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1

Molecular Structure of Ethyl acetate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ethyl acetate is a colorless, volatile liquid with a mild and fragrant odor. It is used as solvent in chemistry laboratories but can also be found in many household products such as paints, coatings, and adhesives. The compound is also used in some extraction processes such as decaffeination or purification of antibiotics. It is present in both nail polish and removers. Some synthetic fruit essences may contain this and other esters. Etymologists like to use this solvent for insect collecting as the vapor kill the insect quickly and keep it soft for mounting.

2006-03-08

2

Desvenlafaxinium chloranilate ethyl acetate solvate  

PubMed Central

In the cation of the title compound, C16H26NO2 +·C6HCl2O4 ?·C4H8O2, the 1-hy­droxy-cyclo­hexyl ring adopts a slightly distorted chair conformation. The dihedral angle between the mean planes of the 1-hy­droxy­cyclo­hexyl and 4-hy­droxy­phenyl rings is 84.0?(8)°. In the anion, the hydroxyl H atom is twisted slightly out of the ring plane with a C—C—O—H torsion angle of ?171.9°. Disorder was modeled for the methyl group of the acetate group in the solvate with an occupancy ratio of 0.583?(15): 0.417?(15). In the crystal, O—H?O hydrogen bonds are observed between cations and between cations and anions, while bifuricated N—H?(O,O) cation–anion hydrogen bonds are also present, forming chains along [010] and [100]. In addition weak cation–anion and cation–solvate C—H?O inter­actions occur. PMID:24098238

Kaur, Manpreet; Jasinski, Jerry P.; Butcher, Ray J.; Yathirajan, H. S.; Byrappa, K.

2013-01-01

3

21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...added the equivalent of 4.25 gallons of 100 percent ethyl acetate. It is used in accordance with good feeding practices in ruminant feed supplements as a source of added energy. [46 FR 52333, Oct. 27, 1981, as amended at 72 FR 41620, July 31,...

2013-04-01

4

Effect of ethyl acetate on carbohydrate components and crystalline structure of pulp produced in aqueous acetic acid pulping  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in carbohydrate components and the crystalline structure in hemp bast\\u000a fibers by adding ethyl acetate to acetic acid\\/water pulping processes. It was found that ethyl acetate added to acetic acid\\/water\\u000a process had a positive effect on yield, viscosity and carbohydrate components in pulp. It was assumed that the delignification\\u000a ratio

Esat Gümü?kaya; Mustafa Usta; Mualla Balaban Uçar

2009-01-01

5

Coal liquefaction process with controlled recycle of ethyl acetate-insolubles  

SciTech Connect

A process for increasing the conversion of coal to ethyl acetate-soluble products comprising: (a) heating a slurry comprising a solvent and particulate coal in a dissolution zone to produce a first effluent slurry comprising ethyl acetate-soluble liquid components and ethyl acetate-insolubles; (b) contacting at least a portion of said first effluent slurry with hydrogen in a reaction zone in the presence of an externally-supplied hydrogenation catalyst under hydrogenation conditions to produce a second effluent slurry which comprises ethyl acetate-soluble liquid components and ethyl acetate-insolubles, said ethyl acetate insolubles comprising organic components and inorganic components; (c) partitioning said ethyl acetate-insolubles in at least a portion of said second effluent slurry to provide a solids-rich fraction containing ethyl acetate-insolubles enriched in inorganic components and a solids-lean fraction containing ethyl acetate insolubles enriched in organic components; and (d) recycling at least a portion of said solids-lean fraction to said dissolution zone, said recycle stream containing ethyl acetate-insolubles in an amount (1) sufficient to increase substantially the conversion of said coal to ethyl acetate-soluble components and (2) insufficient to cause the hydrogenation fouling rate of said catalyst to exceed 0.3/sup 0/ C. per hour.

Kuehler, C.W.; Samil, B.

1984-01-31

6

Discovery of Methyl Acetate and Gauche Ethyl Formate in Orion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the discovery of methyl acetate, CH3COOCH3, through the detection of a large number of rotational lines from each one of the spin states of the molecule: AA species (A1 or A2), EA species (E1), AE species (E2), and EE species (E3 or E4). We also report, for the first time in space, the detection of the gauche conformer of ethyl formate, CH3CH2OCOH, in the same source. The trans conformer is also detected for the first time outside the Galactic center source SgrB2. From the derived velocity of the emission of methyl acetate, we conclude that it arises mainly from the compact ridge region with a total column density of (4.2 ± 0.5) × 1015 cm-2. The derived rotational temperature is 150 K. The column density for each conformer of ethyl formate, trans and gauche, is (4.5 ± 1.0) × 1014 cm-2. Their abundance ratio indicates a kinetic temperature of 135 K for the emitting gas and suggests that gas-phase reactions could participate efficiently in the formation of both conformers in addition to cold ice mantle reactions on the surface of dust grains. This work was based on observations carried out with the IRAM 30 m telescope. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain).

Tercero, B.; Kleiner, I.; Cernicharo, J.; Nguyen, H. V. L.; López, A.; Muñoz Caro, G. M.

2013-06-01

7

DISCOVERY OF METHYL ACETATE AND GAUCHE ETHYL FORMATE IN ORION  

SciTech Connect

We report on the discovery of methyl acetate, CH{sub 3}COOCH{sub 3}, through the detection of a large number of rotational lines from each one of the spin states of the molecule: AA species (A{sub 1} or A{sub 2}), EA species (E{sub 1}), AE species (E{sub 2}), and EE species (E{sub 3} or E{sub 4}). We also report, for the first time in space, the detection of the gauche conformer of ethyl formate, CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}OCOH, in the same source. The trans conformer is also detected for the first time outside the Galactic center source SgrB2. From the derived velocity of the emission of methyl acetate, we conclude that it arises mainly from the compact ridge region with a total column density of (4.2 {+-} 0.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}. The derived rotational temperature is 150 K. The column density for each conformer of ethyl formate, trans and gauche, is (4.5 {+-} 1.0) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2}. Their abundance ratio indicates a kinetic temperature of 135 K for the emitting gas and suggests that gas-phase reactions could participate efficiently in the formation of both conformers in addition to cold ice mantle reactions on the surface of dust grains.

Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.; Lopez, A.; Caro, G. M. Munoz [Department of Astrophysics, CAB, INTA-CSIC, Crta Torrejon-Ajalvir, km. 4, E-28850 Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Kleiner, I.; Nguyen, H. V. L., E-mail: terceromb@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: jcernicharo@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: lopezja@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: munozcg@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: isabelle.kleiner@lisa.u-pec.fr, E-mail: nguyen@pc.rwth-aachen.de [Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques, CNRS/IPSL UMR7583 et Universites Paris Diderot et Paris Est, 61 av. General de Gaulle, F-94010 Creteil (France)

2013-06-10

8

STRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ASPHALTENES AND ETHYL ACETATE INSOLUBLE FRACTIONS OF PETROLEUM VACUUM RESIDUES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Asphaltenes and insoluble fractions of vacuum residues (VRs) of two Indian crude oils (viz. Heera and Jodhpur) of different specific gravity were obtained by precipitation of VRs in n-hexane, n-heptane and ethyl acetate, and also by subsequent reprecipitation of n-heptane and ethyl acetate soluble f...

9

Lipase-mediated conversion of vegetable oils into biodiesel using ethyl acetate as acyl acceptor.  

PubMed

Ethyl acetate was explored as an acyl acceptor for immobilized lipase-catalyzed preparation of biodiesel from the crude oils of Jatropha curcas (jatropha), Pongamia pinnata (karanj) and Helianthus annuus (sunflower). The optimum reaction conditions for interesterification of the oils with ethyl acetate were 10% of Novozym-435 (immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B) based on oil weight, ethyl acetate to oil molar ratio of 11:1 and the reaction period of 12h at 50 degrees C. The maximum yield of ethyl esters was 91.3%, 90% and 92.7% with crude jatropha, karanj and sunflower oils, respectively under the above optimum conditions. Reusability of the lipase over repeated cycles in interesterification and ethanolysis was also investigated under standard reaction conditions. The relative activity of lipase could be well maintained over twelve repeated cycles with ethyl acetate while it reached to zero by 6th cycle when ethanol was used as an acyl acceptor. PMID:16822671

Modi, Mukesh Kumar; Reddy, J R C; Rao, B V S K; Prasad, R B N

2007-04-01

10

Nitrosation of glycine ethyl ester and ethyl diazoacetate to give the alkylating agent and mutagen ethyl chloro(hydroximino)acetate.  

PubMed

Whereas nitrosation of secondary amines produces nitrosamines, amino acids with primary amino groups and glycine ethyl ester were reported to react with nitrite to give unidentified agents that alkylated 4-(p-nitrobenzyl)pyridine to produce purple dyes and be direct mutagens in the Ames test. We report here that treatment of glycine ethyl ester at 37 degrees C with excess nitrite acidified with HCl, followed by ether extraction, gave 30-40% yields of a product identified as ethyl chloro(hydroximino)acetate [ClC(=NOH)COOEt, ECHA] and a 9% yield of ethyl chloroacetate. The ECHA was identical to that synthesized by a known method from ethyl acetoacetate, strongly alkylated nitrobenzylpyridine, and may have arisen by N-nitrosation of glycine ethyl ester to give ethyl diazoacetate, which was C-nitrosated and reacted with chloride to give ECHA. Nitrosation of ethyl diazoacetate also yielded ECHA. Ethyl nitroacetate was not an intermediate as its nitrosation did not produce ECHA. ECHA reacted with aniline to give ethyl (hydroxamino)(phenylimino)acetate [PhN=C(NHOH)CO2Et]. This product was different from ethyl [(phenylamino)carbonyl]carbamate [PhNHC(=O)NHCO2Et], which was synthesized by reacting ethyl isocyanatoformate (OCN.CO2Et) with aniline. ECHA reacted with guanosine to give a derivative, which may have been a guanine-C(=NOH)CO2Et derivative. ECHA showed moderate toxicity and weak but significant mutagenicity without activation in Salmonella typhimurium TA-100 (mean, 1.31 x control value for 12-18 microg/plats) and for V79 mammalian cells (1.5-1.7 x control value for 60-100 microM). In conclusion, gastric nitrosation of glycine derivatives such as peptides with a N-terminal glycine might produce ECHA analogues that alkylate bases of gastric mucosal DNA and thereby initiate gastric cancer. PMID:15025513

Zhou, Lin; Haorah, James; Chen, Sheng C; Wang, Xiaojie; Kolar, Carol; Lawson, Terence A; Mirvish, Sidney S

2004-03-01

11

Simultaneous removal of ethyl acetate and toluene in air streams using compost-based biofilters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofitration was successfully applied to treat air streams containing a mixture of ethyl acetate and toluene. The experiment was performed by two identical bench-scale biofilters, which were acclimated by ethyl acetate and toluene, respectively. During a 3 month steady-state performance, the two biofilters showed equivalent elimination capacity (EC) for toluene (50g\\/m3 bed\\/h of pure toluene). However, the biofilter acclimated with

Yonghui Liu; Xie Quan; Yumei Sun; Jingwen Chen; Daming Xue; Jong Shik Chung

2002-01-01

12

Extraction of compactin (ML236B): equilibrium distribution in water–ethyl acetate system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Equilibrium partitioning of compactin in water–ethyl acetate system was measured at 298K. The extraction pH showed strong influence on the partitioning ratio: the partitioning ratio decreased with pH. The dissociation constant and distribution coefficients of compactin were determined by treating equilibrium data with numerical approach. Distribution coefficient of compactin in water–ethyl acetate system was treated as a variable and a

Tippabust Eksangsri; Hiroaki Habaki; Junjiro Kawasaki

2004-01-01

13

Formation of ethyl acetate by Kluyveromyces marxianus on whey: studies of the ester stripping.  

PubMed

Kluyveromyces marxianus is capable of converting lactose into ethyl acetate offering a chance for an economical reuse of whey. The microbial formation of ethyl acetate as a bulk product calls for an aerobic process and, thus, the highly volatile ethyl acetate is discharged from the aerated bioreactor. This stripping process was modeled and investigated experimentally. The stripping rate was proportional to the gas flow and nearly independent of the stirring rate since the stripping was governed by the absorption capacity of the exhaust gas rather than the phase transfer. Cooling the exhaust gas did not noticeably influence the stripping. One batch experiment is presented in detail to demonstrate the formation of ethyl acetate by K. maxianus DSM 5422 on whey. Further batch experiments showed that a substantial formation of ethyl acetate only occurred when the yeast growth was limited by a lack of trace elements. The highest product yield observed was 0.25 g ethyl acetate per g lactose which is nearly 50% of the theoretical maximum. PMID:21191616

Urit, Thanet; Löser, Christian; Wunderlich, Martin; Bley, Thomas

2011-06-01

14

Antihyperglycemic effect of Hypericum perforatum ethyl acetate extract on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the antihyperglycemic activity of ethyl acetate extract of Hypericum perforatum (H. perforatum) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Methods Acute toxicity and oral glucose tolerance test were performed in normal rats. Male albino rats were rendered diabetic by STZ (40 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). H. perforatum ethyl acetate extract was orally administered to diabetic rats at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg doses for 15 days to determine the antihyperglycemic activity. Biochemical parameters were determined at the end of the treatment. Results H. perforatum ethyl acetate extract showed dose dependant fall in fasting blood glucose (FBG). After 30 min of extract administration, FBG was reduced significantly when compared with normal rats. H. perforatum ethyl acetate extract produced significant reduction in plasma glucose level, serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose-6-phosphatase levels. Tissue glycogen content, HDL-cholesterol, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were significantly increased compared with diabetic control. No death or lethal effect was observed in the toxic study. Conclusions The results demonstrate that H. perforatum ethyl acetate extract possesses potent antihyperglycemic activity in STZ induced diabetic rats. PMID:23569798

Arokiyaraj, S; Balamurugan, R; Augustian, P

2011-01-01

15

Effect of Potent Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Stereospermum suaveolens Extract in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats  

PubMed Central

To evaluate the antihyperglycemic effect of ethyl acetate fraction of ethanol extract of Stereospermum suaveolens in streptozotocin-(STZ-) induced diabetic rats by acute and subacute models. In this paper, various fractions of ethanol extract of Stereospermum suaveolens were prepared and their effects on blood glucose levels in STZ-induced diabetic rats were studied after a single oral administration (200?mg/kg). Administration of the ethyl acetate fraction at 200?mg/kg once daily for 14 days to STZ-induced diabetic rats was also carried out. The parameters such as the fasting blood glucose, hepatic glycogen content, and pancreatic antioxidant levels were monitored. In the acute study, the ethyl acetate fraction is the most potent in reducing the fasting serum glucose levels of the STZ-induced diabetic rats. The 14-day repeated oral administration of the ethyl acetate fraction significantly reduced the fasting blood glucose and pancreatic TBARS level and significantly increased the liver glycogen, pancreatic superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities as well as reduced glutathione levels. The histopathological studies during the subacute treatment have been shown to ameliorate the STZ-induced histological damage of pancreas. This paper concludes that the ethyl acetate fraction from ethanol extract of Stereospermum suaveolens possesses potent antihyperglycemic and antioxidant properties, thereby substantiating the use of plant in the indigenous system of medicine. PMID:22593683

Balasubramanian, T.; Chatterjee, Tapan Kumar; Senthilkumar, G. P.; Mani, Tamizh

2012-01-01

16

Formation of ethyl acetate from whey by Kluyveromyces marxianus on a pilot scale.  

PubMed

Whey arising in huge amounts during milk processing is a valuable renewable resource in the field of White Biotechnology. Kluyveromyces marxianus is able to convert whey-borne lactose into ethyl acetate, an environmentally friendly solvent. Formation of ethyl acetate as a bulk product is triggered by iron (Fe). K. marxianus DSM 5422 was cultivated aerobically in whey-borne medium originally containing 40 ?g/L Fe, supplemented with 1, 3 or 10 mg/L Fe in the pre-culture, using an 1 L or 70 L stirred reactor. The highest Fe content in the pre-culture promoted yeast growth in the main culture causing a high sugar consumption for growth and dissatisfactory formation of ethyl acetate, while the lowest Fe content limited yeast growth and promoted ester synthesis but slowed down the process. An intermediate Fe dose (ca. 0.5 ?g Fe/g sugar) lastly represented a compromise between some yeast growth, a quite high yield of ethyl acetate and an acceptable duration of the process. The mass of ethyl acetate related to the sugar consumed amounted to 0.113, 0.265 and 0.239 g/g in the three processes corresponding to 21.9%, 51.4% and 46.3% of the theoretically maximum yield. The performance on a pilot scale was somewhat higher than on lab scale. PMID:23089728

Löser, Christian; Urit, Thanet; Stukert, Anton; Bley, Thomas

2013-01-10

17

Characterization and Antioxidant Properties of Six Algerian Propolis Extracts: Ethyl Acetate Extracts Inhibit Myeloperoxidase Activity  

PubMed Central

Because propolis contains many types of antioxidant compounds such as polyphenols and flavonoids, it can be useful in preventing oxidative damages. Ethyl acetate extracts of propolis from several Algerian regions show high activity by scavenging free radicals, preventing lipid peroxidation and inhibiting myeloperoxidase (MPO). By fractioning and assaying ethyl acetate extracts, it was observed that both polyphenols and flavonoids contribute to these activities. A correlation was observed between the polyphenol content and the MPO inhibition. However, it seems that kaempferol, a flavonoid, contributes mainly to the MPO inhibition. This molecule is in a high amount in the ethyl acetate extract and demonstrates the best efficiency towards the enzyme with an inhibiting concentration at 50% of 4 ± 2 ?M. PMID:24514562

Boufadi, Yasmina Mokhtaria; Soubhye, Jalal; Riazi, Ali; Rousseau, Alexandre; Vanhaeverbeek, Michel; Nève, Jean; Boudjeltia, Karim Zouaoui; Van Antwerpen, Pierre

2014-01-01

18

Investigating the performance of CoxOy/activated carbon catalysts for ethyl acetate catalytic combustion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The catalytic properties of Co-supported activated carbon (AC) catalysts for ethyl acetate catalytic elimination in air were investigated. Results showed that air atmosphere promoted the generation of high-valence state cobalt oxides, and promote the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the Co3O4/AC catalyst. ROS crucially functioned in improving the catalytic activity of Co3O4/AC catalysts. Therefore, CoACA catalyst prepared in air exhibited higher catalytic activity than CoACN catalyst prepared in nitrogen, and CoACA catalyst led to high ethyl acetate conversion (>93%) and stability at a low reaction temperature (210 °C).

Xie, Hongmei; Zhao, Xiaoping; Zhou, Guilin; He, Xiaoling; Lan, Hai; Jiang, Zongxuan

2015-01-01

19

On using film boiling to thermally decompose liquid organic chemicals: Application to ethyl acetate as a model compound  

E-print Network

On using film boiling to thermally decompose liquid organic chemicals: Application to ethyl acetate 21 August 2013 Keywords: Film boiling Thermal decomposition Pyrolysis Ethyl acetate Critical heat flux (CHF) Leidenfrost point a b s t r a c t Film boiling on a horizontal tube is used to study

Walter, M.Todd

20

Antiplasmodial Properties and Bioassay-Guided Fractionation of Ethyl Acetate Extracts from Carica papaya Leaves  

PubMed Central

We investigated the antiplasmodial properties of crude extracts from Carica papaya leaves to trace the activity through bioassay-guided fractionation. The greatest antiplasmodial activity was observed in the ethyl acetate crude extract. C. papaya showed a high selectivity for P. falciparum against CHO cells with a selectivity index of 249.25 and 185.37 in the chloroquine-sensitive D10 and chloroquine-resistant DD2 strains, respectively. Carica papaya ethyl acetate extract was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation to ascertain the most active fraction, which was purified and identified using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and GC-MS (Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry) methods. Linoleic and linolenic acids identified from the ethyl acetate fraction showed IC50 of 6.88??g/ml and 3.58??g/ml, respectively. The study demonstrated greater antiplasmodial activity of the crude ethyl acetate extract of Carica papaya leaves with an IC50 of 2.96 ± 0.14??g/ml when compared to the activity of the fractions and isolated compounds. PMID:22174990

Melariri, Paula; Campbell, William; Etusim, Paschal; Smith, Peter

2011-01-01

21

Ethyl 2-acetyl­hydrazono-2-phenyl­acetate  

PubMed Central

The title compound, C12H14N2O3, was synthesized as an inter­mediate for the synthesis of metamitron. The benzene ring forms dihedral angles of 86.3?(2) and 10.0?(3)° with the ethyl group and the acetyl­imino plane, respectively. The crystal structure involves inter­molecular C—H?O and N—H?O hydrogen bonds. PMID:21200890

Xu, Liang-Zhong; Yi, Xu; An, Guang-Wei; Zhang, Gong-Sheng; Li, Chun-Fang

2008-01-01

22

Alternanthera sessilis Red Ethyl Acetate Fraction Exhibits Antidiabetic Potential on Obese Type 2 Diabetic Rats.  

PubMed

The antidiabetic potential of Alternanthera sessilis Red was investigated using the obese type 2 diabetic rats induced by high fat diet and streptozotocin. Three fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate, and water) were obtained from the crude ethanol extract of Alternanthera sessilis Red. Alternanthera sessilis Red ethyl acetate fraction (ASEAF) was found to possess the most potent antihyperglycemic effect through oral glucose tolerance test. The ASEAF was subsequently given to the diabetic rats for two weeks. It was found that two-week administration of ASEAF reduces the fasting blood glucose level, triglyceride level, and free fatty acid level of the rats. ASEAF-treated diabetic rats showed higher pancreatic insulin content and pancreatic total superoxide dismutase activity compared to the untreated diabetic rats. Also, the insulin sensitivity indexes suggested that ASEAF ameliorates the insulin resistant state of the diabetic rats. In conclusion, ASEAF could be developed into a potential antidiabetic agent for the management of type 2 diabetes. PMID:23606892

Tan, Kok Keong; Kim, Kah Hwi

2013-01-01

23

Alternanthera sessilis Red Ethyl Acetate Fraction Exhibits Antidiabetic Potential on Obese Type 2 Diabetic Rats  

PubMed Central

The antidiabetic potential of Alternanthera sessilis Red was investigated using the obese type 2 diabetic rats induced by high fat diet and streptozotocin. Three fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate, and water) were obtained from the crude ethanol extract of Alternanthera sessilis Red. Alternanthera sessilis Red ethyl acetate fraction (ASEAF) was found to possess the most potent antihyperglycemic effect through oral glucose tolerance test. The ASEAF was subsequently given to the diabetic rats for two weeks. It was found that two-week administration of ASEAF reduces the fasting blood glucose level, triglyceride level, and free fatty acid level of the rats. ASEAF-treated diabetic rats showed higher pancreatic insulin content and pancreatic total superoxide dismutase activity compared to the untreated diabetic rats. Also, the insulin sensitivity indexes suggested that ASEAF ameliorates the insulin resistant state of the diabetic rats. In conclusion, ASEAF could be developed into a potential antidiabetic agent for the management of type 2 diabetes. PMID:23606892

Tan, Kok Keong; Kim, Kah Hwi

2013-01-01

24

Crystal structures of the solvates of diethylaminogossypol with ethyl acetate and pyridine  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The crystal structures of diethylaminogossypol with ethyl acetate (DEAG-EA) and pyridine (DEAG-P) were studied by room-temperature X-ray diffraction. The host-to-guest molecule ratio in these complexes is 2:1 for DEAG-EA and 2:5 for DEAG-P. The crystal and cell parameters for DEAG-EA are C34H40N2O6...

25

Investigation of biological activities of dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions of Platonia insignis Mart. seed.  

PubMed

Platonia insignis Mart., a native species of the Brazilian Amazon more commonly known as bacuri, is a member of the Clusiaceae family. In this study, we evaluated the chemical composition and the antioxidant and toxicity activities of the dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions from P. insignis seed ethanolic extract using different experimental models. Our results demonstrate in vitro antioxidant effects, by 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl assays, as well as in vivo effects in antioxidant-defective Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains to both fractions. Toxicity was evaluated against the micro-crustaceous Artemia salina Leach. and promastigote Leishmania amazonensis. The dichloromethane fraction was the most active fraction evaluated on A. salina and promastigote L. amazonensis (IC(50)  = 24.89 ?g/mL and 2.84 ?g/mL, respectively). In addition, a slight cytotoxicity was observed in mammalian V79 cells using ethyl acetate and dichloromethane fractions with MTT assays. Both fractions displayed genotoxicity up to 25 ?g/mL (dichloromethane) and 10 ?g/mL (ethyl acetate) in V79 cells, as evaluated by the alkaline comet assay. Thus, in this study, we demonstrate for the first time that ethyl acetate and dichloromethane fractions from P. insignis seeds display antioxidant effects, a toxic effect against A. salina and L. amazonensis and induce genotoxicity in V79 mammalian cells. The observed activities can be attributed to the phenolic compounds present in these fractions and to the presence of xanthones (alpha- and gamma-mangostin). PMID:22788872

Costa Júnior, Joaquim S; Ferraz, Alexandre B F; Sousa, Taciana O; Silva, Romézio A C; De Lima, Sidney G; Feitosa, Chistiane M; Citó, Antônia M G L; Melo Cavalcante, Ana A C; Freitas, Rivelilson M; Moura Sperotto, Angelo R; Péres, Valéria F; Moura, Dinara J; Saffi, Jenifer

2013-01-01

26

Ethyl 2-[(2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yl)­oxy]acetate  

PubMed Central

In the title compound, C13H12O5, the mean plane of the 2H-chromene ring system (r.m.s deviation = 0.026?Å) forms a dihedral angle of 81.71?(6)° with the mean plane of ethyl 2-hy­droxy­acetate moiety (r.m.s deviation = 0.034?Å). In the crystal, C—H?O hydrogen bonds result in the formation of zigzag layers parallel to the bc plane. PMID:23634050

Fun, Hoong-Kun; Quah, Ching Kheng; Aich, Krishnendu; Das, Sangita; Goswami, Shyamaprosad

2013-01-01

27

Induction of HL60 apoptosis by ethyl acetate extract of Cordyceps sinensis fungal mycelium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cultivated mycelium of a Cordyceps sinensis (Cs) fungus was sequentially extracted by petroleum ether, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), ethanol and water. The EtOAc extract showed the most potent cytotoxic effect against the proliferation of human premyelocytic leukemia cell HL-60, with an ED50 ? 25 ?g\\/ml for 2-day treatment. The EtOAc extract induced the characteristic apoptotic symptoms in the HL-60 cells,

Qiaoxia Zhang; Jianyong Wu; Zongding Hu; Duan Li

2004-01-01

28

Yeast tolerance to the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate.  

PubMed

Lignocellulosic plant biomass is the target feedstock for production of second-generation biofuels. Ionic liquid (IL) pretreatment can enhance deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass into sugars that can be fermented to ethanol. Although biomass is typically washed following IL pretreatment, small quantities of residual IL can inhibit fermentative microorganisms downstream, such as the widely used ethanologenic yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The aim of this study was to identify yeasts tolerant to the IL 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, one of the top performing ILs known for biomass pretreatment. One hundred and sixty eight strains spanning the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota phyla were selected for screening, with emphasis on yeasts within or closely related to the Saccharomyces genus and those tolerant to saline environments. Based on growth in media containing 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, tolerance to IL levels ranging 1-5% was observed for 80 strains. The effect of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate concentration on maximum cell density and growth rate was quantified to rank tolerance. The most tolerant yeasts included strains from the genera Clavispora, Debaryomyces, Galactomyces, Hyphopichia, Kazachstania, Meyerozyma, Naumovozyma, Wickerhamomyces, Yarrowia, and Zygoascus. These yeasts included species known to degrade plant cell wall polysaccharides and those capable of ethanol fermentation. These yeasts warrant further investigation for use in saccharification and fermentation of IL-pretreated lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol or other products. PMID:25348480

Sitepu, Irnayuli R; Shi, Shuang; Simmons, Blake A; Singer, Steven W; Boundy-Mills, Kyria; Simmons, Christopher W

2014-12-01

29

Phytochemical screening and anticonvulsant studies of ethyl acetate fraction of Globimetula braunii on laboratory animals  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the phytochemical properties and the anticonvulsant potential of the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of ethanol leaf extract of Globimetula braunii, a plant used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of epilepsy. Methods The phytochemical screening was carried out using standard protocol while the anticonvulsant activity was studied using maximal electroshock test in chicks, pentylenetetrazole and 4-aminopyridine-induced seizures in mice. Results The preliminary phytochemical screening carried out on the crude ethanol extract revealed the presence of saponins, carbohydrates, flavonoids, tannins, anthraquinones and steroids. Similarly, tannins, flavonoids and steroids/terpenes were found to be present in the ethyl acetate fraction. In the pharmacological screening, 150 mg/kg of the fraction protected 83.33% of animals against pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure in mice whereas sodium valproate a standard anti-epileptic drug offered 100% protection. In the 4-aminopyridine-induced seizure model, the fraction produced a significant (P<0.05) increase in the mean onset of seizure in unprotected animals. The fraction did not exhibit a significant activity against maximal electroshock convulsion. The median lethal dose of the fraction was found to be 1?261.91 mg/kg. Conclusions These results suggest that the ethyl acetate fraction of Globimetula braunii leaves extract possesses psychoactive compound that may be useful in the management of petit mal epilepsy and lend credence to the ethnomedical use of the plant in the management of epilepsy. PMID:25182552

Aliyu, Musa Mumammad; Musa, Abdullahi Isma'il; Kamal, Muhammad Ja'afar; Mohammed, Magaji Garba

2014-01-01

30

Treating high loads of ethyl acetate and toluene in a biofilter  

SciTech Connect

In the past, biofilters have primarily controlled dilute, usually odorous, off-gases with VOC concentrations < 1 g/m{sup 3} and VOC loads < 50 g/m{sup 3}h. Yet, US industry has also shown an interest in the removal of higher concentrations of VOC and hazardous air pollutants (HAP). In two such instances, the treatment of high loads of ethanol from a foundry and a bakery, respectively, caused degradation limitation, the formation of odorous acetic acid, and problems maintaining the proper moisture content because of the exothermic nature of the biodegradation process. For a more detailed study of the behavior of biofilters at high loads of binary VOC mixtures, two bench-scale biofilters were operated using a commercially available media and a mixture of wood chips and compost. Both were exposed to various high loads of mixtures of ethyl acetate and toluene. Concentration profiles and the corresponding elimination vs. load curves were established through frequent grab-sampling and GC analysis. Biofilter response to two frequently encountered operating problems, i.e. media dry-out and temperatures exceeding 40 C, was also evaluated under controlled conditions. Resident microbial populations were characterized to assure the presence of organisms capable of degrading both major off-gas constituents. The results demonstrated several characteristics of high-load biofilters: maximum elimination capacities for ethyl acetate were typically limited to 200 g/m3h; despite the presence of toluene degraders, the removal of toluene was inhibited by high loads of ethyl acetate; several by-products, particularly ethanol, were formed; and short-term dry-out and temperature excursions resulted in reduced performance. The paper discusses these observations in more detail. Its findings provide a quantitative assessment of some of the limitations of biofilters used for the treatment of high VOC loads.

Deshusses, M.; Johnson, C.T. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States). Coll. of Engineering; Hohenstein, G.A. [3M Environmental Technology and Services, St. Paul, MN (United States); Leson, G. [Gero Leson Environmental Consulting, Berkeley, CA (United States)

1997-12-31

31

Atmospheric chemistry of two biodiesel model compounds: methyl propionate and ethyl acetate.  

PubMed

The atmospheric chemistry of two C(4)H(8)O(2) isomers (methyl propionate and ethyl acetate) was investigated. With relative rate techniques in 980 mbar of air at 293 K the following rate constants were determined: k(C(2)H(5)C(O)OCH(3) + Cl) = (1.57 ± 0.23) × 10(-11), k(C(2)H(5)C(O)OCH(3) + OH) = (9.25 ± 1.27) × 10(-13), k(CH(3)C(O)OC(2)H(5) + Cl) = (1.76 ± 0.22) × 10(-11), and k(CH(3)C(O)OC(2)H(5) + OH) = (1.54 ± 0.22) × 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). The chlorine atom initiated oxidation of methyl propionate in 930 mbar of N(2)/O(2) diluent (with, and without, NO(x)) gave methyl pyruvate, propionic acid, acetaldehyde, formic acid, and formaldehyde as products. In experiments conducted in N(2) diluent the formation of CH(3)CHClC(O)OCH(3) and CH(3)CCl(2)C(O)OCH(3) was observed. From the observed product yields we conclude that the branching ratios for reaction of chlorine atoms with the CH(3)-, -CH(2)-, and -OCH(3) groups are <49 ± 9%, 42 ± 7%, and >9 ± 2%, respectively. The chlorine atom initiated oxidation of ethyl acetate in N(2)/O(2) diluent gave acetic acid, acetic acid anhydride, acetic formic anhydride, formaldehyde, and, in the presence of NO(x), PAN. From the yield of these products we conclude that at least 41 ± 6% of the reaction of chlorine atoms with ethyl acetate occurs at the -CH(2)- group. The rate constants and branching ratios for reactions of OH radicals with methyl propionate and ethyl acetate were investigated theoretically using transition state theory. The stationary points along the oxidation pathways were optimized at the CCSD(T)/cc-pVTZ//BHandHLYP/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory. The reaction of OH radicals with ethyl acetate was computed to occur essentially exclusively (?99%) at the -CH(2)- group. In contrast, both methyl groups and the -CH(2)- group contribute appreciably in the reaction of OH with methyl propionate. Decomposition via the ?-ester rearrangement (to give C(2)H(5)C(O)OH and a HCO radical) and reaction with O(2) (to give CH(3)CH(2)C(O)OC(O)H) are competing atmospheric fates of the alkoxy radical CH(3)CH(2)C(O)OCH(2)O. Chemical activation of CH(3)CH(2)C(O)OCH(2)O radicals formed in the reaction of the corresponding peroxy radical with NO favors the ?-ester rearrangement. PMID:21797203

Andersen, Vibeke F; Berhanu, Tesfaye A; Nilsson, Elna J K; Jørgensen, Solvejg; Nielsen, Ole John; Wallington, Timothy J; Johnson, Matthew S

2011-08-18

32

Kinetics of gas-phase hydrolysis of ethyl acetate catalyzed by immobilized lipase.  

PubMed

Reactions catalyzed by supported enzymes present important advantages when compared with those in aqueous media or organic solvents: separation of enzymes from substrate is easily accomplished, enzyme stability may be improved, and control of the reaction products is more accurate. We present the experimental results of the kinetic study of ethyl acetate hydrolysis in gaseous phase catalyzed by a commercial immobilized lipase (Lipozyme IM; Novo Nordisk). The hydrolysis reaction was studied as a function of ethyl ester and water partial pressure at a constant temperature of 318 K. The amount of biocatalyst used was varied between 100 and 300 mg, and the reaction was studied in a flow-through glass microreactor. Under the conditions used, water was an important parameter in the gas-phase reaction. Activation energy was 24.8 kJ/mol and the overall order of reaction was one. Finally, a Bi-Bi reaction mechanism is proposed. PMID:17416975

Perez, Victor H; Miranda, Everson A; Valença, Gustavo P

2007-01-01

33

PCL-gelatin composite nanofibers electrospun using diluted acetic acid-ethyl acetate solvent system for stem cell-based bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Composite nanofibrous scaffolds with various poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL)/gelatin ratios (90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50 wt.%) were successfully electrospun using diluted acetic and ethyl acetate mixture. The effects of this solvent system on the solution properties of the composites and its electrospinning properties were investigated. Viscosity and conductivity of the solutions, with the addition of gelatin, allowed for the electrospinning of uniform nanofibers with increasing hydrophilicity and degradation. Composite nanofibers containing 30 and 40 wt.% gelatin showed an optimum combination of hydrophilicity and degradability and also maintained the structural integrity of the scaffold. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) showed favorable interaction with and proliferation on, the composite scaffolds. hMSC proliferation was highest in the 30 and 40 wt.% gelatin containing composites. Our experimental data suggested that PCL-gelatin composite nanofibers containing 30-40 wt.% of gelatin and electrospun in diluted acetic acid-ethyl acetate mixture produced nanofiber scaffolds with optimum hydrophilicity, degradability, and bio-functionality for stem cell-based bone tissue engineering. PMID:24274102

Binulal, N S; Natarajan, Amrita; Menon, Deepthy; Bhaskaran, V K; Mony, Ullas; Nair, Shantikumar V

2014-01-01

34

Ethyl Acetate Extract of Artemisia anomala S. Moore Displays Potent Anti-Inflammatory Effect  

PubMed Central

Artemisia anomala S. Moore has been widely used in China to treat inflammatory diseases for hundreds of years. However, mechanisms associated with its anti-inflammatory effect are not clear. In this study, we prepared ethyl acetate, petroleum ether, n-BuOH, and aqueous extracts from ethanol extract of Artemisia anomala S. Moore. Comparing anti-inflammatory effects of these extracts, we found that ethyl acetate extract of this herb (EAFA) exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect on nitric oxide (NO) production in LPS/IFN?-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. EAFA suppressed the production of NO in a time- and dose-dependent manner without eliciting cytotoxicity to RAW264.7 cells. To understand the molecular mechanism underlying EAFA's anti-inflammatory effect, we showed that EAFA increased total cellular anti-oxidant capacity while reducing the amount of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in stimulated RAW264.7 cells. EAFA also suppressed the expression of IL-1? and IL-6, whereas it elevates the level of heme oxygenase-1. These EAFA-induced events were apparently associated with NF-?B and MAPK signaling pathways because the DNA binding activity of p50/p65 was impaired and the activities of both ERK and JNK were decreased in EFEA-treated cells comparing to untreated cells. Our findings suggest that EAFA exerts its anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the expression of iNOS. PMID:24744815

Tan, Xi; Wang, Yuan-Lai; Yang, Xiao-Lu; Zhang, Dan-Dan

2014-01-01

35

Studies on the mechanism of synthesis of ethyl acetate in Kluyveromyces marxianus DSM 5422.  

PubMed

Kluyveromyces marxianus converts whey-borne sugar into ethyl acetate, an environmentally friendly solvent with many applications. K. marxianus DSM 5422 presumably synthesizes ethyl acetate from acetyl-SCoA. Iron limitation as a trigger for this synthesis is explained by a diminished aconitase and succinate dehydrogenase activity (both enzymes depend on iron) causing diversion of acetyl-SCoA from the tricarboxic acid cycle to ester synthesis. Copper limitation as another trigger for ester synthesis in this yeast refers to involvement of the electron transport chain (all ETC complexes depend on iron and complex IV requires copper). This hypothesis was checked by using several ETC inhibitors. Malonate was ineffective but carboxin partially inhibited complex II and initiated ester synthesis. Antimycin A and cyanide as complexes III and IV inhibitors initiated ester synthesis only at moderate levels while higher concentrations disrupted all respiration and caused ethanol formation. A restricted supply of oxygen (the terminal electron acceptor) also initiated some ester synthesis but primarily forced ethanol production. A switch from aerobic to anaerobic conditions nearly stopped ester synthesis and induced ethanol formation. Iron-limited ester formation was compared with anaerobic ethanol production; the ester yield was lower than the ethanol yield but a higher market price, a reduced number of process stages, a faster process, and decreased expenses for product recovery by stripping favor biotechnological ester production. PMID:25487884

Löser, Christian; Urit, Thanet; Keil, Peter; Bley, Thomas

2015-02-01

36

Phase behavior of CO2 in room-temperature ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-ethylimidazolium acetate.  

PubMed

Carbon dioxide solubility (vapor-liquid equilibria: VLE) in an ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-ethylimidazolium acetate ([eeim][Ac]) was measured using a gravimetric microbalance at four isotherms (about 283, 298, 323, and 348 K) up to about 2 MPa. An equation-of-state (EOS) model was used to analyze the VLE data and has predicted vapor-liquid-liquid equilibria (VLLE: or liquid-liquid separations) in CO(2)-rich solutions. The VLLE prediction was confirmed experimentally using a volumetric method and likely the liquid-liquid equilibria will intersect with the solid-liquid equilibria such that no lower critical solution temperature can exist and the binary system may be classified as Type III phase behavior. Carbon dioxide solubility in the ionic-liquid-rich solution show extremely unusual behavior. CO(2) dissolves in the ionic liquid at large concentrations (up to about 20 mole % of CO(2)) with almost no vapor pressure above the mixtures. This result is similar to our previous findings with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([bmim][Ac]) and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([emim][Ac]). In all three cases the CO(2) forms a molecular complex (or chemical reaction) with the ionic liquid. (13)C NMR spectroscopy has identified the structure for CO(2) absorbed in [eeim][Ac] to be [eeim]-2-carboxylate. Addition of water to the carboxylate leads to the dissolution of CO(2). The thermodynamic excess properties (enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs energy) for all three systems have been calculated using the EOS and support the complex formation of the type AB(2) (where A is CO(2) and B is ionic liquid). Isothermal differential scanning calorimetry has verified the heat of reaction calculations and found for CO(2) absorbing in [emim][Ac], [eeim][Ac] and [bmim][Ac] to be about -38 kJ mol(-1). Additional experiments have examined the effect of water on the density, viscosity and CO(2) solubility in [eeim][Ac] and the CO(2) solubility in mixtures of [eeim][Ac] with other acetate salts. PMID:22511252

Shiflett, Mark B; Elliott, Beth A; Lustig, Steve R; Sabesan, Subramaniam; Kelkar, Manish S; Yokozeki, A

2012-05-14

37

Antitumor and apoptotic activities of the chemical constituents from the ethyl acetate extract of Artemisia indica.  

PubMed

Cancer is one of the most eminent diseases of modern times and numerous natural products derived from medicinal plants have been identified as potential sources of antitumor drugs. A successful anticancer drug must target or inhibit tumor cells whilst causing minimal damage to healthy cells. The present study aimed to investigate the antitumor efficacy of ethyl acetate extract, and other isolated compounds from Artemisia indica, on MCF?7, BHY, Miapaca?2, Colo?205 and A?549 cell lines. The apoptotic activity of the compounds was studied using flow cytometry. The different cancer cell lines were treated with the ethyl acetate extract and varying concentrations of compounds (denoted a?g) isolated from the A. indica. The cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT assay and the apoptotic properties of the compounds and the extract were assessed using flow cytometry. In MCF?7 cells, the effect on mitochondrial membrane potential loss (??m) induced by compounds b and d was also studied. Bioassay?guided fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract from the shoot and root parts of A. indica led to the identification of the compounds a?g as: 5?hydroxy?3,7,4'?trimethoxyflavone; ludartin; maackiain; lupeol; cis?matricaria ester; trans?matricaria ester; and 6?methoxy?7,8?methylenedioxy coumarin, respectively. All the compounds exhibited mild to potent inhibition of cell proliferation in all the cell lines, with the half maximal inhibitory concentration values ranging from 25.18?88.12 µM. Ludartin and lupeol were observed to have the most potent inhibitory effects. Based on the initially identified antiproliferative effects, these two compounds were evaluated for their effects on cell cycle phase distribution, DNA damage and their effects on mitochondrial membrane potential loss (??m). The two compounds induced DNA damage and mitochondrial membrane potential loss in MCF?7 cells. The results of the current study suggest that lupeol and ludartin, isolated from A. indica, produce anticancer effects by inducing DNA damage and a reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential, and may be used as potent anticancer agents, subsequent to further study. PMID:25434991

Zeng, Ying-Tong; Jiang, Jian-Min; Lao, Hai-Yan; Guo, Jie-Wen; Lun, Yu-Ning; Yang, Min

2015-03-01

38

Potential biofuel additive from renewable sources--Kinetic study of formation of butyl acetate by heterogeneously catalyzed transesterification of ethyl acetate with butanol.  

PubMed

Butyl acetate holds great potential as a sustainable biofuel additive. Heterogeneously catalyzed transesterification of biobutanol and bioethylacetate can produce butyl acetate. This route is eco-friendly and offers several advantages over the commonly used Fischer Esterification. The Amberlite IR 120- and Amberlyst 15-catalyzed transesterification is studied in a batch reactor over a range of catalyst loading (6-12 wt.%), alcohol to ester feed ratio (1:3 to 3:1), and temperature (303.15-333.15K). A butanol mole fraction of 0.2 in the feed is found to be optimum. Amberlite IR 120 promotes faster kinetics under these conditions. The transesterifications studied are slightly exothermic. The moles of solvent sorbed per gram of catalyst decreases (ethanol>butanol>ethyl acetate>butyl acetate) with decrease in solubility parameter. The dual site models, the Langmuir Hinshelwood and Popken models, are the most successful in correlating the kinetics over Amberlite IR 120 and Amberlyst 15, respectively. PMID:21908187

Ali, Sami H; Al-Rashed, Osama; Azeez, Fadhel A; Merchant, Sabiha Q

2011-11-01

39

Microwave-assisted dissolution and delignification of wood in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate.  

PubMed

Microwave irradiation can facilitate the dissolution and delignification of lignocelluloses in ionic liquids compared to simple oil bath heating as demonstrated here where 92.5% of 0.5 g ground southern yellow pine was dissolved in 10 g 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate using microwave irradiation in only 4 min. Cellulose-rich material (pulp) regenerated from the wood/ionic liquid solution had a lignin content of ~10%; significantly lower than the lignin content of the original wood (31.9%) or that of pulp obtained from the same experiment but using 16 h of oil bath heating (16-24%). The 10% lignin content obtained with the microwave method was close to that of pulp obtained from the oil bath heating method when polyoxometalate catalysts were used (5-9%). PMID:23566466

Wang, Hui; Maxim, Mirela L; Gurau, Gabriela; Rogers, Robin D

2013-05-01

40

Influence of water on swelling and dissolution of cellulose in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate.  

PubMed

In this study the effect of residual coagulation medium (water) on cellulose dissolution in an ionic liquid is discussed. Solubility of dissolving grade pulp; HWP and SWP, and microcrystalline cellulose in binary solvents, mixtures of 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium acetate and water, was investigated by turbidity measurements, light microscopy, rheometry, and CP/MAS (13)C-NMR spectroscopy. The viscoelastic properties of the cellulose solutions imply that residual water affect the cellulose dissolution. However, it is not obvious that this always necessarily poses serious drawbacks for the solution properties or that the effects are as severe as previously believed. Turbidity measurements, viscosity data and crystallinity of the regenerated cellulose correlated well and an increased conversion to cellulose II was found at low water and cellulose contents with an apparent maximum of conversion at 2-5 wt% water. At high water content, above 10 wt%, dissolution and conversion was largely inhibited. PMID:24274528

Olsson, Carina; Idström, Alexander; Nordstierna, Lars; Westman, Gunnar

2014-01-01

41

Preparation of corn starch-g-polystyrene copolymer in ionic liquid: 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate.  

PubMed

The copolymer of starch grafted with polystyrene (starch-g-PS) was synthesized with high grafting percentage by utilizing the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMIM]Ac) as solvent and potassium persulfate as initiator. The effect of various parameters upon the polymerization were studied including: initiator concentration, styrene:starch weight ratio, the reaction time and temperature. Grafting percentages were calculated using an FT-IR calibration method, with values up to 114%. The resulting copolymer was characterized using FT-IR, SEM, WAXD and TGA, which demonstrated that polystyrene side chains were evenly distributed on the starch backbone. Our results indicate that ionic liquid dissolution of starch, prior to polystyrene grafting, is a versatile methodology for the synthesis of amphiphilic, polysaccharide-based graft copolymers, having high grafting percent. PMID:25659709

Men, Yongjun; Du, Xiyan; Shen, Jianan; Wang, Leli; Liu, Zhengping

2015-05-01

42

Antidiabetic and antiacetylcholinesterase effects of ethyl acetate fraction of Chaenomeles sinensis (Thouin) Koehne fruits in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was intended to examine the effects of the supplementation of active ?-glucosidase, ?-amylase and lipase inhibitory ethyl acetate (CSE) fraction from the fruits of Chaenomeles sinensis (Thouin) Koehne on blood glucose (BG), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and antioxidant levels. The diabetic rats were

Sandesh Sancheti; Shruti Sancheti; Sung-Yum Seo

43

Validation of an Efficient Method for the Determination of Pesticide Residues in Fruits and Vegetables Using Ethyl Acetate for Extraction  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In this study, a version of the “quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe” (QuEChERS) method was modified to use ethyl acetate (EtOAc) rather than acetonitrile (MeCN) for extraction in the determination of multiple pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables. EtOAc is better suited than MeCN...

44

Lipid-lowering and antioxidant effects of an ethyl acetate extract of fenugreek seeds in high-cholesterol-fed rats.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the lipid effects, the phenolic content, and the antioxidative effects of an ethyl acetate extract of fenugreek. Wistar rats fed a standard laboratory diet or cholesterol-rich diets for 16 weeks were used. The plasma lipid levels, total phenolics, and total flavonoid contents were measured, and the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and antioxidant activities were examined. Administration of fenugreek ethyl acetate extract significantly lowered the plasma levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), while increasing the plasma level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Furthermore, the content of TBARS and catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in liver, heart and kidney decreased significantly after oral administration of the extract compared with those of rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet. These lipid effects and in vivo antioxidative effects were correlated with the in vitro phenolic content scavenging ability. In addition, three flavonoids (kaempferol 3-O-glycoside, apigenin-7-O-rutinoside, and naringenin) were identified by using an LC-MS/MS apparatus. Naringenin was the abundant flavonoid compound in the ethyl acetate extract, and its concentration reaches 7.23 +/- 0.09 mg/g of dry extract. These results revealed significant hypocholesterolemic effects and antioxidant activity in an ethyl acetate extract of fenugreek seed, which may be partly due to the presence of flavonoids, especially naringenin. PMID:20108903

Belguith-Hadriche, Olfa; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Jamoussi, Kamel; El Feki, Abdelfattah; Sayadi, Sami; Makni-Ayedi, Fatma

2010-02-24

45

Hydrogenation of ethyl acetate to ethanol over Ni-based catalysts obtained from Ni/Al hydrotalcite-like compounds.  

PubMed

A series of Ni-based catalysts were prepared using hydrogen reduction of Ni/Al hydrotalcite-like compounds (Ni/Al HTlcs) synthesized by coprecipitation. The physico-chemical properties of Ni/Al hydrotalcite-like compounds and the corresponding Ni-based catalysts were characterized using inductively coupled plasma (ICP), BET surface areas, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The results indicated that Ni/Al HTlcs with layered structures could be successfully prepared by the coprecipitation method, and the characteristic HTlcs reflections were also observed in the XRD analysis. The NiO and Ni0 phases were identified in all Ni-based catalysts, which displayed randomly interconnected pores and no layer structures. In addition, the studies also found the Ni/Al HTlcs and Ni-based catalysts had high specific surface areas, low pore volumes and low pore diameters. The catalytic hydrogenation of ethyl acetate to ethanol with Ni-based catalysts was also investigated. Among the studied catalysts, RE1NASH-110-3 showed the highest selectivity and yield of ethyl acetate to ethanol, which were 68.2% and 61.7%, respectively. At the same time, a major by-product, butyl acetate, was formed due to an ester-exchange reaction. A proposed hydrogenation pathway for ethyl acetate over Ni-based catalysts was suggested. PMID:20714291

Zhang, Beixiao; Lin, Lu; Zhuang, Junping; Liu, Ying; Peng, Lincai; Jiang, Longfei

2010-08-01

46

Antitussive Efficacy and Safety Profile of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Terminalia chebula  

PubMed Central

Antitussive effects of ethyl acetate fraction of Terminalia chebula on sulphur dioxide (SO2) gas induced cough have been examined in mice. Safety profile of Terminalia chebula was established by determining LD50 and acute neurotoxicity. The result showed that extract of Terminalia chebula dose dependently suppressed SO2 gas induced cough in mice. Terminalia chebula, after i.p. administration at dose level 500?mg/kg, offered maximum cough suppressive effects; that is, number of coughs at 60?min was 12 ± 1.52 (mean ± SEM) as compared to codeine 10?mg/kg; i.p., dextromethorphan 10?mg/kg; i.p., and saline, having frequency of cough 10.375 ± 0.866, 12.428 ± 0.81, and 46 ± 2.61, respectively. LD50 value of Terminalia chebula was approximately 1265?mg/kg, respectively. No sign of neural impairment was observed at antitussive doses of extract. Antitussive effect of Terminalia chebula was partly reversed with treatment by naloxone (3?mg/kg; s.c.) while rimcazole (3?mg/kg; s.c.) did not antagonize its cough suppression activity. This may suggest that opioid receptors partially contribute in antitussive action of Terminalia chebula. Along with this, the possibility of presence of single or multiple mechanisms activated by several different pharmacological actions (mainly anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, spasmolytic, antibacterial, and antiphlegmatic) could not be eliminated. PMID:24024039

Wahab, Abdul; Ayub, Khurshed; Sherkheli, M. Azhar; Khan, Rafeeq Alam; Raza, Mohsin

2013-01-01

47

Macroscopic and Microscopic Study of 1-Ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium Acetate-DMSO Mixtures.  

PubMed

Macroscopic (steady-state viscosity, density) and microscopic (NMR chemical shifts, (1)H NMR relaxation times, and diffusion) properties of the 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMIM][OAc])-dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) mixture were studied in detail as a function of DMSO molar fraction at various temperatures. Temperature dependencies were used to calculate the activation energies. NMR results indicate that at low molar fraction of DMSO (<0.4), it weakly associates with the cation and in doing so disrupts the strong ion-ion association that exists in the pure ionic liquid. Stokes-Einstein equation, which linearly correlates the diffusion coefficient of a spherical molecule and macroscopic viscosity, was shown to work well for the [EMIM][OAc]-DMSO mixture. The influence of DMSO on the "anomalous" diffusion in [EMIM][OAc] ("quick" cation vs "slow" anion) was investigated; it was demonstrated that DMSO makes the cation diffusion slower. All parameters studied showed relatively small deviations from the ideal mixing rule behavior (from 20% to 50% difference between experimental and theoretically predicted results), confirming weak interactions between the components. PMID:25565058

Radhi, Asanah; Le, Kim Anh; Ries, Michael E; Budtova, Tatiana

2015-01-29

48

Monitoring of cellulose depolymerization in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate by shear and elongational rheology.  

