging Activities of Ethyl Acetate Extraction from Idesia polycarpa Defatted Fruit Residue in Aging Mice Induced by D-Galactose  

PubMed Central

Two different concentrations of D-galactose (D-gal) induced organism and skin aging in Kunming mice were used to examine comprehensively the antioxidant and antiaging activities of ethyl acetate extraction (EAE) from Idesia polycarpa defatted fruit residue for the first time. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of EAE was 13.09 ± 0.11??mol Trolox equivalents (TE)/mg, which showed EAE had great in vitro free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity. Biochemical indexes and morphological analysis of all tested tissues showed that EAE could effectively improve the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) of the antioxidant defense system of the aging mice, enhance the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) of tissues and serum, increase glutathione (GSH) content and decrease the malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and maintain the skin collagen, elastin, and moisture content. Meanwhile, EAE could effectively attenuate the morphological damage in brain, liver, kidney, and skin induced by D-gal and its effect was not less than that of the well-known L-ascorbic acid (VC) and ?-tocopherol (VE). Overall, EAE is a potent natural antiaging agent with great antioxidant activity, which can be developed as a new medicine and cosmetic for the treatment of age-related conditions. PMID:24971146

Jia, Ran-ran; Chen, Fang

2014-01-01

90

Molecular Structure of Acetic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Acetic Acid commonly associated with vinegar; it is the most commercially important organic acid and is used to manufacture a wide range of chemical products, such as plastics and insecticides. Acetic acid is produced naturally by Aceto bacteria but, except for making vinegar, is usually made through synthetic processes. Ethanoic acid is used as herbicide, as a micro-biocide, as a fungicide and for pH adjustment.

2003-06-02

91

Induction of S phase arrest and apoptosis by ethyl acetate extract from Tetrastigma hemsleyanum in human hepatoma HepG2 cells.  

PubMed

Tetrastigma hemsleyanum, a rare and endangered medicinal plant, has attracted much attention due to antitumor and immunomodulatory activities. In this study, the effect and mechanism of ethyl acetate extract from T. hemsleyanum (EET) on cell cycle and apoptosis in human hepatoma HepG2 cells were investigated. Twenty-five to 200 ?g/mL of EET were found to have the antiproliferation effect toward HepG2 cells determined by MTT assay. The morphology of EET-treated HepG2 cells showed evidence of apoptosis that included blebbing and chromatin condensation, nucleic fragmentation, and so on. The DNA laddering assay confirmed that DNA fragmentation had occurred during late apoptosis. The cell-cycle analysis indicated that EET was able to induce S phase arrest and typical subdiploid peak in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The apoptosis rate of 200 ?g/mL treatment for 24 h was 42.24?±?4.90 %. The protein expression of Bax and P53 was increased after treatment, while that of Bcl2 was significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner, which suggested that a high Bax/Bcl2 ratio and an upregulated P53 might contribute to the pro-apoptotic activity of EET via the mitochondria-dependent pathway. The protein expression of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) was decreased in EET-treated HepG2 cells, suggesting that EET evoked S phase arrest possibly through the downregulation of cyclin A-CDK1 complex. In conclusion, the cytotoxicity on HepG2 cells induced by EET is a result of both cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. Thus, it may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of liver cancer. PMID:25596082

Peng, Xin; Zhuang, Ding-Ding; Guo, Qiao-Sheng

2015-04-01

92

Ethyl acetate extract from marine sponge Hyattella cribriformis exhibit potent anticancer activity by promoting tubulin polymerization as evidenced mitotic arrest and induction of apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Background: Marine sponges are important sources of bioactive compounds. Objective: This study investigated the anticancer properties of Hyattella cribriformis ethyl acetate (EA) fraction in various cancer and normal cell lines. Materials and Methods: anticancer assay was carried out in 15 cell lines to evaluate the anticancer potential of the EA fraction. Impact on cell cycle distribution was determined using flow cytometry. The fraction was investigated for interfering microtubules assembly in both in vitro and cellular assay. Further studies were conducted to determine the fraction induced cell death (apoptosis) using calcein/propidium iodide dual staining, activated caspase-3 and phosphorylation of Bcl-2 protein at Ser70. DNA fragmentation assay was performed to confirm the apoptosis. Results: EA fraction exhibited potent inhibition of cancer cell growth and resulted in 50% growth inhibition (GI50) of 0.27 ?g/mL in A673 cell line. Sarcoma (MG-63, Saos-2) and ovarian (SK-OV-3 and OVCAR-3) cancer cell lines also showed superior anticancer activity GI50 of 1.0 ?g/mL. Colon and breast cancer cell lines exhibited moderate GI compare other cancer cell lines and normal human lung fibroblast showed GI50 of 15.6 ?g/mL. EA fraction showed potent G2/M phase arrest in A673 cell line and induced apoptosis at 48 h exposure. EA fraction promoted microtubule polymerization in tubulin polymerization assay and increased level of polymerized tubulin in the HeLa cells. Fraction induced the activation of caspase-3 and phosphorylation of Bcl-2 anti-apoptotic protein. Fraction induced DNA fragmentation in HeLa cells as evidence of apoptosis. Conclusion: Marine sponge H. cribriformis EA fraction exhibited potent anticancer activity through tubulin polymerization and induction of apoptosis.

Annamalai, Pazhanimuthu; Thayman, Malini; Rajan, Sowmiya; Raman, Lakshmi Sundaram; Ramasubbu, Sankar; Perumal, Pachiappan

2015-01-01

93

Eupafolin and Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Kalanchoe gracilis Stem Extract Show Potent Antiviral Activities against Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16.  

PubMed

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CoxA16) are main pathogens of hand-foot-and-mouth disease, occasionally causing aseptic meningitis and encephalitis in tropical and subtropical regions. Kalanchoe gracilis, Da-Huan-Hun, is a Chinese folk medicine for treating pain and inflammation, exhibiting antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Our prior report (2012) cited K. gracilis leaf extract as moderately active against EV71 and CoxA16. This study further rates antienteroviral potential of K. gracilis stem (KGS) extract to identify potent antiviral fractions and components. The extract moderately inhibits viral cytopathicity and virus yield, as well as in vitro replication of EV71 (IC50 = 75.18? ? g/mL) and CoxA16 (IC50 = 81.41? ? g/mL). Ethyl acetate (EA) fraction of KGS extract showed greater antiviral activity than that of n-butanol or aqueous fraction: IC50 values of 4.21? ? g/mL against EV71 and 9.08? ? g/mL against CoxA16. HPLC analysis, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, and plaque reduction assay indicate that eupafolin is a vital component of EA fraction showing potent activity against EV71 (IC50 = 1.39? ? M) and CoxA16 (IC50 = 5.24? ? M). Eupafolin specifically lessened virus-induced upregulation of IL-6 and RANTES by inhibiting virus-induced ERK1/2, AP-1, and STAT3 signals. Anti-enteroviral potency of KGS EA fraction and eupafolin shows the clinical potential against EV71 and CoxA16 infection. PMID:24078828

Wang, Ching-Ying; Huang, Shun-Chueh; Lai, Zhen-Rung; Ho, Yu-Ling; Jou, Yu-Jen; Kung, Szu-Hao; Zhang, Yongjun; Chang, Yuan-Shiun; Lin, Cheng-Wen

2013-01-01

94

Cancer-specific chemoprevention and anti-metastatic potentials of Rheum emodi rhizome ethyl acetate extracts and identification of active principles through HPLC and GC-MS analysis.  

PubMed

Rheum emodi Wall. ex Meissn. (Polygonaceae) is a Himalayan perennial herb which has been cultivated over 5000 years for its medicinal properties by rural and tribal people of Kashmir, and has great significance for its traditional use in Ayurvedic, Unani and folk systems of medicine for cancer treatments. However, there is lack of reports pertaining to specific-chemopreventive properties of R. emodi rhizome. The present study investigates R. emodi rhizome hot and cold ethyl acetate extracts (EHR and ECR) for specific-chemopreventive properties. The extracts were found to be effective antioxidant sources, and showed significant (P<0.05) cancer-specific cytotoxicity towards MDA-MB-231 cells (when compared to WRL-68 [non-tumoral cells]) with IC(50) values of 56.59±1.29 ?g/ml (EHR) and 152.38±1.45 ?g/ml (ECR) respectively, and induced apoptosis significantly (P<0.05) high in MDA-MB-231 cells (estrogen receptor-(ER)-negative) when compared to MCF-7 cells (ER-positive). Extracts also demonstrated evident anti-metastatic activity. Further, the extracts were chemically characterized through HPLC analysis which revealed major polyphenolics and the GC-MS analysis of the effective extract EHR unveiled (Methyl 6,7-dideoxy-6-C-methyl-2,3-di-O-methyl-à-D-gluco-oct-6-eno-1,5-pyranosid)urono-8,4-lactone,Chrysophanol, derivatives of cyclopropanes and a quinazoline derivative. Overall, EHR exhibited significantly better results on par with ECR, and thus could be considered for their use in designing cancer-specific chemopreventive agents against ER-negative breast cancer. PMID:25553709

Kumar, Devanga Ragupathi Naveen; George, Vazhapilly Cijo; Suresh, Palamadai Krishnan; Kumar, Rangasamy Ashok

2015-01-01

95

Eupafolin and Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Kalanchoe gracilis Stem Extract Show Potent Antiviral Activities against Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CoxA16) are main pathogens of hand-foot-and-mouth disease, occasionally causing aseptic meningitis and encephalitis in tropical and subtropical regions. Kalanchoe gracilis, Da-Huan-Hun, is a Chinese folk medicine for treating pain and inflammation, exhibiting antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Our prior report (2012) cited K. gracilis leaf extract as moderately active against EV71 and CoxA16. This study further rates antienteroviral potential of K. gracilis stem (KGS) extract to identify potent antiviral fractions and components. The extract moderately inhibits viral cytopathicity and virus yield, as well as in vitro replication of EV71 (IC50 = 75.18??g/mL) and CoxA16 (IC50 = 81.41??g/mL). Ethyl acetate (EA) fraction of KGS extract showed greater antiviral activity than that of n-butanol or aqueous fraction: IC50 values of 4.21??g/mL against EV71 and 9.08??g/mL against CoxA16. HPLC analysis, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, and plaque reduction assay indicate that eupafolin is a vital component of EA fraction showing potent activity against EV71 (IC50 = 1.39??M) and CoxA16 (IC50 = 5.24??M). Eupafolin specifically lessened virus-induced upregulation of IL-6 and RANTES by inhibiting virus-induced ERK1/2, AP-1, and STAT3 signals. Anti-enteroviral potency of KGS EA fraction and eupafolin shows the clinical potential against EV71 and CoxA16 infection. PMID:24078828

Wang, Ching-Ying; Huang, Shun-Chueh; Lai, Zhen-Rung; Ho, Yu-Ling; Jou, Yu-Jen; Kung, Szu-Hao; Zhang, Yongjun; Chang, Yuan-Shiun; Lin, Cheng-Wen

2013-01-01

96

Desmopressin Acetate in Intracranial Haemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Introduction. The secondary increase in the size of intracranial haematomas as a result of spontaneous haemorrhage or trauma is of particular relevance in the event of prior intake of platelet aggregation inhibitors. We describe the effect of desmopressin acetate as a means of temporarily stabilising the platelet function. Patients and Methods. The platelet function was analysed in 10 patients who had received single (N = 4) or multiple (N = 6) doses of acetylsalicylic acid and 3 patients (control group) who had not taken acetylsalicylic acid. All subjects had suffered intracranial haemorrhage. Analysis was performed before, half an hour and three hours after administration of desmopressin acetate. Statistical analysis was performed by applying a level of significance of P ? 0.05. Results. (1) Platelet function returned to normal 30 minutes after administration of desmopressin acetate. (2) The platelet function worsened again after three hours. (3) There were no complications related to electrolytes or fluid balance. Conclusion. Desmopressin acetate can stabilise the platelet function in neurosurgical patients who have received acetylsalicylic acid prior to surgery without causing transfusion-related side effects or a loss of time. The effect is, however, limited and influenced by the frequency of drug intake. Further controls are needed in neurosurgical patients. PMID:25610644

Kapapa, Thomas; Röhrer, Stefan; Struve, Sabine; Petscher, Matthias; König, Ralph; Wirtz, Christian Rainer; Woischneck, Dieter

2014-01-01

97

Concentrating aqueous acetate solutions with tertiary amines  

E-print Network

= I'7o(w/wk) 11 Liquid-liquid equilibrium data for the calcium acetate/water/amuie system with various extractants. (T= TEA, D= DEMA. Initial aqueous-phase calcium acetate concentration= 2%(w/w). ) 27 28 31 34 via FIGURE Page 12 Liquid.... (Calcium acetate/water /amine, TEA:DEMA= I mL:2 mL, initial aqueous calcium acetate= 1% (w/w). ) Equilibrium calcium acetate concentrations in the aqueous phase determined by FTIR and AA measurements. (Calcium acetate/water /amine, TEA:DEMA= I mL;2 m...

Lee, Champion

1993-01-01

98

Ozone decomposition in aqueous acetate solutions  

SciTech Connect

The acetate radical ion reacts with ozone with a rate constant of k = (1.5 +/- 0.5) x 10Z dmT mol s . The products from this reaction are CO2, HCHO, and O2 . By subsequent reaction of the peroxy radical with ozone the acetate radical ion is regenerated through the OH radical. A chain decomposition of ozone takes place. It terminates when the acetate radical ion reacts with oxygen forming the unreactive peroxy acetate radical. The chain is rather short as oxygen is developed, as a result of the ozone consumption. The inhibiting effect of acetate on the ozone decay is rationalized by OH scavenging by acetate and successive reaction of the acetate radical ion with oxygen. Some products from the bimolecular disappearance of the peroxy acetate radicals, however, react further with ozone, reducing the effectiveness of the stabilization.

Sehested, K.; Holcman, J.; Bjergbakke, E.; Hart, E.J.

1987-01-01

99

Genera and species in acetic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taxonomic studies of acetic acid bacteria were historically surveyed. The genus Acetobacter was first introduced in 1898 with a single species, Acetobacter aceti. The genus Gluconobacter was proposed in 1935 for strains with intense oxidation of glucose to gluconic acid rather than oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid and no oxidation of acetate. The genus “Acetomonas\\

Yuzo Yamada; Pattaraporn Yukphan

2008-01-01

100

Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of newly synthesized chiral peptide derivatives using (3-benzoyl- 4,5-dioxo-2-phenyl-pyrrolidin-1-yl)acetic acid ethyl ester as starting material.  

PubMed

A series of heterocyclic derivatives was synthesized using (3-benzoyl-4,5-dioxo-2-phenyl-pyrrolidin-1-yl)acetic acid ethyl ester 1 as starting material. Treatment of 1 with 1 N NaOH or hydrazine hydrate afford the corresponding acid 2 and acid hydrazides 4 and 5, which were reacted with several reagents to produce some new peptido hetero-organic derivatives 6-12. The pharmacological screening showed that many of these newly synthesized compounds have good anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities comparable to diclofenac potassium and valdecoxib as reference drugs. PMID:18214842

Fakhr, Issa M; Amr, Abdel-Galil E; Sabry, Nermien M; Abdalah, Mohamed M

2008-03-01

101

Biodegradation of cellulose acetate by Neisseria sicca.  

PubMed

Bacteria capable of assimilating cellulose acetate, strains SB and SC, were isolated from soil on a medium containing cellulose acetate as a carbon source, and identified as Neisseria sicca. Both strains degraded cellulose acetate membrane filters (degree of substitution, DS, mixture of 2.8 and 2.0) and textiles (DS, 2.34) in a medium containing cellulose acetate (DS, 2.34) or its oligomer, but were not able to degrade these materials in a medium containing cellobiose octaacetate. Biodegradation of cellulose acetate (DS, 1.81 and 2.34) on the basis of biochemical oxygen demand reached 51 and 40% in the culture of N. sicca SB and 60 and 45% in the culture of N. sicca SC within 20 days. A decrease in the acetyl content of degraded cellulose acetate films and powder was confirmed by infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. After 10-day cultivation of N. sicca SB and SC, the number-average molecular weight of residual cellulose acetate decreased by 9 and 5%, respectively. Activities of enzymes that released acetic acid and produced reducing sugars from cellulose acetate were mainly present in the culture supernatant. Reactivity of enzymes for cellulose acetate (DS, 1.81) was higher than that for cellulose acetate (DS, 2.34). PMID:8987659

Sakai, K; Yamauchi, T; Nakasu, F; Ohe, T

1996-10-01

102

Isolation and characterization of Deinococcus geothermalis T27, a slightly thermophilic and organic solvent-tolerant bacterium able to survive in the presence of high concentrations of ethyl acetate.  

PubMed

A solvent-tolerant, slightly thermophilic bacterium was isolated at 45 degrees C in the presence of toluene vapor provided as the sole carbon source. Strain T27 was identified as Deinococcus geothermalis T27. It could tolerate high concentrations of solvent provided as a nonaqueous layer (5% and 20%, v/v) to a cell suspension and had a remarkable ability to tolerate a broad range of solvents having log P(ow) values ranging from 5.6 of n-decane to as low as 0.7 of ethyl acetate. It was also able to utilize some of the solvents tested as a growth substrate at 45 degrees C. The addition of Ca(2+) ion, glucose and fructose partially promoted solvent tolerance. Cells exposed to ethyl acetate appeared to have a smaller size; however, the cell structure was not altered and was apparently well defined even after solvent shock. The tolerance of D. geothermalis T27 in the presence of high levels of toxic solvent stress at a comparatively high temperature indicated its potential use in biotechnological applications as well as bioremediation of xenobiotics. PMID:18647360

Kongpol, Ajiraporn; Kato, Junichi; Vangnai, Alisa S

2008-09-01

103

[Antiovulatory action of chlormadinone acetate].  

PubMed

Antiovulatory action of chlormadinone acetate (5 mg twice daily from day 7 to day 25) has been assessed in 6 healthy volunteers by daily determination of plasma FSH, LH, estradiol and progesterone. Hormonal profiles during the second treated cycle show that preovulatory gonadotropin surge is blunted and that no significant progesterone secretion occurs. Estradiol production is variable up to the middle of the cycle, and then homogeneously low normal. Menstrual cyclicity is respected and ovarian function is restored during the first cycle after treatment disruption. PMID:7511024

Pelissier, C; Blacker, C; Feinstein, M C; Cournot, A; Denis, C

1994-01-01

104

Spegtrophotometrig Determination of ? Tocopherol Acetate in Soft Capsules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two spectrophotometric methods have been described for the determination of ? -tocopherol acetate (vitamin E) in soft capsules. The first method applies the orthogonal function method under least squares. The quadratic coefficients calculated over the wavelength range 277 - 304 nm at 4-nm intervals in chloroform were reproducible and independent of ethyl oleate concentration. The second method applies the second

Magda H. Barary; Mohamed E. Abdel Hamid; Ekram M. Haaaan; Mahmoud A. Elsayed

1985-01-01

105

Enzymatic production of glycerol acetate from glycerol.  

PubMed

In this study, we report the enzymatic production of glycerol acetate from glycerol and methyl acetate. Lipases are essential for the catalysis of this reaction. To find the optimum conditions for glycerol acetate production, sequential experiments were designed. Type of lipase, lipase concentration, molar ratio of reactants, reaction temperature and solvents were investigated for the optimum conversion of glycerol to glycerol acetate. As the result of lipase screening, Novozym 435 (Immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B) was turned out to be the optimal lipase for the reaction. Under the optimal conditions (2.5 g/L of Novozym 435, 1:40 molar ratio of glycerol to methyl acetate, 40 °C and tert-butanol as the solvent), glycerol acetate production was achieved in 95.00% conversion. PMID:25640720

Oh, Seokhyeon; Park, Chulhwan

2015-02-01

106

Acetate kinase: a triple-displacement enzyme.  

PubMed

Facts relating to the mechanism of phosphoryl transfer by acetate kinase (ATP:acetate phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.2.1) are reviewed. They point to the existence of at least one experimentally established phosphoenzyme (E-P) intermediate on the reaction pathway. Sterically, the phosphoryl transfer occurs with a net inversion of the configuration of the phosphorus atom. These facts are best in accord with a triple-displacement mode of action for acetate kinase, with two E-P intermediates and three steric inversions on phosphorus. It follows that a second E-P for acetate kinase must exist. PMID:6248856

Spector, L B

1980-05-01

107

Contact dermatitis induced by glatiramer acetate.  

PubMed

Glatiramer acetate (Copaxone(®)) is an immunomodulatory polypeptide used in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. It represents a safe treatment option with mild side effects. In this study, we look at a 39-year-old woman who received glatiramer acetate as subcutaneous injections for two months and developed contact dermatitis. The drug had to be stopped, and treatment with topical prednisone was initiated. Prick/scratch testing was negative but the lymphocyte transformation test was highly positive for glatiramer acetate. This is the first report on contact dermatitis induced by glatiramer acetate injections. The treatment consisted of local topical steroids and cessation of the drug. PMID:21729979

Haltmeier, S; Yildiz, M; Müller, S; Anliker, M D; Heinzerling, L

2011-11-01

108

Ethyl acetate extract of germinated brown rice attenuates hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells: role of anti-apoptotic, pro-survival and antioxidant genes  

PubMed Central

Background There are reports of improved metabolic outcomes due to consumption of germinated brown rice (GBR). Many of the functional effects of GBR can be linked to its high amounts of antioxidants. Interestingly, dietary components with high antioxidants have shown promise in the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This effect of dietary components is mostly based on their ability to prevent apoptosis, which is believed to link oxidative damage to pathological changes in AD. In view of the rich antioxidant content of GBR, we studied its potential to modulate processes leading up to AD. Methods The total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of the ethyl acetate extract of GBR were compared to that of brown rice (BR), and the cytotoxicity of both extracts were determined on human SH-SY5Y neuronal cells using 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) Assay. Based on its higher antioxidant potentials, the effect of the GBR extract on morphological changes due to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative damage in human SH-SY5Y neuronal cells was examined using inverted light microscope and fluorescence microscope by means of acridine orange-propidium iodide (AO/PI) staining. Also, evaluation of the transcriptional regulation of antioxidant and apoptotic genes was carried out using Multiplex Gene Expression System. Results The ethyl acetate extract of GBR had higher total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity compared to BR. The cytotoxicity results showed that GBR extract did not cause any damage to the human SH-SY5Y neuronal cells at concentrations of up to 20 ppm, and the morphological analyses showed that the GBR extract (up to 10 ppm) prevented H2O2-induced apoptotic changes in the cells. Furthermore, multiplex gene expression analyses showed that the protection of the cells by the GBR extract was linked to its ability to induce transcriptional changes in antioxidant (SOD 1, SOD 2 and catalase) and apoptotic (AKT, NF-K?, ERK1/2, JNK, p53 and p38 MAPK) genes that tended towards survival. Conclusions Taken together, the results of our study showed that the ethyl acetate extract of GBR, with high antioxidant potentials, could prevent H2O2-induced oxidative damage in SH-SY5Y cells. The potential of GBR and its neuroprotective mechanism in ameliorating oxidative stress-related cytotoxicity is therefore worth exploring further. PMID:23866310

2013-01-01

109

Positron scattering from vinyl acetate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a Beer-Lambert attenuation approach, we report measured total cross sections (TCSs) for positron scattering from vinyl acetate (C4H6O2) in the incident positron energy range 0.15-50 eV. In addition, we also report an independent atom model with screening corrected additivity rule computation results for the TCSs, differential and integral elastic cross sections, the positronium formation cross section and inelastic integral cross sections. The energy range of these calculations is 1-1000 eV. While there is a reasonable qualitative correspondence between measurement and calculation for the TCSs, in terms of the energy dependence of those cross sections, the theory was found to be a factor of ˜2 larger in magnitude at the lower energies, even after the measured data were corrected for the forward angle scattering effect.

Chiari, L.; Zecca, A.; Blanco, F.; García, G.; Brunger, M. J.

2014-09-01

110

Determination of iodine values using 1,3-dibromo-5,5-dimethylhydantoin (DBH) and ethyl acetate as solvent. Analytical methods with DBH in respect to environmental and economical concern, part 18.  

PubMed

Iodine values (iodine numbers) of several fixed oils and lard can be determined in ethyl acetate, an easily biodegredable solvent, instead of chloroform according to PH. EUR. 2002. Iodine monobromide has been replaced by 1,3-dibromo-5,5-dimethylhydantoin (DBH) and potassium iodide (KI) and the reaction time was reduced to 5 min only. However, cod-liver oil and linseed oil require a reaction time of 30 min and a smaller weight of sample. Longer reaction times are also necessary for soya oil and wheat germ oil. Iodine values of linseed oil determined according to method A of PH. EUR. 2002, are dependent on the amount of sample, even in the range prescribed by the pharmacopoeia. PMID:15378849

Hilp, M

2004-08-01

111

Biodegradable Plastics Based on Cellulose Acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally known that secondary cellulose acetate (with 53 to 56% acetyl groups) is suitable for thermoplastic processing. With appropriate plasticizers a plastic material is obtained which excels in transparency and pleasant texture, and it is therefore often used for tool handles, combs, spectacle frames, and the like. In principle, cellulose acetate with such a degree of substitution is

Alexander Ach

1993-01-01

112

Anti-inflammatory potential of an ethyl acetate fraction isolated from Justicia gendarussa roots through inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 expression via NF-?B pathway.  

PubMed

Justicia gendarussa Burm.f. (J. gendarussa) is a plant used as traditional medicine in different parts of India and China to treat inflammatory disorders like rheumatoid arthritis. But its mechanism of anti-inflammatory action is still unclear. Hence in this context, the objective of our study is to reveal the mechanism of anti-inflammatory activity of J. gendarussa which would form an additional proof to the traditional knowledge of this plant. The anti-inflammatory function and mechanism(s) of action was studied in an ethyl acetate fraction isolated from methanolic extract of J. gendarussa roots (EJG). Anti-inflammatory studies were conducted on rats using partitioned fractions isolated from methanolic extract of J. gendarussa roots. In carrageenan-induced rat paw edema, ethyl acetate fraction brought about 80% and 93% edema inhibition at 3rd and 5th hour at a dose of 50 mg/kg, when compared to other extracts and Voveran. We investigated whether EJG inhibits the release of cycloxygenase (COX), 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) in LPS stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs). Results shows that EJG dose dependently inhibited LPS-activated COX, 5-LOX, IL-6, and NF-?B in hPBMCs. EJG also reduced LPS induced levels of iNOS and COX-2 mRNA expression in hPBMCs. This study provides an insight into the probable mechanism(s) underlying the anti-inflammatory activity of EJG and therefore, we report the first confirmation of the anti-inflammatory potential of this traditionally employed herbal medicine in vitro. PMID:22063737

Kumar, Kavitha S; Vijayan, Viji; Bhaskar, Shobha; Krishnan, Kripa; Shalini, V; Helen, A

2012-01-01

113

(Prefix) Chemical Company Amount Location Quantity(>1) acetone dimethyl acetal MCB 500g 1013 YC #1  

E-print Network

18-crown-6 Aldrich 1g Dry Box 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimidethermo scientific 5g refridge. 3-mercaptopropionic acid Aldrich 5g Alycia's Bench 4-Bromoacetophenone Fluke 25g Alycia's Bench 4-sulfonyl azide Aldrich 5 g Lauren's Bench Acetic Acid Mallinkrodt 4L Acids 2 Acetic Acid EM Reagents 4L Acids

Turro, Claudia

114

Ulipristal acetate in emergency contraception.  

PubMed

Despite the widespread availability of highly effective methods of contraception, unintended pregnancy is common. Unplanned pregnancies have been linked to a range of health, social and economic consequences. Emergency contraception reduces risk of pregnancy after unprotected intercourse, and represents an opportunity to decrease number of unplanned pregnancies and abortions. Emergency contraception pills (ECP) prevent pregnancy by delaying or inhibiting ovulation, without interfering with post fertilization events. If pregnancy has already occurred, ECPs will not be effective, therefore ECPs are not abortificants. Ulipristal acetate (17alpha-acetoxy-11beta-(4N-N,N-dymethilaminophenyl)-19-norpregna--4,9-diene-3,20-dione) is the first drug that was specifically developed and licensed for use as an emergency contraceptive. It is an orally active, synthetic, selective progesterone modulator that acts by binding with high affinity to the human progesterone receptor where it has both antagonist and partial agonist effects. It is a new molecular entity and the first compound in a new pharmacological class defined by the pristal stem. Up on the superior clinical efficacy evidence, UPA has been quickly recognized as the most effective emergency contraceptive pill, and recently recommended as the first prescription choice for all women regardless of the age and timing after intercourse. This article provides literature review of UPA and its role in emergency contraception. PMID:24851646

Goldstajn, Marina Sprem; Baldani, Dinka Pavici?; Skrgati?, Lana; Radakovi?, Branko; Vrbi?, Hrvoje; Cani?, Tomislav

2014-03-01

115

Vesicles protect activated acetic acid.  

PubMed

Abstract Methyl thioacetate, or activated acetic acid, has been proposed to be central to the origin of life and an important energy currency molecule in early cellular evolution. We have investigated the hydrolysis of methyl thioacetate under various conditions. Its uncatalyzed rate of hydrolysis is about 3 orders of magnitude faster (K=0.00663 s(-1); 100°C, pH 7.5, concentration=0.33 mM) than published rates for its catalyzed production, making it unlikely to accumulate under prebiotic conditions. However, our experiments showed that methyl thioacetate was protected from hydrolysis when inside its own hydrophobic droplets. Further, we found that methyl thioacetate protection from hydrolysis was also possible in droplets of hexane and in the membranes of nonanoic acid vesicles. Thus, the hydrophobic regions of prebiotic vesicles and early cell membranes could have offered a refuge for this energetic molecule, increasing its lifetime in close proximity to the reactions for which it would be needed. This model of early energy storage evokes an additional critical function for the earliest cell membranes. PMID:25280019

Todd, Zoe R; House, Christopher H

2014-10-01

116

21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vitamin A acetate. 582.5933 Section 582...AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5933 Vitamin A acetate. (a) Product. Vitamin A acetate. (b) Conditions of...

2013-04-01

117

21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vitamin A acetate. 582.5933 Section 582...AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5933 Vitamin A acetate. (a) Product. Vitamin A acetate. (b) Conditions of...

2011-04-01

118

21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vitamin A acetate. 582.5933 Section 582...AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5933 Vitamin A acetate. (a) Product. Vitamin A acetate. (b) Conditions of...

2012-04-01

119

21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitamin A acetate. 582.5933 Section 582...AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5933 Vitamin A acetate. (a) Product. Vitamin A acetate. (b) Conditions of...

2010-04-01

120

21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vitamin A acetate. 582.5933 Section 582...AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5933 Vitamin A acetate. (a) Product. Vitamin A acetate. (b) Conditions of...

2014-04-01

121

21 CFR 522.1881 - Sterile prednisolone acetate aqueous suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Sterile prednisolone acetate aqueous suspension. 522...ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1881 Sterile prednisolone acetate aqueous suspension. (a...suspension contains 25 milligrams of prednisolone acetate. (b) Sponsor . See...

2010-04-01

122

Viscosity of Mixtures of ?-Tocopherol Acetate + Mesitylene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents results of the share viscosity measurements performed as a function of temperature and concentration for mixtures of ?-tocopherol acetate (vitamine E acetate) and mesitylene, two liquids of essentially different viscosity (four order of magnitude difference at 280 K). The viscosity/ temperature dependence for pure ?-tocopherol acetate as well as for the mixtures studied can be well described with the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation. The viscosities of the mixtures exhibit a strong negative deviation from the rule of additive dependence on concentration and for increasing temperature the maximum value of the deviation shows an exponential decreasing.

Szwajczaka, El?bieta; Stagraczy?ski, Ryszard; Herba, Henryk; ?wiergielb, Jolanta; Jad?yn, Jan

2009-08-01

123

The pharmacology of nomegestrol acetate.  

PubMed

Nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC) is a 19-norprogesterone derivative with high biological activity at the progesterone receptor, a weak anti-androgenic effect, but with no binding to estrogen, glucocorticoid or mineralocorticoid receptors. At dosages of 1.5mg/day or more, NOMAC effectively suppresses gonadotropic activity and ovulation in women of reproductive age. Hemostasis, lipids and carbohydrate metabolism remain largely unchanged. In normal and cancerous human breast cells, NOMAC has shown favorable effects on estrogen metabolism. Like natural progesterone (but in contrast to some other synthetic progestogens), it does not appear stimulate the proliferation of cancerous breast cells. While there has been some experience of the use of NOMAC in combination with estrogens as a hormone replacement therapy, most of the data on the compound are reported in the context of its inclusion as a component of a new contraceptive pill comprising 2.5mg NOMAC combined with 1.5mg estradiol. Because of its strong endometrial efficacy, and due to its high antigonadotropic activity and long elimination half-life (about 50h), the contraceptive efficacy of the new pill is maintained even when dosages are missed. Furthermore, for the first time with a monophasic 24/4 regimen containing estradiol, cyclical stability can be achieved comparable with that obtained using pills containing ethinyl estradiol and progestogens like levonorgestrel or drospirenone. The addition of NOMAC to estradiol means that the beneficial effects of estrogen are not lost, which is of especial importance in relation to the cardiovascular system. On the basis both of its pharmacology and of studies performed during the development of the NOMAC/estradiol pill, involving some 4000 women in total, good long-term tolerability can be expected for NOMAC, although its safety profile is still to be fully ascertained, as the clinical endpoint studies are yet to be completed. PMID:22364709

Ruan, Xiangyan; Seeger, Harald; Mueck, Alfred O

2012-04-01

124

Fragrance material review on 4-methylbenzyl acetate.  

PubMed

A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 4-methylbenzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 4-Methylbenzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 4-methylbenzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, skin irritation, skin sensitization, and elicitation data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22414643

McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

2012-09-01

125

Acetic acid production from food wastes using yeast and acetic acid bacteria micro-aerobic fermentation.  

PubMed

In this study, yeast and acetic acid bacteria strains were adopted to enhance the ethanol-type fermentation resulting to a volatile fatty acids yield of 30.22 g/L, and improve acetic acid production to 25.88 g/L, with food wastes as substrate. In contrast, only 12.81 g/L acetic acid can be obtained in the absence of strains. The parameters such as pH, oxidation reduction potential and volatile fatty acids were tested and the microbial diversity of different strains and activity of hydrolytic ferment were investigated to reveal the mechanism. The optimum pH and oxidation reduction potential for the acetic acid production were determined to be at 3.0-3.5 and -500 mV, respectively. Yeast can convert organic matters into ethanol, which is used by acetic acid bacteria to convert the organic wastes into acetic acid. The acetic acid thus obtained from food wastes micro-aerobic fermentation liquid could be extracted by distillation to get high-pure acetic acid. PMID:25416587

Li, Yang; He, Dongwei; Niu, Dongjie; Zhao, Youcai

2015-05-01

126

Tested Demonstrations: Buffer Capacity of Various Acetic Acid-Sodium Acetate Systems: A Lecture Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background information and procedures are provided for a lecture experiment which uses indicators to illustrate the concept of differing buffer capacities by titrating acetic acid/sodium acetate buffers with 1.0 molar hydrochloric acid and 1.0 molar sodium hydroxide. A table with data used to plot the titration curve is included. (JN)

Donahue, Craig J.; Panek, Mary G.

1985-01-01

127

Acetylation of Starch with Vinyl Acetate in Imidazolium Ionic Liquids and Characterization of Acetate Distribution  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Starch was acetylated with vinyl acetate in different 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (BMIM) salts as solvent in effort to produce starches with different acetylation patterns. Overall degree of substitution was much higher for basic anions such as acetate and dicyanimide (dca) than for neutral anions ...

128

4,5,6-Tri-O-acetyl-2,3-di-S-ethyl-2,3-dithio-d-allose diethyl dithio-acetal.  

PubMed

The title compound, C(20)H(36)O(6)S(4), was obtained by ethanethiol-ysis of 3,5,6-tri-O-acetyl-1,2-O-isopropyl-idene-?-d-gluco-furan--ose. One of the ethyl groups is disordered over two sites with refined occupancies of 0.869?(6) and 0.131?(6). Compared with the precursor, the absolute configuration of the stereocenters at positions C-3 and C-2 are inverted and maintained, respectively. PMID:21583095

Xi, Xiao-Dong; Shi, Da-Xin; Li, Hui; Li, Yun-Zheng; Wu, Qin-Pei

2009-01-01

129

A mammalian acetate switch regulates stress erythropoiesis  

PubMed Central

Endocrine erythropoietin (Epo), which is synthesized in the kidney or liver of adult mammals, controls erythrocyte production and is regulated by the stress-responsive transcription factor Hypoxia Inducible Factor 2 (HIF-2). We previously reported that the lysine acetyltransferase Cbp is required for HIF-2? acetylation and efficient HIF-2 dependent Epo induction during hypoxia. We now show these processes require acetate-dependent acetyl CoA synthetase 2 (Acss2). In Hep3B hepatoma cells and in Epo-generating organs of hypoxic or acutely anemic mice, acetate levels increase and Acss2 is required for HIF-2? acetylation, Cbp/HIF-2? complex formation and recruitment to the Epo enhancer, and efficient Epo induction. In acutely anemic mice, acetate supplementation augments stress erythropoiesis in an Acss2-dependent manner. In acquired and genetic chronic anemia mouse models, acetate supplementation also increases Epo expression and resting hematocrits. Thus, a mammalian stress-responsive acetate switch controls HIF-2 signaling and Epo induction during pathophysiological states marked by tissue hypoxia. PMID:25108527

Xu, Min; Nagati, Jason S.; Xie, Jian; Li, Jiwen; Walters, Holly; Moon, Young-Ah; Gerard, Robert D.; Huang, Chou-Long; Comerford, Sarah A.; Hammer, Robert E.; Horton, Jay D.; Chen, Rui; Garcia, Joseph A.

2014-01-01

130

An ethyl acetate fraction derived from Houttuynia cordata extract inhibits the production of inflammatory markers by suppressing NF-?B and MAPK activation in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages  

PubMed Central

Background Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (Saururaceae) has been used in traditional medicine for treatment of inflammatory diseases. This study evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of an ethyl acetate fraction derived from a Houttuynia cordata extract (HCE-EA) on the production of inflammatory mediators and the activation of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Methods To measure the effects of HCE-EA on pro-inflammatory cytokine and inflammatory mediator’s expression in RAW 264.7 cells, we used the following methods: cell viability assay, Griess reagent assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting analysis. Results HCE-EA downregulated nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and interleukin (IL-6) production in the cells, as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. Furthermore, HCE-EA suppressed nuclear translocation of the NF-?B p65 subunit, which correlated with an inhibitory effect on I?B? (nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha) phosphorylation. HCE-EA also attenuated the activation of MAPKs (p38 and JNK). Conclusions Our results suggest that the anti-inflammatory properties of HCE-EA may stem from the inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators via suppression of NF-?B and MAPK signaling pathways. PMID:25012519

2014-01-01

131

Crystal structure, FT-IR, FT-Raman, 1H NMR and computational study of ethyl 2-{[(Z)3-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-hydroxy-2-propene-1-thione] amino} acetate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The molecular structure of a thioamide derivative ethyl 2-{[(Z)3-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-hydroxy-2-propene-1-thione] amino} acetate was determined by X-ray diffraction. The proton NMR (1H NMR), Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FT-IR) and Fourier Transform Raman (FT-Raman) spectra of the compound were recorded and analyzed. The conjugated enol form of the compound was crystallized in the monoclinic space group P21/c, with unit cell dimensions a = 12.514(2) Å, b = 5.403(5) Å, c = 21.233(3) Å, ? = 94.597(4)°. The structure was solved by direct methods and refined to the R value of 0.0462. The thioamide moiety in the compound adopts the Z-conformation and the Csbnd N bond shows a high rotational barrier. The geometry in the gas phase was optimized by B3LYP and RHF quantum mechanical calculations using Gaussian 09 programme and the vibrational frequencies were calculated. The experimental and theoretical data are in good agreement.

