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1

Pallidol hexa-acetate ethyl acetate monosolvate  

PubMed Central

The entire mol­ecule of pallidol hexa­acetate {systematic name: (±)-(4bR,5R,9bR,10R)-5,10-bis­[4-(acet­yloxy)phen­yl]-4b,5,9b,10-tetra­hydro­indeno­[2,1-a]indene-1,3,6,8-tetrayl tetra­acetate} is completed by the application of twofold rotational symmetry in the title ethyl acetate solvate, C40H34O12·C4H8O2. The ethyl acetate mol­ecule was highly disordered and was treated with the SQUEEZE routine [Spek (2009 ?). Acta Cryst. D65, 148–155]; the crystallographic data take into account the presence of the solvent. In pallidol hexa­acetate, the dihedral angle between the fused five-membered rings (r.m.s. deviation = 0.100?Å) is 54.73?(6)°, indicating a significant fold in the mol­ecule. Significant twists between residues are also evident as seen in the dihedral angle of 80.70?(5)° between the five-membered ring and the pendent benzene ring to which it is attached. Similarly, the acetate residues are twisted with respect to the benzene ring to which they are attached [C—O(carb­oxy)—C—C torsion angles = ?70.24?(14), ?114.43?(10) and ?72.54?(13)°]. In the crystal, a three-dimensional architecture is sustained by C—H?O inter­actions which encompass channels in which the disordered ethyl acetate mol­ecules reside.

Mao, Qinyong; Taylor, Dennis K.; Ng, Seik Weng; Tiekink, Edward R. T.

2013-01-01

2

Biofiltration of ethyl acetate and amyl acetate using a composite bead biofilter.  

PubMed

Biodegradation kinetic behaviors of ethyl acetate and amyl acetate in a composite bead biofilter were investigated. The composite bead was the spherical PVA/peat/KNO3/GAC composite bead which was prepared in our previous works. Both microbial growth rate and biochemical reaction rate were inhibited at higher inlet concentration. For the microbial growth process, the microbial growth rate of ethyl acetate was greater than that of amyl acetate in the inlet concentration range of 100-400ppm. The degree of inhibitive effect was almost the same for ethyl acetate and amyl acetate in this concentration range. The half-saturation constant Ks values of ethyl acetate and amyl acetate were 16.26 and 12.65ppm, respectively. The maximum reaction rate Vm values of ethyl acetate and amyl acetate were 4.08 and 3.53gCh(-1)kg(-1) packed material, respectively. Zero-order kinetic with the diffusion limitation could be regarded as the most adequate biochemical reaction model. For the biochemical reaction process, the biochemical reaction rate of ethyl acetate was greater than that of amyl acetate in the inlet concentration range of 100-400ppm. The inhibitive effect for ethyl acetate was more pronounced than that for AA in this concentration range. The maximum elimination capacity of ethyl acetate and amyl acetate were 82.3 and 37.93gCh(-1)m(-3) bed volume, respectively. Ethyl acetate degraded by microbial was easier than amyl acetate did. PMID:18445522

Chan, Wu-Chung; Su, Mei-Qi

2008-11-01

3

Investigation on isobaric vapor–liquid equilibrium for acetic acid + water + methyl ethyl ketone + isopropyl acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isobaric vapor–liquid equilibrium (VLE) data for acetic acid+water, acetic acid+methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), MEK+isopropyl acetate, acetic acid+MEK+water and acetic acid+MEK+isopropyl acetate+water are measured at 101.33kPa using a modified Rose cell. The nonideal behavior in vapor phase of binary systems measured in this work is analyzed through calculating fugacity coefficients since mixture containing acetic acid deviates from ideal behavior seriously in

Qiang Xie; Hui Wan; MingJuan Han; GuoFeng Guan

2009-01-01

4

21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...added the equivalent of 4.25 gallons of 100 percent ethyl acetate. It is used in accordance with good feeding practices in ruminant feed supplements as a source of added energy. [46 FR 52333, Oct. 27, 1981, as amended at 72 FR 41620, July 31,...

2013-04-01

5

Perspectives for the biotechnological production of ethyl acetate by yeasts.  

PubMed

Ethyl acetate is an environmentally friendly solvent with many industrial applications. The production of ethyl acetate currently proceeds by energy-intensive petrochemical processes which are based on natural gas and crude oil without exception. Microbial synthesis of ethyl acetate could become an interesting alternative. The formation of esters as aroma compounds in food has been repeatedly reviewed, but a survey which deals with microbial synthesis of ethyl acetate as a bulk product is missing. The ability of yeasts for producing larger amounts of this ester is known for a long time. In the past, this potential was mainly of scientific interest, but in the future, it could be applied to large-scale ester production from renewable raw materials. Pichia anomala, Candida utilis, and Kluyveromyces marxianus are yeasts which convert sugar into ethyl acetate with a high yield where the latter is the most promising one. Special attention was paid to the mechanism of ester synthesis including regulatory aspects and to the maximum and expectable yield. Synthesis of much ethyl acetate requires oxygen which is usually supplied by aeration. Ethyl acetate is highly volatile so that aeration results in its phase transfer and stripping. This stripping process cannot be avoided but requires adequate handling during experimentation and offers a chance for a cost-efficient process-integrated recovery of the synthesized ester. PMID:24788328

Löser, Christian; Urit, Thanet; Bley, Thomas

2014-06-01

6

Density data for copolymer systems: butyl acrylate\\/vinyl acetate homo- and copolymerization in ethyl acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was performed to provide precise density data, badly needed for on-line measurements and control of polymerization reactors, e.g. for densimetry studies. Data was obtained for one copolymer of butyl acrylate\\/vinyl acetate, the homopolymers of vinyl acetate and butyl acrylate, plus the two monomers and ethyl acetate. In addition, the hypothesis of the linear dependence of the density of

I Barudio; G Févotte; T. F McKenna

1999-01-01

7

Condensation of benzaldehyde diethyl acetal with ethyl vinyl ether  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1.A study was made of the condensation of benzaldehyde diethyl acetal with ethyl vinyl ether.2.It was shown that in this reaction aliphatic-aromatic ethoxy acetals of general formula C6H5 -(CHOC2H5-CH2)nCH(OC2H5)2 are formed.3.By the hydrolysis of these ethoxy acetals, aliphatic-aromatic ethoxy aldehydes were prepared.

B. M. Mikhailov; L. S. Povarov

1957-01-01

8

Pervaporation characteristics of ethylene–vinyl acetate copolymer membranes with different composition for recovery of ethyl acetate from aqueous solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degree of crystallization, surface property and density of ethylene–vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymer membranes with different vinyl acetate (VA) content were measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), contact angle meter and pycnometer. The pervaporation (PV) characteristics of the EVA copolymer membranes for recovery of ethyl acetate (EA) from aqueous EA solutions have been investigated. The separation factor (?) decreased with

Yunxiang Bai; Jinwen Qian; Quanfu An; Zhihui Zhu; Peng Zhang

2007-01-01

9

Ethyl acetate: X-ray, solvent and computed structures.  

PubMed

Ethyl acetate (ethyl ethanoate) was crystallized in situ and the crystal structure was determined. In the solid, the molecule is flat with trans conformation. The geometric details of ethyl acetate as a solvate are analyzed statistically using the Cambridge Structural Database, uncovering a high degree of hidden disorder. Despite the disorder, they exhibit a preference of the trans over the gauche isomer, with a negligible contribution of the cis isomer. These results are compared to ab initio calculations on both solid-state and molecular level. For the molecular structures, the computed energy differences of the isomers match the statistics found as a solvent. Several DFT-D2 methods used to calculate the solid state yield results that differ significantly from the experiment. PMID:23108979

Boese, A Daniel; Kirchner, Michael; Echeverria, Gustavo A; Boese, Roland

2013-03-18

10

Vapor-liquid equilibrium data for methanol, ethanol, methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, and o-xylene at 101.3 kPa  

SciTech Connect

Vapor-liquid equilibrium was measured for the binary systems methanol + o-xylene, ethanol + o-xylene, methyl acetate + o-xylene and ethyl acetate + o-xylene, and for the multicomponent mixtures methanol + methyl acetate + o-xylene, ethanol + ethyl acetate + o-xylene, and methanol + ethanol + methyl acetate + ethyl acetate + o-xylene at 101.3 kPa. The Wilson and Van Laar models were compared with the UNIFAC method. Results show that the correlation was satisfactory.

Costa-Lopez, J.; Garvin, A.; Espana, F.J. [Barcelona Univ. (Spain). Chemical Engineering Dept.

1995-09-01

11

Hydrolysis of ethyl acetate:a pervaporation study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of temperature on the separation factor, diffusion process, permeation rate, and permeability coefficient (k) for hydrolysis of ethyl acetate using a standard poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) membrane by pervaporation was investigated. The preliminary data presented in this work was obtained using a simple pervaporation technique built in-house. The experiments were conducted at 80, 65, 50 and 35°C. The initial

Habib I. Shaban

1998-01-01

12

Studies on the radical polymerization of vinyl acetate in benzene, chlorobenzene and ethyl acetate by 1 H NMR spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymerizations of vinyl acetate were carried out with AIBN in benzene, chlorobenzene and ethyl acetate, and the resultant polymers were analyzed for terminal group by using 1H NMR technique. The results revealed that a part of the polymer molecules prepared in aromatic solvent contained one solvent fragment at the chain end, indicating the incorporation of aromatic molecule through the chain

Koichi Hatada; Yoshio Terawaki; Tatsuki Kitayama; Mikiharu Kamachi; Masami Tamaki

1981-01-01

13

DISCOVERY OF METHYL ACETATE AND GAUCHE ETHYL FORMATE IN ORION  

SciTech Connect

We report on the discovery of methyl acetate, CH{sub 3}COOCH{sub 3}, through the detection of a large number of rotational lines from each one of the spin states of the molecule: AA species (A{sub 1} or A{sub 2}), EA species (E{sub 1}), AE species (E{sub 2}), and EE species (E{sub 3} or E{sub 4}). We also report, for the first time in space, the detection of the gauche conformer of ethyl formate, CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}OCOH, in the same source. The trans conformer is also detected for the first time outside the Galactic center source SgrB2. From the derived velocity of the emission of methyl acetate, we conclude that it arises mainly from the compact ridge region with a total column density of (4.2 {+-} 0.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}. The derived rotational temperature is 150 K. The column density for each conformer of ethyl formate, trans and gauche, is (4.5 {+-} 1.0) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2}. Their abundance ratio indicates a kinetic temperature of 135 K for the emitting gas and suggests that gas-phase reactions could participate efficiently in the formation of both conformers in addition to cold ice mantle reactions on the surface of dust grains.

Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.; Lopez, A.; Caro, G. M. Munoz [Department of Astrophysics, CAB, INTA-CSIC, Crta Torrejon-Ajalvir, km. 4, E-28850 Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Kleiner, I.; Nguyen, H. V. L., E-mail: terceromb@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: jcernicharo@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: lopezja@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: munozcg@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: isabelle.kleiner@lisa.u-pec.fr, E-mail: nguyen@pc.rwth-aachen.de [Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques, CNRS/IPSL UMR7583 et Universites Paris Diderot et Paris Est, 61 av. General de Gaulle, F-94010 Creteil (France)

2013-06-10

14

Phase Equilibria in the Systems Oxolane + Vinyl Acetate, Oxolane + Ethyl 1,1-Dimethylethyl Ether and Vinyl Acetate + Ethyl 1,1-Dimethylethyl Ether  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vapor-liquid equilibrium at 94kPa has been determined for the binary systems oxolane (THF) + vinyl acetate, oxolane + ethyl 1,1-dimethylethyl ether (ETBE) and vinyl acetate + ethyl 1,1-dimethylethyl ether. The three systems present slight to moderate positive deviations from ideal behavior and, to a first approximation, can be considered to behave like regular solutions. An azeotrope is present in the

Jaime Wisniak; Hugo Segura

2000-01-01

15

Production of ethyl acetate from dilute ethanol solutions by Candida utilis  

SciTech Connect

The conversion of ethanol to ethyl acetate has an advantage as a method of ethanol recovery since ethyl acetate is amenable to simple solvent extraction. The potential of Candida utilis in this conversion was studied. The kinetics of accumulation of ethanol and ethyl acetate in glucose-grown C. utilis showed that ester formation resulted from ethanol utilization under appropriate aeration and was inhibited by Fe/sup 3 +/ supplementation. Candida utilis converted ethanol to ethyl acetate optimally at pH 5.0-7.0. The five-hour rate of ester production increased as the ethanol concentration increased to 10 g/L, and rapidly declined to zero at concentrations exceeding 35 g/L. Thus, C. utilis has potential to recover dilute ethanol in the form of ethyl acetate.

Armstrong, D.W.; Martin, S.M.; Yamazaki, H.

1984-01-01

16

Liquid-liquid equilibria of the ternary systems water + acetic acid + ethyl acetate and water + acetic acid + isophorene (3,5,5-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-one)  

SciTech Connect

Liquid-liquid equilibria for the ternary systems water + acetic acid + ethyl acetate and water + acetic acid + isophorone (3,5,5-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-one) were measured over the temperature range (283 to 313) K. The results were used to estimate the interaction parameters between each of the three compounds of the systems studied for the NRTL and UNIQUAC models. The estimated interaction parameters were successfully used to predict the equilibrium compositions by the two models; experimental data were successfully reproduced. The UNIQUAC model was the most accurate in correlating the overall equilibrium composition of the studied systems. Also the NRTL model satisfactorily predicted the equilibrium composition. Isophorone experimentally resulted in a better extraction capacity for acetic acid and in a lower miscibility with water.

Colombo, A.; Battilana, P.; Ragaini, V.; Bianchi, C.L. [Milan Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry] [Milan Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry; Carvoli, G. [Chemial S.p.A., Cavaglia (Italy)] [Chemial S.p.A., Cavaglia (Italy)

1999-01-01

17

Nitrosation of glycine ethyl ester and ethyl diazoacetate to give the alkylating agent and mutagen ethyl chloro(hydroximino)acetate.  

PubMed

Whereas nitrosation of secondary amines produces nitrosamines, amino acids with primary amino groups and glycine ethyl ester were reported to react with nitrite to give unidentified agents that alkylated 4-(p-nitrobenzyl)pyridine to produce purple dyes and be direct mutagens in the Ames test. We report here that treatment of glycine ethyl ester at 37 degrees C with excess nitrite acidified with HCl, followed by ether extraction, gave 30-40% yields of a product identified as ethyl chloro(hydroximino)acetate [ClC(=NOH)COOEt, ECHA] and a 9% yield of ethyl chloroacetate. The ECHA was identical to that synthesized by a known method from ethyl acetoacetate, strongly alkylated nitrobenzylpyridine, and may have arisen by N-nitrosation of glycine ethyl ester to give ethyl diazoacetate, which was C-nitrosated and reacted with chloride to give ECHA. Nitrosation of ethyl diazoacetate also yielded ECHA. Ethyl nitroacetate was not an intermediate as its nitrosation did not produce ECHA. ECHA reacted with aniline to give ethyl (hydroxamino)(phenylimino)acetate [PhN=C(NHOH)CO2Et]. This product was different from ethyl [(phenylamino)carbonyl]carbamate [PhNHC(=O)NHCO2Et], which was synthesized by reacting ethyl isocyanatoformate (OCN.CO2Et) with aniline. ECHA reacted with guanosine to give a derivative, which may have been a guanine-C(=NOH)CO2Et derivative. ECHA showed moderate toxicity and weak but significant mutagenicity without activation in Salmonella typhimurium TA-100 (mean, 1.31 x control value for 12-18 microg/plats) and for V79 mammalian cells (1.5-1.7 x control value for 60-100 microM). In conclusion, gastric nitrosation of glycine derivatives such as peptides with a N-terminal glycine might produce ECHA analogues that alkylate bases of gastric mucosal DNA and thereby initiate gastric cancer. PMID:15025513

Zhou, Lin; Haorah, James; Chen, Sheng C; Wang, Xiaojie; Kolar, Carol; Lawson, Terence A; Mirvish, Sidney S

2004-03-01

18

Determination of Uranium by the TBP Method after Extraction with Ethyl Acetate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The method involves the fusion of the sample with potassium pyrosulphate and precipitation of the uranium with ammonium hydroxide. The precipitate is redissolved in nitric acid, and the uranium is extracted into ethyl acetate. The uranium is determined on...

B. T. Eddy J. D. Spangenberg B. G. Russell T. W. Steele

1968-01-01

19

The Interactions of Cellulose Acetate and Ethyl Cellulose Inhibitors with Double-Base Propellants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The interactions of nitroglycerine in double-base propellants with the inhibition materials cellulose acetate and ethyl cellulose are described. The distribution of nitroglycerine within the inhibitor and the effects of time, temperature, nitrocellulose c...

R. Stenson

1971-01-01

20

Antidiarrheal Activity of the Ethyl Acetate Extract of Morinda morindoides in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The objective of the study was to investigate the ethyl acetate extract of Morinda morindoides (Baker) Milne-Redh (Rubiaceae) (MM-EA) properties against experimental diarrheoa induced by castor oil in albino Wistar rats. Methods: The ethyl acetate extract of Morinda morindoides (250, 500, and 1000 mg\\/kg body weight) was administered orally to three groups of rats (five animals per group) in

S Meite; J D N'guessan; C Bahi; H F Yapi; A J Djaman; F Guede Guina

21

Inhibition of phorbol myristate acetate and phytohemagglutinin stimulation of human lymphocytes by 13-cis-retinoic acid and ethyl etrinoate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The retinol analogues 13-cis-retinoic acid and ethyl etrinoate inhibit the mitogenic activity of phorbol myristate acetate and phytohemagglutinin on human lymphocytes. This inhibitory effect is greater against the stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate than with phytohemagglutinin.

L. F. Skinnider; K. Giesbrecht

1981-01-01

22

Effect of Potent Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Stereospermum suaveolens Extract in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats  

PubMed Central

To evaluate the antihyperglycemic effect of ethyl acetate fraction of ethanol extract of Stereospermum suaveolens in streptozotocin-(STZ-) induced diabetic rats by acute and subacute models. In this paper, various fractions of ethanol extract of Stereospermum suaveolens were prepared and their effects on blood glucose levels in STZ-induced diabetic rats were studied after a single oral administration (200?mg/kg). Administration of the ethyl acetate fraction at 200?mg/kg once daily for 14 days to STZ-induced diabetic rats was also carried out. The parameters such as the fasting blood glucose, hepatic glycogen content, and pancreatic antioxidant levels were monitored. In the acute study, the ethyl acetate fraction is the most potent in reducing the fasting serum glucose levels of the STZ-induced diabetic rats. The 14-day repeated oral administration of the ethyl acetate fraction significantly reduced the fasting blood glucose and pancreatic TBARS level and significantly increased the liver glycogen, pancreatic superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities as well as reduced glutathione levels. The histopathological studies during the subacute treatment have been shown to ameliorate the STZ-induced histological damage of pancreas. This paper concludes that the ethyl acetate fraction from ethanol extract of Stereospermum suaveolens possesses potent antihyperglycemic and antioxidant properties, thereby substantiating the use of plant in the indigenous system of medicine.

Balasubramanian, T.; Chatterjee, Tapan Kumar; Senthilkumar, G. P.; Mani, Tamizh

2012-01-01

23

Overall rate of alternating copolymerization of vinyl acetate with maleic anhydride in methyl ethyl ketone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The initial rate of radical copolymerization of vinyl acetate(D) and maleic anhydride(A) was measured dilatometrically in methyl ethyl ketone at 50°C. The rate was found to be maximum at the feed maleic anhydride mole fraction of 0.40,0.44 and 0.47 when the total monomer concentration was 0.75 M.1.50 M and 2.25 M, respectively. Participation of both free monomers and the complex

Kiyohisa Fujimori; Anthony S. Brown

1986-01-01

24

Atmospheric Oxidation Mechanisms for Diethyl Ether and its Oxidation Products, Ethyl Formate and Ethyl Acetate.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon-containing compounds are present in the earth's atmosphere as the result of emissions from natural and anthropogenic sources. Their oxidation in the atmosphere, initiated by such oxidants as OH, ozone, and nitrate radicals, leads to potentially harmful secondary pollutants such as ozone, carbonyl species, organic acids and aerosols. Ethers and esters are two classes of compounds that contribute to the complex array of organic compounds found in anthropogenically-influenced air. Additional ester is present as a result of the oxidation of the ethers. In this paper, the oxidation of diethyl ether and its two main oxidation products, ethyl formate and ethyl acetate, are studied over ranges of temperature, oxygen partial pressure, and NOx concentration, using an environmental chamber / FTIR absorption technique. Major end-products (the esters from diethyl ether; organic acids and anhydrides from the esters) are quantified, and these data are interpreted in terms of the chemistry of the various alkoxy and peroxy radicals generated. Emphasis is placed on the effects of chemical activation on the behavior of the alkoxy radicals, as well as on a novel peroxy radical rearrangement that may contribute to the observed products of ether oxidation under some conditions. Finally, the data are used, in conjunction with data on similar species, to provide a general representation of ether and ester oxidation in the atmosphere.

Orlando, J. J.; Tyndall, G. S.

2006-12-01

25

Aza-Morita–Baylis–Hillman reaction of ethyl (arylimino)acetate with methyl vinyl ketone and ethyl vinyl ketone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aza-Morita–Baylis–Hillman (aza-MBH) reaction of ethyl (arylimino)acetate with methyl vinyl ketone and ethyl vinyl ketone has been investigated. We found that aza-MBH adducts 1 could be formed in the presence of DABCO (30mol%) and the corresponding adducts 2 could be obtained in the presence of PPh3 (30mol%) in moderate to good yields in acetonitrile under mild conditions, respectively.

Jun Gao; Guang-Ning Ma; Qing-Jiang Li; Min Shi

2006-01-01

26

Synthesis of ethyl acetate employing celite-immobilized lipase of Bacillus cereus MTCC 8372.  

PubMed

A wide range of fatty acid esters can be synthesized by esterification and transesterification reactions catalyzed by lipases in non-aqueous systems. In the present study, immobilization of a purified alkaline extra-cellular lipase of Bacillus cereus MTCC 8372 by adsorption on diatomaceous earth (celite) for synthesis of ethyl acetate via transesterification route was investigated. B. cereus lipase was deposited on celite (77% protein binding efficiency) by direct binding from aqueous solution. Immobilized lipase was used to synthesis of ethyl acetate from vinyl acetate and ethanol in n -nonane. Various reaction conditions, such as biocatalyst concentration, substrates concentration, choices of solvents ( n -alkanes), incubation time, temperature, molecular sieves (3A x 1.5 mm), and water activity(a w ), were optimized. The immobilized lipase (25 mg/ml) was used to perform transesterification in n -alkane(s) that resulted in approximately 73.7 mM of ethyl acetate at 55 degrees C in n -nonane under shaking (160 rpm) after 15 h, when vinyl acetate and ethanol were used in a equimolar ratio (100 mM each). Addition of molecular sieves (3A x 1.5 mm) as well as effect of water activity of saturated salt solutions (KI, KCl and KNO 3 ) to the transesterification efficiency has inhibitory effect. Batch operational stability tests indicated that immobilized lipase had retained 50% of its original catalytic activity after four consecutive batches of 15 h each. PMID:19789138

Verma, M L; Azmi, W; Kanwar, S S

2009-09-01

27

Determination of peroxide values using ethyl acetate as solvent. Analytical methods in respect to environmental and economical concern, part 21.  

PubMed

Peroxide values of fixed oils can be determined in ethyl acetate, an easily biodegredable solvent instead of chloroform according to PH. EUR. 2002, method A. Potentiometric indication is recommended. Further investigations are necessary to explain the high blank values obtained, when ethyl acetate is used. PMID:15497757

Hilp, M

2004-09-01

28

Phosphine-catalyzed annulation of ethyl (arylimino)acetates: synthesis of highly functionalized oxoimidazolidines.  

PubMed

This paper describes an unexpected and novel nucleophilic phosphine-catalyzed annulation of ethyl (arylimino)acetates to give polysubstituted oxoimidazolidine derivatives in moderate to good yields from simple and easily available starting materials under mild conditions. In this reaction, the addition of methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) is essential to induce the formation of oxoimidazolidines. PMID:18931765

Ma, Guang-Ning; Wang, Fei-Jun; Gao, Jun; Shi, Min

2008-10-28

29

Antiplasmodial Properties and Bioassay-Guided Fractionation of Ethyl Acetate Extracts from Carica papaya Leaves  

PubMed Central

We investigated the antiplasmodial properties of crude extracts from Carica papaya leaves to trace the activity through bioassay-guided fractionation. The greatest antiplasmodial activity was observed in the ethyl acetate crude extract. C. papaya showed a high selectivity for P. falciparum against CHO cells with a selectivity index of 249.25 and 185.37 in the chloroquine-sensitive D10 and chloroquine-resistant DD2 strains, respectively. Carica papaya ethyl acetate extract was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation to ascertain the most active fraction, which was purified and identified using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and GC-MS (Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry) methods. Linoleic and linolenic acids identified from the ethyl acetate fraction showed IC50 of 6.88??g/ml and 3.58??g/ml, respectively. The study demonstrated greater antiplasmodial activity of the crude ethyl acetate extract of Carica papaya leaves with an IC50 of 2.96 ± 0.14??g/ml when compared to the activity of the fractions and isolated compounds.

Melariri, Paula; Campbell, William; Etusim, Paschal; Smith, Peter

2011-01-01

30

Rheological and mechanical behavior of ethyl vinyl acetate\\/low density polyethylene blends for injection molding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethyl vinyl acetate (EVA) is normally injection molded to produce parts with specific properties of flexibility and energy absorption. However, the produced objects often present an excessive flexibility. Furthermore, EVA presents a high viscosity for injection molding technology, and this compels the operator to apply high hydraulic pressures. The addition of PolyEthylene (PE) can provide a higher rigidity to the

A. a Iannaccone; S. b Amitrano; R.a Pantani

2013-01-01

31

Chemistry of acetals. Communication 19. Structure of acetals and their reactivity in reaction with ethyl vinyl ether  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1.From a comparison of data from our own work and from the literature on the yields of the primary products of chain-growth reactions of mono- and di-acetals of various structures it is shown that in the case of saturated acetals the cause of the different reactivities of the acetals lies mainly in the presence or absence of electronaccepting substituents

L. A. Yanovskaya

1965-01-01

32

Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of ethyl acetate fraction from Zanthoxylum armatum in mice.  

PubMed

Zanthoxylum armatum DC. is a traditional Chinese medicine that is prescribed to alleviate pain and treat inflammatory disorders. This species is distributed mainly in the southeast and southwest regions of China. In the present study, we found that ethyl acetate fraction of ethanolic extract of Z. armatum could significantly decrease acetic acid-induced writhing numbers, and suppress formalin induced licking times in the first phase at the highest dose and in the second phase at all tested doses. This observation revealed that Z. armatum extract possessed powerful antinociceptive activity. The mechanisms of the antinociceptive effect might be mainly involved in the periphery inflammatory analgesic. In addition, the ethyl acetate fraction also inhibited xylene-induced ear swelling in a dose-dependent manner in mice. Eight lignans [eudesmin, horsfieldin, fargesin, kobusin, sesamin, asarinin, planispine A, and pinoresinol-di-3,3-dimethylallyl] were identified as major components of the ethyl acetate fraction. Considering related studies reporting the anti-inflammatory activity for the identified lignans, lignan might be responsible for its anti-inflammatory activity. Our results confirm that the traditional use of Z. armatum in the treatment of inflammation and pain is warranted. PMID:21059381

Guo, Tao; Deng, Yun-Xia; Xie, Hui; Yao, Chun-Yan; Cai, Cheng-Cheng; Pan, Sheng-li; Wang, Yang-Lin

2011-04-01

33

Performances of poly(vinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate)-cellulose acetate blend membranes in the pervaporation of ethanol–ethyl tert-butyl ether mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

High performance pervaporation membranes for the selective removal of ethanol from ethyl t-butyl ether (ETBE) were prepared by blending cellulose acetate with poly(vinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate) in different proportions and studied in sorption and pervaporation of ethanol–ETBE mixtures of compositions ranging from 5 to 25wt% ethanol. The membrane performances are improved when the copolymer content is higher due to strong flux enhancement.

Quang-Trong Nguyen; Robert Clément; Irwan Noezar; Pierre Lochon

1998-01-01

34

Mixture Toxicity of SN2-Reactive Soft Electrophiles: 2--Evaluation of Mixtures Containing Ethyl ?-Halogenated Acetates  

PubMed Central

Four ethyl ?-halogenated acetates were tested in (1) sham and (2) nonsham combinations and (3) with a nonreactive nonpolar narcotic. Ethyl iodoacetate (EIAC), ethyl bromoacetate (EBAC), ethyl chloroacetate (ECAC), and ethyl fluoroacetate (EFAC), each considered to be an SN2-H-polar soft electrophile, were selected for testing based on their differences in electro(nucleo)philic reactivity and time-dependent toxicity (TDT). Agent reactivity was assessed using the model nucleophile glutathione, with EIAC and EBAC showing rapid reactivity, ECAC being less reactive, and EFAC lacking reactivity at ?250 mM. The model nonpolar narcotic, 3-methyl-2-butanone (3M2B), was not reactive. Toxicity of the agents alone and in mixture was assessed using the Microtox acute toxicity test at three exposure durations: 15, 30 and 45 min. Two of the agents alone (EIAC and EBAC) had TDT values >100%. In contrast, ECAC (74 to 99%) and EFAC (9 to 12%) had partial TDT, whereas 3M2B completely lacked TDT (<0%). In mixture testing, sham combinations of each agent showed a combined effect consistent with predicted effects for dose-addition at each time point, as judged by EC50 dose-addition quotient values. Mixture toxicity results for nonsham ethyl acetate combinations were variable, with some mixtures being inconsistent with the predicted effects for dose-addition and/or independence. The ethyl acetate–3M2B combinations were somewhat more toxic than predicted for dose-addition, a finding differing from that observed previously for ?-halogenated acetonitriles with 3M2B.

Mooneyham, T.; Jeyaratnam, J.; Schultz, T. W.; Poch, G.

2011-01-01

35

Neurosedative and muscle-relaxant activities of ethyl acetate extract of Baphia nitida AFZEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sedative, anxiolytic and muscle-relaxant effects of the ethyl acetate leaf extract of Baphia nitida (BN) was investigated in intact mice, using the hole-board head-dip test for exploratory behavioural effect, elevated plus maze (EPM) and Y-maze (YM) models of anxiety; chimney, inclined screen, traction and climbing tests for muscle-relaxant effects. In each of these tests, BN (100–400mg\\/kg, p.o.), diazepam (1mg\\/kg,

Olufunmilayo O. Adeyemi; Omoniyi K. Yemitan; Adefunmilayo E. Taiwo

2006-01-01

36

Ethyl 2-[(2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yl)-oxy]acetate.  

PubMed

In the title compound, C13H12O5, the mean plane of the 2H-chromene ring system (r.m.s deviation = 0.026?Å) forms a dihedral angle of 81.71?(6)° with the mean plane of ethyl 2-hy-droxy-acetate moiety (r.m.s deviation = 0.034?Å). In the crystal, C-H?O hydrogen bonds result in the formation of zigzag layers parallel to the bc plane. PMID:23634050

Fun, Hoong-Kun; Quah, Ching Kheng; Aich, Krishnendu; Das, Sangita; Goswami, Shyamaprosad

2013-04-01

37

Ethyl 2-[(2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yl)-oxy]acetate  

PubMed Central

In the title compound, C13H12O5, the mean plane of the 2H-chromene ring system (r.m.s deviation = 0.026?Å) forms a dihedral angle of 81.71?(6)° with the mean plane of ethyl 2-hy­droxy­acetate moiety (r.m.s deviation = 0.034?Å). In the crystal, C—H?O hydrogen bonds result in the formation of zigzag layers parallel to the bc plane.

Fun, Hoong-Kun; Quah, Ching Kheng; Aich, Krishnendu; Das, Sangita; Goswami, Shyamaprosad

2013-01-01

38

Use of a Batch Reactive Distillation with Dynamic Optimization Strategy to Achieve Industrial Grade Ethyl Acetate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Industrial grade ethyl acetate is available with minimum purity of 85.0%. It is mostly produced by an ethanol esterification in a distillation process on both batch and continuous modes. However, researches on high purity production with short operating time are rarely achieved. Therefore, the objective in this work is to study an approach to produce ethyl acetate of 90.0% by 8 hours using a batch reactive distillation column. Based on open-loop simulations, the distillation with constant reflux ratio cannot achieve the product specification. Thus, the dynamic optimization strategy is proposed to handle this problem. For the process safety--preventing the dried column and fractured, a minimum reflux ratio must be determined in advance and then an optimal reflux profile is calculated to achieve optimal product yield. Simulation results show that the industrial grade ethyl acetate can be produced by the dynamic optimization programming with two or more time intervals. Besides, the increasing of time intervals can produce more distillate product.

Konakom, Kwantip; Saengchan, Aritsara; Kittisupakorn, Paisan; Mujtaba, Iqbal M.

2011-08-01

39

Analgesic and antiinflammatory activities of the ethyl acetate fraction of Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae).  

PubMed

Bidens pilosa is an Asteraceae widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments including pain and inflammation. The present work was undertaken to assess the analgesic and antiinflammatory properties of the ethyl acetate fraction of methylene chloride/methanol (1:1) extract of leaves of Bidens pilosa at the gradual doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg in mice and rats, respectively. The analgesic properties of Bidens pilosa were investigated using the acetic acid writhing, hot plate, capsaicin and formalin-induced pain models. This was followed by a study of the antiinflammatory properties using carrageenan, dextran, histamine and serotonin to induce acute inflammation in rat hind paw. The extract provided a significant (p < 0.01) reduction in pain induced by all four models of nociception. It also presented significant (p < 0.05) antiinflammatory activity in all four models of acute inflammation. These results show that the ethyl acetate fraction of methylene chloride/methanol (1:1) of Bidens pilosa has both analgesic and antiinflammatory properties. The qualitative analysis of the fraction by the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint revealed the presence of two flavonoids, namely quercetin and iso-okanin, known to have antiinflammatory and antinociceptive properties, which could be responsible for the analgesic and antiinflammatory effects observed. PMID:24242914

Fotso, Aurélien Fotso; Longo, Frida; Djomeni, Paul Désiré Dzeufiet; Kouam, Siméon Fogue; Spiteller, Michael; Dongmo, Alain Bertrand; Savineau, J P

2014-04-01

40

Effects of the Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Alchornea triplinervia on Healing Gastric Ulcer in Rats  

PubMed Central

Alchornea triplinervia (Spreng.) Muell. Arg (Euphorbiaceae) is a medicinal plant commonly used by people living in the Cerrado region of Brazil to treat gastrointestinal ulcers. We previously described the gastroprotective action of methanolic extract (ME) of Alchornea triplinervia and the ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) in increasing of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) gastric levels in the mucosa. In this work we evaluated the effect of EAF in promoting the healing process in rats with acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers. In addition, toxicity was investigated during treatment with EAF. After 14 days of treatment with EAF, the potent stimulator of gastric cell proliferation contributed to the acceleration of gastric ulcer healing. Upon immunohistochemical analysis, we observed a pronounced expression of COX-2, mainly in the submucosal layer. The 14-day EAF treatment also significantly increased the number of neutrophils in the gastric mucosa regeneration area. The EAF induced angiogenesis on gastric mucosa, observed as an increase of the number of blood vessels supplying the stomach in rats treated with EAF. Oral administration for 14 days of the ethyl acetate fraction from Alchornea triplinervia accelerated the healing of gastric ulcers in rats by promoting epithelial cell proliferation, increasing the number of neutrophils and stimulation of mucus production. This fraction, which contained mainly phenolic compounds, contributed to gastric mucosa healing.

Lima, Zeila P.; Bonamin, Flavia; Calvo, Tamara R.; Vilegas, Wagner; Santos, Lourdes C.; Rozza, Ariane L.; Pellizzon, Claudia H.; Rocha, Lucia R. M.; Hiruma-Lima, Clelia A.

2011-01-01

41

Pervaporation characteristics of polyetherimide\\/?-alumina composite membrane for a quaternary equilibrium mixture of acetic acid-ethanol-ethyl acetate-water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyetherimide\\/?-alumina composite membrane has been prepared by dipping method for further reactor application. Separation\\u000a factors and permeances for a quaternary acetic acid-ethanol-ethyl acetate-water equilibrium feed mixture have been measured\\u000a on the composite membrane in the range of temperature from 303 K up to 343 K and space time from 27 sec to 27,000 sec at a\\u000a permeate-side pressure of 2.67?10-3

Byoung-Gi Park

2004-01-01

42

Rheological and mechanical behavior of ethyl vinyl acetate\\/low densitypolyethylene blends for injection molding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethyl vinyl acetate (EVA) is normally injection molded to produce\\u000a\\u0009parts with specific properties of flexibility and energy absorption.\\u000a\\u0009However, the produced objects often present an excessive flexibility.\\u000a\\u0009Furthermore, EVA presents a high viscosity for injection molding\\u000a\\u0009technology, and this compels the operator to apply high hydraulic\\u000a\\u0009pressures. The addition of PolyEthylene (PE) can provide a higher\\u000a\\u0009rigidity to the

A. Iannaccone; S. Amitrano; R. Pantani

2013-01-01

43

Reactivity ratios and microstructure determination of vinyl acetate-ethyl methacrylate copolymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vinyl acetate-ethyl methacrylate (VAc-EMA, V\\/E) copolymers have been prepared by solution polymerization using benzoyl peroxide as initiator. The composition of the copolymers has been calculated using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (n.m.r.) spectroscopy. Comonomer reactivity ratios have been calculated from the Kelen-Tüdös method, error-in-variables method and p13Cp1H n.m.r. spectra of copolymers. The triad sequence distributions in terms of V- and E-centred

A. S. Brar; Shiv Charan

1996-01-01

44

Abiraterone acetate.  

PubMed

Abiraterone acetate (CB 7630; CB7630; JNJ-212082), the 3?-acetate prodrug of abiraterone, is structurally related to ketoconazole and is being developed by Cougar Biotechnology as a hormonal therapy for advanced prostate and breast cancers. As a selective inhibitor of adrenal androgens, it is thought to be a safer product than existing second-line hormonal therapies. This review discusses the key development milestones and therapeutic trials of this drug. PMID:21171672

2010-01-01

45

Antifungal and antioxidant activity of Crassocephalum bauchiense (Hutch.) Milne-Redh ethyl acetate extract and fractions (Asteraceae)  

PubMed Central

Background Crassocephalum bauchiense is a flowering plant, found in the West Region of Cameroon. Previous studied has highlighted the antibacterial and the dermal toxicological safety as well as the immunomodulatory activities of the ethyl acetate extract of its dry leaves. As an extension of the previous researches, the current work has been undertaken to evaluate the in vitro antifungal and antioxidant activities of C. bauchiense dried leaves ethyl acetate extract and fractions. Methods The extract was obtained by maceration in ethyl acetate and further fractionated into six fractions labeled F1 to F6 by flash chromatography. The antifungal activity of the extract and fractions against yeasts and dermatophytes was evaluated using broth microdilution method. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO) and ?-carotene - linoleic acid assays. Results The extract (MIC = 0.125 - 4 mg/ml) was found to be more active on dermatophytes and yeasts compared to the fractions. The ethyl acetate extract and fractions exhibited strong scavenging activity on DPPH (CI50 = 28.57 - 389.38 ?g/ml). The fractions F3 and F6 expressed best antioxidant activity on DPPH radicals compared to the crude extract. Conclusion The results of these findings clearly showed that C. bauchiense ethyl acetate extract has a significant antifungal and antioxidant activity. It is therefore a source of active compounds that might be used as antifungal and antioxidant agents.

2014-01-01

46

Nanofiltration of rhodium tris(triphenylphosphine) catalyst in ethyl acetate solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solvent resistant nanofiltration (SRNF) using polymer membranes has recently received enhanced attention due to the search for cleaner and more energy-efficient technologies. The large size of the rhodium tris(triphenylphosphine) [HRh(CO)(PPh3)3] catalyst (>400 Da) - relative to other components of the hydroformylation reaction provides the opportunity for a membrane separation based on retention of the catalyst species while permeating the solvent. The compatibility of the solvent-polyimide membrane (DuraMem{trade mark, serif} 200 and DuraMem{trade mark, serif} 500) combinations was assessed in terms of the membrane stability in solvent plus non-zero solvent flux at 2.0 MPa. Good HRh(CO)(PPh3)3 rejection (>0.95) and solvent fluxes of 9.9 L/m2.h1 at 2.0 MPa were obtained in the catalyst-ethyl acetate-DuraMem 500 system. The effect of pressure and catalyst concentration on the solvent flux and catalyst rejection was conducted on the catalyst-ethyl acetate-membrane systems. Increasing pressure substantially improved both solvent flux and catalyst rejection, while increasing catalyst concentration was found to be beneficial in terms of substantial increases in catalyst rejection without significantly affecting solvent flux.

Shaharun, Maizatul S.; Mustafa, Ahmad K.; Taha, Mohd F.

2012-09-01

47

Potential biofuel additive from renewable sources--Kinetic study of formation of butyl acetate by heterogeneously catalyzed transesterification of ethyl acetate with butanol.  

PubMed

Butyl acetate holds great potential as a sustainable biofuel additive. Heterogeneously catalyzed transesterification of biobutanol and bioethylacetate can produce butyl acetate. This route is eco-friendly and offers several advantages over the commonly used Fischer Esterification. The Amberlite IR 120- and Amberlyst 15-catalyzed transesterification is studied in a batch reactor over a range of catalyst loading (6-12 wt.%), alcohol to ester feed ratio (1:3 to 3:1), and temperature (303.15-333.15K). A butanol mole fraction of 0.2 in the feed is found to be optimum. Amberlite IR 120 promotes faster kinetics under these conditions. The transesterifications studied are slightly exothermic. The moles of solvent sorbed per gram of catalyst decreases (ethanol>butanol>ethyl acetate>butyl acetate) with decrease in solubility parameter. The dual site models, the Langmuir Hinshelwood and Popken models, are the most successful in correlating the kinetics over Amberlite IR 120 and Amberlyst 15, respectively. PMID:21908187

Ali, Sami H; Al-Rashed, Osama; Azeez, Fadhel A; Merchant, Sabiha Q

2011-11-01

48

Structure and dynamics of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate via molecular dynamics and neutron diffraction.  

PubMed

The liquid state structure of the ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C(2)mim][OAc]), an excellent nonderivitizing solvent for cellulosic biomass, has been investigated at 323 K by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and by neutron diffraction using the SANDALS diffractometer at ISIS to provide experimental differential neutron scattering cross sections from H/D isotopically substituted materials. Ion-ion radial distribution functions both calculated from MD and derived from the empirical potential structure refinement (EPSR) model to the experimental data show the alternating shell structure of anions around the cation, as anticipated. Spatial probability distributions reveal the main anion-to-cation features as in-plane interactions of anions with the three imidazolium ring hydrogens and cation-cation planar stacking above/below the imidazolium rings. Interestingly, the presence of the polarized hydrogen-bond acceptor (HBA) anion (acetate) leads to an increase in anion-anion tail-tail structuring within each anion shell, an indicator of the onset of hydrophobic regions within the anion regions of the liquid. MD simulations show the importance of scaling of the effective ionic charges in the basic simulation approach to accurately reproduce both the observed experimental neutron scattering cross sections and ion self-diffusion coefficients. PMID:20481539

Bowron, D T; D'Agostino, C; Gladden, L F; Hardacre, C; Holbrey, J D; Lagunas, M C; McGregor, J; Mantle, M D; Mullan, C L; Youngs, T G A

2010-06-17

49

Enrichment, isolation and characterization of fungi tolerant to 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate  

SciTech Connect

This work aims to characterize microbial tolerance to 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim][OAc]), ionic liquid that has emerged as a novel biomass pretreatment for lignocellulosic biomass. Enrichment experiments performed using inocula treated with [C2mim][OAc] under solid and liquid cultivation yielded fungal populationsdominated by Aspergilli. Ionic liquid-tolerant Aspergillus isolates from these enrichments were capable of growing in a radial plate growth assay in the presence of 10% [C2mim][OAc]. When a [C2mim][OAc]-tolerant Aspergillus fumigatus strain was grown in the presence of switchgrass, endoglucanases and xylanases were secreted that retained residual enzymatic activity in the presence of 20% [C2mim][OAc]. The results of the study suggest tolerance to ionic liquids is a general property of Aspergilli. Tolerance to an industrially important ionic liquid was discovered in a fungal genera that is widely used in biotechnology, including biomass deconstruction.

Singer, S.W.; Reddy, A. P.; Gladden, J. M.; Guo, H.; Hazen, T.C.; Simmons, B. A.; VanderGheynst, J. S.

2010-12-15

50

The effect of custom moulded ethyl vinyl acetate foot orthoses on the gait of patients with rheumatoid arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a high incidence of foot involvement in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and an accepted practice of prescribing accommodative foot orthoses despite a lack of research evidence. This study evaluated the effect of custom moulded ethyl vinyl acetate (EVA) foot orthoses on walking ability in patients with RA. A prototype contact sensitive walkmat was used to assess the stable predictors

A. MacSween; G. Brydson

1999-01-01

51

Light scattering and membrane formation studies on polysulfone solutions in NMP and in mixed solvents of NMP and ethyl acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between the characteristics of the polymer dope solution and the skin formation mechanism as well as the performance of the asymmetric membrane has been investigated. The solution characteristics have been studied on the polysulfone (PSf) dope solution as a function of the concentrations of both polymer and the cosolvent, ethyl acetate (EA), by dynamic light scattering. An anomalous

Jongok Won; Yong Soo Kang; Hyun Chae Park; Un Young Kim

1998-01-01

52

Prompt-NO formation in methane\\/oxygen\\/nitrogen flames seeded with oxygenated volatile organic compounds: Methyl ethyl ketone or ethyl acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, CH and NO profiles are determined using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) measurements in eight low-pressure laminar flames of CH\\/O\\/N containing various amounts of methyl ethyl ketone or ethyl acetate with respect to the equivalence ratio. Relative CH LIF signals are calibrated using cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS), while NO LIF calibration is performed in the burned gases of

N. Lamoureux; A. El-Bakali; L. Gasnot; J. F. Pauwels; P. Desgroux

2008-01-01

53

Prompt-NO formation in methane\\/oxygen\\/nitrogen flames seeded with oxygenated volatile organic compounds: Methyl ethyl ketone or ethyl acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, CH and NO profiles are determined using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) measurements in eight low-pressure laminar flames of CH4\\/O2\\/N2 containing various amounts of methyl ethyl ketone or ethyl acetate with respect to the equivalence ratio. Relative CH LIF signals are calibrated using cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS), while NO LIF calibration is performed in the burned gases of

N. Lamoureux; A. El-Bakali; L. Gasnot; J. F. Pauwels; P. Desgroux

2008-01-01

54

Chiral bifunctional organocatalysts in asymmetric aza-Morita-Baylis-Hillman reactions of ethyl (arylimino)acetates with methyl vinyl ketone and ethyl vinyl ketone.  

PubMed

The bifunctional chiral phosphine Lewis base (R)-2'-diphenylphosphino-[1,1'-binaphthalene]-2-ol is an effective organocatalyst in the asymmetric aza-MBH reaction of ethyl (arylimino)acetates 1 with MVK and EVK to give the corresponding adducts in moderate to good yields and good to high enantiomeric excesses under mild conditions. PMID:17988147

Shi, Min; Ma, Guang-Ning; Gao, Jun

2007-12-01

55

Hydrogenation of ethyl acetate to ethanol over Ni-based catalysts obtained from Ni/Al hydrotalcite-like compounds.  

PubMed

A series of Ni-based catalysts were prepared using hydrogen reduction of Ni/Al hydrotalcite-like compounds (Ni/Al HTlcs) synthesized by coprecipitation. The physico-chemical properties of Ni/Al hydrotalcite-like compounds and the corresponding Ni-based catalysts were characterized using inductively coupled plasma (ICP), BET surface areas, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The results indicated that Ni/Al HTlcs with layered structures could be successfully prepared by the coprecipitation method, and the characteristic HTlcs reflections were also observed in the XRD analysis. The NiO and Ni0 phases were identified in all Ni-based catalysts, which displayed randomly interconnected pores and no layer structures. In addition, the studies also found the Ni/Al HTlcs and Ni-based catalysts had high specific surface areas, low pore volumes and low pore diameters. The catalytic hydrogenation of ethyl acetate to ethanol with Ni-based catalysts was also investigated. Among the studied catalysts, RE1NASH-110-3 showed the highest selectivity and yield of ethyl acetate to ethanol, which were 68.2% and 61.7%, respectively. At the same time, a major by-product, butyl acetate, was formed due to an ester-exchange reaction. A proposed hydrogenation pathway for ethyl acetate over Ni-based catalysts was suggested. PMID:20714291

Zhang, Beixiao; Lin, Lu; Zhuang, Junping; Liu, Ying; Peng, Lincai; Jiang, Longfei

2010-08-01

56

Mixture toxicity of S(N)2-reactive soft electrophiles: 2-evaluation of mixtures containing ethyl ?-halogenated acetates.  

PubMed

Four ethyl ?-halogenated acetates were tested in (1) sham and (2) nonsham combinations and (3) with a nonreactive nonpolar narcotic. Ethyl iodoacetate (EIAC), ethyl bromoacetate (EBAC), ethyl chloroacetate (ECAC), and ethyl fluoroacetate (EFAC), each considered to be an SN2-H-polar soft electrophile, were selected for testing based on their differences in electro(nucleo)philic reactivity and time-dependent toxicity (TDT). Agent reactivity was assessed using the model nucleophile glutathione, with EIAC and EBAC showing rapid reactivity, ECAC being less reactive, and EFAC lacking reactivity at ?250 mM. The model nonpolar narcotic, 3-methyl-2-butanone (3M2B), was not reactive. Toxicity of the agents alone and in mixture was assessed using the Microtox acute toxicity test at three exposure durations: 15, 30 and 45 min. Two of the agents alone (EIAC and EBAC) had TDT values >100%. In contrast, ECAC (74 to 99%) and EFAC (9 to 12%) had partial TDT, whereas 3M2B completely lacked TDT (<0%). In mixture testing, sham combinations of each agent showed a combined effect consistent with predicted effects for dose-addition at each time point, as judged by EC(50) dose-addition quotient values. Mixture toxicity results for nonsham ethyl acetate combinations were variable, with some mixtures being inconsistent with the predicted effects for dose-addition and/or independence. The ethyl acetate-3M2B combinations were somewhat more toxic than predicted for dose-addition, a finding differing from that observed previously for ?-halogenated acetonitriles with 3M2B. PMID:21452006

Dawson, D A; Mooneyham, T; Jeyaratnam, J; Schultz, T W; Pöch, G

2011-11-01

57

Reusing ethyl acetate and aqueous exhausted fractions of dry olive mill residue by saprobe fungi.  

