Sample records for acetate ethyl acetate

  1. Pallidol hexa­acetate ethyl acetate monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Qinyong; Taylor, Dennis K.; Ng, Seik Weng; Tiekink, Edward R. T.

    2013-01-01

    The entire mol­ecule of pallidol hexa­acetate {systematic name: (±)-(4bR,5R,9bR,10R)-5,10-bis­[4-(acet­yloxy)phen­yl]-4b,5,9b,10-tetra­hydro­indeno­[2,1-a]indene-1,3,6,8-tetrayl tetra­acetate} is completed by the application of twofold rotational symmetry in the title ethyl acetate solvate, C40H34O12·C4H8O2. The ethyl acetate mol­ecule was highly disordered and was treated with the SQUEEZE routine [Spek (2009 ?). Acta Cryst. D65, 148–155]; the crystallographic data take into account the presence of the solvent. In pallidol hexa­acetate, the dihedral angle between the fused five-membered rings (r.m.s. deviation = 0.100?Å) is 54.73?(6)°, indicating a significant fold in the mol­ecule. Significant twists between residues are also evident as seen in the dihedral angle of 80.70?(5)° between the five-membered ring and the pendent benzene ring to which it is attached. Similarly, the acetate residues are twisted with respect to the benzene ring to which they are attached [C—O(carb­oxy)—C—C torsion angles = ?70.24?(14), ?114.43?(10) and ?72.54?(13)°]. In the crystal, a three-dimensional architecture is sustained by C—H?O inter­actions which encompass channels in which the disordered ethyl acetate mol­ecules reside. PMID:24046702

  2. 27 CFR 21.107 - Ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...107 Ethyl acetate. (a) 85 percent ester: (1) Acidity (as acetic acid). Not more than 0.015 percent by weight...and none above 80 °C. (b) 100 percent ester: (1) Acidity (as acetic acid). Not more than 0.010 percent by...

  3. 27 CFR 21.107 - Ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...107 Ethyl acetate. (a) 85 percent ester: (1) Acidity (as acetic acid). Not more than 0.015 percent by weight...and none above 80 °C. (b) 100 percent ester: (1) Acidity (as acetic acid). Not more than 0.010 percent by...

  4. 27 CFR 21.107 - Ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...107 Ethyl acetate. (a) 85 percent ester: (1) Acidity (as acetic acid). Not more than 0.015 percent by weight...and none above 80 °C. (b) 100 percent ester: (1) Acidity (as acetic acid). Not more than 0.010 percent by...

  5. Manufacturing Ethyl Acetate From Fermentation Ethanol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Ingham, John D.

    1991-01-01

    Conceptual process uses dilute product of fermentation instead of concentrated ethanol. Low-concentration ethanol, extracted by vacuum from fermentation tank, and acetic acid constitutes feedstock for catalytic reaction. Product of reaction goes through steps that increases ethyl acetate content to 93 percent by weight. To conserve energy, heat exchangers recycle waste heat to preheat process streams at various points.

  6. 27 CFR 21.107 - Ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...acetate. (a) 85 percent ester: (1) Acidity (as acetic acid). Not more than 0.015 percent by weight. (2...C. (b) 100 percent ester: (1) Acidity (as acetic acid). Not more than 0.010 percent by weight....

  7. 27 CFR 21.107 - Ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...acetate. (a) 85 percent ester: (1) Acidity (as acetic acid). Not more than 0.015 percent by weight. (2...C. (b) 100 percent ester: (1) Acidity (as acetic acid). Not more than 0.010 percent by weight....

  8. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...added the equivalent of 4.25 gallons of 100 percent ethyl acetate. It is used in accordance with good feeding practices in ruminant feed supplements as a source of added energy. [46 FR 52333, Oct. 27, 1981, as amended at 72 FR 41620, July 31,...

  9. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...added the equivalent of 4.25 gallons of 100 percent ethyl acetate. It is used in accordance with good feeding practices in ruminant feed supplements as a source of added energy. [46 FR 52333, Oct. 27, 1981, as amended at 72 FR 41620, July 31,...

  10. Kinetics of Ethyl Acetate Synthesis Catalyzed by Acidic Resins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antunes, Bruno M.; Cardoso, Simao P.; Silva, Carlos M.; Portugal, Ines

    2011-01-01

    A low-cost experiment to carry out the second-order reversible reaction of acetic acid esterification with ethanol to produce ethyl acetate is presented to illustrate concepts of kinetics and reactor modeling. The reaction is performed in a batch reactor, and the acetic acid concentration is measured by acid-base titration versus time. The…

  11. Perspectives for the biotechnological production of ethyl acetate by yeasts.

    PubMed

    Löser, Christian; Urit, Thanet; Bley, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Ethyl acetate is an environmentally friendly solvent with many industrial applications. The production of ethyl acetate currently proceeds by energy-intensive petrochemical processes which are based on natural gas and crude oil without exception. Microbial synthesis of ethyl acetate could become an interesting alternative. The formation of esters as aroma compounds in food has been repeatedly reviewed, but a survey which deals with microbial synthesis of ethyl acetate as a bulk product is missing. The ability of yeasts for producing larger amounts of this ester is known for a long time. In the past, this potential was mainly of scientific interest, but in the future, it could be applied to large-scale ester production from renewable raw materials. Pichia anomala, Candida utilis, and Kluyveromyces marxianus are yeasts which convert sugar into ethyl acetate with a high yield where the latter is the most promising one. Special attention was paid to the mechanism of ester synthesis including regulatory aspects and to the maximum and expectable yield. Synthesis of much ethyl acetate requires oxygen which is usually supplied by aeration. Ethyl acetate is highly volatile so that aeration results in its phase transfer and stripping. This stripping process cannot be avoided but requires adequate handling during experimentation and offers a chance for a cost-efficient process-integrated recovery of the synthesized ester. PMID:24788328

  12. A green and regioselective acetylation of thioglycoside with ethyl acetate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pi-Hui Liang; Yin-Jen Lu; Ting-Hsuan Tang

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of saccharidic polyols in ethyl acetate with catalytic sulfuric acid leads to the corresponding primary monoacetate derivatives in good yields. The transesterification was realized by simple stirring without rigorous exclusion of moisture or oxygen. Our protocol is applicable to the regioselective monoacetylation of amino sugars having different substituents at the 2-positions.