PubMed

The thermal stability of cellulose in the ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, [emim]OAc was investigated. For this purpose, Eucalyptus urugrandis prehydrolysis kraft pulp was first dissolved in [emim]OAc by means of a vertical kneader and then stored at three different temperatures to study the time-depended behavior of the cellulose-[emim]OAc system. Cellulose depolymerization was assessed by characterizing the precipitated cellulose and the rheological behavior of the cellulose-[emim]OAc solutions. The results show decreases in the weight average molecular mass and in the shear viscosity at temperatures exceeding 60°C, which can be related to progressing degradation of cellulose in the IL upon storage at elevated temperature. The changes in behavior of the solutions under extensional stresses also attest the gradual depolymerization of cellulose. The degradation has been analyzed using appropriate kinetic models. Propyl gallate appeared to be an efficient stabilizer of the cellulose-[emim]OAc system during the dissolution step even though the mechanism has not been fully understood yet. PMID:25498646

Michud, Anne; Hummel, Michael; Haward, Simon; Sixta, Herbert

2015-03-01

49

Removal of alizarin red from aqueous solution by ethyl acetate green nanoemulsions.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to develop ethyl acetate (EA) green nanoemulsions for removal of alizarin red (AR) from water. Developed formulations were characterized in terms of thermodynamic stability, self-nanoemulsification efficiency, droplet size, polydispersity, viscosity, refractive index and per cent transmittance. Adsorption studies were performed by mixing small amounts of green nanoemulsions (1 ml) with relatively large amounts of AR solution (10 ml). It was observed that the droplet size, viscosity and % AR removal efficiency were influenced significantly by EA concentration of green nanoemulsions. However, contact time had negligible influence on % AR removal. Based on lowest droplet size (21.3 nm), lowest viscosity (19.3 Pa.s) and highest % AR removal efficiency (72.5%), green nanoemulsion E(1) containing 4.0% w/w of EA, 16.0% w/w of Triton-X100, 8.0% w/w of ethylene glycol and 72% w/w of water was optimized as the best green nanoemulsion composition for removal of AR from its bulk aqueous solution. PMID:25401323

Shakeel, Faiyaz; Haq, Nazrul; Alanazi, Fars K; Alsarra, Ibrahim A

2014-01-01

50

Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the ethyl acetate stem bark extract of Bridelia scleroneura (Euphorbiaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  Bridelia scleroneura is a member of the Euphorbiaceae family. In folk medicine in Cameroon, the stem bark of this plant is used for relieving\\u000a abdominal pain, contortion, arthritis and inflammation. In this study, the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities\\u000a of the ethyl acetate stem bark extract have been evaluated. The putative analgesic effect of the plant extract was examined\\u000a in abdominal

D. Théophile; N. E. Laure; N. T. Benoît; A. G. B. Anatole; A. A. Emmanuel; T. V. Paul; K. Pierre

2006-01-01

51

Antioxidant and protective effect of ethyl acetate extract of podophyllum hexandrum rhizome on carbon tetrachloride induced rat liver injury.  

PubMed

The antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of ethyl acetate extract was carefully investigated by the methods of DPPH radical scavenging activity, Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, Superoxide radical scavenging activity, Hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity and its Reducing power ability. All these in vitro antioxidant activities were concentration dependent which were compared with standard antioxidants such as BHT, ?-tocopherol. The hepatoprotective potential of Podophyllum hexandrum extract was also evaluated in male Wistar rats against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver damage. Pre-treated rats were given ethyl acetate extract at 20, 30 and 50?mg/kg dose prior to CCl(4) administration (1?ml/kg, 1:1 in olive oil). Rats pre-treated with Podophyllum hexandrum extract remarkably prevented the elevation of serum AST, ALT, LDH and liver lipid peroxides in CCl(4)-treated rats. Hepatic glutathione levels were significantly increased by the treatment with the extract in all the experimental groups. The extract at the tested doses also restored the levels of liver homogenate enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S- transferase) significantly. This study suggests that ethyl acetate extract of P. hexandrum has a liver protective effect against CCl(4)-induced hepatotoxicity and possess in vitro antioxidant activities. PMID:21394192

Ganie, Showkat Ahmad; Haq, Ehtishamul; Masood, Akbar; Hamid, Abid; Zargar, Mohmmad Afzal

2011-01-01

52

Antioxidant and Protective Effect of Ethyl Acetate Extract of Podophyllum Hexandrum Rhizome on Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Rat Liver Injury  

PubMed Central

The antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of ethyl acetate extract was carefully investigated by the methods of DPPH radical scavenging activity, Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, Superoxide radical scavenging activity, Hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity and its Reducing power ability. All these in vitro antioxidant activities were concentration dependent which were compared with standard antioxidants such as BHT, ?-tocopherol. The hepatoprotective potential of Podophyllum hexandrum extract was also evaluated in male Wistar rats against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage. Pre-treated rats were given ethyl acetate extract at 20, 30 and 50?mg/kg dose prior to CCl4 administration (1?ml/kg, 1:1 in olive oil). Rats pre-treated with Podophyllum hexandrum extract remarkably prevented the elevation of serum AST, ALT, LDH and liver lipid peroxides in CCl4-treated rats. Hepatic glutathione levels were significantly increased by the treatment with the extract in all the experimental groups. The extract at the tested doses also restored the levels of liver homogenate enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S- transferase) significantly. This study suggests that ethyl acetate extract of P. hexandrum has a liver protective effect against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity and possess in vitro antioxidant activities. PMID:21394192

Ganie, Showkat Ahmad; Haq, Ehtishamul; Masood, Akbar; Hamid, Abid; Zargar, Mohmmad Afzal

2011-01-01

53

[Chemical constituents from ethyl acetate extract of flower of Albizia julibrissin].  

PubMed

The ethyl acetate extract of the flower of Albizia julibrissin was isolated and purified by silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and MCI GEL CHP-20P column chromatography to yield 29 compounds. Their structures were elucidated as 8-hydroxy-2, 6-dimethyl-2E, 6Z-octadienoic acid (1), 8-O-formyl-2, 6-dimethyl-2E, 6Z-octadienoic acid (la), 8-hydroxy-2, 6-dimethyl-2E, 6E-octadienoic acid (2), 8-O-formyl-2, 6-dimethyl-2E, 6E-octadienoic acid (2a), (2E, 6S)-2, 6-dimethyl-6-O-beta-D-xylpyranosyloxy-2, 7-menthia-folic acid (3), clovan-2beta, 9alpha-diol (4), 2beta-O-formyl-clovan-9alpha-ol (4a), 2beta, 9alpha-O-diformyl-clovan (4b), vomifoliol (5), (6S, 9R)-roseoside (6), vanillin (7), 4-O-ethylgallic acid (8), 3-ethoxy4-hydroxy-benzoic acid (9), p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (10), gallic acid (11), protocatechoic acid (12), stearic acid (13), palmitic acid (14), 2, 3-dihydroxypropyl hexadecanoate (15), linoleic acid (16), scopoletin (17), indole-3-carboxaldehyde (18), 2-furoic acid (19), 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde (20), (22E, 24R)-5alpha, 8alpha-epidioxy-ergosta-6, 22-dien-3beta-ol (21), (22E, 24R)-5alpha, 8alpha-epidioxy-ergosta-6, 9, 22-trien-3beta-ol (22), (+)-lariciresinol 9'-stearate (23), formononetin (24) and uridine (25). Compounds 1a, 2a, 4a and 4b were new artifacts from the separation process, and others were obtained from A. julibrissin for the first time. PMID:25282893

Rong, Guang-Qing; Geng, Chang-An; Ma, Yun-Bao; Huang, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Hong-Ling; Zhao, Yong; Zhang, Xue-Mei; Chen, Ji-Jun

2014-05-01

54

Phytochemical analysis and antibacterial evaluation of the ethyl acetate extract of the stem bark of Bridelia micrantha  

PubMed Central

Background Plant cells fundamentally are chemical factories containing a rich supply of therapeutically useful phytocompounds that have the potential of being developed into potent antimicrobial agents. Aim of the Study: To investigate the antibacterial activity of fractionated extracts of the ethyl acetate extract of the stem bark of Bridelia micrantha (Hochst., Baill., Euphorbiaceae). Materials and Methods: Thin-layer chromatography and column chromatography were used to purify the extracts and antimicrobial activity performed on reference and clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella sonnei, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Helicobacter pylori using direct and indirect bioautographic methods respectively. Furthermore, the eluted compound fractions were then assayed for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50) using the 96-well micro dilution technique. Results: Better separation of phytocompounds was obtained from the non-polar Benzene/Ethanol/Ammonia (BEA) and intermediate-polar Chloroform/Ethyl acetate/Formic acid (CEF) eluents compared to the polar Ethanol/Methanol/Water (EMW). Bioautography revealed the presence of three bioactive compounds (Rf values; 0.12, 0.20, and 0.42) on the BEA plates, designated fractions 3, 7, and 8 with MIC50 values; 0.0048mg/mL to 1.25mg/mL (fraction 3), 0.0024mg/mL to 5 mg/mL (fraction 7), and 0.0024mg/mL to 2.5mg/mL (fraction 8). Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that ethyl acetate extract of the stem-bark of B. micrantha possess potent bioactive phytocompounds that may be developed into new antimicrobials. PMID:23661993

Adefuye, Anthonio O.; Ndip, Roland N.

2013-01-01

55

In Vitro ?-Glucosidase Inhibition, Antioxidant, Anticancer, and Antimycobacterial Properties of Ethyl Acetate Extract of Aegle tamilnadensis Abdul Kader (Rutaceae) Leaf.  

PubMed

The present study was aimed to investigate in vitro ?-glucosidase inhibition, antioxidant, anticancer, and antimycobacterial activities of the ethyl acetate extract of A. tamilnadensis leaves. The extract recorded strong ?-glucosidase inhibition with an IC50 value of 100 ?g/ml. The antioxidant potential of the extract was evaluated by nitric oxide radical inhibition, lipid peroxidation inhibition, ferric thiocyanate, and ABTS radical scavenging assay, and the extract recorded significant antioxidant activity. The ferric thiocyanate activity of extract was superior to butylated hydroxyl anisol (BHA), the standard antioxidant agent. The anticancer activity of the extract was evaluated against (1) breast cancer cell lines (MDAM B-231), (2) cervical cancer cell lines (HeLa), and (3) lung cancer cell line (A 549) using MTT assay, and significant activity was recorded against A 549 with an IC50 value of 64 ?g/ml. Further studies on the morphology, acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, and cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry confirm the extract-induced apoptosis in A 549. This extract also recorded significant anti-tuberculosis activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis. The current study suggests that the ethyl acetate extract of A. tamilnadensis is a potential source of natural ?-glucosidase inhibitor and antioxidant for protection as well as prevention of life-threatening diseases like cancer. PMID:25380641

R, Pratap Chandran; S, Nishanth Kumar; S, Manju; S, Abdul Kader; B S, Dileep Kumar

2015-01-01

56

Antioxidant and antiglycative potential of ethyl acetate fraction of Psidium guajava leaf extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.  

PubMed

Hyperglycemia causes increased protein glycation and the formation of early glycation products and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) which are major factors responsible for the complications associated with diabetes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antioxidant as well as antiglycative potential of ethyl acetate fraction of guava leaves. Oral administration of the extract at different doses showed a significant decrease in blood glucose level. It also showed an improved antioxidant potential as evidenced by decreased lipid peroxidation and a significant increase in the activity of various antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase. Glycated hemoglobin as well as fructosamine which are indicators of glycation was also reduced significantly in treated groups when compared to diabetic control. In vitro studies also support the antioxidant as well as antiglycative potential of guava leaves. PMID:21120613

Soman, Sowmya; Rauf, Arun A; Indira, Madambath; Rajamanickam, Chellam

2010-12-01

57

In-vivo Antioxidant Effects of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Mentha spicata L. on 4-Nitroquinoline-1-Oxide Injected Mice.  

PubMed

Antioxidant effects of ethyl acetate fraction of Mentha spicata (L.) were evaluated against 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide injected mice. For this study, experiment setup consisted of 36 albino mice of either sex divided into 6 groups: Control (25% DMSO in water), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) alone group (80, 160 mg/Kg body weight-bwt), 4-NQO (7.5 mg/Kg bwt-IP) alone and 4-NQO + EAF. EAF and vehicles were administered orally for five consecutive days. 4-NQO (7.5 mg/Kg bwt) was injected intraperitoneally on the 6(th) day. After 24 h, the animals were killed; liver sample was extracted and used for bio-assay. 4-NQO alone treated group decreased (27-60%) the antioxidant activities and promoted lipid peroxidation (LPO-60%) over their respective control values. Pretreatment with EAF, at the maximum dose (160 mg/Kg bwt) brought down the LPO up to 87% enhanced by 4-NQO. Among the enzymatic antioxidants, glutathione S-transferase (GST) was the most affected enzyme with 4-NQO and the least was catalase (CAT). Pretreatment with EAF (160 mg/Kg bwt), the restoration of antioxidants like glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and CAT were found equal or less than 1.2 fold higher than that of the respective control values whereas, GST was observed to be the most restored antioxidant. Be reduced glutathione (GSH) and the least vitamin C over their control values. EAF restored the GSH and Vitamin E levels were found to be 1.2 fold higher than the respective control values. PMID:24250414

Arumugam, Ponnan; Ramesh, Arabandi

2011-01-01

58

Crude ethyl acetate extract of marine microalga, Chaetoceros calcitrans, induces Apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Background: Marine brown diatom Chaetoceros calcitrans and green microalga Nannochloropsis oculata are beneficial materials for various applications in the food, nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical industries. Objective: This study investigated cytotoxicity of different crude solvent extracts from C. calcitrans and N. oculata against various cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was carried out to screen the cytotoxic effects of hexane (Hex), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate, and methanol extract from C. calcitrans and N. oculata toward various cancer cell lines. Flow cytometry cell cycle was used to determine the cell cycle arrest while the mode of cell death was investigated through acridine orange/propidium iodide (AOPI) staining, Annexin V-Fluorescein Isothiocyanate (FITC) and Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated d-UTP Nick End Labeling (TUNEL) assays. Expression profile of apoptotic and proliferative-related genes was then determined using the multiplex gene expression profiler (GeXP). Results: Crude ethyl acetate (CEA) extract of C. calcitrans inhibited growth of MDA-MB-231 cells, with IC50 of 60 ?g/mL after 72 h of treatment. Further studies were conducted to determine the mode of cell death at various concentrations of this extract: 30, 60 and 120 ?g/mL. The mode of cell death was mainly apoptosis as shown through apoptosis determination test. The expression data from GeXP showed that caspase-4 was upregulated while B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2(Bcl-2) was down regulated. Thus, caspase-4 induction endoplasmic reticulum death pathway is believed to be one of the mechanisms underlying the induction of apoptosis while Bcl-2 induced S and G2/M cell cycle phase arrest in MDA-MB-231 cells. Conclusion: CEA extract of C. calcitrans showed the highest cytotoxicity on MDA-MB-231 via apoptosis. PMID:24696543

Goh, Su Hua; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu Mohamed; Yusoff, Fatimah Md; Yap, Swee Keong; Loh, Su Peng

2014-01-01

59

In-vivo Antioxidant Effects of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Mentha spicata L. on 4-Nitroquinoline-1-Oxide Injected Mice  

PubMed Central

Antioxidant effects of ethyl acetate fraction of Mentha spicata (L.) were evaluated against 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide injected mice. For this study, experiment setup consisted of 36 albino mice of either sex divided into 6 groups: Control (25% DMSO in water), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) alone group (80, 160 mg/Kg body weight-bwt), 4-NQO (7.5 mg/Kg bwt-IP) alone and 4-NQO + EAF. EAF and vehicles were administered orally for five consecutive days. 4-NQO (7.5 mg/Kg bwt) was injected intraperitoneally on the 6th day. After 24 h, the animals were killed; liver sample was extracted and used for bio-assay. 4-NQO alone treated group decreased (27-60%) the antioxidant activities and promoted lipid peroxidation (LPO-60%) over their respective control values. Pretreatment with EAF, at the maximum dose (160 mg/Kg bwt) brought down the LPO up to 87% enhanced by 4-NQO. Among the enzymatic antioxidants, glutathione S-transferase (GST) was the most affected enzyme with 4-NQO and the least was catalase (CAT). Pretreatment with EAF (160 mg/Kg bwt), the restoration of antioxidants like glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and CAT were found equal or less than 1.2 fold higher than that of the respective control values whereas, GST was observed to be the most restored antioxidant. Be reduced glutathione (GSH) and the least vitamin C over their control values. EAF restored the GSH and Vitamin E levels were found to be 1.2 fold higher than the respective control values. PMID:24250414

Arumugam, Ponnan; Ramesh, Arabandi

2011-01-01

60

Investigation of Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) as an Intensification Pretreatment for Solvent Lipid Extraction from Microalgae, utilizing Ethyl Acetate as a Greener Substitute to Chloroform-based Extraction  

E-print Network

Acid Methyl Esters (FAMEs) 49 2.2.7 Product Quantification................................................................................................ 50 2.3 ANALYTICAL PROCEDURES... with Ethyl Acetate................................................................... 99 A.2 Chemical Transformation of Algal Lipids into Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME)...... 100 A.3 Algae Staining Procedure Calcein AM and Propidium Iodide (PI) Staining...

Antezana Zbinden, Mauricio Daniel R.

2011-02-16

61

Intramolecular cationic [5 + 2] cycloaddition reactions promoted by trimethylsilyl triflate in 3.0 M lithium perchlorate-ethyl acetate: Application to a formal total synthesis of (±)-isocomene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trimethylsilyl triflate is an effective reagent in 3.0 M lithium perchlorate-ethyl acetate for promoting intramolecular cationic [5 + 2] cycloaddition reactions. A formal total synthesis of the angular triquinane isocomene (10) is detailed. Cationic [5 + 2] cycloaddition of quinone monoketal 40 gives rise to tricyclic diketone 35 which is subsequently converted into the known tricyclic ketone 33. Addition of

Paul A. Grieco; John K. Walker

1997-01-01

62

Development of cellulose acetate propionate membrane for separation of ethanol and ethyl tert-butyl ether mixtures  

SciTech Connect

For pervaporation separation of ethanol and ethyl tert-butyl ether mixtures, a cellulose acetate propionate membrane was chosen as the experimental membrane because of its high selectivity and good mass fluxes. The properties of the membranes were evaluated by the pervaporation separation of mixtures of ethyl tert-butyl ether/ethanol and the sorption experiments. The experimental results showed that the selectivity and the permeates depend on the ethanol concentration in the feed and the experimental temperature. With increases of the ethanol weight fraction in the feed and the temperature, the total and partial mass fluxes increased. With respect to the temperature, ethanol mass flux obeys the Arrhenius equation. The selectivity of this membrane decreases as the temperature and the ethanol concentration in the feed increase. This membrane shows special characteristics at the azeotropic composition. In the vicinity of the azeotropic point, minimum values of ethanol concentration in the permeate and in sorption solution are obtained. The swelling ratios increase when temperature and the ethanol concentration in the feed are increasing. The ethanol concentration in the sorption solution is also influenced by the temperature and the mixture`s composition. When the temperature increases, the sorption selectivity of the membrane decreases.

Luo, G.S.; Niang, M.; Schaetzel, P. [Laboratoire D`Automatique et de Procedes, Caen (France)

1997-04-01

63

Mixture toxicity of SN2-reactive soft electrophiles: 3. Evaluation of ethyl ?-halogenated acetates with ?-halogenated acetonitriles.  

PubMed

Mixture toxicity for each of four ethyl ?-halogenated acetates with each of three ?-halogenated acetonitriles (xANs) was assessed. Inhibition of bioluminescence in Vibrio fischeri was measured after 15, 30, and 45 min of exposure. Concentration-response curves were developed for each chemical at each exposure duration and used to develop predicted concentration-response curves for the dose-addition and independence models of combined effect. Concentration-response curves for each mixture and each exposure duration were then evaluated against the predicted curves using three metrics per model: (1) EC50-based additivity quotient (AQ) or independence quotient (IQ) values; (2) mean AQ (mAQ) or mean IQ (mIQ) values, which were calculated by averaging the EC25, EC50, and EC75 AQ or IQ values; and (3) deviation values from additivity (DV-A) or independence (DV-I). Mixture toxicity for ethyl iodoacetate was dose-additive with each of the xANs at all exposure durations and was also often consistent with independence. The same was true for mixture toxicity of ethyl bromoacetate with each xAN. However, for the two more slowly reactive chemicals, ethyl chloroacetate (ECAC) and ethyl fluoroacetate (EFAC), mixture toxicity with each xAN only became consistent with dose-addition on increasing exposure duration. Consistency with independence for both ECAC and EFAC with the xANs was essentially limited to the EC50-IQ metric, thereby showing the utility of calculating the mean quotient (mAQ, mIQ) and deviation value (DV-A, DV-I) metrics. On review of these findings with those from the first two studies in the series, the results suggest that instances in which mixture toxicity was not consistent with dose-addition relate (1) to differences in the capability of the chemicals to form strong H-bonds with water; and (2) to differences in relative reactivity and time-dependent toxicity levels of the chemicals. PMID:24368709

Dawson, D A; Pöch, G; Schultz, T W

2014-02-01

64

Preparation of vinyl acetate  

DOEpatents

This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting a mixture of hydrogen and ketene with a heterogeneous catalyst containing a transition metal to produce acetaldehyde, which is then reacted with ketene in the presence of an acid catalyst to produce vinyl acetate.

Tustin, Gerald Charles (Kingsport, TN); Zoeller, Joseph Robert (Kingsport, TN); Depew, Leslie Sharon (Kingsport, TN)

1998-01-01

65

Electrooxidation of tigogenin acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrooxidation of tigogenin acetate afforded two products: 3?-acetoxy-16?-hydroxy-23,24-dinor-5?-cholanoic acid lactone (2) and 20-epitigogenin acetate (3). The structure of the latter compound was confirmed by an X-ray analysis. The tentative mechanism of reaction is proposed.

Jacek W. Morzycki; Yliana López; Jolanta P?oszy?ska; Rosa Santillan; Leszek Siergiejczyk; Andrzej Sobkowiak

2007-01-01

66

Inhibition of Hepatitis C Virus Replication and Viral Helicase by Ethyl Acetate Extract of the Marine Feather Star Alloeocomatella polycladia  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a causative agent of acute and chronic hepatitis, leading to the development of hepatic cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. We prepared extracts from 61 marine organisms and screened them by an in vitro fluorescence assay targeting the viral helicase (NS3), which plays an important role in HCV replication, to identify effective candidates for anti-HCV agents. An ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of the feather star Alloeocomatella polycladia exhibited the strongest inhibition of NS3 helicase activity, with an IC50 of 11.7 µg/mL. The extract of A. polycladia inhibited interaction between NS3 and RNA but not ATPase of NS3. Furthermore, the replication of the replicons derived from three HCV strains of genotype 1b in cultured cells was suppressed by the extract with an EC50 value of 23 to 44 µg/mL, which is similar to the IC50 value of the NS3 helicase assay. The extract did not induce interferon or inhibit cell growth. These results suggest that the unknown compound(s) included in A. polycladia can inhibit HCV replication by suppressing the helicase activity of HCV NS3. This study may present a new approach toward the development of a novel therapy for chronic hepatitis C. PMID:22690141

Yamashita, Atsuya; Salam, Kazi Abdus; Furuta, Atsushi; Matsuda, Yasuyoshi; Fujita, Osamu; Tani, Hidenori; Fujita, Yoshihisa; Fujimoto, Yuusuke; Ikeda, Masanori; Kato, Nobuyuki; Sakamoto, Naoya; Maekawa, Shinya; Enomoto, Nobuyuki; Nakakoshi, Masamichi; Tsubuki, Masayoshi; Sekiguchi, Yuji; Tsuneda, Satoshi; Akimitsu, Nobuyoshi; Noda, Naohiro; Tanaka, Junichi; Moriishi, Kohji

2012-01-01

67

An ethyl acetate fraction of Moringa oleifera Lam. Inhibits human macrophage cytokine production induced by cigarette smoke.  

PubMed

Moringa oleifera Lam. (MO) has been reported to harbor anti-oxidation and anti-inflammatory activity and useful in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. However, despite these findings there has been little work done on the effects of MO on immune cellular function. Since macrophages, TNF and related cytokines play an important pathophysiologic role in lung damage induced by cigarette smoke, we examined the effects of MO on cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced cytokine production by human macrophages. An ethyl acetate fraction of MO (MOEF) was prepared from fresh leaves extract of Moringa and shown to consist of high levels of phenolic and antioxidant activities. Human monocyte derived macrophages (MDM) pre-treated with varying concentrations of MOEF showed decreased production of TNF, IL-6 and IL-8 in response to both LPS and CSE. The decrease was evident at both cytokine protein and mRNA levels. Furthermore, the extract inhibited the expression of RelA, a gene implicated in the NF-?B p65 signaling in inflammation. The findings highlight the ability of MOEF to inhibit cytokines (IL-8) which promote the infiltration of neutrophils into the lungs and others (TNF, IL-6) which mediate tissue disease and damage. PMID:24553063

Kooltheat, Nateelak; Sranujit, Rungnapa Pankla; Chumark, Pilaipark; Potup, Pachuen; Laytragoon-Lewin, Nongnit; Usuwanthim, Kanchana

2014-01-01

68

An Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Moringa oleifera Lam. Inhibits Human Macrophage Cytokine Production Induced by Cigarette Smoke  

PubMed Central

Moringa oleifera Lam. (MO) has been reported to harbor anti-oxidation and anti-inflammatory activity and useful in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. However, despite these findings there has been little work done on the effects of MO on immune cellular function. Since macrophages, TNF and related cytokines play an important pathophysiologic role in lung damage induced by cigarette smoke, we examined the effects of MO on cigarette smoke extract (CSE)—induced cytokine production by human macrophages. An ethyl acetate fraction of MO (MOEF) was prepared from fresh leaves extract of Moringa and shown to consist of high levels of phenolic and antioxidant activities. Human monocyte derived macrophages (MDM) pre-treated with varying concentrations of MOEF showed decreased production of TNF, IL-6 and IL-8 in response to both LPS and CSE. The decrease was evident at both cytokine protein and mRNA levels. Furthermore, the extract inhibited the expression of RelA, a gene implicated in the NF-?B p65 signaling in inflammation. The findings highlight the ability of MOEF to inhibit cytokines (IL-8) which promote the infiltration of neutrophils into the lungs and others (TNF, IL-6) which mediate tissue disease and damage. PMID:24553063

Kooltheat, Nateelak; Pankla Sranujit, Rungnapa; Chumark, Pilaipark; Potup, Pachuen; Laytragoon-Lewin, Nongnit; Usuwanthim, Kanchana

2014-01-01

69

Comparison of Kato-Katz, ethyl-acetate sedimentation, and Midi Parasep® in the diagnosis of hookworm, Ascaris and Trichuris infections in the context of an evaluation of rural sanitation in India.  

PubMed

The Kato-Katz, conventional ethyl-acetate sedimentation, and Midi Parasep(®) methods for diagnosing infection with soil-transmitted helminths were compared. The Kato-Katz technique gave the best overall diagnostic performance with the highest results in all measures (prevalence, faecal egg count, sensitivity) followed by the conventional ethyl-acetate and then the Midi Parasep(®) technique. The Kato-Katz technique showed a significantly higher faecal egg count and sensitivity for both hookworm and Trichuris as compared to the Midi Parasep(®) technique. The conventional ethyl-acetate technique produced smaller pellets and showed lower pellet mobility as compared to the Midi Parasep(®). PMID:23467010

Funk, Anna L; Boisson, Sophie; Clasen, Thomas; Ensink, Jeroen H J

2013-06-01

70

Ethyl 2-[1-(3-methyl-but-yl)-4-phenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-5-yl]-2-oxo-acetate.  

PubMed

In the title compound, C17H21N3O3, the non-planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.212?Å) ethyl (oxo)acetate group is oriented towards the phenyl substituent. The triazole and benzene rings are twisted with respect to each other, making a dihedral angle of 41.69?(6)°. In the crystal, mol-ecules are arranged into centrosymmetric R 2 (2)(10) dimers via pairs of C-H?O inter-actions involving the ethyl (oxo)acetate groups. In addition, the triazole rings show ?-? stacking inter-actions, with their centroids at a distance of 3.745?(2)?Å. PMID:24454217

Ahmed, Muhammad Naeem; Yasin, Khawaja Ansar; Tahir, M Nawaz; Hafeez, Muhammad; Aziz, Shahid

2013-11-13

71

Ethyl 2-[1-(3-methyl­but­yl)-4-phenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-5-yl]-2-oxo­acetate  

PubMed Central

In the title compound, C17H21N3O3, the non-planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.212?Å) ethyl (oxo)acetate group is oriented towards the phenyl substituent. The triazole and benzene rings are twisted with respect to each other, making a dihedral angle of 41.69?(6)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are arranged into centrosymmetric R 2 2(10) dimers via pairs of C—H?O inter­actions involving the ethyl (oxo)acetate groups. In addition, the triazole rings show ?–? stacking inter­actions, with their centroids at a distance of 3.745?(2)?Å. PMID:24454217

Ahmed, Muhammad Naeem; Yasin, Khawaja Ansar; Tahir, M. Nawaz; Hafeez, Muhammad; Aziz, Shahid

2013-01-01

72

Diffusion of 1-Ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium Acetate in Glucose, Cellobiose, and Cellulose Solutions  

PubMed Central

Solutions of glucose, cellobiose and microcrystalline cellulose in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium ([C2mim][OAc]) have been examined using pulsed-field gradient 1H NMR. Diffusion coefficients of the cation and anion across the temperature range 20–70 °C have been determined for a range of concentrations (0–15% w/w) of each carbohydrate in [C2mim][OAc]. These systems behave as an “ideal mixture” of free ions and ions that are associated with the carbohydrate molecules. The molar ratio of carbohydrate OH groups to ionic liquid molecules, ?, is the key parameter in determining the diffusion coefficients of the ions. Master curves for the diffusion coefficients of cation, anion and their activation energies are generated upon which all our data collapses when plotted against ?. Diffusion coefficients are found to follow an Arrhenius type behavior and the difference in translational activation energy between free and associated ions is determined to be 9.3 ± 0.9 kJ/mol. PMID:24405090

2014-01-01

73

Calculation for liquid–liquid equilibria of quaternary alkane–ethyl acetate–methanol–water systems used in counter-current chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The calculation of liquid–liquid equilibrium compositions of solvent systems is very important for the work on counter-current chromatography (CCC), especially the phase composition and volume ratio obtained from liquid–liquid equilibrium calculation. In this work, liquid–liquid equilibria of quaternary Arizona solvent systems, alkane–ethyl acetate–methanol–water, and related ternary systems are correlated and predicted using the non-random two-liquid model (NRTL). Hexane, heptane and

Jian Chen; Mengqiang Zhao; Yanmei Yu; Zongcheng Li

2007-01-01

74

The Acetate Switch  

PubMed Central

To succeed, many cells must alternate between life-styles that permit rapid growth in the presence of abundant nutrients and ones that enhance survival in the absence of those nutrients. One such change in life-style, the “acetate switch,” occurs as cells deplete their environment of acetate-producing carbon sources and begin to rely on their ability to scavenge for acetate. This review explains why, when, and how cells excrete or dissimilate acetate. The central components of the “switch” (phosphotransacetylase [PTA], acetate kinase [ACK], and AMP-forming acetyl coenzyme A synthetase [AMP-ACS]) and the behavior of cells that lack these components are introduced. Acetyl phosphate (acetyl?P), the high-energy intermediate of acetate dissimilation, is discussed, and conditions that influence its intracellular concentration are described. Evidence is provided that acetyl?P influences cellular processes from organelle biogenesis to cell cycle regulation and from biofilm development to pathogenesis. The merits of each mechanism proposed to explain the interaction of acetyl?P with two-component signal transduction pathways are addressed. A short list of enzymes that generate acetyl?P by PTA-ACKA-independent mechanisms is introduced and discussed briefly. Attention is then directed to the mechanisms used by cells to “flip the switch,” the induction and activation of the acetate-scavenging AMP-ACS. First, evidence is presented that nucleoid proteins orchestrate a progression of distinct nucleoprotein complexes to ensure proper transcription of its gene. Next, the way in which cells regulate AMP-ACS activity through reversible acetylation is described. Finally, the “acetate switch” as it exists in selected eubacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes, including humans, is described. PMID:15755952

Wolfe, Alan J.

2005-01-01

75

Methane from acetate.  

PubMed Central

The general features are known for the pathway by which most methane is produced in nature. All acetate-utilizing methanogenic microorganisms contain CODH which catalyzes the cleavage of acetyl-CoA; however, the pathway differs from all other acetate-utilizing anaerobes in that the methyl group is reduced to methane with electrons derived from oxidation of the carbonyl group of acetyl-CoA to CO2. The current understanding of the methanogenic fermentation of acetate provides impressions of nature's novel solutions to problems of methyl transfer, electron transport, and energy conservation. The pathway is now at a level of understanding that will permit productive investigations of these and other interesting questions in the near future. PMID:1512186

Ferry, J G

1992-01-01

76

Diabetic therapeutic effects of ethyl acetate fraction from the roots of Musa paradisiaca and seeds of Eugenia jambolana in streptozotocin-induced male diabetic rats.  

PubMed

The folklore medicine of primitive people has been greatly appreciated for centuries. Many researchers study the curative efficiency and mode of action of various medicinal plants. Serum glucose level, lipid profile, glucose tolerance, hepatic and muscle glycogen contents as well as the activities of hepatic hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphatase recovered significantly after oral administration of ethyl acetate fractions of Eugenia jambolana (E. jambolana) or Musa paradisiaca (M. paradisiaca) in separate (E. jambolana L.: 200 mg/kg of body weight and M. paradisiaca: 100 mg/kg of body weight) or combined form for 90 days (twice a day through gavage) to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The loss in body weight of diabetic animals was reversed and serum levels of insulin as well as C-peptide, which were found to be reduced in diabetic rats, increased significantly after oral administration of the fractions. A histological study of the rats' pancreas revealed that after 90 days of oral treatment with the plant fractions in separate or combined form, the size and volume of pancreatic islets in diabetic treated rats increased significantly compared with the diabetic control group. Treatment of diabetic rats with the combined dose (300 mg/kg of body weight) of plant fractions (200 mg E. jambolana and 100 mg M. paradisiaca) was found to be more effective than treatment with the individual fraction. The doses of E. jambolana and M. paradisiaca selected for this study are the optimum antihyperglycemic doses of the plant fractions, which were determined after conducting a dose-dependent study at various dose levels (50-500 mg/kg) in our pilot experiments. The plant fractions were found to be free from metabolic toxicity. Through HPTLC finger printing, three different compounds were noted in the ethyl acetate fraction of E. jambolana L. and eight different compounds in the ethyl acetate fraction of M. paradisiaca L. PMID:20094640

Panda, D K; Ghosh, Debidas; Bhat, B; Talwar, S K; Jaggi, M; Mukherjee, R

2009-11-01

77

Photolytic degradation of chlorophenols from industrial wastewaters by organic oxidants peroxy acetic acid, para nitro benzoic acid and methyl ethyl ketone peroxide: identification of reaction products.  

PubMed

In this investigation, chlorophenol (CP) containing industrial wastewater was remediated by ultraviolet irradiation in conjunction with organic oxidants, peroxy acetic acid (PAA); para nitro benzoic acid (PNBA); and methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP). CP mineralization was studied with regard to chemical oxygen demand (COD) and chloride ion release under identical test conditions. COD depletion to the extent of 81% by PAA, 66% by PNBA, and 67% by MEKP was noted along with an upwardly mobile trend of chloride ion release upon irradiation of samples at 254 nm. A 90-99% decrease in CP concentration (as per high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis) was achieved with an additional 15.0 ml of organic oxidant in all cases. Gas chromatography high resolution mass spectroscopy (GC-HRMS) results also indicated the formation of such reaction products as are free from chlorine substitutions. This treatment also leads to total decolorization of the collected samples. PMID:24647192

Sharma, Swati; Mukhopadhyay, Mausumi; Murthy, Zagabathuni Venkata Panchakshari

2014-01-01

78

Calculation for liquid-liquid equilibria of quaternary alkane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water systems used in counter-current chromatography.  

PubMed

The calculation of liquid-liquid equilibrium compositions of solvent systems is very important for the work on counter-current chromatography (CCC), especially the phase composition and volume ratio obtained from liquid-liquid equilibrium calculation. In this work, liquid-liquid equilibria of quaternary Arizona solvent systems, alkane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water, and related ternary systems are correlated and predicted using the non-random two-liquid model (NRTL). Hexane, heptane and isooctane are the used alkanes. The parameters in the model are regressed only with the special systems considered. Detailed comparison with experimental data shows that liquid-liquid equilibria of these systems can be predicted with greatly improved accuracy as compared to the group contribution method (UNIFAC). PMID:17300790

Chen, Jian; Zhao, Mengqiang; Yu, Yanmei; Li, Zongcheng

2007-06-01

79

The variation of viscosity, refractive indices, compressibility, intermolecular free length, and excess molar volume of the acetophenone—ethyl acetate solutions at 303.15-323.15 K  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Densities, viscosities, refractive indices and ultrasonic velocities of the binary mixtures of acetophenone with ethyl acetate were measured over the entire mole fractions at 303.15, 313.15, and 323.15 K. From the experimental results, excess molar volumes V E, viscosity deviation ??, refractive index deviation ? n D , deviations in isentropic compressibility ?? s and excess intermolecular free length ? L f are calculated. The viscosity values were fitted to the models of Krishnan-Laddha and McAllister. The thermophysical properties under study were fit to the Jouyban-Acree model. The excess values were correlated using Redlich-Kister polynomial equation to obtain their coefficients and standard deviations. The data obtained fitted with the values correlated by the corresponding models very well. The results are interpreted in terms of molecular interactions occurring in the solution.

Saravanakumar, K.; Baskaran, R.; Kubendran, T. R.

2012-12-01

80

Effects of Teucrium polium Ethyl acetate Extract on Serum, Liver and Muscle Triglyceride Content of Sucrose-Induced Insulin Resistance in Rat  

PubMed Central

Possessing putative hypolipidemic effects, Teucrium polium (TP) have been traditionally used as a medicinal plant in Iran. The aim of the present study was to investigate this effect on the sucrose-induced insulin resistance male rat model. Thirty Wistar male rats weighting 180 ± 20 g were divided into five groups of six each. Four groups were given sucrose 50% in drinking water for 10 weeks. In 8th week of treatment, three groups of them were randomly selected and treated with Teucrium polium (T. polium) ethyl acetate extract (50, 100 and 200 mg/Kg for two weeks). Control animals were fed using normal rat chow. After ten weeks, blood samples were collected from the heart. Blood Glucose, insulin, leptin, lipid content and fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI) as well as liver and muscle glycogen and lipid contents were determined. Final data were analyzed by ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey’s test. Liver glycogen contents and blood levels of glucose and insulin were significantly increased in high sucrose (HS) group compared with control group. A significant decrease was observed in blood glucose and insulin levels, FIRI, serum total lipid, triglyceride and VLDL-c as well as the liver triglyceride level, muscle and liver glycogen contents in 100 and 200 mg/Kg of TP-treated groups compared with HS group. Leptin level was significantly decreased in 50 and 100 mg/Kg groups compared with HS group. The treatment with T. polium ethyl acetate extract (TP-EAE) induced a dose-dependent reduction in serum, liver and muscle triglyceride (TG) and liver glycogen content levels, as well as serum insulin. These effects may be attributed, in part, to the hypolipidemic effect of TP flavonoids; otherwise, the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of TP-EAE may improve the liver function and reverse harmful sucrose effects. PMID:24250458

Mousavi, Seyyedeh Elaheh; Shahriari, Ali; Ahangarpour, Akram; Vatanpour, Hossein; Jolodar, Abbas

2012-01-01

81

Acetic acid bacteria in oenology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetic acid bacteria have always been considered the bad mi- croorganisms of oenology; responsible for wine spoiling (vine- gary taint). The taxonomy and our knowledge of the metabo- lism of acetic acid bacteria are rapidly evolving, especially as new molecular biology techniques are applied to this fastidious group of microorganisms, which are still rather difficult to work with. The dramatic

A. Mas; M. J. Torija; A. González; M. Poblet; J. M. Guillamón

82

Molecular Structure of Phenylmercuric acetate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Phenylmercuric acetate is white to white-yellow crystalline powder that is odorless. This phenyl mercury compound is used mainly as a fungicide, herbicide, slimicide and bacteriocide. Phenylmercuric acid serves as a preservative in canned paint, eye ointments and drops, injectable solutions, skin disinfectants and in cosmetics products such as hair shampoos, mouthwashes and toothpastes. It is also used in contraceptive gels and foams. Phenylmercuric acetate is prepared by interaction of benzene with mercuric acetate in glacial acetic acid. Phenylmercuric acetate's former production and use as a fungicide and as a mildew inhibitor in paints may have resulted in its direct release to the environment. This substance is very toxic to aquatic organisms and may be hazardous to the environment.

2004-11-10

83

Molecular Structure of Sodium acetate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sodium acetate is known for its ability to supercool. It freezes at 130 degrees, but can exist as a liquid at a much lower temperature. In order to melt solidified sodium acetate, however, every single crystal must liquify, otherwise the material will recrystallize. Sodium acetate has been used as a deicer for roads and runways. It is also used a component of buffer systems and in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals and heat pads. The compound is quite stable. It may act as an irritant and be harmful if inhaled or absorbed through the skin.

2002-08-26

84

Preclinical safety of anecortave acetate.  

PubMed

A number of preclinical safety pharmacology and toxicity studies have been performed on the angiostatic cortisene anecortave acetate in various species and using different routes of administration (oral, intravenous, subcutaneous, topical ocular, intraocular injection, posterior juxtascleral) and a wide range of doses (0-1,000 mg/kg). Anecortave acetate did not interact with a broad panel of pharmacological receptors and had no apparent pharmacological effects on major organ systems including the central nervous, gastrointestinal, renal, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems. Oral, topical ocular, and posterior juxtascleral administration of anecortave acetate had no significant ocular or systemic side effects or toxicity. In addition, there was no significant carcinogenic or reproductive/developmental toxicity associated with anecortave acetate in genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, and reproductive toxicity studies. PMID:17240255

Heaton, Jim; Kastner, Philip; Hackett, Robert

2007-01-01

85

Isolation and Bioactivity Analysis of Ethyl Acetate Extract from Acer tegmentosum Using In Vitro Assay and On-Line Screening HPLC-ABTS+ System  

PubMed Central

The Acer tegmentosum (3?kg) was extracted using hot water, and the freeze-dried extract powder was partitioned successively using dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EA), butyl alcohol (n-BuOH), and water. From the EA extract fraction (1.24?g), five phenolic compounds were isolated by the silica gel, octadecyl silica gel, and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. Based on spectroscopic methods such as 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and LC/MS the chemical structures of the compounds were confirmed as feniculin (1), avicularin (2), (+)-catechin (3), (?)-epicatechin (4), and 6?-O-galloyl salidroside (5). Moreover, a rapid on-line screening HPLC-ABTS+ system for individual bioactivity of the EA-soluble fraction (five phenolic compounds) was developed. The results indicated that compounds 1 and 2 were first isolated from the A. tegmentosum. The anti-inflammatory activities and on-line screening HPLC-ABTS+ assay method of these compounds in LPS-stimulated murine macrophages were rapid and efficient for the investigation of bioactivity of A. tegmentosum. PMID:25386382

Song, Na-Young; Oh, You Chang; Cho, Won-Kyung; Ma, Jin Yeul

2014-01-01

86

Comparative evaluation of the metabolic effects of hydroxytyrosol and its lipophilic derivatives (hydroxytyrosyl acetate and ethyl hydroxytyrosyl ether) in hypercholesterolemic rats.  

PubMed

Hydroxytyrosol (HT), a virgin olive oil phenolic phytochemical with proven health benefits, has been used to generate new lipophilic antioxidants to preserve fats and oils against autoxidation. The aim of this work is to comparatively evaluate the physiological effects of HT and its lipophilic derivatives, hydroxytyrosyl acetate (HT-Ac) and ethyl hydroxytyrosyl ether (HT-Et), in high-cholesterol fed animals. Male Wistar rats (n = 8) were fed a standard diet (C group), a cholesterol-rich diet (Chol group) or a cholesterol-rich diet supplemented with phenolic compounds (HT group, HT-Ac group and HT-Et group) for 8 weeks. Body and tissue weights, the lipid profile, redox status, and biochemical, hormonal, and inflammatory biomarkers were evaluated. Plasma levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, glucose, insulin and leptin, as well as malondialdehyde in serum increased in Chol compared to C (p < 0.05). Rats fed the test diets had improved glucose, insulin, leptin and MDA levels and antioxidant capacity status, with HT-Ac being the most effective compound. The studied phenolic compounds also modulated TNF-? and IL-1? plasma levels compared to Chol. HT-Ac and HT-Et improved adipose tissue distribution and adipokine production, decreasing MCP-1 and IL-1? levels. Our results confirm the metabolic effects of HT, which are maintained and even improved by hydrophobic derivatives, particularly HT-Ac. PMID:24855654

Tabernero, María; Sarriá, Beatriz; Largo, Carlota; Martínez-López, Sara; Madrona, Andrés; Espartero, José Luis; Bravo, Laura; Mateos, Raquel

2014-07-25

87

Antioxidant phenolic profile from ethyl acetate fraction of Fructus Ligustri Lucidi with protection against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage in SH-SY5Y cells.  

PubMed

In this study, we demonstrated the antioxidant and protective properties of crude extract and fractions from Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (FLL) against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative damage in SH-SY5Y cells. The contents of their phytochemical profiles were determined by spectrophotometric methods and high performance liquid chromatography using a photodiode array detector. FLL crude extract possessed appreciable scavenging capacity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and H2O2. The ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction was the most active fraction in scavenging free radicals and H2O2. Following exposure of cells to H2O2, there was a marked decrease in cell survival and intracellular antioxidant enzymes, and then intracellular oxidative stress, the level of lipid peroxidation, and caspase-3 activity were increased. Simultaneous treatment with the EtOAc fraction blocked these H2O2-induced cellular events. Hydroxytyrosol and salidroside are major components of the EtOAc fraction. These results show that the phenolic-enriched EtOAc fraction of FLL contains tyrosol-related derivatives and exerts the protective effects against H2O2 toxicity via its free radical scavenging activity and ability to elevate the levels of antioxidant enzymes. PMID:22142696

Ju, Heng-Yin; Chen, Shiu Ching; Wu, Kuo-Jen; Kuo, Hui-Chun; Hseu, You-Cheng; Ching, Hui; Wu, Chi-Rei

2012-03-01

88

Inhibition of LPS-induced inflammatory biomarkers by ethyl acetate fraction of Patrinia scabiosaefolia through suppression of NF-?B activation in RAW 264.7 cells.  

PubMed

Patrinia scabiosaefolia (PS) has been used for curing various types of inflammatory-related disorders. However, the precise mechanism of the anti-inflammatory activity of PS remains unclear. Here, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of several fractions isolated from the PS in RAW 264.7 macrophages. The results indicated that the ethyl acetate fraction of PS (EAPS) concentration highly suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) and IL-6 productions without a cytotoxic effect on RAW 264.7 cells. EAPS inhibited the expressions of LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 protein and their mRNA in a dose-dependent manner. Particularly, EAPS suppressed the level of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) activity, which was linked with the suppression of LPS-induced phosphorylation of p65 at serine 276 and p65 translocation into nuclei, but not MAPK signaling. In addition, treatment with EAPS inhibited the production of TNF-? in LPS-injected mice and suppressed the production of IL-6 and TNF-? in LPS-stimulated splenocytes from BALB/c mice. Therefore, we demonstrate here that Patrinia scabiosaefolia potentially inhibits the biomarkers related to inflammation through the blocking of NF-?B p65 activation, and it may be a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:21854107

Lee, Eun-Jung; Kim, Chulwon; Kim, Jin-Young; Kim, Sung-Moo; Nam, Dongwoo; Jang, Hyeung-Jin; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Shim, Bum Sang; Ahn, Kyoo Seok; Choi, Seung-Hoon; Jung, Sang Hoon; Ahn, Kwang Seok

2012-04-01

89

Antidepressant-like effects of the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the root bark of Morus alba on the immobility behavior of rats in the forced swim test.  

PubMed

In this study, the antidepressant-like effects of Morus alba fractions in rats were investigated in the forced swim test (FST). Male Wistar rats (9-week-old) were administered orally the M. alba ethyl acetate (EtOAc 30 and 100 mg/kg) and M. alba n-butanol fractions (n-BuOH 30 and 100 mg/kg) every day for 7 consecutive days. On day 7, 1 h after the final administration of the fractions, the rats were exposed to the FST. M. alba EtOAc fraction at the dose of 100 mg/kg induced a decrease in immobility behavior (p < 0.01) with a concomitant increase in both climbing (p < 0.05) and swimming (p < 0.05) behaviors when compared with the control group, and M. alba EtOAc fraction at the dose of 100 mg/kg decreased the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to the stress, as indicated by an attenuated corticosterone response and decreased c-fos immunoreactivity in the hippocampal and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) region. These findings demonstrated that M. alba EtOAc fraction have beneficial effects on depressive behaviors and restore both altered c-fos expression and HPA activity. PMID:24927367

Lim, Dong Wook; Kim, Yun Tai; Park, Ji-Hae; Baek, Nam-In; Han, Daeseok

2014-01-01

90

In Vivo Antioxidant and Anti-Skin-Aging Activities of Ethyl Acetate Extraction from Idesia polycarpa Defatted Fruit Residue in Aging Mice Induced by D-Galactose  

PubMed Central

Two different concentrations of D-galactose (D-gal) induced organism and skin aging in Kunming mice were used to examine comprehensively the antioxidant and antiaging activities of ethyl acetate extraction (EAE) from Idesia polycarpa defatted fruit residue for the first time. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of EAE was 13.09 ± 0.11??mol Trolox equivalents (TE)/mg, which showed EAE had great in vitro free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity. Biochemical indexes and morphological analysis of all tested tissues showed that EAE could effectively improve the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) of the antioxidant defense system of the aging mice, enhance the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) of tissues and serum, increase glutathione (GSH) content and decrease the malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and maintain the skin collagen, elastin, and moisture content. Meanwhile, EAE could effectively attenuate the morphological damage in brain, liver, kidney, and skin induced by D-gal and its effect was not less than that of the well-known L-ascorbic acid (VC) and ?-tocopherol (VE). Overall, EAE is a potent natural antiaging agent with great antioxidant activity, which can be developed as a new medicine and cosmetic for the treatment of age-related conditions. PMID:24971146

Jia, Ran-ran; Chen, Fang

2014-01-01

91

Analysis of training-induced changes in ethyl acetate odor maps using a new computational tool to map the glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb.  

PubMed

Odor quality is thought to be encoded by the activation of partially overlapping subsets of glomeruli in the olfactory bulb (odor maps). Mouse genetic studies have demonstrated that olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) expressing a particular olfactory receptor target their axons to a few individual glomeruli in the bulb. While the specific targeting of OSN axons provides a molecular underpinning for the odor maps, much remains to be understood about the relationship between the functional and molecular maps. In this article, we ask the question whether intensive training of mice in a go/no-go operant conditioning odor discrimination task affects odor maps measured by determining c-fos up-regulation in periglomerular cells. Data analysis is performed using a newly developed suite of computational tools designed to systematically map functional and molecular features of glomeruli in the adult mouse olfactory bulb. This suite provides the necessary tools to process high-resolution digital images, map labeled glomeruli, visualize odor maps, and facilitate statistical analysis of patterns of identified glomeruli in the olfactory bulb. The software generates odor maps (density plots) based on glomerular activity, density, or area. We find that training up-regulates the number of glomeruli that become c-fos positive after stimulation with ethyl acetate. PMID:16141292

Salcedo, Ernesto; Zhang, Chunbo; Kronberg, Eugene; Restrepo, Diego

2005-09-01

92

Ethyl acetate extract from Jiedu Xiaozheng Yin inhibits the proliferation of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells by suppressing polycomb gene product Bmi1 and Wnt/?-catenin signaling.  

PubMed

Jiedu Xiaozheng Yin (JXY) is a Chinese herbal decoction used to treat hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Previous studies have demonstrated that JXY can inhibit HCC cell proliferation via induction of G0/G1 phase arrest. In this study, we investigated whether the inhibitory effect of JXY on HCC cells is associated with the inhibition of the Wnt/??catenin pathway and the polycomb gene product Bmi1. Ethyl acetate extract from JXY (EE-JXY) was prepared. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) and colony formation assays were used to measure cell proliferation. Immunofluorescence was used to analyze the expression and location of ?-catenin and Bmi1. Immunohistochemistry was used to examine the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), c-myc and cyclin D1. ?-catenin, Bmi1, c-myc, cyclin D1 and p16INK4A mRNA levels were detected by RT-PCR. The results demonstrated that EE-JXY inhibited the expression of PCNA, c-myc, cyclin D1 and Bmi1, and upregulated the expression of p16INK4A. We also found that EE-JXY could facilitate ?-catenin translocation from the cytoplasm and nuclei to the cytomembrane. Finally, suppression of cell proliferation and expression of Bmi1 and Wnt/?-catenin by EE-JXY was confirmed in a mouse xenograft model of HCC. Thus, EE-JXY can inhibit the proliferation of HCC partially via suppression of the Bmi1 and Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathways. PMID:25333742

Chen, Xu-Zheng; Cao, Zhi-Yun; Li, Jin-Nong; Hu, Hai-Xia; Zhang, You-Quan; Huang, Yun-Mei; Liu, Zhi-Zhen; Hu, Dan; Liao, Lian-Ming; Du, Jian

2014-12-01

93

Ethyl Acetate Extract from Celastrus aculeatus Merr. Suppresses Synovial Inflammation in Adjuvant Arthritis Rats through Apoptosis Induction of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ T Cells  

PubMed Central

Celastrus aculeatus Merr. has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in clinic. However, the main active fraction of this plant is still unclear. In this study, we attempted to evaluate the suppressive effect of ethyl acetate extract (EAE) from Celastrus aculeatus Merr. on synovial inflammation in adjuvant arthritis (AA) rats induced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra (Mtb) and to explore the underlying mechanisms. SD rats immunized with heat-killed Mtb were fed with EAE and observed for erythema, swelling, and induration of each paw. The pathologic changes in joint synovium were tested by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Apoptosis induction of synoviocytes was tested immunohistochemically. Apoptosis of peripheral lymphocytes and the level of regulatory T cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. After treatment with EAE, the joint inflammation in rats with AA was alleviated. Both apoptotic ratios of synoviocytes and peripheral lymphocytes and the ratio of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ to CD4 regulatory T cells were significantly increased. In summary, we first demonstrated that EAE of Celastrus aculeatus Merr. can inhibit synovial inflammation in AA rats through apoptosis induction of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ T cells. Our study provides a rationale for the application of Celastrus aculeatus Merr. to treat RA.