PubMed

Some saprobe fungi (Phlebia radiata, Trametes versicolor, Coriolopsis rigida, Pycnoporus cinnabarinus, Fomes sclerodermus or Pleurotus pulmonarius) were able to bioconvert the ethyl acetate fraction (DEAF) and the corresponding aqueous exhausted fraction (EAF) of dry olive mill residue (DOR), reducing their phytotoxicity on Lepidium sativum seeds. Large amount of hydroxytyrosol together with other eight monomeric phenols were found in the native DEAF fraction, which represents a good source of antioxidants. P. radiata, T. versicolor and F. sclerodermus caused an effective phytotoxicity reduction of EAF in the concentration range of 25-3 gl(-1). In particular, in the range between 12.5 and 3 gl(-1), the EAF samples inoculated with P. radiata and F. sclerodermus surprisingly stimulated the germinability of L. sativum, suggesting their use as a potential biofertilizer. This is the first report which showed the bioconversion of the above fractions in shorter time with respect to the previous findings concerning DOR. The possible implications of laccase in the decrease of DEAF and EAF phytotoxicity was also discussed. PMID:16814842

Aranda, E; García-Romera, I; Ocampo, J A; Carbone, V; Malorni, A; Sannino, F; De Martino, A; Capasso, R

2007-01-01

58

Antitussive Efficacy and Safety Profile of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Terminalia chebula  

PubMed Central

Antitussive effects of ethyl acetate fraction of Terminalia chebula on sulphur dioxide (SO2) gas induced cough have been examined in mice. Safety profile of Terminalia chebula was established by determining LD50 and acute neurotoxicity. The result showed that extract of Terminalia chebula dose dependently suppressed SO2 gas induced cough in mice. Terminalia chebula, after i.p. administration at dose level 500?mg/kg, offered maximum cough suppressive effects; that is, number of coughs at 60?min was 12 ± 1.52 (mean ± SEM) as compared to codeine 10?mg/kg; i.p., dextromethorphan 10?mg/kg; i.p., and saline, having frequency of cough 10.375 ± 0.866, 12.428 ± 0.81, and 46 ± 2.61, respectively. LD50 value of Terminalia chebula was approximately 1265?mg/kg, respectively. No sign of neural impairment was observed at antitussive doses of extract. Antitussive effect of Terminalia chebula was partly reversed with treatment by naloxone (3?mg/kg; s.c.) while rimcazole (3?mg/kg; s.c.) did not antagonize its cough suppression activity. This may suggest that opioid receptors partially contribute in antitussive action of Terminalia chebula. Along with this, the possibility of presence of single or multiple mechanisms activated by several different pharmacological actions (mainly anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, spasmolytic, antibacterial, and antiphlegmatic) could not be eliminated.

Wahab, Abdul; Ayub, Khurshed; Sherkheli, M. Azhar; Khan, Rafeeq Alam; Raza, Mohsin

2013-01-01

59

(N,N?-Di-ethyl-thio-urea-?S)tris-(triphenylphosphane-?P)silver(I) acetate methanol monosolvate  

PubMed Central

In the mononuclear title complex, [Ag(C5H12N2S)(C18H15P)3](CH3COO)·CH3OH, the AgI ion is in a distorted tetra­hedral coordination geometry formed by three P atoms from three tri­phenyl­phosphane ligands and one S atom from an N,N?-di­ethyl­thio­urea ligand. In the crystal, the acetate anion is connected to the complex mol­ecule via a pair of N—H?O hydrogen bonds [graph-set motif R 2 2(8)] and the solvent methanol mol­ecule is connected to the anion via an O—H?O hydrogen bond. This aggregate is further connected through a weak C—H?O hydrogen bond, forming a chain along [100]. In addition, sixfold phenyl embraces with inter­molecular distances of 6.6463?(13)–6.667?(2)?Å are arranged in a chain along [001]. The combination of hydrogen bonding and phen­yl?phenyl inter­actions leads to the formation of a two-dimensional network parallel to (010).

Wattanakanjana, Yupa; Nimthong, Arunpatcha; Kamrod, Chanakan

2014-01-01

60

Effects of Ethyl Acetate Extract of Poncirus trifoliata Fruit for Glucocorticoid-Induced Osteoporosis  

PubMed Central

Poncirus trifoliata fruit (PTF) affects the digestive and cardiovascular systems, and kidney function. The authors studied the effects of ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extract of PTF on the activities of osteoblasts and in an animal model. The main compounds of the EtOAc extract, naringin and poncirin have been confi rmed by HPLC and NMR analysis. Effects of osteoblastic differentiation were mea-sured by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, osteopontin (OPN) protein expression and osteoprotegerin (OPG) mRNA expression in MC3T3-E1 cells. Also, osteoclast differentiation was measured by multinucleated cells (MNCs) formation through tartrate resistance acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive staining. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured before and after treatment with EtOAc extract of PTF in prednisolone-induced osteoporotic mice. Dexamethasone (DEX) decreased OPN and OPG expression level in MC3T3-E1 cells and ALP activity was decreased by DEX dose-dependently. EtOAc extract of PTF recovered the levels of ALP activity, and the expression of OPN and OPG in MC3T3-E1 cells treated with DEX. In osteoclast differentiation, multinucleated TRAP-positive cell formation was significantly suppressed by the EtOAc extract of PTF. Total body BMD was restored by EtOAc extract of PTF in prednisolone-induced osteoporotic mice. In conclusion, EtOAc extract of PTF recovered DEX-mediated deteriorations in osteoblastic and osteoclastic functions, and increased BMD in glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis.

Yoon, Hyung-Young; Cho, Yun-Seok; Jin, Qinglong; Kim, Hyun-Gyu; Woo, Eun-Rhan; Chung, Yoon-Sok

2012-01-01

61

Physical insight into switchgrass dissolution in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate  

SciTech Connect

Small-angle neutron scattering was used to characterize solutions of switchgrass and the constituent biopolymers cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, as well as a physical mixture of them mimicking the composition of switchgrass, dissolved in the ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate. The results demonstrate that the IL dissolves the cellulose fibrils of switchgrass, although a supramolecular biopolymer network remains that is not present in solutions of the individual biopolymers and that does not self-assemble in a solution containing the physical mixture of the individual biopolymers. The persistence of a network-like structure indicates that dissolving switchgrass in the IL does not disrupt all of the physical entanglements and covalent linkages between the biopolymers created during plant growth. Reconstitution of the IL-dissolved switchgrass yields carbohydrate-rich material containing cellulose with a low degree of crystallinity, as determined by powder X-ray diffraction, which impacts potential down-stream uses of the biopolymers produced by the process. The data suggests that the use of chemical additives which would break bonds that exist between the lignin and hemicellulose might improve the purity of the resulting product, but may not be able to disrupt the highly physically-entangled biopolymer network sufficiently to facilitate their separation.

Wang, Hui [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa] [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa; Gurau, Gabriela [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa] [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa; Pingali, Sai Venkatesh [ORNL] [ORNL; O'Neil, Hugh [ORNL] [ORNL; Evans, Barbara R [ORNL] [ORNL; Urban, Volker S [ORNL] [ORNL; Heller, William T [ORNL] [ORNL; Rogers, Robin D [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa] [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa

2014-01-01

62

(N,N'-Di-ethyl-thio-urea-?S)tris-(triphenylphosphane-?P)silver(I) acetate methanol monosolvate.  

PubMed

In the mononuclear title complex, [Ag(C5H12N2S)(C18H15P)3](CH3COO)·CH3OH, the Ag(I) ion is in a distorted tetra-hedral coordination geometry formed by three P atoms from three tri-phenyl-phosphane ligands and one S atom from an N,N'-di-ethyl-thio-urea ligand. In the crystal, the acetate anion is connected to the complex mol-ecule via a pair of N-H?O hydrogen bonds [graph-set motif R (2) 2(8)] and the solvent methanol mol-ecule is connected to the anion via an O-H?O hydrogen bond. This aggregate is further connected through a weak C-H?O hydrogen bond, forming a chain along [100]. In addition, sixfold phenyl embraces with inter-molecular distances of 6.6463?(13)-6.667?(2)?Å are arranged in a chain along [001]. The combination of hydrogen bonding and phen-yl?phenyl inter-actions leads to the formation of a two-dimensional network parallel to (010). PMID:24940203

Wattanakanjana, Yupa; Nimthong, Arunpatcha; Kamrod, Chanakan

2014-06-01

63

Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of ethyl acetate extract, fractions and compounds from stem bark of Albizia adianthifolia (Mimosoideae)  

PubMed Central

Background Albizia adianthifolia is used traditionally in Cameroon to treat several ailments, including infectious and associated diseases. This work was therefore designed to investigate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of ethyl acetate extract, fractions and compounds isolated from the stem bark of this plant. Methods The plant extract was prepared by maceration in ethyl acetate. Its fractionation was done by column chromatography and the structures of isolated compounds were elucidated using spectroscopic data in conjunction with literature data. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays were used to detect the antioxidant activity. Broth micro-dilution method was used for antimicrobial test. Total phenol content was determined spectrophotometrically in the extracts by using Folin–Ciocalteu method. Results The fractionation of the extract afforded two known compounds: lupeol (1) and aurantiamide acetate (2) together with two mixtures of fatty acids: oleic acid and n-hexadecanoic acid (B1); n-hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid and docosanoic acid (B2). Aurantiamide acetate was the most active compound. The total phenol concentration expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE) was found to vary from 1.50 to 13.49??g/ml in the extracts. The antioxidant activities were well correlated with the total phenol content (R2?=?0.946 for the TEAC method and R2?=?0.980 for the DPPH free-radical scavenging assay). Conclusions Our results clearly reveal that the ethyl acetate extract from the stem bark of A. adianthifolia possesses antioxidant and antimicrobial principles. The antioxidant activity of this extract as well as that of compound 2 are being reported herein for the first time. These results provide promising baseline information for the potential use of this plant as well as compound 2 in the treatment of oxidative damage and infections associated with the studied microorganisms.

2012-01-01

64

Enhancement of polysaccharides production in Ganoderma lucidum by the addition of ethyl acetate extracts from Eupolyphaga sinensis and Catharsius molossus  

Microsoft Academic Search

To screen stimulators from Chinese medicinal insects for mycelial growth and polysaccharides production of Ganoderma lucidum, G. lucidum was inoculated into the media with and without supplementation of medicinal insect extracts. The ethyl acetate extract of\\u000a Eupolyphaga sinensis at 55 mg l?1 lead to significant increase in both biomass and intracellular polysaccharides (IPS) concentration from 8.53??0.41 to 14.16??0.43\\u000a and 1.28??0.09 to

Gao-Qiang Liu; Ke-Chang Zhang

2007-01-01

65

Preparation and Properties of Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA)\\/Organoclay\\/Compatibilizer Nanocomposites: Effects of Organoclay Loading and Methyl Ethyl Ketone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA)\\/organoclay\\/compatibilizer nanocomposites were produced using a melt compounding technique in an internal mixer, Haake Rheometer, at 120°C and 50 rpm rotor speed. Effects of organoclay loading (from 2 to 10 phr—parts per hundred of resin and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), used as a compatibilizer, on the processing properties, tensile properties, morphology, thermal degradation, and water absorption behavior of EVA\\/organoclay

H. Ardhyananta; H. Ismail; T. Takeichi; H. Judawisastra

2006-01-01

66

Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the ethyl acetate stem bark extract of Bridelia scleroneura (Euphorbiaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  Bridelia scleroneura is a member of the Euphorbiaceae family. In folk medicine in Cameroon, the stem bark of this plant is used for relieving\\u000a abdominal pain, contortion, arthritis and inflammation. In this study, the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities\\u000a of the ethyl acetate stem bark extract have been evaluated. The putative analgesic effect of the plant extract was examined\\u000a in abdominal

D. Théophile; N. E. Laure; N. T. Benoît; A. G. B. Anatole; A. A. Emmanuel; T. V. Paul; K. Pierre

2006-01-01

67

Poly(vinylidene fluoride- co-hexafluoropropene) (PVDF-HFP) membranes for ethyl acetate removal from water  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropene) (PVDF-HFP) with low crystallinity was applied as the membrane material for pervaporative separating ethyl acetate (EtAc) from its aqueous solutions. The drying conditions during membrane fabrication by means of casting the PVDF-HFP solution dominated the obtained membrane morphologies when the polar solvents such as dimethylacetamide (DMAc) and acetone were used. It was demonstrated that both

Xiuzhi Tian; Xue Jiang

2008-01-01

68

Coagulation of chitin and cellulose from 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ionic-liquid solutions using carbon dioxide.  

PubMed

Chemisorption of carbon dioxide by 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2 mim][OAc]) provides a route to coagulate chitin and cellulose from [C2 mim][OAc] solutions without the use of high-boiling antisolvents (e.g., water or ethanol). The use of CO2 chemisorption as an alternative coagulating process has the potential to provide an economical and energy-efficient method for recycling the ionic liquid. PMID:24115399

Barber, Patrick S; Griggs, Chris S; Gurau, Gabriela; Liu, Zhen; Li, Shan; Li, Zengxi; Lu, Xingmei; Zhang, Suojiang; Rogers, Robin D

2013-11-18

69

Enzymatic hydrolytic resolution of ( R, S)-tropic acid esters and ( R, S)-ethyl ?-methoxyphenyl acetate in biphasic media  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thermally stable esterase from Klebsiella oxytoca is explored as an excellent enantioselective biocatalyst (E>100) for the hydrolytic resolution of (R,S)-tropic acid esters and (R,S)-ethyl ?-methoxyphenyl acetate in biphasic media. An expanded Michaelis–Menten mechanism for the enzymatic acylation step is adopted for the kinetic analysis, where the structure–enantioselectivity correlations in terms of the logarithms of specificity constants varied with the

Pei-Yun Wang; Shau-Wei Tsai

2009-01-01

70

Protective effect of ethyl acetate fraction of Rhododendron arboreum flowers against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in experimental models  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of ethyl acetate fraction of Rhododendron arboreum (Family: Ericaceae) in Wistar rats against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage in preventive and curative models. Materials and Methods: Fraction at a dose of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg was administered orally once daily for 14 days in CCl4-treated groups (II, III, IV, V and VI). The serum levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (SALP), ?-glutamyltransferase (? -GT), and bilirubin were estimated along with activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase, hepatic malondialdehyde formation, and glutathione content. Result and Discussion: The substantially elevated serum enzymatic activities of SGOT, SGPT, SALP, ?-GT, and bilirubin due to CCl4 treatment were restored toward normal in a dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, the decreased activities of GST and glutathione reductase were also restored toward normal. In addition, ethyl acetate fraction also significantly prevented the elevation of hepatic malondialdehyde formation and depletion of reduced glutathione content in the liver of CCl4-intoxicated rats in a dose-dependent manner. Silymarin used as standard reference also exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity on post-treatment against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections. The results of this study strongly indicate that ethyl acetate fraction has a potent hepatoprotective action against CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rats.

Verma, Neeraj; Singh, Anil P.; Amresh, G.; Sahu, P. K.; Rao, Ch. V.

2011-01-01

71

Antioxidant effects of ethyl acetate extract of Desmodium gangeticum root on myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury in rat hearts  

PubMed Central

Background This study aims to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the ethyl acetate extract of Desmodium gangeticum root for cardioprotection from ischemia reperfusion-induced oxidative stress. Methods The in vitro antioxidant potential of the extract was in terms of hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, lipid peroxide scavenging activity, nitric oxide scavenging activity and diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity. The in vivo antioxidant potential of the extract was assessed in an isolated rat heart model. Results Free radicals were scavenged by the extract in a concentration-dependent manner within the range of the given concentrations in all models. Administration of the ethyl acetate extract of Desmodium gangeticum root (100 mg per kg body weight) before global ischemia caused a significant improvement of cardiac function and a decrease in the release of lactate dehydrogenase in coronary effluent, as well as the level of malondialdehyde in myocardial tissues. Conclusion The ethyl acetate extract of Desmodium gangeticum root protects the myocardium against ischemia-reperfusion-induced damage in rats. The effects of the extract may be related to the inhibition of lipid peroxidation.

2010-01-01

72

Antioxidant and Protective Effect of Ethyl Acetate Extract of Podophyllum Hexandrum Rhizome on Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Rat Liver Injury  

PubMed Central

The antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of ethyl acetate extract was carefully investigated by the methods of DPPH radical scavenging activity, Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, Superoxide radical scavenging activity, Hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity and its Reducing power ability. All these in vitro antioxidant activities were concentration dependent which were compared with standard antioxidants such as BHT, ?-tocopherol. The hepatoprotective potential of Podophyllum hexandrum extract was also evaluated in male Wistar rats against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage. Pre-treated rats were given ethyl acetate extract at 20, 30 and 50?mg/kg dose prior to CCl4 administration (1?ml/kg, 1:1 in olive oil). Rats pre-treated with Podophyllum hexandrum extract remarkably prevented the elevation of serum AST, ALT, LDH and liver lipid peroxides in CCl4-treated rats. Hepatic glutathione levels were significantly increased by the treatment with the extract in all the experimental groups. The extract at the tested doses also restored the levels of liver homogenate enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S- transferase) significantly. This study suggests that ethyl acetate extract of P. hexandrum has a liver protective effect against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity and possess in vitro antioxidant activities.

Ganie, Showkat Ahmad; Haq, Ehtishamul; Masood, Akbar; Hamid, Abid; Zargar, Mohmmad Afzal

2011-01-01

73

The antihypertensive effect of ethyl acetate extract of radish leaves in spontaneously hypertensive rats  

PubMed Central

Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is a cruciferous vegetable, and its leaves have antioxidant and anticancer properties. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of ethyl acetate extracts from radish leaves on hypertension in 11-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). The SHRs were randomly divided into 3 groups of 6 rats each on the basis of initial systolic blood pressure (SBP) and were treated with oral administration of radish leaf extract (0, 30, or 90 mg/kg body weight [bw], respectively) for 5 weeks. Six Wistar rats were used as normotensive controls. The amount of the radish leaf extract had no effect on body weight. The SBP of the SHRs showed a decreasing trend with the consumption of the radish leaf extract. In the third week, the SBP of the group fed 90 mg extract/kg bw reduced from 214 mmHg to 166 mmHg and was significantly lower than that of the normotensive and hypertensive controls. The extract did not show a significant effect on the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity in the serum, kidney, and lung. The extract increased the concentration of NO in serum and the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase and catalase in red blood cells (RBCs). The serum concentrations of Na+ and K+ were not significantly different between all groups. However, the fecal concentrations of Na+ and K+ increased; the fecal concentrations of Na+ and K+ for the normotensive and hypertensive controls were not different. Urinary excretion of Na+ was higher in the normotensive Wistar rats than in the SHRs, while that of K+ was not significantly different. These findings indicate that consumption of radish leaves might have had antihypertensive effects in SHRs by increasing the serum concentration of NO and fecal concentration of Na+ and enhancing antioxidant activities.

Chung, Da-Hee; Kim, Sun-Hee; Myung, Nahye; Cho, Kang Jin

2012-01-01

74

The antihypertensive effect of ethyl acetate extract of radish leaves in spontaneously hypertensive rats.  

PubMed

Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is a cruciferous vegetable, and its leaves have antioxidant and anticancer properties. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of ethyl acetate extracts from radish leaves on hypertension in 11-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). The SHRs were randomly divided into 3 groups of 6 rats each on the basis of initial systolic blood pressure (SBP) and were treated with oral administration of radish leaf extract (0, 30, or 90 mg/kg body weight [bw], respectively) for 5 weeks. Six Wistar rats were used as normotensive controls. The amount of the radish leaf extract had no effect on body weight. The SBP of the SHRs showed a decreasing trend with the consumption of the radish leaf extract. In the third week, the SBP of the group fed 90 mg extract/kg bw reduced from 214 mmHg to 166 mmHg and was significantly lower than that of the normotensive and hypertensive controls. The extract did not show a significant effect on the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity in the serum, kidney, and lung. The extract increased the concentration of NO in serum and the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase and catalase in red blood cells (RBCs). The serum concentrations of Na(+) and K(+) were not significantly different between all groups. However, the fecal concentrations of Na(+) and K(+) increased; the fecal concentrations of Na(+) and K(+) for the normotensive and hypertensive controls were not different. Urinary excretion of Na(+) was higher in the normotensive Wistar rats than in the SHRs, while that of K(+) was not significantly different. These findings indicate that consumption of radish leaves might have had antihypertensive effects in SHRs by increasing the serum concentration of NO and fecal concentration of Na(+) and enhancing antioxidant activities. PMID:22977684

Chung, Da-Hee; Kim, Sun-Hee; Myung, Nahye; Cho, Kang Jin; Chang, Moon-Jeong

2012-08-01

75

Photo-Fries rearrangements of 1-naphthyl (R)-2-phenylpropanoate in poly(vinyl acetate) and ethyl acetate: influence of medium polarity and polymer relaxation on motions of singlet radical pairs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both the regio- and stereo-chemistries of the photoreactions of 1-naphthyl (R)-2-phenylpropanoate have been investigated in poly(vinyl acetate) films in their glassy (at 5 ? C) and melted (at 50 ? C) states and in ethyl acetate. These results are compared with those from irradiations in polyethylene films and in n-hexane. The regioselectivity of the intermediate 1-naphthoxy\\/(R)-2-phenylpropanoyl radical pair combinations is

Jinqi Xu; Mathew George; Richard G. Weiss

2006-01-01

76

Decreasing the Level of Ethyl Acetate in Ethanolic Fermentation Broths of Escherichia coli KO11 by Expression of Pseudomonas putida estZ Esterase†  

PubMed Central

During the fermentation of sugars to ethanol relatively high levels of an undesirable coproduct, ethyl acetate, are also produced. With ethanologenic Escherichia coli strain KO11 as the biocatalyst, the level of ethyl acetate in beer containing 4.8% ethanol was 192 mg liter?1. Although the E. coli genome encodes several proteins with esterase activity, neither wild-type strains nor KO11 contained significant ethyl acetate esterase activity. A simple method was developed to rapidly screen bacterial colonies for the presence of esterases which hydrolyze ethyl acetate based on pH change. This method allowed identification of Pseudomonas putida NRRL B-18435 as a source of this activity and the cloning of a new esterase gene, estZ. Recombinant EstZ esterase was purified to near homogeneity and characterized. It belongs to family IV of lipolytic enzymes and contains the conserved catalytic triad of serine, aspartic acid, and histidine. As expected, this serine esterase was inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride and the histidine reagent diethylpyrocarbonate. The native and subunit molecular weights of the recombinant protein were 36,000, indicating that the enzyme exists as a monomer. By using ?-naphthyl acetate as a model substrate, optimal activity was observed at pH 7.5 and 40°C. The Km and Vmax for ?-naphthyl acetate were 18 ?M and 48.1 ?mol?·?min?1?·?mg of protein?1, respectively. Among the aliphatic esters tested, the highest activity was obtained with propyl acetate (96 ?mol?·?min?1?·?mg of protein?1), followed by ethyl acetate (66 ?mol?·?min?1?·?mg of protein?1). Expression of estZ in E. coli KO11 reduced the concentration of ethyl acetate in fermentation broth (4.8% ethanol) to less than 20 mg liter?1.

Hasona, Adnan; York, S. W.; Yomano, L. P.; Ingram, L. O.; Shanmugam, K. T.

2002-01-01

77

Constructing a polyfunctional zeolite-encaged metal catalyst for the multistage oxidation of ethanol into ethyl acetate  

SciTech Connect

To construct an efficient polyfunctional catalyst for the given multistage reaction, the authors previously studied the catalysts HNaY, clinosorb, H-clinoptilolite, and H-mordenite in the reaction of esterification of ethanol with acetic acid; CuH-clinoptilolite, Cu-clinosorb, CuH-mordenite, and CuHNaY in the reaction of oxidative dehydration of ethanol; PdH-clinoptilolite, Pd-clinosorb, PdH-mordenite, and PdHNaY in the oxidation of ethanol; and CuPdH-clinoptilolite in the oxidative transformation of ethanol into ethyl acetate. The catalytic activity of these zeolites and other Pd- and Cu-containing zeolite catalysts, which the authors synthesized by the ion-exchange technique, was studied in a flow-circulating set-up.

Shakhtakhtinskii, T.N.; Aliev, A.M.; Kuliev, A.R. [Institute of Theoretical Problems of Chemical Technology, Baku (Azerbaijan)

1995-08-01

78

Antibacterial and dermal toxicological profiles of ethyl acetate extract from Crassocephalum bauchiense (Hutch.) Milne-Redh (Asteraceae)  

PubMed Central

Background The emergence in recent years of numerous resistant strains of pathogenic bacteria to a range of formerly efficient antibiotics constitutes a serious threat to public health. Crassocephalum bauchiense, a medicinal herb found in the West Region of Cameroon is used to treat gastrointestinal infections as well as liver disorders. The ethyl acetate extract from the leaves of C. bauchiense was evaluated for its antibacterial activity as well as acute and sub-acute toxicities. Methods The plant extract was prepared by maceration in ethyl acetate. Its phytochemical screening was done by standard methods. The broth microdilution method was used to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity. The in vivo antibacterial activity of a gel formulation (0.05, 1 and 2% w/v) of this extract was evaluated using a Staphylococcus aureus-induced dermatitis in a murine model. Selected haematological and biochemical parameters were used to evaluate the dermal sub-acute toxicity of the extract in rats. Results Phytochemical screening of the C. bauchiense extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, phenols, tannins and sterols. In vitro antibacterial activities were observed against all the tested microorganisms (MIC = 0.04-6.25 mg/ml). Formulated extract-gel (2% w/v) and gentamycin (reference drug) eradicated the microbial infection after five days of treatment. A single dermal dose of this extract up to 32 g/kg body weight (bw) did not produce any visible sign of toxicity. Also, daily dermal application of the C. bauchiense extract gel formulation for 28 days did not show any negative effect, instead some biochemical parameters such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT and AST), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglycerides were significantly (p < 0.05) affected positively. Conclusion These results indicate that the C. bauchiense ethyl acetate extract can be used safely for the treatment of some bacterial infections.

2011-01-01

79

The effects of chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of Brassica rapa L. on cell-mediated immune response in mice  

PubMed Central

Turnips with a long history of usage, are helpful in preventing breast and prostate cancer, inflammation and body`s immune system dysfunction. In this study, we investigated the effects of chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of Brassica rapa L. on cell-mediated immune response in mice. Chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of B. rapa glands were prepared by maceration method. To study the effects of B. rapa on acquired immunity, groups of Balb/c mice (n=8) were used. Sheep red blood cell (SRBC) was injected (s.c., 1×108cells/ml, 0.02 ml) and 5 days later, different extracts (10, 100 and 500 mg/kg), betamethasone (4 mg/kg) and Levamisol (4 mg/kg) as a positive control and normal saline as a negative control were given i.p. After 1 h SRBC was injected to footpad (s.c., 1×108cells/ml, 0.02 ml) and footpad swelling was measured up to 72 h. To investigate the effects of B. rapa on innate immunity the same procedure was used, but animals only received one injection of SRBC 1 h after i.p. injection of test compounds. Our findings showed that SRBC induced an increase in paw swelling with maximum response at 6-8 and 2-4 h for innate and acquired immunity, respectively. Betamethasone inhibited and levamisol increased paw thickness in both models. In both innate and acquired immunity models, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of B. rapa glands significantly and dose-dependently reduced paw thickness. Ethyl acetate extract showed better effect. As glucosinolates are better extracted by ethyl acetate, it may be concluded that they are contributed in the more pronounced effects of ethyl acetate extract.

Jafarian-Dehkordi, A.; Zolfaghari, B.; Mirdamadi, M.

2013-01-01

80

Analgesic activity of Eugenia jambolana leave constituent: A dikaempferol rhamnopyranoside from ethyl acetate soluble fraction.  

PubMed

Abstract Context: Eugenia jambolana Lam. (Myrtaceae) is a medicinal plant used in folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes, inflammation, and pain. Objective: We investigated the antinociceptive effect of kaempferol-7-O-?-l-rhamnopyranoside]- 4'-O-4'-[kaempferol-7-O-?-l-rhamnopyranoside (EJ-01), isolated from the E. jambolana leaves. Materials and methods: EJ-01 (3, 10, and 30?mg?kg(-1), orally) was assessed for peripheral (formalin-nociception and acetic acid-writhing) and central (hot plate and tail flick test) analgesic activity in mice and the in vitro anti-inflammatory activity (25, 50, and 100?µg?mL(-1)) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Results and discussion: EJ-01 (10 and 30?mg?kg(-1)) significantly inhibited mean writhing counts (37.74 and 36.83) in acetic acid writhing and paw licking time (55.16 and 45.66?s) in the late phase of the formalin test as compared with the respective control (60.66 and 104.33?s). EJ-01 did not show analgesic activity in central pain models. Significant reduction in the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? (295.48, 51.20, and 49.47?pg?mL(-1)) and interleukin (IL)-1? (59.38, 20.08, and 15.46?pg?mL(-1)) levels were observed in EJ-01-treated medium (25, 50, and 100?µg?mL(-1)) as compared with vehicle-treated control values (788.67 and 161.77?pg?mL(-1)), respectively. Significant reduction in total nitrite plus nitrate (NOx) levels (70.80?nmol) was observed in the EJ-01-treated medium (100?µg?mL(-1)) as compared with the vehicle-treated value (110.41?nmol). Conclusion: EJ-01 is a valuable analgesic constituent of E. jambolana leaves and this study supports the pharmacological basis for the use of this plant in traditional medicine for curing inflammatory pain. PMID:25017653

Lingaraju, Madhu Cholenahalli; Anand, Shikha; Balaganur, Venkanna; Kumari, Rashmi Rekha; More, Amar Sunil; Kumar, Dinesh; Bhadoria, Brijesh Kumar; Tandan, Surendra Kumar

2014-08-01

81

Liquid crystalline phase and gel-sol transitions for concentrated microcrystalline cellulose (MCC)/1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIMAc) solutions.  

PubMed

Liquid crystalline (LC) phase transition and gel-sol transition in the solutions of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and ionic liquid (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, EMIMAc) have been investigated through a combination of polarized optical microscope (POM) observation and rheological measurements. Molecular LC phase forms at the 10 wt % cellulose concentration, as observed by POM, whereas the critical gel point is 12.5 wt % by rheological measurements according to the Winter and Chambon theory, for which the loss tangent, tan ?, shows frequency independence. Dramatic decreases of G' and G'' in the phase transition temperature range during temperature sweep are observed due to disassembling of the LC domain junctions. The phase diagram describing the LC phase and gel-sol transitions is obtained and the associated mechanisms are elucidated. A significant feature shown in the phase diagram is the presence of a narrow lyotropic LC solution region, which potentially has a great importance for the cellulose fiber wet spinning. PMID:21361275

Song, Hongzan; Niu, Yanhua; Wang, Zhigang; Zhang, Jun

2011-04-11

82

Sonochemically prepared Pt/CeO2 and its application as a catalyst in ethyl acetate combustion.  

PubMed

Highly dispersed Pt nanoparticles were incorporated in CeO2 nanopowders by an ultrasound-assisted reduction procedure. The activity of the Pt/CeO2 catalysts was studied in the reaction of the ethyl acetate combustion, and complete conversion was achieved at low temperature. It was demonstrated that the higher dispersion of the CeO2 support, the better the performance of the Pt/CeO2 catalysts. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, TEM, HRTEM, EDX, BET, and XPS. The homogeneous incorporation of 2-4 nm Pt nanoparticles into the interparticle distance of the CeO2 nanopowders was demonstrated. The advantage of the sonochemical method for catalyst preparation, in comparison with the traditional incipient wetness impregnation, was explained as the result of the homogeneity and better dispersion of the active metal phase obtained by ultrasound irradiation. PMID:16863262

Perkas, Nina; Rotter, Hadar; Vradman, Leonid; Landau, Miron V; Gedanken, Aharon

2006-08-01

83

Mössbauer study of iron-based perovskite-type materials as potential catalysts for ethyl acetate oxidation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

La-Sr-Fe perovskite-type oxides were prepared by the nitrate-citrate method. The basic object of this study is layered Ruddlesden-Popper phase LaSr3Fe3O10. The phase composition and structural properties of the obtained materials are investigated by Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and temperature programmed reduction (TPR). The preliminary catalytic tests show a high potential of these materials for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) elimination as they possess high conversion ability and selectivity to total oxidation of ethyl acetate. Catalytic performance of LaSr3Fe3O10 is depended on the stability of structure and Fe4+-oxidation state.

Paneva, D.; Dimitrov, M.; Velinov, N.; Kolev, H.; Kozhukharov, V.; Tsoncheva, T.; Mitov, I.

2010-03-01

84

Crude ethyl acetate extract of marine microalga, Chaetoceros calcitrans, induces Apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Background: Marine brown diatom Chaetoceros calcitrans and green microalga Nannochloropsis oculata are beneficial materials for various applications in the food, nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical industries. Objective: This study investigated cytotoxicity of different crude solvent extracts from C. calcitrans and N. oculata against various cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was carried out to screen the cytotoxic effects of hexane (Hex), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate, and methanol extract from C. calcitrans and N. oculata toward various cancer cell lines. Flow cytometry cell cycle was used to determine the cell cycle arrest while the mode of cell death was investigated through acridine orange/propidium iodide (AOPI) staining, Annexin V-Fluorescein Isothiocyanate (FITC) and Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated d-UTP Nick End Labeling (TUNEL) assays. Expression profile of apoptotic and proliferative-related genes was then determined using the multiplex gene expression profiler (GeXP). Results: Crude ethyl acetate (CEA) extract of C. calcitrans inhibited growth of MDA-MB-231 cells, with IC50 of 60 ?g/mL after 72 h of treatment. Further studies were conducted to determine the mode of cell death at various concentrations of this extract: 30, 60 and 120 ?g/mL. The mode of cell death was mainly apoptosis as shown through apoptosis determination test. The expression data from GeXP showed that caspase-4 was upregulated while B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2(Bcl-2) was down regulated. Thus, caspase-4 induction endoplasmic reticulum death pathway is believed to be one of the mechanisms underlying the induction of apoptosis while Bcl-2 induced S and G2/M cell cycle phase arrest in MDA-MB-231 cells. Conclusion: CEA extract of C. calcitrans showed the highest cytotoxicity on MDA-MB-231 via apoptosis.

Goh, Su Hua; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu Mohamed; Yusoff, Fatimah Md; Yap, Swee Keong; Loh, Su Peng

2014-01-01

85

The electroanalytical detection and determination of copper in heavily passivating media: ultrasonically enhanced solvent extraction by N-benzoyl-N-phenyl-hydroxylamine in ethyl acetate coupled with electrochemical detection by sono-square wave stripping voltammetry analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

N-benzoyl-N-phenyl-hydroxylamine dissolved in ethyl acetate was employed as a ligand for the solvent extraction of copper. Ultrasonic emulsification was shown to be effective both in the extraction of copper from an aqueous phase into ethyl acetate and its recovery or \\

Joanna Lorraine Hardcastle; Richard G. Compton

2001-01-01

86

A comparative study of thermal and mechanical stabilities of gamma irradiated ethylene-ethyl acrylate and ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethylene-ethyl acrylate and Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers were irradiated in ambient conditions with ?-rays. The influence of the chain scission, crosslinking and relative changes in crystallinity on the thermal and mechanical properties were investigated and a correlation has been tried to find between the thermal and mechanical stabilities of copolymers. For the two copolymers, among various mechanical properties evaluated, the best

Murat ?en; Olgun Güven

1995-01-01

87

Preparation of Ag-M (M: Fe, Co and Mn)-ZSM-5 bimetal catalysts with high performance for catalytic oxidation of ethyl acetate.  

PubMed

The catalytic combustion of ethyl acetate has been investigated in a series of mono-metal silver and bimetal Ag-M (M: Fe, Co and Mn)-modified HZSM-5 zeolites. The objective was to find a catalyst with high superior activity, selectivity towards deep oxidation product and stability. The catalyst activity was measured under excess oxygen condition in a fixed bed reactor operated at gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) = 30000 h(-1), reaction temperature between 150 and 450 degrees C and ethyl acetate inlet concentration of 1000 ppm. Both Fe-Ag-ZSM-5 and Co-Ag-ZSM-5 catalysts exhibited high activity in the oxidation of ethyl acetate. The sequences of catalytic activity and catalytic stability were as follows: Fe-Ag-ZSM-5 > Co-Ag-ZSM-5 > Mn-Ag-ZSM-5 > Ag-ZSM-5 > HZSM-5. Total conversion of ethyl acetate was achieved at above 250 degrees C. The catalysts were characterized by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. PMID:21780707

Jodaei, A; Salari, D; Niaei, A; Khatamian, M; Caylak, N

2011-01-01

88

Photo-Fries rearrangements of 1-naphthyl (R)-2-phenylpropanoate in poly(vinyl acetate) and ethyl acetate. Influence of medium polarity and polymer relaxation on motions of singlet radical pairs.  

PubMed

Both the regio- and stereo-chemistries of the photoreactions of 1-naphthyl (R)-2-phenylpropanoate have been investigated in poly(vinyl acetate) films in their glassy (at 5 degrees C) and melted (at 50 degrees C) states and in ethyl acetate. These results are compared with those from irradiations in polyethylene films and in n-hexane. The regioselectivity of the intermediate 1-naphthoxy/(R)-2-phenylpropanoyl radical pair combinations is much higher in both the melt and glassy states of poly(vinyl acetate) films than that in the melt state of completely amorphous polyethylene films, but the stereoselectivity of intermediate prochiral 1-naphthoxy/1-phenylethyl radical pair combinations is much lower in poly(vinyl acetate). The results emphasize the need to control the ratio between the rates of radical tumbling and translation, as well as the ratio between the rates of in-cage motions and cage-escape, if high stereo- and regio-selectivities of combination products are to be achieved. A mechanistic picture of how the radicals of the intermediate pairs are affected by and interact with the various media is advanced. PMID:16532205

Xu, Jinqi; George, Mathew; Weiss, Richard G

2006-03-01

89

Preparation of vinyl acetate  

DOEpatents

This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting a mixture of hydrogen and ketene with a heterogeneous catalyst containing a transition metal to produce acetaldehyde, which is then reacted with ketene in the presence of an acid catalyst to produce vinyl acetate.

Tustin, Gerald Charles (Kingsport, TN); Zoeller, Joseph Robert (Kingsport, TN); Depew, Leslie Sharon (Kingsport, TN)

1998-01-01

90

Preparation of vinyl acetate  

DOEpatents

This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting a mixture of hydrogen and ketene with a heterogeneous catalyst containing a transition metal to produce acetaldehyde, which is then reacted with ketene in the presence of an acid catalyst to produce vinyl acetate.

Tustin, G.C.; Zoeller, J.R.; Depew, L.S.

1998-03-24

91

Radical addition of methyldichlorosilane to vinyl acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The GC-MS method was used to identify the addition products of methyldichlorosilane to vinyl acetate. Radiation-induced addition of methyldichlorosilane to vinyl acetate produces 2-methyldichlorosilylethyl ethyl ether. The reaction follows a radical-chain mechanism. The ratio of the rate constants of methyldichlorosilyl radical addition to C=C and C=O to vinyl acetate amounts to 0.4±0.1 (303 K).

Yu. M. Lugovoi; N. P. Tarasova; G. Bourgeois; N. V. Bryantseva; V. V. Kostikov; C. Filliatre; A. G. Shostenko

1991-01-01

92

Graft polymerization of vinyl acetate onto silica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The free-radical graft polymerization of vi- nyl acetate onto nonporous silica particles was studied ex- perimentally. The grafting procedure consisted of surface activation with vinyltrimethoxysilane, followed by free-rad- ical graft polymerization of vinyl acetate in ethyl acetate with 2,2-azobis(2,4-dimethylpentanenitrile) initiator. Initial monomer concentration was varied from 10 to 40% by vol- ume and the reaction was spanned from 50 to

Van Nguyen; Wayne Yoshida; Yoram Cohen

2003-01-01

93

[Synthesis of ethriolophospholipids of acetal type].  

PubMed

New analogues of acetal-type phospholipids were obtained on the basis of ethriol (2-hydroxymethyl-2-ethyl-1,3-propanediol). The starting triol originally was condensed with decanal or dodecanal to form acetals, which were then phosphorylated with tetraethyldiamidophosphorous acid chloride. The amidophosphites were further oxidized with iodosobenzene or sulfurized to the corresponding acetal-type phospholipids and their thio analogues. PMID:17042275

Savin, G A

2006-01-01

94

Protective Effect of the Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Sargassum muticum Against Ultraviolet B-Irradiated Damage in Human Keratinocytes  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the cytoprotective properties of the ethyl acetate fraction of Sargassum muticum (SME) against ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced cell damage in human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells). SME exhibited scavenging activity toward the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and UVB-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). SME also scavenged the hydroxyl radicals generated by the Fenton reaction (FeSO4 + H2O2), which was detected using electron spin resonance spectrometry. In addition, SME decreased the level of lipid peroxidation that was increased by UVB radiation, and restored the level of protein expression and the activities of antioxidant enzymes that were decreased by UVB radiation. Furthermore, SME reduced UVB-induced apoptosis as shown by decreased DNA fragmentation and numbers of apoptotic bodies. These results suggest that SME protects human keratinocytes against UVB-induced oxidative stress by enhancing antioxidant activity in cells, thereby inhibiting apoptosis.

Piao, Mei Jing; Yoon, Weon Jong; Kang, Hee Kyoung; Yoo, Eun Sook; Koh, Young Sang; Kim, Dong Sam; Lee, Nam Ho; Hyun, Jin Won

2011-01-01

95

Inhibition of proinflammatory macrophage responses and lymphocyte proliferation in vitro by ethyl acetate leaf extract from Daphne gnidium.  

PubMed

Medicinal plants are considered immunomodulatory as they display various biological activities. There is no report addressing the anti-inflammatory effects of Daphne gnidium. In this study, we investigated the effects of D. gnidium ethyl acetate (EA) leaf extract on mice immune cell function in vitro. Production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1? and TNF-?), cyclooxygenase-2-derived prostaglandinE2 (PGE2) and iNOS-II-synthesised nitric oxide (NO) were examined. EA extract effect on mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation was also investigated. We reported for the first time that D. gnidium EA leaf extract dose-dependently inhibits macrophage proinflammatory function by reducing LPS-induced production of IL-1?, TNF-?, COX-2-derived PGE2 and iNOS-II-synthesised NO. Mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation was also dose-dependently inhibited by the extract. Lectin-induced response appears to be more sensitive to the suppressive effects of the extract than LPS-stimulated response. Collectively, these results demonstrate that D. gnidium EA leaf extract acts as an in vitro anti-inflammatory factor by inhibiting mice macrophage and lymphocyte activities. PMID:21190680

Harizi, Hedi; Chaabane, Fadwa; Ghedira, Kamel; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

2011-01-01

96

Release Kinetic Studies of Aspirin Microcapsules from Ethyl Cellulose, Cellulose Acetate Phthalate and their Mixtures by Emulsion Solvent Evaporation Method  

PubMed Central

The present study was oriented towards microencapsulation of aspirin and the study of its release kinetics. The desired encapsulation was achieved by emulsion solvent evaporation method using ethyl cellulose (EC), cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) and their mixture (1:1) of polymeric constituents. Characterization of the formulations was performed by size, shape, drug loading efficiency and in-vitro drug release analysis. The in-vitro release profiles from different polymeric microcapsules were applied on different kinetic models. The prepared microcapsules were found free flowing and almost spherical in shape with particle sizes ranging from 300–700?m, having a loading efficiency of 75–85%. The best fit model with the highest correlation coefficient was observed in Higuchi model, indicating diffusion controlled principle. The n value obtained from Korsemeyer-Peppas model varied between 0.5–0.7, confirming that the mechanism of drug release was diffusion controlled. Comparative studies revealed that the release of aspirin from EC microcapsules was slower as compared to that of CAP and their binary mixture.

Dash, Vikas; Mishra, Sujeet K.; Singh, Manoj; Goyal, Amit K.; Rath, Goutam

2010-01-01

97

Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropene) (PVDF-HFP) membranes for ethyl acetate removal from water.  

PubMed

In this study, poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropene) (PVDF-HFP) with low crystallinity was applied as the membrane material for pervaporative separating ethyl acetate (EtAc) from its aqueous solutions. The drying conditions during membrane fabrication by means of casting the PVDF-HFP solution dominated the obtained membrane morphologies when the polar solvents such as dimethylacetamide (DMAc) and acetone were used. It was demonstrated that both the DMAc-cast and acetone-cast PVDF-HFP membranes vacuum-dried at 60 degrees C were dense but had different crystalline structures. Predominantly alpha and gamma crystalline phases were found in the acetone-cast and DMAc-cast PVDF-HFP membranes, respectively. And the different pervaporative separating performances of the two solvent-cast PVDF-HFP membranes were well explained in terms of different solution-diffusion properties which were induced from the permeants/polymer interactions on the base of the polarity differences between permeants and the two solvent-cast PVDF-HFP membranes. PMID:17884287

Tian, Xiuzhi; Jiang, Xue

2008-05-01

98

Release kinetic studies of aspirin microcapsules from ethyl cellulose, cellulose acetate phthalate and their mixtures by emulsion solvent evaporation method.  

PubMed

The present study was oriented towards microencapsulation of aspirin and the study of its release kinetics. The desired encapsulation was achieved by emulsion solvent evaporation method using ethyl cellulose (EC), cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) and their mixture (1:1) of polymeric constituents. Characterization of the formulations was performed by size, shape, drug loading efficiency and in-vitro drug release analysis. The in-vitro release profiles from different polymeric microcapsules were applied on different kinetic models. The prepared microcapsules were found free flowing and almost spherical in shape with particle sizes ranging from 300â700Îm, having a loading efficiency of 75â85%. The best fit model with the highest correlation coefficient was observed in Higuchi model, indicating diffusion controlled principle. The n value obtained from Korsemeyer-Peppas model varied between 0.5â0.7, confirming that the mechanism of drug release was diffusion controlled. Comparative studies revealed that the release of aspirin from EC microcapsules was slower as compared to that of CAP and their binary mixture. PMID:21179372

Dash, Vikas; Mishra, Sujeet K; Singh, Manoj; Goyal, Amit K; Rath, Goutam

2010-01-01

99

An Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Moringa oleifera Lam. Inhibits Human Macrophage Cytokine Production Induced by Cigarette Smoke  

PubMed Central

Moringa oleifera Lam. (MO) has been reported to harbor anti-oxidation and anti-inflammatory activity and useful in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. However, despite these findings there has been little work done on the effects of MO on immune cellular function. Since macrophages, TNF and related cytokines play an important pathophysiologic role in lung damage induced by cigarette smoke, we examined the effects of MO on cigarette smoke extract (CSE)—induced cytokine production by human macrophages. An ethyl acetate fraction of MO (MOEF) was prepared from fresh leaves extract of Moringa and shown to consist of high levels of phenolic and antioxidant activities. Human monocyte derived macrophages (MDM) pre-treated with varying concentrations of MOEF showed decreased production of TNF, IL-6 and IL-8 in response to both LPS and CSE. The decrease was evident at both cytokine protein and mRNA levels. Furthermore, the extract inhibited the expression of RelA, a gene implicated in the NF-?B p65 signaling in inflammation. The findings highlight the ability of MOEF to inhibit cytokines (IL-8) which promote the infiltration of neutrophils into the lungs and others (TNF, IL-6) which mediate tissue disease and damage.

Kooltheat, Nateelak; Pankla Sranujit, Rungnapa; Chumark, Pilaipark; Potup, Pachuen; Laytragoon-Lewin, Nongnit; Usuwanthim, Kanchana

2014-01-01

100

Nanofabrication in cellulose acetate.  

PubMed

We have demonstrated nanofabrication with commercialized cellulose acetate. Cellulose acetate is used for bulk nanofabrication and surface nanofabrication. In bulk nanofabrication, cellulose acetate reacts with an e-beam and permanent patterns are formed in it instead of being transferred to other substrates. We have studied the nano relief modulation performance of cellulose acetate before and after development. The depth of the nanopatterns is magnified after development, and is varied by exposing dosage and line width of the pattern. The thinnest 65 nm wide line is achieved in the bulk fabrication. We also demonstrate a binary phase Fresnel lens array which is directly patterned in a cellulose acetate sheet. Because of its unique mechanical and optical properties, cellulose is a good candidate for a template material for soft imprinting lithography. In the surface nanofabrication, cellulose acetate thin film spin-coated on silicon wafers is employed as a new resist for e-beam lithography. We achieved 50 nm lines with 100 nm pitches, dots 50 nm in diameter, and single lines with the smallest width of 20 nm. As a new resist of e-beam lithography, cellulose acetate has high resolution comparable with conventional resists, while having several advantages such as low cost, long stock time and less harmfulness to human health. PMID:19224020

Zeng, Hongjun; Lajos, Robert; Metlushko, Vitali; Elzy, Ed; An, Se Young; Sautner, Joshua

2009-03-01

101

Leea indica Ethyl Acetate Fraction Induces Growth-Inhibitory Effect in Various Cancer Cell Lines and Apoptosis in Ca Ski Human Cervical Epidermoid Carcinoma Cells  

PubMed Central

The anticancer potential of Leea indica, a Chinese medicinal plant was investigated for the first time. The crude ethanol extract and fractions (ethyl acetate, hexane, and water) of Leea indica were evaluated their cytotoxicity on various cell lines (Ca Ski, MCF 7, MDA-MB-435, KB, HEP G2, WRL 68, and Vero) by MTT assay. Leea indica ethyl acetate fraction (LIEAF) was found showing the greatest cytotoxic effect against Ca Ski cervical cancer cells. Typical apoptotic morphological changes such as DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation were observed in LIEAF-treated cells. Early signs of apoptosis such as externalization of phosphatidylserine and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential indicated apoptosis induction. This was further substantiated by dose- and time-dependent accumulation of sub-G1 cells, depletion of intracellular glutathione, and activation of caspase-3. In conclusion, these results suggested that LIEAF inhibited cervical cancer cells growth by inducing apoptosis and could be developed as potential anticancer drugs.

Yau Hsiung, Wong; Abdul Kadir, Habsah

2011-01-01

102

Leea indica Ethyl Acetate Fraction Induces Growth-Inhibitory Effect in Various Cancer Cell Lines and Apoptosis in Ca Ski Human Cervical Epidermoid Carcinoma Cells.  

PubMed

The anticancer potential of Leea indica, a Chinese medicinal plant was investigated for the first time. The crude ethanol extract and fractions (ethyl acetate, hexane, and water) of Leea indica were evaluated their cytotoxicity on various cell lines (Ca Ski, MCF 7, MDA-MB-435, KB, HEP G2, WRL 68, and Vero) by MTT assay. Leea indica ethyl acetate fraction (LIEAF) was found showing the greatest cytotoxic effect against Ca Ski cervical cancer cells. Typical apoptotic morphological changes such as DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation were observed in LIEAF-treated cells. Early signs of apoptosis such as externalization of phosphatidylserine and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential indicated apoptosis induction. This was further substantiated by dose- and time-dependent accumulation of sub-G(1) cells, depletion of intracellular glutathione, and activation of caspase-3. In conclusion, these results suggested that LIEAF inhibited cervical cancer cells growth by inducing apoptosis and could be developed as potential anticancer drugs. PMID:21423690

Yau Hsiung, Wong; Abdul Kadir, Habsah

2011-01-01

103

Ethyl 2-Cyano-2-(4-nitrophenylsulfonyloxyimino)acetate-Mediated Lossen Rearrangement: Single-Pot Racemization-Free Synthesis of Hydroxamic Acids and Ureas from Carboxylic Acids.  