  13. Fragrance material review on ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties; acute toxicity; skin irritation; and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22433983

  14. Production of ethyl acetate from dilute ethanol solutions by Candida utilis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David W. Armstrong; Stanley M. Martin; Hiroshi Yamazaki

    1984-01-01

    The conversion of ethanol to ethyl acetate has an advantage as a method of ethanol recovery since ethyl acetate is amenable to simple solvent extraction. The potential of Candida utilis in this conversion was studied. The kinetics of accumulation of ethanol and ethyl acetate in glucose-grown C. utilis showed that ester formation resulted from ethanol utilization under appropriate aeration and

  15. Formation of ethyl acetate by Kluyveromyces marxianus on whey: studies of the ester stripping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thanet Urit; Christian Löser; Martin Wunderlich; Thomas Bley

    2011-01-01

    Kluyveromyces marxianus is capable of converting lactose into ethyl acetate offering a chance for an economical reuse of whey. The microbial formation\\u000a of ethyl acetate as a bulk product calls for an aerobic process and, thus, the highly volatile ethyl acetate is discharged\\u000a from the aerated bioreactor. This stripping process was modeled and investigated experimentally. The stripping rate was proportional

  16. DISCOVERY OF METHYL ACETATE AND GAUCHE ETHYL FORMATE IN ORION

    SciTech Connect

    Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.; Lopez, A.; Caro, G. M. Munoz [Department of Astrophysics, CAB, INTA-CSIC, Crta Torrejon-Ajalvir, km. 4, E-28850 Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Kleiner, I.; Nguyen, H. V. L., E-mail: terceromb@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: jcernicharo@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: lopezja@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: munozcg@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: isabelle.kleiner@lisa.u-pec.fr, E-mail: nguyen@pc.rwth-aachen.de [Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques, CNRS/IPSL UMR7583 et Universites Paris Diderot et Paris Est, 61 av. General de Gaulle, F-94010 Creteil (France)

    2013-06-10

    We report on the discovery of methyl acetate, CH{sub 3}COOCH{sub 3}, through the detection of a large number of rotational lines from each one of the spin states of the molecule: AA species (A{sub 1} or A{sub 2}), EA species (E{sub 1}), AE species (E{sub 2}), and EE species (E{sub 3} or E{sub 4}). We also report, for the first time in space, the detection of the gauche conformer of ethyl formate, CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}OCOH, in the same source. The trans conformer is also detected for the first time outside the Galactic center source SgrB2. From the derived velocity of the emission of methyl acetate, we conclude that it arises mainly from the compact ridge region with a total column density of (4.2 {+-} 0.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}. The derived rotational temperature is 150 K. The column density for each conformer of ethyl formate, trans and gauche, is (4.5 {+-} 1.0) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2}. Their abundance ratio indicates a kinetic temperature of 135 K for the emitting gas and suggests that gas-phase reactions could participate efficiently in the formation of both conformers in addition to cold ice mantle reactions on the surface of dust grains.

  17. Mixture effects during the oxidation of toluene, ethyl acetate and ethanol over a cryptomelane catalyst.

    PubMed

    Santos, V P; Pereira, M F R; Órfão, J J M; Figueiredo, J L

    2011-01-30

    The catalytic oxidation of two-component VOC mixtures (ethanol, ethyl acetate and toluene) was studied over cryptomelane. Remarkable mixture effects were observed on the activity and the selectivity. Toluene inhibits both ethyl acetate and ethanol oxidation, this effect being more evident in the case of ethyl acetate. For instance, the temperature for 100% conversion is about 210 °C when ethyl acetate is oxidised alone, and 250 °C or higher, when it is oxidised in mixtures with toluene. On the contrary, toluene oxidation is only slightly inhibited by the presence of ethyl acetate, while the presence of ethanol has a promoting effect. Concerning the mixtures of ethyl acetate and ethanol, both compounds have a mutual inhibitory effect, which is more evident in the case of ethyl acetate (the temperature for 100% conversion of ethyl acetate is about 45 °C higher when ethyl acetate is oxidised in mixtures with ethanol, while in the case of ethanol the corresponding increase is only 10 °C). PMID:21044815

  18. STRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ASPHALTENES AND ETHYL ACETATE INSOLUBLE FRACTIONS OF PETROLEUM VACUUM RESIDUES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asphaltenes and insoluble fractions of vacuum residues (VRs) of two Indian crude oils (viz. Heera and Jodhpur) of different specific gravity were obtained by precipitation of VRs in n-hexane, n-heptane and ethyl acetate, and also by subsequent reprecipitation of n-heptane and ethyl acetate soluble f...

  19. Production of ethyl acetate from dilute ethanol solutions by Candida utilis

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, D.W.; Martin, S.M.; Yamazaki, H.

    1984-01-01

    The conversion of ethanol to ethyl acetate has an advantage as a method of ethanol recovery since ethyl acetate is amenable to simple solvent extraction. The potential of Candida utilis in this conversion was studied. The kinetics of accumulation of ethanol and ethyl acetate in glucose-grown C. utilis showed that ester formation resulted from ethanol utilization under appropriate aeration and was inhibited by Fe/sup 3 +/ supplementation. Candida utilis converted ethanol to ethyl acetate optimally at pH 5.0-7.0. The five-hour rate of ester production increased as the ethanol concentration increased to 10 g/L, and rapidly declined to zero at concentrations exceeding 35 g/L. Thus, C. utilis has potential to recover dilute ethanol in the form of ethyl acetate.