Prasanth, S.; Varughese, Mary; Joseph, Nirmala; Mathew, Paulson; Manojkumar, T. K.; Sudarsanakumar, C.

2015-02-01

132

Acetate ester production by Chinese yellow rice wine yeast overexpressing the alcohol acetyltransferase-encoding gene ATF2.  

PubMed

Acetate ester, which are produced by fermenting yeast cells in an enzyme-catalyzed intracellular reaction, are responsible for the fruity character of fermented alcoholic beverages such as Chinese yellow rice wine. Alcohol acetyltransferase (AATase) is currently believed to be the key enzyme responsible for the production of acetate ester. In order to determine the precise role of the ATF2 gene in acetate ester production, an ATF2 gene encoding a type of AATase was overexpressed and the ability of the mutant to form acetate esters (including ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, and isobutyl acetate) was investigated. The results showed that after 5 days of fermentation, the concentrations of ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, and isobutyl acetate in yellow rice wines fermented with EY2 (pUC-PIA2K) increased to 137.79 mg/L (an approximate 4.9-fold increase relative to the parent cell RY1), 26.68 mg/L, and 7.60 mg/L, respectively. This study confirms that the ATF2 gene plays an important role in the production of acetate ester production during Chinese yellow rice wine fermentation, thereby offering prospects for the development of yellow rice wine yeast starter strains with optimized ester-producing capabilities. PMID:25501183

Zhang, J; Zhang, C; Qi, Y; Dai, L; Ma, H; Guo, X; Xiao, D

2014-01-01

133

Density and viscosity of binary mixtures of ethyl acetate with methanol, ethanol, propan-1-ol, propan-2-ol, butan-1-ol, 2-methylpropan-1-ol, and 2-methylpropan-2-ol at (298.15, 303.15, and 308.15) K  

SciTech Connect

Densities and viscosities have been measured for the binary mixtures of ethyl acetate with linear and branched alkanols (C{sub 1}-C{sub 4}) at (298.15, 303.15, and 308.15) K. The experimental density ({zeta}) and viscosity ({eta}) values were used to calculate the excess molar volume (V{sup E}) and viscosity deviation ({Delta}{eta}). The V{sup E} and {Delta}{eta} values have been fitted to a Redlich-Kister polynomial.

Nikam, P.S.; Mahale, T.R.; Hasan, M. [M.S.G. Coll., Malegaon Camp (India). Dept. of Physical Chemistry] [M.S.G. Coll., Malegaon Camp (India). Dept. of Physical Chemistry

1996-09-01

134

Process for the preparation of vinyl acetate  

DOEpatents

This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting within a contact zone a mixture of ketene and acetaldehyde with an acid catalyst at about one bar pressure and between about 85.degree. and 200.degree. C. and removing the reaction products from the contact zone.

Tustin, Gerald Charles (Kingsport, TN); Zoeller, Joseph Robert (Kingsport, TN); Depew, Leslie Sharon (Kingsport, TN)

1998-01-01

135

Process for the preparation of vinyl acetate  

DOEpatents

This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting within a contact zone a mixture of ketene and acetaldehyde with an acid catalyst at about one bar pressure and between about 85 and 200 C and removing the reaction products from the contact zone.

Tustin, G.C.; Zoeller, J.R.; Depew, L.S.

1998-02-17

136

Fragrance material review on ?-methylbenzyl acetate.  

PubMed

A toxicologic and dermatologic review of ?-methylbenzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. ?-Methylbenzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for ?-methylbenzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, and repeated dose data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22406576

McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

2012-09-01

137

Treatment of Pedophilia with Leuprolide Acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, the literature on the treatment of individuals who have committed sexual offenses has focused primarily on psychotherapeutic interventions and the use of antiandrogens. Recently case reports and small series supporting the efficacy of other psychiatric medication, such as serotonin reuptake inhibitors, have been published. Only a few publications have looked at the efficacy of leuprolide acetate, an LH-RH

Nancy Raymond; Bean Robinson; Chris Kraft; Barry Rittberg; Eli Coleman

2002-01-01

138

Corrosion of stainless steel during acetate production  

SciTech Connect

Corrosion of types 304, 304L, 316, and 316L stainless steel (SS) during the esterification of acetic acid and alcohol or glycol ether was investigated. The catalyst for this reaction, sulfuric acid or para-toluene sulfonic acid (PTSA), was shown to cause more corrosion on reactor equipment than CH{sub 3}COOH under the process conditions commonly practiced in industry. The corrosive action of the catalyst occurred only in the presence of water. Thus, for the batch processes, corrosion occurred mostly during the initial stage of esterification, where water produced by the reaction created an aqueous environment. After water was distilled off, the corrosion rate declined to a negligible value. The corrosion inhibitor copper sulfate, often used in industrial acetate processes, was found to work well for a low-temperature process (< 95 C) such as in production of butyl acetate, but it accelerated corrosion in the glycol ether acetate processes where temperatures were > 108 C. Process conditions that imparted low corrosion rates were determined.

Qi, J.S.; Lester, G.C. [Occidental Chemical Corp. Technology Center, Grand Island, NY (United States)

1996-07-01

139

Fragrance material review on piperonyl acetate.  

PubMed

A toxicologic and dermatologic review of piperonyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Piperonyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for piperonyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, toxicokinetics, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22445840

McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

2012-09-01

140

Fragrance material review on benzyl acetate.  

PubMed

A toxicologic and dermatologic review of benzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Benzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for benzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, phototoxicity, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, reproductive toxicity, genotoxicity, or carcinogenicity data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Refer Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22387848

McGinty, D; Vitale, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

2012-09-01

141

Fragrance material review on 2-phenylpropyl acetate.  

PubMed

A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-phenylpropyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-Phenylpropyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2-phenylpropyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22421639

McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

2012-09-01

142

Heat Bonding of Irradiated Ethylene Vinyl Acetate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reliable method now available for joining parts of this difficult-tobond material. Heating fixture encircles ethylene vinyl acetate multiplesocket part, providing heat to it and to tubes inserted in it. Fixtures specially designed to match parts to be bonded. Tube-and-socket bonds made with this technique subjected to tensile tests. Bond strengths of 50 percent that of base material obtained consistently.

Slack, D. H.

1986-01-01

143

Optimization in the formaldehyde determination at sub-ppm level from acetals by HPLC-DAD  

SciTech Connect

Carbonylic compounds are mainly monitored as atmospheric pollutants, due to their major contribution to the formation of free radicals and ozone, by means of photolysis. Determination of formaldehyde at sub-ppm level as impurity in acetals using HPLC-DAD is described. Automated on-line precolumn derivatization reaction with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine has been used. Breakdown rates of some industrial scale used acetals (Methylal, Ethylal) to formaldehyde by hydrolysis in aqueous media, according to pH, are described.

Medvedovici, A.; David, V. [Univ. of Bucharest (Romania). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry; David, F. [Research Inst. for Chromatography, Kortrijk (Belgium); Sandra, P. [Univ. of Gent (Belgium). Lab. for Organic Chemistry

1999-02-01

144

{2-[1-(3-Methoxycarbonylmethyl-1H-indol-2-yl)-1-methyl-ethyl]-1H-indol-3-yl}-acetic acid methyl ester (MIAM) inhibited human hepatocellular carcinoma growth through upregulation of Sirtuin-3 (SIRT3).  

PubMed

{2-[1-(3-Methoxycarbonylmethyl-1H-indol-2-yl)-1-methyl-ethyl]-1H-indol-3-yl}-acetic acid methyl ester (MIAM) is a novel indole compound. Our previous studies showed that MIAM possessed activity against many cancers xenografted in mice without significant toxicity. In this study, we determined the effect of MIAM on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by both in vitro and in vivo assays. In in vitro assay, the experiments were performed in the hypoxic incubator. MIAM inhibited HCC growth with dose-dependent manner. The effects of MIAM on HCC might be due to its activities in induction of apoptosis, arrest of cell cycle in G0/G1 phase. Further studies showed that MIAM might exert its actions through multiple mechanisms. MIAM could reduce intracellular ATP, increase levels of p53/p21 and SIRT3/SOD2/Bax. MIAM also had the activity of reducing HIF1? and hexokinase II (HK II) in HCC. MIAM had the activity of increasing cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HCC. However, the increase of ROS might not be its main mechanism in inhibition of HCC. MIAM might inhibit HepG2 growth through induction of apoptosis. We determined the relationship between level of SIRT3 and cell viability in the MIAM-treated cells. MIAM treatment resulted in increase of SIRT3 in HCC. Further, HepG2 cells infected with human SIRT3 were more sensitive to MIAM than the cells without infection of SIRT3. These results suggested that MIAM might inhibit HCC growth through upregulation of SIRT3. Importantly, the effect of MIAM was confirmed in the HepG2 xenografts bearing in mice. MIAM treatment did not induce significant toxicology to mice. Together, MIAM could be developed as potential agent for treatment of HCC. PMID:25661348

Li, Ye; Wang, Wenjing; Xu, Xiaoxue; Sun, Shiyue; Qu, Xian-Jun

2015-02-01

145

Diminution of Hepatic Response to 7, 12-dimethylbenz(?)anthracene by Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Acacia catechu Willd. through Modulation of Xenobiotic and Anti-Oxidative Enzymes in Rats  

PubMed Central

Background Liver is the primary metabolizing site of body and is prone to damage by exogenous as well as endogenous intoxicants. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as 7, 12- dimethylbenz(?)anthracene (DMBA) is an exogenous hepatotoxin, which is well known for modulating phase I, II and anti-oxidative enzymes of liver. Plants contain plethora of polyphenolic compounds which can reverse the damaging effect of various xenobiotics. The present study investigated protective role of the ethyl acetate fraction of Acacia catechu Willd. (EAF) against DMBA induced alteration in hepatic metabolizing and anti-oxidative enzymes in rats. Methodology and Principal Findings The rats were subjected to hepatic damage by treating with DMBA for 7 weeks on alternative days and treatment schedule was terminated at the end of 14 weeks. The rats were euthanized at the end of protocol and livers were homogenized. The liver homogenates were used to analyse phase I (NADPH-cytochrome P450 reducatse, NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase, cytochrome P420, cytochrome b5), phase II (glutathione-S-transferase, DT diaphorase and ?-Glutamyl transpeptidase) and antioxidative enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, guiacol peroxidase and lactate dehydrogenase). Furthermore, other oxidative stress parameters (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, lipid hydroperoxides and conjugated dienes and reduced glutathione) and liver marker enzymes (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase and alkaline phosphatase) were also studied. The DMBA induced significant changes in activity of hepatic enzymes that was reversed by treatment with three dose levels of EAF. Conclusion It is concluded that EAF affords hepato-protection against DMBA in rats through modulation of phase I, II and anti-oxidative enzymes. PMID:24587216

Kumar, Rakesh; Kaur, Rajbir; Singh, Amrit Pal; Arora, Saroj

2014-01-01

146

The microwave spectrum of n-hexyl acetate and structural aspects of n-alkyl acetates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microwave spectrum of n-hexyl acetate was recorded in the range of 10-13.5 GHz using the Aachen MB-FTMW spectrometer. The rotational constants of the most abundant conformer were determined to be A = 3.3591100(32) GHz, B = 0.39596553(53) GHz, and C = 0.36999804(31) GHz. Quantum chemical calculations for specific conformers were carried out at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level. The programs XIAM and BELGI were used to analyze the internal rotation of the acetyl methyl group. The observed conformer of n-hexyl acetate was compared to the lowest energy conformers of n-butyl acetate and n-pentyl acetate.

Attig, T.; Kannengießer, R.; Kleiner, I.; Stahl, W.

2014-04-01

147

Phenyl Acetate Preparation from Phenol and Acetic Acid: Reassessment of a Common Textbook Misconception.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reassesses a common textbook misconception that "...phenols cannot be esterified directly." Results of experiments are discussed and data tables provided of an effective method for the direct preparation of phenyl acetate. (CS)

Hocking, M. B.

1980-01-01

148

Expression of acetate permease-like (apl) genes in subsurface communities of Geobacter species under fluctuating acetate concentrations  

SciTech Connect

The addition of acetate to uranium-contaminated aquifers in order to stimulate the growth and activity of Geobacter species that reduce uranium is a promising in situ bioremediation option. Optimizing this bioremediation strategy requires that sufficient acetate be added to promote Geobacter species growth. We hypothesized that under acetate-limiting conditions, subsurface Geobacter species would increase the expression of either putative acetate symporters genes (aplI and aplII). Acetate was added to a uranium-contaminated aquifer (Rifle, CO) in two continuous amendments separated by 5 days of groundwater flush to create changing acetate concentrations. While the expression of aplI in monitoring well D04 (high acetate) weakly correlated with the acetate concentration over time, the transcript levels for this gene were relatively constant in well D08 (low acetate). At the lowest acetate concentrations during the groundwater flush, the transcript levels of aplII were the highest. The expression of aplII decreased 2-10-fold upon acetate reintroduction. However, the overall instability of acetate concentrations throughout the experiment could not support a robust conclusion regarding the role of apl genes in response to acetate limitation under field conditions, in contrast to previous chemostat studies, suggesting that the function of a microbial community cannot be inferred based on lab experiments alone.

Elifantz, H.; N'Guessan, L.A.; Mouser, P.J.; Williams, K H.; Wilkins, M J.; Risso, C.; Holmes, D.E.; Long, P.E.; Lovley, D.R.

2010-03-01

149

Acetate concentrations and oxidation in salt marsh sediments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Acetate concentrations and rates of acetate oxidation and sulfate reduction were measured in S. alterniflora sediments in New Hampshire and Massachusetts. Pore water extracted from cores by squeezing or centrifugation contained in greater than 0.1 mM acetate and, in some instances, greater than 1.0 mM. Pore water sampled nondestructively contained much less acetate, often less than 0.01 mM. Acetate was associated with roots, and concentrations varied with changes in plant physiology. Acetate turnover was very low whether whole core or slurry incubations were used. Radiotracers injected directly into soils yielded rates of sulfate reduction and acetate oxidation not significantly different from core incubation techniques. Regardless of incubation method, acetate oxidation did not account for a substantial percentage of sulfate reduction. These results differ markedly from data for unvegetated coastal sediments where acetate levels are low, oxidation rate constants are high, and acetate oxication rates greatly exceed rates of sulfate reduction. The discrepancy between rates of acetate oxidation and sulfate reduction in these marsh soils may be due either to the utilization of substrates other than acetate by sulfate reducers or artifacts associated with measurements of organic utilization by rhizosphere bacteria. Care must be taken when interpreting data from salt marsh sediments since the release of material from roots during coring may affect the concentrations of certain compounds as well as influencing results obtained when sediment incubations are employed.

1992-01-01

150

Lithium acetate transformation of yeast Maitreya Dunham August 2004  

E-print Network

Lithium acetate transformation of yeast Maitreya Dunham August 2004 Original protocol from Katja until the OD600 is around 0.7-0.8 (~7 hours). Spin down the cells. Resuspend in 5 ml lithium acetate mix. Spin. Resuspend in 0.5 ml lithium acetate mix. Transfer to an eppendorf tube. Incubate 60 minutes

Dunham, Maitreya

151

Influence of lead acetate on hypersensitivity. Experimental study.  

PubMed

Recent studies showed that lead acetate has an important immunotoxicity for the phagocytic activity as well as humoral and cell-mediated immunity. We studied the influence of lead acetate on immediate and delayed hypersensitivity. The lead acetate exerts an important action on hypersensitivity reactions whether on rat mast cells degranulation (immediate hypersensitivity) or on contact hypersensitivity. PMID:6470497

Laschi-Loquerie, A; Descotes, J; Tachon, P; Evreux, J C

1984-01-01

152

21 CFR 173.228 - Ethyl acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN...conditions: (a) The additive meets the specifications...locations.html. (b) The additive is used in accordance with current good manufacturing practice as a solvent...

2013-04-01

153

21 CFR 173.228 - Ethyl acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN...conditions: (a) The additive meets the specifications...locations.html. (b) The additive is used in accordance with current good manufacturing practice as a solvent...

2011-04-01

154

21 CFR 173.228 - Ethyl acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... (b) The additive is used in accordance with current good manufacturing practice as a solvent in the decaffeination of coffee and tea. [47 FR 146, Jan. 5, 1982, as amended at 49 FR 28548, July 13, 1984; 78 FR 71466, Nov. 29,...

2014-04-01

155

21 CFR 173.228 - Ethyl acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (b) The additive is used in accordance with current good manufacturing practice as a solvent in the decaffeination of coffee and tea. [47 FR 146, Jan. 5, 1982, as amended at 49 FR 28548, July 13,...

2010-04-01

156

Assessment Guidelines for Managing Cellulose Acetate Collections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Photographic negatives, motion picture film, microfilm, and sound recordings produced from the 1930s into the 1950s often used cellulose acetate as the transparent plastic carrier. As anyone who has ever come in contact with it well knows, its strong vinegar-like scent is hard to miss. Unfortunately, over time, the material is prone to deterioration, which eventually renders it unusable. In an effort to help guide libraries in Australia with this problem, the National Library of Australia has created this document. It provides assistance in identification of cellulose acetate (vs. other similar materials) and establishes criteria to assess condition, cultural importance, and use within the library or storage context. The document guides readers through the first step in a strategy for preserving these collections.

2001-01-01

157

Leuprolide Acetate Suppresses Pedophilic Urges and Arousability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive–behavioral psychotherapy was compared with cognitive–behavioral psychotherapy augmented by leuprolide acetate (LA)\\u000a for suppression of pedophilic behavior. Five male pedophiles (M age, 50 years; range, 36–58) were administered LA by Depo injection for 12 months, followed by saline placebo for 12 months.\\u000a Testosterone levels, sexual interest preference by visual reaction time (Abel Assessment), penile tumescence (Monarch Penile\\u000a Plethysmography, PPG), as

Justine M. Schober; Phyllis J. Kuhn; Paul G. Kovacs; James H. Earle; Peter M. Byrne; Ruth A. Fries

2005-01-01

158

Interconversion studies of betamethasone acetate polymorphs.  

PubMed

The polymorph interconversions of Betamethasone Acetate (BA) were studied under various pharmaceutical conditions, such as grinding, heating and suspending in water, based on differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and X-ray powder diffraction. There existed enantiotropic relationships between the three polymorphs of BA, which were named form II, Ialpha, and Ibeta work, respectively. It was concluded that form II was the most stable form when suspended in water. PMID:16221616

Ke, Xue; Ping, QiNeng; Shi, Hua

2005-09-01

159

Corrosion of Stainless Steel During Acetate Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corrosion of types 304, 304L, 316, and 316L stainless steel (SS) during the esterification of acetic acid and alcohol or glycol ether was investigated. The catalyst for this reaction, sulfuric acid or para-toluene sulfonic acid (PTSA), was shown to cause more corrosion on reactor equipment than CHâCOOH under the process conditions commonly practiced in industry. The corrosive action of the

J. S. Qi; G. C. Lester

1996-01-01

160

Ulipristal acetate: the newest emergency contraceptive.  

PubMed

More than 50 percent of pregnancies in the United States are unplanned. Emergency contraception has been shown to possibly reduce the risk of pregnancy by as much as 75 percent. Ulipristal acetate is a selective progesterone receptor modulator that was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for emergency contraceptive use in August 2010. This article reviews information on its mechanism of action, efficacy, safety and implications for women's health nurses. PMID:22900810

Wilton, Jeanne M

2012-01-01

161

Ultrasound-assisted dyeing of cellulose acetate.  

PubMed

The possibility of reducing the use of auxiliaries in conventional cellulose acetate dyeing with Disperse Red 50 using ultrasound technique was studied as an alternative to the standard procedure. Dyeing of cellulose acetate yarn was carried out by using either mechanical agitation alone, with and without auxiliaries, or coupling mechanical and ultrasound agitation in the bath where the temperature range was maintained between 60 and 80 °C. The best results of dyeing kinetics were obtained with ultrasound coupled with mechanical agitation without auxiliaries (90% of bath exhaustion value at 80 °C). Hence the corresponding half dyeing times, absorption rate constants according to Cegarra-Puente modified equation and ultrasound efficiency were calculated confirming the synergic effect of sonication on the dyeing kinetics. Moreover the apparent activation energies were also evaluated and the positive effect of ultrasound added to mechanical agitation was evidenced by the lower value (48 kJ/mol) in comparison with 112 and 169 kJ/mol for mechanical stirring alone with auxiliaries and without, respectively. Finally, the fastness tests gave good values for samples dyed with ultrasound technique even without auxiliaries. Moreover color measurements on dyed yarns showed that the color yield obtained by ultrasound-assisted dyeing at 80 °C of cellulose acetate without using additional chemicals into the dye bath reached the same value yielded by mechanical agitation, but with remarkably shorter time. PMID:24457001

Udrescu, C; Ferrero, F; Periolatto, M

2014-07-01

162

Overview on mechanisms of acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are a group of gram-negative or gram-variable bacteria which possess an obligate aerobic property with oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor, meanwhile transform ethanol and sugar to corresponding aldehydes, ketones and organic acids. Since the first genus Acetobacter of AAB was established in 1898, 16 AAB genera have been recorded so far. As the main producer of a world-wide condiment, vinegar, AAB have evolved an elegant adaptive system that enables them to survive and produce a high concentration of acetic acid. Some researches and reviews focused on mechanisms of acid resistance in enteric bacteria and made the mechanisms thoroughly understood, while a few investigations did in AAB. As the related technologies with proteome, transcriptome and genome were rapidly developed and applied to AAB research, some plausible mechanisms conferring acetic acid resistance in some AAB strains have been published. In this review, the related mechanisms of AAB against acetic acid with acetic acid assimilation, transportation systems, cell morphology and membrane compositions, adaptation response, and fermentation conditions will be described. Finally, a framework for future research for anti-acid AAB will be provided. PMID:25575804

Wang, Bin; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Fusheng

2015-02-01

163

Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activity of Di-(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate and Anhydrosophoradiol-3-acetate Isolated from Calotropis gigantea (Linn.) Flower  

PubMed Central

A phytochemical study on the flowe r of Calotropis gigantea (Linn.) using silica gel column chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography, led to the first time isolation of Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (compound 1) and anhydrosophoradiol-3-acetate (compound 2). The structures of these compounds were confirmed by spectroscopic analyses (IR, HRTOFMS and NMR). The antibacterial and antifungal activities of ethyl acetate extract, compound 1 and compound 2 were measured using the disc diffusion method. Ethyl acetate extract and compound 1 presented better results than compound 2. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the extract and compounds were found to be in the range of 16~128 µg/ml. The cytotoxicity (LC50) against brine shrimp nauplii (Artemia salina) were also evaluated and found to be 14.61 µg/ml for ethyl acetate, 9.19 µg/ml for compound 1 and 15.55 µg/ml for compound 2. PMID:23983504

Habib, M. Rowshanul

2009-01-01

164

Acetate supplementation attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation  

PubMed Central

Glyceryl triacetate (GTA), a compound effective at increasing circulating and tissue levels of acetate was used to treat rats subjected to a continual 28 day intra-ventricular infusion of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This model produces a neuroinflammatory injury characterized by global neuroglial activation and a decrease in choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity in the basal forebrain. During the LPS infusion, rats were given a daily treatment of either water or GTA at a dose of 6g/kg by oral gavage. In parallel experiments free-CoA and acetyl-CoA levels were measured in microwave fixed brains and flash frozen heart, liver, kidney and muscle following a single oral dose of GTA. We found that a single oral dose of GTA significantly increased plasma acetate levels by 15 min and remained elevated for up to 4 hr. At 30 min the acetyl-CoA levels in microwave-fixed brain and flash frozen heart and liver were increased at least 2.2-fold. The concentrations of brain acetyl-CoA was significantly increased between 30 and 45 min following treatment and remained elevated for up to 4 hr. The concentration of free-CoA in brain was significantly decreased compared to controls at 240 min. Immunohistochemical and morphological analysis demonstrated that a daily treatment with GTA significantly reduced the percentage of reactive GFAP-positive astrocytes and activated CD11b-positive microglia by 40–50% in rats subjected to LPS-induced neuroinflammation. Further, in rats subjected to neuroinflammation, GTA significantly increased the number of ChAT-positive cells by 40% in the basal forebrain compared to untreated controls. These data suggest that acetate supplementation increases intermediary short chain acetyl-CoA metabolism and that treatment is potentially anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective with regards to attenuating neuroglial activation and increasing ChAT immunoreactivity in this model. PMID:21272004

Reisenauer, Chris J.; Bhatt, Dhaval P.; Mitteness, Dane J.; Slanczka, Evan R.; Gienger, Heidi M.; Watt, John A.; Rosenberger, Thad A.

2011-01-01

165

Immunotoxicity of trenbolone acetate in Japanese quail  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Trenbolone acetate is a synthetic androgen that is currently used as a growth promoter in many meat-exporting countries. Despite industry laboratories classifying trenbolone as nonteratogenic, data showed that embryonic exposure to this androgenic chemical altered development of the immune system in Japanese quail. Trenbolone is lipophilic, persistent, and released into the environment in manure used as soil fertilizer. This is the first study to date to assess this chemical's immunotoxic effects in an avian species. A one-time injection of trenbolone into yolks was administered to mimic maternal deposition, and subsequent effects on the development and function of the immune system were determined in chicks and adults. Development of the bursa of Fabricius, an organ responsible for development of the humoral arm of the immune system, was disrupted, as indicated by lower masse, and smaller and fewer follicles at day 1 of hatch. Morphological differences in the bursas persisted in adults, although no differences in either two measures of immune function were observed. Total numbers of circulating leukocytes were reduced and heterophil-lymphocyte ratios were elevated in chicks but not adults. This study shows that trenbolone acetate is teratogenic and immunotoxic in Japanese quail, and provides evidence that the quail immune system may be fairly resilient to embryonic endocrine-disrupting chemical-induced alterations following no further exposure posthatch.

Quinn, M.J.; McKernan, M.; Lavoie, E.T.; Ottinger, M.A.

2007-01-01

166

[Ulipristal acetate, 5mg: a new alternative].  

PubMed

Fibroids have a high prevalence (approaching 50%) in the female population. Although they are a benign entity, they represent a health problem of considerable magnitude, causing hemorrhaging, pain and sterility. Surgical treatment is currently safe and effective, but in recent decades numerous less invasive alternatives have appeared, such as uterine artery embolization and thermal ablation (HIFU and radiofrequency). New possibilities for medical treatment have also emerged, such as GnRh analogues, aromatase inhibitors and selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs). SPRMs act through progesterone receptors and behave as agonists or antagonists in various target organs. Among them, ulipristal acetate (UA) inhibits the proliferation and induction of apoptosis and cell death pathways in leiomyoma cells, translating at the clinical level to smaller fibroids and lower uterine volumes, with no significant side effects. UA also produces amenorrhea in most patients. Randomized, phase III (PEARL I and II) clinical trials have shown the efficacy and security of UA versus placebo and leuprolide acetate (LA). UA is similar to LA, and superior to placebo in controlling bleeding and decreasing the size of the fibroid, with fewer side effects than LA. The safety and tolerance of UA have been satisfactory. UA is a reality in the preoperative treatment of fibroids, with broad potential for further development. PMID:24314567

Monleón Sancho, Javier; Romaguera, Eugenia; Romero, Ainhoa; Higueras, Gema; Morcillo, Inmaculada; Fuster, Sonia

2013-07-01

167

Phytogenic biosynthesis and emission of methyl acetate.  

PubMed

Acetylation of plant metabolites fundamentally changes their volatility, solubility and activity as semiochemicals. Here we present a new technique termed dynamic (13) C-pulse chasing to track the fate of C1-3 carbon atoms of pyruvate into the biosynthesis and emission of methyl acetate (MA) and CO2 . (13) C-labelling of MA and CO2 branch emissions respond within minutes to changes in (13) C-positionally labelled pyruvate solutions fed through the transpiration stream. Strong (13) C-labelling of MA emissions occurred only under pyruvate-2-(13) C and pyruvate-2,3-(13) C feeding, but not pyruvate-1-(13) C feeding. In contrast, strong (13) CO2 emissions were only observed under pyruvate-1-(13) C feeding. These results demonstrate that MA (and other volatile and non-volatile metabolites) derive from the C2,3 atoms of pyruvate while the C1 atom undergoes decarboxylation. The latter is a non-mitochondrial source of CO2 in the light generally not considered in studies of CO2 sources and sinks. Within a tropical rainforest mesocosm, we also observed atmospheric concentrations of MA up to 0.6 ppbv that tracked light and temperature conditions. Moreover, signals partially attributed to MA were observed in ambient air within and above a tropical rainforest in the Amazon. Our study highlights the potential importance of acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) biosynthesis as a source of acetate esters and CO2 to the atmosphere. PMID:23862653

Jardine, Kolby; Wegener, Frederik; Abrell, Leif; van Haren, Joost; Werner, Christiane

2014-02-01

168

Acetate absorption and metabolism in the rabbit hindgut.  

PubMed Central

Acetate disappearance from the loops of the hindgut in the rabbit was evaluated by measuring variations in the concentration of acetate in caecocolonic loops and differences in the arterial and venous plasma. In vivo metabolism in gut and liver tissues was studied after introduction of (1-14C) acetate into caecocolonic loops. The rate of disappearance from the loops was quantitatively significant and showed little variation irrespective of the location in the hindgut. Hindgut tissue metabolised acetate and the intensity of the metabolism varied with the segment studied. The distal position of the gut showed by far the highest acetate uptake. Radioactivity was found in a certain number of free amino acids, organic acids, and sugars. Acetate was mainly converted into aspartate and glutamate. These can be considered as 'stock forms' which can be diverted either towards oxidative metabolism or towards protein synthesis. Images Fig. 1 PMID:4007603

Marty, J F; Vernay, M Y; Abravanel, G M

1985-01-01

169

Electrodeposition of lead from aqueous acetate and chloride solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrodeposition of Pb from electrolyte containing CH3COONH4, CH3COOH, and Cl- was in-vestigated at 25 ‡C in stirred and quiescent solutions on different substrates: Pb, Cu, Al, and C. The deposited lead from the acetate bath was crystalline and showed a marked tendency to form dendrites. The addition of organic additives, phenol, ethyl alcohol, and gelatine, was found necessary in order to obtain a bright, smooth, and compact lead deposit on Pb and Cu electrode. Even with the additives, dendritic lead was observed on Al and C electrodes. Systematic studies of electrodeposition of Pb from these media—such as investigation of the effect of concentration of chemicals in the electrolyte, the effect of temperature, the effect of current density, and the nature of the subtrates—were carried out. Electrochemical techniques such as cyclic voltammetry, potentiodynamic studies, chrono-amperometry, and chronopotentiometry have been employed to shed light on the nature of the reaction mechanism. The deposit quality and purity was examined by X-ray diffraction analysis, SEM, and Auger spectroscopy. The results were compared with those obtained from a fluoborate bath. The quality of a lead deposit from fluoborate bath proved to be similar to that obtained from acetate bath in the presence of organic additives where the deposit was always of a compact, dense, and smooth form.

Ghali, Edward; Girgis, Magdy

1985-09-01

170

Mesophilic syntrophic acetate oxidation during methane formation in biogas reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reaction pathway for the formation of methane from acetate was investigated in sludge from 13 different biogas reactors. By following the conversion of [2-14C]acetate and [14C]bicarbonate it was shown that methane formation by syntrophic acetate oxidation was the dominating mechanism for acetotrophic methanogenesis in sludge containing high levels of salts, mainly ammonium, and volatile fatty acids. In one biogas

Anna Schnürer; Gerhard Zellner; Bo H. Svensson

1999-01-01

171

Downstream processing of acetate fermentation broths by nanofiltration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetate can be separated from fermentation broths and partially purified by nanofiltration (NF). Membrane performance was\\u000a a function of pressure, pH, concentration of acetate, temperature, and the presence of other media components. With Nitto-Denko’s\\u000a NTR729 membrane, average acetate rejection was 60%, glucose rejection was 99%, and flux was 15 L\\/m2\\/h at 200 psig, 30°C, pH 5.6, and 20 g\\/L acetic

In Soo Han; Munir Cheryan

1996-01-01

172

21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed...practices in ruminant feed supplements as a source of added energy. [46 FR 52333, Oct. 27, 1981, as amended at 72 FR...

2011-04-01

173

21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed...practices in ruminant feed supplements as a source of added energy. [46 FR 52333, Oct. 27, 1981, as amended at 72 FR...

2010-04-01

174

Ulipristal acetate: a new emergency contraceptive.  

PubMed

Ulipristal acetate (UPA) is a newly developed emergency contraceptive currently available in the USA and Europe. It is approved as a 30 mg one-time dose taken within 120 h (5 days) of unprotected intercourse or failed contraception. This selective progesterone receptor modulator appears to be more effective than the levonorgestrel-containing emergency contraceptive, which must be taken within 72 h of unprotected intercourse. According to pharmacodynamic trials, UPA delays follicular maturation and ovulation. In addition, UPA may modulate the endometrium. Both Phase III clinical trials found that UPA does not lose efficacy within the 120-h dosing interval. Throughout all phases of clinical studies, UPA was shown to be well tolerated with only minimal adverse drug reactions, all of which are similar to competitor therapies. PMID:22114852

Sullivan, Jade L; Bulloch, Marilyn N

2011-07-01

175

Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid by an enzyme preparation from Zea mays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Indole-3-acetic acid is oxidized to oxindole-3-acetic acid by Zea mays tissue extracts. Shoot, root, and endosperm tissues have enzyme activities of 1 to 10 picomoles per hour per milligram protein. The enzyme is heat labile, is soluble, and requires oxygen for activity. Cofactors of mixed function oxygenase, peroxidase, and intermolecular dioxygenase are not stimulatory to enzymic activity. A heat-stable, detergent-extractable component from corn enhances enzyme activity 6- to 10-fold. This is the first demonstration of the in vitro enzymic oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid in higher plants.

Reinecke, D. M.; Bandurski, R. S.

1988-01-01

176

Heterogeneous catalyst for the production of acetic anhydride from methyl acetate  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to a process for producing acetic anhydride by the reaction of methyl acetate, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen at elevated temperatures and pressures in the presence of an alkyl halide and a heterogeneous, bifunctional catalyst that contains an insoluble polymer having pendant quaternized phosphine groups, some of which phosphine groups are ionically bonded to anionic Group VIII metal complexes, the remainder of the phosphine groups being bonded to iodide. In contrast to prior art processes, no accelerator (promoter) is necessary to achieve the catalytic reaction and the products are easily separated from the catalyst by filtration. The catalyst can be recycled for consecutive runs without loss in activity. Bifunctional catalysts for use in carbonylating dimethyl ether are also provided.

Ramprasad, Dorai (Allentown, PA); Waller, Francis Joseph (Allentown, PA)

1999-01-01

177

Heterogeneous catalyst for the production of acetic anhydride from methyl acetate  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to a process for producing acetic anhydride by the reaction of methyl acetate, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen at elevated temperatures and pressures in the presence of an alkyl halide and a heterogeneous, bifunctional catalyst that contains an insoluble polymer having pendant quaternized phosphine groups, some of which phosphine groups are ionically bonded to anionic Group VIII metal complexes, the remainder of the phosphine groups being bonded to iodide. In contrast to prior art processes, no accelerator (promoter) is necessary to achieve the catalytic reaction and the products are easily separated from the catalyst by filtration. The catalyst can be recycled for consecutive runs without loss in activity. Bifunctional catalysts for use in carbonylating dimethyl ether are also provided.

Ramprasad, D.; Waller, F.J.

1999-04-06

178

Subcutaneous Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate versus Leuprolide Acetate in the Treatment of Endometriosis-Associated Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A clinical study compared efficacy and safety of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) with leuprolide for endometriosis-associated pain. METHODS: This multicentre, 18 month, evaluator-blinded, comparator- controlled trial randomized 300 women with laparoscopically diagnosed endometriosis to 6 month treatment with subcutaneous injection of 104 mg\\/0.65 ml DMPA (DMPA-SC 104) every 3 months or leuprolide (3.75 mg monthly or 11.25 mg every

P. G. Crosignani; A. Luciano; A. Ray; A. Bergqvist

2006-01-01

179

Modification of textile acetate yarn with polyethylene oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small proportions of polyethylene oxides are known to exert a modifying effect on acetate fibre when added to the common solvent. In the case of textile yarn the effect is optimum (improved fatigue strength) when the polymer solution contains I 2% polyethylene oxide (PEO) of a molecular weight of 4000 - 5000 \\/I\\/. Several batches of modified textile acetate yarn

M. Sh. Tairov; M. V. Polovnikova; D. I. Kalandarov; P. I. Baboshkin; Z. Z. Gulombaev; A. A. Saidov

1975-01-01

180

Transition-Metal-Catalyzed Carbonylation of Methyl Acetate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a study of the rhodium-catalyzed, ioding-promoted carbonylation of methyl acetate. This study provides an interesting contrast between the carbonylation of methyl acetate and the carbonylation of methanol when similar rhodium/iodine catalyst systems are used. (JN)

Polichnowski, S. W.