PubMed

Ethyl 2-cyano-2-(4-nitrophenylsulfonyloxyimino)acetate (4-NBsOXY) mediated Lossen rearrangement and its application for the synthesis of ureas is demonstrated. Required hydroxamic acids for the Lossen rearrangements were synthesized from carboxylic acids using the same reagent. Finally, reaction of an amine with the produced isocyanate resulted in urea. Good yields without racemization were achieved under milder and simpler reaction conditions. Reactions are compatible with common N-protecting groups, such as Boc, Fmoc, Cbz, and benzyl, as well as various OH protecting groups, such as (t)Bu and Bzl. Conversion from carboxylic acid to urea is achieved in one pot. Most importantly, byproducts Oxyma [ethyl 2-cyano-2-(hydroxyimino)acetate] and 4-nitrobenzenesulfonic acid can be recovered easily and can be recycled to prepare the reagent. Thus, the method is environmentally friendly and cost-effective. PMID:24678821

Thalluri, Kishore; Manne, Srinivasa Rao; Dev, Dharm; Mandal, Bhubaneswar

2014-05-01

104

Hydrolysis of acetaldehyde diethyl acetal and ethyl vinyl ether: secondary kinetic isotope effects in water and aqueous dioxane and the stability of the ethoxyethyl cation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary deuterium isotope effects on the hydronium ion catalyzed hydrolysis of acetaldehyde diethyl acetal and ethyl vinyl ether were determined in wholly aqueous and aqueous dioxane solutions by comparing rates of reaction of the normal substrates with those of CDâCH(OCâHâ) and CHâCD(OCâHâ) and of CDâ=CHOCâHâ and CHâ=CDOCâHâ. All of the isotope effects observed are consistent with the values expected on

A. J. Kresge

1984-01-01

105

Multifilament fibres of poly(?-caprolactone)\\/poly(lactic acid) blends with multiwalled carbon nanotubes as sensor materials for ethyl acetate and acetone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conductive poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL)+4% multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)\\/poly(lactic acid) (PLA)=50\\/50wt% blend multifilament fibres were melt-spun and a woven textile was made by a handloom with the conductive fibres in weft direction. The fibres were tested for cyclic liquid sensing in ethyl acetate and acetone as two moderate solvents and in ethanol as a poor solvent. The liquid sensing responses, namely the

Rosina Rentenberger; Aurélie Cayla; Tobias Villmow; Dieter Jehnichen; Christine Campagne; Maryline Rochery; Eric Devaux; Petra Pötschke

106

Determination of Solvent Basicity Scale, ?, of Mixed Solvents for Three Chromatographic Solvent Systems: 2Propanol\\/Hexane, Ethyl Acetate\\/Hexane, and Methanol\\/Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have determined ? values of mixed solvents for the 2-propanol\\/hexane, ethyl acetate\\/hexane, and methanol\\/water systems using totally 5 indicator pairs (10 dyes) three of which were synthesized in this study. The variations of ? vs. solvent composition for the RPLC solvent system are in a striking constrast with those for the NPLC systems. While a definite maximum was recognized

Won Jo Cheong; Sung Hyun Chun; Gong Yeal Lee

1996-01-01

107

Major improvement in the rate and yield of enzymatic saccharification of sugarcane bagasse via pretreatment with the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([Emim] [Ac])  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, sugarcane bagasse was pretreated by six ionic liquids (ILs) using a bagasse\\/IL ratio of 1:20 (wt%). The solubilization of bagasse in the ILs was followed by water precipitation. On using 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [Emim] [Ac] at 120°C for 120min, 20.7% of the bagasse components remained dissolved and enzymatic saccharification experiments resulted on 80% glucose yield within 6h, which

Ayla Sant’Ana da Silva; Seung-Hwan Lee; Takashi Endo; Elba P. S. Bon

2011-01-01

108

Effect of hydrogen treatment on the performance of Cr–ZSM-5 in deep oxidative decomposition of ethyl acetate and benzene in air  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of hydrogen reduction on the activity of chromium exchanged ZSM-5 (Cr–ZSM-5) in the decomposition of ethyl acetate and benzene is reported. Reduction was performed at 400 °C for 1 h while activity study was done using a reactor operated between 100 and 500 °C and at GHSV of 32,000 h?1. Reduction caused the migration of chromium to subsequently

Ahmad Zuhairi Abdullah; Mohamad Zailani Abu Bakar; Subhash Bhatia

2003-01-01

109

Mechanisms of acetate formation and acetate activation in halophilic archaea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The halophilic archaea Halococcus (Hc.) saccharolyticus, Haloferax (Hf.) volcanii, and Halorubrum (Hr.) saccharovorum were found to generate acetate during growth on glucose and to utilize acetate as a growth substrate. The mechanisms of acetate formation from acetyl-CoA and of acetate activation to acetyl-CoA were studied. Hc. saccharolyticus, exponentially growing on complex medium with glucose, formed acetate and contained ADP-forming acetyl-CoA

Christopher Bräsen; Peter Schönheit

2001-01-01

110

The effect of culture liquid ethyl acetate mycelium extracts of medicinal mushrooms on the viability of human pancreatic cancer cells.  

PubMed

Pancreatic cancer, one of the deadliest of all solid malignancies, is one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide, with 232,000 new cases and 213,000 deaths reported each year. These unfortunate statistics reflect the advanced stage at which most patients with pancreatic cancer are diagnosed and the paucity of effective chemotherapeutic regimens. Fungal metabolites have been gaining scientific interest because of their medicinal properties. In the present study, 31 different mushroom extracts of 12 medicinal mushroom species were screened for their effect on the viability of human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells. Extraction procedures were executed with organic solvents--ethanol (EAL), ethyl acetate (EAC), and chloroform (CHL). In some cases, culture liquid (CL) extraction was also performed. All extracts were diluted to a concentration of 50 mg/mL dimethyl sulfoxide. Extract effects on cell viability were examined in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells HPAF-II (well differentiated) and PL5 (porrly differentiated), using XTT assay and crystal violet assay (CV). Furthermore, extract effects on LDH leakage were also studied in order to exclude necrotic damage of the extract. The screening phase revealed that among the total 31 extracts examined with various treatment doses (50-500 ?g/mL) administered for 72 h, the CL extract of the mushroom Cyathus striatus exhibited the most prominent decrease in cell viability. Moreover, exposure of cells to lower concentrations then the above (1, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 15, 20, and 50 ?g/mL) for 24, 48, and 72 h showed a significant decrease in cell viability. Crystal violet results support these findings, and LDH levels measured suggest the lack of a necrotic effect of the extract. Our results indicate that C. striatus CL extract inhibits the viability of human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells; HPAF-II and PL45. Growth inhibition can be achieved in low concentrations of the extract and a short exposure period. This effect can be mediated through apoptosis induction and/or cell cycle arrest; therefore, additional experiments are needed in order to elucidate the extract mechanism of action. These findings may lead to the development of new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. PMID:22506577

Sharvit, Lital E; Wasser, Solomon P; Fares, Fuad

2012-01-01

111

W\\/O\\/W double emulsion technique using ethyl acetate as organic solvent: effects of its diffusion rate on the characteristics of microparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monomethoxypoly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(dl-lactide) copolymer (PELA) microparticles loading lysozyme were prepared through a modified W\\/O\\/W double emulsion-solvent diffusion method using ethyl acetate (EA) as organic solvent. The modified process was divided into five steps: (1) primary emulsification (W1\\/O), (2) re-emulsification (W1\\/O\\/W2), (3) pre-solidification, (4) solidification and (5) purification. The pre-solidification step was carried out in the modified process to control the diffusion

Fan Tao Meng; Guang Hui Ma; Wei Qiu; Zhi Guo Su

2003-01-01

112

Radiation sterilization of hydrocortisone acetate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The feasibility of using high energy ionizing radiation for the sterilization of hydrocortisone acetate was investigated. Hydrocortisone acetate in the form of powder was exposed to different dose levels of gamma radiation using a Cobalt-60 source. The ir...

A. Charef A. Boussaha

1989-01-01

113

Acetate Production by Methanogenic Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Methanosarcina barkeri MS and 227 and Methanosarcina mazei S-6 produced acetate when grown on H2-CO2, methanol, or trimethylamine. Marked differences in acetate production by the two bacterial species were found, even though methane and cell yields were nearly the same. M. barkeri produced 30 to 75 ?mol of acetate per mmol of CH4 formed, but M. mazei produced only 8 to 9 ?mol of acetate per mmol of CH4.

Westermann, Peter; Ahring, Birgitte K.; Mah, Robert A.

1989-01-01

114

Acet-oxy-?-valerolactone  

PubMed Central

Levulinyl cellulose esters have been produced as an effective renewable binder for architectural coatings. The title compound, C7H10O4 (systematic name: 2-methyl-5-oxo­tetra­hydro­furan-2-yl acetate), assigned as the esterifying species, was isolated and crystallized to confirm the structure. In the crystal, the mol­ecules pack in layers parallel to (102) utilizing weak C—H?O inter­actions.

Tristram, Cameron; Gainsford, Graeme J.; Hinkley, Simon

2013-01-01

115

Solution behavior and surface properties of carboxymethylcellulose acetate butyrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solution behavior of carboxymethylcellulose acetate butyrate (CMCAB) in acetone and ethyl acetate has been investigated by\\u000a small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and capillary viscometry and correlated with the characteristics of CMCAB films. Viscosity\\u000a and SAXS measurements showed that ethyl acetate is a better solvent than acetone for CMCAB. Thin films of CMCAB were deposited\\u000a onto silicon wafers (Si\\/SiO2) by spin coating.

Jorge Amim Jr; Denise F. S. Petri; Francisco C. B. Maia; Paulo B. Miranda

2009-01-01

116

Plasma acetate turnover and oxidation.  

PubMed Central

Plasma acetate turnover and oxidation were determined in 11 healthy subjects by the constant infusion of a trace amount of [1-14C]acetate for 6 h. The subjects ages ranged from 22 to 57 yr. There was a positive correlation (P less than 0.001) between plasma acetate concentration and turnover rate, and a negative correlation (P less than 0.001) between turnover and age. The plasma acetate concentration in the subjects 22--28 yr old was 0.17 vs. 0.13 mM (P less than 0.02) in subjects 40--57 yr old. The plasma acetate turnover rate was also greater in the younger age group (8.23 +/- 0.66 vs. 4.98 +/- 0.64 mumol/min . kg, P less than 0.01). Approximately 90% of the plasma acetate turnover was immediately oxidized to CO2 in both age groups, however, 13.2 +/- 0.89% of the CO2 output in the younger group was derived from plasma acetate oxidation compared to 7.9 +/- 0.94% in the older group (P less than 0.01). The mean plasma acetate concentration, turnover, and oxidation in six cancer patients 47--63 yr old were similar to the values observed in the age-matched healthy subjects. Uptake or output of acetate by various tissues was measured by arterial-venous plasma acetate concentration differences. In seven of eight subjects undergoing elective surgery, the arterial-portal venous concentration difference was negative, which indicated that the gastrointestinal tract can contribute to plasma acetate production. Uptake of plasma acetate by both the leg and liver appeared to be dictated by the arterial acetate concentration. Net production of acetate by both the leg and liver was most often observed at arterial plasma acetate concentrations less than 0.08 mM.

Skutches, C L; Holroyde, C P; Myers, R N; Paul, P; Reichard, G A

1979-01-01

117

Poly(vinyl acetate), poly((1- O-(vinyloxy) ethyl-2,3,4,6-tetra- O-acetyl-?- d-glucopyranoside) and amorphous poly(lactic acid) are the most CO 2-soluble oxygenated hydrocarbon-based polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poly(vinyl acetate), PVAc, remains the most CO2-soluble non-fluorous polymer identified to date. Small sugar acetates are known to be extraordinarily CO2-philic, but cellulose triacetate, a crystalline high molecule weight polymer is CO2 insoluble. Therefore, an amorphous high molecular weight polymer with pendant sugar acetates was synthesized. This polymer, poly(1-O-(vinyloxy) ethyl-2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-?-d-glucopyranoside, P(AcGIcVE), was indeed CO2-soluble, however cloud point pressures of P(AcGIcVE)

D. Tapriyal; Y. Wang; R. M. Enick; J. K. Johnson; J. Crosthwaite; M. C. Thies; I. H. Paik; A. D. Hamilton

2008-01-01

118

Vinyl acetate polymerization by ionizing radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

For this work an irradiation system to be used in the polymerization of the vinyl acetate in methylethylketone and in ethyl alcohol solution using the gamma radiation as initiator was projected and built. The molecular weights of the polymers obtained by irradiation with gamma rays in methylethylketone and in ethyl alcohol solution were 33,000 and 44,000g\\/mol, respectively. >From the characterization

A. C. Mesquita; M. N. Mori; J. M. Vieira; L. G. Andrade e. Silva

2002-01-01

119

Vinyl acetate polymerization by ionizing radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

For this work an irradiation system to be used in the polymerization of the vinyl acetate in methylethylketone and in ethyl alcohol solution using the gamma radiation as initiator was projected and built. The molecular weights of the polymers obtained by irradiation with gamma rays in methylethylketone and in ethyl alcohol solution were 33,000 and 44,000g\\/mol, respectively. From the characterization

A. C Mesquita; M. N Mori; J. M Vieira; L. G. Andrade e Silva

2002-01-01

120

Effect of formation conditions of poly(ethylene- co-vinyl acetate) membrane on the membrane physical structure and pervaporation properties in the recovery of ethyl acetate from aqueous solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solution properties, intrinsic viscosity [?] and Huggins constant KH of ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymer with 38wt% vinyl acetate content (EVA38) in solvents of chloroform (CF), 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE) and cyclohexane (CYH) were measured by an Ubbelohode viscometer. The physical structure and pervaporation performances of the EVA membranes cast from different solvents were also investigated by wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), contact

Yun-Xiang Bai; Jin-Wen Qian; Qiang Zhao; Zhi-Hui Zhu; Peng Zhang

2007-01-01

121

Investigation on isobaric vapor liquid equilibrium for acetic acid + water + ( n-propyl acetate or iso-butyl acetate)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isobaric vapor–liquid equilibrium (VLE) data for acetic acid+water, acetic acid+n-propyl acetate, acetic acid+iso-butyl acetate, acetic acid+water+n-propyl acetate, acetic acid+water+iso-butyl acetate are measured at 101.33kPa with a modified Rose still. The nonideal behavior in vapor phase caused by the association of acetic acid are corrected by the chemical theory and Hayden–O’Connell method, and analyzed by calculating the second virial coefficients and

Chundong Zhang; Hui Wan; Lijun Xue; Guofeng Guan

2011-01-01

122

Anti-inflammatory effects of phlorofucofuroeckol B-rich ethyl acetate fraction obtained from Myagropsis myagroides on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and mouse edema.  

PubMed

Myagropsis myagroides has been used as a Chinese medicine and its extract has shown various biological activities, however, its anti-inflammatory mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of the ethyl acetate fraction of M. myagroides (EFM) on the production of inflammatory mediators and pro-inflammatory cytokines in lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. EFM significantly inhibited LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E(2), and pro-inflammatory cytokines in a dose-dependent manner and suppressed the production of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 in RAW 264.7 cells. Inhibitory effect of EFM on iNOS expression and NO production was further confirmed using LPS-activated mouse peritoneal macrophages. EFM treatment strongly suppressed the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) by suppressing phosphorylation of Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs). EFM as well as phlorofucofuroeckol B (PFF-B), a major compound isolated from EFM, reduced ear edema induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate in mice. These results indicate that the anti-inflammatory effect of EFM, rich in PFF-B, on LPS-stimulated macrophages is regulated by the inhibition of NF-?B pathway through the inhibition of ERKs and Akt phosphorylation in LPS-stimulated macrophage cells. PMID:22974580

Joung, Eun-Ji; Lee, Min-Sup; Choi, Ji-Woong; Kim, Jong-Soon; Shin, Taisun; Jung, Bok-Mi; Kim, Jae-Il; Kim, Hyeung-Rak

2012-12-01

123

Autophagic Cell Death Is Induced by Acetone and Ethyl Acetate Extracts from Eupatorium odoratum In Vitro: Effects on MCF-7 and Vero Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Eupatorium odoratum (EO) contains many biologically active compounds, the anticancer effects of which are not well documented. This study evaluates the cytotoxic effects and mechanism of action of EO extracts on MCF-7 and Vero cell lines. Evaluation of the cytotoxic activity using MTT assay, morphological alterations, and apoptosis were carried out. Autophagy was evaluated by LC3-A protein expression. Cytotoxic activity, membrane blebbing and ballooning at 24 hours, replacement by mass vacuolation, and double membrane vesicles mimicking autophagy and cell death were observed in the cancer cells. No apoptosis was observed by DNA fragmentation assay. Overexpression of LC3-A protein indicated autophagic cell death. Cell cycle analysis showed G0 and G2/M arrest. The Vero cells did not show significant cell death at concentrations <100??g/mL. These results thus suggest that acetone and ethyl acetate extracts of EO induce cell death through induction of autophagy and hold potential for development as potential anticancer drugs.

Harun, Faizah Bt.; Syed Sahil Jamalullail, Syed Mohsin; Yin, Khoo Boon; Othman, Zulkhairi; Tilwari, Anita; Balaram, Prabha

2012-01-01

124

The variation of viscosity, refractive indices, compressibility, intermolecular free length, and excess molar volume of the acetophenone—ethyl acetate solutions at 303.15-323.15 K  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Densities, viscosities, refractive indices and ultrasonic velocities of the binary mixtures of acetophenone with ethyl acetate were measured over the entire mole fractions at 303.15, 313.15, and 323.15 K. From the experimental results, excess molar volumes V E, viscosity deviation ??, refractive index deviation ? n D , deviations in isentropic compressibility ?? s and excess intermolecular free length ? L f are calculated. The viscosity values were fitted to the models of Krishnan-Laddha and McAllister. The thermophysical properties under study were fit to the Jouyban-Acree model. The excess values were correlated using Redlich-Kister polynomial equation to obtain their coefficients and standard deviations. The data obtained fitted with the values correlated by the corresponding models very well. The results are interpreted in terms of molecular interactions occurring in the solution.

Saravanakumar, K.; Baskaran, R.; Kubendran, T. R.

2012-12-01

125

Photolytic degradation of chlorophenols from industrial wastewaters by organic oxidants peroxy acetic acid, para nitro benzoic acid and methyl ethyl ketone peroxide: identification of reaction products.  

PubMed

In this investigation, chlorophenol (CP) containing industrial wastewater was remediated by ultraviolet irradiation in conjunction with organic oxidants, peroxy acetic acid (PAA); para nitro benzoic acid (PNBA); and methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP). CP mineralization was studied with regard to chemical oxygen demand (COD) and chloride ion release under identical test conditions. COD depletion to the extent of 81% by PAA, 66% by PNBA, and 67% by MEKP was noted along with an upwardly mobile trend of chloride ion release upon irradiation of samples at 254 nm. A 90-99% decrease in CP concentration (as per high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis) was achieved with an additional 15.0 ml of organic oxidant in all cases. Gas chromatography high resolution mass spectroscopy (GC-HRMS) results also indicated the formation of such reaction products as are free from chlorine substitutions. This treatment also leads to total decolorization of the collected samples. PMID:24647192

Sharma, Swati; Mukhopadhyay, Mausumi; Murthy, Zagabathuni Venkata Panchakshari

2014-01-01

126

Synergistic effect of delignification and treatment with the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate on enzymatic digestibility of poplar wood.  

PubMed

This study examined the effects of removing key recalcitrance factors by ionic liquid (IL) treatment on the cellulase digestibility of poplar wood. Ground biomass was subjected to chlorite delignification and IL (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate) treatment alone or in combination. The compositional and structural features of differentially treated biomass samples and their hydrolysis performance at various cellulase loadings were investigated. IL treatment caused minor compositional changes but drastically decreased cellulose crystallinity; in particular, when administered after delignification, an X-ray diffractogram similar to that of cellulose II polymorph was observed, suggesting that in the absence of lignin, the cellulose was dissolved in the IL and regenerated in water with a polymorphic transformation. The structural changes induced by the combined delignification-IL treatment facilitated the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose; the biomass could be fully degraded within 72 h by 4 FPU of cellulase per gram glucan, with cellobiose degradation being the rate-limiting step. PMID:24755318

Wu, Long; Kumagai, Akio; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Endo, Takashi

2014-06-01

127

[Nomegestrol acetate: clinical pharmacology].  

PubMed

Progestogens are used in clinical practice in some conditions. Their effects depend on their chemical structure, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, with important differences among various progestogens. Generally, progestins are classified according to their parent molecule, of which often they keep some features. Derivatives of 19-nor-progesterone are characterized by high selectivity of action on progestin receptor. In particular, nomegestrol acetate (NomAc) shows an important progestational potency, neutral gluco-lipid profile, and antigonadotropic activity. It is used for treating menstrual cycle disorders and for hormone replacement therapy in menopause in association with an estrogen. In future, thanks to its antigonadotropic activity, NomAc will be used in estroprogestin combinations in fertile women, thus taking advantage of its tolerability profile and obtaining numerous non-contraceptive benefits as well. PMID:19749678

Lello, S

2009-10-01

128

Excess volumes of binary mixtures that contain olive oil with alkyl and vinyl acetates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports densities and excess molar volumes for ethyl acetate, vinyl acetate, propyl acetate, isopropyl acetate,\\u000a and butyl acetate with olive oil at temperatures from 283.15–298.15 K. Redlich-Kister polynomials were fitted to the results\\u000a of excess volumes. All the systems showed slight deviations from ideality. The excess volumes decreased with the number of\\u000a carbon atoms of the acetate, but

Cristina González; Jos M. Resa; Juan Lanz

2000-01-01

129

Poly(vinyl acetal)s containing electron-donor groups: Synthesis in homogeneous phase and their thermal properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The condensation reaction of 1-Naphthaldehyde (NA), 9-Anthraldehyde (ANTA), 9-Ethyl-3-carbazolecarboxaldehyde (ECZA) with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) to give poly(vinyl acetal)s (PVAcs) was studied in detail using N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) as solvent for PVA and PVAcs. PVAcs having various degrees of acetalization were obtained. The acetalization reaction under a variety of conditions gave at best a poly[2-(1-naphthyl)-1,3-dioxan-4,6-diylmethylene] (PNA) with 78% acetalization, poly[2-(9-anthryl)-1,3-dioxan-4,6-diylmethylene] (PANTA) with

M. D. Fernández; M. J. Fernández; P. Hoces

2008-01-01

130

Thermogravimetric analysis of the relationship among calcium magnesium acetate, calcium acetate and magnesium acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal decomposition characteristic of calcium magnesium acetate (CMA), calcium acetate (CA) and magnesium acetate (MA) are investigated through thermogravimetric (TG) analysis at the heating rates of 5Kmin?1, 7.5Kmin?1, 10Kmin?1 and 15Kmin?1. After dehydration, the evaporation of carboxylic radical and carbon dioxide of CMA and CA exist in two separate segments, but for MA, this occurs together in just one segment

Shengli Niu; Kuihua Han; Chunmei Lu; Rongyue Sun

2010-01-01

131

Ethyl acetate extract from Angelica Dahuricae Radix inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced production of nitric oxide, prostaglandin E 2 and tumor necrosis factor-? via mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor-?B in macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Angelica dahurica (Umbelliferae) has been used to treat headache of common cold, supraorbital neuralgia, painful swelling on the body, nasal stuffiness, leukorrhea and arthralgia due to wind-dampness in Korean traditional medicine. It is also claimed to be effective in the treatment of acne, erythema, headache, toothache, sinusitis, colds and flu. The present study focused whether the ethyl acetate extract from

Ok-Hwa Kang; Go-Hoon Lee; Hyuk Joon Choi; Pil Sang Park; Hee-Sung Chae; Seung-Il Jeong; Youn-Chul Kim; Dong Hwan Sohn; Hyun Park; John Hwa Lee; Dong-Yeul Kwon

2007-01-01

132

Stabilized Calcium Acetate Oil Dispersions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A lubricating composition is imparted with improved load-carrying ability and anti-wear properties by incorporation of calcium acetate. The composition consists of a base lubricant, 0.1 to 50 percent by weight calcium acetate and 0.01 to 20 percent by wei...

R. H. Davis

1965-01-01

133

[Formulation of calcium acetate tablets].  

PubMed

The results of the testing of calcium acetate tablets, produced by direct compression and by wet granulation (Ph. Jug. IV) are presented. Tablet hardness, friability and disintegration were determined. The best properties were observed in the tablets produced with maize starch. This procedure is fast and simple, and compound tablets of calcium acetate fulfill the current requirements for this type of preparation. PMID:11521467

Obrenovic, D; Gazikalovic, E; Ognjanovic, J; Nidzovic Z, Z

2000-01-01

134

Molecular Structure of Phenylmercuric acetate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Phenylmercuric acetate is white to white-yellow crystalline powder that is odorless. This phenyl mercury compound is used mainly as a fungicide, herbicide, slimicide and bacteriocide. Phenylmercuric acid serves as a preservative in canned paint, eye ointments and drops, injectable solutions, skin disinfectants and in cosmetics products such as hair shampoos, mouthwashes and toothpastes. It is also used in contraceptive gels and foams. Phenylmercuric acetate is prepared by interaction of benzene with mercuric acetate in glacial acetic acid. Phenylmercuric acetate's former production and use as a fungicide and as a mildew inhibitor in paints may have resulted in its direct release to the environment. This substance is very toxic to aquatic organisms and may be hazardous to the environment.

2004-11-10

135

Triamcinolone acetonide acetate.  

PubMed

IN THE CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE TITLE COMPOUND [SYSTEMATIC NAME: 2-(4b-fluoro-5-hy-droxy-4a,6a,8,8-tetra-methyl-2-oxo-2,4a,4b,5,6,6a,9a,10,10a,10b,11,12-dodeca-hydro-7,9-dioxa-penta-leno[2,1-a]phenanthren-6b-yl)-2-oxoethyl acetate], C(26)H(33)FO(7), the mol-ecules are connected by inter-molecular O-H?O hydrogen bonds into an infinite supra-molecular chain along the b axis. The mol-ecular framework consists of five condensed rings, including three six-membered rings and two five-membered rings. The cyclo-hexa-2,5-dienone ring is nearly planar [maximum deviation = 0.013?(3)?Å], while the cyclo-hexane rings adopt chair conformations. The two five-membered rings, viz. cyclo-pentane and 1,3-dioxolane, display envelope conformations. PMID:21523039

Lu, Xiao; Tang, Gu-Ping; Gu, Jian-Ming; Hu, Xiu-Rong

2011-01-01

136

Triamcinolone acetonide acetate  

PubMed Central

In the crystal structure of the title compound [systematic name: 2-(4b-fluoro-5-hy­droxy-4a,6a,8,8-tetra­methyl-2-oxo-2,4a,4b,5,6,6a,9a,10,10a,10b,11,12-dodeca­hydro-7,9-dioxa­penta­leno[2,1-a]phenanthren-6b-yl)-2-oxoethyl acetate], C26H33FO7, the mol­ecules are connected by inter­molecular O—H?O hydrogen bonds into an infinite supra­molecular chain along the b axis. The mol­ecular framework consists of five condensed rings, including three six-membered rings and two five-membered rings. The cyclo­hexa-2,5-dienone ring is nearly planar [maximum deviation = 0.013?(3)?Å], while the cyclo­hexane rings adopt chair conformations. The two five-membered rings, viz. cyclo­pentane and 1,3-dioxolane, display envelope conformations.

Lu, Xiao; Tang, Gu-Ping; Gu, Jian-Ming; Hu, Xiu-Rong

2011-01-01

137

Molecular Structure of Sodium acetate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sodium acetate is known for its ability to supercool. It freezes at 130 degrees, but can exist as a liquid at a much lower temperature. In order to melt solidified sodium acetate, however, every single crystal must liquify, otherwise the material will recrystallize. Sodium acetate has been used as a deicer for roads and runways. It is also used a component of buffer systems and in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals and heat pads. The compound is quite stable. It may act as an irritant and be harmful if inhaled or absorbed through the skin.

2002-08-26

138

Acetate catabolism by Methanosarcina barkeri  

SciTech Connect

Cell suspensions of Methanosarcina barkeri convert the carboxyl and methyl group carbons of acetate to carbon dioxide and methane at pH 6 under an atmosphere of 100% CO/sub 2/. The rate of loss of radioactivity from (1-/sup 14/C)acetate was over three times greater than that from (2-/sup 14/C)acetate under these conditions. Control experiments with both labeled substrates present showed that the rates were additive. Addition of a high level of 2-bromoethanesulfonate to selectively inhibit methane formation largely inhibited release of /sup 14/C from methyl-labeled acetate but only marginally decreased the rate of loss from (1-/sup 14/C)acetate. Thus, in the absence of the inhibitor loss of /sup 14/C from (1-/sup 14/C)acetate likely reflects an isotopic exchange reaction with CO/sub 2/ superimposed on the overall conversion of acetate to CO/sub 2/ and CH/sub 4/. The exchange reaction was inhibited by uncouplers such as 2,4-dinitrophenol, CCCP, and FCCP. Cells permeabilized by treatment with nonionic detergents or disrupted by passage through a French pressure cell failed to catalyze the exchange reaction. Exchange activity was not restored by addition of ATP or by use of (1-/sup 14/C)acetyl CoA as substrate. No evidence for involvement of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase in the exchange was found in these experiments when CO/sub 2/ was replaced by CO. However, the soluble extracts retained the ability to convert acetate to methane in the presence of H/sub 2/ and ATP.

Grahame, D.A.

1987-05-01

139

Ethyl 2-Cyano-2-(2-nitrobenzenesulfonyloxyimino)acetate (o-NosylOXY): A Recyclable Coupling Reagent for Racemization-Free Synthesis of Peptide, Amide, Hydroxamate, and Ester.  

PubMed

Ubiquitousness of amide and ester functionality makes coupling reactions extremely important. Although numerous coupling reagents are available, methods of preparation of the common and efficient reagents are cumbersome. Those reagents generate a substantial amount of chemical waste and lack recyclability. Ethyl 2-cyano-2-(2-nitrobenzenesulfonyloxyimino)acetate (o-NosylOXY), the first member of a new generation of coupling reagents, produces byproducts that can be easily recovered and reused for the synthesis of the same reagent, making the method more environmentally friendly and cost-effective. The synthesis of amides, hydroxamates, peptides, and esters using this reagent is described. The synthesis of the difficult sequences, for example, the islet amyloid polypeptide (22-27) fragment (with a C-terminal Gly, H-Asn-Phe-Gly-Ala-Ile-Leu-Gly-NH2) and acyl carrier protein (65-74) fragment (H-Val-Gln-Ala-Ala-Ile-Asp-Tyr-Ile-Asn-Gly-OH), following the solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) protocol and Amyloid ? (39-42) peptide (Boc-Val-Val-IIe-Ala-OMe), following solution-phase strategy is demonstrated. Remarkable improvement is noticed with respect to reaction time, yield, and retention of stereochemistry. A mechanistic investigation and recyclability are also described. PMID:24849944

Dev, Dharm; Palakurthy, Nani Babu; Thalluri, Kishore; Chandra, Jyoti; Mandal, Bhubaneswar

2014-06-20

140

Evaluation of hydroxyapatite-bioglass and hydroxyapatite-ethyl vinyl acetate composite extracts on antioxidant defense mechanism and genotoxicity: an in vitro study.  

PubMed

Hydroxyapatite-bioglass (HA BG) and hydroxyapatite-ethyl vinyl acetate (HA EVA) are two composite materials that have been developed for bone substitution. Their activity on antioxidant defense mechanism and genotoxicity has not been investigated before. To further confirm its biocompatibility, the present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of HA BG and HA EVA on mice liver antioxidant mechanism along with chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocytes. Physiological saline extract of HA BG and HA EVA showed no adverse effect on liver antioxidant mechanism compared to the cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced toxicity on mice liver homogenate. The results were judged from the in vitro studies made on reduced glutathione, glutathione reductase and lipid peroxidation. These results were well supported by CP- and mytomycin C (MC)-induced genotoxicity studies on human lymphocytes in the presence and absence of a metabolic activator (S9). Hence, it was suggested that these tests could be considered for preliminary toxicological screening of materials intended for clinical applications ahead of in vivo animal model evaluation. PMID:21834633

Arun, M; Silja, P K; Mohanan, P V

2011-09-01

141

On-line arsenic co-precipitation on ethyl vinyl acetate turning-packed mini-column followed by hydride generation-ICP OES determination.  

PubMed

An alternative and new system for on-line preconcentration of arsenic by sorption on a mini-column associated to hydride generation--inductively coupled plasma--optical emission spectrometry determination was studied. It is based on the sorption of arsenic on a column packed with ethyl vinyl acetate (EVA) turnings and the use of La(III) as co-precipitant reagent. This polymeric material was employed here for the first time as filling material for column preconcentration. It could work both as adsorbent and as sieve material. Sample and co-precipitant agent (lanthanum nitrate) were off-line mixed and merged with ammonium buffer solution (pH 10.0), which promoted precipitation and quantitative collection on the small EVA turnings. The arsenic preconcentrated by co-precipitation with lanthanum hydroxide precipitate was subsequently eluted with hydrochloric acid, which was the medium used for hydride generation. Considering a flow rate of 5 ml/min, three enrichment factors were obtained, 28-, 38- and 45-fold at three different sampling times, 60, 120 and 180s; respectively. The detection limits (3s) obtained for each case were 0.013, 0.009 and 0.007 microg/l. Additionally, the calculated precisions expressed as relatively standard deviation (R.S.D.) were 0.9, 1.3 and 1.1%. Satisfactory results were obtained for the determination of arsenic in standard reference material NIST 1643e Trace Elements in Water and drinking water samples. PMID:17055643

Gil, R A; Ferrúa, N; Salonia, J A; Olsina, R A; Martinez, L D

2007-05-01

142

Autophagic cell death is induced by acetone and ethyl acetate extracts from Eupatorium odoratum in vitro: effects on MCF-7 and vero cell lines.  

PubMed

Eupatorium odoratum (EO) contains many biologically active compounds, the anticancer effects of which are not well documented. This study evaluates the cytotoxic effects and mechanism of action of EO extracts on MCF-7 and Vero cell lines. Evaluation of the cytotoxic activity using MTT assay, morphological alterations, and apoptosis were carried out. Autophagy was evaluated by LC3-A protein expression. Cytotoxic activity, membrane blebbing and ballooning at 24 hours, replacement by mass vacuolation, and double membrane vesicles mimicking autophagy and cell death were observed in the cancer cells. No apoptosis was observed by DNA fragmentation assay. Overexpression of LC3-A protein indicated autophagic cell death. Cell cycle analysis showed G0 and G2/M arrest. The Vero cells did not show significant cell death at concentrations <100??g/mL. These results thus suggest that acetone and ethyl acetate extracts of EO induce cell death through induction of autophagy and hold potential for development as potential anticancer drugs. PMID:22666123

Harun, Faizah Bt; Syed Sahil Jamalullail, Syed Mohsin; Yin, Khoo Boon; Othman, Zulkhairi; Tilwari, Anita; Balaram, Prabha

2012-01-01

143

Comparative evaluation of the metabolic effects of hydroxytyrosol and its lipophilic derivatives (hydroxytyrosyl acetate and ethyl hydroxytyrosyl ether) in hypercholesterolemic rats.  

PubMed

Hydroxytyrosol (HT), a virgin olive oil phenolic phytochemical with proven health benefits, has been used to generate new lipophilic antioxidants to preserve fats and oils against autoxidation. The aim of this work is to comparatively evaluate the physiological effects of HT and its lipophilic derivatives, hydroxytyrosyl acetate (HT-Ac) and ethyl hydroxytyrosyl ether (HT-Et), in high-cholesterol fed animals. Male Wistar rats (n = 8) were fed a standard diet (C group), a cholesterol-rich diet (Chol group) or a cholesterol-rich diet supplemented with phenolic compounds (HT group, HT-Ac group and HT-Et group) for 8 weeks. Body and tissue weights, the lipid profile, redox status, and biochemical, hormonal, and inflammatory biomarkers were evaluated. Plasma levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, glucose, insulin and leptin, as well as malondialdehyde in serum increased in Chol compared to C (p < 0.05). Rats fed the test diets had improved glucose, insulin, leptin and MDA levels and antioxidant capacity status, with HT-Ac being the most effective compound. The studied phenolic compounds also modulated TNF-? and IL-1? plasma levels compared to Chol. HT-Ac and HT-Et improved adipose tissue distribution and adipokine production, decreasing MCP-1 and IL-1? levels. Our results confirm the metabolic effects of HT, which are maintained and even improved by hydrophobic derivatives, particularly HT-Ac. PMID:24855654

Tabernero, María; Sarriá, Beatriz; Largo, Carlota; Martínez-López, Sara; Madrona, Andrés; Espartero, José Luis; Bravo, Laura; Mateos, Raquel

2014-06-25

144

Inhibition of Both Protease and Helicase Activities of Hepatitis C Virus NS3 by an Ethyl Acetate Extract of Marine Sponge Amphimedon sp  

PubMed Central

Combination therapy with ribavirin, interferon, and viral protease inhibitors could be expected to elicit a high level of sustained virologic response in patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). However, several severe side effects of this combination therapy have been encountered in clinical trials. In order to develop more effective and safer anti-HCV compounds, we employed the replicon systems derived from several strains of HCV to screen 84 extracts from 54 organisms that were gathered from the sea surrounding Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. The ethyl acetate-soluble extract that was prepared from marine sponge Amphimedon sp. showed the highest inhibitory effect on viral replication, with EC50 values of 1.5 and 24.9 µg/ml in sub-genomic replicon cell lines derived from genotypes 1b and 2a, respectively. But the extract had no effect on interferon-inducing signaling or cytotoxicity. Treatment with the extract inhibited virus production by 30% relative to the control in the JFH1-Huh7 cell culture system. The in vitro enzymological assays revealed that treatment with the extract suppressed both helicase and protease activities of NS3 with IC50 values of 18.9 and 10.9 µg/ml, respectively. Treatment with the extract of Amphimedon sp. inhibited RNA-binding ability but not ATPase activity. These results suggest that the novel compound(s) included in Amphimedon sp. can target the protease and helicase activities of HCV NS3.

Fujimoto, Yuusuke; Matsuda, Yasuyoshi; Fujita, Osamu; Tani, Hidenori; Ikeda, Masanori; Kato, Nobuyuki; Sakamoto, Naoya; Maekawa, Shinya; Enomoto, Nobuyuki; de Voogd, Nicole J.; Nakakoshi, Masamichi; Tsubuki, Masayoshi; Sekiguchi, Yuji; Tsuneda, Satoshi; Akimitsu, Nobuyoshi; Noda, Naohiro; Yamashita, Atsuya; Tanaka, Junichi; Moriishi, Kohji

2012-01-01

145

Standardized ethyl acetate fraction from the roots of Brassica rapa attenuates the experimental arthritis by down regulating inflammatory responses and inhibiting NF-?B activation.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to investigate the anti-arthritic potential of a standardized ethyl acetate fraction from the roots of Brassica rapa (EABR) and to explore the molecular mechanisms in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats and macrophages. In AIA-induced arthritic rats, EABR significantly reduced paw swelling, an arthritic index, serum rheumatoid factor, and tissue expression ratio of RANKL/OPG versus vehicle-administered group. This was found to be well correlated with significant suppressions in productions of PGE2, NO, and pro-inflammatory cytokines and in activations of NF-?B in AIA-induced paw tissues and LPS-induced macrophages. EABR attenuated NF-?B activation by reducing the nuclear translocation and phosphorylation of the p65 NF-?B, which were accompanied by parallel reductions in the degradation and phosphorylation of I?B? after blocking the phosphorylation mediated IKK activation. The findings suggest EABR exerts its anti-arthritic and anti-inflammatory properties via NF-?B inactivation in vitro and in vivo, and that EABR is a potential therapeutic for the treatment of arthritis and inflammation-associated disorders. PMID:24468670

Shin, Ji-Sun; Yun, Chang Hyeon; Chung, Kyung-Sook; Bang, Myun-Ho; Baek, Nam-In; Chung, Hae-Gon; Cho, Young-Wuk; Lee, Kyung-Tae

2014-04-01

146

Antidepressant-Like Effects of the Ethyl Acetate Soluble Fraction of the Root Bark of Morus alba on the Immobility Behavior of Rats in the Forced Swim Test.  

PubMed

In this study, the antidepressant-like effects of Morus alba fractions in rats were investigated in the forced swim test (FST). Male Wistar rats (9-week-old) were administered orally the M. alba ethyl acetate (EtOAc 30 and 100 mg/kg) and M. alba n-butanol fractions (n-BuOH 30 and 100 mg/kg) every day for 7 consecutive days. On day 7, 1 h after the final administration of the fractions, the rats were exposed to the FST. M. alba EtOAc fraction at the dose of 100 mg/kg induced a decrease in immobility behavior (p < 0.01) with a concomitant increase in both climbing (p < 0.05) and swimming (p < 0.05) behaviors when compared with the control group, and M. alba EtOAc fraction at the dose of 100 mg/kg decreased the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to the stress, as indicated by an attenuated corticosterone response and decreased c-fos immunoreactivity in the hippocampal and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) region. These findings demonstrated that M. alba EtOAc fraction have beneficial effects on depressive behaviors and restore both altered c-fos expression and HPA activity. PMID:24927367

Lim, Dong Wook; Kim, Yun Tai; Park, Ji-Hae; Baek, Nam-In; Han, Daeseok

2014-01-01

147

Major improvement in the rate and yield of enzymatic saccharification of sugarcane bagasse via pretreatment with the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([Emim] [Ac]).  

PubMed

In this study, sugarcane bagasse was pretreated by six ionic liquids (ILs) using a bagasse/IL ratio of 1:20 (wt%). The solubilization of bagasse in the ILs was followed by water precipitation. On using 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [Emim] [Ac] at 120 °C for 120 min, 20.7% of the bagasse components remained dissolved and enzymatic saccharification experiments resulted on 80% glucose yield within 6h, which evolved to over 90% within 24 h. Moreover, FE-SEM analysis of the precipitated material indicated a drastic lignin extraction and the exposure of nanoscopic cellulose microfibrils with widths of less than 100 nm. The specific surface area (SSA) of the pretreated bagasse (131.84 m2/g) was found to be 100 times that of untreated bagasse. The ability of [Emim] [Ac] to simultaneously increase the SSA and to decrease the biomass crystallinity is responsible for the improved bagasse enzymatic saccharification rates and yields obtained in this work. PMID:21925878

Sant'Ana da Silva, Ayla; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Endo, Takashi; Bon, Elba P S

2011-11-01

148

In Vivo Antioxidant and Anti-Skin-Aging Activities of Ethyl Acetate Extraction from Idesia polycarpa Defatted Fruit Residue in Aging Mice Induced by D-Galactose  

PubMed Central

Two different concentrations of D-galactose (D-gal) induced organism and skin aging in Kunming mice were used to examine comprehensively the antioxidant and antiaging activities of ethyl acetate extraction (EAE) from Idesia polycarpa defatted fruit residue for the first time. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of EAE was 13.09 ± 0.11??mol Trolox equivalents (TE)/mg, which showed EAE had great in vitro free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity. Biochemical indexes and morphological analysis of all tested tissues showed that EAE could effectively improve the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) of the antioxidant defense system of the aging mice, enhance the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) of tissues and serum, increase glutathione (GSH) content and decrease the malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and maintain the skin collagen, elastin, and moisture content. Meanwhile, EAE could effectively attenuate the morphological damage in brain, liver, kidney, and skin induced by D-gal and its effect was not less than that of the well-known L-ascorbic acid (VC) and ?-tocopherol (VE). Overall, EAE is a potent natural antiaging agent with great antioxidant activity, which can be developed as a new medicine and cosmetic for the treatment of age-related conditions.

Jia, Ran-ran; Chen, Fang

2014-01-01

149

Gastroprotective mechanisms of the chloroform and ethyl acetate phases of Praxelis clematidea (Griseb.) R.M.King & H.Robinson (Asteraceae).  

PubMed

Flavonoid-rich Praxelis clematidea (Griseb.) R.M.King & H.Robinson (Asteraceae) is a native plant of South America. This study evaluates the gastroprotective activity and possible mechanisms for both the chloroform (CHCl3P) and ethyl acetate phases (AcOEtP) obtained from aerial parts of the plant. The activity was investigated using acute models of gastric ulcer. Gastric secretion biochemical parameters were determined after pylorus ligature. The participation of cytoprotective factors such as mucus, nitric oxide (NO), sulfhydryl (SH) groups, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), reduction of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde level), and polymorphonuclear infiltration (myeloperoxidase activity), was also investigated. CHCl3P (125, 250, and 500 mg/kg) and AcOEtP (62.5, 125, and 250 mg/kg) showed significant gastroprotective activity, reducing the ulcerative index by 75, 83, 88% and 66, 66, 81% for ethanol; 67, 67, 56% and 56, 53, 58% for a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID); and 74, 58, 59% and 64, 65, 61% for stress-induced gastric ulcer, respectively. CHCl3P (125 mg/kg) and AcOEtP (62.5 mg/kg) significantly reduced the ulcerative area by 78 and 83%, respectively, for the ischemia-reperfusion model. They also did not alter the biochemical parameters of gastric secretion, the GSH level or the activities of SOD, GPx or GR. They increased the quantity of gastric mucus, not dependent on NO, yet dependent on SH groups, and maintained PGE2 levels. The P. clematidea phases demonstrated gastroprotective activity related to cytoprotective factors. PMID:22983656

Falcão, Heloina de Sousa; Maia, Gabriela Lemos de Azevedo; Bonamin, Flávia; Kushima, Hélio; Moraes, Thiago Mello; Hiruma Lima, Clélia Akiko; Takayama, Christiane; Ferreira, Anderson Luiz; Souza Brito, Alba Regina Monteiro; Agra, Maria de Fátima; Barbosa Filho, José Maria; Batista, Leônia Maria

2013-07-01

150

Characteristics of starch-based films plasticised by glycerol and by the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate: A comparative study.  

PubMed

This paper reports the plasticisation effect of the ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([Emim][OAc]), as compared with the traditionally used plasticiser, glycerol, on the characteristics of starch-based films. For minimising the additional effect of processing, a simple compression moulding process (which involves minimal shear) was used for preparation of starch-based films. The results show that [Emim][OAc] was favourable for plasticisation, i.e., disruption of starch granules (by scanning electron microscopy), and could result in a more amorphous structure in the starch-based materials (by X-ray diffraction and dynamic mechanical analysis). (13)C CP/MAS and SPE/MAS NMR spectroscopy revealed that not only was the crystallinity reduced by [Emim][OAc], but also the amorphous starch present was plasticised to a more mobile form as indicated by the appearance of amorphous starch in the SPE/MAS spectrum. Mechanical results illustrate that, when either glycerol or [Emim][OAc] was used, a higher plasticiser content could contribute to higher flexibility. In spite of the accelerated thermal degradation of starch by [Emim][OAc] as shown by thermogravimetric analysis, the biodegradation study revealed the antimicrobial effect of [Emim][OAc] on the starch-based materials. Considering the high-amylose starch used here which is typically difficult to gelatinise in a traditional plasticiser (water and/or glycerol), [Emim][OAc] is demonstrated to be a promising plasticiser for starch to develop "green" flexible antimicrobial materials for novel applications. PMID:25037423

Xie, Fengwei; Flanagan, Bernadine M; Li, Ming; Sangwan, Parveen; Truss, Rowan W; Halley, Peter J; Strounina, Ekaterina V; Whittaker, Andrew K; Gidley, Michael J; Dean, Katherine M; Shamshina, Julia L; Rogers, Robin D; McNally, Tony

2014-10-13

151

Eupafolin and Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Kalanchoe gracilis Stem Extract Show Potent Antiviral Activities against Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CoxA16) are main pathogens of hand-foot-and-mouth disease, occasionally causing aseptic meningitis and encephalitis in tropical and subtropical regions. Kalanchoe gracilis, Da-Huan-Hun, is a Chinese folk medicine for treating pain and inflammation, exhibiting antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Our prior report (2012) cited K. gracilis leaf extract as moderately active against EV71 and CoxA16. This study further rates antienteroviral potential of K. gracilis stem (KGS) extract to identify potent antiviral fractions and components. The extract moderately inhibits viral cytopathicity and virus yield, as well as in vitro replication of EV71 (IC50 = 75.18??g/mL) and CoxA16 (IC50 = 81.41??g/mL). Ethyl acetate (EA) fraction of KGS extract showed greater antiviral activity than that of n-butanol or aqueous fraction: IC50 values of 4.21??g/mL against EV71 and 9.08??g/mL against CoxA16. HPLC analysis, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, and plaque reduction assay indicate that eupafolin is a vital component of EA fraction showing potent activity against EV71 (IC50 = 1.39??M) and CoxA16 (IC50 = 5.24??M). Eupafolin specifically lessened virus-induced upregulation of IL-6 and RANTES by inhibiting virus-induced ERK1/2, AP-1, and STAT3 signals. Anti-enteroviral potency of KGS EA fraction and eupafolin shows the clinical potential against EV71 and CoxA16 infection.

Wang, Ching-Ying; Huang, Shun-Chueh; Lai, Zhen-Rung; Ho, Yu-Ling; Jou, Yu-Jen; Kung, Szu-Hao; Zhang, Yongjun; Chang, Yuan-Shiun; Lin, Cheng-Wen

2013-01-01

152

Eupafolin and Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Kalanchoe gracilis Stem Extract Show Potent Antiviral Activities against Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16.  