  20. Liquid-liquid equilibria of the ternary systems water + acetic acid + ethyl acetate and water + acetic acid + isophorene (3,5,5-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-one)

    SciTech Connect

    Colombo, A.; Battilana, P.; Ragaini, V.; Bianchi, C.L. [Milan Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry] [Milan Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry; Carvoli, G. [Chemial S.p.A., Cavaglia (Italy)] [Chemial S.p.A., Cavaglia (Italy)

    1999-01-01

    Liquid-liquid equilibria for the ternary systems water + acetic acid + ethyl acetate and water + acetic acid + isophorone (3,5,5-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-one) were measured over the temperature range (283 to 313) K. The results were used to estimate the interaction parameters between each of the three compounds of the systems studied for the NRTL and UNIQUAC models. The estimated interaction parameters were successfully used to predict the equilibrium compositions by the two models; experimental data were successfully reproduced. The UNIQUAC model was the most accurate in correlating the overall equilibrium composition of the studied systems. Also the NRTL model satisfactorily predicted the equilibrium composition. Isophorone experimentally resulted in a better extraction capacity for acetic acid and in a lower miscibility with water.

  1. Subchronic inhalation neurotoxicity studies of ethyl acetate in rats.

    PubMed

    Christoph, Greg R; Hansen, John F; Leung, Hon-Wing

    2003-12-01

    Rats were exposed to 0, 350, 750 or 1500 ppm of ethyl acetate by inhalation for 6 h per day, 5 days per week for 13 weeks. Functional observational battery (FOB) and motor activity tests occurred on non-exposure days during weeks 4, 8 and 13, after which tissues were microscopically examined for neuropathology. A subset of rats was monitored during a 4-week recovery period. Exposure to 750 and 1500 ppm, diminished behavioral responses to unexpected auditory stimuli during the exposure session and appeared to be an acute sedative effect. There were no signs of acute intoxication 30 min after exposure sessions ended. Rats exposed to 750 and 1500 ppm had reduced body weight, body weight gain, feed consumption, and feed efficiency, which fully or partially recovered within 4 weeks. Reductions in body weight gain and feed efficiency were observed in male rats exposed to 350 ppm. The principal behavioral effect of subchronic exposure was reduced motor activity in the 1500 ppm females, an effect that was not present after the 4-week recovery period. All other FOB and motor activity parameters were unaffected, and no pathology was observed in nervous system tissues. Operant sessions were conducted in another set of male rats preconditioned to a stable operant baseline under a multiple fixed ratio-fixed interval (FR-FI) schedule of food reinforcement. FR response rate, FR post-reinforcement pause duration, and the pattern of FI responding were not affected during or after the exposure series. In contrast, within-group FI rate for the treatment groups increased over time whereas those of the controls decreased. A historical control group, however, also showed a similar pattern of increase, indicating that these changes did not clearly represent a treatment-related effect. Results from these studies indicate a LOEL of 350 ppm for systemic toxicity based on the decreased body weight gain in male rats, and a LOEL of 1500 ppm for neurotoxicity based on the transient reduction in motor activity in female rats. In conclusion, there was no evidence that subchronic exposure up to 1500 ppm ethyl acetate produced any enduring neurotoxic effects in rats. PMID:14637381

  2. Pervaporation separation of ethyl acetate–ethanol binary mixtures using polydimethylsiloxane membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Hasano?lu; Y. Salt; S. Kele?er; S. Özkan; S. Dinçer

    2005-01-01

    Pervaporation separation of azeotrope forming ethyl acetate–ethanol mixtures was investigated by using a selfmade polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane. Sorption, desorption and pervaporation experiments for ethyl acetate–ethanol mixture with different concentrations were conducted at 30, 40 and 50°C. The effect of process parameters such as feed concentration and temperature on flux and selectivity is discussed. Equilibrium curves are determined by vapor–liquid equilibrium

  3. Formation of ethyl acetate by Kluyveromyces marxianus on whey: studies of the ester stripping.

    PubMed

    Urit, Thanet; Löser, Christian; Wunderlich, Martin; Bley, Thomas

    2011-06-01

    Kluyveromyces marxianus is capable of converting lactose into ethyl acetate offering a chance for an economical reuse of whey. The microbial formation of ethyl acetate as a bulk product calls for an aerobic process and, thus, the highly volatile ethyl acetate is discharged from the aerated bioreactor. This stripping process was modeled and investigated experimentally. The stripping rate was proportional to the gas flow and nearly independent of the stirring rate since the stripping was governed by the absorption capacity of the exhaust gas rather than the phase transfer. Cooling the exhaust gas did not noticeably influence the stripping. One batch experiment is presented in detail to demonstrate the formation of ethyl acetate by K. maxianus DSM 5422 on whey. Further batch experiments showed that a substantial formation of ethyl acetate only occurred when the yeast growth was limited by a lack of trace elements. The highest product yield observed was 0.25 g ethyl acetate per g lactose which is nearly 50% of the theoretical maximum. PMID:21191616

  4. Formation of ethyl acetate from whey by Kluyveromyces marxianus on a pilot scale.

    PubMed

    Löser, Christian; Urit, Thanet; Stukert, Anton; Bley, Thomas

    2013-01-10

    Whey arising in huge amounts during milk processing is a valuable renewable resource in the field of White Biotechnology. Kluyveromyces marxianus is able to convert whey-borne lactose into ethyl acetate, an environmentally friendly solvent. Formation of ethyl acetate as a bulk product is triggered by iron (Fe). K. marxianus DSM 5422 was cultivated aerobically in whey-borne medium originally containing 40 ?g/L Fe, supplemented with 1, 3 or 10 mg/L Fe in the pre-culture, using an 1 L or 70 L stirred reactor. The highest Fe content in the pre-culture promoted yeast growth in the main culture causing a high sugar consumption for growth and dissatisfactory formation of ethyl acetate, while the lowest Fe content limited yeast growth and promoted ester synthesis but slowed down the process. An intermediate Fe dose (ca. 0.5 ?g Fe/g sugar) lastly represented a compromise between some yeast growth, a quite high yield of ethyl acetate and an acceptable duration of the process. The mass of ethyl acetate related to the sugar consumed amounted to 0.113, 0.265 and 0.239 g/g in the three processes corresponding to 21.9%, 51.4% and 46.3% of the theoretically maximum yield. The performance on a pilot scale was somewhat higher than on lab scale. PMID:23089728

