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1

Pallidol hexa-acetate ethyl acetate monosolvate  

PubMed Central

The entire mol­ecule of pallidol hexa­acetate {systematic name: (±)-(4bR,5R,9bR,10R)-5,10-bis­[4-(acet­yloxy)phen­yl]-4b,5,9b,10-tetra­hydro­indeno­[2,1-a]indene-1,3,6,8-tetrayl tetra­acetate} is completed by the application of twofold rotational symmetry in the title ethyl acetate solvate, C40H34O12·C4H8O2. The ethyl acetate mol­ecule was highly disordered and was treated with the SQUEEZE routine [Spek (2009 ?). Acta Cryst. D65, 148–155]; the crystallographic data take into account the presence of the solvent. In pallidol hexa­acetate, the dihedral angle between the fused five-membered rings (r.m.s. deviation = 0.100?Å) is 54.73?(6)°, indicating a significant fold in the mol­ecule. Significant twists between residues are also evident as seen in the dihedral angle of 80.70?(5)° between the five-membered ring and the pendent benzene ring to which it is attached. Similarly, the acetate residues are twisted with respect to the benzene ring to which they are attached [C—O(carb­oxy)—C—C torsion angles = ?70.24?(14), ?114.43?(10) and ?72.54?(13)°]. In the crystal, a three-dimensional architecture is sustained by C—H?O inter­actions which encompass channels in which the disordered ethyl acetate mol­ecules reside.

Mao, Qinyong; Taylor, Dennis K.; Ng, Seik Weng; Tiekink, Edward R. T.

2013-01-01

2

27 CFR 21.107 - Ethyl acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...107 Ethyl acetate. (a) 85 percent ester: (1) Acidity (as acetic acid). Not more than 0.015 percent by weight...and none above 80 °C. (b) 100 percent ester: (1) Acidity (as acetic acid). Not more than 0.010 percent by...

2013-04-01

3

REMOVAL OF ACETIC ACID IMPURITIES FROM ETHYL ACETATE BY ADSORPTION ON ION EXCHANGE RESINS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Removal of acetic acid impurities from ethyl acetate was attempted by sorption on basic ion-exchange resins. Kinetic studies showed that acid removal is controlled by intraparticle resistance from both ethyl acetate and alcohol. Breakthrough curves for uptake of the acid from ethyl acetate were obtained at different flow rates and concentrations. Desorption studies were performed using both ethyl acetate and

H. M. Anasthas; V. G. Gaikar

2001-01-01

4

21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons having had added the equivalent of 4.25 gallons of 100 percent ethyl...

2009-04-01

5

Biofiltration of ethyl acetate and amyl acetate using a composite bead biofilter.  

PubMed

Biodegradation kinetic behaviors of ethyl acetate and amyl acetate in a composite bead biofilter were investigated. The composite bead was the spherical PVA/peat/KNO3/GAC composite bead which was prepared in our previous works. Both microbial growth rate and biochemical reaction rate were inhibited at higher inlet concentration. For the microbial growth process, the microbial growth rate of ethyl acetate was greater than that of amyl acetate in the inlet concentration range of 100-400ppm. The degree of inhibitive effect was almost the same for ethyl acetate and amyl acetate in this concentration range. The half-saturation constant Ks values of ethyl acetate and amyl acetate were 16.26 and 12.65ppm, respectively. The maximum reaction rate Vm values of ethyl acetate and amyl acetate were 4.08 and 3.53gCh(-1)kg(-1) packed material, respectively. Zero-order kinetic with the diffusion limitation could be regarded as the most adequate biochemical reaction model. For the biochemical reaction process, the biochemical reaction rate of ethyl acetate was greater than that of amyl acetate in the inlet concentration range of 100-400ppm. The inhibitive effect for ethyl acetate was more pronounced than that for AA in this concentration range. The maximum elimination capacity of ethyl acetate and amyl acetate were 82.3 and 37.93gCh(-1)m(-3) bed volume, respectively. Ethyl acetate degraded by microbial was easier than amyl acetate did. PMID:18445522

Chan, Wu-Chung; Su, Mei-Qi

2008-04-28

6

Desvenlafaxinium chloranilate ethyl acetate solvate  

PubMed Central

In the cation of the title compound, C16H26NO2 +·C6HCl2O4 ?·C4H8O2, the 1-hy­droxy-cyclo­hexyl ring adopts a slightly distorted chair conformation. The dihedral angle between the mean planes of the 1-hy­droxy­cyclo­hexyl and 4-hy­droxy­phenyl rings is 84.0?(8)°. In the anion, the hydroxyl H atom is twisted slightly out of the ring plane with a C—C—O—H torsion angle of ?171.9°. Disorder was modeled for the methyl group of the acetate group in the solvate with an occupancy ratio of 0.583?(15): 0.417?(15). In the crystal, O—H?O hydrogen bonds are observed between cations and between cations and anions, while bifuricated N—H?(O,O) cation–anion hydrogen bonds are also present, forming chains along [010] and [100]. In addition weak cation–anion and cation–solvate C—H?O inter­actions occur.

Kaur, Manpreet; Jasinski, Jerry P.; Butcher, Ray J.; Yathirajan, H. S.; Byrappa, K.

2013-01-01

7

Investigation on isobaric vapor–liquid equilibrium for acetic acid + water + methyl ethyl ketone + isopropyl acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isobaric vapor–liquid equilibrium (VLE) data for acetic acid+water, acetic acid+methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), MEK+isopropyl acetate, acetic acid+MEK+water and acetic acid+MEK+isopropyl acetate+water are measured at 101.33kPa using a modified Rose cell. The nonideal behavior in vapor phase of binary systems measured in this work is analyzed through calculating fugacity coefficients since mixture containing acetic acid deviates from ideal behavior seriously in

Qiang Xie; Hui Wan; MingJuan Han; GuoFeng Guan

2009-01-01

8

Kinetics of Ethyl Acetate Synthesis Catalyzed by Acidic Resins  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A low-cost experiment to carry out the second-order reversible reaction of acetic acid esterification with ethanol to produce ethyl acetate is presented to illustrate concepts of kinetics and reactor modeling. The reaction is performed in a batch reactor, and the acetic acid concentration is measured by acid-base titration versus time. The…

Antunes, Bruno M.; Cardoso, Simao P.; Silva, Carlos M.; Portugal, Ines

2011-01-01

9

Determination of odour detection thresholds for acetic acid and ethyl acetate in ice wine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collectively acetic acid and ethyl acetate are responsible for ‘volatile acidity’ (VA) in wine. The detection limit or threshold for these compounds is well documented in table wine but not for ice wine. Knowledge of the ice wine thresholds is important for understanding perception limits and setting legal standards, particularly for a product with high intrinsic concentrations. Thresholds were determined

Margaret A. Cliff; Gary J. Pickering

2006-01-01

10

Fragrance material review on 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate.  

PubMed

A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes physical properties data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22414652

McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

2012-03-04

11

Effect of ethyl acetate on carbohydrate components and crystalline structure of pulp produced in aqueous acetic acid pulping  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in carbohydrate components and the crystalline structure in hemp bast\\u000a fibers by adding ethyl acetate to acetic acid\\/water pulping processes. It was found that ethyl acetate added to acetic acid\\/water\\u000a process had a positive effect on yield, viscosity and carbohydrate components in pulp. It was assumed that the delignification\\u000a ratio

Esat Gümü?kaya; Mustafa Usta; Mualla Balaban Uçar

2009-01-01

12

Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibria for mixtures of methyl tert-butyl ether, methyl acetate, and ethyl acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A static apparatus was applied to measure isothermal vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data for binary and ternary mixtures composed of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), methyl acetate, and ethyl acetate at temperatures from 353 K to 373 K. Maximum pressure azeotropes were exhibited in the MTBE + methyl acetate system. All the binary data passed thermodynamic consistency tests. Data reduction was made

Ming-Jer Lee; Chien-Chih Hsiao; Ho-mu Lin

1997-01-01

13

Ethyl acetate: X-ray, solvent and computed structures.  

PubMed

Ethyl acetate (ethyl ethanoate) was crystallized in situ and the crystal structure was determined. In the solid, the molecule is flat with trans conformation. The geometric details of ethyl acetate as a solvate are analyzed statistically using the Cambridge Structural Database, uncovering a high degree of hidden disorder. Despite the disorder, they exhibit a preference of the trans over the gauche isomer, with a negligible contribution of the cis isomer. These results are compared to ab initio calculations on both solid-state and molecular level. For the molecular structures, the computed energy differences of the isomers match the statistics found as a solvent. Several DFT-D2 methods used to calculate the solid state yield results that differ significantly from the experiment. PMID:23108979

Boese, A Daniel; Kirchner, Michael; Echeverria, Gustavo A; Boese, Roland

2012-10-25

14

Fragrance material review on ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate.  

PubMed

A toxicologic and dermatologic review of ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties; acute toxicity; skin irritation; and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22433983

McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

2012-03-13

15

Vapor-liquid equilibrium data for methanol, ethanol, methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, and o-xylene at 101.3 kPa  

SciTech Connect

Vapor-liquid equilibrium was measured for the binary systems methanol + o-xylene, ethanol + o-xylene, methyl acetate + o-xylene and ethyl acetate + o-xylene, and for the multicomponent mixtures methanol + methyl acetate + o-xylene, ethanol + ethyl acetate + o-xylene, and methanol + ethanol + methyl acetate + ethyl acetate + o-xylene at 101.3 kPa. The Wilson and Van Laar models were compared with the UNIFAC method. Results show that the correlation was satisfactory.

Costa-Lopez, J.; Garvin, A.; Espana, F.J. [Barcelona Univ. (Spain). Chemical Engineering Dept.

1995-09-01

16

Aerobic oxidation of aqueous ethanol using heterogeneous gold catalysts: Efficient routes to acetic acid and ethyl acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aerobic oxidation of aqueous ethanol to produce acetic acid and ethyl acetate was studied using heterogeneous gold catalysts. Comparing the performance of Au\\/MgAl2O4 and Au\\/TiO2 showed that these two catalysts exhibited similar performance in the reaction. By proper selection of the reaction conditions, yields of 90–95% of acetic acid could be achieved at moderate temperatures and pressures. Based on

Betina Jørgensen; Sofie Egholm Christiansen; Marie Louise Dahl Thomsen; Claus Hviid Christensen

2007-01-01

17

Cytotoxic constituents of ethyl acetate fraction from Dianthus superbus.  

PubMed

The ethyl acetate fraction (EE-DS) from Dianthus superbus was found to possess the cytotoxic activity against cancer cells in previous study. To investigate cytotoxic constituents, the bioassay-guided isolation of compounds from EE-DS was performed. Two dianthramides (1 and 2), three flavonoids (3-5), two coumarins (6 and 7) and three other compounds (8-10) were obtained. Structures of isolated compounds were identified by spectroscopic analysis. Cytotoxicity of the compounds against HepG2 cells was evaluated. Compound 1 showed the strongest cytotoxicity, compounds 10, 4, 3 and 5 had moderate cytotoxicity. PMID:23351147

Ding, Chengli; Zhang, Wu; Li, Jie; Lei, Jiachuan; Yu, Jianqing

2013-01-28

18

Simultaneous removal of ethyl acetate and toluene in air streams using compost-based biofilters.  

PubMed

Biofitration was successfully applied to treat air streams containing a mixture of ethyl acetate and toluene. The experiment was performed by two identical bench-scale biofilters, which were acclimated by ethyl acetate and toluene, respectively. During a 3 month steady-state performance, the two biofilters showed equivalent elimination capacity (EC) for toluene (50 g/m(3) bed/h of pure toluene). However, the biofilter acclimated with ethyl acetate showed a much higher EC for ethyl acetate (400 g/m(3) bed/h of pure ethyl acetate) than that acclimated with toluene (250 g/m(3) bed/h). The concurrent biofiltration of toluene was inhibited by the presence of ethyl acetate. The results also showed that more nitrogen and phosphorus were consumed in the process of the biofiltration of toluene compared with the treatment of ethyl acetate. After the 3 month experiment, the pH of the media treating ethyl acetate dropped from 6.71 to 5.50, whereas the pH of the media treating toluene increased from 6.71 to 7.08. PMID:12409249

Liu, Yonghui; Quan, Xie; Sun, Yumei; Chen, Jingwen; Xue, Daming; Chung, Jong Shik

2002-11-11

19

DABCO catalyzed facile synthesis of highly functionalized pyrazolines from Baylis–Hillman acetates and ethyl diazoacetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A convenient synthesis of pyrazolines is reported via DABCO mediated reaction of ethyl diazoacetate (EDA) with Baylis–Hillman acetates. The products were obtained in good to excellent yields (70–95%).

Palakodety Radha Krishna; Y. Lakshmi Prapurna

20

Determination of Uranium by the TBP Method after Extraction with Ethyl Acetate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The method involves the fusion of the sample with potassium pyrosulphate and precipitation of the uranium with ammonium hydroxide. The precipitate is redissolved in nitric acid, and the uranium is extracted into ethyl acetate. The uranium is determined on...

B. T. Eddy J. D. Spangenberg B. G. Russell T. W. Steele

1968-01-01

21

The Interactions of Cellulose Acetate and Ethyl Cellulose Inhibitors with Double-Base Propellants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The interactions of nitroglycerine in double-base propellants with the inhibition materials cellulose acetate and ethyl cellulose are described. The distribution of nitroglycerine within the inhibitor and the effects of time, temperature, nitrocellulose c...

R. Stenson

1971-01-01

22

Pervaporation separation of ethyl acetate–ethanol binary mixtures using polydimethylsiloxane membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pervaporation separation of azeotrope forming ethyl acetate–ethanol mixtures was investigated by using a selfmade polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane. Sorption, desorption and pervaporation experiments for ethyl acetate–ethanol mixture with different concentrations were conducted at 30, 40 and 50°C. The effect of process parameters such as feed concentration and temperature on flux and selectivity is discussed. Equilibrium curves are determined by vapor–liquid equilibrium

A. Hasano?lu; Y. Salt; S. Kele?er; S. Özkan; S. Dinçer

2005-01-01

23

Solvent Extraction of Biologically Derived 1,3-Propanediol with Ethyl Acetate and Ethanol Cosolvent  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the use of ethyl acetate and its mixture with ethanol as cosolvent for the extraction of biologically derived 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO) from a fermentional process. Experimental results on extraction of the fermentation model mixture revealed that ethyl acetate was a suitable solvent, having the distribution coefficient of 1,3-PDO of 0.22 at 303.15 K. The temperature (303.15 to 323.15 K) was

Thapagorn Boonsongsawat; Artiwan Shotipruk; Veerapat Tantayakom; Phatthanon Prasitchoke; Chaya Chandavasu; Panatpong Boonnoun; Chirakarn Muangnapoh

2010-01-01

24

Dynamic changes in size distribution of emulsion droplets during ethyl acetate-based microencapsulation process.  

PubMed

This study investigated the dynamic effect of the emulsification process on emulsion droplet size in manufacturing microspheres using ethyl acetate as an organic solvent. A dispersed phase consisting of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) and ethyl acetate was emulsified in a poly(vinyl alcohol) aqueous solution for a predetermined time ranging from 2 to 9, 16, 23, 30, 40, 50, or 60 minutes. Ethyl acetate was then quickly extracted to transform emulsion droplets into solidified microspheres, and their size distribution was determined. This experimental design allowed quantification of the size distribution of emulsion droplets over the course of emulsification. When emulsification time was extended from 2 to 60 minutes, the emulsion droplets decreased in size from 98.1 to 50.3 microm and their surface area increased from 0.07 to 0.29 m2/g. Overall, prolonging emulsification time up to 60 minutes resulted in the progressive evolution of smaller emulsion droplets (1-60 microm) and the simultaneous disappearance of larger ones (> 81 microm). Increases in the total number of microspheres and their surface area were caused mainly by continuous fragmentation of emulsion droplets before ethyl acetate extraction. The increase in the smaller microsphere population might also be due in part to shrinkage of microspheres. These results show that the onset of ethyl acetate extraction influenced the kinetics of the breakup and formation of emulsion droplets, thereby affecting to a great extent the size distribution of microspheres. PMID:14727854

Bahl, Y; Sah, H

2000-03-23

25

Antihyperglycemic effect of Hypericum perforatum ethyl acetate extract on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the antihyperglycemic activity of ethyl acetate extract of Hypericum perforatum (H. perforatum) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Methods Acute toxicity and oral glucose tolerance test were performed in normal rats. Male albino rats were rendered diabetic by STZ (40 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). H. perforatum ethyl acetate extract was orally administered to diabetic rats at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg doses for 15 days to determine the antihyperglycemic activity. Biochemical parameters were determined at the end of the treatment. Results H. perforatum ethyl acetate extract showed dose dependant fall in fasting blood glucose (FBG). After 30 min of extract administration, FBG was reduced significantly when compared with normal rats. H. perforatum ethyl acetate extract produced significant reduction in plasma glucose level, serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose-6-phosphatase levels. Tissue glycogen content, HDL-cholesterol, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were significantly increased compared with diabetic control. No death or lethal effect was observed in the toxic study. Conclusions The results demonstrate that H. perforatum ethyl acetate extract possesses potent antihyperglycemic activity in STZ induced diabetic rats.

Arokiyaraj, S; Balamurugan, R; Augustian, P

2011-01-01

26

Formation of ethyl acetate from whey by Kluyveromyces marxianus on a pilot scale.  

PubMed

Whey arising in huge amounts during milk processing is a valuable renewable resource in the field of White Biotechnology. Kluyveromyces marxianus is able to convert whey-borne lactose into ethyl acetate, an environmentally friendly solvent. Formation of ethyl acetate as a bulk product is triggered by iron (Fe). K. marxianus DSM 5422 was cultivated aerobically in whey-borne medium originally containing 40 ?g/L Fe, supplemented with 1, 3 or 10 mg/L Fe in the pre-culture, using an 1 L or 70 L stirred reactor. The highest Fe content in the pre-culture promoted yeast growth in the main culture causing a high sugar consumption for growth and dissatisfactory formation of ethyl acetate, while the lowest Fe content limited yeast growth and promoted ester synthesis but slowed down the process. An intermediate Fe dose (ca. 0.5 ?g Fe/g sugar) lastly represented a compromise between some yeast growth, a quite high yield of ethyl acetate and an acceptable duration of the process. The mass of ethyl acetate related to the sugar consumed amounted to 0.113, 0.265 and 0.239 g/g in the three processes corresponding to 21.9%, 51.4% and 46.3% of the theoretically maximum yield. The performance on a pilot scale was somewhat higher than on lab scale. PMID:23089728

Löser, Christian; Urit, Thanet; Stukert, Anton; Bley, Thomas

2012-10-23

27

Density, refractive index and speed of sound for mixtures of ethyl acetate with 2-butanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Densities, refractive indices and speeds of sound at 298.15, 303.15, and 308.15K are reported for the binary mixtures ethyl acetate + 2-butanol and ethyl acetate + 3-methyl-1-butanol. Isobaric vapor–liquid equilibrium data at 101.3kPa were determined for the ethyl acetate + 3-methyl-1-butanol system. Excess molar volumes, refractive index deviations and changes of speed of sound on mixing were calculated from experimental

José M Resa; Cristina González; Marina Juez; Salomé Ortiz de Landaluce

2004-01-01

28

Overall rate of alternating copolymerization of vinyl acetate with maleic anhydride in methyl ethyl ketone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The initial rate of radical copolymerization of vinyl acetate(D) and maleic anhydride(A) was measured dilatometrically in methyl ethyl ketone at 50°C. The rate was found to be maximum at the feed maleic anhydride mole fraction of 0.40,0.44 and 0.47 when the total monomer concentration was 0.75 M.1.50 M and 2.25 M, respectively. Participation of both free monomers and the complex

Kiyohisa Fujimori; Anthony S. Brown

1986-01-01

29

Design and simulation of an entrainer-enhanced ethyl acetate reactive distillation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an approach to intensify a reactive distillation (RD) process for ethyl acetate (EtAc) production using a mass separation agent (entrainer), and a new process flowsheet with a sidedraw to the RD column. The heterogeneous azeotrope formed by water and EtAc contains less water than that is produced by the esterification reaction. N-butyl acetate is selected as an

Song Hu; Bing-jian Zhang; Xiao-qiong Hou; De-liang Li; Qing-lin Chen

30

Performance of a composite membrane bioreactor for the removal of ethyl acetate from waste air.  

PubMed

Ethyl acetate removal from an air stream was carried out by using a flat composite membrane bioreactor. The composite membrane consisted of a dense polydimethylsiloxane top layer with an average thickness of 0.3 ?m supported in a porous polyacrylonitrile layer (50 ?m). The membrane bioreactor (MBR) was operated during 3 months, and a maximum elimination capacity of 225 g m?³ h?¹ at an empty bed residence time of 60s was observed. Removal efficiencies higher than 95% were obtained for inlet loads lower than 200 g m?³ h?¹ and empty bed residence times as short as 15 s. The estimated yield coefficient, determined from the carbon dioxide production, resulted in 0.82 g dry biomass synthesized per gram of ethyl acetate degraded. No data of ethyl acetate treatment in MBR have been found in the literature, but the results illustrate that membrane bioreactors can potentially be a good option for its treatment. PMID:21763129

Álvarez-Hornos, F J; Volckaert, D; Heynderickx, P M; Van Langenhove, H

2011-06-23

31

Atmospheric Oxidation Mechanisms for Diethyl Ether and its Oxidation Products, Ethyl Formate and Ethyl Acetate.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon-containing compounds are present in the earth's atmosphere as the result of emissions from natural and anthropogenic sources. Their oxidation in the atmosphere, initiated by such oxidants as OH, ozone, and nitrate radicals, leads to potentially harmful secondary pollutants such as ozone, carbonyl species, organic acids and aerosols. Ethers and esters are two classes of compounds that contribute to the complex array of organic compounds found in anthropogenically-influenced air. Additional ester is present as a result of the oxidation of the ethers. In this paper, the oxidation of diethyl ether and its two main oxidation products, ethyl formate and ethyl acetate, are studied over ranges of temperature, oxygen partial pressure, and NOx concentration, using an environmental chamber / FTIR absorption technique. Major end-products (the esters from diethyl ether; organic acids and anhydrides from the esters) are quantified, and these data are interpreted in terms of the chemistry of the various alkoxy and peroxy radicals generated. Emphasis is placed on the effects of chemical activation on the behavior of the alkoxy radicals, as well as on a novel peroxy radical rearrangement that may contribute to the observed products of ether oxidation under some conditions. Finally, the data are used, in conjunction with data on similar species, to provide a general representation of ether and ester oxidation in the atmosphere.

Orlando, J. J.; Tyndall, G. S.

2006-12-01

32

Hypoglycaemic activity of ethyl acetate fraction of the leaf extract of Telfairia occidentalis.  

PubMed

The leaf of Telfairia occidentalis has been found to possess hypoglycemic or antihyperglycemic effect. The hypoglycemic principle of the leaf is yet to be isolated. The aim of this study is to evaluate the hypoglycemic activity of some fractions of ethanolic leaf extract of Telfairia occidentalis in rat as a step toward activity directed isolation of the hypoglycemic component. Ethanolic leaf extract was successively extracted with ethyl acetate, butanol and ethanol to obtain ethyl acetate, butanol and ethanol fractions (I-III). The residue was taken as fraction IV. 250 mg/kg of the various extracts were orally administered to normoglycaemic and alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats. Blood glucose concentration was evaluated at 0, 1, 2 and 4 hours after treatment with One Touch glucometer. None of the fractions reduced glucose concentration in the normoglycaemic rats, while only ethyl acetate fraction lowered glucose concentration significantly at 2 and 4 hours (49.7 and 39.0%) compared to control value of 74.9 and 69.7%, respectively, in the diabetic rats. The results showed that the hypoglycemic component of the ethanolic leaf extract of the plant is contained in the ethyl acetate fraction. PMID:20566451

Eseyin, O A; Ebong, P; Eyong, E U; Umoh, E; Agboke, A

2010-07-01

33

Cytotoxic activities of ethyl acetate extract and a metabolite from a Monocillium species.  

PubMed

The ethyl acetate soluble fraction of a cultural broth of a Monocillium species afforded the isolation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. Both the extract and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural showed significant cytotoxic activities in a brine shrimp bioassay and the LC(50) values were found to be 14.96 microg/mL and 23.71 microg/mL, respectively. PMID:16220580

Khondkar, Proma; Rahman, M Mukhlesur; Islam, Anwarul

2005-09-01

34

Inhibitory activity of the ethyl acetate fraction from Viscum coloratum on bone resorption.  

PubMed

The effects of four fractions, a hexane fraction, an ethyl acetate fraction, an N-butanol fraction and a water fraction, from a water extract of Herba Visci were investigated to find the fraction, in IN VITRO experiments, with the greatest ability to inhibit the formation of osteoclast-like multinucleated cells from mouse bone marrow cells and also to inhibit (45)Ca release from a mouse parietal bone organ culture system. The ethyl acetate fraction was able to inhibit the formation of osteoclast-like cells in a dose-dependent manner and was also able to potently inhibit the release of (45)Ca even at a low concentration. Therefore, a further IN VIVO experiment was performed to determine if the ethyl acetate fraction had antiosteoporotic activity. It was found to inhibit the decreases in total and cancellous bone mineral density, in cancellous and cortical bone mineral content as well as in cortical bone thickness and in the X-axis strength index of tibiae of ovariectomized rats. The principle constituents of the ethyl acetate fraction were determined to be (+)-syringaresinol O- beta-glucopyranoside, 2-homoeriodictyol 7- O-glucoside and viscumneoside I by HPLC analysis. PMID:18247260

Yin, Jun; Han, Na; Xu, Xinyang; Liu, Zhihui; Zhang, Baoyan; Kadota, Shigetoshi

2008-02-04

35

Thermodynamic and transport properties for coal mixtures. Technical progress report, January 1, 1985-March 31, 1985. [Methyl ethyl ketone, methyl acetate, ethyl acetate  

SciTech Connect

During this period, additional progress has been made on the development of procedures for the calculation of the thermodynamic and transport properties of polar coal mixtures. Experimental data have also been obtained on infinite dilution activity coefficients of polar systems by gas chromatographic procedures. In Figure 1, experimental molar volumes for the ammonia-methane system with x/sub NH/sub 3// = 0.3284 are compared with the values calculated with the equation of state of Wu and Stiel with parameters T/sub CM/, P/sub CM/, ..omega../sub M/, and Y/sub M/ determined from the parameters of the components. It can be seen that good agreement is obtained by this procedure. The analytical procedures have also been extended to polar-polar systems. In Figure 2, calculated bubble point pressures for the acetone-methyl ethyl ketone system at several temperatures are shown to agree closely with experimental values for the entire temperature range. Experimental values of infinite dilution activity coefficient have been obtained by gas chromatographic procedures for polar solutes including acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, and n-propyl alcohol in n-decane for temperatures from 50 to 60/sup 0/C. 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Stiel, L.I.

1985-01-01

36

Mixture Toxicity of SN2-Reactive Soft Electrophiles: 2--Evaluation of Mixtures Containing Ethyl ?-Halogenated Acetates  

PubMed Central

Four ethyl ?-halogenated acetates were tested in (1) sham and (2) nonsham combinations and (3) with a nonreactive nonpolar narcotic. Ethyl iodoacetate (EIAC), ethyl bromoacetate (EBAC), ethyl chloroacetate (ECAC), and ethyl fluoroacetate (EFAC), each considered to be an SN2-H-polar soft electrophile, were selected for testing based on their differences in electro(nucleo)philic reactivity and time-dependent toxicity (TDT). Agent reactivity was assessed using the model nucleophile glutathione, with EIAC and EBAC showing rapid reactivity, ECAC being less reactive, and EFAC lacking reactivity at ?250 mM. The model nonpolar narcotic, 3-methyl-2-butanone (3M2B), was not reactive. Toxicity of the agents alone and in mixture was assessed using the Microtox acute toxicity test at three exposure durations: 15, 30 and 45 min. Two of the agents alone (EIAC and EBAC) had TDT values >100%. In contrast, ECAC (74 to 99%) and EFAC (9 to 12%) had partial TDT, whereas 3M2B completely lacked TDT (<0%). In mixture testing, sham combinations of each agent showed a combined effect consistent with predicted effects for dose-addition at each time point, as judged by EC50 dose-addition quotient values. Mixture toxicity results for nonsham ethyl acetate combinations were variable, with some mixtures being inconsistent with the predicted effects for dose-addition and/or independence. The ethyl acetate–3M2B combinations were somewhat more toxic than predicted for dose-addition, a finding differing from that observed previously for ?-halogenated acetonitriles with 3M2B.

Mooneyham, T.; Jeyaratnam, J.; Schultz, T. W.; Poch, G.

2011-01-01

37

Copper(II) Complexes with Ethyl [(Pyrazolo-1-carbothioyl)-amino]acetate Derivatives: Synthesis and Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optically active derivative of the natural monoterpene (+)-3-carene, namely, ethyl (3bS,4aR)-[(3,4,4-trimethyl-3b,4,4a,5-tetrahydrocyclopropa[3,4]cyclopenta[1,2-c]pyrazole-1-carbothioyl)-amino]acetate (HL1) and ethyl [(3,5-dimethyl-pyrazole-1-carbothioyl)-amino]acetate (HL2) were synthesized. Paramagnetic complexes [CuL1Cl]n(I) and [Cu2L22Cl2] (II) were prepared. According to X-ray diffraction data, complex Iwith anion of (+)-3-carene derivative has chain structure, whereas complex IIwith anion of HL2, which has no carbocyclic fragments, is a pseudodimer. Organic anions act as tetradentate bridging,

Z. A. Savel'eva; S. A. Popov; L. A. Glinskaya; R. F. Klevtsova; V. N. Ikorskii; E. G. Boguslavskii; A. V. Tkachev; S. V. Larionov

2003-01-01

38

Alternanthera sessilis Red Ethyl Acetate Fraction Exhibits Antidiabetic Potential on Obese Type 2 Diabetic Rats  

PubMed Central

The antidiabetic potential of Alternanthera sessilis Red was investigated using the obese type 2 diabetic rats induced by high fat diet and streptozotocin. Three fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate, and water) were obtained from the crude ethanol extract of Alternanthera sessilis Red. Alternanthera sessilis Red ethyl acetate fraction (ASEAF) was found to possess the most potent antihyperglycemic effect through oral glucose tolerance test. The ASEAF was subsequently given to the diabetic rats for two weeks. It was found that two-week administration of ASEAF reduces the fasting blood glucose level, triglyceride level, and free fatty acid level of the rats. ASEAF-treated diabetic rats showed higher pancreatic insulin content and pancreatic total superoxide dismutase activity compared to the untreated diabetic rats. Also, the insulin sensitivity indexes suggested that ASEAF ameliorates the insulin resistant state of the diabetic rats. In conclusion, ASEAF could be developed into a potential antidiabetic agent for the management of type 2 diabetes.

Tan, Kok Keong; Kim, Kah Hwi

2013-01-01

39

Ethyl 2-[(2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yl)-oxy]acetate  

PubMed Central

In the title compound, C13H12O5, the mean plane of the 2H-chromene ring system (r.m.s deviation = 0.026?Å) forms a dihedral angle of 81.71?(6)° with the mean plane of ethyl 2-hy­droxy­acetate moiety (r.m.s deviation = 0.034?Å). In the crystal, C—H?O hydrogen bonds result in the formation of zigzag layers parallel to the bc plane.

Fun, Hoong-Kun; Quah, Ching Kheng; Aich, Krishnendu; Das, Sangita; Goswami, Shyamaprosad

2013-01-01

40

Induction of HL60 apoptosis by ethyl acetate extract of Cordyceps sinensis fungal mycelium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cultivated mycelium of a Cordyceps sinensis (Cs) fungus was sequentially extracted by petroleum ether, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), ethanol and water. The EtOAc extract showed the most potent cytotoxic effect against the proliferation of human premyelocytic leukemia cell HL-60, with an ED50 ? 25 ?g\\/ml for 2-day treatment. The EtOAc extract induced the characteristic apoptotic symptoms in the HL-60 cells,

Qiaoxia Zhang; Jianyong Wu; Zongding Hu; Duan Li

2004-01-01

41

Crystal structures of the solvates of diethylaminogossypol with ethyl acetate and pyridine  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The crystal structures of diethylaminogossypol with ethyl acetate (DEAG-EA) and pyridine (DEAG-P) were studied by room-temperature X-ray diffraction. The host-to-guest molecule ratio in these complexes is 2:1 for DEAG-EA and 2:5 for DEAG-P. The crystal and cell parameters for DEAG-EA are C34H40N2O6...

42

Silica supported copper and cerium oxide catalysts for ethyl acetate oxidation.  

PubMed

The formation of active sites in the silica supported copper and cerium oxide bi-component catalysts for total oxidation of ethyl acetate was studied by Nitrogen physisorption, XRD, XPS, UV-Vis, Raman, FTIR of adsorbed CO spectroscopies and TPR. It was found that the interaction between the copper oxide nanoparticles and the supported on the silica ceria ones is realized with the formation of interface layer of penetrated into ceria lattice copper ions in different oxidative state. This type of interaction improves the dispersion of copper oxide particles and provides higher accessibility of the reactants to the copper active sites even at low copper amount. PMID:23743049

Tsoncheva, Tanya; Issa, Gloria; Blasco, Teresa; Concepcion, Patricia; Dimitrov, Momtchil; Hernández, Selene; Kovacheva, Daniela; Atanasova, Genoveva; López Nieto, José M

2013-05-14

43

Investigation on Process Mechanism on Cu–Cr Catalysts for Ethanol Dehydrogenation to Ethyl Acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract  The Cu–Cr catalysts were prepared by co-precipitation method,and the role of active sites on Cu–Cr catalyst for direct synthesis\\u000a of ethyl acetate from ethanol was investigated. The catalysts were characterized by means of XRD, TEM, XPS, ethanol-TPSR,\\u000a EA-TPD and FT-IR etc., respectively. The results show that the outermost surface layer of Cu–Cr catalysts after reduction\\u000a is composed of Cu0, Cr2O3

Minhua Zhang; Guiming Li; Haoxi Jiang; Jiyan Zhang

2011-01-01

44

Experimental Determination of Densities and Isobaric Vapor-Liquid Equilibria of Methyl Acetate and Ethyl Acetate with Alcohols (C3 and C4) at 0.3 MPa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The densities and excess volumes were determined at 298.15 K for the methyl acetate + 1-propanol, methyl acetate + 1-butanol, and ethyl acetate + 1-butanol mixtures. The vapor-liquid equilibria data at 0.3 MPa for these binary systems were obtained using a stainless steel equilibrium still. The activity coefficients were obtained from the experimental data using the Hayden and O'Connell method and the Yen and Woods equation. The binary systems in this study showed positive deviations from ideality. The experimental VLE data were verified with the point-to-point test of van Ness using the Barker routine and the Fredenslund criterion. The different versions of the UNIFAC and the ASOG group contribution models were applied.

Susial, Pedro; Estupiñan, Esteban J.; Castillo, Victor D.; Rodríguez-Henríquez, José J.; Apolinario, José C.

2013-10-01

45

Characteristics of thin cellulose ester films spin-coated from acetone and ethyl acetate solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spin-coated films of cellulose acetate (CA), cellulose acetate propionate (CAP), cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) and carboxymethylcellulose\\u000a acetate butyrate (CMCAB) have been characterized by ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle measurements.\\u000a The films were spin-coated onto silicon wafers, a polar surface. Mean thickness values were determined by means of ellipsometry\\u000a and AFM as a function of polymer concentration in

J. Amim Jr; P. M. Kosaka; D. F. S. Petri

2008-01-01

46

Nanofiltration of rhodium tris(triphenylphosphine) catalyst in ethyl acetate solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solvent resistant nanofiltration (SRNF) using polymer membranes has recently received enhanced attention due to the search for cleaner and more energy-efficient technologies. The large size of the rhodium tris(triphenylphosphine) [HRh(CO)(PPh3)3] catalyst (>400 Da) - relative to other components of the hydroformylation reaction provides the opportunity for a membrane separation based on retention of the catalyst species while permeating the solvent. The compatibility of the solvent-polyimide membrane (DuraMem{trade mark, serif} 200 and DuraMem{trade mark, serif} 500) combinations was assessed in terms of the membrane stability in solvent plus non-zero solvent flux at 2.0 MPa. Good HRh(CO)(PPh3)3 rejection (>0.95) and solvent fluxes of 9.9 L/m2.h1 at 2.0 MPa were obtained in the catalyst-ethyl acetate-DuraMem 500 system. The effect of pressure and catalyst concentration on the solvent flux and catalyst rejection was conducted on the catalyst-ethyl acetate-membrane systems. Increasing pressure substantially improved both solvent flux and catalyst rejection, while increasing catalyst concentration was found to be beneficial in terms of substantial increases in catalyst rejection without significantly affecting solvent flux.

Shaharun, Maizatul S.; Mustafa, Ahmad K.; Taha, Mohd F.

2012-09-01

47

In vitro antiperoxidative, free radical scavenging and xanthine oxidase inhibitory potentials of ethyl acetate fraction of Saraca ashoka flowers.  

PubMed

Saraca ashoka is a widely used medicinal herb claimed to cure many diseases. This study investigated the antiperoxidative, free radical scavenging and xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory potential of the ethyl acetate fraction of S. ashoka flowers (SAF) and compared it with standard compounds like gallic acid, ascorbic acid, butylated hydroxyl toluene and allopurinol. The ethyl acetate fraction of SAF exhibited free radical scavenging activity against the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical and superoxide radical, along with hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. Lipid peroxidation inhibitory potential of SAF was studied using a linoleic acid emulsion system, which shows significant antioxidant potential. SAF also demonstrated significant XO (key enzyme linked to inflammation) inhibitory activity, which revealed its therapeutic potential as an antioxidant and XO inhibitor. HPLC profiling of the ethyl acetate fraction of SAF revealed that it contains ellagic acid as a major compound and thus the beneficial effects of this fraction may be due to the presence of this compound. PMID:21294042

Prathapan, A; Lijo Cherian, O; Nampoothiri, Suresh V; Mini, S; Raghu, K G

2011-02-01

48

Microwave-assisted dissolution and delignification of wood in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate.  

PubMed

Microwave irradiation can facilitate the dissolution and delignification of lignocelluloses in ionic liquids compared to simple oil bath heating as demonstrated here where 92.5% of 0.5 g ground southern yellow pine was dissolved in 10 g 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate using microwave irradiation in only 4 min. Cellulose-rich material (pulp) regenerated from the wood/ionic liquid solution had a lignin content of ~10%; significantly lower than the lignin content of the original wood (31.9%) or that of pulp obtained from the same experiment but using 16 h of oil bath heating (16-24%). The 10% lignin content obtained with the microwave method was close to that of pulp obtained from the oil bath heating method when polyoxometalate catalysts were used (5-9%). PMID:23566466

Wang, Hui; Maxim, Mirela L; Gurau, Gabriela; Rogers, Robin D

2013-03-16

49

The keto-enol tautomerization of ethyl butylryl acetate studied by LC-NMR.  

PubMed

The keto-enol tautomerism of ethyl butylryl acetate was studied in mixed solvents under a variety of experimental conditions. The direct measurement of ketonization of the enol tautomer was performed by using the hyphenated technique LC-NMR. The keto and enol tautomers can be separated by using HPLC and their interconversion is a slow process on the NMR timescale. The ketonization reaction was found to be acid catalyzed and the solvent isotope effect, kH2O/kD2O, in an acetonitrile/water mixture, is 5.4. The ketonization rate constants were also measured at different compositions of binary solvents, such as CH3CN/D2O, CD3OD/D2O, and CH3CN/CD3OD. The rate constant and water percentage were found to have an exponential relationship. The reaction rate as a function of solvent polarity will be discussed in this paper. PMID:17154239

Zhou, Casey Chun; Hill, David R

2007-02-01

50

High-Performance Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Triptonide, Triptriolide, and Triptophenolide in Ethyl Acetate Extract of Tripterygium Wilfordii Hook F  

Microsoft Academic Search

To monitor the composition of extracts of the Chinese herbal remedy Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F (TwHF), a rapid, selective, and sensitive reverse phase HPLC method was developed for the quantitative determination of some of the major or active diterpenoid components, triptonide (1), triptophenolide (2), and triptriolide (3). Ethyl acetate extracts of TwHF were extracted with chloroform, filtered, and then purified

Yanping Mao; John J. Cai; Xuelian Tao; Li Ma; Peter E. Lipsky

1998-01-01

51

Comparison of the quantitative formalin ethyl acetate concentration technique and agar plate culture for diagnosis of human strongyloidiasis.  

PubMed

The quantitative formalin ethyl acetate concentration technique (QFEC) was compared to agar plate culture (APC) for the detection of Strongyloides stercoralis larvae. QFEC could substitute for APC only when the parasite load was higher than 50 larvae per g of stool. This study serves as a good reminder to those conducting stool exams about the sensitivity and specificity limitations of both techniques. PMID:15815023

Intapan, P M; Maleewong, W; Wongsaroj, T; Singthong, S; Morakote, N

2005-04-01

52

Hepatoprotective effect of the ethyl acetate extract of Teucrium polium L. against carbontetrachloride-induced hepatic injury in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatoprotective activity of the ethyl acetate extract of Teucrium polium L. was investigated using rats with CCl4- -induced liver damage. Specific biochemical parameters (glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione and total antioxidative status) were estimat- ed in blood and in liver homogenate. Lipid peroxidation in CCl4-intoxicated rats was evidenced by a marked in- crement in the levels of thiobarbituric acid

Tatjana Kadifkova Panovska; Svetlana Kulevanova; Icko Gjorgoski; Mirjana Bogdanova; Gordana Petrushevska

2007-01-01

53

Hydrogenation of ethyl acetate to ethanol over Ni-based catalysts obtained from Ni/Al hydrotalcite-like compounds.  

PubMed

A series of Ni-based catalysts were prepared using hydrogen reduction of Ni/Al hydrotalcite-like compounds (Ni/Al HTlcs) synthesized by coprecipitation. The physico-chemical properties of Ni/Al hydrotalcite-like compounds and the corresponding Ni-based catalysts were characterized using inductively coupled plasma (ICP), BET surface areas, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The results indicated that Ni/Al HTlcs with layered structures could be successfully prepared by the coprecipitation method, and the characteristic HTlcs reflections were also observed in the XRD analysis. The NiO and Ni0 phases were identified in all Ni-based catalysts, which displayed randomly interconnected pores and no layer structures. In addition, the studies also found the Ni/Al HTlcs and Ni-based catalysts had high specific surface areas, low pore volumes and low pore diameters. The catalytic hydrogenation of ethyl acetate to ethanol with Ni-based catalysts was also investigated. Among the studied catalysts, RE1NASH-110-3 showed the highest selectivity and yield of ethyl acetate to ethanol, which were 68.2% and 61.7%, respectively. At the same time, a major by-product, butyl acetate, was formed due to an ester-exchange reaction. A proposed hydrogenation pathway for ethyl acetate over Ni-based catalysts was suggested. PMID:20714291

Zhang, Beixiao; Lin, Lu; Zhuang, Junping; Liu, Ying; Peng, Lincai; Jiang, Longfei

2010-07-29

54

Formation of ethyl acetate by Kluyveromyces marxianus on whey during aerobic batch and chemostat cultivation at iron limitation.  

PubMed

The ability of Kluyveromyces marxianus to convert lactose into ethyl acetate offers a chance for an economic reuse of whey. Former experiments with K. marxianus DSM 5422 proved limitation of growth by iron (Fe) or copper as a precondition for significant ester synthesis. Several aerobic batch and chemostat cultivations were done with whey-borne media of a variable Fe content for exploring the effect of Fe on growth, the Fe content of biomass, and metabolite synthesis. At low Fe doses, Fe was the growth-limiting factor, the available Fe was completely absorbed by the yeasts, and the biomass formation linearly depended on the Fe dose governed by a minimum Fe content in the yeasts, x (Fe,min). At batch conditions, x (Fe,min) was 8.8 ?g/g, while during chemostat cultivation at D?=?0.15 h(-1), it was 23 ?g/g. At high Fe doses, sugar was the growth-limiting factor, Fe was more or less absorbed, and the formed biomass became constant. Significant amounts of ethyl acetate were only formed at Fe limitation while high Fe doses suppressed ester formation. Analysis of formed metabolites such as glycerol, pyruvate, acetate, ethanol, ethyl acetate, isocitrate, 2-oxoglutarate, succinate, and malate during chemostat cultivation allowed some interpretation of the Fe-dependent mechanism of ester synthesis; formation of ethyl acetate from acetyl-SCoA and ethanol is obviously initiated by a diminished metabolic flux of acetyl-SCoA into the citrate cycle and by a limited oxidation of NADH in the respiratory chain since Fe is required for the function of aconitase, succinate dehydrogenase, and the electron-transferring proteins. PMID:22695802

Löser, Christian; Urit, Thanet; Förster, Sylvia; Stukert, Anton; Bley, Thomas

2012-06-14

55

Reusing ethyl acetate and aqueous exhausted fractions of dry olive mill residue by saprobe fungi.  

PubMed

Some saprobe fungi (Phlebia radiata, Trametes versicolor, Coriolopsis rigida, Pycnoporus cinnabarinus, Fomes sclerodermus or Pleurotus pulmonarius) were able to bioconvert the ethyl acetate fraction (DEAF) and the corresponding aqueous exhausted fraction (EAF) of dry olive mill residue (DOR), reducing their phytotoxicity on Lepidium sativum seeds. Large amount of hydroxytyrosol together with other eight monomeric phenols were found in the native DEAF fraction, which represents a good source of antioxidants. P. radiata, T. versicolor and F. sclerodermus caused an effective phytotoxicity reduction of EAF in the concentration range of 25-3 gl(-1). In particular, in the range between 12.5 and 3 gl(-1), the EAF samples inoculated with P. radiata and F. sclerodermus surprisingly stimulated the germinability of L. sativum, suggesting their use as a potential biofertilizer. This is the first report which showed the bioconversion of the above fractions in shorter time with respect to the previous findings concerning DOR. The possible implications of laccase in the decrease of DEAF and EAF phytotoxicity was also discussed. PMID:16814842

Aranda, E; García-Romera, I; Ocampo, J A; Carbone, V; Malorni, A; Sannino, F; De Martino, A; Capasso, R

2006-06-30

56

Antitussive Efficacy and Safety Profile of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Terminalia chebula  

PubMed Central

Antitussive effects of ethyl acetate fraction of Terminalia chebula on sulphur dioxide (SO2) gas induced cough have been examined in mice. Safety profile of Terminalia chebula was established by determining LD50 and acute neurotoxicity. The result showed that extract of Terminalia chebula dose dependently suppressed SO2 gas induced cough in mice. Terminalia chebula, after i.p. administration at dose level 500?mg/kg, offered maximum cough suppressive effects; that is, number of coughs at 60?min was 12 ± 1.52 (mean ± SEM) as compared to codeine 10?mg/kg; i.p., dextromethorphan 10?mg/kg; i.p., and saline, having frequency of cough 10.375 ± 0.866, 12.428 ± 0.81, and 46 ± 2.61, respectively. LD50 value of Terminalia chebula was approximately 1265?mg/kg, respectively. No sign of neural impairment was observed at antitussive doses of extract. Antitussive effect of Terminalia chebula was partly reversed with treatment by naloxone (3?mg/kg; s.c.) while rimcazole (3?mg/kg; s.c.) did not antagonize its cough suppression activity. This may suggest that opioid receptors partially contribute in antitussive action of Terminalia chebula. Along with this, the possibility of presence of single or multiple mechanisms activated by several different pharmacological actions (mainly anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, spasmolytic, antibacterial, and antiphlegmatic) could not be eliminated.