Bai, Shu-tong; Chen, Pei-hong; Chen, Yu-yao; Lin, Xiao-chun; Liu, Jun-shan; Tong, Li

2014-01-01

94

Hydrolysis of acetaldehyde diethyl acetal and ethyl vinyl ether: secondary kinetic isotope effects in water and aqueous dioxane and the stability of the ethoxyethyl cation  

SciTech Connect

Secondary deuterium isotope effects on the hydronium ion catalyzed hydrolysis of acetaldehyde diethyl acetal and ethyl vinyl ether were determined in wholly aqueous and aqueous dioxane solutions by comparing rates of reaction of the normal substrates with those of CD/sub 3/CH(OC/sub 2/H/sub 5/) and CH/sub 3/CD(OC/sub 2/H/sub 5/) and of CD/sub 2/=CHOC/sub 2/H/sub 5/ and CH/sub 2/=CDOC/sub 2/H/sub 5/. All of the isotope effects observed are consistent with the values expected on the basis of the changes in hyperconjugation, bond hybridization, and inductive effect which occur during the course of these reactions. The solvent dependence of the isotope effects, however, suggests that the ethoxyethyl cation intermediate generated in these reactions becomes sufficiently unstable in aqueous dioxane to require the conventional mechanisms for these reactions to give way to concerted pathways. 23 references, 2 tables.

Kresge, A.J.; Weeks, D.P.

1984-11-14

95

Lactate and acetate production in Listeria innocua.  

PubMed

Listeria innocua NCTC 11289 was grown aerobically in continuous culture in defined media at 30 degrees C. Both acetate and lactate were produced, the proportion of acetate decreased with increasing dilution rate. Enzymatic analysis showed lactate dehydrogenase was activated 10-fold by fructose-1, 6-bisphosphate. The presence of phosphate acetyltransferase and acetate kinase but not pyruvate oxidase was detected, suggesting the sequential action of phosphate acetyltransferase and acetate kinase to produce acetate from acetyl CoA via acetylphosphate. PMID:8987454

Kelly, A F; Patchett, R A

1996-08-01

96

New process for producing cellulose acetate from wood in concentrated acetic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore further potential applications of acetic acid pulp, an investigation was conducted to develop a direct method for producing cellulose acetate from wood in combination with atmospheric acetic acid pulping. The process consists of delignification, totally chlorine-free bleaching, and esterification, with the concentrated acetic acid aqueous solution being used as only solvent throughout the process. The acetic acid pulp

Hironori Sato; Yasumitsu Uraki; Takao Kishimoto; Yoshihiro Sano

2003-01-01

97

Characteristics of starch-based films plasticised by glycerol and by the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate: a comparative study.  

PubMed

This paper reports the plasticisation effect of the ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([Emim][OAc]), as compared with the traditionally used plasticiser, glycerol, on the characteristics of starch-based films. For minimising the additional effect of processing, a simple compression moulding process (which involves minimal shear) was used for preparation of starch-based films. The results show that [Emim][OAc] was favourable for plasticisation, i.e., disruption of starch granules (by scanning electron microscopy), and could result in a more amorphous structure in the starch-based materials (by X-ray diffraction and dynamic mechanical analysis). (13)C CP/MAS and SPE/MAS NMR spectroscopy revealed that not only was the crystallinity reduced by [Emim][OAc], but also the amorphous starch present was plasticised to a more mobile form as indicated by the appearance of amorphous starch in the SPE/MAS spectrum. Mechanical results illustrate that, when either glycerol or [Emim][OAc] was used, a higher plasticiser content could contribute to higher flexibility. In spite of the accelerated thermal degradation of starch by [Emim][OAc] as shown by thermogravimetric analysis, the biodegradation study revealed the antimicrobial effect of [Emim][OAc] on the starch-based materials. Considering the high-amylose starch used here which is typically difficult to gelatinise in a traditional plasticiser (water and/or glycerol), [Emim][OAc] is demonstrated to be a promising plasticiser for starch to develop "green" flexible antimicrobial materials for novel applications. PMID:25037423

Xie, Fengwei; Flanagan, Bernadine M; Li, Ming; Sangwan, Parveen; Truss, Rowan W; Halley, Peter J; Strounina, Ekaterina V; Whittaker, Andrew K; Gidley, Michael J; Dean, Katherine M; Shamshina, Julia L; Rogers, Robin D; McNally, Tony

2014-10-13

98

Cancer-specific chemoprevention and anti-metastatic potentials of Rheum emodi rhizome ethyl acetate extracts and identification of active principles through HPLC and GC-MS analysis.  

PubMed

Rheum emodi Wall. ex Meissn. (Polygonaceae) is a Himalayan perennial herb which has been cultivated over 5000 years for its medicinal properties by rural and tribal people of Kashmir, and has great significance for its traditional use in Ayurvedic, Unani and folk systems of medicine for cancer treatments. However, there is lack of reports pertaining to specific-chemopreventive properties of R. emodi rhizome. The present study investigates R. emodi rhizome hot and cold ethyl acetate extracts (EHR and ECR) for specific-chemopreventive properties. The extracts were found to be effective antioxidant sources, and showed significant (P<0.05) cancer-specific cytotoxicity towards MDA-MB-231 cells (when compared to WRL-68 [non-tumoral cells]) with IC50 values of 56.59±1.29 ?g/ml (EHR) and 152.38±1.45 ?g/ml (ECR) respectively, and induced apoptosis significantly (P<0.05) high in MDA-MB-231 cells (estrogen receptor-(ER)-negative) when compared to MCF-7 cells (ER-positive). Extracts also demonstrated evident anti-metastatic activity. Further, the extracts were chemically characterized through HPLC analysis which revealed major polyphenolics and the GC-MS analysis of the effective extract EHR unveiled (Methyl 6,7-dideoxy-6-C-methyl-2,3-di-O-methyl-à-D-gluco-oct-6-eno-1,5-pyranosid)urono-8,4-lactone,Chrysophanol, derivatives of cyclopropanes and a quinazoline derivative. Overall, EHR exhibited significantly better results on par with ECR, and thus could be considered for their use in designing cancer-specific chemopreventive agents against ER-negative breast cancer. PMID:25553709

Kumar, Devanga Ragupathi Naveen; George, Vazhapilly Cijo; Suresh, Palamadai Krishnan; Kumar, Rangasamy Ashok

2015-01-01

99

Eupafolin and Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Kalanchoe gracilis Stem Extract Show Potent Antiviral Activities against Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16.  

PubMed

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CoxA16) are main pathogens of hand-foot-and-mouth disease, occasionally causing aseptic meningitis and encephalitis in tropical and subtropical regions. Kalanchoe gracilis, Da-Huan-Hun, is a Chinese folk medicine for treating pain and inflammation, exhibiting antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Our prior report (2012) cited K. gracilis leaf extract as moderately active against EV71 and CoxA16. This study further rates antienteroviral potential of K. gracilis stem (KGS) extract to identify potent antiviral fractions and components. The extract moderately inhibits viral cytopathicity and virus yield, as well as in vitro replication of EV71 (IC50 = 75.18? ? g/mL) and CoxA16 (IC50 = 81.41? ? g/mL). Ethyl acetate (EA) fraction of KGS extract showed greater antiviral activity than that of n-butanol or aqueous fraction: IC50 values of 4.21? ? g/mL against EV71 and 9.08? ? g/mL against CoxA16. HPLC analysis, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, and plaque reduction assay indicate that eupafolin is a vital component of EA fraction showing potent activity against EV71 (IC50 = 1.39? ? M) and CoxA16 (IC50 = 5.24? ? M). Eupafolin specifically lessened virus-induced upregulation of IL-6 and RANTES by inhibiting virus-induced ERK1/2, AP-1, and STAT3 signals. Anti-enteroviral potency of KGS EA fraction and eupafolin shows the clinical potential against EV71 and CoxA16 infection. PMID:24078828

Wang, Ching-Ying; Huang, Shun-Chueh; Lai, Zhen-Rung; Ho, Yu-Ling; Jou, Yu-Jen; Kung, Szu-Hao; Zhang, Yongjun; Chang, Yuan-Shiun; Lin, Cheng-Wen

2013-01-01

100

Acetate fuels the cancer engine.  

PubMed

Cancer cells have distinctive nutrient demands to fuel growth and proliferation, including the disproportionate use of glucose, glutamine, and fatty acids. Comerford et al. and Mashimo et al. now demonstrate that several types of cancer are avid consumers of acetate, which facilitates macromolecular biosynthesis and histone modification. PMID:25525870

Lyssiotis, Costas A; Cantley, Lewis C

2014-12-18

101

Desmopressin Acetate in Intracranial Haemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Introduction. The secondary increase in the size of intracranial haematomas as a result of spontaneous haemorrhage or trauma is of particular relevance in the event of prior intake of platelet aggregation inhibitors. We describe the effect of desmopressin acetate as a means of temporarily stabilising the platelet function. Patients and Methods. The platelet function was analysed in 10 patients who had received single (N = 4) or multiple (N = 6) doses of acetylsalicylic acid and 3 patients (control group) who had not taken acetylsalicylic acid. All subjects had suffered intracranial haemorrhage. Analysis was performed before, half an hour and three hours after administration of desmopressin acetate. Statistical analysis was performed by applying a level of significance of P ? 0.05. Results. (1) Platelet function returned to normal 30 minutes after administration of desmopressin acetate. (2) The platelet function worsened again after three hours. (3) There were no complications related to electrolytes or fluid balance. Conclusion. Desmopressin acetate can stabilise the platelet function in neurosurgical patients who have received acetylsalicylic acid prior to surgery without causing transfusion-related side effects or a loss of time. The effect is, however, limited and influenced by the frequency of drug intake. Further controls are needed in neurosurgical patients. PMID:25610644

Kapapa, Thomas; Röhrer, Stefan; Struve, Sabine; Petscher, Matthias; König, Ralph; Wirtz, Christian Rainer; Woischneck, Dieter

2014-01-01

102

21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2396 Lead acetate. (a...additive lead acetate may be safely used in cosmetics intended for coloring hair on the scalp...The amount of the lead acetate in the cosmetic shall be such that the lead...

2012-04-01

103

21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.  

...ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2396 Lead acetate. (a...additive lead acetate may be safely used in cosmetics intended for coloring hair on the scalp...The amount of the lead acetate in the cosmetic shall be such that the lead...

2014-04-01

104

21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2396 Lead acetate. (a...additive lead acetate may be safely used in cosmetics intended for coloring hair on the scalp...The amount of the lead acetate in the cosmetic shall be such that the lead...

2013-04-01

105

21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2396 Lead acetate. (a...additive lead acetate may be safely used in cosmetics intended for coloring hair on the scalp...The amount of the lead acetate in the cosmetic shall be such that the lead...

2011-04-01

106

21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2396 Lead acetate. (a...additive lead acetate may be safely used in cosmetics intended for coloring hair on the scalp...The amount of the lead acetate in the cosmetic shall be such that the lead...

2010-04-01

107

Acetate kinase activity in mycoplasmas.  

PubMed

Acetate kinase activity was assayed in 13 mycoplasmas. Nine species exhibited the enzymic activity in the direction of either synthesis of acetylphosphate or adenosine triphosphate. On the other hand Mycoplasma orale, Mycoplasma arthritidis, Ureaplasma urealyticum (10 serotypes), and two strains of Anaeroplasma species exhibited only minimal levels of the enzymic activity. In these four species, the enzyme does not seem to play a key role in adenosine triphosphate formation. PMID:6263869

Muhlrad, A; Peleg, I; Robertson, J A; Robinson, I M; Kahane, I

1981-07-01

108

Positron scattering from vinyl acetate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a Beer-Lambert attenuation approach, we report measured total cross sections (TCSs) for positron scattering from vinyl acetate (C4H6O2) in the incident positron energy range 0.15-50 eV. In addition, we also report an independent atom model with screening corrected additivity rule computation results for the TCSs, differential and integral elastic cross sections, the positronium formation cross section and inelastic integral cross sections. The energy range of these calculations is 1-1000 eV. While there is a reasonable qualitative correspondence between measurement and calculation for the TCSs, in terms of the energy dependence of those cross sections, the theory was found to be a factor of ˜2 larger in magnitude at the lower energies, even after the measured data were corrected for the forward angle scattering effect.

Chiari, L.; Zecca, A.; Blanco, F.; García, G.; Brunger, M. J.

2014-09-01

109

Extractive fermentation of acetic acid  

SciTech Connect

In this technoeconomic evaluation of the manufacture of acetic acid by fermentation, the use of the bacterium: Acetobacter suboxydans from the old vinegar process was compared with expected performance of the newer Clostridium thermoaceticum bacterium. Both systems were projected to operate as immobilized cells in a continuous, fluidized bed bioreactor, using solvent extraction to recover the product. Acetobacter metabolizes ethanol aerobically to produce acid at 100 g/L in a low pH medium. This ensures that the product is in the form of a concentrated extractable free acid, rather than as an unextractable salt. Unfortunately, yields from glucose by way of the ethanol fermentation are poor, but near the biological limits of the organisms involved. Conversely, C. thermoaceticum is a thermophilic anaerobe that operates at high fermentation rates on glucose at neutral pH to produce acetate salts directly in substantially quantitative yields. However, it is severely inhibited by product, which restricts concentration to a dilute 20 g/L. An improved Acetobacter system operating with recycled cells at 50 g/L appears capable of producing acid at $0.38/lb, as compared with a $0.29/lb price for synthetic acid. However, this system has only a limited margin for process improvement. The present Clostridium system cannot compete, since the required selling price would be $0.42/lb. However, if the organism could be adapted to tolerate higher product concentrations at acid pH, selling price could be reduced to $0.22/lb, or about 80% of the price of synthetic acid.

Busche, R.M. [Bio En-Gene-Er Associates, Inc., Wilmington, DE (United States)

1991-12-31

110

Ethyl acetate extract of germinated brown rice attenuates hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells: role of anti-apoptotic, pro-survival and antioxidant genes  

PubMed Central

Background There are reports of improved metabolic outcomes due to consumption of germinated brown rice (GBR). Many of the functional effects of GBR can be linked to its high amounts of antioxidants. Interestingly, dietary components with high antioxidants have shown promise in the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This effect of dietary components is mostly based on their ability to prevent apoptosis, which is believed to link oxidative damage to pathological changes in AD. In view of the rich antioxidant content of GBR, we studied its potential to modulate processes leading up to AD. Methods The total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of the ethyl acetate extract of GBR were compared to that of brown rice (BR), and the cytotoxicity of both extracts were determined on human SH-SY5Y neuronal cells using 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) Assay. Based on its higher antioxidant potentials, the effect of the GBR extract on morphological changes due to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative damage in human SH-SY5Y neuronal cells was examined using inverted light microscope and fluorescence microscope by means of acridine orange-propidium iodide (AO/PI) staining. Also, evaluation of the transcriptional regulation of antioxidant and apoptotic genes was carried out using Multiplex Gene Expression System. Results The ethyl acetate extract of GBR had higher total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity compared to BR. The cytotoxicity results showed that GBR extract did not cause any damage to the human SH-SY5Y neuronal cells at concentrations of up to 20 ppm, and the morphological analyses showed that the GBR extract (up to 10 ppm) prevented H2O2-induced apoptotic changes in the cells. Furthermore, multiplex gene expression analyses showed that the protection of the cells by the GBR extract was linked to its ability to induce transcriptional changes in antioxidant (SOD 1, SOD 2 and catalase) and apoptotic (AKT, NF-K?, ERK1/2, JNK, p53 and p38 MAPK) genes that tended towards survival. Conclusions Taken together, the results of our study showed that the ethyl acetate extract of GBR, with high antioxidant potentials, could prevent H2O2-induced oxidative damage in SH-SY5Y cells. The potential of GBR and its neuroprotective mechanism in ameliorating oxidative stress-related cytotoxicity is therefore worth exploring further. PMID:23866310

2013-01-01

111

21 CFR 184.1005 - Acetic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...as GRAS § 184.1005 Acetic acid. (a) Acetic acid (C2 H4 O2 , CAS Reg. No. 64-19-7) is known as ethanoic acid. It occurs naturally in plant...fermentation of carbohydrates or by organic synthesis. The principal...

2011-04-01

112

Contribution of dialysate acetate to energy metabolism: Metabolic implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contribution of dialysate acetate to energy metabolism: Metabolic implications. During hemodialysis large amounts of acetate enter the bloodstream. Generally, it is assumed that this exogenous acetate load is oxidized immediately to carbon dioxide and water; however, the rate of plasma acetate oxidation and the effect of acetate oxidation on energy metabolism during hemodialysis has not been determined previously. The rates

Charles L Skutches; Miles H Sigler; Brendan P Teehan; Joseph H Cooper; George A Reichard

1983-01-01

113

CRYSTAL AND MOLECULAR STRUCTURE OF 6,6´-DIMETHOXY-GOSSYPOL:ACETIC ACID (1:1)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

By crystallization from dilute solutions of acetic acid (2-4%) in diethyl ether, acetone, or methyl ethyl ketone, 6,6´-dimethoxy-gossypol forms an inclusion complex with acetic acid in a one-to-one molar ratio. The compound crystallizes in the triclinic P1bar1¯space group and has unit cell dimensio...

114

21 CFR 522.2478 - Trenbolone acetate and estradiol benzoate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Trenbolone acetate and estradiol benzoate. 522.2478 Section 522.2478...2478 Trenbolone acetate and estradiol benzoate. (a) Specifications . Each implant...trenbolone acetate and 3.5 mg estradiol benzoate. (2) 4 pellets, each pellet...

2010-04-01

115

Disruption of the acetate kinase (ack) gene of Clostridium acetobutylicum results in delayed acetate production.  

PubMed

In microorganisms, the enzyme acetate kinase (AK) catalyses the formation of ATP from ADP by de-phosphorylation of acetyl phosphate into acetic acid. A mutant strain of Clostridium acetobutylicum lacking acetate kinase activity is expected to have reduced acetate and acetone production compared to the wild type. In this work, a C. acetobutylicum mutant strain with a selectively disrupted ack gene, encoding AK, was constructed and genetically and physiologically characterized. The ack (-) strain showed a reduction in acetate kinase activity of more than 97% compared to the wild type. The fermentation profiles of the ack (-) and wild-type strain were compared using two different fermentation media, CGM and CM1. The latter contains acetate and has a higher iron and magnesium content than CGM. In general, fermentations by the mutant strain showed a clear shift in the timing of peak acetate production relative to butyrate and had increased acid uptake after the onset of solvent formation. Specifically, in acetate containing CM1 medium, acetate production was reduced by more than 80% compared to the wild type under the same conditions, but both strains produced similar final amounts of solvents. Fermentations in CGM showed similar peak acetate and butyrate levels, but increased acetoin (60%), ethanol (63%) and butanol (16%) production and reduced lactate (-50%) formation by the mutant compared to the wild type. These findings are in agreement with the proposed regulatory function of butyryl phosphate as opposed to acetyl phosphate in the metabolic switch of solventogenic clostridia. PMID:22249720

Kuit, Wouter; Minton, Nigel P; López-Contreras, Ana M; Eggink, Gerrit

2012-05-01

116

Acetate Causes Alcohol Hangover Headache in Rats  

PubMed Central

Background The mechanism of veisalgia cephalgia or hangover headache is unknown. Despite a lack of mechanistic studies, there are a number of theories positing congeners, dehydration, or the ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde as causes of hangover headache. Methods We used a chronic headache model to examine how pure ethanol produces increased sensitivity for nociceptive behaviors in normally hydrated rats. Results Ethanol initially decreased sensitivity to mechanical stimuli on the face (analgesia), followed 4 to 6 hours later by inflammatory pain. Inhibiting alcohol dehydrogenase extended the analgesia whereas inhibiting aldehyde dehydrogenase decreased analgesia. Neither treatment had nociceptive effects. Direct administration of acetate increased nociceptive behaviors suggesting that acetate, not acetaldehyde, accumulation results in hangover-like hypersensitivity in our model. Since adenosine accumulation is a result of acetate formation, we administered an adenosine antagonist that blocked hypersensitivity. Discussion Our study shows that acetate contributes to hangover headache. These findings provide insight into the mechanism of hangover headache and the mechanism of headache induction. PMID:21209842

Maxwell, Christina R.; Spangenberg, Rebecca Jay; Hoek, Jan B.; Silberstein, Stephen D.; Oshinsky, Michael L.

2010-01-01

117

Dioxouranium (VI) complexes with cellulose acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dioxouranium [UO2(VI)] complexes with three degrees of substitution of cellulose acetate, prepared from viscose pulp (DS = 2.2, 2.45 and 2.86), have been synthesis and characterized. Degree of substitution (DS) is defined as the average number of CH groups substituted on each anhydrocellulose repeat unit. Probable structures of the cellulose acetate complexes were inferred from the elemental analysis data, conductance

Altaf H. Basta; Wafaa M. Hosny

1998-01-01

118

Potentialities of two solventless extraction approaches--stir bar sorptive extraction and headspace solid-phase microextraction for determination of higher alcohol acetates, isoamyl esters and ethyl esters in wines.  

PubMed

A stir bar sorptive extraction with liquid desorption followed by large volume injection coupled to gas chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry (SBSE-LD/LVI-GC-qMS) was evaluated for the simultaneous determination of higher alcohol acetates (HAA), isoamyl esters (IsoE) and ethyl esters (EE) of fatty acids. The method performance was assessed and compared with other solventless technique, the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) in headspace mode (HS). For both techniques, influential experimental parameters were optimised to provide sensitive and robust methods. The SBSE-LD/LVI methodology was previously optimised in terms of extraction time, influence of ethanol in the matrix, liquid desorption (LD) conditions and instrumental settings. Higher extraction efficiency was obtained using 60 min of extraction time, 10% ethanol content, n-pentane as desorption solvent, 15 min for the back-extraction period, 10 mL min(-1) for the solvent vent flow rate and 10 degrees C for the inlet temperature. For HS-SPME, the fibre coated with 50/30 microm divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS) afforded highest extraction efficiency, providing the best sensitivity for the target volatiles, particularly when the samples were extracted at 25 degrees C for 60 min under continuous stirring in the presence of sodium chloride (10% (w/v)). Both methodologies showed good linearity over the concentration range tested, with correlation coefficients higher than 0.984 for HS-SPME and 0.982 for SBES-LD approach, for all analytes. A good reproducibility was attained and low detection limits were achieved using both SBSE-LD (0.03-28.96 microg L(-1)) and HS-SPME (0.02-20.29 microg L(-1)) methodologies. The quantification limits for SBSE-LD approach ranging from 0.11 to 96.56 microg L(-)and from 0.06 to 67.63 microg L(-1) for HS-SPME. Using the HS-SPME approach an average recovery of about 70% was obtained whilst by using SBSE-LD obtained average recovery were close to 80%. The analytical and procedural advantages and disadvantages of these two methods have been compared. Both analytical methods were used to determine the HAA, IsoE and EE fatty acids content in "Terras Madeirenses" table wines. A total of 16 esters were identified and quantified from the wine extracts by HS-SPME whereas by SBSE-LD technique were found 25 esters which include 2 higher alcohol acetates, 4 isoamyl esters and 19 ethyl esters of fatty acids. Generally SBSE-LD provided higher sensitivity with decreased analysis time. PMID:19836529

Perestrelo, R; Nogueira, J M F; Câmara, J S

2009-12-15

119

Acetate Transport and Utilization in the Rat Brain  

PubMed Central

Acetate, a glial-specific substrate, is an attractive alternative to glucose for the study of neuronal-glial interactions. The present study investigates the kinetics of acetate uptake and utilization in the rat brain in vivo during infusion of [2-13C]acetate using NMR spectroscopy. When plasma acetate concentration was increased, the rate of brain acetate utilization (CMRace) increased progressively and reached close to saturation for plasma acetate concentration > 2-3 mM, whereas brain acetate concentration continued to increase. The Michaelis-Menten constant for brain acetate utilization ( KMutil=0.01±0.14mM) was much smaller than for acetate transport through the blood-brain barrier ( KMt=4.18±0.83mM). The maximum transport capacity of acetate through the blood-brain barrier ( Vmaxt=0.96±0.18?mol/g/min) was nearly two-fold higher than the maximum rate of brain acetate utilization ( Vmaxutil=0.50±0.08?mol/g/min). We conclude that, under our experimental conditions, brain acetate utilization is saturated when plasma acetate concentrations increase above 2-3 mM. At such high plasma acetate concentration, the rate-limiting step for glial acetate metabolism is not the blood-brain barrier, but occurs after entry of acetate into the brain. PMID:19393008

Deelchand, Dinesh K.; Shestov, Alexander A.; Koski, Dee M.; U?urbil, Kâmil; Henry, Pierre-Gilles

2009-01-01

120

Acetic acid production from food wastes using yeast and acetic acid bacteria micro-aerobic fermentation.  

PubMed

In this study, yeast and acetic acid bacteria strains were adopted to enhance the ethanol-type fermentation resulting to a volatile fatty acids yield of 30.22 g/L, and improve acetic acid production to 25.88 g/L, with food wastes as substrate. In contrast, only 12.81 g/L acetic acid can be obtained in the absence of strains. The parameters such as pH, oxidation reduction potential and volatile fatty acids were tested and the microbial diversity of different strains and activity of hydrolytic ferment were investigated to reveal the mechanism. The optimum pH and oxidation reduction potential for the acetic acid production were determined to be at 3.0-3.5 and -500 mV, respectively. Yeast can convert organic matters into ethanol, which is used by acetic acid bacteria to convert the organic wastes into acetic acid. The acetic acid thus obtained from food wastes micro-aerobic fermentation liquid could be extracted by distillation to get high-pure acetic acid. PMID:25416587

Li, Yang; He, Dongwei; Niu, Dongjie; Zhao, Youcai

2014-11-22

121

Pharmacological activity of hyperforin acetate in rats.  

PubMed

Hyperforin, the main antidepressant component of Hypericum extract, is not stable with regard to heat and light. Therefore, we investigated a newly synthetized derivative, hyperforin acetate. Herein we demonstrate its efficacy in animal models sensitive to antidepressant and anxiolytic drugs. In the forced swimming test, triple administration of hyperforin (5-20 mg/kg) significantly reduced the immobility time of rats, while in the learned helplessness test a daily treatment of 10 mg/kg for seven consecutive days was necessary to elicit an antidepressant effect. In the elevated plus-maze and in the light-dark test, the acute administration of hyperforin acetate (3-5 mg/kg) exerted an anxiolytic activity, which, however, was smaller than that of diazepam. The effect was inhibited by the pretreatment of rats with metergoline, a serotoninergic antagonist, but not with CGS-8216, a benzodiazepine receptor antagonist. Hyperforin acetate (3-10 mg/kg) was also able to reduce locomotion in rats without eliciting myorelaxant activity. As Hypericum extract was claimed to exert a potential influence on the liver drug metabolizing system, we showed that neither acute nor repeated oral doses of hyperforin acetate altered pentobarbital sleeping time in rats. Taken together, the present results show that hyperforin acetate is a pharmacologically active derivative of hyperforin and may be a starting point from which to develop new compounds for therapeutic purposes. PMID:12478215

Zanoli, P; Rivasi, M; Baraldi, C; Baraldi, M

2002-12-01

122

Ethyl acetate extract of Patrinia scabiosaefolia downregulates anti-apoptotic Bcl-2/Bcl-X(L) expression, and induces apoptosis in human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells independent of caspase-9 activation.  

PubMed

Patrinia scabiosaefolia Fisch. is a Chinese medicinal herb used traditionally for treating intestinal carbuncle. Although Patrinia scabiosaefolia has also been suggested for cancer therapy, there has not been any scientific evidence supporting this application. In this study, a panel of human cancer cells, including breast carcinoma MCF-7; hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2; skin melanoma A375; lung carcinoma A549 and prostate adenocarcinoma PC-3, were treated in vitro with ethyl acetate extract of Patrinia scabiosaefolia (EAE-PS) for 48 h. Results from MTT study showed that MCF-7 was the most responsive (IC50 = 112.3 microg/ml) while PC-3 was the most resistant (IC50 = 348.7 microg/ml) one to cell growth inhibition. DNA flow cytometry demonstrated that EAE-PS induced apoptosis in the resistant MCF-7 cells by 14.5-fold of the control level after 36 h of treatment. Immunoblot studies further illustrated that although EAE-PS downregulated the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2/Bcl-X(L) expression in breast cancer cells, the induced apoptosis could not be prevented by the caspase-9 inhibitor (Z-LEHD-FMK). All these results suggest that EAE-PS retards MCF-7 cell growth by activating the caspase-independent mitochondrial cell death pathway. Results from this study support future research and development of the bioactive ingredients from Patrinia scabiosaefolia as anticancer agents, especially against those apoptosis-resistant cancers with deregulated Bcl-2/Bcl-X(L) expression. PMID:16361073

Chiu, Lawrence C-M; Ho, T-S; Wong, Elaine Y-L; Ooi, Vincent E C

2006-04-21

123

Crystal structure, FT-IR, FT-Raman, 1H NMR and computational study of ethyl 2-{[(Z)3-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-hydroxy-2-propene-1-thione] amino} acetate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The molecular structure of a thioamide derivative ethyl 2-{[(Z)3-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-hydroxy-2-propene-1-thione] amino} acetate was determined by X-ray diffraction. The proton NMR (1H NMR), Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FT-IR) and Fourier Transform Raman (FT-Raman) spectra of the compound were recorded and analyzed. The conjugated enol form of the compound was crystallized in the monoclinic space group P21/c, with unit cell dimensions a = 12.514(2) Å, b = 5.403(5) Å, c = 21.233(3) Å, ? = 94.597(4)°. The structure was solved by direct methods and refined to the R value of 0.0462. The thioamide moiety in the compound adopts the Z-conformation and the Csbnd N bond shows a high rotational barrier. The geometry in the gas phase was optimized by B3LYP and RHF quantum mechanical calculations using Gaussian 09 programme and the vibrational frequencies were calculated. The experimental and theoretical data are in good agreement.

Prasanth, S.; Varughese, Mary; Joseph, Nirmala; Mathew, Paulson; Manojkumar, T. K.; Sudarsanakumar, C.

2015-02-01

124

Ethyl acetate fraction of adlay bran ethanolic extract inhibits oncogene expression and suppresses DMH-induced preneoplastic lesions of the colon in F344 rats through an anti-inflammatory pathway.  

PubMed

Adlay ( Coix lachryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf) is a grass crop and was reported to possess anti-inflammatory activity and an antiproliferative effect in cancer cell lines. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the ethyl acetate fraction of an adlay bran ethanolic extract (ABE-Ea) on colon carcinogenesis in an animal model and investigate its mechanism. Male F344 rats received 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) and consumed different doses of ABE-Ea. The medium-dose group (17.28 mg of ABE-Ea/day) exhibited the best suppressive effect on colon carcinogenesis and prevented preneoplastic mucin-depleted foci (MDF) formation. Moreover, RAS and Ets2 oncogenes were significantly down-regulated in this group compared to the negative control group, whereas Wee1, a gene involved in the cell cycle, was up-regulated. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein expression was significantly suppressed in all colons receiving the ABE-Ea, indicating that ABE-Ea delayed carcinogenesis by suppressing chronic inflammation. ABE-Ea included considerable a proportion of phenolic compounds, and ferulic acid was the major phenolic acid (5206 microg/g ABE-Ea) on the basis of HPLC analysis. Results from this study suggest that ABE-Ea suppressed DMH-indued preneoplastic lesions of the colon in F344 rats and that ferulic acid may be one of the active compounds. PMID:20536243

Chung, Cheng-Pei; Hsu, Hsin-Yi; Huang, Din-Wen; Hsu, Hsing-Hua; Lin, Ju-Tsui; Shih, Chun-Kuang; Chiang, Wenchang

2010-07-14

125

Process for the preparation of vinyl acetate  

DOEpatents

This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting within a contact zone a mixture of ketene and acetaldehyde with an acid catalyst at about one bar pressure and between about 85.degree. and 200.degree. C. and removing the reaction products from the contact zone.

Tustin, Gerald Charles (Kingsport, TN); Zoeller, Joseph Robert (Kingsport, TN); Depew, Leslie Sharon (Kingsport, TN)

1998-01-01

126

Treatment of Pedophilia with Leuprolide Acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, the literature on the treatment of individuals who have committed sexual offenses has focused primarily on psychotherapeutic interventions and the use of antiandrogens. Recently case reports and small series supporting the efficacy of other psychiatric medication, such as serotonin reuptake inhibitors, have been published. Only a few publications have looked at the efficacy of leuprolide acetate, an LH-RH

Nancy Raymond; Bean Robinson; Chris Kraft; Barry Rittberg; Eli Coleman

2002-01-01

127

Transesterification/acetylation of long chain alcohols with alkyl acetate.  

PubMed

Gas chromatographic characterizations of fatty alcohols are generally carried out as the free alcohols, trimethyl silyl or acetyl derivatives. In this study, transesterification/acetylation of long chain fatty alcohols is simply carried out by dissolving the alcohol in ethyl/methyl acetate and passing through a micro-column packed with solid NaOH. Reaction times are slightly different for alcohols of different chain length. Rice bran alcohols of 24-34 carbon atom are successfully acetylated. Also, castor oil methyl ester can be interesterified but with longer reaction time. PMID:20599854

Kaewkool, Phattaraporn; Krisnangkura, Kanit

2010-09-01

128

Rapid determination of tamsulosin in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography using extraction with butyl acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-performance liquid chromatographic method with fluorescence detection for the determination of tamsulosin in human plasma is reported. The sample preparation involved liquid–liquid extraction of tamsulosin from alkalised plasma with butyl acetate and back-extraction of the drug to the phosphate buffer (pH 2). Butyl acetate is preferable to more commonly used ethyl acetate because of its much lower solubility in

J. Macek; J. Klíma; P. Ptá?ek

2004-01-01

129

Brønsted Acid/Lewis Acid Cooperatively Catalyzed Addition of Diazoester to 2H-chromene Acetals.  

PubMed

A novel Brønsted acid/Lewis acid dual catalyst system has been developed to promote an efficient C-C bond formation between a range of oxocarbenium precursors derived from chromene acetals and ethyl diazoacetate. The reaction proceeds under mild conditions and is tolerant of common functionalized 2H-chromene and isochromene acetals. In addition, an asymmetric variant of diazoacetate addition towards 2H-chromene acetal is described. Continued investigations include the further optimization of asymmetric induction towards the formation of diazo ester substituted 2H-chromene. PMID:25411552

Luan, Yi; Qi, Yue; Gao, Hongyi; Ma, Qianqian; Schaus, Scott E

2014-11-01

130

Diminution of Hepatic Response to 7, 12-dimethylbenz(?)anthracene by Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Acacia catechu Willd. through Modulation of Xenobiotic and Anti-Oxidative Enzymes in Rats  

PubMed Central

Background Liver is the primary metabolizing site of body and is prone to damage by exogenous as well as endogenous intoxicants. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as 7, 12- dimethylbenz(?)anthracene (DMBA) is an exogenous hepatotoxin, which is well known for modulating phase I, II and anti-oxidative enzymes of liver. Plants contain plethora of polyphenolic compounds which can reverse the damaging effect of various xenobiotics. The present study investigated protective role of the ethyl acetate fraction of Acacia catechu Willd. (EAF) against DMBA induced alteration in hepatic metabolizing and anti-oxidative enzymes in rats. Methodology and Principal Findings The rats were subjected to hepatic damage by treating with DMBA for 7 weeks on alternative days and treatment schedule was terminated at the end of 14 weeks. The rats were euthanized at the end of protocol and livers were homogenized. The liver homogenates were used to analyse phase I (NADPH-cytochrome P450 reducatse, NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase, cytochrome P420, cytochrome b5), phase II (glutathione-S-transferase, DT diaphorase and ?-Glutamyl transpeptidase) and antioxidative enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, guiacol peroxidase and lactate dehydrogenase). Furthermore, other oxidative stress parameters (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, lipid hydroperoxides and conjugated dienes and reduced glutathione) and liver marker enzymes (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase and alkaline phosphatase) were also studied. The DMBA induced significant changes in activity of hepatic enzymes that was reversed by treatment with three dose levels of EAF. Conclusion It is concluded that EAF affords hepato-protection against DMBA in rats through modulation of phase I, II and anti-oxidative enzymes. PMID:24587216

Kumar, Rakesh; Kaur, Rajbir; Singh, Amrit Pal; Arora, Saroj

2014-01-01

131

Biogas Production through the Syntrophic Acetate-Oxidising Pathway  

E-print Network

retention time OLR Organic loading rate PCR Polymerase chain reaction qPCR Quantitative polymerase chain reaction RNA Ribonucleic acid SAO Syntrophic acetate oxidation SAOB Syntrophic acetate-oxidising bacteria

132

21 CFR 582.5892 - a-Tocopherol acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5892 a -Tocopherol acetate. (a) Product. a -Tocopherol acetate. (b) Conditions...

2013-04-01

133

21 CFR 582.5892 - a-Tocopherol acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5892 a -Tocopherol acetate. (a) Product. a -Tocopherol acetate. (b) Conditions...

2011-04-01

134

21 CFR 582.5892 - a-Tocopherol acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5892 a -Tocopherol acetate. (a) Product. a -Tocopherol acetate. (b) Conditions...

2012-04-01

135

Gold-catalyzed cyclization of allenyl acetal derivatives  

PubMed Central

Summary The gold-catalyzed transformation of allenyl acetals into 5-alkylidenecyclopent-2-en-1-ones is described. The outcome of our deuterium labeling experiments supports a 1,4-hydride shift of the resulting allyl cationic intermediates because a complete deuterium transfer is observed. We tested the reaction on various acetal substrates bearing a propargyl acetate, giving 4-methoxy-5-alkylidenecyclopent-2-en-1-ones 4 via a degradation of the acetate group at the allyl cation intermediate. PMID:24062838

Vasu, Dhananjayan; Pawar, Samir Kundlik

2013-01-01

136

Isothermal decomposition of ?-irradiated samarium acetate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isothermal decomposition of un-irradiated and pre-?-irradiated samarium acetate has been investigated at different temperatures between 613 and 633 K. Irradiation was observed to enhance the rate of decomposition without modifying the mechanism of thermal decomposition. Thermal decomposition of samarium acetate has been shown to proceed by two-dimensional phase-boundary reaction both for un-irradiated and pre-?-irradiated samples. The enhancement of the decomposition was found to increase with an increase in the ?-ray dose applied to the sample and may be attributed to an increase in point defects and formation of additional nucleation centers generated in the host lattice. Thermodynamic values of the main decomposition process were calculated and evaluated.

Mahfouz, R. M.; Monshi, M. A. S.; Alshehri, S. M.; Abd El-Salam, N. M.

2000-10-01

137

Lithium acetate transformation of yeast Maitreya Dunham August 2004  

E-print Network

Lithium acetate transformation of yeast Maitreya Dunham August 2004 Original protocol from Katja until the OD600 is around 0.7-0.8 (~7 hours). Spin down the cells. Resuspend in 5 ml lithium acetate mix. Spin. Resuspend in 0.5 ml lithium acetate mix. Transfer to an eppendorf tube. Incubate 60 minutes

Dunham, Maitreya

138

Formation of acetic acid from cellulosic substrates by Fusarium oxysporum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four strains of Fusarium oxysporum and a strain of Monilia brunnae were screened for their ability to convert cellulosic substrates into ethanol\\/acetic acid. These strains were found to utilize cellulose and produce extracellular cellulases. However, only F. oxysporum 841 was found to convert glucose, xylose, and cellulose into ethanol and acetic acid as major end-products under microaerobic conditions. Acetic acid

P. K. R. Kumar; Ajay Singh; K. Schiigerl

1991-01-01

139

Functional Properties of Extruded Starch Acetate Blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starch acetate, with degree of substitution of 2, was blended with 0, 7.5 and 15% polylactic acid (PLA), Eastar Bio Copolyester 14766 (EBC) or Mater-Bi ZF03U (MBI) and 10%, 13%, or 16% (d.b.) ethanol and twin-screw extruded at 160°C barrel temperature. Physical characteristics of the extrudates, such as radial expansion ratio, unit and bulk densities, and of the mechanical properties,

J. Guan; Q. Fang; M. A. Hanna

2004-01-01

140

Ammonia permeability of a cellulose acetate membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mechanism is proposed for ammonia transport across a cellulose acetate membrane. The transport is shown to have a sorption\\u000a character, with the formation of hydrogen bonds between ammonia molecules and the polymer. Our experiments demonstrate that\\u000a the membrane can be regenerated in the course of gas separation. The ideal separation factors in the ammonia-nitrogen and\\u000a ammonia-hydrogen systems are determined.

I. V. Vorotyntsev; P. N. Drozdov; N. V. Karyakin

2006-01-01

141

Acetic acid bacteria as enantioselective biocatalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetic acid bacteria (five strains of Acetobacter and five strains of Gluconobacter) were used for the biotransformation of different primary alcohols (2-chloropropanol and 2-phenylpropanol) and diols (1,3-butandiol, 1,4-nonandiol and 2,3-butandiol). Most of the tested strains efficiently oxidized the substrates. 2-Chloropropanol and 1,3-butandiol were oxidized with good rates and low enantioselectivity (enantiomeric excess=18–46% of the S-acid), while microbial oxidation of 2-phenylpropanol

A Romano; R Gandolfi; P Nitti; M Rollini; F Molinari

2002-01-01

142

Nonenzymatic phosphorylation of acetate by carbamyl phosphate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is found that carbamyl phosphate is an efficient condensing agent for acetate and hydroxylamine in the presence of Be2+ and Al3+. The reaction has an optimum at pH 4 and is completed within 30 min. The yield of hydroxamate formation reaches 30% (based on initial carbamyl phosphate). Acetylphosphate as the intermediary product of this reaction was identified by P-NMR spectroscopy.

Saygin, Ömer

1983-03-01

143

21 CFR 173.228 - Ethyl acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN...conditions: (a) The additive meets the specifications...locations.html. (b) The additive is used in accordance with current good manufacturing practice as a solvent...

2010-04-01

144

21 CFR 173.228 - Ethyl acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN...conditions: (a) The additive meets the specifications...locations.html. (b) The additive is used in accordance with current good manufacturing practice as a solvent...

2011-04-01

145

21 CFR 173.228 - Ethyl acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN...conditions: (a) The additive meets the specifications...locations.html. (b) The additive is used in accordance with current good manufacturing practice as a solvent...

2012-04-01

146

21 CFR 173.228 - Ethyl acetate.  

... SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN...conditions: (a) The additive meets the specifications...ibr-locations.html. (b) The additive is used in accordance with current good manufacturing practice as a solvent...

2014-04-01

147

21 CFR 173.228 - Ethyl acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN...conditions: (a) The additive meets the specifications...locations.html. (b) The additive is used in accordance with current good manufacturing practice as a solvent...

2013-04-01

148

Evidence for a transition state analog, MgADP-aluminum fluoride-acetate, in acetate kinase from Methanosarcina thermophila.  

PubMed

Aluminum fluoride has become an important tool for investigating the mechanism of phosphoryl transfer, an essential reaction that controls a host of vital cell functions. Planar AlF(3) or AlF(4)(-) molecules are proposed to mimic the phosphoryl group in the catalytic transition state. Acetate kinase catalyzes phosphoryl transfer of the ATP gamma-phosphate to acetate. Here we describe the inhibition of acetate kinase from Methanosarcina thermophila by preincubation with MgCl(2), ADP, AlCl(3), NaF, and acetate. Preincubation with butyrate in place of acetate did not significantly inhibit the enzyme. Several NTPs can substitute for ATP in the reaction, and the corresponding NDPs, in conjunction with MgCl(2), AlCl(3), NaF, and acetate, inhibit acetate kinase activity. Fluorescence quenching experiments indicated an increase in binding affinity of acetate kinase for MgADP in the presence of AlCl(3), NaF, and acetate. These and other characteristics of the inhibition indicate that the transition state analog, MgADP-aluminum fluoride-acetate, forms an abortive complex in the active site. The protection from inhibition by a non-hydrolyzable ATP analog or acetylphosphate, in conjunction with the strict dependence of inhibition on the presence of both ADP and acetate, supports a direct in-line mechanism for acetate kinase. PMID:11960978

Miles, Rebecca D; Gorrell, Andrea; Ferry, James G

2002-06-21

149

Overview on mechanisms of acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are a group of gram-negative or gram-variable bacteria which possess an obligate aerobic property with oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor, meanwhile transform ethanol and sugar to corresponding aldehydes, ketones and organic acids. Since the first genus Acetobacter of AAB was established in 1898, 16 AAB genera have been recorded so far. As the main producer of a world-wide condiment, vinegar, AAB have evolved an elegant adaptive system that enables them to survive and produce a high concentration of acetic acid. Some researches and reviews focused on mechanisms of acid resistance in enteric bacteria and made the mechanisms thoroughly understood, while a few investigations did in AAB. As the related technologies with proteome, transcriptome and genome were rapidly developed and applied to AAB research, some plausible mechanisms conferring acetic acid resistance in some AAB strains have been published. In this review, the related mechanisms of AAB against acetic acid with acetic acid assimilation, transportation systems, cell morphology and membrane compositions, adaptation response, and fermentation conditions will be described. Finally, a framework for future research for anti-acid AAB will be provided. PMID:25575804

Wang, Bin; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Fusheng

2015-02-01

150

Evaluation of Pulps, Rayon Fibers, and Cellulose Acetate by GPC and Other Fractionation Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chain length distribution of a broad spectrum of wood celluloses and cellulose derivatives was determined by gel permeation chromatography. Relative amounts of short and long chain-length species were characterized, and uniformity indices were calculated. Prefractionation was found to be a desirable approach to amplify low- and high-DP regions. This was accomplished using a 55\\/45 ethyl acetate\\/ethyl alcohol mixture to yield

W. J. Alexander; T. E. Muller

1971-01-01

151

Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activity of Di-(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate and Anhydrosophoradiol-3-acetate Isolated from Calotropis gigantea (Linn.) Flower  

PubMed Central

A phytochemical study on the flowe r of Calotropis gigantea (Linn.) using silica gel column chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography, led to the first time isolation of Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (compound 1) and anhydrosophoradiol-3-acetate (compound 2). The structures of these compounds were confirmed by spectroscopic analyses (IR, HRTOFMS and NMR). The antibacterial and antifungal activities of ethyl acetate extract, compound 1 and compound 2 were measured using the disc diffusion method. Ethyl acetate extract and compound 1 presented better results than compound 2. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the extract and compounds were found to be in the range of 16~128 µg/ml. The cytotoxicity (LC50) against brine shrimp nauplii (Artemia salina) were also evaluated and found to be 14.61 µg/ml for ethyl acetate, 9.19 µg/ml for compound 1 and 15.55 µg/ml for compound 2. PMID:23983504

Habib, M. Rowshanul

2009-01-01

152

Immunotoxicity of trenbolone acetate in Japanese quail  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Trenbolone acetate is a synthetic androgen that is currently used as a growth promoter in many meat-exporting countries. Despite industry laboratories classifying trenbolone as nonteratogenic, data showed that embryonic exposure to this androgenic chemical altered development of the immune system in Japanese quail. Trenbolone is lipophilic, persistent, and released into the environment in manure used as soil fertilizer. This is the first study to date to assess this chemical's immunotoxic effects in an avian species. A one-time injection of trenbolone into yolks was administered to mimic maternal deposition, and subsequent effects on the development and function of the immune system were determined in chicks and adults. Development of the bursa of Fabricius, an organ responsible for development of the humoral arm of the immune system, was disrupted, as indicated by lower masse, and smaller and fewer follicles at day 1 of hatch. Morphological differences in the bursas persisted in adults, although no differences in either two measures of immune function were observed. Total numbers of circulating leukocytes were reduced and heterophil-lymphocyte ratios were elevated in chicks but not adults. This study shows that trenbolone acetate is teratogenic and immunotoxic in Japanese quail, and provides evidence that the quail immune system may be fairly resilient to embryonic endocrine-disrupting chemical-induced alterations following no further exposure posthatch.

Quinn, M.J.; McKernan, M.; Lavoie, E.T.; Ottinger, M.A.

2007-01-01

153

Atmospheric formic and acetic acids in Venezuela  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas, phase and rain concentrations of HCOOH and CH 3COOH have been measured at various sites in the savannah climatic region, a cloud forest site and a coastal site in Venezuela. Gas phase and rain water were sampled using the aqueous scrubber technique and a wet only collector, respectively. Analyses were made by ion chromatography. The results indicate that formic and acetic acids are important components of the Venezuelan atmosphere. They are homogeneously distributed, suggesting a widespread source. Boundary layer concentrations during the dry season (HCOOH, 1.8 ppbv; CH 3COOH, 1.25 ppbv) are higher than in the wet season (HCOOH, 1.0 ppbv; CH 3COOH, 0.7 ppbv), mainly due to a longer lifetime of the acid during the dry season (˜6 days) compared with the wet season (˜2 days). The overall concentrations in rain are 7.0 and 4.0 ?M for formic and acetic acids, respectively. The estimated annual total depositions are: HCOOH, 17 mmol m -2 yr -1 and CH 3COOH,10 mmol m -2 yr -1; around half of the acids are removed by dry deposition. It is established that a larger source (˜1.8 times) of both acids is present during the wet season. We speculate that atmospheric oxidation of hydrocarbons should be the main source of HCOOH and CH 3COOH in the Venezuelan atmosphere; soil emissions could make a significant contribution during the dry season.

Sanhueza, Eugenio; Figueroa, Luis; Santana, Magaly

154

Facile pulping of lignocellulosic biomass using choline acetate.  

PubMed

Treating ground bagasse or Southern yellow pine in the biodegradable ionic liquid (IL), choline acetate ([Cho][OAc]), at 100°C for 24h led to dissolution of hemicellulose and lignin, while leaving the cellulose pulp undissolved, with a 54.3% (bagasse) or 34.3% (pine) reduction in lignin content. The IL solution of the dissolved biopolymers can be separated from the undissolved particles either by addition of water (20 wt% of IL) followed by filtration or by centrifugation. Hemicellulose (19.0 wt% of original bagasse, 10.2 wt% of original pine, containing 14-18 wt% lignin) and lignin (5.0 wt% of original bagasse, 6.0 wt% of original pine) could be subsequently precipitated. The pulp obtained from [Cho][OAc] treatment can be rapidly dissolved in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (e.g., 17 h for raw bagasse vs. 7h for pulp), and precipitated as cellulose-rich material (CRM) with a lower lignin content (e.g., 23.6% for raw bagasse vs. 10.6% for CRM). PMID:24874879

Cheng, Fangchao; Wang, Hui; Chatel, Gregory; Gurau, Gabriela; Rogers, Robin D

2014-07-01

155

Crystal structure and chemical bonding in tin(II) acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tin(II) acetate was prepared and its crystal structure was solved from X-ray powder diffraction data. Tin(II) acetate adopts a polymeric structure consisting of infinite Sn(CH3COO)2 chains running along the c-axis which are packed into groups of four. The acetate groups bridge the Sn atoms along the chains. The Sn atoms are asymmetrically surrounded by four oxygen atoms with two short

Varvara S. Stafeeva; Alexander S. Mitiaev; Artem M. Abakumov; Alexander A. Tsirlin; Artem M. Makarevich; Evgeny V. Antipov

2007-01-01

156

The acetate kinase of Clostridum acetobutylicum strain P262  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clostridum acetobutylicum strain P262 fermented glucose, pyruvate, or lactate, and the butyrate production was substrate-dependent. Differences in butyrate yield could not be explained by changes in butyrate kinase activities, but the butyrate production was inversely related to acetate kinase activity. The acetate kinase had a pH optimum of 8.0, aKm for acetate of 160 mM, and akcat of 16,800 min-1.

Francisco Diez-Gonzalez; James B. Russell; Jean B. Hunter

1996-01-01

157

Mesophilic syntrophic acetate oxidation during methane formation in biogas reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reaction pathway for the formation of methane from acetate was investigated in sludge from 13 different biogas reactors. By following the conversion of [2-14C]acetate and [14C]bicarbonate it was shown that methane formation by syntrophic acetate oxidation was the dominating mechanism for acetotrophic methanogenesis in sludge containing high levels of salts, mainly ammonium, and volatile fatty acids. In one biogas

Anna Schnürer; Gerhard Zellner; Bo H. Svensson

1999-01-01

158

Polypyrrole based strong acid catalyst for acetalization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Novel polypyrrole based acid catalyst has been synthesized through the neutralization reaction of polypyrrole and sulfuric acid. The polypyrrole based acid owned the acidity as high as 6.0 mmol/g, which was much higher than that of the traditional solid acids such as Nafion and Amberlyst-15 (0.8 mmol/g). The catalytic activities of the novel solid acid were investigated through the acetalization. The results showed that the novel solid acid held high activities for the reactions. Furthermore, the recycled activities of the catalyst indicated that the solid acid owned high stability during the catalytic process and little acid sites dropped from polypyrrole. The high acidity and stability made the novel polypyrrole based acid hold great potential for the green chemical processes.

Liang, Xuezheng; Cheng, Yuxiao; Qi, Chenze

2011-09-01

159

N-(2-Chloro-acet-yl)glycine.  