1986-01-01

181

Characterization of acetic acid bacteria in “traditional balsamic vinegar”  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the glucose tolerance of acetic acid bacteria strains isolated from Traditional Balsamic Vinegar. The results showed that the greatest hurdle to acetic acid bacteria growth is the high sugar concentration, since the majority of the isolated strains are inhibited by 25% of glucose. Sugar tolerance is an important technological trait because Traditional Balsamic Vinegar is made with

Maria Gullo; Cinzia Caggia; Luciana De Vero; Paolo Giudici

2006-01-01

182

Asymmetric Hydrogenation of Itaconic Acid and Enol Acetate Derivatives with  

E-print Network

. A variety of chiral 2-substituted succinic acids and chiral acetates have been obtained in excellent ee)- acrylates.3b Herein we report the applications of TangPhos in asymmetric hydrogenation of itaconic acid of acyclic enol acetates bearing aromatic substituents. Chiral 2-substituted succinic acids have attracted

Zhang, Xumu

183

Original article Ethanol and acetic-acid tolerances  

E-print Network

Original article Ethanol and acetic-acid tolerances in Drosophila melanogaster: similar maternal) Summary - Ethanol and acetic-acid tolerances were studied in a cross between 2 geo- graphic races disappeared in the F2. Further investigations demonstrated that for ethanol tolerance, the large difference

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

184

Gas-phase properties and reactivity of the acetate radical anion. Determination of the CH bond strengths in acetic acid and acetate ion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acetate radical anion, CH[sub 2]CO[sub 2] [sup [center dot]-], has been generated in the gas phase at room temperature and its thermochemical properties and reactivity have been examined with use of a flowing afterglow-triple quadrupole instrument. This ion is formed in high yield from the reaction between F[sub 2] and the enolate ions of either acetic acid or trimethylsilyl

Paul G. Wenthold; Robert R. Squires

1994-01-01

185

The utilisation of glucose\\/acetate mixtures by Escherichia coli W3110 under aerobic growth conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Byproduct acetate is of major concern when considering the growth of Escherichia coli on glucose. Besides the fact that acetate production detracts from the overall yield, acetate itself is also a growth inhibitor. To further complicate matters, E. coli is capable of growth on acetate via the glyoxylate bypass. In an effort to evaluate the influence of acetate on the

D. O'Beirne; G. Hamer

2000-01-01

186

Diffusion of benzocaine in poly(ethylene-vinyl acetate) membranes: Effects of vehicle ethanol concentration and membrane vinyl acetate content  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of vehicle ethanol concentration and membrane vinyl acetate (VA) content on the diffusion properties of poly (ethylene-vinyl acetate) (EVA) membranes was studied. The maximum flux of a model drug, benzocaine, through EVA membranes increases with increasing ethanol concentration and membrane VA content. The flux enhancement is attributed to the increases of both benzocaine membrane solubility and diffusivity. For

Shirlynn X. Chen; Richard T. Lostritto

1996-01-01

187

The effect of oral sodium acetate administration on plasma acetate concentration and acid-base state in horses  

PubMed Central

Aim Sodium acetate (NaAcetate) has received some attention as an alkalinizing agent and possible alternative energy source for the horse, however the effects of oral administration remain largely unknown. The present study used the physicochemical approach to characterize the changes in acid-base status occurring after oral NaAcetate/acetic acid (NAA) administration in horses. Methods Jugular venous blood was sampled from 9 exercise-conditioned horses on 2 separate occasions, at rest and for 24 h following a competition exercise test (CET) designed to simulate the speed and endurance test of 3-day event. Immediately after the CETs horses were allowed water ad libitum and either: 1) 8 L of a hypertonic NaAcetate/acetic acid solution via nasogastric tube followed by a typical hay/grain meal (NAA trial); or 2) a hay/grain meal alone (Control trial). Results Oral NAA resulted in a profound plasma alkalosis marked by decreased plasma [H+] and increased plasma [TCO2] and [HCO3-] compared to Control. The primary contributor to the plasma alkalosis was an increased [SID], as a result of increased plasma [Na+] and decreased plasma [Cl-]. An increased [Atot], due to increased [PP] and a sustained increase in plasma [acetate], contributed a minor acidifying effect. Conclusion It is concluded that oral NaAcetate could be used as both an alkalinizing agent and an alternative energy source in the horse. PMID:18096070

Waller, Amanda; Lindinger, Michael I

2007-01-01

188

Micelles Protect and Concentrate Activated Acetic Acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As more and more exoplanets are discovered and the habitability of such planets is considered, one can turn to searching for the origin of life on Earth in order to better understand what makes a habitable planet. Activated acetic acid, or methyl thioacetate, has been proposed to be central to the origin of life on Earth, and also as an important energy currency molecule in early cellular evolution. We have investigated the hydrolysis of methyl thioacetate under various conditions. Its uncatalyzed rate of hydrolysis is about three orders of magnitude faster (K = 0.00663 s^-1; 100°C, pH 7.5, concentration = 0.33mM) than published rates for its catalyzed production making it unlikely to accumulate under prebiotic conditions. However, we also observed that methyl thioacetate was protected from hydrolysis when inside its own hydrophobic droplets. We found that methyl thioacetate protection from hydrolysis was also possible in droplets of hexane and in the membranes of nonanoic acid micelles. Thus, the hydrophobic regions of prebiotic micelles and early cell membranes could have offered a refuge for this energetic molecule increasing its lifetime in close proximity to the reactions for which it would be needed. Methyl thioacetate could thus be important for the origin of life on Earth and perhaps for better understanding the potential habitability of other planets.

Todd, Zoe; House, C.

2014-01-01

189

Biodegradable cellulose acetate nanofiber fabrication via electrospinning.  

PubMed

Nanofiber manufacturing is one of the key advancements in nanotechnology today. Over the past few years, there has been a tremendous growth of research activities to explore electrospinning for nanofiber formation from a rich variety of materials. This quite simple and cost effective process operates on the principle that the solution is extracted under the action of a high electric field. Once the voltage is sufficiently high, a charged jet is ejected following a complicated looping trajectory. During its travel, the solvent evaporates leaving behind randomly oriented nanofibers accumulated on the collector. The combination of their nanoscale dimensionality, high surface area, porosity, flexibility and superior strength makes the electrospun fibers suitable for several value-added applications, such as filters, protecting clothes, high performance structures and biomedical devices. In this study biodegradable cellulose acetate (CA) nanofibrous membranes were produced using electrospinning. The device utilized consisted of a syringe equipped with a metal needle, a microdialysis pump, a high voltage supply and a collector. The morphology of the yielded fibers was determined using SEM. The effect of various parameters, including electric field strength, tip-to-collector distance, solution feed rate and composition on the morphological features of the electrospun fibers was examined. The optimum operating conditions for the production of uniform, non-beaded fibers with submicron diameter were also explored. The biodegradable CA nanofiber membranes are suitable as tissue engineering scaffolds and as reinforcements of biopolymer matrix composites in foils by ultrasonic welding methods. PMID:21133179

Christoforou, Theopisti; Doumanidis, Charalabos

2010-09-01

190

Eslicarbazepine acetate (BIA 2-093).  

PubMed

Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) [(S)-(--)-10-acetoxy-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenz[b,f]azepine-5-carboxamide], formerly known as BIA 2-093, is a novel central nervous system (CNS)-active compound with anticonvulsant activity. It behaves as a voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) blocker and is currently under clinical development for the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder. ESL shares with carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine the dibenzazepine nucleus bearing the 5-carboxamide substitute, but is structurally different at the 10,11-position. This molecular variation results in differences in metabolism, preventing the formation of toxic epoxide metabolites such as carbamazepine-10,11 epoxide. In pharmacokinetic studies in humans, ESL was rapidly and extensively metabolized to eslicarbazepine (S-licarbazepine), which is responsible for pharmacological activity. ESL has been tested in patients with refractory partial-onset seizures and was found to be efficacious and well tolerated. Monotherapy studies in adult epileptic patients and add-on studies in epileptic children are in the planning process. The efficacy and safety data appear to be very promising considering the refractory nature of the epileptic population enrolled in studies to date. Results of ongoing phase III studies in adult epileptic patients are expected to be available in 2007 and are required to define the position of ESL in the therapy of patients with epilepsy. PMID:17199020

Almeida, Luis; Soares-da-Silva, Patrício

2007-01-01

191

Emergency contraception: potential role of ulipristal acetate  

PubMed Central

Unintended pregnancy is a global reproductive health problem. Emergency contraception (EC) provides women with a safe means of preventing unwanted pregnancies after having unprotected intercourse. While 1.5 mg of levonorgestrel (LNG) as a single dose or in 2 doses with 12 hours apart is the currently gold standard EC regimen, a single dose of 30 mg ulipristal acetate (UPA) has recently been proposed for EC use up to 120 hours of unprotected intercourse with similar side effect profiles as LNG. The main mechanism of action of both LNG and UPA for EC is delaying or inhibiting ovulation. However, the ‘window of effect’ for LNG EC seems to be rather narrow, beginning after selection of the dominant follicular and ending when luteinizing hormone peak begins to rise, whereas UPA appears to have a direct inhibitory effect on follicular rupture which allows it to be also effective even when administered shortly before ovulation, a time period when use of LNG is no longer effective. These experimental findings are in line with results from a series of clinical trials conducted recently which demonstrate that UPA seems to have higher EC efficacy compared to LNG. This review summarizes some of the data available on UPA used after unprotected intercourse with the purpose to provide evidence that UPA, a new type of second-generation progesterone receptor modulator, represents a new evolutionary step in EC treatment. PMID:21072297

Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Meng, Chun-Xia

2010-01-01

192

Emergency contraception: potential role of ulipristal acetate.  

PubMed

Unintended pregnancy is a global reproductive health problem. Emergency contraception (EC) provides women with a safe means of preventing unwanted pregnancies after having unprotected intercourse. While 1.5 mg of levonorgestrel (LNG) as a single dose or in 2 doses with 12 hours apart is the currently gold standard EC regimen, a single dose of 30 mg ulipristal acetate (UPA) has recently been proposed for EC use up to 120 hours of unprotected intercourse with similar side effect profiles as LNG. The main mechanism of action of both LNG and UPA for EC is delaying or inhibiting ovulation. However, the 'window of effect' for LNG EC seems to be rather narrow, beginning after selection of the dominant follicular and ending when luteinizing hormone peak begins to rise, whereas UPA appears to have a direct inhibitory effect on follicular rupture which allows it to be also effective even when administered shortly before ovulation, a time period when use of LNG is no longer effective. These experimental findings are in line with results from a series of clinical trials conducted recently which demonstrate that UPA seems to have higher EC efficacy compared to LNG. This review summarizes some of the data available on UPA used after unprotected intercourse with the purpose to provide evidence that UPA, a new type of second-generation progesterone receptor modulator, represents a new evolutionary step in EC treatment. PMID:21072297

Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Meng, Chun-Xia

2010-01-01

193

21 CFR 524.1484f - Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride eardrops.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride... § 524.1484f Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride...neomycin base, 2.5 milligrams of prednisolone acetate, and 5 milligrams of...

2010-04-01

194

21 CFR 524.1881b - Prednisolone acetate-neomycin sulfate sterile suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prednisolone acetate-neomycin sulfate sterile...ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1881b Prednisolone acetate-neomycin sulfate sterile... (a) Specifications. Prednisolone acetate-neomycin...

2010-04-01

195

Alignment of micro-crystals of Mn12-acetate and direct observation of single molecules thereof  

E-print Network

This dissertation focuses on three separate studies. First, magnetization of the Mn12- acetate was studied by low temperature hysteresis loops and DC magnetization data on magnetically aligned Mn12-acetate micro-crystals. Secondly, Mn12-acetate thin...

Seo, Dongmin

2009-05-15

196

Crystal structure of a mixed solvated form of amoxapine acetate  

PubMed Central

The mixed solvated salt 4-(2-chloro­dibenzo[b,f][1,4]oxazepin-11-yl)piperazin-1-ium acetate–acetic acid–cyclo­hexane (2/2/1), C17H17ClN3O+·C2H3O2 ?·C2H4O2·0.5C6H12, crystallizes with one mol­ecule of protonated amoxapine (AXPN), an acetate anion and a mol­ecule of acetic acid together with half a mol­ecule of cyclo­hexane. In the centrosymmetric crystal, both enanti­omers of the protonated AXPN mol­ecule stack alternatively along [001]. Acetate anions connect the AXPN cations through N—H?O hydrogen bonding in the [010] direction, creating a sheet lying parallel to (100). The acetic acid mol­ecules are linked to the acetate anions via O—H?O hydrogen bonds within the sheets. Within the sheets there are also a number of C—H?O hydrogen bonds present. The cyclo­hexane solvent mol­ecules occupy the space between the sheets.

Bhardwaj, Rajni M.; Raval, Vishal; Oswald, Iain D. H.; Florence, Alastair J.

2015-01-01

197

Increased brain uptake and oxidation of acetate in heavy drinkers  

PubMed Central

When a person consumes ethanol, the body quickly begins to convert it to acetic acid, which circulates in the blood and can serve as a source of energy for the brain and other organs. This study used 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy to test whether chronic heavy drinking is associated with greater brain uptake and oxidation of acetic acid, providing a potential metabolic reward or adenosinergic effect as a consequence of drinking. Seven heavy drinkers, who regularly consumed at least 8 drinks per week and at least 4 drinks per day at least once per week, and 7 light drinkers, who consumed fewer than 2 drinks per week were recruited. The subjects were administered [2-13C]acetate for 2 hours and scanned throughout that time with magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain to observe natural 13C abundance of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and the appearance of 13C-labeled glutamate, glutamine, and acetate. Heavy drinkers had approximately 2-fold more brain acetate relative to blood and twice as much labeled glutamate and glutamine. The results show that acetate transport and oxidation are faster in heavy drinkers compared with that in light drinkers. Our finding suggests that a new therapeutic approach to supply acetate during alcohol detoxification may be beneficial. PMID:23478412

Jiang, Lihong; Gulanski, Barbara Irene; De Feyter, Henk M.; Weinzimer, Stuart A.; Pittman, Brian; Guidone, Elizabeth; Koretski, Julia; Harman, Susan; Petrakis, Ismene L.; Krystal, John H.; Mason, Graeme F.

2013-01-01

198

The Effects of Acetate Buffer Concentration on Lysozyme Solubility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The micro-solubility column technique was employed to systematically investigate the effects of buffer concentration on tetragonal lysozyme solubility. While keeping the NaCl concentrations constant at 2%, 3%, 4%, 5% and 7%, and the pH at 4.0, we have studied the solubility of tetragonal lysozyme over an acetate buffer concentration range of 0.01M to 0.5M as a function of temperature. The lysozyme solubility decreased with increasing acetate concentration from 0.01M to 0.1M. This decrease may simply be due to the net increase in solvent ionic strength. Increasing the acetate concentration beyond 0.1M resulted in an increase in the lysozyme solubility, which reached a peak at - 0.3M acetate concentration. This increase was believed to be due to the increased binding of acetate to the anionic binding sites of lysozyme, preventing their occupation by chloride. In keeping with the previously observed reversal of the Hoffmeister series for effectiveness of anions in crystallizing lysozyme, acetate would be a less effective precipitant than chloride. Further increasing the acetate concentration beyond 0.3M resulted in a subsequent gradual decrease in the lysozyme solubility at all NaCl concentrations.

Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Pusey, Marc L.

1996-01-01

199

SAGA Complex Components and Acetate Repression in Aspergillus nidulans  

PubMed Central

Alongside the well-established carbon catabolite repression by glucose and other sugars, acetate causes repression in Aspergillus nidulans. Mutations in creA, encoding the transcriptional repressor involved in glucose repression, also affect acetate repression, but mutations in creB or creC, encoding components of a deubiquitination system, do not. To understand the effects of acetate, we used a mutational screen that was similar to screens that uncovered mutations in creA, creB, and creC, except that glucose was replaced by acetate to identify mutations that were affected for repression by acetate but not by glucose. We uncovered mutations in acdX, homologous to the yeast SAGA component gene SPT8, which in growth tests showed derepression for acetate repression but not for glucose repression. We also made mutations in sptC, homologous to the yeast SAGA component gene SPT3, which showed a similar phenotype. We found that acetate repression is complex, and analysis of facA mutations (lacking acetyl CoA synthetase) indicates that acetate metabolism is required for repression of some systems (proline metabolism) but not for others (acetamide metabolism). Although plate tests indicated that acdX- and sptC-null mutations led to derepressed alcohol dehydrogenase activity, reverse-transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed no derepression of alcA or aldA but rather elevated induced levels. Our results indicate that acetate repression is due to repression via CreA together with metabolic changes rather than due to an independent regulatory control mechanism. PMID:23173087

Georgakopoulos, Paraskevi; Lockington, Robin A.; Kelly, Joan M.

2012-01-01

200

Clostridiumm ljungdahlii, an anaerobic ethanol and acetate producing microorganism  

DOEpatents

A newly discovered microorganism was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Clostridium ljungdahlii, having the identifying characteristics of ATCC No. 49587. Cultured in an aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic conditions, this microorganism is capable of producing ethanol and acetate from CO and H.sub.2 O and/or CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 in synthesis gas. Under optimal growth conditions, the microorganism produces acetate in preference to ethanol. Conversely, under non-growth conditions, ethanol production is favored over acetate.

Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR); Clausen, Edgar C. (Fayetteville, AR)

1992-01-01

201

Clostridiumm ljungdahlii, an anaerobic ethanol and acetate producing microorganism  

DOEpatents

A newly discovered microorganism was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Clostridium ljungdahlii, having the identifying characteristics of ATCC No. 49587. Cultured in an aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic conditions, this microorganism is capable of producing ethanol and acetate from CO and H[sub 2]O and/or CO[sub 2] and H[sub 2] in synthesis gas. Under optimal growth conditions, the microorganism produces acetate in preference to ethanol. Conversely, under non-growth conditions, ethanol production is favored over acetate. 3 figs.

Gaddy, J.L.; Clausen, E.C.

1992-12-22

202

Selective Cross-Coupling of Organic Halides with Allylic Acetates  

PubMed Central

A general protocol for the coupling of haloarenes with a variety of allylic acetates is presented. Strengths of the method are a tolerance for electrophilic (ketone, aldehyde) and acidic (sulfonamide, trifluoroacetamide) substrates and the ability to couple with a variety of substituted allylic acetates. Secondary alkyl bromides can also be allylated under slightly modified conditions, demonstrating the generality of the approach. Finally, the coupling of a reactive vinyl halide could be achieved by the use of a very hindered ligand and more reactive, branched allylic acetates. PMID:23095043

Anka-Lufford, Lukiana L.; Prinsell, Michael R.

2012-01-01

203

Ester prodrug-loaded electrospun cellulose acetate fiber mats as transdermal drug delivery systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellulose acetate (CA) fibers loaded with the ester prodrugs of naproxen, including methyl ester, ethyl ester and isopropyl\\u000a ester, were prepared through electrospinning using acetone\\/N,N-dimethylacetamide(DMAc)\\/ethanol (4:1:1, v\\/v\\/v) as solvent. The chemical and morphological characterizations of the medicated\\u000a fibers were investigated by means of SEM, DSC, XRD and FTIR, as well as the studies of the drug release properties. The results

Xiao-mei Wu; Christopher J. Branford-White; Li-min Zhu; Nichoals P. Chatterton; Deng-guang Yu

2010-01-01

204

Mosquito larvicidal activity of gluanol acetate, a tetracyclic triterpenes derived from Ficus racemosa Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The larvicidal activity of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, petroleum ether, acetone, and methanol extracts of the leaf and bark\\u000a of Ficus racemosa (Moraceae) was assayed for their toxicity against the early fourth-instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). The larval mortality was observed after 24-h exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects;\\u000a however, the highest larval mortality was found in

A. Abdul Rahuman; P. Venkatesan; Kannappan Geetha; Geetha Gopalakrishnan; A. Bagavan; C. Kamaraj

2008-01-01

205

Water dispersible microbicidal cellulose acetate phthalate film  

PubMed Central

Background Cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) has been used for several decades in the pharmaceutical industry for enteric film coating of oral tablets and capsules. Micronized CAP, available commercially as "Aquateric" and containing additional ingredients required for micronization, used for tablet coating from water dispersions, was shown to adsorb and inactivate the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), herpesviruses (HSV) and other sexually transmitted disease (STD) pathogens. Earlier studies indicate that a gel formulation of micronized CAP has a potential as a topical microbicide for prevention of STDs including the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The objective of endeavors described here was to develop a water dispersible CAP film amenable to inexpensive industrial mass production. Methods CAP and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) were dissolved in different organic solvent mixtures, poured into dishes, and the solvents evaporated. Graded quantities of a resulting selected film were mixed for 5 min at 37°C with HIV-1, HSV and other STD pathogens, respectively. Residual infectivity of the treated viruses and bacteria was determined. Results The prerequisites for producing CAP films which are soft, flexible and dispersible in water, resulting in smooth gels, are combining CAP with HPC (other cellulose derivatives are unsuitable), and casting from organic solvent mixtures containing ?50 to ?65% ethanol (EtOH). The films are ?100 µ thick and have a textured surface with alternating protrusions and depressions revealed by scanning electron microscopy. The films, before complete conversion into a gel, rapidly inactivated HIV-1 and HSV and reduced the infectivity of non-viral STD pathogens >1,000-fold. Conclusions Soft pliable CAP-HPC composite films can be generated by casting from organic solvent mixtures containing EtOH. The films rapidly reduce the infectivity of several STD pathogens, including HIV-1. They are converted into gels and thus do not have to be removed following application and use. In addition to their potential as topical microbicides, the films have promise for mucosal delivery of pharmaceuticals other than CAP. PMID:14617380

Neurath, A Robert; Strick, Nathan; Li, Yun-Yao

2003-01-01

206

Inhibition of Ice Growth and Recrystallization by Zirconium Acetate and Zirconium Acetate Hydroxide  

PubMed Central

The control over ice crystal growth, melting, and shaping is important in a variety of fields, including cell and food preservation and ice templating for the production of composite materials. Control over ice growth remains a challenge in industry, and the demand for new cryoprotectants is high. Naturally occurring cryoprotectants, such as antifreeze proteins (AFPs), present one solution for modulating ice crystal growth; however, the production of AFPs is expensive and inefficient. These obstacles can be overcome by identifying synthetic substitutes with similar AFP properties. Zirconium acetate (ZRA) was recently found to induce the formation of hexagonal cavities in materials prepared by ice templating. Here, we continue this line of study and examine the effects of ZRA and a related compound, zirconium acetate hydroxide (ZRAH), on ice growth, shaping, and recrystallization. We found that the growth rate of ice crystals was significantly reduced in the presence of ZRA and ZRAH, and that solutions containing these compounds display a small degree of thermal hysteresis, depending on the solution pH. The compounds were found to inhibit recrystallization in a manner similar to that observed in the presence of AFPs. The favorable properties of ZRA and ZRAH suggest tremendous potential utility in industrial applications. PMID:23555701

Mizrahy, Ortal; Bar-Dolev, Maya; Guy, Shlomit; Braslavsky, Ido

2013-01-01

207

SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF WASTEWATERS FROM ACETIC-ACID MANUFACTURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Solvent extraction was evaluated as a potential treatment method for wastewaters generated during the manufacture of acetic acid. Possible goals for an extraction process were considered. For the wastewater samples studied, extraction appeared to be too expensive to be practical ...

208

Original article Effect of indole-3-acetic acid (plant auxin)  

E-print Network

Original article Effect of indole-3-acetic acid (plant auxin) on the preservation at 15 °C of boar; Effet de l'auxine végétale, l'acide 3-indole-acétique, sur la conservation du sperme de verrat pourl

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

209

Electronic interactions between gold films and mn12-acetate  

E-print Network

Interactions between Mn12–acetate molecular magnets and thin gold films have been explored in light of the theory of weak localization. Low-temperature measurements of the magnetoresistance of gold films of varying thicknesses, with and without...

Means, Joel Lewis

2009-05-15

210

Degradation by acetic acid for crystalline Si photovoltaic modules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The degradation of crystalline Si photovoltaic modules during damp-heat test was studied using some test modules with and without polymer film insertion by observing electrical and electroluminescence properties and by chemical analyses. Acetic acid generated by the hydrolysis decomposition of ethylene vinyl acetate used as an encapsulant is the main origin of degradation. The change in electroluminescence images is explained on the basis of the corrosion of electrodes by acetic acid. On the other hand, little change was observed at the pn junction even after damp-heat test for a long time. Therefore, carrier generation occurs even after degradation; however, such generated carriers cannot be collected owing to corrosion of electrodes. The guiding principle that module structure and module materials without saving acetic acid into the modules was obtained.

Masuda, Atsushi; Uchiyama, Naomi; Hara, Yukiko

2015-04-01

211

A PROGESTOGEN (CHLORMADINONE ACETATE = CAP) FOR CYCLE CONTROL AND INFERTILITY  

E-print Network

A PROGESTOGEN (CHLORMADINONE ACETATE = CAP) FOR CYCLE CONTROL AND INFERTILITY TREATMENT IN THE MARE, CAP has been used for infertility treatments and cycle control in mares in Austria. In all indications

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

212

Microorganisms having enhanced resistance to acetate and methods of use  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides isolated or genetically modified strains of microorganisms that display enhanced resistance to acetate as a result of increased expression of a sodium proton antiporter. The present invention also provides methods for producing such microbial strains, as well as related promoter sequences and expression vectors. Further, the present invention provides methods of producing alcohol from biomass materials by using microorganisms with enhanced resistance to acetate.

Brown, Steven D; Yang, Shihui

2014-10-21

213

Intrinsic hydration of monopositive uranyl hydroxide, nitrate, and acetate cations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intrinsic hydration of three monopositive uranyl-anion complexes (UO2A)+ (where A = acetate, nitrate, or hydroxide) was investigated using ion-trap mass spectrometry (IT-MS). The relative rates\\u000a for the formation of the monohydrates [(UO2A)(H2O)]+, with respect to the anion, followed the trend: Acetate ? nitrate ? hydroxide. This finding was rationalized in terms of\\u000a the donation of electron density by the

Winnie Chien; Victor Anbalagan; Melvin Zandler; Michael Van Stipdonk; Dorothy Hanna; Garold Gresham; Gary Groenewold

2004-01-01

214

Antioxidative effects of ethyl 2-(3-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)ureido)acetate against amyloid ?-induced oxidative cell death via NF-?B, GSK-3? and ?-catenin signaling pathways in cultured cortical neurons.  

PubMed

We have previously shown that 2-(3-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)ureido)acetate (KHG21834) attenuates amyloid beta(A?)25-35-induced apoptotic death and shows anti-inflammatory activity against A?25-35-induced microglial activation. However, antioxidative effects of KHG21834 against A?-induced oxidative stress have not yet been reported. In the present study, we investigated the antioxidative function of KHG21834 in primary cultured cortical neurons, to expand the potential therapeutic efficacy of KHG21834. Pretreatment with KHG21834 protected against A?-induced neuronal cell death and mitochondrial damage, and significantly restored GSH levels and the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase, and also suppressed the production of reactive oxygen species and protein oxidation. These results imply that KHG21834 may play a role in cellular defense mechanisms against A?-induced oxidative stress in cultured cortical neurons. Furthermore, KHG21834 significantly attenuated the effects of A? treatment on levels of NF-?B, ?-catenin, and GSK-3? proteins in cortical neurons. Taken together, our results suggest that the antioxidant effects of KHG21834 may result at least in part from its ability to regulate the NF-?B, ?-catenin, and GSK-3? signaling pathways. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that KHG21834 significantly attenuates A?25-35-induced oxidative stress in primary cortical neurons, and provides novel insights into KHG21834 as a possible therapeutic agent for the treatment of A?-mediated neurotoxicity involving oxidative stress. PMID:25747393

Kim, E-A; Cho, C H; Kim, D W; Choi, S Y; Huh, J-W; Cho, S-W

2015-04-01

215

Improved Monitoring of Female Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with Pear Ester Plus Acetic Acid in Sex Pheromone-treated Orchards  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Catch of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), in clear delta traps baited with ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester, PE) and acetic acid (AA) in separate lures (PE+AA) was compared with catch in orange delta traps baited with a single lure containing PE and the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadie...

216

PREPARATION OF WATER-SOLUBLE AND WATER-SWELLABLE STARCH ACETATES USING MICROWAVE HEATING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Starch acetates of degree of substitution 0.1-1.5 were prepared by heating corn starch, acetic acid and acetic anhydride in sealed, stirred, Teflon vessels in a microwave reactor. Reaction efficiencies were typically >90% at reaction temperatures of 150-160 deg C for 4-7 minutes. Starch acetates w...

217

Ulipristal acetate: a review of its use in emergency contraception.  

PubMed

Ulipristal acetate (ellaOne®; ella®) is the first of a new class of selective progesterone receptor modulators, and is indicated for emergency contraception within 120 hours after unprotected sexual intercourse or contraceptive failure. The principal effect of ulipristal acetate is to inhibit or delay ovulation. This effect may result from the drug's ability to delay the onset of luteinizing hormone (LH) surge or postpone LH peak if LH surge has started, or possibly by a direct inhibitory effect on follicular rupture, when administered in the follicular phase (including just before ovulation). In clinical trials, a single oral dose of ulipristal acetate 30?mg was effective in preventing pregnancies in women requesting emergency contraception after unprotected sexual intercourse and provided sustained efficacy throughout the 120-hour postcoital period in which it is indicated. When compared with levonorgestrel in well designed noninferiority trials, it was no less effective in preventing pregnancies when administered within 72 hours of unprotected intercourse, but was more effective when administered later (within 72-120 hours). Results of a meta-analysis suggest that ulipristal acetate may be more effective than levonorgestrel from day 1 and throughout the entire 5-day period following unprotected sexual intercourse. Ulipristal acetate is generally well tolerated, with a similar tolerability profile to that of levonorgestrel. In general, the onset of menses is delayed by 2-3 days following treatment. Although, ulipristal acetate is more expensive than levonorgestrel, it may represent a cost-effective alternative to levonorgestrel for women requesting emergency contraception within 120 hours of unprotected intercourse. Thus, ulipristal acetate provides effective, sustained and well tolerated emergency contraception when taken within 120 hours of unprotected sexual intercourse, thereby offering an extended treatment window compared with levonorgestrel, which should be administered within 72 hours. PMID:21568368

McKeage, Kate; Croxtall, Jamie D

2011-05-01

218

Tetrazole acetic acid: Tautomers, conformers, and isomerization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monomers of (tetrazol-5-yl)-acetic acid (TAA) were obtained by sublimation of the crystalline compound and the resulting vapors were isolated in cryogenic nitrogen matrices at 13 K. The conformational and tautomeric composition of TAA in the matrix was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and vibrational calculations carried out at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. TAA may adopt two tautomeric modifications, 1H- and 2H-, depending on the position of the annular hydrogen atom. Two-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs) of TAA were theoretically calculated at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level, for each tautomer. Four and six symmetry-unique minima were located on these PESs, for 1H- and 2H-TAA, respectively. The energetics of the detected minima was subsequently refined by calculations at the QCISD level. Two 1H- and three 2H-conformers fall within the 0-8 kJ mol-1 energy range and should be appreciably populated at the sublimation temperature (˜330 K). Observation of only one conformer for each tautomer (1ccc and 2pcc) is explained in terms of calculated barriers to conformational rearrangements. All conformers with the cis O=COH moiety are separated by low barriers (less than 10 kJ mol-1) and collapse to the most stable 1ccc (1H-) and 2pcc (2H-) forms during deposition of the matrix. On the trans O=COH surfaces, the relative energies are very high (between 12 and 27 kJ mol-1). The trans forms are not thermally populated at the sublimation conditions and were not detected in matrices. One high-energy form in each tautomer, 1cct (1H-) and 2pct (2H-), was found to differ from the most stable form only by rotation of the OH group and separated from other forms by high barriers. This opened a perspective for their stabilization in a matrix. 1cct and 2pct were generated in the matrices selectively by means of narrow-band near-infrared (NIR) irradiations of the samples at 6920 and 6937 cm-1, where the first OH stretching overtone vibrations of 1ccc and 2pcc occur. The reverse transformations could be induced by irradiations at 7010 and 7030 cm-1, transforming 1cct and 2pct back to 1ccc and 2pcc, also selectively. Besides the NIR-induced transformations, the photogenerated 1cct and 2pct forms also decay in N2 matrices back to 1ccc and 2pcc spontaneously, with characteristic decay times of hours (1H) and tens of minutes (2H). The decay mechanism is rationalized in terms of the proton tunneling. In crystals, TAA exists exclusively as 1H-tautomer. By contrast, the tautomeric composition of the matrix-isolated monomers was found to consist of both 1H- and 2H-tautomers, in comparable amounts. A mechanistic discussion of the tautomerization process occurring during sublimation, accounting also for the observed minor decomposition of TAA leading to CO2 and 5-methyl-tetrazole, is proposed.

Araujo-Andrade, C.; Reva, I.; Fausto, R.

2014-02-01

219

Zuclopenthixol acetate for acute schizophrenia and similar serious mental illnesses  

PubMed Central

Background Medication used for acute aggression in psychiatry must have rapid onset of effect, low frequency of administration and low levels of adverse effects. Zuclopenthixol acetate is said to have these properties. Objectives To estimate the clinical effects of zuclopenthixol acetate for the management of acute aggression or violence thought to be due to serious mental illnesses, in comparison to other drugs used to treat similar conditions. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia’s Group Trials Register (July 2011). We supplemented this by citation searching and personal contact with authors and relevant pharmaceutical companies. Selection criteria All randomised clinical trials involving people thought to have serious mental illnesses comparing zuclopenthixol acetate with other drugs. Data collection and analysis Two review authors extracted and cross-checked data independently. We calculated fixed-effect relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for dichotomous data. We analysed by intention-to-treat. We used mean differences (MD) for continuous variables. Main results We found no data for the primary outcome, tranquillisation. Compared with haloperidol, zuclopenthixol acetate was no more sedating at two hours (n = 40, 1 RCT, RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.27 to 1.34). People given zuclopenthixol acetate were not at reduced risk of being given supplementary antipsychotics (n = 134, 3 RCTs, RR 1.49, 95% CI 0.97 to 2.30) although additional use of benzodiazepines was less (n = 50, 1 RCT, RR 0.03, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.47). People given zuclopenthixol acetate had fewer injections over seven days compared with those allocated to haloperidol IM (n = 70, 1 RCT, RR 0.39, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.84, NNT 4, CI 3 to 14). We found no data on more episodes of aggression or harm to self or others. One trial (n = 148) reported no significant difference in adverse effects for people receiving zuclopenthixol acetate compared with those allocated haloperidol at one, three and six days (RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.27). Compared with haloperidol or clotiapine, people allocated zuclopenthixol did not seem to be at more risk of a range of movement disorders (< 20%). Three studies found no difference in the proportion of people getting blurred vision/dry mouth (n = 192, 2 RCTs, RR at 24 hours 0.90, 95% CI 0.48 to 1.70). Similarly, dizziness was equally infrequent for those allocated zuclopenthixol acetate compared with haloperidol (n = 192, 2 RCTs, RR at 24 hours 1.15, 95% CI 0.46 to 2.88). There was no difference between treatments for leaving the study before completion (n = 522, RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.31 to 2.31). One study reported no difference in adverse effects and outcome scores, when high dose (50-100 mg/injection) zuclopenthixol acetate was compared with low dose (25-50 mg/injection) zuclopenthixol acetate. Authors’ conclusions Recommendations on the use of zuclopenthixol acetate for the management of psychiatric emergencies in preference to ‘standard’ treatment have to be viewed with caution. Most of the small trials present important methodological flaws and findings are poorly reported. This review did not find any suggestion that zuclopenthixol acetate is more or less effective in controlling aggressive acute psychosis, or in preventing adverse effects than intramuscular haloperidol, and neither seemed to have a rapid onset of action. Use of zuclopenthixol acetate may result in less numerous coercive injections and low doses of the drug may be as effective as higher doses. Well-conducted pragmatic randomised controlled trials are needed. PMID:22513898

Jayakody, Kaushadh; Gibson, Roger Carl; Kumar, Ajit; Gunadasa, Shalmini

2014-01-01

220

Catalytic oxidation of butyl acetate over silver-loaded zeolites.  

PubMed

The performance of silver-loaded zeolite (HY and HZSM-5) catalysts in the oxidation of butyl acetate as a model volatile organic compound (VOC) was studied. The objective was to find a catalyst with superior activity, selectivity towards deep oxidation product and stability. The catalyst activity was measured under excess oxygen condition in a packed bed reactor operated at gas hourly space velocity (GHSV)=15,000-32,000 h(-1), reaction temperature between 150 and 500 degrees C and butyl acetate inlet concentration of 1000-4000 ppm. Both AgY and AgZSM-5 catalysts exhibited high activity in the oxidation of butyl acetate. Despite lower silver content, AgY showed better activity, attributed to better metal dispersion, surface characteristics and acidity, and its pore system. Total conversion of butyl acetate was achieved at above 400 degrees C. The oxidation of butyl acetate followed a simple power law model. The reaction orders, n and m were evaluated under differential mode by varying the VOC partial pressure between 0.004 and 0.018 atm and partial pressure of oxygen between 0.05 and 0.20 atm. The reaction rate was independent of oxygen concentration and single order with respect to VOC concentration. The activation energies were 19.78 kJ/mol for AgY and 32.26 kJ/mol for AgZSM-5, respectively. PMID:18294771

Wong, Cheng Teng; Abdullah, Ahmad Zuhairi; Bhatia, Subhash

2008-09-15

221

[Conversion of acetic acid to methane by thermophiles: Progress report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to provide an understanding of thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms capable of breaking down acetic acid, the precursor of two-thirds of the methane produced by anaerobic bioreactors. Recent results include: (1) the isolation of Methanothrix strain CALLS-1, which grows much more rapidly than mesophilic strains; (2) the demonstration that thermophilic cultures of Methanosarcina and Methanothrix show minimum thresholds for acetate utilization of 1--2.5 mM and 10--20{mu}m respectively, in agreement with ecological data indicating that Methanothrix is favored by low acetate concentration; (3) the demonstration of high levels of thermostable acetyl-coA synthetase and carbon monoxide dehydrogenase in cell-free extracts of Methanothrix strains CALS-1; (4) the demonstration of methanogenesis from acetate and ATP in cell free extracts of strain CALS-1. (5) the demonstration that methanogenesis from acetate required 2 ATP/methane, and, in contrast to Methanosarcina, was independent of hydrogen and other electron donors; (6) the finding that entropy effects must be considered when predicting the level of hydrogen in thermophilic syntrophic cultures. (7) the isolation and characterization of the Desulfotomaculum thermoacetoxidans. Current research is centered on factors which allow thermophilic Methanothrix to compete with Methanosarcina.

Zinder, S.

1991-12-31

222

(Conversion of acetic acid to methane by thermophiles: Progress report)  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to provide an understanding of thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms capable of breaking down acetic acid, the precursor of two-thirds of the methane produced by anaerobic bioreactors. Recent results include: (1) the isolation of Methanothrix strain CALLS-1, which grows much more rapidly than mesophilic strains; (2) the demonstration that thermophilic cultures of Methanosarcina and Methanothrix show minimum thresholds for acetate utilization of 1--2.5 mM and 10--20{mu}m respectively, in agreement with ecological data indicating that Methanothrix is favored by low acetate concentration; (3) the demonstration of high levels of thermostable acetyl-coA synthetase and carbon monoxide dehydrogenase in cell-free extracts of Methanothrix strains CALS-1; (4) the demonstration of methanogenesis from acetate and ATP in cell free extracts of strain CALS-1. (5) the demonstration that methanogenesis from acetate required 2 ATP/methane, and, in contrast to Methanosarcina, was independent of hydrogen and other electron donors; (6) the finding that entropy effects must be considered when predicting the level of hydrogen in thermophilic syntrophic cultures. (7) the isolation and characterization of the Desulfotomaculum thermoacetoxidans. Current research is centered on factors which allow thermophilic Methanothrix to compete with Methanosarcina.

Zinder, S.

1991-01-01

223

The Metabolism of Acetate by the Blue-green Algae, Anabaena variabilis and Anacystis nidulans  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The utilization of acetate by blue-green algae was examined and the activities of enzymes involved in its metabolism measured. Although acetate did not stimulate the endogenous respiration of these organisms, the oxida- tion of acetate was followed by the rate of release of (14C) carbon dioxide from (I-~~CC) and (2-l4CC) sodium acetate. Similarly, sodium acetate did not alter the

J. Pearce; N. G. Carr

1967-01-01

224

Improvement of productivity in acetic acid fermentation with Clostridium thermoaceticum  

SciTech Connect

Production of acetic acid by a mutant strain of Clostridium thermoaceticum was compared in three types of membrane cell-recycle bioreactors. A modified fed-batch bioreactor (where the product is partially removed at the end of fermentation, but the cells are retained), and a two-stage CSTR (with product being removed continuously and the cells being recycled from the second to the first stage) resulted in better performance than a one-stage CSTR or batch fermenter. The difference in performance was greater at higher acetate concentration. With 45 g/L of glucose in the feed, productivity was 0.75-1.12 g/L-h and acetic acid concentrations were 34-38 g/L. This is more than double the batch system. The nutrient supply rate also appeared to have a strong influence on productivity of the microorganism.

Shah, M.M.; Cheryan, M. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

1995-12-31

225

Photoionization of small sodium-doped acetic acid clusters.  

PubMed

The uptake of sodium and the fragmentation before and after "soft" photoionization with ultraviolet light are investigated for small acetic acid clusters. The acetic acid clusters are generated in a supersonic expansion and ionized with ultraviolet light after doping with sodium in a pick-up chamber. The composition of the bare acetic acid clusters in the molecular beam is determined independently from complementary photoionization experiments using extreme ultraviolet light. The experimental results are analyzed with the help of density functional calculations for energetics and statistical adiabatic channel calculations for fragmentation kinetics. The study demonstrates that the detected ions originate from fragmentation in the neutral as well as in the ionic state, and in particular that the fragmentation pathway strongly depends on the cluster size. PMID:21384976

Forysinski, Piotr W; Zielke, Philipp; Luckhaus, David; Corbett, Jennifer; Signorell, Ruth

2011-03-01

226

Functionalization of cellulose acetate fibers with engineered cutinases.  