Wahab, Abdul; Ayub, Khurshed; Sherkheli, M. Azhar; Khan, Rafeeq Alam; Raza, Mohsin

2013-01-01

57

A Comprehensive Study of Deep Catalytic Oxidation of Benzene, Toluene, Ethyl Acetate, and their Mixtures over Pd\\/ZSM-5 Catalyst: Mutual Effects and Kinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reaction behaviors and kinetics of catalytic oxidation of benzene, toluene, and ethyl acetate with feed concentrations in\\u000a the range of 700–5,000 ppm over Pd\\/ZSM-5 catalyst were investigated. Results for single components show that ethyl acetate\\u000a (T\\u000a 50?=?190–200°C) is more easily oxidized than benzene (T\\u000a 50?=?215–225°C) and toluene (T\\u000a 50?=?225–235°C). The conversion of ethyl acetate was increased with the increase of its

Chi He; Peng Li; Jie Cheng; Zheng-Ping Hao; Zhi-Ping Xu

2010-01-01

58

High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Triptolide and Tripdiolide in an Ethyl Acetate Extract of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new analytical method for the determination of triptolide and tripdiolide in ethyl acetate extracts of Triterygium wilfordii Hook F. is described. The procedure consists of preliminary enrichment by Sep-Pak alumina B cartridge chromatography followed by HPLC analysis. HPLC is performed with a stainless steel column packed with Nova-Pak C18, using acetonitrile-water (19 : 81) as a mobile phase for

John J. Cai; Xuelian Tao; Peter E. Lipsky

1994-01-01

59

Ethyl 2-{[5-(3-chloro-phen-yl)-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl]-oxy}acetate  

PubMed Central

The title compound, C19H17ClN2O3, was synthesized by the reaction of 5-(3-chloro­phen­yl)-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-3-ol and ethyl 2-bromo­acetate. In the crystal, the C- and N-linked benzene rings are twisted by 45.15?(3) and 53.55?(3)°, respectively, from the plane of the bridging 1H-pyrazole ring.

Yang, Xiao-Li

2012-01-01

60

Preparation and Properties of Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA)\\/Organoclay\\/Compatibilizer Nanocomposites: Effects of Organoclay Loading and Methyl Ethyl Ketone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA)\\/organoclay\\/compatibilizer nanocomposites were produced using a melt compounding technique in an internal mixer, Haake Rheometer, at 120°C and 50 rpm rotor speed. Effects of organoclay loading (from 2 to 10 phr—parts per hundred of resin and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), used as a compatibilizer, on the processing properties, tensile properties, morphology, thermal degradation, and water absorption behavior of EVA\\/organoclay

H. Ardhyananta; H. Ismail; T. Takeichi; H. Judawisastra

2006-01-01

61

The radioprotective effects of the hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of Callophyllis japonica in mice that undergo whole body irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radioprotective activity of extracts from the red seaweed Callophyllis (C.) japonica was investigated in mice that underwent whole-body exposure to gamma radiation. A methanol extract of C. japonica and its fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), butanol and the remaining H2O) were used. Each fraction (100 mg\\/kg body weight) was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) 2 times into the BALB\\/c mice, once

Jeongtae Kim; Changjong Moon; Heechul Kim; Jinwoo Jeong; Juyeon Lee; Jihoon Kim; Jin Won Hyun; Jae Woo Park; Mi Yeon Moon; Nam Ho Lee; Sung Ho Kim; Youngheun Jee; Taekyun Shin

2008-01-01

62

Enhancement of polysaccharides production in Ganoderma lucidum by the addition of ethyl acetate extracts from Eupolyphaga sinensis and Catharsius molossus  

Microsoft Academic Search

To screen stimulators from Chinese medicinal insects for mycelial growth and polysaccharides production of Ganoderma lucidum, G. lucidum was inoculated into the media with and without supplementation of medicinal insect extracts. The ethyl acetate extract of\\u000a Eupolyphaga sinensis at 55 mg l?1 lead to significant increase in both biomass and intracellular polysaccharides (IPS) concentration from 8.53??0.41 to 14.16??0.43\\u000a and 1.28??0.09 to

Gao-Qiang Liu; Ke-Chang Zhang

2007-01-01

63

The antihypertensive effect of ethyl acetate extract of radish leaves in spontaneously hypertensive rats  

PubMed Central

Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is a cruciferous vegetable, and its leaves have antioxidant and anticancer properties. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of ethyl acetate extracts from radish leaves on hypertension in 11-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). The SHRs were randomly divided into 3 groups of 6 rats each on the basis of initial systolic blood pressure (SBP) and were treated with oral administration of radish leaf extract (0, 30, or 90 mg/kg body weight [bw], respectively) for 5 weeks. Six Wistar rats were used as normotensive controls. The amount of the radish leaf extract had no effect on body weight. The SBP of the SHRs showed a decreasing trend with the consumption of the radish leaf extract. In the third week, the SBP of the group fed 90 mg extract/kg bw reduced from 214 mmHg to 166 mmHg and was significantly lower than that of the normotensive and hypertensive controls. The extract did not show a significant effect on the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity in the serum, kidney, and lung. The extract increased the concentration of NO in serum and the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase and catalase in red blood cells (RBCs). The serum concentrations of Na+ and K+ were not significantly different between all groups. However, the fecal concentrations of Na+ and K+ increased; the fecal concentrations of Na+ and K+ for the normotensive and hypertensive controls were not different. Urinary excretion of Na+ was higher in the normotensive Wistar rats than in the SHRs, while that of K+ was not significantly different. These findings indicate that consumption of radish leaves might have had antihypertensive effects in SHRs by increasing the serum concentration of NO and fecal concentration of Na+ and enhancing antioxidant activities.

Chung, Da-Hee; Kim, Sun-Hee; Myung, Nahye; Cho, Kang Jin

2012-01-01

64

Effect of 1,2-propanediol on the vapor-liquid equilibria of the ethyl acetate + ethanol system at 101.3 kPa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data for the system ethyl acetate + ethanol in the presence of 1,2-propanediol at concentrations of 0%, 20%, 30%, and 40% by weight were measured at 101.3 kPa. The experimental VLE data of the ternary system ethyl acetate + ethanol + 1,2-propanediol were correlated by the Margules, Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC liquid models. The relative volativities of

Chein-Hsiun Tu; Yuh-Shen Wu; Feng-Chao Ou

1997-01-01

65

Validation and uncertainty analysis of a multi-residue method for pesticides in grapes using ethyl acetate extraction and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method was validated for the multi-residue analysis of 82 pesticides in grapes at ?25ng\\/g level. Berry samples (10g) mixed with sodium sulphate (10g) were extracted with ethyl acetate (10mL); cleaned by dispersive solid phase extraction and the results were obtained by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Reduction in sample size and proportion of ethyl acetate for extraction did not affect

Kaushik Banerjee; Dasharath P. Oulkar; Soma Dasgupta; Shubhangi B. Patil; Sangram H. Patil; Rahul Savant; Pandurang G. Adsule

2007-01-01

66

Decreasing the Level of Ethyl Acetate in Ethanolic Fermentation Broths of Escherichia coli KO11 by Expression of Pseudomonas putida estZ Esterase  

Microsoft Academic Search

in beer containing 4.8% ethanol was 192 mg liter1. Although the E. coli genome encodes several proteins with esterase activity, neither wild-type strains nor KO11 contained significant ethyl acetate esterase activity. A simple method was developed to rapidly screen bacterial colonies for the presence of esterases which hydrolyze ethyl acetate based on pH change. This method allowed identification of Pseudomonas

Adnan Hasona; S. W. York; L. P. Yomano; L. O. Ingram; K. T. Shanmugam

2002-01-01

67

Tephrosia sinapou ethyl acetate extract inhibits inflammatory pain in mice: Opioid receptor dependent inhibition of TNF? and IL-1? production.  

PubMed

Abstract Context. Tephrosia toxicaria is currently known as Tephrosia sinapou (Buc'hoz) A. Chev. (Fabaceae) and is a source of compounds such as flavonoids that inhibit inflammatory pain. Objective: To investigate the analgesic effect and mechanisms of the ethyl acetate extract of T. sinapou in inflammatory pain in mice. Materials and methods: Behavioral responses were evaluated using mechanical (1-24?h) and thermal hyperalgesia (0.5-5?h), writhing response (20?min) and rota-rod (1-5?h) tests. Neutrophil recruitment (myeloperoxidase activity), cytokines (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]? and interleukin [IL]-1?), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) serum levels were determined by colorimetric assays. Pharmacological treatments were opioid receptor antagonist (naloxone, 0.1-1?mg/kg) and control opioid (morphine, 5?mg/kg). Inflammatory stimuli were carrageenin (100?µg/paw), complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA, 10?µl/paw), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, 100?ng/paw) and acetic acid (0.8%). Results: The intraperitoneal pre-treatment with extract inhibited in a dose-dependent (30-300?mg/kg) dependent manner the mechanical hyperalgesia induced by carrageenin (up to 93% inhibition). The post-treatment (100?mg/kg) inhibited CFA-induced hyperalgesia (up to 63% inhibition). Naloxone (1?mg/kg) prevented the inhibitory effect of the extract over carrageenin-induced mechanical (100%) and thermal (100%) hyperalgesia, neutrophil recruitment (52%) and TNF? (63%) and IL-1? (98%) production, thermal threshold in naïve mice (99%), PGE2-induced mechanical hyperalgesia (88%) and acetic acid-induced writhing response (49%). There was no significant alteration in the rota-rod test, and AST and ALT serum levels by extract treatment. Discussion and conclusion. Tephrosia sinapou ethyl acetate extract reduces inflammatory pain by activating an opioid receptor-dependent mechanism. PMID:23855752

Martinez, Renata M; Zarpelon, Ana C; Cardoso, Renato D R; Vicentini, Fabiana T M C; Georgetti, Sandra R; Baracat, Marcela M; Andrei, Cesar C; Moreira, Isabel C; Verri, Waldiceu A; Casagrande, Rubia

2013-07-16

68

Cytotoxic activities of hexane, ethyl acetate and butanol extracts of marine sponges from Mauritian Waters on human cancer cell lines.  

PubMed

The ocean is an exceptional source of natural products with many of them exhibiting novel structural features and bioactivity. As one of the most interesting phylum with respect to pharmacological active marine compounds, Poriferas have been investigated widely in the last few decades. A total of 60 organic extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and butanol) from 20 species of marine sponges from Mauritius were screened at 50?g/ml in an in vitro screening assay against 9 human cancer cell lines. From these tested extracts, many exhibited pronounced cytotoxic effect at least in one of the cell lines and cell type cytotoxic specificity was observed. 27% of ethyl acetate, 11% of hexane and 2% of butanol extracts were found to possess a cytotoxicity ?75% on 9 different cancer cell lines with the sponges Petrosia sp. 1, Petrosia sp. 2, Pericharax heteroraphis and Jaspis sp. being the most active. Overall, the HL-60cells were much more sensitive to most of the extracts than the other cell lines. We further evaluated the properties of the ethyl acetate (JDE) and hexane extract (JDH) of one sponge, Jaspis sp. on KB cells. JDE displayed a smaller IC(50) than JDH. Clonogenic assay confirmed the antiproliferative effect of both extracts while mitochondrial membrane potential change and microscopic analysis demonstrated extracts-induced apoptosis. Treatment with 100ng/ml of JDE led to a significant increase of cells (24h: 4.02%; 48h: 26.23%) in sub-G1 phase. The cytotoxic properties of the tested extracts from these sponges suggest the presence of compounds with pharmacological potential and are currently undergoing fractionation to isolate the active constituents. PMID:22743579

Beedessee, Girish; Ramanjooloo, Avin; Aubert, Geneviève; Eloy, Laure; Surnam-Boodhun, Rashmee; Soest, Rob W M van; Cresteil, Thierry; Marie, Daniel E P

2012-06-09

69

2,2?-Bis(9-hydr-oxy-9-fluoren-yl)biphen-yl-ethyl acetate (1/1)  

PubMed Central

In the title host–guest compound, C38H26O2·C4H8O2, the ethyl acetate mol­ecule (guest), which adopts a fully extended conformation, and the biphenyl derivative (host) are connected via O—H?O hydrogen bonds [H?O = 1.90?(3)?Å] into discrete assemblies. The hydro­carbon skeleton of the host mol­ecule deviates only slightly from C2 symmetry. The OH groups of the host are involved in intra­molecular O—H?O hydrogen bonding [H?O = 1.83?(3)?Å].

Izotova, Lidiya; Ashurov, Jamshid; Ibragimov, Bakhtiyar; Weber, Edwin

2008-01-01

70

2,2'-Bis(9-hydr-oxy-9-fluoren-yl)biphen-yl-ethyl acetate (1/1).  

PubMed

In the title host-guest compound, C(38)H(26)O(2)·C(4)H(8)O(2), the ethyl acetate mol-ecule (guest), which adopts a fully extended conformation, and the biphenyl derivative (host) are connected via O-H?O hydrogen bonds [H?O = 1.90?(3)?Å] into discrete assemblies. The hydro-carbon skeleton of the host mol-ecule deviates only slightly from C(2) symmetry. The OH groups of the host are involved in intra-molecular O-H?O hydrogen bonding [H?O = 1.83?(3)?Å]. PMID:21203317

Izotova, Lidiya; Ashurov, Jamshid; Ibragimov, Bakhtiyar; Weber, Edwin

2008-07-31

71

Efficient One-Pot Synthesis of Ethyl [2-(2H-Chromene-3yl)-4-oxo-L,3-thiazolidin-3-yl]acetates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethyl [2-(2H-chromene-3yl)-4-oxo-1,3-thiazolidin-3yl]acetates (6a–e) were synthesized in a single pot by the reaction of 2H-3-chromenecarbaldehydes (3a–e), glycine ethyl ester hydrochloride (4), and mercaptoacetic acid (5) in diisopropylethylamine\\/benzene under refluxing conditions in a Dean–Stark trap.

S. Satyanarayana Reddy; G. L. David Krupadanam

2010-01-01

72

Antiamnesic effects of ethyl acetate fraction from chestnut (Castanea crenata var. dulcis) inner skin on A?(25-35)-induced cognitive deficits in mice.  

PubMed

To investigate neuronal cell protective effects of an ethyl acetate fraction from chestnut inner skin, in vitro assays, including 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate, 3-[4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), were performed. Intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species resulting from hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) treatment of PC12 cells was significantly reduced when ethyl acetate fractions were present in the medium compared to PC12 cells treated with H(2)O(2) only. In a cell viability assay using MTT, the ethyl acetate fraction protected against H(2)O(2)-induced neurotoxicity, and inhibited LDH release into the medium. In addition, the ethyl acetate fraction improved in vivo cognitive ability against amyloid ?-peptide (A?)-induced neuronal deficit. High-performance liquid chromatography analyses showed that gallic acid, catechin, and epicatechin were predominant phenolics in the ethyl acetate fraction. Consequently, the results suggest that chestnut inner skin, including above phenolics, could ameliorate A?-induced learning and memory deficiency, and be utilized as effective substances for neurodegenerative disorders, notably Alzheimer's disease. PMID:23134459

Jeong, Hee-Rok; Jo, Yu Na; Jeong, Ji Hee; Jin, Dong Eun; Song, Byung Gi; Choi, Soo Jung; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Heo, Ho Jin

2012-11-07

73

Biochemical composition, antimicrobial activities,and anti-quorum-sensing activities of ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts from Hypericum connatum Lam. (Guttiferae).  

PubMed

We studied the polyphenol composition and antioxidant activity of the ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts of Hypericum connatum (Guttiferae), in addition to their antimicrobial and antiquorum-sensing (AQS) properties. The extracts exhibited a similar polyphenol content and a notable antioxidant activity, which was stronger in the ethanolic extract (EC50=3.2 ?g/mL). Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography analyses revealed different polyphenol profiles, with rutin and apigen being the main components of the ethanolic extract and caffeic acid, (-)-epicatechin and p-coumaric acid being abundant in the ethyl acetate extract. The ethyl acetate extract exhibited a more effective antimicrobial activity than the ethanolic extract against the pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. For the first time, AQS activity was detected in H. connatum: the ethanolic extract inhibited the production of violacein, a quorum-sensing-regulated pigment, in a Chromobacterium violaceum tester strain, without interfering with its growth. PMID:23631492

Fratianni, Florinda; Nazzaro, Filomena; Marandino, Aurelio; Fusco, Maria Del Rosario; Coppola, Raffaele; De Feo, Vincenzo; De Martino, Laura

2013-04-30

74

The effects of chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of Brassica rapa L. on cell-mediated immune response in mice  

PubMed Central

Turnips with a long history of usage, are helpful in preventing breast and prostate cancer, inflammation and body`s immune system dysfunction. In this study, we investigated the effects of chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of Brassica rapa L. on cell-mediated immune response in mice. Chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of B. rapa glands were prepared by maceration method. To study the effects of B. rapa on acquired immunity, groups of Balb/c mice (n=8) were used. Sheep red blood cell (SRBC) was injected (s.c., 1×108cells/ml, 0.02 ml) and 5 days later, different extracts (10, 100 and 500 mg/kg), betamethasone (4 mg/kg) and Levamisol (4 mg/kg) as a positive control and normal saline as a negative control were given i.p. After 1 h SRBC was injected to footpad (s.c., 1×108cells/ml, 0.02 ml) and footpad swelling was measured up to 72 h. To investigate the effects of B. rapa on innate immunity the same procedure was used, but animals only received one injection of SRBC 1 h after i.p. injection of test compounds. Our findings showed that SRBC induced an increase in paw swelling with maximum response at 6-8 and 2-4 h for innate and acquired immunity, respectively. Betamethasone inhibited and levamisol increased paw thickness in both models. In both innate and acquired immunity models, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of B. rapa glands significantly and dose-dependently reduced paw thickness. Ethyl acetate extract showed better effect. As glucosinolates are better extracted by ethyl acetate, it may be concluded that they are contributed in the more pronounced effects of ethyl acetate extract.

Jafarian-Dehkordi, A.; Zolfaghari, B.; Mirdamadi, M.

2013-01-01

75

The effects of chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of Brassica rapa L. on cell-mediated immune response in mice.  

PubMed

Turnips with a long history of usage, are helpful in preventing breast and prostate cancer, inflammation and body`s immune system dysfunction. In this study, we investigated the effects of chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of Brassica rapa L. on cell-mediated immune response in mice. Chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of B. rapa glands were prepared by maceration method. To study the effects of B. rapa on acquired immunity, groups of Balb/c mice (n=8) were used. Sheep red blood cell (SRBC) was injected (s.c., 1×10(8)cells/ml, 0.02 ml) and 5 days later, different extracts (10, 100 and 500 mg/kg), betamethasone (4 mg/kg) and Levamisol (4 mg/kg) as a positive control and normal saline as a negative control were given i.p. After 1 h SRBC was injected to footpad (s.c., 1×10(8)cells/ml, 0.02 ml) and footpad swelling was measured up to 72 h. To investigate the effects of B. rapa on innate immunity the same procedure was used, but animals only received one injection of SRBC 1 h after i.p. injection of test compounds. Our findings showed that SRBC induced an increase in paw swelling with maximum response at 6-8 and 2-4 h for innate and acquired immunity, respectively. Betamethasone inhibited and levamisol increased paw thickness in both models. In both innate and acquired immunity models, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of B. rapa glands significantly and dose-dependently reduced paw thickness. Ethyl acetate extract showed better effect. As glucosinolates are better extracted by ethyl acetate, it may be concluded that they are contributed in the more pronounced effects of ethyl acetate extract. PMID:24019825

Jafarian-Dehkordi, A; Zolfaghari, B; Mirdamadi, M

2013-07-01

76

RED Facts: Tridecenyl Acetates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This fact sheet summarizes the information in the RED document for reregistration case 4116, tridecenyl acetates. Tridecenyl acetates are sex attractant pheromones used in tomato fields to disrupt the mating behavior of tomato pinworms.

1996-01-01

77

Coordination of Lanthanide Acetates  

SciTech Connect

A study of the structures of hydrated and anhydrous lanthanide acetates by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectra, and absorption spectra demonstrates that there are three separate structures for hydrated lanthanide acetates and four structures for anhydrous acetates. This paper discusses the results of that study.

Karraker, D.G.

2001-08-29

78

Antidiabetic and antiacetylcholinesterase effects of ethyl acetate fraction of Chaenomeles sinensis (Thouin) Koehne fruits in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.  

PubMed

The present study was intended to examine the effects of the supplementation of active ?-glucosidase, ?-amylase and lipase inhibitory ethyl acetate (CSE) fraction from the fruits of Chaenomeles sinensis (Thouin) Koehne on blood glucose (BG), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and antioxidant levels. The diabetic rats were treated orally with CSE at the doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg bw for 14 days. BG, TC, TG, HDL-C, ALT, AST and AChE levels were significantly reduced; on the other hand antioxidant levels were significantly increased in the treated groups. These observations suggest protective effects of CSE against STZ-induced diabetic dementia model. PMID:21764274

Sancheti, Sandesh; Sancheti, Shruti; Seo, Sung-Yum

2011-07-20

79

Ethyl acetate extract of the Mauritian sponge Jaspis sp. induces cell arrest in human promyelocytic leukemia cells.  

PubMed

Marine sponges are considered as a gold mine of new natural products possessing numerous biological activities. We examined the cytotoxic properties of the ethyl acetate extract (JDE) of the previously unrecorded sponge, Jaspis sp. collected from Mauritius Waters. JDE displayed an interesting IC50 of 0.057±0.04?g/mL on HL-60 cells evaluated by MTS assay. Mitochondrial membrane potential change, microscopic analysis and DNA fragmentation assays also confirmed JDE induced apoptosis on HL-60 cells. Annexin V staining demonstrated that JDE induced apoptosis at different concentrations. Treatment with 100ng/mL of JDE led to an accumulation of cells in G2/M phase after 24 h, causing a significant increase of cells (24h: 5.84%; 48h: 13.41%) in sub-G1 phase suggesting that JDE can induce cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase. PMID:23598257

Beedessee, Girish; Ramanjooloo, Avin; Aubert, Geneviève; Eloy, Laure; Arya, Deepak; van Soest, Rob W M; Cresteil, Thierry; Marie, Daniel E P

2013-03-15

80

Thermodynamics of Aqueous Mixtures of Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes. I. Ethyl Acetate and Eight 1-1 Alkali Metal Salts at 25C.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial molal enthalpies of transfer of ethyl acetate from water to eight aqueous 1 m alkali halides and nitrates were determined via calorimetry at 25. The enthalpies of transfer range from 204 to -66 cal/mole and were combined with free energies calcula...

J. H. Stern A. Hermann

1966-01-01

81

Release kinetic studies of aspirin microcapsules from ethyl cellulose, cellulose acetate phthalate and their mixtures by emulsion solvent evaporation method.  

PubMed

The present study was oriented towards microencapsulation of aspirin and the study of its release kinetics. The desired encapsulation was achieved by emulsion solvent evaporation method using ethyl cellulose (EC), cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) and their mixture (1:1) of polymeric constituents. Characterization of the formulations was performed by size, shape, drug loading efficiency and in-vitro drug release analysis. The in-vitro release profiles from different polymeric microcapsules were applied on different kinetic models. The prepared microcapsules were found free flowing and almost spherical in shape with particle sizes ranging from 300â700Îm, having a loading efficiency of 75â85%. The best fit model with the highest correlation coefficient was observed in Higuchi model, indicating diffusion controlled principle. The n value obtained from Korsemeyer-Peppas model varied between 0.5â0.7, confirming that the mechanism of drug release was diffusion controlled. Comparative studies revealed that the release of aspirin from EC microcapsules was slower as compared to that of CAP and their binary mixture. PMID:21179372

Dash, Vikas; Mishra, Sujeet K; Singh, Manoj; Goyal, Amit K; Rath, Goutam

2009-12-19

82

Release Kinetic Studies of Aspirin Microcapsules from Ethyl Cellulose, Cellulose Acetate Phthalate and their Mixtures by Emulsion Solvent Evaporation Method  

PubMed Central

The present study was oriented towards microencapsulation of aspirin and the study of its release kinetics. The desired encapsulation was achieved by emulsion solvent evaporation method using ethyl cellulose (EC), cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) and their mixture (1:1) of polymeric constituents. Characterization of the formulations was performed by size, shape, drug loading efficiency and in-vitro drug release analysis. The in-vitro release profiles from different polymeric microcapsules were applied on different kinetic models. The prepared microcapsules were found free flowing and almost spherical in shape with particle sizes ranging from 300–700?m, having a loading efficiency of 75–85%. The best fit model with the highest correlation coefficient was observed in Higuchi model, indicating diffusion controlled principle. The n value obtained from Korsemeyer-Peppas model varied between 0.5–0.7, confirming that the mechanism of drug release was diffusion controlled. Comparative studies revealed that the release of aspirin from EC microcapsules was slower as compared to that of CAP and their binary mixture.

Dash, Vikas; Mishra, Sujeet K.; Singh, Manoj; Goyal, Amit K.; Rath, Goutam

2010-01-01

83

Effects of Heracleum persicum ethyl acetate extract on the growth, hyphal ultrastructure and aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus parasiticus.  

PubMed

The ethyl acetate extract of leaves, seeds and flowers of Heracleum persicum, a medicinal plant of Iran (family Apiaceae) inhibited growth and aflatoxin (AF) production of Aspergillus parasiticus. On the basis of total dry weight growth inhibition by the leaf extract ranged from 17.1 to 36.9 %, by the flower extract from 32.2 to 75.6 %, and by the seed extract from 27.5 to 74.9 %. Production of AFB1 and AFG1 was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner, with a reduction of 88.5-100 % at the highest concentration of 8,000 ?g/ml tested. The flower extract decreased ergosterol content of hyphae most significantly. Electron microscopy further revealed structural defects in the treated A. parasiticus including disruption of cytoplasmic membranous compartments, detachment of plasma membrane from the cell wall, and disorganization of hyphal compartments. Collapsed hyphae without conidiation, shorter branches and undifferentiated hyphal tips were also evident. The results indicate that H. persicum extract exerts antifungal and anti-AF activities by disrupting plasma membrane integrity and permeability mainly through interference with ergosterol biosynthesis. These results show that H. persicum can serve as a potent and safe alternative for inhibiting toxigenic aspergilli growth and thus preventing AF contamination of foods and feeds. PMID:23780853

Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mehdi; Saberi, Reza; Sharifan, Anosheh; Rezaee, Mohammad-Bagher; Seifili, Roghayeh; Hosseini, Seyed-Ibrahim; Shams-Ghahfarokhi, Masoomeh; Nikkhah, Mehdi; Saberi, Ismail; Amani, Akram

2013-06-19

84

Determination of glucose and cellobiose dissolved in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The conversion of biogenic carbohydrate feedstock to chemicals or energy equivalents is a promising approach to solve the problem of limited fossil fuel reserves. Some concepts to accomplish these transformations are based on ionic liquids (ILs) due to their ability to dissolve biopolymers, such as cellulose, and even complex biopolymer mixtures, such as wood. However, concerning control of such conversions, a reliable tool for process analytics is required. In this paper we demonstrate the applicability of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy to perform quantitative concentration measurements of glucose and cellobiose as two examples of carbohydrates dissolved in the room-temperature ionic liquid [EMIM][OAc] (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate). For this purpose, binary mixtures in the range 0-20 wt% have been studied. A previously developed method for the data analysis, which was based on the Beer-Lambert relation, has been universalized by employing empirical correlations between the measured quantity (i.e., extinction) and the carbohydrate concentration. In the entire spectral range under investigation (500-4000 cm(-1)) numerous individual wave-numbers have been identified, allowing quantitative measurements with high accuracy and precision. PMID:19796487

Kiefer, Johannes; Obert, Katharina; Fries, Jürgen; Bösmann, Andreas; Wasserscheid, Peter; Leipertz, Alfred

2009-09-01

85

Michrochip chromatography using an open-tubular microchannel and a ternary water-ACN-ethyl acetate mixture carrier solution.  

PubMed

A capillary chromatography system has been developed using a ternary mixed-solvents solution, i.e. water-hydrophilic/hydrophobic organic solvent mixture as a carrier solution. Here, we tried to carry out the chromatographic system on a microchip incorporating the open-tubular microchannels. A model analyte solution of isoluminol isothiocyanate (ILITC) and ILITC-labeled biomolecule was injected to the double T-junction part on the microchip. The analyte solution was delivered in the separation microchannel (40 ?m deep, 100 ?m wide, and 22 cm long) with the ternary water-ACN-ethyl acetate mixture carrier solution (3:8:4 volume ratio, the organic solvent rich or 15:3:2 volume ratio, the water-rich). The analyte, free-ILITC and labeled BSA mixture, was separated through the microchannel, where the carrier solvents were radially distributed in the separation channel generating inner and outer phases. The outer phase acts as a pseudo-stationary phase under laminar flow conditions in the system. The ILITC and the labeled BSA were eluted and detected with chemiluminescence reaction. PMID:23378128

Matsuda, Takafumi; Yamashita, Kenichi; Maeda, Hideaki; Hashimoto, Masahiko; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhiko

2013-02-04

86

Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropene) (PVDF-HFP) membranes for ethyl acetate removal from water.  

PubMed

In this study, poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropene) (PVDF-HFP) with low crystallinity was applied as the membrane material for pervaporative separating ethyl acetate (EtAc) from its aqueous solutions. The drying conditions during membrane fabrication by means of casting the PVDF-HFP solution dominated the obtained membrane morphologies when the polar solvents such as dimethylacetamide (DMAc) and acetone were used. It was demonstrated that both the DMAc-cast and acetone-cast PVDF-HFP membranes vacuum-dried at 60 degrees C were dense but had different crystalline structures. Predominantly alpha and gamma crystalline phases were found in the acetone-cast and DMAc-cast PVDF-HFP membranes, respectively. And the different pervaporative separating performances of the two solvent-cast PVDF-HFP membranes were well explained in terms of different solution-diffusion properties which were induced from the permeants/polymer interactions on the base of the polarity differences between permeants and the two solvent-cast PVDF-HFP membranes. PMID:17884287

Tian, Xiuzhi; Jiang, Xue

2007-08-17

87

Behavioral Toxicology of Volatile Organic Solvents. IV. Comparisons of the Rate-Decreasing Effects of Acetone, Ethyl Acetate, Methyl Ethyl Ketone, Toluene, and Carbon Disulfide on Schedule-Controlled Behavior of Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of acetone (ACE), ethyl acetate (EAC), methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), toluene (TOL), and carbon disulfide (CS2) were compared on schedule-controlled responding of mice. Responding (the interruption of a photocell beam located behind a nose-poke hole) was maintained under a fixed interval (FI) 60-second schedule of milk presentation in a sealed inhalation chamber. Cumulative concentration-effect functions were obtained by

J. R. Glowa; P. B. Dews

1987-01-01

88

Prompt-NO formation in methane/oxygen/nitrogen flames seeded with oxygenated volatile organic compounds: Methyl ethyl ketone or ethyl acetate  

SciTech Connect

In the present work, CH and NO profiles are determined using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) measurements in eight low-pressure laminar flames of CH{sub 4}/O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} containing various amounts of methyl ethyl ketone or ethyl acetate with respect to the equivalence ratio. Relative CH LIF signals are calibrated using cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS), while NO LIF calibration is performed in the burned gases of NO seeded flames. Temperature measurements are obtained using a coated Pt/Rh thermocouple and serve as temperature profiles input for Chemkin modeling. Volatile organic compound (VOC) submechanisms, previously validated upon major and intermediate species profiles measured using sampling techniques, are incorporated into the GDF-Kin 3.0{sub N}CN for the CH{sub 4} oxidation. This mechanism is adjusted and validated to predict the effect of VOCs seeding on CH and NO formation. It takes into account not only the CH and NO profiles but those previously measured. When methane is replaced by either MEK or EA, the NO mole fraction in the burned gases and the CH peak value are found to jointly decrease, indicating that NO is mainly formed according to the prompt-NO mechanism. According to the kinetic analysis, the VOC impact on NO formation is demonstrated. It is shown that CH radical formation, through the C1 sequence, mainly involves the CH{sub 3} radical, which is formed with the same propensity by one molecule of methane, MEK, or EA. Due to the methane replacement by VOC while the equivalence ratio is maintained constant, we found that the CH peak value decrease follows the total fuel volumetric flow rate decrease, yielding, an NO decrease in the burned gases. (author)

Lamoureux, N.; El-Bakali, A.; Gasnot, L.; Pauwels, J.F.; Desgroux, P. [UMR CNRS 8522 PC2A ''Physicochimie des Processus de Combustion et de l'Atmosphere,'' Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, 59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex (France)

2008-04-15

89

The effect of ethyl acetate extract of Ficus thonningii (Blume) leaves on erythrocyte osmotic fragility and haematological parameters in acetaminophen-treated rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ficus thonningii (Blume) (Moraceae) known as wild fig is a large economic tree indigenous to the savannah part of Nigeria. Its leaves have\\u000a been of interest to researchers because of its increased use in diets and folkloric medicine against liver and related problems.\\u000a The effect of the ethyl acetate extract of F. thonningii leaves on erythrocyte osmotic fragility in acetaminophen-treated

Victor Masekaven Ahur; Ifeanyi Madubunyi; Adesina Y. Adenkola; Samuel C. Udem

90

Inhibitory effects of ethyl acetate extract of Cordyceps sinensis mycelium on various cancer cells in culture and B16 melanoma in C57BL\\/6 mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cultivated mycelium of a Cordyceps sinensis (Cs) fungus was sequentially extracted by petroleum ether (PE), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), ethanol (EtOH) and hot water. All solvent extracts except hot water extract showed a significant and dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the proliferation of four cancer cell lines, MCF-7 breast cancer, B16 mouse melanoma, HL-60 human premyelocytic leukemia and HepG2 human hepatocellular

Jian Yong Wu; Qiao Xia Zhang; Po Hong Leung

2007-01-01

91

An environmental friendly approach for the synthesis of the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate and its dissolubility to 1, 3, 5-triamino-2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([Emim] Ac) is a good solvent for the famous insensitive high explosive 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB). In this work, a novel one-pot method has been proposed to synthesize [Emim] Ac using 1-methylimidazole and bromethyl as starting materials, and the reaction conditions have been optimized experimentally. Results show that the one-pot method has advantages of high yield and

Haixiang Zhu; Jinshan Li; Rong Xu; Shiyuan Yang

92

Risk Reduction of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Empetrum nigrum var. japonicum via Antioxidant Properties Against Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Cell Damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produce damage to all major cellular constituents. The antioxidant properties of the ethyl acetate fraction of Empetrum nigrum was assessed against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cell damage. Empetrum extract was found to scavenge (1) intracellular ROS in cell system, (2) hydroxyl radicals generated by the Fenton reaction (FeSO4 + H2O2), and (3) superoxide radicals generated by xanthine\\/xanthine

Ki Cheon Kim; Kyoung Ah Kang; Rui Zhang; Mei Jing Piao; Young Jun Heo; Sungwook Chae; Gi Young Kim; Ji Young Moon; Byoung Sam Yoo; Jin Won Hyun

2009-01-01

93

DESORPTION OF ETHYL ACETATE-WATER MIXTURE BY USING CROSS-LINKED POLY(VINYLALCOHOL) MEMBRANE AND COMPARISON OF RESULTS WITH PERVAPORATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study using poly(vinylalcohol) (PVOH) membranes cross-linked with tartaric acid (Tac) desorption experiments were performed for selected concentrations of binary ethyl acetate (EtAc)-water mixture at temperatures of 30°, 40°, and 50°C to determine sorption of components. Sorption values measured were compared with those estimated by the Flory-Huggins approach. Additionally, desorption results were compared with pervaporation results of another study

Sevinc Korkmaz; Yavuz Salt; Ayca Hasanoglu; Semra Ozkan; Salih Dincer

2008-01-01

94

Multifilament fibres of poly(?-caprolactone)\\/poly(lactic acid) blends with multiwalled carbon nanotubes as sensor materials for ethyl acetate and acetone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conductive poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL)+4% multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)\\/poly(lactic acid) (PLA)=50\\/50wt% blend multifilament fibres were melt-spun and a woven textile was made by a handloom with the conductive fibres in weft direction. The fibres were tested for cyclic liquid sensing in ethyl acetate and acetone as two moderate solvents and in ethanol as a poor solvent. The liquid sensing responses, namely the

Rosina Rentenberger; Aurélie Cayla; Tobias Villmow; Dieter Jehnichen; Christine Campagne; Maryline Rochery; Eric Devaux; Petra Pötschke

95

The radioprotective effects of the hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of Callophyllis japonica in mice that undergo whole body irradiation.  

PubMed

The radioprotective activity of extracts from the red seaweed Callophyllis (C.) japonica was investigated in mice that underwent whole-body exposure to gamma radiation. A methanol extract of C. japonica and its fractions [hexane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), butanol and the remaining H2O] were used. Each fraction (100 mg/kg body weight) was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) 2 times into the BALB/c mice, once at 1 and once at 24 h before exposure to 9 Gray (Gy) of gamma radiation. Pre-irradiation administration of the hexane and EtOAc fractions saved the mice, with their survival rates being greater than 80% at 30 days post-irradiation; the mice that were pretreated with the other fractions showed survival rates lower than 20% over the same time period. To examine the effect of each C. japonica fraction on the survival of intestinal and bone marrow stem cells, the number of intestinal crypts and bone marrow cells in the gamma-irradiated mice were examined. Pre-treatment of mice (i.p., 100 mg/kg body weight at 1 and 24 h before irradiation) with the hexane or EtOAc fraction prior to 6-Gy irradiation significantly protected the number of jejunal crypts and bone marrow cells at 9 days after irradiation. These findings suggest that certain extracts from C. japonica, when they are administered prior to irradiation, play an important role in the survival of irradiated mice, and this is possibly due to the extracts protecting the hematopoietic cells and intestinal stem cells against gamma irradiation. PMID:18716448

Kim, Jeongtae; Moon, Changjong; Kim, Heechul; Jeong, Jinwoo; Lee, Juyeon; Kim, Jihoon; Hyun, Jin Won; Park, Jae Woo; Moon, Mi Yeon; Lee, Nam Ho; Kim, Sung Ho; Jee, Youngheun; Shin, Taekyun

2008-09-01

96

Ethyl acetate extracts of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) sprouts inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to investigate if food components that exert anti-inflammatory effects may be used for inflammatory disorders by examining alfalfa sprout ethyl acetate extract (ASEA). The cytokine profile and life span of BALB/c mice with acute inflammation after intra-peritoneal (ip) injection of 15 mg/kg BW lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were determined. The results showed that the life span of LPS-induced inflammatory mice were negatively correlated with serum levels of TNF-?, IL-6, and IL-1? at 9 hr after LPS-injection, which indicated that suppressing these cytokines in the late phase of inflammation may be beneficial for survival. The in vitro experiment then showed that ASEA significantly reduced IL-6 and IL-1? production and the NF-?B trans-activation activity of mitogen-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. To further evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of ASEA in vivo, BALB/c mice were tube-fed with 25 mg ASEA/kg BW/day in 50 ?l sunflower oil, while the control and PDTC (pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, an anti-inflammatory agent) groups were tube-fed with 50 ?l sunflower oil/day only. After one week of tube-feeding, the PDTC group was injected with 50 mg/kg BW PDTC and one hour later, all of the mice were injected with 15 mg/kg BW LPS. The results showed that the ASEA and PDTC groups had significantly lower serum TNF-?, IL-6, and IL-1? levels at 9 hr after LPS challenge, and significantly higher survival rates than the control group. This study suggests that ASEA supplementation can suppress the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and alleviate acute inflammatory hazards.

Hong, Yong-Han; Chao, Wen-Wan; Chen, Miaw-Ling; Lin, Bi-Fong

2009-01-01

97

Acetals and Ketals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thirteen open-chain simple cyclic and spirocyclic acetals and ketals were studied. The synthesis of all the cyclic compounds was accomplished by an alcoholysis reaction. The infrared and proton magnetic resonance spectra were measured and correlated. (Aut...

J. Radell R. E. Rondeau

1970-01-01

98

Sodium Acetate Hand Warmers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, sodium acetate hand warmers are used to introduce learners to supersaturated solutions, crystallization, and exothermic reactions. This activity guide includes background information, extension ideas, and resources.

Johnson, Jill

2006-01-01

99

The effect of culture liquid ethyl acetate mycelium extracts of medicinal mushrooms on the viability of human pancreatic cancer cells.  

PubMed

Pancreatic cancer, one of the deadliest of all solid malignancies, is one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide, with 232,000 new cases and 213,000 deaths reported each year. These unfortunate statistics reflect the advanced stage at which most patients with pancreatic cancer are diagnosed and the paucity of effective chemotherapeutic regimens. Fungal metabolites have been gaining scientific interest because of their medicinal properties. In the present study, 31 different mushroom extracts of 12 medicinal mushroom species were screened for their effect on the viability of human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells. Extraction procedures were executed with organic solvents--ethanol (EAL), ethyl acetate (EAC), and chloroform (CHL). In some cases, culture liquid (CL) extraction was also performed. All extracts were diluted to a concentration of 50 mg/mL dimethyl sulfoxide. Extract effects on cell viability were examined in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells HPAF-II (well differentiated) and PL5 (porrly differentiated), using XTT assay and crystal violet assay (CV). Furthermore, extract effects on LDH leakage were also studied in order to exclude necrotic damage of the extract. The screening phase revealed that among the total 31 extracts examined with various treatment doses (50-500 ?g/mL) administered for 72 h, the CL extract of the mushroom Cyathus striatus exhibited the most prominent decrease in cell viability. Moreover, exposure of cells to lower concentrations then the above (1, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 15, 20, and 50 ?g/mL) for 24, 48, and 72 h showed a significant decrease in cell viability. Crystal violet results support these findings, and LDH levels measured suggest the lack of a necrotic effect of the extract. Our results indicate that C. striatus CL extract inhibits the viability of human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells; HPAF-II and PL45. Growth inhibition can be achieved in low concentrations of the extract and a short exposure period. This effect can be mediated through apoptosis induction and/or cell cycle arrest; therefore, additional experiments are needed in order to elucidate the extract mechanism of action. These findings may lead to the development of new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. PMID:22506577

Sharvit, Lital E; Wasser, Solomon P; Fares, Fuad

2012-01-01

100

Influence of ethyl acetate extract and quercetin-3-methyl ether from Polygonum amphibium on activation lymphocytes from peripheral blood of healthy donor in vitro.  

PubMed

The influence of an ethyl acetate extract from Polygonum amphibium L. and quercetin-3-methyl ether isolated from them were examined on the human immune system. The investigations were made on peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors. The cells were stimulated by plant extract and quercetin-3-methyl ether in 24 h culture and analysed inflow cytometry. The following mice monoclonal antibody anti human activate markers were used: anti HLA-DR PE, anti CD25 FITC, anti CD69 FITC and anti CD71 FITC. The level of Interleukine-2 in blood serum and in culture supernatants was measured by ELISA method. Ethyl acetate extract from Polygonum amphibium caused the rise in the number of CD25 and HLA-DR positive lymphocytes and increased the expression of CD25 and CD71 antigens. The level of IL-2 was increasing for the duration of the culture, independently from the presence of stimulators. Besides quercetin-3-methyl ether, from herb of Polygonum amphibium L., trans-taxifolin, quercetin and kaempferol were isolated The structure of the isolated compounds was determined by spectroscopic (UV, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and CI-MS) methods. PMID:12916071

Smolarz, H D; Surdacka, A; Roli?ski, J

2003-08-01

101

Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect of the ethyl acetate extract of Enicostemma axillare (Lam). Raynal against CCL4-induced liver injury in rats.  

PubMed

Enicostemma axillare is used in Indian traditional medicine as a liver tonic. Its ethyl acetate extract has shown potent in vitro antioxidant activity and found to contain 7.26% of a bitter secoiridoid glycoside, swertiamarin. Hence, in the present study the ethyl acetate extract was screened for hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties against CCl4 induced hepatic injury in rats. The hepatoprotection was assessed in terms of reduction in histological damage and changes in serum enzymes and metabolites. The pretreatment with the extract at 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight doses given orally for eight days prior to CCl4 caused significant restoration of altered biochemical changes due to CCl4 towards the normal in serum, liver and kidney. The extract treatment at 200 mg/kg body weight was found to be more potent than the standard silymarin at 100 mg/kg body weight in reversing most of the biochemical parameters. Histopathological studies complemented the results of biochemical estimations in providing a proof of hepatoprotective and antioxidant actions of the extract. The study provides a support to the ethnomedical use of E. axillare in India. PMID:21506497

Jaishree, V; Badami, Shrishailappa; Krishnamurthy, Praveen Thaggikuppe

2010-09-01

102

Oxime Acetates: Substrates for Acetylcholinesterase.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Oxime acetates function as typical substrates for acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Both syn 3- and syn 4-PAM acetates are rapidly hydrolyzed. Both are highly water soluble and give large changes in molar absorbance upon hydrolysis. Hence, they have potential ...

G. M. Steinberg J. P. Maddox L. J. Szafraniec L. M. Berkowitz N. C. Thomas

1971-01-01

103

Kallolide A acetate pyrazoline  

PubMed Central

In the crystal structure of kallolide A acetate pyrazoline [systematic name: 7-methyl-16-oxo-4,10-bis­(prop-1-en-2-yl)-17,18-dioxa-14,15-diaza­tetra­cyclo­[9.4.2.16,9.01,12]octa­deca-6,8,14-trien-5-yl acetate], C23H28N2O5, there is a 12-member­ed carbon macrocyclic structure. In addition, there is a tris­ubstituted furan ring, an approximately planar ?-lactone ring [maximum deviation of 0.057?(3)?Å] and a pyraz­oline ring, the latter in an envelope conformation. The pyrazoline and the ?-lactone rings are fused in a cis configuration. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by weak C—H?O inter­actions, forming a two-dimensional network parallel to (001). An intra­molecular C—H?O hydrogen bond is also present.

Rodriguez-Escudero, Idaliz; Marrero, Jeffrey; Rodriguez, Abimael D.

2012-01-01

104

Fast Esterification of Acetic Acid with Short Chain Alcohols in Microchannel Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microchannel reactor was used for the fast synthesis of acetic acid esters, including methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, n-propyl acetate and n-butyl acetate. Effects of the inner diameter of microchannel reactors, dosage of catalyst, residence time, reaction temperature\\u000a and molar ratio of alcohol to acetic acid on yields of esters were studied in the p-toluene sulfonic acid-catalyzed homogeneous esterification of acetic

Xingjun Yao; Jianfeng Yao; Lixiong Zhang; Nanping Xu

2009-01-01

105

Plasma acetate turnover and oxidation.  