PubMed

The title compound, C4H6ClNO3, crystallizes with two independent mol-ecules (A and B) in the asymmetric unit. In each mol-ecule, there are N-H?O and N-H?Cl hydrogen bonds. Both mol-ecules are relatively planar, with the mean plane of the acetamide [N-C(=O)C] group being inclined to the mean plane of the acetate group [C-C(=O)O] by 9.23?(13)° in mol-ecule A and 6.23?(12)° in mol-ecule B. In the crystal, adjacent mol-ecules are linked by O-H?O hydrogen bonds and weak C-H?O contacts forming -A-A-A- and -B-B-B- parallel chains propagating along the a-axis direction. PMID:24454136

Zhang, Yu-Cheng; Zhang, Xiu-Qin; Wang, Kai; Chen, Qiang

2013-10-26

160

Synthesis and regeneration of lead (IV) acetate  

SciTech Connect

Lead acetate [Pb(O{sub 2}CMe){sub 4}] was easily synthesized from a warm solution of Pb{sub 3}O{sub 4}, HO{sub 2}CMe and O(OCMe){sub 2} following literature preparations when the appropriate measures to minimize water contamination were followed. Furthermore, Pb(O{sub 2}CMe){sub 4} which has been decomposed (evidenced by the appearance of a purple color due to oxidation) can be regenerated using a similar preparatory route. Introduction of Pb(O{sub 2}CMe){sub 4} from the two routes outlined above into the IMO process for production of PZT thin films gave films with comparable ferroelectric properties to commercially available Pb(O{sub 2}CMe){sub 4} precursors. However, the freshly synthesized material yields PZT films with better properties compared to the recycled material.

Boyle, T.J.; Al-Shareef, H.N.; Moore, G.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Materials Lab.

1996-11-01

161

Oxidation of Indole-3-Acetic Acid to Oxindole-3-Acetic Acid by an Enzyme Preparation from Zea mays1  

PubMed Central

Indole-3-acetic acid is oxidized to oxindole-3-acetic acid by Zea mays tissue extracts. Shoot, root, and endosperm tissues have enzyme activities of 1 to 10 picomoles per hour per milligram protein. The enzyme is heat labile, is soluble, and requires oxygen for activity. Cofactors of mixed function oxygenase, peroxidase, and intermolecular dioxygenase are not stimulatory to enzymic activity. A heat-stable, detergent-extractable component from corn enhances enzyme activity 6- to 10-fold. This is the first demonstration of the in vitro enzymic oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid in higher plants. PMID:11538238

Reinecke, Dennis M.; Bandurski, Robert S.

1988-01-01

162

Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid by an enzyme preparation from Zea mays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Indole-3-acetic acid is oxidized to oxindole-3-acetic acid by Zea mays tissue extracts. Shoot, root, and endosperm tissues have enzyme activities of 1 to 10 picomoles per hour per milligram protein. The enzyme is heat labile, is soluble, and requires oxygen for activity. Cofactors of mixed function oxygenase, peroxidase, and intermolecular dioxygenase are not stimulatory to enzymic activity. A heat-stable, detergent-extractable component from corn enhances enzyme activity 6- to 10-fold. This is the first demonstration of the in vitro enzymic oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid in higher plants.

Reinecke, D. M.; Bandurski, R. S.

1988-01-01

163

Heterogeneous catalyst for the production of acetic anhydride from methyl acetate  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to a process for producing acetic anhydride by the reaction of methyl acetate, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen at elevated temperatures and pressures in the presence of an alkyl halide and a heterogeneous, bifunctional catalyst that contains an insoluble polymer having pendant quaternized phosphine groups, some of which phosphine groups are ionically bonded to anionic Group VIII metal complexes, the remainder of the phosphine groups being bonded to iodide. In contrast to prior art processes, no accelerator (promoter) is necessary to achieve the catalytic reaction and the products are easily separated from the catalyst by filtration. The catalyst can be recycled for consecutive runs without loss in activity. Bifunctional catalysts for use in carbonylating dimethyl ether are also provided.

Ramprasad, D.; Waller, F.J.

1999-04-06

164

Heterogeneous catalyst for the production of acetic anhydride from methyl acetate  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to a process for producing acetic anhydride by the reaction of methyl acetate, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen at elevated temperatures and pressures in the presence of an alkyl halide and a heterogeneous, bifunctional catalyst that contains an insoluble polymer having pendant quaternized phosphine groups, some of which phosphine groups are ionically bonded to anionic Group VIII metal complexes, the remainder of the phosphine groups being bonded to iodide. In contrast to prior art processes, no accelerator (promoter) is necessary to achieve the catalytic reaction and the products are easily separated from the catalyst by filtration. The catalyst can be recycled for consecutive runs without loss in activity. Bifunctional catalysts for use in carbonylating dimethyl ether are also provided.

Ramprasad, Dorai (Allentown, PA); Waller, Francis Joseph (Allentown, PA)

1999-01-01

165

Origin and fate of acetate in an acidic fen.  

PubMed

Acetate is a central intermediate in the anaerobic degradation of organic matter, and the resolution of its metabolism necessitates integrated strategies. This study aims to (1) estimate the contribution of acetogenesis to acetate formation in an acidic fen (pH ~ 4.9), (2) assess the genetic potential for acetogenesis targeting the fhs gene encoding formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase (FTHFS) and (3) unravel the in situ turnover of acetate using stable carbon isotope pore-water analysis. H(2)/CO(2)-supplemented peat microcosms yielded (13)C-depleted acetate (-37.2‰ vs. VPDB (Vienna Peedee belemnite standard) compared with -14.2‰ vs. VPDB in an unamended control), indicating the potential for H(2)-dependent acetogenesis. Molecular analysis revealed a high diversity and depth-dependent distribution of fhs phylotypes with the highest number of operational taxonomic units in 0-20 cm depth, but only few and distant relationships to known acetogens. In pore waters, acetate concentrations (0-170 ?M) and ?(13)C-values varied widely (-17.4‰ to -3.4‰ vs. VPDB) and did not indicate acetogenesis, but pointed to a predominance of sinks, which preferentially consumed (12)C-acetate, like acetoclastic methanogenesis. However, depth profiles of methane and ?(13)C(CH4) revealed a temporarily and spatially restricted role of this acetate sink and suggest other processes like sulfate and iron reduction played an important role in acetate turnover. PMID:22404042

Hädrich, Anke; Heuer, Verena B; Herrmann, Martina; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Küsel, Kirsten

2012-08-01

166

Selective perborate signaling by deprotection of fluorescein and resorufin acetates.  

PubMed

The acetate derivatives of fluorescein and resorufin exhibited a prominent turn-on type signaling behavior toward BO(3)(-) ions over other common anions. Signaling is based on the selective deprotection of acetate groups by perborate, which resulted in significant chromogenic and fluorogenic signaling. Compound 1 also exhibited a pronounced perborate selectivity over other commonly used oxidants in 90% aqueous acetonitrile solution. PMID:20222739

Choi, Myung Gil; Cha, Sunyoung; Park, Ji Eun; Lee, Haekyung; Jeon, Hye Lim; Chang, Suk-Kyu

2010-04-01

167

Introduction Metal acetates are used as metal precursors in many  

E-print Network

facilitated exploring broader applications of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles by utilizing the synthesis properties of the solid phase metal acetate precursors and the product metal/metal oxide nanocomposite in these combustion and other synthesis systems which rely on thermal decomposition and oxidation of metal acetates [6

Wooldridge, Margaret S.

168

Transition-Metal-Catalyzed Carbonylation of Methyl Acetate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a study of the rhodium-catalyzed, ioding-promoted carbonylation of methyl acetate. This study provides an interesting contrast between the carbonylation of methyl acetate and the carbonylation of methanol when similar rhodium/iodine catalyst systems are used. (JN)

Polichnowski, S. W.

1986-01-01

169

Enrichment of amino acid-oxidizing, acetate-reducing bacteria.  

PubMed

In anaerobic condition, amino acids are oxidatively deaminated, and decarboxylated, resulting in the production of volatile fatty acids. In this process, excess electrons are produced and their consumption is necessary for the accomplishment of amino acid degradation. In this study, we anaerobically constructed leucine-degrading enrichment cultures from three different environmental samples (compost, excess sludge, and rice field soil) in order to investigate the diversity of electron-consuming reaction coupled to amino acid oxidation. Constructed enrichment cultures oxidized leucine to isovalerate and their activities were strongly dependent on acetate. Analysis of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) profiles and community structure analysis during batch culture of each enrichment indicated that Clostridium cluster I coupled leucine oxidation to acetate reduction in the enrichment from the compost and the rice field soil. In these cases, acetate was reduced to butyrate. On the other hand, Clostridium cluster XIVb coupled leucine oxidation to acetate reduction in the enrichment from the excess sludge. In this case, acetate was reduced to propionate. To our surprise, the enrichment from rice field soil oxidized leucine even in the absence of acetate and produced butyrate. The enrichment would couple leucine oxidation to reductive butyrate synthesis from CO2. The coupling reaction would be achieved based on trophic link between hydrogenotrophic acetogenic bacteria and acetate-reducing bacteria by sequential reduction of CO2 and acetate. Our study suggests anaerobic degradation of amino acids is achieved yet-to-be described reactions. PMID:24630616

Ato, Makoto; Ishii, Masaharu; Igarashi, Yasuo

2014-08-01

170

Acetic acid pulping of wheat straw under atmospheric pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric acetic acid pulping of wheat straw was carried out. Pulping conditions and their effects on pulp properties were investigated in detail, and a comparison between acetic acid (AcOH) pulp and soda-anthraquinone (AQ) pulps of wheat straw was made of the chemical com- position, strength, and fiber morphology of the pulps. Wheat straw was successfully pulped and fractionated into pulp

Xue-Jun PanYoshihiro Sano

1999-01-01

171

Glycerol acetals as anti-freezing additives for biodiesel.  

PubMed

Glycerol acetals from butanal, pentanal, hexanal, octanal and decanal were prepared with the use of Amberlyst-15 acid resin as catalyst. The glycerol conversion decreases with the size of the hydrocarbon chain. This fact has been associated with formation of micelles and aggregates of the aldehyde to minimize the interaction between the polar glycerol molecule with the hydrocarbon chain. The Z+E mixture of the acetals with five and six-member rings were produced in all cases. The distribution of the acetal isomers varied with the reaction time, especially for the long chain aldehydes. Addition of 5 vol.% of the butanal-glycerol acetal reduced the pour point of animal fat biodiesel (methyl ester) from 18 to 13 degrees C. The decrease in the pour point of the glycerol acetals-biodiesel mixtures were dependent on the size of the hydrocarbon chain and the percent blended. PMID:20304633

Silva, Paulo H R; Gonçalves, Valter L C; Mota, Claudio J A

2010-08-01

172

Mechanistic investigations of the reaction network in chemo-bio catalyzed synthesis of R -1-phenylethyl acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics and reaction network of the one-pot synthesis of R-1-phenylethyl acetate was investigated at 70°C in toluene over a combination of three different catalysts: PdZn\\/Al2O3 as a catalyst for acetophenone hydrogenation, lipase as an enzymatic catalyst for R-1-phenylethanol acylation with ethyl acetate and Ru\\/Al2O3 as a racemization catalyst for S-1-phenylethanol. In addition to the desired reactions, other reactions, namely

A. Kirilin; S. Sahin; A. Tokarev; P. Mäki-Arvela; K. Kordas; A.-R. Leino; A. Shchukarev; J.-P. Mikkola; L. M. Kustov; T. Salmi; D. Yu. Murzin

2010-01-01

173

Mechanical Properties and a Physical-Chemical Analysis of Acetate Yarns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellulose acetate used in the manufacture of acetate yarns is commonly obtained from cotton-linters or wood-pulp cellulose. Varying in the origin and in the manufacturer, cellulose acetate often differs in its processability. The paper belongs to the investigation the properties of acetate yarns manufactured of the cellulose acetate varied in its origin and manufactured by different suppliers. Mechanical properties (including

R. emaitaitien?; A. Vitkauskas

174

Selective deprotection of acetals with Me3SiCH2MgCl. Peterson-type olefination of acetals  

PubMed

By employing the chelation strategy, treatment of an acetal of a contiguous diol with Me3SiCH2MgCl liberates the corresponding diol regioselectively. In addition, acetals of different structural variety are transformed upon treatment with Me3SiCH2MgCl and ZnI2 into the corresponding olefination products in good yield. PMID:10959876

Chiang; Chen; Hsieh; Luh

2000-07-28

175

Oxidation of Indole-3-acetic Acid and Oxindole-3-acetic Acid to 2,3-Dihydro-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-1H Indole-3-acetic Acid-7?-O-?-d-Glucopyranoside in Zea mays Seedlings 1  

PubMed Central

Radiolabeled oxindole-3-acetic acid was metabolized by roots, shoots, and caryopses of dark grown Zea mays seedlings to 2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-1H indole-3-acetic acid-7?-O-?-d-glycopyranoside with the simpler name of 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside. This compound was also formed from labeled indole-3-acetic acid supplied to intact seedlings and root segments. The glucoside of 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid was also isolated as an endogenous compound in the caryopses and shoots of 4-day-old seedlings. It accumulates to a level of 4.8 nanomoles per plant in the kernel, more than 10 times the amount of oxindole-3-acetic acid. In the shoot it is present at levels comparable to that of oxindole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-acetic acid (62 picomoles per shoot). We conclude that 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside is a natural metabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in Z. mays seedlings. From the data presented in this paper and in previous work, we propose the following route as the principal catabolic pathway for indole-3-acetic acid in Zea seedlings: Indole-3-acetic acid ? Oxindole-3-acetic acid ? 7-Hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid ? 7-Hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside. PMID:11540902

Nonhebel, Heather M.; Bandurski, Robert S.

1984-01-01

176

Biodegradable cellulose acetate nanofiber fabrication via electrospinning.  

PubMed

Nanofiber manufacturing is one of the key advancements in nanotechnology today. Over the past few years, there has been a tremendous growth of research activities to explore electrospinning for nanofiber formation from a rich variety of materials. This quite simple and cost effective process operates on the principle that the solution is extracted under the action of a high electric field. Once the voltage is sufficiently high, a charged jet is ejected following a complicated looping trajectory. During its travel, the solvent evaporates leaving behind randomly oriented nanofibers accumulated on the collector. The combination of their nanoscale dimensionality, high surface area, porosity, flexibility and superior strength makes the electrospun fibers suitable for several value-added applications, such as filters, protecting clothes, high performance structures and biomedical devices. In this study biodegradable cellulose acetate (CA) nanofibrous membranes were produced using electrospinning. The device utilized consisted of a syringe equipped with a metal needle, a microdialysis pump, a high voltage supply and a collector. The morphology of the yielded fibers was determined using SEM. The effect of various parameters, including electric field strength, tip-to-collector distance, solution feed rate and composition on the morphological features of the electrospun fibers was examined. The optimum operating conditions for the production of uniform, non-beaded fibers with submicron diameter were also explored. The biodegradable CA nanofiber membranes are suitable as tissue engineering scaffolds and as reinforcements of biopolymer matrix composites in foils by ultrasonic welding methods. PMID:21133179

Christoforou, Theopisti; Doumanidis, Charalabos

2010-09-01

177

Micelles Protect and Concentrate Activated Acetic Acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As more and more exoplanets are discovered and the habitability of such planets is considered, one can turn to searching for the origin of life on Earth in order to better understand what makes a habitable planet. Activated acetic acid, or methyl thioacetate, has been proposed to be central to the origin of life on Earth, and also as an important energy currency molecule in early cellular evolution. We have investigated the hydrolysis of methyl thioacetate under various conditions. Its uncatalyzed rate of hydrolysis is about three orders of magnitude faster (K = 0.00663 s^-1; 100°C, pH 7.5, concentration = 0.33mM) than published rates for its catalyzed production making it unlikely to accumulate under prebiotic conditions. However, we also observed that methyl thioacetate was protected from hydrolysis when inside its own hydrophobic droplets. We found that methyl thioacetate protection from hydrolysis was also possible in droplets of hexane and in the membranes of nonanoic acid micelles. Thus, the hydrophobic regions of prebiotic micelles and early cell membranes could have offered a refuge for this energetic molecule increasing its lifetime in close proximity to the reactions for which it would be needed. Methyl thioacetate could thus be important for the origin of life on Earth and perhaps for better understanding the potential habitability of other planets.

Todd, Zoe; House, C.

2014-01-01

178

Computerized image analysis for acetic acid induced intraepithelial lesions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) exhibits certain morphologic features that can be identified during a visual inspection exam. Immature and dysphasic cervical squamous epithelium turns white after application of acetic acid during the exam. The whitening process occurs visually over several minutes and subjectively discriminates between dysphasic and normal tissue. Digital imaging technologies allow us to assist the physician analyzing the acetic acid induced lesions (acetowhite region) in a fully automatic way. This paper reports a study designed to measure multiple parameters of the acetowhitening process from two images captured with a digital colposcope. One image is captured before the acetic acid application, and the other is captured after the acetic acid application. The spatial change of the acetowhitening is extracted using color and texture information in the post acetic acid image; the temporal change is extracted from the intensity and color changes between the post acetic acid and pre acetic acid images with an automatic alignment. The imaging and data analysis system has been evaluated with a total of 99 human subjects and demonstrate its potential to screening underserved women where access to skilled colposcopists is limited.

Li, Wenjing; Ferris, Daron G.; Lieberman, Rich W.

2008-03-01

179

The Effects of Acetate Buffer Concentration on Lysozyme Solubility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The micro-solubility column technique was employed to systematically investigate the effects of buffer concentration on tetragonal lysozyme solubility. While keeping the NaCl concentrations constant at 2%, 3%, 4%, 5% and 7%, and the pH at 4.0, we have studied the solubility of tetragonal lysozyme over an acetate buffer concentration range of 0.01M to 0.5M as a function of temperature. The lysozyme solubility decreased with increasing acetate concentration from 0.01M to 0.1M. This decrease may simply be due to the net increase in solvent ionic strength. Increasing the acetate concentration beyond 0.1M resulted in an increase in the lysozyme solubility, which reached a peak at - 0.3M acetate concentration. This increase was believed to be due to the increased binding of acetate to the anionic binding sites of lysozyme, preventing their occupation by chloride. In keeping with the previously observed reversal of the Hoffmeister series for effectiveness of anions in crystallizing lysozyme, acetate would be a less effective precipitant than chloride. Further increasing the acetate concentration beyond 0.3M resulted in a subsequent gradual decrease in the lysozyme solubility at all NaCl concentrations.

Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Pusey, Marc L.

1996-01-01

180

76 FR 32366 - Determination That ORLAAM (Levomethadyl Acetate Hydrochloride) Oral Solution, 10 Milligrams...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and...Levomethadyl Acetate Hydrochloride) Oral Solution, 10 Milligrams/Milliliter...acetate hydrochloride (HCl)) oral solution, 10 milligrams (mg...for levomethadyl acetate HCl oral solution, 10 mg/mL, if...

2011-06-06

181

Selective Cross-Coupling of Organic Halides with Allylic Acetates  

PubMed Central

A general protocol for the coupling of haloarenes with a variety of allylic acetates is presented. Strengths of the method are a tolerance for electrophilic (ketone, aldehyde) and acidic (sulfonamide, trifluoroacetamide) substrates and the ability to couple with a variety of substituted allylic acetates. Secondary alkyl bromides can also be allylated under slightly modified conditions, demonstrating the generality of the approach. Finally, the coupling of a reactive vinyl halide could be achieved by the use of a very hindered ligand and more reactive, branched allylic acetates. PMID:23095043

Anka-Lufford, Lukiana L.; Prinsell, Michael R.

2012-01-01

182

Selective cross-coupling of organic halides with allylic acetates.  

PubMed

A general protocol for the coupling of haloarenes with a variety of allylic acetates is presented. Strengths of the method are a tolerance for electrophilic (ketone, aldehyde) and acidic (sulfonamide, trifluoroacetamide) substrates and the ability to couple with a variety of substituted allylic acetates. Secondary alkyl bromides can also be allylated under slightly modified conditions, demonstrating the generality of the approach. Finally, the coupling of a reactive vinyl halide could be achieved by the use of a very hindered ligand and more reactive, branched allylic acetates. PMID:23095043

Anka-Lufford, Lukiana L; Prinsell, Michael R; Weix, Daniel J

2012-11-16

183

Pathways of Anaerobic Acetate Utilization in Escherichia coli and Aerobacter cloacae  

PubMed Central

Acetate-1-14C was added to anaerobic glucose-fermenting cultures of Escherichia coli and Aerobacter cloacae. In the E. coli culture, lactate formation occurred late in the fermentation, when the rate of production of formate and acetate had decreased. The occurrence of acetate label in the lactate indicated formation of pyruvate from acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) and formate. In the A. cloacae cultures, substantial amounts of acetate label were found in the 2,3-butanediol formed. Evidence is presented that the label could have entered the diol only by conversion of formate and acetyl-CoA into pyruvate. The observed levels of radioactivity in the diol indicated that during diol formation the reaction yielding formate and acetyl-CoA from pyruvate CoA was operating close to equilibrium. The shift in metabolism from formation of acetate, ethyl alcohol, and formate to the formation of butanediol or lactate appears to be due basically to an approach to equilibrium of the pyruvate-splitting reaction, whatever the induction mechanism by which the shift is implemented. PMID:4908786

Higgins, Thomas E.; Johnson, Marvin J.

1970-01-01

184

A PROGESTOGEN (CHLORMADINONE ACETATE = CAP) FOR CYCLE CONTROL AND INFERTILITY  

E-print Network

A PROGESTOGEN (CHLORMADINONE ACETATE = CAP) FOR CYCLE CONTROL AND INFERTILITY TREATMENT IN THE MARE, CAP has been used for infertility treatments and cycle control in mares in Austria. In all indications

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

185

SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF WASTEWATERS FROM ACETIC-ACID MANUFACTURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Solvent extraction was evaluated as a potential treatment method for wastewaters generated during the manufacture of acetic acid. Possible goals for an extraction process were considered. For the wastewater samples studied, extraction appeared to be too expensive to be practical ...

186

Porphyria variegata treated with cyproterone acetate and ethinyl estradiol.  

PubMed

The cyclical use of cyproterone acetate and ethinyl estradiol successfully prevented attacks of abdominal pain in a 30-year-old woman suffering from porphyria variegata. Blistering still appeared following light exposure, but possibly to a lesser degree. PMID:6873421

Zachariae, H; Cramers, M

1983-01-01

187

Disposition of eslicarbazepine acetate in the mouse after oral administration.  

PubMed

Eslicarbazepine acetate is a promising antiepileptic drug structurally related to carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine, which is in the final phase of clinical development. The metabolism of eslicarbazepine acetate is clearly species dependent and, in this case, among small laboratory animals, the mouse seems to be the most relevant species to humans. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the plasma, brain and liver disposition of eslicarbazepine acetate in mice to better understand its disposition in humans. Adult male CD-1 mice were treated orally with a single dose of eslicarbazepine acetate 350 mg/kg. Blood samples, brain and liver tissues were taken at 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2, 4, 6, 10, 16 and 24 h post-dose. Plasma and tissue levels of eslicarbazepine acetate and its metabolites (S-licarbazepine, R-licarbazepine and oxcarbazepine) were assessed by using high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection. Both eslicarbazepine acetate and R-licarbazepine concentrations were below the limit of quantification of the assay in all matrices. Eslicarbazepine acetate was rapidly and extensively metabolized to S-licarbazepine (major metabolite), which was oxidized to oxcarbazepine to a small extent. The brain/plasma ratios suggest that the brain exposure to S-licarbazepine and oxcarbazepine was approximately 30% of their total systemic exposure. However, S-licarbazepine crossed the blood-brain barrier (BBB) less efficiently than oxcarbazepine. On the other hand, the liver/plasma ratios support the notion that S-licarbazepine undergoes hepatic accumulation, whereas oxcarbazepine appears to leave this compartment twice as fast as S-licarbazepine. Thus, the diffusion through the BBB is favourable to oxcarbazepine and the liver acts like a deposit of the pharmacologically active metabolite of eslicarbazepine acetate (S-licarbazepine). PMID:18710399

Alves, Gilberto; Figueiredo, Isabel; Castel-Branco, Margarida; Lourenço, Nulita; Falcão, Amílcar; Caramona, Margarida; Soares-da-Silva, Patrício

2008-10-01

188

Acetate transiently inhibits myocardial contraction by increasing mitochondrial calcium uptake.  

PubMed

BackgroundThere is a close relationship between cardiovascular disease and cardiac energy metabolism, and we have previously demonstrated that palmitate inhibits myocyte contraction by increasing Kv channel activity and decreasing the action potential duration. Glucose and long chain fatty acids are the major fuel sources supporting cardiac function; however, cardiac myocytes can utilize a variety of substrates for energy generation, and previous studies demonstrate the acetate is rapidly taken up and oxidized by the heart. In this study, we tested the effects of acetate on contractile function of isolated mouse ventricular myocytes.ResultsAcute exposure of myocytes to 10 mM sodium acetate caused a marked, but transient, decrease in systolic sarcomere shortening (1.49¿±¿0.20% vs. 5.58¿±¿0.49% in control), accompanied by a significant increase in diastolic sarcomere length (1.81¿±¿0.01 ¿m vs. 1.77¿±¿0.01 ¿m in control), with a near linear dose response in the 1¿10 mM range. Unlike palmitate, acetate caused no change in action potential duration; however, acetate markedly increased mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake. Moreover, pretreatment of cells with the mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake blocker, Ru-360 (10 ¿M), markedly suppressed the effect of acetate on contraction.ConclusionsLehninger and others have previously demonstrated that the anions of weak aliphatic acids such as acetate stimulate Ca2+ uptake in isolated mitochondria. Here we show that this effect of acetate appears to extend to isolated cardiac myocytes where it transiently modulates cell contraction. PMID:25488103

Schooley, James F; Namboodiri, Aryan M A; Cox, Rachel T; Bünger, Rolf; Flagg, Thomas P

2014-12-01

189

Acetic acid pulping of wheat straw under atmospheric pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric acetic acid pulping of wheat straw was carried out. Pulping conditions and their effects on pulp properties were\\u000a investigated in detail, and a comparison between acetic acid (AcOH) pulp and soda-anthraquinone (AQ) pulps of wheat straw\\u000a was made of the chemical composition, strength, and fiber morphology of the pulps. Wheat straw was successfully pulped and\\u000a fractionated into pulp (cellulose),

Xue-Jun Pan; Yoshihiro Sano

1999-01-01

190

Microorganisms having enhanced resistance to acetate and methods of use  

SciTech Connect

The present invention provides isolated or genetically modified strains of microorganisms that display enhanced resistance to acetate as a result of increased expression of a sodium proton antiporter. The present invention also provides methods for producing such microbial strains, as well as related promoter sequences and expression vectors. Further, the present invention provides methods of producing alcohol from biomass materials by using microorganisms with enhanced resistance to acetate.

Brown, Steven D; Yang, Shihui

2014-10-21

191

Proteome analysis of Acetobacter pasteurianus during acetic acid fermentation.  

PubMed

Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are Gram-negative, strictly aerobic microorganisms that show a unique resistance to ethanol (EtOH) and acetic acid (AcH). Members of the Acetobacter and Gluconacetobacter genera are capable of transforming EtOH into AcH via the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enzymes and are used for the industrial production of vinegar. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain how AAB resist high concentrations of AcH, such as the assimilation of acetate through the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, the export of acetate by various transporters and modifications of the outer membrane. However, except for a few acetate-specific proteins, little is known about the global proteome responses to AcH. In this study, we used 2D-DIGE to compare the proteome of Acetobacter pasteurianus LMG 1262(T) when growing in glucose or ethanol and in the presence of acetic acid. Interesting protein spots were selected using the ANOVA p-value of 0.05 as threshold and 1.5-fold as the minimal level of differential expression, and a total of 53 proteins were successfully identified. Additionally, the size of AAB was reduced by approximately 30% in length as a consequence of the acidity. A modification in the membrane polysaccharides was also revealed by PATAg specific staining. PMID:22155126

Andrés-Barrao, Cristina; Saad, Maged M; Chappuis, Marie-Louise; Boffa, Mauro; Perret, Xavier; Ortega Pérez, Ruben; Barja, François

2012-03-16

192

Reactivity of some sugars and sugar phosphates towards gold(III) in sodium acetate–acetic acid buffer medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics of the oxidation of some aldoses and aldose phosphates have been studied spectrophotometrically in sodium acetate–acetic acid buffer medium at different temperatures. The reactions are first order with respect to [Au(III)] and [substrate]. Both H+ and Cl? ions retard the reaction. The reactions appear to involve different gold(III) species, viz. AuCl4?, AuCl3(OH2) and AuCl3(OH)?. The results are interpreted

Kalyan Kali Sen Gupta; Biswajit Pal; Bilkis Ara Begum

2001-01-01

193

Tetrazole acetic acid: Tautomers, conformers, and isomerization  

SciTech Connect

Monomers of (tetrazol-5-yl)-acetic acid (TAA) were obtained by sublimation of the crystalline compound and the resulting vapors were isolated in cryogenic nitrogen matrices at 13 K. The conformational and tautomeric composition of TAA in the matrix was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and vibrational calculations carried out at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. TAA may adopt two tautomeric modifications, 1H- and 2H-, depending on the position of the annular hydrogen atom. Two-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs) of TAA were theoretically calculated at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level, for each tautomer. Four and six symmetry-unique minima were located on these PESs, for 1H- and 2H-TAA, respectively. The energetics of the detected minima was subsequently refined by calculations at the QCISD level. Two 1H- and three 2H-conformers fall within the 0–8 kJ mol{sup ?1} energy range and should be appreciably populated at the sublimation temperature (?330 K). Observation of only one conformer for each tautomer (1ccc and 2pcc) is explained in terms of calculated barriers to conformational rearrangements. All conformers with the cis O=COH moiety are separated by low barriers (less than 10 kJ mol{sup ?1}) and collapse to the most stable 1ccc (1H-) and 2pcc (2H-) forms during deposition of the matrix. On the trans O=COH surfaces, the relative energies are very high (between 12 and 27 kJ mol{sup ?1}). The trans forms are not thermally populated at the sublimation conditions and were not detected in matrices. One high-energy form in each tautomer, 1cct (1H-) and 2pct (2H-), was found to differ from the most stable form only by rotation of the OH group and separated from other forms by high barriers. This opened a perspective for their stabilization in a matrix. 1cct and 2pct were generated in the matrices selectively by means of narrow-band near-infrared (NIR) irradiations of the samples at 6920 and 6937 cm{sup ?1}, where the first OH stretching overtone vibrations of 1ccc and 2pcc occur. The reverse transformations could be induced by irradiations at 7010 and 7030 cm{sup ?1}, transforming 1cct and 2pct back to 1ccc and 2pcc, also selectively. Besides the NIR-induced transformations, the photogenerated 1cct and 2pct forms also decay in N{sub 2} matrices back to 1ccc and 2pcc spontaneously, with characteristic decay times of hours (1H) and tens of minutes (2H). The decay mechanism is rationalized in terms of the proton tunneling. In crystals, TAA exists exclusively as 1H-tautomer. By contrast, the tautomeric composition of the matrix-isolated monomers was found to consist of both 1H- and 2H-tautomers, in comparable amounts. A mechanistic discussion of the tautomerization process occurring during sublimation, accounting also for the observed minor decomposition of TAA leading to CO{sub 2} and 5-methyl-tetrazole, is proposed.

Araujo-Andrade, C. [Unidad Académica de Física de la Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Zacatecas (Mexico) [Unidad Académica de Física de la Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Zacatecas (Mexico); Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal); Reva, I., E-mail: reva@qui.uc.pt; Fausto, R. [Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal)

2014-02-14

194

Improved Monitoring of Female Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with Pear Ester Plus Acetic Acid in Sex Pheromone-treated Orchards  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Catch of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), in clear delta traps baited with ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester, PE) and acetic acid (AA) in separate lures (PE+AA) was compared with catch in orange delta traps baited with a single lure containing PE and the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadie...

195

Experimental study of the hydrothermal reactivity of organic acids and acid anions: II. Acetic acid, acetate, and valeric acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic acids and acid anions occur in substantial concentrations in many aqueous geologic fluids and are thought to take part in a variety of geochemical processes ranging from the transport of metals in ore-forming fluids to the formation of natural gas to serving as a metabolic energy source for microbes in subsurface habitats. The widespread occurrence of organic acids and their potential role in diverse geologic processes has led to numerous experimental studies of their thermal stability, yet there remain substantial gaps in our knowledge of the factors that control the rates and reaction pathways for the decomposition of these compounds under geologic conditions. In order to address some of these uncertainties, a series of laboratory experiments were conducted to examine the behavior of organic acids and acid anions under hydrothermal conditions in the presence of minerals. Reported here are results of experiments where aqueous solutions of acetic acid, sodium acetate, or valeric acid ( n-pentanoic acid) were heated at 325°C, 350 bars in the presence of the mineral assemblages hematite + magnetite + pyrite, pyrite + pyrrhotite + magnetite, and hematite + magnetite. The results indicate that aqueous acetic acid and acetate decompose by a combination of two reaction pathways: decarboxylation and oxidation. Both reactions are promoted by minerals, with hematite catalyzing the oxidation reaction while magnetite catalyzes decarboxylation. The oxidation reaction is much faster, so that oxidation dominates the decomposition of acetic acid and acetate when hematite is present. In contrast to previous reports that acetate decomposed more slowly than acetic acid, we found that acetate decomposed at slightly faster rates than the acid in the presence of minerals. Although longer-chain monocarboxylic acids are generally thought to decompose by decarboxylation, valeric acid appeared to decompose primarily by "deformylation" to 1-butene plus formic acid. Subsequent decomposition of 1-butene and formic acid generated a variety of short-chain (?C 4) hydrocarbons and moncarboxylic acids as well as CO 2. Valeric acid decomposition proceeded more rapidly (by a factor of 2) in the presence of hematite-magnetite-pyrite than with the other mineral assemblages, with the greater reaction rate apparently attributable to the effects of fluid chemistry. Valeric acid was observed to decompose at a substantially faster rate than acetic acid under similar conditions. The results suggest that decomposition of aqueous monocarboxylic acids may make a significant contribution to the conversion of petroleum to light hydrocarbons in natural gas and thermal fluids.

McCollom, Thomas M.; Seewald, Jeffrey S.

2003-10-01

196

[Catamenial pneumothorax with breast cancer treated successfully by goserelin acetate].  

PubMed

A 47-year-old woman with 4 episodes of right pneumothorax related to onset of menstruation was reported. A month ago, she was undergone breast conserving resection for breast cancer. She had recurrent right pneumothorax a month later and operation was performed. Thoracoscopy revealed the presence of multiple fenestrations in the right diaphragm. Thoracoscopic partial resection of the diaphragm was performed. Histopathological findings of the lesion showed spindle cells with hemosiderosis. Immunohistochemistry showed that spindle cells were estrogen receptor (ER) positive and progesterone receptor (PgR) positive, compatible with endometriosis. She was treated by tamoxifen and goserelin acetate for breast cancer and endometriosis. Two years later, gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue was converted from goserelin acetate to leuprorelin acetate. She was diagnosed as having recurrence of right pneumothorax 17 months later and was treated with a chest tube. Additionally, GnRH analogue was re-converted to goserelin acetate. Since then, she has been asymptomatic free for 18 months. A catamenial pneumothorax is rare disease with difficulty of diagnosis and treatment We herein report a case of the disease that was treated successfully by goserelin acetate. PMID:19827558

Matsuura, Motoki; Fujiwara, T; Kataoka, K; Itoh, M; Ohtani, S; Higaki, K; Senoo, N

2009-10-01

197

Dodecyl acetate, a second pheromone component of the cabbage looper moth, Trichoplusia ni  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dodecyl acetate was identified as a second component of the sex pheromone ofTrichoplusia ni (Hübner). Dodecyl acetate comprised 9.6% by weight of the total pheromone [(Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate plus dodecyl acetate] extracted from glands and 7.3% by weight of the total pheromone evaporated from the surfaces of glands. Dodecyl acetate appears to function as a short-range pheromone component. Evaporation at female

Louis B. Bjostad; Lyle K. Gaston; Lesly L. Noble; J. Harvey Moyer; H. H. Shorey

1980-01-01

198

[Conversion of acetic acid to methane by thermophiles  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal of this project is to obtain a better understanding of thermophilic microorganisms which convert acetic acid to CH[sub 4]. The previous funding period represents a departure from earlier research in this laboratory, which was more physiological and ecological. The present work is centered on the biochemistry of the thermophile Methanothrix sp. strain CALS-1. this organism presents a unique opportunity, with its purity and relatively rapid growth, to do comparative biochemical studies with the other major acetotrophic genus Methanosarcina. We previously found that Methanothrix is capable of using acetate at concentrations 100 fold lower than Methanosarcina. This finding suggests that there are significant differences in the pathways of methanogenesis from acetate in the two genera.

Zinder, S.H.

1993-01-01

199

Cellulose acetate as solid phase in ELISA for plague.  

PubMed

Antigen from Yersinia pestis was adsorbed on cellulose acetate discs (0.5 cm of diameter) which were obtained from dialysis membrane by using a paper punch. ELISA for human plague diagnosis was carried out employing this matrix and was capable to detect amount of 1.3 microg of antigen, 3,200 times diluted positive serum using human anti-IgG conjugate diluted 1:4,000. No relevant antigen lixiviation from the cellulose acetate was observed even after washing the discs 15 times. The discs were impregnated by the coloured products from the ELISA development allowing its use in dot-ELISA. Furthermore, cellulose acetate showed a better performance than the conventional PVC plates. PMID:10656712

Barbosa, A D; Barros, F S; Callou, E Q; Almeida, A M; Araujo, A M; Azevedo, W M; Carvalho, L B

2000-01-01

200

Distribution of tunnel splittings in Mn(12) acetate.  

PubMed

In magnetic fields applied parallel to the anisotropy axis, the relaxation of the magnetization of Mn(12)-acetate measured for different sweep rates collapses onto a single scaled curve. The form of the scaling implies that the dominant symmetry-breaking process responsible for tunneling is a locally varying second-order transverse anisotropy, forbidden by tetragonal symmetry in the perfect crystal, which gives rise to a broad distribution of tunnel splittings in a real crystal of Mn(12) acetate. Different forms applied to even- and odd-numbered steps provide a clear distinction between even resonances (associated with crystal anisotropy) and odd resonances (which require a transverse magnetic field). PMID:11736425

Mertes, K M; Suzuki, Y; Sarachik, M P; Paltiel, Y; Shtrikman, H; Zeldov, E; Rumberger, E; Hendrickson, D N; Christou, G

2001-11-26

201

[Ice application for reducing pain associated with goserelin acetate injection].  

PubMed

We investigated the effectiveness of using an ice pack for reducing the pain associated with goserelin acetate injection. In this study, 39 patients with prostate cancer and 1 patient with breast cancer receiving hormonal therapy with goserelin acetate were enrolled. All patients completed a questionnaire regarding the use of ice application. We used the numerical rating scale (NRS) to assess the pain associated with injection. The NRS scores indicated that the pain was significantly less with ice application than with the usual method (p < 0.001). Further, ice application could decrease the duration of pain sensation. Ice application at the injection site is safe and effective for reducing pain. PMID:24105059

Ishii, Kaname; Nagata, Chika; Koshizaki, Eiko; Nishiuchi, Satoko

2013-10-01

202

Fate and residues of trenbolone acetate in edible tissues from sheep amd calves implanted with tritium-labeled trenbolone acetate  

SciTech Connect

In order to study the fate and residues of trenbolone acetate in edible tissues, two groups of six animals from two ruminant species (ewes and calves) were implanted with (3H)trenbolone acetate. The distribution of extractable radioactive residues was measured in liver, kidney and muscle. We found that the largest proportion of residues was not extractable and thus was considered as covalently bound residues. The proportion of the main extractable metabolites (17 alpha-trenbolone, trendione, 17 beta-trenbolone) was measured. The evaluation of the distribution of trenbolone acetate metabolites directly soluble in water showed that unknown metabolite(s) were predominant. The covalent binding to nucleic acids was measured. It was so low that it was not detectable. The results are discussed in light of the data presented in the scientific report on anabolic agents in animal production from the European scientific working group.

Evrard, P.; Maghuin-Rogister, G.; Rico, A.G. (Univ. of Liege (Belgium))

1989-06-01

203

Reaction with dioxygen of a Cu(I) complex of 1-benzyl-[3-(2'-pyridyl)]pyrazole triggers ethyl acetate hydrolysis: acetato-/pyrazolato-, dihydroxo- and diacetato-bridged Cu(II) complexes.  

PubMed

A copper(I) compound [(L2)Cu(MeCN)2][ClO4] (1) containing a new bidentate N-donor ligand L2, 1-benzyl-[3-(2'-pyridyl)]pyrazole, derived from the condensation of HL1 [HL1 = 3-(2-pyridyl)pyrazole] and benzyl chloride, has been synthesized. Structural analysis reveals that in the copper(I) centre is coordinated by a pyridine and a pyrazole nitrogen from L2 and two MeCN molecules, providing a distorted tetrahedral geometry. Reaction of with dioxygen in N,N'-dimethylformamide (dmf) at 25 degrees C and subsequent workup with MeCO2Et afforded an acetato-/pyrazolato-bridged polymeric copper(II) compound [(mu-L1)Cu(mu-O2CMe)]n (2). Notably, the deprotonated form of HL(1) and MeCO2- have originated from debenzylation of L2 and hydrolysis of MeCO2Et, respectively. The structural analysis of reveals a near-planar {Cu2(mu-L1)2}2+ core unit in which two adjacent Cu(II) ions are bridged by the deprotonated N,N-bidentate pyridylpyrazole units of two L1 and each such {Cu2(mu-L1)2}2+ unit is bridged by MeCO2- in a monodentate bridging mode [Cu...Cu separations (A): 3.9232(4) pyrazolate bridge; 3.3418(4) acetate bridge], providing a polymeric network. Careful oxygenation of in MeCN led to the isolation of a dihydroxo-bridged dicopper(II) compound [{(L2)Cu(mu-OH)(OClO3)}2] (3). Interestingly, complex brings about hydrolysis of MeCO2Et under mild conditions (dmf, ca. 60 degrees C), generating a bis-mu-1,3-acetato-bridged dicopper(II) complex, [{(L2)Cu(dmf)(mu-O2CMe)}2][ClO4]2.dmf.0.5MeCO2H (4). Compounds and have {Cu2(mu-OH)2}2+ [Cu...Cu separation of 2.8474(9) A] and {Cu2(mu-O2CMe)2}2+ cores [Cu...Cu separation: 3.0988(26) and 3.0792(29) A (two independent molecules in the asymmetric unit)] in which each Cu(II) centre is terminally coordinated by L2. A rationale has been provided for the observed debenzylation of L2 and hydrolysis of MeCO(2)Et. The intramolecular magnetic coupling between the Cu(II) (S = 1/2) ions was found to be ferromagnetic (2J = 82 cm(-1)) in the case of , but antiferromagnetic for (2J = -158 cm(-1)) and (2J = -96 cm(-1)). Absorption and EPR spectroscopic properties of the copper(II) compounds have also been investigated. PMID:16547535

Mukherjee, Jhumpa; Mukherjee, Rabindranath

2006-04-01

204

Synthesis of methyl acetate from syngas via dimethyl ether  

SciTech Connect

Dimethyl ether (DME) can be used as a building block for a variety of specialty chemicals in the petrochemical industry. Its utilization stems mainly from its efficient production from synthesis gas in a single stage. This Liquid Phase Dimethyl Ether (LP-DME) process, based on dual catalysts slurried in inert oil, can alleviate the chemical equilibrium limitation governing the methanol synthesis reaction and concurrently improve once-through syngas conversion and reactor productivity. Studies in the past have focused on using DME as a feedstock for gasoline range hydrocarbons as well as lower olefins. The focus of this investigation is to study the synthesis of methyl acetate, an important intermediate for acetic acid, from dimethyl ether. In particular, conversion of DME to methyl acetate is investigated over a variety of Group VIII metal substituted phosphotungstic acid salts. Key aspects of the process such as the effect of active metal, support types, multiple metal loading, and feed conditions are examined. Thus, this paper introduces a novel process route for synthesis of methyl acetate from natural gas-based syngas via dimethyl ether as an intermediate.

Tartamella, T.; Sardesai, A.; Lanterman, H.B.; Lee, S.

1999-07-01

205

Redox responses in yeast to acetate as the carbon source.  

PubMed

Following a shift to medium with acetate as the carbon source, a parental yeast strain exhibited a transient moderate 20% reduction in total cellular [NAD(+)+NADH] but showed a approximately 10-fold increase in the ratio of [NAD(+)]:[NADH] after 36h. A mutant strain (idhDelta) lacking the tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme isocitrate dehydrogenase had 50% higher cellular levels of [NAD(+)+NADH] relative to the parental strain but exhibited similar changes in cofactor concentrations following a shift to acetate medium, despite an inability to grow on that carbon source; essentially all of the cofactor was in the oxidized form within 36h. The salvage pathway for NAD(H) biosynthesis was found to be particularly important for viability during early transition of the parental strain to stationary phase in acetate medium. However, oxygen consumption was not affected, suggesting that the NAD(H) produced during this time may support other cellular functions. The idhDelta mutant exhibited increased flux through the salvage pathway in acetate medium but was dependent on the de novo pathway for viability. Long-term chronological lifespans of the parental and idhDelta strains were similar, but viability of the mutant strain was dependent on both pathways for NAD(H) biosynthesis. PMID:19138656

Minard, Karyl I; McAlister-Henn, L

2009-03-01

206

THERMOREGULATION IN MICE FOLLOWING ACUTE ADMINISTRATION OF LEAD ACETATE  

EPA Science Inventory

Several reports in the literature suggest a relationship between lead intoxication and thermoregulatory capacity. To investigate the effects of lead on the control of body temperature, mice of the BALB/c strain were injected intraperitoneally with lead acetate (0 to 100 mg/kg) wh...

207

Effects of nitrophenols on acetate utilizing methanogenic systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrophenols are widely used for manufacturing explosives, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, pigments, dyes, etc. A literature research shows that there is a lack of quantitative information on the effects of nitrophenols on anaerobic systems. The objective of this research was to study the toxic effects of nitrophenols on acetate enrichment, methanogenic systems. Anaerobic toxicity assays were performed with batch serum bottles. Results

Mohammad R. Haghighi Podeh; Sanjoy K. Bhattacharya; Mingbo Qu

1995-01-01

208

Computerized image analysis for acetic acid induced intraepithelial lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) exhibits certain morphologic features that can be identified during a visual inspection exam. Immature and dysphasic cervical squamous epithelium turns white after application of acetic acid during the exam. The whitening process occurs visually over several minutes and subjectively discriminates between dysphasic and normal tissue. Digital imaging technologies allow us to assist the physician analyzing the

Wenjing Li; Daron G. Ferris; Rich W. Lieberman

2008-01-01

209

Condensation of acetol and acetic acid vapor with sprayed liquid  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A cellulose-derived fraction of biomass pyrolysis vapor was simulated by evaporating acetol and acetic acid (AA) from flasks on a hot plate. The liquid in the flasks was infused with heated nitrogen. The vapor/nitrogen stream was superheated in a tube oven and condensed by contact with a cloud of ...

210

Intrinsic hydration of monopositive uranyl hydroxide, nitrate, and acetate cations.  

PubMed

The intrinsic hydration of three monopositive uranyl-anion complexes (UO(2)A)(+) (where A = acetate, nitrate, or hydroxide) was investigated using ion-trap mass spectrometry (IT-MS). The relative rates for the formation of the monohydrates [(UO(2)A)(H(2)O)](+), with respect to the anion, followed the trend: Acetate > or = nitrate > hydroxide. This finding was rationalized in terms of the donation of electron density by the strongly basic OH(-) to the uranyl metal center, thereby reducing the Lewis acidity of U and its propensity to react with incoming nucleophiles, viz., H(2)O. An alternative explanation is that the more complex acetate and nitrate anions provide increased degrees of freedom that could accommodate excess energy from the hydration reaction. The monohydrates also reacted with water, forming dihydrates and then trihydrates. The rates for formation of the nitrate and acetate dihydrates [(UO(2)A)(H(2)O)(2)](+) were very similar to the rates for formation of the monohydrates; the presence of the first H(2)O ligand had no influence on the addition of the second. In contrast, formation of the [(UO(2)OH)(H(2)O)(2)](+) was nearly three times faster than the formation of the monohydrate. PMID:15144967

Chien, Winnie; Anbalagan, Victor; Zandler, Melvin; Van Stipdonk, Michael; Hanna, Dorothy; Gresham, Garold; Groenewold, Gary

2004-06-01

211

40 CFR 180.595 - Flufenpyr-ethyl; tolerances for residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...General. (1) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide, flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, [2-chloro-4-fluoro-5...01 (2) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid,...

2010-07-01

212

40 CFR 180.595 - Flufenpyr-ethyl; tolerances for residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...General. (1) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide, flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, [2-chloro-4-fluoro-5...01 (2) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid,...

2011-07-01

213

40 CFR 180.595 - Flufenpyr-ethyl; tolerances for residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...General. (1) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide, flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, [2-chloro-4-fluoro-5...01 (2) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid,...

2013-07-01

214

[Metabolism of C(14)-acetate by some trematodes  

PubMed

The adult trematodes, Fasciola hepatica, Eurytrema pancreaticum and Paramphistomum cervi, employed in this experiment were obtained from the cattle slaughtered at the local abbatoir. The worms selected and washed several times in normal sterilized saline solution. Each about ten of intact F. hepatica, fourty of E. pancreaticum, and twenty of P. cervi were incubated in 50 cc volume of special incubation flasks with incubation medium consisting of 10 cc. of Krebs-Ringer phosphate buffer(pH 7.4) The incubation medium was added C(14)-1-acetate and non-radioactive carrier Na-acetate so as to contain acetate concentration of 50 mg per cent. The worms were allowed to incubate for 5 hours in the Dubnoff metabolic shaking incubator at 38 degrees C. After incubation period, respiratory CO2 samples from central well of incubation flask were analysed for total CO2 production rate and their specific activity of respiratory CO2. The lactate and pyruvate appearance rates were determined by analyzing the lactate and pyruvate concentration in a medium after incubation. The glycogen samples isolated from worms were analyzed for the tissue concentration and their radioactivities in order to determine the turnover rate of glycogen pool. Radioactivities of these series of experiments were counted by an endwindow Geiger-Muller counter as an infinitely thin samples. The quantitative analysis of C(14)-acetate utilized by F. hepatica, E. pancreaticum and P. cervi were compared and discussed in this report. According to these data of the experiment, it is suggested that the fatty acid such as acetate may play a part of their oxidative process into the respiratory CO2 and the synthetic process into glycogen in the above species of trematodes. PMID:12913583

Seo, Byong Seol; Rim, Han Jong; Min, Yong Ok; Rhee, Sang Don; Lee, Tong Hoon; Yun, Myong Soon

1965-12-01

215

The Key to Acetate: Metabolic Fluxes of Acetic Acid Bacteria under Cocoa Pulp Fermentation-Simulating Conditions  

PubMed Central

Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) play an important role during cocoa fermentation, as their main product, acetate, is a major driver for the development of the desired cocoa flavors. Here, we investigated the specialized metabolism of these bacteria under cocoa pulp fermentation-simulating conditions. A carefully designed combination of parallel 13C isotope labeling experiments allowed the elucidation of intracellular fluxes in the complex environment of cocoa pulp, when lactate and ethanol were included as primary substrates among undefined ingredients. We demonstrate that AAB exhibit a functionally separated metabolism during coconsumption of two-carbon and three-carbon substrates. Acetate is almost exclusively derived from ethanol, while lactate serves for the formation of acetoin and biomass building blocks. Although this is suboptimal for cellular energetics, this allows maximized growth and conversion rates. The functional separation results from a lack of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and malic enzymes, typically present in bacteria to interconnect metabolism. In fact, gluconeogenesis is driven by pyruvate phosphate dikinase. Consequently, a balanced ratio of lactate and ethanol is important for the optimum performance of AAB. As lactate and ethanol are individually supplied by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts during the initial phase of cocoa fermentation, respectively, this underlines the importance of a well-balanced microbial consortium for a successful fermentation process. Indeed, AAB performed the best and produced the largest amounts of acetate in mixed culture experiments when lactic acid bacteria and yeasts were both present. PMID:24837393

Adler, Philipp; Frey, Lasse Jannis; Berger, Antje; Bolten, Christoph Josef; Hansen, Carl Erik

2014-01-01

216

Water requirements of the rayon- and acetate-fiber industry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water is required for several purposes in the manufacture of rayon and acetate fiber. These water requirements, as indicated by a survey of the water used by the plants operating in 1953, are both quantitative and qualitative. About 300 mgd (million gallons per day) of water was used in 1953 in the preparation of purified wood cellulose and cotton linters, the basic material from which the rayon and acetate fiber is made. An additional 620 mgd was used in the process of converting the cellulose to rayon and acetate fiber. The total, 920 mgd, is about 1 percent of the total estimated withdrawals of industrial water in the United States in 1953. The rayon- and acetate-fiber plants are scattered through eastern United States and generally are located in small towns or rural areas where there are abundant supplies of clean, soft water. Water use at a typical rayon-fiber plant was about 9 mgd, and at a typical acetate-fiber plant about 38 mgd. About 110 gallons of water was used to produce a pound of rayon fiber, 32 gallons per pound was process water and the remainder was used largely for cooling in connection with power production and air conditioning. For the manufacture of a pound of acetate fiber about 170 gallons of water was used. However, the field survey on which this report is based indicated a wide range in the amount of water used per pound of product. For example, in the manufacture of viscose rayon, the maximum unit water use was 8 times the minimum unit water use. Water use in summer was about 22 percent greater than average annual use. About 8 mgd Of water was consumed by evaporation in the manufacture of rayon and acetate fiber. More than 90 percent of the water used by the rayon and acetate industry was with- drawn from surface-water sources, about 8 percent from ground water, and less than 2 percent from municipal water supplies. All available analyses of the untreated waters used by the rayon and acetate industry were collected and studied. The untreated waters were generally cool, low in content of calcium and magnesium, and very low in iron and manganese. At many plants, water was obtained from more than one source, and thus had different quality characteristics. Dissolved solids in all the untreated waters analyzed ranged between 14 and 747 ppm (parts per million) but in those waters used in processing the dissolved solids content was less than 200 ppm. The cooling water used by the industry is also generally of very high quality, principally because the requirements for a high-quality process water necessitate location of the plants in areas where such water is available.

Mussey, Orville Durey

1957-01-01

217

21 CFR 524.1204 - Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate...524.1204 Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate. (a) Specifications. (1) Calcium amphomycin is the calcium salt...