  5. Enzymatic production of biodiesel from microalgal oil using ethyl acetate as an acyl acceptor.

    PubMed

    Alavijeh, Razieh Shafiee; Tabandeh, Fatemeh; Tavakoli, Omid; Karkhane, Aliasghar; Shariati, Parvin

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae have become an important source of biomass for biodiesel production. In enzymatic transesterification reaction, the enzyme activity is decreased in presence of alcohols. The use of different acyl acceptors such as methyl/ethyl acetate is suggested as an alternative and effective way to overcome this problem. In this study, ethyl acetate was used for the first time in the enzymatic production of biodiesel by using microalga, Chlorella vulgaris, as a triglyceride source. Enzymatic conversion of such fatty acids to biodiesel was catalyzed by Novozym 435 as an efficient immobilized lipase which is extensively used in biodiesel production. The best conversion yield of 66.71% was obtained at the ethyl acetate to oil molar ratio of 13:1 and Novozym 435 concentration of 40%, based on the amount of oil, and a time period of 72 h at 40?. The results showed that ethyl acetate have no adverse effect on lipase activity and the biodiesel amount was not decreased even after seven transesterification cycles, so ethyl acetate has a great potential to be substituted for short-chain alcohols in transesterification reaction. PMID:25742923

  6. Antihyperglycemic effect of Hypericum perforatum ethyl acetate extract on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Arokiyaraj, S; Balamurugan, R; Augustian, P

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antihyperglycemic activity of ethyl acetate extract of Hypericum perforatum (H. perforatum) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Methods Acute toxicity and oral glucose tolerance test were performed in normal rats. Male albino rats were rendered diabetic by STZ (40 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). H. perforatum ethyl acetate extract was orally administered to diabetic rats at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg doses for 15 days to determine the antihyperglycemic activity. Biochemical parameters were determined at the end of the treatment. Results H. perforatum ethyl acetate extract showed dose dependant fall in fasting blood glucose (FBG). After 30 min of extract administration, FBG was reduced significantly when compared with normal rats. H. perforatum ethyl acetate extract produced significant reduction in plasma glucose level, serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose-6-phosphatase levels. Tissue glycogen content, HDL-cholesterol, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were significantly increased compared with diabetic control. No death or lethal effect was observed in the toxic study. Conclusions The results demonstrate that H. perforatum ethyl acetate extract possesses potent antihyperglycemic activity in STZ induced diabetic rats. PMID:23569798

  7. Mass Spectral Fragmentation Patterns of Deuterated Butyl and Ethyl Acetates: An Easy Microscale Isotopic Labeling Experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hengameh Zahedkargaran; Leverett R. Smith

    2001-01-01

    We have developed an experimentally uncomplicated microscale second-semester organic lab exercise that illustrates the use of isotopic labeling, in this case deuteration, to help confirm and interpret mass spectral fragmentation patterns in butyl acetate and ethyl acetate. Preparation and gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis of unlabeled and labeled esters is followed by pooling of student data for interpretation and write-up.

  8. Synthesis of ethyl acetate employing celite-immobilized lipase of Bacillus cereus MTCC 8372.

    PubMed

    Verma, M L; Azmi, W; Kanwar, S S

    2009-09-01

    A wide range of fatty acid esters can be synthesized by esterification and transesterification reactions catalyzed by lipases in non-aqueous systems. In the present study, immobilization of a purified alkaline extra-cellular lipase of Bacillus cereus MTCC 8372 by adsorption on diatomaceous earth (celite) for synthesis of ethyl acetate via transesterification route was investigated. B. cereus lipase was deposited on celite (77% protein binding efficiency) by direct binding from aqueous solution. Immobilized lipase was used to synthesis of ethyl acetate from vinyl acetate and ethanol in n -nonane. Various reaction conditions, such as biocatalyst concentration, substrates concentration, choices of solvents ( n -alkanes), incubation time, temperature, molecular sieves (3A x 1.5 mm), and water activity(a w ), were optimized. The immobilized lipase (25 mg/ml) was used to perform transesterification in n -alkane(s) that resulted in approximately 73.7 mM of ethyl acetate at 55 degrees C in n -nonane under shaking (160 rpm) after 15 h, when vinyl acetate and ethanol were used in a equimolar ratio (100 mM each). Addition of molecular sieves (3A x 1.5 mm) as well as effect of water activity of saturated salt solutions (KI, KCl and KNO 3 ) to the transesterification efficiency has inhibitory effect. Batch operational stability tests indicated that immobilized lipase had retained 50% of its original catalytic activity after four consecutive batches of 15 h each. PMID:19789138

  9. In vitro antiperoxidative, free radical scavenging and xanthine oxidase inhibitory potentials of ethyl acetate fraction of Saraca ashoka flowers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Prathapan; O. Lijo Cherian; Suresh V. Nampoothiri; S. Mini; K. G. Raghu

    2011-01-01

    Saraca ashoka is a widely used medicinal herb claimed to cure many diseases. This study investigated the antiperoxidative, free radical scavenging and xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory potential of the ethyl acetate fraction of S. ashoka flowers (SAF) and compared it with standard compounds like gallic acid, ascorbic acid, butylated hydroxyl toluene and allopurinol. The ethyl acetate fraction of SAF exhibited

  10. On using film boiling to thermally decompose liquid organic chemicals: Application to ethyl acetate as a model compound

    E-print Network

    Walter, M.Todd

    flux (CHF) Leidenfrost point a b s t r a c t Film boiling on a horizontal tube is used to studyOn using film boiling to thermally decompose liquid organic chemicals: Application to ethyl acetate 21 August 2013 Keywords: Film boiling Thermal decomposition Pyrolysis Ethyl acetate Critical heat

  11. Separation of n-hexane–ethyl acetate mixtures by azeotropic batch distillation with heterogeneous entrainers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Rodriguez-Donis; J. Acosta-Esquijarosa; V. Gerbaud; E. Pardillo-Fondevila; X. Joulia