PubMed Central

Plasma acetate turnover and oxidation were determined in 11 healthy subjects by the constant infusion of a trace amount of [1-14C]acetate for 6 h. The subjects ages ranged from 22 to 57 yr. There was a positive correlation (P less than 0.001) between plasma acetate concentration and turnover rate, and a negative correlation (P less than 0.001) between turnover and age. The plasma acetate concentration in the subjects 22--28 yr old was 0.17 vs. 0.13 mM (P less than 0.02) in subjects 40--57 yr old. The plasma acetate turnover rate was also greater in the younger age group (8.23 +/- 0.66 vs. 4.98 +/- 0.64 mumol/min . kg, P less than 0.01). Approximately 90% of the plasma acetate turnover was immediately oxidized to CO2 in both age groups, however, 13.2 +/- 0.89% of the CO2 output in the younger group was derived from plasma acetate oxidation compared to 7.9 +/- 0.94% in the older group (P less than 0.01). The mean plasma acetate concentration, turnover, and oxidation in six cancer patients 47--63 yr old were similar to the values observed in the age-matched healthy subjects. Uptake or output of acetate by various tissues was measured by arterial-venous plasma acetate concentration differences. In seven of eight subjects undergoing elective surgery, the arterial-portal venous concentration difference was negative, which indicated that the gastrointestinal tract can contribute to plasma acetate production. Uptake of plasma acetate by both the leg and liver appeared to be dictated by the arterial acetate concentration. Net production of acetate by both the leg and liver was most often observed at arterial plasma acetate concentrations less than 0.08 mM.

Skutches, C L; Holroyde, C P; Myers, R N; Paul, P; Reichard, G A

1979-01-01

106

Studies on antidepressant and antinociceptive effects of ethyl acetate extract from Piper laetispicum and structure-activity relationship of its amide alkaloids.  

PubMed

Piper laetispicum C.DC. (Piperaceae), is an endemic climbing, glabrous plant distributed in the southern part of China. A novel alkaloid amide, Laetispicine, from it has been proven to possess antidepressant activity. In this present study, antidepressant and antinociceptive effects of the ethyl acetate extract (EAE) of P. laetispicum have been studied in forced swimming, open field, acetic acid writhing and formalin tests in KM mice. A significantly antidepressant-like effect was showing at doses of higher than 60 mg/kg, which was not due to an increase in locomotive activity. The EAE also presented an analgesic effect, in our studies. At lower doses (30 mg/kg) the antinociceptive effect was likely mediated via peripheral inflammation and changes in central processing, and at higher doses (120 mg/kg) that was due to both central and peripheral pathways. We also quantitatively analyzed the major components of EAE by HPLC and approached the structure-activity relationship between structure of amide alkaloids and its antidepressant activities. The antidepressant effective components of EAE might be Leatispiamide A and Laetispicine. In their molecular structures, the isolated double bond from benzene ring and conjugated double bond located at 2-3 and 4-5 were necessary for its antidepressant activity. PMID:21787850

Xie, Hui; Yan, Ma-cheng; Jin, Di; Liu, Jia-jia; Yu, Min; Dong, Dong; Cai, Cheng-cheng; Pan, Sheng-Li

2011-07-23

107

Toxicity of ethyl acetate extract from Jatropha gossypifolia senescent leaves against Spodoptera exigua Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Meteorus pulchricornis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).  

PubMed

This study explored the insecticidal effects of Thai botanical, senescent leaf Jatropha gossypifolia extracts on second instar Spodoptera exigua larvae by the dipping method and topical sprayer method. The leaf crude extract was extracted using Soxhlet apparatus with ethyl acetate as solvent. The leaf crude extracts showed insecticidal activity with a LC50 of 6182 ppm at 24 hours after treatment. In addition, this research was observed its toxicity to worm parasitoid, Meteorus pulchricornis by contact method. The result shows 60 percent mortality of this parasitoid species at dose up to 40,000 ppm. Thus, Jatropha gossypifolia leaf crude extracts can be as alternative IPM control tool for Spodoptera exigua which friendly to benefit insect such as Meteorus pulchricornis. PMID:21539260

Khumrungsee, N; Pluempanupat, W; Kainoh, Y; Saguanpong, U; Bullangpotin, V

2010-01-01

108

Cognitive enhancing and antioxidant activity of ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the methanol extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis in scopolamine-induced amnesia  

PubMed Central

Objective: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the cognitive enhancing and antioxidant activity of Hibiscus rosa sinensis. Materials and Methods: The learning and memory was impaired by administration of scopolamine (1 mg/kg, i.p.) in mice which is associated with altered brain oxidative status. The object recognition test (ORT) and passive avoidance test (PAT) were used to assess cognitive enhancing activity. Animals were treated with an ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the methanol extract of H. sinensis (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o). Results: The ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the methanol extract of H. sinensis (EASF) attenuated amnesia induced by scopolamine and aging. The discrimination index (DI) was significantly decreased in the aged and scopolamine group in ORT. Pretreatment with EASF significantly increased the DI. In PAT, scopolamine-treated mice exhibited significantly shorter step-down latencies (SDL). EASF treatment showed a significant increase in SDL in young, aged as well as in scopolamine-treated animals. The biochemical analysis of brain revealed that scopolamine treatment increased lipid peroxidation and decreased levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GSH). Administration of extract significantly reduced LPO and reversed the decrease in brain SOD and GSH levels. The administration of H. sinensis improved memory in amnesic mice and prevented the oxidative stress associated with scopolamine. The mechanism of such protection of H. sinensis may be due to augmentation of cellular antioxidants. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggested that H. sinensis had a protective role against age and scopolamine-induced amnesia, indicating its utility in management of cognitive disorders.

Nade, Vandana S.; Kanhere, Sampat V.; Kawale, Laxman A.; Yadav, Adhikrao V.

2011-01-01

109

Acetate metabolism in Methanosarcina barkeri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanosarcina barkeri was grown by acetate fermentation in complex medium (N2 gas phase). The molar growth yield was 1.6–1.9 g cells\\/mol methane formed. Under these conditions 63–82% of the methane produced byMethanosarcina strains was derived from the methyl carbon of acetate, indicating that some methane was derived from other media components. Growth was not demonstrated in complex media lacking acetate

P. J. Weimer; J. G. Zeikus

1978-01-01

110

[Nomegestrol acetate: clinical pharmacology].  

PubMed

Progestogens are used in clinical practice in some conditions. Their effects depend on their chemical structure, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, with important differences among various progestogens. Generally, progestins are classified according to their parent molecule, of which often they keep some features. Derivatives of 19-nor-progesterone are characterized by high selectivity of action on progestin receptor. In particular, nomegestrol acetate (NomAc) shows an important progestational potency, neutral gluco-lipid profile, and antigonadotropic activity. It is used for treating menstrual cycle disorders and for hormone replacement therapy in menopause in association with an estrogen. In future, thanks to its antigonadotropic activity, NomAc will be used in estroprogestin combinations in fertile women, thus taking advantage of its tolerability profile and obtaining numerous non-contraceptive benefits as well. PMID:19749678

Lello, S

2009-10-01

111

Thermogravimetric analysis of the relationship among calcium magnesium acetate, calcium acetate and magnesium acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal decomposition characteristic of calcium magnesium acetate (CMA), calcium acetate (CA) and magnesium acetate (MA) are investigated through thermogravimetric (TG) analysis at the heating rates of 5Kmin?1, 7.5Kmin?1, 10Kmin?1 and 15Kmin?1. After dehydration, the evaporation of carboxylic radical and carbon dioxide of CMA and CA exist in two separate segments, but for MA, this occurs together in just one segment

Shengli Niu; Kuihua Han; Chunmei Lu; Rongyue Sun

2010-01-01

112

Stabilized Calcium Acetate Oil Dispersions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A lubricating composition is imparted with improved load-carrying ability and anti-wear properties by incorporation of calcium acetate. The composition consists of a base lubricant, 0.1 to 50 percent by weight calcium acetate and 0.01 to 20 percent by wei...

R. H. Davis

1965-01-01

113

Lead Acetate, Radiotracer Metabolism Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Metabolic studies utilizing radiotracer techniques were applied to tissues from rats which had received 0 and 1000 ppm lead acetate (calculated as lead) for one month prior to the oral administration of 210 lead acetate. Seventy-two hours after administra...

D. C. Jessup

1967-01-01

114

Comparative study of recovering acetic acid with energy integrated schemes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heat pumping and multi-effect distillation techniques were evaluated for recovering acetic acid from aqueous solutions with low boiling solvents, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethyl acetate (EtOAc). The overhead vapour recompression and two types of column cascading techniques are compared to the conventional acetic acid recovery scheme. It was found that (1) by switching the solvent to MTBE, approximately

S. Kürüm; Z. Fonyo

1996-01-01

115

1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate as an inhibitor of phagocytosis of macrophages.  

PubMed

We screened extracts of edible plants for inhibitors of phagocytosis by peritoneal exudate macrophages. 1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate was isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of Languas galanga, and this compound strongly inhibited phagocytosis at an IC50 value of 1.2 microM with negligible effects on pinocytosis and cell viability. Target(s) of 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate was suggested to be downstream of the signal transduction pathway that is mediated by protein kinase C. PMID:7549106

Watanabe, N; Kataoka, T; Tajika, T; Uramoto, M; Magae, J; Nagai, K

1995-08-01

116

21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid. It may be produced by the calcium hydroxide neutralization of acetic acid. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals...

2013-04-01

117

Inhibition of both protease and helicase activities of hepatitis C virus NS3 by an ethyl acetate extract of marine sponge Amphimedon sp.  

PubMed

Combination therapy with ribavirin, interferon, and viral protease inhibitors could be expected to elicit a high level of sustained virologic response in patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). However, several severe side effects of this combination therapy have been encountered in clinical trials. In order to develop more effective and safer anti-HCV compounds, we employed the replicon systems derived from several strains of HCV to screen 84 extracts from 54 organisms that were gathered from the sea surrounding Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. The ethyl acetate-soluble extract that was prepared from marine sponge Amphimedon sp. showed the highest inhibitory effect on viral replication, with EC?? values of 1.5 and 24.9 µg/ml in sub-genomic replicon cell lines derived from genotypes 1b and 2a, respectively. But the extract had no effect on interferon-inducing signaling or cytotoxicity. Treatment with the extract inhibited virus production by 30% relative to the control in the JFH1-Huh7 cell culture system. The in vitro enzymological assays revealed that treatment with the extract suppressed both helicase and protease activities of NS3 with IC?? values of 18.9 and 10.9 µg/ml, respectively. Treatment with the extract of Amphimedon sp. inhibited RNA-binding ability but not ATPase activity. These results suggest that the novel compound(s) included in Amphimedon sp. can target the protease and helicase activities of HCV NS3. PMID:23144928

Fujimoto, Yuusuke; Salam, Kazi Abdus; Furuta, Atsushi; Matsuda, Yasuyoshi; Fujita, Osamu; Tani, Hidenori; Ikeda, Masanori; Kato, Nobuyuki; Sakamoto, Naoya; Maekawa, Shinya; Enomoto, Nobuyuki; de Voogd, Nicole J; Nakakoshi, Masamichi; Tsubuki, Masayoshi; Sekiguchi, Yuji; Tsuneda, Satoshi; Akimitsu, Nobuyoshi; Noda, Naohiro; Yamashita, Atsuya; Tanaka, Junichi; Moriishi, Kohji

2012-11-07

118

Autophagic cell death is induced by acetone and ethyl acetate extracts from Eupatorium odoratum in vitro: effects on MCF-7 and vero cell lines.  

PubMed

Eupatorium odoratum (EO) contains many biologically active compounds, the anticancer effects of which are not well documented. This study evaluates the cytotoxic effects and mechanism of action of EO extracts on MCF-7 and Vero cell lines. Evaluation of the cytotoxic activity using MTT assay, morphological alterations, and apoptosis were carried out. Autophagy was evaluated by LC3-A protein expression. Cytotoxic activity, membrane blebbing and ballooning at 24 hours, replacement by mass vacuolation, and double membrane vesicles mimicking autophagy and cell death were observed in the cancer cells. No apoptosis was observed by DNA fragmentation assay. Overexpression of LC3-A protein indicated autophagic cell death. Cell cycle analysis showed G0 and G2/M arrest. The Vero cells did not show significant cell death at concentrations <100??g/mL. These results thus suggest that acetone and ethyl acetate extracts of EO induce cell death through induction of autophagy and hold potential for development as potential anticancer drugs. PMID:22666123

Harun, Faizah Bt; Syed Sahil Jamalullail, Syed Mohsin; Yin, Khoo Boon; Othman, Zulkhairi; Tilwari, Anita; Balaram, Prabha

2012-04-30

119

Single-laboratory validation and uncertainty analysis of 82 pesticides determined in pomegranate, apple, and orange by ethyl acetate extraction and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Single-laboratory validation results are reported for the multiresidue determination of 82 pesticides at < or = 10 ng/g levels in pomegranate, apple, and orange. Samples were extracted with ethyl acetate, and the extracts were cleaned up by dispersive solid-phase extraction with primary secondary amine sorbent. The concentrations of the pesticides were estimated within 18 min of chromatographic run time by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry with multiple-reaction monitoring. The method was reproducible (HorRat of < 0.5 at 10 ng/g) with measurement uncertainties of < 15% for all the compounds at 10 nglg in all 3 matrixes. The limits of quantitation ranged from 2.5 to 5.0 ng/g with recoveries of 70-120% for most pesticides. Matrix-induced signal suppressions were significantly higher in orange compared with those in pomegranate and apple. The method offers a less expensive and safer alternative to the existing multiresidue analysis methods for fruits and vegetables. PMID:19202806

Banerjee, Kaushik; Oulkar, Dasharath P; Patil, Shubhangi B; Patil, Sangram H; Dasgupta, Soma; Savant, Rahul; Adsule, Pandurang G

120

Risk reduction of ethyl acetate fraction of Empetrum nigrum var. japonicum via antioxidant properties against hydrogen peroxide-induced cell damage.  

PubMed

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produce damage to all major cellular constituents. The antioxidant properties of the ethyl acetate fraction of Empetrum nigrum was assessed against hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced cell damage. Empetrum extract was found to scavenge (1) intracellular ROS in cell system, (2) hydroxyl radicals generated by the Fenton reaction (FeSO(4) + H(2)O(2)), and (3) superoxide radicals generated by xanthine/xanthine oxidase in a cell-free system as detected by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry. Cell damage was produced by H(2)O(2) treatment as evidenced by DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, and increased protein carbonyl formation; however, Empetrum extract prevented H(2)O(2)-induced damage to these parameters. Empetrum extract increased viability of Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79-4) cells exposed to H(2)O(2), as evidenced by decreased apoptotic nuclear fragmentation, and lower sub G(1) cell population. Further, Empetrum extract restored the cellular antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which were reduced by H(2)O(2) treatment. In conclusion, Empetrum extract protected cells against H(2)O(2)-induced cell damage via antioxidant properties by scavenging ROS and enhancing antioxidant enzyme activities. PMID:20077224

Kim, Ki Cheon; Kang, Kyoung Ah; Zhang, Rui; Piao, Mei Jing; Heo, Young Jun; Chae, Sungwook; Kim, Gi Young; Moon, Ji Young; Yoo, Byoung Sam; Hyun, Jin Won

2009-01-01

121

Phellinus baumii ethyl acetate extract inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced iNOS, COX-2, and proinflammatory cytokine expression in RAW264.7 cells.  

PubMed

Mushrooms are valuable sources of biologically active compounds possessing anticancer, antiplatelet, and anti-inflammatory properties. Phellinus baumii is a mushroom used in folk medicine for a variety of human diseases. However, its potential anti-inflammatory effect has remained unclear. Therefore, we studied the effect of P. baumii ethyl acetate extract (PBEAE) on inflammatory mediator and proinflammatory cytokine protein and/or mRNA expression levels using the nitric oxide (NO) assay, enzyme immunoassay (EIA), western blot, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage like RAW264.7 cells. PBEAE markedly inhibited NO generation and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) synthesis in a concentration-dependent pattern without any cytotoxic effect at the concentration range used. PBEAE also suppressed inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein expression. In addition, LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 mRNA expression levels were dose-dependently inhibited by PBEAE pretreatment. Furthermore, PBEAE attenuated the mRNA expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines, specifically interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), in a concentration-dependent fashion. Our study suggests that P. baumii might exhibit anti-inflammatory properties by downregulating proinflammatory mediators. Thus, further study on compounds isolated from PBEAE is warranted to investigate the associated molecular mechanisms and identify the potential therapeutic targets. PMID:21656334

Yayeh, Taddesse; Oh, Won Jun; Park, Seung-Choon; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Cho, Jae Youl; Park, Hwa-Jin; Lee, In-Kyoung; Kim, Sang-Keun; Hong, Seung-Bok; Yun, Bong-Sik; Rhee, Man Hee

2011-06-09

122

The anti-inflammatory effects of ethyl acetate on Lipopolysaccharide/D-galactosamine challenged mice and Lipopolysaccharide activated RAW264.7 cells.  

PubMed

Ethyl acetate (EA) is an ordinary organic compound in fruits, wine and cosmetics, and used as a solvent frequently. With the recent observation in our experiment, we suspected that EA could affect immune function, in particular macrophage activity. In this paper, we tested EA's protect effect against death in Lipopolysaccharide/D-galactosamine (LPS/D-GalN)-induced endotoxic shock model in mice. And also found EA decreased the LPS-induced mRNA expression of mediators of inflammation including cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), inducible NOS (iNOS), and tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF ?) in RAW264.7 cells. Consequently, EA decreased the production of, TNF ? and the inflammatory agent nitric oxide (NO) in RAW264.7 cells treated with LPS. Other pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1h and IL-6 were similarly decreased by EA treatment of RAW264.7 cells. The potential mechanism may associate with NF-?B activity as we shown. Taken together, these results suggest that EA has anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:23022187

Liu, Tengfei; Xiao, Nan; Liu, Yuxin; Wilson, Belinda; Li, Jing; Wang, Yuanyuan; Cao, Xu; Liu, Zhiqin

2012-09-26

123

Draft Guidance on Norethindrone Acetate Active ingredient ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text VersionPage 1. Contains Nonbinding Recommendations Draft Guidance on Norethindrone Acetate ... Active ingredient: Norethindrone Acetate ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

124

Methanogenesis from acetate: enrichment studies.  

PubMed Central

An acetate enrichment culture was initiated by inoculating anaerobic sludge from a mesophilic methane digestor into a mineral salts medium with calcium acetate as the sole carbon and energy source. This enrichment was maintained indefinitely by weekly transfer into medium of the same composition. A study of this enrichment disclosed an unexpected age-dependent inhibition of methanogenesis by H2 and formate which apparently differed from the inhibition by chloroform and benzyl viologen. This age-dependent inhibition indicated that microbial interactions of the mixed enrichment population may play a regulatory role in methane formation. Futhermore, stimulation of methanogenesis in the acetate enrichment by addition of yeast extract showed a nutrient limitation which indicated that syntrophic interactions leading to formation of growth factors may also occur. A model is presented to illustrate the possible interrelationships between methanogenic and nonmethanogenic bacteria in their growth and formation of methane and carbon dioxide from acetate. Images

Baresi, L; Mah, R A; Ward, D M; Kaplan, I R

1978-01-01

125

Molecular Structure of Acetic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Acetic Acid commonly associated with vinegar; it is the most commercially important organic acid and is used to manufacture a wide range of chemical products, such as plastics and insecticides. Acetic acid is produced naturally by Aceto bacteria but, except for making vinegar, is usually made through synthetic processes. Ethanoic acid is used as herbicide, as a micro-biocide, as a fungicide and for pH adjustment.

2003-06-02

126

Acetate catabolism by Methanosarcina barkeri  

SciTech Connect

Cell suspensions of Methanosarcina barkeri convert the carboxyl and methyl group carbons of acetate to carbon dioxide and methane at pH 6 under an atmosphere of 100% CO/sub 2/. The rate of loss of radioactivity from (1-/sup 14/C)acetate was over three times greater than that from (2-/sup 14/C)acetate under these conditions. Control experiments with both labeled substrates present showed that the rates were additive. Addition of a high level of 2-bromoethanesulfonate to selectively inhibit methane formation largely inhibited release of /sup 14/C from methyl-labeled acetate but only marginally decreased the rate of loss from (1-/sup 14/C)acetate. Thus, in the absence of the inhibitor loss of /sup 14/C from (1-/sup 14/C)acetate likely reflects an isotopic exchange reaction with CO/sub 2/ superimposed on the overall conversion of acetate to CO/sub 2/ and CH/sub 4/. The exchange reaction was inhibited by uncouplers such as 2,4-dinitrophenol, CCCP, and FCCP. Cells permeabilized by treatment with nonionic detergents or disrupted by passage through a French pressure cell failed to catalyze the exchange reaction. Exchange activity was not restored by addition of ATP or by use of (1-/sup 14/C)acetyl CoA as substrate. No evidence for involvement of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase in the exchange was found in these experiments when CO/sub 2/ was replaced by CO. However, the soluble extracts retained the ability to convert acetate to methane in the presence of H/sub 2/ and ATP.

Grahame, D.A.

1987-05-01

127

AminoAcid and Dipeptide Derivatives of 2-(6-ethyl-4-oxo-3-(4-phenyl-4 H -1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)-4 H -chromen-7-yloxy)acetic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromones modified by triazole, amino acids, and dipeptides were prepared by condensation of the N-hydroxysuccinimide ester\\u000a of 2-(6-ethyl-4-oxo-3-(4-phenyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)-4H-chromen-7-yloxy)acetic acid with salts of amino acids or dipeptides.\\u000a The dipeptide derivatives were also synthesized by extending the chain of amino acids.

T. V. Shokol; V. V. Semenyuchenko; S. V. Shilin; A. V. Turov; A. S. Ogorodniichuk; V. P. Khilya

2005-01-01

128

Inhibitory Effects of Ethyl Acetate Extract of Andrographis paniculata on NF-?B Trans-Activation Activity and LPS-Induced Acute Inflammation in Mice.  

PubMed

This study was to investigate anti-inflammatory effect of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees (Acanthaceae) (AP). The effects of ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extract from AP on the level of inflammatory mediators were examined first using nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) driven luciferase assay. The results showed that AP significantly inhibited NF-?B luciferase activity and tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?), interleukin 6 (IL-6), macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and nitric oxide (NO) secretions from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/interferon-? stimulated Raw264.7 cells. To further evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of AP in vivo, BALB/c mice were tube-fed with 0.78 (AP1), 1.56 (AP2), 3.12 (AP3) and 6.25 (AP4)?mg?kg(-1) body weight (BW)/day in soybean oil, while the control and PDTC (pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, an anti-inflammatory agent) groups were tube-fed with soybean oil only. After 1 week of tube-feeding, the PDTC group was injected with 50?mg?kg(-1) BW PDTC and 1 h later, all of the mice were injected with 15?mg?kg(-1) BW LPS. The results showed that the AP1, AP2, AP3 and PDTC groups, but not AP4, had significantly higher survival rate than the control group. Thus, the control, AP1, AP2, AP3 and PDTC groups were repeated for in vivo parameters. The results showed that the AP and PDTC groups had significantly lower TNF-?, IL-12p40, MIP-2 or NO in serum or peritoneal macrophages and infiltration of inflammatory cells into the lung of mice. The AP1 group also had significantly lower MIP-2 mRNA expression in brain. This study suggests that AP can inhibit the production of inflammatory mediators and alleviate acute hazards at its optimal dosages. PMID:19745004

Chao, Wen-Wan; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Hsieh, Shie-Liang; Lin, Bi-Fong

2011-02-14

129

Eupafolin and Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Kalanchoe gracilis Stem Extract Show Potent Antiviral Activities against Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CoxA16) are main pathogens of hand-foot-and-mouth disease, occasionally causing aseptic meningitis and encephalitis in tropical and subtropical regions. Kalanchoe gracilis, Da-Huan-Hun, is a Chinese folk medicine for treating pain and inflammation, exhibiting antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Our prior report (2012) cited K. gracilis leaf extract as moderately active against EV71 and CoxA16. This study further rates antienteroviral potential of K. gracilis stem (KGS) extract to identify potent antiviral fractions and components. The extract moderately inhibits viral cytopathicity and virus yield, as well as in vitro replication of EV71 (IC50 = 75.18??g/mL) and CoxA16 (IC50 = 81.41??g/mL). Ethyl acetate (EA) fraction of KGS extract showed greater antiviral activity than that of n-butanol or aqueous fraction: IC50 values of 4.21??g/mL against EV71 and 9.08??g/mL against CoxA16. HPLC analysis, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, and plaque reduction assay indicate that eupafolin is a vital component of EA fraction showing potent activity against EV71 (IC50 = 1.39??M) and CoxA16 (IC50 = 5.24??M). Eupafolin specifically lessened virus-induced upregulation of IL-6 and RANTES by inhibiting virus-induced ERK1/2, AP-1, and STAT3 signals. Anti-enteroviral potency of KGS EA fraction and eupafolin shows the clinical potential against EV71 and CoxA16 infection.

Wang, Ching-Ying; Huang, Shun-Chueh; Lai, Zhen-Rung; Ho, Yu-Ling; Jou, Yu-Jen; Kung, Szu-Hao; Zhang, Yongjun; Chang, Yuan-Shiun; Lin, Cheng-Wen

2013-01-01

130

Microwave-assisted extraction and accelerated solvent extraction with ethyl acetate-cyclohexane before determination of organochlorines in fish tissue by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection.  

PubMed

Focused open-vessel microwave-assisted extraction (FOV-MAE), closed-vessel microwave-assisted extraction (CV-MAE), and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) were used for extraction before determination of organochlorine compounds (polychlorinated biphenyls, DDT, toxaphene, chlordane, hexachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclohexanes, and dieldrin) in cod liver and fish fillets. Wet samples were extracted without the time-consuming step of lyophilization or other sample-drying procedures. Extractions were performed with the solvent mixture ethyl acetate-cyclohexane (1 + 1, v/v), which allowed direct use of gel-permeation chromatography without solvent exchange. For FOV-MAE, the solvent mixture removed water from the sample matrix via azeotropic distillation. The status of water removal was controlled during extraction by measuring the temperature of the distillate. After water removal, the temperature of the distillate increased and the solvent mixture became less polar. Only the pure extraction solvent allowed quantitative extraction of the organochlorine compounds. For CV-MAE, water could not be separated during the extraction. For this reason, the extraction procedure for wet fish tissue required 2 extraction steps: the first for manual removal of coextracted water, and the second for quantitative extraction of the organochlorine compounds with the pure solvent. Therefore, CV-MAE is less convenient for samples with high water content. For ASE, water in the sample was bound with Na2SO4. The reproducibility for each technique was very good (relative standard deviation was typically <10%); the slightly varying levels were attributed to deviations during sample cleanup and the generally low levels. PMID:11128135

Weichbrodt, M; Vetter, W; Luckas, B

131

Inhibitory Effects of Ethyl Acetate Extract of Andrographis paniculata on NF-?B Trans-Activation Activity and LPS-Induced Acute Inflammation in Mice  

PubMed Central

This study was to investigate anti-inflammatory effect of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees (Acanthaceae) (AP). The effects of ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extract from AP on the level of inflammatory mediators were examined first using nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) driven luciferase assay. The results showed that AP significantly inhibited NF-?B luciferase activity and tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?), interleukin 6 (IL-6), macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and nitric oxide (NO) secretions from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/interferon-? stimulated Raw264.7 cells. To further evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of AP in vivo, BALB/c mice were tube-fed with 0.78 (AP1), 1.56 (AP2), 3.12 (AP3) and 6.25 (AP4)?mg?kg?1 body weight (BW)/day in soybean oil, while the control and PDTC (pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, an anti-inflammatory agent) groups were tube-fed with soybean oil only. After 1 week of tube-feeding, the PDTC group was injected with 50?mg?kg?1 BW PDTC and 1 h later, all of the mice were injected with 15?mg?kg?1 BW LPS. The results showed that the AP1, AP2, AP3 and PDTC groups, but not AP4, had significantly higher survival rate than the control group. Thus, the control, AP1, AP2, AP3 and PDTC groups were repeated for in vivo parameters. The results showed that the AP and PDTC groups had significantly lower TNF-?, IL-12p40, MIP-2 or NO in serum or peritoneal macrophages and infiltration of inflammatory cells into the lung of mice. The AP1 group also had significantly lower MIP-2 mRNA expression in brain. This study suggests that AP can inhibit the production of inflammatory mediators and alleviate acute hazards at its optimal dosages.

Chao, Wen-Wan; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Hsieh, Shie-Liang; Lin, Bi-Fong

2011-01-01

132

New process for producing cellulose acetate from wood in concentrated acetic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore further potential applications of acetic acid pulp, an investigation was conducted to develop a direct method for producing cellulose acetate from wood in combination with atmospheric acetic acid pulping. The process consists of delignification, totally chlorine-free bleaching, and esterification, with the concentrated acetic acid aqueous solution being used as only solvent throughout the process. The acetic acid pulp

Hironori Sato; Yasumitsu Uraki; Takao Kishimoto; Yoshihiro Sano

2003-01-01

133

Ethylene Glycol Monoethyl Ether Acetate: Reproduction and Fertility Assessment in CD-1 Mice When Administered in Drinking Water (Revised September 1985).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate (cellosolve acetate, 2-ethoxy-ethyl acetate, or EGMEEA) is a colorless liquid with a pleasant odor. It is commercially used in automobile lacquers to retard evaporation and ipart high gloss. The reproductive toxicit...

D. K. Gulati K. B. Poonacha L. H. Barnes S. Russell

1985-01-01

134

Studies on acetate ester production by non-saccharomyces wine yeasts.  

PubMed

A double coupling bioreactor system was used to fast screen yeast strains for the production of acetate esters. Eleven yeast strains were used belonging to the genera Candida, Hanseniaspora, Metschnikowia, Pichia, Schizosaccharomyces and Zygosacharomyces, mainly isolated from grapes and wine, and two wine Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. The acetate ester forming activities of yeast strains belonging to the genera Hanseniaspora (Hanseniaspora guilliermondii and H. uvarum) and Pichia (Pichia anomala) showed different substrate specificities and were able to produce ethyl acetate, geranyl acetate, isoamyl acetate and 2-phenylethyl acetate. The influence of aeration culture conditions on the formation of acetate esters by non-Saccharomyces wine yeast and S. cerevisiae was examined by growing the yeasts on synthetic microbiological medium. S. cerevisiae produced low levels of acetate esters when the cells were cultured under highly aeration conditions, while, under the same conditions, H. guilliermondii 11104 and P. anomala 10590 were found to be strong producers of 2-phenylethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate, respectively. PMID:11764193

Rojas, V; Gil, J V; Piñaga, F; Manzanares, P

2001-11-01

135

MINIRIN Desmopressin acetate 1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ..... ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Brand Name MINIRIN Generic Name Desmopressin acetate ... NDA 21795 MINIRIN (desmopressin acetate) 0.1 mg and 0.2 mg Tablets Page 1 of 30 ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

136

21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2396 Lead acetate. (a...additive lead acetate may be safely used in cosmetics intended for coloring hair on the scalp...The amount of the lead acetate in the cosmetic shall be such that the lead...

2013-04-01

137

Kinetics of the Methanogenic Fermentation of Acetate  

PubMed Central

Inhibition of the fermentation of acetate to methane and carbon dioxide by acetate was analyzed with an acetate-acclimatized sludge and with Methanosarcina barkeri Fusaro under mesophilic conditions. A second-order substrate inhibition model, qch4 = qmS/[Ks + S + (S2/Ki)], where S was the concentration of undissociated acetic acid, not ionized acetic acid, could be applicable in both cases. The analysis resulted in substrate saturation constants, Ks, of 4.0 ?M for the acclimatized sludge and 104 ?M for M. barkeri. The threshold concentrations of undissociated acetic acid when no further acetate utilization was observed were 0.078 ?M (pH 7.50) for the acclimatized sludge and 4.43 ?M (pH 7.45) for M. barkeri. These kinetic results suggested that the concentration of undissociated acetic acid became a key factor governing the actual threshold acetate concentration for acetate utilization and that the acclimatized sludge in which Methanothrix spp. appeared dominant could utilize acetate better and survive at a lower concentration of undissociated acetic acid than could M. barkeri. Images

Fukuzaki, Satoshi; Nishio, Naomichi; Nagai, Shiro

1990-01-01

138

Salting effect of NaCl and KCl on the liquid-liquid equilibria of water plus ethyl acetate plus ethanol system and interaction parameters estimation using the genetic algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salting effect of NaCl and KCl on the liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE) of\\u000a water-ethyl acetate-ethanol system was investigated experimentally at\\u000a 293.15 K and 1 atm. The salt mass percentages considered were 5 and\\u000a 10\\\\%. The results show that the two electrolytes significantly affected\\u000a the solubility of the solute in the organic phase, since its\\u000a distribution coefficient increased with rising amount of

A. Hasseine; A. Kabouche; A.-H. Meniai; M. Korichi

2011-01-01

139

Dichloridobis[ethyl 2-(2-amino-1,3-thia-zol-4-yl)acetate-?2 O,N 3]cadmium  

PubMed Central

The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [CdCl2(C7H10N2O2S)2], contains two complex molecules with similar configurations. The CdII atoms are each six-coordinated by two thiazole N and two carbonyl O atoms from the 2-(2-amino-1,3-thiazol-4-yl)acetate ligand, and by two Cl? anions in a distorted octa­hedral geometry. In the crystal, intra- and inter­molecular N—H?Cl hydrogen bonds create parallel chains along [1-10]. C—H?Cl inter­actions also occur.

Zhang, Lai-Jun; Chen, Fa-Yun; Liu, Guang-Yi; Chen, Xiao; Chen, Zhi-Feng

2012-01-01

140

Vinyl acetate formation in the reaction of acetylene with acetic acid catalyzed by zinc acetate supported on porous carbon spheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A kind of porous carbon spheres (PCS) was prepared by the carbonization of poly(vinylidene chloride) synthesized by suspension polymerization. Structure analyses revealed the existence of bumps and holes on the surface of PCS. The PCS, with the pore size between 0.8-1.2 nm, could be used as the support of zinc acetate because of the regular shape, high specific surface area, and good mechanical strength. Vinyl acetate was produced from acetylene and acetic acid using the PCS-supported zinc acetate (PCS-Zn) under mild conditions. In a single-pass operation performed at 220°C, the conversions of acetic acid and acetylene reached 22.6 and 5.3% respectively while the activity of vinyl acetate formation was above 1000 g mol-1 h-1.

Yan, Feng-Wen; Guo, Cun-Yue; Yan, Fang; Li, Feng-Bo; Qian, Qing-Li; Yuan, Guo-Qing

2010-05-01

141

Desmopressin Acetate (marketed as DDAVP Nasal Spray ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Desmopressin Acetate (marketed as DDAVP Nasal Spray, DDAVP Rhinal Tube, DDAVP, DDVP, Minirin, and Stimate Nasal Spray). ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/postmarketdrugsafetyinformationforpatientsandproviders

142

Ethyl acetate extract of germinated brown rice attenuates hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells: role of anti-apoptotic, pro-survival and antioxidant genes  

PubMed Central

Background There are reports of improved metabolic outcomes due to consumption of germinated brown rice (GBR). Many of the functional effects of GBR can be linked to its high amounts of antioxidants. Interestingly, dietary components with high antioxidants have shown promise in the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This effect of dietary components is mostly based on their ability to prevent apoptosis, which is believed to link oxidative damage to pathological changes in AD. In view of the rich antioxidant content of GBR, we studied its potential to modulate processes leading up to AD. Methods The total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of the ethyl acetate extract of GBR were compared to that of brown rice (BR), and the cytotoxicity of both extracts were determined on human SH-SY5Y neuronal cells using 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) Assay. Based on its higher antioxidant potentials, the effect of the GBR extract on morphological changes due to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative damage in human SH-SY5Y neuronal cells was examined using inverted light microscope and fluorescence microscope by means of acridine orange-propidium iodide (AO/PI) staining. Also, evaluation of the transcriptional regulation of antioxidant and apoptotic genes was carried out using Multiplex Gene Expression System. Results The ethyl acetate extract of GBR had higher total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity compared to BR. The cytotoxicity results showed that GBR extract did not cause any damage to the human SH-SY5Y neuronal cells at concentrations of up to 20 ppm, and the morphological analyses showed that the GBR extract (up to 10 ppm) prevented H2O2-induced apoptotic changes in the cells. Furthermore, multiplex gene expression analyses showed that the protection of the cells by the GBR extract was linked to its ability to induce transcriptional changes in antioxidant (SOD 1, SOD 2 and catalase) and apoptotic (AKT, NF-K?, ERK1/2, JNK, p53 and p38 MAPK) genes that tended towards survival. Conclusions Taken together, the results of our study showed that the ethyl acetate extract of GBR, with high antioxidant potentials, could prevent H2O2-induced oxidative damage in SH-SY5Y cells. The potential of GBR and its neuroprotective mechanism in ameliorating oxidative stress-related cytotoxicity is therefore worth exploring further.

2013-01-01

143

5?-Dihydro-vespertilin acetate  

PubMed Central

In the title compound, C24H36O4 [systematic name: (20S)-3?-acet­oxy-16?-hydr­oxy-22,23-bis­nor-5?,17?-cholano(22-16)lac­tone], the three six-membered rings adopt classical chair conformations, while the five-membered rings are in envelope conformations. The ester group attached to ring A is in an equatorial position. Rings A/B, B/C and C/D are trans-fused, whereas rings D/E are cis-fused. The structure is devoid of any classical hydrogen bonds. However, non-classical inter- and intra­molecular hydrogen-bonding inter­actions of the type C—H?O are present in the structure.

Benn, Michael; Vohra, Kanwal Nain; Parvez, Masood

2010-01-01

144

Hybrid reactive distillation systems for n-butyl acetate production from dilute acetic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recovery of dilute acetic acid, regarding as a waste stream in many chemical and petrochemical processes, becomes an important issue due to economic and environmental awareness. In this work, a simulation study on the direct utilization of dilute acetic acid to produce n-butyl acetate via esterification with butanol in a reactive distillation is presented by using Aspen Plus. The

Amornchai Arpornwichanop; Kittipong Koomsup; Suttichai Assabumrungrat

2008-01-01

145

Ene diiodo acetals : stereoselective synthesis of ene hydroxy acetals. Handy access to non conjugated dienals  

Microsoft Academic Search

After halogen-metal exchange reaction followed by condensation with carbonyl compounds, ene diiodo acetal 1 allow the stereoselective synthesis of ene hydroxy acetals 2 with Z configuration, in a two step procedure. Moreover, after dehydration, the intermediate diene acetals 3–4, via an appropriated hydrolysis procedure, lead to pure non conjugated dienals 5.

B Bonnet; G Ple; L Duhamel

1998-01-01

146

Cross-Linked Poly(Ester-Acetals).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The cross-linked products have utility as bonding agents for glass laminates. Certain novel soluble poly(ester-acetal) resins initially formed under alkaline conditions, under which the acetal groups appear to be inactive, may be crossed-linked by the add...

E. H. Pryde

1965-01-01

147

Fermentation characteristics of Fusariumoxysporum grown on acetate.  

PubMed

In this study, the growth characteristics of Fusariumoxysporum were evaluated in minimal medium using acetate or different mixtures of acetate and glucose as carbon source. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of acetic acid that F.oxysporum cells could tolerate was 0.8%w/v while glucose was consumed preferentially to acetate. The activity of isocitrate lyase was high when cells were grown on acetate and acetate plus glucose indicating an activation of the glyoxylate cycle. Investigation of the metabolic fingerprinting and footprinting revealed higher levels of intracellular and extracellular TCA cycle intermediates when F.oxysporum cells were grown on mixtures of acetate and glucose compared to growth on only glucose. Our data support the hypothesis that a higher flux through TCA cycle during acetate consumption could significantly increase the pool of NADH, resulting in the activation of succinate-propionate pathway which consumes reducing power (NADH) via conversion of succinate to propionyl-CoA and produce propionate. PMID:18304808

Panagiotou, Gianni; Pachidou, Fotini; Petroutsos, Dimitris; Olsson, Lisbeth; Christakopoulos, Paul

2008-03-04

148

Physicochemical characterization and antibacterial property of chitosan acetates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a new approach to the preparation of solid chitosan acetate, the dependence of solubility of chitsoan acetate on the mole ratio of acetic acid to GlcN residues of chitosan was evaluated from turbidity. The structure of the product chitosan acetate was characterized by titration and FT-IR. It was demonstrated that the chitosan acetate with high solubility retained the structure

Yan Li; Xi Guang Chen; Nan Liu; Cheng Sheng Liu; Chen Guang Liu; Xiang Hong Meng; Le Jun Yu; John F. Kenendy

2007-01-01

149

21 CFR 172.833 - Sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...3 2010-01-01 2009-04-01 true Sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB). 172.833...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.833 Sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB). Sucrose acetate isobutyrate may be safely used in...

2010-01-01

150

21 CFR 172.833 - Sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB). 172.833...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.833 Sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB). Sucrose acetate isobutyrate may be safely used in...

2009-04-01

151

Separation by extractive distillation of mixtures of alcohols and the esters of acetic acid. 1: Solvent selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isobaric 760-mm-Hg vapor-liquid equilibrium data were measured for the binary systems methyl acetate-methanol (1), ethyl acetate-ethanol (2), n-propanol-n-propyl acetate (3), and isopropanol-isopropyl acetate (4) by using a recirculation still designed in the present authors laboratory. The data were tested for experimental thermodynamic consistency, and were correlated by applying the van Laar and Wilson equations. The following minimum azeotropes were found:

E. Cepeda; J. M. Resa

1994-01-01

152

Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum strain deficient in acetate production.  

PubMed Central

A mutant of Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum that is blocked in acetate production was isolated after treatment with nitrosoguanidine and selection for fluoroacetate resistance. The mutant produced more ethanol than the parent strain did.

Rothstein, D M

1986-01-01

153

Fragrance material review on 3-phenylpropyl acetate.  

PubMed

A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 3-phenylpropyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 3-Phenylpropyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 3-phenylpropyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, skin sensitization, and toxicokinetics data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al., 2012 for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22414651

McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

2012-03-04

154

Fragrance material review on anisyl acetate.  

PubMed

A toxicologic and dermatologic review of anisyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Anisyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for anisyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, skin irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, and phototoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al., 2012 for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22414654

McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

2012-03-03

155

Fragrance material review on 4-methylbenzyl acetate.  

PubMed

A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 4-methylbenzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 4-Methylbenzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 4-methylbenzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, skin irritation, skin sensitization, and elicitation data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22414643

McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

2012-03-05

156

Acetate Causes Alcohol Hangover Headache in Rats  

PubMed Central

Background The mechanism of veisalgia cephalgia or hangover headache is unknown. Despite a lack of mechanistic studies, there are a number of theories positing congeners, dehydration, or the ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde as causes of hangover headache. Methods We used a chronic headache model to examine how pure ethanol produces increased sensitivity for nociceptive behaviors in normally hydrated rats. Results Ethanol initially decreased sensitivity to mechanical stimuli on the face (analgesia), followed 4 to 6 hours later by inflammatory pain. Inhibiting alcohol dehydrogenase extended the analgesia whereas inhibiting aldehyde dehydrogenase decreased analgesia. Neither treatment had nociceptive effects. Direct administration of acetate increased nociceptive behaviors suggesting that acetate, not acetaldehyde, accumulation results in hangover-like hypersensitivity in our model. Since adenosine accumulation is a result of acetate formation, we administered an adenosine antagonist that blocked hypersensitivity. Discussion Our study shows that acetate contributes to hangover headache. These findings provide insight into the mechanism of hangover headache and the mechanism of headache induction.

Maxwell, Christina R.; Spangenberg, Rebecca Jay; Hoek, Jan B.; Silberstein, Stephen D.; Oshinsky, Michael L.

2010-01-01

157

Factors Affecting Acetate Degradation in Anaerobic Digesters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Acetate is the major source of methane produced in anaerobic digestion, accounting for about two thirds of all the methane produced. The major methanogenic bacteria responsible for this reaction are /ital Methanosarcina barkeri/ and /ital Methanosarcina m...

R. A. Mah D. R. Boone

1988-01-01

158

Thermodynamic Properties of Alkanediols+Acetates at 298.15 K  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we present experimental values of the density, refractive index, speed of sound, isentropic compressibility and\\u000a liquid-liquid equilibria of the binary mixtures (methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, propyl acetate, and butyl acetate) with (1,2-ethanediol,\\u000a 1,2-propanediol, or 1,3-propanediol) at 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure, as a function of mole fraction. From the experimental\\u000a values, the corresponding excess and deviation values

J. M. Canosa; A. Rodríguez; M. Iglesias; B. Orge; J. Tojo

1998-01-01

159

Dioxouranium (VI) complexes with cellulose acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dioxouranium [UO2(VI)] complexes with three degrees of substitution of cellulose acetate, prepared from viscose pulp (DS = 2.2, 2.45 and 2.86), have been synthesis and characterized. Degree of substitution (DS) is defined as the average number of CH groups substituted on each anhydrocellulose repeat unit. Probable structures of the cellulose acetate complexes were inferred from the elemental analysis data, conductance

Altaf H. Basta; Wafaa M. Hosny

1998-01-01

160

Minimizing acetate formation in E. coli fermentations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Escherichia coli remains the best-established production organism in industrial biotechnology. However, when aerobic fermentation runs at\\u000a high growth rates, considerable amounts of acetate are accumulated as by-product. This by-product has negative effects on\\u000a growth and protein production. Over the last 20 years, substantial research efforts have been expended on reducing acetate\\u000a accumulation during aerobic growth of E. coli on glucose. From

Marjan De Mey; Sofie De Maeseneire; Wim Soetaert; Erick Vandamme

2007-01-01

161

Delignification of Bagasse with Acetic Acid and Ozone. Part 1. Acetic Acid Pulping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-stage delignification of sugarcane bagasse with acetic acid and ozone was investigated. The better pulp was obtained pulping bagasse in aqueous solution of acetic acid (80% volume) at 145°C during 60 min. The liquor\\/bagasse ratio (L\\/B) was 10:1 and the kappa number was 44; it fell to 10 in the ozone stage due to selectivity of acetic acid medium. Pulp

H. Contreras Q; Z. A. Nagieb; R. Sanjuán D

1997-01-01

162

Characterization of the Acetate Binding Pocket in the Methanosarcina thermophila Acetate Kinase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetate kinase catalyzes the reversible magnesium-dependent synthesis of acetyl phosphate by transfer of the ATP -phosphoryl group to acetate. Inspection of the crystal structure of the Methanosarcina thermophila en- zyme containing only ADP revealed a solvent-accessible hydrophobic pocket formed by residues Val93, Leu122, Phe179, and Pro232 in the active site cleft, which identified a potential acetate binding site. The hypothesis

Cheryl Ingram-Smith; Andrea Gorrell; Sarah H. Lawrence; Prabha Iyer; Kerry Smith; James G. Ferry

2005-01-01

163

Non-aceticlastic methanogenesis from acetate: acetate oxidation by a thermophilic syntrophic coculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanogenesis from acetate by a rod-shaped enrichment culture grown at 60° C was found to require the presence of two organisms rather than a single aceticlastic methanogen. A thermophilic Methanobacterium which grew on H2\\/CO2 or formate was isolated from the enrichment. Lawns of this methanogen were used to co-isolate an “acetate oxidizer” in roll tubes containing acetate agar. The rod-shaped

Stephen H. Zinder; Markus Koch

1984-01-01

164

Acetate Oxidation Is the Dominant Methanogenic Pathway from Acetate in the Absence of Methanosaetaceae†  

PubMed Central

The oxidation of acetate to hydrogen, and the subsequent conversion of hydrogen and carbon dioxide to methane, has been regarded largely as a niche mechanism occurring at high temperatures or under inhibitory conditions. In this study, 13 anaerobic reactors and sediment from a temperate anaerobic lake were surveyed for their dominant methanogenic population by using fluorescent in situ hybridization and for the degree of acetate oxidation relative to aceticlastic conversion by using radiolabeled [2-14C]acetate in batch incubations. When Methanosaetaceae were not present, acetate oxidation was the dominant methanogenic pathway. Aceticlastic conversion was observed only in the presence of Methanosaetaceae.