PubMed

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CoxA16) are main pathogens of hand-foot-and-mouth disease, occasionally causing aseptic meningitis and encephalitis in tropical and subtropical regions. Kalanchoe gracilis, Da-Huan-Hun, is a Chinese folk medicine for treating pain and inflammation, exhibiting antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Our prior report (2012) cited K. gracilis leaf extract as moderately active against EV71 and CoxA16. This study further rates antienteroviral potential of K. gracilis stem (KGS) extract to identify potent antiviral fractions and components. The extract moderately inhibits viral cytopathicity and virus yield, as well as in vitro replication of EV71 (IC50 = 75.18? ? g/mL) and CoxA16 (IC50 = 81.41? ? g/mL). Ethyl acetate (EA) fraction of KGS extract showed greater antiviral activity than that of n-butanol or aqueous fraction: IC50 values of 4.21? ? g/mL against EV71 and 9.08? ? g/mL against CoxA16. HPLC analysis, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, and plaque reduction assay indicate that eupafolin is a vital component of EA fraction showing potent activity against EV71 (IC50 = 1.39? ? M) and CoxA16 (IC50 = 5.24? ? M). Eupafolin specifically lessened virus-induced upregulation of IL-6 and RANTES by inhibiting virus-induced ERK1/2, AP-1, and STAT3 signals. Anti-enteroviral potency of KGS EA fraction and eupafolin shows the clinical potential against EV71 and CoxA16 infection. PMID:24078828

Wang, Ching-Ying; Huang, Shun-Chueh; Lai, Zhen-Rung; Ho, Yu-Ling; Jou, Yu-Jen; Kung, Szu-Hao; Zhang, Yongjun; Chang, Yuan-Shiun; Lin, Cheng-Wen

2013-01-01

153

Induction of apoptosis through oxidative stress-related pathways in MCF-7, human breast cancer cells, by ethyl acetate extract of Dillenia suffruticosa  

PubMed Central

Background Breast cancer is one of the most dreading types of cancer among women. Herbal medicine has becoming a potential source of treatment for breast cancer. Herbal plant Dillenia suffruticosa (Griff) Martelli under the family Dilleniaceae has been traditionally used to treat cancerous growth. In this study, the anticancer effect of ethyl acetate extract of D. suffruticosa (EADs) was examined on human breast adenocarcinoma cell line MCF-7 and the molecular pathway involved was elucidated. Methods EADs was obtained from the root of D. suffruticosa by using sequential solvent extraction. Cytotoxicity was determined by using MTT assay, mode of cell death by cell cycle analysis and apoptosis induction by Annexin-FITC/PI assay. Morphology changes in cells were observed under inverted light microscope. Involvement of selected genes in the oxidative stress-mediated signaling pathway was explored using multiplex gene expression analysis. Results The treatment of EADs caused cytotoxicity to MCF-7 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner at 24, 48 and 72 hours with IC50 of 76?±?2.3, 58?±?0.7 and 39?±?3.6 ?g/mL, respectively. The IC50 of tamoxifen-treated MCF-7 cells was 8?±?0.5 ?g/mL. Induction of apoptosis by EADs was dose- and time- dependent. EADs induced non-phase specific cell cycle arrest at different concentration and time point. The multiplex mRNA expression study indicated that EADs-induced apoptosis was accompanied by upregulation of the expression of SOD1, SOD2, NF-?B, p53, p38 MAPK, and catalase, but downregulation of Akt1. Conclusion It is suggested that EADs induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells by modulating numerous genes which are involved in oxidative stress pathway. Therefore, EADs has the potential to act as an effective intervention against breast cancer cells.

2014-01-01

154

Baicalein, Ethyl Acetate, and Chloroform Extracts of Scutellaria baicalensis Inhibit the Neuraminidase Activity of Pandemic 2009 H1N1 and Seasonal Influenza A Viruses.  

PubMed

This study rated antiviral activity of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (S. baicalensis) extracts against influenza A virus subtypes, for example, pandemic 2009 H1N1, seasonal H1N1 and H3N2. Ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and chloroform extracts inhibited in vitro neuraminidase (NA) enzymatic activity and viral replication more than methanol (MeOH) extract. EtOAc extract demonstrated NA inhibition IC50 values ranging from 73.16 to 487.40??g/mL and plaque reduction IC50 values ranging from 23.7 to 27.4??g/mL. Chloroform extract showed antiviral activities with plaque reduction IC50 values ranging from 14.16 to 41.49??g/mL Time-of-addition assay indicated that EtOAc and chloroform extracts also significantly inhibited virus yields after infection. HPLC analysis demonstrated that baicalin was dominant in the MeOH extract; baicalein and chrysin were rich in the EtOAc and chloroform extracts. Molecular simulation revealed baicalein hydrogen bonding with Glu277 as well as hydrophobic and Van der Waals interactions with Ile222, Arg224, Ser246, and Tyr347 in NA1 active sites of NA1. Baicalein inhibited in vitro replication of influenza A viruses pandemic 2009 H1N1 (IC50?=?0.018??M) and seasonal 2007 H1N1 using plaque reduction assays. A combination of low-dose baicalein with other anti-influenza agents could be applicable for development of alternative remedies treating influenza A virus infection. PMID:23864896

Hour, Mann-Jen; Huang, Su-Hua; Chang, Ching-Yao; Lin, Yen-Kuan; Wang, Ching-Ying; Chang, Yuan-Shiun; Lin, Cheng-Wen

2013-01-01

155

Copolymerization of vinyl acetate with acrylic monomers in microemulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composition domains corresponding to “one phase microemulsions” have been studied for the monomer mixtures consisting in vinyl acetate (VAc)–2-ethyl-hexyl acrylate (EHA) and VAc–ethyl acrylate (EtA). Maleic monoester with nonyl phenol ethoxylated with 25 mol ethylene oxide has been used as surfactant; n-propanol (n-PrOH), t-butanol (t-BuOH) and 2-ethyl-hexanol have been employed as cosurfactants. The number of microemulsions formed in the frame

Dan Donescu; Liana Fusulan; Cristian Petcu; Adrian-Gelu Boborodea; Dan-Sorin Vasilescu

2001-01-01

156

Regeneration of Cellulose Acetate Membranes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several simple methods for in situ one-step regeneration of both flux and salt-retention properties of service-deteriorated membranes have been developed. Membranes have been successfully regenerated using hot, 4% acetic acid, and a one-step cleaning meth...

P. A. Cantor W. S. Higley C. W. Saltonstall

1970-01-01

157

Lead Acetate, Teratology Study - Rabbits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three groups of 15 females rabbits were mated. Two groups were fed lead acetate in their diet at lead concentrations of 54.6 and 546 ppm from day 6 through day 16 of their gestation period. The third group of females and all males received the basal labor...

D. C. Jessup

1967-01-01

158

Carbon-isotopic analysis of dissolved acetate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heating of dried, acetate-containing solids together with oxalic acid dihydrate conveniently releases acetic acid for purification by gas chromatography. For determination of the carbon-isotopic composition of total acetate, the acetate-containing zone of the chromatographic effluent can be routed directly to a combustion furnace coupled to a vacuum system allowing recovery, purification, and packaging of CO2 for mass-spectrometric analysis. For analysis of methyl carbon, acetic acid can be cryogenically trapped from the chromatographic effluent, then transferred to a tube containing excess NaOH. The tube is evacuated, sealed, and heated to 500 degrees C to produce methane by pyrolysis of sodium acetate. Subsequent combustion of the methane allows determination of the 13C content at the methyl position in the parent acetate. With typical blanks, the standard deviation of single analyses is less than 0.4% for acetate samples larger than 5 micromoles. A full treatment of uncertainties is outlined.

Gelwicks, J. T.; Hayes, J. M.

1990-01-01

159

Ozone decomposition in aqueous acetate solutions  

SciTech Connect

The acetate radical ion reacts with ozone with a rate constant of k = (1.5 +/- 0.5) x 10Z dmT mol s . The products from this reaction are CO2, HCHO, and O2 . By subsequent reaction of the peroxy radical with ozone the acetate radical ion is regenerated through the OH radical. A chain decomposition of ozone takes place. It terminates when the acetate radical ion reacts with oxygen forming the unreactive peroxy acetate radical. The chain is rather short as oxygen is developed, as a result of the ozone consumption. The inhibiting effect of acetate on the ozone decay is rationalized by OH scavenging by acetate and successive reaction of the acetate radical ion with oxygen. Some products from the bimolecular disappearance of the peroxy acetate radicals, however, react further with ozone, reducing the effectiveness of the stabilization.

Sehested, K.; Holcman, J.; Bjergbakke, E.; Hart, E.J.

1987-01-01

160

Carbon-isotopic analysis of dissolved acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heating of dried, acetate-containing solids together with oxalic acid dihydrate conveniently releases acetic acid for purification by gas chromatography. For determination of the carbon-isotopic composition of total acetate, the acetate-containing zone of the chromatographic effluent can be routed directly to a combustion furnace coupled to a vacuum system allowing recovery, purification, and packaging of COâ for mass-spectrometric analysis. For analysis

Jeffrey T. Gelwicks; J. M. Hayes

1990-01-01

161

21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

, CAS Reg. No. 62-54-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid. It may be produced by the calcium hydroxide neutralization of acetic acid. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981),...

2013-04-01

162

21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

, CAS Reg. No. 62-54-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid. It may be produced by the calcium hydroxide neutralization of acetic acid. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981),...

2012-04-01

163

Sulfonate esters of 1-hydroxypyridin-2(1H)-one and ethyl 2-cyano-2-(hydroxyimino)acetate (oxyma) as effective peptide coupling reagents to replace 1-hydroxybenzotriazole and 1-hydroxy-7-azabenzotriazole.  

PubMed

A new family of sulfonate ester-type coupling reagents is described which differs in its leaving group. The sulfonate ester coupling reagents ethyl 2-cyano-2-(naphthalen-2-ylsulfonyloxyimino)acetate (NpsOXY), and ethyl 2-cyano-2-(tosyloxyimino)acetate (TsOXY) are more efficient alternatives to the benzotriazole sulfonate esters in terms of racemization suppression and coupling effectiveness. Both oxyma and its related sulfonate esters can be handled with a considerably lower risk than the explosive benzotriazole and its derivatives. 2-Oxopyridin-1(2H)-yl naphthalene-2-sulfonate (NpsOPy) and 2-oxopyridin-1(2H)-yl 4-methylbenzenesulfonate (TsOPy) sulfonate esters derived from 1-hydroxypyridin-2(1H)-one were also successfully used as new coupling reagents requiring a longer preactivation time during the coupling process. An improvement in yield and almost comparable optical purity to that of the 1-hydroxy-benzotriazole (HOBt) and 1-hydroxy-7-azabenzotriazole (HOAt) analogues was observed. PMID:20410632

Khattab, Sherine Nabil

2010-04-01

164

Miscibility of cellulose acetate with vinyl polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Binary blend films of cellulose acetate (CA) with flexible syntheticpolymers including poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc), poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP),and poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate) [P(VP-co-VAc)] were preparedfrommixed polymer solutions by solvent evaporation. Thermal analysis by DSC showedthat CA of any degree of substitution (DS) was not miscible with PVAc, but CAwith DS less than 2.8 was miscible with PVP to form homogeneous blends. Thestate

Yoshiharu Miyashita; Tetsuya Suzuki; Yoshiyuki Nishio

2002-01-01

165

Oxidative reaction of oxindole-3-acetic acids.  

PubMed

The oxindole-3-acetic acids, oxidative metabolites of indole-3-acetic acid, were isolated from a byproduct of a corn starch manufacturing plant, and were further converted to the 3-hydroxyl derivatives in the presence of metal ion. The mechanical study was followed by a chemical analysis including other byproducts, and suggested the presence of an intermediate that had a radical at the C-3 position of oxindole-3-acetic acids. PMID:14519969

Niwa, Toshio; Ishii, Sayuri; Hiramatsu, Atsushi; Osawa, Toshihiko

2003-09-01

166

Creatininium 2-chloro-acetate  

PubMed Central

In the title compound (systematic name: 2-amino-1-methyl-4-oxo-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-3-ium 2-chloro­acetate), C4H8N3O+·C2H2ClO2 ?, the mol­ecular aggregations are stabil­ized through classical (N—H?O) and non-classical (C—H?O and C—H?N) hydrogen-bonding inter­actions. The cations are linked to the anions, forming ion pairs through two N—H?O bonds that produce characteristic R 2 2(8) ring motifs. These cation–anion pairs are connected through another N—H?O hydrogen bond, leading to an R 4 2(8) ring motif. Further weak C—H?N inter­actions link the mol­ecules along the a axis, while other C—H?O inter­actions generate zigzag chains extending along b.

Ali, A. Jahubar; Athimoolam, S.; Bahadur, S. Asath

2012-01-01

167

Ethyl acetate extract of germinated brown rice attenuates hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells: role of anti-apoptotic, pro-survival and antioxidant genes  

PubMed Central

Background There are reports of improved metabolic outcomes due to consumption of germinated brown rice (GBR). Many of the functional effects of GBR can be linked to its high amounts of antioxidants. Interestingly, dietary components with high antioxidants have shown promise in the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This effect of dietary components is mostly based on their ability to prevent apoptosis, which is believed to link oxidative damage to pathological changes in AD. In view of the rich antioxidant content of GBR, we studied its potential to modulate processes leading up to AD. Methods The total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of the ethyl acetate extract of GBR were compared to that of brown rice (BR), and the cytotoxicity of both extracts were determined on human SH-SY5Y neuronal cells using 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) Assay. Based on its higher antioxidant potentials, the effect of the GBR extract on morphological changes due to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative damage in human SH-SY5Y neuronal cells was examined using inverted light microscope and fluorescence microscope by means of acridine orange-propidium iodide (AO/PI) staining. Also, evaluation of the transcriptional regulation of antioxidant and apoptotic genes was carried out using Multiplex Gene Expression System. Results The ethyl acetate extract of GBR had higher total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity compared to BR. The cytotoxicity results showed that GBR extract did not cause any damage to the human SH-SY5Y neuronal cells at concentrations of up to 20 ppm, and the morphological analyses showed that the GBR extract (up to 10 ppm) prevented H2O2-induced apoptotic changes in the cells. Furthermore, multiplex gene expression analyses showed that the protection of the cells by the GBR extract was linked to its ability to induce transcriptional changes in antioxidant (SOD 1, SOD 2 and catalase) and apoptotic (AKT, NF-K?, ERK1/2, JNK, p53 and p38 MAPK) genes that tended towards survival. Conclusions Taken together, the results of our study showed that the ethyl acetate extract of GBR, with high antioxidant potentials, could prevent H2O2-induced oxidative damage in SH-SY5Y cells. The potential of GBR and its neuroprotective mechanism in ameliorating oxidative stress-related cytotoxicity is therefore worth exploring further.

2013-01-01

168

(Acetoxy)(2-methylphenyl)methyl acetate  

PubMed Central

In the title compound, C12H14O4, the two acet­oxy groups are inclined by 57.92?(5)° and 62.71?(6)° to the benzene ring. An inter­molecular C—H?O inter­action involving the two acet­oxy groups generates a centrosymmetric dimer via an R 2 2(16) ring motif.

Kanchanadevi, J.; Anbalagan, G.; Saravanan, V.; Mohanakrishnan, A. K.; Manivannan, V.

2011-01-01

169

Biodegradable Plastics Based on Cellulose Acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally known that secondary cellulose acetate (with 53 to 56% acetyl groups) is suitable for thermoplastic processing. With appropriate plasticizers a plastic material is obtained which excels in transparency and pleasant texture, and it is therefore often used for tool handles, combs, spectacle frames, and the like. In principle, cellulose acetate with such a degree of substitution is

Alexander Ach

1993-01-01

170

Carbon-isotopic analysis of dissolved acetate  

SciTech Connect

Heating of dried, acetate-containing solids together with oxalic acid dihydrate conveniently releases acetic acid for purification by gas chromatography. For determination of the carbon-isotopic composition of total acetate, the acetate-containing zone of the chromatographic effluent can be routed directly to a combustion furnace coupled to a vacuum system allowing recovery, purification, and packaging of CO{sub 2} for mass-spectrometric analysis. For analysis of methyl carbon, acetic acid can be cryogenically trapped from the chromatographic effluent, then transferred to a tube containing excess NaOH. The tube is evacuated, sealed, and heated to 500{degree}C to produce methane by pyrolysis of sodium acetate. Subsequent combustion of the methane allows determination of the {sup 13}C content at the methyl position in the parent acetate. With typical blanks, the standard deviation of single analyses is less than 0.4{per thousand} for acetate samples larger than 5 {mu}mol. A full treatment of uncertainties is outlined.

Gelwicks, J.T. (Merck and Co., Inc., Rahway, NJ (USA)); Hayes, J.M. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington (USA))

1990-03-01

171

Determination of iodine values using 1,3-dibromo-5,5-dimethylhydantoin (DBH) and ethyl acetate as solvent. Analytical methods with DBH in respect to environmental and economical concern, part 18.  

PubMed

Iodine values (iodine numbers) of several fixed oils and lard can be determined in ethyl acetate, an easily biodegredable solvent, instead of chloroform according to PH. EUR. 2002. Iodine monobromide has been replaced by 1,3-dibromo-5,5-dimethylhydantoin (DBH) and potassium iodide (KI) and the reaction time was reduced to 5 min only. However, cod-liver oil and linseed oil require a reaction time of 30 min and a smaller weight of sample. Longer reaction times are also necessary for soya oil and wheat germ oil. Iodine values of linseed oil determined according to method A of PH. EUR. 2002, are dependent on the amount of sample, even in the range prescribed by the pharmacopoeia. PMID:15378849

Hilp, M

2004-08-01

172

Anti-inflammatory potential of an ethyl acetate fraction isolated from Justicia gendarussa roots through inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 expression via NF-?B pathway.  

PubMed

Justicia gendarussa Burm.f. (J. gendarussa) is a plant used as traditional medicine in different parts of India and China to treat inflammatory disorders like rheumatoid arthritis. But its mechanism of anti-inflammatory action is still unclear. Hence in this context, the objective of our study is to reveal the mechanism of anti-inflammatory activity of J. gendarussa which would form an additional proof to the traditional knowledge of this plant. The anti-inflammatory function and mechanism(s) of action was studied in an ethyl acetate fraction isolated from methanolic extract of J. gendarussa roots (EJG). Anti-inflammatory studies were conducted on rats using partitioned fractions isolated from methanolic extract of J. gendarussa roots. In carrageenan-induced rat paw edema, ethyl acetate fraction brought about 80% and 93% edema inhibition at 3rd and 5th hour at a dose of 50 mg/kg, when compared to other extracts and Voveran. We investigated whether EJG inhibits the release of cycloxygenase (COX), 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) in LPS stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs). Results shows that EJG dose dependently inhibited LPS-activated COX, 5-LOX, IL-6, and NF-?B in hPBMCs. EJG also reduced LPS induced levels of iNOS and COX-2 mRNA expression in hPBMCs. This study provides an insight into the probable mechanism(s) underlying the anti-inflammatory activity of EJG and therefore, we report the first confirmation of the anti-inflammatory potential of this traditionally employed herbal medicine in vitro. PMID:22063737

Kumar, Kavitha S; Vijayan, Viji; Bhaskar, Shobha; Krishnan, Kripa; Shalini, V; Helen, A

2012-01-01

173

The electroanalytical detection and determination of copper in heavily passivating media: ultrasonically enhanced solvent extraction by N-benzoyl-N-phenyl-hydroxylamine in ethyl acetate coupled with electrochemical detection by sono-square wave stripping voltammetry analysis.  

PubMed

N-benzoyl-N-phenyl-hydroxylamine dissolved in ethyl acetate was employed as a ligand for the solvent extraction of copper. Ultrasonic emulsification was shown to be effective both in the extraction of copper from an aqueous phase into ethyl acetate and its recovery or "back extraction" into a fresh clean aqueous solution. Experimental determination of thermodynamic parameters governing the extraction process via UV/visible spectroscopy is reported. This permitted theoretical predictions for the amount of copper transferred into the final aqueous solution to be fitted to experimental data. Quantitative analysis of copper removed via double sono-extraction from an aqueous medium hostile to voltammetric analysis proceeded via sono-square wave anodic stripping voltammetry analysis (sono-SWASV). This resulted in very high sensitivity in the relatively clean medium. The technique was then applied to the analysis of copper in the soft drink 'Ribena Light'. In the absence of sample preparation by solvent extraction sono-SWASV yields a measurable peak current for copper. However it is irreproducible and erratic due to passivating effects, possibly attributed to the sugars, natural flavourings and colourings present. Following sono-solvent extraction, the overall copper concentration could be obtained with a detection limit of 2 microg L(-1). Biphasic sono-extraction synergistically coupled with the recognized technique sono-SWASV presents an attractive technique for copper analysis in electrode passivating media. The technique necessarily removes contaminants present in the test solution since these will prefer to remain in the initial aqueous phase, or will transfer to the organic phase but are unlikely to be doubly transferred into the 'clean' final aqueous phase. PMID:11763086

Hardcastle, J L; Compton, R G

2001-11-01

174

Ulipristal acetate in emergency contraception.  

PubMed

Despite the widespread availability of highly effective methods of contraception, unintended pregnancy is common. Unplanned pregnancies have been linked to a range of health, social and economic consequences. Emergency contraception reduces risk of pregnancy after unprotected intercourse, and represents an opportunity to decrease number of unplanned pregnancies and abortions. Emergency contraception pills (ECP) prevent pregnancy by delaying or inhibiting ovulation, without interfering with post fertilization events. If pregnancy has already occurred, ECPs will not be effective, therefore ECPs are not abortificants. Ulipristal acetate (17alpha-acetoxy-11beta-(4N-N,N-dymethilaminophenyl)-19-norpregna--4,9-diene-3,20-dione) is the first drug that was specifically developed and licensed for use as an emergency contraceptive. It is an orally active, synthetic, selective progesterone modulator that acts by binding with high affinity to the human progesterone receptor where it has both antagonist and partial agonist effects. It is a new molecular entity and the first compound in a new pharmacological class defined by the pristal stem. Up on the superior clinical efficacy evidence, UPA has been quickly recognized as the most effective emergency contraceptive pill, and recently recommended as the first prescription choice for all women regardless of the age and timing after intercourse. This article provides literature review of UPA and its role in emergency contraception. PMID:24851646

Goldstajn, Marina Sprem; Baldani, Dinka Pavici?; Skrgati?, Lana; Radakovi?, Branko; Vrbi?, Hrvoje; Cani?, Tomislav

2014-03-01

175

Synthesis and properties of amphiphilic vinyl acetate triblock copolymers prepared by copper mediated living radical polymerisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymerisation of vinyl acetate by conventional free radical polymerisation using a diazo initiator followed by copper mediated living radical polymerisation with a range of monomers was studied. This method led to the synthesis of triblock copolymers. We have thus successfully prepared several new ABA triblock copolymers where B is poly(vinyl acetate) and A is (dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA), (polyethylene glycol) methyl

Delphine Batt-Coutrot; David M. Haddleton; Adam P. Jarvis; Ray L. Kelly

2003-01-01

176

Ionothermal Synthesis of Homochiral Framework with Acetate Pillared Cobalt-Camphorate Architecture  

PubMed Central

A new organically templated homochiral material (EMIm)[Co2(d-cam)2(ac)] (1, d-H2cam = d-camphoric acid; ac = acetate; EMIm = 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium) has been ionothermally synthesized and it features an unusual acetate pillared cobalt-camphorate architecture encapsulating the cationic component of ionic liquid.

Chen, Shumei; Zhang, Jian; Bu, Xianhui

2009-01-01

177

Doped with Sodium Acetate and Metallic Sodium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the thermoelectric properties of p-type Na-doped Mg2 Si0.25Sn0.75 solid solutions prepared by liquid-solid reaction and hot-pressing methods. Na was introduced into Mg2Si0.25Sn0.75 by using either sodium acetate (CH3COONa) or metallic sodium (2 N). The samples doped with sodium acetate consisted of phases with antifluorite structure and a small amount of MgO as revealed by x-ray diffraction, whereas the sample doped with metallic sodium contained the Sn, MgO, and Mg2SiSn phases. The hole concentrations of Mg1.975Na0.025Si0.25Sn0.75 doped by sodium acetate and metallic sodium were 1.84 × 1025 m-3 and 1.22 × 1025 m-3, respectively, resulting in resistivities of 4.96 × 10-5 ? m (sodium acetate) and 1.09 × 10-5 ? m (metallic sodium). The Seebeck coefficients were 198 ?V K-1 (sodium acetate) and 241 ?V K-1 (metallic sodium). The figures of merit for Mg1.975Na0.025Si0.25Sn0.75 were 0.40 × 10-3 K-1 (sodium acetate) and 0.25 × 10-3 K-1 (metallic sodium) at 400 K. Thus, sodium acetate is a suitable Na dopant for Mg2Si1- x Sn x .

Tada, Satoki; Isoda, Yukihiro; Udono, Haruhiko; Fujiu, Hirofumi; Kumagai, Shunji; Shinohara, Yoshikazu

2014-06-01

178

36 CFR 1232.24 - Unstable cellulose-acetate film.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Unstable cellulose-acetate film. 1232.24 Section 1232...Audiovisual Records Management § 1232.24 Unstable cellulose-acetate film. Cellulose-acetate film, also known as safety...

2009-07-01

179

21 CFR 172.833 - Sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB). 172.833...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.833 Sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB). Sucrose acetate isobutyrate may be safely used in...

2009-04-01

180

21 CFR 172.833 - Sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...3 2010-01-01 2009-04-01 true Sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB). 172.833...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.833 Sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB). Sucrose acetate isobutyrate may be safely used in...

2010-01-01

181

DESOXYCORTICOSTERONE ACETATE AND WOUND HEALING  

PubMed Central

The effect of desoxycorticosterone acetate (DCA) on the granulation tissue of healing and healed linear laparotomy wounds was studied in young adult male guinea pigs maintained on a complete diet and on a known intake of ascorbic acid. DCA induces the production of an excessive amount of granulation tissue, as evidenced by a relatively great number of fibroblasts and by a larger amount of ground substance. This effect was accompanied by a slight to moderate lag in the maturation process of both cellular and intercellular elements. These changes were observed when DCA administration was begun 5 days prior to operation, but were less obvious or absent if DCA was injected, beginning on the 5th or 10th postoperative day. The results indicate that the action of DCA on immature, proliferating connective tissue is marked, and is considerably less or absent when connective tissue elements have reached partial or almost complete maturity. The effect of DCA on connective tissue does not appear to rest on the basis of an altered nutritional status. Chemical and histochemical studies of the adrenals suggest that the action of DCA on connective tissue is probably mediated through a disturbance of adrenocortical function, namely an imbalance between hormones of the zona glomerulosa (excess of DCA) and those of the zona fasciculata (deficiency of glucocorticoids). The presence of changes in granulation tissue and the lack of them in mature resting connective tissue of DCA-treated guinea pigs confirm the view that a profound difference in the response mechanism exists between resting and actively proliferating connective tissue.

Pirani, Conrad L.; Stepto, Robert C.; Sutherland, Kenneth

1951-01-01

182

The pharmacology of nomegestrol acetate.  

PubMed

Nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC) is a 19-norprogesterone derivative with high biological activity at the progesterone receptor, a weak anti-androgenic effect, but with no binding to estrogen, glucocorticoid or mineralocorticoid receptors. At dosages of 1.5mg/day or more, NOMAC effectively suppresses gonadotropic activity and ovulation in women of reproductive age. Hemostasis, lipids and carbohydrate metabolism remain largely unchanged. In normal and cancerous human breast cells, NOMAC has shown favorable effects on estrogen metabolism. Like natural progesterone (but in contrast to some other synthetic progestogens), it does not appear stimulate the proliferation of cancerous breast cells. While there has been some experience of the use of NOMAC in combination with estrogens as a hormone replacement therapy, most of the data on the compound are reported in the context of its inclusion as a component of a new contraceptive pill comprising 2.5mg NOMAC combined with 1.5mg estradiol. Because of its strong endometrial efficacy, and due to its high antigonadotropic activity and long elimination half-life (about 50h), the contraceptive efficacy of the new pill is maintained even when dosages are missed. Furthermore, for the first time with a monophasic 24/4 regimen containing estradiol, cyclical stability can be achieved comparable with that obtained using pills containing ethinyl estradiol and progestogens like levonorgestrel or drospirenone. The addition of NOMAC to estradiol means that the beneficial effects of estrogen are not lost, which is of especial importance in relation to the cardiovascular system. On the basis both of its pharmacology and of studies performed during the development of the NOMAC/estradiol pill, involving some 4000 women in total, good long-term tolerability can be expected for NOMAC, although its safety profile is still to be fully ascertained, as the clinical endpoint studies are yet to be completed. PMID:22364709

Ruan, Xiangyan; Seeger, Harald; Mueck, Alfred O

2012-04-01

183

Correlation between acetic acid resistance and characteristics of PQQ-dependent ADH in acetic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

In this study, we compared the growth properties and molecular characteristics of pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) among highly acetic acid-resistant strains of acetic acid bacteria. Gluconacetobacter europaeus exhibited the highest resistance to acetic acid (10%), whereas Gluconacetobacter intermedius and Acetobacter pasteurianus resisted up to 6% of acetic acid. In media with different concentrations of acetic acid, the maximal acetic acid production rate of Ga. europaeus slowly increased, but specific growth rates decreased concomitant with increased concentration of acetic acid in medium. The lag phase of A. pasteurianus was twice and four times longer in comparison to the lag phases of Ga. europaeus and Ga. intermedius, respectively. PQQ-dependent ADH activity was twice as high in Ga. europaeus and Ga. intermedius as in A. pasteurinus. The purified enzymes showed almost the same specific activity to each other, but in the presence of acetic acid, the enzyme activity decreased faster in A. pasteurianus and Ga. intermedius than in Ga. europaeus. These results suggest that high ADH activity in the Ga. europaeus cells and high acetic acid stability of the purified enzyme represent two of the unique features that enable this species to grow and stay metabolically active at extremely high concentrations of acetic acid. PMID:16133326

Trcek, Janja; Toyama, Hirohide; Czuba, Jerzy; Misiewicz, Anna; Matsushita, Kazunobu

2006-04-01

184

Density Functional Theory Study of Selective Deacylation of Aromatic Acetate in the Presence of Aliphatic Acetate under Ammonium Acetate Mediated Conditions.  

PubMed

Aromatic acetates can be selectively deprotected in the presence of aliphatic acetates under ammonium acetate mediated condition. B3LYP/6-31++G** level of theory was demonstrated to be successfully used to model the relative reaction rates for deacylation reactions for aliphatic and aromatic ester systems. On the basis of the mechanistic studies, acetate anion is most likely to be the active catalyst for the ester deacylation reactions under ammonium acetate mediated condition. PMID:24956355

Xia, Shijing; Zhang, Haoyu

2014-07-01

185

Acetate Causes Alcohol Hangover Headache in Rats  

PubMed Central

Background The mechanism of veisalgia cephalgia or hangover headache is unknown. Despite a lack of mechanistic studies, there are a number of theories positing congeners, dehydration, or the ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde as causes of hangover headache. Methods We used a chronic headache model to examine how pure ethanol produces increased sensitivity for nociceptive behaviors in normally hydrated rats. Results Ethanol initially decreased sensitivity to mechanical stimuli on the face (analgesia), followed 4 to 6 hours later by inflammatory pain. Inhibiting alcohol dehydrogenase extended the analgesia whereas inhibiting aldehyde dehydrogenase decreased analgesia. Neither treatment had nociceptive effects. Direct administration of acetate increased nociceptive behaviors suggesting that acetate, not acetaldehyde, accumulation results in hangover-like hypersensitivity in our model. Since adenosine accumulation is a result of acetate formation, we administered an adenosine antagonist that blocked hypersensitivity. Discussion Our study shows that acetate contributes to hangover headache. These findings provide insight into the mechanism of hangover headache and the mechanism of headache induction.

Maxwell, Christina R.; Spangenberg, Rebecca Jay; Hoek, Jan B.; Silberstein, Stephen D.; Oshinsky, Michael L.

2010-01-01

186

Ultrasonic Relaxation in Aqueous Acetic Acid Solutions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ultrasonic absorption measurements have been made in aqueous acetic solutions at 15 to 85 MHz using pulse echo and pulse send-receive techniques. A weighted nonlinear regression method has been developed for the computation of the relaxation parameters. A...

L. G. Jackopin E. Yeager

1971-01-01

187

Water dispersible microbicidal cellulose acetate phthalate film  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) has been used for several decades in the pharmaceutical industry for enteric film coating of oral tablets and capsules. Micronized CAP, available commercially as \\

A Robert Neurath; Nathan Strick; Yun-Yao Li

2003-01-01

188

Nomegestrol acetate/estradiol: in oral contraception.  

PubMed

Nomegestrol acetate/estradiol is a combined oral contraceptive with approval in many countries. This fixed-dose combination tablet contains nomegestrol acetate, a highly selective progestogen, and estradiol, a natural estrogen. It is the first monophasic combined oral contraceptive to contain estradiol, and is taken in 28-day cycles, consisting of 24 active therapy days with 4 placebo days (i.e. 24/4-day cycles). In two large, 1-year, randomized, open-label, multicentre, phase III trials in healthy adult women (aged 18-50 years), nomegestrol acetate/estradiol was at least as effective as drospirenone/ethinylestradiol as contraceptive therapy, as the pregnancy rates in women aged 18-35 years (primary efficacy population) in terms of the Pearl Index (primary endpoint) were numerically lower with nomegestrol acetate/estradiol, although the between-group difference was not statistically significant. In both trials, nomegestrol acetate/estradiol was given in a 24/4-day cycle, and drospirenone/ethinylestradiol was given in a 21/7-day cycle. The criteria for using condoms in case of forgotten doses were less stringent in the nomegestrol acetate/estradiol group than in the drospirenone/ethinylestradiol group. Nomegestrol acetate/estradiol therapy for up to 1 year was generally well tolerated in healthy adult women, with an acceptable tolerability profile in line with that expected for a combined oral contraceptive. The most commonly reported adverse events were acne and abnormal withdrawal bleeding (most often shorter, lighter or absent periods). Overall, compared with drospirenone/ethinylestradiol, nomegestrol acetate/estradiol appeared to be associated with less favourable acne-related outcomes, and shorter, lighter or absent periods. PMID:22950535

Yang, Lily P H; Plosker, Greg L

2012-10-01

189

Fluorescence quenching of etilefrine by acetate anion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acid dissociation in the excited state of antihypotensor drug etilefrine [2-(ethylamino1-3-hydroxyphenyl)ethanol] is studied. Fluorescence of etilefrine decreases at pH<7 and is related to phenolic group dissociation. However, intensity of etilefrine fluorescence diminishes as the concentration of the acetate anion increases at pH>7. Analyses of the absorption and fluorescence spectra of aqueous solutions of etilefrine in the presence of acetate anions have been made. Considering the existence of an equilibrium in the excited state the values of 3.47×10 -9 and 0.216×10 -9 M -1 s -1 have been obtained for the rate constants for direct and inverse reactions, respectively. Moreover, the lifetime ( ?0'=0.58×10 -9 s) and quantum yield (0.01) of non-protonated etilefrine have been determined. Our results seem to support the existence of a dynamic quenching process based on a proton transfer mechanism induced by acetate anions. This process could represent a serious inconvenience in analytical fluorimetric techniques taking into account that the acetic acid/acetate pair is commonly used as a buffer. Additional fluorescence quenching by H + ions could be involved in acid aqueous mediums. At high concentrations of acetic acid, a value of 2.98×10 -9 M -1 s -1 for the bimolecular constant for the quenching by H + has been calculated.

Quintero Osso, B.; Carazo Rodríguez, F. M.; Morales Domingo, J. J.; Cabeza González, M. C.; Thomas Gómez, J.

1999-02-01

190

Synthesis and properties of cyclic acetal biomaterials.  

PubMed

There is an increasing need to develop new biomaterials as tissue engineering scaffolds. Unfortunately, many of the materials that have been studied for these purposes are polyesters that hydrolytically degrade into acidic products, which may harm the surrounding tissue, and lead to accelerated degradation of the biomaterial. To overcome this disadvantage, a novel class of biomaterials based on a cyclic acetal unit has been created. Specifically, materials based upon the monomer 5-ethyl-5-(hydroxymethyl)-beta,beta-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane-2-ethanol diacrylate (EHD) is examined. This study investigates the effects of fabrication parameters, including initiator content, volume of diluent, and volume of accelerant, on several properties of EHD networks. Twelve different formulations were fabricated by varying the three parameters in a factorial design. The effects of the fabrication parameters on properties of the EHD networks were examined. Results show that the volume of accelerant most affected the EHD network gelation time, while the volume of diluent most affected the maximum reaction temperature, sol fraction, and degree of swelling. Cell viability on the EHD networks varied between (18 +/- 6)% and (57 +/- 10)% of the control at 4 h, and between (36 +/- 14)% and (140 +/- 50)% of the control at 8 h. These results indicate that it is possible to control the properties of the EHD networks by varying the fabrication parameters, and that EHD networks support a viable cell population. PMID:17177269

Moreau, Jennifer L; Kesselman, Dafna; Fisher, John P

2007-06-01

191

Direct Detection of the Acetate-forming Activity of the Enzyme Acetate Kinase  

PubMed Central

Acetate kinase, a member of the acetate and sugar kinase-Hsp70-actin (ASKHA) enzyme superfamily1-5, is responsible for the reversible phosphorylation of acetate to acetyl phosphate utilizing ATP as a substrate. Acetate kinases are ubiquitous in the Bacteria, found in one genus of Archaea, and are also present in microbes of the Eukarya6. The most well characterized acetate kinase is that from the methane-producing archaeon Methanosarcina thermophila7-14. An acetate kinase which can only utilize PPi but not ATP in the acetyl phosphate-forming direction has been isolated from Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of amoebic dysentery, and has thus far only been found in this genus15,16. In the direction of acetyl phosphate formation, acetate kinase activity is typically measured using the hydroxamate assay, first described by Lipmann17-20, a coupled assay in which conversion of ATP to ADP is coupled to oxidation of NADH to NAD+ by the enzymes pyruvate kinase and lactate dehydrogenase21,22, or an assay measuring release of inorganic phosphate after reaction of the acetyl phosphate product with hydroxylamine23. Activity in the opposite, acetate-forming direction is measured by coupling ATP formation from ADP to the reduction of NADP+ to NADPH by the enzymes hexokinase and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase24. Here we describe a method for the detection of acetate kinase activity in the direction of acetate formation that does not require coupling enzymes, but is instead based on direct determination of acetyl phosphate consumption. After the enzymatic reaction, remaining acetyl phosphate is converted to a ferric hydroxamate complex that can be measured spectrophotometrically, as for the hydroxamate assay. Thus, unlike the standard coupled assay for this direction that is dependent on the production of ATP from ADP, this direct assay can be used for acetate kinases that produce ATP or PPi.

Fowler, Matthew L.; Ingram-Smith, Cheryl J.; Smith, Kerry S.

2011-01-01

192

Direct detection of the acetate-forming activity of the enzyme acetate kinase.  

PubMed

Acetate kinase, a member of the acetate and sugar kinase-Hsp70-actin (ASKHA) enzyme superfamily, is responsible for the reversible phosphorylation of acetate to acetyl phosphate utilizing ATP as a substrate. Acetate kinases are ubiquitous in the Bacteria, found in one genus of Archaea, and are also present in microbes of the Eukarya. The most well characterized acetate kinase is that from the methane-producing archaeon Methanosarcina thermophila. An acetate kinase which can only utilize PP(i) but not ATP in the acetyl phosphate-forming direction has been isolated from Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of amoebic dysentery, and has thus far only been found in this genus. In the direction of acetyl phosphate formation, acetate kinase activity is typically measured using the hydroxamate assay, first described by Lipmann, a coupled assay in which conversion of ATP to ADP is coupled to oxidation of NADH to NAD(+) by the enzymes pyruvate kinase and lactate dehydrogenase, or an assay measuring release of inorganic phosphate after reaction of the acetyl phosphate product with hydroxylamine. Activity in the opposite, acetate-forming direction is measured by coupling ATP formation from ADP to the reduction of NADP(+) to NADPH by the enzymes hexokinase and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Here we describe a method for the detection of acetate kinase activity in the direction of acetate formation that does not require coupling enzymes, but is instead based on direct determination of acetyl phosphate consumption. After the enzymatic reaction, remaining acetyl phosphate is converted to a ferric hydroxamate complex that can be measured spectrophotometrically, as for the hydroxamate assay. Thus, unlike the standard coupled assay for this direction that is dependent on the production of ATP from ADP, this direct assay can be used for acetate kinases that produce ATP or PP(i). PMID:22214984

Fowler, Matthew L; Ingram-Smith, Cheryl J; Smith, Kerry S

2011-01-01

193

Friction and wear behaviour of acetal and nylon gears  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current paper will present an extensive investigation of polymer gear (acetal and nylon) friction and wear behaviour. First, a unique test method for polymer gear wear will be described in brief and later used in the extensive investigation of acetal and nylon gear wear. Initial tests were performed using acetal pinions with acetal gears, and nylon pinions with nylon

K. Mao; W. Li; C. J. Hooke; D. Walton

2009-01-01

194

Spontaneous polymerization studies on methyl methacrylate and vinyl acetate in the presence of a cholesteric liquid crystal, cholesteryl 2-(ethoxy ethoxy) ethyl carbonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spontaneous polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) takes place in the presence of cholesteryl 2-(ethoxy ethoxy) ethyl carbonate (CHEEC) in liquid crystalline phase at 12.5°C and in isotropic phase at 30.0°C. Percentage of conversion increases, whereas molecular weight decreases, with increase in the concentration of CHEEC. Tacticities of the polymers (as analysed by NMR) are independent of the concentration of CHEEC.

D. D. Deshpande; A. V. Rao

1980-01-01

195

Synthetic Studies on Sialoglycoconjugates 9: An Efficient Method for the Selective Acetolysis of 2-(Trimethylsilyl)Ethyl Glycosides Using Ferric Chloride in Acetic Anhydride  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the first report of the synthesis and deblocking of some 2-(trimethylsilyl)ethyl (SE) glycosides by Lipshutz and coworkers, a few more papers appeared describing facile deprotection of the SE group in such glycosides or some of their derivatives. We have employed the SE glycosides of D-galactose, D-glucose, D-galacto-samine, D-glucosamine, D-lactose, and neuraminic acid very extensively in our work on oligosaccharide

K. P. R. Kartha; Makoto Kiso; Akira Hasegawa

1989-01-01

196

Inhibition of acetate ester biosynthesis in banana (Musa sapientum L.) fruit pulp under anaerobic conditions.  

PubMed

The effect of anaerobic conditions on acetate ester biosynthesis in ripened banana pulp was investigated. Incubation of the pulp in less than 1% O(2) resulted in a significant reduction in the formation of ethyl acetate. Regardless of the presence of a large amount of endogenous ethanol and the remaining exogenous isobutyl alcohol after complete anaerobic incubation with the pulp, the production of acetate ester decreased. The effect of addition of pyruvate, isobutyl alcohol, acetate, and methyl hexanoate on acetate ester formation in 100% N(2) was also investigated. The addition of pyruvate and isobutyl alcohol to the pulp gave lower acetate esters in N(2) than in air, whereas the pulp incubated with acetate and isobutyl alcohol produced more acetate ester in both conditions. Therefore, the lack of acetyl CoA, or more precisely acetate, in the tissue is the main reason for the inhibition of acetate ester formation under anaerobic conditions. The activity of beta-oxidation measured by incubation with methyl hexanoate was detected only in the samples incubated in air. The formation of acetyl CoA, derived from pyruvate through mitochondria and through beta-oxidation, was inhibited by anaerobic conditions, which suggests that mitochondrial activity and/or beta-oxidation are essential for ester biosynthesis. PMID:15030220

Wendakoon, Sumithra K; Ueda, Yoshinori; Imahori, Yoshihiro; Ishimaru, Megumi

2004-03-24

197

Calcination of calcium acetate and calcium magnesium acetate: effect of the reacting atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The calcination process of the calcium acetate (CA) and calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) was investigated as a previous step for coal gas desulfurisation during sorbent injection at high temperatures because the excellent results demonstrated by these sorbents as sulfur removal agents both in combustion and gasification processes. As pore structure developed during calcination is one of the most important characteristic

J. Adánez; L. F. de Diego; F. Garc??a-Labiano

1999-01-01

198

Correlation of vapor - liquid equilibrium data for acetic acid - isopropanol - water - isopropyl acetate mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A correlation procedure for the prediction of vapor - liquid equilibrium of acetic acid - isopropanol - water - isopropyl acetate mixtures has been developed. It is based on the NRTL model for predicting liquid activity coefficients, and on the Hayden-O'Connell second virial coefficients for predicting the vapor phase of systems containing association components. When compared with experimental data the

E. A. Campanella

2006-01-01

199

Tested Demonstrations: Buffer Capacity of Various Acetic Acid-Sodium Acetate Systems: A Lecture Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background information and procedures are provided for a lecture experiment which uses indicators to illustrate the concept of differing buffer capacities by titrating acetic acid/sodium acetate buffers with 1.0 molar hydrochloric acid and 1.0 molar sodium hydroxide. A table with data used to plot the titration curve is included. (JN)

Donahue, Craig J.; Panek, Mary G.

1985-01-01

200

Genera and species in acetic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

Taxonomic studies of acetic acid bacteria were historically surveyed. The genus Acetobacter was first introduced in 1898 with a single species, Acetobacter aceti. The genus Gluconobacter was proposed in 1935 for strains with intense oxidation of glucose to gluconic acid rather than oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid and no oxidation of acetate. The genus "Acetomonas" was described in 1954 for strains with polar flagellation and no oxidation of acetate. The proposals of the two generic names were due to confusion, and "Acetomonas" was a junior subjective synonym of Gluconobacter. The genus Acetobacter was in 1984 divided into two subgenera, Acetobacter and Gluconoacetobacter. The latter was elevated to the genus Gluconacetobacter in 1998. In the acetic acid bacteria, ten genera are presently recognized and accommodated to the family Acetobacteraceae, the Alphaproteobacteria: Acetobacteer, Gluconobacter, Acidomonas, Gluconacetobacter, Asaia, Kozakia, Swaminathania, Saccharibacter, Neoasaia and Granulibacter. In contrast, the genus Frateuria, strains of which were once named 'pseudacetic acid bacteria', was classified into the Gammaproteobacteria. The genus Gluconacetobacter was phylogenetically divided into two groups: the Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens group and the Gluconacetobacter xylinus group. The two groups were discussed taxonomically. PMID:18199517

Yamada, Yuzo; Yukphan, Pattaraporn

2008-06-30

201

Acetate reduces microglia inflammatory signaling in vitro  

PubMed Central

Acetate supplementation increases brain acetyl-CoA and histone acetylation and reduces lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroglial activation and interleukin (IL)-1? expression in vivo. To determine how acetate imparts these properties, we tested the hypothesis that acetate metabolism reduces inflammatory signaling in microglia. To test this, we measured the effect acetate treatment had on cytokine expression, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, histone H3 at lysine 9 acetylation, and alterations of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) in primary and BV-2 cultured microglia. We found that treatment induced H3K9 hyperacetylation and reversed LPS-induced H3K9 hypoacetylation similar to that found in vivo. LPS also increased IL-1?, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) mRNA and protein, while treatment returned the protein to control levels and only partially attenuated IL-6 mRNA. In contrast, treatment increased mRNA levels of transforming-growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) and both IL-4 mRNA and protein. LPS increased p38 MAPK and JNK phosphorylation at 4 and 2–4 hr respectively, while treatment reduced p38 MAPK and JNK phosphorylation only at 2 hr. In addition, treatment reversed the LPS-induced elevation of NF-?B p65 protein and phosphorylation at serine 468 and induced acetylation at lysine 310. These data suggest that acetate metabolism reduces inflammatory signaling and alters histone and non-histone protein acetylation.

Soliman, Mahmoud L.; Puig, Kendra L.; Combs, Colin K.; Rosenberger, Thad A.

2012-01-01

202

Atmospheric oxidation pathways of acetic acid.  

PubMed

One of the most abundant carboxylic acids measured in the atmosphere is acetic acid (CH(3)C(O)OH), present in rural, urban, and remote marine environments in the low-ppb range. Acetic acid concentrations are not well reproduced in global 3-D atmospheric models because of the poor inventory of sources and sinks to model its global distribution. To understand the complete oxidation of acetic acid in the atmosphere initiated by OH radicals, ab initio calculations are performed to describe in detail the energetics of the reaction potential energy surface (PES). The proposed reaction mechanism suggests that the CH(3)C(O)OH + OH reaction takes place via three pathways: the addition of OH to the central carbon, the abstraction of a methyl hydrogen, and the abstraction of an acidic hydrogen. The PES is characterized by prereactive H-complexes, transition states, and more interestingly unique radical-mediated isomerization reactions. From the analysis of the energetics, acetic acid atmospheric oxidation will proceed mainly via the abstraction of the acidic hydrogen, consistent with previous experimental and theoretical studies. The major byproducts from each pathway are identified. Glyoxylic acid is suggested to be a major byproduct of the atmospheric oxidation of acetic acid. The atmospheric fate of glyoxylic acid is discussed. PMID:16571046

Rosado-Reyes, Claudette M; Francisco, Joseph S

2006-04-01

203

Validation and uncertainty analysis of a multiresidue method for 42 pesticides in made tea, tea infusion and spent leaves using ethyl acetate extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A rapid, specific and sensitive multiresidue method to determine 42 pesticides in made tea, tea infusion and spent leaves has been developed and validated for the routine analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The method was reproducible (Horwitz ratio (HorRat) <0.5 at 50 ng/g) and validated by the analysis of sample spiked at 50 and 100 ng/g in made tea, tea infusion and spent leaves. The samples were extracted with ethyl acetate+cyclohexane (9:1; v/v), and the extracts were cleaned up by dispersive solid phase extraction with primary secondary amine sorbent+graphitized carbon black+Florisil. The recoveries of all the pesticides were between 70% and 120% with a relative standard deviation of less than 15% and correlation coefficient for each pesticide was R(2) > or =0.99. The matrix effect on signal of respective compounds was measured by comparing matrix-matched calibration standards with those in solvent-only. The limits of quantitation (LOQ) met the requirements of the maximum residue limits (MRLs) for pesticides in tea as recommended by the European Union. PMID:20149377

Kanrar, Bappaditya; Mandal, Sudeb; Bhattacharyya, Anjan

2010-03-19

204

Inhibitory effect of ethyl acetate extract of Aristolochia yunnanensis on cardiac fibrosis through extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 and transforming growth factor ?/small mother against decapentaplegic signaling pathways.  

PubMed

Aristolochia yunnanensis, known as Nan Mu Xiang in traditional Chinese medicine, has long been used to treat hypertension and chest pain. In this study, the effect of ethyl acetate extract of Nan Mu Xiang (NMX) on cardiac fibrosis was assessed in vitro by cultured adult rat cardiac fibroblasts with angiotensin II (AngII) stimulation, and in vivo by rats with abdominal aorta constriction (AAC). In cultured adult rat cardiac fibroblasts stimulated by AngII, NMX inhibited cardiac fibroblast proliferation, reduced the expression of fibronectin, ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), and transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) in a dose-dependent manner; and suppressed AngII-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, C- rapidly accelerated fibrosarcoma (C-Raf), and small mother against decapentaplegic (Smad) 2. Similar results were also observed in AAC rats with intraperitoneal injection of NMX, which not only ameliorated myocardial fibrosis, but also improved cardiac function. The therapeutic effect of NMX on myocardial fibrosis is attributed mainly to the inhibition of ERK and the TGF-?/Smad signaling pathways. NMX may be a promising potential drug candidate for myocardial fibrosis. PMID:24157579

Shao, Weiwei; Li, Dong; Peng, Jin; Chen, Shaorui; Zhou, Chun; Cheng, Zhongbin; Yu, Yang; Li, Hong; Li, Cuixian; You, Yan; Ma, Yunzi; Liu, Peiqing; Yin, Sheng; Shen, Xiaoyan

2014-02-01

205

An ethyl acetate fraction derived from Houttuynia cordata extract inhibits the production of inflammatory markers by suppressing NF-?B and MAPK activation in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages  

PubMed Central

Background Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (Saururaceae) has been used in traditional medicine for treatment of inflammatory diseases. This study evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of an ethyl acetate fraction derived from a Houttuynia cordata extract (HCE-EA) on the production of inflammatory mediators and the activation of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Methods To measure the effects of HCE-EA on pro-inflammatory cytokine and inflammatory mediator’s expression in RAW 264.7 cells, we used the following methods: cell viability assay, Griess reagent assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting analysis. Results HCE-EA downregulated nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and interleukin (IL-6) production in the cells, as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. Furthermore, HCE-EA suppressed nuclear translocation of the NF-?B p65 subunit, which correlated with an inhibitory effect on I?B? (nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha) phosphorylation. HCE-EA also attenuated the activation of MAPKs (p38 and JNK). Conclusions Our results suggest that the anti-inflammatory properties of HCE-EA may stem from the inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators via suppression of NF-?B and MAPK signaling pathways.