PubMed

In the present work, we describe for the first time the specific role of cutinase on surface modification of cellulose acetate fibers. Cutinase exhibits acetyl esterase activity on diacetate and triacetate of 0.010 U and 0.007 U, respectively. An increase on the hydroxyl groups at the fiber surface of 25% for diacetate and 317% for triacetate, after a 24 h treatment, is estimated by an indirect assay. Aiming at further improvement of cutinase affinity toward cellulose acetate, chimeric cutinases are genetically engineered by fusing the 3'-end coding sequence with a bacterial or a fungal carbohydrate-binding module and varying the linker DNA sequence. A comparative analysis of these genetic constructions is presented showing that, the superficial regeneration of cellulose hydrophilicity and reactivity on highly substituted cellulose acetates is achieved by chimeric cutinases. PMID:20014432

Matamá, Teresa; Araújo, Rita; Gübitz, Georg M; Casal, Margarida; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

2010-01-01

227

Disinfection of mung bean seed with gaseous acetic acid.  

PubMed

Mung bean seed inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes (3 to 5 log CFU/g) was exposed to gaseous acetic acid in an aluminum fumigation chamber. Salmonella Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 were not detected by enrichment of seeds treated with 242 microl of acetic acid per liter of air for 12 h at 45 degrees C. L. monocytogenes was recovered by enrichment from two of 10 25-g seed samples treated in this manner. Fumigation with gaseous acetic acid was also lethal to indigenous bacteria and fungi on mung bean seed. The treatment did not significantly reduce seed germination rates, and no differences in surface microstructure were observed between treated and untreated seed viewed by scanning electron microscopy. PMID:10456753

Delaquis, P J; Sholberg, P L; Stanich, K

1999-08-01

228

[Conversion of acetic acid to methane by thermophiles  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal of this project is to obtain a better understanding of thermophilic microorganisms which convert acetic acid to CH[sub 4]. The previous funding period represents a departure from earlier research in this laboratory, which was more physiological and ecological. The present work is centered on the biochemistry of the thermophile Methanothrix sp. strain CALS-1. this organism presents a unique opportunity, with its purity and relatively rapid growth, to do comparative biochemical studies with the other major acetotrophic genus Methanosarcina. We previously found that Methanothrix is capable of using acetate at concentrations 100 fold lower than Methanosarcina. This finding suggests that there are significant differences in the pathways of methanogenesis from acetate in the two genera.

Zinder, S.H.

1993-01-01

229

Delineation of LASIK Flaps with Prednisolone Acetate Eyedrops  

PubMed Central

We describe the use and safety of prednisolone acetate eyedrops at the end of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) to aid proper positioning of the corneal flap. The LASIK flap is created using the preferred technique. Following laser ablation and flap repositioning, one drop of prednisolone acetate is instilled on the eye. This delineates the flap “gutters” and allows perfect flap positioning and centration. We used this technique in 425 eyes undergoing LASIK for correction of spherocylindrical refractive errors. Flap margins were adequately delineated intraoperatively. The only complication related to the use of the steroid suspension was crystal deposition under the flap in one case which resolved completely in 48 hours. PMID:24982743

Fahd, Daoud C; Fahed, Sharbel D

2014-01-01

230

Investigation of Pyrolyses of Benzyl Benzoate, Acetate and Formate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pyrolysis of benzyl benzoate, benzyl acetate, and benzyl formate has been studied by means of ``toluene carrier gas'' technique. It has been shown that benzyl-benzoate decomposes according to the equation Ph·CH2·O·CO·Ph?Ph·CH2·+Ph·COO. The Ph·CH2&sngbnd;O·CO·Ph bond dissociation energies have been estimated as less than 69 kcal\\/mole. Decompositions of benzyl acetate and of benzyl formate are more complicated; the dissociation into radicals

M. Szwarc; J. Watson Taylor

1953-01-01

231

[Ice application for reducing pain associated with goserelin acetate injection].  

PubMed

We investigated the effectiveness of using an ice pack for reducing the pain associated with goserelin acetate injection. In this study, 39 patients with prostate cancer and 1 patient with breast cancer receiving hormonal therapy with goserelin acetate were enrolled. All patients completed a questionnaire regarding the use of ice application. We used the numerical rating scale (NRS) to assess the pain associated with injection. The NRS scores indicated that the pain was significantly less with ice application than with the usual method (p < 0.001). Further, ice application could decrease the duration of pain sensation. Ice application at the injection site is safe and effective for reducing pain. PMID:24105059

Ishii, Kaname; Nagata, Chika; Koshizaki, Eiko; Nishiuchi, Satoko

2013-10-01

232

Synthesis of radiolabeled acetyl-coenzyme A from sodium acetate  

SciTech Connect

The synthesis of high specific radioactivity (/sup 14/C)-acetyl-Coenzyme A from (/sup 14/C)sodium acetate, 2,6-dichlorobenzoic acid, 1,1'-carbonyldiimidazole, and CoA is reported. Starting with 1 mumol of (/sup 14/C)sodium acetate, this method yields pure (/sup 14/C)acetyl-CoA in yields approaching 40%. Chromatography on a reversed-phase ODS column was used to separate acetyl-CoA from Coenzyme A and side products. The acetylating agent is apparently a reaction intermediate, acetylimidazole.

Clough, R.C.; Barnum, S.R.; Jaworski, J.G.

1989-01-01

233

First synthesis and characterization for the stereoisomers of Ulipristal acetate.  

PubMed

The three stereoisomers, 11?,17?-isomer I, 11?,17?-isomer II and 11?,17?-isomer III are related substances of the selective progesterone receptor modulator Ulipristal acetate. Herein, we presented an efficient and practical synthesis approach to deliver these three stereoisomers for the first time, and also confirmed the structure of the key intermediate 5a by single-crystal X-ray analysis. Our research will be of immense help for organic chemists to study the impurity profile of Ulipristal acetate. PMID:25554579

Zhao, Yi; Li, Xiaolong; Liu, Hong; Yu, Yongguo; Hai, Li; Guo, Li; Wu, Yong

2015-03-01

234

Kanokonyl acetate-rich Indian valerian from northwestern Himalaya.  

PubMed

The volatile composition of rhizomes of Valeriana wallichii DC has been studied by GC, GC/MS and NMR spectroscopy. Sesquiterpenes were shown to be the main constituents (> 89.3%) comprising kanokonyl acetate (42.4%), gamma-curcumene (10.7%), ar-curcumene (7.2%), (Z)-beta-farnesene (3.2%), xanthorrhizol (4.1%), 7-epi-alpha-selinene (2.2%), valeranone (2.0%) and curcuphenol (1.4%). The unique presence of kanokonyl acetate and the complete absence of the earlier reported chemotype marker constituents of Indian valerian viz. maaliol and patchouli alcohol makes the composition significant. PMID:19831039

Mathela, Chandra S; Padalia, Rajendra C; Chanotiya, Chandan S

2009-09-01

235

40 CFR 180.595 - Flufenpyr-ethyl; tolerances for residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...General. (1) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide, flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, [2-chloro-4-fluoro-5...01 (2) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid,...

2013-07-01

236

40 CFR 180.595 - Flufenpyr-ethyl; tolerances for residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...General. (1) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide, flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, [2-chloro-4-fluoro-5...01 (2) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid,...

2012-07-01

237

40 CFR 180.595 - Flufenpyr-ethyl; tolerances for residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...General. (1) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide, flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, [2-chloro-4-fluoro-5...01 (2) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid,...

2011-07-01

238

40 CFR 180.595 - Flufenpyr-ethyl; tolerances for residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...General. (1) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide, flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, [2-chloro-4-fluoro-5...01 (2) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid,...

2014-07-01

239

40 CFR 180.595 - Flufenpyr-ethyl; tolerances for residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...General. (1) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide, flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, [2-chloro-4-fluoro-5...01 (2) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid,...

2010-07-01

240

Oxidized cellulose esters: I. Preparation and characterization of oxidized cellulose acetates--a new class of biodegradable polymers.  

PubMed

Oxidized cellulose acetates (OCA), with a degree of substitution (DS) value ranging between 1.1 and 2.3 and a free carboxylic acid group content of 20% (w/w), have been prepared by reacting oxidized cellulose (OC, COOH content 20% w/w) with a mixture of acetic acid and acetic anhydride in the presence of sulfuric acid as a catalyst. The DS of OCA, in general, increased with increasing reaction temperature, reaction time, and concentration of acetic anhydride in the reaction mixture. The yield of OCA, in contrast, increased with increasing concentration of acetic anhydride and decreased with increasing reaction time and temperature. The intrinsic viscosity of OCA varied between 0.100 and 0.275, depending on the reaction conditions used during its preparation. In general, an increase in reaction temperature and the use of a prolonged reaction time decreased the intrinsic viscosity of OCA. No correlation was found between DS and intrinsic viscosity of OCA. The apparent pKa of OCA is 3.7-3.9. The new OCA polymers are practically insoluble in water and slowly dissolve in pH 7.4 phosphate buffer solution. They are, however, soluble in a range of organic solvents (e.g. ethyl acetate, acetone, acetone/water, chloroform/methylene chloride, dimethylsulfoxide, dimethylformamide, and/or chloroform/methanol). PMID:12102594

Kumar, V; Yang, D

2002-01-01

241

Fate and residues of trenbolone acetate in edible tissues from sheep amd calves implanted with tritium-labeled trenbolone acetate  

SciTech Connect

In order to study the fate and residues of trenbolone acetate in edible tissues, two groups of six animals from two ruminant species (ewes and calves) were implanted with (3H)trenbolone acetate. The distribution of extractable radioactive residues was measured in liver, kidney and muscle. We found that the largest proportion of residues was not extractable and thus was considered as covalently bound residues. The proportion of the main extractable metabolites (17 alpha-trenbolone, trendione, 17 beta-trenbolone) was measured. The evaluation of the distribution of trenbolone acetate metabolites directly soluble in water showed that unknown metabolite(s) were predominant. The covalent binding to nucleic acids was measured. It was so low that it was not detectable. The results are discussed in light of the data presented in the scientific report on anabolic agents in animal production from the European scientific working group.

Evrard, P.; Maghuin-Rogister, G.; Rico, A.G. (Univ. of Liege (Belgium))

1989-06-01

242

Linalyl Acetate Is Metabolized by Pseudomonas incognita with the Acetoxy Group Intact  

PubMed Central

Metabolism of linalyl acetate by Pseudomonas incognita isolated by enrichment culture on the acyclic monoterpene alcohol linalool was studied. Biodegradation of linalyl acetate by this strain resulted in the formation of linalool, linalool-8-carboxylic acid, oleuropeic acid, and ?5-4-acetoxy-4-methyl hexenoic acid. Cells adapted to linalyl acetate metabolized linalyl acetate-8-aldehyde to linalool-8-carboxylic acid, linalyl acetate-8-carboxylic acid, ?5-4-acetoxy-4-methyl hexenoic acid, and geraniol-8-carboxylic acid. Resting cell suspensions previously grown with linalyl acetate oxidized linalyl acetate-8-aldehyde to linalyl acetate-8-carboxylic acid, ?5-4-acetoxy-4-methyl hexenoic acid, and pyruvic acid. The crude cell-free extract (10,000 g of supernatant), obtained from the sonicate of linalyl acetate-grown cells, was shown to contain enzyme systems responsible for the formation of linalyl acetate-8-carboxylic acid and linalool-8-carboxylic acid from linalyl acetate. The same supernatant contained NAD-linked alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases involved in the formation of linalyl acetate-8-aldehyde and linalyl acetate-8-carboxylic acid, respectively. On the basis of various metabolites isolated from the culture medium, resting cell experiments, growth and manometric studies carried out with the isolated metabolites as well as related synthetic analogs, and the preliminary enzymatic studies performed with the cell-free extract, a probable pathway for the microbial degradation of linalyl acetate with the acetoxy group intact is suggested. PMID:16346182

Renganathan, V.; Madyastha, K. Madhava

1983-01-01

243

Wendler F., Meister F., Wawro D., Wesolowska E., Ciechaska D., Saake B., Puls J., Le Moigne N., Navard P.; Polysaccharide Blend Fibres Formed from NaOH, N-Methylmorpholine-N-oxide and 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate. FIBRES & TEXTILES in Eastern Europ  

E-print Network

the polymers in a softened or molte-methylimidazolium acetate. FIBRES & TEXTILES in Eastern Europe 2010, Vol. 18, No. 2 (79) pp. 21-30. 21, Thuringian Institute for Textile and Plastics Research, Rudolstadt, Germany, E-mail: wendler

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

244

PROCESS FOR OBTAINING CELLULOSE ACETATE FROM AGRICULTURAL BY-PRODUCTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A method of preparation of commercially useful product, cellulose acetate from discarded byproducts such as rice-straw, wheat hull and corn fiber will be discussed. This work will provide potential new markets and applications for low-value agricultural wastes and co-products. By converting the ce...

245

Kinetics of acetic acid oxidation in supercritical water  

SciTech Connect

Acetic acid was oxidized in supercritical water in batch microreactors at temperatures between 380 and 440[degrees]C. The acetic acid concentrations ranged from 1.0 [times] 10[sup [minus]4] to 5.2 [times] 10[sup [minus]3] M, the oxygen concentrations ranged from 5.7 [times] 10[sup [minus]3] to 7.1 [times] 10[sup [minus]2] M, and the water density ranged from 6.7 to 25 M. Oxygen was always present in at least 3.5 times the stoichiometric amount required for complete oxidation. Analysis of the kinetics data showed that the global oxidation rate law was first order in acetic acid, 0.6 order in oxygen, and second order in water. The global rate constant has a pre-exponential factor of 10[sup 19.8] M[sup [minus]26] S[sup [minus]1] and an activation energy of 73.6 kcal/mol. This rate law also satisfactorily describes other sets of experimental data in the literature for the oxidation of acetic acid in supercritical water. 19 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Savage, P.E.; Smith, M.A. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States))

1995-01-01

246

THERMOREGULATION IN MICE FOLLOWING ACUTE ADMINISTRATION OF LEAD ACETATE  

EPA Science Inventory

Several reports in the literature suggest a relationship between lead intoxication and thermoregulatory capacity. To investigate the effects of lead on the control of body temperature, mice of the BALB/c strain were injected intraperitoneally with lead acetate (0 to 100 mg/kg) wh...

247

Separation of acetic acid from xylose by nanofiltration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lignocellulose has drawn great attention in the bioethanol industry as an alternative feedstock for ethanol production due to its renewability, abundance and non-food crop characteristics. Acid hydrolyzation of lignocellulose releases sugars (mainly d-xylose) and several derivatives. The sugars in the hydrolyzate are then converted into ethanol by fermentation. Since acetic acid is believed to be one of the inhibitors which

Yu-Hsiang Weng; Hwa-Jou Wei; Tsung-Yen Tsai; Wei-Hsi Chen; Tsong-Yang Wei; Wen-Song Hwang; Chia-Pao Wang; Chin-Pao Huang

2009-01-01

248

Fragrance material review on p-isopropylbenzyl acetate.  

PubMed

A toxicologic and dermatologic review of p-isopropylbenzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. p-Isopropylbenzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1 to 4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for p-isopropylbenzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22406560

McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

2012-09-01

249

Reactions of methylenecyclobutanes with silver acetate and iodine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methylenecyclobutanes undergo an interesting rearrangement reaction in the presence of silver acetate and iodine at room temperature (20°C) in dichloromethane to give the corresponding aryl-(1-arylcyclobutyl)methanones in good to high yields within short reaction time. A plausible reaction mechanism has been discussed on the basis of control and O18-labeling experiments.

Min Jiang; Le-Ping Liu; Min Shi

2007-01-01

250

Fragrance material review on p-anisyl acetate.  

PubMed

A toxicologic and dermatologic review of p-anisyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. p-Anisyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for p-anisyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22417777

McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

2012-09-01

251

Fragrance material review on 2,4-dimethylbenzyl acetate.  

PubMed

A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2,4-dimethylbenzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2,4-Dimethylbenzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, iso-butyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2,4-dimethylbenzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22414641

McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

2012-09-01

252

Synthesis of methyl acetate from syngas via dimethyl ether  

SciTech Connect

Dimethyl ether (DME) can be used as a building block for a variety of specialty chemicals in the petrochemical industry. Its utilization stems mainly from its efficient production from synthesis gas in a single stage. This Liquid Phase Dimethyl Ether (LP-DME) process, based on dual catalysts slurried in inert oil, can alleviate the chemical equilibrium limitation governing the methanol synthesis reaction and concurrently improve once-through syngas conversion and reactor productivity. Studies in the past have focused on using DME as a feedstock for gasoline range hydrocarbons as well as lower olefins. The focus of this investigation is to study the synthesis of methyl acetate, an important intermediate for acetic acid, from dimethyl ether. In particular, conversion of DME to methyl acetate is investigated over a variety of Group VIII metal substituted phosphotungstic acid salts. Key aspects of the process such as the effect of active metal, support types, multiple metal loading, and feed conditions are examined. Thus, this paper introduces a novel process route for synthesis of methyl acetate from natural gas-based syngas via dimethyl ether as an intermediate.

Tartamella, T.; Sardesai, A.; Lanterman, H.B.; Lee, S.

1999-07-01

253

Condensation of acetol and acetic acid vapor with sprayed liquid  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A cellulose-derived fraction of biomass pyrolysis vapor was simulated by evaporating acetol and acetic acid (AA) from flasks on a hot plate. The liquid in the flasks was infused with heated nitrogen. The vapor/nitrogen stream was superheated in a tube oven and condensed by contact with a cloud of ...

254

Intrinsic Hydration of Uranyl-Hydroxide, -Nitrate and -Acetate Complexes  

SciTech Connect

The intrinsic hydration of three monopositive uranyl-anion complexes (UO2A)+ (where A = acetate, nitrate, or hydroxide) was investigated using ion-trap mass spectrometry (IT-MS). The relative rates for the formation of the monohydrates [(UO2A)(H2O)]+, with respect to the anion, followed the trend: Acetate = nitrate >> hydroxide. This finding was rationalized in terms of the donation of electron density by the strongly basic OH- to the uranyl metal center, thereby reducing the Lewis acidity of U and its propensity to react with incoming nucleophiles, viz., H2O. An alternative explanation is that the more complex acetate and nitrate anions provide increased degrees of freedom that could accommodate excess energy from the hydration reaction. The monohydrates also reacted with water, forming dihydrates and then trihydrates. The rates for formation of the nitrate and acetate dihydrates [(UO2A)(H2O)2]+ were very similar to the rates for formation of the monohydrates; the presence of the first H2O ligand had no influence on the addition of the second. In contrast, formation of the [(UO2OH)(H2O)2]+ was nearly three times faster than the formation of the monohydrate.

Winnie Chien; Dorothy Hanna; Victor Anbalagan; Garold Gresham; Gary Groenewold; Michael Van Stipdonk

2004-06-01

255

Intrinsic hydration of monopositive uranyl hydroxide, nitrate, and acetate cations.  

PubMed

The intrinsic hydration of three monopositive uranyl-anion complexes (UO(2)A)(+) (where A = acetate, nitrate, or hydroxide) was investigated using ion-trap mass spectrometry (IT-MS). The relative rates for the formation of the monohydrates [(UO(2)A)(H(2)O)](+), with respect to the anion, followed the trend: Acetate > or = nitrate > hydroxide. This finding was rationalized in terms of the donation of electron density by the strongly basic OH(-) to the uranyl metal center, thereby reducing the Lewis acidity of U and its propensity to react with incoming nucleophiles, viz., H(2)O. An alternative explanation is that the more complex acetate and nitrate anions provide increased degrees of freedom that could accommodate excess energy from the hydration reaction. The monohydrates also reacted with water, forming dihydrates and then trihydrates. The rates for formation of the nitrate and acetate dihydrates [(UO(2)A)(H(2)O)(2)](+) were very similar to the rates for formation of the monohydrates; the presence of the first H(2)O ligand had no influence on the addition of the second. In contrast, formation of the [(UO(2)OH)(H(2)O)(2)](+) was nearly three times faster than the formation of the monohydrate. PMID:15144967

Chien, Winnie; Anbalagan, Victor; Zandler, Melvin; Van Stipdonk, Michael; Hanna, Dorothy; Gresham, Garold; Groenewold, Gary

2004-06-01

256

Biogas Production through the Syntrophic Acetate-Oxidising Pathway  

E-print Network

Biogas Production through the Syntrophic Acetate-Oxidising Pathway Characterisation and Detection Uppsala 2012 #12;Acta Universitatis agriculturae Sueciae 2012:45 #12;Biogas production through 1.1 Aims of the thesis 12 2 Biogas production 15 2.1 Biogas production in Europe 16 2.2 Substrate

257

Molecular interactions in (2,4,6-trimethyl-1,3,5-trioxane + n-alkyl acetates) at T = (298.15, 303.15, and 308.15) K  

Microsoft Academic Search

Densities and viscosities of the binary mixtures of 2,4,6-trimethyl-1,3,5-trioxane with methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, and 1-butyl acetate were measured over the entire mole fractions at (298.15, 303.15, and 308.15)K. Using the experimental values of densities ? and viscosities ?, excess molar volumes VE, viscosity deviations ?? were calculated. The values of excess molar volumes VE and viscosity deviations ?? were

N. N. Wankhede; D. S. Wankhede; M. K. Lande; B. R. Arbad

2006-01-01

258

Acetate: A better astrobiological indicator of life than methane?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emergence of life on the ocean floor of the early Earth has implications for life detection on other rocky planetary bodies having subsurface ocean or ground waters in our solar system. At bottom life hydrogenates carbon dioxide. This is true not only of oxygenic photosynthesis—a relatively late evolutionary invention—but also of autotrophic chemosynthesizers such as the acetogenic bacteria and the methanoarchaea; respectively probably the first and second organisms to have emerged on Earth. Both of these prokaryotes use the acetyl coenzyme-a pathway for biosynthesis, though the variant leading to methanogenesis is substantially more complicated and therefore more highly evolved. Yet serpentinization and volcanism can produce methane with facility—an ambiguity that confounds life detection. In contrast, hydrothermal vent experiments to date along with hot spring analyses have indicated that no significant concentrations of abiotic acetate were produced in spite of the simplicity of the biological pathway. It seems that the geochemical conditions that generate abiotic methane are generally too reducing to produce acetate. Thus, the generation of acetate is solely a biotic process. As there is every reason to believe that the same chemical and electrochemical tensions would occur on other wet rocky planets containing subsurface ocean or ground waters. This encourages us to look into chemical and spectroscopic methods of detecting of acetate (both remotely and in situ) which is a better indicator than methane for the past or present biological activity on planetary bodies such as Mars. We, at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, have designed laboratory experiments to investigate the feasibility of detecting acetate using conventional chemical and spectroscopic methods. The results and applicability of these techniques for the future astrobiology missions will be discussed.

Kanik, I.; Russell, M. J.; Hodyss, R. P.; Johnson, P. V.

2009-12-01

259

The Key to Acetate: Metabolic Fluxes of Acetic Acid Bacteria under Cocoa Pulp Fermentation-Simulating Conditions  

PubMed Central

Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) play an important role during cocoa fermentation, as their main product, acetate, is a major driver for the development of the desired cocoa flavors. Here, we investigated the specialized metabolism of these bacteria under cocoa pulp fermentation-simulating conditions. A carefully designed combination of parallel 13C isotope labeling experiments allowed the elucidation of intracellular fluxes in the complex environment of cocoa pulp, when lactate and ethanol were included as primary substrates among undefined ingredients. We demonstrate that AAB exhibit a functionally separated metabolism during coconsumption of two-carbon and three-carbon substrates. Acetate is almost exclusively derived from ethanol, while lactate serves for the formation of acetoin and biomass building blocks. Although this is suboptimal for cellular energetics, this allows maximized growth and conversion rates. The functional separation results from a lack of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and malic enzymes, typically present in bacteria to interconnect metabolism. In fact, gluconeogenesis is driven by pyruvate phosphate dikinase. Consequently, a balanced ratio of lactate and ethanol is important for the optimum performance of AAB. As lactate and ethanol are individually supplied by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts during the initial phase of cocoa fermentation, respectively, this underlines the importance of a well-balanced microbial consortium for a successful fermentation process. Indeed, AAB performed the best and produced the largest amounts of acetate in mixed culture experiments when lactic acid bacteria and yeasts were both present. PMID:24837393

Adler, Philipp; Frey, Lasse Jannis; Berger, Antje; Bolten, Christoph Josef; Hansen, Carl Erik

2014-01-01

260

Water requirements of the rayon- and acetate-fiber industry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water is required for several purposes in the manufacture of rayon and acetate fiber. These water requirements, as indicated by a survey of the water used by the plants operating in 1953, are both quantitative and qualitative. About 300 mgd (million gallons per day) of water was used in 1953 in the preparation of purified wood cellulose and cotton linters, the basic material from which the rayon and acetate fiber is made. An additional 620 mgd was used in the process of converting the cellulose to rayon and acetate fiber. The total, 920 mgd, is about 1 percent of the total estimated withdrawals of industrial water in the United States in 1953. The rayon- and acetate-fiber plants are scattered through eastern United States and generally are located in small towns or rural areas where there are abundant supplies of clean, soft water. Water use at a typical rayon-fiber plant was about 9 mgd, and at a typical acetate-fiber plant about 38 mgd. About 110 gallons of water was used to produce a pound of rayon fiber, 32 gallons per pound was process water and the remainder was used largely for cooling in connection with power production and air conditioning. For the manufacture of a pound of acetate fiber about 170 gallons of water was used. However, the field survey on which this report is based indicated a wide range in the amount of water used per pound of product. For example, in the manufacture of viscose rayon, the maximum unit water use was 8 times the minimum unit water use. Water use in summer was about 22 percent greater than average annual use. About 8 mgd Of water was consumed by evaporation in the manufacture of rayon and acetate fiber. More than 90 percent of the water used by the rayon and acetate industry was with- drawn from surface-water sources, about 8 percent from ground water, and less than 2 percent from municipal water supplies. All available analyses of the untreated waters used by the rayon and acetate industry were collected and studied. The untreated waters were generally cool, low in content of calcium and magnesium, and very low in iron and manganese. At many plants, water was obtained from more than one source, and thus had different quality characteristics. Dissolved solids in all the untreated waters analyzed ranged between 14 and 747 ppm (parts per million) but in those waters used in processing the dissolved solids content was less than 200 ppm. The cooling water used by the industry is also generally of very high quality, principally because the requirements for a high-quality process water necessitate location of the plants in areas where such water is available.

Mussey, Orville Durey

1957-01-01

261

21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. 524.1484d Section 524...hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. (a) Specifications...externa in dogs and cats. In treatment of ear canker and other inflammatory...

2012-04-01

262

21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. 524.1484d Section 524...hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. (a) Specifications...externa in dogs and cats. In treatment of ear canker and other inflammatory...

2010-04-01

263

21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. 524.1484d Section 524...hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. (a) Specifications...externa in dogs and cats. In treatment of ear canker and other inflammatory...

2011-04-01

264

21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. 524.1484d Section 524...hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. (a) Specifications...externa in dogs and cats. In treatment of ear canker and other inflammatory...

2013-04-01

265

21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole...acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification...acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to...treatment of carcinoid tumors of endocrine tissue. (b)...

2010-04-01

266

21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole...acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification...acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to...treatment of carcinoid tumors of endocrine tissue. (b)...

2012-04-01

267

21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole...acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification...acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to...treatment of carcinoid tumors of endocrine tissue. (b)...

2013-04-01

268

21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole...acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification...acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to...treatment of carcinoid tumors of endocrine tissue. (b)...

2014-04-01

269

21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole...acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification...acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to...treatment of carcinoid tumors of endocrine tissue. (b)...

2011-04-01

270

Mn12-acetate thin film patterns and their interaction with superconductors  

E-print Network

Mn12-acetate single-molecule magnets (SMMs) are nano-scale magnets showing a strong magnetic anisotropy, slow relaxation and stepwise magnetic hysteresis curves. Possible applications of Mn12-acetate, e.g. for ultra high density magnetic information...

Kim, Kyongwan

2009-05-15

271

21 CFR 524.1881 - Prednisolone acetate ophthalmic and topical dosage forms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prednisolone acetate ophthalmic and topical dosage forms. 524.1881...AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1881 Prednisolone acetate ophthalmic and topical dosage...

2010-04-01

272

Preparation, thermal properties, and extrusion of high-amylose starch acetates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starch acetates having degrees of substitution (DS) 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 were prepared by the reaction of high-amylose cornstarch with acetic anhydride and aqueous sodium hydroxide. Differential scanning calorimetry studies revealed that water was an effective plasticizer for the starch acetates. Glass transition temperatures (Tg) of dry starch acetates (165–185 °C) were lowered to 35–95 °C in the presence of

Randal L. Shogren

1996-01-01

273

Investigations of sodium acetate trihydrate for solar latent heat storage, controlling the melting point  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The addition of different acetate salts and acetamide lowers the melting point of sodium acetate trihydrate. Between 0 and 10 percent of lithium acetate dihydrate a linear relationship was observed between the melting point and the molal concentration, and the cryoscopic constant of Kf = -6.8 C (+ or - 10 percent) was evaluated. Information on dissociation or dimerization of the various additives could be deduced from the results. The positive properties of sodium acetate trihydrate were retained.

Ulman, A.; Valentin, B.

1983-09-01

274

SPECTROFLUOROMETRIC AND HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC DETERMINATION OF a-TOCOPHEROL ACETATE IN OLIVE OIL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed for the quantitative determination of '-acetate tocopherol in olive oil. After extracts in n-hexane, acetate '- tocopherol were quantitatively analyzed by HPLC with fluorimetric detector. The presence of acetate '- tocopherol in...

275

Behavior of atmospheric formic and acetic acid in the presence of hydrometeors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The partitioning of formic and acetic acid between the atmospheric liquid and gaseous phase is modelled for a range of liquid water contents. At low liquid water content, formic acid is dissolved preferentially over acetic acid. Applying these results to the analysis of processes taking place in clouds, one can explain the frequently found enrichment of formic over acetic acid

G. Helas; M. O. Andreae; W. R. Hartmann

1992-01-01

276

Acetate and pyruvate in cell wall polysaccharides of Propionibacterium acnes, P. avidum , and P. granulosum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyruvate and acetate residues were detected in hydrolysates of the cell wall polysaccharides of six strains ofPropionibacterium granulosum, whereas the wall polysaccharides ofP. acnes (three strains) andP. avidum (two strains) contained only acetate. In all strains, acetate appeared to be present only as N-acetyl, since it was alkali resistant.

Cecil S. Cummins; Patrick Hall

1986-01-01

277

40 CFR 721.8658 - Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium compound (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium...Chemical Substances § 721.8658 Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium...substance identified generically as modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary...

2013-07-01

278

Combined effects of acute lead acetate exposure and tone exposure of the guinea pig cochlea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead acetate exposure to humans can induce various disorders of the cranial nerves. Although vertigo and sensorineural deafness have been reported in lead workers, the dose effects of lead acetate on the cochlea and eighth cranial nerve are not well documented. We investigated the effects of lead acetate on the male albino Hartley guinea pig cochlea by measuring cochlear microphonics

S. Hotta; T. Sugisawa; T. Matsui; T. Itoh; K. Yamamura

1996-01-01

279

75 FR 52269 - Acetic Acid Ethenyl Ester, Polymer With Oxirane; Tolerance Exemption  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0429; FRL-8841-2] Acetic Acid Ethenyl Ester, Polymer With Oxirane...requirement of a tolerance for residues of acetic acid ethenyl ester, polymer with oxirane...permissible level for residues of acetic acid ethenyl ester, polymer with oxirane...

2010-08-25

280

75 FR 40736 - Acetic Acid; Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0561;FRL-8833-8] Acetic Acid; Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance...existing tolerance exemption for acetic acid by establishing an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of acetic acid, also known as vinegar in or on all...

2010-07-14

281

40 CFR 721.10221 - 3-Nonen-1-ol, 1-acetate, (3Z)-.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false 3-Nonen-1-ol, 1-acetate, (3Z)-. 721.10221...Substances § 721.10221 3-Nonen-1-ol, 1-acetate, (3Z)-. (a) Chemical...chemical substance identified as 3-nonen-1-ol, 1-acetate, (3Z)- (PMN...

2012-07-01

282

40 CFR 721.10221 - 3-Nonen-1-ol, 1-acetate, (3Z)-.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false 3-Nonen-1-ol, 1-acetate, (3Z)-. 721.10221...Substances § 721.10221 3-Nonen-1-ol, 1-acetate, (3Z)-. (a) Chemical...chemical substance identified as 3- nonen-1-ol, 1-acetate, (3Z)- (PMN...

2013-07-01

283

40 CFR 721.10221 - 3-Nonen-1-ol, 1-acetate, (3Z)-.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false 3-Nonen-1-ol, 1-acetate, (3Z)-. 721.10221...Substances § 721.10221 3-Nonen-1-ol, 1-acetate, (3Z)-. (a) Chemical...chemical substance identified as 3-nonen-1-ol, 1-acetate, (3Z)- (PMN...

2011-07-01

284

40 CFR 721.10221 - 3-Nonen-1-ol, 1-acetate, (3Z)-.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false 3-Nonen-1-ol, 1-acetate, (3Z)-. 721.10221...Substances § 721.10221 3-Nonen-1-ol, 1-acetate, (3Z)-. (a) Chemical...chemical substance identified as 3-nonen-1-ol, 1-acetate, (3Z)- (PMN...

2014-07-01

285

Comparative study of the vasoconstrictor activity of halopredone acetate in a modified McKenzie test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vasoconstrictor activity of four steroids, administered in solution and in the commercially available form, were compared in healthy volunteer subjects. Evaluation was based on conventional visual observations and photometric measurement of reflectance. Statistical analysis showed that halopredone acetate had less vasoconstrictor action on healthy skin than fluocinolone acetonide, beta-methasone valerate and hydrocortisone acetate. The halopredone acetate results were identical

E. Rampini; A. Rastelli; P. Cardo

1978-01-01

286

A prospective randomized study of megestrol acetate and ibuprofen in gastrointestinal cancer patients with weight loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of megestrol acetate in the treatment of weight loss in gastrointestinal cancer patients has been disappointing. The aim of the present study was to compare the combination of megestrol acetate and placebo with megestrol acetate and ibuprofen in the treatment of weight loss in such patients. At baseline, 4–6 weeks and 12 weeks, patients underwent measurements of anthropometry,

D C McMillan; S J Wigmore; K C H Wigmore; P O’Gorman; C E Wright; C S McArdle

1999-01-01

287

The occurrence, control and esoteric effect of acetic acid bacteria in winemaking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review focuses on acetic acid bacteria in the winemaking process. The enumeration, isolation and identification of acetic acid bacteria from grapes and wines are discussed. This is followed by an outline of the conditions and measures that can assist the wine producer to inhibit the unwanted growth of acetic acid bacteria in wine, which include the ethanol concentration, low

W. J. DU TOIT; I. S. PRETORIUS

288

40 CFR 721.8658 - Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium compound (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium...Chemical Substances § 721.8658 Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium...substance identified generically as modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary...

2010-07-01

289

Direct Determination of Citric Acid in Milk with an Improved Pyridine-Acetic Anhydride Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The determination of citric acid with pyridine and acetic anhydride has been in- vestigated at reaction temperatures from 17 to 60 ° C. The optimum proportions of pyridine, acetic anhydride, water, and acetic acid for maximum color intensity and stability are given for each temperature. The procedure has been modified to eliminate the violent nature of the reaction, even

J. R. Marier; M. Boulet

1958-01-01

290

Effect of Ethanol, Acetate, and Phenol on Toluene Degradation Activity and todlux  

E-print Network

Effect of Ethanol, Acetate, and Phenol on Toluene Degradation Activity and tod­lux Expression with increasing influent concentrations of ethanol, acetate, or phenol. Three inhibitory mechanisms were) by acetate and ethanol, which was quantified by a decrease in specific bioluminescence; (2) competitive

Alvarez, Pedro J.

291

Vasodilator effects of the sodium acetate in pooled protein fraction.  

PubMed Central

Paradoxical hypotension during rapid infusion of plasma protein fraction (PPF) has been attributed to vasodilation by bradykinin in PPF. This study employed a canine, controlled right heart bypass preparation to assess changes in systemic vascular resistance and venous capacitance during infusion of PPF and other possibly vasoactive mediators. Plasma protein fraction caused consistent vasodilation, whereas purified human albumin did not. This vasodilation could be ascribed entirely to acetate, present in PPF as a buffer. Bradykinin in PPF had no effect during venous infusion. Acetate is used widely as a buffer in intravenous and dialysate solutions. Its vasoactive properties must be recognized when such solutions are administered to patients with limited capacity to compensate for sudden vasodilation. PMID:485604

Olinger, G N; Werner, P H; Bonchek, L I; Boerboom, L E

1979-01-01

292

Electrospun cellulose acetate-garnet nanocomposite magnetic fibers for bioseparations.  

PubMed

Cellulose acetate fibers with magnetic properties have recently attracted much attention because of their potential novel applications in biomedicine such as for cell and protein separations, magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents, and magnetic filters. In this work, as synthesized yttrium iron garnet and gadolinium substituted yttrium iron garnet nanoparticles have been used to generate magnetic filter paper. Garnet nanoparticles dispersed in cellulose acetate polymer solutions were electrospun as free-standing nonwoven fiber mats as well as on cellulose filter paper substrates resulting in magnetic filter papers. The magnetic fibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetic property measurements. The resulting magnetic polymer nanocomposites can be easily picked up by an external magnet from a liquid medium. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled bovine serum albumin (BSA) was separated from solution by using the magnetic filter paper. PMID:24341636

Munaweera, Imalka; Aliev, Ali; Balkus, Kenneth J

2014-01-01

293

Ulipristal acetate, a progesterone receptor modulator for emergency contraception.  

PubMed

Unwanted pregnancy is a global reproductive health problem. Emergency contraception is defined as the use of drug or device after unprotected or underprotected intercourse to prevent an unwanted pregnancy. 1.5 mg of levonorgestrel as a single dose or in two doses with 12 h apart taken within 72 h of unprotected intercourse is the current gold standard emergency contraception regimen. This method is only effective if used as soon as possible after sexual intercourse and before ovulation. A single dose of 30 mg ulipristal acetate, a novel selective progesterone receptor modulator, has recently been proposed for the emergency contraception use up to 120 h of unprotected intercourse with similar side effect profiles as levonorgestrel. Ulipristal acetate could possibly prevent pregnancy when administered in the advanced follicular phase, even if luteinizing hormone levels have already begun to rise, a time when levonorgestrel is no longer effective in inhibiting ovulation. PMID:22629083

Jadav, Shilpa P; Parmar, Dinesh M

2012-04-01

294

Ulipristal acetate, a progesterone receptor modulator for emergency contraception  

PubMed Central

Unwanted pregnancy is a global reproductive health problem. Emergency contraception is defined as the use of drug or device after unprotected or underprotected intercourse to prevent an unwanted pregnancy. 1.5 mg of levonorgestrel as a single dose or in two doses with 12 h apart taken within 72 h of unprotected intercourse is the current gold standard emergency contraception regimen. This method is only effective if used as soon as possible after sexual intercourse and before ovulation. A single dose of 30 mg ulipristal acetate, a novel selective progesterone receptor modulator, has recently been proposed for the emergency contraception use up to 120 h of unprotected intercourse with similar side effect profiles as levonorgestrel. Ulipristal acetate could possibly prevent pregnancy when administered in the advanced follicular phase, even if luteinizing hormone levels have already begun to rise, a time when levonorgestrel is no longer effective in inhibiting ovulation. PMID:22629083

Jadav, Shilpa P.; Parmar, Dinesh M.