Karakashev, Dimitar; Batstone, Damien J.; Trably, Eric; Angelidaki, Irini

2006-01-01

165

Oxidation of 3- and 4-carenes with mercuric acetate in acetic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.A study was made of the oxidation of 3-carene with Hg(OAc)2 in acetic acid at 23 and 86°, and with (HgOAc)2 at 90°. The action of both of the oxidizing agents leads to the same acetylative oxidation products: the acetates of p-mentha-1,5-dien-8-ol and p-mentha-1(7),5-dien-8-ol.2.The products of the oxidation of 4-carene with Hg(OAc)2 in acetic acid at 20° contain the acetates

B. A. Arbuzov; V. V. Ratner; Z. G. Isaeva; É. Kh. Kazakova; M. G. Belyaeva

1971-01-01

166

Friction and wear behaviour of acetal and nylon gears  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current paper will present an extensive investigation of polymer gear (acetal and nylon) friction and wear behaviour. First, a unique test method for polymer gear wear will be described in brief and later used in the extensive investigation of acetal and nylon gear wear. Initial tests were performed using acetal pinions with acetal gears, and nylon pinions with nylon

K. Mao; W. Li; C. J. Hooke; D. Walton

2009-01-01

167

The ethyl acetate extract of Phellinus linteus grown on germinated brown rice induces G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human colon carcinoma HT29 cells.  

PubMed

It is well known that Phellinus linteus has a variety of biological functions, such as antitumor and immunomodulating activities. In our previous studies, we developed a P. linteus grown on germinated brown rice (PBR) and found that organic solvent extracts of PBR possessed immunomodulating activity to regulate a balance of cytokine network in mice. The components of PBR are ergosterol peroxide, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and Beta-glucan. In this study, we demonstrate that an organic solvent extract of P. linteus grown on PBR induced apoptotic cell death through the induction of G(0)/G(1) arrest of cell cycle and the apoptosis via DNA fragmentation in human colon carcinoma HT-29 cells. Cell death induced by the extract of P. linteus grown on PBR was shown to be associated with the upregulation of p21(CIP1/WAF1), the downregulation of cyclin D1, anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2, the release of cytochrome c, and the activation of caspase-9, caspase-3 and caspase-8. This study suggests that the ethyl acetate extract of P. linteus grown on PBR induces apoptosis accompanied by cell cycle arrest at G(0)/G(1) phase and regulates apoptosis-regulatory proteins, which may be applicable to anticancer therapy. PMID:19998418

Park, Hye-Jin; Choi, Se Young; Hong, Se Mi; Hwang, Sung Gu; Park, Dong Ki

2010-07-01

168

Validation and uncertainty analysis of a multiresidue method for 42 pesticides in made tea, tea infusion and spent leaves using ethyl acetate extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A rapid, specific and sensitive multiresidue method to determine 42 pesticides in made tea, tea infusion and spent leaves has been developed and validated for the routine analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The method was reproducible (Horwitz ratio (HorRat) <0.5 at 50 ng/g) and validated by the analysis of sample spiked at 50 and 100 ng/g in made tea, tea infusion and spent leaves. The samples were extracted with ethyl acetate+cyclohexane (9:1; v/v), and the extracts were cleaned up by dispersive solid phase extraction with primary secondary amine sorbent+graphitized carbon black+Florisil. The recoveries of all the pesticides were between 70% and 120% with a relative standard deviation of less than 15% and correlation coefficient for each pesticide was R(2) > or =0.99. The matrix effect on signal of respective compounds was measured by comparing matrix-matched calibration standards with those in solvent-only. The limits of quantitation (LOQ) met the requirements of the maximum residue limits (MRLs) for pesticides in tea as recommended by the European Union. PMID:20149377

Kanrar, Bappaditya; Mandal, Sudeb; Bhattacharyya, Anjan

2010-01-25

169

Calcination of calcium acetate and calcium magnesium acetate: effect of the reacting atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The calcination process of the calcium acetate (CA) and calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) was investigated as a previous step for coal gas desulfurisation during sorbent injection at high temperatures because the excellent results demonstrated by these sorbents as sulfur removal agents both in combustion and gasification processes. As pore structure developed during calcination is one of the most important characteristic

J. Adánez; L. F. de Diego; F. Garc??a-Labiano

1999-01-01

170

Factors affecting acetate degradation in anaerobic digesters  

SciTech Connect

Acetate is the major source of methane produced in anaerobic digestion, accounting for about two thirds of all the methane produced. The major methanogenic bacteria responsible for this reaction are )ital Methanosarcina barkeri) and )ital Methanosarcina mazei). One strain of each of these bacteria was selected for this study, in which the effect of molecular hydrogen on acetate dissimilation was examined. We examined the effects that hydrogen concentration had on the active growth of aceticlastic (acetate-splitting) cultures. We found that, during steady-state growth, each of these methanogens ()ital M. barkeri) or )ital M. mazei)) could tolerate a wide range of hydrogen concentrations with little change in their rates of acetate degradation. At hydrogen partial pressures as low as 2 Pa and as high as 800 Pa no change was detected in the growth rate or acetate degradation rate of either of these methanogens. However, we also showed that small amounts of hydrogen were produced or consumed by )ital Methanosarcina) in order to bring the hydrogen concentration in their environment to a pressure of 16 to 92 Pa, similar to that found in anaerobic digestors.

Mah, R.A.; Boone, D.R.

1988-01-01

171

Genera and species in acetic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

Taxonomic studies of acetic acid bacteria were historically surveyed. The genus Acetobacter was first introduced in 1898 with a single species, Acetobacter aceti. The genus Gluconobacter was proposed in 1935 for strains with intense oxidation of glucose to gluconic acid rather than oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid and no oxidation of acetate. The genus "Acetomonas" was described in 1954 for strains with polar flagellation and no oxidation of acetate. The proposals of the two generic names were due to confusion, and "Acetomonas" was a junior subjective synonym of Gluconobacter. The genus Acetobacter was in 1984 divided into two subgenera, Acetobacter and Gluconoacetobacter. The latter was elevated to the genus Gluconacetobacter in 1998. In the acetic acid bacteria, ten genera are presently recognized and accommodated to the family Acetobacteraceae, the Alphaproteobacteria: Acetobacteer, Gluconobacter, Acidomonas, Gluconacetobacter, Asaia, Kozakia, Swaminathania, Saccharibacter, Neoasaia and Granulibacter. In contrast, the genus Frateuria, strains of which were once named 'pseudacetic acid bacteria', was classified into the Gammaproteobacteria. The genus Gluconacetobacter was phylogenetically divided into two groups: the Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens group and the Gluconacetobacter xylinus group. The two groups were discussed taxonomically. PMID:18199517

Yamada, Yuzo; Yukphan, Pattaraporn

2007-12-05

172

Lithographic properties of novel acetal-derivatized hydroxy styrene polymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lithographic properties of a variety of acetal-derivatized styrene based polymers are reported. The structural modifications in the polymers involve varying the size of the pendent acetal moiety. the lithographic performances of the resists containing structurally modified acetals were found to be superior to the conventional acetals. In the cases where the acidolysis products of the modified acetals are non-volatile alcohols, the post-exposure volatilization, film shrinkage and plasma etch resistance were found to be significantly improved.

Malik, Sanjay; Blakeney, Andrew J.; Ferreira, Lawrence; Maxwell, Brian; Whewell, Allyn; Sarubbi, Thomas R.; Bowden, Murrae J.; van Driessche, Willy; Fujimori, Toru; Tan, Shiro; Aoai, Toshiaki; Uenishi, Kazuya; Kawabe, Yasumasa; Kokubo, Tadayoshi

1999-05-01

173

Megestrol acetate-induced adrenal insufficiency.  

PubMed

Megestrol acetate is a synthetic progestin that has been used since the 1970s for the treatment of advanced cancer and subsequently to treat anorexia, cachexia and weight loss in AIDS patients. It has been shown that high doses or prolonged treatment with this drug may cause Cushing's syndrome, new-onset diabetes and suppression of plasma ACTH and cortisol levels. Megestrol acetate may cause suppression of the pituitary-adrenal axis due to the affinity of this compound for the glucocorticoid receptor. Recognising the glucocorticoid-like activity of megestrol and its effects at the axis level is important for the diagnosis of sub-clinical adrenal insufficiency. We present the case of a 74-year-old woman with infiltrating ductal breast carcinoma refractory to prolonged hormonal treatment with megestrol acetate, presenting with adrenal insufficiency. PMID:18411198

González Villarroel, Paula; Fernández Pérez, Isaura; Páramo, Concepción; Gentil González, Marta; Carnero López, Beatriz; Vázquez Tuñas, M Lidia; Carrasco Alvarez, Juan A

2008-04-01

174

The Reactions of Acetals with Ozone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data concerning the composition of the products of the ozonisation of acetals, the stoichiometry of the process, and the influence of substituents and the structure of acetals on their reactivity, the effect of the polarity of the medium, the activation parameters for the process, and the kinetic isotope effects are surveyed and analysed. At lowered temperatures the process proceeds via a heterolytic mechanism, while with increase of temperature the fraction of ozone consumed due to the formation of free radicals rises. The bibliography includes 60 references.

Rakhmankulov, D. L.; Kuramshin, E. M.; Zlotskii, S. S.

1985-06-01

175

Catalysis of an isotopic exchange between CO 2 and the carboxyl group of acetate by Methanosarcina barkeri grown on acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell suspensions of Methanosarcina barkeri (strain Fusaro) grown on acetate were found to catalyze the formation of methane and CO2 from acetate (30–40 nmol\\/min·mg protein) and an isotopic exchange between the carboxyl group of acetate and 14CO2 (30–40 nmol\\/min·mg protein). An isotopic exchange between [14C]-formate and acetate was not observed. Cells grown on methanol mediated neither methane formation from acetate

Bernhard Eikmanns; Rudolf K. Thauer

1984-01-01

176

Pulmonary and percutaneous absorption of 2-propoxyethyl acetate and 2-ethoxyethyl acetate in beagle dogs.  

PubMed Central

A comparison was made of the absorption and elimination rates of 2-propoxyethyl acetate (PEA) and 2-ethoxyethyl acetate (EEA) following inhalation, dermal application or IV administration. Male beagle dogs were exposed to 50 ppm PEA or EEA for 5 hr, and breath samples were collected during the exposure and a 3-hr recovery period. Both compounds were rapidly absorbed through the lungs. After 10 min of exposure, the concentrations of the parent compounds in the expired breath were 5 to 10 ppm (80-90% absorption) and reached plateau values at about 3 hr of 13 ppm for PEA (74% absorption) and 16 ppm for EEA (68% absorption). Post-exposure breath samples declined exponentially to 0.5 ppm and 2 ppm after 3 hr for PEA and EEA, respectively. Expired concentrations of PEA were slightly, but significantly (p less than 0.025), lower than those of EEA at corresponding times during the exposure. After IV dosing with 1 mg/kg [ethyl-1,2-14C]PEA, the urine contained 61% and 88% of the dose in 4 and 24 hr, respectively. [14C]EEA was eliminated more slowly, with 20% and 61% of the dose appearing in the urine in 4 and 24 hr, respectively. Blood elimination half-lives were 1.6 hr for [14C]PEA and 7.9 hr for [14C]EEA. Only trace amounts of 14CO2 (less than 1%) or volatile materials (less than 0.1%) were detected in the expired air with either compound. For studies of percutaneous absorption, [14C]PEA or [14C]EEA was added to undiluted compound and applied in a glass cell to a shaved area on a dog's thorax for 30 or 60 min.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Guest, D; Hamilton, M L; Deisinger, P J; DiVincenzo, G D

1984-01-01

177

Experimental isobaric vapour–liquid–liquid equilibrium data for the quaternary systems water (1)–ethanol (2)–acetone (3)– n-butyl acetate (4) and water (1)–ethanol (2)–acetone (3)–methyl ethyl ketone (4) and their partially miscible-constituent ternaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental vapour–liquid–liquid equilibrium data for the (type B) quaternary systems water (1)–ethanol (2)–acetone (3)–n-butyl acetate (4) and water (1)–ethanol (2)–acetone (3)–methyl ethyl ketone (4) were measured using a circulation equilibrium still employing vigorous mechanical mixing in the boiling chamber. The first quaternary system was measured isobarically at pressures of 760, 600 and 360mm Hg, and the other system measured isobarically

O. A. D. Younis; D. W. Pritchard; M. M. Anwar

2007-01-01

178

Synthesis of Cellulose Acetate from Cotton Byproducts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton burr and cottonseed hull are relatively inexpensive cotton byproducts. In an effort to derive greater value out of these natural renewable materials, we have succeeded in converting part of them into cellulose acetate without prior chemical breakdown or physical separation of cellulose, ligni...

179

The PVT Properties of Acetic Acid.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The PVT properties of acetic acid in the saturated and single-phase regions were measured at temperatures between 448.15 and 603.15 K, at pressures up to about 10 MPa. The experimental results were corrected for decomposition of the sample.

D. A. Lee G. B. Lewis I. J. Lawrenson

1977-01-01

180

Calcium Magnesium Acetate Production and Cost Reduction,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Calcium Magnesium Acetate (CMA) has been found to be a much less corrosive and environmentally safer substance for effective highway de-icing. However, CMA costs are currently about $640 per ton, while road salt costs $25 per ton. In addition, present CMA...

A. P. Leuschner

1988-01-01

181

Fragrance material review on phenethyl acetate.  

PubMed

A toxicologic and dermatologic review of phenethyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Phenethyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for phenethyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22414644

McGinty, D; Vitale, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

2012-03-05

182

Fragrance material review on ?-methylbenzyl acetate.  

PubMed

A toxicologic and dermatologic review of ?-methylbenzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. ?-Methylbenzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for ?-methylbenzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, and repeated dose data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22406576

McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

2012-03-03

183

Fragrance material review on piperonyl acetate.  

PubMed

A toxicologic and dermatologic review of piperonyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Piperonyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for piperonyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, toxicokinetics, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22445840

McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

2012-03-15

184

Fragrance material review on 2-phenylpropyl acetate.  

PubMed

A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-phenylpropyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-Phenylpropyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2-phenylpropyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22421639

McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

2012-03-06

185

Fermentative biohydrogen production from lactate and acetate.  

PubMed

In this study, a continuous-flow stirred tank reactor (CSTR) fed with lactate and acetate was operated to enrich hydrogen-producing bacteria. By varying the influent substrate concentrations and hydraulic retention times (HRT), the volumetric loading rate (VLR) of 55.64 kg-COD/m(3)/day seemed to be optimum for this enriched culture for fermentative hydrogen production from lactate and acetate. The results of batch experiments confirmed that the enriched culture tended to fulfill the e(-) equiv requirement for cell growth at a lower VLR condition (21.77 kg-COD/m(3)/day), while it could largely distribute the e(-) equiv for hydrogen production at a higher VLR condition. However, a maximum lactate/acetate concentration allowed for enriching this culture existed, especially at a lower HRT condition in which wash-out can be an issue for this enriched culture. Finally, the results of cloning and sequencing indicated that Clostridium tyrobutyricum was considered the major hydrogen-producing bacteria in the CSTR fed with lactate and acetate. PMID:22318084

Wu, Chao-Wei; Whang, Liang-Ming; Cheng, Hai-Hsuan; Chan, Kan-Chi

2012-01-05

186

Process for the preparation of vinyl acetate  

DOEpatents

This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting within a contact zone a mixture of ketene and acetaldehyde with an acid catalyst at about one bar pressure and between about 85.degree. and 200.degree. C. and removing the reaction products from the contact zone.

Tustin, Gerald Charles (Kingsport, TN); Zoeller, Joseph Robert (Kingsport, TN); Depew, Leslie Sharon (Kingsport, TN)

1998-01-01

187

Sisal cellulose whiskers reinforced polyvinyl acetate nanocomposites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sisal nanowhiskers were used as novel reinforcement to obtain nanocomposites with polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) as matrix phase. They are seen as attractive materials due to the widespread availability and low cost of the sisal source material. Statistical analysis of the sisal whisker length and diameter resulted in average values of 250 nm and 4 nm, respectively, resulting in an average aspect ratio

Nancy Lis Garcia de Rodriguez; Wim Thielemans; Alain Dufresne

2006-01-01

188

Recovery of acetic acid from dilute aqueous solutions using catalytic dehydrative esterification with ethanol.  

PubMed

We have developed a direct esterification of aqueous acetic acid with ethanol (molar ratio=1:1) catalyzed by polystyrene-supported or homogeneous sulfonic acids toward the recovery of acetic acid from wastewater in chemical plants. The equilibrium yield was significantly increased by the addition of toluene, which had a high ability to extract ethyl acetate from the aqueous phase. It was shown that low-loading and alkylated polystyrene-supported sulfonic acid efficiently accelerated the reaction. These results suggest that the construction of hydrophobic reaction environments in water was critical in improving the chemical yield. Addition of inorganic salts was also effective for the reaction under not only biphasic conditions (toluene-water) but also toluene-free conditions, because the mutual solubility of ethyl acetate and water was suppressed by the salting-out effect. Among the tested salts, CaCl(2) was found to be the most suitable for this reaction system. PMID:23290939

Yagyu, Daisuke; Ohishi, Tetsuo; Igarashi, Takeshi; Okumura, Yoshikuni; Nakajo, Tetsuo; Mori, Yuichiro; Kobayashi, Sh?

2013-01-03

189

Phenyl Acetate Preparation from Phenol and Acetic Acid: Reassessment of a Common Textbook Misconception.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reassesses a common textbook misconception that "...phenols cannot be esterified directly." Results of experiments are discussed and data tables provided of an effective method for the direct preparation of phenyl acetate. (CS)|

Hocking, M. B.

1980-01-01

190

21 CFR 173.228 - Ethyl acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...html. (b) The additive is used in accordance with current good manufacturing practice as a solvent in the decaffeination of coffee and tea. [47 FR 146, Jan. 5, 1982, as amended at 49 FR 28548, July 13,...

2013-04-01

191

Nasal pungency, odor, and eye irritation thresholds for homologous acetates.  

PubMed

We measured detection thresholds for nasal pungency (in anosmics), odor (in normosmics) and eye irritation employing a homologous series of acetates: methyl through octyl acetate, decyl and dodecyl acetate. All anosmics reliably detected the series up to heptyl acetate. Only the anosmics without smell since birth (congenital) reliably detected octyl acetate, and only one congenital anosmic detected decyl and dodecyl acetate. Anosmics who lost smell from head trauma proved to be selectively less sensitive. As expected, odor thresholds lay well below pungency thresholds. Eye irritation thresholds for selected acetates came close to nasal pungency thresholds. All three types of thresholds decreased logarithmically with carbon chain length, as previously seen with homologous alcohols and as seen in narcotic and toxic phenomena. Results imply that nasal pungency for these stimuli rests upon a physical, rather than chemical, interaction with susceptible mucosal structures. When expressed as thermodynamic activity, nasal pungency thresholds remain remarkably constant within and across the homologous series of acetates and alcohols. PMID:1763117

Cometto-Muñiz, J E; Cain, W S

1991-08-01

192

21 CFR 582.5892 - a-Tocopherol acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5892 a -Tocopherol acetate. (a) Product. a -Tocopherol acetate....

2013-04-01

193

Draft Guidance on Calcium Acetate Active ingredient: Calcium ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text VersionPage 1. Contains Nonbinding Recommendations Draft Guidance on Calcium Acetate ... Active ingredient: Calcium Acetate Form/Route: Tablets/Oral ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

194

Studies on an acetate-fermenting strain of Methanosarcina.  

PubMed Central

An acetate-fermenting strain of Methanosarcina was isolated from an acetate enrichment culture inoculated with anaerobic sludge from a waste treatment digestor. In pure culture, this organism fermented acetate in the absence of added hydrogen at rates comparable in magnitude to those found in digestor systems. This rate was significantly higher than previously obtained for pure cultures of this genus. Mineral components of yeast extract were highly stimulatory for cultures growing on methanol. Comparable stimulation was not observed for cultures growing on acetate. Labeling studies indicated that acetate was converted to methane and CO2 as predicted by previous studies on mixed cultures. Total oxidation or reduction of acetate was not the mechanism of conversion of acetate to methane by the pure culture. The ability of this strain to form colonies or to produce methane from acetate was apparently influenced by the choice of substrate and conditions used for growing the inoculum. Images

Mah, R A; Smith, M R; Baresi, L

1978-01-01

195

Gold-catalyzed cyclization of allenyl acetal derivatives.  

PubMed

The gold-catalyzed transformation of allenyl acetals into 5-alkylidenecyclopent-2-en-1-ones is described. The outcome of our deuterium labeling experiments supports a 1,4-hydride shift of the resulting allyl cationic intermediates because a complete deuterium transfer is observed. We tested the reaction on various acetal substrates bearing a propargyl acetate, giving 4-methoxy-5-alkylidenecyclopent-2-en-1-ones 4 via a degradation of the acetate group at the allyl cation intermediate. PMID:24062838

Vasu, Dhananjayan; Pawar, Samir Kundlik; Liu, Rai-Shung

2013-08-27

196

Gold-catalyzed cyclization of allenyl acetal derivatives  

PubMed Central

Summary The gold-catalyzed transformation of allenyl acetals into 5-alkylidenecyclopent-2-en-1-ones is described. The outcome of our deuterium labeling experiments supports a 1,4-hydride shift of the resulting allyl cationic intermediates because a complete deuterium transfer is observed. We tested the reaction on various acetal substrates bearing a propargyl acetate, giving 4-methoxy-5-alkylidenecyclopent-2-en-1-ones 4 via a degradation of the acetate group at the allyl cation intermediate.

Vasu, Dhananjayan; Pawar, Samir Kundlik

2013-01-01

197

Contribution of acetate to butyrate formation by human faecal bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetate is normally regarded as an endproduct of anaerobic fermentation, but butyrate-producing bacteria found in the human colon can be net utilisers of acetate. The butyrate formed provides a fuel for epithelial cells of the large intestine and influences colonic health. (1-13C)Acetate was used to investigate the contribution of exogenous acetate to butyrate formation. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Roseburia spp. grown

Sylvia H. Duncan; Grietje Holtrop; Gerald E. Lobley; A. Graham Calder; Colin S. Stewart; Harry J. Flint

2004-01-01

198

Effect of trimethylamine on acetate utilization by Methanosarcina barkeri  

Microsoft Academic Search

During growth of Methanosarcina barkeri strain Fusaro on a mixture of trimethylamine and acetate, methane production and acetate consumption were biphasic. In the first phase trimethylamine (33 mmol x l-1) was depleted and some acetate (11–14 from 50 mmol x l-1) was metabolized simultaneously. In the second phase the remaining acetate was cleaved stoichiometrically into CH4 and CO2. Kinetic experiments

Michael Blaut; Gerhard Gottschalk

1982-01-01

199

Separating acetic acid from furol (furfural) by electrodialysis method  

SciTech Connect

Furfural production by hydrolysis of fibrous plant materials is accompanied by formation of acetic acid in amounts depending on the material used. The amount of acetic formed in the hydrolysis of the fruit shell of oil-tea camellia (Camellia oleosa) (an oilseed-bearing tree) is equal to the amount of furfural. The acetic acid can be separated from the furfural and concentrated to 10% by electrodialysis. A smaller amount of furfural is separated with acetic acid.

Guan, S.F.; Li, C.S. Ye, S.T.; Shen, S.Y.; Wang, Y.T.; Yu, S.H.

1981-01-01

200

Interferon beta and glatiramer acetate therapy.  

PubMed

Interferon beta and glatiramer acetate have been mainstays of treatment in relapsingremitting multiple sclerosis for two decades. Remarkable advances in our understanding of immune function and dysfunction as well as increasingly sophisticated clinical trial design have stemmed from efforts to better understand these drugs. In this chapter, we review the history of their development and elaborate on known and theorized mechanisms of action. We describe the pivotal clinical trials that have led to their widespread use. We evaluate the clinical use of the drugs including tolerability, side effects, and efficacy measures. Finally, we look to the future of interferon beta and glatiramer acetate in the context of an ever growing armamentarium of treatments for relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis. PMID:23264098

McGraw, Corey A; Lublin, Fred D

2013-01-01

201

Assessment Guidelines for Managing Cellulose Acetate Collections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Photographic negatives, motion picture film, microfilm, and sound recordings produced from the 1930s into the 1950s often used cellulose acetate as the transparent plastic carrier. As anyone who has ever come in contact with it well knows, its strong vinegar-like scent is hard to miss. Unfortunately, over time, the material is prone to deterioration, which eventually renders it unusable. In an effort to help guide libraries in Australia with this problem, the National Library of Australia has created this document. It provides assistance in identification of cellulose acetate (vs. other similar materials) and establishes criteria to assess condition, cultural importance, and use within the library or storage context. The document guides readers through the first step in a strategy for preserving these collections.

2001-01-01

202

Ring-opening reactions of cyclic acetals and 1,3-oxazolidines with halosilane equivalents.  

PubMed

Reactions of acetal and 1,3-oxazolidine rings were examined using two kinds of iodosilane equivalent reagents, a 1:2 mixture of Me3SiNEt2 and MeI (reagent 1a) and a 1:1 mixture of Et3SiH and MeI containing a catalytic amount of PdCl2 (reagent 1b). In the reactions of alkanone ethylene acetals with reagent 1a, a C-O bond in the acetal ring readily cleaved to give 2-(trimethylsiloxy)ethyl enol ethers. Similarly, the C-O bond of 1,3-oxazolidine rings cleaved to give ring-opened imine or enamine derivatives. The reactions of aromatic ketone ethylene acetals and cyclohexanone trimethylene acetal led to deprotection of the acetal unit to liberate free ketones. With reagent 1b, cycloalkanone ethylene acetal afforded a dimeric product with 2-iodoethyl alkenoate moieties, while aromatic ketone ethylene or trimethylene acetals produced deprotected ketones. PMID:12126402

Iwata, Arihiro; Tang, Heqing; Kunai, Atsutaka; Ohshita, Joji; Yamamoto, Yasushi; Matui, Chinami

2002-07-26

203

36 CFR 1232.24 - Unstable cellulose-acetate film.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Public Property 3 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Unstable cellulose-acetate film. 1232.24 Section 1232.24...MANAGEMENT Audiovisual Records Management § 1232.24 Unstable cellulose-acetate film. Cellulose-acetate film,...

2009-07-01

204

Acetic acid vapor levels associated with facial prosthetics  

SciTech Connect

The use of Silastic Medical Adhesive Type A in the fabrication of facial prostheses may cause health hazards to the patient and the operator because of acetic acid emissions. Caution must be exercised to remove acetic acid vapors from the air and unliberated acetic acid from material applied directly to the skin.

McElroy, T.H.; Guerra, O.N.; Lee, S.A.

1985-01-01

205

21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vitamin A acetate. 582.5933 Section 582...AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5933 Vitamin A acetate. (a) Product. Vitamin A acetate. (b) Conditions of...

2013-04-01

206

Kinetics of the methanogenic fermentation of acetate. [Methanosarcina barkeri  

SciTech Connect

Inhibition of the fermentation of acetate to methane and carbon dioxide by acetate was analyzed with an acetate-acclimatized sludge and with Methanosarcina barkeri Fusaro under mesophilic conditions. A second-order substrate inhibition model, q{sub CH{sub 4}} = q{sub m}S/(K{sub s} + S + (S{sup 2}/K{sub i})), where S was the concentration of undissociated acetic acid, not ionized acetic acid, could be applicable in both cases. The analysis resulted in substrate saturation constants, K{sub s}, of 4.0 {mu}M for the acclimatized sludge and 104 {mu}M for M. barkeri. The threshold concentrations of undissociated acetic acid when no further acetate utilization was observed were 0.078 {mu}M (pH 7.50) for the acclimatized sludge and 4.43 {mu}M (pH 7.45) for M. barkeri. These kinetic results suggested that the concentration of undissociated acetic acid became a key factor governing the actual threshold acetate concentration for acetate utilization and that the acclimatized sludge in which Methanothrix spp. appeared dominant could utilize acetate better and survive at a lower concentration of undissociated acetic acid than could M. barkeri.

Fukuzaki, Satoshi; Nishio, Naomichi; Nagai, Shiro (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan))

1990-10-01

207

PREPARATION AND PROPERTIES OF WATER-SOLUBLE STARCH ACETATES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Starch acetates of degree of substitution (DS) 0-1.5 were prepared by heating dry corn starch, acetic acid and acetic anhydride in sealed 60 ul vessels at 180 degree C for 5 minutes. These reactions appeared to be homogeneous (clear) and proceeded to completion without added catalyst. Starch aceta...

208

Pathway of acetate assimilation in autotrophic and heterotrophic methanococci.  

PubMed Central

The autotroph Methanococcus maripaludis contained high levels of acetate-coenzyme A ligase, pyruvate synthase, pyruvate, water dikinase, pyruvate carboxylase, and the enzymes of the incomplete reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, citrate synthase, and isocitrate dehydrogenase were not detected. In contrast, the heterotroph Methanococcus sp. strain A3 contained acetate kinase, and acetate coenzyme A ligase was virtually absent.

Shieh, J S; Whitman, W B

1987-01-01

209

Pathway of acetate assimilation in autotrophic and heterotrophic methanococci.  

PubMed

The autotroph Methanococcus maripaludis contained high levels of acetate-coenzyme A ligase, pyruvate synthase, pyruvate, water dikinase, pyruvate carboxylase, and the enzymes of the incomplete reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, citrate synthase, and isocitrate dehydrogenase were not detected. In contrast, the heterotroph Methanococcus sp. strain A3 contained acetate kinase, and acetate coenzyme A ligase was virtually absent. PMID:3667534

Shieh, J S; Whitman, W B

1987-11-01

210

Excess volumes, densities, speeds of sound and viscosities of binary systems of diisopropyl ether and acetates at 303.15 K  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excess volumes, speeds of sound and viscosities at 303.15K for the binary mixtures of diisopropyl ether (DIPE)+methyl acetate (MA)+ethyl acetate (EA) butyl acetate (BA) and+isoamyl acetate (IAA) were measured as a function of mole fraction over the entire range of composition. Insentropic compressibilities were computed from speed of sound and density data. Densities were obtained from experimental excess volume data.

G. Sankara Reddy; A. Subba Reddy; M. Venkata Subbaiah; K. Vasudha; A. Krishnaiah

2010-01-01

211

Preparation and selective hydrolysis of acetal esters  

Microsoft Academic Search

and Summary  Medium chain length aldehydic acids and esters (C8-C13) were synthesized by ozonolysis of readily available cyclic and straight chain alkenoate esters followed by rearrangement\\u000a or reduction of the ozonide. The acetal esters, prepared by reaction of the aldehydic acids with CH3OH-HC1, were characterized by gas liquid chromatography, proton magnetic resonance, carbon magnetic resonance, thin layer\\u000a chromatography, and infrared analysis.

R. O. Adlof; W. E. Neff; E. A. Emken; E. H. Pryde

1977-01-01

212

High resolution acetic acid survey and water vapor radiometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planets, comets, stars, galaxies and the interstellar medium (ISM) emit complex but distinct molecular spectra. These spectra reveal the chemical composition and physical conditions in the objects. For example, many biologically important molecules, such as acetic acid, formic acid, vinyl cyanide and ethyl cyanide, have been detected in hot molecular cores in the ISM. A diversity of molecules creates complicated and yet interesting astrochemistry in hot cores. However, the formation mechanisms of large molecules are still unclear. Hence large molecule observations are essential to understand hot core chemistry. Among these molecules, acetic acid is one of the most important large species in hot cores. It is a possible precursor of glycine, the simplest amino acid. It only has been detected in high-mass hot cores without oxygen/nitrogen chemical differentiation, which is key to hot core chemical models. Using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA), we have conducted an acetic acid survey in hot cores. In our survey, we have discovered a new acetic acid hot core, G19.61-0.23, which also shows no chemical differentiation. Therefore, we suggest that both large oxygen and nitrogen- bearing species play important roles in acetic acid formation. Ground-based interferometric observations are severely affected by atmospheric conditions. Phase correction is a technique to obtain high quality data and achieve great scientific goals. For our acetic acid survey, a better phase correction technique can not only detect weaker transitions of large molecules, but also increase the map resolution of hot cores. Water vapor radiometers (WVRs) are designed to improve the technique by observing tropospheric water vapor along the lines of sight of interferometers. We have numerically demonstrated the importance of phase correction for interferometric observations and examined the water vapor phase correction technique. Furthermore, we have built two WVR prototypes with new calibration, thermal regulation and backend systems. The WVR prototypes had been tested in a laboratory, on a roof and at the CARMA site to verify their performance. We conclude the WVR thermal stability and dynamic range are critical while the enormous and rapid fluctuations of the sky background emission overwhelm the WVR dynamic range and degrade the WVR sensitivity.

Shiao, Yu-Shao

2008-08-01

213

Pulmonary and percutaneous absorption of 2-propoxyethyl acetate and 2-ethoxyethyl acetate in beagle dogs  

SciTech Connect

A comparison was made of the absorption and elimination rates of 2-propoxyethyl acetate (PEA) and 2-ethoxyethyl acetate (EEA) following inhalation, dermal application of IV administration. Male beagle dogs were exposed to 50 ppm PEA or EEA for 5 hr, and breath samples were collected during the exposure and a 3-hr recovery period. Both compounds were rapidly absorbed through the lungs. After 10 min of exposure, the concentrations of the parent compounds in the expired breath were 5 to 10 ppm (80-90% absorption) and reached plateau values at about 3 hr of 13 ppm for PEA (74% absorption) and 16 ppm for EEA (68% absorption). Post-exposure breath samples declined exponentially to 0.5 ppm and 2 ppm after 3 hr for PEA and EEA, respectively. Expired concentrations of PEA were slightly, but significantly (p < 0.025), lower than those of EEA at corresponding times during the exposure. After IV dosing with 1 mg/kg (ethyl-1,2-/sup 14/C)PEA, the urine contained 61% and 88% of the dose in 4 and 24 hr, respectively. (/sup 14/C)EEA was eliminated more slowly, with 20% and 61% of the dose appearing in the urine in 4 and 24 hr, respectively. Blood elimination half-lives were 1.6 hr for (/sup 14/C)PEA and 7.9 hr for (/sup 14/C)EEA. Only trace amounts of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ (<1%) or volatile materials (<0.1%) were detected in the expired air with either compound. For studies of percutaneous absorption, (/sup 14/C)PEA or (/sup 14/C)EEA was added to undiluted compounds and applied in a glass cell to a shaved area on a dog's thorax for 30 or 60 min. Blood and expired air were collected for 8 hr and urine for 24 hr. The pattern of urinary elimination for each compound was similar to that seen after IV dosing with (/sup 14/C)PEA being excreted more rapidly than (/sup 14/C)EEA. 15 references, 4 figures, 4 tables.

Guest, D.; Hamilton, M.L.; Deisinger, P.J.; DiVincenzo, G.D.

1984-08-01

214

Recovery of very dilute acetic acid using ion exchange  

SciTech Connect

Acetic and related acids occur in many industrial wastewaters, often mixed with several other classes of organic compounds. Acetic acid can be recovered from 1% solutions using weakly basic ion exchange resins. The acid is adsorbed by the free-base form of the resin, which can then be eluted using a slurry of lime to give a solution of calcium acetate. This solution could either be evaporated to crystallize calcium acetate or reacted with sulfuric acid to form acetic acid and gypsum. Laboratory tests of the proposed process gave product solutions of 15--20% acetic acid using pure 1% acetic acid as feed. Some measurements using a typical industrial effluent gave similar recoveries and showed that there was no initial fouling of the resins.

Cloete, F.L.D.; Marais, A.P. [Univ. of Stellenbosch (South Africa). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1995-07-01

215

[Degradation of oxytetracycline with ozonation in acetic acid solvent].  

PubMed

Use acetic acid as the media of ozone degradation of oxytetracycline (OTC), and effects of the initial dosing ratio of ozone/OTC, ozone flow, free radical scavenger, metal ions on the removal rate of OTC were investigated respectively. The results showed that acetic acid had a high ozone stability and solubility. OTC had a high removal rate and degradation rate in acetic acid solution. With the increase of OTC dosage, the removal rate of OTC decreased in acetic acid. Removal rate of OTC was increased distinctly when ozone flow increased properly. It was also observed that free radical scavenger had a significantly negative effect on OTC ozonation degradation in acetic acid. Furthermore the main reactions of OTC ozone oxidation were direct oxidation and indirect oxidation in acetic acid. When Fe3+ and Co2+ were existent in acetic acid, the degradation of OTC was inhibited significantly. PMID:23379161

Li, Shi-Yin; Li, Xiao-Rong; Zhu, Yi-Ping; Zhu, Jiang-Peng; Wang, Guo-Xiang

2012-12-01

216

Calcium Magnesium Acetate at Lower-Production Cost: Production of CMA Deicer from Cheese Whey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Calcium magnesium acetate (CMA), a mixture of calcium acetate and magnesium acetate, is used as an environmentally benign roadway deicer. The present commercial CMA deicer made from glacial acetic acid and dolomitic lime or limestone is expensive compared...

H. Zhu S. T. Yang W. Qin Y. Huang Y. L. Huang Z. Jin

1999-01-01

217

Roseovarius sp. strain 217: aerobic taurine dissimilation via acetate kinase and acetate-CoA ligase.  

PubMed

The genome sequence of Roseovarius sp. strain 217 indicated that many pathway enzymes found in other organisms for the degradation of taurine are represented, but that a novel, apparently energy-dependent pathway is involved in the conversion of acetyl phosphate to acetyl CoA. Thus, an ABC transporter for taurine could be postulated, while inducible taurine: pyruvate aminotransferase, alanine dehydrogenase, sulfoacetaldehyde acetyltransferase and sulfite dehydrogenase could be assayed. Whereas phosphate acetyltransferase has been found in other organisms, none was indicated in the genome sequence and no activity was found in cell-free extracts. Instead, acetate kinase was active as was acetate-CoA ligase. PMID:17425660

Baldock, Marijke I; Denger, Karin; Smits, Theo H M; Cook, Alasdair M

2007-04-10

218

Acetate supplementation attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation  

PubMed Central

Glyceryl triacetate (GTA), a compound effective at increasing circulating and tissue levels of acetate was used to treat rats subjected to a continual 28 day intra-ventricular infusion of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This model produces a neuroinflammatory injury characterized by global neuroglial activation and a decrease in choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity in the basal forebrain. During the LPS infusion, rats were given a daily treatment of either water or GTA at a dose of 6g/kg by oral gavage. In parallel experiments free-CoA and acetyl-CoA levels were measured in microwave fixed brains and flash frozen heart, liver, kidney and muscle following a single oral dose of GTA. We found that a single oral dose of GTA significantly increased plasma acetate levels by 15 min and remained elevated for up to 4 hr. At 30 min the acetyl-CoA levels in microwave-fixed brain and flash frozen heart and liver were increased at least 2.2-fold. The concentrations of brain acetyl-CoA was significantly increased between 30 and 45 min following treatment and remained elevated for up to 4 hr. The concentration of free-CoA in brain was significantly decreased compared to controls at 240 min. Immunohistochemical and morphological analysis demonstrated that a daily treatment with GTA significantly reduced the percentage of reactive GFAP-positive astrocytes and activated CD11b-positive microglia by 40–50% in rats subjected to LPS-induced neuroinflammation. Further, in rats subjected to neuroinflammation, GTA significantly increased the number of ChAT-positive cells by 40% in the basal forebrain compared to untreated controls. These data suggest that acetate supplementation increases intermediary short chain acetyl-CoA metabolism and that treatment is potentially anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective with regards to attenuating neuroglial activation and increasing ChAT immunoreactivity in this model.

Reisenauer, Chris J.; Bhatt, Dhaval P.; Mitteness, Dane J.; Slanczka, Evan R.; Gienger, Heidi M.; Watt, John A.; Rosenberger, Thad A.

2011-01-01

219

Evaluation of Pulps, Rayon Fibers, and Cellulose Acetate by GPC and Other Fractionation Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chain length distribution of a broad spectrum of wood celluloses and cellulose derivatives was determined by gel permeation chromatography. Relative amounts of short and long chain-length species were characterized, and uniformity indices were calculated. Prefractionation was found to be a desirable approach to amplify low- and high-DP regions. This was accomplished using a 55\\/45 ethyl acetate\\/ethyl alcohol mixture to yield

W. J. Alexander; T. E. Muller

1971-01-01

220

Acetals of lactams and acid amides  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach to the synthesis of one-, two-, and three-ring compounds from enamides and enamino ketones was investigated. Thus the reaction of a-cyano-ß-dimethylaminoacrylamide with guanidine gave 2, 4-diamino-5-carbamidopyrimidine, the cyclization of which with dimethylformamide acetal and subsequent hydrolysis gave 2-amino-5,6-dihydro-5-oxopyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidine. An enamino ketone — 1-benzoyl-2-dimethylamino-2-methylethylene — was subjected to condensation with guanidine, thiourea, and acetamidine, as a result of

O. Ya. Belyaeva; V. G. Granik; R. G. Glushkov; T. F. Vlasova; O. S. Anisimova

1978-01-01

221

4-Meth-oxy-benzamidinium acetate.  

PubMed

The title compound, C8H11N2O(+)·CH3CO2(-), was synthesized by a reaction between 4-meth-oxy-benzamidine (4-amidino-anisole) and acetic acid. In the cation, the amidinium group forms a dihedral angle of 11.65?(17)° with the mean plane of the benzene ring. The ionic components are associated in the crystal via N-H(+)?O(-) hydrogen bonds, resulting in a one-dimensional structure consisting of dimers and catemers and orientated approximately along the c axis. PMID:23468790

Irrera, Simona; Portalone, Gustavo

2012-11-03

222

4-Meth-oxy-benzamidinium acetate  

PubMed Central

The title compound, C8H11N2O+·CH3CO2 ?, was synthesized by a reaction between 4-meth­oxy­benzamidine (4-amidino­anisole) and acetic acid. In the cation, the amidinium group forms a dihedral angle of 11.65?(17)° with the mean plane of the benzene ring. The ionic components are associated in the crystal via N—H+?O? hydrogen bonds, resulting in a one-dimensional structure consisting of dimers and catemers and orientated approximately along the c axis.

Irrera, Simona; Portalone, Gustavo

2012-01-01

223

Methods for isolation of auxotrophic mutants of methanobacterium ivanovii and initial characterization of acetate auxotrophs  

SciTech Connect

To develop a biochemical genetic approach to understanding cell carbon synthesis or metabolic pathways in methanogens, Methanobacterium ivanovii was selected as a model organism for genetic manipulation studies. The organism displayed a colony size of 3 to 6 mm in less than 2 weeks and had a plating efficiency of about 90%, which made it suitable for replica plating. Mutagenesis and selection techniques were developed for selection of acetate auxotrophs. Chemical mutagenesis with ethyl methanesulfonate, followed by enrichment with bacitracin as a selective agent, resulted in stable acetate auxotrophs. M. ivanovii was very sensitive to UV, but UV-induced acetate auxotrophs were unstable and reverted within two to four transfers. The acetate auxotrophs were analyzed in relation to wild type for carbon monoxide dehydrogenase enzyme activity.

Jain, M.K.; Zeikus, J.G.

1987-06-01

224

Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activity of Di-(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate and Anhydrosophoradiol-3-acetate Isolated from Calotropis gigantea (Linn.) Flower  

PubMed Central

A phytochemical study on the flowe r of Calotropis gigantea (Linn.) using silica gel column chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography, led to the first time isolation of Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (compound 1) and anhydrosophoradiol-3-acetate (compound 2). The structures of these compounds were confirmed by spectroscopic analyses (IR, HRTOFMS and NMR). The antibacterial and antifungal activities of ethyl acetate extract, compound 1 and compound 2 were measured using the disc diffusion method. Ethyl acetate extract and compound 1 presented better results than compound 2. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the extract and compounds were found to be in the range of 16~128 µg/ml. The cytotoxicity (LC50) against brine shrimp nauplii (Artemia salina) were also evaluated and found to be 14.61 µg/ml for ethyl acetate, 9.19 µg/ml for compound 1 and 15.55 µg/ml for compound 2.

Habib, M. Rowshanul

2009-01-01

225

Properties of acetic-acid alcohol-containing solutions of chitosan  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was shown that incorporation of ethyl alcohol in acetic-acid solutions of chitosan reduces their turbidity and intrinsic\\u000a viscosity and increases the dynamic viscosity more the higher the concentration of chitosan and the amount of alcohol added.

S. A. Uspenskii; G. A. Vikhoreva; A. N. Sonina; L. S. Gal’braikh

2010-01-01

226

Submillimeter wave spectrum of acetic acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new global study of the submillimeter wave spectrum of the lowest three torsional states of acetic acid (CH3COOH). New measurements involving torsion-rotation transitions with J up to 79 and Ka up to 44 have been carried out between 230 and 845 GHz using the submillimeter wave spectrometers in University of Cologne and Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The new data were combined with previously published measurements and fitted using the rho-axis-method torsion-rotation Hamiltonian. The final fit used 93 parameters to give an overall weighted root-mean-square deviation of 0.85 for a dataset consisting of 7543, 6087, and 5171 transitions belonging, respectively, to the ground, first, and second excited torsional states and 1888 ?vt ? 0 transitions. This investigation presents more than a twofold expansion both in the J quantum number and frequency range coverage of the acetic acid spectrum. Numerous inter-torsional interactions have been observed. Furthermore, this is the highest J value ever treated with the rho-axis-method and provides a good test case for the theoretical model in use.

Ilyushin, Vadim V.; Endres, Christian P.; Lewen, Frank; Schlemmer, Stephan; Drouin, Brian J.

2013-08-01

227

Micro-mold fabrication using cellulose acetate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymer materials offer numerous advantages including flexible, low cost large area displays, lightweight, easy processing, good compatibility with a variety of substrates, and easy for structural modifications. Recently electro-active polymers (EAP) have been attractive due to their potential advantages including ease of processing and control, mechanical flexibility, and economical advantage. Recently electro-active paper (EAPap) was discovered as a smart material and as an actuating material with ionic and piezoelectric effects. Before cellulose acetate (CA) micro-pattern fabrication, solvent effect of micro or nano-pore formation was investigated. Since the micropore scatter the visible light, micropores give negative effect to apply optical device. The solvent mixture of acetone/dimethylacetamide (DMAc) created large amount of micro or nanopores. The resulting films were not transparent. However, volatile single solvent (acetone) did not form pores and gave transparent film. The various shapes of photoresist, such as circle and honeycomb patterns, were fabricated onto the silicon wafer to use as the mold. Cellulose acetate (CA) was poured to the mold and peeled off from the mold. The resulting pattern exhibited uniform size of the circle or honeycomb shape without defect.