2014-01-01

206

Cytenamide trifluoro-acetic acid solvate  

PubMed Central

Cytenamide forms a 1:1 solvate with trifluoro­acetic acid (systematic name: 5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclo­hepta­triene-5-carboxamide trifluoro­acetic acid solvate), C16H13NO·C2HF3O2. The compound crystallizes with one mol­ecule of cytenamide and one of trifluoro­acetic acid in the asymmetric unit; these are linked by O—H?O and N—H?O hydrogen bonds to form an R 2 2(8) motif. The trifluoro­methyl group of the solvent mol­ecule displays rotational disorder over two sites, with site-occupancy factors of 0.964?(4) and 0.036?(4).

Johnston, Andrea; Florence, Alastair J.; Fabbiani, Francesca J. A.; Shankland, Kenneth; Bedford, Colin T.; Bardin, Julie

2008-01-01

207

Dynamic Protonation Equilibrium of Solvated Acetic Acid  

SciTech Connect

For the first time, the dynamic protonation equilibrium between an amino acid side chain analogue and bulk water as well as the diffusion properties of the excess proton were successfully reproduced through unbiased computer simulations. During a 50 ns Q-HOP MD simulation, two different regimes of proton transfer were observed. Extended phases of frequent proton swapping between acetic acid and nearby water were separated by phases where the proton freely diffuses in the simulation box until it is captured again by acetic acid. The pKa of acetic acid was calculated around 3.0 based on the relative population of protonated and deprotonated states and the diffusion coefficient of excess proton was computed from the average mean squared displacement in the simulation. Both calculated values agree well with the experimental measurements.

Gu, Wei; Frigato, Tomaso; Straatsma, TP; Helms, Volkhard H.

2007-04-13

208

The physicochemical property characterization of agar acetate.  

PubMed

A series of agar acetates with different degree of substitution (DS) were prepared, and their properties were determined and analyzed. The results showed that the gelling temperature, the gel melting temperature, the gel strength, the gel hardness, the gel fracturability, the gel springiness and the solution apparent viscosity of agar acetates all decreased except that their gel cohesiveness increased with the increase of DS. The variation process of agar molecules in solution from coil to helix could be also observed by measuring solution optical rotation in a lower concentration at which even the solution could not form a gel. The gel skeleton structures of agar acetates were of porous network structures, and the pores became smaller and denser with the increase of DS. After acetylation, the water holding capacity of the agar was improved, but its thermal stability was lowered. PMID:24906725

Xia, Kai; Liu, Xin; Zhao, Jingkun; Zhang, Xiaodong

2014-09-22

209

Leuprolide acetate-induced generalized papular eruption.  

PubMed

Leuprolide acetate, a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist, is used in the treatment of prostate cancer. We report a unique case of a disseminated papular rash following leuprolide acetate injections in a 65-year-old man that shares clinical and histopathological features of papuloerythroderma of Ofuji. Leuprolide-induced papuloerythroderma, as well as a limited number of other disseminated cutaneous eruptions caused by this drug, is extremely rare, with only one case previously reported. Our case calls attention to this uncommon side effect in a commonly used hormonal therapy.

J Drugs Dermatol. 2014;13(6):755-757. PMID:24918569

Burris, Katy; Ding, Catherine Y; Lim, Geoffrey F S

2014-06-01

210

Phorbol Myristate Acetate-Induced Macrophage Aggregation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) at nanomole concentrations induces a rapid aggregation of guinea pig macrophages. This aggregation is dependent on extracellular Mg2+ (but not Ca2+) for its development. Additionally, it is inhibited by some agents which also inhibit aggregation induced by lymphokines and the ionophore A23187. Although the mechanism of aggregation has not been determined, it does not appear to

P. Badenoch-Jones

1983-01-01

211

21 CFR 582.6185 - Calcium acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

21 Ç Food and Drugs Ç 6 Ç 2013-04-01 Ç 2013-04-01 Ç false Ç Calcium acetate. Ç 582.6185 Ç Section 582.6185 Ç Food and Drugs Ç FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) Ç ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS Ç SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE...

2013-04-01

212

Treatment of Pedophilia with Leuprolide Acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, the literature on the treatment of individuals who have committed sexual offenses has focused primarily on psychotherapeutic interventions and the use of antiandrogens. Recently case reports and small series supporting the efficacy of other psychiatric medication, such as serotonin reuptake inhibitors, have been published. Only a few publications have looked at the efficacy of leuprolide acetate, an LH-RH

Nancy Raymond; Bean Robinson; Chris Kraft; Barry Rittberg; Eli Coleman

2002-01-01

213

Corrosion of stainless steel during acetate production  

SciTech Connect

Corrosion of types 304, 304L, 316, and 316L stainless steel (SS) during the esterification of acetic acid and alcohol or glycol ether was investigated. The catalyst for this reaction, sulfuric acid or para-toluene sulfonic acid (PTSA), was shown to cause more corrosion on reactor equipment than CH{sub 3}COOH under the process conditions commonly practiced in industry. The corrosive action of the catalyst occurred only in the presence of water. Thus, for the batch processes, corrosion occurred mostly during the initial stage of esterification, where water produced by the reaction created an aqueous environment. After water was distilled off, the corrosion rate declined to a negligible value. The corrosion inhibitor copper sulfate, often used in industrial acetate processes, was found to work well for a low-temperature process (< 95 C) such as in production of butyl acetate, but it accelerated corrosion in the glycol ether acetate processes where temperatures were > 108 C. Process conditions that imparted low corrosion rates were determined.

Qi, J.S.; Lester, G.C. [Occidental Chemical Corp. Technology Center, Grand Island, NY (United States)

1996-07-01

214

Megestrol acetate in cachexia and anorexia.  

PubMed

The aim is to review major clinical trials that have used megestrol acetate (MA) in the treatment of cachexia across several disease states. A review of general usage and potential side-effects are discussed. A theory that the newly approved nanocrystal formation of MA can better deliver this potent medication for treatment will also be reviewed. PMID:17722275

Yeh, Shing-Shing; Schuster, Michael W

2006-01-01

215

Process for the preparation of vinyl acetate  

DOEpatents

This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting within a contact zone a mixture of ketene and acetaldehyde with an acid catalyst at about one bar pressure and between about 85 and 200 C and removing the reaction products from the contact zone.

Tustin, G.C.; Zoeller, J.R.; Depew, L.S.

1998-02-17

216

Sisal cellulose whiskers reinforced polyvinyl acetate nanocomposites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sisal nanowhiskers were used as novel reinforcement to obtain nanocomposites with polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) as matrix phase. They are seen as attractive materials due to the widespread availability and low cost of the sisal source material. Statistical analysis of the sisal whisker length and diameter resulted in average values of 250 nm and 4 nm, respectively, resulting in an average aspect ratio

Nancy Lis Garcia de Rodriguez; Wim Thielemans; Alain Dufresne

2006-01-01

217

Immunotoxicity of Trenbolone Acetate in Japanese Quail  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trenbolone acetate is a synthetic androgen that is currently used as a growth promoter in many meat-exporting countries. Despite industry laboratories classifying trenbolone as nonteratogenic, data showed that embryonic exposure to this androgenic chemical altered development of the immune system in Japanese quail. Trenbolone is lipophilic, persistent, and released into the environment in manure used as soil fertilizer. This is

Michael James Quinn; Moira McKernan; Emma T. Lavoie; Mary Ann Ottinger

2006-01-01

218

HOMOPOLYMERIZATION AND COPOLYMERIZATION OF VINYL ACETATE IN NONIONIC ICROEMULSIONS. I. A STUDY OF HOMOGENEITY DOMAINS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The homogeneity ranges of the systems consisting of the monomer (vinyl acetate or vinyl acetate + di-2-ethyl hexil maleate), cosurfactant (ethanol, n-propanol, n-butanol), surfactant (nonylphenol ethoxylate with 25 moles of ethylene oxide) and water were studied. Addition of the more hydrophobic comonomer requires utilization of a more hydrophobic cosurfactant. The increase of surfactant concentration entails the widening of the homogeneity

Dan Donescu; Liana Fusulan; Sever Serban; Filip Chiraleu; Cristian Petcu

1996-01-01

219

Regioselective enzymatic acetylation of the aglycone moiety of a secoiridoid glucoside. Two new secoiridoid glucoside acetates.  

PubMed

Candida antarctica lipase (CAL) catalyses the regioselective acetylation of the 10-hydroxyl group of 10-hydroxyoleoside dimethyl ester, a secoiridoid glucoside, using THF as a solvent and ethyl acetate or vinyl acetate as acetyl group suppliers. Two acetyl derivatives at 3'- and 6'-sites of the glucosidic ring of 10-acetoxyoleoside dimethylester, not previously described, were obtained by acetylation in the same conditions. PMID:15340202

Pérez, José Andrés; Boluda, Carlos; López, Hermelo; Trujillo, Juan Manvel; Hernández, José Manuel

2004-09-01

220

Synthesis of N-acyl-N,O-acetals mediated by titanium ethoxide.  

PubMed

N-Acyl-N,O-acetals are present in a number of bioactive natural products, and this unusual functional group can act as a synthetic precursor to unstable reactive N-acylimines. In this paper, a variety of N-acyl-O-ethyl-N,O-acetals was concisely prepared under mild conditions mediated by titanium ethoxide (Ti(OEt)4). The method also offers a new strategy to make other O-alkyl-N,O-acetals. Furthermore, this strategy was extended to the synthesis of an analogue of the natural product turtschamide. PMID:24308842

Li, Min; Luo, Bingling; Liu, Qi; Hu, Yumin; Ganesan, A; Huang, Peng; Wen, Shijun

2014-01-01

221

Ethyl acetate extract from Angelica Dahuricae Radix inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced production of nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2 and tumor necrosis factor-alphavia mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor-kappaB in macrophages.  

PubMed

Angelica dahurica (Umbelliferae) has been used to treat headache of common cold, supraorbital neuralgia, painful swelling on the body, nasal stuffiness, leukorrhea and arthralgia due to wind-dampness in Korean traditional medicine. It is also claimed to be effective in the treatment of acne, erythema, headache, toothache, sinusitis, colds and flu. The present study focused whether the ethyl acetate extract from Angelica Dahuricae Radix (EAAD) inhibits production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, as well as expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. EAAD inhibited LPS-induced NO, PGE(2) and TNF-alpha production as well as expression of iNOS and COX-2 in RAW 264.7 cells. EAAD inhibited LPS-induced TNF-alpha production in THP-1 cells. Furthermore, EAAD suppressed LPS-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and extracellular-signal regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2), I-kappaBalpha degradation, and NF-kappaB activation in RAW 264.7 cells. These results suggest that EAAD has the inhibitory effects on LPS-induced TNF-alpha, NO and PGE(2) production, and expression of iNOS and COX-2 in macrophage through blockade in the phosphorylation of MAPKs, following I-kappaBalpha degradation and NF-kappaB activation. PMID:17229575

Kang, Ok-Hwa; Lee, Go-Hoon; Choi, Hyuk Joon; Park, Pil Sang; Chae, Hee-Sung; Jeong, Seung-Il; Kim, Youn-Chul; Sohn, Dong Hwan; Park, Hyun; Lee, John Hwa; Kwon, Dong-Yeul

2007-04-01

222

Diminution of Hepatic Response to 7, 12-dimethylbenz(?)anthracene by Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Acacia catechu Willd. through Modulation of Xenobiotic and Anti-Oxidative Enzymes in Rats  

PubMed Central

Background Liver is the primary metabolizing site of body and is prone to damage by exogenous as well as endogenous intoxicants. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as 7, 12- dimethylbenz(?)anthracene (DMBA) is an exogenous hepatotoxin, which is well known for modulating phase I, II and anti-oxidative enzymes of liver. Plants contain plethora of polyphenolic compounds which can reverse the damaging effect of various xenobiotics. The present study investigated protective role of the ethyl acetate fraction of Acacia catechu Willd. (EAF) against DMBA induced alteration in hepatic metabolizing and anti-oxidative enzymes in rats. Methodology and Principal Findings The rats were subjected to hepatic damage by treating with DMBA for 7 weeks on alternative days and treatment schedule was terminated at the end of 14 weeks. The rats were euthanized at the end of protocol and livers were homogenized. The liver homogenates were used to analyse phase I (NADPH-cytochrome P450 reducatse, NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase, cytochrome P420, cytochrome b5), phase II (glutathione-S-transferase, DT diaphorase and ?-Glutamyl transpeptidase) and antioxidative enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, guiacol peroxidase and lactate dehydrogenase). Furthermore, other oxidative stress parameters (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, lipid hydroperoxides and conjugated dienes and reduced glutathione) and liver marker enzymes (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase and alkaline phosphatase) were also studied. The DMBA induced significant changes in activity of hepatic enzymes that was reversed by treatment with three dose levels of EAF. Conclusion It is concluded that EAF affords hepato-protection against DMBA in rats through modulation of phase I, II and anti-oxidative enzymes.

Kumar, Rakesh; Kaur, Rajbir; Singh, Amrit Pal; Arora, Saroj

2014-01-01

223

21 CFR 522.2477 - Trenbolone acetate and estradiol.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...confinement for slaughter â(i) Amount. (A) 120 milligrams (mg) trenbolone acetate and 24 mg estradiol (one implant consisting of 6 pellets, each pellet containing 20 mg trenbolone acetate and 4 mg estradiol) per implant dose....

2013-04-01

224

Separating acetic acid from furol (furfural) by electrodialysis method  

SciTech Connect

Furfural production by hydrolysis of fibrous plant materials is accompanied by formation of acetic acid in amounts depending on the material used. The amount of acetic formed in the hydrolysis of the fruit shell of oil-tea camellia (Camellia oleosa) (an oilseed-bearing tree) is equal to the amount of furfural. The acetic acid can be separated from the furfural and concentrated to 10% by electrodialysis. A smaller amount of furfural is separated with acetic acid.

Guan, S.F.; Li, C.S. Ye, S.T.; Shen, S.Y.; Wang, Y.T.; Yu, S.H.

1981-01-01

225

Gold-catalyzed cyclization of allenyl acetal derivatives  

PubMed Central

Summary The gold-catalyzed transformation of allenyl acetals into 5-alkylidenecyclopent-2-en-1-ones is described. The outcome of our deuterium labeling experiments supports a 1,4-hydride shift of the resulting allyl cationic intermediates because a complete deuterium transfer is observed. We tested the reaction on various acetal substrates bearing a propargyl acetate, giving 4-methoxy-5-alkylidenecyclopent-2-en-1-ones 4 via a degradation of the acetate group at the allyl cation intermediate.

Vasu, Dhananjayan; Pawar, Samir Kundlik

2013-01-01

226

l-Lysinium trifluoro-acetate  

PubMed Central

Ions of the title compound, C6H15N2O2 +·C2F3O2 ?, a new organic nonlinear optical crystal, are linked by N—H?O hydrogen-bonding inter­actions. Both the amino groups of the l-lysinium cation are protonated. A three-dimensional network of hydrogen bonds is observed, forming a closed ring. Inter­molecular N—H?O hydrogen bonds involving l-lysinium cations and trifluoro­acetate anions link the ions into extended chains which run parallel to the [010] direction. The F atoms of the trifluoro­acetate anion are disordered over two sites with site occupancies of 0.423?(18) and 0.577?(18). The asymmetric unit consists of two cations and two anions.

Sun, Zhi Hua; Fan, Jian Dong; Zhang, Guang Hui; Wang, Xin Qiang; Xu, Dong

2008-01-01

227

Acetate kinase: not just a bacterial enzyme.  

PubMed

The bacterial enzymes acetate kinase (AK) and phosphotransacetylase (PTA) form a key pathway for synthesis of the central metabolic intermediate acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) from acetate or for generation of ATP from excess acetyl-CoA. Putative AK genes have now been identified in some eukaryotic microbes. In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Phytophthora species, AK forms a pathway with PTA. AK has also been identified in non-yeast fungi but these fungi do not have PTA. Instead, AK forms a pathway with D-xylulose 5-phosphate phosphoketolase (XFP), a pathway that was also previously found only in bacteria. In Entamoeba histolytica, neither PTA nor XFP was found as a partner for AK. Thus, eukaryotic microbes seem to have incorporated the 'bacterial' enzyme AK into at least three different metabolic pathways. PMID:16678422

Ingram-Smith, Cheryl; Martin, Stephen R; Smith, Kerry S

2006-06-01

228

Acetic acid vapor levels associated with facial prosthetics  

SciTech Connect

The use of Silastic Medical Adhesive Type A in the fabrication of facial prostheses may cause health hazards to the patient and the operator because of acetic acid emissions. Caution must be exercised to remove acetic acid vapors from the air and unliberated acetic acid from material applied directly to the skin.

McElroy, T.H.; Guerra, O.N.; Lee, S.A.

1985-01-01

229

Synthesis, spectroscopic and structural studies of 4-Amino-3-(ethyl)-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole and 4-Amino-3-cyclopropyl-5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-1,2,4-triazole-1-yl-acetic acid ethyl ester  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The title compounds of 4-Amino-3-(ethyl)-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole (I, C10H11ClN4) and 4-Amino-3-cyclopropyl-5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl-acetic acid ethyl ester (II, C9H14N4O3), have been determined using X-ray diffraction techniques and characterized by IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR. X-ray study shows that the title compounds both have strong intermolecular Nsbnd H⋯N hydrogen bonds. The molecules of I are linked into a two-dimensional framework structure by Nsbnd H⋯N and Csbnd H⋯N hydrogen bonds which produce R22(8)R44(14)R44(15) chain of rings, while in II, the combination of Nsbnd H⋯N, Nsbnd H⋯O and Csbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds along [1 0 0] generates a chain of edge-fused R22(10)R22(16)R42(14) R44(14) rings.

?ahin, Onur; Kantar, Cihan; ?a?maz, Selami; Gümrükçüo?lu, Nurhan; Büyükgüngör, Orhan

2014-06-01

230

Phorbol myristate acetate-induced neutrophil autotoxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously shown that in the presence of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), neutrophils kill neoplastic cells as well as themselves. This PMA-induced neutrophil autotoxicity was markedly inhibited by catalase, suggesting that H2O2 directly or indirectly played an important role. In this study we compared PMA and H2O2 toxicity against human neutrophils. The effect of H2O2 was faster and more

Min-Fu Tsan; Rebecca C. Denison

1980-01-01

231

Calcium magnesium acetate production and cost reduction  

SciTech Connect

The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (Energy Authority), Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc. (ConEd), the New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT), the New York State Thruway Authority (NYSTA), Chevron Chemical Company, the National Corn Growers Association (NCGA), and the Massachusetts Department of Public Works (MDPW) sponsored a research program to develop technology capable of producing Calcium Magnesium Acetate (CMA), an alternative road deicer, at a quality and cost which will allow its increased use. The objectives of this program were to determine the feasibility of: (1) producing CMA from regionally available waste and low grade organic feedstocks via biochemical engineering technologies; (2) operating the fermentation at concentrated product levels to reduce energy requirements and minimize drying process costs; (3) using this production approach to produce an environmentally acceptable CMA product; and (4) using and adapting an existing facility for a CMA commercial demonstration plant. The experimental program included:(1) selection of microorganisms for their ability to grow in the absence of sodium chloride and to tolerate high concentrations of calcium, magnesium, and acetate ions; (2) analysis of waste feedstocks for their potential conversion to acetate; (3) analysis of waste organic material for impurities in CMA that could carry over into the environment; (4) batch experiments to determine pH tolerance, growth in the absence of sodium chloride (NaCl), tolerance to magnesium, calcium and acetate ions, effect of substrate concentration, acid distribution, and acid production; and (5) semi-continuous laboratory scale anaerobic digestion experiments to determine loading rates, conversion efficiencies, and other design data. 67 refs., 33 figs., 66 tabs.

Leuschner, A.P.

1988-02-01

232

Corrosion of Stainless Steel During Acetate Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corrosion of types 304, 304L, 316, and 316L stainless steel (SS) during the esterification of acetic acid and alcohol or glycol ether was investigated. The catalyst for this reaction, sulfuric acid or para-toluene sulfonic acid (PTSA), was shown to cause more corrosion on reactor equipment than CHâCOOH under the process conditions commonly practiced in industry. The corrosive action of the

J. S. Qi; G. C. Lester

1996-01-01

233

21 CFR 173.228 - Ethyl acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN...conditions: (a) The additive meets the specifications...locations.html. (b) The additive is used in accordance with current good manufacturing practice as a solvent...

2013-04-01

234

Ultrasound-assisted dyeing of cellulose acetate.  

PubMed

The possibility of reducing the use of auxiliaries in conventional cellulose acetate dyeing with Disperse Red 50 using ultrasound technique was studied as an alternative to the standard procedure. Dyeing of cellulose acetate yarn was carried out by using either mechanical agitation alone, with and without auxiliaries, or coupling mechanical and ultrasound agitation in the bath where the temperature range was maintained between 60 and 80 °C. The best results of dyeing kinetics were obtained with ultrasound coupled with mechanical agitation without auxiliaries (90% of bath exhaustion value at 80 °C). Hence the corresponding half dyeing times, absorption rate constants according to Cegarra-Puente modified equation and ultrasound efficiency were calculated confirming the synergic effect of sonication on the dyeing kinetics. Moreover the apparent activation energies were also evaluated and the positive effect of ultrasound added to mechanical agitation was evidenced by the lower value (48 kJ/mol) in comparison with 112 and 169 kJ/mol for mechanical stirring alone with auxiliaries and without, respectively. Finally, the fastness tests gave good values for samples dyed with ultrasound technique even without auxiliaries. Moreover color measurements on dyed yarns showed that the color yield obtained by ultrasound-assisted dyeing at 80 °C of cellulose acetate without using additional chemicals into the dye bath reached the same value yielded by mechanical agitation, but with remarkably shorter time. PMID:24457001

Udrescu, C; Ferrero, F; Periolatto, M

2014-07-01

235

Tumor-promoting Activity of 2,3-Dihydrophorbol Myristate Acetate and Phorbolol Myristate Acetate in Mouse Skin1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phorbolol myristate acetate (PHMA) had been previ ously prepared from the potent mouse skin tumor pro moter phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) by sodium boro- hydride reduction of the C-5 carbonyl group in PMA to a secondary alcohol. PHMA was shown to have an inflam matory effect in mouse skin equal to that of PMA. 2,3- Dihydrophorbol myristate acetate (DPMA), a

A. Segal; B. L. Van Duuren; J. J. Solomon; I. Seidman; A. Smith; S. Melchionne

236

Acetate absorption in the normal and secreting rat jejunum.  

PubMed Central

Acetate absorption was studied in rat jejunum using steady state perfusion in vivo. Absorption conformed to apparent saturation kinetics and was similar in magnitude to glucose absorption. When compared with normal saline, acetate perfusion was associated with luminal alkalinisation. There was no difference in total CO2 secretion when similar rates of acetate and glucose absorption were compared, suggesting that total CO2 secretion was the result of mucosal metabolism. Absorption of acetate and propionate were mutually inhibitory. Acetate absorption was also inhibited by Tris-Hepes pH 7.0. When the gut was pretreated with cholera toxin to induce a secretory state, acetate absorption was reduced by 41.9%. This effect could be reproduced if similar water secretion was osmotically induced by the addition of mannitol. These data suggest that acetate is absorbed, at least, partially by non-ionic diffusion in the rat jejunum and that its absorption is reduced in the secreting intestine by solvent drag.

Watson, A J; Elliott, E J; Rolston, D D; Borodo, M M; Farthing, M J; Fairclough, P D

1990-01-01

237

Calcium Magnesium Acetate at Lower-Production Cost: Production of CMA Deicer from Cheese Whey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Calcium magnesium acetate (CMA), a mixture of calcium acetate and magnesium acetate, is used as an environmentally benign roadway deicer. The present commercial CMA deicer made from glacial acetic acid and dolomitic lime or limestone is expensive compared...

H. Zhu S. T. Yang W. Qin Y. Huang Y. L. Huang Z. Jin

1999-01-01

238

Acetate supplementation attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation  

PubMed Central

Glyceryl triacetate (GTA), a compound effective at increasing circulating and tissue levels of acetate was used to treat rats subjected to a continual 28 day intra-ventricular infusion of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This model produces a neuroinflammatory injury characterized by global neuroglial activation and a decrease in choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity in the basal forebrain. During the LPS infusion, rats were given a daily treatment of either water or GTA at a dose of 6g/kg by oral gavage. In parallel experiments free-CoA and acetyl-CoA levels were measured in microwave fixed brains and flash frozen heart, liver, kidney and muscle following a single oral dose of GTA. We found that a single oral dose of GTA significantly increased plasma acetate levels by 15 min and remained elevated for up to 4 hr. At 30 min the acetyl-CoA levels in microwave-fixed brain and flash frozen heart and liver were increased at least 2.2-fold. The concentrations of brain acetyl-CoA was significantly increased between 30 and 45 min following treatment and remained elevated for up to 4 hr. The concentration of free-CoA in brain was significantly decreased compared to controls at 240 min. Immunohistochemical and morphological analysis demonstrated that a daily treatment with GTA significantly reduced the percentage of reactive GFAP-positive astrocytes and activated CD11b-positive microglia by 40–50% in rats subjected to LPS-induced neuroinflammation. Further, in rats subjected to neuroinflammation, GTA significantly increased the number of ChAT-positive cells by 40% in the basal forebrain compared to untreated controls. These data suggest that acetate supplementation increases intermediary short chain acetyl-CoA metabolism and that treatment is potentially anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective with regards to attenuating neuroglial activation and increasing ChAT immunoreactivity in this model.

Reisenauer, Chris J.; Bhatt, Dhaval P.; Mitteness, Dane J.; Slanczka, Evan R.; Gienger, Heidi M.; Watt, John A.; Rosenberger, Thad A.

2011-01-01

239

Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activity of Di-(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate and Anhydrosophoradiol-3-acetate Isolated from Calotropis gigantea (Linn.) Flower  

PubMed Central

A phytochemical study on the flowe r of Calotropis gigantea (Linn.) using silica gel column chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography, led to the first time isolation of Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (compound 1) and anhydrosophoradiol-3-acetate (compound 2). The structures of these compounds were confirmed by spectroscopic analyses (IR, HRTOFMS and NMR). The antibacterial and antifungal activities of ethyl acetate extract, compound 1 and compound 2 were measured using the disc diffusion method. Ethyl acetate extract and compound 1 presented better results than compound 2. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the extract and compounds were found to be in the range of 16~128 µg/ml. The cytotoxicity (LC50) against brine shrimp nauplii (Artemia salina) were also evaluated and found to be 14.61 µg/ml for ethyl acetate, 9.19 µg/ml for compound 1 and 15.55 µg/ml for compound 2.

Habib, M. Rowshanul

2009-01-01

240

Novel degradable polymer networks containing acetal components  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel copolymer network with acetal structure was prepared using bis[4-(vinyloxy)butyl] (4-methyl-1,3-phenylene)biscarbamate\\u000a (BECT) as the crosslinking agent. Firstly, a tri-copolymer of maleic anhydride (MAn), n-butyl vinyl ether (BVE) and 4-hydroxybutyl vinyl ether (HBVE) was synthesized via free-radical polymerization with 2,2?-azobisisobutyronitrile\\u000a as the initiator. The tri-copolymer consisted of two sorts of alternating units, MAn-alt-BVE and MAn-alt-HBVE. The linear copolymer Poly((MAn-alt-BVE)-co-(MAn-alt-HBVE)) with

XinCe Sui; Yan Shi; ZhiFeng Fu

2011-01-01

241

Compatibility studies on solution of polystyrene and polyvinyl acetate blend by density and viscometric methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Density and viscometric studies were conducted on solutions of blends of polystyrene (PS) and polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) at 30 °C in toluene, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) and tetrahydrofuran (THF) at 2% total solid content. Experimental densities of the blends were found to be lower than the calculated values assuming additivity of volumes of polymers and solvent. The plots of relative

P. A. A. P. Mamza; F. M. Folaranmi

1996-01-01

242

MASCULINIZATION OF TILAPIA BY IMMERSION IN TRENBOLONE ACETATE: GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF TRENBOLONE ACETATE-IMMERSED TILAPIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary studies in our laboratory showed that the synthetic androgen trenbolone acetate (TA) is a good candidate for masculinizing Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fry using short immersions. In this study we investigated the effects of TA treatment on the growth performance of Nile tilapia. We tested the potential anabolic effects of two treatments by growing treated and control fish for

Wilfrido M. Contreras-Sánchez; Martin S. Fitzpatrick; Carl B. Schreck

243

MASCULINIZATION OF TILAPIA BY IMMERSION IN TRENBOLONE ACETATE: DETECTION OF TRENBOLONE ACETATE AFTER TREATMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous experiments we have found that two 3-hour immersions in trenbolone acetate (TA) can successfully masculinize Nile tilapia fry. In this study we are investigating how the concentration of TA in the immersion water changes before and after treatment to determine the amount of hormone uptake and estimate the potential for reuse of the treatment water. Nile tilapia fry

Wilfrido M. Contreras-Sánchez; Martin S. Fitzpatrick; Carl B. Schreck

244

Micro-mold fabrication using cellulose acetate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymer materials offer numerous advantages including flexible, low cost large area displays, lightweight, easy processing, good compatibility with a variety of substrates, and easy for structural modifications. Recently electro-active polymers (EAP) have been attractive due to their potential advantages including ease of processing and control, mechanical flexibility, and economical advantage. Recently electro-active paper (EAPap) was discovered as a smart material and as an actuating material with ionic and piezoelectric effects. Before cellulose acetate (CA) micro-pattern fabrication, solvent effect of micro or nano-pore formation was investigated. Since the micropore scatter the visible light, micropores give negative effect to apply optical device. The solvent mixture of acetone/dimethylacetamide (DMAc) created large amount of micro or nanopores. The resulting films were not transparent. However, volatile single solvent (acetone) did not form pores and gave transparent film. The various shapes of photoresist, such as circle and honeycomb patterns, were fabricated onto the silicon wafer to use as the mold. Cellulose acetate (CA) was poured to the mold and peeled off from the mold. The resulting pattern exhibited uniform size of the circle or honeycomb shape without defect.

Cho, K. Y.; Lim, H. K.; Chen, Y.; Kim, Jaehwan; Kang, K. S.

2007-04-01

245

Dielectric relaxation of ? -tocopherol acetate (vitamin E)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dielectric loss spectra are reported for ? -tocopherol acetate (an isomer of vitamin E) in the supercooled and glassy states. The ? -relaxation times, ?? , measured over a 190° range of temperatures, T , at pressures, P , up to 400MPa can be expressed as a single function of TV3.9 ( V is specific volume, measured herein as a function of T and P ). At ambient pressure, there is no dynamic crossover over eight decades of measured ?? . The relaxation spectra above the glass transition temperature Tg show ionic conductivity and an excess wing on the high-frequency flank of the ? -relaxation loss peak. Temperature-pressure superpositioning is valid for the ? process; moreover, the peak shape is constant (stretch exponent equal to 0.65). However, application of pressure changes the shape of the dielectric spectrum at higher frequencies due to the shift of the excess wing to form a resolved peak. Additionally, another relaxation process, absent at atmospheric pressure, emerges on the high-frequency side of the ? -process. We propose that this new peak reflects a more compact conformation of the ? -tocopherol acetate molecule. Drawing on the coupling model, the experimentally determined relaxation times, activation energy, and activation volume for the Johari-Goldstein process are compared to values calculated from the properties of the ? relaxation. The agreement is generally satisfactory, at least for T

Kaminski, K.; Maslanka, S.; Ziolo, J.; Paluch, M.; McGrath, K. J.; Roland, C. M.

2007-01-01

246

Atmospheric formic and acetic acids: An overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interest in the role of organic acids as chemical constituents in troposphere has been growing rapidly over the past couple of decades. In addition to their presence in the atmosphere in a variety of phases, organic acids are important constituents of the global troposphere and contribute a large fraction (˜25%) to the nonmethane hydrocarbon atmospheric mixture. They contribute significantly to the acidity of precipitation and cloud water, especially in remote regions. In this review, we consider the information presently available on concentration distribution of formic and acetic acids in multiple phases and their sources in different geographical locations, i.e., midlatitude continental, tropical continental and marine sites. Photochemical reactions (i.e., ozone-olefin reaction, isoprene oxidation, gas phase reaction of formaldehyde with HO2, and aqueous phase oxidation of formaldehyde) are important sources of these acids. In midlatitude continental regions, possible sources of formic and acetic acids, in addition to photochemical reactive vehicular emission, are direct emission from vegetation and biomass burning. In tropical continental sites, direct emission from vehicles, ants, soil, vegetation, and biomass burning are the important source of these species. The probable sources at marine locations are photochemical reactions, biogenic emissions, and long-range transport from continental sites.

Khare, Puja; Kumar, N.; Kumari, K. M.; Srivastava, S. S.

1999-05-01

247

Facile pulping of lignocellulosic biomass using choline acetate.  

PubMed

Treating ground bagasse or Southern yellow pine in the biodegradable ionic liquid (IL), choline acetate ([Cho][OAc]), at 100°C for 24h led to dissolution of hemicellulose and lignin, while leaving the cellulose pulp undissolved, with a 54.3% (bagasse) or 34.3% (pine) reduction in lignin content. The IL solution of the dissolved biopolymers can be separated from the undissolved particles either by addition of water (20wt% of IL) followed by filtration or by centrifugation. Hemicellulose (19.0wt% of original bagasse, 10.2wt% of original pine, containing 14-18wt% lignin) and lignin (5.0wt% of original bagasse, 6.0wt% of original pine) could be subsequently precipitated. The pulp obtained from [Cho][OAc] treatment can be rapidly dissolved in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (e.g., 17h for raw bagasse vs. 7h for pulp), and precipitated as cellulose-rich material (CRM) with a lower lignin content (e.g., 23.6% for raw bagasse vs. 10.6% for CRM). PMID:24874879

Cheng, Fangchao; Wang, Hui; Chatel, Gregory; Gurau, Gabriela; Rogers, Robin D

2014-07-01

248

Aspects of the thermal oxidation of ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal oxidation of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer [EVA-17 and 28% w\\/w VA (vinyl acetate) units] has been examined by thermo-gravimetric and hydroperoxide analysis, FTIR (Fourier transform infra-red) fluorescence spectroscopy and yellowness index. Thermal analysis indicates the initial loss of acetic acid followed by oxidation and breakdown of the main chain. The degradation rate is greater in an oxygen atmosphere as

Norman S. Allen; Michele Edge; Miguel Rodriguez; Cristopher M. Liauw; Eusebio Fontan

2000-01-01

249

Mesophilic syntrophic acetate oxidation during methane formation in biogas reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reaction pathway for the formation of methane from acetate was investigated in sludge from 13 different biogas reactors. By following the conversion of [2-14C]acetate and [14C]bicarbonate it was shown that methane formation by syntrophic acetate oxidation was the dominating mechanism for acetotrophic methanogenesis in sludge containing high levels of salts, mainly ammonium, and volatile fatty acids. In one biogas

Anna Schnürer; Gerhard Zellner; Bo H. Svensson

1999-01-01

250

Acetate metabolism and its regulation in Corynebacterium glutamicum.  

PubMed

The amino acid producing Corynebacterium glutamicum grows aerobically on a variety of carbohydrates and organic acids as single or combined sources of carbon and energy. Among the substrates metabolized are glucose and acetate which both can also serve as substrates for amino acid production. Based on biochemical, genetic and regulatory studies and on quantitative determination of metabolic fluxes during utilization of acetate and/or glucose, this review summarizes the present knowledge on the different steps of the fundamental pathways of acetate utilization in C. glutamicum, namely, on acetate transport, acetate activation, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, glyoxylate cycle and gluconeogenesis. It becomes evident that, although the pathways of acetate utilization follow the same theme in many bacteria, important biochemical, genetic and regulatory peculiarities exist in C. glutamicum. Recent genome wide and comparative expression analyses in C. glutamicum cells grown on glucose and on acetate substantiated previously identified transcriptional regulation of acetate activating enzymes and of glyoxylate cycle enzymes. Additionally, a variety of genes obviously also under transcriptional control in response to the presence or absence of acetate in the growth medium were uncovered. These genes, thus also belonging to the acetate stimulon of C. glutamicum, include genes coding for TCA cycle enzymes (e.g. aconitase and succinate dehydrogenase), for gluconeogenesis (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase), for glycolysis (pyruvate dehydrogenase E1) and genes coding for proteins with hitherto unknown function. Although the basic mechanism of transcriptional regulation of the enzymes involved in acetate metabolism is not yet understood, some recent findings led to a better understanding of the adaptation of C. glutamicum to acetate at the molecular level. PMID:12948633

Gerstmeir, Robert; Wendisch, Volker F; Schnicke, Stephanie; Ruan, Hong; Farwick, Mike; Reinscheid, Dieter; Eikmanns, Bernhard J

2003-09-01

251

Determination of Indole Acetic Acid by the Salkowsky Reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

RECENTLY attention has been focused on the reaction of indole acetic acid with ferric ions. Cohen et al.1 have shown that indole acetic acid forms a chelate with iron at acid pH and this has been confirmed by Recaldin and Heath2. The latter state that at pH 2.6 iron slowly decomposes the indole acetic acid in the solution. The oxidation

A. M. Mayer

1958-01-01

252

Microbial removal of acetate selectively from sugar mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetic acid is an unavoidable constituent of the biomass hydrolysates generated from acetylated hemicellulose and lignin,\\u000a and acetate affects the performance of microbes used to convert these hydrolysates into biofuels or other biochemicals. In\\u000a this study, acetate was selectively removed from synthetic mixtures of glucose and xylose using metabolically engineered Escherichia\\u000a coli strains having mutations in the glucose phosphotransferase system

Arun Lakshmanaswamy; Eashwar Rajaraman; Mark A. Eiteman; Elliot Altman

253

Synthesis and characterization of cyclic acetal based degradable hydrogels.  

PubMed

While many synthetic, hydrolytically degradable hydrogels have been developed for biomedical applications, there are only a few examples whose polymer backbone does not form acidic products upon degradation. In order to address this concern, we proposed to develop a hydrogel based on a cyclic acetal unit that produces diols and propanals upon hydrolytic degradation. In particular, we proposed the fabrication of hydrogels formed by the free radical polymerization of two diacrylate monomers, 5-ethyl-5-(hydroxymethyl)-beta,beta-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane-2-ethanol diacrylate (EHD), a cyclic acetal having two acryl groups, and poly(ethylene glycol)diacrylate (PEGDA). However, the hydrophobicity of the EHD monomer inhibits hydrogel fabrication. Therefore this work develops a strategy to form hydrogels with a co-monomer system, one of which is hydrophobic, and subsequently describes the properties of the resulting hydrogel. Using benzoyl peroxide as an initiator and N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine as an accelerator, the EHD and PEGDA monomers were reacted in an acetone/water co-solvent system. The chemical structure of the resulting EH-PEG [5-ethyl-5-(hydroxymethyl)-beta,beta-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane-2-ethanol-co-PEG] hydrogel was then characterized by FT-IR. Physicochemical properties of the EH-PEG hydrogel, including swelling degree, sol fraction, and contact angle, were determined so as to characterize the properties of these materials and ultimately investigate their use in drug delivery and tissue engineering applications. Results showed that EH-PEG hydrogel may be formed using the co-solvent system. Further results indicated that swelling degree is dependent upon initiator concentration, monomer concentration, and molar ratios of monomers, while sol fraction significantly depended on initiator concentration and monomer concentration, only. These results demonstrate the ability to fabricate hydrogels using EHD and PEGDA system as well as to control the properties of the resulting hydrophilic networks. PMID:17888640

Kaihara, Sachiko; Matsumura, Shuichi; Fisher, John P

2008-01-01

254

Recovery of acetic acid from waste streams by extractive distillation.  

PubMed

Wastes have been considered to be a serious worldwide environmental problem in recent years. Because of increasing pollution, these wastes should be treated. However, industrial wastes can contain a number of valuable organic components. Recovery of these components is important economically. Using conventional distillation techniques, the separation of acetic acid and water is both impractical and uneconomical, because it often requires large number of trays and a high reflux ratio. In practice special techniques are used depending on the concentration of acetic acid. Between 30 and 70% (w/w) acetic acid contents, extractive distillation was suggested. Extractive distillation is a multicomponent-rectification method similar in purpose to azeotropic distillation. In extractive distillation, to a binary mixture which is difficult or impossible to separate by ordinary means, a third component termed an entrainer is added which alters the relative volatility of the original constituents, thus permitting the separation. In our department acetic acid is used as a solvent during the obtaining of cobalt(III) acetate from cobalt(II) acetate by an electrochemical method. After the operation, the remaining waste contains acetic acid. In thiswork, acetic acid which has been found in this waste was recovered by extractive distillation. Adiponitrile and sulfolane were used as high boiling solvents and the effects of solvent feed rate/solution feed rate ratio and type were investigated. According to the experimental results, it was seem that the recovery of acetic acid from waste streams is possible by extractive distillation. PMID:12862234

Demiral, H; Yildirim, M Ercengiz

2003-01-01

255

Grape contribution to wine aroma: production of hexyl acetate, octyl acetate, and benzyl acetate during yeast fermentation is dependent upon precursors in the must.  

PubMed

Wine is a complex consumer product produced predominately by the action of yeast upon grape juice musts. Model must systems have proven ideal for studies of the effects of fermentation conditions on the production of certain wine volatiles. To identify grape-derived precursors to acetate esters, model fermentation systems were developed by spiking precursors into model must at different concentrations. Solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatgraphy mass spectrometry analysis of the fermented wines showed that a variety of grape-derived aliphatic alcohols and aldehydes are precursors to acetate esters. The C6 compounds hexan-1-ol, hexenal, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, and (E)-2-hexenal are all precursors to hexyl acetate, and octanol and benzyl alcohol are precursors to octyl acetate and benzyl acetate, respectively. In these cases, the postfermentation concentration of an acetate ester increased proportionally with the prefermentation concentration of the respective precursor in the model must. Determining viticultural or winemaking methods to alter the prefermentation concentration of precursor compounds or change the precursor-to-acetate ester ratio will have implications upon the final flavor and aroma of wines. PMID:22332880

Dennis, Eric G; Keyzers, Robert A; Kalua, Curtis M; Maffei, Suzanne M; Nicholson, Emily L; Boss, Paul K

2012-03-14

256

Polypyrrole based strong acid catalyst for acetalization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Novel polypyrrole based acid catalyst has been synthesized through the neutralization reaction of polypyrrole and sulfuric acid. The polypyrrole based acid owned the acidity as high as 6.0 mmol/g, which was much higher than that of the traditional solid acids such as Nafion and Amberlyst-15 (0.8 mmol/g). The catalytic activities of the novel solid acid were investigated through the acetalization. The results showed that the novel solid acid held high activities for the reactions. Furthermore, the recycled activities of the catalyst indicated that the solid acid owned high stability during the catalytic process and little acid sites dropped from polypyrrole. The high acidity and stability made the novel polypyrrole based acid hold great potential for the green chemical processes.

Liang, Xuezheng; Cheng, Yuxiao; Qi, Chenze

2011-09-01

257

Dihydro-myricetin hexa-acetate.  

PubMed

In the title compound, C(27)H(24)O(14), also known as 2,3-di-acetoxy-5-[(2RS,3RS)-3,5,7-triacetoxy-4-oxochromen-2-yl]phenyl acetate, the heterocyclic ring adopts a distorted half-chair conformation, with two C atoms displaced by 0.1775?(16) and -0.5950?(16)?Å from the mean plane of the other four atoms. The dihedral angle between the aromatic rings is 57.81?(8)°. In the crystal, the mol-ecules inter-act by C-H?O bonds, aromatic ?-? stacking [centroid-centroid separation = 3.6206?(9)?Å] and C-H?? inter-actions. PMID:21587600

Li, Wei; Bhadbhade, Mohan; Hook, James; Zhao, Jian

2010-01-01

258

Synthesis and regeneration of lead (IV) acetate  

SciTech Connect

Lead acetate [Pb(O{sub 2}CMe){sub 4}] was easily synthesized from a warm solution of Pb{sub 3}O{sub 4}, HO{sub 2}CMe and O(OCMe){sub 2} following literature preparations when the appropriate measures to minimize water contamination were followed. Furthermore, Pb(O{sub 2}CMe){sub 4} which has been decomposed (evidenced by the appearance of a purple color due to oxidation) can be regenerated using a similar preparatory route. Introduction of Pb(O{sub 2}CMe){sub 4} from the two routes outlined above into the IMO process for production of PZT thin films gave films with comparable ferroelectric properties to commercially available Pb(O{sub 2}CMe){sub 4} precursors. However, the freshly synthesized material yields PZT films with better properties compared to the recycled material.

Boyle, T.J.; Al-Shareef, H.N.; Moore, G.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Materials Lab.

1996-11-01

259

Indole-3-acetic Acid in Douglas Fir  

PubMed Central

We sought evidence for the occurrence and seasonal variation of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in shoots of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco). Collections obtained in December and June were extracted with methanol and diethyl ether. Extracts were purified by solvent partitioning and with Sephadex LH-20. Qualitative and quantitative information was acquired by gas-liquid chromatography of methyl, trimethylsilyl, or both derivatives of plant extract components. Analysis was performed with polar (XE-60) and moderately polar (Hi-Eff-8-BP) stationary phases. Results from three collections demonstrated that IAA does occur in Douglas fir and that amounts vary seasonally. Mass analysis of the proposed endogenous IAA peak from two representative extracts supported gas-liquid chromatography data and established the presence of IAA in Douglas fir.

Deyoe, David R.; Zaerr, Joe B.

1976-01-01

260

Potassium acetate adds flexibility to drilling muds  

SciTech Connect

Potassium acetate (KC/sub 2/H/sub 3/O/sub 2/, or simply KAC), since 1986, has proven effective as a drilling fluid additive in over 30 wells both onshore and offshore South Texas. KAC has given potassium-base drilling fluids more flexibility, improved efficiency, and offered an environmentally acceptable alternative to potassium chloride (KCl) muds. The use of soluble potassium in drilling fluids has been successful in controlling troublesome shales. The potassium ion has a stabilizing effect that inhibits the swelling and dispersion of water-sensitive shale formations. KAC is completely soluble in fresh or saltwater and provides 40%, by weight, potassium. This compares favorably with other potassium-containing materials.

Gillenwater, K.E.; Ray, C.R.

1989-03-20

261

Ethyl 2-{5-[(3-oxo-3,4-di-hydro-2H-1,4-benzo-thia-zin-4-yl)meth-yl]-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl}acetate.  

PubMed

In the title compound, C15H16N4O3S, the six-membered heterocycle of the benzo-thia-zine fragment exhibits a screw boat conformation. The dihedral angle between the planes through the triazole ring and the benzene ring fused to the 1,4-thia-zine ring is 62.98?(11)°. The mean plane formed by the atoms belonging to the acetate group is nearly perpendicular to the triazole ring [dihedral angle = 74.65?(12)°]. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by pairs of C-H?O inter-actions, forming dimeric aggregates. PMID:24764845

Sebbar, Nada Kheira; Zerzouf, Abdelfettah; Essassi, El Mokhtar; Saadi, Mohamed; El Ammari, Lahcen

2014-02-01

262

Toughening of poly(lactic acid) by ethylene- co-vinyl acetate copolymer with different vinyl acetate contents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The well-known bio-based and biocompostable poly(lactic acid), PLA, suffers from brittleness and a low heat distortion temperature. In this paper, we address a possible route to make PLA tough(er) by blending with ethylene-co-vinyl acetate (EVA) with different vinyl acetate contents. The compatibility and phase morphology of the PLA\\/EVA blends was controlled by the ratio of vinyl acetate and ethylene in

P. Ma; D. G. Hristova-Bogaerds; J. G. P. Goossens; Y. Zhang; P. J. Lemstra

2012-01-01

263

Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid by an enzyme preparation from Zea mays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Indole-3-acetic acid is oxidized to oxindole-3-acetic acid by Zea mays tissue extracts. Shoot, root, and endosperm tissues have enzyme activities of 1 to 10 picomoles per hour per milligram protein. The enzyme is heat labile, is soluble, and requires oxygen for activity. Cofactors of mixed function oxygenase, peroxidase, and intermolecular dioxygenase are not stimulatory to enzymic activity. A heat-stable, detergent-extractable component from corn enhances enzyme activity 6- to 10-fold. This is the first demonstration of the in vitro enzymic oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid in higher plants.

Reinecke, D. M.; Bandurski, R. S.

1988-01-01

264

Oxidation of Indole-3-Acetic Acid to Oxindole-3-Acetic Acid by an Enzyme Preparation from Zea mays1  

PubMed Central

Indole-3-acetic acid is oxidized to oxindole-3-acetic acid by Zea mays tissue extracts. Shoot, root, and endosperm tissues have enzyme activities of 1 to 10 picomoles per hour per milligram protein. The enzyme is heat labile, is soluble, and requires oxygen for activity. Cofactors of mixed function oxygenase, peroxidase, and intermolecular dioxygenase are not stimulatory to enzymic activity. A heat-stable, detergent-extractable component from corn enhances enzyme activity 6- to 10-fold. This is the first demonstration of the in vitro enzymic oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid in higher plants.

Reinecke, Dennis M.; Bandurski, Robert S.

1988-01-01

265

Dispersibility and emulsion-stabilizing effect of cellulose nanowhiskers esterified by vinyl acetate and vinyl cinnamate.  

PubMed

The surface of cotton cellulose nanowhiskers (CNW's) was esterified by vinyl acetate (VAc) and vinyl cinnamate (VCin), in the presence of potassium carbonate as catalyst. Reactions were performed under microwave activation and monitored by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The supramolecular structure of CNW's before and after modification was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Distinctively from the acetylation treatment, an increase in particles dimensions was noted after esterification with VCin, which was assigned to ?-? stacking interactions that may exist between cinnamoyl moieties. The dispersibility and emulsion stabilizing effect of acylated CNW's was examined in ethyl acetate, toluene, and cyclohexane, three organic solvents of medium to low polarity. The acylated nanoparticles could never be dispersed in toluene nor cyclohexane, but they formed stable dispersions in ethyl acetate while remaining dispersible in water. Stable ethyl acetate-in-water, toluene-in-water, and cyclohexane-in-water emulsions were successfully prepared with CNW's grafted with acetyl moieties, whereas the VCin-treated particles could stabilize only the cyclohexane-in-water emulsions. The impact of esterification treatment on emulsion stability and droplets size was particularly discussed. PMID:23883187

Sèbe, Gilles; Ham-Pichavant, Frédérique; Pecastaings, Gilles

2013-08-12

266

Contribution of acetate to butyrate formation by human faecal bacteria.  