2012-01-01

295

Methyl internal rotation in the microwave spectrum of vinyl acetate.  

PubMed

The rotational spectrum of vinyl acetate, CH3(CO)OCH?CH2, was measured using two molecular beam Fourier transform microwave spectrometers operating in the frequency range from 2 to 40 GHz. Large splittings up to 2 GHz occurred due to the internal rotation of the acetyl methyl group CH3CO with a V3 potential of 151.492(34) cm(-1), much larger than the barrier of approximately 100 cm(-1) often found in acetates. The torsional transitions were fitted using three different programs XIAM, ERHAM, and BELGI-Cs, whereby the rotational constants, centrifugal distortion constants, and the internal rotation parameters could be determined with very high accuracy. The experimental results were supported by quantum chemical calculations. For a conformational analysis, potential energy surfaces were calculated. PMID:25423450

Nguyen, Ha Vinh Lam; Jabri, Atef; Van, Vinh; Stahl, Wolfgang

2014-12-26

296

Acetic Acid Increases Stability of Silage under Aerobic Conditions  

PubMed Central

The effects of various compounds on the aerobic stability of silages were evaluated. It has been observed that inoculation of whole-crop maize with homofermentative lactic acid bacteria leads to silages which have low stability against aerobic deterioration, while inoculation with heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria, such as Lactobacillus brevis or Lactobacillus buchneri, increases stability. Acetic acid has been proven to be the sole substance responsible for the increased aerobic stability, and this acid acts as an inhibitor of spoilage organisms. Therefore, stability increases exponentially with acetic acid concentration. Only butyric acid has a similar effect. Other compounds, like lactic acid, 1,2-propanediol, and 1-propanol, have been shown to have no effect, while fructose and mannitol reduce stability. PMID:12514042

Danner, H.; Holzer, M.; Mayrhuber, E.; Braun, R.

2003-01-01

297

Organisms Associated with Acetic Acid Bacteria in Vinegar Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vinegars are the product of scalar fermentations carried out by several groups of microorganisms acting at different moments\\u000a in time. The initial phase is generally represented by an alcoholic fermentation commonly carried out by yeasts. Lactic acid\\u000a bacteria (LAB) can also play a role in releasing ethanol and acetic acid from heterofermentative lactic acid fermentations.\\u000a Depending on the nature of

Sandra Rainieri; Carlo Zambonelli

298

Crosslinkable poly(vinyl acetate) emulsions for wood adhesive  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to enhance the water resistance and the heat resistance of poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) emulsion adhesive, by providing the emulsion with controllable thermosetting capability. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Emulsion polymerisation was used to synthesise PVAc\\/VeoVa 10 copolymers with varying proportions of acetoacetoxyethyl methacrylate (AAEM) incorporated in the copolymer chains. The AAEM component provided sites for

Jia Lu; Allan J. Easteal; Neil R. Edmonds

2011-01-01

299

Copper(II) acetate and picrate complexes of sulfa drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Copper(II) acetate and picrate complexes of sulfa drugsviz., sulfanilamide, sulfaguanidine, sulfathiazole, sulfadiazine, sulfamerazine and sulfamethazine were prepared and characterized with the help of analytical, electronic, i.r. and magnetic moment data. The complexes are paramagnetic, planar or mixed planar and octahedral, insoluble and melt (with decomposition) in the 185°–225° range. The sulfa drugs coordinate through their amino groups and the

Krishna K. Narang; Jai K. Gupta

1977-01-01

300

Carbonic anhydrase activity in acetate grown Methanosarcina barkeri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell extracts (27000xg supernatant) of acetate grown Methanosarcina barkeri were found to have carbonic anhydrase activity (0.41 U\\/mg protein), which was lost upon heating or incubation with proteinase K. The activity was inhibited by Diamox (apparent Ki=0.5 mM), by azide (apparent Ki=1 mM), and by cyanide (apparent Ki=0.02 mM). These and other properties indicate that the archaebacterium contains the enzyme

Marion Karrasch; Michael Bott; Rudolf K. Thauer

1989-01-01

301

Measurement of acetic acid using a fibre Bragg grating interferometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optical fibre sensor for determination of acetic acid is presented. The sensing probe is based on a fibre Bragg grating (FBG) Fabry-Perot cavity, coated with a thin film of sol-gel-PVP (polyvinylpyrrolidone) composite material. The polymeric thin film renders the interferometric output sensitive to the presence of carboxylic acid species. Results show that the wavelength of the interferometric peaks changes

C. Jesus; S. F. O. Silva; M. Castanheira; G. González Aguilar; O. Frazão; P. A. S. Jorge; J. M. Baptista

2009-01-01

302

Interconversion kinetic studies of betamethasone acetate polymorphs in water.  

PubMed

This study assessed the effect of polymers on the transformation of polymorphs of betamethasone acetate (BA) when suspended in water. The results showed that the polymers, in particular HPMC E5, retarded the transition of the forms Ialpha and Ibeta. However, the form Ialpha, as the metastable form, with the aid of HPMC E5, was preferred for BA suspension preparation through kinetic studies, while the form Ibeta was not suitable due to its instability in water. PMID:17012114

Ke, Xue; Ping, QiNeng; Liao, ZhengGen

2006-10-01

303

Preirradiation grafting of ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acrylic acid was graft copolymerised on to EVA powdered resins containing 9%, 18% and 28% vinyl acetate. A preirradiation grafting method was used and the effect on graft level of varying the parameters of gamma irradiation dose (2–50 kGy), dose rate (0.5–5 kGy h?1), monomer concentration (2.5–25%) and grafting time (1–4 h) and temperature (35–98°C) was investigated. The graft copolymer resins

B. J Ringrose; E Kronfli

1999-01-01

304

Induction of Antifertility with Lupeol Acetate in Male Albino Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antifertility activity of the active principle, i.e. lupeol acetate, isolated from benzene extract of Alstonia scholaris in male albino rats. The treatment with lupeol acetateat the dose level of 10 mg\\/rat\\/day did not cause any significant change in the body weights, but significant reduction in the weight of reproductive organs, i.e. testes,

R. S. Gupta; A. K. Bhatnager; Y. C. Joshi; M. C. Sharma; Veena Khushalani; J. B. S. Kachhawa

2005-01-01

305

Acetic acid accumulation in aerobic growth of recombinant Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

A correlation between ?HAc (specific acetic acid accumulation rate) and ? (specific growth rate) for a recombinant Escherichia coli BL21 strain was defined under typical conditions to achieve high cell densities (fed-batch process, dissolved oxygen concentration higher than 30% saturation, semi-synthetic medium). The feeding rate of glucose was continuously adjusted in order to support constant values of ? (0.4, 0.3,

D. C. Suárez; B. V. Kilikian

2000-01-01

306

The Millimeter-Wave Spectrum of Vinyl Acetate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent discovery of methyl acetate in Orion KL places the vinyl acetate as a potential candidate possibly present in the interstellar medium. The room-temperature rotational spectrum of vinyl acetate has been measured from 125 up to 360 GHz to provide direct frequencies to the astronomical community. Transition lines, corresponding to the most stable conformer, have been observed and assigned on the basis of the previously determined spectroscopic constants. All the rotational transitions reveal the A-E splitting due to the methyl internal rotation and the precise set of the spectroscopic constants obtained from the least-squares fit to a threefold barrier internal rotation Hamiltonian is reported. Additional measurements have been also made using a broadband CP-FTMW spectrometer in the region of 6-18 GHz which made possible to assign all monosubstituted 13C and 18O isotopic species in natural abundance and to derive the molecular structure. B. Tercero, I. Kleiner, J. Cernicharo, H. V. L. Nguyen, A. López, and G. M. Muñoz Caro, Astrophys. J. Lett. 2013, 770, 13. B. Velino, A. Maris, S. Melandri, W. Caminati, J. Mol. Specrosc. 2009, 256, 228.

Kolesniková, Lucie; Peña, Isabel; Alonso, José L.; Cernicharo, Jose; Kleiner, Isabelle

2014-06-01

307

Role of fluoride in accelerating the reactions of dialkylstannylene acetals.  

PubMed

The most common method for achieving the regioselective monoalkylation of diols involves formation of dialkylstannylene acetals as intermediates. Reactions of dialkylstannylene acetals with alkyl halides are slow, but rates are enhanced by addition of fluoride or other nucleophiles. The mechanism of the fluoride-accelerated alkylation of dialkylstannylene acetals was studied at several levels of theory in the gas phase, in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) solution, and in DMF solution in the presence of tetramethylammonium ions. The reactive species were adducts involving addition of fluoride to tin. Under the conditions that most closely simulated experiment, reactions from fluoridated monomers and monofluoridated dimers were calculated to have similar activation energies. In the transition states in the rate-determining steps for the two pathways, carbon-oxygen bond formation was between 60 and 75% complete while tin-oxygen bond cleavage was much less advanced, between 6 and 16% complete. A test of Sn-O bond dissociation indicated that the "Sn-O bond cleavage first" mechanism is not a minimum energy pathway. PMID:25668481

Lu, Simiao; Boyd, Russell J; Grindley, T Bruce

2015-03-20

308

Evaporation kinetics of acetic acid-water solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transport of water molecules across vapor-liquid interfaces in the atmosphere is a crucial step in the formation and evolution of cloud droplets. Despite decades of study, the effects of solutes on the mechanism and rate of evaporation and condensation remain poorly characterized. The present work aims to determine the effect of atmospherically-relevant solutes on the evaporation rate of water. In our experiments, we create a train of micron-sized droplets and measure their temperature via Raman thermometry as they undergo evaporation without condensation. Analysis of the cooling rate yields the evaporation coefficient (?). Previous work has shown that inorganic salts have little effect on ?, with surface-adsorbing anions causing a slight reduction in the coefficient from that measured for pure water. Organic acids are ubiquitous in aqueous aerosol and have been shown to disrupt the surface structure of water. Here we describe measurements of the evaporation rate of acetic acid solutions, showing that acetic acid reduces ? to a larger extent than inorganic ions, and that ? decreases with increasing acetic acid concentration.

Duffey, K.; Wong, N.; Saykally, R.; Cohen, R. C.

2012-12-01

309

Rose bengal acetate photodynamic therapy-induced autophagy.  

PubMed

Photodynamic therapy (PDT), an anticancer therapy requiring the exposure of cells or tissue to a photosensitizing drug followed by irradiation with visible light of the appropriate wavelength, induces cell death by the efficient induction of apoptotic as well as non-apoptotic mechanisms, such as necrosis and autophagy, or a combination of all three mechanisms. However, the exact role of autophagy in photodynamic therapy is still a matter of debate. To understand the role of autophagy in PDT, we investigated the induction of autophagy in HeLa cells photosensitized with Rose Bengal Acetate (RBAc). After incubation with Rose Bengal Acetate (10-5 M), HeLa cells were irradiated for 90 seconds (green LED DPL 305, emitting at 530 +15 nm to obtain 1.6 J/cm2 as the total light dose) and allowed to recover for 72 h. Induction of autophagy and apoptosis were observed with peaks at 8 h and 12 h after irradiation, respectively. Autophagy was detected by biochemical (Western Blotting for the LC3B protein) and morphological criteria (TEM, cytochemistry). In addition, the pan-caspase inhibitor, z-VAD, was unable to completely prevent cell death. The simultaneous onset of apoptosis and autophagy following Rose Bengal Acetate PDT is of remarkable interest in light of the findings that autophagy can result in the class II presentation of antigens and thus, explain why low dose PDT can yield anti-tumor immune responses. PMID:20935508

Dini, Luciana; Inguscio, Valentina; Tenuzzo, Bernardetta; Panzarini, Elisa

2010-11-15

310

Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Potential Problems for Photovoltaic Packaging  

SciTech Connect

Photovoltaic (PV) devices are typically encapsulated using ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) to provide mechanical support, optical coupling, electrical isolation, and protection against environmental exposure. Under exposure to atmospheric water and/or ultraviolet radiation, EVA will decompose to produce acetic acid, lowering the pH and increasing the surface corrosion rates of embedded devices. Even though acetic acid is produced at a very slow rate, it may not take much to catalyze reactions that lead to rapid module deterioration. Another consideration is that the glass transition of EVA, as measured using dynamic mechanical analysis, begins at temperatures of about -15 degC. Temperatures lower than this can be reached for extended periods of time in some climates. Because of increased moduli below the glass transition temperature, a module may be more vulnerable to damage if a mechanical load is applied by snow or wind at low temperatures. Modules using EVA should not be rated for use at such low temperatures without additional low-temperature mechanical testing beyond the scope of UL1703.

Kempe, M. D.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Terwilliger, K. M.; McMahon, T. J.; Kennedy, C. E.; Borek, T. T.

2006-01-01

311

Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Potential Problems for Photovoltaic Packaging: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Photovoltaic (PV) devices are typically encapsulated using ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) to provide mechanical support, optical coupling, electrical isolation, and protection against environmental exposure. Under exposure to atmospheric water and/or ultraviolet radiation, EVA will decompose to produce acetic acid, lowering the pH and increasing the surface corrosion rates of embedded devices. Even though acetic acid is produced at a very slow rate, it may not take much to catalyze reactions that lead to rapid module deterioration. Another consideration is that the glass transition of EVA, as measured using dynamic mechanical analysis, begins at temperatures of about ?15 C. Temperatures lower than this can be reached for extended periods of time in some climates. Because of increased moduli below the glass transition temperature, a module may be more vulnerable to damage if a mechanical load is applied by snow or wind at low temperatures. Modules using EVA should not be rated for use at such low temperatures without additional low-temperature mechanical testing beyond the scope of UL 1703.

Kempe, M. D.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Terwilliger, K. M.; McMahon, T. J.; Kennedy, C. E.; Borek, T. T.

2006-05-01

312

Synergistic nephrotoxicity of amphotericin B and cortisone acetate in mice.  

PubMed

Striking mortality in mice receiving amphotericin B and cortisone acetate concomitantly prompted studies to characterize the toxic interaction of these two drugs further. Adult female CD-1 mice received daily injections of cortisone acetate (0--50 mg/kg subcutaneously) and/or amphotericin B (0--12.5 mg/kg intraperitoneally) in a checkerboard combination dosage pattern for 30 days. Dosages of amphotericin B and cortisone acetate that produced little or no mortality individually produced significant (P less than 0.005) mortality in combination. Light and electron microscopic studies of sections of brain, heart, lung, adrenal gland, liver, and kidney revealed only renal lesions. These appeared within six days, were dose-related in severity, and were not produced by either drug alone. The lesions consisted of focal swelling of proximal, distal, and collecting tubular cells which progressed to necrosis and intraluminal cast formation. These findings may be relevant to the development of nephrotoxicity in patients treated simultaneously with amphotericin B and corticosteroids. PMID:659923

Kisch, A L; Maydew, R P; Evan, A P

1978-06-01

313

Miscibility and dynamical properties of cellulose acetate/plasticizer systems.  

PubMed

Due to its biodegradability and renewability, a great interest has been devoted to investigating cellulose acetate in order to expand its potential applications. In addition, secondary cellulose acetate (CDA) could also be considered as a model system for strongly polar polymer system. The dynamical behavior of CDA is supposed to be governed by H-bonding and dipolar interaction network. Due to their high glass transition temperature, cellulose acetate-based systems are processed when blended with plasticizers. It is thus of utmost importance to study the miscibility and plasticizing effects of various molecules. We prepared CDA films via solvent casting method with diethyl phthalate as the plasticizer. Miscibility diagrams were established by calorimetry and thermo-mechanical (DMTA) experiments. Dynamical properties were analyzed by DMTA and broadband dielectric spectroscopy. We could identify the ?-relaxation of these CDA-plasticizer systems in the frequency range from 0.06 Hz to 10(6)Hz, which allowed for describing the dynamics in the so-called Williams-Landel-Ferry/Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann regime. PMID:25458277

Bao, Cong Yu; Long, Didier R; Vergelati, Caroll

2015-02-13

314

Degradation of vinyl acetate by soil, sewage, sludge, and the newly isolated aerobic bacterium V2.  

PubMed Central

Vinyl acetate is subject to microbial degradation in the environment and by pure cultures. It was hydrolyzed by samples of soil, sludge, and sewage at rates of up to 6.38 and 1 mmol/h per g (dry weight) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. Four yeasts and thirteen bacteria that feed aerobically on vinyl acetate were isolated. The pathway of vinyl acetate degradation was studied in bacterium V2. Vinyl acetate was degraded to acetate as follows: vinyl acetate + NAD(P)+----2 acetate + NAD(P)H + H+. The acetate was then converted to acetyl coenzyme A and oxidized through the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the glyoxylate bypass. The key enzyme of the pathway is vinyl acetate esterase, which hydrolyzed the ester to acetate and vinyl alcohol. The latter isomerized spontaneously to acetaldehyde and was then converted to acetate. The acetaldehyde was disproportionated into ethanol and acetate. The enzymes involved in the metabolism of vinyl acetate were studied in extracts. Vinyl acetate esterase (Km = 6.13 mM) was also active with indoxyl acetate (Km = 0.98 mM), providing the basis for a convenient spectrophotometric test. Substrates of aldehyde dehydrogenase were formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, and butyraldehyde. The enzyme was equally active with NAD+ or NADP+. Alcohol dehydrogenase was active with ethanol (Km = 0.24 mM), 1-propanol (Km = 0.34 mM), and 1-butanol (Km = 0.16 mM) and was linked to NAD+. The molecular sizes of aldehyde dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase were 145 and 215 kilodaltons, respectively. PMID:2285314

Nieder, M; Sunarko, B; Meyer, O

1990-01-01

315

Catabolism of indole-3-acetic acid and 4- and 5-chloroindole-3-acetic acid in Bradyrhizobium japonicum.  

PubMed Central

Some strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum have the ability to catabolize indole-3-acetic acid. Indoleacetic acid (IAA), 4-chloro-IAA (4-Cl-IAA), and 5-Cl-IAA were metabolized to different extents by strains 61A24 and 110. Metabolites were isolated and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and conventional mass spectrometry (MS) methods, including MS-mass spectroscopy, UV spectroscopy, and high-performance liquid chromatography-MS. The identified products indicate a novel metabolic pathway in which IAA is metabolized via dioxindole-3-acetic acid, dioxindole, isatin, and 2-aminophenyl glyoxylic acid (isatinic acid) to anthranilic acid, which is further metabolized. Degradation of 4-Cl-IAA apparently stops at the 4-Cl-dioxindole step in contrast to 5-Cl-IAA which is metabolized to 5-Cl-anthranilic acid. PMID:7592320

Jensen, J B; Egsgaard, H; Van Onckelen, H; Jochimsen, B U

1995-01-01

316

The feeding value of water and acetic acid reconstituted sorghum grain for lactating dairy cows  

E-print Network

(12) from h1gh-moisture grain rations. The addition of 2't acet1c acid through reconstitution d1d not affect milk production. Average acetic acid intake per day 1n this study was 237. 2 g (33. 32 g/100 kg body weight). Jones (13) obtained the same... acid. Ruminal pH was not s1gnificantly altered by treatments. Ruminal acet1c:prop1onic acid ratio of the dry grain ration was higher than the water, 0. 5 and 1. 0/ acetic acid recon- st1tuted gra1n rations, and lower than the 1. 5 and 2. 5? acet1c...

Bade, David Heinie

1972-01-01

317

Catabolism of Indole3Acetic Acid and 4- and 5-Chloroindole- 3Acetic Acid inBradyrhizobium japonicum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum have the ability to catabolize indole-3-acetic acid. Indoleacetic acid (IAA), 4-chloro-IAA (4-Cl-IAA), and 5-Cl-IAA were metabolized to different extents by strains 61A24 and 110. Metabolites were isolated and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and conventional mass spectrometry (MS) methods, including MS-mass spectroscopy, UV spectroscopy, and high-performance liquid chromatography-MS. The identified products indicate a novel metabolic

JOHN BECK JENSEN; HELGE EGSGAARD; HARRY VAN ONCKELEN; ANDBJARNE U. JOCHIMSEN

1995-01-01

318

Acetate treatment increases fatty acid content in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglia.  

PubMed

Acetate supplementation increases plasma acetate, brain acetyl-CoA, histone acetylation, phosphocreatine levels, and is anti-inflammatory in models of neuroinflammation and neuroborreliosis. Although radiolabeled acetate is incorporated into the cellular lipid pools, the effect that acetate supplementation has on lipid deposition has not been quantified. To determine the impact acetate-treatment has on cellular lipid content, we investigated the effect of acetate in the presence of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on fatty acid, phospholipid, and cholesterol content in BV2 microglia. We found that 1, 5, and 10 mM of acetate in the presence of LPS increased the total fatty acid content in BV2 cells by 23, 34, and 14 % at 2 h, respectively. Significant increases in individual fatty acids were also observed with all acetate concentrations tested with the greatest increases occurring with 5 mM acetate in the presence of LPS. Treatment with 5 mM acetate in the absence of LPS increased total cholesterol levels by 11 %. However, neither treatment in the absence of LPS significantly altered the content of individual phospholipids or total phospholipid content. To determine the minimum effective concentration of acetate we measured the time- and concentration-dependent changes in histone acetylation using western blot analysis. These studies showed that 5 mM acetate was necessary to induce histone acetylation and at 10 mM acetate, the histone acetylation-state increased as early as 0.5 h following the start of treatment. These data suggest that acetate increases fatty acid content in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglia that is reflected by an increase in fatty acids esterified into membrane phospholipids. PMID:24852320

Bhatt, Dhaval P; Rosenberger, Thad A

2014-07-01

319

Male Fishia yosemitae (Grote)(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) captured in traps baited with (Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate and (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Traps baited with sex pheromone lures for the noctuid moths Chrysodeixis eriosoma (Doubleday) and Feltia jaculifera (Guenee) captured males of another noctuid moth Fishia yosemitae (Grote). These lures included both (Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate (Z7-12Ac) and (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-14AC). When the...

320

Propionate stimulates pyruvate oxidation in the presence of acetate.  

PubMed

Flux through pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) in the heart may be reduced by various forms of injury to the myocardium, or by oxidation of alternative substrates in normal heart tissue. It is important to distinguish these two mechanisms because imaging of flux through PDH based on the appearance of hyperpolarized (HP) [(13)C]bicarbonate derived from HP [1-(13)C]pyruvate has been proposed as a method for identifying viable myocardium. The efficacy of propionate for increasing PDH flux in the setting of PDH inhibition by an alternative substrate was studied using isotopomer analysis paired with exams using HP [1-(13)C]pyruvate. Hearts from C57/bl6 mice were supplied with acetate (2 mM) and glucose (8.25 mM). (13)C NMR spectra were acquired in a cryogenically cooled probe at 14.1 Tesla. After addition of hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]pyruvate, (13)C NMR signals from lactate, alanine, malate, and aspartate were easily detected, in addition to small signals from bicarbonate and CO2. The addition of propionate (2 mM) increased appearance of HP [(13)C]bicarbonate >30-fold without change in O2 consumption. Isotopomer analysis of extracts from the freeze-clamped hearts indicated that acetate was the preferred substrate for energy production, glucose contribution to energy production was minimal, and anaplerosis was stimulated in the presence of propionate. Under conditions where production of acetyl-CoA is dominated by the availability of an alternative substrate, acetate, propionate markedly stimulated PDH flux as detected by the appearance of hyperpolarized [(13)C]bicarbonate from metabolism of hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]pyruvate. PMID:25320331

Purmal, Colin; Kucejova, Blanka; Sherry, A Dean; Burgess, Shawn C; Malloy, Craig R; Merritt, Matthew E

2014-10-15

321

Effects of electron beam irradiation of cellulose acetate cigarette filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method to reduce the molecular weight of cellulose acetate used in cigarette filters by using electron beam irradiation is demonstrated. Radiation levels easily obtained with commercially available electron accelerators result in a decrease in average molecular weight of about six-times with no embrittlement, or significant change in the elastic behavior of the filter. Since a first step in the biodegradation of cigarette filters is reduction in the filter material's molecular weight this invention has the potential to allow the production of significantly faster degrading filters.

Czayka, M.; Fisch, M.

2012-07-01

322

Hydrogen Fluoride Capture by Imidazolium Acetate Ionic Liquid  

E-print Network

Extraction of hydrofluoric acid (HF) from oils is a drastically important problem in petroleum industry, since HF causes quick corrosion of pipe lines and brings severe health problems to humanity. Some ionic liquids (ILs) constitute promising scavenger agents thanks to strong binding to polar compounds and tunability. PM7-MD simulations and hybrid density functional theory are employed here to consider HF capture ability of ILs. Discussing the effects and impacts of the cation and the anion separately and together, I will evaluate performance of imidazolium acetate and outline systematic search guidelines for efficient adsorption and extraction of HF.

Chaban, Vitaly

2015-01-01

323

Kinetic Modeling of Esterification of Ethylene Glycol with Acetic Acid  

SciTech Connect

The reaction kinetics of the esterification of ethylene glycol with acetic acid in the presence of cation exchange resin has been studied and kinetic models based on empirical and Langmuir approach has been developed. The Langmuir based model involving eight kinetic parameters fits experimental data much better compared to empirical model involving four kinetic parameters. The effect of temperature and catalyst loading on the reaction system has been analyzed. Further, the activation energy and frequency factor of the rate constants for Langmuir based model has been estimated.

Yadav, Vishnu P.; Maity, Sunil K. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Hyderabad, Ordnance Factory Estate, Yeddumailiram-502205, Andhra Pradesh (India); Mukherjee, Rudra Palash [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur, Mahatma Gandhi Avenue, Durgapur-713209, West Bengal (India); Bantraj, Kandi [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela-769008, Orissa (India)

2010-10-26

324

A simple and convenient synthetic route to Ulipristal acetate.  

PubMed

We set out to describe a new and efficient route for preparing Ulipristal acetate with a good yield. The selected epoxidization conditions gave out 80% of 5?,10?-epoxide 2a in the two diastereoisomers which greatly improved the yield of 11?-substituted isomer 4a. And phenyl-sulfinyl compound 6 was synthesized from ketone 5 directly treated with phenylsulfenyl chloride in the presence of triethylamine. These synthetic procedures is only 8 steps, less than currently reported in the literature, but more suitable for industrial process. PMID:24095652

Yu, Yongguo; He, Yun; Zhao, Yi; Hai, Li; Wu, Yong

2013-12-11

325

Radioiron utilization and gossypol acetic acid in male rats  

SciTech Connect

The 24-h incorporation of VZFe into circulating red blood cells, bone marrow, urine, liver, spleen, and skeletal muscle was measured in splenectomized and sham-splenectomized rats which had received a daily, oral dose of gossypol acetic acid (20 mg GAA/kg body wt) for 91 days. A significant decrease in total body weight gain was observed in all GAA treated animals. Splenectomized rats dosed with GAA exhibited a significant decrease in hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit and erythrocyte count. A significant increase in VZFe incorporation by red blood cells and a decrease in hepatic incorporation of VZFe indicate a preferential utilization of iron in erythropoiesis among GAA treated animals.

Tone, J.N.; Jensen, D.R.

1985-01-01

326

Diffusion of mineral oils in ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports a study of mineral oil diffusion through a filled ethylene-vinyl acetate crosslinked polymer, together with some comparisons with aliphatic linear hydrocarbons. Permeation was monitored by classical gravimetric measurements leading to values of diffusion coefficient at several temperatures ranging from 23 to 120°C. A change in activation energy of diffusivity was observed at ca 70°C for mineral oils but not for simple hydrocarbons. The obtained diffusivity values and this curvature were discussed diffusion models derived from free volume theory. A relationship between D and boiling temperature was observed and tentatively justified.

Richaud, Emmanuel; Bellili, Amar; Goutille, Yannick

2012-07-01

327

21 CFR 184.1295 - Ethyl formate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of ethyl acetate and formic acid in the presence of concentrated sulfuric acid. Ethyl formate occurs naturally in some plant oils, fruits, and juices but does not occur naturally in the animal kingdom. (b) The ingredient meets the...

2011-04-01

328

21 CFR 184.1295 - Ethyl formate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of ethyl acetate and formic acid in the presence of concentrated sulfuric acid. Ethyl formate occurs naturally in some plant oils, fruits, and juices but does not occur naturally in the animal kingdom. (b) The ingredient meets the...

2010-04-01

329

21 CFR 184.1295 - Ethyl formate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...of ethyl acetate and formic acid in the presence of concentrated sulfuric acid. Ethyl formate occurs naturally in some plant oils, fruits, and juices but does not occur naturally in the animal kingdom. (b) The ingredient meets the...

2012-04-01

330

Anaerobic microbial biogeochemistry in a northern bog: Acetate as a dominant metabolic end product  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field measurements and incubation techniques were used to determine the dynamics of acetate formation, iron reduction, and methanogenesis in surficial peat of an Alaskan bog. Acetate concentrations were ˜100 ?M early in the season and decreased to ˜20 ?M in July when the water table decreased. Acetate levels increased rapidly to ˜1000 ?M when the water table rose to the surface in August. Acetate production in anaerobic slurries occurred at rates of 2.8-420 nmol carbon mL-1 day-1, which was 7-120 times more rapid than CH4 production. Experiments utilizing 14C-acetate confirmed that methanogenesis was not acetoclastic although acetate was converted very slowly to CO2. Peat incubated anaerobically for 4.5 months at 24°C never produced methane from acetate, suggesting that anaerobic acetate accumulation would have occurred all season if the water table had remained high. CO2 production was the most rapid process measured in laboratory incubations (up to 750 nmol mL-1 day-1) and appeared to be due primarily to fermentation. Acetate was the primary organic terminal product of anaerobic decomposition in the bog, and acetate was ultimately oxidized to CO2 via aerobic respiration and to a much lesser extent anaerobically by Fe reduction.

Duddleston, Khrystyne N.; Kinney, Monica A.; Kiene, Ronald P.; Hines, Mark E.

2002-12-01

331

Vibrational circular dichroism discrimination of diastereomeric cedranol acetates.  

PubMed

The reliability of vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectroscopy to discriminate four diastereomeric cedranol acetates 1-4 by means of their absolute configuration is examined. The usage of CompareVOA software to quantify comparisons of the measured infrared (IR) and VCD spectra with the corresponding simulated spectra at the B3LYP/DGDZVP and B3PW91/DGDZVP levels of theory for each diastereomer enabled the B3PW91 functional to be qualified as superior to the B3LYP functional for vibrational calculations of 1-4. Analogously, a set of quantitative VCD spectra cross-comparisons of 1-4 unambiguously distinguished the diastereomers using B3PW91 and failed using B3LYP. Remarkably, quantitative IR spectra cross-comparisons of 1-4 using B3PW91 or B3LYP functionals demonstrated that the achiral spectroscopic IR technique is not able to distinguish cedranol acetate diastereomers. VCD comparisons using anisotropy g-factor values of bands in the 1550-950?cm(-1) region of the spectra were of aid to facilitate visual spectra matching for each diastereomer. PMID:24151034

Gordillo-Román, Bárbara; Camacho-Ruiz, Jorge; Bucio, María A; Joseph-Nathan, Pedro

2013-12-01

332

Ion selective permeation through cellulose acetate membranes in forward osmosis.  

PubMed

Solute-solute interactions can have a dramatic impact on the permeation of solutes through dense polymeric membranes. In particular, understanding how solute-solute interactions can affect the design of osmotically driven membrane processes (ODMPs) is critical to the successful development of these emerging water treatment and energy generation processes. In this work, we investigate the influence that solute-solute interactions have on nitrate permeation through an asymmetric cellulose acetate forward osmosis membrane. A series of experiments that included systematic modifications to the cation paired with nitrate, the identity of the draw solute, and the solution pH were conducted. These experiments reveal that in the unique operating geometry of ODMPs, where solute containing solutions are present on both sides of the membrane, nitrate fluxes are significantly higher (>15 times in some cases) than predicted by existing models for solute permeation in ODMPs. The identity of the cation paired with nitrate influences the flux of nitrate; the identity of the cation in the draw solution does not affect the flux of nitrate; however, the identity of the anion in the draw solution has the most significant impact on the flux of nitrate. These results suggest that an ion exchange mechanism, which allows nitrate to switch rapidly with anions from the draw solution, is present when cellulose acetate based membranes are used in ODMPs. PMID:24152190

Irvine, Gavin J; Rajesh, Sahadevan; Georgiadis, Michael; Phillip, William A

2013-12-01

333

Conductive iron oxides accelerate thermophilic methanogenesis from acetate and propionate.  

PubMed

Anaerobic digester is one of the attractive technologies for treatment of organic wastes and wastewater, while continuous development and improvements on their stable operation with efficient organic removal are required. Particles of conductive iron oxides (e.g., magnetite) are known to facilitate microbial interspecies electron transfer (termed as electric syntrophy). Electric syntrophy has been reported to enhance methanogenic degradation of organic acids by mesophilic communities in soil and anaerobic digester. Here we investigated the effects of supplementation of conductive iron oxides (magnetite) on thermophilic methanogenic microbial communities derived from a thermophilic anaerobic digester. Supplementation of magnetite accelerated methanogenesis from acetate and propionate under thermophilic conditions, while supplementation of ferrihydrite also accelerated methanogenesis from propionate. Microbial community analysis revealed that supplementation of magnetite drastically changed bacterial populations in the methanogenic acetate-degrading cultures, in which Tepidoanaerobacter sp. and Coprothermobacter sp. dominated. These results suggest that supplementation of magnetite induce electric syntrophy between organic acid-oxidizing bacteria and methanogenic archaea and accelerate methanogenesis even under thermophilic conditions. Findings from this study would provide a possibility for the achievement of stably operating thermophilic anaerobic digestion systems with high efficiency for removal of organics and generation of CH4. PMID:25488041

Yamada, Chihaya; Kato, Souichiro; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Ishii, Masaharu; Igarashi, Yasuo

2014-12-01

334

Adaptation to alcoholic fermentation in Drosophila: a parallel selection imposed by environmental ethanol and acetic acid.  

PubMed Central

Besides ethanol, acetic acid is produced in naturally fermenting sweet resources and is a significant environmental stress for fruit-breeding Drosophila populations and species. Although not related to the presence of an active alcohol dehydrogenase, adult acetic acid tolerance was found to correlate with ethanol tolerance when sensitive (Afrotropical) and resistant (European) natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster were compared. The same correlation was found when comparing various Drosophila species. Tolerance to acetic acid also correlated with the tolerance to longer aliphatic acids of three, four, or five carbons but did not correlate with the tolerance to inorganic acids (i.e., hydrochloric and sulfuric acids). These observations suggest that acetic acid is detoxified by the conversion of acetate into acetyl-CoA, a metabolic step also involved in ethanol detoxification. Future investigations on the adaptation of Drosophila to fermenting resources should consider selective effects of both ethanol and acetic acid. PMID:8475110

Chakir, M; Peridy, O; Capy, P; Pla, E; David, J R

1993-01-01

335

Molecular orbital calculations for modeling acetate-aluminosilicate adsorption and dissolution reactions  

SciTech Connect

Possible molecular configurations of acetic acid and acetate adsorbed onto aluminosilicate minerals are examined. Molecular orbital calculations were performed on molecules and dimers; that are intended to mimic inner sphere and outer sphere adsorption complexes on mineral surfaces. The results predict the structure, energetics, and vibrational spectra of the acetic acid and acetate bonded to alumino-silicate groups. The most likely surface complexes are determined by reaction energetics and comparison of theoretical to experimental vibrational spectra. In addition, a reaction pathway of Si-O-Al cleavage by acetic acid and chemisorption of acetate with tetrahedral Al{sup 3+} is predicted. An activation energy for this reaction is estimated from constrained energy minimizations of the reactants along a reaction pathway. 89 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

Kubicki, J.D.; Apitz, S.E. [Naval Command Control and Surveillance Center, San Diego, CA (United States)] [Naval Command Control and Surveillance Center, San Diego, CA (United States); Blake, G.A. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)] [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)

1997-03-01

336

Water-promoted One-step Anodic Acetoxylation of Benzene to Phenyl Acetate with High Selectivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One-step anodic acetoxylation of benzene to phenyl acetate was studied in acetic acid-water solution using a one-compartment electrochemical cell in galvanostatic mode. Compared to the anhydrous system, the addition of water improved the current efficiency for the electro-synthesis of phenyl acetate. The maximum efficiency reached 4.8% with the selectivity of 96% to phenyl acetate when the electrolysis was carried out under the optimal conditions. The investigation also indicated that the concentration of phenyl acetate increased linearly in 12 h and reached 1.07 g/L with the selectivity of 95%. Cyclic voltammetry experiments showed that the adsorption of benzene at Pt anode enhanced by the addition of water was critical to the formation of phenyl acetate. An activated benzene mechanism was proposed for the anodic acytoxylation, and the analysis of gas products demonstrated that Kolbe reaction was the main side reaction.

Pei, Juan; Qin, Song; Li, Gui-ying; Hu, Chang-wei

2011-04-01

337

Clostridium lentocellum SG6--a potential organism for fermentation of cellulose to acetic acid.  

PubMed

A cellulolytic, acetic acid producing anaerobic bacterial isolate, Gram negative, rod-shaped, motile, terminal oval shaped endospore forming bacterium identified as Clostridium lentocellum SG6 based on physiological and biochemical characteristics. It produced acetic acid as a major end product from cellulose fermentation at 37 degrees C and pH 7.2. Acetic acid production was 0.67 g/g cellulose substrate utilized in cellulose mineral salt (CMS) medium. Yeast extract (0.4%) was the best nitrogen source among the various nitrogenous nutrients tested in production medium containing 0.8% cellulose as substrate. No additional vitamins or trace elemental solution were required for acetic acid fermentation. This is the highest acetic acid fermentation yield in monoculture fermentation for direct conversion of cellulose to acetic acid. PMID:11601540

Ravinder, T; Swamy, M V; Seenayya, G; Reddy, G

2001-12-01

338

Regulation of acetate metabolism in Escherichia coli BL21 by protein N(?)-lysine acetylation.  