2011-04-01

218

21 CFR 524.1204 - Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate...524.1204 Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate. (a) Specifications. (1) Calcium amphomycin is the calcium salt...

2012-04-01

219

21 CFR 524.1204 - Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate...524.1204 Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate. (a) Specifications. (1) Calcium amphomycin is the calcium salt...

2013-04-01

220

21 CFR 177.1360 - Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers.  

...conditions: (a) Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers are produced by the partial or complete alcoholysis or hydrolysis of those ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers complying with § 177.1350. (1) Those copolymers containing a...

2014-04-01

221

21 CFR 177.1360 - Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...conditions: (a) Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers are produced by the partial or complete alcoholysis or hydrolysis of those ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers complying with § 177.1350. (1) Those copolymers containing a...

2011-04-01

222

21 CFR 177.1360 - Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...conditions: (a) Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers are produced by the partial or complete alcoholysis or hydrolysis of those ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers complying with § 177.1350. (1) Those copolymers containing a...

2013-04-01

223

21 CFR 177.1360 - Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...conditions: (a) Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers are produced by the partial or complete alcoholysis or hydrolysis of those ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers complying with § 177.1350. (1) Those copolymers containing a...

2012-04-01

224

21 CFR 524.1881 - Prednisolone acetate ophthalmic and topical dosage forms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Prednisolone acetate ophthalmic and topical dosage forms. 524.1881 Section...AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1881 Prednisolone acetate ophthalmic and topical dosage...

2010-04-01

225

21 CFR 524.1881 - Prednisolone acetate ophthalmic and topical dosage forms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Prednisolone acetate ophthalmic and topical dosage forms. 524.1881 Section...AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1881 Prednisolone acetate ophthalmic and topical dosage...

2012-04-01

226

21 CFR 524.1881 - Prednisolone acetate ophthalmic and topical dosage forms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Prednisolone acetate ophthalmic and topical dosage forms. 524.1881 Section...AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1881 Prednisolone acetate ophthalmic and topical dosage...

2011-04-01

227

21 CFR 524.1881 - Prednisolone acetate ophthalmic and topical dosage forms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Prednisolone acetate ophthalmic and topical dosage forms. 524.1881 Section...AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1881 Prednisolone acetate ophthalmic and topical dosage...

2013-04-01

228

Acid and base catalyzed intramolecular cyclizations of N-benzoylthiocarbamoyl-acetals.  

PubMed

Acid and base catalyzed intramolecular cyclizations of N-benzoylthioureidoacetal, containing four functional groups adjacent to thiourea such as benzocarbamoyl, acetal, thioure and amide, were investigated. The condensation reaction of N-benzoyl thiocarbamoylglycine amide in the presence of 10% aqueous NaOH provided 1-(2,2-dimethoxy)ethyl-imidazolidine-2-thione exclusively. In the presence of pyridine, it was transformed to 2-thiohydantoin. N-Benzoyl thiocarbamoyl glycine amide was completely transformed to an iminothiazolidine exclusively in the presence of Lewis acid such as borontrifluoride etherate or trimethylsilyl iodide. 1-(2,2-Dimethoxy)ethyl-imidazolidine-2-thione was transformed to imidazole[2,1-b]thiazole and pyrazino[5,1-a]imidazole in the presence of BF3.Et2O and formic acid, respectively. PMID:10836733

Lee, B; Kim, C; Lee, J W

2000-04-01

229

Growth and characterization of pure and doped cadmium thiourea acetate single crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pure and doped (zinc acetate, N-methylurea and glycine) cadmium thiourea acetate single crystals were grown by slow evaporation solution growth method. The UV–visible, high-resolution X-ray diffraction and dielectric studies show the enhancement in the crystalline perfection of the glycine-doped cadmium thiourea acetate. The zinc acetate does not have significant effect on the structural and chemical properties, but has some effect

S. Shahil Kirupavathy; S. Stella Mary; P. Mythili; R. Gopalakrishnan

2008-01-01

230

Advantages of Zr 705 in the acetic acid industry  

SciTech Connect

Zirconium 705 (Zr + 2--3% niobium) is finding its way into more acetic acid plants as a replacement for Zirconium 702 (unalloyed Zr). The alloy was first proposed for the Chemical Process Industry (CPI) use in the early 1970s, but has not found wide spread use because of a few problems early in its history. Research revealed that the problems encountered were related to delayed hydride cracking (DHC). However, proper processing of the alloy after welding produces components free of DHC. The main advantage of Zirconium 705 (Zr 705) as compared to Zirconium 702 (Zr 702) is higher tensile and yield strengths. This allows pressure containing components to be rated at higher pressures which can increase plant efficiencies or they can be fabricated with thinner wall sections, thus reducing equipment cost. These advantages of Zr 705 will be reviewed as well as actual plant history of the alloy in acetic acid services.

Bird, K.W. [Teledyne Wah Chang, Albany, OR (United States); Breig, P.G.; Spence, T.C. [Duriron Company, Inc., Dayton, OH (United States)

1995-10-01

231

A freshwater anaerobe coupling acetate oxidation to tetrachloroethylene dehalogenation.  

PubMed Central

Strain TT4B has been isolated from anaerobic sediments known to be contaminated with a variety of organic solvents. It is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium and grew anaerobically with acetate as the electron donor and tetrachloroethylene as the electron acceptor in a mineral medium. cis-Dichloroethylene was the halogenated product. This strain did not grow fermentatively and used only acetate or pyruvate as electron donors. Tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene were used as electron acceptors, as were ferric nitriloacetate and fumarate. Nitrogen and sulfur oxyanions were not able to substitute as the electron acceptor for this organism. Modest growth occurred in a two-phase system with 1 ml of hexadecane containing 50 to 200 mM tetrachloroethylene (aqueous concentrations, 25 to 100 microM) and 10 ml of anaerobic mineral solution with Na2S as the reducing agent. Growth was completely inhibited at tetrachloroethylene levels above 100 microM. PMID:8900001

Krumholz, L R; Sharp, R; Fishbain, S S

1996-01-01

232

Electrospun cellulose acetate-garnet nanocomposite magnetic fibers for bioseparations.  

PubMed

Cellulose acetate fibers with magnetic properties have recently attracted much attention because of their potential novel applications in biomedicine such as for cell and protein separations, magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents, and magnetic filters. In this work, as synthesized yttrium iron garnet and gadolinium substituted yttrium iron garnet nanoparticles have been used to generate magnetic filter paper. Garnet nanoparticles dispersed in cellulose acetate polymer solutions were electrospun as free-standing nonwoven fiber mats as well as on cellulose filter paper substrates resulting in magnetic filter papers. The magnetic fibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetic property measurements. The resulting magnetic polymer nanocomposites can be easily picked up by an external magnet from a liquid medium. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled bovine serum albumin (BSA) was separated from solution by using the magnetic filter paper. PMID:24341636

Munaweera, Imalka; Aliev, Ali; Balkus, Kenneth J

2014-01-01

233

Electrochemical behavior of graphite in electrolyte of sulfuric and acetic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrochemical formation of graphite intercalation compounds (GICs) has been studied in the electrolyte with mixed sulfuric acid and acetic acid. The results show that, with addition of acetic acid, GICs can be synthesized in the electrolyte with sulfuric acid concentration as low as 3.6M, even though no GIC is formed in pure acetic acid. The stage structure of the synthesized

F. Kang; T.-Y. Zhang; Y. Leng

1997-01-01

234

EVALUATION OF NATURAL SOURCE VITAMIN E, RRR--TOCOPHERYL ACETATE, AS AN ALTERNATIVE MICRONUTRIENT SOURCE AND  

E-print Network

EVALUATION OF NATURAL SOURCE VITAMIN E, RRR--TOCOPHERYL ACETATE, AS AN ALTERNATIVE MICRONUTRIENT APPROVAL EVALUATION OF NATURAL SOURCE VITAMIN E, RRR--TOCOPHERYL ACETATE, AS AN ALTERNATIVE MICRONUTRIENT: Evaluation of Natural Source Vitamin E, RRR--Tocopheryl Acetate, as an Alternative Micronutrient Source

235

A prospective randomized study of megestrol acetate and ibuprofen in gastrointestinal cancer patients with weight loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of megestrol acetate in the treatment of weight loss in gastrointestinal cancer patients has been disappointing. The aim of the present study was to compare the combination of megestrol acetate and placebo with megestrol acetate and ibuprofen in the treatment of weight loss in such patients. At baseline, 4–6 weeks and 12 weeks, patients underwent measurements of anthropometry,

D C McMillan; S J Wigmore; K C H Wigmore; P O’Gorman; C E Wright; C S McArdle

1999-01-01

236

Direct Determination of Citric Acid in Milk with an Improved Pyridine-Acetic Anhydride Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The determination of citric acid with pyridine and acetic anhydride has been in- vestigated at reaction temperatures from 17 to 60 ° C. The optimum proportions of pyridine, acetic anhydride, water, and acetic acid for maximum color intensity and stability are given for each temperature. The procedure has been modified to eliminate the violent nature of the reaction, even

J. R. Marier; M. Boulet

1958-01-01

237

Separation of acetic acid-water mixtures by pervaporation through silicalite membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycrystalline silicalite membranes were prepared on two kinds of porous supports by hydrothermal synthesis. The pervaporation performance of the silicalite membrane obtained was investigated using an acetic acid-water mixture as a feed. The silicalite membrane on the sintered stainless steel support selectively permeates acetic acid in the concentration of the feed acetic acid in the region of 5 to 40

Tsuneji Sano; Shigeyuki Ejiri; Kiyoshi Yamada; Yusuke Kawakami; Hiroshi Yanagishita

1997-01-01

238

Synthesis and Decarboxylative Coupling of Sulfonyl Acetic Esters  

E-print Network

allylic alkylation is possible. A significant volume of work has been done utilizing these allyl acetates and much progress has been made in the field of asymmetric synthesis. 14 Once the palladium has erased the stereochemical history of the allyl... for productive reaction. Within this limitation a wealth of chemistry has been developed, however, we felt it would be desirable to expand the limits of DCA. While it is unlikely that decarboxylative allylation involving unstabilized alkyl anions will ever...

Weaver, Jimmie Dean

2010-04-28

239

Effect of lead acetate toxicity on experimental male albino rat  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the effect of different doses of lead acetate (1/20, 1/40 and 1/60 of LD50) on body weight gain, blood picture, plasma protein profile and the function of liver, kidney and thyroid gland. Methods Male albino rats were divided into four groups, the first group represented the health control animals, while the second, third and fourth groups were ingested orally with sub lethal doses of lead acetate (1/20, 1/40 and 1/60) of the oral LD50, respectively. One dose was ingested every two days during the experimental period (14 weeks) including the adaptation time. Blood was collected and used for all analysis. Results The results showed that, the ingestion of Pb2+ induced significant stimulation in glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (ALT) and glutamic-oxalacetic transaminease (AST) activity. Also, total soluble protein and albumin contents of plasma were significantly decreased, while the content of globulin was changed by the Pb2+ treatments. The cholinesterase activity was inhibited, but the activities of alkaline and acid phosphates and lactate dehydrogenase were stimulated, while plasma glucose level was elevated as a result of lead acetate intoxication. In case of blood picture, Pb2+ ingestion reduced the contents of hemoglobin and RBCs count of intoxicated rat's blood and the plasma levels of T3, T4 and blood WBCs count were decreased. Conclusions It can be concluded that lead acetate has harmful effect on experimental male albino rats. Therefore, the present work advises people to prevent exposure to the lead compound to avoid injurious hazard risk. PMID:23569832

Ibrahim, Nabil M; Eweis, Esam A; El-Beltagi, Hossam S; Abdel-Mobdy, Yasmin E

2012-01-01

240

4-Chloroindole-3-acetic acid and plant growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

4-Chloroindole-3-acetic acid (4-Cl-IAA) is a potent auxin in various auxin bioassays. Researchers have used 4-Cl-IAA as well as other halogenated auxins in biological assays to understand the structural features of auxins required to induce auxin mediated growth in plants. 4-Cl-IAA is a naturally occurring auxin in plants from the Vicieae tribe of the Fabaceae family; and 4-Cl-IAA has also been

Dennis M. Reinecke

1999-01-01

241

Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulosic biomass to acetic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Astrain of Clostridium thermoaceticum (ATCC 49707) was evaluated for its homoacetate potential. This thermophilic anaerobe best produces acetate from glucose at\\u000a pH 6.0 and 59°C with a yield of 83% of theoretical. Enzyme hydrolysis of two substrates, a-cellulose and a pulp mill sludge,\\u000a yielded 68% and 70% digestion, respectively. The optimum conditions for the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation\\u000a (SSF) were

Jacob R. Borden; Youn Y. Lee; Hyon-Hee Yoon

2000-01-01

242

Preparation of poly(vinyl formal) of high acetalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) can be dissolved in a non-aqueous medium in the presence of catalytic concentrations of C2H5ONO2.DMSO(EN.DMSO). Poly(vinyl formal) (PVF) of 90% acetalization was prepared by acid catalysed homogeneous formalization of PVA of molecular weight 14 000 with paraformaldehyde. The formation of the formal was confirmed from the i.r. and 1H n.m.r. spectra. The molecular weight of the polymer

P. Chetri; N. N. Dass

1997-01-01

243

Dehydration of acetic acid by pervaporation with charged membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modified Nafion membranes were prepared by charging Nafion 117 membrane with different long-chained counter ions and used for pervaporation of acetic acid–water mixture. It was observed, that the selectivity of Nafion membrane was enhanced by charging with long-chained counter ions. However, it led to a decrease in permeate flux because of decreasing solubility and diffusivity of the membranes. The results

Samuel P. Kusumocahyo; Masao Sudoh

1999-01-01

244

Fire retardant mechanism in intumescent ethylene vinyl acetate compositions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal and combustion behaviour of an intumescent fire retardant system based on Polyamide 6 (PA6) and Ammonium Polyphosphate (APP), used to improve flame retardant properties of poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA), loaded with Mg(OH)2 (MH) was examined. The study of the interactions between the additives introduced in EVA was focused in particular on the MH-APP interaction. The evolution of water from

A. Riva; G. Camino; L. Fomperie; P. Amigouët

2003-01-01

245

Mode of Action of the Antibacterial Compound Dequalinium Acetate  

PubMed Central

Dequalinium acetate is taken up rapidly by bacterial cells. Unlike the membrane-active drugs exemplified by cetrimide or chlorhexidine, its capacity for damaging the plasma membrane is low. The drug appears to penetrate quite rapidly into the cytoplasm where its effect seems to be exerted. A review of the evidence obtained in this study suggests that nucleic acid-containing components of the cell may be the prime target of this compound. PMID:4975451

Hugo, W. B.; Frier, M.

1969-01-01

246

Fractionation of wheat straw by atmospheric acetic acid process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fractionation of wheat straw was investigated using an atmospheric acetic acid process. Under the typical conditions of 90% (v\\/v) aqueous AcOH, 4% H2SO4 (w\\/w, on straw), ratio of liquor to straw (L\\/S) 10 (v\\/w), pulping temperature 105°C, and pulping time 3h, wheat straw was fractionated to pulp (cellulose), lignin and monosaccharides mainly from hemicellulose with yields of approximately 50%, 15%

Xuejun Pan; Yoshihiro Sano

2005-01-01

247

Comparative study of uptake and cellular distribution of Hg²°³-labeled phenyl-mercuric acetate and mercuric acetate by pea roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uptake and cellular distribution of mercury²°³ from dilute mercuric acetate of phenylmercuric acetate solutions by excised pea roots (Pisum sativum) have been investigated. The time course of uptake showed that the amount of mercury uptake was increased with the time of incubation, and was similar for inorganic mercury or phenylmercuric acetate. The trend of mercury²°³ incorporation into cellular components from

A. V. Rao; E. Fallin; S. C. Fang

1966-01-01

248

Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulosic biomass to acetic acid.  

PubMed

A strain of Clostridium thermoaceticum (ATCC 49707) was evaluated for its homoacetate potential. This thermophilic anaerobe best produces acetate from glucose at pH 6.0 and 59 degrees C with a yield of 83% of theoretical. Enzyme hydrolysis of two substrates, a-cellulose and a pulp mill sludge, yielded 68% and 70% digestion, respectively. The optimum conditions for the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) were substrate dependent: 55 degrees C, pH 6.0 for alpha-cellulose, and 55 degrees C, pH 5.5 for the pulp mill sludge. In the SSF with alpha-cellulose, the overall yield of acetate was strongly influenced by the enzyme loading. In a fed-batch operation of SSF with alpha-cellulose, an overall acetic acid yield of 60 wt% was obtained. Among the factors limiting the yields were incomplete digestion by the enzyme and the end-product inhibition. In the SSF of pulp mill sludge, inhibitors present in the sludge severely limited bacterial action. A large accumulation of glucose developed over the entire process, changing the intended SSF operation into a separate hydrolysis and fermentation operation. Despite a long lag phase of microbial growth, a terminal yield of 85% was obtained with this substrate. PMID:10849850

Borden, J R; Lee, Y Y; Yoon, H H

2000-01-01

249

Miscibility and dynamical properties of cellulose acetate/plasticizer systems.  

PubMed

Due to its biodegradability and renewability, a great interest has been devoted to investigating cellulose acetate in order to expand its potential applications. In addition, secondary cellulose acetate (CDA) could also be considered as a model system for strongly polar polymer system. The dynamical behavior of CDA is supposed to be governed by H-bonding and dipolar interaction network. Due to their high glass transition temperature, cellulose acetate-based systems are processed when blended with plasticizers. It is thus of utmost importance to study the miscibility and plasticizing effects of various molecules. We prepared CDA films via solvent casting method with diethyl phthalate as the plasticizer. Miscibility diagrams were established by calorimetry and thermo-mechanical (DMTA) experiments. Dynamical properties were analyzed by DMTA and broadband dielectric spectroscopy. We could identify the ?-relaxation of these CDA-plasticizer systems in the frequency range from 0.06Hz to 10(6)Hz, which allowed for describing the dynamics in the so-called Williams-Landel-Ferry/Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann regime. PMID:25458277

Bao, Cong Yu; Long, Didier R; Vergelati, Caroll

2015-02-13

250

Inhibition of C4 photosynthesis by (benzamidooxy)acetic acid.  

PubMed

(Benzamidooxy)acetic acid (common name benzadox) which has herbicidal properties was evaluated as a potential inhibitor of photosynthesis in C4 plants. Among enzymes of the C4 pathway, it was a relatively strong inhibitor of alanine aminotransferase in in vitro experiments at concentrations of 5mM. In benzadox treated leaves of Panicum miliaceum, a NAD-malic enzyme type C4 species, there was strong inhibition of both alanine and aspartate aminotransferase and of photosynthetic O2 evolution within one hour. Consistent with the inhibition of these enzymes of the C4 cycle, the pool sizes of metabolites of the cycle was altered: the aspartate level was increased two fold, while the levels of other metabolites such as pyruvate, alanine, oxalacetate and malate were decreased. Kinetic studies with partially purified alanine aminotransferase showed that benzadox is a competitive inhibitor with respect to alanine and a noncompetitive inhibitor with respect to 2-oxoglutarate. Comparisons between the structures and inhibitory actions of benzadox and (aminooxy)acetic acid, the latter a potent inhibitor of alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, suggest that in vivo, benzadox may exert its effect through metabolism to (aminooxy)acetic acid. PMID:24458342

Nakamoto, H; Ku, M S; Edwards, G E

1982-12-01

251

Total Synthesis of Acetate from CO2 V. Determination by Mass Analysis of the Different Types of Acetate Formed from 13CO2 by Heterotrophic Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Mass analysis was used to determine the amount of acetate which is totally synthesized from 13CO2 during fermentations by Clostridium formicoaceticum, C. acidiurici, C. cylindrosporum, Butyribacterium rettgeri, and Diplococcus glycinophilus. In the fermentation of fructose by C. formicoaceticum, 27% of the acetate was found to be totally synthesized from CO2, and the remaining acetate was unlabeled, having been formed from fructose. Evidence is presented that the purine-fermenting organisms, C. acidiurici and C. cylindrosporum, totally synthesized about 9% of the acetate from CO2, and that the methyl group of an additional 9% was formed from CO2. The remaining acetate was formed from the carbons of the purine and not via CO2. It has been postulated that the fermentation of the purines and synthesis of acetate from CO2 both occur via derivatives of tetrahydrofolate. Evidence is presented that a compartmentalization of these folate intermediates is required if both the purine degradation and the CO2 utilization involve identical intermediates. Neither B. rettgeri nor D. glycinophilus incorporated sufficient 13CO2 into acetate to allow determination of the types of acetate by mass analysis, although they did incorporate labeled 14CO2 in both positions of acetate. PMID:5058447

Schulman, Marvin; Parker, Donald; Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Wood, Harland G.

1972-01-01

252

Cellulose acetate graft copolymers with nano-structured architectures: Application to the purification of bio-fuels by pervaporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Europe, ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) is currently considered as one of the most promising bio-fuels when it is obtained from bio-ethanol. Nevertheless, its industrial synthesis process leads to an azeotropic mixture containing 20wt% of ethanol which has to be removed for fuel applications. In this work, new graft copolymers cellulose acetate-g-poly(methyl diethylene glycol methacrylate) are considered for the purification

M. Billy; A. Ranzani Da Costa; P. Lochon; R. Clément; M. Dresch; A. Jonquières

2010-01-01

253

Reactivity of some sugars and sugar phosphates towards gold(III) in sodium acetate-acetic acid buffer medium.  

PubMed

The kinetics of the oxidation of some aldoses and aldose phosphates have been studied spectrophotometrically in sodium acetate-acetic acid buffer medium at different temperatures. The reactions are first order with respect to [Au(III)] and [substrate]. Both H+ and Cl- ions retard the reaction. The reactions appear to involve different gold(III) species, viz. AuCl4-, AuCl3(OH2) and AuCl3(OH)- . The results are interpreted in terms of the probable intermediate formation of free radicals and Au(II). Aldoses react with gold(III) in the order: triose > tetrose > pentose > hexose. The sugar phosphates react with gold(III) at a faster rate than the parent sugars except glucose-1-phosphate, which reacts at slower rates than glucose. A tentative reaction mechanism leading to the formation of products has been suggested. PMID:11217954

Sen Gupta, K K; Pal, B; Begum, B A

2001-01-15

254

Growth and characterization of pure and doped cadmium thiourea acetate single crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pure and doped (zinc acetate, N-methylurea and glycine) cadmium thiourea acetate single crystals were grown by slow evaporation solution growth method. The UV-visible, high-resolution X-ray diffraction and dielectric studies show the enhancement in the crystalline perfection of the glycine-doped cadmium thiourea acetate. The zinc acetate does not have significant effect on the structural and chemical properties, but has some effect on the electrical properties. However, the addition of N-methylurea activates the cadmium thiourea acetate ions, resulting in the decrease of the space charge polarization and increase in intrinsic defects.

Shahil Kirupavathy, S.; Stella Mary, S.; Mythili, P.; Gopalakrishnan, R.

2008-05-01

255

Acetate/acetyl-CoA metabolism associated with cancer fatty acid synthesis: overview and application.  

PubMed

Understanding cancer-specific metabolism is important for identifying novel targets for cancer diagnosis and therapy. Induced acetate/acetyl CoA metabolism is a notable feature that is related to fatty acid synthesis supporting tumor growth. In this review, we focused on the recent findings related to cancer acetate/acetyl CoA metabolism. We also introduce [1-¹¹C]acetate positron emission tomography (PET), which is a useful tool to visualize up-regulation of acetate/acetyl CoA metabolism in cancer, and discuss the utility of [1-¹¹C]acetate PET in cancer diagnosis and its application to personalized medicine. PMID:24569091

Yoshii, Yukie; Furukawa, Takako; Saga, Tsuneo; Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa

2015-01-28

256

Control of diauxic growth of Azotobacter vinelandii on acetate and glucose.  

PubMed Central

Batch cultures of Azotobacter vinelandii were inoculated with cells pregrown on either acetate or glucose. When they were subsequently grown on a mixture of acetate and glucose, typical diauxic growth was observed, with preferential uptake of acetate in the first and glucose in the second phase of growth. Extracts from acetate-pregrown cells exhibited high acetate kinase activity in the first phase of growth. This activity decreased and activities of the two glucose enzymes glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase increased in the second phase. Extracts from glucose-pregrown cells exhibited high initial activities of the two glucose enzymes, which decreased while acetate kinase activity increased in the first phase of growth. Again, in the second phase, activities of the two glucose enzymes increased and acetate kinase activity decreased. In any case, isocitrate dehydrogenase activity varied only slightly and unspecifically. The differences in enzyme activity and the constancy of isocitrate dehydrogenase were confirmed by experiments with either acetate- or glucose-limited chemostats. In chemostats in which both of the substrates were limiting, all of the enzymes displayed significant activities. Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity was inhibited by acetyl coenzyme A and acetyl phosphate but not by acetate. It is proposed that diauxic growth is based on the control of enzymes involved in acetate or glucose dissimilation by which acetate or its metabolites control the expression and activity of glucose enzymes. PMID:2228968

Tauchert, K; Jahn, A; Oelze, J

1990-01-01

257

Gas Cluster Ion Beam Etching under Acetic Acid Vapor for Etch-Resistant Material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas cluster ion beam (GCIB) etching of etch-resistant materials under acetic acid vapor was studied for development of new manufacturing process of future nonvolatile memory. Etching depths of various etch-resistant materials (Pt, Ru, Ta, CoFe) with acetic acid vapor during O2-GCIB irradiations were 1.8-10.7 times higher than those without acetic acid. Also, etching depths of Ru, Ta, CoFe by Ar-GCIB with acetic acid vapor were 2.2-16.1 times higher than those without acetic acid. Even after etching of Pt, smoothing of Pt was realized using O2-GCIB under acetic acid. From XPS and angular distribution of sputtered Pt, it was shown that PtOx layer was formed on Pt after O2-GCIB irradiation. PtOx reacted with acetic acid by GCIB bombardments; as a result, increase of etching depth was observed.

Yamaguchi, Akira; Hinoura, Ryo; Toyoda, Noriaki; Hara, Ken-ichi; Yamada, Isao

2013-05-01

258

Protein content and enzyme activities in methanol- and acetate-grown Methanosarcina thermophila  

SciTech Connect

The cell extract protein content of acetate-and methanol-grown Methanosarcina thermophila TM-1 was examined by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. More than 100 mutually exclusive spots were present in acetate- and methanol-grown cells. Spots corresponding to acetate kinase, phosphotransacetylase, and the five subunits of the carbon monoxide dehydrogenase complex were identified in acetate-grown cells. Activities for formylmethanofuran dehydrogenase, formylmethanofurn:tetrahydromethanopterin formyl-transferase, 5,10-methenyltetrahydromethanopterin cyclohydrolase, methylene tetrahydromethanopterin:co-enzyme F{sub 420} oxidoreductase, formate dehydrogenase, and carbonic anhydrase were examined in acetate- and methanol-grown Methanosarcina thermophila. Levels of formyltransferase in either acetate- or methanol-grown Methanosarcina thermophila were approximately half the levels detected in H{sub 2}-CO{sub 2}-grown Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum. All other enzyme activities were significantly lower in acetate- and methanol-grown Methanosarcina thermophila.

Jablonski, P.E.; Cabell, M.C.; Ferry, J.G. (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg (USA)); DiMarco, A.A.; Bobik, T.A. (Univ. of Illinois Urbana-Champaign (USA))

1990-03-01

259

Whole body and leg acetate kinetics at rest, during exercise and recovery in humans  

PubMed Central

We have used a constant [1,2-13C]acetate infusion (0.12 ?mol min?1 kg1) for 2 h at rest, followed by 2 h of one-legged knee-extensor exercise at 65 % of leg maximal workload, and 3 h of recovery in six post-absorptive volunteers to quantify whole-body and leg acetate kinetics and determine whether the whole-body acetate correction factor can be used to correct leg substrate oxidation. The acetate whole-body rate of appearance (Ra) was not significantly different at rest, during exercise or during recovery (365-415 ?mol min?1). The leg net acetate uptake was similar at rest and during recovery (?10 ?mol min?1), but increased ?5-fold with exercise. At rest the leg acetate uptake (?15 ?mol min?1) and release (?5 ?mol min?1) accounted for 4 and 1.5 % of whole-body acetate disposal (Rd) and Ra, respectively. When the leg acetate kinetics were extrapolated to the total body skeletal muscle mass, then skeletal muscle accounted for ?16 and ?6 % of acetate Rd and Ra. With exercise, leg acetate uptake increased ?6-fold, whereas leg acetate release increased 9-fold compared with rest. Whole-body acetate carbon recovery increased with time of infusion at rest and during recovery from 21 % after 1.5 h of infusion to 45 % in recovery after 7 h of infusion. Leg and whole-body acetate carbon recovery were similar under resting conditions, both before and after exercise. During exercise whole-body acetate carbon recovery was ?75 %, however, acetate carbon recovery of the active leg was substantially higher (?100 %). It is concluded that inactive skeletal muscle plays a minor role in acetate turnover. However, active skeletal muscle enhances several-fold acetate uptake and subsequent oxidation, as well as release and its contribution to whole-body acetate turnover. Furthermore, under resting conditions the whole-body acetate correction factor can be used to correct for leg, skeletal muscle, substrate oxidation, but not during exercise. PMID:12096068

van Hall, G; Sacchetti, M; Rådegran, G

2002-01-01

260

Atmospheric Acetic Acid Pulping of Rice Straw II: Behavior of Ash and Silica in Rice Straw during Atmospheric Acetic Acid Pulping and Bleaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A detailed examination was made of the behavior and distribution of ash and silica during atmospheric acetic acid pulping and subsequent bleaching of rice straw. Ash-rich pulps (in unbleached pulp, about 18 %; and in bleached pulp, 16 %) with matchable strength properties for conventional alkaline pulps were obtained from rice straw by acetic acid pulping. More than 50

Xue-Jun Pan; Yoshihiro Sano; Toshiaki Ito

1999-01-01

261

Male Fishia yosemitae (Grote)(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) captured in traps baited with (Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate and (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Traps baited with sex pheromone lures for the noctuid moths Chrysodeixis eriosoma (Doubleday) and Feltia jaculifera (Guenee) captured males of another noctuid moth Fishia yosemitae (Grote). These lures included both (Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate (Z7-12Ac) and (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-14AC). When the...

262

New approach for the production of cellulose acetate: acetylation of mechanical pulp with subsequent isolation of cellulose acetate by differential solubility  

Microsoft Academic Search

A heretofore uninvestigated approach to the production of cellulose acetate is the acetylation of mechanical pulp with subsequent isolation of the cellulose derivative by differential solubility. The mechanical pulp is produced by refining aspen wood chips in a disc-refiner. Two conventional acetylation techniques, the fibrous and solution process, are employed to acetylate all components of the pulp. The cellulose acetate

Barkalow

1987-01-01

263

Hydrogen Fluoride Capture by Imidazolium Acetate Ionic Liquid  

E-print Network

Extraction of hydrofluoric acid (HF) from oils is a drastically important problem in petroleum industry, since HF causes quick corrosion of pipe lines and brings severe health problems to humanity. Some ionic liquids (ILs) constitute promising scavenger agents thanks to strong binding to polar compounds and tunability. PM7-MD simulations and hybrid density functional theory are employed here to consider HF capture ability of ILs. Discussing the effects and impacts of the cation and the anion separately and together, I will evaluate performance of imidazolium acetate and outline systematic search guidelines for efficient adsorption and extraction of HF.

Chaban, Vitaly

2015-01-01

264

Kinetic Modeling of Esterification of Ethylene Glycol with Acetic Acid  

SciTech Connect

The reaction kinetics of the esterification of ethylene glycol with acetic acid in the presence of cation exchange resin has been studied and kinetic models based on empirical and Langmuir approach has been developed. The Langmuir based model involving eight kinetic parameters fits experimental data much better compared to empirical model involving four kinetic parameters. The effect of temperature and catalyst loading on the reaction system has been analyzed. Further, the activation energy and frequency factor of the rate constants for Langmuir based model has been estimated.

Yadav, Vishnu P.; Maity, Sunil K. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Hyderabad, Ordnance Factory Estate, Yeddumailiram-502205, Andhra Pradesh (India); Mukherjee, Rudra Palash [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur, Mahatma Gandhi Avenue, Durgapur-713209, West Bengal (India); Bantraj, Kandi [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela-769008, Orissa (India)

2010-10-26

265

Induction of human autorosette forming cells by phorbol myristate acetate.  

PubMed

Human peripheral blood lymphocytes were examined for rosette formation with autologous erythrocytes. When normal human lymphocytes were stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) in the presence of autologous serum, the levels of autorosette forming cells (ARFC) were strongly enhanced. Pre-culture was necessary for the generation of ARFC by PMA and the maximal level of ARFC was observed at 72 hr of culture. ARFC appear to belong to a T cell subset and the induction of ARFC by PMA was noted in monocyte depleted lymphocyte fractions, indicating monocyte independency. PMID:7172500

Sakano, T; Hyodo, S; Kittaka, E; Tanaka, Y; Usui, T

1982-09-01

266

Induction of human autorosette forming cells by phorbol myristate acetate.  

PubMed Central

Human peripheral blood lymphocytes were examined for rosette formation with autologous erythrocytes. When normal human lymphocytes were stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) in the presence of autologous serum, the levels of autorosette forming cells (ARFC) were strongly enhanced. Pre-culture was necessary for the generation of ARFC by PMA and the maximal level of ARFC was observed at 72 hr of culture. ARFC appear to belong to a T cell subset and the induction of ARFC by PMA was noted in monocyte depleted lymphocyte fractions, indicating monocyte independency. PMID:7172500

Sakano, T; Hyodo, S; Kittaka, E; Tanaka, Y; Usui, T

1982-01-01

267

Indole-3-acetic acid in plant-microbe interactions.  

PubMed

Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is an important phytohormone with the capacity to control plant development in both beneficial and deleterious ways. The ability to synthesize IAA is an attribute that many bacteria including both plant growth-promoters and phytopathogens possess. There are three main pathways through which IAA is synthesized; the indole-3-pyruvic acid, indole-3-acetamide and indole-3-acetonitrile pathways. This chapter reviews the factors that effect the production of this phytohormone, the role of IAA in bacterial physiology and in plant-microbe interactions including phytostimulation and phytopathogenesis. PMID:24445491

Duca, Daiana; Lorv, Janet; Patten, Cheryl L; Rose, David; Glick, Bernard R

2014-07-01

268

Prednisolone acetate-eluting novel biodegradable vascular stents for implantation  

E-print Network

25.10.2006 GPEN 2006 October 25-27 University of Kansas, Lawrence 1 PREDNISOLONE ACETATE-ELUTING NOVEL BIODEGRADABLE VASCULAR STENTS FOR IMPLANTATION Pharm. (M.Sc.) Can Sarisozen Assist. Prof. Dr. Betul Arica, Prof.Dr. Sema Calis, Prof.Dr. A... be described currently as consisting of two components: first called ?elastic recoil? and the second component called ?neointimal hyperplasia? 25.10.2006 GPEN 2006 October 25-27 University of Kansas, Lawrence 7 Stents ? Stent is a small, metal tube...

Sarisozen, Can

2006-10-25

269

13C6-[Benzene Ring]-Indole-3-Acetic Acid  

PubMed Central

Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) labeled with 13C in the six carbons of the benzene ring is described for use as an internal standard for quantitative mass spectral analysis of IAA by gas chromatography/selected ion monitoring. [13C6]IAA was compared to the available deuterium labeled compounds and shown to offer the advantages of nonexchangeability of the isotope label, high isotopic enrichment, and chromatographic properties identical to that of the unlabeled compound. The utility of [13C6]IAA for measurement of endogenous IAA levels was demonstrated by analysis of IAA in Lemna gibba G-3. PMID:16664570

Cohen, Jerry D.; Baldi, Bruce G.; Slovin, Janet Pernise

1986-01-01

270

Kinetic Modeling of Esterification of Ethylene Glycol with Acetic Acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reaction kinetics of the esterification of ethylene glycol with acetic acid in the presence of cation exchange resin has been studied and kinetic models based on empirical and Langmuir approach has been developed. The Langmuir based model involving eight kinetic parameters fits experimental data much better compared to empirical model involving four kinetic parameters. The effect of temperature and catalyst loading on the reaction system has been analyzed. Further, the activation energy and frequency factor of the rate constants for Langmuir based model has been estimated.

Yadav, Vishnu P.; Mukherjee, Rudra Palash; Bantraj, Kandi; Maity, Sunil K.

2010-10-01

271

Conductive iron oxides accelerate thermophilic methanogenesis from acetate and propionate.  

PubMed

Anaerobic digester is one of the attractive technologies for treatment of organic wastes and wastewater, while continuous development and improvements on their stable operation with efficient organic removal are required. Particles of conductive iron oxides (e.g., magnetite) are known to facilitate microbial interspecies electron transfer (termed as electric syntrophy). Electric syntrophy has been reported to enhance methanogenic degradation of organic acids by mesophilic communities in soil and anaerobic digester. Here we investigated the effects of supplementation of conductive iron oxides (magnetite) on thermophilic methanogenic microbial communities derived from a thermophilic anaerobic digester. Supplementation of magnetite accelerated methanogenesis from acetate and propionate under thermophilic conditions, while supplementation of ferrihydrite also accelerated methanogenesis from propionate. Microbial community analysis revealed that supplementation of magnetite drastically changed bacterial populations in the methanogenic acetate-degrading cultures, in which Tepidoanaerobacter sp. and Coprothermobacter sp. dominated. These results suggest that supplementation of magnetite induce electric syntrophy between organic acid-oxidizing bacteria and methanogenic archaea and accelerate methanogenesis even under thermophilic conditions. Findings from this study would provide a possibility for the achievement of stably operating thermophilic anaerobic digestion systems with high efficiency for removal of organics and generation of CH4. PMID:25488041

Yamada, Chihaya; Kato, Souichiro; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Ishii, Masaharu; Igarashi, Yasuo

2014-12-01

272

Study of Thermodynamical Properties of Polyvinyl Acetate in Tetrahydrofuran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The propagation of ultrasonic waves and the measurement of their velocity in solutions form an important tool for the evaluation of various acoustical and thermodynamical parameters which give an insight into the nature of miscibility and molecular interactions in polymer solutions. In the present study, the ultrasonic velocity, density, viscosity measurements have been made in 0.1 M solution using pulse echo overlap technique at 293 K at the different concentrations of polyvinyl acetate in tetrahydrofuran. Thermo-acoustical parameters viz., adiabatic compressibility, molar sound velocity, molar compressibility, expansion coefficient, acoustic impedance, van der Waals' constant and internal pressure have been computed from the experimental data. The nature of polymer/solvent interaction and the effect of concentration on the molecular interaction are studied. The nonlinear variations of polyvinyl acetate in tetrahydrofuran have been studied. The variation of ultrasonic velocity and other thermo-acoustical parameters shows nonlinear increase or decrease with molar concentration which suggest semi-compatibility of the polymer in the given solvent.

Tabhane, Priyanka V.; Chimankar, Omprakash P.; Tabhane, Vilas A.

2012-10-01

273

Indium acetate toxicity in male reproductive system in rats.  

PubMed

Indium, a rare earth metal characterized by high plasticity, corrosion resistance, and a low melting point, is widely used in the electronics industry, but has been reported to be an environmental pollutant and a health hazard. We designed a study to investigate the effects of subacute exposure of indium compounds on male reproductive function. Twelve-week old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into test and control groups, and received weekly intraperitoneal injections of indium acetate (1.5 mg/kg body weight) and normal saline, respectively, for 8 weeks. Serum indium levels, cauda epididymal sperm count, motility, morphology, chromatin DNA structure, mitochondrial membrane potential, oxidative stress, and testis DNA content were investigated. The indium acetate-treated group showed significant reproductive toxicity, as well as an increased percentage of sperm morphology abnormality, chromatin integrity damage, and superoxide anion generation. Furthermore, positive correlations among sperm morphology abnormalities, chromatin DNA damage, and superoxide anion generation were also noted. The results of this study demonstrated the toxic effect of subacute low-dose indium exposure during the period of sexual maturation on male reproductive function in adulthood, through an increase in oxidative stress and sperm chromatin DNA damage during spermiogenesis, in a rodent model. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2014. PMID:25044390

Lee, Kuo-Hsin; Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Leung, Chung-Man; Chen, Hsin-Pao; Hsu, Ping-Chi

2014-07-01

274

Primary symptomatic adrenal insufficiency induced by megestrol acetate.  

PubMed

Megestrol acetate (MA) is a progestational agent for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer and endometrial cancer. MA has also been used to promote weight gain in malnourished elderly patients, in patients with immunodeficiency virus and in cancer-induced cachexia. In addition to thromboembolic disease, MA may induce hyperglycaemia, osteoporosis, suppression of the gonadal axis, and Cushing's syndrome. MA has also been shown to cause symptomatic suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis owing to its intrinsic glucocorticoid-like effect. Three additional patients are presented who developed symptomatic adrenal insufficiency while they were receiving 160-320 mg MA daily. The patients were treated with cortisone acetate supplements, had clear evidence of HPA-axis suppression but recovered fully after MA was discontinued. Patients receiving MA might have an inadequate adrenal response during stressful conditions, possibly because 160-320 mg MA daily may not provide adequate protection to prevent the symptoms of adrenal insufficiency. The adverse MA effect on the HPA axis is probably not well recognised in clinical practice, and clinicians need an increased awareness of the endocrine complications secondary to MA treatment. PMID:23412818

Delitala, A P; Fanciulli, G; Maioli, M; Piga, G; Delitala, G

2013-01-01

275

Water-promoted One-step Anodic Acetoxylation of Benzene to Phenyl Acetate with High Selectivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One-step anodic acetoxylation of benzene to phenyl acetate was studied in acetic acid-water solution using a one-compartment electrochemical cell in galvanostatic mode. Compared to the anhydrous system, the addition of water improved the current efficiency for the electro-synthesis of phenyl acetate. The maximum efficiency reached 4.8% with the selectivity of 96% to phenyl acetate when the electrolysis was carried out under the optimal conditions. The investigation also indicated that the concentration of phenyl acetate increased linearly in 12 h and reached 1.07 g/L with the selectivity of 95%. Cyclic voltammetry experiments showed that the adsorption of benzene at Pt anode enhanced by the addition of water was critical to the formation of phenyl acetate. An activated benzene mechanism was proposed for the anodic acytoxylation, and the analysis of gas products demonstrated that Kolbe reaction was the main side reaction.

Pei, Juan; Qin, Song; Li, Gui-ying; Hu, Chang-wei

2011-04-01

276

Development and characterization of poly(1-vinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate) copolymer based polymer electrolytes.  

PubMed

Gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) are developed using poly(1-vinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate) [P(VP-co-VAc)] as the host polymer, lithium bis(trifluoromethane) sulfonimide [LiTFSI] as the lithium salt and ionic liquid, and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide [EMImTFSI] by using solution casting technique. The effect of ionic liquid on ionic conductivity is studied and the optimum ionic conductivity at room temperature is found to be 2.14 × 10(-6) S cm(-1) for sample containing 25 wt% of EMImTFSI. The temperature dependence of ionic conductivity from 303 K to 353 K exhibits Arrhenius plot behaviour. The thermal stability of the polymer electrolyte system is studied by using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) while the structural and morphological properties of the polymer electrolyte is studied by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), respectively. PMID:25431781

Sa'adun, Nurul Nadiah; Subramaniam, Ramesh; Kasi, Ramesh

2014-01-01

277

2-(5-Bromo-3-isopropyl­sulfanyl-1-benzofuran-2-yl)acetic acid  

PubMed Central

The title compound, C13H13BrO3S, was prepared by alkaline hydrolysis of ethyl 2-(5-bromo-3-isopropyl­sulfanyl-1-benzofuran-2-yl)acetate. In the crystal, the carboxyl groups are involved in inter­molecular O—H?O hydrogen bonds, which link the mol­ecules into dimers. These dimers are further packed into stacks along the c axis by inter­molecular C—H?? inter­actions, and by slipped ?–? inter­actions between the furan rings of adjacent mol­ecules [centroid–centroid distance = 3.472?(2)?Å, inter­planar distance = 3.398?(2)?Å and slippage = 0.713?(2)?Å]. PMID:22259558

Seo, Pil Ja; Choi, Hong Dae; Son, Byeng Wha; Lee, Uk

2012-01-01

278

Thermoanaerobacteriaceae oxidize acetate in methanogenic rice field soil at 50°C.  

PubMed

Rice field soils contain a thermophilic microbial community. Incubation of Italian rice field soil at 50°C resulted in transient accumulation of acetate, but the microorganisms responsible for methane production from acetate are unknown. Without addition of exogenous acetate, the ?(13)C of CH(4) and CO(2) indicated that CH(4) was exclusively produced by hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. When exogenous acetate was added, acetoclastic methanogenesis apparently also operated. Nevertheless, addition of [2-(13)C]acetate (99% (13)C) resulted in the production not only of (13)C-labelled CH(4) but also of CO(2), which contained up to 27% (13)C, demonstrating that the methyl group of acetate was also oxidized. Part of the (13)C-labelled acetate was also converted to propionate which contained up to 14% (13)C. The microorganisms capable of assimilating acetate at 50°C were targeted by stable isotope probing (SIP) of ribosomal RNA and rRNA genes using [U-(13)C] acetate. Using quantitative PCR, (13)C-labelled bacterial ribosomal RNA and DNA was detected after 21 and 32 days of incubation with [U-(13)C]acetate respectively. In the heavy fractions of the (13)C treatment, terminal restriction fragments (T-RFs) of 140, 120 and 171 bp length predominated. Cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA showed that these T-RFs were affiliated with the bacterial genera Thermacetogenium and Symbiobacterium and with members of the Thermoanaerobacteriaceae. Similar experiments targeting archaeal RNA and DNA showed that Methanocellales were the dominant methanogens being consistent with the operation of syntrophic bacterial acetate oxidation coupled to hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. After 17 days, however, Methanosarcinacea increasingly contributed to the synthesis of rRNA from [U-(13)C]acetate indicating that acetoclastic methanogens were also active in methanogenic Italian rice field soil under thermal conditions. PMID:21966924

Liu, Fanghua; Conrad, Ralf

2010-08-01

279

Enzymatic synthesis of geranyl acetate in n -hexane with Candida antarctica lipases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geranyl acetate is an important flavor and fragrance compound. Two immobilizedCandida antarctica lipases, SP382 and SP435, were investigated for their use in the synthesis of geranyl acetate by direct esterification. Yields\\u000a between 95 and 99% molar conversion were obtained with 2 and 15% (w\\/w reactants) of SP435 and SP382 lipases, respectively.\\u000a Optimum yields were obtained at 0.1M acetic acid and

Paul A. Claon; Casimir C. Akoh

1994-01-01

280

Carbon CP-MASS NMR and X-ray crystal structure of paramagnetic lanthanide acetates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The X-ray crystal structures of praseodymium(III) acetate monohydrate and europium(III) acetate trihydrate have been solved and cross-polarization carbon-13 NMR spectra obtained in the polycrystalline solids. The static and magic angle spinning spectra are compared with diamagnetic acetate spectra. The shifts in the paramagnetic compounds are large, permitting sample heterogeniety to be readily detected. THE CP-MASS carbon spectra are assigned by

S. Ganapathy; V. P. Chacko; R. G. Bryant; M. C. Etter

1986-01-01

281

Process for the preparation of protected 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane acetal and derivatives thereof  

DOEpatents

A process for producing protected 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane acetal, particularly in chiral forms, for use as an intermediate in the preparation of various 3-carbon compounds which are chiral. In particular, the present invention relates to the process for preparation of 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane isopropylidene acetal. The protected 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane acetal is a key intermediate to the preparation of chiral 3-carbon compounds which in turn are intermediates to various pharmaceuticals.

Hollingsworth, Rawle I. (Haslett, MI); Wang, Guijun (East Lansing, MI)

2000-01-01

282

A proposed citramalate cycle for acetate assimilation in the purple non-sulfur bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

During phototrophic growth on acetate and CO2Rhodospirillum rubrum 2R contained malate synthase but lacked isocitrate lyase. Acetate assimilation by R. rubrum cells was stimulated by pyruvate, propionate glyoxylate, CO2 and H2. Acetate photoassimilation by R. rubrum cells in the presence of bicarbonate was accompanied by glyoxylate secretion, which increased after addition of fluoroacetate and decreased after addition of malonate. When

Ruslan N Ivanovsky; Elena N Krasilnikova; Ivan A Berg

1997-01-01

283

Amperometric determination of acetate with a tri-enzyme based sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work describes a flow injection analysis system incorporating amperometric biosensors for acetate monitoring. Tri-enzyme-modified electrodes were fabricated by immobilizing acetate kinase (AK), pyruvate kinase (PK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) into a poly(ethyleneglycole) diglycidyl ether (PEGDGE) film also containing Brilliant Cresyl Blue (BCB) as an electrochemical mediator. The concentration of acetate could be determined from the decrease in the

Rasa Mieliauskiene; Mihaela Nistor; Valdas Laurinavicius; Elisabeth Csöregi

2006-01-01

284

Level of enzymes involved in acetate, butyrate, acetone and butanol formation by Clostridium acetobutylicum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clostridium acetobutylicum cells were collected from chemostats which were run at pH 4.3 or 6.0 and which produced either acetone-butanol or acetate-butyrate; they were used to determine the level of enzymes involved either in solvent or in acid formation. The highest activity of phosphotransacetylase, phosphotransbutyrylase, acetate kinase, and butyrate kinase was found in cells which carried out an acetate-butyrate fermentation;

Wolfram Andersch; Hubert Bahl; Gerhard Gottschalk

1983-01-01

285

Degradation of acetic acid with sulfate radical generated by persulfate ions photolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photolysis of S2O82- was studied for the removal of acetic acid in aqueous solution and compared with the H2O2\\/UV system. The SO4- radicals generated from the UV irradiation of S2O82- ions yield a greater mineralization of acetic acid than the OH radicals. Acetic acid is oxidized by SO4- radicals without significant formation of intermediate by-products. Increasing system pH results

Justine Criquet; Nathalie Karpel Vel Leitner

2009-01-01

286

Acetic acid and aromatics units planned in China  

SciTech Connect

The Shanghai Wujing Chemical Complex (SWCC; Shanghai) is proceeding with construction of an acetic acid plant. The 100,000-m.t./year until will use BP Chemicals carbonylation technology, originally developed by Monsanto. John Brown has been selected by China National Technical Import Corp. (CNTIC) to supply the plant, Chinese sources say. The UK contractor, which competed against Mitsui Engineering Shipbuilding (Tokyo) and Lurgi (Frankfurt), has built a similar plant for BP in the UK, although using different technology. The new plant will require 54,000 m.t./year of methanol, which is available onsite. Carbon monoxide will be delivered from a new plant. The acetic acid unit will joint two other acetic plants in China supplied some time ago by Uhde (Dortmund). SWCC is due to be integrated with two adjacent complexes to form Shanghai Pacific Chemical. Meanwhile, four groups are competing to supply a UOP-process aromatics complex for Jilin Chemical Industrial Corp. They are Toyo Engineering, Lurgi, Lucky/Foster Wheeler, and Eurotechnica. The complex will include plants with annual capacities for 115,000 m.t. of benzene, 90,000 m.t. of ortho-xylene, 93,000 m.t. of mixed xylenes, and 20,000 m.t. of toluene. The plants will form part of a $2-billion petrochemical complex based on a 300,000-m.t./year ethylene plant awarded last year to a consortium of Samsung Engineering and Linde. Downstream plants will have annual capacities for 120,000 m.t. of linear low-density polyethylene, 80,000 m.t. of ethylene oxide, 100,000 m.t. of ethylene glycol, 80,000 m.t. of phenol, 100,000 m.t. of acrylonitrile, 20,000 m.t. of sodium cyanide, 40,000 m.t. of phthalic anhydride, 40,000 m.t. of ethylene propylene rubber, 20,000 m.t. of styrene butadiene styrene, and 30,000 m.t. of acrylic fiber.

Alperowicz, N.

1993-01-27

287

Acetate-induced apoptosis in colorectal carcinoma cells involves lysosomal membrane permeabilization and cathepsin D release  

PubMed Central

Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is one of the most common causes of cancer-related mortality. Short-chain fatty acids secreted by dietary propionibacteria from the intestine, such as acetate, induce apoptosis in CRC cells and may therefore be relevant in CRC prevention and therapy. We previously reported that acetic acid-induced apoptosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells involves partial vacuole permeabilization and release of Pep4p, the yeast cathepsin D (CatD), which has a protective role in this process. In cancer cells, lysosomes have emerged as key players in apoptosis through selective lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) and release of cathepsins. However, the role of CatD in CRC survival is controversial and has not been assessed in response to acetate. We aimed to ascertain whether LMP and CatD are involved in acetate-induced apoptosis in CRC cells. We showed that acetate per se inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis. More importantly, we uncovered that acetate triggers LMP and CatD release to the cytosol. Pepstatin A (a CatD inhibitor) but not E64d (a cathepsin B and L inhibitor) increased acetate-induced apoptosis of CRC cells, suggesting that CatD has a protective role in this process. Our data indicate that acetate induces LMP and subsequent release of CatD in CRC cells undergoing apoptosis, and suggest exploiting novel strategies using acetate as a prevention/therapeutic agent in CRC, through simultaneous treatment with CatD inhibitors. PMID:23429293

Marques, C; Oliveira, C S F; Alves, S; Chaves, S R; Coutinho, O P; Côrte-Real, M; Preto, A

2013-01-01

288

Characterization of proton-bound acetate dimers in ion mobility spectrometry.  

PubMed

Ionized acetates were used as model compounds to describe gas-phase behavior of oxygen containing compounds with respect to their formation of dimers in ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). The ions were created using corona discharge at atmospheric pressure and separated in a drift tube before analysis of the ions by mass spectrometry. At the ambient operational temperature and pressure used in our instrument, all acetates studied formed dimers. Using a homolog series of n-alkyl-acetates, we found that the collision cross section of a dimer was smaller than that of a monomer with the same reduced mass. Our experiments also showed that the reduced mobility of acetate dimers with different functional groups increased in the order n-alkyl acetate dimers having the same number of carbons, for example a dimer of acetyl acetate and hexyl acetate has the same reduced mobility as a dimer composed of two butyl acetates. The fundamental behavior of acetate monomers and dimers described in this paper will assist in a better understanding of the influence of dimer formation in ion mobility spectrometry. PMID:18635378

Pedersen, Christian Schack; Lauritsen, Frants Roager; Sysoev, Alexey; Viitanen, Anna-Kaisa; Mäkelä, Jyrki M; Adamov, Alexey; Laakia, Jaakko; Mauriala, Timo; Kotiaho, Tapio

2008-09-01

289

Acetate-induced apoptosis in colorectal carcinoma cells involves lysosomal membrane permeabilization and cathepsin D release.  