Cho, K. Y.; Lim, H. K.; Chen, Y.; Kim, Jaehwan; Kang, K. S.

2007-04-01

228

Dielectric relaxation of ? -tocopherol acetate (vitamin E)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dielectric loss spectra are reported for ? -tocopherol acetate (an isomer of vitamin E) in the supercooled and glassy states. The ? -relaxation times, ?? , measured over a 190° range of temperatures, T , at pressures, P , up to 400MPa can be expressed as a single function of TV3.9 ( V is specific volume, measured herein as a function of T and P ). At ambient pressure, there is no dynamic crossover over eight decades of measured ?? . The relaxation spectra above the glass transition temperature Tg show ionic conductivity and an excess wing on the high-frequency flank of the ? -relaxation loss peak. Temperature-pressure superpositioning is valid for the ? process; moreover, the peak shape is constant (stretch exponent equal to 0.65). However, application of pressure changes the shape of the dielectric spectrum at higher frequencies due to the shift of the excess wing to form a resolved peak. Additionally, another relaxation process, absent at atmospheric pressure, emerges on the high-frequency side of the ? -process. We propose that this new peak reflects a more compact conformation of the ? -tocopherol acetate molecule. Drawing on the coupling model, the experimentally determined relaxation times, activation energy, and activation volume for the Johari-Goldstein process are compared to values calculated from the properties of the ? relaxation. The agreement is generally satisfactory, at least for T

Kaminski, K.; Maslanka, S.; Ziolo, J.; Paluch, M.; McGrath, K. J.; Roland, C. M.

2007-01-01

229

Acetate absorption and metabolism in the rabbit hindgut.  

PubMed Central

Acetate disappearance from the loops of the hindgut in the rabbit was evaluated by measuring variations in the concentration of acetate in caecocolonic loops and differences in the arterial and venous plasma. In vivo metabolism in gut and liver tissues was studied after introduction of (1-14C) acetate into caecocolonic loops. The rate of disappearance from the loops was quantitatively significant and showed little variation irrespective of the location in the hindgut. Hindgut tissue metabolised acetate and the intensity of the metabolism varied with the segment studied. The distal position of the gut showed by far the highest acetate uptake. Radioactivity was found in a certain number of free amino acids, organic acids, and sugars. Acetate was mainly converted into aspartate and glutamate. These can be considered as 'stock forms' which can be diverted either towards oxidative metabolism or towards protein synthesis. Images Fig. 1

Marty, J F; Vernay, M Y; Abravanel, G M

1985-01-01

230

Effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate (Provera) on ovarian radiosensitivity  

SciTech Connect

Medroxyprogesterone acetate (Provera) is a drug that is commonly given to young women with cancer during chemotherapy and radiation to control heavy bleeding associated with anovulation. Because hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian suppression has been associated with ovarian protection from the effects of chemotherapy and medroxyprogesterone acetate has been identified as a radiosensitizing agent, we explored the effects of medroxyprogesterone acetate on a rat model with known radiation injury characteristics. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate or vehicle from day 22 to day 37 of life and were either irradiated or sham-irradiated on day 30 of life and then killed on day 44. Radiation with medroxyprogesterone acetate administration produced a greater loss in preantral and healthy control follicles than in control follicles. No suppression of luteinizing hormone or follicle-stimulating hormone had occurred by day 30 but ovarian glutathione content was reduced. These findings indicate that the administration of medroxyprogesterone acetate with radiotherapy may enhance ovarian injury.

Jarrell, J.; YoungLai, E.V.; McMahon, A.; Barr, R.; O'Connell, G.; Belbec, L.

1989-04-01

231

The Role of Acetate in Dialysate for Hemodialysis: Acid-Base Homeostasis and Acetate Metabolism in Patients Treated by Chronic Hemodialysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A sensitive and reproducible assay for acetate using gas chromatography has been used to investigate the rate of acetate metabolism in normal human subjects. Initially, it appeared that acetate metabolism could be predicted by a two compartment first orde...

M. W. Weiner

1977-01-01

232

Genetic organization of Acetobacter for acetic acid fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasmid vectors for the acetic acid-producing strains ofAcetobacter andGluconobacter were constructed from their cryptic plasmids and the efficient transformation conditions were established. The systems allowed to reveal the genetic background of the strains used in the acetic acid fermentation. Genes encoding indispensable components in the acetic acid fermentation, such as alcohol dehydrogenase, aldehyde dehydrogenase and terminal oxidase, were cloned and

Teruhiko Beppu

1993-01-01

233

Thermal decomposition of acetate: III. Catalysis by mineral surfaces  

SciTech Connect

The kinetics of thermal decarboxylation of aqueous solutions of acetic acid and sodium acetate were evaluated at 335 and 355[degrees]C in contact with various surfaces as potential catalysts. Quartz, fused quartz, calcite, natural pyrite, titanium oxide, and Au apparently do not catalyze aqueous decarboxylation reactions, in contrast to Pyrex, Ca-montmorillonite, Fe-bearing montmorillonite, hematite, synthetic pyrite, and magnetite. The dependence of the rate of acetic acid decarboxylation on the surface area of pyrite per unit solution volume was also studied. The results show that the decarboxylation of acetic acid and acetate is catalyzed heterogeneously, with the cleavage of the C-C bond occurring while the acetate molecule is adsorbed onto a surface. Entropies and enthalpies of activation obtained from these experiments are compatible with the isokinetic relationship established previously for acetic acid and acetate under similar experimental conditions, indicating the existence of a common rate-determining step. Experimental evidence indicates that oxidation of acetic acid can occur with hematite and defected magnetite. These oxidative decomposition reactions differ from the decarboxylation reaction in that CO[sub 2] and polycondensates are produced instead of CO[sub 2] and CH[sub 4].

Bell, J.L.S.; Barnes, H.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Palmer, D.A.; Drummond, S.E. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States))

1994-10-01

234

Radical-Chain Reactions of Acetals in Solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental results on the liquid-phase radical-chain reactions of acetals are summarised. Factors influencing the rate of formation, structure, and properties of free radicals generated from cyclic and linear acetals are discussed. Attention is paid mainly to the kinetics and the mechanism of the reactions of mono- and di-alkoxyalkyl radicals in solution. The relation between the structure of acetals and their reactivity towards various radicals is examined. Data are given illustrating the possibility of using homolytic liquid-phase reactions of acetals in organic synthesis. A list of 77 references is included.

Rakhmankulov, D. L.; Zlotskii, S. S.; Zorin, V. V.; Imashev, U. B.; Karakhanov, Robert A.

1981-08-01

235

21 CFR 522.1410 - Sterile methylprednisolone acetate suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...acetate, as with other corticoids, is contraindicated in animals with arrested tuberculosis, peptic ulcer, and Cushing's syndrome. The presence of active tuberculosis, diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, renal insufficiency,...

2009-04-01

236

Isomers of alpha-tocopheryl acetate and their biological activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-Tocopheryl acetate, an ester of the naturally occurring form of vitamin E, has a biopotency of 1.66 IU\\/mg as determined\\u000a by bioassays based on biological function. On a similar basis, 2l-?-tocopheryl acetate, the 2-epimer of ?-tocopheryl acetate, has a biopotency of 0.35 IU\\/mg. Results of hemolysis bioassays\\u000a indicate relative activities of 1.53 and 0.56 for ?- and 2l-?-tocopheryl acetates, respectively,

Stanley R. Ames

1971-01-01

237

Grape contribution to wine aroma: production of hexyl acetate, octyl acetate, and benzyl acetate during yeast fermentation is dependent upon precursors in the must.  

PubMed

Wine is a complex consumer product produced predominately by the action of yeast upon grape juice musts. Model must systems have proven ideal for studies of the effects of fermentation conditions on the production of certain wine volatiles. To identify grape-derived precursors to acetate esters, model fermentation systems were developed by spiking precursors into model must at different concentrations. Solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatgraphy mass spectrometry analysis of the fermented wines showed that a variety of grape-derived aliphatic alcohols and aldehydes are precursors to acetate esters. The C6 compounds hexan-1-ol, hexenal, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, and (E)-2-hexenal are all precursors to hexyl acetate, and octanol and benzyl alcohol are precursors to octyl acetate and benzyl acetate, respectively. In these cases, the postfermentation concentration of an acetate ester increased proportionally with the prefermentation concentration of the respective precursor in the model must. Determining viticultural or winemaking methods to alter the prefermentation concentration of precursor compounds or change the precursor-to-acetate ester ratio will have implications upon the final flavor and aroma of wines. PMID:22332880

Dennis, Eric G; Keyzers, Robert A; Kalua, Curtis M; Maffei, Suzanne M; Nicholson, Emily L; Boss, Paul K

2012-02-29

238

Breast cancer and depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate  

PubMed Central

The preliminary results of a study of the incidence of breast cancer in relation to use of depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) are presented. The findings are based on data from three participating centres in Thailand, and one each in Kenya and Mexico. A relative risk for breast cancer of 0.7 was observed in women who had ever used DMPA; this was not statistically significant. Although no consistent decrease in risk with duration of use was observed, the lowest relative risk (0.5) was observed in women who had used DMPA for three or more years. These findings are based on small numbers and must be considered preliminary. However, they provide no evidence that DMPA increases the risk of breast cancer, and suggest that it may exert a protective effect, particularly in long-term users.

1985-01-01

239

Dihydro-myricetin hexa-acetate  

PubMed Central

In the title compound, C27H24O14, also known as 2,3-di­acetoxy-5-[(2RS,3RS)-3,5,7-triacetoxy-4-oxochromen-2-yl]phenyl acetate, the heterocyclic ring adopts a distorted half-chair conformation, with two C atoms displaced by 0.1775?(16) and ?0.5950?(16)?Å from the mean plane of the other four atoms. The dihedral angle between the aromatic rings is 57.81?(8)°. In the crystal, the mol­ecules inter­act by C—H?O bonds, aromatic ?–? stacking [centroid–centroid separation = 3.6206?(9)?Å] and C—H?? inter­actions.

Li, Wei; Bhadbhade, Mohan; Hook, James; Zhao, Jian

2010-01-01

240

Potassium acetate adds flexibility to drilling muds  

SciTech Connect

Potassium acetate (KC/sub 2/H/sub 3/O/sub 2/, or simply KAC), since 1986, has proven effective as a drilling fluid additive in over 30 wells both onshore and offshore South Texas. KAC has given potassium-base drilling fluids more flexibility, improved efficiency, and offered an environmentally acceptable alternative to potassium chloride (KCl) muds. The use of soluble potassium in drilling fluids has been successful in controlling troublesome shales. The potassium ion has a stabilizing effect that inhibits the swelling and dispersion of water-sensitive shale formations. KAC is completely soluble in fresh or saltwater and provides 40%, by weight, potassium. This compares favorably with other potassium-containing materials.

Gillenwater, K.E.; Ray, C.R.

1989-03-20

241

Oxidation of Indole-3-Acetic Acid to Oxindole-3-Acetic Acid by an Enzyme Preparation from Zea mays1  

PubMed Central

Indole-3-acetic acid is oxidized to oxindole-3-acetic acid by Zea mays tissue extracts. Shoot, root, and endosperm tissues have enzyme activities of 1 to 10 picomoles per hour per milligram protein. The enzyme is heat labile, is soluble, and requires oxygen for activity. Cofactors of mixed function oxygenase, peroxidase, and intermolecular dioxygenase are not stimulatory to enzymic activity. A heat-stable, detergent-extractable component from corn enhances enzyme activity 6- to 10-fold. This is the first demonstration of the in vitro enzymic oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid in higher plants.

Reinecke, Dennis M.; Bandurski, Robert S.

1988-01-01

242

Rheological and hydrodynamic properties of cellulose acetate/ionic liquid solutions.  

PubMed

Rheological properties of cellulose acetate/1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIMAc) solutions are studied using shear dynamic and steady state rheology in a large range of polymer concentrations (from 0.1 to 10 wt.%) and temperatures (from 0 °C to 80 °C). Master plots for storage and loss moduli and for dynamic viscosity were built and shift parameters determined. Cellulose acetate/EMIMAc behaves as a classical polymer solution and obeys Cox-Merz law. Cellulose acetate intrinsic viscosity [?] was determined as a function of temperature and compared with the literature data for cellulose acetates dissolved in other solvents and cellulose dissolved in EMIMAc. Cellulose acetate intrinsic viscosity turned out to be much less temperature sensitive than that of cellulose. Specific viscosity-C[?] master plot was built: the slopes in log-log scale are 1.2 and 3.1 in dilute and semi-dilute regions, respectively. The activation energy as a function of concentration follows a power-law dependence. PMID:23399245

Rudaz, Cyrielle; Budtova, Tatiana

2012-11-30

243

Reduction of Aerobic Acetate Production by Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetate excretion by Escherichia coli during aerobic growth on glucose is a major obstacle to enhanced recombinant protein production. We report here that the fraction of carbon flux through the anaplerotic pathways is one of the factors influencing acetate excretion. Flux analysis of E. coli central metabolic pathways predicts that increasing the fraction of carbon flux through the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase

William R. Farmer; James C. Liao

1997-01-01

244

Acetic acid pulping of wheat straw under atmospheric pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric acetic acid pulping of wheat straw was carried out. Pulping conditions and their effects on pulp properties were investigated in detail, and a comparison between acetic acid (AcOH) pulp and soda-anthraquinone (AQ) pulps of wheat straw was made of the chemical com- position, strength, and fiber morphology of the pulps. Wheat straw was successfully pulped and fractionated into pulp

Xue-Jun PanYoshihiro Sano

1999-01-01

245

Kinetics of Sulfate and Acetate Uptake by Desulfobacter postgatei  

PubMed Central

The kinetics of sulfate and acetate uptake was studied in the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfobacter postgatei (DSM 2034). Kinetic parameters (Km and Vmax) were estimated from substrate consumption curves by resting cell suspensions with [35S]sulfate and [14C]acetate. Both sulfate and acetate consumption followed Michaelis-Menten saturation kinetics. The half-saturation constant (Km) for acetate uptake was 70 ?M with cells from either long-term sulfate- or long-term acetate-limited chemostat cultures. The average Km value for sulfate uptake by D. postgatei was about 200 ?M. Km values for sulfate uptake did not differ significantly when determined with cells derived either from batch cultures or sulfate- or acetate-limited chemostat cultures. Acetate consumption was observed at acetate concentrations of ?1 ?M, whereas sulfate uptake usually ceased at 5 to 20 ?M. The results show that D. postgatei is not freely permeable to sulfate ions and further indicate that sulfate uptake is an energy-requiring process.

Ingvorsen, Kjeld; Zehnder, Alexander J. B.; J?rgensen, Bo B.

1984-01-01

246

Highly conductive composites of polyaniline with plasticized cellulose acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly transparent, conductive blends can be prepared from plasticized cellulose acetate and polyaniline protonated with sulphonic acids, phosphonic acids and phosphoric acid diesters. Films cast from m-cresol solution exhibit percolation threshold below 0.5 wt% and excellent mechanical properties of plasticized cellulose acetate.

A. Pro?; M. Zagorska; Y. Nicolau; F. Genoud; M. Nechtschein

1997-01-01

247

Heterocyclization reaction of propargyl acetate with ?-dicarbonyl compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regiochemistry of the reaction of propargyl acetate with CH acids in the presence of mercury(II) acetate in dimethylsulfoxide has been investigated. Derivatives of furan or unsaturated diketones were isolated depending on the nature of the 1,3-dicarbonyl and the possibility of reduction of the organomercury intermediate.

Sh. O. Badanyan; Zh. A. Chobanyan; M. R. Tirakyan; A. O. Danielyan

1998-01-01

248

Anaerobic thermophilic fermentation for acetic acid production from milk permeate.  

PubMed

Fermentation of milk permeate to produce acetic acid under anaerobic thermophilic conditions (approximately 60 degrees C) was studied. Although none of the known thermophilic acetogenic bacteria can ferment lactose, it has been found that one strain can use galactose and two strains can use lactate. Moorella thermoautotrophica DSM 7417 and M. thermoacetica DSM 2955 were able to convert lactate to acetate at thermophilic temperatures with a yield of approximately 0.93 g g(-1). Among the strains screened for their abilities to produce acetate and lactate from lactose, Clostridium thermolacticum DSM 2910 was found precisely to produce large amounts of lactate and acetate. However, it also produced significant amounts of ethanol, CO2 and H2. The lactate yield was affected by cell growth. During the exponential phase, acetate, ethanol, CO2 and H2 were the main products of fermentation with an equimolar acetate/ethanol ratio, whereas during the stationary phase, only lactic acid was produced with a yield of 4 mol per mol lactose, thus reaching the maximal theoretical value. When this bacterium was co-cultured with M. thermoautotrophica, lactose was first converted mainly to lactic acid, then to acetic acid, with a zero residual lactic acid concentration and an overall yield of acetate around 80%. Under such conditions, only 13% of the fermented lactose was converted to ethanol by C. thermolacticum. PMID:10784299

Talabardon, M; Schwitzguébel, J P; Péringer, P

2000-01-01

249

Anaerobic thermophilic fermentation for acetic acid production from milk permeate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fermentation of milk permeate to produce acetic acid under anaerobic thermophilic conditions (?60°C) was studied. Although none of the known thermophilic acetogenic bacteria can ferment lactose, it has been found that one strain can use galactose and two strains can use lactate. Moorella thermoautotrophica DSM 7417 and M. thermoacetica DSM 2955 were able to convert lactate to acetate at thermophilic

Mylène Talabardon; Jean-Paul Schwitzguébel; Paul Péringer

2000-01-01

250

Transition-Metal-Catalyzed Carbonylation of Methyl Acetate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a study of the rhodium-catalyzed, ioding-promoted carbonylation of methyl acetate. This study provides an interesting contrast between the carbonylation of methyl acetate and the carbonylation of methanol when similar rhodium/iodine catalyst systems are used. (JN)|

Polichnowski, S. W.

1986-01-01

251

Methanogenic cleavage of acetate by lysates of Methanosarcina barkeri  

SciTech Connect

Cell lysates of acetate-grown Methanosarcina barkeri 227 were found to cleave acetate to CH/sub 4/ and CO/sub 2/. The aceticlastic reaction was identified by using radioactive methyl-labeled acetate. Cell lysates decarboxylated acetate in a nitrogen atmosphere, conserving the methyl group in methane. The rate of methanogenesis from acetate in the cell lysates was comparable to that observed with whole cells. Aceticlastic activity was found in the particulate fraction separate from methylcoenzyme M methylreductase activity, which occurs in the soluble fraction. Pronase treatment eliminated methylcoenzyme M methylreductase activity in lysates and stimulated aceticlastic activity, indicating the aceticlastic activity was not derived from unbroken cells, which are unaffected by proteolytic treatment.

Baresi, L.

1984-10-01

252

Disorder effects in Mn(12)-acetate at 83 K.  

PubMed

The structure of hexadeca-mu-acetato-tetraaquadodeca-mu(3)-oxo-dodecamanganese bis(acetic acid) tetrahydrate, [Mn(12)O(12)(CH(3)COO)(16)(H(2)O)(4)] x 2CH(3)COOH x 4H(2)O, known as Mn(12)-acetate, has been determined at 83 (2) K by X-ray diffraction methods. The fourfold (S(4)) molecular symmetry is disrupted by a strong hydrogen-bonding interaction with the disordered acetic acid molecule of solvation, which displaces one of the acetate ligands in the cluster. Up to six Mn(12) isomers are potentially present in the crystal lattice, which differ in the number and arrangement of hydrogen-bonded acetic acid molecules. These results considerably improve the structural information available on this molecular nanomagnet, which was first synthesized and characterized by Lis [Acta Cryst. (1980), B36, 2042-2046]. PMID:12094030

Cornia, Andrea; Fabretti, Antonio Costantino; Sessoli, Roberta; Sorace, Lorenzo; Gatteschi, Dante; Barra, Anne-Laure; Daiguebonne, Carole; Roisnel, Thierry

2002-06-12

253

Methanogenic cleavage of acetate by lysates of Methanosarcina barkeri.  

PubMed Central

Cell lysates of acetate-grown Methanosarcina barkeri 227 were found to cleave acetate to CH4 and CO2. The aceticlastic reaction was identified by using radioactive methyl-labeled acetate. Cell lysates decarboxylated acetate in a nitrogen atmosphere, conserving the methyl group in methane. The rate of methanogenesis from acetate in the cell lysates was comparable to that observed with whole cells. Aceticlastic activity was found in the particulate fraction seperate from methylcoenzyme M methylreductase activity, which occurs in the soluble fraction. Pronase treatment eliminated methylcoenzyme M methylreductase activity in lysates and stimulated aceticlastic activity, indicating the aceticlastic activity was not derived from unbroken cells, which are unaffected by proteolytic treatment. Images

Baresi, L

1984-01-01

254

The clinical use of PET with 11C-acetate  

PubMed Central

The aim of this review is to evaluate clinical applications of 11C-acetate positron emission tomography (PET). Acetate is quickly metabolized into acetyl-CoA in human cells. In this form it can either enter into the tricarboxylic acid cycle, thus producing energy, as happens in the myocardium, or participate in cell membrane lipid synthesis, as happens in tumor cells. 11C-acetate PET was originally employed in cardiology, to study myocardial oxygen metabolism. More recently it has also been used to evaluate myocardial perfusion, as well as in oncology. The first studies of 11C-acetate focused on its use in prostate cancer. Subsequently, 11C-acetate was studied in other urological malignancies, as well as renal cell carcinoma and bladder cancer. Well differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma represents an 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET pitfall, so many authors have proposed to use 11C-acetate in addition to 18F-FDG in studying this tumor. 11C-acetate PET has also been used in other malignancies, such as brain tumors and lung carcinoma. Some authors reported a few cases in which 11C-acetate PET incidentally found multiple myeloma or rare tumors, such as thymoma, multicentric angiomyolipoma of the kidney and cerebellopontine angle schwannoma. Lastly, 11C-acetate PET was also employed in a differential diagnosis case between glioma and encephalitis. The numerous studies on 11C-acetate have demonstrated that it can be used in cardiology and oncology with no contraindications apart from pregnancy and the necessity of a rapid scan. Despite its limited availability, this tracer can surely be considered to be a promising one, because of its versatility and capacity to even detect non 18F-FDG-avid neoplasm, such as differentiated lung cancer or hepatocellular carcinoma.

Grassi, Ilaria; Nanni, Cristina; Allegri, Vincenzo; Morigi, Joshua James; Montini, Gian Carlo; Castellucci, Paolo; Fanti, Stefano

2012-01-01

255

Mechanical Properties and a Physical-Chemical Analysis of Acetate Yarns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellulose acetate used in the manufacture of acetate yarns is commonly obtained from cotton-linters or wood-pulp cellulose. Varying in the origin and in the manufacturer, cellulose acetate often differs in its processability. The paper belongs to the investigation the properties of acetate yarns manufactured of the cellulose acetate varied in its origin and manufactured by different suppliers. Mechanical properties (including

R. emaitaitien?; A. Vitkauskas

256

The Structure and Thermodynamics of Cellulose Acetates.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cellulose acetate (CA) polymers having different degrees of substitution (DS) vary widely in their properties, such as glass transition, miscibility, chemical resistance, and gas permeation. These variations hint at differences in their molecular structure. We have systematically studied the variation in the molecular structure of CA with DS, utilizing small angle neutron scattering (SANS). SANS measurements were carried out in 1% (w/v) solutions in dDMSO (which is sufficiently dilute to avoid intermolecular scattering). The polymer chains display rigidity along their main chain and have persistence lengths in the range of 12 to 14 nm. The effect of DS on the extent of miscibility is explained on the basis of available intra-molecular hydrogen bonding sites along the polymer chain. SANS measurements were also carried out on 50-50(w/w) miscible blends of two sets of CA, where the difference in the DS between the polymers varied from 0.05 to 0.25. Random phase approximation analysis provides an estimate of the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter between the two polymers in the blend. The influence of both the amount of substitution and hydrogen bonding on the polymer miscibility will be discussed.

Dadmun, Mark; Mehta, Rujul; Lynn, Gary

2008-03-01

257

PHA based denitrification: municipal wastewater vs. acetate.  

PubMed

Denitrification of municipal wastewater based on bacterial storage polymers-Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) - was investigated in biofilm sequencing batch reactors, as a part of a two sludge system for wastewater treatment and in comparison to acetate based synthetic wastewater. The results show that PHA based denitrification (PBD) of real wastewater can be a viable alternative, especially for wastewater with low COD/N ratio, without the need for external carbon source addition. High nitrate removal capacity of about 40-50 mg N/L with a low COD/N requirement of about 4-5, were observed. It was found that entrapped particulate organic matter contributed additional reducing power, on top of the storage materials, thus allowing for the high nitrate reduction capacity. Daily removal rates were similar to those of extensive treatment systems (0.24-0.31 gr N/L reactor*d). Large differences in storage yield and composition between biomass grown on synthetic and municipal wastewater were observed. PMID:23395755

Krasnits, Eli; Beliavsky, Michael; Tarre, Sheldon; Green, Michal

2013-01-17

258

Eslicarbazepine acetate for partial-onset seizures.  

PubMed

Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL), a new voltage-gated sodium channel blocker that is chemically related to carbamazepine and partially metabolized to oxcarbazepine, has attracted attention as results of previous Phase II and III studies demonstrated and confirmed efficacy and tolerability of ESL 800 and 1200 mg once daily as add-on therapy for adult patients with drug-resistant partial-onset seizures. In children, efficacy data point towards a dose-dependent decrease in seizure frequency and tolerability analyses showed a low incidence of mild drug-related adverse effects at 5 and 15 mg/kg/day. The most frequently reported adverse effects were dizziness, somnolence, headache, diplopia, nausea and vomiting. The convenience of once-daily dosing and a short/simple titration regimen in combination with a comparative efficacy and tolerability profile might promote ESL as a valid alternative to the current adjunctive antiepileptic drug therapy armamentarium for drug-resistant partial seizures in adults. Since clinical trials in children and adolescents on ESL efficacy and safety are ongoing and data already published are far from conclusive, the therapeutic value of ESL in this special population has to be established in the near future. PMID:22091592

Rauchenzauner, Markus; Luef, Gerhard

2011-12-01

259

Formate and acetate in monsoon rainwater of Agra, India  

SciTech Connect

Formate and acetate concentrations were estimated using ion chromatography in 19 precipitation samples collected on an eventwise basis during the monsoon season (July through September), 1991, at Dayalbagh, Agra. Volume-weighted average (VWA) concentrations for formate and acetate were 5.8 and 6.55 [mu]molL[sup [minus]1], respectively. The VWA hydrogen ion concentration was 0.084 [mu]eq L[sub [minus]1] (pH 7.07) and the correlation coefficient between the two ions was 0.85. The average formate to acetate ratio was low (0.88), possibly due to an increase in acetate contribution from direct emissions associated with heavy vehicular traffic load and/or indirect acetate formation by alkaline hydrolysis of PAN. Widespread local use of biomass as a domestic fuel may also contribute acetate. In 4 of the 19 precipitation events studied, higher values of both species were recorded. Contributions from soil in addition to vegetation, were suspected in these samples. Inputs from soil and combustion activities were supported by correlations among formate, acetate and Ca[sup 2+] (terrigenous species), K[sup +], SO[sub 4][sup 2[minus

Kumar, N.; Kulshrestha, U.C.; Saxena, A.; Kumari, K.M.; Srivastava, S.S. (Dayalbagh Educational Inst., Agra (India))

1993-03-20

260

Antifungal activity of sodium acetate and Lactobacillus rhamnosus.  

PubMed

The inhibition of molds by sodium acetate in deMan Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) medium, along with the antifungal activity of Lactobacillus rhamnosus VT1, was studied by the slope agar plate method. MRS agar prepared with and without sodium acetate was used as the agar substrate. A total of 42 strains of Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, Alternaria, Cladosporium, and Rhizopus were used to compare sensitivities to the inhibitory activity of sodium acetate and L. rhamnosus VT1. It was found that sodium acetate in MRS medium affected the growth of 33 of the 42 mold strains tested to various degrees. The highest sensitivity to sodium acetate was shown by strains of Fusarium, followed by strains of Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Rhizopus. L. rhamnosus VT1 also inhibited mold growth. A significant finding was that sodium acetate and L. rhamnosus VT1 in combination exhibited a possible synergistic action. Thirty-nine of the 42 mold strains tested were completely inhibited by the presence of both antifungal agents. This finding confirms that sodium acetate, a basic component of commercial MRS medium, has strong antifungal properties, and this must be taken into consideration when evaluating the antifungal activity of Lactobacillus cultures grown in MRS broth. PMID:12117257

Stiles, J; Penkar, S; Plocková, M; Chumchalová, J; Bullerman, L B

2002-07-01

261

21 CFR 177.1360 - Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers. 177.1360...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT...Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers. Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers (CAS...

2013-04-01

262

21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system. 862.1390 Section... 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification...A 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device...

2009-04-01

263

21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system. 862.1390 Section... 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification...A 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device...

2010-04-01

264

Clostridiumm ljungdahlii, an anaerobic ethanol and acetate producing microorganism  

DOEpatents

A newly discovered microorganism was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Clostridium ljungdahlii, having the identifying characteristics of ATCC No. 49587. Cultured in an aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic conditions, this microorganism is capable of producing ethanol and acetate from CO and H[sub 2]O and/or CO[sub 2] and H[sub 2] in synthesis gas. Under optimal growth conditions, the microorganism produces acetate in preference to ethanol. Conversely, under non-growth conditions, ethanol production is favored over acetate. 3 figs.

Gaddy, J.L.; Clausen, E.C.

1992-12-22

265

Labeled acetate as a marker of astrocytic metabolism  

PubMed Central

Astrocytes have various important roles in brain physiology. To further elucidate the details of astrocytic functions under normal and pathological states, astrocyte-specific measurements are mandatory. For studying brain energy metabolism, the use of the astrocyte-specific energy substrate acetate has proven to be of great value. Since the first applications of labeled acetate for brain studies about 50 years ago, numerous methodologies have been developed and employed in compartment-specific investigations of brain metabolism. Here, we provide an overview of these different methodological approaches and review studies employing acetate labeled with the most commonly used carbon isotopes.

Wyss, Matthias T; Magistretti, Pierre J; Buck, Alfred; Weber, Bruno

2011-01-01

266

The antibacterial activity and stability of acetic acid.  

PubMed

Acetic acid has been shown to have good antibacterial activity against micro-organisms such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This study examined the activity against a range of bacterial pathogens and also assessed any reduction in antibacterial activity due to evaporation or inactivation by organic material in dressings. Acetic acid was active at dilutions as low as 0.166% and the activity was not reduced by evaporation nor by inactivation by cotton swabs. Burn injuries are a major problem in countries with limited resources. Acetic acid is an ideal candidate for use in patients who are treated in those parts of the world. PMID:23747099

Fraise, A P; Wilkinson, M A C; Bradley, C R; Oppenheim, B; Moiemen, N

2013-06-07

267

Water dispersible microbicidal cellulose acetate phthalate film  

PubMed Central

Background Cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) has been used for several decades in the pharmaceutical industry for enteric film coating of oral tablets and capsules. Micronized CAP, available commercially as "Aquateric" and containing additional ingredients required for micronization, used for tablet coating from water dispersions, was shown to adsorb and inactivate the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), herpesviruses (HSV) and other sexually transmitted disease (STD) pathogens. Earlier studies indicate that a gel formulation of micronized CAP has a potential as a topical microbicide for prevention of STDs including the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The objective of endeavors described here was to develop a water dispersible CAP film amenable to inexpensive industrial mass production. Methods CAP and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) were dissolved in different organic solvent mixtures, poured into dishes, and the solvents evaporated. Graded quantities of a resulting selected film were mixed for 5 min at 37°C with HIV-1, HSV and other STD pathogens, respectively. Residual infectivity of the treated viruses and bacteria was determined. Results The prerequisites for producing CAP films which are soft, flexible and dispersible in water, resulting in smooth gels, are combining CAP with HPC (other cellulose derivatives are unsuitable), and casting from organic solvent mixtures containing ?50 to ?65% ethanol (EtOH). The films are ?100 µ thick and have a textured surface with alternating protrusions and depressions revealed by scanning electron microscopy. The films, before complete conversion into a gel, rapidly inactivated HIV-1 and HSV and reduced the infectivity of non-viral STD pathogens >1,000-fold. Conclusions Soft pliable CAP-HPC composite films can be generated by casting from organic solvent mixtures containing EtOH. The films rapidly reduce the infectivity of several STD pathogens, including HIV-1. They are converted into gels and thus do not have to be removed following application and use. In addition to their potential as topical microbicides, the films have promise for mucosal delivery of pharmaceuticals other than CAP.

Neurath, A Robert; Strick, Nathan; Li, Yun-Yao

2003-01-01

268

Mosquito larvicidal activity of gluanol acetate, a tetracyclic triterpenes derived from Ficus racemosa Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The larvicidal activity of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, petroleum ether, acetone, and methanol extracts of the leaf and bark\\u000a of Ficus racemosa (Moraceae) was assayed for their toxicity against the early fourth-instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). The larval mortality was observed after 24-h exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects;\\u000a however, the highest larval mortality was found in

A. Abdul Rahuman; P. Venkatesan; Kannappan Geetha; Geetha Gopalakrishnan; A. Bagavan; C. Kamaraj

2008-01-01

269

Ester prodrug-loaded electrospun cellulose acetate fiber mats as transdermal drug delivery systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellulose acetate (CA) fibers loaded with the ester prodrugs of naproxen, including methyl ester, ethyl ester and isopropyl\\u000a ester, were prepared through electrospinning using acetone\\/N,N-dimethylacetamide(DMAc)\\/ethanol (4:1:1, v\\/v\\/v) as solvent. The chemical and morphological characterizations of the medicated\\u000a fibers were investigated by means of SEM, DSC, XRD and FTIR, as well as the studies of the drug release properties. The results

Xiao-mei Wu; Christopher J. Branford-White; Li-min Zhu; Nichoals P. Chatterton; Deng-guang Yu

2010-01-01

270

Inhibition of Ice Growth and Recrystallization by Zirconium Acetate and Zirconium Acetate Hydroxide  

PubMed Central

The control over ice crystal growth, melting, and shaping is important in a variety of fields, including cell and food preservation and ice templating for the production of composite materials. Control over ice growth remains a challenge in industry, and the demand for new cryoprotectants is high. Naturally occurring cryoprotectants, such as antifreeze proteins (AFPs), present one solution for modulating ice crystal growth; however, the production of AFPs is expensive and inefficient. These obstacles can be overcome by identifying synthetic substitutes with similar AFP properties. Zirconium acetate (ZRA) was recently found to induce the formation of hexagonal cavities in materials prepared by ice templating. Here, we continue this line of study and examine the effects of ZRA and a related compound, zirconium acetate hydroxide (ZRAH), on ice growth, shaping, and recrystallization. We found that the growth rate of ice crystals was significantly reduced in the presence of ZRA and ZRAH, and that solutions containing these compounds display a small degree of thermal hysteresis, depending on the solution pH. The compounds were found to inhibit recrystallization in a manner similar to that observed in the presence of AFPs. The favorable properties of ZRA and ZRAH suggest tremendous potential utility in industrial applications.

Mizrahy, Ortal; Bar-Dolev, Maya; Guy, Shlomit; Braslavsky, Ido

2013-01-01

271

Electrical Conduction Mechanism and Optical Properties of Polyvinyl Acetate and Cellulose Acetate Propionate Blends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Films of Polyvinyl acetate (PVAc), cellulose acetate propionate (CAP) homopolymers and their blends of compositions 0.85/0.15, 0.7/0.3, 0.5/0.5, 0.3/0.7 and 0.15/0.85 (wt/wt) were prepared to investigate the type of electrical conduction mechanism. The current-voltage characteristics have been studied under different conditions. Also, ultraviolet/visible spectra of all samples have been studied according to their different composition ratios. The conduction mechanisms at different temperatures and voltage ranges appear to be essentially a space charge limited current for the two individual polymers, while for the blend samples the predominance mechanism is Poole-Frenkel type. Ultraviolet/visible studies of the investigated samples showed that the blend sample of 0.5/0.5 (wt/wt) has the smallest absorption edge (4.58 eV) and highest band tail (0.61 eV). The composition blend sample 0.5/0.5 (wt/wt) has the most proper conduction and optical properties which has attractive attention in the view of its application in electronic and optical devices.

Abd El-Kader, F. H.; Shehap, A. M.; Basha, A. F.; El-Fewaty, N. H.

2011-06-01

272

21 CFR 524.1204 - Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate. 524.1204 Section...1204 Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate. (a) Specifications. (1) Calcium amphomycin is the...

2009-04-01

273

1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate, a superoxide anion generation inhibitor, potently inhibits tumor promotion by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate in ICR mouse skin.  

PubMed

The anti-tumor-promoting activity of 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA) was examined in a two-stage carcinogenesis experiment in ICR mouse skin using 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (0.19 mumol) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA; 1.6 nmol). Topical application of ACA (160 nmol) markedly reduced the average number of tumors per mouse and the ratio of tumor-bearing mice: inhibition ratios 90% (p < 0.001) and 42% (p < 0.005), respectively. ACA even at a dose equimolar to TPA (1.6 nmol) significantly reduced the average number of tumors per mouse: inhibitory ratio 44% (p < 0.05). ACA potently inhibited TPA-induced superoxide (O2-) generation in differentiated HL-60 cells (IC50 = 4.3 microM) and suppressed the lipid hydroperoxide formation by 42% (p < 0.001) in the ethyl linoleate autoxidation test. PMID:8784473

Murakami, A; Ohura, S; Nakamura, Y; Koshimizu, K; Ohigashi, H

274

One-Step Synthesis of Polynitroaliphatic Acetals and Ethers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A general, one step, high yield reaction has been demonstrated that produces a variety of polynitroaliphatic acetal and ether products. Reaction condition are mild; purification is simple; and, no costly high pressure of high temperature laboratory techni...

R. E. Cochoy R. R. McGuire S. A. Shackelford

1988-01-01

275

Deep cavitands featuring functional acetal-based walls.  

PubMed

The synthesis of deep cavitands with functionalized acetals as a fourth-wall is described. Recognition properties and stabilities of the complexes of two representative cavitands with aliphatic, aromatic, carbocyclic and adamantane guests were evaluated by NMR methods. PMID:23125977

Degardin, Melissa; Busseron, Eric; Kim, Dang-A; Ajami, Dariush; Rebek, Julius

2012-12-18

276

Functionalized heterocyclic scaffolds derived from Morita-Baylis-Hillman Acetates.  

PubMed

Five series of heterocycles with extraordinary structural diversity have been regiospecifically synthesized from the same Morita-Baylis-Hillman Acetates (MBHAs). All four potential electrophilic sites (?, ?, ?, ?) of MBHAs are proved to be reactive. PMID:23877190

Zhu, Huajian; Shao, Nana; Chen, Tong; Zou, Hongbin

2013-09-11

277

Fragrance material review on 2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl acetate.  

PubMed

A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-Hydroxy-2-phenylethyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl acetate was evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22414656

McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

2012-03-03

278

Lubricating Oil Compositions Containing Calcium Acetate and Lubricating Solids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An extreme pressure additive for greases and lubricating compositions for internal combustion engines and metalworking operations combines graphite, stannic sulfide, or molybdenum disulfide with anhydrous calcium acetate. Substantially equal amounts are e...

R. H. Davis

1965-01-01

279

Antibacterial Textile Finishes Utilizing Zirconyl Acetate Complexes of Inorganic Peroxides.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention relates to a new method of forming water-insoluble peroxide complexes of zirconyl acetate as deposits, films, and coatings on and within cellulosic fibers, yarns, and fabrics, as well as paper. Peroxides operative in forming these complexes...

C. M. Welch G. F. Danna T. L. Vigo

1977-01-01

280

Antibacterial Textile Finishes Utilizing Zirconyl Acetate Complexes of Inorganic Peroxides.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bacteriostatic, water-insoluble complexes of zirconyl acetate with inorganic peroxides are disclosed. Peroxides operative in forming these complexes are hydrogen peroxide, alkali metal perborates and alkali metal peroxydiphosphates. Processes for in situ ...

C. Welch G. S. Dana T. Vigo

1977-01-01

281

Acetoxychavicol Acetate, an Antifungal Component of Alpinia galanga1.  

PubMed

The essential oils from fresh and dried rhizomes of ALPINIA GALANGA showed an antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria, a yeast and some dermatophytes, using the agar overlay technique. The main components of the oils were also tested and terpinen-4-ol was found most active. An N-pentane/diethyl ether extract of dried rhizomes was active against TRICHOPHYTON MENTAGROPHYTES. 1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate, 1'-acetoxyeugenol acetate and 1'-hydroxychavicol acetate identified by MS and NMR were found in the antifungally active fractions obtained by LSC. Acetoxychavicol acetate was active against the seven fungi tested and its MIC value for dermatophytes ranged from 50 to 250 microg/ml. Dried sliced rhizomes contained 1.5% of this compound. The compound was not found in rhizomes of ALPINIA OFFICINARUM, ZINGIBER OFFICINALE and KAEMPFERIA GALANGA. PMID:17345272

Janssen, A M; Scheffer, J J

1985-12-01

282

Hydrothermal production of formic and acetic acids from syringol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of formic and acetic acids (or salts) by hydrothermal oxidation of syringol, a model compound for lignin, was\\u000a investigated using a batch reactor. Results show that the highest yields of formic and acetic acids were, respectively, 59.6%\\u000a and 11.3% at the reaction condition of 0.5 mol\\/L NaOH, 120% H2O2 supply and 280 °C. These results will inform studies

Lu-ting Pan; Zheng Shen; Lei Wu; Ya-lei Zhang; Xue-fei Zhou; Fang-ming Jin

2010-01-01

283

Acetic acid pulping of wheat straw under atmospheric pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric acetic acid pulping of wheat straw was carried out. Pulping conditions and their effects on pulp properties were\\u000a investigated in detail, and a comparison between acetic acid (AcOH) pulp and soda-anthraquinone (AQ) pulps of wheat straw\\u000a was made of the chemical composition, strength, and fiber morphology of the pulps. Wheat straw was successfully pulped and\\u000a fractionated into pulp (cellulose),

Xue-Jun Pan; Yoshihiro Sano

1999-01-01

284

Mechanism of calcium accumulation in acetate-fed aerobic granule  

Microsoft Academic Search

High calcium content has been widely reported in acetate-fed aerobic granules, but the reason behind this is unclear yet.\\u000a By SEM–energy dispersive X-ray mapping analysis, this study showed that the majority of calcium was presented in the central\\u000a part of the acetate-fed aerobic granule, and the granule shell part was nearly calcium-free. The elemental analysis of calcium\\u000a ions coupled with

Zhi-Wu Wang; Yong Li; Yu Liu

2007-01-01

285

Aluminum phosphate dispersed on a cellulose acetate fiber surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellulose acetate fibers with supported highly dispersed aluminum phosphate were prepared by reacting aluminum-containing cellulose acetate (Al2O3=3.5wt.%; 1.1mmolg?1 aluminum atom per gram of the material) with phosphoric acid. Solid-state NMR spectra (CPMAS 31P NMR) data indicated that HPO42? is the species present on the fiber surface. The specific concentration of acidic centers, determined by ammonia gas adsorption, is 0.50mmolg?1. The

Angelica M Lazarin; Claudemir A Borgo; Yoshitaka Gushikem; Yuriy V Kholin

2003-01-01

286

Activated carbon sheet prepared from softwood acetic acid lignin  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an example of activated carbon (AC) moldings, AC sheets were prepared from thermoplastic acetic acid lignin by lamination.\\u000a The resulting AC sheets are a new type of product that can be applied as water and air cleaners. Powdered softwood acetic\\u000a acid lignin (SAL) was molded into sheets by a thermal pressing method. When the sheet was carbonized under a

Yasumitsu Uraki; Ryo Taniwatashi; Satoshi Kubo; Yoshihiro Sano

2000-01-01

287

Degradation of Cellulose Acetate-Based Materials: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellulose acetate polymer is used to make a variety of consumer products including textiles, plastic films, and cigarette\\u000a filters. A review of degradation mechanisms, and the possible approaches to diminish the environmental persistence of these\\u000a materials, will clarify the current and potential degradation rates of these products after disposal. Various studies have\\u000a been conducted on the biodegradability of cellulose acetate,

Juergen PulsSteven; Steven A. Wilson; Dirk Hölter

2011-01-01

288

Acetalization of Carbonyl Compounds Catalyzed by I2-Doped Polyaniline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyaniline-I2 is prepared by doping of polyaniline base with iodine. Polyaniline base and polyaniline-I2 are characterized by infrared spectra, X-ray diffraction spectra, and thermogravimetric analysis. Polyaniline-I2 is used as a catalyst for the first time in acetalization of carbonyl compounds. The catalyzing acetalization of cyclohexanone and propane-1,2-diol is conducted in excellent yields with simple and more environmental benign procedure. This

Genxiang Luo; Miao He; Zhaojin Zhong

2008-01-01

289

Infrared Studies of Water Adsorption on Acetic Acid thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy is used to investigate H2O ice deposited onto non-crystalline (dimers [1]) and polycrystalline (infinite chains [1]) acetic acid films. The condensed water film grown at ˜135 K on these different substrates can be characterized as amorphous dense ice. The H2O molecules are shown to interact mainly with the carbonyl and the carboxyl oxygens, forming hydrogen bonds. Upon water adsorption on the non-crystalline acetic acid film, saturation of the change induced in the intensity of the C=O and C-O peaks occurs at an average H2O exposure of ˜ 2.52 L. The amount of H-bonding involving C=O or C-O (of acetic acid) and OH (of water) on the polycrystalline film has been reduced considerably compared to the situation on the non-annealed one, but saturation of the carbonyl oxygen even for a water exposure of 9 L has not been observed while the carboxyl oxygen saturates at ˜2.76 L. Thermal evolution studies for the ice film on non-crystalline and polycrystalline acetic acid films show that water co-evaporates with acetic acid likely as a water-acetic acid complex in the temperature range of 140-155 K, which continues until the entire ice film has been exhausted at 160 K. [1]: Q. Gao and K. T. Leung, J. Phys. Chem. B 109, (2005) 13263. .

Malick Thiam, Michel; Ebrahimi, Maryam; Tong Leung, Kam

2006-03-01

290

New Analytical Method for Cellulose Acetate Electrophoresis Using Terahertz Imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new method of analyzing the results of cellulose acetate electrophoresis by terahertz imaging. To verify accuracy of terahertz imaging of cellulose acetate electrophoresis, we compared the images obtained by terahertz imaging with those obtained by the one-side staining method. To obtain accurate information about the distribution of medical molecules in cellulose acetate by terahertz imaging, owing to the low concentration, a suitable imaging spatial resolution is required to estimate the distribution accurately in the cellulose acetate membrane. Here, we have improved the spatial resolution by reducing the absorption of the diffusion of the terahertz signal from the sample surface. Using the terahertz imaging system, we obtained terahertz images of the cellulose acetate with a glycine sensitivity of 3.71 ?g/mm2 and an l-methionine sensitivity of 6.22 ?g/mm2. Comparison of the terahertz and staining images showed that the new imaging method using the terahertz imaging system has a good possibility for cellulose acetate membrane electrophoresis analysis even for relatively low-concentration electrophoresis.