    2005-01-01

    In this article, a systematic study of the separation of the n-hexane–ethyl acetate mixture with an entrainer by heterogeneous azeotropic batch distillation is performed. Based upon the thermodynamic behaviour of the ternary mixtures, potential entrainers partially miscible with one or two original azeotropic components are chosen. In all cases, the entrainer adds a heterogeneous binary or ternary azeotrope that is

  12. Alternanthera sessilis Red Ethyl Acetate Fraction Exhibits Antidiabetic Potential on Obese Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Kok Keong; Kim, Kah Hwi

    2013-01-01

    The antidiabetic potential of Alternanthera sessilis Red was investigated using the obese type 2 diabetic rats induced by high fat diet and streptozotocin. Three fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate, and water) were obtained from the crude ethanol extract of Alternanthera sessilis Red. Alternanthera sessilis Red ethyl acetate fraction (ASEAF) was found to possess the most potent antihyperglycemic effect through oral glucose tolerance test. The ASEAF was subsequently given to the diabetic rats for two weeks. It was found that two-week administration of ASEAF reduces the fasting blood glucose level, triglyceride level, and free fatty acid level of the rats. ASEAF-treated diabetic rats showed higher pancreatic insulin content and pancreatic total superoxide dismutase activity compared to the untreated diabetic rats. Also, the insulin sensitivity indexes suggested that ASEAF ameliorates the insulin resistant state of the diabetic rats. In conclusion, ASEAF could be developed into a potential antidiabetic agent for the management of type 2 diabetes. PMID:23606892

  13. Dehydration of ethyl acetate aqueous solution by pervaporation using PVA\\/PAN hollow fiber composite membrane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hai-Kuan Yuan; Jie Ren; Xiao-Hua Ma; Zhen-Liang Xu

    2011-01-01

    Using poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) as coating material, tartaric acid (Tac) and maleic anhydride (Mac) as cross-linking agents and the poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN) hollow fiber ultrafiltration membrane as support layer, the PVA\\/PAN composite membrane was prepared by dip-coating method used for pervaporation (PV) dehydration of ethyl acetate (EAc)\\/H2O solution. The PVA\\/PAN composite membrane was characterized by FT-IR spectra and SEM. The effects

  14. Dehydration of ethyl acetate–water mixtures using PVA\\/ceramic composite pervaporation membrane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shanshan Xia; Xueliang Dong; Yuexin Zhu; Wang Wei; Fenjuan Xiangli; Wanqin Jin

    2011-01-01

    Dehydration of ethyl acetate (EAC)–water mixtures by pervaporation (PV) was studied using a ceramic-supported polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) composite membrane. The effects of feed temperature, feed water content and feed flow rate on the PV performance of the membrane were systematically investigated. In addition, swelling experiments were performed to evaluate the sorption characteristic of the membrane. Flory-Huggins and NRTL (non-random two

  15. Induction of HL60 apoptosis by ethyl acetate extract of Cordyceps sinensis fungal mycelium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiaoxia Zhang; Jianyong Wu; Zongding Hu; Duan Li

    2004-01-01

    The cultivated mycelium of a Cordyceps sinensis (Cs) fungus was sequentially extracted by petroleum ether, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), ethanol and water. The EtOAc extract showed the most potent cytotoxic effect against the proliferation of human premyelocytic leukemia cell HL-60, with an ED50 ? 25 ?g\\/ml for 2-day treatment. The EtOAc extract induced the characteristic apoptotic symptoms in the HL-60 cells,

  16. Yeast tolerance to the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate.

    PubMed

    Sitepu, Irnayuli R; Shi, Shuang; Simmons, Blake A; Singer, Steven W; Boundy-Mills, Kyria; Simmons, Christopher W

    2014-12-01

    Lignocellulosic plant biomass is the target feedstock for production of second-generation biofuels. Ionic liquid (IL) pretreatment can enhance deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass into sugars that can be fermented to ethanol. Although biomass is typically washed following IL pretreatment, small quantities of residual IL can inhibit fermentative microorganisms downstream, such as the widely used ethanologenic yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The aim of this study was to identify yeasts tolerant to the IL 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, one of the top performing ILs known for biomass pretreatment. One hundred and sixty eight strains spanning the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota phyla were selected for screening, with emphasis on yeasts within or closely related to the Saccharomyces genus and those tolerant to saline environments. Based on growth in media containing 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, tolerance to IL levels ranging 1-5% was observed for 80 strains. The effect of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate concentration on maximum cell density and growth rate was quantified to rank tolerance. The most tolerant yeasts included strains from the genera Clavispora, Debaryomyces, Galactomyces, Hyphopichia, Kazachstania, Meyerozyma, Naumovozyma, Wickerhamomyces, Yarrowia, and Zygoascus. These yeasts included species known to degrade plant cell wall polysaccharides and those capable of ethanol fermentation. These yeasts warrant further investigation for use in saccharification and fermentation of IL-pretreated lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol or other products. PMID:25348480

  17. Phytochemical screening and anticonvulsant studies of ethyl acetate fraction of Globimetula braunii on laboratory animals

    PubMed Central

    Aliyu, Musa Mumammad; Musa, Abdullahi Isma'il; Kamal, Muhammad Ja'afar; Mohammed, Magaji Garba

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the phytochemical properties and the anticonvulsant potential of the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of ethanol leaf extract of Globimetula braunii, a plant used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of epilepsy. Methods The phytochemical screening was carried out using standard protocol while the anticonvulsant activity was studied using maximal electroshock test in chicks, pentylenetetrazole and 4-aminopyridine-induced seizures in mice. Results The preliminary phytochemical screening carried out on the crude ethanol extract revealed the presence of saponins, carbohydrates, flavonoids, tannins, anthraquinones and steroids. Similarly, tannins, flavonoids and steroids/terpenes were found to be present in the ethyl acetate fraction. In the pharmacological screening, 150 mg/kg of the fraction protected 83.33% of animals against pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure in mice whereas sodium valproate a standard anti-epileptic drug offered 100% protection. In the 4-aminopyridine-induced seizure model, the fraction produced a significant (P<0.05) increase in the mean onset of seizure in unprotected animals. The fraction did not exhibit a significant activity against maximal electroshock convulsion. The median lethal dose of the fraction was found to be 1?261.91 mg/kg. Conclusions These results suggest that the ethyl acetate fraction of Globimetula braunii leaves extract possesses psychoactive compound that may be useful in the management of petit mal epilepsy and lend credence to the ethnomedical use of the plant in the management of epilepsy. PMID:25182552