PubMed

Acetate production is one of the most striking differences between Escherichia coli K12 and BL21 strains. Transcription of acetate metabolism genes is regulated. Additionally, acetyl-CoA synthetase, which activates acetate to acetyl-CoA, is regulated by post-translational acetylation. The aim of this study was to understand the contribution of reversible protein lysine acetylation to the regulation of acetate metabolism in E. coli BL21. The phenotypic differences between both strains were especially important in the presence of acetate. The high expression of acetyl-CoA synthetase (acs) in glucose exponential phase in BL21 allows the simultaneous consumption of acetate and glucose. Lack of catabolite repression also affected its post-translational regulator, the protein acetyltransferase (patZ). The effect of the deletion of cobB (encoding a sirtuin-like protein deacetylase) and patZ genes depended on the genetic background. The deletion of cobB in both strains increased acetate production and decreased growth rate in acetate cultures. The deletion of patZ in BL21 suppressed acetate overflow in glucose medium and increased the growth rate in acetate cultures. Differences on acetate overflow between BL21 and K12 strains are caused by many overlapping factors. Two major contributing effects were identified: (1) the expression of acs during exponential growth is not repressed in the BL21 strain due to concomitant cAMP production and (2) the acetyl-CoA synthetase activity is more tightly regulated by protein acetylation in BL21 than in the K12. Altogether these differences contribute to the lower acetate overflow and the improved ability of E. coli BL21 to consume this metabolite in the presence of glucose. PMID:25524697

Castaño-Cerezo, Sara; Bernal, Vicente; Röhrig, Teresa; Termeer, Svenja; Cánovas, Manuel

2015-04-01

339

Degradation of acetic acid with sulfate radical generated by persulfate ions photolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photolysis of S2O82- was studied for the removal of acetic acid in aqueous solution and compared with the H2O2\\/UV system. The SO4- radicals generated from the UV irradiation of S2O82- ions yield a greater mineralization of acetic acid than the OH radicals. Acetic acid is oxidized by SO4- radicals without significant formation of intermediate by-products. Increasing system pH results

Justine Criquet; Nathalie Karpel Vel Leitner

2009-01-01

340

Acetate and Formate Stress: Opposite Responses in the Proteome of Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetate and formate are major fermentation products of Escherichia coli. Below pH 7, the balance shifts to lactate; an oversupply of acetate or formate retards growth. E. coli W3110 was grown with aeration in potassium-modified Luria broth buffered at pH 6.7 in the presence or absence of added acetate or formate, and the protein profiles were compared by two-dimensional sodium

CHRISTOPHER KIRKPATRICK; LISA M. MAURER; NIKKI E. OYELAKIN; YULIYA N. YONCHEVA; RUSSELL MAURER; JOAN L. SLONCZEWSKI

2001-01-01

341

Process for the preparation of protected 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane acetal and derivatives thereof  

DOEpatents

A process for producing protected 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane acetal, particularly in chiral forms, for use as an intermediate in the preparation of various 3-carbon compounds which are chiral. In particular, the present invention relates to the process for preparation of 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane isopropylidene acetal. The protected 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane acetal is a key intermediate to the preparation of chiral 3-carbon compounds which in turn are intermediates to various pharmaceuticals.

Hollingsworth, Rawle I. (Haslett, MI); Wang, Guijun (East Lansing, MI)

2000-01-01

342

Characterization of the decomposition course of nickel acetate tetrahydrate in air  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffractometry and infrared spectroscopy showed that Ni(CH3COO)2·4H2O decomposes completely at 500°C, giving rise to a mixture of Nio and NiO. The results revealed that the compound undergoes dehydration at 160°C and melts at 310°C. The water thus released\\u000a hydrolyses surface acetate groups, acetic acid being evolved into the gas phase. At 330°C, the anhydrous acetate

G. A. M. Hussein; A. K. H. Nohman; K. M. A. Attyia

1994-01-01

343

Effects of phenoxy acetic herbicides on growth, photosynthesis, and nitrogenase activity in cyanobacteria from rice fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the phenoxy acetic herbicides 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4D) and methylchloro-phenoxy acetic acid (MCPA) on growth, photosynthesis, and nitrogenase activity of cyanobacteria has been investigated. Concentrations ranging from 10-9 to 10-3 M did not change significantly the parameters of Anabaena UAM 202. Concentrations higher than 10-3 M of both herbicides were toxic. The primary toxic action of these

F. Leganés; E. Fernández-Valiente

1992-01-01

344

Hydrogen isotopic composition of bacterial methane: CO 2\\/H 2 reduction and acetate fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to discern the ?Dwater-?DCH4 relationship between C02\\/H2 reduction and acetate fermentation in freshwater environments where CH4 is produced from both C02\\/H2 and acetate, incubation experiments of a paddy soil were made, using water with four different SD values. From the observed ?Dwater-?DCH4 relationships and a fractional contribution of acetate estimated from ?13C of CH4, ?Dwater-?DCH4 relationships were obtained

Atsuko Sugimoto; Eitaro Wada

1995-01-01

345

Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of vinblastine and high-dose megestrol acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. Preclinical data indicate that progestational agents (progesterone, medroxyprogesterone acetate and megestrol acetate) interact with p-glycoprotein (P-gp) and reverse P-gp-associated resistance to vinca alkaloids and other natural products. Based on these data, we performed a phase I study of high-dose oral megestrol acetate and vinblastine to evaluate the safety of this regimen. Patients and methods. Enrolled in the study were

Khalid Matin; Merrill J. Egorin; Michael F. Ballesteros; David C. Smith; Barry Lembersky; Roger S. Day; Candace S. Johnson; Donald L. Trump

2002-01-01

346

Effects of phenoxy acetic herbicides on growth, photosynthesis, and nitrogenase activity in cyanobacteria from rice fields.  

PubMed

The effects of the phenoxy acetic herbicides 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4D) and methylchlorophenoxy acetic acid (MCPA) on growth, photosynthesis, and nitrogenase activity of cyanobacteria has been investigated. Concentrations ranging from 10(-9) to 10(-3) M did not change significantly the parameters of Anabaena UAM 202. Concentrations higher than 10(-3) M of both herbicides were toxic. The primary toxic action of these herbicides in Anabaena UAM 202 was on photosynthesis. PMID:1554245

Leganés, F; Fernández-Valiente, E

1992-01-01

347

Acetate Utilization in Lactococcus lactis Deficient in Lactate Dehydrogenase: a Rescue Pathway for Maintaining Redox Balance  

PubMed Central

Acetate was shown to improve glucose fermentation in Lactococcus lactis deficient in lactate dehydrogenase. 13C and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance studies using [2-13C]glucose and [2-13C]acetate as substrates demonstrated that acetate was exclusively converted to ethanol. This novel pathway provides an alternative route for NAD+ regeneration in the absence of lactate dehydrogenase. PMID:10464231

Hols, Pascal; Ramos, Ana; Hugenholtz, Jeroen; Delcour, Jean; de Vos, Willem M.; Santos, Helena; Kleerebezem, Michiel

1999-01-01

348

Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid by etiolated and green corn tissues  

SciTech Connect

Etiolated corn tissues oxidase indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to oxindole-3-acetic acid (OxIAA). This oxidation results in loss of auxin activity and may plant a role in regulating IAA-stimulated growth. The enzyme has been partially purified and characterized and shown to require O{sub 2}, and a heat-stable lipid-soluble corn factor which can be replaced by linolenic or linoleic acids in the oxidation of IAA. Corn oil was tested as a cofactor in the IAA oxidation reaction. Corn oil stimulated enzyme activity by 30% while trilinolein was inactive. The capacity of green tissue to oxidize IAA was examined by incubating leaf sections from 2 week old light-grown corn seedlings with {sup 14}C-IAA. OxIAA and IAA were separated from other IAA metabolites on a 3 ml anion exchange column. Of the IAA taken up by the sections, 13% was oxidized to OxIAA. This is the first evidence that green tissue of corn may also regulate IAA levels by oxidizing IAA to OxIAA.

Reinecke, D. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

1989-04-01

349

Vacuum Ultraviolet and Infrared Spectra of Condensed Methyl Acetate on Cold Astrochemical Dust Analogs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the recent report of the first identification of methyl acetate (CH3COOCH3) in the interstellar medium (ISM), we have carried out vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy studies on methyl acetate from 10 K until sublimation in an ultrahigh vacuum chamber simulating astrochemical conditions. We present the first VUV and IR spectra of methyl acetate relevant to ISM conditions. Spectral signatures clearly showed molecular reorientation to have started in the ice by annealing the amorphous ice formed at 10 K. An irreversible phase change from amorphous to crystalline methyl acetate ice was found to occur between 110 K and 120 K.

Sivaraman, B.; Nair, B. G.; Lo, J.-I.; Kundu, S.; Davis, D.; Prabhudesai, V.; Raja Sekhar, B. N.; Mason, N. J.; Cheng, B.-M.; Krishnakumar, E.

2013-12-01

350

Acetate oxidation by syntrophic association between Geobacter sulfurreducens and a hydrogen-utilizing exoelectrogen  

PubMed Central

Anodic microbial communities in acetate-fed microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were analyzed using stable-isotope probing of 16S rRNA genes followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The results revealed that Geobacter sulfurreducens and Hydrogenophaga sp. predominated in the anodic biofilm. Although the predominance of Geobacter sp. as acetoclastic exoelectrogens in acetate-fed MFC systems has been often reported, the ecophysiological role of Hydrogenophaga sp. is unknown. Therefore, we isolated and characterized a bacterium closely related to Hydrogenophaga sp. (designated strain AR20). The newly isolated strain AR20 could use molecular hydrogen (H2), but not acetate, with carbon electrode as the electron acceptor, indicating that the strain AR20 was a hydrogenotrophic exoelectrogen. This evidence raises a hypothesis that acetate was oxidized by G. sulfurreducens in syntrophic cooperation with the strain AR20 as a hydrogen-consuming partner in the acetate-fed MFC. To prove this hypothesis, G. sulfurreducens strain PCA was cocultivated with the strain AR20 in the acetate-fed MFC without any dissolved electron acceptors. In the coculture MFC of G. sulfurreducens and strain AR20, current generation and acetate degradation were the highest, and the growth of strain AR20 was observed. No current generation, acetate degradation and cell growth occurred in the strain AR20 pure culture MFC. These results show for the first time that G. sulfurreducens can oxidize acetate in syntrophic cooperation with the isolated Hydrogenophaga sp. strain AR20, with electrode as the electron acceptor. PMID:23486252

Kimura, Zen-ichiro; Okabe, Satoshi

2013-01-01

351

Bacterial response to acetate challenge: a comparison of tolerance among species.  

PubMed

Although acetate formation and tolerance are important criteria for various aspects of biotechnological process development, available studies on acetate tolerance in different species are disparate. We evaluate the response of eight bacterial strains, including two variants of Escherichia coli, two variants of Staphylococcus capitis, and one each of Acetobacter aceti, Gluconobacter suboxydans, Lactobacillus acetotolerans, and L. bulgaricus, to acetate challenges under identical conditions. Our findings were: (1) wild-type organisms of species that are considered tolerant of acetate perform only slightly better than E. coli in unadapted shaker cultures; (2) the ability to tolerate acetate is strongly dependent on the carbon source, and is, especially for E. coli, much greater on glycerol than on glucose; (3) respiration is not as important to acetate tolerance in E. coli and S. capitis as has been reported for the acetic acid bacteria; (4) S. capitis was the least affected by acetate under all conditions and grew at up to 44 g/l acetate without any preconditioning; and (5) qualitative high-throughput screening of growth characteristics can be achieved with relatively inexpensive multiwell plate readers. PMID:10968640

Lasko, D R; Zamboni, N; Sauer, U

2000-08-01

352

Selective extraction of acetic acid from the fermentation broth produced by Mannheimia succiniciproducens.  

PubMed

Acetic acid is by-product from fermentation processes for producing succinic acid using Mannheimia succiniciproducens . To obtain pure succinic acid from the final fermentation broth, acetic acid was selectively removed based on the different extractability of succinic acid and acetic acid with pH using tri-n-octylamine (TOA) as extractant. When successive batch extractions were performed using 0.25 mol TOA kg(-1) dissolved in 1-octanol at pH 5, the mol ratio of succinic acid to acetic acid before extraction was 4.9 and the final ratio after the fourth batch was 9.4. PMID:15604800

Huh, Yun Suk; Hong, Yeon Ki; Hong, Won Hi; Chang, Ho Nam

2004-10-01

353

Transport of acetate and sodium in sheep omasum: mutual, but asymmetric interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the transport of acetate across the isolated epithelium of sheep omasum; no net transport was observed (J\\u000a ms ? J\\u000a sm) under Ussing chamber conditions. Low mucosal pH (pH 6.4) significantly enhanced J\\u000a ms acetate and the transport rates of acetate increased linearly and significantly (r\\u000a 2=0.99) with the luminal acetate concentration. The presence of another short chain fatty

O. Ali; Z. Shen; U. Tietjen; H. Martens

2006-01-01

354

Physiology and Genetics of Biogenic Methane-Production from Acetate  

SciTech Connect

Biomass conversion catalyzed by methanogenic consortia is a widely available, renewable resource for both energy production and waste treatment. The efficiency of this process is directly dependent upon the interaction of three metabolically distinct groups of microorganisms; the fermentative and acetogenic Bacteria and the methanogenic Archaea. One of the rate limiting steps in the degradation of soluble organic matter is the dismutation of acetate, a predominant intermediate in the process, which accounts for 70 % or more of the methane produced by the methanogens. Acetate utilization is controlled by regulation of expression of carbon monoxide dehydrogensase (COdh), which catalyzes the dismutation of acetate. However, physiological and molecular factors that control differential substrate utilization have not been identified in these Archaea. Our laboratory has identified sequence elements near the promoter of the gene (cdh) encoding for COdh and we have confirmed that these sequences have a role in the in vivo expression of cdh. The current proposal focuses on identifying the regulatory components that interact with DNA and RNA elements, and identifying the mechanisms used to control cdh expression. We will determine whether expression is controlled at the level of transcription or if it is mediated by coordinate interaction of transcription initiation with other processes such as transcription elongation rate and differential mRNA stability. Utilizing recently sequenced methanosarcinal genomes and a DNA microarray currently under development genes that encode regulatory proteins and transcription factors will be identified and function confirmed by gene disruption and subsequent screening on different substrates. Functional interactions will be determined in vivo by assaying the effects of gene dosage and site-directed mutagenesis of the regulatory gene on the expression of a cdhAÂ?::lacZ operon fusion. Results of this study will reveal whether this critical catabolic pathway is controlled by mechanisms similar to those employed by the Bacteria and Eukarya, or by a regulatory paradigm that is unique to the Archaea. The mechanism(s) revealed by this investigation will provide insight into the regulatory strategies employed by the aceticlastic methanogenic Archaea to efficiently direct carbon and electron flow in anaerobic consortia during fermentative processes.

Sowers, Kevin R

2013-04-04

355

Acetylation of barnyardgrass starch with acetic anhydride under iodine catalysis.  

PubMed

Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) is an invasive plant that is difficult to control and is found in abundance as part of the waste of the paddy industry. In this study, barnyardgrass starch was extracted and studied to obtain a novel starch with potential food and non-food applications. We report some of the physicochemical, functional and morphological properties as well as the effect of modifying this starch with acetic anhydride by catalysis with 1, 5 or 10mM of iodine. The extent of the introduction of acetyl groups increased with increasing iodine levels as catalyst. The shape of the granules remained unaltered, but there were low levels of surface corrosion and the overall relative crystallinity decreased. The pasting temperature, enthalpy and other gelatinisation temperatures were reduced by the modification. There was an increase in the viscosity of the pastes, except for the peak viscosity, which was strongly reduced in 10mM iodine. PMID:25704707

Bartz, Josiane; Goebel, Jorge Tiago; Giovanaz, Marcos Antônio; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa; Schirmer, Manoel Artigas; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra

2015-07-01

356

Dissolution control of Mg by cellulose acetate-polyelectrolyte membranes.  

PubMed

Cellulose acetate (CA)-based membranes are used for Mg dissolution control: the permeability of the membrane is adjusted by additions of the polyelectrolyte, poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA). Spin-coated films were characterized with FT-IR, and once exposed to an aqueous solution the film distends and starts acting as a membrane which controls the flow of ions and H2 gas. Electrochemical measurements (linear sweep voltammograms, open-circuit potential, and polarization) show that by altering the CA:PDMAEMA ratio the dissolution rate of Mg can be controlled. Such a control over Mg dissolution is crucial if Mg is to be considered as a viable, temporary biomedical implant material. Furthermore, the accumulation of corrosion products between the membrane and the sample diminishes the undesirable effects of high local pH and H2 formation which takes place during the corrosion process. PMID:25426707

Yliniemi, Kirsi; Wilson, Benjamin P; Singer, Ferdinand; Höhn, Sarah; Kontturi, Eero; Virtanen, Sannakaisa

2014-12-24

357

Ulipristal acetate and its role in emergency contraception: a comment.  

PubMed

The use of selective progesterone modulators (SRMs) has been investigated extensively over the last few years. Ulipristal acetate (UPA) is an selective progesterone receptor modulator (SPRM) which has been in use since 2010 as an effective alternative emergency contraception (EC) regimen to Levonorgestrel (LNG). It acts by inhibiting ovulation and delaying implantation. Its effectiveness is active up to 120 h after sexual intercourse. UPA is safe and has a good tolerability profile. Health care practitioners should inform women of all reproductive ages that UPA is an effective alternative agent for those who are dissatisfied with other means of EC, and its activity of up to 120 h after sexual intercourse should also be highlighted. PMID:22873821

Peitsidis, Panagiotis

2012-09-01

358

Bactericidal effect of ADP and acetic acid on Bacillus subtilis.  

PubMed

Bacillus subtilis is a ubiquitous soil bacterium used for measuring the beta-lysin activity and in other bioassays. We observed a complete bactericidal effect of ADP on B. subtilis at concentrations of 50-100 microM at pH values <5.5, which disappeared at pH values above 6. The effect was also found for acetic acid at concentrations >17.4 microM and similar pH values. ATP, adenosine, and HCl were not bactericidal. We used BCECF-AM, a pH-sensitive probe, and found that the killing of B. subtilis was due to a change in the intracellular pH caused by the passage across the cell membrane of these weak organic acids when incubated with B. subtilis at pH values near the pK. More experiments are needed to determine the biological meaning of these in vitro findings. PMID:8939804

Asensi, V; Parra, F; Fierer, J; Valle, E; Bordallo, C; Rendueles, P; Gascón, S; Carton, J A; Maradona, J A; Arribas, J M

1997-01-01

359

Sphagnum's coup de grace: Carbon flow to acetate in northern peatlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isotopic estimates of the microbial pathway of methane formation in acidic northern peatlands conclude that methane is derived from the pathway of CO2 reduction, whereas, microbial incubation and genomic studies have identified an important role played by acetoclastic methanogens in similar acidic systems. We believe our first ever intramolecular acetate isotopic analyses from an acidic wetland in central Pennsylvania resolve the apparent conflicting pathway estimates by indicating that the isotopic and microbial incubation studies are consistent with each other and with a pathway of methane formation through acetate from an isotopically depleted autotrophic acetate source. Intramolecular acetate isotopic measurements allow us to estimate that as much as 1/3 of the acetate in acidic wetlands is derived from autotrophy. Given a simple case of glucose fermentation to acetate, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen, our acetate production pathway estimate requires that nearly all of the carbon products from fermentation must flow through the acetate pool. Our work confirms the prior hypothesis and prior observations that acetate is an important metabolic end product in northern acidic wetlands. Further, we hypothesize an alternative fate of acetate in peat porewaters that alludes to an ecological role of autotorophic acetogens and acetate oxidizers in creating the impermeable humified peat catotelm unique to sphagnum dominated systems. The diversion of carbon flow to from methane to acetate increases the organic acid production and we hypothesize that the net transport of dissolved fulvic acids into the catotelm allows coupled acetate oxidation and fulvic acid reduction. This process of acetate consumption would create a net addition of hydrophobic, amorphous, and therefore more impermeable organic carbon. We conclude that an ecological strategy of the sphagnum mosses may not simply be to decrease the pH of the environment to slow metabolism, but rather to force the microbial community in the catotelm toward the oxidation of acetate and the reduction of peat humus, thereby aiding production of the characteristic impermeable organic seal. The sensitivity of sphagnum ecosystems to external sources of alkalinity may prove to be an important control on the ancient flux of methane from peatlands and may be an important direction of continued research.

Thomas, B.; Arthur, M. A.; House, C.; Freean, K.

2008-12-01

360

Modification of wheat starch with succinic acid/acetic anhydride and azelaic acid/acetic anhydride mixtures I. Thermophysical and pasting properties.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of modification with succinic acid/acetic anhydride and azelaic acid/acetic anhydride mixtures on thermophysical and pasting properties of wheat starch. Starch was isolated from two wheat varieties and modified with mixtures of succinic acid and acetic anhydride, and azelaic acid and acetic anhydride in 4, 6 and 8 % (w/w). Thermophysical, pasting properties, swelling power, solubility and amylose content of modified starches were determined. The results showed that modifications with mixtures of afore mentioned dicarboxylic acids with acetic anhydride decreased gelatinisation and pasting temperatures. Gelatinisation enthalpy of Golubica starch increased, while of Srpanjka starch decreased by modifications. Retrogradation after 7 and 14 day-storage at 4 °C decreased after modifications of both starches. Maximum, hot and cold paste viscosity of both starches increased, while stability during shearing at high temperatures decreased. % setback of starches modified with azelaic acid/acetic anhydride mixture decreased. Swelling power and solubility of both starches increased by both modifications. PMID:25328203

Subari?, Drago; A?kar, Dur?ica; Babi?, Jurislav; Saka?, Nikola; Jozinovi?, Antun

2014-10-01

361

The fate of trenbolone acetate and melengestrol acetate after application as growth promoters in cattle: environmental studies.  

PubMed Central

The steroids trenbolone acetate (TbA) and melengestrol acetate (MGA) are licensed as growth promoters for farm animals in several meat-exporting countries. Although many studies have explored their safety for both animals and consumers, little is known about their fate after excretion by the animal. Our study aimed to determine the residues and degradation of trenbolone and MGA in solid dung, liquid manure, and soil. In animal experiments lasting 8 weeks, cattle were treated with TbA and MGA. Solid dung and, in case of trenbolone, liquid manure were collected and spread on maize fields after 4.5 and 5.5 months of storage, respectively. Determination of the hormone residues in all samples included extraction, clean-up (solid-phase extraction), separation of metabolites and interfering substances by HPLC (RP-18), and quantification by sensitive enzyme immunoassay. Procedures were validated by mass spectrometry (MS) methods. During storage of liquid manure the level of trenbolone decreased from 1,700 to 1,100 pg/g (17alpha-isomer), corresponding to a half-life of 267 days. Before storage, the concentrations in the dung hill ranged from 5 to 75 ng/g TbOH and from 0.3 to 8 ng/g MGA. After storage, levels up to 10 ng/g trenbolone, and 6 ng/g MGA were detected. In the soil samples trenbolone was traceable up to 8 weeks after fertilization, and MGA was detected even until the end of the cultivation period. The results show that these substances should be investigated further concerning their potential endocrine-disrupting activity in agricultural ecosystems. PMID:11713000

Schiffer, B; Daxenberger, A; Meyer, K; Meyer, H H

2001-01-01

362

Diaterebic acid acetate and diaterpenylic acid acetate: atmospheric tracers for secondary organic aerosol formation from 1,8-cineole oxidation.  

PubMed

Detailed organic speciation of summer time PM10 collected in Melbourne, Australia, indicated the presence of numerous monoterpene oxidation products that have previously been reported in the literature. In addition, two highly oxygenated compounds with molecular formulas C9H14O6 (MW 218) and C10H16O6 (MW 232), previously unreported, were detected during a period associated with high temperatures and bushfire smoke. These two compounds were also present in laboratory-produced secondary organic aerosol (SOA) through the reaction of OH radicals with 1,8-cineole (eucalyptol), which is emitted by Eucalyptus trees. The retention times and mass spectral behavior of the highly oxygenated compounds in high-performance liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to electrospray ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MS) in parallel to ion trap MS of agree perfectly between the ambient samples and the laboratory-produced SOA samples, suggesting that 1,8-cineole is the precursor of the highly oxygenated compounds. The proposed structure of the compound with molecular formula C10H16O6 was confirmed by synthesis of a reference compound. The two novel compounds were identified as diaterebic acid acetate (2-[1-(acetyloxy)-1-methylethyl]succinic acid, C9H14O6) and diaterpenylic acid acetate (3-[1-(acetyloxy)-1-methylethyl]glutaric acid, C10H16O6) based on the consideration of reaction mechanisms, the structure of a reference compound, and the interpretation of mass spectral data. Depending on the experimental conditions, the SOA yields determined in chamber experiments ranged between 16 and 20% for approximately 25 ppb of hydrocarbon consumed. The concentrations of these compounds were as high as 50 ng m(-3) during the summertime in Melbourne. This study demonstrates the importance and influence of local vegetation patterns on SOA chemical composition. PMID:19238952

Iinuma, Yoshiteru; Böge, Olaf; Keywood, Melita; Gnauk, Thomas; Herrmann, Hartmut

2009-01-15

363

Acetic Acid from the Carbonylation of Chloride Methane Over Rhodium Based Catalysts  

E-print Network

Acetic Acid from the Carbonylation of Chloride Methane Over Rhodium Based Catalysts Yafang Fan Æ Chloride methane Á Carbonylation Á Rhodium catalysts 1 Introduction The conversion of natural gas has be carbonylated by carbon monoxide over rhodium-based catalyst to produce acetic acid [14]. The possibility

Bao, Xinhe

364

[Advances in functional genomics studies underlying acetic acid tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae].  

PubMed

Industrial microorganisms are subject to various stress conditions, including products and substrates inhibitions. Therefore, improvement of stress tolerance is of great importance for industrial microbial production. Acetic acid is one of the major inhibitors in the cellulosic hydrolysates, which affects seriously on cell growth and metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Studies on the molecular mechanisms underlying adaptive response and tolerance of acetic acid of S. cerevisiae benefit breeding of robust strains of industrial yeast for more efficient production. In recent years, more insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying acetic acid tolerance have been revealed through analysis of global gene expression and metabolomics analysis, as well as phenomics analysis by single gene deletion libraries. Novel genes related to response to acetic acid and improvement of acetic acid tolerance have been identified, and novel strains with improved acetic acid tolerance were constructed by modifying key genes. Metal ions including potassium and zinc play important roles in acetic acid tolerance in S. cerevisiae, and the effect of zinc was first discovered in our previous studies on flocculating yeast. Genes involved in cell wall remodeling, membrane transport, energy metabolism, amino acid biosynthesis and transport, as well as global transcription regulation were discussed. Exploration and modification of the molecular mechanisms of yeast acetic acid tolerance will be done further on levels such as post-translational modifications and synthetic biology and engineering; and the knowledge obtained will pave the way for breeding robust strains for more efficient bioconversion of cellulosic materials to produce biofuels and bio-based chemicals. PMID:25007573

Zhao, Xinqing; Zhang, Mingming; Xu, Guihong; Xu, Jianren; Bai, Fengwu

2014-03-01

365

The Requirement for Acetate of a Streptomycin-resistant Strain of Staphylococcus aureus  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A streptomycin-resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus, which requires haemin for aerobic growth, grew either aerobically or anaerobically in the absence of haemin provided the medium was supplemented with acetate or pyruvate; growth with these organic acids was increased by uracil and purines. The parent drug-sensitive strain grew aerobically without haemin but when grown anaerobically required either uracil or acetate

JOAN F. GARDNER; JUNE LASCELLES

1962-01-01

366

The short-chain fatty acid acetate reduces appetite via a central homeostatic mechanism  

PubMed Central

Increased intake of dietary carbohydrate that is fermented in the colon by the microbiota has been reported to decrease body weight, although the mechanism remains unclear. Here we use in vivo11C-acetate and PET-CT scanning to show that colonic acetate crosses the blood–brain barrier and is taken up by the brain. Intraperitoneal acetate results in appetite suppression and hypothalamic neuronal activation patterning. We also show that acetate administration is associated with activation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and changes in the expression profiles of regulatory neuropeptides that favour appetite suppression. Furthermore, we demonstrate through 13C high-resolution magic-angle-spinning that 13C acetate from fermentation of 13C-labelled carbohydrate in the colon increases hypothalamic 13C acetate above baseline levels. Hypothalamic 13C acetate regionally increases the 13C labelling of the glutamate–glutamine and GABA neuroglial cycles, with hypothalamic 13C lactate reaching higher levels than the ‘remaining brain’. These observations suggest that acetate has a direct role in central appetite regulation. PMID:24781306

Frost, Gary; Sleeth, Michelle L.; Sahuri-Arisoylu, Meliz; Lizarbe, Blanca; Cerdan, Sebastian; Brody, Leigh; Anastasovska, Jelena; Ghourab, Samar; Hankir, Mohammed; Zhang, Shuai; Carling, David; Swann, Jonathan R.; Gibson, Glenn; Viardot, Alexander; Morrison, Douglas; Louise Thomas, E; Bell, Jimmy D.

2014-01-01

367

The Fermentation Stress Response Protein Aaf1p/ Yml081Wp Regulates Acetate Production in  

E-print Network

fermentation, yeast cells are exposed to a challenging environment: low pH, hypoxia, high osmotic pressureThe Fermentation Stress Response Protein Aaf1p/ Yml081Wp Regulates Acetate Production The production of acetic acid during wine fermentation is a critical issue for wineries since the sensory quality

Farrell, Anthony P.

368

Preparation of biomaterials on the basis of a water-soluble cellulose acetate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomaterials were obtained on the basis of water-soluble cellulose acetate and diterpenoids group of plants Lagohulusa intoxicating having hemostatic properties. It is established that these biomaterials on the basis of water-soluble cellulose acetate and lagohilina (or lagohirzina) had increased hemostatic activity and reduce parenchymal hemorrhage 5-6 times compared to control.

Akmalova, G. Yu.; Gulyamova, N. S.; Zainutdinov, U. N.; Rakhmanberdiev, G. R.; Negmatova, K. S.; Negmatova, M. I.

2012-07-01

369

High sodium bicarbonate and acetate hemodialysis: Double-blind crossover comparison of hemodynamic and ventilatory effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

High sodium bicarbonate and acetate hemodialysis: Double-blind crossover comparison of hemodynamic and ventilatory effects. The superiority of bicarbonate dialysis (Bi HD) over acetate dialysis (Ac HD) using a high sodium dialysate has not been established to our knowledge. We compared Bi HD to Ac HD over 6 weeks each in ten stable patients using a double-blind crossover design and a

William L Henrich; Terry D Woodard; Barry D Meyer; Timothy R Chappell; Lewis J Rubin

1983-01-01

370

The potentiometric determination of stability constants for zinc acetate complexes in aqueous solutions to 295C  

SciTech Connect

A potentiometric method was used to determine the formation quotients of zinc acetate complexes in aqueous solutions from 50 to 295C at ionic strengths of 0.03, 0.3, and 1.0 m. The potentiometric titrations were carried out in an externally heated, Teflon-lined concentration cell fitted with hydrogen electrodes. Formal sodium acetate concentrations of the experimental solutions ranged from 0.001 to 0.1 m with acetic acid to sodium acetate ratios ranging from 30 to 300. Sodium trifluoromethanesulfonate (F{sub 3}CSO{sub 3}Na) was used as a supporting electrolyte. Stoichiometries and formation quotients for the complexes ZnCH{sub 3}COO{sup +}, Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}, and Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 3}{sup {minus}} were derived from the titration data by regression analysis. Stability constants at infinite dilution (K{sub n}) and other relevant thermodynamic quantities were calculated for these three complexes. Calculations of zinc speciation in acetate-chloride solutions show that zinc acetate complexes should have an importance similar to zinc chloride complexes in high acetate waters where chloride to acetate molal ratios are less than about 10.

Giordano, T.H. (New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces (United States)); Drummond, S.E. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1991-09-01

371

Glove Permeation by Propylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether Acetate — A Photoresist Solvent Used in Semiconductor Device Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (PGMEA) has been introduced as a replacement solvent for ethylene glycol ethers and ether acetates in photoresist formulations used in semiconductor processing. While PGMEA does not exhibit the adverse reproductive health effects found with the structurally related ethylene glycol derivatives, it is nevertheless readily absorbed through the skin, and proper protection against dermal absorption is

Edward T. Zellers; Robert Sulewski

1992-01-01

372

Relation between mass transfer and operation parameters in the electrodialysis recovery of acetic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recovery of acetic acid from dilute wastewater by means of bipolar membrane electrodialysis is studied in more detail. The current efficiency of the electrodialysis recovery of acetic acid from dilute wastewater is related to the current density and other operation parameters. There exists a highest value of current efficiency at optimal current density. The highest concentration of recovered acid

Lixin Yu; Tao Lin; Qingfeng Guo; Jihua Hao

2003-01-01

373

Catalysis of the Carbonylation of Alcohols to Carboxylic Acids Including Acetic Acid Synthesis from Methanol.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Monsanto's highly successful synthesis of acetic acid from methanol and carbon monoxide illustrates use of new starting materials to replace pretroleum-derived ethylene. Outlines the fundamental aspects of the acetic acid process and suggests ways of extending the synthesis to higher carboxylic acids. (JN)

Forster, Denis; DeKleva, Thomas W.

1986-01-01

374

UNIQUE ACETYLATION OF OLIGOSACCHARIDES BY TRICHODERMA REESEI ACETYL ESTERASE IN WATER - VINYL ACETATE MIXTURE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Purified T. reesei RUT C-30 acetyl esterase catalyzes acetyl transfer to a variety of carbohydrates in water in the presence of vinyl acetate as the acetyl group donor. The degree of conversion and the number of formed acetates depended on the acceptor used. With some acceptors, such as methyl or ...

375

Phase separation and heat-induced gelation characteristics of cellulose acetate in a mixed solvent system  

E-print Network

Phase separation and heat-induced gelation characteristics of cellulose acetate in a mixed solvent / Accepted: 7 February 2010 Ó Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010 Abstract The addition of cellulose-DMA interactions. Keywords Cellulose acetate gels Á Gelation Á Viscoelastic behaviour Á Elastic modulus Á Viscous

Khan, Saad A.

376

Acetate stimulates atmospheric CH4 oxidation by an alpine tundra Ann E. West, Steven K. Schmidt*  

E-print Network

collected from a dry alpine tundra site, the Kobresia myosuroides-dominated plant com- munity of Niwot RidgeAcetate stimulates atmospheric CH4 oxidation by an alpine tundra soil Ann E. West, Steven K CH4 by an alpine tundra soil. Acetate, formate, methanol, trimethylamine and yeast extract were

Schmidt, Steven K.

377

Propagation of Avalanches in Mn12-acetate: Magnetic Deflagration Yoko Suzuki,1  

E-print Network

Propagation of Avalanches in Mn12-acetate: Magnetic Deflagration Yoko Suzuki,1 M. P. Sarachik,1 E- acetate indicate that the magnetization avalanche spreads as a narrow interface that propagates through. This phenomenon, also ob- served in other molecular magnets, has been attributed to a thermal runaway (avalanche

Lombardi, John R.

378

Diastereoselective Prins-type Reaction of Cycloalkenylcyclopropanol Silyl Ethers and ?,?-Unsaturated Aldehyde Acetals  

PubMed Central

Electrophilic addition of 1-(1-cyclohexenyl)-1-cyclopropanol trimethylsilyl ether to ?,?-unsaturated aldehyde acetals under Lewis acidic conditions proceeds with good to excellent diastereoselectivity to afford spirocyclobutanones containing three contiguous stereocenters. A convenient entry to enantioselective syntheses is available by use of a nonracemic C2-symmetric acetal. Elaboration of the resulting adducts provides ready access to medium-sized carbocycles. PMID:17850161

Lysenko, Ivan L.; Oh, Heong-Sub; Cha, Jin

2008-01-01

379

Enzymology of the Pathway for Acetate Conversion to Methane in Methanosarcina thermophilia  

SciTech Connect

These topics are covered: Regulation of enzyme synthesis; Activation of acetate to acetyl-CoA; Biochemistry of acetyl-CoA cleavage; Electron transport; Other enzymes implicated in the pathway of acetate conversion to methane; and publications resulting from this work.

Ferry, James G.

1999-05-04

380

A four-year evaluation of the chronic toxicity of megestrol acetate in dogs.  

PubMed

A 4-year evaluation of the chronic toxicity of megestrol acetate in dogs is reported. .01, .1 or .25 mg of megestrol acetate/kg/day or .25 mg of chlormadinone acetate/kg/day was administered orally for 4 years t o female beagle dogs. The hormone-treated dogs tended to gain more weig ht than did the controls (controls vs. .25 mg megestrol acetate every month after the 3rd p less than .01). All treated dogs revealed decreased evidence of estrus. Mucoid vaginal discharges were more prevalent among the middle and high dose groups. Mean hemoglobin, packed cell volume and total erythrocyte values were slightly decreased while mean total leucocyte count and erythrocyte sedimentation rates were slightly increased in the middle and high dose groups. Clotting me chanism did not reveal any disturbances. Evidence of diabetes consistin g of bilateral cataracts, elevated serum glucose concentrations and glycosuria after 4 years in 2 of 16 high-dose megestrol acetate and in 6 of 15 chlormadinone acetate-treated dogs was revealed. It is concluded that the effects of megestrol acetate were similar but less severe than those of chlormadinone acetate. PMID:52913

Weikel, J H; Nelson, L W; Reno, F E

1975-09-01

381

Microbiological preservation of cucumbers for bulk storage by the use of acetic acid and food preservatives  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Microbial growth did not occur when cucumbers were preserved without a thermal process by storage in solutions containing acetic acid, sodium benzoate, and calcium chloride to maintain tissue firmness. The concentrations of acetic acid and sodium benzoate required to assure preservation were low en...

382

Potassium acetate and potassium lactate enhance the microbiological and physical properties of marinated catfish fillets  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sodium or potassium salts such as lactate and acetate can be used to inhibit the growth of spoilage bacteria and food-borne pathogens, and thereby prolong the shelf-life of refrigerated seafood. However, minimal information is available regarding the combined effects of potassium salts (acetate and ...

383

Vinegar as a burn-down herbicide: Acetic acid concentrations, application volumes, and adjuvants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Acetic acid acts as a contact herbicide, injuring and killing plants by first destroying the cell membranes, which causes the rapid desiccation of the plant tissues. Vinegars with acetic acid concentrations of 11% or greater can burn the skin and cause serious to severe eye injury, including blindn...

384

Ethanol-induced activation of adenine nucleotide turnover. Evidence for a role of acetate  

SciTech Connect

Consumption of alcohol causes hyperuricemia by decreasing urate excretion and increasing its production. Our previous studies indicate that ethanol administration increases uric acid production by increasing ATP degradation to uric acid precursors. To test the hypothesis that ethanol-induced increased urate production results from acetate metabolism and enhanced adenosine triphosphate turnover, we gave intravenous sodium acetate, sodium chloride and ethanol (0.1 mmol/kg per min for 1 h) to five normal subjects. Acetate plasma levels increased from 0.04 +/- 0.01 mM (mean +/- SE) to peak values of 0.35 +/- 0.07 mM and to 0.08 +/- 0.01 mM during acetate and ethanol infusions, respectively. Urinary oxypurines increased to 223 +/- 13% and 316 +/- 44% of the base-line values during acetate and ethanol infusions, respectively. Urinary radioactivity from the adenine nucleotide pool labeled with (8-14C) adenine increased to 171 +/- 27% and to 128 +/- 8% of the base-line values after acetate and ethanol infusions. These data indicate that both ethanol and acetate increase purine nucleotide degradation by enhancing the turnover of the adenine nucleotide pool. They support the hypothesis that acetate metabolism contributes to the increased production of urate associated with ethanol intake.

Puig, J.G.; Fox, I.H.

1984-09-01

385

Zymomonas with improved ethanol production in medium containing concentrated sugars and acetate  

DOEpatents

Through screening of a Zymomonas mutant library the himA gene was found to be involved in the inhibitory effect of acetate on Zymomonas performance. Xylose-utilizing Zymomonas further engineered to reduce activity of the himA gene were found to have increased ethanol production in comparison to a parental strain, when cultured in medium comprising xylose and acetate.