Zhang, Hong Bing; Mitobe, Kazutaka; Suzuki, Masafumi; Yoshimura, Noboru

2009-06-01

291

Fractionation of wheat straw by atmospheric acetic acid process.  

PubMed

Fractionation of wheat straw was investigated using an atmospheric acetic acid process. Under the typical conditions of 90% (v/v) aqueous AcOH, 4% H(2)SO(4) (w/w, on straw), ratio of liquor to straw (L/S) 10 (v/w), pulping temperature 105 degrees C, and pulping time 3h, wheat straw was fractionated to pulp (cellulose), lignin and monosaccharides mainly from hemicellulose with yields of approximately 50%, 15% and 35%, respectively. Acetic acid pulp from the straw had an acceptable strength for paper and could be bleached to a high brightness over 85% with a short bleaching sequence. Acetic acid pulp was also a potential feedstock for fuels and chemicals. The acetic acid process separated pentose and hexose in wheat straw to a large extent. Most of the pentose (xylan) was dissolved, whereas the hexose (glucan) remained in the pulp. Approximately 30% of carbohydrates in wheat straw were hydrolyzed to monosaccharides during acetic acid pulping, of which xylose accounted for 70% and glucose for 12%. The acetic acid lignin from wheat straw showed relatively lower molecular weight and fusibility, which made the lignin a promising raw material for many products, such as adhesive and molded products. PMID:15734313

Pan, Xuejun; Sano, Yoshihiro

2004-12-19

292

[Rheological properties of sucrose acetate isobutyrate in situ gel].  

PubMed

To study the rheological properties of sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB) in situ gel and the influencing factors. Measurements of shear stress and viscosity were carried out at different shear rate. The rheological properties of SAIB solution were similar to those of Newtonian fluid. The factors such as the type of solvent, concentration, additive, drug and temperature had effect on the rheological properties. Ethanol was a suitable solvent compared with ethyl lactate and N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP). The solution viscosity of SAIB was reduced from 1.29 to 0.11 Pa x s with only increasing the content of ethanol from 10% to 20%. Polylactic acid (PLA) and risperidone could increase the intermolecular force and viscosity. However, adding 10% (w/w) PLA, the initial release of risperidone was reduced from 20.2% to 3.5%. The solution viscosity reduced significantly by stepping up the temperature. The results obtained support the using of SAIB is satisfactorily injectable in situ gel formulation. PMID:17633217

Lu, Ya-xin; He, Hai-bing; Cui, Yue; Tang, Xing

2007-04-01

293

Antimycobacterial activity of two natural alkaloids, vasicine acetate and 2-acetyl benzylamine, isolated from Indian shrub Adhatoda vasica Ness. leaves.  

PubMed

In folk medicine, Adhatoda vasica Ness. (Acanthaceae) is used to treat asthma and cough. The leaves of A. vasica were powdered and extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. The hexane extract showed 97 percent reduction in colony-forming units (CFU) at 100 microg/ml. The hexane extract was subjected to column chromatography. Two natural compounds, vasicine acetate and 2-acetyl benzylamine, were isolated from it. They were bioassayed against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The two compounds showed strong antimycobacterial activity. Vasicine acetate and 2-acetyl benzylamine isolated from hexane extract of A. vasica leaves, significantly inhibited M. tuberculosis and one multi-drug-resistant (MDR) strain and one sensitive strain at 200 and 50 microg/ml, respectively. Our study demonstrated that both the compounds, vasicine acetate and 2-acetyl benzylamine, could be evaluated further for developing a drug to control M. tuberculosis. PMID:21289439

Ignacimuthu, S; Shanmugam, N

2010-12-01

294

Operation of the CO Dehydrogenase/Acetyl Coenzyme A Pathway in both Acetate Oxidation and Acetate Formation by the Syntrophically Acetate-Oxidizing Bacterium Thermacetogenium phaeum  

PubMed Central

Thermacetogenium phaeum is a homoacetogenic bacterium that can grow on various substrates, such as pyruvate, methanol, or H2/CO2. It can also grow on acetate if cocultured with the hydrogen-consuming methanogenic partner Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus. Enzyme activities of the CO dehydrogenase/acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) pathway (CO dehydrogenase, formate dehydrogenase, formyl tetrahydrofolate synthase, methylene tetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase) were detected in cell extracts of pure cultures and of syntrophic cocultures. Mixed cell suspensions of T. phaeum and M. thermautotrophicus oxidized acetate rapidly and produced acetate after addition of H2/CO2 after a short time lag. CO dehydrogenase activity staining after native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis exhibited three oxygen-labile bands which were identical in pure culture and coculture. Protein profiles of T. phaeum cells after sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated that the strain exhibited basically the same protein patterns in both pure and syntrophic culture. These results indicate that T. phaeum operates the CO dehydrogenase/acetyl-CoA pathway reversibly both in acetate oxidation and in reductive acetogenesis by using the same biochemical apparatus, although it has to couple this pathway to ATP synthesis in different ways.

Hattori, Satoshi; Galushko, Alexander S.; Kamagata, Yoichi; Schink, Bernhard

2005-01-01

295

Improved Monitoring of Female Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with Pear Ester Plus Acetic Acid in Sex Pheromone-treated Orchards  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Catch of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), in clear delta traps baited with ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester, PE) and acetic acid (AA) in separate lures (PE+AA) was compared with catch in orange delta traps baited with a single lure containing PE and the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadie...

296

Effect of sulfate and nitrate on acetate conversion by anaerobic microorganisms in a freshwater sediment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetate is quantitatively the most important substrate for methane production in a freshwater sediment in The Netherlands. In the presence of alternative electron acceptors the conversion of acetate by methanogens was strongly inhibited. By modelling the results, obtained in experiments with and without 13C-labelled acetate, we could show that the competition for acetate between methanogens and sulfate reducers is the

Johannes C. M Scholten; Peter M van Bodegom; Jaap Vogelaar; Alexander van Ittersum; Kees Hordijk; Wim Roelofsen; Alfons J. M Stams

2002-01-01

297

PREPARATION OF WATER-SOLUBLE AND WATER-SWELLABLE STARCH ACETATES USING MICROWAVE HEATING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Starch acetates of degree of substitution 0.1-1.5 were prepared by heating corn starch, acetic acid and acetic anhydride in sealed, stirred, Teflon vessels in a microwave reactor. Reaction efficiencies were typically >90% at reaction temperatures of 150-160 deg C for 4-7 minutes. Starch acetates w...

298

Simultaneous acetic acid separation and monosaccharide concentration by reverse osmosis.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the feasibility and efficiency of simultaneous acetic acid separation and sugar concentration in model lignocellulosic hydrolyzates by reverse osmosis. The effects of operation parameters such as pH, temperature, pressure and feed concentration on the solute retentions were examined with a synthetic xylose–glucose–acetic acid model solution. Results showed that the monosaccharides were almost completely rejected at above 20 bar, while the acetic acid retention increased with the increase in pH and pressure, and decreased with the temperature increase. The maximum separation factors of acetic acid over xylose and glucose reached as high as 211.5 and 228.4 at pH 2.93 (the initial pH of model lignocellulosic hydrolyzates), 40 °C and 20 bar. Furthermore, the concentration and diafiltration process were employed at optimal operation conditions. Consequently, a high sugar concentration and a beneficially lower acetic acid concentration were simultaneously achieved by reverse osmosis. PMID:23376199

Zhou, Fanglei; Wang, Cunwen; Wei, Jiang

2013-01-03

299

Photodissociation spectroscopy of the Mg{sup +}-acetic acid complex  

SciTech Connect

We have studied the structure and photodissociation of Mg{sup +}-acetic acid clusters. Ab initio calculations suggest four relatively strongly bound ground state isomers for the [MgC{sub 2}H{sub 4}O{sub 2}]{sup +} complex. These isomers include the cis and trans forms of the Mg{sup +}-acetic acid association complex with Mg{sup +} bonded to the carbonyl O atom of acetic acid, the Mg{sup +}-acetic acid association complex with Mg{sup +} bonded to the hydroxyl O atom of acetic acid, or to a Mg{sup +}-ethenediol association complex. Photodissociation through the Mg{sup +}-based 3p<-3s absorption bands in the near UV leads to direct (nonreactive) and reactive dissociation products: Mg{sup +}, MgOH{sup +}, Mg(H{sub 2}O){sup +}, CH{sub 3}CO{sup +}, and MgCH{sub 3}{sup +}. At low energies the dominant reactive quenching pathway is through dehydration to Mg(H{sub 2}O){sup +}, but additional reaction channels involving C-H and C-C bond activation are also open at higher energies.

Abate, Yohannes; Kleiber, P. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 and Optical Science and Technology Center, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States)

2006-11-14

300

Bioenergetics of methanogenesis from acetate by Methanosarcina barkeri  

SciTech Connect

Methane formation from acetate by resting cells of Methanosarcina barkeri was accompanied by an increase in the intracellular ATP content from 0.9 to 4.0 nmol/mg of protein. Correspondingly, the proton motive force increased to a steady-state level of -120mV. The transmembrane pH gradient, however, was reversed under these conditions and amounted to +20mV. The addition of the protonophore 3,5,3',4'-tetrachlorosalicylanilide led to a drastic decrease in the proton motive force and in the intracellular ATP content and to an inhibition of methane formation. The ATPase inhibitor N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide stopped methanogenesis, and the intracellular ATP content decreased. The proton motive force decreased also under these conditions, indicating that the proton motive force could not be generated from acetate without ATP. The overall process of methane formation from acetate was dependent on the presence of sodium ions; upon addition of acetate to cell suspensions of M. barkeri, a transmembrane Na/sup +/ gradient in the range of 4:1 (Na/sup +//sub out//Na/sup +//sub in/) was established. Possible sites of involvement of the Na/sup +/ gradient in the conversion of acetate to methane and carbon dioxide are discussed. Na/sup +/ is not involved in the CO dehydrogenase reaction.

Peinemann, S.; Mueller, V.; Blaut, M.; Gottschalk, G.

1988-03-01

301

Olfactory discrimination ability for homologous series of aliphatic ketones and acetic esters.  

PubMed

We tested the ability of human subjects to distinguish between members of homologous series of aliphatic ketones (2-butanone to 2-decanone) and acetic esters (ethyl acetate to n-octyl acetate). In a forced-choice triangular test procedure, 20 subjects per series were repeatedly presented with all 21 binary combinations of the seven stimuli and asked to identify the bottle containing the odd stimulus. We found (a) that as a group, the subjects performed significantly above chance level in all tasks but three with the ketones, and all tasks but six with the acetic esters, and thus were clearly able to discriminate between most of the odor pairs presented; (b) marked interindividual differences in discrimination performance, ranging from subjects who were able to significantly distinguish between all 21 odor pairs of a series to subjects who failed to do so with the majority of tasks; and (c) a significant negative correlation between discrimination performance and structural similarity of odorants in terms of differences in carbon chain length for both homologous series. In line with findings of two previous studies using homologous series of aliphatic alcohols, aldehydes, and carboxylic acids, our results suggest that carbon chain length may generally be an important determinant of the interaction between stimulus molecule and receptor, and thus may generally be a molecular property affecting odor quality of aliphatic substances. PMID:11165335

Laska, M; Hübener, F

2001-03-15

302

Generation of Phenylpropanoid Pathway-Derived Volatiles in Transgenic Plants: Rose Alcohol Acetyltransferase Produces Phenylethyl Acetate and Benzyl Acetate in Petunia Flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Esters are important contributors to the aroma of numerous flowers and fruits. Acetate esters such as geranyl acetate, phenylethyl\\u000a acetate and benzyl acetate are generated as a result of the action of alcohol acetyltransferases (AATs). Numerous homologous\\u000a AATs from various plants have been characterized using in-vitro assays. To study the function of rose alcohol acetyltransferase (RhAAT) in planta, we generated

Inna Guterman; Tania Masci; Xinlu Chen; Florence Negre; Eran Pichersky; Natalia Dudareva; David Weiss; Alexander Vainstein

2006-01-01

303

Reduced vaginal bleeding in postmenopausal women who receive combined norethindrone acetate and low-dose ethinyl estradiol therapy versus combined conjugated equine estrogens and medroxyprogesterone acetate therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects on vaginal bleeding patterns of continuous combined hormone replacement therapy with norethindrone acetate and ethinyl estradiol versus conjugated equine estrogens and medroxyprogesterone acetate. Study Design: Three hundred fifty-seven postmenopausal women were selected randomly (in a blinded manner) to 12 months of treatment with 1 mg norethindrone acetate\\/5 ?g ethinyl

James A. Simon; James H. Liu; Leon Speroff; Brad S. Shumel; James P. Symons

2003-01-01

304

A quantitative method for blood lipoproteins using cellulose acetate electrophoresis  

PubMed Central

A rapid, inexpensive, and quantitative method is described for obtaining the levels of plasma very low, low, and high density lipoproteins using cellulose acetate electrophoresis and lipid assays without prior separation by ultracentrifuge or other techniques. It involves separation of the lipoproteins by cellulose acetate electrophoresis, followed by their identification with the ozone-Schiff reaction. The total lipoprotein concentration is estimated from the total plasma phospholipid, and the percentage of each component obtained by densitometric analysis of the stained electrophoretograms, using reflected light. For samples with a raised level of very low density lipoprotein, plasma triglyceride analysis is also required. The results obtained by the cellulose acetate electrophoresis method are in good agreement with those by the analytical ultracentrifuge and the preparative ultracentrifuge with refractometry. The theoretical assumptions on which the method is based have been shown to be valid. Images

Magnani, H. N.; Howard, A. N.

1971-01-01

305

Photoionization of small sodium-doped acetic acid clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The uptake of sodium and the fragmentation before and after ``soft'' photoionization with ultraviolet light are investigated for small acetic acid clusters. The acetic acid clusters are generated in a supersonic expansion and ionized with ultraviolet light after doping with sodium in a pick-up chamber. The composition of the bare acetic acid clusters in the molecular beam is determined independently from complementary photoionization experiments using extreme ultraviolet light. The experimental results are analyzed with the help of density functional calculations for energetics and statistical adiabatic channel calculations for fragmentation kinetics. The study demonstrates that the detected ions originate from fragmentation in the neutral as well as in the ionic state, and in particular that the fragmentation pathway strongly depends on the cluster size.

Forysinski, Piotr W.; Zielke, Philipp; Luckhaus, David; Corbett, Jennifer; Signorell, Ruth

2011-03-01

306

Optimization of biodiesel production by supercritical methyl acetate.  

PubMed

This work has been done to find out the optimum condition of supercritical methyl acetate method in biodiesel production. The reaction temperature, pressure, time and molar ratio in methyl acetate to oil were the key parameters that must all be considered to produce an optimum condition. Evaluation of thermal decomposition on products, cis-trans isomerization and tocopherol content were required to further optimize the reaction condition. It was, therefore, concluded that for the supercritical methyl acetate method, reaction condition of 350 °C/20 MPa/45 min/42 M ratio gave the highest yields of FAME (96.7 wt.%) and triacetin (8.8 wt.%). Yet, at such a reaction condition, the optimum reaction condition was compromised due particularly to the unavoidable thermal decomposition of products, and tocopherols as natural anti-oxidants. PMID:23340101

Goembira, Fadjar; Saka, Shiro

2012-12-27

307

Disinfection of mung bean seed with gaseous acetic acid.  

PubMed

Mung bean seed inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes (3 to 5 log CFU/g) was exposed to gaseous acetic acid in an aluminum fumigation chamber. Salmonella Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 were not detected by enrichment of seeds treated with 242 microl of acetic acid per liter of air for 12 h at 45 degrees C. L. monocytogenes was recovered by enrichment from two of 10 25-g seed samples treated in this manner. Fumigation with gaseous acetic acid was also lethal to indigenous bacteria and fungi on mung bean seed. The treatment did not significantly reduce seed germination rates, and no differences in surface microstructure were observed between treated and untreated seed viewed by scanning electron microscopy. PMID:10456753

Delaquis, P J; Sholberg, P L; Stanich, K

1999-08-01

308

Induction of double ovulation in mares using deslorelin acetate.  

PubMed

This study aimed to determine whether deslorelin acetate could induce double ovulation in mares. In Experiment 1, eight mares were treated with prostaglandin on Day 8 (D8) after ovulation, then treated with saline or with 100 ?g of a controlled-release formulation of deslorelin acetate vehicle intramuscularly (IM) every 12h from D8 after ovulation until at least two follicles reached 33 mm. At this time, ovulation was induced with 2500 IU of hCG. Artificial insemination was performed 24h after induction, and embryos were collected on the eighth day after ovulation was first detected. In Experiment 2, 112 estrous cycles in 56 mares were studied. In this experiment, the deslorelin acetate protocol was initiated only in mares that achieved a follicle with a diameter of at least 25 mm and at least one second follicle with a diameter?20mm was detected, at which time 100 ?g deslorelin acetate or saline was administered IM every 12h. The other procedures were similar to those described in Experiment 1. The variables studied were analyzed using Student's t-test and Fisher's exact test. In Experiment 1, only two mares in deslorelin group having second follicles of 20-25 mm on responded with double ovulation. In the second experiment, 82% of treated mares responded with double ovulation, and the embryo recovery per estrous cycle was 1.12 and 0.57 in the group treated with deslorelin acetate and the control group, respectively (P<0.05). Deslorelin acetate is effective in inducing double ovulation in mares using the protocol proposed. On average, it allows for the recovery of one embryo by uterine flushing. PMID:23182475

Nagao, J F; Neves Neto, J R; Papa, F O; Alvarenga, M A; Freitas-Dell'Aqua, C P; Dell'Aqua, J A Junior

2012-11-01

309

Synthesis of dialkyl ethers from organotrifluoroborates and acetals.  

PubMed

The formation of ethers by C-O bond formation under harsh basic or acidic conditions is an entrenched synthetic disconnection in organic chemistry. We report a strategic alternative that involves the BF(3).OEt(2)-promoted coupling of stable, easily prepared acetals with widely available potassium aryl-, alkenyl-, and alkynyltrifluoroborates. This fast, operationally simple process offers straightforward access to dialkyl ethers, many of which would be difficult to prepare using classical methods. The use of MOM-protected alcohols and acetal-protected aldehydes enables ether formation without recourse to protecting-group manipulations or strong bases. PMID:20000858

Mitchell, T Andrew; Bode, Jeffrey W

2009-12-23

310

syn-Selective Kobayashi aldol reaction using acetals.  

PubMed

The Kobayashi aldol reaction has been used to construct anti-aldol products by remote stereoinduction. Since the product of the Kobayashi aldol reaction has a typical polyketide structure, this reaction has been applied to the total synthesis of natural products. By varying this reaction, it was found that the reaction with acetals in the presence of Lewis acid proceeded to give syn adducts in high stereoselectivity. This is the first example of the stereoselective reaction of the chiral dienol ether and acetals. PMID:23331025

Tsukada, Hiroyuki; Mukaeda, Yuki; Hosokawa, Seijiro

2013-01-18

311

[Severe flecainide acetate poisoning. Apropos of a case].  

PubMed

Poisoning with flecainide acetate is rare and associated with a high mortality. This usually occurs after massive ingestion but can also be observed during therapeutic overdose in patients with renal failure or with amiodarone therapy. The prognostic depends on the haemodynamic and rhythmic effects of the overdose one sign of which is widening of the QRS complexes. Major sodium bicarbonate or lactate infusion is the generally prescribed treatment. The authors report one case of a patient with renal failure on amiodarone who survived a severe flecainide acetate overdose. PMID:10078349

Maury, P; Vuille, C; Metzger, J; Veragut, B; Schoenenberger, I; Elamly, A; Chevrolet, J C

1999-02-01

312

Method for enzymatic determination of imidazole acetic acid.  

PubMed

A method for enzymatic assay of imidazole acetic acid (ImAA) was developed, based on the strict substrate specificity of imidazole acetate monooxygenase from Pseudomonas sp. [Maki et al. (1969) J. Biol. Chem., 244., 2942-2950], which catalyzes concomitant conversion of NADH to NAD+. Thus, ImAA was determined by measuring decrease in absorbancy at 340 nm. Tissue extracts were partially purified and/or concentrated by column chromatography on Bio-Rad AG-1 before enzymatic assay. The lowest measurable level of ImAA by this method was 2 nmol. PMID:6869819

Watanabe, T; Kambe, H; Imamura, I; Taguchi, Y; Tamura, T; Wada, H

1983-04-15

313

Formation of Amino Acids from Reactor Irradiated Ammonium Acetate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ammonium acetate in various conditions was irradiated in a reactor to examine the contributions of both the reactor radiations and recoiled14C nucleis to form the biologically interesting molecules. Present investigations demonstrated that several amino acids, glycine, alanine, ?-alanine and GABA, and may-be aspartic acid, serine and valine by prolonged irradiation, were formed in the aqueous solutions of ammonium acetate.14C-radioactivities were also found distributed in these amino acids. However, no special relationship between14C-radioactivity and these amino acids formed was observed.

Akaboshi, M.; Kawai, K.; Maki, H.; Kawamoto, K.; Honda, Y.

1982-12-01

314

Studies on the melts of alkali metal acetates.  

PubMed

The density, viscosity, and electrical conductivity of alkali metal acetates were measured over the temperature interval between melting and decomposition. The apparent activation energies of the equivalent conductivities and viscosities were calculated. It has been concluded from the results that alkali metal acetates, similarly to alkali metal benzenesulphonates studied earlier, exhibit properties quite unlike those of alkali metal halides. In the dependence of equivalent conductivity on the nature of the cation, the anomalous behaviour of lithium salts appears to be due to association prevailing in the melt phase. PMID:18960850

Halmos, Z; Meisel, T; Seybold, K; Erdey, L

1970-12-01

315

Synthesis of radiolabeled acetyl-coenzyme A from sodium acetate  

SciTech Connect

The synthesis of high specific radioactivity (/sup 14/C)-acetyl-Coenzyme A from (/sup 14/C)sodium acetate, 2,6-dichlorobenzoic acid, 1,1'-carbonyldiimidazole, and CoA is reported. Starting with 1 mumol of (/sup 14/C)sodium acetate, this method yields pure (/sup 14/C)acetyl-CoA in yields approaching 40%. Chromatography on a reversed-phase ODS column was used to separate acetyl-CoA from Coenzyme A and side products. The acetylating agent is apparently a reaction intermediate, acetylimidazole.

Clough, R.C.; Barnum, S.R.; Jaworski, J.G.

1989-01-01

316

Fate and residues of trenbolone acetate in edible tissues from sheep amd calves implanted with tritium-labeled trenbolone acetate  

SciTech Connect

In order to study the fate and residues of trenbolone acetate in edible tissues, two groups of six animals from two ruminant species (ewes and calves) were implanted with (3H)trenbolone acetate. The distribution of extractable radioactive residues was measured in liver, kidney and muscle. We found that the largest proportion of residues was not extractable and thus was considered as covalently bound residues. The proportion of the main extractable metabolites (17 alpha-trenbolone, trendione, 17 beta-trenbolone) was measured. The evaluation of the distribution of trenbolone acetate metabolites directly soluble in water showed that unknown metabolite(s) were predominant. The covalent binding to nucleic acids was measured. It was so low that it was not detectable. The results are discussed in light of the data presented in the scientific report on anabolic agents in animal production from the European scientific working group.

Evrard, P.; Maghuin-Rogister, G.; Rico, A.G. (Univ. of Liege (Belgium))

1989-06-01

317

Probing the environmental stability and bake latitudes of acetal vs. ketal protected polyvinylphenol DUV resist systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental stability has been a major concern in chemically amplified resist systems. These are the major chemistry platforms adopted in DUV resists. To resolve this issue, two extreme approaches were proposed recently. One is using the annealing concept through high temperature bake to densify the film and reduce free volume in the resist, thus minimizing the uptake of airborne contaminants. In this approach, high post exposure bake temperature is used which then bakes away major portion of airborne base from top of the resist, thus minimizing (or eliminating) T-top formation. To be able to execute this concept, a highly thermally stable copolymer of 4-hydroxystyrene and t-butyl acrylate was adopted. The nature of the thermal stability is due to the high activation energy of t-butyl ester group during the deprotection process. The other approach in achieving the environmental stability is using an extremely low activation energy protecting group which will deprotect during the exposure step. Since T-top formation usually occurs between exposure and PEB, the spontaneous room temperature deblocking eliminates any delay, thus PED effect free resist can be obtained. In this approach, the ketal resist system (KRS) using methoxy propene protected polyvinylphenol was used. The advantages of low activation energy are not only environmental stability but also large bake latitudes with PEB variation as low as 0 nm/degrees Celsius. Besides ketal, silyl ethers and acetals are the other two distinct resist families which have lower activation energy than t-butoxycarbonyl and t-butyl ester systems. According to many recent publications, the acetal resist systems have demonstrated some environmental robustness and insensitivity to bake temperature variation. In order to shed some light on the lithographic performance of these low activation energy resist systems, we present here some of our work on acetal resist family in comparison to ketal family. In the acetal resist family, we have evaluated a few protecting groups which include ethoxy ethyl, propyloxy ethyl and isobutyloxy ethyl. Since ethoxy ethyl had better polymer properties than other acetal groups, most lithographic work was done on this protecting group in comparison to ketal groups. The experimental findings suggest that the environmental stability in the acetal system is inferior to the ketal system. Since the reaction is completed during exposure, ketal system is completely insensitive to the bake temperature. Acetal system can have large bake latitudes (PAB & PEB) only if the resist formulation contains large amount of basic additive, e.g. ethoxy ethyl protected polyvinylphenol resist with significant amount of basic additive gives only 3 - 4% change in Eo when PEB temperature changes from 90 to 130 degrees Celsius (PAB 120 degrees Celsius), and 4 - 5% change when PAB temperature changes from 100 to 120 degrees Celsius (PEB 110 degrees Celsius).

Kumar, Uday; Pandya, Ashish; Sinta, Roger F.; Huang, Wu-Song; Bantu, Rao; Katnani, Ahmad D.

1997-07-01

318

Concentration-detection functions for the odor of homologous n-acetate esters  

PubMed Central

Using air-dilution olfactometry, we measured concentration-response functions for the odor detection of the homologous esters ethyl, butyl, hexyl, and octyl acetate. Stimuli were delivered by means of an 8-station vapor delivery device (VDD-8) specifically designed to capture odor detection performance by humans under environmentally realistic conditions. Groups of 16–17 (half female) normosmic (i.e., having a normal olfaction) non-smokers (ages 18–38) were tested intensively. The method involved a three-alternative forced-choice procedure against carbon-filtered air, with an ascending concentration approach. Delivered concentrations were confirmed by gas chromatography before and during actual testing. A sigmoid (logistic) model provided an excellent fit to the odor detection functions both at the group and individual levels. Odor detection thresholds (ODTs) (defined as the half-way point between chance and perfect detection) decreased from ethyl (245 ppb by volume), to butyl (4.3 ppb), to hexyl acetate (2.9 ppb), and increased for octyl acetate (20 ppb). Interindividual threshold variability was near one and always below two orders of magnitude. The steepness of the functions decreased slightly but significantly with carbon chain length. The outcome showed that the present thresholds lie at the very low end of those previously reported, but share with them a similar relative trend across n-acetates. On this basis, we suggest that a recent quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) for ODTs can be applied to these and additional optimized data, and used to describe and predict not just ODTs but the complete underlying psychometric odor functions.

Cometto-Muniz, J. Enrique; Cain, William S.; Abraham, Michael H.; Gil-Lostes, Javier

2008-01-01

319

Concentration-detection functions for the odor of homologous n-acetate esters.  

PubMed

Using air-dilution olfactometry, we measured concentration-response functions for the odor detection of the homologous esters ethyl, butyl, hexyl, and octyl acetate. Stimuli were delivered by means of an 8-station vapor delivery device (VDD-8) specifically designed to capture odor detection performance by humans under environmentally realistic conditions. Groups of 16-17 (half female) normosmic (i.e., having a normal olfaction) non-smokers (ages 18-38) were tested intensively. The method involved a three-alternative forced-choice procedure against carbon-filtered air, with an ascending concentration approach. Delivered concentrations were confirmed by gas chromatography before and during actual testing. A sigmoid (logistic) model provided an excellent fit to the odor detection functions both at the group and individual levels. Odor detection thresholds (ODTs) (defined as the half-way point between chance and perfect detection) decreased from ethyl (245 ppb by volume), to butyl (4.3 ppb), to hexyl acetate (2.9 ppb), and increased for octyl acetate (20 ppb). Interindividual threshold variability was near one and always below two orders of magnitude. The steepness of the functions increased slightly but significantly with carbon chain length. The outcome showed that the present thresholds lie at the very low end of those previously reported, but share with them a similar relative trend across n-acetates. On this basis, we suggest that a recent quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) for ODTs can be applied to these and additional optimized data, and used to describe and predict not just ODTs but the complete underlying psychometric odor functions. PMID:18950650

Cometto-Muñiz, J Enrique; Cain, William S; Abraham, Michael H; Gil-Lostes, Javier

2008-10-08

320

Ferric acetate-uranium acetate reagent in cholesterol estimations in plasma and high density lipoprotein fractions: comparison with existing methods.  

PubMed

The use of ferric acetate-uranium acetate colour reaction for the estimation of cholesterol in the supernatants of plasma samples after precipitation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol by heparin-MnCl2 was assessed and compared with the conventional method using the FeCl3 colour reaction and also with the method using o-phthalaldehyde as the colouring reagent. All three methods gave comparable values when total cholesterol in plasma samples was determined and also when high density lipoprotein (HDL) fractions were separated by ultracentrifugation and the cholesterol contents determined. But when heparin-MnCl2 precipitation was used for HDL separation, and the cholesterol content determined, the FeCl3 method gave significantly lower values. This could be due to interference of the cholesterol colour reaction with FeCl3, due to Mn2+ ions present in the supernatant. Addition of Mn2+ to cholesterol standards and subsequent colour development with ferric acetate-uranium acetate and FeCl3 reagents showed that Mn2+ decreased the absorbancy of the coloured complex at 560 nm only when FeCl3 was used. Percentage recovery of added cholesterol was also lower when the heparin-MnCl2 supernatant was treated with FeCl3 reagent for colour development. Use of ferric acetate-uranium acetate reagent provides a simpler and quicker method. It does not suffer from interference due to the presence of Mn2+ ions and gives results comparable to the o-phthalaldehyde method and those using ultracentrifugation as the separation procedure. PMID:3840815

Shanmugasundaram, K R; Dhandapani, K; Visvanathan, A

1985-10-01

321

Linalyl Acetate Is Metabolized by Pseudomonas incognita with the Acetoxy Group Intact  

PubMed Central

Metabolism of linalyl acetate by Pseudomonas incognita isolated by enrichment culture on the acyclic monoterpene alcohol linalool was studied. Biodegradation of linalyl acetate by this strain resulted in the formation of linalool, linalool-8-carboxylic acid, oleuropeic acid, and ?5-4-acetoxy-4-methyl hexenoic acid. Cells adapted to linalyl acetate metabolized linalyl acetate-8-aldehyde to linalool-8-carboxylic acid, linalyl acetate-8-carboxylic acid, ?5-4-acetoxy-4-methyl hexenoic acid, and geraniol-8-carboxylic acid. Resting cell suspensions previously grown with linalyl acetate oxidized linalyl acetate-8-aldehyde to linalyl acetate-8-carboxylic acid, ?5-4-acetoxy-4-methyl hexenoic acid, and pyruvic acid. The crude cell-free extract (10,000 g of supernatant), obtained from the sonicate of linalyl acetate-grown cells, was shown to contain enzyme systems responsible for the formation of linalyl acetate-8-carboxylic acid and linalool-8-carboxylic acid from linalyl acetate. The same supernatant contained NAD-linked alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases involved in the formation of linalyl acetate-8-aldehyde and linalyl acetate-8-carboxylic acid, respectively. On the basis of various metabolites isolated from the culture medium, resting cell experiments, growth and manometric studies carried out with the isolated metabolites as well as related synthetic analogs, and the preliminary enzymatic studies performed with the cell-free extract, a probable pathway for the microbial degradation of linalyl acetate with the acetoxy group intact is suggested.

Renganathan, V.; Madyastha, K. Madhava

1983-01-01

322

40 CFR 180.595 - Flufenpyr-ethyl; tolerances for residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...General. (1) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide, flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, [2-chloro-4-fluoro-5...01 (2) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid,...

2013-07-01

323

Microbial removal of acetate selectively from sugar mixtures.  

PubMed

Acetic acid is an unavoidable constituent of the biomass hydrolysates generated from acetylated hemicellulose and lignin, and acetate affects the performance of microbes used to convert these hydrolysates into biofuels or other biochemicals. In this study, acetate was selectively removed from synthetic mixtures of glucose and xylose using metabolically engineered Escherichia coli strains having mutations in the glucose phosphotransferase system (PTS) genes (ptsG, manZ, crr), glucokinase (glk), and xylose (xylA). In batch culture, ALS1060 (ptsG manZ glk xylA) consumed exclusively acetate to depletion, and then consumed the two sugars only at a very slow rate (a growth rate of about 0.01 h(-1)). We also examined the effects of an additional knockout of either malX, fruA, fruB, bglF, or crr, genes that are involved in other PTSs, and a batch process using KD840 (ptsG manZ glk crr xylA) demonstrated a further reduction in glucose or xylose consumption by E. coli. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using a substrate-selective approach for the pre-treatment of biomass hydrolysate for microbial processes. PMID:21225311

Lakshmanaswamy, Arun; Rajaraman, Eashwar; Eiteman, Mark A; Altman, Elliot

2011-01-12

324

Measurements of thermophysical properties of sodium acetate hydrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods to measure the thermal conductivity, the specific heat capacity, and the heat of fusion of sodium acetate hydrate have been developed and the measured results have been reported for various concentrations and especially for various supercooling temperatures. Thermal conductivity was measured by using a probe method with a thermistor. The sensor element is very small, with a diameter of

N. Araki; M. Futamura; A. Makino; H. Shibata

1995-01-01

325

Gold-catalyzed reactions between alkenyldiazo carbonyl species and acetals.  

PubMed

In the presence of catalyst IPrAuSbF6 catalyst (IPr = 1,3-bis(diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene), alkenyldiazo carbonyl species react with organic acetals to give E-configured alkyl 3,5-dimethoxy-5-pent-2-enoates stereoselectively. This reaction sequence comprises an initial Prins-type reaction, followed by gold carbene formation. PMID:23641859

Pagar, Vinayak Vishnu; Jadhav, Appaso M; Liu, Rai-Shung

2013-05-14

326

Synthesis and properties of ?,?-bisfunctionalised ketene N,N-acetals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data on the synthesis of ?,?-disubstituted ketene N,N-acetals as well as their physicochemical properties and reactions with electrophilic and nucleophilic reagents are generalised. Special attention is paid to the synthesis of various heterocyclic compounds based on these compounds. The bibliography includes 182 references.

Makarov, Vadim A.; Granik, Vladimir G.

1998-11-01

327

HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR METHYL ACETATE  

EPA Science Inventory

The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Methy Acetate was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency ac...

328

Condensation of acetol and acetic acid vapor with sprayed liquid  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A cellulose-derived fraction of biomass pyrolysis vapor was simulated by evaporating acetol and acetic acid (AA) from flasks on a hot plate. The liquid in the flasks was infused with heated nitrogen. The vapor/nitrogen stream was superheated in a tube oven and condensed by contact with a cloud of ...

329

21 CFR 177.1350 - Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...identified in § 172.695 for use as a thickening agent at a level not to exceed 1 percent by weight of coating solids in aqueous dispersions of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers, where such copolymers are used only as coatings or a component...

2010-01-01

330

21 CFR 177.1350 - Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...identified in § 172.695 for use as a thickening agent at a level not to exceed 1 percent by weight of coating solids in aqueous dispersions of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers, where such copolymers are used only as coatings or a component...

2009-04-01

331

A Simple Way to Pattern Mn_12-acetate Thin Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have observed that Mn_12-acetate ([Mn_12O_12(CH_3COO)_16(H_2O)_4]ot2CH_3COOHot4H_2O) molecules, dissolved in organic solvents, can be self-assembled along the edge of the Mn_12 solution droplet on a Si/SiO2 substrate as the solvent is evaporated. This phenomenon may be related to the well known "coffee-stain effect"”, which leads to a dense particulate deposit along the edge of a drying droplet of coffee on a solid surface. In our study, we have observed such a deposit of Mn_12-acetate at the perimeter of a droplet, after a dilute solution in various organic solvents has been dried. We investigated how the deposits depend on the evaporation rate. Also, we controlled the concentration of the solution to find its relation to the resulting pattern deposit. By patterning the surface with resist and performing a lift-off we created what are, to our knowledge, the first artificial patterns of Mn_12-acetate. This may allow for convenient thin film devices of Mn_12-acetate and work in this direction is ongoing. This work was supported by the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board and Texas A University.

Kim, K.; Seo, D. M.; Means, J.; Viswanathan, M.; Teizer, W.

2004-03-01

332

Selective recognition of acetate ion based on fluorescence enhancement chemosensor.  

PubMed

Fluorescence study of the complexation between uranyl salophen (L) and some common anions in acetonitrile-water (90:10, v/v) solution showed a tendency of L toward acetate ion (AcO-). The fluorescence enhancement of L is attributed to a 1:1 complex formation between L and acetate ion which was utilized as the basis for the selective detection of AcO-. The association constant of the 1:1 complex formation of L-AcO- was calculated as 6.60?×?10(6) . The linear response range of the fluorescent chemosensor covers a AcO- concentration range of 1.6?×?10(-7) to 2.5?×?10(-5) ?mol/L, with a detection limit of 2.5?×?10(-8) ?mol/L. L showed a selective and sensitive fluorescence enhancement response toward acetate ion over I3- , NO3-, CN-, CO3 (2-), Br-, Cl-, F-, H2 PO4- and SO4 (2-) , which was attributed to the higher stability of inorganic complex between acetate and L. PMID:22371380

Hosseini, Morteza; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Veismohammadi, Bahareh; Faridbod, Farnoush; Abkenar, Shiva Dehghan; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud

2012-02-28

333

PROCESS FOR OBTAINING CELLULOSE ACETATE FROM AGRICULTURAL BY-PRODUCTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A method of preparation of commercially useful product, cellulose acetate from discarded byproducts such as rice-straw, wheat hull and corn fiber will be discussed. This work will provide potential new markets and applications for low-value agricultural wastes and co-products. By converting the ce...

334

The thermal equation for ammonia sorption by cellulose acetate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermal equation for ammonia sorption by cellulose acetate was obtained using the quasichemical model of the sorption of vapors by swelling polymeric sorbents suggested by Lindstrom and Laatikainen. The experimental data obtained by reversed gas chromatography and static methods are compared.

Vorotyntsev, I. V.; Gamayunova, T. V.

2009-05-01

335

Recovery of acetic acid from waste streams by extractive distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastes have been considered to be a serious worldwide environmental problem in recent years. Because of increasing pollution, these wastes should be treated. However, industrial wastes can contain a number of valuable organic components. Recovery of these components is important economically. Using conventional distillation techniques, the separation of acetic acid and water is both impractical and uneconomical, because it often

H. Demiral; M. Ercengiz Yildirim

336

Production of Calcium Magnesium Acetate (CMA) for Field Trials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In Phase II, 200 tons (181.4 tonnes) of calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) were produced by the Bowling Green, KY, plant of RAD Chemicals Division of RAD Services, Inc., under subcontract to SRI International. Most of this material was shipped to selected St...

C. W. Marynowski J. L. Jones E. C. Gunderson

1984-01-01

337

Ice-Melting Characteristics of Calcium Magnesium Acetate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pertinent chemical and physical properties of calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) were determined. Included were comparisons of ratios of calcium to magnesium varying from 100% CaAc2 to 100% MgAc2. The objective was to determine the optimum composition of CMA...

R. U. Schenk

1986-01-01

338

Continuum of Mechanisms for Nucleophilic Substitutions of Cyclic Acetals  

PubMed Central

The effect of nucleophile strength on diastereoselectivity in the nucleophilic substitution of cyclic acetals was explored. Stereoselectivity remained constant and high as nucleophilicity increased until a threshold value was reached. Beyond this point, however, selection of Lewis acid determined whether stereochemical inversion or erosion was observed.

Krumper, Jennifer R.; Salamant, Walter A.; Woerpel, K. A.

2009-01-01

339

Dispersion stability of indium tin oxide nanoparticles in butyl acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A colloidal dispersion of indium tin oxide (ITO) nanoparticles in butyl acetate solvent was achieved using a milling process in which PVP or PEG were used as a dispersant. The influences of Polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and Polyethylene glycol (PEG) dispersants on the stability of ITO suspension were studied by Zeta potential value, Nano-particle size measurement and sedimentation experiment. The results

Qiming Xu; Zhang Lei; Yanyan Yao

2011-01-01

340

Electrical and thermal properties of polyvinyl acetal based nanocomposites  

Microsoft Academic Search

A water chemistry procedure is used to synthesize titanium dioxide nanoparticles which can later be blended with a polymer to form a nanodielectric. The synthesized nanoparticles are dispersed in two grades of polyvinyl acetal (commercially available under the trade names BX-L and KS-10, manufactured by SEKISUI Chemicals). Nanocomposite materials were prepared with 15 and 33 wt% titanium dioxide. The variation

G. Polizos; E. Tuncer; Isidor Sauers; David Randy James; A. R. Ellis; Marshall O Pace

2009-01-01

341

Diffusion of retinol acetate (1); carbon dioxide (2)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of Subvolume A `Gases in Gases, Liquids and their Mixtures' of Volume 15 `Diffusion in Gases, Liquids and Electrolytes' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It is part of the chapter of the chapter `Diffusion in Pure Gases' and contains data on diffusion of (1) retinol acetate; (2) carbon dioxide

Winkelmann, J.

342

Catalytic steam reforming of acetic acid for hydrogen production  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of supported metal catalysts were tested under conditions of steam reforming of acetic acid (HAc), which was selected as a model compound for pyrolysis oil. The influence of several parameters on catalytic activity and selectivity were examined, including catalyst composition, i.e. nature of the metal and the carrier, reaction temperature and time on stream. The metallic phase of

A. C. Basagiannis; X. E. Verykios

2007-01-01

343

Fragrance material review on p-isopropylbenzyl acetate.  

PubMed

A toxicologic and dermatologic review of p-isopropylbenzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. p-Isopropylbenzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1 to 4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for p-isopropylbenzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22406560

McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

2012-03-03

344

Fragrance material review on 2,4-dimethylbenzyl acetate.  

PubMed

A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2,4-dimethylbenzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2,4-Dimethylbenzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, iso-butyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2,4-dimethylbenzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22414641

McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

2012-03-05

345

Fragrance material review on p-anisyl acetate.  

PubMed

A toxicologic and dermatologic review of p-anisyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. p-Anisyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for p-anisyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22417777

McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

2012-03-06

346

Effects of acetic acid on light scattering from cells  

PubMed Central

Abstract. Acetic acid has been used for decades as an aid for the detection of precancerous cervical lesions, and the use of acetic acid is being investigated in several other tissues. Nonetheless, the mechanism of acetowhitening is unclear. This work tests some of the hypotheses in the literature and measures changes in light scattering specific to the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Wide angle side scattering from both the nucleus and the cytoplasm increases with acetic application to tumorigenic cells, with the increase in nuclear scattering being greater. In one cell line, the changes in nuclear scattering are likely due to an increase in number or scattering efficiency of scattering centers smaller than the wavelength of excitation light. There are likely several cellular changes that cause acetowhitening and the cellular changes may differ with cell type. These results should lead to a better understanding of acetowhitening and potentially the development of adjunct techniques to improve the utility of acetic acid application. For the well-studied case of cervical tissue, acetowhitening has been shown to be sensitive, but not specific for oncogenic changes needing treatment.

Marina, Oana C.; Sanders, Claire K.; Mourant, Judith R.

2012-01-01

347

HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR 2-METHOXYETHANOL ACETATE  

EPA Science Inventory

The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for 2-methoxyethanol acetate was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for e...

348

THERMOREGULATION IN MICE FOLLOWING ACUTE ADMINISTRATION OF LEAD ACETATE  

EPA Science Inventory

Several reports in the literature suggest a relationship between lead intoxication and thermoregulatory capacity. To investigate the effects of lead on the control of body temperature, mice of the BALB/c strain were injected intraperitoneally with lead acetate (0 to 100 mg/kg) wh...

349

Acetate metabolism and its regulation in Corynebacterium glutamicum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amino acid producing Corynebacterium glutamicum grows aerobically on a variety of carbohydrates and organic acids as single or combined sources of carbon and energy. Among the substrates metabolized are glucose and acetate which both can also serve as substrates for amino acid production. Based on biochemical, genetic and regulatory studies and on quantitative determination of metabolic fluxes during utilization

Robert Gerstmeir; Volker F. Wendisch; Stephanie Schnicke; Hong Ruan; Mike Farwick; Dieter Reinscheid; Bernhard J. Eikmanns

2003-01-01

350

Homolytic copolymerization of vinyl acetate and trichlorethylene at high pressures  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Vinyl acetate and trichlorethylene show copolymerization at atmospheric pressure. The molecular weight of the copolymer increases as the pressure is raised. The fact that the chlorine composition in the resulting copolymers is independent of pressure shows that the reduction in volume is approximately the same whether the activated complex is formed by adding the radical with the end group CH2.CHOCOCH3

M. G. Gonikberg; R. I. Baikova; V. M. Zhulin

1962-01-01

351

Electrosynthesis of anisidines in aqueous sulfuric and acetic acids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of the concentrations of acetic and sulfuric acids on the efficiency of anisole amination by means of hydroxylamine and Ti(IV)/Ti(III) mediator was studied. Ortho- and para-anisidines were obtained with the total yields of about 79% by current and hydroxylamine.

Lisitsyn, Yu. A.; Grigor'eva, L. V.

2009-03-01

352

4-Hy-droxy-anilinium 2-chloro-acetate  

PubMed Central

In the crystal of the title salt, C6H8NO+·C2H2ClO2 ?, the 4-hy­droxy­anilinium cation links to adjacent chloro­acetate anions via N—H?O and O—H?O hydrogen bonds; weak C—H?O inter­actions also occur between the anions and cations.

Wang, Ying-Chun

2012-01-01

353

Methanogenesis from Acetate, a Key Intermediate in Nature: Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is now well appreciated that methanogenic bacteria obtain energy for growth during formation of methane from a limited range of substrates: H sub 2 CO sub 2 ; formate; methanol; acetate; and the methylamines. Methane may also be produced from CO and me...

R. A. Mah D. R. Boone

1988-01-01

354

Silver Nanoparticles in Cellulose Acetate Polymers: Rheological and Morphological Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silver nitrate was incorporated in cellulose acetate with different substitution degrees as a dispersion medium. Silver-containing polymer solutions in 2-methoxyethanol were rheologically investigated, both before and after boiling, which permitted a better understanding of the morphological aspects of the corresponding cast films. The different distribution of the obtained silver nanoparticles in the polymer matrix, as well as the influence of

Adina Maria Necula; Iuliana Stoica; Niculae Olaru; Florica Doroftei; Silvia Ioan

2011-01-01

355

Liquid Crystal Structures in a Vitreous Acetates of Alkali Metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transformation of anhydrous melt glasses of alkali metals acetates in nematic and smectic LC-mesophases have been studied. A change of electric conductivity of samples over the phase transformation has been observed. Textures corresponding to the nematic and smectic mesophases were revealed with the use of polarizing microscopy. It was studied the influence of external pulse unidirectional electric field at

G. I. Baranova; D. N. Glebovsky; T. V. Zhuchkova; I. A. Panteleev

2001-01-01

356

Effects of acetic acid on light scattering from cells.  