  18. Microencapsulation techniques using ethyl acetate as a dispersed solvent: effects of its extraction rate on the characteristics of PLGA microspheres

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongkee Sah

    1997-01-01

    Ethyl acetate solvent evaporation and extraction processes were developed to prepare poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres. The microencapsulation processes first emulsified a polymer-containing ethyl acetate solution with a 1% aqueous polyvinyl alcohol solution (W1) to make an oil-in-water (O\\/W1) emulsion. The O:W1 phase ratio was carefully chosen so as to saturate the W1 by a small proportion of the dispersed solvent and to

  19. Potential of ethyl acetate in the determination of extractable organic halogens (EOX) from contaminated soil, sediment, and sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Reemtsma; M. Jekel

    1996-01-01

    The potential of methyl-tert. butyl ether, toluene and ethyl acetate for determining extractable organic halogens (EOX) from contaminated soil, lake sediments and sewage sludge was investigated and compared with hexane, which is prescribed in the German standard method of EOX determination. Soxhlet-extraction with ethyl acetate proved most efficient and yielded 2 - 6 times the EOX-values obtained by hexane. Washing

  20. Growth of Kluyveromyces marxianus and formation of ethyl acetate depending on temperature.

    PubMed

    Urit, Thanet; Li, Meng; Bley, Thomas; Löser, Christian

    2013-12-01

    Conversion of lactose into ethyl acetate by Kluyveromyces marxianus allows economic reuse of whey-borne sugar. The high volatility of ethyl acetate enables its process-integrated recovery by stripping. This stripping is governed by both the aeration rate and the partition coefficient, K EA,L/G. Cultivation at elevated temperatures should decrease the K EA,L/G value and thus favor stripping. K. marxianus DSM 5422 as a potent producer of ethyl acetate was cultivated aerobically in whey-borne media for studying temperature-dependent growth and ester formation. Shake flask cultivation proved thermal tolerance of this yeast growing from 7 to 47 °C with a maximum rate of 0.75 h(-1) at 40 °C. The biomass yield was 0.41 g/g at moderate temperatures while low and high temperatures caused distinct drops. The observed ?-T and Y X/S-T dependencies were described by mathematical models. Further cultivations were done in an 1-L stirred reactor for exploring the effect of temperature on ester synthesis. Cultivation at 32 °C caused significant ester formation (Y EA/S = 0.197 g/g) while cultivation at 42 °C suppressed ester synthesis (Y EA/S = 0.002 g/g). The high temperature affected metal dissolution from the bioreactor delivering iron for yeast growth and preventing ester synthesis. Cultivation at 32 °C with a switch to 42 °C at the onset of ester synthesis allowed quick and efficient ester production (Y EA/S = 0.289 g/g). The high temperature lowered the K EA,L/G value from 78 to 44 L/L which heightened the gas-phase ester concentration (favoring ester recovery) without increasing the liquid-phase concentration (avoiding product inhibition). PMID:24104467

  1. Simulating the vibrational spectra of ionic liquid systems: 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate and its mixtures.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Martin; Brehm, Martin; Hollóczki, Oldamur; Kelemen, Zsolt; Nyulászi, László; Pasinszki, Tibor; Kirchner, Barbara

    2014-07-14

    The vibrational spectra of the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate and its mixtures with water and carbon dioxide are calculated using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, and the results are compared to experimental data. The new implementation of a normal coordinate analysis in the trajectory analyzer TRAVIS is used to assign the experimentally observed bands to specific molecular vibrations. The applied computational approaches prove to be particularly suitable for the modeling of bulk phase effects on vibrational spectra, which are highly important for the discussion of the microscopic structure in systems with a strong dynamic network of intermolecular interactions, such as ionic liquids. PMID:25028030

  2. Eslicarbazepine acetate.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Paul L; Robinson, Dean M

    2009-01-01

    Eslicarbazepine acetate, a prodrug of eslicarbazepine (S-licarbazepine), is a novel, voltage-gated sodium channel antagonist under development for the adjunctive treatment of adult patients experiencing treatment-refractory partial-onset seizures. * In phase III trials, eslicarbazepine acetate 800 and 1200 mg once daily significantly reduced seizure frequency compared with placebo over 12 weeks of maintenance treatment in adults experiencing partial-onset seizures who were taking 1-3 concomitant antiepileptic drugs. * During long-term, open-label treatment for up to 1 year, eslicarbazepine acetate at a median dosage of 800 mg once daily produced sustained reductions from baseline in seizure frequency. * Long-term treatment with eslicarbazepine acetate significantly improved from baseline health-related quality of life as assessed by the Quality-of-Life in Epilepsy Inventory-31 instrument. Similarly, eslicarbazepine acetate significantly reduced depressive symptoms assessed by the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale. * Eslicarbazepine acetate was generally well tolerated in clinical trials. The majority of treatment-emergent adverse events were of mild to moderate severity and most occurred early in treatment. PMID:19062776

  3. Characteristics of thin cellulose ester films spin-coated from acetone and ethyl acetate solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Amim Jr; P. M. Kosaka; D. F. S. Petri

    2008-01-01

    Spin-coated films of cellulose acetate (CA), cellulose acetate propionate (CAP), cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) and carboxymethylcellulose\\u000a acetate butyrate (CMCAB) have been characterized by ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle measurements.\\u000a The films were spin-coated onto silicon wafers, a polar surface. Mean thickness values were determined by means of ellipsometry\\u000a and AFM as a function of polymer concentration in