PubMed

Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is one of the most common causes of cancer-related mortality. Short-chain fatty acids secreted by dietary propionibacteria from the intestine, such as acetate, induce apoptosis in CRC cells and may therefore be relevant in CRC prevention and therapy. We previously reported that acetic acid-induced apoptosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells involves partial vacuole permeabilization and release of Pep4p, the yeast cathepsin D (CatD), which has a protective role in this process. In cancer cells, lysosomes have emerged as key players in apoptosis through selective lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) and release of cathepsins. However, the role of CatD in CRC survival is controversial and has not been assessed in response to acetate. We aimed to ascertain whether LMP and CatD are involved in acetate-induced apoptosis in CRC cells. We showed that acetate per se inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis. More importantly, we uncovered that acetate triggers LMP and CatD release to the cytosol. Pepstatin A (a CatD inhibitor) but not E64d (a cathepsin B and L inhibitor) increased acetate-induced apoptosis of CRC cells, suggesting that CatD has a protective role in this process. Our data indicate that acetate induces LMP and subsequent release of CatD in CRC cells undergoing apoptosis, and suggest exploiting novel strategies using acetate as a prevention/therapeutic agent in CRC, through simultaneous treatment with CatD inhibitors. PMID:23429293

Marques, C; Oliveira, C S F; Alves, S; Chaves, S R; Coutinho, O P; Côrte-Real, M; Preto, A

2013-01-01

290

Thermal excitation of rotation of the methyl group in chemisorbed acetate on Cu(110)  

SciTech Connect

The adsorption of acetic acid on the Cu(110) surface has been investigated by the time-of-flight electron stimulated desorption ion angular distribution technique by observing H{sup +}(D{sup +}) ions from the methyl groups. The activated conversion of acetic acid to acetate has been witnessed by observing the formation of oriented acetate species. It has been found that the activation energy for acetate formation varies from 0.39{+-}0.06 eV at low coverage to 1.1{+-}0.1 eV at high coverage, possibly because of acetic acid stabilization at high coverage by hydrogen bonding. Methyl groups are oriented with one C-H bond azimuthally directed in the <11(bar sign)0> direction. At high coverage, the methyl groups are tilted slightly in the <11(bar sign)0> direction due to repulsive acetate-acetate interactions. The activated rotation of the methyl groups on adsorbed acetate is clearly observed by the electron stimulated desorption ion angular distribution method and the barrier height for CH{sub 3} rotation is estimated to be 12{+-}6 meV, and for CD{sub 3} groups to be 7{+-}4 meV. The small inverse D isotope effect is postulated to be caused by higher amplitude CH{sub 3} wagging motions compared to CD{sub 3}, which permit slightly higher hyperconjugation for CH{sub 3} as this group interacts with the anchoring carboxyl group. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

Lee, J.-G. [Surface Science Center, Department of Chemistry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States)] [Surface Science Center, Department of Chemistry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States); Ahner, J. [Surface Science Center, Department of Chemistry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States)] [Surface Science Center, Department of Chemistry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States); Mocuta, D. [Surface Science Center, Department of Chemistry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States)] [Surface Science Center, Department of Chemistry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States); Denev, S. [Surface Science Center, Department of Chemistry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States)] [Surface Science Center, Department of Chemistry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States); Yates, J. T. Jr. [Surface Science Center, Department of Chemistry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States)] [Surface Science Center, Department of Chemistry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States)

2000-02-15

291

Thermal excitation of rotation of the methyl group in chemisorbed acetate on Cu(110)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The adsorption of acetic acid on the Cu(110) surface has been investigated by the time-of-flight electron stimulated desorption ion angular distribution technique by observing H+(D+) ions from the methyl groups. The activated conversion of acetic acid to acetate has been witnessed by observing the formation of oriented acetate species. It has been found that the activation energy for acetate formation varies from 0.39±0.06 eV at low coverage to 1.1±0.1 eV at high coverage, possibly because of acetic acid stabilization at high coverage by hydrogen bonding. Methyl groups are oriented with one C-H bond azimuthally directed in the <11¯0> direction. At high coverage, the methyl groups are tilted slightly in the <11¯0> direction due to repulsive acetate-acetate interactions. The activated rotation of the methyl groups on adsorbed acetate is clearly observed by the electron stimulated desorption ion angular distribution method and the barrier height for CH3 rotation is estimated to be 12±6 meV, and for CD3 groups to be 7±4 meV. The small inverse D isotope effect is postulated to be caused by higher amplitude CH3 wagging motions compared to CD3, which permit slightly higher hyperconjugation for CH3 as this group interacts with the anchoring carboxyl group.

Lee, J.-G.; Ahner, J.; Mocuta, D.; Denev, S.; Yates, J. T.

2000-02-01

292

Supercritical fluid extraction of aurentiamide acetate from Patrinia villosa Juss and subsequent isolation by silica gel and high-speed counter-current chromatography.  

PubMed

Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of aurentiamide acetate from Patrinia villosa Juss was performed. The optimization of parameters was carried out using an analytical-scale supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) system. Then the extraction was scaled up by 100 times using a preparative SFE system under the optimized conditions of 55 degrees C, 35 MPa and modified CO2 with 10% methanol. Then, the crude extract I obtained by SFE was chromatographed on silica gel and the solvent system composed of petroleum ether-ethyl acetate (5:1, v/v) was used to produce the crude extract II, which was further isolated and purified by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) with a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1:1.2:1.2:1, v/v/v/v). One hundred fifty-five milligrams of aurentiamide acetate was obtained from 400 mg crude extract II (contained 42% target) with a purity of 99.3% determined by HPLC and 92.3% recovery in one-step elution, and identification was performed by UV, MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR. As far as we know, this is the first report of discovering aurentiamide acetate from the plant of Patrinia genius. PMID:16078687

Peng, Jinyong; Fan, Guorong; Wu, Yutian

2005-08-12

293

Phenyl acetate derivatives, fluorine-substituted on the phenyl group, as rapid recovery hypnotic agents with reflex depression.  

PubMed

We report the synthesis of novel, potentially hypnotic fluorine-substituted phenyl acetate derivatives. We describe the structure-activity relationship that led us to the promising derivative: ethyl 2-(4-(2-(diethylamino)-2-oxoethoxy)-5-ethoxy-2-fluorophenyl) acetate (55). The unique pharmacological features of compound 55 are its relatively high affinity for the GABAA receptor, together with a unique affinity for the NMDA receptor, different to propanidid and AZD3043. In animal models, compound 55 showed stronger hypnotic potency and longer duration of LORR than propanidid and AZD3043, but also maintained a rapid recovery time to walking and behavioral recovery. In particular, compound 55 displayed reflex depression during infusion. PMID:25462263

Zhang, Heng; Xu, Xiangqing; Chen, Yin; Qiu, Yinli; Liu, Xin; Liu, Bi-Feng; Zhang, Guisen

2015-01-01

294

Glatiramer acetate in the treatment of multiple sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Glatiramer acetate is an immunomodulating drug used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis. It consists of a copolymer of amino acid residues in the same stoichiometric proportions as in myelin basic protein. Its mechanism of action is not entirely known and is probably multifaceted, with deletion of some immune cell populations and stimulation of others in these patients. Some mechanisms involve neuroprotectant effects. There is ample evidence of its efficacy in relapsing-remitting disease, using both clinical and imaging measures of disease activity, and in this paper we review the clinical and basic studies of this drug. Finally we discuss how some of its neuroprotectant effects may be useful in neurodegeneration such as is seen in more advanced cases of multiple sclerosis and other diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinson’s disease. PMID:19300558

Tselis, Alex; Khan, Omar; Lisak, Robert P

2007-01-01

295

Dissolution control of mg by cellulose acetate-polyelectrolyte membranes.  

PubMed

Cellulose acetate (CA)-based membranes are used for Mg dissolution control: the permeability of the membrane is adjusted by additions of the polyelectrolyte, poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA). Spin-coated films were characterized with FT-IR, and once exposed to an aqueous solution the film distends and starts acting as a membrane which controls the flow of ions and H2 gas. Electrochemical measurements (linear sweep voltammograms, open-circuit potential, and polarization) show that by altering the CA:PDMAEMA ratio the dissolution rate of Mg can be controlled. Such a control over Mg dissolution is crucial if Mg is to be considered as a viable, temporary biomedical implant material. Furthermore, the accumulation of corrosion products between the membrane and the sample diminishes the undesirable effects of high local pH and H2 formation which takes place during the corrosion process. PMID:25426707

Yliniemi, Kirsi; Wilson, Benjamin P; Singer, Ferdinand; Höhn, Sarah; Kontturi, Eero; Virtanen, Sannakaisa

2014-12-24

296

Ignition of magnetic deflagration in Mn12 acetate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the conditions for the ignition of two types of magnetic avalanches in the molecular magnet Mn12-acetate corresponding to the major species and a fast-relaxing minor species. The minor component, which has a lower anisotropy barrier, exists in these crystals at the level of 5-7%. The ignition temperatures are measured using small (30 x30 ?m^2) Ge thermometers. In addition, the magnetization dynamics are measured using an array of Hall sensors of comparable size. Various aspects of the ignition will be discussed, including: the reduction of the ignition threshold due to quantum tunneling, the catalytic effect of the minor species, and the shift of the ignition point as a function of external magnetic field. The work at City College was supported by NSF grant DMR-00451605. E. Z. acknowledges the support of the Israel Ministry of Science, Culture and Sports. Support for G. C. was provided by NSF grant CHE-0414555.

McHugh, Sean; Jaafar, R.; Sarachik, M. P.; Myasoedov, Y.; Finkler, A.; Shtrikman, H.; Zeldov, E.; Bagai, R.; Christou, G.

2008-03-01

297

Inflammatory cells’ role in acetic acid-induced colitis  

PubMed Central

Background: Free radicals are the known mechanisms responsible for inducing colitis with two origins: Inflammatory cells and tissues. Only the inflammatory cells can be controlled by corticosteroids. Our aim was to assess the importance of neutrophils as one of the inflammatory cells in inducing colitis and to evaluate the efficacy of corticosteroids in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Materials and Methods: Thirty-six mice were divided into six groups of six mice each. Colitis was induced in three groups by exposing them to acetic acid through enema (group 1), ex vivo (group 3), and enema after immune suppression (group 5). Each group had one control group that was exposed to water injection instead of acetic acid. Tissue samples were evaluated and compared based on macroscopic damages and biochemical and pathological results. Results: Considering neutrophilic infiltration, there were significant differences between groups 1, 3, 5, and the control of group 1. Groups 3, 5, and their controls, and group 1 and the control of group 3 had significant differences in terms of goblet depletion. Based on tissue originated H2O2, we found significant differences between group 1 and its control and group 3, and also between groups 5 and the control of group 3. All the three groups were significantly different from their controls based on Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP) and such differences were also seen between group 1 with two other groups. Conclusion: Neutrophils may not be the only cause of oxidation process in colitis, and also makes the effectiveness of corticosteroids in the treatment of this disease doubtful. PMID:25337523

Sanei, Mohammad H.; Hadizadeh, Fatemeh; Adibi, Peyman; Alavi, Sayyed Ali

2014-01-01

298

In vitro methane and methyl coenzyme M formation from acetate: evidence that acetyl-CoA is the required intermediate activated form of acetate.  

PubMed

Buffer-soluble extracts of acetate-grown Methanosarcina barkeri catalyzed methanogenesis from acetate in the presence of hydrogen and ATP. The rates of methane formation from either acetate plus ATP, or acetylphosphate without ATP added, were approximately doubled by the addition of coenzyme A (CoA). In vitro methyl group transfer from [2-14C]acetate to form [14CH3]methyl coenzyme M (14CH3S-CoM) was monitored by causing the accumulation of 14CH3S-CoM (14CH3-SCH2CH2SO3-) in the presence of 2-bromoethanesulfonate. The rate of 14CH3S-CoM formation was increased 2.5-fold by 0.2 mM CoA. PMID:3115259

Grahame, D A; Stadtman, T C

1987-08-31

299

Sphagnum's coup de grace: Carbon flow to acetate in northern peatlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isotopic estimates of the microbial pathway of methane formation in acidic northern peatlands conclude that methane is derived from the pathway of CO2 reduction, whereas, microbial incubation and genomic studies have identified an important role played by acetoclastic methanogens in similar acidic systems. We believe our first ever intramolecular acetate isotopic analyses from an acidic wetland in central Pennsylvania resolve the apparent conflicting pathway estimates by indicating that the isotopic and microbial incubation studies are consistent with each other and with a pathway of methane formation through acetate from an isotopically depleted autotrophic acetate source. Intramolecular acetate isotopic measurements allow us to estimate that as much as 1/3 of the acetate in acidic wetlands is derived from autotrophy. Given a simple case of glucose fermentation to acetate, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen, our acetate production pathway estimate requires that nearly all of the carbon products from fermentation must flow through the acetate pool. Our work confirms the prior hypothesis and prior observations that acetate is an important metabolic end product in northern acidic wetlands. Further, we hypothesize an alternative fate of acetate in peat porewaters that alludes to an ecological role of autotorophic acetogens and acetate oxidizers in creating the impermeable humified peat catotelm unique to sphagnum dominated systems. The diversion of carbon flow to from methane to acetate increases the organic acid production and we hypothesize that the net transport of dissolved fulvic acids into the catotelm allows coupled acetate oxidation and fulvic acid reduction. This process of acetate consumption would create a net addition of hydrophobic, amorphous, and therefore more impermeable organic carbon. We conclude that an ecological strategy of the sphagnum mosses may not simply be to decrease the pH of the environment to slow metabolism, but rather to force the microbial community in the catotelm toward the oxidation of acetate and the reduction of peat humus, thereby aiding production of the characteristic impermeable organic seal. The sensitivity of sphagnum ecosystems to external sources of alkalinity may prove to be an important control on the ancient flux of methane from peatlands and may be an important direction of continued research.

Thomas, B.; Arthur, M. A.; House, C.; Freean, K.

2008-12-01

300

Transports of acetate and haloacetate in Burkholderia species MBA4 are operated by distinct systems  

PubMed Central

Background Acetate is a commonly used substrate for biosynthesis while monochloroacetate is a structurally similar compound but toxic and inhibits cell metabolism by blocking the citric acid cycle. In Burkholderia species MBA4 haloacetate was utilized as a carbon and energy source for growth. The degradation of haloacid was mediated by the production of an inducible dehalogenase. Recent studies have identified the presence of a concomitantly induced haloacetate-uptake activity in MBA4. This uptake activity has also been found to transport acetate. Since acetate transporters are commonly found in bacteria it is likely that haloacetate was transported by such a system in MBA4. Results The haloacetate-uptake activity of MBA4 was found to be induced by monochloroacetate (MCA) and monobromoacetate (MBA). While the acetate-uptake activity was also induced by MCA and MBA, other alkanoates: acetate, propionate and 2-monochloropropionate (2MCPA) were also inducers. Competing solute analysis showed that acetate and propionate interrupted the acetate- and MCA- induced acetate-uptake activities. While MCA, MBA, 2MCPA, and butyrate have no effect on acetate uptake they could significantly quenched the MCA-induced MCA-uptake activity. Transmembrane electrochemical potential was shown to be a driving force for both acetate- and MCA- transport systems. Conclusions Here we showed that acetate- and MCA- uptake in Burkholderia species MBA4 are two transport systems that have different induction patterns and substrate specificities. It is envisaged that the shapes and the three dimensional structures of the solutes determine their recognition or exclusion by the two transport systems. PMID:23167477

2012-01-01

301

Modification of wheat starch with succinic acid/acetic anhydride and azelaic acid/acetic anhydride mixtures I. Thermophysical and pasting properties.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of modification with succinic acid/acetic anhydride and azelaic acid/acetic anhydride mixtures on thermophysical and pasting properties of wheat starch. Starch was isolated from two wheat varieties and modified with mixtures of succinic acid and acetic anhydride, and azelaic acid and acetic anhydride in 4, 6 and 8 % (w/w). Thermophysical, pasting properties, swelling power, solubility and amylose content of modified starches were determined. The results showed that modifications with mixtures of afore mentioned dicarboxylic acids with acetic anhydride decreased gelatinisation and pasting temperatures. Gelatinisation enthalpy of Golubica starch increased, while of Srpanjka starch decreased by modifications. Retrogradation after 7 and 14 day-storage at 4 °C decreased after modifications of both starches. Maximum, hot and cold paste viscosity of both starches increased, while stability during shearing at high temperatures decreased. % setback of starches modified with azelaic acid/acetic anhydride mixture decreased. Swelling power and solubility of both starches increased by both modifications. PMID:25328203

Subari?, Drago; A?kar, Dur?ica; Babi?, Jurislav; Saka?, Nikola; Jozinovi?, Antun

2014-10-01

302

Thermal decarboxylation of acetate. Part II. Boundary conditions for the role of acetate in the primary migration of natural gas and the transportation of metals in hydrothermal systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acetate can mediate the primary migration of natural gas from tight, water-laden source rocks by acting as a mobile precursor that is expelled during compaction to resevoir rocks where subsequent decarboxylation yields methane. The viability of this mechanism is demonstrated by integrating, via a computer model, the experimental kinetic rate data for acetate decarboxylation that are presented in Part I with the thermal-temporal-spatial relationships of sediment and fluid in the upper portions of actively forming sedimentary basins. Specifically, this analysis indicates that when the enthalpy of activation is between 32 and 42 kcal · mol -1, and the temperature is between 80 and 130°C, acetate can survive the thermal regime of a typical sedimentary basin long enough to migrate out of the source rocks and yet decarboxylate to form a natural gas deposit within the time frame imposed by the age of the basin sediments. The results suggest that this migration mechanism for natural gas may be predominant within a significant geological and chemical window. A similar analysis has shown that acetate can survive moderate hydrothermal temperatures (<300°C) long enough to promote the mobility of metals as acetate complexes. Ongoing experimental studies now show that metal-acetate complexes are stronger than the analogous chloro-complexes and may account for a large proportion of the metal in hydrothermal solutions with access to organic material.

Drummond, S. E.; Palmer, Donald A.

1986-05-01

303

The short-chain fatty acid acetate reduces appetite via a central homeostatic mechanism  

PubMed Central

Increased intake of dietary carbohydrate that is fermented in the colon by the microbiota has been reported to decrease body weight, although the mechanism remains unclear. Here we use in vivo11C-acetate and PET-CT scanning to show that colonic acetate crosses the blood–brain barrier and is taken up by the brain. Intraperitoneal acetate results in appetite suppression and hypothalamic neuronal activation patterning. We also show that acetate administration is associated with activation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and changes in the expression profiles of regulatory neuropeptides that favour appetite suppression. Furthermore, we demonstrate through 13C high-resolution magic-angle-spinning that 13C acetate from fermentation of 13C-labelled carbohydrate in the colon increases hypothalamic 13C acetate above baseline levels. Hypothalamic 13C acetate regionally increases the 13C labelling of the glutamate–glutamine and GABA neuroglial cycles, with hypothalamic 13C lactate reaching higher levels than the ‘remaining brain’. These observations suggest that acetate has a direct role in central appetite regulation. PMID:24781306

Frost, Gary; Sleeth, Michelle L.; Sahuri-Arisoylu, Meliz; Lizarbe, Blanca; Cerdan, Sebastian; Brody, Leigh; Anastasovska, Jelena; Ghourab, Samar; Hankir, Mohammed; Zhang, Shuai; Carling, David; Swann, Jonathan R.; Gibson, Glenn; Viardot, Alexander; Morrison, Douglas; Louise Thomas, E; Bell, Jimmy D.

2014-01-01

304

Effect of formic, acetic and propionic acid on preservation and aerobic deterioration of grass silage  

E-print Network

Effect of formic, acetic and propionic acid on preservation and aerobic deterioration of grass deterioration of low dry matter (DM) grass silage. For comparison untreated high DM grass silage was also grass was chopped and treated with equimolar amounts of formic acid (FA ; 3.3 g/kg), acetic acid (AA ; 4

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

305

Acetate stimulates atmospheric CH4 oxidation by an alpine tundra Ann E. West, Steven K. Schmidt*  

E-print Network

Acetate stimulates atmospheric CH4 oxidation by an alpine tundra soil Ann E. West, Steven K CH4 by an alpine tundra soil. Acetate, formate, methanol, trimethylamine and yeast extract were; Jensen et al., 1998b). West and Schmidt (1998) demonstrated that, in a well-drained alpine tundra soil

Schmidt, Steven K.

306

Trehalose accumulation enhances tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to acetic acid.  

PubMed

Trehalose confers protection against various environmental stresses on yeast cells. In this study, trehalase gene deletion mutants that accumulate trehalose at high levels showed significant stress tolerance to acetic acid. The enhancement of trehalose accumulation can thus be considered a target in the breeding of acetic acid-tolerant yeast strains. PMID:25060731

Yoshiyama, Yoko; Tanaka, Koichi; Yoshiyama, Kohei; Hibi, Makoto; Ogawa, Jun; Shima, Jun

2015-02-01

307

Acetate cycling in the water column and surface sediment of Long Island Sound following a bloom  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of workers have suggested that rates of acetate cycling in sediments may approximate the rates of anaerobic decomposition of organic matter. However, few studies have examined whether this relationship holds over very short time scales, such as those encountered during the deposition of the spring bloom into coastal sediments. In this study, we measured acetate concentrations and uptake

Hanguo Wu; Mark Green; Mary I. Scranton

308

Microbiological preservation of cucumbers for bulk storage by the use of acetic acid and food preservatives  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Microbial growth did not occur when cucumbers were preserved without a thermal process by storage in solutions containing acetic acid, sodium benzoate, and calcium chloride to maintain tissue firmness. The concentrations of acetic acid and sodium benzoate required to assure preservation were low en...

309

Acetate in recent anoxic sediments: Direct and indirect measurements of concentration and turnover rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While acetate is generally regarded as an important intermediate in the mineralization of organic matter in anoxic sediment systems, some quantitative studies in marine systems (including our own) have measured acetate oxidation rates in excess of sulphate reduction rates where sulphate is known to be the principal electron acceptor. We revisited Skan Bay, Alaska, where we had previously made such observations, for a reexamination of acetate turnover. Measurements of acetate concentrations, production rate, oxidation rate and sulphate reduction rate as well as bioenergetic considerations led to the conclusion that acetate oxidation rate in 15-18-cm deep sediment is 1·1-1·5 ?M h -1. The possibility that previous measurements were high because of a non-citric-acid-cycle pathway of acetate oxidation (suggested by recent laboratory studies) was excluded. It appears that our previous turnover measurements were high mainly because of high acetate concentrations. Procedures used for the isolation of porewater for acetate determination may influence results to an extent not previously recognized.

Shaw, David G.; McIntosh, Douglas J.

1990-12-01

310

Journal of Membrane Science 205 (2002) 1121 Macrovoid pore formation in dry-cast cellulose acetate  

E-print Network

Journal of Membrane Science 205 (2002) 11­21 Macrovoid pore formation in dry-cast cellulose acetate of macrovoid (MV) pores formed during the dry-casting of cellulose acetate (CA)/acetone/water casting solutions were cast in low-gravity (low-g) (KC-135) and normal-gravity (1-g) (ground-based control) from CA

Shvartsman, Stanislav "Stas"

311

Vinegar as a burn-down herbicide: Acetic acid concentrations, application volumes, and adjuvants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Acetic acid acts as a contact herbicide, injuring and killing plants by first destroying the cell membranes, which causes the rapid desiccation of the plant tissues. Vinegars with acetic acid concentrations of 11% or greater can burn the skin and cause serious to severe eye injury, including blindn...

312

Acetate transport across the intestinal epithelium of an herbivorous teleost. [Oreochromis mossambicus  

SciTech Connect

{sup 3}H-acetate transport across the upper intestine of the tilapia, Oreochromis mossabicus, using brush border and basolateral membrane vesicles, and intestinal sheets mounted in modified Ussing chambers was investigated. Brush border and basolateral vesicles demonstrated qualitatively similar anion antiport activity where, in the presence of a full profile of organic and inorganic anions, volatile fatty acids (VFA; acetate, propionate, butyrate) and bicarbonate showed reciprocal trans-stimulation and cis-inhibition of {sup 3}H-acetate influx, suggesting both membranes had the same VFA/bicarbonate exchange mechanism. Kinetic analysis of {sup 3}H-acetate influx into brush border and basolateral vesicles revealed different half-saturation constants (Km) as a function of external acetate concentrations (6.43 mM and 11.91 mM, respectively) and as a function of internal bicarbonate (5.89 mM and 0.41 mM, respectively). Intestinal sheets supported net absorptive fluxes when serosal acetate concentrations were held steady at 1.0 mM and mucosal acetate was varied from 1.60 to 10.0 mM. Unidirectional fluxes were significantly diminished by the addition of acetazolamide. This study postulates a transcellular transport pathway for VFA whereby qualitatively similar antiporters in series lead to a downhill flow of luminal acetate to the blood, which is driven by intracellular carbonic anhydrase and a transmural VFA concentration gradient.

Titus, E.; Ahearn, G.A. (Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu (United States))

1990-02-26

313

High sodium bicarbonate and acetate hemodialysis: Double-blind crossover comparison of hemodynamic and ventilatory effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

High sodium bicarbonate and acetate hemodialysis: Double-blind crossover comparison of hemodynamic and ventilatory effects. The superiority of bicarbonate dialysis (Bi HD) over acetate dialysis (Ac HD) using a high sodium dialysate has not been established to our knowledge. We compared Bi HD to Ac HD over 6 weeks each in ten stable patients using a double-blind crossover design and a

William L Henrich; Terry D Woodard; Barry D Meyer; Timothy R Chappell; Lewis J Rubin

1983-01-01

314

An efficient protection of carbonyls and deprotection of acetals using decaborane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbonyls were efficiently converted to the corresponding dimethyl acetals at room temperature using trimethyl orthoformate and 1 mol% of decaborane under a nitrogen atmosphere. In turn, acetals were deprotected to the corresponding carbonyls using 1 mol% of decaborane in aqueous THF chemoselectively.

Seung Hwan Lee; Ji Hee Lee; Cheol Min Yoon

2002-01-01

315

Inactive Methyl Indole-3-Acetic Acid Ester Can Be Hydrolyzed and Activated by Several Esterases Belonging  

E-print Network

-acetic acid (IAA), also known as auxin, is a plant hormone involved in many aspects of plant growth on the growth of wild-type roots when applied exogenously. However, the roots of Arabidopsis plants carrying TInactive Methyl Indole-3-Acetic Acid Ester Can Be Hydrolyzed and Activated by Several Esterases

Pichersky, Eran

316

Vibrational spectra and structures of zinc carboxylates II. Anhydrous zinc acetate and zinc stearate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A normal mode analysis was carried out for a monoclinic anhydrous zinc acetate crystal in which the acetate groups had bridging bidentate coordination forms, and spectral assignments were made. Based on the assignments, a relation between the coordination structure of the carboxylate groups around the zinc atom and the vibrational frequencies of the carboxylate rocking mode was found. This relation

Tsutomu Ishioka; Youko Shibata; Mizuki Takahashi; Isao Kanesaka

1998-01-01

317

A randomized controlled trial of goserelin and medroxyprogesterone acetate in the treatment of pelvic congestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following identification of the proportion of pelvic congestion among symptomatic patients complaining of chronic pelvic pain, and in a totally asymptomatic group of patients requesting tubal ligation, the efficiency of goserelin acetate versus medroxyprogesterone acetate was compared objectively using pelvic venogram scores, and subjectively by symptom resolution, improvement of psychological status and sexual functioning in a prospective randomized trial in

Mehmet Emin Soysal; Seyide Soysal; Kubilay Võcdan; Suzan Ozer

318

An evaluation of the bioconversion of woody biomass to calcium acetate deicing salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

A competitive process is described using local woody biomass residues, which may also include associated pulp and paper wastes, or municipal solid waste, as potential feedstocks for bioconversion to calcium acetate, an alternative deicing salt. The process first involves suppressed methane fermentation of these woody biomass residues in a packed bed fermentor for the production of acetic acid. In earlier

D. L. Wise; D. Augenstein

1988-01-01

319

Zymomonas with improved ethanol production in medium containing concentrated sugars and acetate  

DOEpatents

Through screening of a Zymomonas mutant library the himA gene was found to be involved in the inhibitory effect of acetate on Zymomonas performance. Xylose-utilizing Zymomonas further engineered to reduce activity of the himA gene were found to have increased ethanol production in comparison to a parental strain, when cultured in medium comprising xylose and acetate.

Caimi, Perry G. (Kennett Square, PA); Chou, Yat-Chen (Lakewood, CO); Franden, Mary Ann (Centennial, CO); Knoke, Kyle (Newark, DE); Tao, Luan (Havertown, PA); Viitanen, Paul V. (West Chester, PA); Zhang, Min (Lakewood, CO); Zhang, Yuying (New Hope, PA)

2010-09-28

320

Propagation of Avalanches in Mn12-acetate: Magnetic Deflagration Yoko Suzuki,1  

E-print Network

Propagation of Avalanches in Mn12-acetate: Magnetic Deflagration Yoko Suzuki,1 M. P. Sarachik,1 E- acetate indicate that the magnetization avalanche spreads as a narrow interface that propagates through. This phenomenon, also ob- served in other molecular magnets, has been attributed to a thermal runaway (avalanche

Lombardi, John R.

321

Chiral phosphoric acid directed regioselective acetalization of carbohydrate-derived 1,2-diols.  

PubMed

In control: A chiral phosphoric acid catalyst significantly enhances or completely overrides the inherent regioselective acetalization profiles exhibited by monosaccharide-derived 1,2-diol substrates. This study represents the first example of chiral-catalyst-directed regio- and enantioselective intermolecular acetalizations, which are complementary to existing methods for substrate-controlled functionalization of polyols. PMID:24123751

Mensah, Enoch; Camasso, Nicole; Kaplan, Will; Nagorny, Pavel

2013-12-01

322

Catalysis of the Carbonylation of Alcohols to Carboxylic Acids Including Acetic Acid Synthesis from Methanol.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Monsanto's highly successful synthesis of acetic acid from methanol and carbon monoxide illustrates use of new starting materials to replace pretroleum-derived ethylene. Outlines the fundamental aspects of the acetic acid process and suggests ways of extending the synthesis to higher carboxylic acids. (JN)

Forster, Denis; DeKleva, Thomas W.

1986-01-01

323

Atmospheric geochemistry of formic and acetic acids at a mid-latitude temperate site  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tropospheric concentrations of formic and acetic acids in the gas, the aerosol, and the rainwater phases were determined in samples collected 1-2 m above ground level at an open field site in eastern Virginia. These acids were found to occur principally (98 percent or above) in the gas phase, with a marked annual seasonality, averaging 1890 ppt for formate and 1310 ppt for acetate during the growing season, as compared to 695 ppt and 700 ppt, respectively, over the nongrowing season. The data support the hypothesis that biogenic emissions from vegatation are important sources of atmospheric formic and acetic acid during the local growing season. The same time trends were observed for precipitation, although with less defined seasonality. The relative increase of the acetic acid/formic acid ratio during the nongrowing season points to the dominance of anthropogenic inputs of acetic acid from motor vehicles and biomass combustion in the wintertime.

Talbot, R. W.; Beecher, K. M.; Harriss, R. C.; Cofer, R. W., III

1988-01-01

324

Development of Acetic Acid Removal Technology for the UREX+Process  

SciTech Connect

It is imperative that acetic acid is removed from a waste stream in the UREX+process so that nitric acid can be recycled and possible interference with downstreatm steps can be avoidec. Acetic acid arises from acetohydrozamic acid (AHA), and is used to suppress plutonium in the first step of the UREX+process. Later, it is hydrolyzed into hydroxyl amine nitrate and acetic acid. Many common separation technologies were examined, and solvent extraction was determined to be the best choice under process conditions. Solvents already used in the UREX+ process were then tested to determine if they would be sufficient for the removal of acetic acid. The tributyl phosphage (TBP)-dodecane diluent, used in both UREX and NPEX, was determined to be a solvent system that gave sufficient distribution coefficients for acetic acid in addition to a high separation factor from nitric acid.

Robert M. Counce; Jack S. Watson

2009-06-30

325

Complexation of chitosan with acetic acid according to Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of the interaction between the protonated chitosan (CHI) macromolecule and the acetate ion in dilute acetic acid solutions were studied by Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy and quantum-chemical modeling. The complexation of CHI with the acetate ion showed itself as the 934 cm-1 band in the Raman spectrum, which suggests the formation of [CHI+ · CH3COO-] type ion pairs. It was concluded that a comparative analysis of the integrated intensities of the Raman bands in the range 880-940 cm-1 makes it possible to judge about the relative content of hydrated acetate ions, CHI macromolecules of the [CHI+ · CH3COO-] complex, and acetic acid molecules not involved in CHI protonation.

Mikhailov, G. P.; Tuchkov, S. V.; Lazarev, V. V.; Kulish, E. I.

2014-06-01

326

Ru (III) Catalyzed Oxidation of Aliphatic Ketones by N-Bromosuccinimide in Aqueous Acetic Acid: A Kinetic Study  

PubMed Central

Kinetics of Ru (III) catalyzed oxidation of aliphatic ketones such as acetone, ethyl methyl ketone, diethyl ketone, iso-butylmethyl ketone by N-bromosuccinimide in the presence of Hg(II) acetate have been studied in aqueous acid medium. The order of [N-bromosuccinimide] was found to be zero both in catalyzed as well as uncatalyzed reactions. However, the order of [ketone] changed from unity to a fractional one in the presence of Ru (III). On the basis of kinetic features, the probable mechanisms are discussed and individual rate parameters evaluated. PMID:22654610

Giridhar Reddy, P.; Ramesh, K.; Shylaja, S.; Rajanna, K. C.; Kandlikar, S.

2012-01-01

327

Microbial dynamics in acetate-enriched ballast water at different temperatures.  

PubMed

The spread of invasive species through ships' ballast water is considered as a major ecological threat to the world's oceans. For that reason, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) has set performance standards for ballast water discharge. Ballast water treatment systems have been developed that employ either UV-radiation or 'active substances' to reduce the concentration of living cells to below the IMOs standards. One such active substance is a chemical mixture known as Peraclean(®) Ocean. The residual of Peraclean(®) Ocean is acetate that might be present at high concentrations in discharged ballast water. In cold coastal waters the breakdown of acetate might be slow, causing a buildup of acetate concentrations in the water if regularly discharged by ships. To study the potential environmental impact, microbial dynamics and acetate degradation were measured in discharge water from a Peraclean(®) Ocean treatment system in illuminated microcosms. In addition, microbial dynamics and acetate degradation were studied at -1, 4, 10, 15 and 25°C in dark microcosms that simulated enclosed ballast water tanks. Acetate breakdown indeed occurred faster at higher temperatures. At 25°C the highest bacteria growth, fastest nutrient and oxygen consumption and highest DOC reduction occurred. On the other hand, at -1°C bacterial growth was strongly delayed, only starting to increase after 12 days. Furthermore, at 25°C the acetate pool was not depleted, probably due to nutrient and oxygen limitation. This means that not all acetate will be broken down in ballast water tanks, even during long voyages in warm waters. In addition, at low temperatures acetate breakdown in ballast water tanks and in discharged water will be extremely slow. Therefore, regular discharge of acetate enriched ballast water in harbors and bays may cause eutrophication and changes in the microbial community, especially in colder regions. PMID:23871568

Stehouwer, Peter Paul; van Slooten, Cees; Peperzak, Louis

2013-10-01

328

Studies of the esterase activity of cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase with resorufin acetate as substrate.  

PubMed Central

Resorufin acetate is a very good substrate for sheep liver cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase, both from the point of view of practical spectrophotometry and in terms of information provided about the nature of the catalysis shown by this enzyme. p-Nitrophenyl (PNP) acetate competes against resorufin acetate for the enzyme's active site (although relatively weakly as the latter substrate has the lower Michaelis constant), but acetaldehyde (in the presence of NAD+) inhibits the hydrolysis of resorufin acetate only at very high aldehyde concentration. In the absence of cofactor, the rate-limiting step in the hydrolysis of resorufin acetate and of PNP acetate is hydrolysis of the common acetyl-enzyme, as shown by the observation of bursts of chromophoric product and very similar values of kcat. In the presence of NAD+ or NADH, however, the deacylation step with resorufin acetate is greatly accelerated until acylation seems to become rate-limiting, because no burst is seen under these conditions. Millimolar concentrations of Mg2+ activate the hydrolyis of resorufin acetate both in the presence and absence of cofactors. With both Mg2+ and cofactor the kcat for hydrolysis of resorufin acetate is 30-35 s-1; this is three orders of magnitude higher than the kcat for aldehyde oxidation in the presence of Mg2+, showing that the enzyme's potential catalytic efficency is very much hampered by the slowness with which NADH dissociates from its binding site. The pH profile for the hydrolysis of resorufin acetate in the presence of NAD+ or NADH fits well to a theoretical ionization curve of pKa approx. 8.2; it is suggested that this might belong to the enzyme's putative catalytic residue (Cys-302). PMID:9148739

Kitson, T M; Kitson, K E

1997-01-01

329

Acute Alcohol Intoxication Decreases Glucose Metabolism but Increases Acetate Uptake in the Human Brain  

PubMed Central

Alcohol intoxication results in marked reductions in brain glucose metabolism, which we hypothesized reflect not just its GABAergic enhancing effects but also metabolism of acetate as an alternative brain energy source. To test this hypothesis we separately assessed the effects of alcohol intoxication on brain glucose and acetate metabolism using Positron Emission Tomography (PET). We found that alcohol intoxication significantly decreased whole brain glucose metabolism (measured with FDG) with the largest decrements in cerebellum and occipital cortex and the smallest in thalamus. In contrast, alcohol intoxication caused a significant increase in [1-11C]acetate brain uptake (measured as standard uptake value, SUV), with the largest increases occurring in cerebellum and the smallest in thalamus. In heavy alcohol drinkers [1-11C]acetate brain uptake during alcohol challenge trended to be higher than in occasional drinkers (p <0.06) and the increases in [1-11C]acetate uptake in cerebellum with alcohol were positively associated with the reported amount of alcohol consumed (r=0.66, p<0.01). Our findings corroborate a reduction of brain glucose metabolism during intoxication and document an increase in brain acetate uptake. The opposite changes observed between regional brain metabolic decrements and regional increases in [1-11C]acetate uptake support the hypothesis that during alcohol intoxication the brain may rely on acetate as an alternative brain energy source and provides preliminary evidence that heavy alcohol exposures may facilitate the use of acetate as an energy substrate. These findings raise the question of the potential therapeutic benefits that increasing plasma acetate concentration (ie ketogenic diets) may have in alcoholics undergoing alcohol detoxification. PMID:22947541

Volkow, Nora D.; Kim, Sung Won; Wang, Gene-Jack; Alexoff, David; Logan, Jean; Muench, Lisa; Shea, Colleen; Telang, Frank; Fowler, Joanna S.; Wong, Christopher; Benveniste, Helene; Tomasi, Dardo

2012-01-01

330

Quantum Tunneling Symmetry of Single Molecule Magnet Mn_12-acetate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the symmetry of magnetic quantum tunneling (MQT) in single crystals of single molecular magnet (SMM) Mn_12-acetate. A superconducting high field vector magnet was used to apply magnetic fields in arbitrary directions respect to the axes of the crystal. The MQT probability is extracted from the change in magnetization measured on sweeping the field through a MQT resonance. This is related to the quantum splitting of the molecules relaxing in the time window of the experiment [1]. The dependence of the MQT probability on the angle between the applied transverse field and the crystallographic axes shows a four-fold rotation pattern, with maxima at angles separated by 90 degrees. By selecting a part of the splitting distribution of the sample by applying an initial transverse field in the direction of one of the observed maxima the situation changes completely. The resulting behavior of the MQT probability shows a two-fold rotation pattern with maxima separated by 180 degrees. Moreover, if the selection is made by applying the initial transverse field in the direction of a complementary four-fold maximum the behavior shows again two-fold symmetry. However, the maxima are found to be shifted by 90 degrees respect to the first selection. The fact that we observe two-fold symmetry for different selections is a clear evidence of the existence of different molecules with lower anisotropy than the imposed by the tetragonal crystallographic site symmetry. The general four-fold symmetry observed is thus due in large part to equal populations of molecules with opposite signs of the second order anisotropy, as suggested by Cornia et al. and appears to be a consequence of to the existence of a discrete set of lower symmetry isomers in a Mn_12-acetate crystal [2]. [1] E. del Barco, A. D. Kent, E. Rumberger, D. N. Hendrikson and G. Christou, Europhys. Lett. 60, 768 (2002) [2] A. Cornia, R. Sessoli, L. Sorace, D. Gatteschi, A. L. Barra and C. Daiguebonne, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 257201 (2002)

del Barco, E.; Kent, A. D.; Rumberger, E.; Hendrikson, D. N.; Christou, G.

2003-03-01

331

Analysis of Dns-amino acids by liquid chromatography. I. Selection of optimum mobile phase composition for separation of Dns-amino acids on polyvinyl acetate gel.  

PubMed

The separation of a mixture of ten Dns-amino acids (Gns-Gly, -Ala, -Val, -Leu, -Pro, -Hypro, -Met, -Ser, -Asn and -Gln) was carried out by liquid chromatography by using macroreticular polyvinyl acetate gel as a packing material. Different mobile phase systems were investigated, based mainly on mixtures of n-hexane with ethanol, methanol, chloroform, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, ethyl acetate, dioxane and tetrahydrofuran. The solvent composition was fixed so as to elute all of the components of the sample mixture in a practical period of 2 h. Satisfactory separation of the ten components was obtained with the n-hexane-ethanol (90:10) system. The presence of methanol as a modifier in the n-hexane was effective in reducing the elution time, but the separation was not as satisfactory. Chloroform or dioxane was useful only for the separation of Ser, Asn and Gln. Acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, ethyl acetate and tetrahydrofuran were not suitable for practical separations of Dns-amino acids. PMID:1150766

Yamabe, T; Takai, N; Nakamura, H

1975-02-12

332

Scaleable production and separation of fermentation-derived acetic acid. Final CRADA report.  

SciTech Connect

Half of U.S. acetic acid production is used in manufacturing vinyl acetate monomer (VAM) and is economical only in very large production plants. Nearly 80% of the VAM is produced by methanol carbonylation, which requires high temperatures and exotic construction materials and is energy intensive. Fermentation-derived acetic acid production allows for small-scale production at low temperatures, significantly reducing the energy requirement of the process. The goal of the project is to develop a scaleable production and separation process for fermentation-derived acetic acid. Synthesis gas (syngas) will be fermented to acetic acid, and the fermentation broth will be continuously neutralized with ammonia. The acetic acid product will be recovered from the ammonium acid broth using vapor-based membrane separation technology. The process is summarized in Figure 1. The two technical challenges to success are selecting and developing (1) microbial strains that efficiently ferment syngas to acetic acid in high salt environments and (2) membranes that efficiently separate ammonia from the acetic acid/water mixture and are stable at high enough temperature to facilitate high thermal cracking of the ammonium acetate salt. Fermentation - Microbial strains were procured from a variety of public culture collections (Table 1). Strains were incubated and grown in the presence of the ammonium acetate product and the fastest growing cultures were selected and incubated at higher product concentrations. An example of the performance of a selected culture is shown in Figure 2. Separations - Several membranes were considered. Testing was performed on a new product line produced by Sulzer Chemtech (Germany). These are tubular ceramic membranes with weak acid functionality (see Figure 3). The following results were observed: (1) The membranes were relatively fragile in a laboratory setting; (2) Thermally stable {at} 130 C in hot organic acids; (3) Acetic acid rejection > 99%; and (4) Moderate ammonia flux. The advantages of producing acetic acid by fermentation include its appropriateness for small-scale production, lower cost feedstocks, low energy membrane-based purification, and lower temperature and pressure requirements. Potential energy savings of using fermentation are estimated to be approximately 14 trillion Btu by 2020 from a reduction in natural gas use. Decreased transportation needs with regional plants will eliminate approximately 200 million gallons of diesel consumption, for combined savings of 45 trillion Btu. If the fermentation process captures new acetic acid production, savings could include an additional 5 trillion Btu from production and 7 trillion Btu from transportation energy.

Snyder, S. W.; Energy Systems

2010-02-08

333

Genome-wide identification of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes required for tolerance to acetic acid  

PubMed Central

Background Acetic acid is a byproduct of Saccharomyces cerevisiae alcoholic fermentation. Together with high concentrations of ethanol and other toxic metabolites, acetic acid may contribute to fermentation arrest and reduced ethanol productivity. This weak acid is also a present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, a highly interesting non-feedstock substrate in industrial biotechnology. Therefore, the better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying S. cerevisiae tolerance to acetic acid is essential for the rational selection of optimal fermentation conditions and the engineering of more robust industrial strains to be used in processes in which yeast is explored as cell factory. Results The yeast genes conferring protection against acetic acid were identified in this study at a genome-wide scale, based on the screening of the EUROSCARF haploid mutant collection for susceptibility phenotypes to this weak acid (concentrations in the range 70-110 mM, at pH 4.5). Approximately 650 determinants of tolerance to acetic acid were identified. Clustering of these acetic acid-resistance genes based on their biological function indicated an enrichment of genes involved in transcription, internal pH homeostasis, carbohydrate metabolism, cell wall assembly, biogenesis of mitochondria, ribosome and vacuole, and in the sensing, signalling and uptake of various nutrients in particular iron, potassium, glucose and amino acids. A correlation between increased resistance to acetic acid and the level of potassium in the growth medium was found. The activation of the Snf1p signalling pathway, involved in yeast response to glucose starvation, is demonstrated to occur in response to acetic acid stress but no evidence was obtained supporting the acetic acid-induced inhibition of glucose uptake. Conclusions Approximately 490 of the 650 determinants of tolerance to acetic acid identified in this work are implicated, for the first time, in tolerance to this weak acid. These are novel candidate genes for genetic engineering to obtain more robust yeast strains against acetic acid toxicity. Among these genes there are number of transcription factors that are documented regulators of a large percentage of the genes found to exert protection against acetic acid thus being considered interesting targets for subsequent genetic engineering. The increase of potassium concentration in the growth medium was found to improve the expression of maximal tolerance to acetic acid, consistent with the idea that the adequate manipulation of nutrient concentration of industrial growth medium can be an interesting strategy to surpass the deleterious effects of this weak acid in yeast cells. PMID:20973990

2010-01-01

334

Successful Pregnancy after Treatment with Ulipristal Acetate for Uterine Fibroids  

PubMed Central

This case report presents a clinical pregnancy after ulipristal acetate (UA) to decrease uterine fibroid size. A 37-year-old patient, gravida 1, abortus 1, with uterine fibroids was treated with 5?mg of UA daily for 13 weeks starting eight months after a multiple laparotomic myomectomy. Fibroid shrinkage and restoration of the morphology of endometrial cavity were evaluated in order to allow a subsequent pregnancy. A decrease of the uterine fibroids and a normal morphology of the endometrial cavity were noted by transvaginal ultrasound after treatment. An endometrial biopsy excluded histologic endometrial changes. Three months after the end of UA the patient reported amenorrhea for 5 weeks and a clinical pregnancy was confirmed with transvaginal ultrasound. She underwent a subsequent uneventful pregnancy. Thus, the spontaneous pregnancy after UA to reduce fibroid size may support the potential clinical utility of this selective progesterone receptor modulator in the management of women with pregnancy desire and uterine fibroids after a prior myomectomy. Patients who refuse a new surgical procedure and/or those who are going to undergo assisted reproductive techniques would benefit from UA. It effectively shrinks fibroids, avoids risks of a new surgical procedure, and allows an immediate attempt at conception after the end of treatment. PMID:25143845

Monleón, Javier; Galliano, Daniela; Pellicer, Antonio

2014-01-01

335

Indole-3-acetic acid improves Escherichia coli's defences to stress.  

PubMed

Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is a ubiquitous molecule playing regulatory roles in many living organisms. To elucidate the physiological changes induced by IAA treatment, we used Escherichia coli K-12 as a model system. By microarray analysis we found that 16 genes showed an altered expression level in IAA-treated cells. One-third of these genes encode cell envelope components, or proteins involved in bacterial adaptation to unfavourable environmental conditions. We thus investigated the effect of IAA treatment on some of the structural components of the envelope that may be involved in cellular response to stresses. This showed that IAA-treated cells had increased the production of trehalose, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), exopolysaccharide (EPS) and biofilm. We demonstrated further that IAA triggers an increased tolerance to several stress conditions (heat and cold shock, UV-irradiation, osmotic and acid shock and oxidative stress) and different toxic compounds (antibiotics, detergents and dyes) and this correlates with higher levels of the heat shock protein DnaK. We suggest that IAA triggers an increased level of alert and protection against external adverse conditions by coordinately enhancing different cellular defence systems. PMID:16555073

Bianco, C; Imperlini, E; Calogero, R; Senatore, B; Amoresano, A; Carpentieri, A; Pucci, P; Defez, R

2006-06-01

336

Quantum chemical computational studies on bis-thiourea zinc acetate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, quantum chemical calculations of vibrational spectra, Raman spectra, electronic properties (total energy, dipole moment, electronegativity, chemical hardness and softness), Mulliken atomic charges and thermodynamic parameters of bis-thiourea zinc acetate (BTZA) have been performed using Gaussian 09 program. Additionally, nonlinear optical (NLO), conformational, natural bond orbital (NBO) analyses of BTZA have been carried out using the same program. The structural and spectroscopic data of the molecule in the ground state have been calculated using Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional method (DFT/B3LYP) with the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. In addition, the molecular frontier orbital energies (HOMO, HOMO-1, LUMO and LUMO+1) of the title compound have been calculated at the HF and B3LYP levels. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. Finally, the calculated results were applied to simulate infrared and Raman spectra of the title compound which showed good agreement with the experimental ones.

Pir, Hacer; Günay, Nergin; Tamer, Ömer; Avci, Davut; Tarcan, Erdo?an; Atalay, Yusuf

2013-08-01

337

Thermal stability of new zinc acetate-based complex compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

New zinc acetate based complex compounds (of general formula Zn(CH3COO)2·1?2L·nH2O) containing one or two molecules of urea, thiourea, coffeine and phenazone were prepared namely: Zn(CH3COO)2·2.5H2O, Zn(CH3COO)2·2u·0.5H2O, Zn(CH3COO)2·tu·0.5H2O, Zn(CH3COO)2·2tu, Zn(CH3COO)2·cof·2.5H2O, Zn(CH3COO)2·2cof·3.5H2O, Zn(CH3COO)2·2phen·1.5H2O.\\u000a \\u000a The compounds were characterized by IR spectroscopy, chemical analysis and thermal analysis. Thermal analysis showed that\\u000a no changes in crystallographic modifications of the compounds take place during (heating in

K. Gydryovft; V. Balek

1993-01-01

338

Plasmacatalytic removal of lead acetate assisted by precipitation.  

PubMed

The Gliding Arc Discharge (GAD) is an efficient non-thermal plasma technique able to degrade organic compounds dispersed in water at atmospheric pressure. The degradation of the organometallic lead acetate (PbAc) in aqueous solution was performed by two distinct plasmageneous processes: GAD and GAD/TiO2. The global oxidation of the organic matter was followed by Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and the mineralization was determined by the Total Organic Carbon (TOC). The Pb(2+) ions released during the degradation process were measured by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). For 2h of GAD treatment, the degradation rate of PbAc (10mM) reached 83% and for the same duration of GAD/TiO2 process ([TiO2]=1gL(-1)), it reached 93%. The release of Pb(2+) ions in the solution was respectively of 95% and 57% for GAD and GAD/TiO2 processes. The released Pb(2+) ions were removed by precipitation process in a basic medium at pH=11.1. A reaction mechanism was proposed to explain the PbAc molecule degradation and the Pb(2+) elimination. PMID:24462087

Haddou, Nabila; Ghezzar, Mouffok Redouane; Abdelmalek, Fatiha; Ognier, Stéphanie; Martel, Marc; Addou, Ahmed

2014-07-01

339

Thermal Conductivity of Ethylene Vinyl Acetate Copolymer/Nanofiller Blends  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To reduce weight and increase the mobility, comfort, and performance of future spacesuits, flexible, thermally conductive fabrics and plastic tubes are needed for the Liquid Cooling and Ventilation Garment. Such improvements would allow astronauts to operate more efficiently and safely for extended extravehicular activities. As an approach to raise the thermal conductivity (TC) of an ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (Elvax 260), it was compounded with three types of carbon based nanofillers: multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), vapor grown carbon nanofibers (CNFs), and expanded graphite (EG). In addition, other nanofillers including metallized CNFs, nickel nanostrands, boron nitride, and powdered aluminum were also compounded with Elvax 260 in the melt at various loading levels. In an attempt to improve compatibility between Elvax 260 and the nanofillers, MWCNTs and EG were modified by surface coating and through noncovalent and covalent attachment of organic molecules containing alkyl groups. Ribbons of the nanocomposites were extruded to form samples in which the nanofillers were aligned in the direction of flow. Samples were also fabricated by compression molding to yield nanocomposites in which the nanofillers were randomly oriented. Mechanical properties of the aligned samples were determined by tensile testing while the degree of dispersion and alignment of nanoparticles were investigated using high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. TC measurements were performed using a laser flash (Nanoflash ) technique. TC of the samples was measured in the direction of, and perpendicular to, the alignment direction. Additionally, tubing was also extruded from select nanocomposite compositions and the TC and mechanical flexibility measured.

Ghose, S.; Watson, K. A.; Working, D. C.; Connell, J. W.; Smith, J. G., Jr.; Lin, Y.; Sun, Y. P.

2007-01-01

340

Acetic acid bacteria isolated from grapes of South Australian vineyards.  