PubMed

Acetic acid has been used for decades as an aid for the detection of precancerous cervical lesions, and the use of acetic acid is being investigated in several other tissues. Nonetheless, the mechanism of acetowhitening is unclear. This work tests some of the hypotheses in the literature and measures changes in light scattering specific to the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Wide angle side scattering from both the nucleus and the cytoplasm increases with acetic application to tumorigenic cells, with the increase in nuclear scattering being greater. In one cell line, the changes in nuclear scattering are likely due to an increase in number or scattering efficiency of scattering centers smaller than the wavelength of excitation light. There are likely several cellular changes that cause acetowhitening and the cellular changes may differ with cell type. These results should lead to a better understanding of acetowhitening and potentially the development of adjunct techniques to improve the utility of acetic acid application. For the well-studied case of cervical tissue, acetowhitening has been shown to be sensitive, but not specific for oncogenic changes needing treatment. PMID:23224185

Marina, Oana C; Sanders, Claire K; Mourant, Judith R

2012-08-01

357

On the Structure of Cellulose Acetate Molecules in Acetone Solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data obtained from sedimentation velocity and viscosity measurements on a series of cellulose acetate fractions in acetone are interpreted in terms of two models, the impenetrable ellipsoid of rotation and the uniform density random coil. The lack of agreement using the former model is shown to be a real effect, rather than one determined by experimental inaccuracy. As other investigations

Seymour J. Singer; Herman Mark

1948-01-01

358

Production of n-Propyl Acetate by Reactive Distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

First steps of the development of a catalytic reactive distillation process for the production of n-propyl acetate based on experiments and simulations are proposed. The kinetics for homogeneously (sulphuric acid) and heterogeneously (Amberlyst 15) catalysed reaction were investigated and the constants for a pseudo-homogeneous model are presented. Pilot plant experiments were performed using a homogeneous strong acid catalyst in a

M. Brehelin; F. Forner; D. Rouzineau; J.-U. Repke; X. Meyer; M. Meyer; G. Wozny

2007-01-01

359

Intramolecular carbon isotope distribution of acetic acid in vinegar.  

PubMed

Compound-specific carbon isotope analysis of acetic acid is useful for origin discrimination and quality control of vinegar. Intramolecular carbon isotope distributions, which are each carbon isotope ratios of the methyl and carboxyl carbons in the acetic acid molecule, may be required to obtain more detailed information to discriminate such origin. In this study, improved gas chromatography-pyrolysis-gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-Py-GC-C-IRMS) combined with headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) was used to measure the intramolecular carbon isotope distributions of acetic acid in 14 Japanese vinegars. The results demonstrated that the methyl carbons of acetic acid molecules in vinegars produced from plants were mostly isotopically depleted in (13)C relative to the carboxyl carbon. Moreover, isotopic differences (?(13)C(carboxyl) - ?(13)C(methyl)) had a wide range from -0.3 to 18.2‰, and these values differed among botanical origins, C3, C4, and CAM plants. PMID:21830825

Hattori, Ryota; Yamada, Keita; Kikuchi, Makiko; Hirano, Satoshi; Yoshida, Naohiro

2011-08-18

360

Occurrence and metabolism of 7-hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid in Zea mays.  

PubMed

7-Hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid was identified as a catabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in germinating kernels of Zea mays and found to be present in amounts of ca 3.1 nmol/kernel. 7-Hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid was shown to be a biosynthetic intermediate between 2-indolinone-3-acetic acid and 7-hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid-7'-O-glucoside in both kernels and roots of Zea mays. Further metabolism of 7-hydroxy-2-[5-3H]-indolinone-3-acetic acid-7'-O-glucoside occurred to yield tritiated water plus, as yet, uncharacterized products. PMID:11539052

Lewer, P; Bandurski, R S

1987-01-01

361

[Metabolism of C(14)-acetate by some trematodes  

PubMed

The adult trematodes, Fasciola hepatica, Eurytrema pancreaticum and Paramphistomum cervi, employed in this experiment were obtained from the cattle slaughtered at the local abbatoir. The worms selected and washed several times in normal sterilized saline solution. Each about ten of intact F. hepatica, fourty of E. pancreaticum, and twenty of P. cervi were incubated in 50 cc volume of special incubation flasks with incubation medium consisting of 10 cc. of Krebs-Ringer phosphate buffer(pH 7.4) The incubation medium was added C(14)-1-acetate and non-radioactive carrier Na-acetate so as to contain acetate concentration of 50 mg per cent. The worms were allowed to incubate for 5 hours in the Dubnoff metabolic shaking incubator at 38 degrees C. After incubation period, respiratory CO2 samples from central well of incubation flask were analysed for total CO2 production rate and their specific activity of respiratory CO2. The lactate and pyruvate appearance rates were determined by analyzing the lactate and pyruvate concentration in a medium after incubation. The glycogen samples isolated from worms were analyzed for the tissue concentration and their radioactivities in order to determine the turnover rate of glycogen pool. Radioactivities of these series of experiments were counted by an endwindow Geiger-Muller counter as an infinitely thin samples. The quantitative analysis of C(14)-acetate utilized by F. hepatica, E. pancreaticum and P. cervi were compared and discussed in this report. According to these data of the experiment, it is suggested that the fatty acid such as acetate may play a part of their oxidative process into the respiratory CO2 and the synthetic process into glycogen in the above species of trematodes. PMID:12913583

Seo, Byong Seol; Rim, Han Jong; Min, Yong Ok; Rhee, Sang Don; Lee, Tong Hoon; Yun, Myong Soon

1965-12-01

362

Metabolic rates during sporulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on acetate.  

PubMed

We have quantified yeast carbon and oxygen consumption fluxes and estimated anabolic fluxes through glyoxylate and gluconeogenic pathways under various conditions of sporulation on acetate. The percentage of sporulation reached a maximum of 55% to 60% after 48 h in sporulation medium, for cells harvested from logarithmic growth in acetate minimal medium. When cells were harvested in the stationary phase of growth before transfer to sporulation medium, the maximum percentage of sporulation decreased to 40% along with the occurrence of meiosis as could be judged by counting of bi- and tetra-nucleated cells. In both experiments, the rates of acetate and oxygen consumption decreased as a function of time when exposed to sporulation medium. Apparently, the decrease of metabolic rates was not due to alkalinization. By systematically varying the cell concentration in sporulation medium from 1.4 x 10(7) to 20 x 10(7) cell ml-1, the percentage of sporulating cells was found to decrease in parallel with the rate of acetate consumption. When the sporulation efficiency attained under the different experimental conditions was plotted as a function of the rate of acetate consumption, a linear correlation was found. Anabolic fluxes estimation revealed a decrease of the rate through gluconeogenic and glyoxylate pathways occurring during sporulation progression. The pattern of metabolic fluxes progressively evolved toward a predominance of more oxidative catabolic fluxes than those exhibited under growth conditions. The results obtained are discussed in terms of a characteristic pattern of metabolic fluxes and energetics, associated to the development of yeast sporulation. PMID:8740908

Aon, J C; Cortassa, S

1996-04-01

363

Phase and reaction equilibria of the acetic acid-isopropanol-isopropyl acetate-water system at 760 mmHg  

Microsoft Academic Search

An energy-saving process, the so-called reactive distillation process, is attracting more and more attention in the chemical industry. This process is based on the simultaneous implementation of chemical reaction and phase equilibria in a process unit. The esterification of acetic acid and isopropyl alcohol is one of the processes that use this technology. In order to understand the thermodynamic behavior

Liang-sun Lee; Ming-zhong Kuo

1996-01-01

364

Ethyl (2,5-dioxo-1-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H,5H-1-benzofuro[3,2-d]imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidin-3-yl)acetate  

PubMed Central

In the title compound, C22H17N3O5, synthesized via the aza-Wittig reaction of ethyl 3-(phenyl­imino­methyl­ene­amino)­benzofuran-2-carboxyl­ate, benzene isocyanate and diethyl 2-amino­succinate, the imidazo[1,2-a]benzo[4,5]furo[2,3-d]pyrim­idine ring system is essentially planar (r.m.s. deviation for all 16 non-H atoms = 0.020?Å). The phenyl ring is twisted with respect to this ring system, making a dihedral angle of 54.23?(4)°. The crystal packing is stabilized by weak inter­molecular C—H?O inter­actions.

Deng, Shou-Heng; Cao, Feng-Jun; Cai, Xiao-Jun; Li, Fang; Chen, Ping

2010-01-01

365

Condensation of Vinyl Alkyl Ethers with Functionally Substituted Acetals (Kondensatsiya Vinilalkilovykh Efirov s Funktsionalnozameshchennymi Atsetalyami).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The introduction of different functional substituents in the molecule of acetals has a very strong influence on their capacity for adding to vinyl alkyl ethers. The authors studied acetals of fatty series and also of different ethylene, acetylene, aromati...

S. M. Makin V. B. Mochalin

1973-01-01

366

Specificity and Induction of Undecyl Acetate Esterase from Pseudomonas cepacia Grown on 2-Tridecanone  

PubMed Central

Undecyl acetate esterase from Pseudomonas cepacia grown on 2-tridecanone was strongly inhibited by organophosphates and other esterase inhibitors. Also, p-chloromercuribenzoate at 1 × 10?4 M showed a 70% inhibition of esterase activity. The enzyme hydrolyzed both aliphatic and aromatic acetate esters at substrate concentrations of 0.25 M. Under these conditions the highest reaction rate was toward undecyl acetate. No lipase or proteolytic activity was demonstrated. Undecyl acetate esterase was classified as a carboxylesterase (B-esterase). Cell-free activity studies on the production of undecyl acetate esterase grown on different carbon sources plus zymogram studies demonstrated that the enzyme was inducible when 2-tridecanone, 2-tridecanol, undecyl acetate and, to a lesser extent, 1-undecanol were growth substrates. Induction of undecyl acetate esterase during oxidation of 2-tridecanone supports the view that undecyl acetate is an intermediate in the degradation of the methyl ketone.

Shum, A. C.; Markovetz, A. J.

1974-01-01

367

Adaptation of glycolysis and growth to acetate in Sporolactobacillus sp. Y2-8.  

PubMed

Exogenous addition of a low concentration of acetate (2 g/L sodium acetate) effectively decreased acetic acid excretion and lowered the ATP content in Sporolactobacillus sp. Y2-8 without any growth defect although the acetate could not be utilized at an initial glucose concentration of 150 g/L. This induced an enhanced glycolytic flux with increased specific activities of hexokinase and phosphofructokinase, probably to compensate for the lowered efficiency of ATP production. However, with increasing concentrations (5 g/L sodium acetate), acetate was utilized first before being produced again, causing a growth lag at the transition. Glucose consumption was also reduced at high acetate concentrations, resulting in decreased D-lactic acid production. These results demonstrate that acetate plays a significant role in regulating glycolysis and growth of Sporolactobacillus. PMID:22798166

Liu, Dong; Chen, Yong; Li, An; Zhao, Ting; Zhou, Tao; Li, Bingbing; Xie, Jingjing; Chen, Xiaochun; Bai, Jianxin; Hu, Yanan; He, Bingfang; Ying, Hanjie

2012-07-14

368

21 CFR 522.161 - Betamethasone acetate and betamethasone disodium phosphate aqueous suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Chemical names. Betamethasone acetate: 9-α-Fluoro-16-β-methylprednisolone - 21 - acetate (C24 H31 FO6 ). Betamethasone...phosphate: 9-α-Fluoro-16-β-methylprednisolone-21-disodium phosphate (C22...

2009-04-01

369

21 CFR 522.161 - Betamethasone acetate and betamethasone disodium phosphate aqueous suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Chemical names. Betamethasone acetate: 9-α-Fluoro-16-β-methylprednisolone - 21 - acetate (C24 H31 FO6 ). Betamethasone...phosphate: 9-α-Fluoro-16-β-methylprednisolone-21-disodium phosphate (C22...

2013-04-01

370

The Use of Polymeric Gels to Reduce Compaction in Cellulose Acetate Reverse Osmosis Membranes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Polymeric gels were synthesized by crosslinking cellulose acetate in emulsion and solution reactions. These gels were used to replace a portion of the linear cellulose acetate in a standard Manjikian-type asymmetric membrane, with the aim of reducing long...

S. L. Rosen C. Irani L. Baayens

1972-01-01

371

21 CFR 524.1204 - Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate...524.1204 Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate. (a) Specifications. (1) Calcium amphomycin is the calcium salt...

2013-04-01

372

The Effects of Porous and Solid Fillers on the Permeability of Cellulose Acetate Membranes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several types of filled cellulose acetate membranes were prepared to determine the effect of filler properties and polymer properties on permeability of the composite materials. Casting procedures were chosen to give a dense cellulose acetate phase and a ...

P. Harriott J. Wu F. Klunker

1973-01-01

373

The formation of acetic acid from carbon dioxide and hydrogen by anaerobic spore-forming bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Further experiments on an anaerobic bacillus synthesising acetic acid from CO2 and H2 are described. The organism in question was classified asClostridium aceticum n.sp. Acetic acid is also formed from sugar.

K. T. Wieringa

1939-01-01

374

Investigations of sodium acetate trihydrate for solar latent heat storage, controlling the melting point  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The addition of different acetate salts and acetamide lowers the melting point of sodium acetate trihydrate. Between 0 and 10 percent of lithium acetate dihydrate a linear relationship was observed between the melting point and the molal concentration, and the cryoscopic constant of Kf = -6.8 C (+ or - 10 percent) was evaluated. Information on dissociation or dimerization of the various additives could be deduced from the results. The positive properties of sodium acetate trihydrate were retained.

Ulman, A.; Valentin, B.

1983-09-01

375

Acetate Repression of Methane Oxidation by Supplemental Methylocella silvestris in a Peat Soil Microcosm ? †  

PubMed Central

Methylocella spp. are facultative methanotrophs that grow on methane and multicarbon substrates, such as acetate. Acetate represses transcription of methane monooxygenase of Methylocella silvestris in laboratory culture. DNA stable-isotope probing (DNA-SIP) using 13C-methane and 12C-acetate, carried out with Methylocella-spiked peat soil, showed that acetate also repressed methane oxidation by Methylocella in environmental samples.

Rahman, M. Tanvir; Crombie, Andrew; Moussard, Helene; Chen, Yin; Murrell, J. Colin

2011-01-01

376

Analyses of the acetate-producing pathways in Corynebacterium glutamicum under oxygen-deprived conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corynebacterium glutamicum R efficiently produces valuable chemicals from glucose under oxygen-deprived conditions. In an effort to reduce acetate as\\u000a a byproduct, acetate productivity of several mutant-disrupted genes encoding possible key enzymes for acetate formation was\\u000a determined. Disruption of the aceE gene that encodes the E1 enzyme of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex resulted in almost complete elimination of acetate\\u000a formation under

Kaori Yasuda; Toru Jojima; Masako Suda; Shohei Okino; Masayuki Inui; Hideaki Yukawa

2007-01-01

377

Experimental study of aluminum-, calcium-, and magnesium-acetate complexing at 80 degree C  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stabilities of Al-, Ca-, and Mg-acetate complexes were determined separately at 80°C by measuring the solubilities of gibbsite, portlandite, and brucite as functions of acetate concentrations. The experiments were conducted using geologically realistic acetate concentrations in order to observe the acetate complexes that are important in sedimentary basin fluids. The experimental measurements are used to calculate the stoichiometries and

J FEIN

1991-01-01

378

Autotrophic synthesis of activated acetic acid from two CO 2 in Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum  

Microsoft Academic Search

An in vitro system of autotropic synthesis of activated acetic acid from14CO2 inMethanobacterium thermoautotrophicum was developed.(1)A recognized14CO2-fixation product in vitro was activated [14C] acetic acid. It could be trapped enzymatically into citrate and released again as [14C] acetate by citrate synthase and citrate lyase, respectively.(2)The synthesis of both activated acetic acid and methane from CO2 proceeded in parallel under a

Erhard Stupperich; Georg Fuchs

1984-01-01

379

Mechanism of acetate oxidation to CO 2 with elemental sulfur in Desulfuromonas acetoxidans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The strict anaerobe Desulfuromonas acetoxidans can oxidize acetate to CO2 with elemental sulfur as electron acceptor. 14C-labelling experiments and enzyme studies are described revealing that acetate oxidation proceeds via the citric acid cycle with the synthesis of oxaloacetate from acetate and 2 CO2 via pyruvate as anaplerotic reaction. An oxidation of acetate via one carbon unit intermediates as proposed for

Norbert A. Gebhardt; Rudolf K. Thauer; Dietmar Linder; Paul-M. Kaulfers; Norbert Pfennig

1985-01-01

380

Determination of Formic and Acetic Acid in Chondritic Meteorites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concentrations of formic and acetic acid have been determined using ion exclusion chromatography after water extraction from several chondritic meteorite samples. Monocarboxylic acids are of great importance because of their high concentration in meteorites and for their role as precursor molecules in organic synthesis [1]. The concentration of acetic acid has been determined previously using gas chromatography [2,3]. Prior gas chromatographic analyses failed to resolve formic acid and so the results were limited to carboxylic acids having two or more carbons. Alternatively, wet chemical methods for the determination of formic acid, although precise, are lengthy and difficult to reproduce [4]. Ion exclusion chromatography (ICE) is an excellent technique for the simultaneous determination of formic and acetic acids. Using ICE the carboxylic acids can be determined in less time and with minimal sample handling. In most cases the amount of formic acid present is found to be lower than the amount of acetic acid present. This contradicts the accepted synthesis scheme of higher homologs being made from lower members, where the formic acid would be expected to have a higher concentration than acetic acid. Other monocarboxylic acids in the homologous series (C(sub)2-C(sub)7) have been shown to decrease with increasing carbon number as expected [2,3]. This data suggests that either the formic acid may have been preferentially depleted or it may have a different synthesis mechanism as compared with the other monocarboxylic acids present in meteorites. Additionally, there is a relationship between the amount of formic and acetic acid present and the oxidation state of the iron in the chondrites. As the matrix environment becomes more oxidizing, the amount of the two monocarboxylic acids increases comparatively. Furthermore, the ratio of formic to acetic acid starts to increase as the metal phase is more oxidized, suggesting that a more oxidized matrix environment in some way makes the production of higher homologs from lower members more favorable. References: [1] Cronin J. R. et al. (1988) In Meteorites and the Early Solar System (J. F. Kerridge and M. S. Matthews, eds.), 819-857. Univ. of Arizona. [2] Yuen G. U. and Kvenvolden K. A. (1974) Nature, 246, 301-303. [3] Yuen G. et al. (1984) Nature, 307, 252-254. [4] Kimball B. (1988) M.S. thesis, Arizona State Univ. [5] Urey H. C. and Craig H. (1953) GCA, 4, 36-82. [6] Sears D. W. and Dodd R. T. (1988) In Meteorites and the Early Solar System (J. F. Kerridge and M. S. Matthews, eds.), 3-31. Univ. of Arizona. Table 1, which appears here in the hard copy, shows a representative concentration of formic and acetic acid (in ppm) for select chondrites as measured by ion exclusion chromatography.

Briscoe, J. F.; Moore, C. B.

1993-07-01

381

Medroxyprogesterone acetate for refractory emesis in cisplatin-treated patients.  

PubMed

Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is one of the most distressing side effects in systemic chemotherapies. Recently, several effective agents have been developed to prevent CINV, and CINV can be prevented in 70%-80% of patients receiving chemotherapies. Conversely, 20%-30% of patients still suffer from CINV despite recommended optimal antiemetic preventions. Refractory emesis is defined as emesis occuring despite the use of antiemetic prophylaxis during the previous cycle of chemotherapy. Salvage treatments for refractory emesis are necessary, but there are few effective treatments at present. We consider medroxyprogesterone acetate to be a potentially promising agent for refractory emesis. We encountered three cases in which medroxyprogesterone acetate was extremely effective for refractory emesis induced by cisplatin-containing chemotherapy. PMID:22650802

Hata, Akito; Katakami, Nobuyuki; Fujita, Shiro; Horai, Aya; Takatori, Kento; Ose, Takayuki; Kitajima, Naoto

2012-05-31

382

[Ice application for reducing pain associated with goserelin acetate injection].  

PubMed

We investigated the effectiveness of using an ice pack for reducing the pain associated with goserelin acetate injection. In this study, 39 patients with prostate cancer and 1 patient with breast cancer receiving hormonal therapy with goserelin acetate were enrolled. All patients completed a questionnaire regarding the use of ice application. We used the numerical rating scale(NRS)to assess the pain associated with injection. The NRS scores indicated that the pain was significantly less with ice application than with the usual method(p<0.001). Further, ice application could decrease the duration of pain sensation. Ice application at the injection site is safe and effective for reducing pain. PMID:24105059

Ishii, Kaname; Nagata, Chika; Koshizaki, Eiko; Nishiuchi, Satoko

2013-10-01

383

A freshwater anaerobe coupling acetate oxidation to tetrachloroethylene dehalogenation.  

PubMed Central

Strain TT4B has been isolated from anaerobic sediments known to be contaminated with a variety of organic solvents. It is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium and grew anaerobically with acetate as the electron donor and tetrachloroethylene as the electron acceptor in a mineral medium. cis-Dichloroethylene was the halogenated product. This strain did not grow fermentatively and used only acetate or pyruvate as electron donors. Tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene were used as electron acceptors, as were ferric nitriloacetate and fumarate. Nitrogen and sulfur oxyanions were not able to substitute as the electron acceptor for this organism. Modest growth occurred in a two-phase system with 1 ml of hexadecane containing 50 to 200 mM tetrachloroethylene (aqueous concentrations, 25 to 100 microM) and 10 ml of anaerobic mineral solution with Na2S as the reducing agent. Growth was completely inhibited at tetrachloroethylene levels above 100 microM.

Krumholz, L R; Sharp, R; Fishbain, S S

1996-01-01

384

Discretization of quasi-sinusoidal diffraction gratings printed on acetates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work is to propose the use of printed acetate sheets as quasi-sinusoidal diffraction gratings, as low-cost alternative gratings for application in non-invasive optical tests. Gratings were generated with Matlab® software and made with various models of laser printers. A study of the discretization effects that depend on the symmetry in the sample was included, gratings were placed in the entrance pupil of a positive lens (illuminated by a collimated plane wave) to observe their Fourier transforms. It was found that diffraction patterns of various types of semi-sinusoidal profiles were very close to that of sinusoidal gratings. Gradual change in the size of printed ink spots was observed in more detail through a magnification of 40x. Additionally, an atomic force microscope was used to measure the roughness average of the impressions as to observe the behavior of the ink on the acetate.

Mora-González, Miguel; Pérez Ladrón de Guevara, Héctor; Muñoz-Maciel, Jesús; Chiu-Zarate, Roger; Casillas, Francisco J.; Gómez-Rosas, Gilberto; Peña-Lecona, Francisco G.; Vázquez-Flores, Zuleima Montserrat

2009-09-01

385

Design and control of acetic acid dehydration system via heterogeneous azeotropic distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetic acid dehydration is an important operation in the production of aromatic acid, such as terephthalic acid or in the manufacture of cellulose acetate. Although acetic acid and water does not form azeotrope, but using simple distillation to separate these two components is not practical. The reason is because the system has tangent pinch on the pure water end, thus

I. Lung Chien; Kai-Luen Zeng; Huan-Yi Chao; Jun Hong Liu

2004-01-01

386

Investigations of sodium acetate trihydrate for solar latent heat storage, controlling the melting point  

Microsoft Academic Search

The addition of different acetate salts and acetamide lowers the melting point of sodium acetate trihydrate. Between 0 and 10 percent of lithium acetate dihydrate a linear relationship was observed between the melting point and the molal concentration, and the cryoscopic constant of Kf = -6.8 C (+ or - 10 percent) was evaluated. Information on dissociation or dimerization of

A. Ulman; B. Valentin

1983-01-01

387

75 FR 52269 - Acetic Acid Ethenyl Ester, Polymer With Oxirane; Tolerance Exemption  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRL-8841-2] Acetic Acid Ethenyl Ester, Polymer With Oxirane; Tolerance Exemption AGENCY...residues of acetic acid ethenyl ester, polymer with oxirane; when used as an inert ingredient...residues of acetic acid ethenyl ester, polymer with oxirane on food or feed...

2010-08-25

388

Electrochemical behavior of graphite in electrolyte of sulfuric and acetic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrochemical formation of graphite intercalation compounds (GICs) has been studied in the electrolyte with mixed sulfuric acid and acetic acid. The results show that, with addition of acetic acid, GICs can be synthesized in the electrolyte with sulfuric acid concentration as low as 3.6M, even though no GIC is formed in pure acetic acid. The stage structure of the synthesized

F. Kang; T.-Y. Zhang; Y. Leng

1997-01-01

389

40 CFR 721.8658 - Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium compound (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium...Chemical Substances § 721.8658 Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium...substance identified generically as modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary...

2013-07-01

390

Acetobacter aceti Possesses a Proton Motive Force-Dependent Efflux System for Acetic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetic acid bacteria are obligate aerobes able to oxidize ethanol, sugar alcohols, and sugars into their corresponding acids. Among them, Acetobacter and Gluconacetobacter species have very high ethanol oxidation capacity, leading to accumulation of vast amounts of acetic acid outside the cell. Since these bacteria are able to grow in media with high concentrations of acetic acid, they must possess

Kazunobu Matsushita; Taketo Inoue; Osao Adachi; Hirohide Toyama

2005-01-01

391

Biomass chemicals production by thermochemical conversion. [Wacker synthesis, Eastman acetic anhydride process, Organosolv process kraft pulping  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews novel concepts for the production of chemicals by the thermochemical conversion of biomass. An engineering and economic analysis builds upon recent laboratory developments to provide a perspective of new process potentials and identifies areas requiring further investigation. Candidate processes fall into two categories: production of acetate esters, vinyl acetate and acetic anhydride by biomass gasification; and production

Klausmeier

1983-01-01

392

Effects of acetic acid treatment on plant chromosome structures analyzed by atomic force microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetic acid treatment has been frequently used to remove cellular contaminants from plant chromosome samples for structural analyses by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). We evaluated the effects of various concentrations of acetic acid treatments on barley chromosome structures by using AFM. The long-term 45% acetic acid treatment significantly damaged the chromosome structures, although the treatment effectively

Shigeru Sugiyama; Tomoyuki Yoshino; Hiroko Kanahara; Motoharu Shichiri; Daisuke Fukushi; Toshio Ohtani

2004-01-01

393

Separation of acetic acid-water mixtures by pervaporation through silicalite membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycrystalline silicalite membranes were prepared on two kinds of porous supports by hydrothermal synthesis. The pervaporation performance of the silicalite membrane obtained was investigated using an acetic acid-water mixture as a feed. The silicalite membrane on the sintered stainless steel support selectively permeates acetic acid in the concentration of the feed acetic acid in the region of 5 to 40

Tsuneji Sano; Shigeyuki Ejiri; Kiyoshi Yamada; Yusuke Kawakami; Hiroshi Yanagishita

1997-01-01

394

Polyphasic taxonomy of acetic acid bacteria: An overview of the currently applied methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetic acid bacteria are Gram-negative, obligate aerobic bacteria that have the ability to incompletely oxidize alcohols or sugars to organic acids as end products. They are widespread in nature and most of them are capable to oxidize ethanol as substrate to acetic acid. This characteristic makes that acetic acid bacteria are often involved in foods and beverages, either in a

Ilse Cleenwerck; Paul De Vos

2008-01-01

395

A prospective randomized study of megestrol acetate and ibuprofen in gastrointestinal cancer patients with weight loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of megestrol acetate in the treatment of weight loss in gastrointestinal cancer patients has been disappointing. The aim of the present study was to compare the combination of megestrol acetate and placebo with megestrol acetate and ibuprofen in the treatment of weight loss in such patients. At baseline, 4–6 weeks and 12 weeks, patients underwent measurements of anthropometry,

D C McMillan; S J Wigmore; K C H Wigmore; P O’Gorman; C E Wright; C S McArdle

1999-01-01

396

Direct Determination of Citric Acid in Milk with an Improved Pyridine-Acetic Anhydride Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The determination of citric acid with pyridine and acetic anhydride has been in- vestigated at reaction temperatures from 17 to 60 ° C. The optimum proportions of pyridine, acetic anhydride, water, and acetic acid for maximum color intensity and stability are given for each temperature. The procedure has been modified to eliminate the violent nature of the reaction, even

J. R. Marier; M. Boulet

1958-01-01

397

Water in polymer membranes. 4. Raman scattering from cellulose acetate films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Raman scattering was observed from thin film optical waveguides of cellulose acetate exposed to water vapor from 0% to 100% relative humidity (RH), and from dilute solutions of water in methyl acetate. Spectra of cellulose acetate (CA398, 39.8% acetyl) at low RH and cellulose triacetate (CTA) at low and high RH are consistent with the presence of water monomers that

J. R. Scherer; G. F. Bailey; S. Kint; R. Young; D. P. Malladi; B. Bolton

1985-01-01

398

Oxidation of 4Nitrotoluene by Ozone in Acetic Anhydride in the Presence of Manganese Sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reaction of 4-nitrotoluene oxidation with ozone in acetic anhydride in the presence of MnSO4and sulfuric acid was studied. The main reaction product is 4-nitrobenzyl acetate, the yield of which is 63.2%. Based on an analysis of the experimental data, a mechanism of the catalytic ozonation of 4-nitrotoluene in acetic anhydride was proposed.

E. V. Potapenko; G. A. Galstyan; A. G. Galstyan; Yu. P. Kudyukov

2001-01-01

399

Measurement of acetic acid using a fibre Bragg grating interferometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optical fibre sensor for determination of acetic acid is presented. The sensing probe is based on a fibre Bragg grating (FBG) Fabry-Perot cavity, coated with a thin film of sol-gel-PVP (polyvinylpyrrolidone) composite material. The polymeric thin film renders the interferometric output sensitive to the presence of carboxylic acid species. Results show that the wavelength of the interferometric peaks changes

C. Jesus; S. F. O. Silva; M. Castanheira; G. González Aguilar; O. Frazão; P. A. S. Jorge; J. M. Baptista

2009-01-01

400

Sorption of ammonia and nitrogen on cellulose acetate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adsorption isotherms of ammonia and nitrogen on cellulose acetate in the temperature range 303-333 K are measured by reversed-phase chromatography. It is established that ammonia specifically interacts with the polymer matrix of the sorbent. The experimental data are described in terms of the Laatikainen-Lindstrom quasi-chemical model of vapor sorption. The enthalpies of sorption are determined, and their dependences on the ammonia and nitrogen concentrations in the sorbent are established.

Vorotyntsev, I. V.; Drozdov, P. N.; Mochalov, G. M.; Smirnova, N. N.; Suvorov, S. S.

2006-12-01

401

Organisms Associated with Acetic Acid Bacteria in Vinegar Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vinegars are the product of scalar fermentations carried out by several groups of microorganisms acting at different moments\\u000a in time. The initial phase is generally represented by an alcoholic fermentation commonly carried out by yeasts. Lactic acid\\u000a bacteria (LAB) can also play a role in releasing ethanol and acetic acid from heterofermentative lactic acid fermentations.\\u000a Depending on the nature of

Sandra Rainieri; Carlo Zambonelli

402

Acute synovitis and intra-articular methylprednisolone acetate in ponies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine how acute synovitis, with and without intra-articular methylprednisolone acetate (MPA), affect synthesis of proteoglycan, total protein, and collagen in articular cartilage and total protein synthesis in synovial membrane.Design: Synovitis was induced in 10 ponies by the injection of 0.5 ng lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the left radiocarpal and midcarpal joints every 2 days for a total of four

Rory J. Todhunter; Susan L. Fubini; Margaret Vernier-Singer; Joyce A. M. Wootton; George Lust; Kathleen P. Freeman; James N. MacLeod

1998-01-01

403

Interferometric fibre-optic sensor for acetic acid measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optical fibre sensor for determination of acetic acid is presented. The sensing probe is based on a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) Fabry-Perot cavity, coated with a thin film of sol-gel-PVP (polyVynil Pirrolidone) composite material. The polymeric thin film renders interferometric output sensitive to the presence of carboxylic acid species. Results show that the wavelength of the interferometric peaks change

C. Jesus; S. F. O. Silva; M. Castanheira; G. Gonzalez Aguilar; O. Frazao; P. A. S. Jorge; J. M. Baptista

2009-01-01

404

Auto-catalyzed acetic acid pulping of jute  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of acetic acid (HAc) based pulping trials were carried out to determine the best conditions to produce a jute pulp with low residual lignin content and high physical properties. The extended delignification, with increasing temperature, strongly affected the strength properties. The highest tensile strength of 24Nm\\/g was found at 150°C and 10min, 300ml CSF condition. However, increasing temperature

Halil Turgut Sahin; Raymond A. Young

2008-01-01

405

The environmental fate of anabolic steroid trenbolone acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

17?-trenbolone Acetate (TBA) is a synthetic anabolic hormone widely used in beef cattle across the U.S. TBA is administered as a subcutaneous implant and often in combination with 17?-estradiol (E2) for growth promotion in beef cattle. Implanted cattle excrete primarily 17?-trenbolone along with small amounts of 17?-trenbolone and trendione. Quantifying the fate of these hormones after being land-applied is important

Bushra Khan

2009-01-01

406

Dehydration of acetic acid by pervaporation with charged membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modified Nafion membranes were prepared by charging Nafion 117 membrane with different long-chained counter ions and used for pervaporation of acetic acid–water mixture. It was observed, that the selectivity of Nafion membrane was enhanced by charging with long-chained counter ions. However, it led to a decrease in permeate flux because of decreasing solubility and diffusivity of the membranes. The results

Samuel P. Kusumocahyo; Masao Sudoh

1999-01-01

407

Potential energy surfaces for proton abstractions from acetic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abstractions of hydrogen from both carbon and oxygen in acetic acid by hydride, fluoride, and hydroxide anions have been studied using ab initio electronic structure calculations. Molecular structures were optimized at the Hartree-Fock level of theory using the 6-31++G(d,p) basis set. For energetics, the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set was used, with second- and fourth-order perturbation theory corrections, for both minima

Mark S. Gordon; David R. Gano; Eugene Curtiss

1996-01-01

408

Modified alginate composite membranes for the dehydration of acetic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alginate composite membranes cross-linked with 1,6-hexanediamine (HDM) or poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) were prepared by casting an aqueous solution of alginate and HDM or PVA on a hydrolyzed microporous polyacrylonitrile (PAN) membrane and characterized by pervaporation separation of acetic acid\\/water mixtures. The influence of hydrolysis of PAN support layer and HDM content in dense layer on separation performance of the composite

Xin-Ping Wang

2000-01-01

409

2-Amino-anilinium 2-chloro-acetate  

PubMed Central

In the crystal structure of the title compound, C6H9N2 +·ClCH2COO?, prepared by the reaction of OPDA (orthophenelynediamine) with chloro­acetic ­acid, N—H?O hydrogen bonds generate ladder-like chains and very weak inter­molecular C—H?Cl hydrogen-bonding inter­actions between the anions and cations lead to a supra­molecular network. C—H?O inter­actions also occur.

Rao, A. Srinivasa; Tripuramallu, Bharat Kumar; Ravada, Kishore; Das, Samar K.

2010-01-01

410

Preirradiation grafting of ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acrylic acid was graft copolymerised on to EVA powdered resins containing 9%, 18% and 28% vinyl acetate. A preirradiation grafting method was used and the effect on graft level of varying the parameters of gamma irradiation dose (2–50 kGy), dose rate (0.5–5 kGy h?1), monomer concentration (2.5–25%) and grafting time (1–4 h) and temperature (35–98°C) was investigated. The graft copolymer resins

B. J Ringrose; E Kronfli

1999-01-01

411

Liquid crystalline solutions of cellulose acetate in phosphoric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence has been studied of both the acid strength of phosphoric acid and the degree of substitution of cellulose acetate on the formation of an anisotropic phase. The solvent composition is expressed as a P2O5 concentration. It was found that the clearing temperature increases strongly with decreasing amount of water in the solvent.The influence of the degree of substitution

H Boerstoel; H Maatman; S. J Picken; R Remmers; J. B Westerink

2001-01-01

412

2-(3-Hy-droxy-benzyl-amino)-acetic acid  

PubMed Central

There are two independent 2-(3-hy­droxy­benzyl­amino)­acetic acid mol­ecules, C9H11NO3, in the asymmetric unit of the title compound. The dihedral angle between the benzene rings of the two independent mol­ecules is 58.12?(4)°. The crystal packing is stablized by inter­molecular O—H?O and N—H?O hydrogen bonds.

Zhi, Li-Hua; Wu, Wei-Na

2011-01-01

413

Electroacupuncture ameliorates experimental colitis induced by acetic acid in rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on experimental colitis was investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats. Colitis was induced by intracolonic instillation of 4% acetic acid. EA (2 Hz, 0.05 ms, 2 V for 20 min) was applied to bilateral Hoku (LI- 4) and Zusanli (ST-36) on 12 hrs and 36 hrs after induction of colitis. EA-treatment significantly reduced the macroscopic damage and

Jeoung-Woo Kang; Tae-Wan Kim; Jun-Ho La; Tae-Sik Sung; Hyun-Ju Kim; Young-Bae Kwon; Jeum-Yong Kim; Il-Suk Yang

2004-01-01

414

Carbonic anhydrase activity in acetate grown Methanosarcina barkeri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell extracts (27000xg supernatant) of acetate grown Methanosarcina barkeri were found to have carbonic anhydrase activity (0.41 U\\/mg protein), which was lost upon heating or incubation with proteinase K. The activity was inhibited by Diamox (apparent Ki=0.5 mM), by azide (apparent Ki=1 mM), and by cyanide (apparent Ki=0.02 mM). These and other properties indicate that the archaebacterium contains the enzyme

Marion Karrasch; Michael Bott; Rudolf K. Thauer

1989-01-01

415

The effects of acetate buffer concentration on lysozyme solubility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The micro-solubility column technique was employed to systematically investigate the effects of buffer concentration on tetragonal lysozyme solubility. While keeping the NaCl concentrations constant at 2%, 3%, 4%, 5% and 7%, and the pH at 4.0, we have studied the solubility of tetragonal lysozyme over an acetate buffer concentration range of 0.01M to 0.5M as a function of temperature. The

Elizabeth L. Forsythe; Marc L. Pusey

1996-01-01

416

Oxidation of carene by thallium(III) acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

2-p-Tolylpropanol-2, p-menth-1,8-dien-3-ol, p-menth-1-en-3a, 8-diol, p-menth-1-en-3ß, 8-diol, p-menth-1-en-3-on-8-ol, p-menth-1,8-dien-5,6-diol, and 2,3-dihydroxy-1,8-cineole are formed during the oxidation of 2-carene by thallium (III) acetate.

V. V. Ratner; Z. G. Isaeva; I. P. Povodyreva; N. F. Goryachkina; Yu. Ya. Efremov; B. A. Arbuzov

1983-01-01

417

Indole3-acetic acid induces microencephaly in mouse fetuses  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the effect of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), known as natural auxin, on developing fetus, pregnant mice were injected with 500 or 1000mg\\/kg on various gestation days (Days). With the repeated treatment during Days 7–15, the fetal brains exhibited a reduction in size and weight in a dose-dependent manner on Day 18. Histopathologically, hypoplasia of the cortical plate, piriform cortex,

Satoshi Furukawa; Koji Usuda; Masayoshi Abe; Seigo Hayashi; Izumi Ogawa

2007-01-01

418

Fractionation of wheat straw by atmospheric acetic acid process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fractionation of wheat straw was investigated using an atmospheric acetic acid process. Under the typical conditions of 90% (v\\/v) aqueous AcOH, 4% H2SO4 (w\\/w, on straw), ratio of liquor to straw (L\\/S) 10 (v\\/w), pulping temperature 105°C, and pulping time 3h, wheat straw was fractionated to pulp (cellulose), lignin and monosaccharides mainly from hemicellulose with yields of approximately 50%, 15%

Xuejun Pan; Yoshihiro Sano

2005-01-01

419

Ethane to acetic acid oxidation over supported heteropoly acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molybdo(vanado)phosphoric heteropoly acids of Keggin structure supported on oxide supports (SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3) were used as catalysts for ethane to acetic acid oxidation in the range of reaction temperature from 250 to 400°C. Vanadium atoms introduced into Keggin structure enhanced oxidative activity of catalytic system, while vanadyl groups exchanged into cationic position diminished ethane conversion. Nature of support (acidic or

M. Sopa; A. W?c?aw-Held; M. Grossy; J. Pijanka; K. Nowi?ska

2005-01-01

420

Use of fibre wastes from production of acetate fibres  

SciTech Connect

The rational use of production wastes is an important part of the Fergana Chemical Fibre Plant in Russia. This recycling reduces the negative effect of the technological process on the environment, increases the economy of production, and produces additional consumer goods. Consumer goods began to be produced at the plant in 1978 with processing of amide-acetate textured fibres into yarn for hand knitting. The need to increase the volumes and expand the variety of goods for the market predetermined an important increase in production of this product. Production of consumer goods has increased since 1990, and both fibre wastes and untreated low-grade fibres and filaments have been used as the starting material. Technological processes for processing wastes and low-grade figured, textured polyamide-acetate fibres into knitting yarn, haberdashery cord, and finishing tape and fringe were created and introduced in subsequent years. The primary technological formulation for production of these materials is well known and is used in light industry. However, production of each type of product in the plant was preceded by research related to selection of the optimum linear density of the filaments used, composition of blends, and the structure of figured fibres, as well as the concrete technological parameters and operating regimes of the equipment to produce articles of the required quality. Development and testing of new decorative textiles are continuing. Low grade and nonstandard acetate semifinished fibre from spinning machines and low grade, bulk dyed acetate fibres have been selected as the raw material for fabrication of these articles.

Askarov, M.I.; Tashpulatova, A.B.

1995-07-01

421

Acetic acid bacteria spoilage of bottled red wine -- a review.  

PubMed

Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are ubiquitous organisms that are well adapted to sugar and ethanol rich environments. This family of Gram-positive bacteria are well known for their ability to produce acetic acid, the main constituent in vinegar. The oxidation of ethanol through acetaldehyde to acetic acid is well understood and characterised. AAB form part of the complex natural microbial flora of grapes and wine, however their presence is less desirable than the lactic acid bacteria and yeast. Even though AAB were described by Pasteur in the 1850s, wine associated AAB are still difficult to cultivate on artificial laboratory media and until more recently, their taxonomy has not been well characterised. Wine is at most risk of spoilage during production and the presence of these strictly aerobic bacteria in grape must and during wine maturation can be controlled by eliminating, or at least limiting oxygen, an essential growth factor. However, a new risk, spoilage of wine by AAB after packaging, has only recently been reported. As wine is not always sterile filtered prior to bottling, especially red wine, it often has a small resident bacterial population (<10(3) cfu/mL), which under conducive conditions might proliferate. Bottled red wines, sealed with natural cork closures, and stored in a vertical upright position may develop spoilage by acetic acid bacteria. This spoilage is evident as a distinct deposit of bacterial biofilm in the neck of the bottle at the interface of the wine and the headspace of air, and is accompanied with vinegar, sherry, bruised apple, nutty, and solvent like off-aromas, depending on the degree of spoilage. This review focuses on the wine associated AAB species, the aroma and flavour changes in wine due to AAB metabolism, discusses the importance of oxygen ingress into the bottle and presents a hypothesis for the mechanism of spoilage of bottled red wine. PMID:18237809

Bartowsky, Eveline J; Henschke, Paul A

2007-12-23

422

Fire retardant mechanism in intumescent ethylene vinyl acetate compositions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal and combustion behaviour of an intumescent fire retardant system based on Polyamide 6 (PA6) and Ammonium Polyphosphate (APP), used to improve flame retardant properties of poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA), loaded with Mg(OH)2 (MH) was examined. The study of the interactions between the additives introduced in EVA was focused in particular on the MH-APP interaction. The evolution of water from

A. Riva; G. Camino; L. Fomperie; P. Amigouët

2003-01-01

423

Galangal pungent component, 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate, activates TRPA1.  

PubMed

We investigated the activation of transient receptor potential cation channel (TRP) subfamily V, member 1 (TRPV1) and TRP subfamily A, member 1 (TRPA1) by 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA), the main pungent component in galangal. ACA did not activate TRPV1-expressing human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells, but strongly activated TRPA1-expressing HEK cells. ACA was more potent than allyl isothiocyanate, the typical TRPA1 agonist. PMID:20699565

Narukawa, Masataka; Koizumi, Kanako; Iwasaki, Yusaku; Kubota, Kikue; Watanabe, Tatsuo

2010-08-07

424

Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Potential Problems for Photovoltaic Packaging  

SciTech Connect

Photovoltaic (PV) devices are typically encapsulated using ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) to provide mechanical support, optical coupling, electrical isolation, and protection against environmental exposure. Under exposure to atmospheric water and/or ultraviolet radiation, EVA will decompose to produce acetic acid, lowering the pH and increasing the surface corrosion rates of embedded devices. Even though acetic acid is produced at a very slow rate, it may not take much to catalyze reactions that lead to rapid module deterioration. Another consideration is that the glass transition of EVA, as measured using dynamic mechanical analysis, begins at temperatures of about -15 degC. Temperatures lower than this can be reached for extended periods of time in some climates. Because of increased moduli below the glass transition temperature, a module may be more vulnerable to damage if a mechanical load is applied by snow or wind at low temperatures. Modules using EVA should not be rated for use at such low temperatures without additional low-temperature mechanical testing beyond the scope of UL1703.

Kempe, M. D.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Terwilliger, K. M.; McMahon, T. J.; Kennedy, C. E.; Borek, T. T.

2006-01-01

425

Evaluation of the teratogenic potential of octyl acetate in rats.  

PubMed

Octyl acetate (CAS RN 108419-32-5) was administered via oral gavage to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats on Gestation Days 6 through 15 at dose levels of 0, 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 g/kg. The dams were weighed and observed for clinical signs of toxicity during pregnancy, and food consumption was measured. On Gestation Day 20 the dams were sacrificed and the fetuses were examined for external, visceral, and skeletal malformations and variations. The mid- and high-dose levels resulted in maternal toxicity as evidenced by reductions in body weight gain and food consumption. There were no statistically significant effects on embryo-fetal lethality or fetal growth for any treatment group. The number of litters with at least one malformed fetus and the mean percentage of the litter malformed were significantly (p less than 0.05) elevated in the high-dose group only. The results of the present study demonstrate that octyl acetate produced some evidence of developmental toxicity at a dose (1.0 g/kg) that was maternally toxic. Developmental toxicity was not observed at the maternally toxic 0.5 g/kg dose level or the maternally nontoxic dose level (0.1 g/kg). Therefore, these data indicate that octyl acetate is not a selective developmental toxicant in the rat. PMID:2792597

Daughtrey, W C; Wier, P J; Traul, K A; Biles, R W; Egan, G F

1989-08-01

426

Abiraterone acetate in castration-resistant prostate cancer.  