  4. Antifungal and antioxidant activity of Crassocephalum bauchiense (Hutch.) Milne-Redh ethyl acetate extract and fractions (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Crassocephalum bauchiense is a flowering plant, found in the West Region of Cameroon. Previous studied has highlighted the antibacterial and the dermal toxicological safety as well as the immunomodulatory activities of the ethyl acetate extract of its dry leaves. As an extension of the previous researches, the current work has been undertaken to evaluate the in vitro antifungal and antioxidant activities of C. bauchiense dried leaves ethyl acetate extract and fractions. Methods The extract was obtained by maceration in ethyl acetate and further fractionated into six fractions labeled F1 to F6 by flash chromatography. The antifungal activity of the extract and fractions against yeasts and dermatophytes was evaluated using broth microdilution method. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO) and ?-carotene - linoleic acid assays. Results The extract (MIC = 0.125 - 4 mg/ml) was found to be more active on dermatophytes and yeasts compared to the fractions. The ethyl acetate extract and fractions exhibited strong scavenging activity on DPPH (CI50 = 28.57 - 389.38 ?g/ml). The fractions F3 and F6 expressed best antioxidant activity on DPPH radicals compared to the crude extract. Conclusion The results of these findings clearly showed that C. bauchiense ethyl acetate extract has a significant antifungal and antioxidant activity. It is therefore a source of active compounds that might be used as antifungal and antioxidant agents. PMID:24742210

  5. Formation of ethyl acetate by Kluyveromyces marxianus on whey during aerobic batch cultivation at specific trace element limitation.

    PubMed

    Urit, Thanet; Stukert, Anton; Bley, Thomas; Löser, Christian

    2012-12-01

    Kluyveromyces marxianus is able to transform lactose into ethyl acetate as a bulk product which offers a chance for an economical reuse of whey-borne sugar. Ethyl acetate is highly volatile and allows its process-integrated recovery by stripping from the aerated bioreactor. Extensive formation of ethyl acetate by K. marxianus DSM 5422 required restriction of yeast growth by a lack of trace elements. Several aerobic batch processes were done in a 1-L stirred reactor using whey-borne culture medium supplemented with an individual trace element solution excluding Mn, Mo, Fe, Cu, or Zn for identifying the trace element(s) crucial for the observed ester synthesis. Only a lack of Fe, Cu, or Zn restricted yeast growth while exclusion of Mn and Mo did not exhibit any effect due to a higher amount of the latter in the used whey. Limitation of growth by Fe or Cu caused significant production of ethyl acetate while limitation by Zn resulted in formation of ethanol. A lack of Fe or Cu obviously makes the respiratory chain inefficient resulting in an increased mitochondrial NADH level followed by a reduced metabolic flux of acetyl-SCoA into the citrate cycle. Synthesis of ethyl acetate from acetyl-SCoA and ethanol by alcoholysis is thus interpreted as an overflow metabolism. PMID:22573271

  6. Studies on the mechanism of synthesis of ethyl acetate in Kluyveromyces marxianus DSM 5422.

    PubMed

    Löser, Christian; Urit, Thanet; Keil, Peter; Bley, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Kluyveromyces marxianus converts whey-borne sugar into ethyl acetate, an environmentally friendly solvent with many applications. K. marxianus DSM 5422 presumably synthesizes ethyl acetate from acetyl-SCoA. Iron limitation as a trigger for this synthesis is explained by a diminished aconitase and succinate dehydrogenase activity (both enzymes depend on iron) causing diversion of acetyl-SCoA from the tricarboxic acid cycle to ester synthesis. Copper limitation as another trigger for ester synthesis in this yeast refers to involvement of the electron transport chain (all ETC complexes depend on iron and complex IV requires copper). This hypothesis was checked by using several ETC inhibitors. Malonate was ineffective but carboxin partially inhibited complex II and initiated ester synthesis. Antimycin A and cyanide as complexes III and IV inhibitors initiated ester synthesis only at moderate levels while higher concentrations disrupted all respiration and caused ethanol formation. A restricted supply of oxygen (the terminal electron acceptor) also initiated some ester synthesis but primarily forced ethanol production. A switch from aerobic to anaerobic conditions nearly stopped ester synthesis and induced ethanol formation. Iron-limited ester formation was compared with anaerobic ethanol production; the ester yield was lower than the ethanol yield but a higher market price, a reduced number of process stages, a faster process, and decreased expenses for product recovery by stripping favor biotechnological ester production. PMID:25487884

  7. Nanofiltration of rhodium tris(triphenylphosphine) catalyst in ethyl acetate solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaharun, Maizatul S.; Mustafa, Ahmad K.; Taha, Mohd F.

    2012-09-01

    Solvent resistant nanofiltration (SRNF) using polymer membranes has recently received enhanced attention due to the search for cleaner and more energy-efficient technologies. The large size of the rhodium tris(triphenylphosphine) [HRh(CO)(PPh3)3] catalyst (>400 Da) - relative to other components of the hydroformylation reaction provides the opportunity for a membrane separation based on retention of the catalyst species while permeating the solvent. The compatibility of the solvent-polyimide membrane (DuraMem{trade mark, serif} 200 and DuraMem{trade mark, serif} 500) combinations was assessed in terms of the membrane stability in solvent plus non-zero solvent flux at 2.0 MPa. Good HRh(CO)(PPh3)3 rejection (>0.95) and solvent fluxes of 9.9 L/m2?h1 at 2.0 MPa were obtained in the catalyst-ethyl acetate-DuraMem 500 system. The effect of pressure and catalyst concentration on the solvent flux and catalyst rejection was conducted on the catalyst-ethyl acetate-membrane systems. Increasing pressure substantially improved both solvent flux and catalyst rejection, while increasing catalyst concentration was found to be beneficial in terms of substantial increases in catalyst rejection without significantly affecting solvent flux.