PubMed

Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) diversity from healthy, mould-infected and rot-affected grapes collected from three vineyards of Adelaide Hills (South Australia) was analyzed by molecular typing and identification methods. Nine different AAB species were identified from the 624 isolates recovered: Four species from Gluconobacter genus, two from Asaia and one from Acetobacter were identified by the analysis of 16S rRNA gene and 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer. However, the identification of other isolates that were assigned as Asaia sp. and Ameyamaea chiangmaiensis required more analysis for a correct species classification. The species of Gluconobacter cerinus was the main one identified; while one genotype of Asaia siamensis presented the highest number of isolates. The number of colonies recovered and genotypes identified was strongly affected by the infection status of the grapes; the rot-affected with the highest number. However, the species diversity was similar in all the cases. High AAB diversity was detected with a specific genotype distribution for each vineyard. PMID:24681711

Mateo, E; Torija, M J; Mas, A; Bartowsky, E J

2014-05-16

341

Protective effects of incensole acetate on cerebral ischemic injury.  

PubMed

The resin of Boswellia species is a major anti-inflammatory agent that has been used for centuries to treat various conditions including injuries and inflammatory conditions. Incensole acetate (IA), a major constituent of this resin, has been shown to inhibit NF-?B activation and concomitant inflammation, as well as the neurological deficit following head trauma. Here, we show that IA protects against ischemic neuronal damage and reperfusion injury in mice, attenuating the inflammatory nature of ischemic damage. IA given post-ischemia, reduced infarct volumes and improved neurological activities in the mouse model of ischemic injury in a dose dependent fashion. The protection from damage was accompanied by inhibition of TNF-?, IL-1? and TGF-? expression, as well as NF-?B activation following injury. In addition, IA is shown to have a therapeutic window of treatment up to 6h after ischemic injury. Finally, the protective effects of IA were partially mediated by TRPV3 channels as determined by the TRPV3 deficient mice and channel blocker studies. This study suggests that the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective activities of IA may serve as a novel therapeutic treatment for ischemic and reperfusion injury, and as a tool in the ongoing research of mechanisms for neurological damage. PMID:22284622

Moussaieff, Arieh; Yu, Jin; Zhu, Hong; Gattoni-Celli, Sebastiano; Shohami, Esther; Kindy, Mark S

2012-03-14

342

42 CFR 84.1141 - Isoamyl acetate tightness test; dust, fume, and mist respirators designed for respiratory...  

...false Isoamyl acetate tightness test; dust, fume, and mist respirators designed...APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint...1141 Isoamyl acetate tightness test; dust, fume, and mist respirators...

2014-10-01

343

Syntrophic acetate oxidation under thermophilic methanogenic condition in Chinese paddy field soil.  

PubMed

The aim of the present work was to determine and compare the degradation of acetate in a Chinese rice field soil at 25°C and 50°C, respectively, and to identify specifically the active organisms involved in syntrophic acetate oxidation. Soil was preincubated anaerobically for 30 days to reduce alternative electron acceptors other than CO(2). The [2-(13)C] acetate (99% (13)C) was added twice: 0 day and 19 days after preincubation. Addition of [2-(13)C] acetate resulted in an immediate increase of (13)C labeled CH(4) but non-labeling of CO(2) at 25°C. The methanogen community was dominated by Methanosarcinaceae and Methanocellales at 25°C. In contrast, the addition of [2-(13)C] acetate at 50°C resulted in a rapid increase of (13)CO(2). The (13)C labeling of CH(4) gradually increased and reached a similar value to CO(2) (13% (13)C) at the end of incubation (40 days). Nearly all archaeal 16S rRNA genes detected at 50°C belonged to hydrogenotrophic Methanocellales. DNA-based stable isotope probing analysis revealed that the organisms related to Thermacetogenium lineage and the unclassified Thermoanaerobacteraceae group were intensively labeled with (13)C in the incubations at 50°C. Thus, acetate was converted to CH(4) and CO(2) through aceticlastic methanogenesis at 25°C, while syntrophic acetate oxidation occurred at 50°C. PMID:21470253

Rui, Junpeng; Qiu, Qiongfen; Lu, Yahai

2011-08-01

344

Acetic Acid Production by an Electrodialysis Fermentation Method with a Computerized Control System  

PubMed Central

In acetic acid fermentation by Acetobacter aceti, the acetic acid produced inhibits the production of acetic acid by this microorganism. To alleviate this inhibitory effect, we developed an electrodialysis fermentation method such that acetic acid is continuously removed from the broth. The fermentation unit has a computerized system for the control of the pH and the concentration of ethanol in the fermentation broth. The electrodialysis fermentation system resulted in improved cell growth and higher productivity over an extended period; the productivity exceeded that from non-pH-controlled fermentation. During electrodialysis fermentation in our system, 97.6 g of acetic acid was produced from 86.0 g of ethanol; the amount of acetic acid was about 2.4 times greater than that produced by non-pH-controlled fermentation (40.1 g of acetic acid produced from 33.8 g of ethanol). Maximum productivity of electrodialysis fermentation in our system was 2.13 g/h, a rate which was 1.35 times higher than that of non-pH-controlled fermentation (1.58 g/h). PMID:16347520

Nomura, Yoshiyuki; Iwahara, Masayoshi; Hongo, Motoyoshi

1988-01-01

345

Beneficial Effect of Acetic Acid on the Xylose Utilization and Bacterial Cellulose Production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus.  

PubMed

In this work, acetic acid was found as one promising substrate to improve xylose utilization by Gluconacetobacter xylinus CH001. Also, with the help of adding acetic acid into medium, the bacterial cellulose (BC) production by G. xylinus was increased significantly. In the medium containing 3 g l(-1) acetic acid, the optimal xylose concentration for BC production was 20 g l(-1). In the medium containing 20 g l(-1) xylose, the xylose utilization and BC production by G. xylinus were stimulated by acetic acid within certain concentration. The highest BC yield (1.35 ± 0.06 g l(-1)) was obtained in the medium containing 20 g l(-1) xylose and 3 g l(-1) acetic acid after 14 days. This value was 6.17-fold higher than the yield (0.21 ± 0.01 g l(-1)) in the medium only containing 20 g l(-1) xylose. The results analyzed by FE-SEM, FTIR, and XRD showed that acetic acid affected little on the microscopic morphology and physicochemical characteristics of BC. Base on the phenomenon observed, lignocellulosic acid hydrolysates (xylose and acetic acid are main carbon sources present in it) could be considered as one potential substrate for BC production. PMID:24891733

Yang, Xiao-Yan; Huang, Chao; Guo, Hai-Jun; Xiong, Lian; Luo, Jun; Wang, Bo; Chen, Xue-Fang; Lin, Xiao-Qing; Chen, Xin-De

2014-09-01

346

Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of clove essential oil and eugenyl acetate produced by enzymatic esterification.  

PubMed

This work reports the maximization of eugenyl acetate production by esterification of essential oil of clove in a solvent-free system using Novozym 435 as catalyst. The antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of clove essential oil and eugenyl acetate produced were determined. The conditions that maximized eugenyl acetate production were 60 °C, essential oil of clove to acetic anhydride ratio of 1:5, 150 rpm, and 10 wt% of enzyme, with a conversion of 99.87 %. A kinetic study was performed to assess the influence of substrates' molar ratio, enzyme concentration, and temperature on product yield. Results show that an excess of anhydride, enzyme concentration of 5.5 wt%, 50 °C, and essential oil of clove to acetic anhydride ratio of 1:5 afforded nearly a complete conversion after 2 h of reaction. Comparing the antibacterial activity of the essential oil of clove before and after esterification, we observed a decrease in the antimicrobial activity of eugenyl acetate, particularly with regard to minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Both eugenyl acetate and clove essential oil were most effective to the gram-negative than gram-positive bacteria group. The results showed a high antioxidant potential for essential oil before and particularly after the esterification reaction thus becoming an option for the formulation of new antioxidant products. PMID:25104002

Vanin, Adriana B; Orlando, Tainara; Piazza, Suelen P; Puton, Bruna M S; Cansian, Rogério L; Oliveira, Debora; Paroul, Natalia

2014-10-01

347

The acetate switch of an intestinal pathogen disrupts host insulin signaling and lipid metabolism.  

PubMed

Vibrio cholerae is lethal to the model host Drosophila melanogaster through mechanisms not solely attributable to cholera toxin. To examine additional virulence determinants, we performed a genetic screen in V. cholerae-infected Drosophila and identified the two-component system CrbRS. CrbRS controls transcriptional activation of acetyl-CoA synthase-1 (ACS-1) and thus regulates the acetate switch, in which bacteria transition from excretion to assimilation of environmental acetate. The resultant loss of intestinal acetate leads to deactivation of host insulin signaling and lipid accumulation in enterocytes, resulting in host lethality. These metabolic effects are not observed upon infection with ?crbS or ?acs1 V. cholerae mutants. Additionally, uninfected flies lacking intestinal commensals, which supply short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) such as acetate, also exhibit altered insulin signaling and intestinal steatosis, which is reversed upon acetate supplementation. Thus, acetate consumption by V. cholerae alters host metabolism, and dietary acetate supplementation may ameliorate some sequelae of cholera. PMID:25525791

Hang, Saiyu; Purdy, Alexandra E; Robins, William P; Wang, Zhipeng; Mandal, Manabendra; Chang, Sarah; Mekalanos, John J; Watnick, Paula I

2014-11-12

348

40 CFR 721.2076 - D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. 721.2076 Section 721.2076 Protection...acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant...acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt (PMN P-00-7; CAS...

2012-07-01

349

Acetate supplementation increases brain phosphocreatine and reduces AMP levels with no effect on mitochondrial biogenesis  

PubMed Central

Acetate supplementation in rats increases plasma acetate and brain acetyl-CoA levels. Although acetate is used as a marker to study glial energy metabolism, the effect that acetate supplementation has on normal brain energy stores has not been quantified. To determine the effect(s) that an increase in acetyl-CoA levels has on brain energy metabolism, we measured brain nucleotide, phosphagen and glycogen levels, and quantified cardiolipin content and mitochondrial number in rats subjected to acetate supplementation. Acetate supplementation was induced with glyceryl triacetate (GTA) by oral gavage (6 g/Kg body weight). Rats used for biochemical analysis were euthanized using head-focused microwave irradiation at 2, and 4 hr following treatment to immediately stop metabolism. We found that acetate did not alter brain ATP, ADP, NAD, GTP levels, or the energy charge ratio [ECR, (ATP + ½ ADP) / (ATP + ADP + AMP)] when compared to controls. However, after 4 hr of treatment brain phosphocreatine levels were significantly elevated with a concomitant reduction in AMP levels with no change in glycogen levels. In parallel studies where rats were treated with GTA for 28 days, we found that acetate did not alter brain glycogen and mitochondrial biogenesis as determined by measuring brain cardiolipin content, the fatty acid composition of cardiolipin and using quantitative ultra-structural analysis to determine mitochondrial density/unit area of cytoplasm in hippocampal CA3 neurons. Collectively, these data suggest that an increase in brain acetyl-CoA levels by acetate supplementation does increase brain energy stores however it has no effect on brain glycogen and neuronal mitochondrial biogenesis. PMID:23321384

Bhatt, Dhaval P.; Houdek, Heidi M.; Watt, John A.; Rosenberger, Thad A.

2013-01-01

350

Acetate Availability and Utilization Supports the Growth of Mutant Sub-Populations on Aging Bacterial Colonies  

PubMed Central

When bacterial colonies age most cells enter a stationary phase, but sub-populations of mutant bacteria can continue to grow and accumulate. These sub-populations include bacteria with mutations in rpoB (RNA polymerase ?-subunit) or rpoS (RNA polymerase stress-response sigma factor). Here we have identified acetate as a nutrient present in the aging colonies that is utilized by these mutant subpopulations to support their continued growth. Proteome analysis of aging colonies showed that several proteins involved in acetate conversion and utilization were upregulated during aging. Acetate is known to be excreted during the exponential growth phase but can be imported later during the transition to stationary phase and converted to acetyl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA is used in multiple processes, including feeding into the TCA cycle, generating ATP via the glyoxylate shunt, as a source of acetyl groups for protein modification, and to support fatty acid biosynthesis. We showed that deletion of acs (encodes acetyl-CoA synthetase; converts acetate into acetyl-CoA) significantly reduced the accumulation of rpoB and rpoS mutant subpopulations on aging colonies. Measurement of radioactive acetate uptake showed that the rate of conversion decreased in aging wild-type colonies, was maintained at a constant level in the rpoB mutant, and significantly increased in the aging rpoS mutant. Finally, we showed that the growth of subpopulations on aging colonies was greatly enhanced if the aging colony itself was unable to utilize acetate, leaving more acetate available for mutant subpopulations to use. Accordingly, the data show that the accumulation of subpopulations of rpoB and rpoS mutants on aging colonies is supported by the availability in the aging colony of acetate, and by the ability of the subpopulation cells to convert the acetate to acetyl-CoA. PMID:25275605

Bergman, Jessica M.; Wrande, Marie; Hughes, Diarmaid

2014-01-01

351

Kinetic Resolution of Racemic Amino Alcohols through Intermolecular Acetalization Catalyzed by a Chiral Brønsted Acid.  

PubMed

The kinetic resolution of racemic secondary alcohols is a fundamental method for obtaining enantiomerically enriched alcohols. Compared to esterification, which is a well-established method for this purpose, kinetic resolution through enantioselective intermolecular acetalization has not been reported to date despite the fact that the formation of acetals is widely adopted to protect hydroxy groups. By taking advantage of the thermodynamics of acetalization by the addition of alcohols to enol ethers, a highly efficient kinetic resolution of racemic amino alcohols was achieved for the first time and in a practical manner using a chiral phosphoric acid catalyst. PMID:25581575

Yamanaka, Takuto; Kondoh, Azusa; Terada, Masahiro

2015-01-28

352

Comparison of acetate tape impression with squeezing versus skin scraping for the diagnosis of canine demodicosis.  

PubMed

This study compared the sensitivity of acetate tape impression and skin squeezing with that of deep skin scraping for the diagnosis of demodicosis in dogs. Demodex canis was detected in 100% of acetate tape impressions obtained after skin squeezing and in 90% of deep skin scrapings. There was a significant difference (P < 0.001) between the techniques in the total number of mites detected. Acetate tape impression with skin squeezing was found to be more sensitive than deep skin scraping and is an alternative diagnostic method for canine demodicosis. PMID:23106326

Pereira, A V; Pereira, S A; Gremião, I D F; Campos, M P; Ferreira, A M R

2012-11-01

353

The feeding value of water and acetic acid reconstituted sorghum grain for lactating dairy cows  

E-print Network

. Lane Sorghum grain, reconstituted to 30? moisture using water or an acetic acid solution to result in 2l acetic acid in the reconsti- tuted grain, was ensiled and compared to air-dry grain in digestion, production, and volatile fatty acid studies... production were not affected by the rations. An 1n vivo volatile fatty acid study was conducted w1th a f1stulated steer fed rat1ons containing dry grain, water reconsti- tuted gra1n, and grain reconstituted with 0. 5, 1. 0, 1. 5, 2. 0 and 2. 5K acetic...

Bade, David Heinie

1972-01-01

354

Improving fermentation performance of recombinant Zymomonas in acetic acid-containing media.  

PubMed

In the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass, the hydrolysis of the acetylated pentosans in hemicellulose during pretreatment produces acetic acid in the prehydrolysate. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is currently investigating a simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF) process that uses a proprietary metabolically engineered strain of Zymomonas mobilis that can coferment glucose and xylose. Acetic acid toxicity represents a major limitation to bioconversion, and cost-effective means of reducing the inhibitory effects of acetic acid represent an opportunity for significant increased productivity and reduced cost of producing fermentation fuel ethanol from biomass. In this study, the fermentation performance of recombinant Z. mobilis 39676:pZB4L, using a synthetic hardwood prehydrolysate containing 1% (w/v) yeast extract, 0.2% KH2PO4, 4% (w/v) xylose, and 0.8% (w/v) glucose, with varying amounts of acetic acid was examine. To minimize the concentration of the inhibitory undissociated form of acetic acid, the pH was controlled at 6.0. The final cell mass concentration decreased linearly with increasing level of acetic acid over the range 0-0.75% (w/v), with a 50% reduction at about 0.5% (w/v) acetic acid. The conversion efficiency was relatively unaffected, decreasing from 98 to 92%. In the absence of acetic acid, batch fermentations were complete at 24 h. In a batch fermentation with 0.75% (w/v) acetic acid, about two-thirds of the xylose was not metabolized after 48 h. In batch fermentations with 0.75% (w/v) acetic acid, increasing the initial glucose concentration did not have an enhancing effect on the rate of xylose fermentation. However, nearly complete xylose fermentation was achieved in 48h when the bioreactor was fed glucose. In the fed-batch system, the rate of glucose feeding (0.5 g/h) was designed to simulate the rate of cellulolytic digestion that had been observed in a modeled SSCF process with recombinant Zymomonas. In the absence of acetic acid, this rate of glucose feeding did not inhibit xylose utilization. It is concluded that the inhibitory effect of acetic acid on xylose utilization in the SSCF biomass-to-ethanol process will be partially ameliorated because of the simultaneous saccharification of the cellulose. PMID:9627380

Lawford, H G; Rousseau, J D

1998-01-01

355

Thermal Conductivity of Ethylene Vinyl Acetate Copolymer/Nanofiller Blends  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To reduce weight and increase the mobility, comfort, and performance of future spacesuits, flexible, thermally conductive fabrics and plastic tubes are needed for the Liquid Cooling and Ventilation Garment. Such improvements would allow astronauts to operate more efficiently and safely for extended extravehicular activities. As an approach to raise the thermal conductivity (TC) of an ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (Elvax(TM)260), it was compounded with three types of carbon based nanofillers: multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), vapor grown carbon nanofibers (CNFs), and expanded graphite (EG). In addition, other nanofillers including metallized CNFs, nickel nanostrands, boron nitride, and powdered aluminum were also compounded with Elvax(TM) 260 in the melt at various loading levels. In an attempt to improve compatibility between Elvax 260 and the nanofillers, MWCNTs and EG were modified by surface coating and through noncovalent and covalent attachment of organic molecules containing alkyl groups. Ribbons of the nanocomposites were extruded to form samples in which the nanofillers were aligned in the direction of flow. Samples were also fabricated by compression molding to yield nanocomposites in which the nanofillers were randomly oriented. Mechanical properties of the aligned samples were determined by tensile testing while the degree of dispersion and alignment of nanoparticles were investigated using high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. TC measurements were performed using a laser flash (Nanoflash(TM)) technique. TC of the samples was measured in the direction of, and perpendicular to, the alignment direction. Additionally, tubing was also extruded from select nanocomposite compositions and the TC and mechanical flexibility measured.

Ghose, Sayata; Watson, Kent A.; Working, Dennis C.; Connell, John W.; Smith, Joseph G., Jr.; Lin, Y.; Sun, Y. P.

2007-01-01

356

Nomegestrol acetate-17b-estradiol for oral contraception  

PubMed Central

Oral contraceptives remain a popular method of contraception over 50 years after their introduction. While safe and effective for many women, the failure rate of oral contraception is about 8%. Concerns about the risk of venous thromboembolism continue to drive the search for the safest oral contraceptive formulations. The oral contraceptive NOMAC-E2 contains nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC) 2.5 mg + 17b-estradiol (E2) 1.5 mg. The approved dosing regimen is 24 days of active hormone, followed by a 4-day hormone-free interval. NOMAC is a progestin derived from testosterone, which has high bioavailability, rapid absorption, and a long half-life. Estradiol, though it has a lower bioavailability, has been successfully combined with NOMAC in a monophasic oral contraceptive. Two recently published randomized controlled trials demonstrate that NOMAC-E2 is an effective contraceptive, with a Pearl Index less than one pregnancy per 100 woman-years. The bleeding pattern on NOMAC-E2 is characterized by fewer bleeding/spotting days, shorter withdrawal bleeds, and a higher incidence of amenorrhea than the comparator oral contraceptive containing drospirenone and ethinyl estradiol. The adverse event profile appears to be acceptable. Few severe adverse events were reported in the randomized controlled trials. The most common adverse events were irregular bleeding, acne, and weight gain. Preliminary studies suggest that NOMAC-E2 does not seem to have negative effects on hemostatic and metabolic parameters. While no one oral contraceptive formulation is likely to be the optimum choice for all women, NOMAC-E2 is a formulation with effectiveness comparable with that of other oral contraceptives, and a reassuring safety profile. PMID:23836965

Burke, Anne

2013-01-01

357

Photoluminescence of cellulose acetate and silica sphere composite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strong blue and green light emission has been observed from the cellulose acetate (CA) and silica sphere composite. Two different amounts of silica spheres were mixed in the CA solution to fabricate large area super-hydrophobic films. The silica spheres and CA solution ratios were 0.07:4.0 (SSCA-A) and 0.14:4.0 (SSCA-B). The milky color solution of SSCA-A and SSCA-B slowly turned to light yellow and red, respectively, with the time passed. The colors became intense yellow and red for the SSCA-A and SSCA-B, respectively, after 38 days. FTIR spectra show more absorption at 3478 cm-1 corresponding sbnd OH stretching vibration, at 2963 cm-1 caused by sbnd CH stretching vibration, at 1746 and 1713 cm-1 representing the Cdbnd O stretching vibration, and at 1100 cm-1 corresponding sbnd Rsbnd OH and Sisbnd Osbnd Si stretching vibration for CA and silica. Therefore, aged SSCA-A and SSCA-B have more sbnd OH, sbnd CH, sbnd Cdbnd O, and Sisbnd Osbnd Si groups than pure CA. UV-visible spectra show the absorption peaks at 410 nm for both SSCA-A and SSCA-B. Photoluminescence (PL) peaks were shifted toward longer wavelength with the increase of the excitation wavelength and became maximum at approximately 470 nm with excitation wavelength at 400 nm for the SSCA-A. There were two maximum luminescence peaks at 470 and 530 nm with the excitation wavelength at 400 and 470 nm, respectively, for the SSCA-B. The luminescence peak shift was due to the multiple emission center proved by the different excitation energy.

Kang, Kwang-Sun

2014-08-01

358

Randomized Study Combining Interferon & Glatiramer Acetate in Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Objective A double-blind, randomized, controlled study to determine if combined use of interferon beta-1a (IFN) 30ug IM weekly and glatiramer acetate (GA) 20mg daily is more efficacious than either agent alone in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Methods 1008 participants were randomized and followed until the last participant enrolled completed 3 yrs. The primary endpoint was reduction in annualized relapse rate utilizing a strict definition of relapse. Secondary outcomes included time to confirmed disability, Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC) score and MRI metrics. Results Combination IFN + GA was not superior to the better of the single agents (GA) in risk of relapse. Both the combination therapy and GA were significantly better than IFN in reducing the risk of relapse. The Combination was not better than either agent alone in lessening confirmed EDSS progression or change in MSFC over 36 months. The combination was superior to either agent alone in reducing new lesion activity and accumulation of total lesion volumes. In a post hoc analysis, combination therapy resulted in a higher proportion of participants attaining disease activity free status (DAFS) compared to either single arm; driven by the MRI results. Interpretation Combining the two most commonly prescribed therapies for MS did not produce a significant clinical benefit over three years. An effect was seen on some MRI metrics. In a test of comparative efficacy, GA was superior to IFN in reducing the risk of exacerbation. The extension phase for CombiRx will address if the observed differences in MRI and DAFS findings predict later clinical differences. PMID:23424159

Lublin, Fred D.; Cofield, Stacey S.; Cutter, Gary R.; Conwit, Robin; Narayana, Ponnada A.; Nelson, Flavia; Salter, Amber R.; Gustafson, Tarah; Wolinsky, Jerry S.

2013-01-01

359

Functionalization of ethylene vinyl acetate with antimicrobial chlorhexidine hexametaphosphate nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) is in widespread use as a polymeric biomaterial with diverse applications such as intravitreal devices, catheters, artificial organs, and mouthguards. Many biomaterials are inherently prone to bacterial colonization, as the human body is host to a vast array of microbes. This can lead to infection at the biomaterial’s site of implantation or application. In this study, EVA was coated with chlorhexidine (CHX) hexametaphosphate (HMP) nanoparticles (NPs) precipitated using two different reagent concentrations: CHX-HMP-5 (5 mM CHX and HMP) and CHX-HMP-0.5 (0.5 mM CHX and HMP). Data gathered using dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy indicated that the NPs were polydisperse, ~40–80 nm in diameter, and aggregated in solution to form clusters of ~140–200 nm and some much larger aggregates of 4–5 ?M. CHX-HMP-5 formed large deposits on the polymer surface discernible using scanning electron microscopy, whereas CHX-HMP-0.5 did not. Soluble CHX was released by CHX-HMP-5 NP-coated surfaces over the experimental period of 56 days. CHX-HMP-5 NPs prevented growth of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus when applied to the polymer surfaces, and also inhibited or prevented growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with greater efficacy when the NP suspension was not rinsed from the polymer surface, providing a greater NP coverage. This approach may provide a useful means to treat medical devices fabricated from EVA to render them resistant to colonization by pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:25206305

Wood, Natalie J; Maddocks, Sarah E; Grady, Helena J; Collins, Andrew M; Barbour, Michele E

2014-01-01

360

Effect of exogenous indole-3-acetic acid and naphthalene acetic acid on regeneration of damask rose cuttings in three growing media.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of various levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) treatments i.e., 0, 25, 50, 75, 100 mg L(-1) on the regeneration of damask rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) cuttings in different growing media at the research farm of Arid Zone Research Institute D.I. Khan during 2004. The data revealed significant effect of different levels of growth regulators and growing media on the rose establishment parameters viz., plant height, plant spread, number of primary shoots, secondary shoots and survival percentage. Maximum plant height (134.2 cm), plant spread (46.3 cm), primary shoots (6.3), secondary shoots (25) and survival percentage (94.72%) were recorded when the rose cuttings were applied with NAA at the rate of 50 mg L(-1). Among the plant growth regulators, Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA) was found to be superior to indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) for its stronger effect regarding all parameters. The optimum level of Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA) was found in the range of 50 and 75 mg L(-1), while no such conclusion could be drawn for indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) as all growth parameters were linearly increased up to the highest concentrations of IAA i.e., 100 mg L(-1). Regarding growing media, the leaf mould appeared the best in terms of its positive effect on establishment of rose cuttings by giving the maximum plant height (125.1 cm), plant spread (37 cm), primary shoots (5.2), secondary shoots (19.48) and survival percentage (85.67%), followed by soil + leaf mould, while soil media was least effective. PMID:19093472

Khan, Rahmat Ullah; Khan, Muhammad Sohail; Rashid, Abdur; Farooq, Arshad

2007-10-15

361

Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry Experiment: The Determination of Formation Constants for Acetate and Mono-and Dichloroacetate Salts of Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Methyl-and Ethylamines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The formation and the hydrolysis of organic salts produced by the titration of a 0.1 M solution of the following amines: methyl-, dimethyl-, trimethyl-, ethyl-, diethyl-, and triethylamine with a 0.1 M solution of acetic, chloroacetic, and dichloracetic acids are studied. The pK[subscript b] of the amine and the pH at the end point were determined…

D'Amelia, Ronald P.; Chiang, Stephanie; Pollut, Stephanie; Nirode, William F.

2014-01-01

362

Investigation of unique interactions between cellulose acetate and ionic liquid [EMIM]SCN, and their influences on hollow fiber ultrafiltration membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the molecular interactions between ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate ([EMIM]SCN) and cellulose acetate (CA), employing not only experimental characterizations including FTIR and rheological tests, but also molecular dynamics simulations. Due to the electrostatic nature of ionic liquids, [EMIM]SCN interacts intensely with CA molecules through pronounced hydrogen bonding, Coulombic forces and van der Waals interactions, which play an important

Ding Yu Xing; Na Peng; Tai-Shung Chung

2011-01-01

363

Biosynthesis of the Halogenated Auxin, 4-Chloroindole-3-Acetic Acid1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Seeds of several agriculturally important legumes are rich sources of the only halogenated plant hormone, 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid. However, the biosynthesis of this auxin is poorly understood. Here, we show that in pea (Pisum sativum) seeds, 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid is synthesized via the novel intermediate 4-chloroindole-3-pyruvic acid, which is produced from 4-chlorotryptophan by two aminotransferases, TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE RELATED1 and TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE RELATED2. We characterize a tar2 mutant, obtained by Targeting Induced Local Lesions in Genomes, the seeds of which contain dramatically reduced 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid levels as they mature. We also show that the widespread auxin, indole-3-acetic acid, is synthesized by a parallel pathway in pea. PMID:22573801

Tivendale, Nathan D.; Davidson, Sandra E.; Davies, Noel W.; Smith, Jason A.; Dalmais, Marion; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid I.; Quittenden, Laura J.; Sutton, Lily; Bala, Raj K.; Le Signor, Christine; Thompson, Richard; Horne, James; Reid, James B.; Ross, John J.

2012-01-01

364

Regioselective acetylation of diols and polyols by acetate catalysis: mechanism and application.  

PubMed

We propose a principle for H-bonding activation in acylation of hydroxyl groups, where the acylation is activated by the formation of hydrogen bonds between hydroxyl groups and anions. With the guidance of this principle, we demonstrate a method for the selective acylation of carbohydrates. By this method, diols and polyols are regioselectively acetylated in high yields under mild conditions using catalytic amounts of acetate. In comparison to other methods involving reagents such as organotin, organoboron, organosilicon, organobase, and metal salts, this method is more environmentally friendly, convenient, and efficient and is also associated with higher regioselectivity. We have performed a thorough quantum chemical study to decipher the mechanism, which suggests that acetate first forms a dual H-bond complex with a diol, which enables subsequent monoacylation by acetic anhydride under mild conditions. The regioselectivity appears to originate from the inherent structure of the diols and polyols and their specific interactions with the coordinating acetate catalyst. PMID:25102271

Ren, Bo; Rahm, Martin; Zhang, Xiaoling; Zhou, Yixuan; Dong, Hai

2014-09-01

365

Isolation and characterization of novel microsatellite markers for the northern mauxia shrimp, Acetes chinensis, using pyrosequencing.  

PubMed

Among the 14 species in the Acetes genus, Acetes japonicus and Acetes chinensis, are the only and also abundant two species around the Korean Peninsula, and are used in traditional recipes. These species are of great economic importance, but little is known about their population genetics, despite the fact that information of this kind is important for stock assessment, fisheries management and identification of origin. A total of 9 microsatellite (MS) markers for A. chinensis were developed using pyrosequencing techniques. Polymorphisms of these markers were evaluated in 96 wild individuals collected from the Yellow Sea off the coast of Korea. A total of 133 alleles were detected at nine loci, with a cross-species transferability of 56% with A. japonicus. These markers will facilitate assessment of population genetic diversity in the genus Acetes. PMID:24878169

Kang, Jung-Ha; Kang, Hyun-Sook; Noh, Eun-Soo; Park, Jung-Youn; An, Chel-Min

2014-12-01

366

78 FR 28221 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET) In accordance with...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters To Be Discussed:...

2013-05-14

367

78 FR 66936 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET) In accordance with section...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters To Be Discussed:...

2013-11-07

368

78 FR 9925 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET) In accordance with...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters to Be Discussed:...

2013-02-12

369

75 FR 63496 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET) In accordance with section...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters To Be Discussed:...

2010-10-15

370

76 FR 27327 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET) In accordance with...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters to be Discussed:...

2011-05-11

371

77 FR 65555 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET) In accordance with section...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters To Be Discussed:...

2012-10-29

372

75 FR 33316 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET) In accordance with...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters To Be Discussed:...

2010-06-11

373

77 FR 8877 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET) In accordance with section...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters to be Discussed:...

2012-02-15

374

75 FR 6402 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET) In accordance with section...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters To Be Discussed:...

2010-02-09

375

77 FR 27776 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET) In accordance with...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters To Be Discussed:...

2012-05-11

376

76 FR 67459 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET) In accordance with section...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters to be Discussed:...

2011-11-01

377

76 FR 36556 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License; The Development of Ulipristal Acetate for the Treatment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proposed clinical indications for ulipristal acetate include emergency/daily contraception, treatment of uterine fibroids, endometriosis, dysfunctional uterine bleeding, and cancer. The prospective exclusive license will be royalty bearing and will...

2011-06-22

378

75 FR 40736 - Acetic Acid; Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...activity in all cells that utilize oxygen as part of their respiration process. The krebs cycle is carried out in the mitochondria...believes that because acetic acid biodegrades rapidly under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions in the environment, residues...

2010-07-14

379

Measurement of Acetate Concentrations in Marine Pore Waters by Using an Enzymatic Approach †  

PubMed Central

Acetate concentrations in marine and freshwater matrices were measured by an enzymatic technique which coupled the synthesis of acetyl coenzyme A to AMP production. The resulting AMP was assayed by a sensitive and relatively rapid high-pressure liquid chromatography method, using an aqueous, isocratic mobile phase for elution. The method was insensitive to the presence of seawater salts and required no sample prepurification or distillation. Propionate caused a minor, but statistically insignificant, interference when equimolar with acetate; butyrate caused no interference, even at relatively high concentrations. Detection limits for acetate were approximately 100 nM with a precision of about 5%. Pore waters from two intertidal sediments contained approximately 1 to 12 ?M acetate; the concentrations were linearly but inversely correlated with porewater sulfate. PMID:16348598

King, Gary M.

1991-01-01

380

21 CFR 175.350 - Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS OF COATINGS Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.350 Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid...

2010-04-01

381

21 CFR 175.350 - Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS OF COATINGS Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.350 Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid...

2012-04-01

382

21 CFR 175.350 - Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS OF COATINGS Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.350 Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid...

2011-04-01

383

21 CFR 175.350 - Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS OF COATINGS Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.350 Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid...

2013-04-01

384

21 CFR 175.350 - Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer.  

...and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS OF COATINGS Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.350 Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid...

2014-04-01

385

Three-month depot of goserelin acetate: clinical efficacy and endocrine profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo compare the pharmacodynamics and tolerability of the new goserelin acetate 10.8-mg depot with the 3.6-mg depot in patients with advanced prostate cancer during the first 3 months of therapy.

Pilar Fernandez del Moral; Gerhard A. Dijkman; Frans M. J. Debruyne; Wim P. J. Witjes; Geert J. C. M. Kolvenbag

1996-01-01

386

Enzymatic determination of acetate in serum or plasma using a centrifugal fast analyser.  

PubMed

A simple enzymatic spectrophotometric micromethod is described for direct kinetic assay of acetate in serum or plasma using the Eni-Gemsaec centrifugal fast analyser. The method is based on the transformation of acetate and ATP into acetylphosphate and ADP by acetate kinase (EC 2.7.2.1). ADP is further measured by two coupling reactions involving pyruvate kinase (EC 2.7.1.40) and lactate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.27) with measurement of NADH consumption at 340 nm. The method involves a reagent blank for compensation of reagent deterioration, a preincubation of 3 min without acetate kinase to eliminate any interference due to endogenous pyruvate, and a two-point kinetic protocol with measurements of absorbance at 95s and 395 s. The analytical performances of the proposed method were investigated using an evaluation scheme proposed by the French Society of Clinical Biology. PMID:7083593

Trivin, C; Lenoir, F; Bretaudière, J P; Sachs, C

1982-05-01

387

Methane production from bicarbonate and acetate in an anoxic marine sediment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methane production from C-14 labeled bicarbonate and acetate was measured over the top 28 cm of anoxic Cape Lookout Bight sediments during the summer of 1983. The depth distribution and magnitude of summed radioisotopically determined rates compare well with previous measurements of total methane production and the sediment-water methane flux. Methane production from CO2 reduction and acetate fermentation accounts for greater than 80 percent of the total production rate and sediment-water flux. Methane production from bicarbonate was found to occur in all depth intervals sampled except those in the top 2 cm, whereas significant methane production from acetate only occurred at depths below 10 cm where sulfate was exhausted. Acetate provided 20 to 29 percent of the measured methane production integrated over the top 30 cm of the sediments.

Crill, P. M.; Martens, C. S.

1986-01-01

388

Indole-3-Acetic Acid Biosynthesis in Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene  

PubMed Central

We characterized the biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid by the mycoherbicide Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene. Auxin production was tryptophan dependent. Compounds from the indole-3-acetamide and indole-3-pyruvic acid pathways were detected in culture filtrates. Feeding experiments and in vitro assay confirmed the presence of both pathways. Indole-3-acetamide was the major pathway utilized by the fungus to produce indole-3-acetic acid in culture. PMID:9835603

Robinson, M.; Riov, J.; Sharon, A.

1998-01-01

389

Corrosion inhibition of indole-3-acetic acid on mild steel in 0.5 M HCl  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corrosion inhibition of indole-3-acetic acid on mild steel in acidic medium (0.5M HCl) containing the desired amount of inhibitor has been investigated at different temperatures by using potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and polarization resistance measurements. The experimental results showed that corrosion potential shifted toward a more negative potential region in the presence of indole-3-acetic acid than that of blank

Gül?en Avci

2008-01-01

390

Phase I and Clinical Pharmacology Study of Intravenous Flavone Acetic Acid (NSC347512)1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have conducted a Phase I and pharmacological study of flavone acetic acid, one of a series of novel flavonoids. The drug was administered i.v. weekly for 4 weeks, with a 2-week rest and then repeated. Flavone acetic acid was given initially in a l-li infusion, but at the 3900-mg\\/m2 dose level, the infusion time was lengthened to 3 h.

Raymond B. Weiss; Raymond F. Greene; Robert D. Knight; Jerry M. Collins; John J. Pelosi; Aaron Sulkes; Gregory A. Curt

391

Responses of Pisum sativum L. to Exogenous Indole Acetic Acid Application Under Manganese Toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Responses of pea (Pisum sativum L.) seedlings to manganese (50, 100 and 250 ?M) and indole acetic acid (10 and 100 ?M) treatments were investigated. Single\\u000a and combined exposure of pea to manganese and 100 ?M indole acetic acid decreased root and shoot fresh mass, chlorophyll,\\u000a carotenoids, protein and nitrogen while ammonium content increased compared to the control. Combined treatment of pea with

Savita Gangwar; Vijay Pratap Singh; Jagat Narayan Maurya

2011-01-01

392

Simultaneous determination of uric acid and ascorbic acid using glassy carbon electrodes in acetate buffer solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work reports the simultaneous determination of uric acid (UA) and ascorbic acid (AA) in 0.2M, pH 4.0, acetate buffer solution using glassy carbon (GC) electrode by square wave voltammetry. Selective detection of UA in the presence of 200-fold excess of AA is achieved at the GC electrode in acetate buffer solution. The GC electrode separates the voltammetric signal

S. Abraham John

2005-01-01

393

Formic and acetic acid over the central Amazon region, Brazil 1. Dry season  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have determined the atmospheric concentrations of formic and acetic acid in the gas phase, in aerosols, and in rain during the dry season (July--August 1985) in the Amazonia region of Brazil. At ground level the average concentrations of gas phase formic and acetic acid were 1.6 +- 0.6 and 2.2 +- 1.0 ppb, respectively. The diurnal behavior of both

M. O. Andreae; R. W. Talbot; T. W. Andreae; R. C. Harriss

1988-01-01

394

11C-Acetate PET Imaging in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Background Activation of glial cells is a cardinal feature in multiple sclerosis (MS) pathology, and acetate has been reported to be selectively uptaken by astrocytes in the CNS. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of PET with 11C-acetate for MS diagnosis. Materials and Methods Six patients with relapsing-remitting MS and 6 healthy volunteers (HV) were enrolled. The 11C-acetate brain uptake on PET was measured in patients with MS and HV. Volume-of-interest analysis of cerebral gray and white matter based on the segmentation technique for co-registered MRI and voxel-based statistical parametric analysis were performed. Correlation between 11C-acetate uptake and the lesion number in T1- and T2- weighted MR images were also assessed. Results The standardized uptake value (SUV) of 11C-acetate was increased in both white and gray matter in MS patients compared to HV. Voxel-based statistical analysis revealed a significantly increased SUV relative to that in the bilateral thalami (SUVt) in a broad area of white matter, particularly in the subcortical white matter of MS patients. The numbers of T2 lesions and T1 black holes were significantly correlated with SUV of 11C-acetate in white and gray matter. Conclusions The 11C-acetate uptake significantly increased in MS patients and correlated to the number of MRI lesions. These preliminary data suggest that 11C-acetate PET can be a useful clinical examination for MS patients. PMID:25369426

Shimosegawa, Eku; Okuno, Tatsusada; Koda, Toru; Sugimoto, Tomoyuki; Mochizuki, Hideki; Hatazawa, Jun; Nakatsuji, Yuji

2014-01-01

395

Interspecies acetate transfer influences the extent of anaerobic benzoate degradation by syntrophic consortia  

SciTech Connect

Benzoate degradation by an anaerobic, syntrophic bacterium, strain SB, in coculture with Desulfovibrio strain G-11 reached a threshold value which depended on the amount of acetate added, and ranged from about 2.5 to 29.9 {mu}M. Increasing acetate concentrations also uncompetitively inhibited benzoate degradation. The apparent V{sub max} and K{sub m} for benzoate degradation decreased with increasing acetate concentration, but the benzoate degradation capacity (V{sub max}/K{sub m}) of cell suspensions remained comparable. The addition of an acetate-using bacterium to cocultures after the threshold was reached resulted in the degradation of benzoate to below the detection limit. Mathematical simulations showed that the benzoate threshold was not predicted by the inhibitory effect of acetate on benzoate degradation kinetics. With nitrate instead of sulfate as the terminal electron acceptor, no benzoate threshold was observed in the presence of 20 mM acetate even though the degradation capacity was lower with nitrate than with sulfate. When strain SB was grown with a hydrogen-using partner that had a 5-fold lower hydrogen utilization capacity, a 5 to 9-fold lower the benzoate degradation capacity was observed compared to SB/G-11 cocultures. The Gibb`s free energy for benzoate degradation was less negative in cell suspensions with threshold compared to those without threshold. These studies showed that the threshold was not a function of the inhibition of benzoate degradation capacity by acetate, or the toxicity of the undissociated form of acetate. Rather a critical or minimal Gibb`s free energy may exist where thermodynamic constraints preclude further benzoate degradation.

Warikoo, V.; McInerney, M.J.; Suflita, J.M. [and others

1997-03-01

396

Vibrational spectra and structures of zinc carboxylates II. Anhydrous zinc acetate and zinc stearate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A normal mode analysis was carried out for a monoclinic anhydrous zinc acetate crystal in which the acetate groups had bridging bidentate coordination forms, and spectral assignments were made. Based on the assignments, a relation between the coordination structure of the carboxylate groups around the zinc atom and the vibrational frequencies of the carboxylate rocking mode was found. This relation was applied to zinc stearate to determine its coordination form, and we found that zinc stearate had a bridging bidentate form.

Ishioka, Tsutomu; Shibata, Youko; Takahashi, Mizuki; Kanesaka, Isao

1998-10-01

397

Zymomonas with improved ethanol production in medium containing concentrated sugars and acetate  

DOEpatents

Through screening of a Zymomonas mutant library the himA gene was found to be involved in the inhibitory effect of acetate on Zymomonas performance. Xylose-utilizing Zymomonas strains further engineered to reduce activity of the himA gene were found to have increased ethanol production in comparison to a parental strain, when cultured in mixed-sugars medium comprising xylose, and, in particular, in the presence of acetate.

Caimi, Perry G. (Kennett Square, PA); Chou, Yat-Chen (Lakewood, CO); Franden, Mary Ann (Centennial, CO); Knoke, Kyle (Newark, DE); Tao, Luan (Havertown, PA); Viitanen, Paul V. (West Chester, PA); Zhang, Min (Lakewood, CO); Zhang, Yuying (New Hope, PA)

2011-03-01

398

Indole-3-acetic acid biosynthesis in colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene  

PubMed

We characterized the biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid by the mycoherbicide Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene. Auxin production was tryptophan dependent. Compounds from the indole-3-acetamide and indole-3-pyruvic acid pathways were detected in culture filtrates. Feeding experiments and in vitro assay confirmed the presence of both pathways. Indole-3-acetamide was the major pathway utilized by the fungus to produce indole-3-acetic acid in culture. PMID:9835603

Robinson; Riov; Sharon

1998-12-01

399

Hen Performance and Egg Quality as Affected by Dietary Oregano Essential Oil and ?-tocopheryl Acetate Supplementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the effect of feeding oregano essential oil and ?-tocopheryl acetate on he n performance and egg quality, were investigated. Ninety-six Lohmann laying hens, 32-week-old, were allocated into four groups. One of the groups was given a control diet (CONT), another group a die t supplemented with 200 mg\\/kg ?-tocopheryl acetate (VIT-E), whereas the other two groups were

P. Florou-Paneri; I. Nikolakakis; I. Giannenas; A. Koidis; E. Botsoglou; V. Dotas; I. Mitsopoulos

400

Correspondence between occupational exposure limit and biological action level values for alkoxyethanols and their acetates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The Finnish occupational exposure limit (OEL) values for alkoxyethanols and their acetates were lowered in 1996. A reevaluation\\u000a of the correspondence between the new OEL value and the biological action level (BAL) was thus needed. This study was conducted\\u000a in silkscreen printing enterprises, where 2-alkoxyethanols and their acetates are mainly used as solvents. The air\\/urine correlations\\u000a between 2-methoxyethylacetate, 2-ethoxyethylacetate,

J. Laitinen

1998-01-01

401

Characterization of poly(ethylene- co-vinyl acetate) (EVA) filled with low grade magnesium hydroxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-grade magnesium hydroxide (LG-MH) is a solid by-product that undergoes an endothermic decomposition in the temperature range of 300–750°C. Due to its thermal behaviour and its lower cost relative to pure Mg(OH)2, it was studied as a non-halogenated flame retardant filler in a 28% vinyl acetate (VA) content poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) matrix. The solid was characterized by XRF and the crystalline

A. I. Fernández; L. Haurie; J. Formosa; J. M. Chimenos; M. Antunes; J. I. Velasco

2009-01-01

402

Comparative pharmacogenetics of multiple sclerosis: IFN-? versus glatiramer acetate.  

PubMed

Various diseases require the selection of preferable treatment out of available alternatives. Multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune inflammatory/neurodegenerative disease of the CNS, requires long-term medication with either specific disease-modifying therapy (DMT) - IFN-? or glatiramer acetate (GA) - which remain the only first-line DMTs in all countries. A significant share of MS patients are resistant to treatment with one or the other DMT; therefore, the earliest choice of preferable DMT is of particular importance. A number of conventional pharmacogenetic studies performed up to the present day have identified the treatment-sensitive genetic biomarkers that might be specific for the particular drug; however, the suitable biomarkers for selection of one or another first-line DMT are remained to be found. Comparative pharmacogenetic analysis may allow the identification of the discriminative genetic biomarkers, which may be more informative for an a priori DMT choice than those found in conventional pharmacogenetic studies. The search for discriminative markers of preferable first-line DMT, which differ in carriage between IFN-? responders and GA responders as well as between IFN-? nonresponders and GA nonresponders, has been performed in 253 IFN-?-treated MS patients and 285 GA-treated MS patients. A bioinformatics algorithm for identification of composite biomarkers (allelic sets) was applied on a unified set of immune-response genes, which are relevant for IFN-? and/or GA modes of action, and identical clinical criteria of treatment response. We found the range of discriminative markers, which include polymorphic variants of CCR5, IFNAR1, TGFB1, DRB1 or CTLA4 genes, in different combinations. Every allelic set includes the CCR5 genetic variant, which probably suggests its crucial role in the modulation of the DMT response. Special attention should be given to the (CCR5*d+ IFNAR1*G) discriminative combination, which clearly points towards IFN-? treatment choice for carriers of this combination. As a whole the comparative approach provides an option for the identification of prognostic composite biomarkers for a preferable medication among available alternatives. PMID:24798724

Kulakova, Olga G; Tsareva, Ekaterina Yu; Lvovs, Dmitrijs; Favorov, Alexander V; Boyko, Alexey N; Favorova, Olga O

2014-04-01

403

Acetate-Bridged Platinum(III) Complexes Derived from Cisplatin  

PubMed Central

Oxidation of the acetate-bridged half-lantern platinum(II) complex, cis-[PtII(NH3)2(µ-OAc)2PtII(NH3)2](NO3)2, [1](NO3)2, with iodobenzene dichloride or bromine generates the halide-capped platinum(III) species, cis-[XPtIII(NH3)2(µ-OAc)2PtIII(NH3)2X](NO3)2, where X is Cl in [2](NO3)2, or Br in [3](NO3)2, respectively. These three complexes, characterized structurally by X-ray crystallography, feature short (? 2.6 Å) Pt–Pt separations, consistent with formation of a formal metal-metal bond upon oxidation. Elongated axial Pt–X distances occur, reflecting the strong trans influence of the metal-metal bond. The three structures are compared to those of other known dinuclear platinum complexes. A combination of 1H, 13C, 14N, and 195Pt NMR spectroscopy was used to characterize [1]2+–[3]2+ in solution. All resonances shift downfield upon oxidation of [1]2+ to [2]2+ and [3]2+. For the platinum(III) complexes, the 14N and 195Pt resonances exhibit decreased linewidths by comparison to those of [1]2+. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations suggest that the decrease in 14N linewidth arises from a diminished electric field gradient (EFG) at the 14N nuclei in the higher valent compounds. The oxidation of [1](NO3)2 with the alternative oxidizing agent, bis(trifluoroacetoxy) iodobenzene, affords the novel tetranuclear complex, cis-[(O2CCF3)PtIII(NH3)2(µ-OAc)2PtIII(NH3)(µ-NH2)]2(NO3)4, [4](NO3)4, also characterized structurally by X-ray crystallography. In solution, this complex exists as a mixture of species, the identities of which are proposed. PMID:22946515

Wilson, Justin J.

2012-01-01

404

Dissimilation of Carbon Monoxide to Acetic Acid by Glucose-Limited Cultures of Clostridium thermoaceticum  

PubMed Central

Clostridium thermoaceticum was cultivated in glucose-limited media, and the dissimilation of CO to acetic acid was evaluated. We found that cultures catalyzed the rapid dissimilation of CO to acetic acid and CO2, with the stoichiometry obtained for conversion approximating that predicted from the following reaction: 4CO + 2H2O ? CH3CO2H + 2CO2. Growing cultures formed approximately 50 mmol (3 g) of CO-derived acetic acid per liter of culture, with the rate of maximal consumption approximating 9.1 mmol of CO consumed/h per liter of culture. In contrast, resting cells were found not to dissimilate CO to acetic acid. 14CO was incorporated, with equal distribution between the carboxyl and methyl carbons of acetic acid when the initial cultivation gas phase was 100% CO, whereas 14CO2 preferentially entered the carboxyl carbon when the initial gas phase was 100% CO2. Significantly, in the presence of saturating levels of CO, 14CO2 preferentially entered the methyl carbon, whereas saturating levels of CO2 yielded 14CO-derived labeling predominantly in the carboxyl carbon. These findings are discussed in relation to the path of carbon flow to acetic acid. PMID:16346807

Martin, Douglas R.; Misra, Arun; Drake, Harold L.

1985-01-01

405

Microbial community dynamics and stability during an ammonia-induced shift to syntrophic acetate oxidation.  

PubMed

Anaerobic digesters rely on the diversity and distribution of parallel metabolic pathways mediated by complex syntrophic microbial communities to maintain robust and optimal performance. Using mesophilic swine waste digesters, we experimented with increased ammonia loading to induce a shift from aceticlastic methanogenesis to an alternative acetate-consuming pathway of syntrophic acetate oxidation. In comparison with control digesters, we observed shifts in bacterial 16S rRNA gene content and in functional gene repertoires over the course of the digesters' 3-year operating period. During the first year, under identical startup conditions, all bioreactors mirrored each other closely in terms of bacterial phylotype content, phylogenetic structure, and evenness. When we perturbed the digesters by increasing the ammonia concentration or temperature, the distribution of bacterial phylotypes became more uneven, followed by a return to more even communities once syntrophic acetate oxidation had allowed the experimental bioreactors to regain stable operation. The emergence of syntrophic acetate oxidation coincided with a partial shift from aceticlastic to hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Our 16S rRNA gene analysis also revealed that acetate-fed enrichment experiments resulted in communities that did not represent the bioreactor community. Analysis of shotgun sequencing of community DNA suggests that syntrophic acetate oxidation was carried out by a heterogeneous community rather than by a specific keystone population with representatives of enriched cultures with this metabolic capacity. PMID:24657858

Werner, Jeffrey J; Garcia, Marcelo L; Perkins, Sarah D; Yarasheski, Kevin E; Smith, Samuel R; Muegge, Brian D; Stadermann, Frank J; DeRito, Christopher M; Floss, Christine; Madsen, Eugene L; Gordon, Jeffrey I; Angenent, Largus T

2014-06-01

406

Thermal decarboxylation of acetic acid: Implications for origin of natural gas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Laboratory experiments on the thermal decarboxylation of solutions of acetic acid at 200??C and 300??C were carried out in hydrothermal equipment allowing for on-line sampling of both the gas and liquid phases for chemical and stable-carbon-isotope analyses. The solutions had ambient pH values between 2.5 and 7.1; pH values and the concentrations of the various acetate species at the conditions of the experiments were computed using a chemical model. Results show that the concentrations of acetic acid, and not total acetate in solution, control the reaction rates which follow a first order equation based on decreasing concentrations of acetic acid with time. The decarboxylation rates at 200??C (1.81 ?? 10-8 per second) and 300??C (8.17 ?? 10-8 per second) and the extrapolated rates at lower temperatures are relatively high. The activation energy of decarboxylation is only 8.1 kcal/mole. These high decarboxylation rates, together with the distribution of short-chained aliphatic acid anions in formation waters, support the hypothesis that acid anions are precursors for an important portion of natural gas. Results of the ??13C values of CO2, CH4, and total acetate show a reasonably constant fractionation factor of about 20 permil between CO2 and CH4 at 300??C. The ??13C values of CO2 and CH4 are initially low and become higher as decarboxylation increases. ?? 1983.

Kharaka, Y.K.; Carothers, W.W.; Rosenbauer, R.J.

1983-01-01

407

Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Cytotoxic Properties of Vasicine Acetate Synthesized from Vasicine Isolated from Adhatoda vasica L.  