PubMed

Acetate is normally regarded as an endproduct of anaerobic fermentation, but butyrate-producing bacteria found in the human colon can be net utilisers of acetate. The butyrate formed provides a fuel for epithelial cells of the large intestine and influences colonic health. [1-(13)C]Acetate was used to investigate the contribution of exogenous acetate to butyrate formation. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Roseburia spp. grown in the presence of 60 mm-acetate and 10 mm-glucose derived 85-90 % butyrate-C from external acetate. This was due to rapid interchange between extracellular acetate and intracellular acetyl-CoA, plus net acetate uptake. In contrast, a Coprococcus-related strain that is a net acetate producer derived only 28 % butyrate-C from external acetate. Different carbohydrate-derived energy sources affected butyrate formation by mixed human faecal bacteria growing in continuous or batch cultures. The ranking order of butyrate production rates was amylopectin > oat xylan > shredded wheat > inulin > pectin (continuous cultures), and inulin > amylopectin > oat xylan > shredded wheat > pectin (batch cultures). The contribution of external acetate to butyrate formation in these experiments ranged from 56 (pectin) to 90 % (xylan) in continuous cultures, and from 72 to 91 % in the batch cultures. This is consistent with a major role for bacteria related to F. prausnitzii and Roseburia spp. in butyrate formation from a range of substrates that are fermented in the large intestine. Variations in the dominant metabolic type of butyrate producer between individuals or with variations in diet are not ruled out, however, and could influence butyrate supply in the large intestine. PMID:15182395

Duncan, Sylvia H; Holtrop, Grietje; Lobley, Gerald E; Calder, A Graham; Stewart, Colin S; Flint, Harry J

2004-06-01

267

A vinyl acetate sensor based on cataluminescence on MgO nanoparticles.  

PubMed

A novel cataluminescence (CTL) sensor using nanosized MgO as the sensing material for determination of the trace of vinyl acetate in air was proposed in the present study. Eight catalysts were examined and the results showed that the CTL intensity on MgO nanoparticles was the strongest. Under the optimized conditions, the linear range of the CTL intensity versus the concentration of vinyl acetate vapor was 2-2000 ppm with a detection limit of 1.0 ppm (3sigma) and a relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of 1.18% for five times determination of 1000 ppm vinyl acetate. There were no CTL emissions when foreign substances, including ammonia, benzene, acetic acid, formaldehyde and ethyl acetate, passed through the sensor. CTL emissions were detected for methanol, ethanol and acetaldehyde at levels around 5.5%, 10.1% and 13.4% compared with the responsed vinyl acetate. The sensor had a long lifetime more than 100 h. PMID:19635350

Wu, Chen Chou; Cao, Xiaoan; Wen, Qiang; Wang, Zehua; Gao, Qianqian; Zhu, Huichang

2009-10-15

268

Heterogeneous catalyst for the production of acetic anhydride from methyl acetate  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to a process for producing acetic anhydride by the reaction of methyl acetate, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen at elevated temperatures and pressures in the presence of an alkyl halide and a heterogeneous, bifunctional catalyst that contains an insoluble polymer having pendant quaternized phosphine groups, some of which phosphine groups are ionically bonded to anionic Group VIII metal complexes, the remainder of the phosphine groups being bonded to iodide. In contrast to prior art processes, no accelerator (promoter) is necessary to achieve the catalytic reaction and the products are easily separated from the catalyst by filtration. The catalyst can be recycled for consecutive runs without loss in activity. Bifunctional catalysts for use in carbonylating dimethyl ether are also provided.

Ramprasad, D.; Waller, F.J.

1999-04-06

269

Heterogeneous catalyst for the production of acetic anhydride from methyl acetate  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to a process for producing acetic anhydride by the reaction of methyl acetate, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen at elevated temperatures and pressures in the presence of an alkyl halide and a heterogeneous, bifunctional catalyst that contains an insoluble polymer having pendant quaternized phosphine groups, some of which phosphine groups are ionically bonded to anionic Group VIII metal complexes, the remainder of the phosphine groups being bonded to iodide. In contrast to prior art processes, no accelerator (promoter) is necessary to achieve the catalytic reaction and the products are easily separated from the catalyst by filtration. The catalyst can be recycled for consecutive runs without loss in activity. Bifunctional catalysts for use in carbonylating dimethyl ether are also provided.

Ramprasad, Dorai (Allentown, PA); Waller, Francis Joseph (Allentown, PA)

1999-01-01

270

Combined XPS and contact angle studies of ethylene vinyl acetate and polyvinyl acetate blends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we prepared thin films by blending ethylene vinyl acetate copolymers (EVA) containing 12-33 (wt.%) vinyl acetate (VA) with polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) and high density polyethylene homopolymers. Large area micropatterns having controlled protrusion sizes were obtained by phase-separation especially for the PVAc/EVA-33 blends using dip coating. These surfaces were characterized by XPS and contact angle measurements. A reasonably linear relation was found between the VA content on the surface (wt.%) obtained from XPS analysis and the VA content in bulk especially for PVAc/EVA-33 blend surfaces. PE segments were more enriched on the surface than that of the bulk for pure EVA copolymer surfaces similar to previous reports and VA enrichment was found on the EVA/HDPE blend surfaces due to high molecular weight of HDPE. Water ? decreased with the increase in the VA content on the blend surface due to the polarity of VA. A good agreement was obtained between ?s- and atomic oxygen surface concentration with the increase of VA content. The applicability of Cassie-Baxter equation was tested and found that it gave consistent results with the experimental water contact angles for the case where VA content was lower than 55 wt.% in the bulk composition.

Ucar, I. O.; Doganci, M. D.; Cansoy, C. E.; Erbil, H. Y.; Avramova, I.; Suzer, S.

2011-09-01

271

Density, Excess Volume, and Viscosity of Vinyl Acetate or Benzyl Acetate with ( o -, m -, p -)Xylenes and Ethylbenzene at T =(303.15 and 313.15) K  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viscosity ?, and density ?, of binary liquid mixtures of vinyl acetate or benzyl acetate with o-xylene, m-xylene, p-xylene and ethyl benzene have been determined at (303.15 and 313.15) K for the entire composition range. From the experimental\\u000a values excess molar volume and deviations in viscosity have been calculated. These excess quantities were fitted to the Redlich-Kister\\u000a polynomial equation. The

M. V. Rathnam; Sudhir Mohite; M. S. S. Kumar

2010-01-01

272

In vitro solubility, growth and characterization of cholesteryl acetate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solubility, supersolubility and nucleation time of cholesteryl acetate in acetone and methanol were reported at physiological temperature. Crystals of 0.2×0.2×0.8 and 0.2×0.3×0.3 cm 3 were grown from acetone and ethanol, respectively. The powder XRD confirms the crystallinity and the SEM analysis reveals the growth layers of cholesteryl acetate.

Sundaram, N. Meenakshi; Arivuoli, D.; Dhanasekaran, R.; Kalkura, S. Narayana

2004-06-01

273

Copolymerization of Vinyl Acetate with Reactive Surfactants in Homogeneous Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of extending the homogeneity domains obtained after microemulsion polymerization of vinyl acetate in the presence of polymerizable surfactants was studied. Utilization of the monomaleate of nonyl phenol ethoxylated with 25 moles of ethylene oxide as the reactive surfactant increased the number of homogeneous phases from 18 to 32 for 45 systems studied which contained vinyl acetate, ethanol, water,

Dan Donescu; Liana Fusulan; Kristiana Go?a

1997-01-01

274

Acetic acid production by Dekkera\\/Brettanomyces yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yeast belonging to the genera Brettanomyces and Dekkera are noted for spoiling cellar and bottled wine through the production of haze, turbidity and acetic acid. However, I was unable to find information on the use of these yeasts for the expressed purpose of acetic acid production. Sixty yeast strains belonging to these, and several other genera, from the ARS Culture

S. N. Freer

2002-01-01

275

Cloud Point Extraction of Acetic Acid from Aqueous Solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new acetic acid separation method was developed through a successful combination of cloud point extraction and complex extraction technology (CPE-SE), where an acetic acid complex compound formed and was solubilized in a surfactant micelle solution, instead of an organic solvent, and then concentrated into one phase by a phase separation process of the CPE technology. Since no organic solvent

Bingjia Yao; Li Yang

2009-01-01

276

Transition-Metal-Catalyzed Carbonylation of Methyl Acetate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a study of the rhodium-catalyzed, ioding-promoted carbonylation of methyl acetate. This study provides an interesting contrast between the carbonylation of methyl acetate and the carbonylation of methanol when similar rhodium/iodine catalyst systems are used. (JN)

Polichnowski, S. W.

1986-01-01

277

Proteomic Analysis on Acetate Metabolism in Citrobacter sp. BL-4  

PubMed Central

Mass production of glucosamine (GlcN) using microbial cells is a worthy approach to increase added values and keep safety problems in GlcN production process. Prior to set up a microbial cellular platform, this study was to assess acetate metabolism in Citrobacter sp. BL-4 (BL-4) which has produced a polyglucosamine PGB-2. The LC-MS analysis was conducted after protein separation on the 1D-PAGE to accomplish the purpose of this study. 280 proteins were totally identified and 188 proteins were separated as acetate-related proteins in BL-4. Acetate was converted to acetyl-CoA by acetyl-CoA synthetase up-regulated in the acetate medium. The glyoxylate bypass in the acetate medium was up-regulated with over-expression of isocitrate lyases and 2D-PAGE confirmed this differential expression. Using 1H-NMR analysis, the product of isocitrate lyases, succinate, increased about 15 times in the acetate medium. During acetate metabolism proteins involved in the lipid metabolism and hexosamine biosynthesis were over-expressed in the acetate medium, while proteins involved in TCA cycle, pentose phosphate cycle and purine metabolism were down-regulated. Taken together, the results from the proteomic analysis can be applied to improve GlcN production and to develop metabolic engineering in BL-4.

Kim, Young-Man; Lee, Sung-Eun; Park, Byeoung-Soo; Son, Mi-Kyung; Jung, Young-Mi; Yang, Seung-Ok; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Hur, Sung-Ho; Yum, Jong Hwa

2012-01-01

278

Pesticide Fact Sheet: (E)-9-Dodecenyl Acetate Pheromone.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

9-Dodecenyl acetate is a pheromone containing the (E) and (Z) isomers. It is for use in manufacturing pheromone based products to control methods. The (Z) isomer has been already registered. The active ingredient is the (E)-9-dodecenyl acetate pheromone. ...

1999-01-01

279

Glycerol acetals as anti-freezing additives for biodiesel.  

PubMed

Glycerol acetals from butanal, pentanal, hexanal, octanal and decanal were prepared with the use of Amberlyst-15 acid resin as catalyst. The glycerol conversion decreases with the size of the hydrocarbon chain. This fact has been associated with formation of micelles and aggregates of the aldehyde to minimize the interaction between the polar glycerol molecule with the hydrocarbon chain. The Z+E mixture of the acetals with five and six-member rings were produced in all cases. The distribution of the acetal isomers varied with the reaction time, especially for the long chain aldehydes. Addition of 5 vol.% of the butanal-glycerol acetal reduced the pour point of animal fat biodiesel (methyl ester) from 18 to 13 degrees C. The decrease in the pour point of the glycerol acetals-biodiesel mixtures were dependent on the size of the hydrocarbon chain and the percent blended. PMID:20304633

Silva, Paulo H R; Gonçalves, Valter L C; Mota, Claudio J A

2010-08-01

280

Methanogenic cleavage of acetate by lysates of Methanosarcina barkeri.  

PubMed Central

Cell lysates of acetate-grown Methanosarcina barkeri 227 were found to cleave acetate to CH4 and CO2. The aceticlastic reaction was identified by using radioactive methyl-labeled acetate. Cell lysates decarboxylated acetate in a nitrogen atmosphere, conserving the methyl group in methane. The rate of methanogenesis from acetate in the cell lysates was comparable to that observed with whole cells. Aceticlastic activity was found in the particulate fraction seperate from methylcoenzyme M methylreductase activity, which occurs in the soluble fraction. Pronase treatment eliminated methylcoenzyme M methylreductase activity in lysates and stimulated aceticlastic activity, indicating the aceticlastic activity was not derived from unbroken cells, which are unaffected by proteolytic treatment. Images

Baresi, L

1984-01-01

281

Mechanical Properties and a Physical-Chemical Analysis of Acetate Yarns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellulose acetate used in the manufacture of acetate yarns is commonly obtained from cotton-linters or wood-pulp cellulose. Varying in the origin and in the manufacturer, cellulose acetate often differs in its processability. The paper belongs to the investigation the properties of acetate yarns manufactured of the cellulose acetate varied in its origin and manufactured by different suppliers. Mechanical properties (including

R. emaitaitien?; A. Vitkauskas

282

The effect of oral sodium acetate administration on plasma acetate concentration and acid-base state in horses  

PubMed Central

Aim Sodium acetate (NaAcetate) has received some attention as an alkalinizing agent and possible alternative energy source for the horse, however the effects of oral administration remain largely unknown. The present study used the physicochemical approach to characterize the changes in acid-base status occurring after oral NaAcetate/acetic acid (NAA) administration in horses. Methods Jugular venous blood was sampled from 9 exercise-conditioned horses on 2 separate occasions, at rest and for 24 h following a competition exercise test (CET) designed to simulate the speed and endurance test of 3-day event. Immediately after the CETs horses were allowed water ad libitum and either: 1) 8 L of a hypertonic NaAcetate/acetic acid solution via nasogastric tube followed by a typical hay/grain meal (NAA trial); or 2) a hay/grain meal alone (Control trial). Results Oral NAA resulted in a profound plasma alkalosis marked by decreased plasma [H+] and increased plasma [TCO2] and [HCO3-] compared to Control. The primary contributor to the plasma alkalosis was an increased [SID], as a result of increased plasma [Na+] and decreased plasma [Cl-]. An increased [Atot], due to increased [PP] and a sustained increase in plasma [acetate], contributed a minor acidifying effect. Conclusion It is concluded that oral NaAcetate could be used as both an alkalinizing agent and an alternative energy source in the horse.

Waller, Amanda; Lindinger, Michael I

2007-01-01

283

Measurement of the rates of oxindole-3-acetic acid turnover, and indole-3-acetic acid oxidation in Zea mays seedlings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Oxindole-3-acetic acid is the principal catabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in Zea mays seedlings. In this paper measurements of the turnover of oxindole-3-acetic acid are presented and used to calculate the rate of indole-3-acetic acid oxidation. [3H]Oxindole-3-acetic acid was applied to the endosperm of Zea mays seedlings and allowed to equilibrate for 24 h before the start of the experiment. The subsequent decrease in its specific activity was used to calculate the turnover rate. The average half-life of oxindole-3-acetic acid in the shoots was found to be 30 h while that in the kernels had an average half-life of 35h. Using previously published values of the pool sizes of oxindole-3-acetic acid in shoots and kernels from seedlings of the same age and variety, and grown under the same conditions, the rate of indole-3-acetic acid oxidation was calculated to be 1.1 pmol plant-1 h-1 in the shoots and 7.1 pmol plant-1 h-1 in the kernels.

Nonhebel, H. M.; Bandurski, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

1986-01-01

284

Ester hydrolysis of cellulose acetate and cellulose acetate phthalate in aqueous suspension and solution, and solid state  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing usage of aqueous film coating in the pharmaceutical industry has generated interest concerning the stability of polymer film forming agents to ester hydrolysis. Cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) and cellulose acetate (CA) are examples of polymers which either have or are being considered for film coating applications in the form of aqueous dispersions. This study was undertaken to determine

Thomas Patrick Garcia

1989-01-01

285

Fate and residues of trenbolone acetate in edible tissues from sheep amd calves implanted with tritium-labeled trenbolone acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study the fate and residues of trenbolone acetate in edible tissues, two groups of six animals from two ruminant species (ewes and calves) were implanted with (3H)trenbolone acetate. The distribution of extractable radioactive residues was measured in liver, kidney and muscle. We found that the largest proportion of residues was not extractable and thus was considered as

P. Evrard; G. Maghuin-Rogister; A. G. Rico

1989-01-01

286

Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid and oxindole-3-acetic acid to 2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-1H indole-3-acetic acid-7'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside in Zea mays seedlings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiolabeled oxindole-3-acetic acid was metabolized by roots, shoots, and caryopses of dark grown Zea mays seedlings to 2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-1H indole-3-acetic acid-7'-O-beta-D-glycopyranoside with the simpler name of 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside. This compound was also formed from labeled indole-3-acetic acid supplied to intact seedlings and root segments. The glucoside of 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid was also isolated as an endogenous compound in the caryopses and shoots of 4-day-old seedlings. It accumulates to a level of 4.8 nanomoles per plant in the kernel, more than 10 times the amount of oxindole-3-acetic acid. In the shoot it is present at levels comparable to that of oxindole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-acetic acid (62 picomoles per shoot). We conclude that 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside is a natural metabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in Z. mays seedlings. From the data presented in this paper and in previous work, we propose the following route as the principal catabolic pathway for indole-3-acetic acid in Zea seedlings: Indole-3-acetic acid --> Oxindole-3-acetic acid --> 7-Hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid --> 7-Hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside.

Nonhebel, H. M.; Bandurski, R. S.

1984-01-01

287

Oxidation of Indole-3-acetic Acid and Oxindole-3-acetic Acid to 2,3-Dihydro-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-1H Indole-3-acetic Acid-7?-O-?-d-Glucopyranoside in Zea mays Seedlings 1  

PubMed Central

Radiolabeled oxindole-3-acetic acid was metabolized by roots, shoots, and caryopses of dark grown Zea mays seedlings to 2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-1H indole-3-acetic acid-7?-O-?-d-glycopyranoside with the simpler name of 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside. This compound was also formed from labeled indole-3-acetic acid supplied to intact seedlings and root segments. The glucoside of 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid was also isolated as an endogenous compound in the caryopses and shoots of 4-day-old seedlings. It accumulates to a level of 4.8 nanomoles per plant in the kernel, more than 10 times the amount of oxindole-3-acetic acid. In the shoot it is present at levels comparable to that of oxindole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-acetic acid (62 picomoles per shoot). We conclude that 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside is a natural metabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in Z. mays seedlings. From the data presented in this paper and in previous work, we propose the following route as the principal catabolic pathway for indole-3-acetic acid in Zea seedlings: Indole-3-acetic acid ? Oxindole-3-acetic acid ? 7-Hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid ? 7-Hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside.

Nonhebel, Heather M.; Bandurski, Robert S.

1984-01-01

288

Pharmacokinetics and drug interactions of eslicarbazepine acetate.  

PubMed

Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) is a novel once-daily antiepileptic drug (AED) approved in Europe since 2009 that was found to be efficacious and well tolerated in a phase III clinical program in adult patients with partial onset seizures previously not controlled with treatment with one to three AEDs, including carbamazepine (CBZ). ESL shares with CBZ and oxcarbazepine (OXC) the dibenzazepine nucleus bearing the 5-carboxamide substitute, but is structurally different at the 10,11 position. This molecular variation results in differences in metabolism, preventing the formation of toxic epoxide metabolites such as carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide. Unlike OXC, which is metabolized to both eslicarbazepine and (R)-licarbazepine, ESL is extensively converted to eslicarbazepine. The systemic exposure to eslicarbazepine after ESL oral administration is approximately 94% of the parent dose, with minimal exposure to (R)-licarbazepine and OXC. After ESL oral administration, the effective half-life (t(1/2,eff) ) of eslicarbazepine was 20-24 h, which is approximately two times longer than its terminal half-life (t(1/2)). At clinically relevant doses (400-1,600 mg/day) ESL has linear pharmacokinetics (PK) with no effects of gender or moderate liver impairment. However, because eslicarbazepine is eliminated primarily (66%) by renal excretion, dose adjustment is recommended for patients with renal impairment. Eslicarbazepine clearance is induced by phenobarbital, phenytoin, and CBZ and it dose-dependently decreases plasma exposure of oral contraceptive and simvastatin. PMID:22612290

Bialer, Meir; Soares-da-Silva, Patricio

2012-06-01

289

Polyvinyl acetate-based film coatings.  

PubMed

Polyvinyl acetate-based colloidal aqueous polymer dispersion Kollicoat(®) SR 30 D results in coatings characterized by moderate swelling behaviour, lipophilicity, pH-independent permeability for actives and high flexibility to withstand mechanical stress and is therefore used for controlled release coating. The colloidal aqueous polymer dispersion of Kollicoat(®) SR 30 D can be easily processed due to an optimal low minimum film forming temperature (MFT) of 18 °C without plasticizer addition and a thermal after-treatment (curing) of coated pellets. The drug release from Kollicoat(®) SR 30 D coated pellets was almost pH independent. Drug release could be easily adjusted by coating level or addition of soluble pore forming polymers. Physically stable Kollicoat(®) SR 30 D dispersions were obtained with the water-soluble polymers Kollidon(®) 30 and Kollicoat(®) IR up to 50% w/w. The addition of only 10% w/w triethyl citrate as plasticizer improved the flexibility of the films significantly and allowed compaction of the pellets. The drug release was almost independent of the compression force and the pellet content of the tablets. The inclusion of various tableting excipients slightly affected the drug release, primarily because of a different disintegration rate of the tablets. A combination of Kollicoat(®) SR 30 D and Kollicoat(®) IR with higher coating levels>10 mg/cm(2) is a relatively new alternative to OROS system which does not require drilling. PMID:24076229

Kolter, K; Dashevsky, A; Irfan, Muhamad; Bodmeier, R

2013-12-01

290

PHA based denitrification: municipal wastewater vs. acetate.  

PubMed

Denitrification of municipal wastewater based on bacterial storage polymers-Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) - was investigated in biofilm sequencing batch reactors, as a part of a two sludge system for wastewater treatment and in comparison to acetate based synthetic wastewater. The results show that PHA based denitrification (PBD) of real wastewater can be a viable alternative, especially for wastewater with low COD/N ratio, without the need for external carbon source addition. High nitrate removal capacity of about 40-50 mg N/L with a low COD/N requirement of about 4-5, were observed. It was found that entrapped particulate organic matter contributed additional reducing power, on top of the storage materials, thus allowing for the high nitrate reduction capacity. Daily removal rates were similar to those of extensive treatment systems (0.24-0.31 gr N/L reactor*d). Large differences in storage yield and composition between biomass grown on synthetic and municipal wastewater were observed. PMID:23395755

Krasnits, Eli; Beliavsky, Michael; Tarre, Sheldon; Green, Michal

2013-03-01

291

Pyruvate and acetate metabolism in termite mitochondria.  

PubMed

Intact mitochondria have been successfully prepared from body tissues from the termites Nasutitermes walkeri and Coptotermes formosanus. This is the first report of the successful isolation of mitochondria from termites (Isoptera: Termitidae). Using an oxygen electrode, oxygen consumption by the mitochondria during the oxidation of various respiratory substrates was determined and their properties measured in terms of respiratory control index and ADP/O. ADP/O was as expected for substrates such as pyruvate, acetylcarnitine and acetyl-CoA and carnitine. Pyruvate and acetate were the major respiratory substrates in both species. The total activity of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc) in the mitochondria from N. walkeri and C. formosanus was determined to be 72.87+/-8.98 and 8.29+/-0.42 nmol/termite/h, respectively. Mitochondria isolated in the presence of inhibitors of PDHc interconversion were used to determine that about 60% of the PDHc was maintained in the active form in both N. walkeri and C. formosanus. The sufficient PDHc activity and high rate of pyruvate oxidation in mitochondria from N. walkeri suggest that pyruvate is rapidly metabolised, whereas the low mitochondrial PDHc activity of C. formosanus suggests that in this species more pyruvate is produced than can be oxidised in the termite tissues. PMID:14511824

Itakura, Shuji; Tanaka, Hiromi; Enoki, Akio; Chappell, Douglas J; Slaytor, Michael

2003-10-01

292

Biodegradable cellulose acetate nanofiber fabrication via electrospinning.  

PubMed

Nanofiber manufacturing is one of the key advancements in nanotechnology today. Over the past few years, there has been a tremendous growth of research activities to explore electrospinning for nanofiber formation from a rich variety of materials. This quite simple and cost effective process operates on the principle that the solution is extracted under the action of a high electric field. Once the voltage is sufficiently high, a charged jet is ejected following a complicated looping trajectory. During its travel, the solvent evaporates leaving behind randomly oriented nanofibers accumulated on the collector. The combination of their nanoscale dimensionality, high surface area, porosity, flexibility and superior strength makes the electrospun fibers suitable for several value-added applications, such as filters, protecting clothes, high performance structures and biomedical devices. In this study biodegradable cellulose acetate (CA) nanofibrous membranes were produced using electrospinning. The device utilized consisted of a syringe equipped with a metal needle, a microdialysis pump, a high voltage supply and a collector. The morphology of the yielded fibers was determined using SEM. The effect of various parameters, including electric field strength, tip-to-collector distance, solution feed rate and composition on the morphological features of the electrospun fibers was examined. The optimum operating conditions for the production of uniform, non-beaded fibers with submicron diameter were also explored. The biodegradable CA nanofiber membranes are suitable as tissue engineering scaffolds and as reinforcements of biopolymer matrix composites in foils by ultrasonic welding methods. PMID:21133179

Christoforou, Theopisti; Doumanidis, Charalabos

2010-09-01

293

Esters of (1,2, 5-trimethyl-4-hydroxy-4-piperedyl)- and phenyl-(1,2, 5-trimethyl-4-hydroxy-4-piperidyl) acetic acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methyl ester of a new hydroxy acid of the piperidine series (a-phenyl-a-(1,2, 5-trimethyl-4-hydroxy 4-piperidyl)acetic acid) has been prepared. Ethyl a-(1,2, 5-trimethyl-4-hydroxy-4-piperidyl)acetate has been converted into the substituted pyridine, 1,1-diphenyl-2-(2'-5'-dimethyl-4-pyridyl)ethylene.

N. S. Prostakov; V. G. Pleshakov; V. V. Dorogov; V. P. Zvolinskii

1970-01-01

294

Computerized image analysis for acetic acid induced intraepithelial lesions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) exhibits certain morphologic features that can be identified during a visual inspection exam. Immature and dysphasic cervical squamous epithelium turns white after application of acetic acid during the exam. The whitening process occurs visually over several minutes and subjectively discriminates between dysphasic and normal tissue. Digital imaging technologies allow us to assist the physician analyzing the acetic acid induced lesions (acetowhite region) in a fully automatic way. This paper reports a study designed to measure multiple parameters of the acetowhitening process from two images captured with a digital colposcope. One image is captured before the acetic acid application, and the other is captured after the acetic acid application. The spatial change of the acetowhitening is extracted using color and texture information in the post acetic acid image; the temporal change is extracted from the intensity and color changes between the post acetic acid and pre acetic acid images with an automatic alignment. The imaging and data analysis system has been evaluated with a total of 99 human subjects and demonstrate its potential to screening underserved women where access to skilled colposcopists is limited.

Li, Wenjing; Ferris, Daron G.; Lieberman, Rich W.

2008-04-01

295

Methane Production and Syntrophic Acetate Oxidation in the Florida Everglades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methane production pathways in the Florida Everglades are influenced by factors such as nutrient levels, H2 concentrations, and temperature. Syntrophic acetate oxidizers can outcompete methanogens for acetate when conditions are right (high temperatures and low H2). During syntrophic acetate oxidation (SAO), which becomes more exergonic with increasing temperature, acetate is oxidized to carbon dioxide and H2, which can be utilized to produce methane via CO2 reduction. Everglades soil from along a nutrient gradient was incubated at 25°C and 45°C. The shift to the CO2 reduction pathway for methane formation that would be expected in high temperature incubations due to SAO should result in a decrease in ?13C-CH4 and increase in ?2H-CH4. Instead, we observed higher ?13C and lower ?2H in the methane produced in high temperature incubations. The higher than expected ?13C may be partly explained by lower kinetic isotope effects caused by temperature. Coupling between the syntrophic acetate oxidizers and the CO2 reducers, whereby isotopically light hydrogen from acetate is used in methane formation could lower ?2H-CH4. Separate experiments using 13C-labelled acetate revealed that potential SAO activity is low in soils collected from the Everglades.

Holmes, M. E.; Chanton, J.; Bae, H.; Ogram, A.

2012-12-01

296

A Search for Methyl Acetate in Hot Cores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose to search for methyl acetate, CH3COOCH3, in high mass hot cores. Methyl acetate is possibly synthesized through multiple reaction pathways from molecules previously detected in hot cores, most notably from acetic acid and methanol via esterification. Esterification, beyond the formation of methyl formate, has not yet been observed in the ISM. The project is already underway in nothern sources based on millimeter data from the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). We hope to study the chemically rich southern source G327.3 (decl B1950=-54.49'15.6"), amongst others, using MOPRA and to search for acetic acid and methyl acetate. Observations are supported by laboratory studies of methyl acetate in the 3 mm and 1 mm and successful spectral fitting by the Blake group at Caltech. If detected, methyl acetate, consisting of 11 atoms, would be one of the larger complex organic molecules detected in the interstellar medium and could point to previously unconsidered reaction mechanisms.

Kelley, Matthew; Braakman, Rogier; Blake, Geoffrey

2006-10-01

297

Abiraterone acetate: in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.  

PubMed

Oral abiraterone acetate, in combination with prednisone/prednisolone, is used to treat patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) who have previously received docetaxel-containing chemotherapy. Abiraterone acetate was developed to specifically inhibit cytochrome P450 (CYP)17A1, which is an essential enzyme in the biosynthesis of testosterone. In a pivotal phase III trial in patients with metastatic CRPC who have previously received docetaxel-containing chemotherapy, abiraterone acetate 1000?mg once daily plus prednisone 5?mg twice daily significantly prolonged overall survival compared with placebo plus prednisone. In this trial, abiraterone acetate plus prednisone was significantly more effective than placebo plus prednisone in prolonging the time to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression and in prolonging progression-free survival. Significantly more abiraterone acetate plus prednisone recipients than placebo plus prednisone recipients were considered to be responders, when assessed by PSA levels or radiographic imaging. Treatment with abiraterone acetate plus prednisone in the phase III trial was associated with an acceptable tolerability profile, which was generally similar to that of the placebo plus prednisone group. However, adverse events of special interest (e.g. cardiac disorders and liver-function test abnormalities and adverse events resulting from elevated mineralocorticoid levels because of CYP17A1 inhibition [i.e. fluid retention and oedema, hypokalaemia, hypertension]) occurred in significantly more abiraterone acetate plus prednisone than in placebo plus prednisone recipients. PMID:21985170

Yang, Lily P H

2011-10-22

298

40 CFR 721.10448 - Acetic acid, hydroxy- methoxy-, methyl ester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Acetic acid, hydroxy- methoxy-, methyl...Substances § 721.10448 Acetic acid, hydroxy- methoxy-, methyl...identified generically as acetic acid, hydroxymethoxy-, methyl...substance according to the average number molecular weight section...

2013-07-01

299

Do alkali and alkaline earth acetates form organometallates via decarboxylation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multistage mass spectrometry experiments combined with density functional theory (DFT) calculations were used to examine whether the alkali and alkaline earth acetate ions [Metal(O2CCH3)n]?, formed via electrospray ionization, fragment under collision-induced dissociation conditions to yield the organometallic ions [CH3Metal(O2CCH3)n?1]?. The alkali earth acetate ions [Metal(O2CCH3)2]? (Metal=lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and caesium) all fragment via loss of the acetate anion, with

Anne P. Jacob; Patrick F. James; Richard A. J. O’Hair

2006-01-01

300

Clostridiumm ljungdahlii, an anaerobic ethanol and acetate producing microorganism  

DOEpatents

A newly discovered microorganism was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Clostridium ljungdahlii, having the identifying characteristics of ATCC No. 49587. Cultured in an aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic conditions, this microorganism is capable of producing ethanol and acetate from CO and H.sub.2 O and/or CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 in synthesis gas. Under optimal growth conditions, the microorganism produces acetate in preference to ethanol. Conversely, under non-growth conditions, ethanol production is favored over acetate.

Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR); Clausen, Edgar C. (Fayetteville, AR)

1992-01-01

301

Clostridiumm ljungdahlii, an anaerobic ethanol and acetate producing microorganism  

DOEpatents

A newly discovered microorganism was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Clostridium ljungdahlii, having the identifying characteristics of ATCC No. 49587. Cultured in an aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic conditions, this microorganism is capable of producing ethanol and acetate from CO and H[sub 2]O and/or CO[sub 2] and H[sub 2] in synthesis gas. Under optimal growth conditions, the microorganism produces acetate in preference to ethanol. Conversely, under non-growth conditions, ethanol production is favored over acetate. 3 figs.

Gaddy, J.L.; Clausen, E.C.

1992-12-22

302

The antibacterial activity and stability of acetic acid.  

PubMed

Acetic acid has been shown to have good antibacterial activity against micro-organisms such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This study examined the activity against a range of bacterial pathogens and also assessed any reduction in antibacterial activity due to evaporation or inactivation by organic material in dressings. Acetic acid was active at dilutions as low as 0.166% and the activity was not reduced by evaporation nor by inactivation by cotton swabs. Burn injuries are a major problem in countries with limited resources. Acetic acid is an ideal candidate for use in patients who are treated in those parts of the world. PMID:23747099

Fraise, A P; Wilkinson, M A C; Bradley, C R; Oppenheim, B; Moiemen, N

2013-08-01

303

Water dispersible microbicidal cellulose acetate phthalate film  

PubMed Central

Background Cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) has been used for several decades in the pharmaceutical industry for enteric film coating of oral tablets and capsules. Micronized CAP, available commercially as "Aquateric" and containing additional ingredients required for micronization, used for tablet coating from water dispersions, was shown to adsorb and inactivate the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), herpesviruses (HSV) and other sexually transmitted disease (STD) pathogens. Earlier studies indicate that a gel formulation of micronized CAP has a potential as a topical microbicide for prevention of STDs including the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The objective of endeavors described here was to develop a water dispersible CAP film amenable to inexpensive industrial mass production. Methods CAP and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) were dissolved in different organic solvent mixtures, poured into dishes, and the solvents evaporated. Graded quantities of a resulting selected film were mixed for 5 min at 37°C with HIV-1, HSV and other STD pathogens, respectively. Residual infectivity of the treated viruses and bacteria was determined. Results The prerequisites for producing CAP films which are soft, flexible and dispersible in water, resulting in smooth gels, are combining CAP with HPC (other cellulose derivatives are unsuitable), and casting from organic solvent mixtures containing ?50 to ?65% ethanol (EtOH). The films are ?100 µ thick and have a textured surface with alternating protrusions and depressions revealed by scanning electron microscopy. The films, before complete conversion into a gel, rapidly inactivated HIV-1 and HSV and reduced the infectivity of non-viral STD pathogens >1,000-fold. Conclusions Soft pliable CAP-HPC composite films can be generated by casting from organic solvent mixtures containing EtOH. The films rapidly reduce the infectivity of several STD pathogens, including HIV-1. They are converted into gels and thus do not have to be removed following application and use. In addition to their potential as topical microbicides, the films have promise for mucosal delivery of pharmaceuticals other than CAP.

Neurath, A Robert; Strick, Nathan; Li, Yun-Yao

2003-01-01

304

Viscometric study of poly(vinyl chloride)\\/poly(vinyl acetate) blends in various solvents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intermolecular interactions between poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) and poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) in tetrahydrofuran (THF), methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) and N,N?-dimethylformamide (DMF) were thoroughly investigated by the viscosity measurement. It has been found that the solvent selected has a great influence upon the polymer–polymer interactions in solution. If using PVAc and THF, or PVAc and DMF to form polymer solvent, the

Yuchuan Zhang; Jiasheng Qian; Zhuo Ke; Xiangcheng Zhu; Hong Bi; Kangming Nie

2002-01-01

305

Characterization of Sidegroup Packing in Methacrylates and Poly(Vinyl Acetate) by Solid-State NMR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The local packing of sidegroups in poly(vinyl acetate), PVAc, poly(ethyl methacrylate), PEMA, and poly(methyl methacrylate), PMMA, was studied by two-dimensional solid-state NMR experiments applied to ^13COO-labeled polymers. Relative sidegroup orientations were determined by double-quantum chemical-shift-anisotropy correlation, while intergroup distances were measured from dipolar splittings. The spectra of PEMA show that while sidegroups are not exactly parallel to each other, the

Douglas J. Harris; Tito J. Bonagamba; Klaus Schmidt-Rohr

2000-01-01

306

Modification of adhesives based on poly(vinyl acetate) dispersion by the Sol-Gel method  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that parameters of some properties of adhesives and adhesive joints can be increased by treating poly(vinyl acetate)\\u000a dispersion with tetraethoxysilane or ethyl silicates. It is established that the mechanism of the effect of these ethers of\\u000a orthosilicic acid are the sol-gel processes that lead to the formation of an organic-inorganic matrix.

V. A. Voitovich

2008-01-01

307

Mosquito larvicidal activity of gluanol acetate, a tetracyclic triterpenes derived from Ficus racemosa Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The larvicidal activity of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, petroleum ether, acetone, and methanol extracts of the leaf and bark\\u000a of Ficus racemosa (Moraceae) was assayed for their toxicity against the early fourth-instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). The larval mortality was observed after 24-h exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects;\\u000a however, the highest larval mortality was found in

A. Abdul Rahuman; P. Venkatesan; Kannappan Geetha; Geetha Gopalakrishnan; A. Bagavan; C. Kamaraj

2008-01-01

308

Ester prodrug-loaded electrospun cellulose acetate fiber mats as transdermal drug delivery systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellulose acetate (CA) fibers loaded with the ester prodrugs of naproxen, including methyl ester, ethyl ester and isopropyl\\u000a ester, were prepared through electrospinning using acetone\\/N,N-dimethylacetamide(DMAc)\\/ethanol (4:1:1, v\\/v\\/v) as solvent. The chemical and morphological characterizations of the medicated\\u000a fibers were investigated by means of SEM, DSC, XRD and FTIR, as well as the studies of the drug release properties. The results

Xiao-mei Wu; Christopher J. Branford-White; Li-min Zhu; Nichoals P. Chatterton; Deng-guang Yu

2010-01-01

309

Enzymatic hydrolytic resolution of ( R,S)-?-chlorophenyl acetates in biphasic media  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thermally stable carboxylesterase (SNSM-87) from Klebsiella oxytoca is explored as an enantioselective biocatalyst for the hydrolytic resolution of (R,S)-?-chlorophenyl acetates in biphasic media, where the ethyl ester possessing the highest enantioselectivity (E*=95) is selected as the best substrate and rationalized from the linear free energy relationships in terms of the logarithms of kinetic constants and enantiomeric ratio varied with

Pei-Yun Wang; Teh-Liang Chen; Shau-Wei Tsai

2007-01-01

310

21 CFR 524.1204 - Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate. 524.1204 Section...1204 Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate. (a) Specifications. (1) Calcium amphomycin is the...

2009-04-01

311

21 CFR 524.1204 - Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate. 524.1204 Section...1204 Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate. (a) Specifications. (1) Calcium amphomycin is the...

2010-04-01

312

Cosolvent gel-like materials from partially hydrolyzed poly(vinyl acetate)s and borax.  

PubMed

A gel-like, high-viscosity polymeric dispersion (HVPD) based on cross-linked borate, partially hydrolyzed poly(vinyl acetate) (xPVAc, where x is the percent hydrolysis) is described. Unlike hydro-HVPDs prepared from poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and borate, the liquid portion of these materials can be composed of up to 75% of an organic cosolvent because of the influence of residual acetate groups on the polymer backbone. The effects of the degree of hydrolysis, molecular weight, polymer and cross-linker concentrations, and type and amount of organic cosolvent on the rheological and structural properties of the materials are investigated. The stability of the systems is explored through rheological and melting-range studies. (11)B NMR and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) are used to probe the structure of the dispersions. The addition of an organic liquid to the xPVAc-borate HVPDs results in a drastic increase in the number of cross-linked borate species as well as the agglomeration of the polymer into bundles. These effects result in an increase in the relaxation time and thermal stability of the networks. The ability to make xPVAc-borate HVPDs with very large amounts of and rather different organic liquids, with very different rheological properties that can be controlled easily, opens new possibilities for applications of PVAc-based dispersions. PMID:21848256

Angelova, Lora V; Terech, Pierre; Natali, Irene; Dei, Luigi; Carretti, Emiliano; Weiss, Richard G

2011-09-20

313

Expedient Synthesis of ?-(2-Azaheteroaryl) Acetates via the Addition of Silyl Ketene Acetals to Azine-N-oxides.  

PubMed

A new and expedient synthesis of ?-(2-azaheteroaryl) acetates is presented. The reaction proceeds rapidly under mild conditions via the addition of silyl ketene acetals to azine-N-oxides in the presence of the phosphonium salt PyBroP. This procedure affords diverse ?-(2-azaheteroaryl) acetates which are highly desirable components/building blocks in molecules of pharmaceutical interest but are traditionally challenging to synthesize via contemporary methods. The reaction optimization and mechanism as well as a novel electronically enhanced PyBroP derivative are described. PMID:24885646

Londregan, Allyn T; Burford, Kristen; Conn, Edward L; Hesp, Kevin D

2014-06-20

314

Lubricating Oil Compositions Containing Calcium Acetate and Lubricating Solids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An extreme pressure additive for greases and lubricating compositions for internal combustion engines and metalworking operations combines graphite, stannic sulfide, or molybdenum disulfide with anhydrous calcium acetate. Substantially equal amounts are e...

R. H. Davis

1965-01-01

315

Environmental Evaluation of Calcium-Magnesium Acetate (CMA).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the results of a literature survey and a limited laboratory study on the environmental impacts of Calcium magnesium acetate (CMA). Laboratory tests were performed on fish, zooplankton, phytoplankton, common roadside plants and soils. N...

G. R. Winters J. Gidley H. Hunt

1985-01-01

316

Ice-melting characteristics of calcium magnesium acetate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objectives of the study are to determine the pertinent properties of Calcium/Magnesium Acetate and to determine the pH and ratio of calcium to magnesium that provide optimum road deicing characteristics.

Schenk, R. U.

1986-01-01

317

Conversion of acetic acid to methane by thermophiles: Progress report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this project is to provide an understanding of thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms capable of breaking down acetic acid, the precursor of two-thirds of the methane produced by anaerobic bioreactors. Recent results include: (1) the isola...

S. Zinder

1991-01-01

318

SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF WASTEWATERS FROM ACETIC-ACID MANUFACTURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Solvent extraction was evaluated as a potential treatment method for wastewaters generated during the manufacture of acetic acid. Possible goals for an extraction process were considered. For the wastewater samples studied, extraction appeared to be too expensive to be practical ...

319

Antibacterial Textile Finishes Utilizing Zirconyl Acetate Complexes of Inorganic Peroxides.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bacteriostatic, water-insoluble complexes of zirconyl acetate with inorganic peroxides are disclosed. Peroxides operative in forming these complexes are hydrogen peroxide, alkali metal perborates and alkali metal peroxydiphosphates. Processes for in situ ...

C. Welch G. S. Dana T. Vigo

1977-01-01

320

Storage Stability of Pyrotechnic Compositions Containing Vinyl Alcohol Acetate Resin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Long term storage surveillance was conducted on pyrotechnic compositions employing vinyl alcohol acetate resin (VAAR) as a binder. The storage stability of the composition after it had been exposed to ambient and high temperature (167F) storage conditions...

J. A. Carrazza S. M. Kaye

1966-01-01

321

Antibacterial Textile Finishes Utilizing Zirconyl Acetate Complexes of Inorganic Peroxides.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bacteriostatic, water-insoluble complexes of zirconyl acetate with inorganic peroxides are disclosed. Peroxides operative in forming these complexes are hydrogen peroxide, alkali metal perborates and alkali metal peroxydiphosphates. Processes for in situ ...

C. M. Welch G. F. Danna T. L. Vigo

1978-01-01

322

Hydrothermal production of formic and acetic acids from syringol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of formic and acetic acids (or salts) by hydrothermal oxidation of syringol, a model compound for lignin, was\\u000a investigated using a batch reactor. Results show that the highest yields of formic and acetic acids were, respectively, 59.6%\\u000a and 11.3% at the reaction condition of 0.5 mol\\/L NaOH, 120% H2O2 supply and 280 °C. These results will inform studies

Lu-ting Pan; Zheng Shen; Lei Wu; Ya-lei Zhang; Xue-fei Zhou; Fang-ming Jin

2010-01-01

323

Microbial Methanogenesis and Acetate Metabolism in a Meromictic Lake  

PubMed Central

Methanogenesis and the anaerobic metabolism of acetate were examined in the sediment and water column of Knaack Lake, a small biogenic meromictic lake located in central Wisconsin. The lake was sharply stratified during the summer and was anaerobic below a depth of 3 m. Large concentrations (4,000 ?mol/liter) of dissolved methane were detected in the bottom waters. A methane concentration maximum occurred at 4 m above the sediment. The production of 14CH4 from 14C-labeled HCOOH, HCO3?, and CH3OH and [2-14C]acetate demonstrated microbial methanogenesis in the water column of the lake. The maximum rate of methanogenesis calculated from reduction of H14CO3? by endogenous electron donors in the surface sediment (depth, 22 m) was 7.6 nmol/h per 10 ml and in the water column (depth, 21 m) was 0.6 nmol/h per 10 ml. The methyl group of acetate was simultaneously metabolized to CH4 and CO2 in the anaerobic portions of the lake. Acetate oxidation was greatest in surface waters and decreased with water depth. Acetate was metabolized primarily to methane in the sediments and water immediately above the sediment. Sulfide inhibition studies and temperature activity profiles demonstrated that acetate metabolism was performed by several microbial populations. Sulfide additions (less than 5 ?g/ml) to water from 21.5 m stimulated methanogenesis from acetate, but inhibited CO2 production. Sulfate addition (1 mM) had no significant effect on acetate metabolism in water from 21.5 m, whereas nitrate additions (10 to 14,000 ?g/liter) completely inhibited methanogenesis and stimulated CO2 formation.

Winfrey, M. R.; Zeikus, J. G.

1979-01-01

324

Mechanism of calcium accumulation in acetate-fed aerobic granule  

Microsoft Academic Search

High calcium content has been widely reported in acetate-fed aerobic granules, but the reason behind this is unclear yet.\\u000a By SEM–energy dispersive X-ray mapping analysis, this study showed that the majority of calcium was presented in the central\\u000a part of the acetate-fed aerobic granule, and the granule shell part was nearly calcium-free. The elemental analysis of calcium\\u000a ions coupled with

Zhi-Wu Wang; Yong Li; Yu Liu

2007-01-01

325

A spectroscopic study of the mineral paceite (calcium acetate)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive spectroscopic analysis consisting of Raman, infrared (IR) and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was undertaken on two forms of calcium acetate with differing degrees of hydration. Monohydrate (Ca(CH3COO)2·H2O) and half-hydrate (Ca(CH3COO)2·0.5H2O) species were analysed. Assignments of vibrational bands due to the acetate anion have been made in all three forms of spectroscopy. Thermal analysis of the mineral was undertaken to

Anthony W. Musumeci; Ray L. Frost; Eric R. Waclawik

2007-01-01

326

Radioimmunoassay of 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid using an iodinated derivative  

SciTech Connect

A radioimmunoassay for the main catabolite of serotonin, 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA), was developed by using specific antibodies and iodinated derivative. The synthesis of a /sup 125/I-iodinated analog was performed by coupling 5-HIAA to (125I-)glycyl-tyrosine without any contact between 5-HIAA and iodine or chloramine T. It was purified on a G25 Sephadex column and diluted in citrate buffer up to 2.5 X 10(5) cpm/ml. Antibodies were obtained by coupling 5-HIAA to human serum albumin with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide and tested by equilibrium dialysis. After the third immunogen injection, the four rabbits gave antisera capable of binding 50% of iodinated 5-HIIA-glycyl-tyrosine at 1/2000 final dilution. A chemical conversion of the biological samples gives to the antigen molecules a better resemblance to the immunogen, thus conferring a 100-fold gain in specificity and sensitivity. This assay allows 5-HIAA to be determined in small amounts of tissue, blood, cerebrospinal fluid or perfusate without purification with a sensitivity threshold below 0.1 ng. Some applications in cat and rat are presented.

Puizillout, J.J.; Delaage, M.A.

1981-06-01

327

Production of acetic acid from methanol by thermophilic Methanosarcina sp.: Acetate production as an index in abnormal methane fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of approximately 80–160 ?mol of acetic acid was observed in 1% (w\\/w) methanol culture media (10 ml) of thermophilic Methanosarcina sp. from which essential nutrients such as salts of NH4+, PO43?, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ were removed. Similar acetic acid production was found when methane gas formation was controlled to approximately 50% by means of inhibitors of methyl group

Makoto Yamaguchi; Kiyoshi Minami

1998-01-01

328

Antimycobacterial activity of two natural alkaloids, vasicine acetate and 2-acetyl benzylamine, isolated from Indian shrub Adhatoda vasica Ness. leaves.  

PubMed

In folk medicine, Adhatoda vasica Ness. (Acanthaceae) is used to treat asthma and cough. The leaves of A. vasica were powdered and extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. The hexane extract showed 97 percent reduction in colony-forming units (CFU) at 100 microg/ml. The hexane extract was subjected to column chromatography. Two natural compounds, vasicine acetate and 2-acetyl benzylamine, were isolated from it. They were bioassayed against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The two compounds showed strong antimycobacterial activity. Vasicine acetate and 2-acetyl benzylamine isolated from hexane extract of A. vasica leaves, significantly inhibited M. tuberculosis and one multi-drug-resistant (MDR) strain and one sensitive strain at 200 and 50 microg/ml, respectively. Our study demonstrated that both the compounds, vasicine acetate and 2-acetyl benzylamine, could be evaluated further for developing a drug to control M. tuberculosis. PMID:21289439

Ignacimuthu, S; Shanmugam, N

2010-12-01

329

Tetrazole acetic acid: tautomers, conformers, and isomerization.  