Caimi, Perry G. (Kennett Square, PA); Chou, Yat-Chen (Lakewood, CO); Franden, Mary Ann (Centennial, CO); Knoke, Kyle (Newark, DE); Tao, Luan (Havertown, PA); Viitanen, Paul V. (West Chester, PA); Zhang, Min (Lakewood, CO); Zhang, Yuying (New Hope, PA)

2010-09-28

386

Medroxyprogesterone Acetate Antagonizes Estrogen Up-Regulation of Brain Mitochondrial Function  

E-print Network

Medroxyprogesterone Acetate Antagonizes Estrogen Up-Regulation of Brain Mitochondrial Function progestin, medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), on glycolysis, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial function calcium homeostasis and increased oxidative stress ISSN Print 0013-7227 ISSN Online 1945-7170 Printed in U

Brinton, Roberta Diaz

387

Improved isolation of zein from corn gluten meal using acetic acid as solvent  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To develop new uses for corn zein, an improved means of isolating zein is needed. We have evaluated the ability of acetic acid to remove zein from corn gluten meal, distillers dried grains and ground corn. Acetic acid removed zein more quickly, at lower temperatures and in higher yields when compa...

388

The Vinyl Acetate Content of Packaging Film: A Quantitative Infrared Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an experiment used in laboratory technician training courses to illustrate the quantitative use of infrared spectroscopy which is based on industrial and laboratory procedures for the determination of vinyl acetate levels in ethylene vinyl acetate packaging films. Includes three approaches to allow for varying path lengths (film…

Allpress, K. N.; And Others

1981-01-01

389

Complexation of chitosan with acetic acid according to Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of the interaction between the protonated chitosan (CHI) macromolecule and the acetate ion in dilute acetic acid solutions were studied by Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy and quantum-chemical modeling. The complexation of CHI with the acetate ion showed itself as the 934 cm-1 band in the Raman spectrum, which suggests the formation of [CHI+ · CH3COO-] type ion pairs. It was concluded that a comparative analysis of the integrated intensities of the Raman bands in the range 880-940 cm-1 makes it possible to judge about the relative content of hydrated acetate ions, CHI macromolecules of the [CHI+ · CH3COO-] complex, and acetic acid molecules not involved in CHI protonation.

Mikhailov, G. P.; Tuchkov, S. V.; Lazarev, V. V.; Kulish, E. I.

2014-06-01

390

Effect of methylazoxymethanol acetate on bluegill sunfish cell cultures in vitro  

SciTech Connect

An epithelioid cell line derived from fin tissue of bluegill sunfish (designated BG/F) exhibited early indications of cell transformation upon exposure to methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM acetate). Such changes included the induction of polyploidy, increased colony-forming efficiency, loss of contact inhibition, and formation of transformed foci. Unlike later transformation characteristics observed with mammalian cells, the MAM acetate-treated BG/F cells could not be propagated under conditions of anchorage independence in soft agar. Incubation of BG/F cells with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, followed by exposure to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, was not observed to cause cell transformation under the experimental conditions. The controls of a fibroblastic cell culture derived from gill tissue of bluegill sunfish showed spontaneous transformation after 6 months of passage, similar to the transformation observed in the experimental MAM acetate treated gill cultures.

Borenfreund, E.; Babich, H.; Martin-Alguacil, N.

1989-06-01

391

Development of Acetic Acid Removal Technology for the UREX+Process  

SciTech Connect

It is imperative that acetic acid is removed from a waste stream in the UREX+process so that nitric acid can be recycled and possible interference with downstreatm steps can be avoidec. Acetic acid arises from acetohydrozamic acid (AHA), and is used to suppress plutonium in the first step of the UREX+process. Later, it is hydrolyzed into hydroxyl amine nitrate and acetic acid. Many common separation technologies were examined, and solvent extraction was determined to be the best choice under process conditions. Solvents already used in the UREX+ process were then tested to determine if they would be sufficient for the removal of acetic acid. The tributyl phosphage (TBP)-dodecane diluent, used in both UREX and NPEX, was determined to be a solvent system that gave sufficient distribution coefficients for acetic acid in addition to a high separation factor from nitric acid.

Robert M. Counce; Jack S. Watson

2009-06-30

392

C-13 Stable Isotope Probing of Biostimulation Experiments to Identify Acetate Utilizers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to determine which microorganisms take up acetate during biostimulation and how the uptake of acetate by specific organisms, especially Geobacter species, changes over time, a 120-day column biostimulation experiment was performed. A total of eight columns were loaded with Rifle sediments and operated under continuous flow conditions using Rifle groundwater, amended with 3 mM C-12 acetate. At regular time intervals, C-12 acetate flow into a specific column was switched to C-13 acetate. That column was then operated under C-13 acetate amendment for 36 hours before it was sacrificed for detailed geochemical and microbiological analyses. Column operation started under iron reduction (based on the measured Fe(II) in the column effluent), while sulfate reduction (based on removal of sulfate between influent and outflow), was noted at about 25 days of operation. The microbial characterization consisted of phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA) and stable isotope probing (SIP). All microbial characterization was done to differentiate between the C-12 and C-13 incorporation into the biomass. Results showed that there was a differentiation between the community that was taking up acetate actively throughout the 120 days of operation and the overall microbial community. Of interest was that the fraction of Geobacter population remained fairly constant throughout the duration of the experiment, as well as its acetate uptake. Results also showed that of the acetate incorporated into the overall biomass, about 40% was incorporated into Geobacter biomass. These results are key for the proper numerical simulations of biostimulation via acetate amendment and the biostimulation of Geobacter.

Jaffe, P. R.; Tan, H.; Kerkhof, L.; McGuinness, L.; Peacock, A.; Long, P. E.

2011-12-01

393

Microbial dynamics in acetate-enriched ballast water at different temperatures.  

PubMed

The spread of invasive species through ships' ballast water is considered as a major ecological threat to the world's oceans. For that reason, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) has set performance standards for ballast water discharge. Ballast water treatment systems have been developed that employ either UV-radiation or 'active substances' to reduce the concentration of living cells to below the IMOs standards. One such active substance is a chemical mixture known as Peraclean(®) Ocean. The residual of Peraclean(®) Ocean is acetate that might be present at high concentrations in discharged ballast water. In cold coastal waters the breakdown of acetate might be slow, causing a buildup of acetate concentrations in the water if regularly discharged by ships. To study the potential environmental impact, microbial dynamics and acetate degradation were measured in discharge water from a Peraclean(®) Ocean treatment system in illuminated microcosms. In addition, microbial dynamics and acetate degradation were studied at -1, 4, 10, 15 and 25°C in dark microcosms that simulated enclosed ballast water tanks. Acetate breakdown indeed occurred faster at higher temperatures. At 25°C the highest bacteria growth, fastest nutrient and oxygen consumption and highest DOC reduction occurred. On the other hand, at -1°C bacterial growth was strongly delayed, only starting to increase after 12 days. Furthermore, at 25°C the acetate pool was not depleted, probably due to nutrient and oxygen limitation. This means that not all acetate will be broken down in ballast water tanks, even during long voyages in warm waters. In addition, at low temperatures acetate breakdown in ballast water tanks and in discharged water will be extremely slow. Therefore, regular discharge of acetate enriched ballast water in harbors and bays may cause eutrophication and changes in the microbial community, especially in colder regions. PMID:23871568

Stehouwer, Peter Paul; van Slooten, Cees; Peperzak, Louis

2013-10-01

394

Evaluation of the morphological changes of gastric mucosa induced by a low concentration of acetic acid using a rat model.  

PubMed

Oral ingestion of concentrated acetic acid causes corrosive injury of the gastrointestinal tract. To assess the effects of a low concentration of acetic acid on gastric mucosa, we examined the gastric mucosal changes in rats at 1 and 3 days after the injection of 5% or 25% acetic acid into the gastric lumen. The area of the gastric ulcerative lesions in the 25% acetic acid group was significantly larger than that in the 5% acetic acid group. The lesion area was reduced significantly at 3 days after injection in the 5% acetic acid group, whereas no significant difference in lesion area was observed at 1 and 3 days in the 25% acetic acid group. Histologically, corrosive necrosis was limited to the mucosal layer in the 5% acetic acid group, whereas necrosis extended throughout the gastric wall in the 25% acetic acid group. At 3 days post-injection, the 25% acetic acid group showed widespread persistent inflammation, whereas the 5% acetic acid group showed widespread appearance of fibroblasts indicative of a healing process. These results indicate that a low concentration of acetic acid damages the gastric mucosa and that the degree of mucosal damage depends on the concentration of acetic acid. PMID:24485432

Nakao, Ken-ichiro; Ro, Ayako; Kibayashi, Kazuhiko

2014-02-01

395

Electrochemical reduction of uranyl nitrate in acetic acid solutions  

SciTech Connect

Electrochemical reduction of UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} has been studied by polarography on a mercury cathodes in CH{sub 3}COOH solutions. It has been found that UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}) is reduced to U(IV) by a mechanism similar to reduction in nitric acid solutions at pH>2. The polarograms have been recorded with various solid cathodes. The cathodes having current density of uranyl reduction close to that on mercury cathode have been further investigated. The most suitable cathode materials for reducing 1-2 M UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} solutions have been found to be Hg, Ti, and stainless steel. The use of a stainless steel cathode is complicated by minor corrosion; as a result, iron ions appear in the solution, which catalyze the oxidation of U(IV) with air oxygen and nitrate ions. On a titanium cathode at a potential of -0.24 V 1.6 M UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} solution in 5 m CH{sub 3}COOH is reduced in the presence of 0.5 g 1{sup -1} of N{sub 2}H{sub 4} with 90% current efficiency and 99.3% extent of reduction. In the case of a mercury cathode 1.9 M UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} solution in 4-6 M CH{sub 3}COOH is reduced to U(IV) in the presence of 0.5 g 1{sup -1} of N{sub 2}H{sub 4} with 97{plus_minus}2% current efficiency and 99.7% extent of reduction. The formal potential of the U(VI)/U(IV) couple is equal to 0.32{plus_minus}0.01 V and only slightly depends on temperature T and concentration of acetic acid [CH{sub 3}COOH] over 20-0{degrees}C and 0.5-4 M ranges respectively. The acetic acid solutions of U(IV) thus obtained from UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} are considerably more stable than nitric acid solutions of U(IV), even in the presence of much smaller amounts of N{sub 2}H{sub 4} or other stabilizers.

Fedoseev, A.M.; Shilov, V.P. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1995-07-01

396

Scaleable production and separation of fermentation-derived acetic acid. Final CRADA report.  

SciTech Connect

Half of U.S. acetic acid production is used in manufacturing vinyl acetate monomer (VAM) and is economical only in very large production plants. Nearly 80% of the VAM is produced by methanol carbonylation, which requires high temperatures and exotic construction materials and is energy intensive. Fermentation-derived acetic acid production allows for small-scale production at low temperatures, significantly reducing the energy requirement of the process. The goal of the project is to develop a scaleable production and separation process for fermentation-derived acetic acid. Synthesis gas (syngas) will be fermented to acetic acid, and the fermentation broth will be continuously neutralized with ammonia. The acetic acid product will be recovered from the ammonium acid broth using vapor-based membrane separation technology. The process is summarized in Figure 1. The two technical challenges to success are selecting and developing (1) microbial strains that efficiently ferment syngas to acetic acid in high salt environments and (2) membranes that efficiently separate ammonia from the acetic acid/water mixture and are stable at high enough temperature to facilitate high thermal cracking of the ammonium acetate salt. Fermentation - Microbial strains were procured from a variety of public culture collections (Table 1). Strains were incubated and grown in the presence of the ammonium acetate product and the fastest growing cultures were selected and incubated at higher product concentrations. An example of the performance of a selected culture is shown in Figure 2. Separations - Several membranes were considered. Testing was performed on a new product line produced by Sulzer Chemtech (Germany). These are tubular ceramic membranes with weak acid functionality (see Figure 3). The following results were observed: (1) The membranes were relatively fragile in a laboratory setting; (2) Thermally stable {at} 130 C in hot organic acids; (3) Acetic acid rejection > 99%; and (4) Moderate ammonia flux. The advantages of producing acetic acid by fermentation include its appropriateness for small-scale production, lower cost feedstocks, low energy membrane-based purification, and lower temperature and pressure requirements. Potential energy savings of using fermentation are estimated to be approximately 14 trillion Btu by 2020 from a reduction in natural gas use. Decreased transportation needs with regional plants will eliminate approximately 200 million gallons of diesel consumption, for combined savings of 45 trillion Btu. If the fermentation process captures new acetic acid production, savings could include an additional 5 trillion Btu from production and 7 trillion Btu from transportation energy.

Snyder, S. W.; Energy Systems

2010-02-08

397

Genome-wide identification of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes required for tolerance to acetic acid  

PubMed Central

Background Acetic acid is a byproduct of Saccharomyces cerevisiae alcoholic fermentation. Together with high concentrations of ethanol and other toxic metabolites, acetic acid may contribute to fermentation arrest and reduced ethanol productivity. This weak acid is also a present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, a highly interesting non-feedstock substrate in industrial biotechnology. Therefore, the better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying S. cerevisiae tolerance to acetic acid is essential for the rational selection of optimal fermentation conditions and the engineering of more robust industrial strains to be used in processes in which yeast is explored as cell factory. Results The yeast genes conferring protection against acetic acid were identified in this study at a genome-wide scale, based on the screening of the EUROSCARF haploid mutant collection for susceptibility phenotypes to this weak acid (concentrations in the range 70-110 mM, at pH 4.5). Approximately 650 determinants of tolerance to acetic acid were identified. Clustering of these acetic acid-resistance genes based on their biological function indicated an enrichment of genes involved in transcription, internal pH homeostasis, carbohydrate metabolism, cell wall assembly, biogenesis of mitochondria, ribosome and vacuole, and in the sensing, signalling and uptake of various nutrients in particular iron, potassium, glucose and amino acids. A correlation between increased resistance to acetic acid and the level of potassium in the growth medium was found. The activation of the Snf1p signalling pathway, involved in yeast response to glucose starvation, is demonstrated to occur in response to acetic acid stress but no evidence was obtained supporting the acetic acid-induced inhibition of glucose uptake. Conclusions Approximately 490 of the 650 determinants of tolerance to acetic acid identified in this work are implicated, for the first time, in tolerance to this weak acid. These are novel candidate genes for genetic engineering to obtain more robust yeast strains against acetic acid toxicity. Among these genes there are number of transcription factors that are documented regulators of a large percentage of the genes found to exert protection against acetic acid thus being considered interesting targets for subsequent genetic engineering. The increase of potassium concentration in the growth medium was found to improve the expression of maximal tolerance to acetic acid, consistent with the idea that the adequate manipulation of nutrient concentration of industrial growth medium can be an interesting strategy to surpass the deleterious effects of this weak acid in yeast cells. PMID:20973990

2010-01-01

398

Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid, as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth  

DOEpatents

A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired co-solvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon, are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

2004-06-22

399

Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid, as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth  

DOEpatents

A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired co-solvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon, are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

2007-03-27

400

Photocatalytic decomposition of cortisone acetate in aqueous solution.  

PubMed

The photocatalytic decomposition of cortisone 21-acetate (CA), a model compound for the commonly used steroid, cortisone, was studied. CA was photocatalytically decomposed in a slurry reactor with the initial rates between 0.11 and 0.46 mg L(-1)min(-1) at 10 mg L(-1) concentration, using the following heterogeneous photocatalysts in decreasing order of their catalytic activity: ZnO>Evonik TiO2 P25>Hombikat TiO2>WO3. Due to the lack of ZnO stability in aqueous solutions, TiO2 P25 was chosen for further experiments. The decomposition reaction was found to be pseudo-first order and the rate constant decreased as a function of increasing initial CA concentration. Changing the initial pH of the CA solution did not affect the reaction rate significantly. The decomposition reaction in the presence of the oxidizing sacrificial agent sodium persulfate showed an observed decomposition rate constant of 0.004 min(-1), lower than that obtained for TiO2 P25 (0.040 min(-1)). The highest photocatalytic degradation rate constant was obtained combining both TiO2 P25 and S2O8(2-) (0.071 min(-1)) showing a synergistic effect. No reactive intermediates were detected using LC-MS showing fast photocatalytic decomposition kinetics of CA. PMID:24953705

Romão, Joana Sobral; Hamdy, Mohamed S; Mul, Guido; Baltrusaitis, Jonas

2015-01-23

401

Rheological study of chitosan acetate solutions containing chitin nanofibrils.  

PubMed

Rheological properties of chitosan acetate solutions containing chitin nanofibrils (n-chitin) and biocompatible plasticizers intended for preparation of biodegradable films are reported in the steady, oscillatory and transient shear flow. The experiments were performed on slurries with an optimum proportion of 65/35 wt.% between chitosan and n-chitin in the films which was determined from our results of mechanical properties and absorption of water vapor. The time-dependent dynamic experiments revealed the chitin nanofibrils as an effective "gelling agent" of chitosan phase. The phenomenon is explained by a chitosan-like surface of n-chitin and by the interactions inducing orientational cooperativity of chitosan molecules dissolved in close neighborhood of the anisotropic chitin nanofibrils. Additions of glycerol or poly(ethylene glycol), improving mechanical properties of the films, delay significantly the onset of gelation of chitosan/n-chitin slurries. The effect is induced by an increase in viscosity of the slurries and by their enhanced chaotropic character. PMID:25129805

Mikešová, Jana; Hašek, Jind?ich; Tishchenko, Galina; Morganti, Pierfrancesco

2014-11-01

402

Crystallization in Thin Films of Poly(ethylene-vinyl acetate)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The crystallization of spun cast poly(ethylene-vinyl acetate) thin films was investigated as a function of film thickness, temperature and time. The morphology was studied with scanning probe microscopy, crystallinity was analyzed by TEM and FTIR, and the melting point was measured using shear modulation force microscopy (SMFM)[1] and a home built micro DSC unit. The results show that melting point decreases abruptly by more than 15oC when the film thickness becomes less than the crystalline lamellar height. This effect appears to be correlated with a change in morphology from ordered spherulites structure with a central nucleation site to a random fibril structure with many nucleation sites. The degree of crystallinity was also drastically reduced in the fibril structure. The presence of exfoliated clay platelets increased the number of nucleation sites and decreased the spherulite diameter. Tm was not affected, but the lateral force of the film was reduced. The observed phenomena are consistent with a lamella orientation parallel to the film surface. Supported in part by the NSF-MRSEC program. [1] S.Ge, Y. Pu, W. Zhang, M. Rafailovich, and J. Sokolov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 11, 2340(2000)

Wang, Yantian; Zhang, Wenhua; Ge, Shouren; Rafailovich, Miriam; Sokolov, Jonathan

2002-03-01

403

Cellulose acetate electrospun fiber mats for controlled release of silymarin.  

PubMed

In this research, the silymarin-loaded electrospun cellulose acetate (CA) fibers were prepared which containing silymarin in various amounts (i.e., 2.5-20 wt.% based on the weight of CA powder). Incorporation of silymarin in the neat CA solution did not affect the morphology of the resulting fibers, as both the neat and the silymarin-loaded CA fibers were smooth. The average diameters of silymarin-loaded CA fiber ranged between 550-900 nm. No presence of the silymarin aggregates of any kind was observed on the surfaces of these fibers, suggesting that the silymarin was encapsulated well within the fibers. These results were confirmed by lowering the glass transition temperature and the melting temperature of the silymarin-loaded electrospun CA fibers which is determined by DSC technique. The release characteristic of silymarin from the silymarin-loaded CA fiber mats was investigated by the total immersion in the solution of 1/1 phosphate buffer/methanol medium pH 7.4 at 37 degrees C. The silymarin release from the silymarin-loaded electrospun CA fiber mat is monotonously increased to reach the maximum value at 480 min. The maximum amount of silymarin released from these materials increases with the increasing of initial silymarin loading in the spinning CA solutions. Since no aggregation of silymarin was found on the surface of the silymarin-loaded fibers, the release of the silymarin from fiber mats was mainly by the diffusion. PMID:22524059

Phiriyawirut, Manisara; Phaechamud, Thawatchai

2012-01-01

404

Effect of phorbol myristate acetate on secretion of parathyroid hormone  

SciTech Connect

The influence of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), an activator of protein kinase c, on the secretion of parathyroid hormone from collagenase-dispersed bovine parathyroid cells was tested. The cells were incubated at low or high concentrations of calcium in the medium, and the hormone secreted into the medium was measured by a radioimmunoassay that recognizes both intact and C-terminal fragments of hormone. A stimulatory effect of PMA at high calcium, seen at PMA concentrations as low as 1.6 nM, did not occur with a biologically inactive 4{alpha}-isomer of phorbol ester, and was independent of changes in cellular adenosine 3{prime},5{prime}-cyclic monophosphate levels. Examination of {sup 32}P-labeled phosphoproteins by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed acidic proteins of {approximately}20,000 and 100,000 Da that were phosphorylated at low and high calcium + 1.6 {mu}M PMA but not at high calcium alone. The protein kinase c activity associated with the membrane fraction of parathyroid cells significantly decreased 40% when the cells were incubated at high vs. low calcium. The data suggest that calcium may regulate parathyroid hormone secretion through changes in protein kinase c activity of the membrane fraction of the cell and protein phosphorylation.

Morrissey, J.J. (Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (USA))

1988-01-01

405

Metabolic regulation of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid  

SciTech Connect

The phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, auxin) is important for many aspects of plant growth, development and responses to the environment yet the routes to is biosynthesis and mechanisms for regulation of IAA levels remain important research questions. A critical issue concerning the biosynthesis if IAA in plants is that redundant pathways for IAA biosynthesis exist in plants. We showed that these redundant pathways and their relative contribution to net IAA production are under both developmental and environmental control. We worked on three fundamental problems related to how plants get their IAA: 1) An in vitro biochemical approach was used to define the tryptophan dependent pathway to IAA using maize endosperm, where relatively large amounts of IAA are produced over a short developmental period. Both a stable isotope dilution and a protein MS approach were used to identify intermediates and enzymes in the reactions. 2) We developed an in vitro system for analysis of tryptophan-independent IAA biosynthesis in maize seedlings and we used a metabolite profiling approach to isolate intermediates in this reaction. 3) Arabidopsis contains a small family of genes that encode potential indolepyruvate decarboxylase enzymes. We cloned these genes and studied plants that are mutant in these genes and that over-express each member in the family in terms of the level and route of IAA biosynthesis. Together, these allowed further development of a comprehensive picture of the pathways and regulatory components that are involved in IAA homeostasis in higher plants.

Jerry D. Cohen

2009-11-01

406

Successful pregnancy after treatment with ulipristal acetate for uterine fibroids.  

PubMed

This case report presents a clinical pregnancy after ulipristal acetate (UA) to decrease uterine fibroid size. A 37-year-old patient, gravida 1, abortus 1, with uterine fibroids was treated with 5?mg of UA daily for 13 weeks starting eight months after a multiple laparotomic myomectomy. Fibroid shrinkage and restoration of the morphology of endometrial cavity were evaluated in order to allow a subsequent pregnancy. A decrease of the uterine fibroids and a normal morphology of the endometrial cavity were noted by transvaginal ultrasound after treatment. An endometrial biopsy excluded histologic endometrial changes. Three months after the end of UA the patient reported amenorrhea for 5 weeks and a clinical pregnancy was confirmed with transvaginal ultrasound. She underwent a subsequent uneventful pregnancy. Thus, the spontaneous pregnancy after UA to reduce fibroid size may support the potential clinical utility of this selective progesterone receptor modulator in the management of women with pregnancy desire and uterine fibroids after a prior myomectomy. Patients who refuse a new surgical procedure and/or those who are going to undergo assisted reproductive techniques would benefit from UA. It effectively shrinks fibroids, avoids risks of a new surgical procedure, and allows an immediate attempt at conception after the end of treatment. PMID:25143845

Monleón, Javier; Martínez-Varea, Alicia; Galliano, Daniela; Pellicer, Antonio

2014-01-01

407

Successful Pregnancy after Treatment with Ulipristal Acetate for Uterine Fibroids  

PubMed Central

This case report presents a clinical pregnancy after ulipristal acetate (UA) to decrease uterine fibroid size. A 37-year-old patient, gravida 1, abortus 1, with uterine fibroids was treated with 5?mg of UA daily for 13 weeks starting eight months after a multiple laparotomic myomectomy. Fibroid shrinkage and restoration of the morphology of endometrial cavity were evaluated in order to allow a subsequent pregnancy. A decrease of the uterine fibroids and a normal morphology of the endometrial cavity were noted by transvaginal ultrasound after treatment. An endometrial biopsy excluded histologic endometrial changes. Three months after the end of UA the patient reported amenorrhea for 5 weeks and a clinical pregnancy was confirmed with transvaginal ultrasound. She underwent a subsequent uneventful pregnancy. Thus, the spontaneous pregnancy after UA to reduce fibroid size may support the potential clinical utility of this selective progesterone receptor modulator in the management of women with pregnancy desire and uterine fibroids after a prior myomectomy. Patients who refuse a new surgical procedure and/or those who are going to undergo assisted reproductive techniques would benefit from UA. It effectively shrinks fibroids, avoids risks of a new surgical procedure, and allows an immediate attempt at conception after the end of treatment. PMID:25143845

Monleón, Javier; Galliano, Daniela; Pellicer, Antonio

2014-01-01

408

[Abiraterone acetate(ZYTIGA®)-development and literature review].  

PubMed

Abiraterone acetate(AA)has been approved in more than 80 countries for the treatment of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer(mCRPC). In July 2013, a marketing approval application for AA was submitted to the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare. AA is a selective inhibitor of CYP17A1, a crucial enzyme for androgen biosynthesis. AA exerts its anti-tumor activity by directly inhibiting androgen production at all three sources, i. e., the testes, adrenal glands, and tumor itself. Data from international phase III studies and phase I and II studies in Japan have indicated that AA improves the overall survival and quality of life(QoL)of patients with mCRPC. Herein, we have summarized the development of AA and the results of important international and local clinical trials in Japan. In addition, the effect of food on AA bioavailability, concomitant steroid use, and liver function test abnormalities have been discussed regarding the appropriate use of AA. PMID:25131865

Nishimura, Yukiko; Mukai, Harumi; Suzukawa, Kazumi; Oyama, Ryo

2014-07-01

409

Thermal Conductivity of Ethylene Vinyl Acetate Copolymer/Nanofiller Blends  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To reduce weight and increase the mobility, comfort, and performance of future spacesuits, flexible, thermally conductive fabrics and plastic tubes are needed for the Liquid Cooling and Ventilation Garment. Such improvements would allow astronauts to operate more efficiently and safely for extended extravehicular activities. As an approach to raise the thermal conductivity (TC) of an ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (Elvax 260), it was compounded with three types of carbon based nanofillers: multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), vapor grown carbon nanofibers (CNFs), and expanded graphite (EG). In addition, other nanofillers including metallized CNFs, nickel nanostrands, boron nitride, and powdered aluminum were also compounded with Elvax 260 in the melt at various loading levels. In an attempt to improve compatibility between Elvax 260 and the nanofillers, MWCNTs and EG were modified by surface coating and through noncovalent and covalent attachment of organic molecules containing alkyl groups. Ribbons of the nanocomposites were extruded to form samples in which the nanofillers were aligned in the direction of flow. Samples were also fabricated by compression molding to yield nanocomposites in which the nanofillers were randomly oriented. Mechanical properties of the aligned samples were determined by tensile testing while the degree of dispersion and alignment of nanoparticles were investigated using high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. TC measurements were performed using a laser flash (Nanoflash ) technique. TC of the samples was measured in the direction of, and perpendicular to, the alignment direction. Additionally, tubing was also extruded from select nanocomposite compositions and the TC and mechanical flexibility measured.

Ghose, S.; Watson, K. A.; Working, D. C.; Connell, J. W.; Smith, J. G., Jr.; Lin, Y.; Sun, Y. P.

2007-01-01

410

Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (Provera) in the Treatment of Metastatic Renal Cancer*  

PubMed Central

Eighty patients with advanced metastatic renal cancer have been treated with hormones, chiefly medroxyprogesterone acetate (Provera). This progestational compound is remarkably free from side-effects and can be given in high dosage for long periods without serious complications. Ninety per cent of cases had multiple metastases: in 76% more than one organ was involved and nearly 50% were seriously ill or “terminal”. Subjective improvement occurred in at least 55%. In 11 patients there was marked improvement in the radiological or clinical signs of tumour within 2 to 6 weeks of commencing treatment or changing to a different hormone. In two further cases improved general health was associated with stationary metastases for 20 months. A significant objective response occurred in 16% of the total series. A favourable response was seen more often in men (21%) than in women (8%). If deaths within 6 weeks are excluded the objective response rate in men is increased to 27%. Although the response of advanced renal cancer to hormonal treatment is usually incomplete and of brief duration, it is possible for such treatment to offer a “new lease of life” to a seriously ill patient, even in old age, for 2 to 3 years. ImagesFig. 5Fig. 1Fig. 2Figs. 3-4 PMID:5115827

Bloom, H. J. G.

1971-01-01

411

Effect of Acetate on Blood Metabolites and Glucose Tolerance during Haemodialysis in Uraemic Non-Diabetic and Diabetic Subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined changes in blood concentrations of glucose, acetate and other blood intermediary metabolites as well as the disposal of an intravenous glucose load during successive glucose-free acetate and control bicarbonate haemodialysis in random order, in non-diabetic and diabetic subjects. Plasma acetate levels increased about 10-fold in both the diabetic and non-diabetic subjects during the 1st hour of acetate dialysis.

Abayomi O. Akanji; Steven Sacks

1991-01-01

412

40 CFR 721.2076 - D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. 721.2076 Section 721.2076 Protection...acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant...acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt (PMN P-00-7; CAS...

2012-07-01

413

40 CFR 721.2076 - D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. 721.2076 Section 721.2076 Protection...acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant...acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt (PMN P-00-7; CAS...

2010-07-01

414

The acetate switch of an intestinal pathogen disrupts host insulin signaling and lipid metabolism.  

PubMed

Vibrio cholerae is lethal to the model host Drosophila melanogaster through mechanisms not solely attributable to cholera toxin. To examine additional virulence determinants, we performed a genetic screen in V. cholerae-infected Drosophila and identified the two-component system CrbRS. CrbRS controls transcriptional activation of acetyl-CoA synthase-1 (ACS-1) and thus regulates the acetate switch, in which bacteria transition from excretion to assimilation of environmental acetate. The resultant loss of intestinal acetate leads to deactivation of host insulin signaling and lipid accumulation in enterocytes, resulting in host lethality. These metabolic effects are not observed upon infection with ?crbS or ?acs1 V. cholerae mutants. Additionally, uninfected flies lacking intestinal commensals, which supply short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) such as acetate, also exhibit altered insulin signaling and intestinal steatosis, which is reversed upon acetate supplementation. Thus, acetate consumption by V. cholerae alters host metabolism, and dietary acetate supplementation may ameliorate some sequelae of cholera. PMID:25525791

Hang, Saiyu; Purdy, Alexandra E; Robins, William P; Wang, Zhipeng; Mandal, Manabendra; Chang, Sarah; Mekalanos, John J; Watnick, Paula I

2014-11-12

415

Choline acetate enhanced the catalytic performance of Candida rogusa lipase in AOT reverse micelles.  

PubMed

Choline acetate is an ionic liquid composed of a kosmotropic anion and a chaotropic cation. According to Hofmeister series, a kosmotropic anion and/or a chaotropic cation could stabilize an enzyme, thereby facilitating the retention of the catalytic activity of the enzyme. In this work, we first report the influence of choline acetate on the activity and stability of lipase in AOT/water/isooctane reverse micelles. The indicator reaction is the lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenyl butyrate. The results show that a low level of choline acetate does not affect the microstructure of the AOT reverse micelles, but the ionic liquid can improve the catalytic efficiency of lipase. Fluorescence spectra show that a high level of choline acetate has an impact on the conformation of lipase, so the activation is mainly due to the influence of choline acetate on the nucleophilicity of water. Infrared spectra demonstrate that choline acetate can form stronger hydrogen bonds with water surrounding lipase, and therefore enhance the nucleophilicity of the water, which makes it easier to attack the acyl enzyme intermediate, thereby increasing the activity of the lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis of the ester. A study on the stability of lipase in AOT reverse micelles indicates that the ionic liquid is able to maintain the activity of lipase to a certain extent. The effect of choline acetate is consistent with that predicted based on Hofmeister series. PMID:23352950

Xue, Luyan; Zhao, Yin; Yu, Lijie; Sun, Yanwen; Yan, Keqian; Li, Ying; Huang, Xirong; Qu, Yinbo

2013-05-01

416

Lepidium meyenii (Maca) reversed the lead acetate induced -- damage on reproductive function in male rats.  

PubMed

Rats were treated with 0, 8, 16 and 24 mg/kg of lead acetate (LA) (i.p.) for 35 days with or without Maca. Maca was co-administrated orally from day 18 to day 35. The lengths of stages of the seminiferous epithelium were assessed by transillumination. Also, sex organ weights, testicular and epididymal sperm count, sperm motility, daily sperm production, sperm transit rate and serum testosterone levels were measured. Lead acetate treatment resulted in a dose-response reduction of lengths of stages VIII and IX-XI, and serum testosterone levels. However, rats treated with 8 and 16 mg/kg but not 24 mg/kg of lead acetate showed a low number of testicular spermatids, low daily sperm production (DSP) and low epididymal sperm count. Administration of Maca to rats treated with lead acetate resulted in higher lengths of stages VIII and IX-XI with respect to lead acetate-treated rats. Moreover, treatment with Maca to lead acetate-treated rats resulted in lengths of stages VIII and IX-XI similar to the control group. Maca administration also reduced the deleterious effect on DSP caused by lead acetate treatment. Maca prevented LA-induced spermatogenic disruption in rats and it may become in a potential treatment of male infertility associated with lead exposure. PMID:16510228

Rubio, Julio; Riqueros, Marissa I; Gasco, Manuel; Yucra, Sandra; Miranda, Sara; Gonzales, Gustavo F

2006-07-01

417

Thermodynamic modeling of neptunium(V)-acetate complexation in concentrated NaCl media  

SciTech Connect

The complexation of neptunium(V), Np(V), with the acetate anion, Ac{sup -}, was measured in sodium chloride media to high concentration using an extraction technique. The data were interpreted using the thermodynamic formalism of Pitzer, which is valid to high electrolyte concentrations. A consistent model for the deprotonation constants of acetic acid in NaCl and NaClO{sub 4} media was developed. For the concentrations of acetate expected in a waste repository, only the neutral complex NpO{sub 2}Ac(aq) was important in describing the interactions between the neptunyl ion and acetate. The thermodynamic stability constant log {beta}{sup 0}{sub 101} for the reaction NpO{sub 2}{sup +} + Ac{sup -} {leftrightarrow} NpO{sub 2}Ac was calculated to be 1.46{plus_minus}0.11. This weak complexing behavior between the neptunyl ion and acetate indicates that acetate will not significantly enhance dissolved Np(V) concentrations in ground waters associated with nuclear waste repositories that may contain acetate.

Novak, C.F.; Borkowski, M.; Choppin, G.R.

1995-09-01

418

Paradigm for industrial strain improvement identifies sodium acetate tolerance loci in Zymomonas mobilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

The application of systems biology tools holds promise for rational industrial microbial strain development. Here, we characterize a Zymomonas mobilis mutant (AcR) demonstrating sodium acetate tolerance that has potential importance in biofuel development. The genome changes associated with AcR are determined using microarray comparative genome sequencing (CGS) and 454-pyrosequencing. Sanger sequencing analysis is employed to validate genomic differences and to investigate CGS and 454-pyrosequencing limitations. Transcriptomics, genetic data and growth studies indicate that over-expression of the sodium-proton antiporter gene nhaA confers the elevated AcR sodium acetate tolerance phenotype. nhaA over-expression mostly confers enhanced sodium (Na+) tolerance and not acetate (Ac-) tolerance, unless both ions are present in sufficient quantities. NaAc is more inhibitory than potassium and ammonium acetate for Z. mobilis and the combination of elevated Na+ and Ac- ions exerts a synergistic inhibitory effect for strain ZM4. A structural model for the NhaA sodium-proton antiporter is constructed to provide mechanistic insights. We demonstrate that Saccharomyces cerevisiae sodium-proton antiporter genes also contribute to sodium acetate, potassium acetate, and ammonium acetate tolerances. The present combination of classical and systems biology tools is a paradigm for accelerated industrial strain improvement and combines benefits of few a priori assumptions with detailed, rapid, mechanistic studies. PMID:20484677

Yang, Shihui; Land, Miriam L.; Klingeman, Dawn M.; Pelletier, Dale A.; Lu, Tse-Yuan S.; Martin, Stanton L.; Guo, Hao-Bo; Smith, Jeremy C.; Brown, Steven D.

2010-01-01

419

Effect of Lead Acetate on the Susceptibility of Rats to Bacterial Endotoxins  

PubMed Central

Selye, H. (Université de Montréal, Montreal, Canada), B. Tuchweber, and L. Bertók. Effect of lead acetate on susceptibility of rats to bacterial endotoxins. J. Bacteriol. 91:884–890. 1966.—A single, normally well-tolerated, intravenous injection of lead acetate increases the sensitivity of the rat to the endotoxins of various gram-negative bacteria about 100,000 times above normal. Under the conditions of these experiments, the mortality and organ changes normally produced by the intravenous injection of 100 ?g of Escherichia coli endotoxin were essentially the same as those obtained by use of 1 nanogram in lead-sensitized rats. The sensitizing effect of lead acetate for E. coli endotoxin is greatest when the two agents are given simultaneously. However, considerable sensitization is still detectable when endotoxin is injected up to 1 hr before or 7 hr after sensitization with lead. No sensitization was noted when the endotoxin was administered 24 hr before or after lead acetate. Under our experimental conditions, the minimal dose of lead acetate which could still induce significant sensitization to E. coli endotoxin was 1 mg per 100 g of body weight. Although lead acetate induces a high degree of susceptibility to various endotoxins, other reticuloendothelial blocking agents did not acquire unusual toxicity after pretreatment with lead. Finally, none of the other metals or reticuloendothelial blocking agents tested could duplicate the pronounced decrease in endotoxin resistance induced by lead acetate. Images PMID:5327235

Selye, H.; Tuchweber, B.; Bertok, L.

1966-01-01

420

Beneficial Effect of Acetic Acid on the Xylose Utilization and Bacterial Cellulose Production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus.  

PubMed

In this work, acetic acid was found as one promising substrate to improve xylose utilization by Gluconacetobacter xylinus CH001. Also, with the help of adding acetic acid into medium, the bacterial cellulose (BC) production by G. xylinus was increased significantly. In the medium containing 3 g l(-1) acetic acid, the optimal xylose concentration for BC production was 20 g l(-1). In the medium containing 20 g l(-1) xylose, the xylose utilization and BC production by G. xylinus were stimulated by acetic acid within certain concentration. The highest BC yield (1.35 ± 0.06 g l(-1)) was obtained in the medium containing 20 g l(-1) xylose and 3 g l(-1) acetic acid after 14 days. This value was 6.17-fold higher than the yield (0.21 ± 0.01 g l(-1)) in the medium only containing 20 g l(-1) xylose. The results analyzed by FE-SEM, FTIR, and XRD showed that acetic acid affected little on the microscopic morphology and physicochemical characteristics of BC. Base on the phenomenon observed, lignocellulosic acid hydrolysates (xylose and acetic acid are main carbon sources present in it) could be considered as one potential substrate for BC production. PMID:24891733

Yang, Xiao-Yan; Huang, Chao; Guo, Hai-Jun; Xiong, Lian; Luo, Jun; Wang, Bo; Chen, Xue-Fang; Lin, Xiao-Qing; Chen, Xin-De

2014-09-01

421

Combustion process and nitrogen oxides emission of Shenmu coal added with sodium acetate  

SciTech Connect

Shenmu bituminous coal with 4% sodium acetate added was used to investigate the characteristics of combustion and nitrogen oxide (NOx) release in a fixed bed reactor heated by a tube furnace. The composition of the flue gas was analyzed to investigate the effects of sodium acetate on the combustion process and NOx emission. The experiments were carried out in a partial reductive atmosphere and a strong oxidative atmosphere. The O{sub 2} valley value in the partial reductive atmosphere was reduced by the added sodium acetate. Sodium acetate accelerated the combustion and shortened the combustion process. The experimental results showed that the emissions of NO, NO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2}O were affected by the reacting atmosphere and the combustion temperature. In the strong oxidative atmosphere, sodium acetate resulted in a slight NOx reduction. In the partial reductive atmosphere, sodium acetate reduced both the peak value of NO concentration and the total NO emission significantly. An over 30% NOx reduction efficiency was achieved at 900{sup o}C in the partial reductive atmosphere, which decreased with the increase in temperature. Sodium acetate was decomposed into hydrocarbon radicals and sodium hydroxide, which can both reduce NOx emissions due to their special reactions with the nitrogen component. 17 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

Yang Weijuan; Zhou Junhu; Liu Maosheng; Zhou Zhijun; Liu Jianzhong; Cen Kefa [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China). State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Institute for Thermal Power Engineering

2007-09-15

422

Enhancement of Acetic Acid Tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Overexpression of the HAA1 Gene, Encoding a Transcriptional Activator  

PubMed Central

Haa1 is a transcriptional activator required for Saccharomyces cerevisiae adaptation to weak acids. Here we show that the constitutive HAA1-overexpressing strain acquired a higher level of acetic acid tolerance. Under conditions of acetic acid stress, the intracellular level of acetic acid was significantly lower in HAA1-overexpressing cells than in the wild-type cells. PMID:22961896

Tanaka, Koichi; Ishii, Yukari; Ogawa, Jun

2012-01-01

423

Measurement of acetate in human blood by gas chromatography: effects of sample preparation, feeding, and various diseases.  