PubMed

The palliative goal of the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer is to prolong survival and decrease cancer-related complications. Androgen ablation therapy is widely accepted as the initial treatment of choice; when the disease becomes resistant to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), docetaxel-based chemotherapy aids in prolonging overall survival and controlling disease-related symptoms. Until a few years ago, no drug had showed efficacy in docetaxel-resistant patients. Recently, cabazitaxel, a taxane family compound, has been shown to help prolong survival in patients previously treated with docetaxel, even if a high grade of myelotoxicity has been reported. Moreover, a better understanding of the biology of CRPC has demonstrated that prostate cancer proliferation is largely mediated through the androgen receptor, which could be reactivated by androgens produced by the adrenal glands. Abiraterone acetate is an orally active acetate salt of the steroidal compound abiraterone with antiandrogen activity. Abiraterone inhibits the enzymatic activity of steroid 17?-monooxygenase, a member of the cytochrome P450 family that catalyzes the 17?-hydroxylation of steroid intermediates involved in testosterone synthesis from the adrenal glands. This review focuses on abiraterone acetate, the first compound that, through the inhibition of adrenal gland production of testosterone, increases the overall survival in CRPC patients. The role of possible predictive biomarkers and future perspectives are also discussed. PMID:22123334

Iacovelli, Roberto; Palazzo, Antonella; Procopio, Giuseppe; Gazzaniga, Paola; Cortesi, Enrico

2012-03-01

427

Stimulation of hepatic glycogenolysis by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate  

SciTech Connect

In isolated perfused rat livers, infusion of phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (150 nM) resulted in a three-fold stimulation of the rate of glucose production. This response was maximal at perfusate phorbol ester concentration of 150 nM, and was significantly diminished at higher concentrations of the phorbol ester (e.g. 300 nM). Stimulation of glycogenolysis by phorbol ester was greatly decreased in livers perfused infusion into livers perfused with calcium-free medium. Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate infusion into livers perfused in the absence of calcium did not result in calcium efflux from the livers. Additionally, in hepatocytes isolated from livers of fed rats neither the phorbol ester nor 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-rac-glycerol, stimulated the rate of glucose production. This last result along with the observations that in isolated perfused rat livers, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate increases portal pressure, and decreases oxygen consumption suggests that stimulation of hepatic glycogenolysis by phorbol ester is the result of increased vasoconstriction, and is not a consequence of a direct effect of the phorbol ester on liver parenchymal cells.

Patel, T.B.

1986-05-01

428

Observations on a Laboratory Method for Submerged Acetic Fermentation  

PubMed Central

Submerged acetic fermentation experiments were performed for the purpose of determining the conditions under which this type of fermentation should be conducted under laboratory conditions. The apparatus used consisted of a set of glass tubes provided with air spargers. Acetobacter acetigenum was found to be the most suitable bacterium among six Acetobacter compared under submerged acetic fermentation conditions in a synthetic medium. Statistically significant different rates of fermentation were observed in acetators that were identical in construction, fermentation medium, and aeration characteristics. Extremely long growth lag periods and complete absence of growth were often observed when starting fermentations. The causes of this behavior were investigated. It was found that it was not produced by lack of nutrients or by presence of a bacteriophage. Different kinds of bacterial starters were studied and compared. Cultures maintained in a liquid medium were reliable starters with a short growth lag period. Liquid medium cultures maintained their good starter characteristics after periods of storage of up to 11 weeks at 40 F (4 C).

Lopez, Anthony; Johnson, L. W.; Wood, C. B.

1961-01-01

429

Non-trivial behavior of palladium(II) acetate.  

PubMed

Reaction of activated palladium metal with a HNO3/acetic acid mixture produces both orange Pd3(OAc)6, 1, and purple Pd3(OAc)5(NO2), 2. Compound has a trinuclear structure derived from that of the well-known triangular complex 1 in which one acetate group has been replaced by a nitrite group which is bonded to one palladium atom by the nitrogen atom and to another Pd atom using one of the oxygen atoms. Highly pure 1 can be made by continuous removal of the nitric oxides from the reaction mixture using a flow of N2. 1H NMR spectra of solutions of 1 in CDCl3 and C6D6 show several signals of various intensities when a small amount of water is present in the deuterated solvents but only one signal when the solvents are thoroughly dried. These results are consistent with the occurrence of one or more hydrolysis processes when the solvents contain water and suggest that hypotheses about various [Pd(OAc)2]n aggregates that have previously been brought forward in the literature to explain the complexity of the spectrum of 1 are unnecessary, especially for nonpolar solvents. Compound 2 does not hydrolyze, and in wet or dried solvents shows a 1H NMR spectrum that consists of five equal-intensity signals due to the five nonequivalent acetate groups. PMID:15909048

Bakhmutov, Vladimir I; Berry, John F; Cotton, F Albert; Ibragimov, Sergey; Murillo, Carlos A

2005-05-04

430

Treatment of clozapine-induced priapism by goserline acetate injection  

PubMed Central

Clozapine (Denzapine) is a treatment for resistant schizophrenia. Among the serious but rare side effects of clozapine are agranulocytosis and priapism. We hereby present the case of a 30-year-old man with a diagnosis of schizophrenia who has spent nearly 12 years of his adult life on various psychiatric in-patient units including open wards, secure units, psychiatric intensive care units and rehab wards. Diagnosed at the age of 15, he only responded to clozapine at the age of 18. Whilst being on clozapine he developed priapism in June 2010 and needed emergency surgical treatment in the form of surgical decompression. He again responded only to clozapine and fortunately he did not redevelop priapism; however, he was readmitted in February 2011 due to relapse, and he remained resistant to other antipsychotics. He was rechallenged with clozapine and recovered, but unfortunately redeveloped priapism which required emergency surgical and medical intervention (goserline acetate and tinzaperin injection). In order to relieve the recurrent priapism, he agreed to continue clozapine and goserline acetate injection. This decision was made by the patient in a compos mentis state. As far as we are aware, this is the first time goserline acetate has been reported as a successful treatment for clozapine-induced priapism.

Nayar, Jitendra; Bashier, Adnan; Varghese, Soosamma

2013-01-01

431

Oxidation of acetate through reactions of the citric acid cycle by Geobacter sulfurreducens in pure culture and in syntrophic coculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geobacter sulfurreducens strain PCA oxidized acetate to CO2 via citric acid cycle reactions during growth with acetate plus fumarate in pure culture, and with acetate plus nitrate in coculture with Wolinella succinogenes. Acetate was activated by succinyl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase and also via acetate kinase plus phosphotransacetylase. Citrate was formed by citrate synthase. Soluble isocitrate and malate dehydrogenases reduced NADP+ and NAD+,

Alexander S. Galushko; Bernhard Schink

2000-01-01

432

2-(5-Fluoro-3-isopropyl-sulfanyl-7-methyl-1-benzofuran-2-yl)acetic acid  

PubMed Central

The title compound, C14H15FO3S, was prepared by alkaline hydrolysis of ethyl 2-(5-fluoro-3-isopropyl­sulfanyl-7-methyl-1-benzofuran-2-yl)acetate. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked via pairs of O—H?O hydrogen bonds, forming inversion dimers. These dimers are connected by weak C—H?O hydrogen bonds.

Choi, Hong Dae; Seo, Pil Ja; Lee, Uk

2012-01-01

433

Carcinogenesis Studies of Food Grade Geranyl Acetate (71% Geranyl Acetate, 29% Citronellyl Acetate) (CAS No. 105-87-3) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Gavage Study).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Carcinogenesis studies of food-grade geranyl acetate (containing 29% citronellyl acetate) were conducted by administering the test chemical in corn oil by gavage to groups of 50 male and 50 female F344/N rats at doses of 0, 1,000 or 2,000 mg/kg body weigh...

1987-01-01

434

Comparison of the activity of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and the diglyceride glycerol 1-myristate 2-acetate.  

PubMed

Diglycerides function as analogs of the phorbol ester tumor promoters. We compare here the activity of glycerol 1-myristate 2-acetate (GMA) with the corresponding phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). GMA inhibited phorbol ester binding to reconstituted protein kinase C, stimulated protein kinase C enzymatic activity, and, upon addition to intact 3T3 cells, inhibited [125I]EGF binding. Its potency was much less than that of PMA, however (2.9 X 10(4)-fold less for phorbol ester binding, greater than 1.2 X 10(5)-fold less for inhibition of EGF binding), and its activity on the intact cells was more transient. The marked difference in potency contrasts with the much smaller differences found previously for the corresponding pairs of dilaurate and dioleate derivatives. PMID:3486050

Sharkey, N A; Blumberg, P M

1986-04-01

435

Synthesis, structure elucidation and in vitro anticancer activities of novel derivatives of diethyl (2E)-2-[(2E)-(1-arylimidazolidin-2-ylidene)hydrazono]succinate and ethyl (4-oxo-8-aryl-4,6,7,8-tetrahydroimidazo[2,1-c][1,2,4]triazin-3-yl)acetate.  

PubMed

The worked out and optimized synthesis routes and remarkable antitumour activities in vitro of novel polynitrogenated derivatives of diethyl (2E)-2-[(2E)-(1-arylimidazolidin-2-ylidene)hydrazono]succinate (7-10) and ethyl (4-oxo-8-aryl-4,6,7,8-tetrahydroimidazo[2,1-c][1,2,4]triazin-3-yl)acetate (11-16) are presented. Small molecules based on the privileged 7,8-dihydroimidazo[2,1-c][1,2,4]triazin-4(6H)-one scaffold (11-16) were obtained with fairly modest to good overall yields by very facile addition reactions of the nucleophilic centred 1-aryl-2-hydrazonoimidazolidine hydroiodides to diethyl acetylenedicarboxylate (DEAD) in the presence of triethylamine (TEA) and a subsequent cyclocondensation of the putative intermediate chain hydrazones. Heterobicyclic products 12 and 14-16 could also be prepared in high overall yields by an effective intramolecular cyclocondensation of the isolated stable and antiproliferative active heterocyclic hydrazones, namely, diethyl (2E)-2-[(2E)-(1-arylimidazolidin-2-ylidene)hydrazono]succinates (7-10), performed in refluxing DMF. These intermediates are the first products to be formed in the result of an addition of the nucleophilic reactants, namely, 1-aryl-2-hydrazonoimidazolidines of the 1-6 type, bearing the basic nitrogen atom of the hydrazono moiety (N-NH2), to the carbon-carbon triple bond of the highly electrophilic alkyne, that is, DEAD. Molecular structures of the synthesized compounds (7-16) in the DMSO-d6 solutions were verified by (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectral data. These were finally confirmed based on the advanced 2D HMBC and HMQC NMR experiments, which were performed for the two representatives (8 and 11) of the two synthesized sets of the bioactive substances. Among the majority of antiproliferative active molecules, the disclosed herein ethyl [4-oxo-8-(3-chlorophenyl)-4,6,7,8-tetrahydroimidazo[2,1-c][1,2,4]triazin-3-yl]acetate (14) is proposed as a promising lead structure for the design of novel highly selective antitumour agents because of the distinctly marked lower cytotoxicity towards the primary cell line of normal HSF cells and several-fold higher against cancer cells used. A double fluorochrome mix-staining was performed in order to find out about the possible mode of action by which this novel small heterobicycle reveals remarkable antiproliferative effects in vitro. Taking into account the obtained double staining results, this small molecule was identified as capable of inducing significantly higher levels of necrotic cells in human cancer cell lines (T47D and HeLa) than in normal HSF cells. Furthermore, its cytotoxicity against cells was found to be connected to the predominant induction of necrosis over apoptosis. PMID:24126095

Sztanke, Ma?gorzata; Rzymowska, Jolanta; Sztanke, Krzysztof

2013-09-25

436

[Effect of acetate on the formation of the phyoeffector tentoxin by Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler].  

PubMed

The effect of the cosubstrate acetate on the formation of the phytotoxic substance tentoxin by Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler was investigated. Acetate was taken up and metabolized during growth. The added acetate stimulated considerably the biosynthesis of tentoxin depending on its concentration and time of introduction. There was an increased incorporation of (U-14C)-glucose into the toxin molecule in the presence of acetate in the medium. The results indicate an induction of the biosynthesis of tentoxin by the precursor acetate, probably mediated through the accumulation of the glycolytic intermediates pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate. PMID:4045707

Hänel, I; Liebermann, B; Brückner, B; Tröger, R

1985-01-01

437

Lead acetate action on anaphylactic response of guinea pig smooth muscle.  

PubMed

Experiments were performed to evaluate lead acetate effects on the anaphylactic contraction in guinea pigs smooth muscles. Aortic rings from guinea pigs exposed to lead acetate developed an anaphylactic contraction significantly lower than the contraction induced by the antigen in controls. In the smooth muscle of the intestine, lead acetate did not modify the anaphylactic response. Lead induced immunosuppression of the anaphylactic response of aortic rings, whereas sodium acetate had no effect on the anaphylactic reaction of the guinea pig smooth muscle. The amplitude of the norepinephrine contraction was not modified by lead nor by sodium acetate. PMID:11793963

Gijón, E; Cartas, L; García, X

2001-01-01

438

Acetate Binding of Spinach Chloroplasts as a Facet of Fatty Acid Synthesis  

PubMed Central

A particulate fraction of spinach chloroplasts is the major site of binding when either acetate or acetyl-CoA is used as substrate. The acetate is linked covalently, and the binding is inhibited by reagents which react with sulfhydryl groups. The amount of acetate bound is lowered by both citrate and oxaloacetate; however, the binding is not reversed by oxaloacetate. Reversal of binding is also not brought about by the addition of unlabeled acetyl-CoA. If cofactors for fatty acid synthesis and cold acetyl-CoA are added, the binding of labeled acetate is reversed. Acyl carrier protein from E. coli increases the binding of labeled acetate.

Devor, K. A.; Mudd, J. B.

1968-01-01

439

Atmospheric Acetic Acid Pulping of Rice Straw II: Behavior of Ash and Silica in Rice Straw during Atmospheric Acetic Acid Pulping and Bleaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A detailed examination was made of the behavior and distribution of ash and silica during atmospheric acetic acid pulping and subsequent bleaching of rice straw. Ash-rich pulps (in unbleached pulp, about 18 %; and in bleached pulp, 16 %) with matchable strength properties for conventional alkaline pulps were obtained from rice straw by acetic acid pulping. More than 50

Xue-Jun Pan; Yoshihiro Sano; Toshiaki Ito

1999-01-01

440

New approach for the production of cellulose acetate: acetylation of mechanical pulp with subsequent isolation of cellulose acetate by differential solubility  

Microsoft Academic Search

A heretofore uninvestigated approach to the production of cellulose acetate is the acetylation of mechanical pulp with subsequent isolation of the cellulose derivative by differential solubility. The mechanical pulp is produced by refining aspen wood chips in a disc-refiner. Two conventional acetylation techniques, the fibrous and solution process, are employed to acetylate all components of the pulp. The cellulose acetate

Barkalow

1987-01-01

441

Hydrolysis of RRR-?-tocopheryl acetate (vitamin E acetate) in the skin and its UV protecting activity (an in vivo study with the rat)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vitamin E acetate is often used rather than vitamin E as an ingredient of skin care products and dermatological preparations, because it lacks the free phenolic OH group. However, because of this the acetate as such is biologically inactive. In spite of this intrinsic inactivity, the skin is protected against the harmful effects of sunlight after topical application of vitamin

Gerard M. J. Beijersbergen van Henegouwen; Hans E. Junginger; Henk de Vries

1995-01-01

442

Generation of phenylpropanoid pathway-derived volatiles in transgenic plants: rose alcohol acetyltransferase produces phenylethyl acetate and benzyl acetate in petunia flowers.  

PubMed

Esters are important contributors to the aroma of numerous flowers and fruits. Acetate esters such as geranyl acetate, phenylethyl acetate and benzyl acetate are generated as a result of the action of alcohol acetyltransferases (AATs). Numerous homologous AATs from various plants have been characterized using in-vitro assays. To study the function of rose alcohol acetyltransferase (RhAAT) in planta, we generated transgenic petunia plants expressing the rose gene under the control of a CaMV-35S promoter. Although the preferred substrate of RhAAT in vitro is geraniol, in transgenic petunia flowers, it used phenylethyl alcohol and benzyl alcohol to produce the corresponding acetate esters, not generated by control flowers. The level of benzyl alcohol emitted by the flowers of different transgenic lines was ca. three times higher than that of phenylethyl alcohol, which corresponded to the ratio between the respective products, i.e. ca. three times more benzyl acetate than phenylethyl acetate. Feeding of transgenic petunia tissues with geraniol or octanol led to the production of their respective acetates, suggesting the dependence of volatile production on substrate availability. PMID:16525891

Guterman, Inna; Masci, Tania; Chen, Xinlu; Negre, Florence; Pichersky, Eran; Dudareva, Natalia; Weiss, David; Vainstein, Alexander

2006-03-01

443

A combination of norethindrone acetate and leuprolide acetate blocks the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonistic response and minimizes cyst formation during ovarian stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A protocol utilizing both leuprolide acetate (LA) and norethindrone acetate (NETA) in subjects undergoing ovarian suppression prior to follicle aspiration proved more effective than LA alone in reducing the incidence of ovarian cyst formation without affecting clinical outcome. Patients (n = 105) undergoing ovarian stimulation followed by follicle aspiration and in-vitro fertilization (TVF) were prospectively randomized and studied. Study measures

Edward C. Ditkoff; Mark V. Sauer

1996-01-01

444

Ethyl 2-(3-benzoyl-thio-ureido)acetate  

PubMed Central

The title compound, C12H14N2O3S, adopts a cis–trans geometry of the thio­urea group and is stabilized by intra­molecular hydrogen bonds between the carbonyl O atoms and the H atom of the thio­amide group and by a C—H?S interaction. Mol­ecules are linked by two inter­molecular hydrogen bonds (C—H?O and N—H?O), forming a one-dimensional chain parallel to the c axis.

Hassan, Ibrahim N.; Yamin, Bohari M.; Kassim, Mohammad B.

2008-01-01

445

Conformational studies of hydantoin-5-acetic acid and orotic acid.  

PubMed

Hydantoin-5-acetic acid [2-(2,5-dioxoimidazolidin-4-yl)acetic acid] and orotic acid (2,6-dioxo-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyrimidine-4-carboxylic acid) each contain one rigid acceptor-donor-acceptor hydrogen-bonding site and a flexible side chain, which can adopt different conformations. Since both compounds may be used as coformers for supramolecular complexes, they have been crystallized in order to examine their conformational preferences, giving solvent-free hydantoin-5-acetic acid, C(5)H(6)N(2)O(4), (I), and three crystals containing orotic acid, namely, orotic acid dimethyl sulfoxide monosolvate, C(5)H(4)N(2)O(4)·C(2)H(6)OS, (IIa), dimethylammonium orotate-orotic acid (1/1), C(2)H(8)N(+)·C(5)H(3)N(2)O(4)(-)·C(5)H(4)N(2)O(4), (IIb), and dimethylammonium orotate-orotic acid (3/1), 3C(2)H(8)N(+)·3C(5)H(3)N(2)O(4)(-)·C(5)H(4)N(2)O(4), (IIc). The crystal structure of (I) shows a three-dimensional network, with the acid function located perpendicular to the ring. Interestingly, the hydroxy O atom acts as an acceptor, even though the carbonyl O atom is not involved in any hydrogen bonds. However, in (IIa), (IIb) and (IIc), the acid functions are only slightly twisted out of the ring planes. All H atoms of the acidic functions are directed away from the rings and, with respect to the carbonyl O atoms, they show an antiperiplanar conformation in (I) and synperiplanar conformations in (IIa), (IIb) and (IIc). Furthermore, in (IIa), (IIb) and (IIc), different conformations of the acid O=C-C-N torsion angle are observed, leading to different hydrogen-bonding arrangements depending on their conformation and composition. PMID:22307261

Gerhardt, Valeska; Tutughamiarso, Maya; Bolte, Michael

2012-01-18

446

A subchronic toxicity study of octyl acetate in rats.  

PubMed

The subchronic toxicity of octyl acetate was assessed following its administration to rats via oral gavage, 5 days per week for 13 weeks. Treated rats received undiluted octyl acetate at doses of 0.1, 0.5, or 1.0 g/kg. Control rats received distilled water at a dose of 1.0 g/kg. An interim termination was made after 45 days of dosing at which time five animals per sex per group were terminated and necropsied. Blood samples were collected and liver tissues were prepared for histological examination. After 13 weeks of dosing all animals were terminated and necropsied. Blood samples were obtained and selected organs were weighed and prepared for subsequent histological examination. Several treatment-related effects were observed in the high-dose group (1.0 g/kg) animals. These effects included slight reductions in body weight and food consumption, increased liver and kidney weights, and evidence of hydrocarbon nephropathy in high-dose males only. The significance of these observations is discussed in the report. With the exception of increased liver weights in the mid-dose group, no other significant treatment-related effects were observed in the mid- or low-dose groups of animals. It is believed that the increases in liver weight which were observed are a compensatory response to an increased metabolic load, and not a reflection of true hepatotoxicity. The results of this study indicated that octyl acetate possessed an overall low degree of systemic toxicity when administered orally to rats for 13 weeks. PMID:2714531

Daughtrey, W C; Eutermoser, M; Thompson, S W; Biles, R W

1989-02-01

447

Measurements of thermophysical properties of sodium acetate hydrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methods to measure the thermal conductivity, the specific heat capacity, and the heat of fusion of sodium acetate hydrate have been developed and the measured results have been reported for various concentrations and especially for various supercooling temperatures. Thermal conductivity was measured by using a probe method with a thermistor. The sensor element is very small, with a diameter of 0.5 mm and a length of 1.5 mm. Data for both the ordinary liquid and the supercooled liquid are smoothly connected to each other.

Araki, N.; Futamura, M.; Makino, A.; Shibata, H.

1995-11-01

448

Effects of electron beam irradiation of cellulose acetate cigarette filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method to reduce the molecular weight of cellulose acetate used in cigarette filters by using electron beam irradiation is demonstrated. Radiation levels easily obtained with commercially available electron accelerators result in a decrease in average molecular weight of about six-times with no embrittlement, or significant change in the elastic behavior of the filter. Since a first step in the biodegradation of cigarette filters is reduction in the filter material's molecular weight this invention has the potential to allow the production of significantly faster degrading filters.

Czayka, M.; Fisch, M.

2012-07-01

449

Helenalin Acetate in in vitro Propagated Plants of Arnica montana.  

PubMed

Propagated "IN VITRO" shoots and plantlets of ARNICA MONTANA L. (Asteraceae) have been shown to produce sesquiterpene lactones, i.e. helenalin and 11,13-dihydrohelenalin esters. The compounds were detected in green organs only; roots of the plantlets contained no sesquiterpene lactones. The helenalin acetate content in leaves of the plantlets (0.073% dry wt) was 4-times higher than in proliferated shoots (0.016% dry wt). The best rate of shoot multiplication was achieved on MS medium, supplemented with NAA 0.5mg/l and Kn 2.5 mg/l (formation of 22 shoots within 8 weeks). PMID:17230337

Malarz, J; Stojakowska, A; Dohnal, B; Kisiel, W

1993-02-01

450

Diffusion of mineral oils in ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports a study of mineral oil diffusion through a filled ethylene-vinyl acetate crosslinked polymer, together with some comparisons with aliphatic linear hydrocarbons. Permeation was monitored by classical gravimetric measurements leading to values of diffusion coefficient at several temperatures ranging from 23 to 120°C. A change in activation energy of diffusivity was observed at ca 70°C for mineral oils but not for simple hydrocarbons. The obtained diffusivity values and this curvature were discussed diffusion models derived from free volume theory. A relationship between D and boiling temperature was observed and tentatively justified.

Richaud, Emmanuel; Bellili, Amar; Goutille, Yannick

2012-07-01

451

Superconducting films made by spin-coating of acetate solutions  

SciTech Connect

Metallic silver substrates were spin-coated with several layers of mixed acetate solutions containing bismuth, lead, strontium, calcium, and copper. The viscosities of the cation solutions were modified by the addition of polyvinyl alcohol. The films were heat treated at various temperatures in air, O{sub 2}, and 1% O{sub 2} (balance N{sub 2}) atmospheres. Bismuth cuprate films with transport critical current densities {approx}500 A/cm{sup 2} were obtained in this work. New conditions of coating and sintering have been tried to produce superconducting films.

Balachandran, U.; Poeppel, R.B. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); dos Santos, D.I.; Carvalho, C.L.; da Silva, R.R.; Aegerter, M.A. (Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica e Quimica)

1990-12-01

452

Electrical and Thermal Properties of Polyvinyl Acetal Based Nanocomposites  

SciTech Connect

A water chemistry procedure is used to synthesize titanium dioxide nanoparticles which can later be blended with a polymer to form a nanodielectric. The synthesized nanoparticles are dispersed in two grades of polyvinyl acetal (commercially available under the trade names BX-L and KS-10, manufactured by SEKISUI Chemicals). Nanocomposite materials were prepared with 15 and 33 wt% titanium dioxide. The variation of the glass transition temperature with increasing filler weight fraction is presented. The dielectric breakdown strengths of the nanodielectric samples are reported. The presented results can be employed to optimize the dielectric properties of the studied nanocomposites for potential use in cryogenic high voltage applications.

Sauers, Isidor [ORNL; James, David Randy [ORNL; Ellis, Alvin R [ORNL; Tuncer, Enis [ORNL; Polyzos, Georgios [ORNL; Pace, Marshall O [ORNL

2009-10-01

453

Indole 3-acetic acid production by ectomycorrhizal fungi.  

PubMed

Ability of 8 ectomycorrhizal fungi to synthesise indole 3-acetic acid from L-tryptophan and their growth rate were studied. Differences in the levels of IAA synthesis and biomass production among the 8 mycorrhizal fungi were observed. A positive correlation was recorded between IAA level and mycelial growth. The synthesis of IAA and mycelial biomass were maximum on 30th day after incubation. Pisolithus tinctorius and Laccaria laccata exhibited higher amounts of IAA production than other fungi, whereas Amanita muscaria and Rhizopogon luteolus showed least quantity of IAA. PMID:1521864

Gopinathan, S; Raman, N

1992-02-01

454

Measurements of thermophysical properties of sodium acetate hydrate  

SciTech Connect

Methods to measure the thermal conductivity, the specific heat capacity, and the heat of fusion of sodium acetate hydrate have been developed and the measured results have been reported for various concentrations and especially for various supercooling temperatures. Thermal conductivity was measured by using a probe method with a thermistor. The sensor element is very small, with a diameter of 0.5 mm and a length of 1.5mm. Data for both the ordinary liquid and the supercooled liquid are smoothly connected to each.

Araki, N.; Makino, A. [Shizuoka Univ. Hamamatsu (Japan); Futamura, M. [Toshiba Co., Yokohama (Japan)] [and others

1995-11-01

455

[Histrelin acetate--the first once yearly LHRH agonist].  

PubMed

Long-acting synthetic luteinising hormone-releasing hormone agonists have become the mainstay for androgen-deprivation therapy, because they avoid the physical and psychological discomfort associated with orchidectomy and lack the potential cardiotoxicity associated with estrogens such as diethylstilbestrol. Currently available luteinising hormone-releasing hormone agonist analogues include leuprolide, goserelin, triptorelin, degarelix and buserelin were administered as either intramuscular or subcutaneous depot injections on a 1, 2, 3 or 6 months basis. Histrelin acetate is the first long-acting luteinising hormone-releasing hormone agonist available as a once-yearly subcutaneous implant. PMID:22165080

Altarac, Silvio

456

Phonon transport in an initially twisted polyvinyl acetate nanofiber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A reduction in phonon thermal conductivity enhances thermoelectric performance. One method to accomplish this is by applying mechanical stress to a nanostructure. We consider an initially twisted 20 nm polyvinyl acetate nanofiber undergoing torsion. Our analytical method uses the continuum approach of Mooney's model. Torsion modifies the phonon dispersion. Angles of twist between 45° and 70° reduce the averaged phonon group velocity and the phonon thermal conductivity but when these angles are increased further, this conductivity increases. This suggests a phonon engineering approach to tune the thermal conductivity of nanomaterials.

Liangruksa, Monrudee; Puri, Ishwar K.

2013-05-01

457

Kinetic Modeling of Esterification of Ethylene Glycol with Acetic Acid  

SciTech Connect

The reaction kinetics of the esterification of ethylene glycol with acetic acid in the presence of cation exchange resin has been studied and kinetic models based on empirical and Langmuir approach has been developed. The Langmuir based model involving eight kinetic parameters fits experimental data much better compared to empirical model involving four kinetic parameters. The effect of temperature and catalyst loading on the reaction system has been analyzed. Further, the activation energy and frequency factor of the rate constants for Langmuir based model has been estimated.

Yadav, Vishnu P.; Maity, Sunil K. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Hyderabad, Ordnance Factory Estate, Yeddumailiram-502205, Andhra Pradesh (India); Mukherjee, Rudra Palash [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur, Mahatma Gandhi Avenue, Durgapur-713209, West Bengal (India); Bantraj, Kandi [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela-769008, Orissa (India)

2010-10-26

458

A Specialized Citric Acid Cycle Requiring Succinyl-Coenzyme A (CoA):Acetate CoA-Transferase (AarC) Confers Acetic Acid Resistance on the Acidophile Acetobacter aceti  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbes tailor macromolecules and metabolism to overcome specific environmental challenges. Acetic acid bacteria perform the aerobic oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid and are generally resistant to high levels of these two membrane-permeable poisons. The citric acid cycle (CAC) is linked to acetic acid resistance in Acetobacter aceti by several observations, among them the oxidation of acetate to CO2 by

Elwood A. Mullins; Julie A. Francois; T. Joseph Kappock

2008-01-01

459

Stability of poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) and leuprolide acetate in in-situ forming drug delivery systems.  

PubMed

In-situ forming drug delivery systems are prepared by dissolving a drug and a biodegradable polymer (poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide), PLGA) in a biocompatible organic solvent (In-situ implant, ISI) or further emulsified into an external phase (oil or aqueous solution), resulting in oil-in-oil or oil-in-water emulsions (In-situ forming microparticles, ISM). The chemical stability of PLGA and the drug is a major concern. In this study, the stability of PLGA and leuprolide acetate in the in-situ forming systems and lyophilized sponges was investigated. The degradation of PLGA increased with increasing storage temperature and water content in the biocompatible solvents. A faster degradation occurred in polar protic solvents (2-pyrrolidone, PEG 400, triethyl citrate) than in polar aprotic solvents (N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, DMSO, triacetin, ethyl acetate). The presence of leuprolide acetate significantly accelerated PLGA degradation, especially in solution state. PLGA was stable in oily suspensions at 4 degrees C and degraded only slightly faster than solid powder at 25 degrees C. No interaction between the oils and the PLGA was observed as indicated by an unchanged T(g) of approx. 47 degrees C. PLGA underwent a slight degradation at 4 degrees C after 150 days in water and saturated sodium chloride solution. The degradation was slower in saturated sodium chloride solution than in water at 25 degrees C. Residual acetic acid in lyophilized sponges facilitated the PLGA degradation in contrast to dioxane. Leuprolide acetate did not affect the PLGA stability negatively. However, lidocaine significantly enhanced the polymer degradation in the sponges. Finally, leuprolide acetate was chemically stable in the sponges, the oils and the polymer solutions in suspension state, but unstable (aggregation) when dissolved in the polymer solutions and stored at 25 degrees C and 40 degrees C. PMID:16963145

Dong, W Y; Körber, M; López Esguerra, V; Bodmeier, R

2006-07-20

460

Multiple genetic control of acetate-induced olfactory responses in Drosophila melanogaster larvae.  

PubMed

Behavioural responses of Drosophila melanogaster larvae were measured in response to olfactory stimulation with an homologous series of eight aliphatic n-acetates (methyl ... octyl acetate) and with cis-vaccenyl acetate. Larvae tended to be attracted to short-chain acetates (methyl ... pentyl) and repelled by longer chain acetates (hexyl, heptyl and octyl acetate). All larvae were strongly attracted to propyl acetate, irrespective of the dose studied. Larval olfactory responses generally declined with age. Two geographical strains showed specific anosmias. Katsunuma (Japan) larvae showed no response to hexyl acetate; chromosome substitution showed this behaviour to be controlled by genes on chromosome II. Tai (Ivory Coast) larvae showed no response to pentyl acetate; chromosome substitution showed that two genetic factors were primarily involved, on the X chromosome and chromosome III. The response was modulated by chromosome II. No effect of the Y chromosome was found. Two olfactory mutants were studied, olfC (X chromosome) and Indf (chromosome III); both mutants showed abnormal responses to certain acetates. The results are discussed in terms of various models of olfactory processing and the implications of these models for the number of genes involved in olfaction. PMID:7989222

Cobb, M; Dannet, F

1994-10-01

461

Anaerobic microbial biogeochemistry in a northern bog: Acetate as a dominant metabolic end product  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field measurements and incubation techniques were used to determine the dynamics of acetate formation, iron reduction, and methanogenesis in surficial peat of an Alaskan bog. Acetate concentrations were ˜100 ?M early in the season and decreased to ˜20 ?M in July when the water table decreased. Acetate levels increased rapidly to ˜1000 ?M when the water table rose to the surface in August. Acetate production in anaerobic slurries occurred at rates of 2.8-420 nmol carbon mL-1 day-1, which was 7-120 times more rapid than CH4 production. Experiments utilizing 14C-acetate confirmed that methanogenesis was not acetoclastic although acetate was converted very slowly to CO2. Peat incubated anaerobically for 4.5 months at 24°C never produced methane from acetate, suggesting that anaerobic acetate accumulation would have occurred all season if the water table had remained high. CO2 production was the most rapid process measured in laboratory incubations (up to 750 nmol mL-1 day-1) and appeared to be due primarily to fermentation. Acetate was the primary organic terminal product of anaerobic decomposition in the bog, and acetate was ultimately oxidized to CO2 via aerobic respiration and to a much lesser extent anaerobically by Fe reduction.

Duddleston, Khrystyne N.; Kinney, Monica A.; Kiene, Ronald P.; Hines, Mark E.

2002-12-01

462

Kinetic study and mathematical modeling of methanogenesis of acetate using pure cultures of methanogens  

SciTech Connect

Kinetics of methanogenesis from acetate was studied using pure cultures of Methanosarcina barkeri and Methanosarcina mazei. Methane formation was found to be associated with cell growth. Nearly equimolar methane was produced from acetate during the methanogenic growth, and about 1.94 g of cells were formed from each mole of acetate consumed. Cell growth can be estimated from methane production. Significant substrate inhibition was found when acetate concentration was higher than 0.12 M. Among the three methanogenic strains studied, M. mazei strain 56 had the highest specific growth rate at all acetate concentrations studied and was least sensitive to environmental factors investigated (e.g., acetate concentration). The maximum specific growth rate found for strain S6 was 0.022/hour at acetic acid concentration around 7 g/L. The other two strains studied were M. barkeri strain 227 and strain MS. Growth of M. barkeri was completely inhibited at sodium acetate concentrations higher than 0.24 M. The maximum specific growth rate found for strains 227 and MS was 0.019 and 0.021/hour at acetic acid concentrations of 3.6 and 6.8 g/L, respectively. A kinetic model with substrate inhibition was developed and can be used to simulate the methane formation from M. mazei strain S6 grown on acetate at 35 degrees C, pH 7. (Refs. 29).

Yang, S.T.; Okos, M.R.

1987-01-01

463

E¡ect of sulfate and nitrate on acetate conversion by anaerobic microorganisms in a freshwater sediment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetate is quantitatively the most important substrate for methane production in a freshwater sediment in The Netherlands. In the presence of alternative electron acceptors the conversion of acetate by methanogens was strongly inhibited. By modelling the results, obtained in experiments with and without 13C-labelled acetate, we could show that the competition for acetate between methanogens and sulfate reducers is the

Johannes C. M. Scholten; Peter M. van Bodegom; Jaap Vogelaar; Alexander van Ittersum; Kees Hordijk; Wim Roelofsen; Alfons J. M. Stams

464

Corrosion behavior of mild steel in acetic acid solutions  

SciTech Connect

The corrosion behavior of mild steel in acetic acid (CH{sub 3}COOH) solutions was studied by weight loss and potentiostatic polarization techniques. The variation in corrosion rate of mild steel with concentrations of CH{sub 3}COOH, evaluated by weight loss and electrochemical techniques, showed marked resemblance. From both techniques, the maximum corrosion rate was observed for 20% CH{sub 3}COOH solution at all three experimental temperatures (25, 35, and 45 C). Anodic polarization curves showed active-passive behavior at each concentration, except at 80% CH{sub 3}COOH. Critical current density (i{sub c}) passive current density (I{sub n}), primary passivation potential (E{sub pp}), and potential for passivity (E{sub p}) had their highest values in 20% CH{sub 3}COOH solution. With an increase in temperature, while the anodic polarization curves shifted toward higher current density region at each concentration, the passive region became progressively less distinguishable. With the addition of sodium acetate (NaCOOCH{sub 3}) as a supporting electrolyte, the passive range was enlarged substantially. However, the transpassive region commenced at more or less the same potential. Cathodic polarization curves were almost identical irrespective of the concentration of CH{sub 3}COOH or temperature.

Singh, M.M.; Gupta, A.

2000-04-01

465

Effects of medroxyprogesterone acetate in obstructive sleep apnea.  

PubMed

We studied the effects of medroxyprogesterone acetate, a respiratory stimulant, on the incidence and duration of episodes of apnea and disordered breathing in 13 nonhypercapnic men with obstructive sleep apnea. Nocturnal polysomnography was done before and after four weeks of treatment with medroxyprogesterone acetate (60 mg/day) and one week after cessation of treatment. There were no significant (p less than 0.05) differences in the mean frequency of apneic episodes per hour of sleep before (31.3 +/- 5.7 [+/- SE]), during (26.8 +/- 6.6), or after (23.6 +/- 7.0) treatment, or in the mean number of disordered breathing episodes per hour of sleep before (19.4 +/- 5.6), during (21.4 +/- 5.8), or after (23.1 +/- 6.3) the period of treatment. Medroxyprogesterone did not alter significantly the total time of apnea or the total time for disordered breathing, expressed as percentages of total sleep time. Arterial oxygen desaturation during apnea and disordered breathing did not change with treatment. Medroxyprogesterone increased the minute ventilation and occlusion pressure responses to hypercapnia measured in the awake state; however, the results of this study demonstrate that medroxyprogesterone does not improve the breathing disorders during sleep in the nonhypercapnic patient with obstructive sleep apnea. PMID:2946559

Rajagopal, K R; Abbrecht, P H; Jabbari, B

1986-12-01

466

Dielectric relaxation of alpha -tocopherol acetate (vitamin E).  

PubMed

Dielectric loss spectra are reported for alpha -tocopherol acetate (an isomer of vitamin E) in the supercooled and glassy states. The alpha -relaxation times, tau_{alpha} , measured over a 190 degrees range of temperatures, T , at pressures, P , up to 400MPa can be expressed as a single function of TV3.9 ( V is specific volume, measured herein as a function of T and P ). At ambient pressure, there is no dynamic crossover over eight decades of measured tau_{alpha} . The relaxation spectra above the glass transition temperature T_{g} show ionic conductivity and an excess wing on the high-frequency flank of the alpha -relaxation loss peak. Temperature-pressure superpositioning is valid for the alpha process; moreover, the peak shape is constant (stretch exponent equal to 0.65). However, application of pressure changes the shape of the dielectric spectrum at higher frequencies due to the shift of the excess wing to form a resolved peak. Additionally, another relaxation process, absent at atmospheric pressure, emerges on the high-frequency side of the alpha -process. We propose that this new peak reflects a more compact conformation of the alpha -tocopherol acetate molecule. Drawing on the coupling model, the experimentally determined relaxation times, activation energy, and activation volume for the Johari-Goldstein process are compared to values calculated from the properties of the alpha relaxation. The agreement is generally satisfactory, at least for T

Kaminski, K; Maslanka, S; Ziolo, J; Paluch, M; McGrath, K J; Roland, C M

2007-01-08

467

Molecular orbital calculations for modeling acetate-aluminosilicate adsorption and dissolution reactions  

SciTech Connect

Possible molecular configurations of acetic acid and acetate adsorbed onto aluminosilicate minerals are examined. Molecular orbital calculations were performed on molecules and dimers; that are intended to mimic inner sphere and outer sphere adsorption complexes on mineral surfaces. The results predict the structure, energetics, and vibrational spectra of the acetic acid and acetate bonded to alumino-silicate groups. The most likely surface complexes are determined by reaction energetics and comparison of theoretical to experimental vibrational spectra. In addition, a reaction pathway of Si-O-Al cleavage by acetic acid and chemisorption of acetate with tetrahedral Al{sup 3+} is predicted. An activation energy for this reaction is estimated from constrained energy minimizations of the reactants along a reaction pathway. 89 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

Kubicki, J.D.; Apitz, S.E. [Naval Command Control and Surveillance Center, San Diego, CA (United States); Blake, G.A. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)

1997-03-01

468

Biomass bioconversion to calcium magnesium acetate deicing salt. Final project report on Phase 1  

SciTech Connect

The project experimentally investigated using biomass as feedstock for conversion to calcium magnesium acetate (CMA), an alternative road salt. This new organic road salt will prevent corrosion of bridge decks, underground cables, and rusting of cars and trucks. CMA from biomass will reduce costs, compared to petroleum and natural gas for making this material. Phase I work focused on bioconversion of sewage sludge residuals to CMA. The process is based on a packed bed fermenter to produce acetic acid from biomass, as well as liquid ion exchange to recover acetic acid from the fermenter broth prior to the final production step which occurs by passing the acetic acid over limestone. In Phase I: (1) percent bioconversion and kinetics of biomass to acetic acid have been confirmed in small batch fermenters; (2) equilibrium constants for acetic acid recovery via liquid ion exchange have been documented; and (3) rates of conversion to CMA have been determined.

Trantolo, D.J.

1989-06-01

469

Structure-activity relationships of 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate homologues as new nuclear export signal inhibitors.  

PubMed

Bioassay-guided separation use of the fission yeast expressing NES of Rev, a HIV-1 viral regulatory protein, resulted in isolation of 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA) from Alpinia galanga as a new Rev-transport inhibitor from the nucleus to cytoplasm. Rational design and synthesis of eleven ACA derivatives containing systematic chemical variations were made, biological evaluation of inhibitory activities of these analogues provides the basis to formulate the structure-activity relationship (SAR). The key elements observed were: (1) The para substitution of the acetoxyl and 1'-acetoxypropenyl groups at the benzene ring was essential, (2) linear ethyl and propyl chain carbonates were more active than branching chain carbonates, (3) the substitution of acetoxyl groups with alkyl carbamate groups lost or reduced the activities. This study revealed a new salient pharmacophore features as potential drug leads against the HIV virus. PMID:17944317

Liu, Y; Murakami, N; Zhang, S; Xu, T

2007-09-01

470

Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid by etiolated and green corn tissues  

SciTech Connect

Etiolated corn tissues oxidase indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to oxindole-3-acetic acid (OxIAA). This oxidation results in loss of auxin activity and may plant a role in regulating IAA-stimulated growth. The enzyme has been partially purified and characterized and shown to require O{sub 2}, and a heat-stable lipid-soluble corn factor which can be replaced by linolenic or linoleic acids in the oxidation of IAA. Corn oil was tested as a cofactor in the IAA oxidation reaction. Corn oil stimulated enzyme activity by 30% while trilinolein was inactive. The capacity of green tissue to oxidize IAA was examined by incubating leaf sections from 2 week old light-grown corn seedlings with {sup 14}C-IAA. OxIAA and IAA were separated from other IAA metabolites on a 3 ml anion exchange column. Of the IAA taken up by the sections, 13% was oxidized to OxIAA. This is the first evidence that green tissue of corn may also regulate IAA levels by oxidizing IAA to OxIAA.

Reinecke, D. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

1989-04-01

471

Escherichia coli-catalyzed bioelectrochemical oxidation of acetate in the presence of mediators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioelectrocatalytic oxidation of acetate was investigated under anaerobic conditions by using Escherichia coli K-12 (IFO 3301) cells cultured on aerobic media containing poly-peptone, glucose or acetate as the sole carbon source. It was found that all E. coli cells cultured on the three media work as good catalysts of the electrochemical oxidation of acetate as well as glucose with Fe(CN)63?,

Yung-Fu Wang; Sheng-Shung Cheng; Seiya Tsujimura; Tokuji Ikeda; Kenji Kano

2006-01-01

472

Carbon CP-MASS NMR and X-ray crystal structure of paramagnetic lanthanide acetates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The X-ray crystal structures of praseodymium(III) acetate monohydrate and europium(III) acetate trihydrate have been solved and cross-polarization carbon-13 NMR spectra obtained in the polycrystalline solids. The static and magic angle spinning spectra are compared with diamagnetic acetate spectra. The shifts in the paramagnetic compounds are large, permitting sample heterogeniety to be readily detected. THE CP-MASS carbon spectra are assigned by

S. Ganapathy; V. P. Chacko; R. G. Bryant; M. C. Etter

1986-01-01

473

Toxicokinetics and Oral Bioavailability of Halogenated Acetic Acids Mixtures in Naive and GSTzeta-Depleted Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pharmacokinetics of halogenated acetic acid (HAA) mixtures in native and GSTzeta depleted rats was investigated. Rats were administered orally or i.v. to Mixture-1 (monobromo- dichloro-, chlorodibromo-, tribromo- acetic acids) or Mixture-2 (bromochloro-, dibromo-, trichloro- bromodichloro- acetic acids) at a dose of 25 ?mol\\/kg HAA and blood samples collected up to 36 h. GSTzeta depleted rats were also orally dosed with

Shakil A. Saghir; Irvin R. Schultz

2005-01-01

474

Validation of Human Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model for Vinyl Acetate Against Human Nasal Dosimetry Data  

SciTech Connect

Vinyl acetate has been shown to induce nasal lesions in rodents in inhalation bioassays. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for vinyl acetate has been used in human risk assessment, but previous in vivo validation was conducted only in rats. Controlled human exposures to vinyl acetate were conducted to provide validation data for the application of the model in humans. Five volunteers were exposed to 1, 5, and 10 ppm 13 C1 , 13 C2 vinyl acetate via inhalation. A probe inserted into thenasopharyngeal region sampled both 13 C1 , 13 C2 vinyl acetate and the major metabolite 13 C1 , 13 C2 acetaldehyde during rest and light exercise. Nasopharyngeal air concentrations were analyzed in real time by ion trap mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Experimental concentrations of both vinyl acetate and acetaldehyde were then compared to predicted concentrations calculated from the previously published human model. Model predictions of vinyl acetate nasal extraction compared favorably with measured values of vinyl acetate, as did predictions of nasopharyngeal acetaldehyde when compared to measured acetaldehyde. The results showed that the current PBPK model structure and parameterization are appropriate for vinyl acetate. These analyses were conducted from 1 to 10 ppm vinyl acetate, a range relevant to workplace exposure standards but which would not be expected to saturate vinyl acetate metabolism. Risk assessment based on this model further concluded that 24 h per day exposures up to 1 ppm do not present concern regarding cancer or non-cancer toxicity. Validation of the vinyl acetate human PBPK model provides support for these conclusions.