PubMed

Monomers of (tetrazol-5-yl)-acetic acid (TAA) were obtained by sublimation of the crystalline compound and the resulting vapors were isolated in cryogenic nitrogen matrices at 13 K. The conformational and tautomeric composition of TAA in the matrix was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and vibrational calculations carried out at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. TAA may adopt two tautomeric modifications, 1H- and 2H-, depending on the position of the annular hydrogen atom. Two-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs) of TAA were theoretically calculated at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level, for each tautomer. Four and six symmetry-unique minima were located on these PESs, for 1H- and 2H-TAA, respectively. The energetics of the detected minima was subsequently refined by calculations at the QCISD level. Two 1H- and three 2H-conformers fall within the 0-8 kJ mol(-1) energy range and should be appreciably populated at the sublimation temperature (?330 K). Observation of only one conformer for each tautomer (1ccc and 2pcc) is explained in terms of calculated barriers to conformational rearrangements. All conformers with the cis O=COH moiety are separated by low barriers (less than 10 kJ mol(-1)) and collapse to the most stable 1ccc (1H-) and 2pcc (2H-) forms during deposition of the matrix. On the trans O=COH surfaces, the relative energies are very high (between 12 and 27 kJ mol(-1)). The trans forms are not thermally populated at the sublimation conditions and were not detected in matrices. One high-energy form in each tautomer, 1cct (1H-) and 2pct (2H-), was found to differ from the most stable form only by rotation of the OH group and separated from other forms by high barriers. This opened a perspective for their stabilization in a matrix. 1cct and 2pct were generated in the matrices selectively by means of narrow-band near-infrared (NIR) irradiations of the samples at 6920 and 6937 cm(-1), where the first OH stretching overtone vibrations of 1ccc and 2pcc occur. The reverse transformations could be induced by irradiations at 7010 and 7030 cm(-1), transforming 1cct and 2pct back to 1ccc and 2pcc, also selectively. Besides the NIR-induced transformations, the photogenerated 1cct and 2pct forms also decay in N2 matrices back to 1ccc and 2pcc spontaneously, with characteristic decay times of hours (1H) and tens of minutes (2H). The decay mechanism is rationalized in terms of the proton tunneling. In crystals, TAA exists exclusively as 1H-tautomer. By contrast, the tautomeric composition of the matrix-isolated monomers was found to consist of both 1H- and 2H-tautomers, in comparable amounts. A mechanistic discussion of the tautomerization process occurring during sublimation, accounting also for the observed minor decomposition of TAA leading to CO2 and 5-methyl-tetrazole, is proposed. PMID:24527914

Araujo-Andrade, C; Reva, I; Fausto, R

2014-02-14

330

Tetrazole acetic acid: Tautomers, conformers, and isomerization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monomers of (tetrazol-5-yl)-acetic acid (TAA) were obtained by sublimation of the crystalline compound and the resulting vapors were isolated in cryogenic nitrogen matrices at 13 K. The conformational and tautomeric composition of TAA in the matrix was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and vibrational calculations carried out at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. TAA may adopt two tautomeric modifications, 1H- and 2H-, depending on the position of the annular hydrogen atom. Two-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs) of TAA were theoretically calculated at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level, for each tautomer. Four and six symmetry-unique minima were located on these PESs, for 1H- and 2H-TAA, respectively. The energetics of the detected minima was subsequently refined by calculations at the QCISD level. Two 1H- and three 2H-conformers fall within the 0-8 kJ mol-1 energy range and should be appreciably populated at the sublimation temperature (˜330 K). Observation of only one conformer for each tautomer (1ccc and 2pcc) is explained in terms of calculated barriers to conformational rearrangements. All conformers with the cis O=COH moiety are separated by low barriers (less than 10 kJ mol-1) and collapse to the most stable 1ccc (1H-) and 2pcc (2H-) forms during deposition of the matrix. On the trans O=COH surfaces, the relative energies are very high (between 12 and 27 kJ mol-1). The trans forms are not thermally populated at the sublimation conditions and were not detected in matrices. One high-energy form in each tautomer, 1cct (1H-) and 2pct (2H-), was found to differ from the most stable form only by rotation of the OH group and separated from other forms by high barriers. This opened a perspective for their stabilization in a matrix. 1cct and 2pct were generated in the matrices selectively by means of narrow-band near-infrared (NIR) irradiations of the samples at 6920 and 6937 cm-1, where the first OH stretching overtone vibrations of 1ccc and 2pcc occur. The reverse transformations could be induced by irradiations at 7010 and 7030 cm-1, transforming 1cct and 2pct back to 1ccc and 2pcc, also selectively. Besides the NIR-induced transformations, the photogenerated 1cct and 2pct forms also decay in N2 matrices back to 1ccc and 2pcc spontaneously, with characteristic decay times of hours (1H) and tens of minutes (2H). The decay mechanism is rationalized in terms of the proton tunneling. In crystals, TAA exists exclusively as 1H-tautomer. By contrast, the tautomeric composition of the matrix-isolated monomers was found to consist of both 1H- and 2H-tautomers, in comparable amounts. A mechanistic discussion of the tautomerization process occurring during sublimation, accounting also for the observed minor decomposition of TAA leading to CO2 and 5-methyl-tetrazole, is proposed.

Araujo-Andrade, C.; Reva, I.; Fausto, R.

2014-02-01

331

Effects of acetate and bicarbonate hemodialysis on cardiac function in chronic dialysis patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of acetate and bicarbonate hemodialysis on cardiac function in chronic dialysis patients. Previous studies have suggested that acetate hemodialysis causes myocardial depression. This study examines the acute effects of hemodialysis using, alternately, bicarbonate and acetate in the dialysate, on cardiac function in ten patients. These patients were also studied during acetate dialysis using a large surface area (SA) dialyzer.

B Rai Mehta; Diane Fischer; Masood Ahmad; Thomas D Dubose

1983-01-01

332

Experimental study of the hydrothermal reactivity of organic acids and acid anions: II. Acetic acid, acetate, and valeric acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic acids and acid anions occur in substantial concentrations in many aqueous geologic fluids and are thought to take part in a variety of geochemical processes ranging from the transport of metals in ore-forming fluids to the formation of natural gas to serving as a metabolic energy source for microbes in subsurface habitats. The widespread occurrence of organic acids and their potential role in diverse geologic processes has led to numerous experimental studies of their thermal stability, yet there remain substantial gaps in our knowledge of the factors that control the rates and reaction pathways for the decomposition of these compounds under geologic conditions. In order to address some of these uncertainties, a series of laboratory experiments were conducted to examine the behavior of organic acids and acid anions under hydrothermal conditions in the presence of minerals. Reported here are results of experiments where aqueous solutions of acetic acid, sodium acetate, or valeric acid ( n-pentanoic acid) were heated at 325°C, 350 bars in the presence of the mineral assemblages hematite + magnetite + pyrite, pyrite + pyrrhotite + magnetite, and hematite + magnetite. The results indicate that aqueous acetic acid and acetate decompose by a combination of two reaction pathways: decarboxylation and oxidation. Both reactions are promoted by minerals, with hematite catalyzing the oxidation reaction while magnetite catalyzes decarboxylation. The oxidation reaction is much faster, so that oxidation dominates the decomposition of acetic acid and acetate when hematite is present. In contrast to previous reports that acetate decomposed more slowly than acetic acid, we found that acetate decomposed at slightly faster rates than the acid in the presence of minerals. Although longer-chain monocarboxylic acids are generally thought to decompose by decarboxylation, valeric acid appeared to decompose primarily by "deformylation" to 1-butene plus formic acid. Subsequent decomposition of 1-butene and formic acid generated a variety of short-chain (?C 4) hydrocarbons and moncarboxylic acids as well as CO 2. Valeric acid decomposition proceeded more rapidly (by a factor of 2) in the presence of hematite-magnetite-pyrite than with the other mineral assemblages, with the greater reaction rate apparently attributable to the effects of fluid chemistry. Valeric acid was observed to decompose at a substantially faster rate than acetic acid under similar conditions. The results suggest that decomposition of aqueous monocarboxylic acids may make a significant contribution to the conversion of petroleum to light hydrocarbons in natural gas and thermal fluids.

McCollom, Thomas M.; Seewald, Jeffrey S.

2003-10-01

333

Mechanism of calcium accumulation in acetate-fed aerobic granule.  

PubMed

High calcium content has been widely reported in acetate-fed aerobic granules, but the reason behind this is unclear yet. By SEM-energy dispersive X-ray mapping analysis, this study showed that the majority of calcium was presented in the central part of the acetate-fed aerobic granule, and the granule shell part was nearly calcium-free. The elemental analysis of calcium ions coupled with the chemical titration of carbonate further revealed that the calcium ions that accumulated in the acetate-fed aerobic granule mainly existed in the form of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). The formation of the CaCO3 appeared to be highly dependent on the size of the aerobic granule, i.e., the CaCO3 precipitation was found only in aerobic granules with radiuses larger than 0.5 mm. These experimental observations with regard to the formation of CaCO3 in the acetate-fed aerobic granule were further confirmed by the model simulation, which was based on the principles of mass diffusion and carbonate dissociation in liquid phase. This study for the first time showed that the size of the acetate-fed aerobic granule would indeed play an essential role in the CaCO3 formation, and provided experimental evidence that a crystal CaCO3 core was not necessarily required for granulation. PMID:17225105

Wang, Zhi-Wu; Li, Yong; Liu, Yu

2007-02-01

334

Bioenergetics of methanogenesis from acetate by Methanosarcina barkeri.  

PubMed Central

Methane formation from acetate by resting cells of Methanosarcina barkeri was accompanied by an increase in the intracellular ATP content from 0.9 to 4.0 nmol/mg of protein. Correspondingly, the proton motive force increased to a steady-state level of -120 mV. The transmembrane pH gradient however, was reversed under these conditions and amounted to +20 mV. The addition of the protonophore 3,5,3',4'-tetrachlorosalicylanilide led to a drastic decrease in the proton motive force and in the intracellular ATP content and to an inhibition of methane formation. The ATPase inhibitor N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide stopped methanogenesis, and the intracellular ATP content decreased. The proton motive force decreased also under these conditions, indicating that the proton motive force could not be generated from acetate without ATP. The overall process of methane formation from acetate was dependent on the presence of sodium ions; upon addition of acetate to cell suspensions of M. barkeri, a transmembrane Na+ gradient in the range of 4:1 (Na+ out/Na+ in) was established. Possible sites of involvement of the Na+ gradient in the conversion of acetate to methane and carbon dioxide are discussed. Na+ is not involved in the CO dehydrogenase reaction.

Peinemann, S; Muller, V; Blaut, M; Gottschalk, G

1988-01-01

335

Regulation of acetate and acetylCoA converting enzymes during growth on acetate and\\/or glucose in the halophilic archaeon Haloarcula marismortui  

Microsoft Academic Search

Haloarcula marismortui formed acetate during aerobic growth on glucose and utilized acetate as growth substrate. On glucose\\/acetate mixtures diauxic growth was observed with glucose as the preferred substrate. Regulation of enzyme activities, related to glucose and acetate metabolism was analyzed. It was found that both glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) and ADP-forming acetyl-CoA synthetase (ACD) were upregulated during periods of glucose consumption

Christopher Bräsen; Peter Schönheit

2004-01-01

336

The Metabolism of Acetate by the Blue-green Algae, Anabaena variabilis and Anacystis nidulans  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The utilization of acetate by blue-green algae was examined and the activities of enzymes involved in its metabolism measured. Although acetate did not stimulate the endogenous respiration of these organisms, the oxida- tion of acetate was followed by the rate of release of (14C) carbon dioxide from (I-~~CC) and (2-l4CC) sodium acetate. Similarly, sodium acetate did not alter the

J. Pearce; N. G. Carr

1967-01-01

337

Indium chloride catalyzed alkylative rearrangement of propargylic acetates using alkyl chlorides, alcohols, and acetates: facile synthesis of ?-alkyl-?,?-unsaturated carbonyl compounds.  

PubMed

Indium chloride catalyzed alkylative rearrangement of propargylic acetates into ?-alkyl-?,?-unsaturated carbonyl compounds has been achieved. Propargylic acetates functioned as ?-acylvinyl anion equivalents to react with carbocations generated from alkyl chlorides. Other alkyl electrophiles such as alcohols and acetates were also applicable. PMID:24494976

Onishi, Yoshiharu; Nishimoto, Yoshihiro; Yasuda, Makoto; Baba, Akio

2014-02-21

338

A spectroscopic study of the mineral paceite (calcium acetate).  

PubMed

A comprehensive spectroscopic analysis consisting of Raman, infrared (IR) and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was undertaken on two forms of calcium acetate with differing degrees of hydration. Monohydrate (Ca(CH(3)COO)(2).H(2)O) and half-hydrate (Ca(CH(3)COO)(2).0.5H(2)O) species were analysed. Assignments of vibrational bands due to the acetate anion have been made in all three forms of spectroscopy. Thermal analysis of the mineral was undertaken to follow its decomposition under a nitrogen atmosphere. Three major mass loss steps at approximately 120, 400 and 600 degrees C were revealed. These mass losses correspond very well to firstly, the loss of co-ordinated water molecules, and then the loss of water from the acetate anion, followed by finally the loss of carbon dioxide from the carbonate mineral to form a stable calcium oxide. PMID:17070100

Musumeci, Anthony W; Frost, Ray L; Waclawik, Eric R

2007-07-01

339

Process for the oxidation of butenes to linear acetates  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for the production of butene acetates and linear butene-1, 4-diacetates which comprises first activating a supported palladium metal catalyst by contacting it with a C/sub 3/-C/sub 6/ olefin at a temperature of greater than about 50/sup 0/C for a period of time sufficient to provide at least a small but perceptible quantity of the activated catalyst, in the substantial absence of oxygen, and thereafter contacting the activated catalyst with acetic acid and cis-butene-2, trans-butene-2, or butene-1 admixed with air or oxygen in a liquid metal medium, thereby forming the corresponding butene acetates and linear butene-1, 4-diacetates.

Lyons, J.E.

1986-07-22

340

Optimization of biodiesel production by supercritical methyl acetate.  

PubMed

This work has been done to find out the optimum condition of supercritical methyl acetate method in biodiesel production. The reaction temperature, pressure, time and molar ratio in methyl acetate to oil were the key parameters that must all be considered to produce an optimum condition. Evaluation of thermal decomposition on products, cis-trans isomerization and tocopherol content were required to further optimize the reaction condition. It was, therefore, concluded that for the supercritical methyl acetate method, reaction condition of 350 °C/20 MPa/45 min/42 M ratio gave the highest yields of FAME (96.7 wt.%) and triacetin (8.8 wt.%). Yet, at such a reaction condition, the optimum reaction condition was compromised due particularly to the unavoidable thermal decomposition of products, and tocopherols as natural anti-oxidants. PMID:23340101

Goembira, Fadjar; Saka, Shiro

2013-03-01

341

Characterization of acetic acid bacteria in "traditional balsamic vinegar".  

PubMed

This study evaluated the glucose tolerance of acetic acid bacteria strains isolated from Traditional Balsamic Vinegar. The results showed that the greatest hurdle to acetic acid bacteria growth is the high sugar concentration, since the majority of the isolated strains are inhibited by 25% of glucose. Sugar tolerance is an important technological trait because Traditional Balsamic Vinegar is made with concentrated cooked must. On the contrary, ethanol concentration of the cooked and fermented must is less significant for acetic acid bacteria growth. A tentative identification of the isolated strains was done by 16S-23S-5S rDNA PCR/RFLP technique and the isolated strains were clustered: 32 strains belong to Gluconacetobacter xylinus group, two strains to Acetobacter pasteurianus group and one to Acetobacter aceti. PMID:16214251

Gullo, Maria; Caggia, Cinzia; De Vero, Luciana; Giudici, Paolo

2006-02-01

342

The assimilation of acetate and propionate by Prototheca zopfi  

PubMed Central

1. The tricarboxylic acid and glyoxylate cycles are of major importance in the assimilation of acetate and propionate by Prototheca zopfii. The pattern of assimilation of [2-14C]acetate and [2-14C]propionate by whole cells growing with their respective substrates is similar except that, with propionate, ?-hydroxypropionate is the first labelled intermediate detected. 2. Carbon dioxide fixation is of little quantitative importance for the growth of this organism with propionate. 3. The yield of cells obtained/mole of acetate is similar to that obtained/mole of propionate and about half that obtained/mole of n-butyrate, these substrates acting as sole sources of carbon and energy.

Lloyd, D.; Callely, A. G.

1965-01-01

343

[Conversion of acetic acid to methane by thermophiles  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal of this project is to obtain a better understanding of thermophilic microorganisms which convert acetic acid to CH[sub 4]. The previous funding period represents a departure from earlier research in this laboratory, which was more physiological and ecological. The present work is centered on the biochemistry of the thermophile Methanothrix sp. strain CALS-1. this organism presents a unique opportunity, with its purity and relatively rapid growth, to do comparative biochemical studies with the other major acetotrophic genus Methanosarcina. We previously found that Methanothrix is capable of using acetate at concentrations 100 fold lower than Methanosarcina. This finding suggests that there are significant differences in the pathways of methanogenesis from acetate in the two genera.

Zinder, S.H.

1993-01-01

344

Syntrophic acetate oxidation in industrial CSTR biogas digesters.  

PubMed

The extent of syntrophic acetate oxidation (SAO) and the levels of known SAO bacteria and acetate- and hydrogen-consuming methanogens were determined in sludge from 13 commercial biogas production plants. Results from these measurements were statistically related to the prevailing operating conditions, through partial least squares (PLS) analysis. This revealed that high abundance of microorganisms involved in SAO was positively correlated with relatively low abundance of aceticlastic methanogens and high concentrations of free ammonia (>160 mg/L) and volatile fatty acids (VFA). Temperature was identified as another influencing factor for the population structure of the syntrophic acetate oxidising bacteria (SAOB). Overall, there was a high abundance of SAOB in the different digesters despite differences in their operating parameters, indicating that SAOB are an enduring and important component of biogas-producing consortia. PMID:24333792

Sun, Li; Müller, Bettina; Westerholm, Maria; Schnürer, Anna

2014-02-10

345

A spectroscopic study of the mineral paceite (calcium acetate)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comprehensive spectroscopic analysis consisting of Raman, infrared (IR) and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was undertaken on two forms of calcium acetate with differing degrees of hydration. Monohydrate (Ca(CH 3COO) 2·H 2O) and half-hydrate (Ca(CH 3COO) 2·0.5H 2O) species were analysed. Assignments of vibrational bands due to the acetate anion have been made in all three forms of spectroscopy. Thermal analysis of the mineral was undertaken to follow its decomposition under a nitrogen atmosphere. Three major mass loss steps at ˜120, 400 and 600 °C were revealed. These mass losses correspond very well to firstly, the loss of co-ordinated water molecules, and then the loss of water from the acetate anion, followed by finally the loss of carbon dioxide from the carbonate mineral to form a stable calcium oxide.

Musumeci, Anthony W.; Frost, Ray L.; Waclawik, Eric R.

2007-07-01

346

Advanced treatment of sodium acetate in water by ozone oxidation.  

PubMed

Ozone oxidation is an advanced oxidation process for treatment of organic and inorganic wastewater. In this paper, sodium acetate (according to chemical oxygen demand [COD]) was selected as the model pollutant in water, and the degradation efficiencies and mechanism of sodium acetate in water by ozone oxidation were investigated. The results showed that the ozone oxidation was an effective treatment technology for advanced treatment of sodium acetate in water; the COD removal rate obtained the maximum value of 45.89% from sodium acetate solution when the pH value was 10.82, ozone concentration was 100 mg/L, reaction time was 30 minutes, and reaction temperature was 25 degrees C. The COD removal rate increased first and decreased subsequently with the bicarbonate (HCO3-) concentration from 0 to 200 mg/L, the largest decline being 20.35%. The COD removal rate declined by 25.38% with the carbonate (CO3(2-)) concentration from 0 to 200 mg/L; CO3(2-) has a more obvious scavenging effect to inhibit the formation of hydroxyl free radicals than HCO3-. Calcium chloride (CaCl2) and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) could enhance the COD removal rate greatly; they could reach 77.35 and 96.53%, respectively, after a reaction time of 30 minutes, which was increased by 31.46 and 50.64%, respectively, compared with only ozone oxidation. It was proved that the main ozone oxidation product of sodium acetate was carbon dioxide (CO2), and the degradation of sodium acetate in the ozone oxidation process followed the mechanism of hydroxyl free radicals. PMID:24645544

Yang, De-Min; Yuan, Jian-Mei

2014-02-01

347

Delineation of LASIK Flaps with Prednisolone Acetate Eyedrops  

PubMed Central

We describe the use and safety of prednisolone acetate eyedrops at the end of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) to aid proper positioning of the corneal flap. The LASIK flap is created using the preferred technique. Following laser ablation and flap repositioning, one drop of prednisolone acetate is instilled on the eye. This delineates the flap “gutters” and allows perfect flap positioning and centration. We used this technique in 425 eyes undergoing LASIK for correction of spherocylindrical refractive errors. Flap margins were adequately delineated intraoperatively. The only complication related to the use of the steroid suspension was crystal deposition under the flap in one case which resolved completely in 48 hours.

Fahd, Daoud C; Fahed, Sharbel D

2014-01-01

348

Captive solvent [11C]acetate synthesis in GMP conditions.  

PubMed

Reliable procedure for the production of 1-[(11)C]acetate in GMP conditions was developed based on a combination of the captive-solvent Grignard reaction conducted in the sterile catheter followed by the convenient solid-phase extraction purification on a series of ion-exchange cartridges. The described procedure proved to be reliable in more than 30 patient productions. The process provides stable radiochemical yields (65% EOB) of sodium acetate (1-[(11)C]) of the Ph.Eur. quality (radiochemical purity better than 95%) in a short time (5 min). PMID:16806949

Soloviev, Dmitri; Tamburella, Claire

2006-09-01

349

Abiraterone Acetate and Castration Resistant Ductal Adenocarcinoma of the Prostate  

PubMed Central

Ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate is a rare histological variant that only represents <1% of prostate tumors. This histological variant has several important clinical implications with respect to their evolution, clinical prognosis, and treatment. We report the case of a 64-year-old patient with ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate, which progresses to castration-resistant prostate cancer, that was treated with abiraterone acetate with good clinical response, to our knowledge, the first case of ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate in treatment with abiraterone acetate.

Linden-Castro, Edgar; Pelayo-Nieto, Marcela; Alias-Melgar, Alejandro; Espinosa-Perezgrovas, Daniel; Ramirez-Galindo, Ivan; Catalan-Quinto, Gabriel

2014-01-01

350

Concentration-detection functions for the odor of homologous n-acetate esters  

PubMed Central

Using air-dilution olfactometry, we measured concentration-response functions for the odor detection of the homologous esters ethyl, butyl, hexyl, and octyl acetate. Stimuli were delivered by means of an 8-station vapor delivery device (VDD-8) specifically designed to capture odor detection performance by humans under environmentally realistic conditions. Groups of 16–17 (half female) normosmic (i.e., having a normal olfaction) non-smokers (ages 18–38) were tested intensively. The method involved a three-alternative forced-choice procedure against carbon-filtered air, with an ascending concentration approach. Delivered concentrations were confirmed by gas chromatography before and during actual testing. A sigmoid (logistic) model provided an excellent fit to the odor detection functions both at the group and individual levels. Odor detection thresholds (ODTs) (defined as the half-way point between chance and perfect detection) decreased from ethyl (245 ppb by volume), to butyl (4.3 ppb), to hexyl acetate (2.9 ppb), and increased for octyl acetate (20 ppb). Interindividual threshold variability was near one and always below two orders of magnitude. The steepness of the functions decreased slightly but significantly with carbon chain length. The outcome showed that the present thresholds lie at the very low end of those previously reported, but share with them a similar relative trend across n-acetates. On this basis, we suggest that a recent quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) for ODTs can be applied to these and additional optimized data, and used to describe and predict not just ODTs but the complete underlying psychometric odor functions.

Cometto-Muniz, J. Enrique; Cain, William S.; Abraham, Michael H.; Gil-Lostes, Javier

2008-01-01

351

A new automated method for phenotyping arylesterase (EC 3.1.1.2) based upon inhibition of enzymatic hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenyl acetate by phenyl acetate.  

PubMed

A new method for phenotyping human serum arylesterase (EC 3.1.1.2) is described and evaluated. The aromatic esters, phenyl acetate and 4-nitrophenyl acetate, were compared as substrates for spectrophotometric measurement of arylesterase activity. A method for arylesterase phenotyping, based upon inhibition of the enzymatic hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenyl acetate by phenyl acetate, was developed. The method was applied to serum samples from 158 blood donors and showed a distinct separation of the three phenotypes defined by a reference method based on the ratio of paraoxonase activity to arylesterase activity using paraoxon and phenyl acetate as substrates. The method was adapted to a Cobas-Fara centrifugal analyser. PMID:1525262

Haagen, L; Brock, A

1992-07-01

352

Linalyl Acetate Is Metabolized by Pseudomonas incognita with the Acetoxy Group Intact  

PubMed Central

Metabolism of linalyl acetate by Pseudomonas incognita isolated by enrichment culture on the acyclic monoterpene alcohol linalool was studied. Biodegradation of linalyl acetate by this strain resulted in the formation of linalool, linalool-8-carboxylic acid, oleuropeic acid, and ?5-4-acetoxy-4-methyl hexenoic acid. Cells adapted to linalyl acetate metabolized linalyl acetate-8-aldehyde to linalool-8-carboxylic acid, linalyl acetate-8-carboxylic acid, ?5-4-acetoxy-4-methyl hexenoic acid, and geraniol-8-carboxylic acid. Resting cell suspensions previously grown with linalyl acetate oxidized linalyl acetate-8-aldehyde to linalyl acetate-8-carboxylic acid, ?5-4-acetoxy-4-methyl hexenoic acid, and pyruvic acid. The crude cell-free extract (10,000 g of supernatant), obtained from the sonicate of linalyl acetate-grown cells, was shown to contain enzyme systems responsible for the formation of linalyl acetate-8-carboxylic acid and linalool-8-carboxylic acid from linalyl acetate. The same supernatant contained NAD-linked alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases involved in the formation of linalyl acetate-8-aldehyde and linalyl acetate-8-carboxylic acid, respectively. On the basis of various metabolites isolated from the culture medium, resting cell experiments, growth and manometric studies carried out with the isolated metabolites as well as related synthetic analogs, and the preliminary enzymatic studies performed with the cell-free extract, a probable pathway for the microbial degradation of linalyl acetate with the acetoxy group intact is suggested.

Renganathan, V.; Madyastha, K. Madhava

1983-01-01

353

Preparation of poly(vinyl acetate)\\/clay and poly(vinyl acetate)\\/poly(vinyl alcohol)\\/clay microspheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc)\\/poly(vinyl alcohol)(PVA)\\/montmorillonite (MMT) clay nanocomposite microspheres with a core\\/shell\\u000a structure have been developed via a suspension polymerization approach. In order to prepare the PVAc\\/MMT and PVAc\\/PVA\\/MMT\\u000a nanocomposite microspheres, which are promising precursor of PVA\\/MMT nanocomposite microspheres, suspension polymerization\\u000a of vinyl acetate with organophilic MMT and heterogeneous saponification were conducted. A quaternary ammonium salt, cetyltrimethylammonium\\u000a bromide, was mixed with

Hye Min Jung; Eun Mi Lee; Byung Chul Ji; Sung Ok Sohn; Han Do Ghim; Hyunju Cho; Young A Han; Jin Hyun Choi; Jae Deuk Yun; Jeong Hyun Yeum

2006-01-01

354

Acetate utilization and butyryl coenzyme A (CoA):acetate-CoA transferase in butyrate-producing bacteria from the human large intestine.  

PubMed

Seven strains of Roseburia sp., Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, and Coprococcus sp. from the human gut that produce high levels of butyric acid in vitro were studied with respect to key butyrate pathway enzymes and fermentation patterns. Strains of Roseburia sp. and F. prausnitzii possessed butyryl coenzyme A (CoA):acetate-CoA transferase and acetate kinase activities, but butyrate kinase activity was not detectable either in growing or in stationary-phase cultures. Although unable to use acetate as a sole source of energy, these strains showed net utilization of acetate during growth on glucose. In contrast, Coprococcus sp. strain L2-50 is a net producer of acetate and possessed detectable butyrate kinase, acetate kinase, and butyryl-CoA:acetate-CoA transferase activities. These results demonstrate that different functionally distinct groups of butyrate-producing bacteria are present in the human large intestine. PMID:12324374

Duncan, Sylvia H; Barcenilla, Adela; Stewart, Colin S; Pryde, Susan E; Flint, Harry J

2002-10-01

355

Effect of phorbol myristate acetate on secretion of parathyroid hormone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), an activator of protein kinase c, on the secretion of parathyroid hormone from collagenase-dispersed bovine parathyroid cells was tested. The cells were incubated at low or high concentrations of calcium in the medium, and the hormone secreted into the medium was measured by a radioimmunoassay that recognizes both intact and C-terminal fragments of

Morrissey

1988-01-01

356

Ice-Melting Characteristics of Calcium Magnesium Acetate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pertinent chemical and physical properties of calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) were determined. Included were comparisons of ratios of calcium to magnesium varying from 100% CaAc2 to 100% MgAc2. The objective was to determine the optimum composition of CMA...

R. U. Schenk

1986-01-01

357

Demixing and gelation behavior of ternary cellulose acetate solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demixing behavior on cooling of ternary systems of cellulose acetate\\/solvent\\/water has been examined for CA concentrations up to 40 wt% CA in several solvents. Cloud points have been measured as a function of cooling rate. The rapid process of liquid - liquid demixing can be discriminated from the slow process of aggregate formation by examining the dependence of the

A. J. Reuvers; F. W. Altena; C. A. Smolders

1986-01-01

358

Plasticization of Fibrous Cellulose Acetate I - Synthesis and Characterisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthesis and characterisation of fibrous cellulose triacetate -CTA are reported using an acetic acid \\/ anhydride \\/ perchloric acid toluene catalysed route. The fibrous product exhibits a high degree of nano crystallinity. An optimum concentration of the reactants for substitution and minimization of fibre degradation were studied. Chain degradation was promoted by the acetylium ion and lead to a loss

Richard A. Pethrick; Anne Marie Wilton

2012-01-01

359

Activity of octreotide acetate in a total nutrient admixture.  

PubMed

The activity of octreotide acetate in a total nutrient admixture (TNA) and the effect of the drug on the stability of lipid emulsion in the TNA were studied. Octreotide acetate injection was added to a standard solution containing 3% lipids, amino acids, dextrose, electrolytes, vitamins, and trace elements to achieve a theoretical concentration of 45 micrograms/dL. Samples were stored at room temperature for 48 hours. Octreotide concentrations were determined in triplicate by radioimmunoassay; physical stability of the solutions was assessed by lipid particle-size determination, pH measurement, and visual observation of emulsion integrity at 0, 12, 24, and 48 hours. The activity of octreotide in two samples of each solution (with and without lipid) was analyzed immediately after preparation and after seven days under refrigeration. There was no evidence of emulsion breakdown or pH change in any solution over the study period. In addition, particle-size distributions at 48 hours and 7 days were comparable to those at time zero, suggesting physical stability. Octreotide acetate activity was not consistently greater than 90% (mean +/- S.D.) after storage for 48 hours. Octreotide acetate at a theoretical concentration of 45 micrograms/dL in a TNA solution containing 3% lipids appeared to be physically compatible for 48 hours at room temperature and for 7 days under refrigeration. However, the chemical activity of octreotide in TNA was not consistent after storage for 48 hours. PMID:1781474

Ritchie, D J; Holstad, S G; Westrich, T J; Hirsch, J D; O'Dorisio, T M

1991-10-01

360

Infrared spectroscopic study of halloysite-potassium acetate intercalation complex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mid-infrared (MIR) and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy have been used to study the molecular structure of halloysite and potassium acetate intercalated halloysite and to determine the structural changes of halloysite through intercalation. The MIR spectra show all fundamental vibrations including the hydroxyl units, basic aluminosilicate framework and water molecules in the structure of halloysite and its intercalation complex. Comparison between halloysite and halloysite-potassium acetate intercalation complex shows almost all bands observed for halloysite are also observed for halloysite-potassium acetate intercalation complex apart from bands observed in the 1700-1300 cm -1 region, but with differences in band intensity. However, NIR spectra, based on MIR spectra, provide sufficient evidence to analyze the structural changes of halloysite through intercalation. There are obvious differences between halloysite and halloysite-potassium acetate intercalation complex in all spectral ranges. Therefore, the reproducibility of measurement and richness of qualitative information should be simultaneously considered for proper selection of a spectroscopic method for molecular structural analysis.

Cheng, Hongfei; Liu, Qinfu; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Jinshan; Frost, Ray L.; Du, Xiaoman

2011-03-01

361

Contraception with Chlormadinone Acetate in Woman with Previous Contraceptive Jaundice  

PubMed Central

The oral contraceptive chlormadinone acetate has been given for eight months to a woman who had developed jaundice during four pregnancies, and twice while taking a combined contraceptive pill. No side-effects or changes in liver function were observed. This is further evidence that progestogens used for contraception, and in particular those derived from hydroxyprogesterone, are less hepatotoxic than the oestrogenic components.

Thompson, R. P. H.; Williams, Roger

1970-01-01

362

Natural abundance 17O NMR study of ?-substituted methyl acetates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural abundance 17O NMR chemical shift data for 10 substituted methyl acetates and 7 analogs, recorded in acetonitrile at 75°C, are reported. Variation in the carbonyl and single-bond oxygen signal are observed for formal ?-substitution and do not correlate with inductive effects. The data appear to be consistent with ? effects for analogous systems.

Boykin, D. W.; Subramanian, T. S.; Baumstark, A. L.

1989-01-01

363

Sterochemistry of the Acetalization of Hexafluroacetone with a Bromohydrin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Acetalization of hexafluoroacetone with threo- and erythro-5-bromo-octan-4-ol has been shown to be highly trans-specific by 19F n.m.r., providing a method for establishing the stereochemistry of bromohydrins and their precursors when they are reacted ster...

B. M. Johnson J. W. Taylor

1971-01-01

364

Synthesis and characterization of cyclic acetal based degradable hydrogels  

Microsoft Academic Search

While many synthetic, hydrolytically degradable hydrogels have been developed for biomedical applications, there are only a few examples whose polymer backbone does not form acidic products upon degradation. In order to address this concern, we proposed to develop a hydrogel based on a cyclic acetal unit that produces diols and propanals upon hydrolytic degradation. In particular, we proposed the fabrication

Sachiko Kaihara; Shuichi Matsumura; John P. Fisher

2008-01-01

365

Lead Acetate One-Year Newborn Rat Catcinogenesis Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lead acetate in physiological saline was injected subcutaneously and intraperitoneally in four divided doses in neonatal rats at a level of 110 mg/kg, the maximum tolerated dosage. Animals were sacrificed after six months and at the termination of the stu...

D. C. Jessup

1969-01-01

366

Brain damage and paraphilia: Treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain damage, due to cortical atrophy, brain tumor, epileptic foci, temporal lobectomy, or concussion, is most frequently associated with hyposexuality in males. Sometimes, hypersexuality and atypical sexual interests may be present, as exemplified in a case of a man who developed a paraphilia for his stepdaughter's breasts following traumatic frontal brain injury. Treatment with medroxyprogesterone acetate (Depo-Provera ®) was successful

Gregory K. Lehne

1984-01-01

367

THERMOREGULATION IN MICE FOLLOWING ACUTE ADMINISTRATION OF LEAD ACETATE  

EPA Science Inventory

Several reports in the literature suggest a relationship between lead intoxication and thermoregulatory capacity. To investigate the effects of lead on the control of body temperature, mice of the BALB/c strain were injected intraperitoneally with lead acetate (0 to 100 mg/kg) wh...

368

Metastatic Prostate Cancer Treated by Flutamide versus Cyproterone Acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: This trial was designed to compare the efficacy of Flutamide (FLU) versus Cyproterone acetate (CPA) in men with metastatic prostate cancer and favourable prognostic factors. The primary endpoint of the trial was overall survival, disease specific survival, time to progression and side effects were secondary endpoints. The results pertaining to sexual function were already reported [Br J Cancer 82(2)

Fritz H. Schröder; Peter Whelan; Theo M. de Reijke; Karl Heinz Kurth; Michele Pavone-Macaluso; Johan Mattelaer; Roland F. van Velthoven; Muriel Debois; Laurence Collette

2004-01-01

369

Studies on Cellulose Acetate Phthalate. 3. Osmotic Pressure Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osmotic pressure measurements of aqueous solutions of cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) were carried out with the help of a highspeed membrane osmometer. The value of the osmotic coefficient, g, for different concentrations of CAP, as well as at different degree of neutralization for various concentrations, were estimated. The effect of concentration and degree of neutralization on the value of g

C. P. Patel; H. C. Trivedi; K. C. Patel; R. D. Patel

1986-01-01

370

Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria of water + ethanol + hexyl acetate  

SciTech Connect

The authors determined the isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium data for the ternary system water + ethanol + hexyl acetate at 101.325 kPa using a distillation apparatus recycling both liquid and vapor phases. The results were compared with those predicted using group contribution methods. The UNIFAC method gave the best predictions.

Arce, A.; Soto, A. [Univ. of Santiago de Compostela (Spain). Chemical Engineering Dept.; Orge, B.; Tojo, J. [Univ. of Vigo (Spain). Chemical Engineering Dept.

1995-09-01

371

Acetic acid: Microwave spectra, internal rotation and substitution structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The internal rotation splittings in the microwave spectrum of acetic acid have been re-examined, using both principal axis method (PAM) and internal axis method (IAM) treatments. It is shown how individual terms in the PAM equation can be correlated to the first terms in an expansion of the corresponding IAM formula. When centrifugal distortion was allowed for, both methods reproduced

B. P. van Eijck; J. van Opheusden; M. M. M. van Schaik; E. van Zoeren

1981-01-01

372

Lead Acetate, Three-Generation Reproduction Study - Rats.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lead acetate was incorporated into basal laboratory diet at concentrations of 0, 10, 100 and 1000 ppm (calculated on the basis of lead) and offered to male and female rats through three parental and three two-litter filial generations. There was no eviden...

D. C. Jessup

1969-01-01

373

Photoelectrochemistry of polyaniline supported in a microporous cellulose acetate membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the photoelectrochemical response of polyaniline dispersed in a microporous membrane structure. Films of the composite were obtained by electropolymerization of aniline on a platinum electrode coated with a microporous cellulose acetate membrane. They were characterized by UV—Visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. We compared the results with a electrochemically synthesized polyaniline and a composite film

S. das Neves; M.-A. De Paoli

1998-01-01

374

Mass Spectral and Electric Deflection Study of Acetic Acid Clusters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Acetic acid clusters, (CH3COOH)n, up to n = 10, were produced in a supersonic beam expansion and analyzed in a molecular beam quadrupole mass spectrometer. A general mechanism for their mass spectral fragmentation was deduced. Polarity of the first four c...

R. Sivert I. Cadez J. Van Doren A. W. Castleman

1984-01-01

375

Occurrence and metabolism of 7-hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid in Zea mays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

7-Hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid was identified as a catabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in germinating kernels of Zea mays and found to be present in amounts of ca 3.1 nmol/kernel. 7-Hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid was shown to be a biosynthetic intermediate between 2-indolinone-3-acetic acid and 7-hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid-7'-O-glucoside in both kernels and roots of Zea mays. Further metabolism of 7-hydroxy-2-[5-3H]-indolinone-3-acetic acid-7'-O-glucoside occurred to yield tritiated water plus, as yet, uncharacterized products.

Lewer, P.; Bandurski, R. S.

1987-01-01

376

21 CFR 524.1484c - Neomycin sulfate, isoflupredone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ointment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...isoflupredone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ointment. 524.1484c Section 524.1484c...isoflupredone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ointment. (a) Specifications. The...tetracaine hydrochloride in each gram of ointment. (b) Sponsor. See No....

2009-04-01

377

Efficient, selective deprotection of aromatic acetates catalyzed by Amberlyst-15 or iodine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aromatic acetates were selectively deprotected in the presence of aliphatic acetates to the corresponding phenols in excellent yields using Amberlyst-15 or iodine as catalysts in methanol at room temperature. The first catalyst can be recovered.

Biswanath Das; Joydeep Banerjee; R. Ramu; Rammohan Pal; N. Ravindranath; C. Ramesh

2003-01-01

378

Roles of Acetate and Pyruvate in the Metabolism of Streptococcus diacetilactis  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus diacetilactis required acetate, contained acetate kinase and phosphotransacetylase, and incorporated both radioactive exogenous acetate and acetate from citrate into cell lipids. dl-?-Lipoic acid replaced acetate and was required for the oxidation of pyruvate. Stimulation of S. diacetilactis by citrate was found to depend on pyruvate oxidation. Resting cells of the organism produced acetate from 73% of the pyruvate they utilized. However, molar growth yields from glucose were not greater under aerobic compared to anaerobic conditions or when lipoic acid or citrate plus lipoic acid was used in the medium in place of acetate. Data indicate that the growth of S. diacetilactis is limited by the rate of acetyl-coenzyme A synthesis, that the rate of synthesis from pyruvate is higher than the rate from acetate, and that lack of acetyl-coenzyme A not required for growth limits the production of diacetyl and precludes the formation of adenosine triphosphate from acetyl-coenzyme A.

Collins, E. B.; Bruhn, J. C.

1970-01-01

379

Partitioning of Acetate, Formate and Phosphates Around the Water/Steam Cycle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Volatilities of formic acid, acetic acid, sodium acetate, phosphoric acid, sodium dihydrogen phosphate and sodium monohydrogen phosphate have been measured at temperatures up to 350degC using a corrosion-resistant static cell with sampling of both phases....

M. S. Guszkiewicz D. B. Joyce S. L. Marshall D. A. Palmer J. M. Simonson

2000-01-01

380

21 CFR 524.1204 - Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate...524.1204 Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate. (a) Specifications. (1) Calcium amphomycin is the calcium salt...

2013-04-01

381

Preparation and Monitoring of Lead Acetate Containing Drinking Water Solutions for Toxicity Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The protocols developed and implemented to provide lead acetate containing drinking water solutions for animal toxicity studies are described in detail. The procedure involved preparation of 20 liter batches of high concentration lead acetate solution (20...

W. R. Blair K. L. Jewett F. W. Wang S. B. Schiller

1994-01-01

382

The Effects of Porous and Solid Fillers on the Permeability of Cellulose Acetate Membranes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several types of filled cellulose acetate membranes were prepared to determine the effect of filler properties and polymer properties on permeability of the composite materials. Casting procedures were chosen to give a dense cellulose acetate phase and a ...

P. Harriott J. Wu F. Klunker

1973-01-01

383

21 CFR 522.161 - Betamethasone acetate and betamethasone disodium phosphate aqueous suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (a) Chemical names. Betamethasone acetate: 9-α-Fluoro-16-β-methylprednisolone - 21 - acetate (C24 H31 FO6 ). Betamethasone disodium phosphate: 9-α-Fluoro-16-β-methylprednisolone-21-disodium phosphate...

2013-04-01

384

42 CFR 84.1142 - Isoamyl acetate tightness test; respirators designed for respiratory protection against dusts...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Isoamyl acetate tightness test; respirators designed for respiratory...84.1142 Isoamyl acetate tightness test; respirators designed for respiratory...half-mask facepiece for 5 minutes in a test chamber containing 100 parts (by...

2012-10-01

385

Controlled release of triprolidine using ethylene-vinyl acetate membrane and matrix systems.  

PubMed

The studies on the permeability of triprolidine through ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymer membrane using two-chamber diffusion cell was carried out to develop the controlled delivery system. To evaluate the effect of drug concentration in reservoir, polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400 was added to saline solution as a solubilizer and a sink condition was maintained in the receptor solution. The permeation rate of drug through EVA membrane was proportional to PEG 400 volume fraction. A linear relationship existed between the permeation rate and the reciprocal of the membrane thickness. Triprolidine-containing matrix was fabricated with EVA copolymer to control the release of the drug. The plasticizers was added for preparing the pore structure of EVA membranes to increase the drug release. The effects of PEG 400, vinyl acetate (VA) contents of EVA, membrane thickness, drug concentration, temperature, and plasticizers, on drug release were studied. The release rate of drug from the EVA matrix increased with PEG 400 volume fraction, increased temperature and drug loading doses. An increased vinyl acetate comonomer content in EVA membrane increased the drug release rate and permeability coefficient. Among the plasticizers used such as alkyl citrates and phthalates, tetra ethyl citrate showed the best enhancing effects showing the enhancement factor of 1.88. The release of triprolidine from the EVA matrix follows a diffusion controlled model, where the quantity released per unit area is proportional to the square root of time. The controlled release of triprolidine could be achieved using the EVA polymer including the plasticizer. PMID:12191692

Shin, Sang-Chul; Lee, Hyun-Jin

2002-09-01

386

Tensile mechanical properties and hydraulic permeabilities of electrospun cellulose acetate fiber meshes.  

PubMed

The mechanical properties and hydraulic permeabilities of biomaterial scaffolds play a crucial role in their efficacy as tissue engineering platforms, separation processors, and drug delivery vehicles. In this study, electrospun cellulose acetate fiber meshes of random orientations were created using four different concentrations, 10.0, 12.5, 15.0, and 17.5 wt % in acetone or ethyl acetate. The tensile mechanical properties and the hydraulic permeabilities of these meshes were measured, and a multiscale model was employed to predict their mechanical behavior. Experimentally, the elastic modulus ranged from 3.5 to 12.4 MPa depending on the polymer concentration and the solvent. Model predictions agreed well with the experimental measurements when a fitted single-fiber modulus of 123.3 MPa was used. The model also predicted that changes in fiber alignment may result in a 3.6-fold increase in the elastic modulus for moderately aligned meshes and a 8.5-fold increase for highly align meshes. Hydraulic permeabilities ranged from 1.4 x 10(-12) to 8.9 x 10(-12) m(2) depending on polymer concentration but not the choice of solvent. In conclusion, polymer concentration, fiber alignment, and solvent have significant impact on the mechanical and fluid transport properties of electrospun cellulose acetate fiber meshes. PMID:22887702

Stylianopoulos, Triantafyllos; Kokonou, Maria; Michael, Stefanos; Tryfonos, Antonia; Rebholz, Claus; Odysseos, Andreani D; Doumanidis, Charalambos

2012-11-01

387

Experimental study of aluminum-, calcium-, and magnesium-acetate complexing at 80 degree C  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stabilities of Al-, Ca-, and Mg-acetate complexes were determined separately at 80°C by measuring the solubilities of gibbsite, portlandite, and brucite as functions of acetate concentrations. The experiments were conducted using geologically realistic acetate concentrations in order to observe the acetate complexes that are important in sedimentary basin fluids. The experimental measurements are used to calculate the stoichiometries and

J FEIN

1991-01-01

388

Acetate repression of methane oxidation by supplemental Methylocella silvestris in a peat soil microcosm.  

PubMed

Methylocella spp. are facultative methanotrophs that grow on methane and multicarbon substrates, such as acetate. Acetate represses transcription of methane monooxygenase of Methylocella silvestris in laboratory culture. DNA stable-isotope probing (DNA-SIP) using (13)C-methane and (12)C-acetate, carried out with Methylocella-spiked peat soil, showed that acetate also repressed methane oxidation by Methylocella in environmental samples. PMID:21515721

Rahman, M Tanvir; Crombie, Andrew; Moussard, Hélène; Chen, Yin; Murrell, J Colin

2011-06-01

389

Acetate Repression of Methane Oxidation by Supplemental Methylocella silvestris in a Peat Soil Microcosm ? †  

PubMed Central

Methylocella spp. are facultative methanotrophs that grow on methane and multicarbon substrates, such as acetate. Acetate represses transcription of methane monooxygenase of Methylocella silvestris in laboratory culture. DNA stable-isotope probing (DNA-SIP) using 13C-methane and 12C-acetate, carried out with Methylocella-spiked peat soil, showed that acetate also repressed methane oxidation by Methylocella in environmental samples.

Rahman, M. Tanvir; Crombie, Andrew; Moussard, Helene; Chen, Yin; Murrell, J. Colin

2011-01-01

390

40 CFR 721.304 - Acetic acid, [(5-chloro-8-quinolinyl)oxy-], 1-methyl hexyl ester.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acetic acid, [(5-chloro-8-quinolinyl...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.304 Acetic acid, [(5-chloro-8-quinolinyl...The chemical substance identified as acetic acid,...

2010-07-01

391

40 CFR 721.304 - Acetic acid, [(5-chloro-8-quinolinyl)oxy-], 1-methyl hexyl ester.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Acetic acid, [(5-chloro-8-quinolinyl...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.304 Acetic acid, [(5-chloro-8-quinolinyl...The chemical substance identified as acetic acid,...

2009-07-01

392

A freshwater anaerobe coupling acetate oxidation to tetrachloroethylene dehalogenation.  

PubMed Central

Strain TT4B has been isolated from anaerobic sediments known to be contaminated with a variety of organic solvents. It is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium and grew anaerobically with acetate as the electron donor and tetrachloroethylene as the electron acceptor in a mineral medium. cis-Dichloroethylene was the halogenated product. This strain did not grow fermentatively and used only acetate or pyruvate as electron donors. Tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene were used as electron acceptors, as were ferric nitriloacetate and fumarate. Nitrogen and sulfur oxyanions were not able to substitute as the electron acceptor for this organism. Modest growth occurred in a two-phase system with 1 ml of hexadecane containing 50 to 200 mM tetrachloroethylene (aqueous concentrations, 25 to 100 microM) and 10 ml of anaerobic mineral solution with Na2S as the reducing agent. Growth was completely inhibited at tetrachloroethylene levels above 100 microM.

Krumholz, L R; Sharp, R; Fishbain, S S

1996-01-01

393

[Anti-androgen treatment of hirsutism with cyproterone acetate].  

PubMed

22 female patients suffering from idiopathic hirsutism were treated according to Hammerstein's reversed sequential scheme over 12 months. During each treatment cycle of 21 days, the daily medication consisted of 1 coated tablet containing 0.035 mg ethinyl estradiol and 2 mg cyproterone acetate (Diane-35); in addition, the patients received one i.m. injection of 300 mg cyproterone acetate (Androcur-Depot) on the first day of each cycle. This therapy resulted in improvement of the disease in 19 of our patients (86.4%). The transitory, mild side effects observed did not require interruption of the treatment. The reversed sequential scheme making use of the depot form of CPA can successfully be administered in patients with hirsutism. PMID:2150902

Kása, M; Egyedi, K; Raffai, S; Török, L

1990-12-01

394

Electrospun cellulose acetate-garnet nanocomposite magnetic fibers for bioseparations.  

PubMed

Cellulose acetate fibers with magnetic properties have recently attracted much attention because of their potential novel applications in biomedicine such as for cell and protein separations, magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents, and magnetic filters. In this work, as synthesized yttrium iron garnet and gadolinium substituted yttrium iron garnet nanoparticles have been used to generate magnetic filter paper. Garnet nanoparticles dispersed in cellulose acetate polymer solutions were electrospun as free-standing nonwoven fiber mats as well as on cellulose filter paper substrates resulting in magnetic filter papers. The magnetic fibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetic property measurements. The resulting magnetic polymer nanocomposites can be easily picked up by an external magnet from a liquid medium. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled bovine serum albumin (BSA) was separated from solution by using the magnetic filter paper. PMID:24341636

Munaweera, Imalka; Aliev, Ali; Balkus, Kenneth J

2014-01-01

395

Cellulose acetate graft copolymers with nano-structured architectures: Synthesis and characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellulose acetate is a very good film-forming polymer with major applications in cigarette filters, photographic films, cosmetics and pharmaceutics formulations and membrane separation processes. Nevertheless, its rigidity and relative hydrophobic character can be limiting drawbacks for some applications. In this work, new cellulose acetate materials with highly flexible and hydrophilic grafts were obtained with different hydrophilic\\/hydrophobic balances. Cellulose acetate was

M. Billy; A. Ranzani Da Costa; P. Lochon; R. Clément; M. Dresch; S. Etienne; J. M. Hiver; L. David; A. Jonquières

2010-01-01

396

40 CFR 721.8658 - Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium compound (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium...Chemical Substances § 721.8658 Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium...substance identified generically as modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary...