PubMed Central

Adhatoda vasica (L.) (Acanthaceae) is used in the indigenous system of medicine in India. The alkaloid Vasicine was isolated from ethanolic extract of the leaves of A. vasica using column chromatography. Vasicine acetate was obtained by acetylation of Vasicine. Vasicine acetate exhibited good zone of inhibition against bacteria: 10?mm against E. aerogenes, 10?mm against S. epidermidis, and 10?mm against P. aeruginosa. Vasicine acetate showed minimum inhibitory concentration values against bacteria: M. luteus (125??g/mL), E. aerogenes (125??g/mL), S. epidermidis (125??g/mL), and P. aeruginosa (125??g/mL). The radical scavenging activity of Vasicine acetate was the maximum at 1000??g/mL (66.15%). The compound showed prominent cytotoxic activity in vitro against A549 lung adenocarcinoma cancer cell line. Quantification of Vasicine and Vasicine acetate by HPLC-DAD analysis showed their contents to be 0.2293% and 0.0156%, respectively, on dry weight basis of the leaves. Vasicine acetate could be probed further in drug discovery programme. PMID:25632399

Duraipandiyan, V.; Al-Dhabi, N. A.; Balachandran, C.; Ignacimuthu, S.; Sankar, C.; Balakrishna, K.

2015-01-01

408

Effects of growth conditions of acetate utilization byRhodopseudomonas palustris isolated from a freshwater lake.  

PubMed

Rhodopseudomonas palustris, a purple non-sulfur bacterium, was recently found throughout the water column in Lake Kinneret. It was demonstrated to be of a versatile nature, growing under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions at different light intensities. A comparison of C-acetate uptake byR. palustris andChlorobium phaeobacterioides, a green sulfur bacterium, showed that, under identical growth conditions, C-acetate assimilation byR. palustris was greater. Furthermore, C-acetate uptake forR. palustris was greater than C-CO2 uptake at all light intensities. Depending on the prevailing conditions, acetate can be used byR. palustris as both an electron donor and carbon source. Malate synthase was used as an indicator of activity of the glyoxylic acid cycle. It was found that enzyme activity was higher (i.e., acetate was used mainly as a carbon source) under anaerobic conditions, in the dark, or in the absence of HCO3 (-). Acetate was used preferably as an electron donor under photosynthetic microaerophillic conditions. PMID:24194346

Butow, B; Dan, T B

1991-12-01

409

Microbial Community Dynamics and Stability during an Ammonia-Induced Shift to Syntrophic Acetate Oxidation  

PubMed Central

Anaerobic digesters rely on the diversity and distribution of parallel metabolic pathways mediated by complex syntrophic microbial communities to maintain robust and optimal performance. Using mesophilic swine waste digesters, we experimented with increased ammonia loading to induce a shift from aceticlastic methanogenesis to an alternative acetate-consuming pathway of syntrophic acetate oxidation. In comparison with control digesters, we observed shifts in bacterial 16S rRNA gene content and in functional gene repertoires over the course of the digesters' 3-year operating period. During the first year, under identical startup conditions, all bioreactors mirrored each other closely in terms of bacterial phylotype content, phylogenetic structure, and evenness. When we perturbed the digesters by increasing the ammonia concentration or temperature, the distribution of bacterial phylotypes became more uneven, followed by a return to more even communities once syntrophic acetate oxidation had allowed the experimental bioreactors to regain stable operation. The emergence of syntrophic acetate oxidation coincided with a partial shift from aceticlastic to hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Our 16S rRNA gene analysis also revealed that acetate-fed enrichment experiments resulted in communities that did not represent the bioreactor community. Analysis of shotgun sequencing of community DNA suggests that syntrophic acetate oxidation was carried out by a heterogeneous community rather than by a specific keystone population with representatives of enriched cultures with this metabolic capacity. PMID:24657858

Werner, Jeffrey J.; Garcia, Marcelo L.; Perkins, Sarah D.; Yarasheski, Kevin E.; Smith, Samuel R.; Muegge, Brian D.; Stadermann, Frank J.; DeRito, Christopher M.; Floss, Christine; Madsen, Eugene L.; Gordon, Jeffrey I.

2014-01-01

410

Selective enhancement of autotrophic acetate production with genetically modified Acetobacterium woodii.  

PubMed

Great interest has emerged in the recent past towards the potential of autotrophic acetogenic bacteria for the sustainable production of fuels and chemicals. This group of microorganisms possesses an ancient pathway for the fixation of carbon dioxide in the presence of hydrogen, making them highly attractive for the utilization of gas mixtures as a cheap and abundant carbon and energy source. As more and more genome sequence data of acetogens becomes available, the genetic tools are being developed concomitantly. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the genetic modification of the well-characterized acetogen Acetobacterium woodii. This microorganism selectively produces acetate under autotrophic conditions, but seems to be limited at high acetate concentrations. To increase the carbon flow through the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway and therefore increase the efficiency of CO2 fixation, genes of enzyme groups of this pathway were selectively overexpressed (the four THF-dependent enzymes for the processing of formate as well as phosphotransacetylase and acetate kinase to enhance an ATP-generation step). Acetate production with genetically modified strains was increased in a batch process under pH-controlled reaction conditions in a stirred-tank reactor with continuous sparging of H2 and CO2. Final acetate concentrations of more than 50gL(-1) acetate were thus measured with the recombinant strains at low cell concentrations of 1.5-2gL(-1) dry cell mass in less than four days under autotrophic conditions. PMID:24637370

Straub, Melanie; Demler, Martin; Weuster-Botz, Dirk; Dürre, Peter

2014-05-20

411

Forming microbial anodes with acetate addition decreases their capability to treat raw paper mill effluent.  

PubMed

Microbial anodes were formed under polarization at -0.3 V/SCE on graphite plates in effluents from a pulp and paper mill. The bioanodes formed with the addition of acetate led to the highest current densities (up to 6A/m(2)) but were then unable to oxidize the raw effluent efficiently (0.5A/m(2)). In contrast, the bioanodes formed without acetate addition were fully able to oxidize the organic matter contained in the effluent, giving up to 4.5A/m(2) in continuous mode. Bacterial communities showed less bacterial diversity for the acetate-fed bioanodes compared to those formed in raw effluents. Deltaproteobacteria were the most abundant taxonomic group, with a high diversity for bioanodes formed without acetate addition but with almost 100% Desulfuromonas for the acetate-fed bioanodes. The addition of acetate to form the microbial anodes induced microbial selection, which was detrimental to the treatment of the raw effluent. PMID:24862005

Ketep, Stéphanie F; Bergel, Alain; Bertrand, Marie; Barakat, Mohamed; Achouak, Wafa; Fourest, Eric

2014-07-01

412

In-house development of an optimized synthetic module for routine [11C]acetate production  

PubMed Central

[11C]Acetate, a radiotracer for PET imaging, is a promising radiopharmaceutical for overcoming the limitation of 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-d-glucose in a number of cancers. Here, the optimized automatic synthesis of [11C]acetate using an in-house-developed module under different conditions has been reported for routine production. [11C]CO2 was produced in a 16.4?MeV PETtrace cyclotron, and methyl magnesium chloride was used for synthesis. For product purification, ion-exchange solid-phase extraction cartridges were used, connected in series. High-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography were used to measure radiochemical and chemical purity. The Limulus amebocyte lysate test and the fluid thioglycollate medium test were performed for quality control of [11C]acetate. The total reaction time of [11C]acetate was within 15?min, and the overall decay-corrected radiochemical yield was 84.33±8.85%. Radiochemical purity was greater than 98% when evaluated on an analytical high-performance liquid chromatography system. No endotoxins or anaerobic bacteria were seen on quality control checks. Optimized production of [11C]acetate was achieved by the in-house module. Radiochemical and biological properties of the [11C]acetate produced were appropriate for clinical PET study. PMID:25244351

Jang, Hwa Youn; Kwon, Seong Young; Pyo, Ayoung; Hur, Min Goo; Kim, Sang Wook; Park, Jeong-Hoon; Kim, Hee-Jung; Yang, Seung Dae; Lee, Sunwoo; Kim, Dong-Yeon

2015-01-01

413

In-house development of an optimized synthetic module for routine [11C]acetate production.  

PubMed

[11C]Acetate, a radiotracer for PET imaging, is a promising radiopharmaceutical for overcoming the limitation of 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose in a number of cancers. Here, the optimized automatic synthesis of [11C]acetate using an in-house-developed module under different conditions has been reported for routine production. [11C]CO2 was produced in a 16.4?MeV PETtrace cyclotron, and methyl magnesium chloride was used for synthesis. For product purification, ion-exchange solid-phase extraction cartridges were used, connected in series. High-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography were used to measure radiochemical and chemical purity. The Limulus amebocyte lysate test and the fluid thioglycollate medium test were performed for quality control of [11C]acetate. The total reaction time of [11C]acetate was within 15?min, and the overall decay-corrected radiochemical yield was 84.33±8.85%. Radiochemical purity was greater than 98% when evaluated on an analytical high-performance liquid chromatography system. No endotoxins or anaerobic bacteria were seen on quality control checks. Optimized production of [11C]acetate was achieved by the in-house module. Radiochemical and biological properties of the [11C]acetate produced were appropriate for clinical PET study. PMID:25244351

Jang, Hwa Youn; Kwon, Seong Young; Pyo, Ayoung; Hur, Min Goo; Kim, Sang Wook; Park, Jeong-Hoon; Kim, Hee-Jung; Yang, Seung Dae; Lee, Sunwoo; Kim, Dong-Yeon; Min, Jung-Joon

2015-01-01

414

Responses of Plasma Acetate Metabolism to Hop (Humulus lupulus L.) in Sheep  

PubMed Central

An isotope dilution method using [1-13C]sodium (Na) acetate was conducted to determine the effect of feeding hop (Humulus lupulus L.) residues on plasma acetate metabolism in six adult crossbred sheep. The sheep were fed 63 g/kg BW0.75/d of either mixed hay (MH-diet) of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) and reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) at a 60:40 ratio or MH-diet and hop-residues (Hop-diet) at 85:15 ratio with a crossover design for each of 3 week period. The isotope dilution method using single injection of [1-13C]Na acetate was performed thrice; before feeding (BF), 2 h after feeding (2F) and 4 h after feeding (4F), on the 21st day of each dietary treatment. Plasma acetate concentration tended to increase (P= 0.06) and turnover rate was numerically higher (P= 0.16) for MH-diet than Hop-diet. Plasma glucose, NEFA, VFA and lactic acid concentrations were similar between dietary treatments. In both the diets, although plasma concentration of acetate did not change, turnover rate increased significantly (P= 0.02) 2F than BF. Hop-residues did not show any negative impacts on acetate metabolism as well as physiology of animals in the present experimental conditions, hence thereby it could be used as an alternative to MH-diet for rearing sheep. PMID:19365576

Al-Mamun, Mohammad; Goto, Kunio; Chiba, Sota; Sano, Hiroaki

2009-01-01

415

Crystal structure of an indole-3-acetic acid amido synthetase from grapevine involved in auxin homeostasis.  

PubMed

Auxins are important for plant growth and development, including the control of fruit ripening. Conjugation to amino acids by indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-amido synthetases is an important part of auxin homeostasis. The structure of the auxin-conjugating Gretchen Hagen3-1 (GH3-1) enzyme from grapevine (Vitis vinifera), in complex with an inhibitor (adenosine-5'-[2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]phosphate), is presented. Comparison with a previously published benzoate-conjugating enzyme from Arabidopsis thaliana indicates that grapevine GH3-1 has a highly similar domain structure and also undergoes a large conformational change during catalysis. Mutational analyses and structural comparisons with other proteins have identified residues likely to be involved in acyl group, amino acid, and ATP substrate binding. Vv GH3-1 is a monomer in solution and requires magnesium ions solely for the adenlyation reaction. Modeling of IAA and two synthetic auxins, benzothiazole-2-oxyacetic acid (BTOA) and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), into the active site indicates that NAA and BTOA are likely to be poor substrates for this enzyme, confirming previous enzyme kinetic studies. This suggests a reason for the increased effectiveness of NAA and BTOA as auxins in planta and provides a tool for designing new and effective auxins. PMID:23136372

Peat, Thomas S; Böttcher, Christine; Newman, Janet; Lucent, Del; Cowieson, Nathan; Davies, Christopher

2012-11-01

416

Stability of the "second stage" promoter 12-O-retinoylphorbol-13-acetate.  

PubMed

To provide guidelines for handling the very labile phorbol ester, RPA,2 its stability under various laboratory conditions was studied. RPA will remain undecomposed for 8 weeks if stock solutions are made in ethanol, ethyl acetate, or DMSO and stored in absolute darkness at -20 degrees C. When exposed to light RPA readily isomerizes to 13'-cis-RPA. Structure/activity investigations of irritant polyfunctional diterpene esters of phorbol, ingenol, and resiniferonol with saturated and unsaturated aliphatic or with aromatic acids indicate that their irritant activity is a necessary, yet insufficient prerequisite for initiation- (or tumor-) promoting activity (e.g., Refs. 3 and 4). For further testing of this hypothesis, the retinoic acid analogue of the mouse skin irritant and initiation-promoter TPA, i.e., RPA, was designed (7). In initiation/promotion experiments of skin of NMRI mice, it proved to be an irritant almost as active as TPA, but only marginally active as a promoter. In combination with TPA, it turned out to be a "second stage" promoter (PII-promoter) (1, 6) in our strain of mice (2, 7). RPA is a much more labile compound than TPA (5), especially in the solid form. If stored in solution, special precautions have to be taken to ascertain that the concentration or dose intended is represented by undecomposed RPA. PMID:3986782

Tremp, G L; Hecker, E

1985-05-01

417

Atmospheric Acetic Acid Pulping of Rice Straw IV: PhysicoChemical Characterization of Acetic Acid Lignins from Rice Straw and Woods. Part 1. Physical Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Lignins obtained by atmospheric acetic acid delignification of rice straw, birch and fir were characterized by molecular weight, solubility and thermomechanical analysis, and by ultraviolet (UV), Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) and 13 C-NMR spectroscopy. Rice straw lignins (rice lignins) were very different from birch and fir lignins. The former was difficult to dissolve in most tested solvents and infusible

Xue-Jun Pan; Yoshihiro Sano

1999-01-01

418

Atmospheric Acetic Acid Pulping of Rice Straw IV: PhysicoChemical Characterization of Acetic Acid Lignins from Rice Straw and Woods. Part 2. Chemical Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Acetic acid lignins from rice straw (RLs), birch (BL) and fir (FL) were chemically characterized by means of elementary analysis, functional groups analysis, alkaline nitrobenzene and permanganate oxi- dation, Mannich reactivity and other techniques. The results showed that RLs had higher contents of residual polysaccharide and protein, and remarkably fewer acetyl groups than BL and FL. Results of nitrobenzene

Xue-Jun Pan; Yoshihiro Sano

1999-01-01

419

New approach for the production of cellulose acetate: acetylation of mechanical pulp with subsequent isolation of cellulose acetate by differential solubility  

SciTech Connect

A heretofore uninvestigated approach to the production of cellulose acetate is the acetylation of mechanical pulp with subsequent isolation of the cellulose derivative by differential solubility. The mechanical pulp is produced by refining aspen wood chips in a disc-refiner. Two conventional acetylation techniques, the fibrous and solution process, are employed to acetylate all components of the pulp. The cellulose acetate is isolated from the acetylated lignin and hemicellulose by dissolving in dichloromethane/methanol (9:1, v/v). The advantage of this new approach is that the high costs involved in using an extensively purified dissolving pulp are avoided. Both procedures yield a product that is about 84% cellulose acetate. The remaining acetylated components are lignin and hemicellulose. The average lignin content of the product from the solution process is 3.5% (1.5-4.7% range), and for the fibrous process it is 3.4% (1.2-5% range). The hemicellulose component averages 5.8% (2.5-9.1% range) for the solution process and 6.5% (3.0-8.7% range) for the fibrous process. The yield of cellulose acetate, based on the cellulose content of the original pulp and the product, is 75% for the solution process and 75-80% for the fibrous process. The cellulose acetate degree of polymerization (DP) is dependent on the sulfuric acid catalyst concentration, and on the reaction time in the case of the solution process. The product can be produced with a weight average DP from 1853 to 65 for the solution process, and 980 to 284 for the fibrous process. Applications for the product include lacquers, plastic films, and packaging.

Barkalow, D.G.

1987-01-01

420

Purification of vetiver alcohols and esters for quantitative high-performance thin-layer chromatography determination in Haitian vetiver essential oils and vetiver acetates.  

PubMed

A simple, fast, and efficient High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) method was developed for the simultaneous quantitative determination of alcohols and acetates in Haitian vetiver essential oils (Chryzopogon zizanioides) and its acetylated form. Analytes were separated by using a mixture of n-hexane-chloroform-ethyl acetate (8:6:0.5, v/v/v) as mobile phase under 47% humidity. Quantification was achieved by densitometric evaluation of the analytes in absorbance mode under visible light (?=530 nm) after staining with a vanillin-sulfuric acid reagent. Reference mixtures of alcohols and acetates were obtained by fractionation of Haitian vetiver oil or vetiver acetates, followed by purification of the fractions of interest by means of Over-Pressured Layer Chromatography (OPLC). The chemical composition of each reference fraction was determined by using GC-MS and GC×GC-MS, and their overall purity was determined by GC/FID and HPTLC. The TLC method provided compact spots for alcohols (R(f2)=0.18±0.01 and R(f1)=0.28±0.01) and acetates (R(f3)=0.65±0.01). Calibration plots showed good linear correlation with r²=0.9995±0.0001 and r²=0.9995±0.0001 for alcohols and r²=0.9996±0.0001 for acetates in a 40-200 ng spot?¹ concentration range with respect to peak areas. The method was validated for precision and accuracy. Limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were determined. Method specificity was confirmed using retention factor (R(f)) and GC-MS control of the standards reference mixtures. PMID:22560705

Paillat, Lionel; Périchet, Christine; Pierrat, Jean-Philippe; Lavoine, Sophie; Filippi, Jean-Jacques; Meierhenrich, Uwe; Fernandez, Xavier

2012-06-01

421

Chitosan Acetate Bandage as a Topical Antimicrobial Dressing for Infected Burns?  

PubMed Central

An engineered chitosan acetate bandage preparation (HemCon) is used as a hemostatic dressing, and its chemical structure suggests that it should also be antimicrobial. We previously showed that when a chitosan acetate bandage was applied to full-thickness excisional wounds in mice that had been infected with pathogenic bioluminescent bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, and Staphylococcus aureus), it was able to rapidly kill the bacteria and save the mice from developing fatal infections. Wound healing was also stimulated. In the present study, we asked whether a chitosan acetate bandage could act as a topical antimicrobial dressing when it was applied to third-degree burns in mice contaminated with two of these bacterial species (P. aeruginosa and P. mirabilis). Preliminary experiments established the length of burn time and the number of bacteria needed to produce fatal infections in untreated mice and established that the chitosan acetate bandage could adhere to the infected burn for up to 21 days. In the case of P. aeruginosa infections, the survival rate of mice treated with the chitosan acetate bandage was 73.3% (whereas the survival rate of mice treated with a nanocrystalline silver dressing was 27.3% [P = 0.0055] and that of untreated mice was 13.3% [P < 0.0002]). For P. mirabilis infections, the comparable survival rates were 66.7%, 62.5%, and 23.1% respectively. Quantitative bioluminescent signals showed that the chitosan acetate bandage effectively controlled the growth of bacteria in the burn and prevented the development of systemic sepsis, as shown by blood culture. These data suggest that chitosan acetate bandage is efficacious in preventing fatal burn infections. PMID:19015341

Dai, Tianhong; Tegos, George P.; Burkatovskaya, Marina; Castano, Ana P.; Hamblin, Michael R.

2009-01-01

422

Uncultivated Methylocystis Species in Paddy Soil Include Facultative Methanotrophs that Utilize Acetate.  

PubMed

Methanotrophs are crucial in regulating methane emission from rice field systems. Type II methanotrophs in particular are often observed in high abundance in paddy soil. Some cultivated species of Methylocystis are able to grow on acetate in the absence of methane. We hypothesize that the dominant type II methanotrophs in paddy soil might facultatively utilize acetate for growth, which we evaluate in the present study. The measurement of methane oxidation rates showed that the methanotrophic activity in paddy soil was inhibited by the addition of acetate compared to the continuous supplementation of methane, but the paddy soil maintained the methane oxidation capacity and recovered following methane supplementation. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (T-RFLP) combined with cloning and sequencing of pmoA genes showed that Methylocystis was enriched after incubation with added acetate, while the type I methanotrophs Methylocaldum/Methylococcus and Methylobacter were enriched by methane supplementation. A comparison of pmoA sequences obtained in this study with those in the public database indicated that they were globally widespread in paddy soils or in associated with rice roots. Furthermore, we performed stable isotope probing (SIP) of pmoA messenger RNA (mRNA) to investigate the assimilation of (13)C-acetate by paddy soil methanotrophs. RNA-SIP revealed that Methylocystis-related methanotrophs which shared the same genotype of the above enriched species were significantly labelled. It indicates that these methanotrophs actively assimilated the labelled acetate in paddy soil. Altogether, these results suggested that uncultivated Methylocystis species are facultative methanotrophs utilizing acetate as a secondary carbon source in paddy soil. PMID:25475784

Leng, Lingqin; Chang, Jiali; Geng, Kan; Lu, Yahai; Ma, Ke

2014-12-01

423

Radiofrequency Thermal Ablation: Increase in Lesion Diameter with Continuous Acetic Acid Infusion  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. To evaluate the influence of continuous infusion of acetic acid 50% during radiofrequency ablation (RFA) on the size of the thermal lesion produced. Methods. Radiofrequency (RF) was applied to excised bovine liver by using an expandable needle electrode with 10 retractable tines (LeVeen Needle Electrode, RadioTherapeutics, Sunnyvale, CA) connected to a commercially available RF generator (RF 2000, RadioTherapeutics, Sunnyvale, CA). Experiments were performed using three different treatment modalities: RF only (n = 15), RF with continuous saline 0.9% infusion (n = 15), and RF with continuous acetic acid 50% infusion (n = 15). RF duration, power output, tissue impedance, and time to a rapid rise in impedance were recorded. The ablated lesions were evaluated both macroscopically and histologically. Results. The ablated lesions appeared as spherical or ellipsoid, well-demarcated pale areas with a surrounding brown rim with both RF only and RF plus saline 0.9% infusion. In contrast, thermolesions generated with RF in combination with acetic acid 50% infusion were irregular in shape and the central portion was jelly-like. Mean diameter of the coagulation necrosis was 22.3 {+-} 2.1 mm (RF only), 29.2 {+-} 4.8 mm (RF + saline 0.9%) and 30.7 {+-} 5.7 mm (RF + acetic acid 50%), with a significant increase in the RF plus saline 0.9% and RF plus acetic acid 50% groups compared with RF alone. Time to a rapid rise in impedance was significantly prolonged in the RF plus saline 0.9% and RF plus acetic acid 50% groups compared with RF alone. Conclusions. A combination of RF plus acetic acid 50% infusion is able to generate larger thermolesions than RF only or RF combined with saline 0.9% infusion.

Lubienski, Andreas [Ruprecht-Karls-University Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Germany)], E-mail: lubienski@radiologie.uni-luebeck.de; Duex, Markus [Hospital Northwest Frankfurt, Department of Radiology (Germany); Lubienski, Katrin; Grenacher, Lars; Kauffmann, Guenter [Ruprecht-Karls-University Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Germany)

2005-12-15

424

Acetate Production from Oil under Sulfate-Reducing Conditions in Bioreactors Injected with Sulfate and Nitrate  

PubMed Central

Oil production by water injection can cause souring in which sulfate in the injection water is reduced to sulfide by resident sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Sulfate (2 mM) in medium injected at a rate of 1 pore volume per day into upflow bioreactors containing residual heavy oil from the Medicine Hat Glauconitic C field was nearly completely reduced to sulfide, and this was associated with the generation of 3 to 4 mM acetate. Inclusion of 4 mM nitrate inhibited souring for 60 days, after which complete sulfate reduction and associated acetate production were once again observed. Sulfate reduction was permanently inhibited when 100 mM nitrate was injected by the nitrite formed under these conditions. Pulsed injection of 4 or 100 mM nitrate inhibited sulfate reduction temporarily. Sulfate reduction resumed once nitrate injection was stopped and was associated with the production of acetate in all cases. The stoichiometry of acetate formation (3 to 4 mM formed per 2 mM sulfate reduced) is consistent with a mechanism in which oil alkanes and water are metabolized to acetate and hydrogen by fermentative and syntrophic bacteria (K. Zengler et al., Nature 401:266–269, 1999), with the hydrogen being used by SRB to reduce sulfate to sulfide. In support of this model, microbial community analyses by pyrosequencing indicated SRB of the genus Desulfovibrio, which use hydrogen but not acetate as an electron donor for sulfate reduction, to be a major community component. The model explains the high concentrations of acetate that are sometimes found in waters produced from water-injected oil fields. PMID:23770914

Callbeck, Cameron M.; Agrawal, Akhil

2013-01-01

425

The Fate of Acetic Acid during Glucose Co-Metabolism by the Spoilage Yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii  

PubMed Central

Zygosaccharomyces bailii is one of the most widely represented spoilage yeast species, being able to metabolise acetic acid in the presence of glucose. To clarify whether simultaneous utilisation of the two substrates affects growth efficiency, we examined growth in single- and mixed-substrate cultures with glucose and acetic acid. Our findings indicate that the biomass yield in the first phase of growth is the result of the weighted sum of the respective biomass yields on single-substrate medium, supporting the conclusion that biomass yield on each substrate is not affected by the presence of the other at pH 3.0 and 5.0, at least for the substrate concentrations examined. In vivo 13C-NMR spectroscopy studies showed that the gluconeogenic pathway is not operational and that [2?13C]acetate is metabolised via the Krebs cycle leading to the production of glutamate labelled on C2, C3 and C4. The incorporation of [U-14C]acetate in the cellular constituents resulted mainly in the labelling of the protein and lipid pools 51.5% and 31.5%, respectively. Overall, our data establish that glucose is metabolised primarily through the glycolytic pathway, and acetic acid is used as an additional source of acetyl-CoA both for lipid synthesis and the Krebs cycle. This study provides useful clues for the design of new strategies aimed at overcoming yeast spoilage in acidic, sugar-containing food environments. Moreover, the elucidation of the molecular basis underlying the resistance phenotype of Z. bailii to acetic acid will have a potential impact on the improvement of the performance of S. cerevisiae industrial strains often exposed to acetic acid stress conditions, such as in wine and bioethanol production. PMID:23285028

Rodrigues, Fernando; Sousa, Maria João; Ludovico, Paula; Santos, Helena; Côrte-Real, Manuela; Leão, Cecília

2012-01-01

426

Genome-guided analysis of physiological and morphological traits of the fermentative acetate oxidizer Thermacetogenium phaeum  

PubMed Central

Background Thermacetogenium phaeum is a thermophilic strictly anaerobic bacterium oxidizing acetate to CO2 in syntrophic association with a methanogenic partner. It can also grow in pure culture, e.g., by fermentation of methanol to acetate. The key enzymes of homoacetate fermentation (Wood-Ljungdahl pathway) are used both in acetate oxidation and acetate formation. The obvious reversibility of this pathway in this organism is of specific interest since syntrophic acetate oxidation operates close to the energetic limitations of microbial life. Results The genome of Th. phaeum is organized on a single circular chromosome and has a total size of 2,939,057 bp. It comprises 3.215 open reading frames of which 75% could be assigned to a gene function. The G+C content is 53.88 mol%. Many CRISPR sequences were found, indicating heavy phage attack in the past. A complete gene set for a phage was found in the genome, and indications of phage action could also be observed in culture. The genome contained all genes required for CO2 reduction through the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway, including two formyl tetrahydrofolate ligases, three carbon monoxide dehydrogenases, one formate hydrogenlyase complex, three further formate dehydrogenases, and three further hydrogenases. The bacterium contains a menaquinone MQ-7. No indications of cytochromes or Rnf complexes could be found in the genome. Conclusions The information obtained from the genome sequence indicates that Th. phaeum differs basically from the three homoacetogenic bacteria sequenced so far, i.e., the sodium ion-dependent Acetobacterium woodii, the ethanol-producing Clostridium ljungdahlii, and the cytochrome-containing Moorella thermoacetica. The specific enzyme outfit of Th. phaeum obviously allows ATP formation both in acetate formation and acetate oxidation. PMID:23259483

2012-01-01

427

Measurements of acetone, acetic acid, and formic acid in the northern midlatitude upper troposphere and lower stratosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have measured acetone, acetic acid, and formic acid concentrations in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere over Germany. The measurements were performed by ion molecule reaction mass spectrometry using new kinetic data on ion molecule reactions of formic and acetic acids with negative ions obtained at our laboratory. Mean volume mixing ratios between 384 and 832 parts per trillion (pptv) for acetone, 110 and 357 pptv for acetic acid, and 59 and 215 pptv for formic acid were obtained. The correlation between formic acid and acetic acid was very poor (r2 = 0.14). A better correlation could be observed for acetone and acetic acid, with a correlation coefficient r2 = 0.46 and a slope (acetic acid/acetone) of 0.31. For acetic acid a maximum around 9 km was observed. A significant fraction of the acetic acid observed in the lower stratosphere may be due to in situ photochemical production by reactions of HO2 and CH3O2 with peroxy acetyl radicals produced by the photolysis of acetone. In the upper troposphere, vertical transport is much more efficient, and significant acetic acid production is only possible if HOx concentrations are elevated, making the production of acetic acid fast enough to compete with vertical transport.

Reiner, Thomas; MöHler, Ottmar; Arnold, Frank

1999-06-01

428

Two-dimensional hydrogen-bonded polymers in the crystal structures of the ammonium salts of phen-oxy-acetic acid, (4-fluoro-phen-oxy)acetic acid and (4-chloro-2-methyl-phen-oxy)acetic acid.  

PubMed

The structures of the ammonium salts of phen-oxy-acetic acid, NH4 (+)·C8H6O3 (-), (I), (4-fluoro-phen-oxy)acetic acid, NH4 (+)·C8H5FO3 (-), (II), and the herbicidally active (4-chloro-2-methyl-phen-oxy)acetic acid (MCPA), NH4 (+)·C9H8ClO3 (-)·0.5H2O, (III) have been determined. All have two-dimensional layered structures based on inter-species ammonium N-H?O hydrogen-bonding associations, which give core substructures consisting primarily of conjoined cyclic motifs. The crystals of (I) and (II) are isomorphous with the core comprising R 1 (2)(5), R 1 (2)(4) and centrosymmetric R 4 (2)(8) ring motifs, giving two-dimensional layers lying parallel to (100). In (III), the water mol-ecule of solvation lies on a crystallographic twofold rotation axis and bridges two carboxyl O atoms in an R 4 (4)(12) hydrogen-bonded motif, creating two R 4 (3)(10) rings, which together with a conjoined centrosymmetric R 4 (2)(8) ring incorporating both ammonium cations, generate two-dimensional layers lying parallel to (100). No ?-? ring associations are present in any of the structures. PMID:25552984

Smith, Graham

2014-12-01

429

Two-dimensional hydrogen-bonded polymers in the crystal structures of the ammonium salts of phen­oxy­acetic acid, (4-fluoro­phen­oxy)acetic acid and (4-chloro-2-methyl­phen­oxy)acetic acid  

PubMed Central

The structures of the ammonium salts of phen­oxy­acetic acid, NH4 +·C8H6O3 ?, (I), (4-fluoro­phen­oxy)acetic acid, NH4 +·C8H5FO3 ?, (II), and the herbicidally active (4-chloro-2-methyl­phen­oxy)acetic acid (MCPA), NH4 +·C9H8ClO3 ?·0.5H2O, (III) have been determined. All have two-dimensional layered structures based on inter-species ammonium N—H?O hydrogen-bonding associations, which give core substructures consisting primarily of conjoined cyclic motifs. The crystals of (I) and (II) are isomorphous with the core comprising R 1 2(5), R 1 2(4) and centrosymmetric R 4 2(8) ring motifs, giving two-dimensional layers lying parallel to (100). In (III), the water mol­ecule of solvation lies on a crystallographic twofold rotation axis and bridges two carboxyl O atoms in an R 4 4(12) hydrogen-bonded motif, creating two R 4 3(10) rings, which together with a conjoined centrosymmetric R 4 2(8) ring incorporating both ammonium cations, generate two-dimensional layers lying parallel to (100). No ?–? ring associations are present in any of the structures. PMID:25552984

Smith, Graham

2014-01-01

430

Carbohydrate fermentation in the human colon and its relation to acetate concentrations in venous blood.  

PubMed Central

There is now substantial evidence that some dietary polysaccharides, notably dietary fiber, escape absorption in the small bowel and are then broken down in the large intestine of man. The main end products of this colonic digestive process, which is anerobic, are short chain fatty acids (SCFA), and acetic, propionic, and butyric acids. Although these acids are known to be absorbed from the colon, their subsequent fate and significance is unknown. We have measured venous blood SCFA levels in healthy subjects after a 16-h fast, and then following oral doses of either 50 mmol SCFA, 5, 10, or 20 g doses of the fermentable carbohydrate lactulose, or 20 g of pectin. Fasting venous blood acetate was 53.8 +/- 4.4 mumol/liter (SEM) (n = 14). Fasting arterial blood acetate, taken simultaneously with venous blood in six subjects, was higher; 125.6 +/- 13.5 mumol/liter (arterial) vs. 61.1 +/- 6.9 mumol/liter (venous). Significant levels of propionate or butyrate were not detected in any blood samples. Following an oral dose of 50 mmol mixed SCFA, venous blood acetate reached a peak of 194.1 +/- 57.9 mumol/liter at 45 min and returned to fasting levels at 2 h. Blood acetate also rose in response to lactulose, peak levels occurring 2-4 h after the dose: 5 g, 98.6 +/- 23.1 mumol/liter; 10 g, 127.3 +/- 18.2 mumol/liter; and 20 g, 181.3 +/- 23.9 mumol/liter. Pectin fermentation was much slower, with blood acetate levels starting to rise after 6 h and remaining elevated at about twice fasting levels for the subsequent 18 h. However, areas under the blood acetate curves were closely related (r = 0.97; n = 5), whatever the source of acetate. These studies show that the large intestine makes an important contribution to blood acetate levels in man and that fermentation may influence metabolic processes well beyond the wall of this organ. PMID:3998144

Pomare, E W; Branch, W J; Cummings, J H

1985-01-01

431

Metabolic acetate therapy improves phenotype in the tremor rat model of Canavan disease  

PubMed Central

Genetic mutations that severely diminish the activity of aspartoacylase (ASPA) result in the fatal brain dysmyelinating disorder, Canavan disease. There is no effective treatment. ASPA produces free acetate from the concentrated brain metabolite, N-acetylaspartate (NAA). Because acetyl coenzyme A is a key building block for lipid synthesis, we postulated that the inability to catabolize NAA leads to a brain acetate deficiency during a critical period of CNS development, impairing myelination and possibly other aspects of brain development. We tested the hypothesis that acetate supplementation during postnatal myelination would ameliorate the severe phenotype associated with ASPA deficiency using the tremor rat model of Canavan disease. Glyceryltriacetate (GTA) was administered orally to tremor rats starting 7 days after birth, and was continued in food and water after weaning. Motor function, myelin lipids, and brain vacuolation were analyzed in GTA-treated and untreated tremor rats. Significant improvements were observed in motor performance and myelin galactocerebroside content in tremor rats treated with GTA. Further, brain vacuolation was modestly reduced, and these reductions were positively correlated with improved motor performance. We also examined the expression of the acetyl coenzyme A synthesizing enzyme acetyl coenzyme A synthase 1 and found upregulation of expression in tremor rats, with a return to near normal expression levels in GTA-treated tremor rats. These results confirm the critical role played by NAA-derived acetate in brain myelination and development, and demonstrate the potential usefulness of acetate therapy for the treatment of Canavan disease. PMID:20464498

Arun, Peethambaran; Madhavarao, Chikkathur N.; Moffett, John R.; Hamilton, Kristen; Grunberg, Neil E.; Ariyannur, Prasanth S.; Gahl, William A.; Anikster, Yair; Mog, Steven; Hallows, William C.; Denu, John M.

2010-01-01

432

Tocopheryl acetate nanoemulsions stabilized with lipid-polymer hybrid emulsifiers for effective skin delivery.  

PubMed

Tocopheryl acetate is used as the oil component of nanoemulsions using a mixture of unsaturated phospholipids and polyethylene oxide-block-poly(?-caprolactone) (PEO-b-PCL). This study investigates the effects of the lipid-polymer composition on the size and surface charge of nanoemulsions, microviscosity of the interfacial layer, and skin absorption of tocopheryl acetate. The lipid-polymer hybrid system exhibits excellent colloidal dispersion stability, which is comparable to that of polymer-based nanoemulsions. If lipids are used as emulsifiers, nanoemulsions show poor dispersion stability despite a good skin absorption enhancing effect. The amount of tocopheryl acetate absorbed by the skin increases with an increased lipid-to-polymer ratio, as determined using the hairless guinea pig skin loaded in a Franz-type diffusion cell. An 8:2 (w/w) mixture of unsaturated phospholipids and PEO-b-PCL exhibits the most efficient delivery of tocopheryl acetate into the skin. Our results show that tocopheryl acetate is absorbed almost twice as fast by the lipid-polymer hybrid system than the nanoemulsions stabilized with PEO-b-PCL. This study suggests that the lipid-polymer hybrid system can be used as an effective means of optimizing nanoemulsions in terms of dispersion stability and skin delivery capability. PMID:22326341

Nam, Yoon Sung; Kim, Jin-Woong; Park, Jaeyoon; Shim, Jongwon; Lee, Jong Suk; Han, Sang Hoon

2012-06-01

433

Preparation and characterization of film of poly vinyl acetate ethylene copolymer emulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to improve the storage modulus and water resistance of poly (vinyl acetate), the vinyl acetate and poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) were respectively used as monomers and protective colloid to prepare a new kind of polyvinyl acetate emulsion adhesive by continuous emulsion polymerization. The dynamic mechanics, particle distribution, glass transition temperature, polymer emulsion structure of both polymerized and copolymerized emulsion were analyzed by SEM, DMA and XPS, respectively. The results indicated that the copolymerized emulsion has the appropriate particle size and the uniform particle distribution, the glass transition temperature increased from 50 °C to 70 °C, compared with poly (vinyl acetate). It could be seen from XPS spectra of copolymerized emulsion that key characteristic peak of Cdbnd O was still existent. X-ray photoelectron spectra revealed that the addition of EVA did not generate the new bond, whereas the maximum percentage increases in ester was determined in the composite film with the introduction of EVA of 25%, which indicated that the composite film has copolymer structure. The storage modulus and water resistance of poly (vinyl acetate) were improved due to the introduction of the EVA.

Zhang, Yanhua; Gu, Jiyou; Tan, Haiyan; Shi, Junyou; Di, Mingwei; Zuo, Yingfeng; Qiu, Si

2013-07-01

434

Acetic Acid Detection Threshold in Synthetic Wine Samples of a Portable Electronic Nose  

PubMed Central

Wine quality is related to its intrinsic visual, taste, or aroma characteristics and is reflected in the price paid for that wine. One of the most important wine faults is the excessive concentration of acetic acid which can cause a wine to take on vinegar aromas and reduce its varietal character. Thereby it is very important for the wine industry to have methods, like electronic noses, for real-time monitoring the excessive concentration of acetic acid in wines. However, aroma characterization of alcoholic beverages with sensor array electronic noses is a difficult challenge due to the masking effect of ethanol. In this work, in order to detect the presence of acetic acid in synthetic wine samples (aqueous ethanol solution at 10% v/v) we use a detection unit which consists of a commercial electronic nose and a HSS32 auto sampler, in combination with a neural network classifier (MLP). To find the characteristic vector representative of the sample that we want to classify, first we select the sensors, and the section of the sensors response curves, where the probability of detecting the presence of acetic acid will be higher, and then we apply Principal Component Analysis (PCA) such that each sensor response curve is represented by the coefficients of its first principal components. Results show that the PEN3 electronic nose is able to detect and discriminate wine samples doped with acetic acid in concentrations equal or greater than 2 g/L. PMID:23262483

Macías, Miguel Macías; Manso, Antonio García; Orellana, Carlos Javier García; Velasco, Horacio Manuel González; Caballero, Ramón Gallardo; Chamizo, Juan Carlos Peguero

2013-01-01

435

Acetic acid detection threshold in synthetic wine samples of a portable electronic nose.  

PubMed

Wine quality is related to its intrinsic visual, taste, or aroma characteristics and is reflected in the price paid for that wine. One of the most important wine faults is the excessive concentration of acetic acid which can cause a wine to take on vinegar aromas and reduce its varietal character. Thereby it is very important for the wine industry to have methods, like electronic noses, for real-time monitoring the excessive concentration of acetic acid in wines. However, aroma characterization of alcoholic beverages with sensor array electronic noses is a difficult challenge due to the masking effect of ethanol. In this work, in order to detect the presence of acetic acid in synthetic wine samples (aqueous ethanol solution at 10% v/v) we use a detection unit which consists of a commercial electronic nose and a HSS32 auto sampler, in combination with a neural network classifier (MLP). To find the characteristic vector representative of the sample that we want to classify, first we select the sensors, and the section of the sensors response curves, where the probability of detecting the presence of acetic acid will be higher, and then we apply Principal Component Analysis (PCA) such that each sensor response curve is represented by the coefficients of its first principal components. Results show that the PEN3 electronic nose is able to detect and discriminate wine samples doped with acetic acid in concentrations equal or greater than 2 g/L. PMID:23262483

Macías, Miguel Macías; Manso, Antonio García; Orellana, Carlos Javier García; Velasco, Horacio Manuel González; Caballero, Ramón Gallardo; Chamizo, Juan Carlos Peguero

2013-01-01

436

MrpA Functions in Energy Conversion during Acetate-Dependent Growth of Methanosarcina acetivorans  

PubMed Central

The role of the multisubunit sodium/proton antiporter (Mrp) of Methanosarcina acetivorans was investigated with a mutant deleted for the gene encoding the MrpA subunit. Antiporter activity was 5-fold greater in acetate-grown versus methanol-grown wild-type cells, consistent with the previously published relative levels of mrp transcript. The rate, final optical density, and dry weight/methane ratio decreased for the mutant versus wild type when cultured with a growth-limiting concentration of acetate. All growth parameters of the mutant or wild type were identical when grown with methanol in medium containing a growth-limiting Na+ concentration of 1.04 M. The lag phase, growth rate, and final optical density for growth of the mutant were suboptimal compared to the wild type when cultured with acetate in medium containing either 0.54 or 1.04 M Na+. The addition of 25 mM NaCl to resting cell suspensions stimulated ATP synthesis driven by a potassium diffusion potential. ATP synthesis was greater in wild-type than mutant cells grown with acetate, a trend that held for methanol-grown cells, albeit less pronounced. Both sodium and proton ionophores reduced ATP synthesis in the wild type grown with either substrate. The results indicated that the Mrp complex is essential for efficient ATP synthesis and optimal growth at the low concentrations of acetate encountered in the environment. PMID:23836862

Jasso-Chávez, Ricardo; Apolinario, Ethel E.; Sowers, Kevin R.

2013-01-01

437

Kinetic and mechanistic study of the atmospheric oxidation by OH radicals of allyl acetate.  

PubMed

Acetates are emitted into the atmosphere by several anthropic and natural sources. To better evaluate the environmental impact of these compounds, OH-induced oxidation kinetic and mechanism of allyl acetate (CH3C(O)OCH2-CH=CH2) have been investigated at room temperature and atmospheric pressure using three environmental chambers: an indoor Teflon-film bag (LISA, Créteil), an indoor Pyrex photoreactor (LISA, Créteil), and the outdoor Smog chamber EUPHORE (Valencia). Rate constant of the reaction of allyl acetate with OH radicals was determined by relative rate technique in the indoor Teflon-film bag. It is (30.6 +/- 3.1) x 10(-12) cm3 molecule-1 s-1. Mechanistic experiments were performed in the indoor photoreactor and in the outdoor Smog chamber EUPHORE. The main oxidation products observed by FTIR in both chambers were acetoxyacetaldehyde and formaldehyde. From these data, a mechanism was developed to describe the OH-induced oxidation of this acetate in the presence of NOx. Finally, atmospheric impact of allyl acetate emissions was evaluated using kinetic and mechanistic results. PMID:12380078

Picquet-Varrault, B; Doussin, J F; Durand-Jolibois, R; Pirali, O; Carlier, P

2002-10-01

438

Evidence for an essential arginine residue at the active site of Escherichia coli acetate kinase.  

PubMed

Escherichia coli acetate kinase (ATP: acetate phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.2.1.) was inactivated in the presence of either 2,3-butanedione in borate buffer or phenylglyoxal in triethanolamine buffer. When incubated with 9.4 mM phenylglyoxal or 5.1 mM butanedione, the enzyme lost its activity with an apparent rate constant of inactivation of 0.079 min-1, respectively. The loss of enzymatic activity was concomitant with the loss of an arginine residue per active site. Phosphorylated substrates of acetate kinase, ATP, ADP and acetylphosphate as well as AMP markedly decreased the rate of inactivation by both phenylglyoxal and butanedione. Acetate neither provided any protection nor affected the protection rendered by the adenine nucleotides. However, it interfered with the protection afforded by acetylphosphate. These data suggest that an arginine residue is located at the active site of acetate kinase and is essential for its catalytic activity, probably as a binding site for the negatively charged phosphate group of the substrates. PMID:6268170

Wong, S S; Wong, L J

1981-07-24

439

Efficacy of rapid, economical, acetic acid, Papanicolaou stain in cervical smears as an alternative to conventional Papanicolaou stain  

PubMed Central

Background: Papanicolaou (Pap) stain has been used over the years for cervical cytology screening. However; it utilizes a considerable amount of alcohol which is expensive and difficult to procure. In one of the modifications, ethyl alcohol is replaced by 1% acetic acid and is termed as rapid, economical, acetic acid Papanicolaou (REAP) stain. It is cost effective, easily available and provides a suitable and rapid staining alternative. Aim: This study was undertaken to assess the efficacy of REAP stain as an alternative method to conventional Pap stain. Materials and Methods: This study was done over a period of 18 months in a tertiary care hospital. Two sets of cervical smears were prepared of which one was stained with conventional Pap stain, and other was stained with REAP stain. The smears were examined for cytomorphological parameters and were evaluated using a modification of parameters given by Ng et al. Results: A total of 737 smears were examined in duplicate. Most of the conventional Pap smears showed excellent preservation (91.6%) with very few showing optimal (7.6%) and sub-optimal staining (0.8%). In contrast to this excellent preservation was seen in just 33.6% of the REAP stained smears with majority showing optimal and sub-optimal preservation (46.5% and 20% respectively). The P value was statistically significant (<0.0001) depicting inferior staining quality of REAP stain. Conclusion: Rapid, economical, acetic acid Papanicolaou stain undoubtly is a simple, fast and cost effective stain which can be adopted mainly in resource limited settings, but cannot be utilized for research purpose in a tertiary care setup due to poor preservation of the staining quality.

Izhar, Shabnam; Kaur, Rupinder; Masih, Kanwal

2014-01-01

440

Conjugation chemistry through acetals toward a dextran-based delivery system for controlled release of siRNA.  

PubMed

New conjugation chemistry for polysaccharides, exemplified by dextran, was developed to enable the attachment of therapeutic or other functional moieties to the polysaccharide through cleavable acetal linkages. The acid-lability of the acetal groups allows the release of therapeutics under acidic conditions, such as that of the endocytic compartments of cells, regenerating the original free polysaccharide in the end. The physical and chemical behavior of these acetal groups can be adjusted by modifying their stereoelectronic and steric properties, thereby providing materials with tunable degradation and release rates. We have applied this conjugation chemistry in the development of water-soluble siRNA carriers, namely acetal-linked amino-dextrans, with various amine structures attached through either slow- or fast-degrading acetal linker. The carriers with the best combination of amine moieties and structural composition of acetals showed high in vitro transfection efficiency and low cytotoxicity in the delivery of siRNA. PMID:22958132

Cui, Lina; Cohen, Jessica L; Chu, Crystal K; Wich, Peter R; Kierstead, Paul H; Fréchet, Jean M J

2012-09-26

441

Intracellular storage of acetate/starch mixture by fast growing microbial culture in sequencing batch reactor under continuous feeding.  

PubMed

The paper evaluated intracellular storage formation in fast growing microbial culture fed with acetate/starch mixture under continuous feeding. Three parallel laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were operated at a sludge age of 2 days: one of the SBRs was fed with acetate/starch mixture and the other two with acetate and starch, respectively, for comparing the results with single substrate systems. Despite continuous feeding, both acetate and starch components in the substrate mixture were partially converted to storage biopolymers. Poly-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) and glycogen pools were formed during SBR operation at steady state. Only a limited fraction of 12% of the acetate fed during each cycle generated PHB storage while the rest was directly utilized for microbial growth. Around half of the starch fraction of the substrate mixture was converted to glycogen. Increasing the sludge age to 8 days did not affect storage stoichiometry both for acetate and starch in the mixture. PMID:22750500

Ciggin, Asli Seyhan; Majone, Mauro; Orhon, Derin

2012-09-01

442

Regulation of Auxin Homeostasis and Gradients in Arabidopsis Roots through the Formation of the Indole-3-Acetic Acid Catabolite 2-Oxindole-3-Acetic Acid[C][W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

The native auxin, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), is a major regulator of plant growth and development. Its nonuniform distribution between cells and tissues underlies the spatiotemporal coordination of many developmental events and responses to environmental stimuli. The regulation of auxin gradients and the formation of auxin maxima/minima most likely involve the regulation of both metabolic and transport processes. In this article, we have demonstrated that 2-oxindole-3-acetic acid (oxIAA) is a major primary IAA catabolite formed in Arabidopsis thaliana root tissues. OxIAA had little biological activity and was formed rapidly and irreversibly in response to increases in auxin levels. We further showed that there is cell type–specific regulation of oxIAA levels in the Arabidopsis root apex. We propose that oxIAA is an important element in the regulation of output from auxin gradients and, therefore, in the regulation of auxin homeostasis and response mechanisms. PMID:24163311

P?n?ík, Aleš; Simonovik, Biljana; Petersson, Sara V.; Henyková, Eva; Simon, Sibu; Greenham, Kathleen; Zhang, Yi; Kowalczyk, Mariusz; Estelle, Mark; Zažímalová, Eva; Novák, Ond?ej; Sandberg, Göran; Ljung, Karin

2013-01-01

443

Acetate as an active metabolite of ethanol: studies of locomotion, loss of righting reflex, and anxiety in rodents  

PubMed Central

It has been postulated that a number of the central effects of ethanol are mediated via ethanol metabolites: acetaldehyde and acetate. Ethanol is known to produce a large variety of behavioral actions such anxiolysis, narcosis, and modulation of locomotion. Acetaldehyde contributes to some of those effects although the contribution of acetate is less known. In the present studies, rats and mice were used to assess the acute and chronic effects of acetate after central or peripheral administration. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used for the comparison between central (intraventricular, ICV) and peripheral (intraperitoneal, IP) administration of acute doses of acetate on locomotion. CD1 male mice were used to study acute IP effects of acetate on locomotion, and also the effects of chronic oral consumption of acetate (0, 500, or 1000 mg/l, during 7, 15, 30, or 60 days) on ethanol- (1.0, 2.0, 4.0, or 4.5 g/kg, IP) induced locomotion, anxiolysis, and loss of righting reflex (LORR). In rats, ICV acetate (0.7–2.8 ?moles) reduced spontaneous locomotion at doses that, in the case of ethanol and acetaldehyde, had previously been shown to stimulate locomotion. Peripheral acute administration of acetate also suppressed locomotion in rats (25–100 mg/kg), but not in mice. In addition, although chronic administration of acetate during 15 days did not have an effect on spontaneous locomotion in an open field, it blocked ethanol-induced locomotion. However, ethanol-induced anxiolysis was not affected by chronic administration of acetate. Chronic consumption of acetate (up to 60 days) did not have an effect on latency to, or duration of LORR induced by ethanol, but significantly increased the number of mice that did not achieve LORR. The present work provides new evidence supporting the hypothesis that acetate should be considered a centrally-active metabolite of ethanol that contributes to some behavioral effects of this alcohol, such as motor suppression. PMID:23847487

Pardo, Marta; Betz, Adrienne J.; San Miguel, Noemí; López-Cruz, Laura; Salamone, John D.; Correa, Mercè

2013-01-01

444

The pH dependence of Am(III) complexation with acetate: an EXAFS study.  

PubMed

The complexation of acetate with Am(III) is studied as a function of the pH (1-6) by extended X-ray absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. The molecular structure of the Am(III)-acetate complexes (coordination numbers, oxygen and carbon distances) is determined from the raw k(3)-weighted Am LIII-edge EXAFS spectra. The results show a continuous shift of Am(III) speciation with increasing pH value towards the complexed species. Furthermore, it is verified that acetate coordinates in a bidentate coordination mode to Am(III) (Am-C distance: 2.82 ± 0.03?Å). The EXAFS data are analyzed by iterative transformation factor analysis to further verify the chemical speciation, which is calculated on the basis of thermodynamic constants, and the used structural model. The experimental results are in very good agreement with the thermodynamic modelling. PMID:25537594

Fröhlich, Daniel R; Skerencak-Frech, Andrej; Bauer, Nicole; Rossberg, André; Panak, Petra J

2015-01-01

445

Synthesis and characterization of cellulose acetate from rice husk: eco-friendly condition.  

PubMed

Cellulose acetate was synthesized from rice husk by using a simple, efficient, cost-effective and solvent-free method. Cellulose was isolated from rice husk (RH) using standard pretreatment method with dilute alkaline and acid solutions and bleaching with 2% H2O2. Cellulose acetate (CA) was synthesized successfully with the yield of 66% in presence of acetic anhydride and iodine as a catalyst in eco-friendly solvent-free conditions. The reaction parameters were standardized at 80 °C for 300 min and the optimum results were taken for further study. The extent of acetylation was evaluated from % yield and the degree of substitution (DS), which was determined by (1)H NMR and titrimetrically. The synthesized products were characterized with the help modern analytical techniques like FT-IR, (1)H NMR, XRD, etc. and the thermal behavior was evaluated by TGA and DSC thermograms. PMID:25129753

Das, Archana M; Ali, Abdul A; Hazarika, Manash P

2014-11-01

446