PubMed

We measured acetate concentrations in whole blood, serum, and plasma by a modification of a previously described method involving vacuum distillation and gas chromatography. The mean acetate concentration of fresh venous plasma from 27 normal subjects was 51 +/- 5 mumol/L (95% confidence limits ranged from 0 to 103 mumol/L). The acetate concentrations of serum and plasma incubated for 2 h at either 4 degrees C or 27 degrees C were the same. The acetate concentration of whole blood incubated at 27 degrees C was significantly greater than that of blood incubated at 4 degrees C. This change may have resulted from the production of acetate by erythrocytes or from the hydrolysis of acetate esters. Storage of plasma at -20 degrees C for 24 h significantly increased acetate concentrations from 26 +/- 6 mumol/L to 63 +/- 4 mumol/L. After the subjects consumed a standard breakfast, venous plasma acetate concentrations increased from 58 to 97 mumol/L at 30 min. Acetate concentrations in arterial plasma exceeded those in venous plasma. Plasma acetate concentrations were not significantly altered in patients with malignancy or diabetes mellitus, but severe liver disease and severe acidosis were both associated with increased acetate concentrations. These preliminary observations suggest that plasma acetate concentrations may be altered in several disease states. PMID:476928

Tollinger, C D; Vreman, H J; Weiner, M W

1979-10-01

424

Viscoelastic Behavior of Cellulose Acetate in a Mixed Solvent Collins Appaw, Richard D. Gilbert, and Saad A. Khan*,  

E-print Network

,8 Cellulose acetates are extensively used in filtration/mem- brane13,14 and encapsulation15 applicationsViscoelastic Behavior of Cellulose Acetate in a Mixed Solvent System Collins Appaw, Richard D composition on the rheological and microstructural behavior of a ternary cellulose acetate (CA

Khan, Saad A.

425

Age-specific titer and antennal perception of acetic acid, a component of male Pseudaletia unipuncta (Haw.) hairpencil secretion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hairpencil secretion ofPseudaletia unipuncta (Haw.) contains acetic acid as well as previously identified benzaldehyde and benzyl alcohol. Age-specific titers of acetic acid were significantly greater than those of benzaldehyde and, at 25 °C, accumulation of both compounds in the hairpencils peaked on the second day after emergence. Excised antennae of males and females perceived both compounds. Antennal response to acetic

Sheila M. Fitzpatrick; Jeremy N. Mcneil; David Miller

1989-01-01

426

36 CFR 1237.30 - How do agencies manage records on nitrocellulose-base and cellulose-acetate base film?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...manage records on nitrocellulose-base and cellulose-acetate base film? 1237.30 Section...manage records on nitrocellulose-base and cellulose-acetate base film? (a) The...base). (b) Agencies must inspect cellulose-acetate film periodically for...

2011-07-01

427

36 CFR 1237.30 - How do agencies manage records on nitrocellulose-base and cellulose-acetate base film?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...manage records on nitrocellulose-base and cellulose-acetate base film? 1237.30 Section...manage records on nitrocellulose-base and cellulose-acetate base film? (a) The...base). (b) Agencies must inspect cellulose-acetate film periodically for...

2010-07-01

428

Long-term effectiveness of glatiramer acetate in clinical practice conditions.  

PubMed

Glatiramer acetate currently represents one of the main treatments for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). However, the information available about its long-term effect in clinical practice is still limited. Thus, this multicenter retrospective cohort study aimed to assess the long-term effectiveness of glatiramer acetate in this setting. The study population included RRMS patients treated with glatiramer acetate for at least 5 years after its marketing authorization and the primary endpoint was long-term clinical effectiveness, defined as absence of disability progression for at least five consecutive years. A total of 149 patients were included into the study, who had received glatiramer acetate for a mean of 6.9 ± 1.4 years (5 years, n=149; 6 years, n=112; 7 years, n=63; 8 years, n=32; 9 years, n=21). More than 85% of patients remained free from disability progression through years 1 to 9 of glatiramer acetate treatment, and 75.2% showed absence of disability progression for at least five consecutive years. Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores were maintained, with most patients showing stable/improved EDSS and 92.6% sustaining EDSS <6. Decreased annual relapse rates and increased proportion of relapse-free patients were maintained during the whole glatiramer acetate treatment compared to the year prior to its authorization (p<0.001). The number of gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted lesions also decreased from pre-glatiramer-acetate assessment to last follow-up whilst on glatiramer acetate (p<0.05). In conclusion, administration of glatiramer acetate shows long-term clinical effectiveness for RRMS treatment; its effect under clinical practice conditions slowed disability progression and reduced relapse occurrence for up to 9 years. PMID:25257663

Arnal-García, Carmen; Amigo-Jorrin, Maria Del Campo; López-Real, Ana Maria; Lema-Devesa, Carme; Llopis, Noemi; Sanchez-de la Rosa, R

2014-12-01

429

Effect of acetic acid on lipid accumulation by glucose-fed activated sludge cultures  

SciTech Connect

The effect of acetic acid, a lignocellulose hydrolysis by-product, on lipid accumulation by activated sludge cultures grown on glucose was investigated. This was done to assess the possible application of lignocellulose as low-cost and renewable fermentation substrates for biofuel feedstock production. Results: Biomass yield was reduced by around 54% at a 2 g L -1 acetic acid dosage but was increased by around 18% at 10 g L -1 acetic acid dosage relative to the control run. The final gravimetric lipid contents at 2 and 10 g L -1 acetic acid levels were 12.5 ���± 0.7% and 8.8 ���± 3.2% w/w, respectively, which were lower than the control (17.8 ���± 2.8% w/w). However, biodiesel yields from activated sludge grown with acetic acid (5.6 ���± 0.6% w/w for 2 g L -1 acetic acid and 4.2 ���± 3.0% w/w for 10 g L -1 acetic acid) were higher than in raw activated sludge (1-2% w/w). The fatty acid profiles of the accumulated lipids were similar with conventional plant oil biodiesel feedstocks. Conclusions: Acetic acid enhanced biomass production by activated sludge at high levels but reduced lipid production. Further studies are needed to enhance acetic acid utilization by activated sludge microorganisms for lipid biosynthesis.

Mondala, Andro; Hernandez, Rafael; French, Todd; McFarland, Linda; Sparks, Darrell; Holmes, William; Haque, Monica

2012-01-01

430

Putative ABC Transporter Responsible for Acetic Acid Resistance in Acetobacter aceti  

PubMed Central

Two-dimensional gel electrophoretic analysis of the membrane fraction of Acetobacter aceti revealed the presence of several proteins that were produced in response to acetic acid. A 60-kDa protein, named AatA, which was mostly induced by acetic acid, was prepared; aatA was cloned on the basis of its NH2-terminal amino acid sequence. AatA, consisting of 591 amino acids and containing ATP-binding cassette (ABC) sequences and ABC signature sequences, belonged to the ABC transporter superfamily. The aatA mutation with an insertion of the neomycin resistance gene within the aatA coding region showed reduced resistance to acetic acid, formic acid, propionic acid, and lactic acid, whereas the aatA mutation exerted no effects on resistance to various drugs, growth at low pH (adjusted with HCl), assimilation of acetic acid, or resistance to citric acid. Introduction of plasmid pABC101 containing aatA under the control of the Escherichia coli lac promoter into the aatA mutant restored the defect in acetic acid resistance. In addition, pABC101 conferred acetic acid resistance on E. coli. These findings showed that AatA was a putative ABC transporter conferring acetic acid resistance on the host cell. Southern blot analysis and subsequent nucleotide sequencing predicted the presence of aatA orthologues in a variety of acetic acid bacteria belonging to the genera Acetobacter and Gluconacetobacter. The fermentation with A. aceti containing aatA on a multicopy plasmid resulted in an increase in the final yield of acetic acid. PMID:16391084

Nakano, Shigeru; Fukaya, Masahiro; Horinouchi, Sueharu

2006-01-01

431

¹¹C-acetate PET/CT imaging: physiologic uptake, variants, and pitfalls.  

PubMed

(11)C-acetate PET is used in the assessment of various cardiologic and oncologic diseases. This article describes the physiologic uptake of (11)C-acetate and presents the common benign findings in different anatomic parts of the body. Salivary glands, tonsils, thyroid, meningeal tuberculoma, meningiomas, and macroadenomas of pituitary gland are sites of mild to moderate tracer uptake in the head and neck region. Parenchymal diseases of the lung and reactive and/or inflammatory mediastinal lymphadenopathies cause benign (11)C-acetate uptake in the thorax. Liver, spleen, pancreas, and rectum show an increased uptake. Urinary tract and prostate gland show faint tracer uptake. PMID:25030397

Karanikas, Georgios; Beheshti, Mohsen

2014-07-01

432

Design, synthesis and SAR studies of GABA uptake inhibitors derived from 2-substituted pyrrolidine-2-yl-acetic acids.  

PubMed

In this paper, we disclose the design and synthesis of a series of 2-substituted pyrrolidine-2-yl-acetic acid as core structures and the N-arylalkyl derivatives thereof as potential GABA transport inhibitors. The 2-position in the side chain of pyrrolidine-2-yl-acetic acid derivatives was substituted with alkyl, hydroxy and amino groups to modulate the activity and selectivity to mGAT1 and mGAT4 proteins. SAR studies of the compounds performed for the four mouse GABA transporter proteins (mGAT1-mGAT4) implied significant potencies and subtype selectivities for 2-hydroxy-2-pyrrolidine-2-yl-acetic acid derivatives. The racemate rac-(u)-13c exhibited the highest potency (pIC50 5.67) at and selectivity for mGAT1 in GABA uptake assays. In fact, the potency of rac-(u)-13c at hGAT-1 (pIC50 6.14) was even higher than its potency at mGAT1. These uptake results for rac-(u)-13c are in line with the binding affinities to the aforesaid proteins mGAT1 (pKi 6.99) and hGAT-1 (pKi 7.18) determined by MS Binding Assay based on NO711 as marker quantified by LC-ESI-MS-MS analysis. Interestingly, the 2-hydroxy-2-pyrrolidine-2-yl-acetic acid rac-(u)-13d containing 2-{[tris(4-methoxyphenyl)]methoxy} ethyl group at the nitrogen atom of the pyrrolidine ring showed high potency at mGAT4 and a comparatively better selectivity for this protein (>15 against mGAT3) than the well known mGAT4 uptake inhibitor (S)-SNAP-5114. PMID:25698617

Steffan, Tobias; Renukappa-Gutke, Thejavathi; Höfner, Georg; Wanner, Klaus T

2015-03-15

433

Online Measurement of the Intramolecular Isotopic Composition of Acetate in Natural Porewater Samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon dioxide and methane are traditionally considered to be the dominant end products of anaerobic metabolism while acetate is thought to be a rapidly consumed intermediate. However, in some settings, recent evidence has grown to suggest that, at least transiently, acetate can be a major metabolic end product. In natural systems, isotopic mass balances can be used to partition the flow of carbon to methane, CO2, and acetate. However, these isotopic estimates require intramolecular measurements of acetate in addition to isotopic measurements of the gaseous species, CO2 and CH4. In practice, the intramolecular isotopic composition of acetate is rarely measured because the analysis is technically challenging and traditionally requires prior separation and offline pyrolysis of purified acetate. As a result of these technical challenges, acetate methyl carbon is usually assumed to be a few permil depleted relative to the carbon isotopic composition of bulk organic matter. In environments where acetate may be produced by autotrophic acetogens this assumption can be devastatingly false. This work describes the use of an online method for the analysis of the intramolecular carbon isotopic composition of dissolved acetate from dilute surface water samples with a detection limit of injected sample down to 500uM. Preconcentration of samples via lyophilization has resulted in detection limits as low as 30uM. In 2002, at Penn State, Dias et al. (Organic Geochemistry Vol. 33, p161-168) reported a technique to examine the intramolecular isotopic composition of acetate from oil-prone source rocks using SPME extraction with an online GC-pyrolysis-IRMS. We have adapted the Dias method to be used with direct injection of dilute natural water samples. Briefly, this procedure protonates acetate with a .1M addition of oxalic acid and vaporizes the sample in the GC inlet at low temperatures. This prevents oxalic acid decomposition and provides sufficient separation of acetate from other volatile acids and water on a polar column (Nukol, Supelco). Following the GC, the acetic acid is reacted with either a combustion furnace (for total acetate) or a pyrolysis furnace for the carboxyl carbon only. The pyrolysis furnace operates at 600°C with Pd wire catalyst and a continuous trickle of H2. The resulting CO2 is then analyzed by conventional IRMS. This GC-PY-IRMS technique is coupled to a GC-C-IRMS such that switching between oxidation and pyrolysis is accomplished by a simple switch followed by a short stabilization period. The above pyrolysis conditions result in a small but characterizable oxidation of methyl carbon to CO2. The cross-contamination of acetate methyl into the acetate carboxyl signal is estimated to be approximately 15 to 20% of the IRMS signal and an isotope dilution series is used to estimate and correct for this contamination. Since this technique is online and allows for the injection of water samples the need for sample extraction and separation are eliminated. This method also significantly improves detection limits over the Dias 2002 method by avoiding SPME injections which have unfavorable partition coefficients for aqueous solutions of acetate.

Thomas, R. B.; Arthur, M. A.; Freeman, K. H.

2006-12-01

434

Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry Experiment: The Determination of Formation Constants for Acetate and Mono-and Dichloroacetate Salts of Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Methyl-and Ethylamines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The formation and the hydrolysis of organic salts produced by the titration of a 0.1 M solution of the following amines: methyl-, dimethyl-, trimethyl-, ethyl-, diethyl-, and triethylamine with a 0.1 M solution of acetic, chloroacetic, and dichloracetic acids are studied. The pK[subscript b] of the amine and the pH at the end point were determined…

D'Amelia, Ronald P.; Chiang, Stephanie; Pollut, Stephanie; Nirode, William F.

2014-01-01

435

Photoluminescence of cellulose acetate and silica sphere composite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strong blue and green light emission has been observed from the cellulose acetate (CA) and silica sphere composite. Two different amounts of silica spheres were mixed in the CA solution to fabricate large area super-hydrophobic films. The silica spheres and CA solution ratios were 0.07:4.0 (SSCA-A) and 0.14:4.0 (SSCA-B). The milky color solution of SSCA-A and SSCA-B slowly turned to light yellow and red, respectively, with the time passed. The colors became intense yellow and red for the SSCA-A and SSCA-B, respectively, after 38 days. FTIR spectra show more absorption at 3478 cm-1 corresponding sbnd OH stretching vibration, at 2963 cm-1 caused by sbnd CH stretching vibration, at 1746 and 1713 cm-1 representing the Cdbnd O stretching vibration, and at 1100 cm-1 corresponding sbnd Rsbnd OH and Sisbnd Osbnd Si stretching vibration for CA and silica. Therefore, aged SSCA-A and SSCA-B have more sbnd OH, sbnd CH, sbnd Cdbnd O, and Sisbnd Osbnd Si groups than pure CA. UV-visible spectra show the absorption peaks at 410 nm for both SSCA-A and SSCA-B. Photoluminescence (PL) peaks were shifted toward longer wavelength with the increase of the excitation wavelength and became maximum at approximately 470 nm with excitation wavelength at 400 nm for the SSCA-A. There were two maximum luminescence peaks at 470 and 530 nm with the excitation wavelength at 400 and 470 nm, respectively, for the SSCA-B. The luminescence peak shift was due to the multiple emission center proved by the different excitation energy.

Kang, Kwang-Sun

2014-08-01

436

Central vasopressin receptors are upregulated by deoxycorticosterone acetate.  

PubMed

Studies were performed to characterize the regulation of central vasopressin (AVP) receptors in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-NaCl-treated and control rats, and in DOCA-treated primary neuronal enriched cell cultures. Uninephrectomized rats were given NaCl to drink and implanted subcutaneously with a silastic implant containing 200 mg/kg DOCA. [3H]AVP binding to a diencephalic block of tissue was examined. Whereas DOCA-NaCl treatment did not affect the affinity of [3H]AVP binding, the total number of AVP receptors was increased between 3 and 14 days following DOCA-NaCl administration. No differences in the number of binding sites were present in the established (35-56 days after DOCA-NaCl administration) stages of hypertension. To determine whether the increase in [3H]AVP binding was a direct effect of DOCA on neurons or related to the hormonal, volume or other physiologic changes that DOCA-NaCl treatment causes in the whole animal, [3H]AVP binding was examined in neurons grown in culture that was treated with DOCA. Scatchard analysis demonstrated that DOCA treatment (compared to control) produced an increase in the number but no change in the affinity of the AVP binding sites in primary neuron-enriched cultures. Treatment of cultured neurons with other steroids (estrogen, corticosterone, or aldosterone), did not change the kinetics of [3H]AVP binding, suggesting that the effects of DOCA on the AVP receptor were specific for this steroid. These data indicate that, in comparison to control rats, DOCA-NaCl hypertensive rats, have an enhanced number of AVP receptors in the diencephalon, perhaps as a direct result of an interaction between DOCA and AVP receptors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1838296

Swords, B H; Wyss, J M; Berecek, K H

1991-09-13

437

Oligodendrogenesis and myelinogenesis during postnatal development effect of glatiramer acetate.  

PubMed

Myelinogenesis in the mammal nervous system occurs predominantly postnatally. Glatiramer acetate (GA), a drug for the treatment for multiple sclerosis (MS), has been shown to induce immunomodulation and neuroprotection in the inflamed CNS in MS and in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Here we investigated whether GA can affect myelinogenesis and oligodendrogenesis in the developing nervous system under nonpathological conditions. Towards this end we studied myelination in mice injected daily by GA, at postnatal Days 7-21. Immunohistological and ultrastructural analyses revealed significant elevation in the number of myelinated axons as well as in the thickness of the myelin encircling them and their resulting g-ratios, in spinal cords of GA-injected mice compared with their PBS-injected littermates, at postnatal Day 14. Elevation in myelinated axons was detected also in the peripheral ventral roots of the motor nerves. GA induced also an increase in axonal diameter, implying an effect on the overall development of the nervous system. A prominent elevation in the amount of progenitor oligodendrocytes and their BrdU incorporation, as well as in mature oligodendrocytes indicated that the effect of GA is linked to increased proliferation and differentiation along the oligodendroglial maturation cascade. In addition, elevation in insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was found in the white matter of the GA-injected mice. Furthermore, a functional advantage in rotating rod test was exhibited by GA-injected mice over their littermates at postnatal Day 21. These cumulative findings corroborate the beneficial effect of GA on oligodendrogenesis and myelination. PMID:24481644

From, Renana; Eilam, Raya; Bar-Lev, Dekel D; Levin-Zaidman, Smadar; Tsoory, Michael; LoPresti, Patrizia; Sela, Michael; Arnon, Ruth; Aharoni, Rina

2014-04-01

438

Water soluble cellulose acetate: a versatile polymer for film coating.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the use of water soluble cellulose acetate (WSCA) as a film coating material for tablets. Aspirin (ASA) tablets were prepared by direct compression and coated with either WSCA or HPMC (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose) dispersions. Coatings of 1-3%, depending on the intended application, were applied to the model drug (ASA) tablets employing a side-vented coating pan. Free films of WSCA, prepared by cast method, are crystal clear and, depending on the viscosity grade, are flexible, strong and durable. WSCA has the capability of forming free films without plasticizers and the films dry at room temperature. Glass transition temperature, Tg, was determined by differential scanning calorimetry. The Tg of WSCA is significantly higher relative to HPMC. Inclusion of plasticizer lowers the Tg of WSCA and effective plasticizers were PEG 400 and glycerin. Low viscosity WSCA was more soluble in water (25-30%) relative to medium viscosity WSCA (10-15%). WSCA solutions exhibited no increase in viscosity with an increase in temperature. Samples of coated (WSCA and HPMC) tablets and uncoated ASA cores were packaged for stability studies at room and elevated temperature storage. Physical stability of ASA tablets coated with 2:1 LV: MV (low viscosity: medium viscosity) WSCA formulations was better when compared to tablets coated with HPMC. Dissolution stability of WSCA coated ASA was similar to the physical stability results. After three months at elevated temperature (35 and 45 degrees C), the WSCA coated tablets complied with USP dissolution requirements for ASA, while the HPMC coated tablets did not. There was no difference in moisture (weight) gain of ASA tablets coated with either WSCA or HPMC. The WSCA coated tablets were not sticky or tacky, while the HPMC coated tablets were tacky and stuck together. PMID:17454061

Wheatley, Thomas A

2007-03-01

439

Nomegestrol acetate-17b-estradiol for oral contraception  

PubMed Central

Oral contraceptives remain a popular method of contraception over 50 years after their introduction. While safe and effective for many women, the failure rate of oral contraception is about 8%. Concerns about the risk of venous thromboembolism continue to drive the search for the safest oral contraceptive formulations. The oral contraceptive NOMAC-E2 contains nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC) 2.5 mg + 17b-estradiol (E2) 1.5 mg. The approved dosing regimen is 24 days of active hormone, followed by a 4-day hormone-free interval. NOMAC is a progestin derived from testosterone, which has high bioavailability, rapid absorption, and a long half-life. Estradiol, though it has a lower bioavailability, has been successfully combined with NOMAC in a monophasic oral contraceptive. Two recently published randomized controlled trials demonstrate that NOMAC-E2 is an effective contraceptive, with a Pearl Index less than one pregnancy per 100 woman-years. The bleeding pattern on NOMAC-E2 is characterized by fewer bleeding/spotting days, shorter withdrawal bleeds, and a higher incidence of amenorrhea than the comparator oral contraceptive containing drospirenone and ethinyl estradiol. The adverse event profile appears to be acceptable. Few severe adverse events were reported in the randomized controlled trials. The most common adverse events were irregular bleeding, acne, and weight gain. Preliminary studies suggest that NOMAC-E2 does not seem to have negative effects on hemostatic and metabolic parameters. While no one oral contraceptive formulation is likely to be the optimum choice for all women, NOMAC-E2 is a formulation with effectiveness comparable with that of other oral contraceptives, and a reassuring safety profile. PMID:23836965

Burke, Anne

2013-01-01

440

Functionalization of ethylene vinyl acetate with antimicrobial chlorhexidine hexametaphosphate nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) is in widespread use as a polymeric biomaterial with diverse applications such as intravitreal devices, catheters, artificial organs, and mouthguards. Many biomaterials are inherently prone to bacterial colonization, as the human body is host to a vast array of microbes. This can lead to infection at the biomaterial’s site of implantation or application. In this study, EVA was coated with chlorhexidine (CHX) hexametaphosphate (HMP) nanoparticles (NPs) precipitated using two different reagent concentrations: CHX-HMP-5 (5 mM CHX and HMP) and CHX-HMP-0.5 (0.5 mM CHX and HMP). Data gathered using dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy indicated that the NPs were polydisperse, ~40–80 nm in diameter, and aggregated in solution to form clusters of ~140–200 nm and some much larger aggregates of 4–5 ?M. CHX-HMP-5 formed large deposits on the polymer surface discernible using scanning electron microscopy, whereas CHX-HMP-0.5 did not. Soluble CHX was released by CHX-HMP-5 NP-coated surfaces over the experimental period of 56 days. CHX-HMP-5 NPs prevented growth of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus when applied to the polymer surfaces, and also inhibited or prevented growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with greater efficacy when the NP suspension was not rinsed from the polymer surface, providing a greater NP coverage. This approach may provide a useful means to treat medical devices fabricated from EVA to render them resistant to colonization by pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:25206305

Wood, Natalie J; Maddocks, Sarah E; Grady, Helena J; Collins, Andrew M; Barbour, Michele E

2014-01-01

441

Differential regulation of endothelium behavior by progesterone and medroxyprogesterone acetate.  

PubMed

Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) is a synthetic progestin commonly used in hormone replacement therapy (HRT). The aim of this research was to study and compare the effect of progesterone (Pg) and MPA on the regulation of cellular events associated with vascular homeostasis and disease. Platelet adhesion to endothelial cells (ECs), nitric oxide (NO) production, and cell migration were studied using murine ECs in vitro exposed to the progestins. After 7?min of treatment, MPA significantly inhibited NO synthesis with respect to control values; meanwhile, Pg markedly increased vasoactive production. In senile ECs, the stimulatory action of Pg decreases; meanwhile, MPA maintained its ability to inhibit NO synthesis. The presence of RU486 antagonized the action of each steroid. When ECs were preincubated with PD98059 (MAPK inhibitor) or chelerythrine (protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor) before Pg or MPA treatment, the former totally suppressed the steroid action, but the PKC antagonist did not affect NO production. In the presence of a PI3K inhibitor (LY294002), a partial reduction in Pg effect and a reversal of MPA action were detected. Using indomethacin, the contribution of the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway was also detected. On platelet adhesion assays, Pg inhibited and MPA stimulated platelet adhesion to ECs. Under inflammatory conditions, Pg prevented platelet adhesion induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS); meanwhile, MPA potentiated the stimulatory action of LPS. Finally, although both steroids enhanced migration of ECs, MPA exhibited a greater effect. In conclusion, the data presented in this research provide evidence of a differential regulation of vascular function by Pg and MPA. PMID:24301615

Cutini, Pablo H; Campelo, Adrián E; Massheimer, Virginia L

2014-03-01

442

Acetic Acid Bacteria, Newly Emerging Symbionts of Insects?  

PubMed Central

Recent research in microbe-insect symbiosis has shown that acetic acid bacteria (AAB) establish symbiotic relationships with several insects of the orders Diptera, Hymenoptera, Hemiptera, and Homoptera, all relying on sugar-based diets, such as nectars, fruit sugars, or phloem sap. To date, the fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster and Bactrocera oleae, mosquitoes of the genera Anopheles and Aedes, the honey bee Apis mellifera, the leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus, and the mealybug Saccharicoccus sacchari have been found to be associated with the bacterial genera Acetobacter, Gluconacetobacter, Gluconobacter, Asaia, and Saccharibacter and the novel genus Commensalibacter. AAB establish symbiotic associations with the insect midgut, a niche characterized by the availability of diet-derived carbohydrates and oxygen and by an acidic pH, selective factors that support AAB growth. AAB have been shown to actively colonize different insect tissues and organs, such as the epithelia of male and female reproductive organs, the Malpighian tubules, and the salivary glands. This complex topology of the symbiosis indicates that AAB possess the keys for passing through body barriers, allowing them to migrate to different organs of the host. Recently, AAB involvement in the regulation of innate immune system homeostasis of Drosophila has been shown, indicating a functional role in host survival. All of these lines of evidence indicate that AAB can play different roles in insect biology, not being restricted to the feeding habit of the host. The close association of AAB and their insect hosts has been confirmed by the demonstration of multiple modes of transmission between individuals and to their progeny that include vertical and horizontal transmission routes, comprising a venereal one. Taken together, the data indicate that AAB represent novel secondary symbionts of insects. PMID:20851977

Crotti, Elena; Rizzi, Aurora; Chouaia, Bessem; Ricci, Irene; Favia, Guido; Alma, Alberto; Sacchi, Luciano; Bourtzis, Kostas; Mandrioli, Mauro; Cherif, Ameur; Bandi, Claudio; Daffonchio, Daniele

2010-01-01

443

Thermal Conductivity of Ethylene Vinyl Acetate Copolymer/Nanofiller Blends  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To reduce weight and increase the mobility, comfort, and performance of future spacesuits, flexible, thermally conductive fabrics and plastic tubes are needed for the Liquid Cooling and Ventilation Garment. Such improvements would allow astronauts to operate more efficiently and safely for extended extravehicular activities. As an approach to raise the thermal conductivity (TC) of an ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (Elvax(TM)260), it was compounded with three types of carbon based nanofillers: multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), vapor grown carbon nanofibers (CNFs), and expanded graphite (EG). In addition, other nanofillers including metallized CNFs, nickel nanostrands, boron nitride, and powdered aluminum were also compounded with Elvax(TM) 260 in the melt at various loading levels. In an attempt to improve compatibility between Elvax 260 and the nanofillers, MWCNTs and EG were modified by surface coating and through noncovalent and covalent attachment of organic molecules containing alkyl groups. Ribbons of the nanocomposites were extruded to form samples in which the nanofillers were aligned in the direction of flow. Samples were also fabricated by compression molding to yield nanocomposites in which the nanofillers were randomly oriented. Mechanical properties of the aligned samples were determined by tensile testing while the degree of dispersion and alignment of nanoparticles were investigated using high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. TC measurements were performed using a laser flash (Nanoflash(TM)) technique. TC of the samples was measured in the direction of, and perpendicular to, the alignment direction. Additionally, tubing was also extruded from select nanocomposite compositions and the TC and mechanical flexibility measured.

Ghose, Sayata; Watson, Kent A.; Working, Dennis C.; Connell, John W.; Smith, Joseph G., Jr.; Lin, Y.; Sun, Y. P.

2007-01-01

444

Absorption of Hydrocortisone Acetate in Human Connective Tissue Using Phonophoresis  

PubMed Central

Background: Therapeutic ultrasound to drive medication (phonophoresis) has been a mainstay in physical therapy. The most common drug used in phonophoresis is hydrocortisone acetate (HA). A number of studies have been done examining phonophoresis in the delivery of HA through the skin to underlying tissues; however, a study has never been done examining the absorption of HA using phonophoresis on human connective tissue. Hypothesis: Phonophoresis will facilitate the transmission of HA in human connective tissue. Study Design: Randomized controlled study. Methods: Twenty-one patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery were randomly assigned to either a sham or true phonophoresis treatment group. The latter group received 6 minutes of 10% HA ultrasound at a point consistent with the gastrocnemius slip of the semitendinosis tendon (treatment site). The sham group received 6 minutes of 10% HA ultrasound to the same area, but the ultrasound was not turned on. The slip and a sample of the distal attachment of the tendon (control) were removed. Samples were analyzed for HA levels. Results: Although the mean and median levels of HA found at the treatment site were greater than those of the control site (means, 34.1 vs 22.9 parts per billion; medians, 7 vs 0 parts per billion), the levels of HA found at the treatment site were not significantly greater than those at the control site (P = 0.15). There were no statistically significant differences between the true and sham phonophoresis groups in HA levels (P = 0.80) nor in age, sex, or skin thickness. Conclusion: Phonophoresis does not appear to facilitate the absorption of HA in connective tissue when compared with simple absorption (sham). Clinical Relevance: Phonophoresis does not appear to enhance the transmission of HA in human connective tissue; therefore, use of phonophoresis should be reconsidered in inflammatory conditions. PMID:23016027

Gurney, A. Burke; Wascher, Daniel; Schenck, Robert; Tennison, Alexandria; Jaramillo, Bettina

2011-01-01

445

Effect of exogenous indole-3-acetic acid and naphthalene acetic acid on regeneration of damask rose cuttings in three growing media.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of various levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) treatments i.e., 0, 25, 50, 75, 100 mg L(-1) on the regeneration of damask rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) cuttings in different growing media at the research farm of Arid Zone Research Institute D.I. Khan during 2004. The data revealed significant effect of different levels of growth regulators and growing media on the rose establishment parameters viz., plant height, plant spread, number of primary shoots, secondary shoots and survival percentage. Maximum plant height (134.2 cm), plant spread (46.3 cm), primary shoots (6.3), secondary shoots (25) and survival percentage (94.72%) were recorded when the rose cuttings were applied with NAA at the rate of 50 mg L(-1). Among the plant growth regulators, Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA) was found to be superior to indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) for its stronger effect regarding all parameters. The optimum level of Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA) was found in the range of 50 and 75 mg L(-1), while no such conclusion could be drawn for indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) as all growth parameters were linearly increased up to the highest concentrations of IAA i.e., 100 mg L(-1). Regarding growing media, the leaf mould appeared the best in terms of its positive effect on establishment of rose cuttings by giving the maximum plant height (125.1 cm), plant spread (37 cm), primary shoots (5.2), secondary shoots (19.48) and survival percentage (85.67%), followed by soil + leaf mould, while soil media was least effective. PMID:19093472

Khan, Rahmat Ullah; Khan, Muhammad Sohail; Rashid, Abdur; Farooq, Arshad

2007-10-15

446

Bioactive polymethylmethacrylate bone cement modified with combinations of phosphate group-containing monomers and calcium acetate.  

PubMed

Bone cement from polymethylmethacrylate powder and methylmethacrylate liquid has been successfully demonstrated as artificial material to anchor joint replacements in bone. However, it lacks the capability to bond directly to bone, so long-term implantation leads to an increased risk of loosening. Bioactive materials show better performance in fixation to bone, and the chemical bonding depends on bone-like apatite formation. This is triggered by surface reactions with body fluid. For these reactions, superficial functional groups like silanol (Si-OH) are ideal sites to induce apatite nucleation and the release of Ca(2+) ions accelerates the apatite growth. Therefore, incorporation of materials containing these key components may provide the cement with apatite-forming ability. In this study, phosphoric acid 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate ester or bis[2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl] phosphate supplying a phosphate group (PO4H2) was added into methylmethacrylate liquid, while calcium acetate as a source of Ca(2+) ions was mixed into polymethylmethacrylate powder. The influences of the combinations on the setting time and compressive strength were also investigated. Apatite was formed on the cements modified with 30 mass% of phosphoric acid 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate ester or bis[2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl] phosphate. The induction period was shortened with increased amounts of Ca(CH3COO)2. The setting time could be controlled by the Ca(CH3COO)2/monomer mass ratio. Faster setting was achieved at a ratio close to the mixing ratio of the powder/liquid (2:1), and both increases and decreases in the amount of Ca(CH3COO)2 prolonged the setting time based on this ratio. The highest compressive strength was 88.8?±?2.6?MPa, higher than the lowest limit of ISO 5833 but was lower than that of the simulated body fluid-soaked reference. The increase of additives caused the decline in compressive strength. In view of balancing apatite formation and clinical standard, bis[2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl] phosphate is more suitable as an additive, and the optimal modification is a combination of 30 mass% of bis[2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl] phosphate and 20 mass% of Ca(CH3COO)2. PMID:25568169

Liu, Jinkun; Shirosaki, Yuki; Miyazaki, Toshiki

2015-04-01

447

Methane production from bicarbonate and acetate in an anoxic marine sediment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methane production from C-14 labeled bicarbonate and acetate was measured over the top 28 cm of anoxic Cape Lookout Bight sediments during the summer of 1983. The depth distribution and magnitude of summed radioisotopically determined rates compare well with previous measurements of total methane production and the sediment-water methane flux. Methane production from CO2 reduction and acetate fermentation accounts for greater than 80 percent of the total production rate and sediment-water flux. Methane production from bicarbonate was found to occur in all depth intervals sampled except those in the top 2 cm, whereas significant methane production from acetate only occurred at depths below 10 cm where sulfate was exhausted. Acetate provided 20 to 29 percent of the measured methane production integrated over the top 30 cm of the sediments.

Crill, P. M.; Martens, C. S.

1986-01-01

448

76 FR 11488 - Determination That MEGACE (Megestrol Acetate) Tablets and Nine Other Drug Products Were Not...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Determination That MEGACE (Megestrol Acetate) Tablets and Nine Other Drug Products Were Not...amantadine hydrochloride (HCl)) Tablets and ANDA 84-935 for DEXEDRINE (dextroamphetamine sulfate) Tablets in the Federal Register of July...

2011-03-02

449

One-pot synthesis of Oligosaccharides by Combining Reductive Openings of Benzylidene Acetals and Glycosylations  

PubMed Central

Combining triflic acid promoted glycosylations of trichloroacetimidates with reductive opening of benzylidene acetals with triflic acid and triethylsilane as one-pot procedures provides easy access to a wide range of di- and branched trisaccharides. PMID:18578494

Vohra, Yusuf; Vasan, Mahalakshmi; Venot, Andre; Boons, Geert-Jan

2010-01-01

450

Effects of lead acetate on guinea pig - cochear microphonics, action potential, and motor nerve conduction velocity  

SciTech Connect

Segmental demyelination and axonal degeneration of motor nerves induced by lead exposure is well known in man, and animals. The effect of lead acetate exposure to man may involve the cranial nerves, since vertigo and sensory neuronal deafness have been reported among lead workers. However, there are few reports concerning the dose-effects of lead acetate both to the peripheral nerve and the cranial VII nerve with measurement of blood lead concentration. The authors investigated the effects of lead acetate to the cochlea and the VIII nerve using CM (cochlear microphonics) and AP (action potential) of the guinea pigs. The effects of lead acetate to the sciatic nerve were measured by MCV of the sciatic nerve with measurement of blood lead concentration.

Yamamura, K.; Maehara, N.; Terayama, K.; Ueno, N.; Kohyama, A.; Sawada, Y.; Kishi, R.

1987-04-01

451

Isolation and characterization of novel microsatellite markers for the northern mauxia shrimp, Acetes chinensis, using pyrosequencing.  

PubMed

Among the 14 species in the Acetes genus, Acetes japonicus and Acetes chinensis, are the only and also abundant two species around the Korean Peninsula, and are used in traditional recipes. These species are of great economic importance, but little is known about their population genetics, despite the fact that information of this kind is important for stock assessment, fisheries management and identification of origin. A total of 9 microsatellite (MS) markers for A. chinensis were developed using pyrosequencing techniques. Polymorphisms of these markers were evaluated in 96 wild individuals collected from the Yellow Sea off the coast of Korea. A total of 133 alleles were detected at nine loci, with a cross-species transferability of 56% with A. japonicus. These markers will facilitate assessment of population genetic diversity in the genus Acetes. PMID:24878169

Kang, Jung-Ha; Kang, Hyun-Sook; Noh, Eun-Soo; Park, Jung-Youn; An, Chel-Min

2014-12-01

452

76 FR 67459 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET) In accordance with section...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters to be Discussed:...

2011-11-01

453

75 FR 6402 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET) In accordance with section...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters To Be Discussed:...

2010-02-09

454

78 FR 66936 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET) In accordance with section...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters To Be Discussed:...

2013-11-07

455

78 FR 9925 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET) In accordance with...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters to Be Discussed:...

2013-02-12

456

78 FR 28221 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET) In accordance with...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters To Be Discussed:...

2013-05-14