2010-07-01

397

A prospective randomized study of megestrol acetate and ibuprofen in gastrointestinal cancer patients with weight loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of megestrol acetate in the treatment of weight loss in gastrointestinal cancer patients has been disappointing. The aim of the present study was to compare the combination of megestrol acetate and placebo with megestrol acetate and ibuprofen in the treatment of weight loss in such patients. At baseline, 4–6 weeks and 12 weeks, patients underwent measurements of anthropometry,

D C McMillan; S J Wigmore; K C H Wigmore; P O’Gorman; C E Wright; C S McArdle

1999-01-01

398

Performance, blood and carcase characteristics of finishing steers treated with trenbolone acetate and hexoestrol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty British Friesian steers were divided into four uniform groups and either not treated or implanted with hexoestrol, trenbolone acetate, or hexoestrol plus trenbolone acetate. Hexoestrol was given 90 days and trenbolone acetate 70 days, before slaughter. Animals in the treatment groups grew significantly faster, converted food to live-weight gain more effciently faster, converted food to live-weight gain more efficiently

H Galbraith; HB Watson

1978-01-01

399

Effect of hexoestrol on the response of finishing steers to treatment with trenbolone acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative effectiveness of implanting 300 mg trenbolone acetate alone or in combination with either 15, 30 or 45 mg hexoestrol was studied in three 90-day experiments using 64 Friesian steers. In experiment 1 hexoestrol was shown to improve live-weight gain and efficiency of feed conversion in steers implanted with trenbolone acetate. In experiments 2 and 3 trenbolone acetate in

H Galbraith; DG Dempster

1979-01-01

400

Phorbol myristate acetate receptors in human polymorphonuclear neutrophils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resting or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-pretreated neutrophils were disrupted by nitrogen cavitation and were fractionated on Percoll density gradients to identify the subcellular location of PMA receptors. Receptors were found in the cytoplasm of resting cells; neither primary nor secondary granules bound (³H)PMA, and the few binding sites located in non-granule membrane fractions appeared to reflect cytosolic contamination. Contrastingly, PMA-pretreated

J. Nishihira; J. T. OFlaherty

1985-01-01

401

Retardation of experimental oral cancer development by retinyl acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixty young adult Syrian hamsters were divided into five groups. Group 1 and Group 2 animals were treated with 0.25% dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA), painted on their left buccal pouches thrice weekly for 20 weeks. Starting at 12 weeks, at which time there was clinical evidence of leukoplakia and initial tumor formation, Group 2 animals received 10 mg retinyl acetate 3 times\\/week

Gerald Shklar

1983-01-01

402

Zinc acetate and lyophilized aloe barbadensis as vaginal contraceptive  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty samples of fresh ejaculate, donated by healthy volunteers ranging in age from 20–30 years, were obtained from the Center for Fertility & Cryobiology, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri. Average semen volume was 2.49 ml; average sperm motility was 71.32%; and average sperm density was 113.71 × 106\\/ml. Testing for spermicidal effectiveness of a 1% concentration of zinc acetate, zinc

M. S. Fahim; M. Wang

1996-01-01

403

Structured catalysts for photo-Fenton oxidation of acetic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work photo-Fenton oxidation of acetic acid, was carried out on perovskites based structured catalysts, in the presence or in the absence of low amounts of Pt. Homogeneous photo-Fenton reaction by ferrioxalate complex has been also performed. The comparison of homogeneous and heterogeneous photo-Fenton oxidation indicates that the use of a heterogeneous structured catalyst greatly improves the total organic

Diana Sannino; Vincenzo Vaiano; Paolo Ciambelli; Lyubov A. Isupova

2011-01-01

404

Cellulose acetate nanofiltration hollow fiber membranes for forward osmosis processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellulose acetate (CA) nanofiltration (NF) hollow fiber membranes have been fabricated and tested in the forward osmosis (FO) process. A two-step heat-treatment, i.e., 60min at 60°C and 20min at 95°C, effectively shrinks the membrane mean pore radius from 0.63 to 0.30nm. The molecular weight cut off (MWCO) of the resultant CA NF membrane is 186Da. In the NF experiments under

Jincai Su; Qian Yang; Joo Fuat Teo; Tai-Shung Chung

2010-01-01

405

Effect of lead acetate toxicity on experimental male albino rat  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the effect of different doses of lead acetate (1/20, 1/40 and 1/60 of LD50) on body weight gain, blood picture, plasma protein profile and the function of liver, kidney and thyroid gland. Methods Male albino rats were divided into four groups, the first group represented the health control animals, while the second, third and fourth groups were ingested orally with sub lethal doses of lead acetate (1/20, 1/40 and 1/60) of the oral LD50, respectively. One dose was ingested every two days during the experimental period (14 weeks) including the adaptation time. Blood was collected and used for all analysis. Results The results showed that, the ingestion of Pb2+ induced significant stimulation in glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (ALT) and glutamic-oxalacetic transaminease (AST) activity. Also, total soluble protein and albumin contents of plasma were significantly decreased, while the content of globulin was changed by the Pb2+ treatments. The cholinesterase activity was inhibited, but the activities of alkaline and acid phosphates and lactate dehydrogenase were stimulated, while plasma glucose level was elevated as a result of lead acetate intoxication. In case of blood picture, Pb2+ ingestion reduced the contents of hemoglobin and RBCs count of intoxicated rat's blood and the plasma levels of T3, T4 and blood WBCs count were decreased. Conclusions It can be concluded that lead acetate has harmful effect on experimental male albino rats. Therefore, the present work advises people to prevent exposure to the lead compound to avoid injurious hazard risk.

Ibrahim, Nabil M; Eweis, Esam A; El-Beltagi, Hossam S; Abdel-Mobdy, Yasmin E

2012-01-01

406

Adaptive cytoprotection against acetic acid induced colonic injury in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and aims: The phenomenon of prostaglandin dependent adaptive cytoprotection has been well established in the stomach and duodenum but not in the colon. This study investigated whether it also occurs in the colon. Methods: Fisher rats received intracolonic administration (0.5 ml) of saline or acetic acid at low concentrations (0.01-5%) followed by high concentration (25%) at various intervals (10-720

Toru Kono; Masashi Yoneda; Kei Ohara; Tokiyoshi Ayabe; Naoyuki Chisato; Yutaka Kohgo; Shinichi Kasai; Akira Terano; Yvette Taché

2001-01-01

407

Induction of Antifertility with Lupeol Acetate in Male Albino Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antifertility activity of the active principle, i.e. lupeol acetate, isolated from benzene extract of Alstonia scholaris in male albino rats. The treatment with lupeol acetateat the dose level of 10 mg\\/rat\\/day did not cause any significant change in the body weights, but significant reduction in the weight of reproductive organs, i.e. testes,

R. S. Gupta; A. K. Bhatnager; Y. C. Joshi; M. C. Sharma; Veena Khushalani; J. B. S. Kachhawa

2005-01-01

408

Potential energy surfaces for proton abstractions from acetic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abstractions of hydrogen from both carbon and oxygen in acetic acid by hydride, fluoride, and hydroxide anions have been studied using ab initio electronic structure calculations. Molecular structures were optimized at the Hartree-Fock level of theory using the 6-31++G(d,p) basis set. For energetics, the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set was used, with second- and fourth-order perturbation theory corrections, for both minima

Mark S. Gordon; David R. Gano; Eugene Curtiss

1996-01-01

409

Photocatalytic oxidation and decomposition of acetic acid on titanium silicalite.  

PubMed

Transient reaction of adsorbed monolayers of acetic acid was used to characterize the photocatalytic properties of titanium silicalite zeolites (TS-1). The TS-1 zeolites having Si/Ti ratios of 5, 12.5, and 50 are effective catalysts at room temperature for both photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) and decomposition (PCD) of acetic acid. The rates of PCO are higher than the rates of PCD for each catalyst. Acetic acid oxidized photocatalytically in 0.2% O2 to form gas-phase CO2 and CH4 and adsorbed H2O on the TS-1 catalysts, whereas no CH4 formed on Degussa P25 TiO2. Isotope labeling showed that, on both TiO2 and TS-1 catalysts, the alpha-carbon formed CO2 whereas the beta-carbon formed CH4 and CO2. The rates of oxidation of the two carbons have different dependencies on UV intensity. The catalysts with higher Si/Ti ratios adsorbed significantly more acetic acid, and the PCO rates per gram of titanium are highest on the TS-1 catalyst with the lowest Ti content, apparently because a larger fraction of the Ti atoms are surface atoms on this catalyst. During PCD in an inert atmosphere, CO2, CH4, and C2H6 formed on TiO2 and on the catalyst with a Si/Ti ratio of 5, but C2H6 was not detected on the other catalysts. The CO2/CH4 selectivity during PCD increased with increasing Si/Ti ratio. The first step in PCO and PCD on TS-1 catalysts appears to be similar and involves formation of a CH3 radical. PMID:11347941

Lee, G D; Tuan, V A; Falconer, J L

2001-03-15

410

Use of fibre wastes from production of acetate fibres  

SciTech Connect

The rational use of production wastes is an important part of the Fergana Chemical Fibre Plant in Russia. This recycling reduces the negative effect of the technological process on the environment, increases the economy of production, and produces additional consumer goods. Consumer goods began to be produced at the plant in 1978 with processing of amide-acetate textured fibres into yarn for hand knitting. The need to increase the volumes and expand the variety of goods for the market predetermined an important increase in production of this product. Production of consumer goods has increased since 1990, and both fibre wastes and untreated low-grade fibres and filaments have been used as the starting material. Technological processes for processing wastes and low-grade figured, textured polyamide-acetate fibres into knitting yarn, haberdashery cord, and finishing tape and fringe were created and introduced in subsequent years. The primary technological formulation for production of these materials is well known and is used in light industry. However, production of each type of product in the plant was preceded by research related to selection of the optimum linear density of the filaments used, composition of blends, and the structure of figured fibres, as well as the concrete technological parameters and operating regimes of the equipment to produce articles of the required quality. Development and testing of new decorative textiles are continuing. Low grade and nonstandard acetate semifinished fibre from spinning machines and low grade, bulk dyed acetate fibres have been selected as the raw material for fabrication of these articles.

Askarov, M.I.; Tashpulatova, A.B.

1995-07-01

411

Calcium Acetate as a Phosphorus Binder in Hemodialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much interest is currently centered on the use of calcium acetate as a phosphorus binder in patients with renal failure. Therefore, this compound in sub- jects previously stable on calcium carbonate and undergoing high-efficiency hemodialysis with a di- alysate calcium of 2.5 mEq\\/L was evaluated. Twenty subjects were switched from generic calcium car- bonate to a single calcium carbonate preparation

James A. Delmez; Carol A. Tindira; David W. Windus; Kathryn V. Norwood; Karla S. Giles; Tern L. Nighswander; Eduardo Slatopolsky

412

Fire retardant mechanism in intumescent ethylene vinyl acetate compositions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal and combustion behaviour of an intumescent fire retardant system based on Polyamide 6 (PA6) and Ammonium Polyphosphate (APP), used to improve flame retardant properties of poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA), loaded with Mg(OH)2 (MH) was examined. The study of the interactions between the additives introduced in EVA was focused in particular on the MH-APP interaction. The evolution of water from

A. Riva; G. Camino; L. Fomperie; P. Amigouët

2003-01-01

413

Reproductive toxicity of trenbolone acetate in embryonically exposed Japanese quail  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to assess the effects of a one time embryonic exposure to trenbolone acetate on reproductive development and function in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). Embryos were exposed to either 0.05, 0.5, 5, or 50?g trenbolone or a sesame oil vehicle control at embryonic day 4. Onset of puberty, gonadal histopathology, sperm motility, cloacal gland size, and male

Michael J. Quinn; Emma T. Lavoie; Mary Ann Ottinger

2007-01-01

414

The environmental fate of anabolic steroid trenbolone acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

17?-trenbolone Acetate (TBA) is a synthetic anabolic hormone widely used in beef cattle across the U.S. TBA is administered as a subcutaneous implant and often in combination with 17?-estradiol (E2) for growth promotion in beef cattle. Implanted cattle excrete primarily 17?-trenbolone along with small amounts of 17?-trenbolone and trendione. Quantifying the fate of these hormones after being land-applied is important

Bushra Khan

2009-01-01

415

Comparison Properties of Natural Rubber (SMR L)\\/Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA) Copolymer Blends and Epoxidized Natural Rubber (ENR50)\\/Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA) Copolymer Blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mixing torque, morphology, tensile properties and swelling studies of natural rubber\\/ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer blends were studied. Two series of unvulcanized blends, natural rubber\\/ethylene vinyl acetate (SMRL\\/EVA) copolymer blend and epoxidized natural rubber (50% epoxidation)\\/ethylene vinyl acetate (ENR-50\\/EVA) copolymer blend were prepared. Blends were prepared using a laboratory internal mixer, Haake Rheomix polydrive with rotor speed of 50 rpm at 120°C.

M. K. Yong; H. Ismail; Z. M. Ariff

2007-01-01

416

A comparative study of gamma irradiation of poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) and poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate)\\/carbon black mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this comparative study, the effect of gamma rays on poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA) and poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate)\\/carbon black mixture (EVA\\/CB) was investigated. EVA, containing 13% vinyl acetate (VA), and EVA\\/CB, containing 13% VA and 1% carbon black (CB), were irradiated with gamma rays at ambient conditions up to 400kGy. Sol–gel analyses were made to determine the percentage gelation of both virgin

Murat ?en; Mehmet Çopuro?lu

2005-01-01

417

Stimulation of hepatic glycogenolysis by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate  

SciTech Connect

In isolated perfused rat livers, infusion of phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (150 nM) resulted in a three-fold stimulation of the rate of glucose production. This response was maximal at perfusate phorbol ester concentration of 150 nM, and was significantly diminished at higher concentrations of the phorbol ester (e.g. 300 nM). Stimulation of glycogenolysis by phorbol ester was greatly decreased in livers perfused infusion into livers perfused with calcium-free medium. Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate infusion into livers perfused in the absence of calcium did not result in calcium efflux from the livers. Additionally, in hepatocytes isolated from livers of fed rats neither the phorbol ester nor 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-rac-glycerol, stimulated the rate of glucose production. This last result along with the observations that in isolated perfused rat livers, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate increases portal pressure, and decreases oxygen consumption suggests that stimulation of hepatic glycogenolysis by phorbol ester is the result of increased vasoconstriction, and is not a consequence of a direct effect of the phorbol ester on liver parenchymal cells.

Patel, T.B.

1986-05-01

418

Bacteria contributing to behaviour of radiocarbon in sodium acetate.  

PubMed

An acetate-utilising bacterium was isolated and identified from deionised water that was used for flooding of paddy soils in this study's batch culture experiments. Bacteria in the deionised water samples formed colonies on agar plates containing [1,2-(14)C] sodium acetate, and the autoradiograms showed that all the colonies were positive for (14)C utilisation. Then one of the acetate-utilising bacteria was isolated. The isolate was characterised by phylogenetic analysis, cell morphology, Gram staining and growth at 30 °C. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA sequencing showed that the isolate belonged to the genus Burkholderia. The bacterium was gram-negative rods and grew at 30 °C under aerobic conditions. Based on these characteristics, the isolate was identified as Burkholderia gladioli. Because B. gladioli is often found in soil, water and the rhizosphere, attention must be paid to the relationships between bacteria and the behaviour of (14)C to for the safety assessment of geological disposal of transuranic waste. PMID:21561944

Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Uchida, Shigeo

2011-07-01

419

Dexamethasone and Acetate Modulate Cytoplasmic Leptin in Bovine Preadipocytes  

PubMed Central

Hormonal and nutrient signals regulate leptin synthesis and secretion. In rodents, leptin is stored in cytosolic pools of adipocytes. However, not much information is available regarding the regulation of intracellular leptin in ruminants. Recently, we demonstrated that leptin mRNA was expressed in bovine intramuscular preadipocyte cells (BIP cells) and that a cytoplasmic leptin pool may be present in preadipocytes. In the present study, we investigated the expression of cytoplasmic leptin protein in BIP cells during differentiation as well as the effects of various factors added to the differentiation medium on its expression in BIP cells. Leptin mRNA expression was observed only at 6 and 8 days after adipogenic induction, whereas the cytoplasmic leptin concentration was the highest on day 0 and decreased gradually thereafter. Cytoplasmic leptin was detected at 6 and 8 days after adipogenic induction, but not at 4 days after adipogenic induction. The cytoplasmic leptin concentration was reduced in BIP cells at 4 days after treatment with dexamethasone, whereas cytoplasmic leptin was not observed at 8 days after treatment. In contrast, acetate significantly enhanced the cytoplasmic leptin concentration in BIP cells at 8 days after treatment, although acetate alone did not induce adipocyte differentiation in BIP cells. These results suggest that dexamethasone and acetate modulate the cytoplasmic leptin concentration in bovine preadipocytes.

Yonekura, Shinichi; Hirota, Shohei; Tokutake, Yukako; Rose, Michael T.; Katoh, Kazuo; Aso, Hisashi

2014-01-01

420

Abiraterone acetate in castration-resistant prostate cancer.  

PubMed

The palliative goal of the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer is to prolong survival and decrease cancer-related complications. Androgen ablation therapy is widely accepted as the initial treatment of choice; when the disease becomes resistant to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), docetaxel-based chemotherapy aids in prolonging overall survival and controlling disease-related symptoms. Until a few years ago, no drug had showed efficacy in docetaxel-resistant patients. Recently, cabazitaxel, a taxane family compound, has been shown to help prolong survival in patients previously treated with docetaxel, even if a high grade of myelotoxicity has been reported. Moreover, a better understanding of the biology of CRPC has demonstrated that prostate cancer proliferation is largely mediated through the androgen receptor, which could be reactivated by androgens produced by the adrenal glands. Abiraterone acetate is an orally active acetate salt of the steroidal compound abiraterone with antiandrogen activity. Abiraterone inhibits the enzymatic activity of steroid 17?-monooxygenase, a member of the cytochrome P450 family that catalyzes the 17?-hydroxylation of steroid intermediates involved in testosterone synthesis from the adrenal glands. This review focuses on abiraterone acetate, the first compound that, through the inhibition of adrenal gland production of testosterone, increases the overall survival in CRPC patients. The role of possible predictive biomarkers and future perspectives are also discussed. PMID:22123334

Iacovelli, Roberto; Palazzo, Antonella; Procopio, Giuseppe; Gazzaniga, Paola; Cortesi, Enrico

2012-03-01

421

Molecular interactions in the ionic liquid emim acetate and water binary mixtures probed via NMR spin relaxation and exchange spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Interactions of ionic liquids (ILs) with water are of great interest for many potential IL applications. 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium (emim) acetate, in particular, has shown interesting interactions with water including hydrogen bonding and even chemical exchange. Previous studies have shown the unusual behavior of emim acetate when in the presence of 0.43 mole fraction of water, and a combination of NMR techniques is used herein to investigate the emim acetate-water system and the unusual behavior at 0.43 mole fraction of water. NMR relaxometry techniques are used to describe the effects of water on the molecular motion and interactions of emim acetate with water. A discontinuity is seen in nuclear relaxation behavior at the concentration of 0.43 mole fraction of water, and this is attributed to the formation of a hydrogen bonded network. EXSY measurements are used to determine the exchange rates between the H2 emim proton and water, which show a complex dependence on the concentration of the mixture. The findings support and expand our previous results, which suggested the presence of an extended hydrogen bonding network in the emim acetate-water system at concentrations close to 0.50 mole fraction of H2O. PMID:24654003

Allen, Jesse J; Bowser, Sage R; Damodaran, Krishnan

2014-05-01

422

Acetate uptake by PHA-accumulating and non-PHA-accumulating organisms in activated sludge from an aerobic sequencing batch reactor fed with acetate.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to evaluate the specific acetate uptake rates of microorganisms with and without polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) accumulation. Activated sludge was aerobically incubated with 75 mgC L(-1) radiolabeled or non-labeled acetate, and acetate consumption and PHA accumulation were monitored. Microorganisms were quantified as follows: all microbial cells by DAPI staining, whole acetate utilizing organisms by microautoradiography, and PHA-accumulating organisms by staining with Nile blue A. The abundance of acetate-utilizing organisms without PHA accumulation was also calculated from the outcomes. The estimate of acetate utilized by PHAAOs included both the acetate converted to PHA and that used to supply reducing power and ATP. Acetate utilized by PHAAOs and non-PHAAOs were divided by their respective abundances to obtain their respective specific acetate uptake rates: PHAAOs ranged between 5.3 and 8.0 x 10(-10) mgC cell(-1) h(-1), and non-PHAAOs ranged between 2.8 and 4.2 x 10(-10) mgC cell(-1) h(-1). PMID:20595747

Oshiki, M; Satoh, H; Mino, T

2010-01-01

423

Synthesis of poly(vinyl acetate) with fluorescence via a combination of RAFT\\/MADIX and “click” chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel ?-azido-functionalized RAFT reagent, O-(2-azido-ethyl) S-benzyl dithiocarbonate (AEBDC), was synthesized and subsequently employed to mediate the reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization of vinyl acetate (VAc) to prepare end-functionalized polymers. The polymerization results showed that the RAFT polymerizations of VAc could be well controlled using AEBDC as the RAFT agent. Number-average molecular weights (MnGPC) increased linearly with monomer conversion,

Fen Chen; Zhenping Cheng; Jian Zhu; Wei Zhang; Xiulin Zhu

2008-01-01

424

HOMOPOLYMERIZATION AND COPOLYMERIZATION OF VINYL ACETATE IN NONIONIC MICROEMULSIONS II The kinetics of polymerization and initiator decomposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymerization systems of vinyl acetate that retain the homogeneity regardless of the ratio organic\\/aqueous phases were studied. The organic phase consisted of 30\\/70 monomer\\/alcohol solutions and the aqueous one of solutions of nonyl phenol etoxylated with 25 moles ethylene oxide in 33% water. Ethanol was used in homopolymerization and n-propanol in copolymerization. Copolymerization was performed with di-2-ethyl-hexyl maleate. In the

Dan Donescu; Liana Fusulan

1997-01-01

425

Influence of M w of LDPE and vinyl acetate content of EVA on the rheology of polymer modified asphalt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asphalt binder was modified by low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and ethyl vinyl acetate (EVA) polymers to investigate the structure–property relationships of polymer-modified asphalt (PMA). The PMA was prepared in a high-shear blender at 160 °C. The optimum blending time (OBT) for each polymer was determined following a separate investigation. OBT was influenced by Mw, MWD, and polymer structure. The influence of Mw

Ibnelwaleed A. Hussein; Mohammad H. Iqbal; H. I. Al-Abdul-Wahhab

2005-01-01

426

Cellulose acetate graft copolymers with nano-structured architectures: Application to the purification of bio-fuels by pervaporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Europe, ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) is currently considered as one of the most promising bio-fuels when it is obtained from bio-ethanol. Nevertheless, its industrial synthesis process leads to an azeotropic mixture containing 20wt% of ethanol which has to be removed for fuel applications. In this work, new graft copolymers cellulose acetate-g-poly(methyl diethylene glycol methacrylate) are considered for the purification

M. Billy; A. Ranzani Da Costa; P. Lochon; R. Clément; M. Dresch; A. Jonquières

2010-01-01

427

Degradation of vinyl acetate by soil, sewage, sludge, and the newly isolated aerobic bacterium V2.  

PubMed Central

Vinyl acetate is subject to microbial degradation in the environment and by pure cultures. It was hydrolyzed by samples of soil, sludge, and sewage at rates of up to 6.38 and 1 mmol/h per g (dry weight) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. Four yeasts and thirteen bacteria that feed aerobically on vinyl acetate were isolated. The pathway of vinyl acetate degradation was studied in bacterium V2. Vinyl acetate was degraded to acetate as follows: vinyl acetate + NAD(P)+----2 acetate + NAD(P)H + H+. The acetate was then converted to acetyl coenzyme A and oxidized through the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the glyoxylate bypass. The key enzyme of the pathway is vinyl acetate esterase, which hydrolyzed the ester to acetate and vinyl alcohol. The latter isomerized spontaneously to acetaldehyde and was then converted to acetate. The acetaldehyde was disproportionated into ethanol and acetate. The enzymes involved in the metabolism of vinyl acetate were studied in extracts. Vinyl acetate esterase (Km = 6.13 mM) was also active with indoxyl acetate (Km = 0.98 mM), providing the basis for a convenient spectrophotometric test. Substrates of aldehyde dehydrogenase were formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, and butyraldehyde. The enzyme was equally active with NAD+ or NADP+. Alcohol dehydrogenase was active with ethanol (Km = 0.24 mM), 1-propanol (Km = 0.34 mM), and 1-butanol (Km = 0.16 mM) and was linked to NAD+. The molecular sizes of aldehyde dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase were 145 and 215 kilodaltons, respectively.

Nieder, M; Sunarko, B; Meyer, O

1990-01-01

428

On the formation of iron(III) hydroxo acetate complexes.  

PubMed

The formation of hydroxo acetate complexes of iron (III) ion has been studied at 25 degrees C in 3 M (Na)ClO4 ionic medium by measuring with a glass electrode the hydrogen ion concentration in Fe(ClO4)3-HClO4-NaAc mixtures (Ac = acetate ion). The acetate/metal ratio ranged from 0 to 6, the metal concentration varied from 0.005 to 0.06 M, whereas [H+] was stepwise decreased from 0.1 M to initial precipitation of hydroxo-acetates. This occurred, depending on the acetate/metal ratio, in the -log[H+] range 1.85-2.7. The potentiometric data are consistent with the presence of Fe3(OH)3Ac3(3+), Fe2(OH)2(4+), Fe3(OH)4(5+), Fe3(OH)5(4+) and, as minor species, of Fe3(OH)2Ac6+, FeAc2+, FeAc2+, FeOH2+ and Fe(OH)2+. Previously published EMF measurements with redox and glass half-cells were recalculated to refine the stability constants of FeAc2+, FeAc2+ and Fe3(OH)2Ac6+. Formation constants *beta pqr for pFe(3+)+(q-r)H2O + rHAc reversible Fep(OH)(q-r)(Ac)r3p-q + qH+ (in parenthesis the infinite dilution value): log*beta 111 = -1.85 +/- 0.02 (-0.67 +/- 0.15), log*beta 122 = -3.43 +/- 0.02 (-1.45 +/- 0.15); log*beta 363 = -5.66 +/- 0.03 (-2.85 +/- 0.40), log*beta 386 = -8.016 +/- 0.006 (-4.06 +/- 0.15), log*beta 220 = -2.88 +/- 0.02 (-2.84 +/- 0.05), log*beta 340 = -6.14 +/- 0.18 (-6.9 +/- 0.4), log*beta 350 = -8.44 +/- 0.09 (-7.65 +/- 0.15). PMID:11507828

Ciavatta, L; De Tommaso, G; Iuliano, M

2001-01-01

429

Polymerization of vinyl acetate in fatty acids and properties of poly (vinyl alcohols) derived from the poly (vinyl acetates)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymerization of vinyl acetate (VAc) in various fatty acids (carbon numbers 4–18) was carried out. Chain transfer constants to the acids were determined to be 20–35×10-4, from which the constant to a methylene group was obtained to be 0.73×10-4. Viscometry in aqueous solution of derived poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) showed the usual behavior in terms of Huggins’ constant obtained by

Takeshi Ishijima; Yoshiki Mizumori; Kenji Kikuchi; Atsushi Suzuki; Takuji Okaya

2005-01-01

430

Lead acetate action on anaphylactic response of guinea pig smooth muscle.  

PubMed

Experiments were performed to evaluate lead acetate effects on the anaphylactic contraction in guinea pigs smooth muscles. Aortic rings from guinea pigs exposed to lead acetate developed an anaphylactic contraction significantly lower than the contraction induced by the antigen in controls. In the smooth muscle of the intestine, lead acetate did not modify the anaphylactic response. Lead induced immunosuppression of the anaphylactic response of aortic rings, whereas sodium acetate had no effect on the anaphylactic reaction of the guinea pig smooth muscle. The amplitude of the norepinephrine contraction was not modified by lead nor by sodium acetate. PMID:11793963

Gijón, E; Cartas, L; García, X

2001-01-01

431

Conversion of glycerol to pyruvate by Escherichia coli using acetate- and acetate/glucose-limited fed-batch processes.  

PubMed

We report the conversion of glycerol to pyruvate by E. coli ALS929 containing knockouts in the genes encoding for phosphoenolpyruvate synthase, lactate dehydrogenase, pyruvate formate lyase, the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, and pyruvate oxidase. As a result of these knockouts, ALS929 has a growth requirement of acetate for the generation of acetyl CoA. In steady-state chemostat experiments using excess glycerol and limited by acetate, lower growth rates favored the formation of pyruvate from glycerol (0.60 g/g at 0.10 h(-1) versus 0.44 g/g at 0.25 h(-1)), while higher growth rates resulted in the maximum specific glycerol consumption rate (0.85 g/g h at 0.25 h(-1) versus 0.59 g/g h at 0.10 h(-1)). The presence of glucose significantly improved pyruvate productivity and yield from glycerol (0.72 g/g at 0.10 h(-1)). In fed-batch studies using exponential acetate/glucose-limited feeding at a constant growth rate of 0.10 h(-1), the final pyruvate concentration achieved was about 40 g/L in 36 h. A derivative of ALS929 which additionally knocked out methylglyoxal synthase did not further increase pyruvate productivity or yield, indicating that pyruvate formation was not limited by accumulation of methylglyoxal. PMID:20012884

Zhu, Yihui; Eiteman, Mark A; Lee, Sarah A; Altman, Elliot

2010-03-01

432

Growth substrate effects on acetate and methanol catabolism in Methanosarcina sp. strain TM-1.  

PubMed Central

When Methanosarcina sp. strain TM-1 is grown in medium in which both methanol and acetate are present, growth is biphasic, with methanol used as the primary catabolic substrate during the first phase. To better understand this phenomenon, we grew cells on methanol or on acetate or on both and examined the abilities of anaerobically washed cells to catabolize these substrates. Washed acetate-grown cells incubated with 10 mM acetate, 10 mM methanol, or both substrates together produced methane at initial rates of 325, 3, and 315 nmol min-1 mg of protein-1, respectively. Although the initial rate of methanogenesis from both substrates was nearly identical to the rate for acetate alone, after several hours of incubation the rate was greater for cells provided with both substrates. Studies with 14C-labeled methanol indicated that methanol was catabolized to methane at increasing rates by acetate-grown cells in a manner reminiscent of an induction curve, but only when cells were provided with acetate as a cosubstrate. Acetate was presumably providing energy and carbon for induction of methanol-catabolic enzymes. Methanol-grown cells showed a pattern of substrate utilization significantly different from that of acetate-grown cells, producing methane from 10 mM acetate, 10 mM methanol, or both substrates at initial rates of 10, 280, and 450 nmol min-1 mg of protein-1, respectively. There was significant oxidation of the methyl group of acetate during metabolism of both substrates. Cells grown on methanol-acetate and harvested before methanol depletion (methanol phase) showed catabolic patterns nearly identical to those of methanol-grown cells, including a low rate of methanogenesis from acetate. Cells harvested from methanol-acetate cultures in the acetate phase were capable of significant methanogenesis from either methanol or acetate alone, and the rate from both substrates together was nearly equal to the sum of the rates for the single substrates. When both 10 mM methanol and 10 mM acetate were presented to the acetate-phase cells, there was a preference for the methanol. These results are consistent with a model for regulation in Methanosarcina sp. strain TM-1 in which methanol represses acetate catabolism while methanol catabolism is inducible.

Zinder, S H; Elias, A F

1985-01-01

433

A combination of norethindrone acetate and leuprolide acetate blocks the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonistic response and minimizes cyst formation during ovarian stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A protocol utilizing both leuprolide acetate (LA) and norethindrone acetate (NETA) in subjects undergoing ovarian suppression prior to follicle aspiration proved more effective than LA alone in reducing the incidence of ovarian cyst formation without affecting clinical outcome. Patients (n = 105) undergoing ovarian stimulation followed by follicle aspiration and in-vitro fertilization (TVF) were prospectively randomized and studied. Study measures

Edward C. Ditkoff; Mark V. Sauer

1996-01-01

434

Diffusion of mineral oils in ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports a study of mineral oil diffusion through a filled ethylene-vinyl acetate crosslinked polymer, together with some comparisons with aliphatic linear hydrocarbons. Permeation was monitored by classical gravimetric measurements leading to values of diffusion coefficient at several temperatures ranging from 23 to 120°C. A change in activation energy of diffusivity was observed at ca 70°C for mineral oils but not for simple hydrocarbons. The obtained diffusivity values and this curvature were discussed diffusion models derived from free volume theory. A relationship between D and boiling temperature was observed and tentatively justified.

Richaud, Emmanuel; Bellili, Amar; Goutille, Yannick

2012-07-01

435

Effects of electron beam irradiation of cellulose acetate cigarette filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method to reduce the molecular weight of cellulose acetate used in cigarette filters by using electron beam irradiation is demonstrated. Radiation levels easily obtained with commercially available electron accelerators result in a decrease in average molecular weight of about six-times with no embrittlement, or significant change in the elastic behavior of the filter. Since a first step in the biodegradation of cigarette filters is reduction in the filter material's molecular weight this invention has the potential to allow the production of significantly faster degrading filters.

Czayka, M.; Fisch, M.

2012-07-01

436

1-Carb-oxy-naphthalen-2-yl acetate monohydrate  

PubMed Central

In the title compound, C13H10O4·H2O, both the carboxylic acid [Car—Car—C—O = ?121.1?(2)°, where ar = aromatic] and the ester [Car—Car—O—C = ?104.4?(3)°] groups lie out of the mean plane of the conjugated aromatic system. In the crystal, the organic mol­ecule is hydrogen bonded to water mol­ecules through the ester and carb­oxy moieties, forming chains along the a-axis direction. The methyl H atoms of the acet­oxy group are disordered over two equally occupied sites.

Souza, Bruno S.; Bortoluzzi, Adailton J.; Nome, Faruk

2014-01-01

437

Kinetic Modeling of Esterification of Ethylene Glycol with Acetic Acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reaction kinetics of the esterification of ethylene glycol with acetic acid in the presence of cation exchange resin has been studied and kinetic models based on empirical and Langmuir approach has been developed. The Langmuir based model involving eight kinetic parameters fits experimental data much better compared to empirical model involving four kinetic parameters. The effect of temperature and catalyst loading on the reaction system has been analyzed. Further, the activation energy and frequency factor of the rate constants for Langmuir based model has been estimated.

Yadav, Vishnu P.; Mukherjee, Rudra Palash; Bantraj, Kandi; Maity, Sunil K.

2010-10-01

438

Environmental Risk Limits for Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic acid (EDTA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report maximum permissible concentration (MPC) and negligible\\u000aconcentration (NC) in water are derived for Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic\\u000aacid (EDTA; CAS No. 64-02-8, EINECS No. 200-573-9), based on the EU\\u000arisk assessment report for this compound. The Maximum Permissible\\u000aConcentration (MPC) for the water compartment is 2.2 mg\\/l, and the\\u000aNegligible Concentration (NC) is 0.022 mg\\/l. Calculation of

Kalf DF; Hoop van den MAGT; Rila JP; Posthuma C; Traas TP

2007-01-01

439

Indole 3-acetic acid production by ectomycorrhizal fungi.  

PubMed

Ability of 8 ectomycorrhizal fungi to synthesise indole 3-acetic acid from L-tryptophan and their growth rate were studied. Differences in the levels of IAA synthesis and biomass production among the 8 mycorrhizal fungi were observed. A positive correlation was recorded between IAA level and mycelial growth. The synthesis of IAA and mycelial biomass were maximum on 30th day after incubation. Pisolithus tinctorius and Laccaria laccata exhibited higher amounts of IAA production than other fungi, whereas Amanita muscaria and Rhizopogon luteolus showed least quantity of IAA. PMID:1521864

Gopinathan, S; Raman, N

1992-02-01

440

Abiraterone acetate: redefining hormone treatment for advanced prostate cancer.  

PubMed

Prostate cancer has long since been recognised as being hormonally driven via androgen receptor signalling. Abiraterone acetate (AA) is a rationally designed CYP17 inhibitor that blocks the conversion of androgens from non-gonadal precursors effectively, thus reducing testosterone to undetectable levels. AA has recently been proved to extend survival for men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer who have progressive disease after first-line chemotherapy treatment. In addition, it is currently being tested in a Phase III trial in the pre-chemotherapy setting. This paper will review the preclinical discovery and clinical development of AA and will outline the strategy of parallel translational research. PMID:22198164

Pezaro, Carmel J; Mukherji, Deborah; De Bono, Johann S

2012-03-01

441

Indole-3-acetic acid in plant-microbe interactions.  

PubMed

Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is an important phytohormone with the capacity to control plant development in both beneficial and deleterious ways. The ability to synthesize IAA is an attribute that many bacteria including both plant growth-promoters and phytopathogens possess. There are three main pathways through which IAA is synthesized; the indole-3-pyruvic acid, indole-3-acetamide and indole-3-acetonitrile pathways. This chapter reviews the factors that effect the production of this phytohormone, the role of IAA in bacterial physiology and in plant-microbe interactions including phytostimulation and phytopathogenesis. PMID:24445491

Duca, Daiana; Lorv, Janet; Patten, Cheryl L; Rose, David; Glick, Bernard R

2014-07-01

442

Metabolism, compartmentation, transport and production of acetate in the cortical brain tissue slice.  

PubMed

Acetate is a two carbon intermediate in metabolism. It is an accepted marker of astrocytic metabolism, and a substrate for production of metabolites such as glutamine, glutamate and GABA. However, anomalies exist in the current explanations of compartmentation and metabolism of acetate. Here, we investigated these anomalies by examining transport, production and metabolism of acetate. Acetate is a good substrate for the neuronal monocarboxylate transporter MCT2 (K(M) = 2.58 ± 0.8) and the glial MCT1 but a poor substrate for the glial MCT4. Acetate is accumulated by brain cortical tissue slices to concentrations in excess of those in the media, suggesting active transport, possibly via the sodium dependent SMCT. [2-(13)C]Acetate is produced from [3-(13)C]pyruvate, [3-(13)C]lactate and [1-(13)C]glucose with the rate of production related to acetyl-CoA levels, which is likely generated in a ubiquitous cytosolic compartment via acetyl-CoA hydrolase. Citrate breakdown occurs in response to demand for acetyl-CoA units; this citrate is not derived from acetate carbon but its fate is influenced by acetate levels. Finally, use of acetate is altered by levels of nicotinamide or NAD(+). This suggests that metabolism of acetate is controlled rigorously at the enzyme level, via changes in the acetylation status of acetyl-CoA synthetase and is not regulated by restriction of uptake. PMID:22851350

Rae, Caroline; Fekete, Aurélie D; Kashem, Mohammed A; Nasrallah, Fatima A; Bröer, Stefan

2012-11-01

443

Levoglucosan, cellobiose and their acetates as model compounds for the thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation of cellulose and cellulose acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levoglucosan (1,6-anhydro-?-d-glucopyranose), cellobiose (?-d-glucopyranosyl-[1?4]-d-glucopyranose), tri-O-acetyl-levoglucosan (1,6-anhydro-?-d-glucopyranose-2,3,4-triacetate) and cellobiose octaacetate have been studied with regard to their suitability as model compounds for thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation with tetramethylammonium hydroxide of cellulose and cellulose acetate. In addition, the results of analytical pyrolysis of methyl cellulose were compared with those of thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation, to distinguish between products arising from

C Schwarzinger; I Tanczos; H Schmidt

2002-01-01

444

Transport Parameters in a Porous Cellulose Acetate Membrane  

PubMed Central

The transport parameters of a cellulose acetate membrane prepared from a mixture of cellulose acetate, formamide, and acetone, 25:25:50 by weight, were studied. The membrane consists of a thin, porous layer, the skin, in series with a thick, highly porous layer, the coarse support. In the skin the diffusional permeability coefficient, ?, of a number of small amides and alcohols depends critically upon the partition coefficient, Ks, the size of the molecule, and the apparent hydrogen-bonding ability, Ns, of the solute. These observations are in general agreement with our earlier conclusions on the properties of nonporous membranes. On the other hand, the corrected reflection coefficient, ?', is not a very sensitive function of either Ns or Ks taken separately. The correlation between ?' and molecular diameter is reasonably good; however, it is much improved when both Ns and Ks are taken into consideration. Isotope interaction was also studied in the present preparation and was found to provide only a small (5–8%) contribution to the diffusional permeability coefficient of ethylene glycol. The contribution of solute-water friction was found to be less than 24% of the total solute friction.

DiPolo, R.; Sha'afi, R. I.; Solomon, A. K.

1970-01-01

445

Ion selective permeation through cellulose acetate membranes in forward osmosis.  

PubMed

Solute-solute interactions can have a dramatic impact on the permeation of solutes through dense polymeric membranes. In particular, understanding how solute-solute interactions can affect the design of osmotically driven membrane processes (ODMPs) is critical to the successful development of these emerging water treatment and energy generation processes. In this work, we investigate the influence that solute-solute interactions have on nitrate permeation through an asymmetric cellulose acetate forward osmosis membrane. A series of experiments that included systematic modifications to the cation paired with nitrate, the identity of the draw solute, and the solution pH were conducted. These experiments reveal that in the unique operating geometry of ODMPs, where solute containing solutions are present on both sides of the membrane, nitrate fluxes are significantly higher (>15 times in some cases) than predicted by existing models for solute permeation in ODMPs. The identity of the cation paired with nitrate influences the flux of nitrate; the identity of the cation in the draw solution does not affect the flux of nitrate; however, the identity of the anion in the draw solution has the most significant impact on the flux of nitrate. These results suggest that an ion exchange mechanism, which allows nitrate to switch rapidly with anions from the draw solution, is present when cellulose acetate based membranes are used in ODMPs. PMID:24152190

Irvine, Gavin J; Rajesh, Sahadevan; Georgiadis, Michael; Phillip, William A

2013-12-01

446

Induction of antifertility with lupeol acetate in male albino rats.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antifertility activity of the active principle, i.e. lupeol acetate, isolated from benzene extract of Alstonia scholaris in male albino rats. The treatment with lupeol acetate at the dose level of 10 mg/rat/day did not cause any significant change in the body weights, but significant reduction in the weight of reproductive organs, i.e. testes, epididymides, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate, was observed. Testicular sperm count, epididymal sperm count and motility were found significantly declined when compared with controls, which resulted in reduction of male fertility by 100%. Arrest of spermatogenesis was noted at various stages with production of primary spermatocytes (preleptotene and pachytene), secondary spermatocytes and step-19 spermatids were decreased by 52.36, 54.91, 55.67 and 69.65%, respectively. The seminiferous tubules appeared reduced in size by 24.62%. Cross-sectional surface area of Sertoli cells as well as their counts were found to be significantly depleted. Leydig cell nuclear area and number of mature Leydig cells were decreased by 27.65 and 35.47%. Biochemical parameters of tissues i.e. protein, sialic acid, glycogen and cholesterol content of testes and seminal vesicular fructose also showed significant reduction. PMID:16015025

Gupta, R S; Bhatnager, A K; Joshi, Y C; Sharma, M C; Khushalani, Veena; Kachhawa, J B S

2005-10-01

447

Metabolic analysis of acetate accumulation during xylose consumption by Paenibacillus polymyxa.  

PubMed

Paenibacillus polymyxa ATCC 12321 produced more acetic acid and less butanediol from xylose than from glucose. The product yields from xylose were ethanol (0.72 mol/mol sugar), (R,R)-2,3-butanediol (0.31 mol/mol sugar), and acetate (0.38 mol/mol sugar) while those from glucose were ethanol (0.74 mol/mol sugar), (R,R)-2,3-butanediol (0.46 mol/mol sugar), and acetate (0.05 mol/mol sugar). Higher acetate kinase activity and lower acetate uptake ability were found in xylose-grown cells than in glucose-grown cells. Furthermore, phosphoketolase activity was higher in xylose-grown cells than in glucose-grown cells. In fed-batch culture on xylose, glucose feeding raised the butanediol yield to 0.56 mol/mol sugar and reduced acetate accumulation to 0.04 mol/mol sugar. PMID:14556038

Marwoto, B; Nakashimada, Y; Kakizono, T; Nishio, N

2004-03-01

448

Cell morphology variations of Klebsiella pneumoniae induced by acetate stress using biomimetic vesicle assay.  

PubMed

Supplementation with acetate under low levels was used as a novel approach to control the morphological development of Klebsiella pneumoniae aimed to improve 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) production. A full range of morphological types formed from rod shape to oval shape even round shape in response to different concentrations of acetate. The cell growth and 1,3-PD productions in the shake flasks with 0.5 g/L acetate addition were improved by 9.4 and 28.37%, respectively, as compared to the control, while the cell became shorter and began to lose its original shape. The cell membrane penetration by acetate was investigated by the biomimetic vesicles, while higher concentration of acetate led to more moderate colorimetric transitions. Moreover, the percentage composition of unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) was increased as well as the increased concentrations of acetate, whereas higher UFA percentage, higher fluidity of bacterial cell membrane. PMID:23892619

Lu, Shengguo; Han, Yuwang; Duan, Xujia; Luo, Fang; Zhu, Lingyan; Li, Shuang; Huang, He

2013-10-01

449

A new process for producing calcium acetate from vegetable wastes for use as an environmentally friendly deicer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new process for producing calcium acetate, a non-corrosive deicer, is proposed. The process consists of a two-step continuous-flow hydrothermal conversion of vegetable wastes into acetic acid and the production of calcium acetate, followed by the separation and condensation of the product. The experiments for acetic acid production showed that there were almost no significant differences in acetic acid yields

Fangming Jin; Guangyi Zhang; Yujia Jin; Yosiyuki Watanabe; Atsushi Kishita; Heiji Enomoto

2010-01-01

450

Regioselective synthesis of vinylic derivatives of common monosccarides through their activated stannylene acetal intermediates.  

PubMed

The regioselective C-2-O-acrylation and metacrylation of methyl 4,6-O-benzylidene-alpha-D-glucopyranoside and methyl 4,6-O-benzylidene-alpha-D-galactopyranoside through their corresponding organotin intermediates have been studied. Regioselectivity was achieved through the formation of a tin chelate of the 2,3-diols. Thus, methyl 4,6-O-benzylidene-alpha-D-glucopyranoside and methyl 4,6-O-benzylidene-alpha-D-galactopyranoside were reacted with dibutylstannylene to give the corresponding dibutylstannylene acetal intermediates that were then reacted in a regioselective manner with acryloyl chloride or metacryloyl chloride in the presence of triethylamine (TEA) or pyridine to give the vinylic type monomeric compounds. The monomeric products containing glucose and galactose units from each reaction were separated by column chromatography using a gradient of n-hexane and ethyl acetate as eluant. The structure of the obtained compounds were confirmed using (1)H-, (13)C- and 2D NMR spectroscopy. PMID:18007346

Namazi, H; Sharifzadeh, R

2005-01-01

451

Evaluation of hypromellose acetate succinate (HPMCAS) as a carrier in solid dispersions.  

PubMed

The utility of hypromellose acetate succinate (HPMCAS), a cellulosic enteric coating agent, as a carrier in a solid dispersion of nifedipine (NP) was evaluated in comparison with other polymers, including hypromellose (HPMC), hypromellose phthalate (HPMCP), methacrylic acid ethyl acrylate copolymer (MAEA), and povidone (PVP). An X-ray diffraction study showed that the minimum amount of HPMCAS required to make the drug completely amorphous was the same as that of other cellulosic polymers, and less than that in dispersions using non-cellulosic polymers. Hypromellose acetate succinate showed the highest drug dissolution level from its solid dispersion in a dissolution study using a buffer of pH 6.8. This characteristic was unchanged after a storage test at high temperature and high humidity. The inhibitory effect of HPMCAS on recrystallization of NP from a supersaturated solution was the greatest among all the polymers examined. Further, the drug release pattern could be modulated by altering the ratio of succinoyl and acetyl moieties in the polymer chain. Our results indicate that HPMCAS is an attractive candidate for use as a carrier in solid dispersions. PMID:15000425

Tanno, Fumié; Nishiyama, Yuichi; Kokubo, Hiroyasu; Obara, Sakaé

2004-01-01

452

Ester prodrug-loaded electrospun cellulose acetate fiber mats as transdermal drug delivery systems.  

PubMed

Cellulose acetate (CA) fibers loaded with the ester prodrugs of naproxen, including methyl ester, ethyl ester and isopropyl ester, were prepared through electrospinning using acetone/N,N-dimethylacetamide(DMAc)/ethanol (4:1:1, v/v/v) as solvent. The chemical and morphological characterizations of the medicated fibers were investigated by means of SEM, DSC, XRD and FTIR, as well as the studies of the drug release properties. The results indicated that the morphology and diameter of the fibers were influenced by the concentration of spinning solution, applied voltage, electrospun solvent and the surfactants. The average diameters of the fibers ranged between 100 and 500 nm for three prodrugs. There was good compatibility between CA and three prodrugs in the blended fibers, respectively. In vitro release indicated that constant drug release from the fiber was observed over 6 days. The prodrugs were successfully encapsulated into the fibers, and this system was stable in terms of effectiveness in release. PMID:20499138

Wu, Xiao-mei; Branford-White, Christopher J; Zhu, Li-min; Chatterton, Nichoals P; Yu, Deng-guang

2010-08-01

453

Aspects of the thermal oxidation, yellowing and stabilisation of ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal oxidation of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer [EVA-17 and 28% w\\/w VA (vinyl acetate) units] has been examined by thermo-gravimetric and hydroperoxide analysis, FTIR (Fourier transform infra-red), fluorescence spectroscopy and yellowness index. Thermal analysis indicates the initial loss of acetic acid followed by oxidation and breakdown of the main chain. The degradation rate is greater in an oxygen atmosphere as

Norman S. Allen; Michele Edge; Miguel Rodriguez; Cristopher M. Liauw; Eusebio Fontan

2000-01-01

454

1 H and 13 C NMR observation of the reaction of acetic acid with titanium isopropoxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen and carbon NMR spectroscopy have been used to investigate the chemical modification process of titanium isopropoxide by acetic acid. The spectra confirm the belief that the titanium isopropoxide exchanges isopropyl groups with modifying acetate groups to form a molecule with approximate stoichiometry Ti(OiPr)2(OAc)2. This stoichiometry results even when enough acetic acid is present in solution to allow for significantly

Dunbar P Birnie III; Norbert J. Bendzko

1999-01-01

455

Influence of calcium acetate or calcium citrate on intestinal aluminum absorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influence of calcium acetate or calcium citrate on intestinal aluminum absorption. The risk of aluminum (Al) accumulation in patients with chronic renal failure has led to use of non-Al phosphate binders. Frequently, Al and non-Al phosphate binders are co-administered. Unfortunately, calcium citrate (Ca citr), when given with Al-gel, markedly enhances Al absorption. To determine whether calcium acetate (Ca acetate) also

Charles R Nolan; Joseph R Califano; Clifford A Butzin

1990-01-01

456

Redox-Neutral ?-Sulfenylation of Secondary Amines: Ring-Fused N,S-Acetals.  

PubMed

Secondary amines react with thiosalicylaldehydes in the presence of catalytic amounts of acetic acid to generate ring-fused N,S-acetals in redox-neutral fashion. A broad range of amines undergo ?-sulfenylation, including challenging substrates such morpholine, thiomorpholine, and piperazines. Computational studies employing density functional theory indicate that acetic acid reduces the energy barriers of two separate steps, both of which involve proton transfer. PMID:24927364

Jarvis, Claire L; Richers, Matthew T; Breugst, Martin; Houk, K N; Seidel, Daniel

2014-07-01