  8. Hormetic effect of ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate on bacteria.

    PubMed

    Nancharaiah, Y V; Francis, A J

    2015-06-01

    The biological effect of ionic liquids (ILs) is one of the highly debated topics as they are being contemplated for various industrial applications. 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMIM][Ac]) showed remarkable hormesis on anaerobic Clostridium sp. and aerobic Pseudomonas putida. Bacterial growth was stimulated at up to 2.5 g L(-1) and inhibited at >2.5 g L(-1) of [EMIM][Ac]. The growth of Clostridium sp. and P. putida were higher by 0.4 and 4-fold respectively, in the presence of 0.5 g L(-1) [EMIM][Ac]. Assessment of the effect of [EMIM][Ac] under different growth conditions showed that the hormesis of [EMIM][Ac] was mediated via regulation of medium pH. Hormetic effect of [EMIM][Ac] was evident only in medium with poor buffering capacity and in the presence of a fermentable substrate as the carbon source. The hormetic effect of [EMIM][Ac] on bacterial growth is most likely associated with the buffering capacity of acetate anion. These observations have implications in ILs toxicity studies and ecological risk assessment. PMID:25703901

  9. Hormetic effect of ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate on bacteria

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Nancharaiah, Y. V.; Francis, A. J.

    2015-06-01

    The biological effect of ionic liquids (ILs) is one of the highly debated topics as they are being contemplated for various industrial applications. 1-ethyl-2-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMIM][Ac]) showed remarkable hormesis on anaerobic Clostridium sp. and aerobic Psueudomonas putida. Bacterial growth was stimulated at up to 2.5 g L-1 and inhibited at > 2.5 g L-1 of ([EMIM][Ac]). The growth of Clostridium sp. and P. putida were higher by 0.4 and 4-fold respectively, in the presense of 0.5 g L-1 of ([EMIM][Ac]). Assessment of the effect of [EMIM][Ac] under different growth conditions showed that the hormesis of [EMIM][Ac] was mediated via regulationmore »of medium pH. Hormetic effect of [EMIM][Ac] was evident only in medium with poor buffering capacity and in the presence of a fermentable substrate as the carbon source. The hormetic effect of [EMIM][Ac] on bacterial growth is most likely associated with the buffering capacity of acetate anion. These observations have implications in ILs toxicity studies and ecological risk assessment.« less

  10. Preparation of corn starch-g-polystyrene copolymer in ionic liquid: 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate.

    PubMed

    Men, Yongjun; Du, Xiyan; Shen, Jianan; Wang, Leli; Liu, Zhengping

    2015-05-01

    The copolymer of starch grafted with polystyrene (starch-g-PS) was synthesized with high grafting percentage by utilizing the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMIM]Ac) as solvent and potassium persulfate as initiator. The effect of various parameters upon the polymerization were studied including: initiator concentration, styrene:starch weight ratio, the reaction time and temperature. Grafting percentages were calculated using an FT-IR calibration method, with values up to 114%. The resulting copolymer was characterized using FT-IR, SEM, WAXD and TGA, which demonstrated that polystyrene side chains were evenly distributed on the starch backbone. Our results indicate that ionic liquid dissolution of starch, prior to polystyrene grafting, is a versatile methodology for the synthesis of amphiphilic, polysaccharide-based graft copolymers, having high grafting percent. PMID:25659709

  11. The effect of ethyl acetate extract of pomelo mix on systemic exposure of verapamil in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Aqel, Suad M; Irshaid, Yacoub M; Gharaibeh, Munir N; Arafat, Tawfiq A

    2011-04-01

    The effect of ethyl acetate extract of pomelo fruit on systemic exposure of verapamil was explored in rabbits. Two groups each of 8 locally-inbred New Zealand male rabbits were used. The first group was used for single-dose treatment (both verapamil and pomelo extract). The second group was used for multiple-dose treatment, pomelo extract (once daily for 14 days) and verapamil single doses (at days 7 and 14). A verapamil dose of 30 mg/kg and a pomelo extract dose of 45 mg/kg were used. Single-dose treatment with pomelo extract resulted in a minor change in mean C(max) of verapamil in plasma, while a decrease of 37.8% in AUC(0-24) and 28.3% in AUC(0-?) was observed but did not reach statistical significance. After the first period of multiple dose treatment (pomelo extract for 7 days), the combination increased the concentration of verapamil in plasma with a significant increase in mean C(max), AUC(0-24) and AUC(0-?) by 461.9%, 299.7%, and 261.1%, respectively (p values were 0.005, 0.002, and 0.006, respectively). In contrast, after the second period (day 14 of pomelo extract use), the combination decreased the concentration of verapamil in the plasma with a substantial decrease in mean C(max), AUC(0-24), and AUC(0-?), by 68.2%, 69.7% and 58.3%, respectively. This decrease did not reach statistical significance (p values were 0.073, 0.081 and 0.083, respectively). The T(max) was not affected significantly in both studies. The study illustrates a complex time-dependent interaction between verapamil and the ethyl acetate extract of pomelo mix. More intensive studies are needed to further understand the nature of the interaction. PMID:21457137

  12. Ethyl acetate extracts of Fructus Ligustri Lucide induce cell apoptosis in human neuroglioma cell

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yun-Bao; Shao, Yi-Meng; Chen, Jing; Xu, Song-Bai; Zhang, Xing-Dong; Liu, Hai-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies have shown that Fructus Ligustri Lucide (FLL) can be used to improve the tumor cells sensitivity to chemotherapeutics and promote cell death. However, the mechanism by which FLL mediate this effect is unclear. In the present study, ethyl acetate extracts of FLL induced cell apoptosis in human neuroglioma cell was investigated. Methods: The cell viability was detected by the CCK8 assay. The cell apoptosis was assessed by annexin V-PI double-labeling staining and hoechst 33342 staining. The protein expression of cell cycle regulators and tumor suppressors were analyzed by western blotting. Results: Treatment of human neuroglioma cell with FLL induced cell death in a dose-and time-dependent manner by using CCK8 assay. Consistent with the CCK8 assay, the flow cytometry results showed that the proportion of the early and terminal phase of apoptosis cells had gained after FLL treatment as compared to untreatment group. Moreover, human neuroglioma cells were exposed to the ethyl acetate extracts of FLL for 48 h, which resulted in an accumulation of cells in G2/Mphase. Apoptotic bodies were clearly observed in human neuroglioma cells that had been treated with FLL for 48 h and then stained with Hochest 33342. The expression of Cyclin B1, CDC2 and cdc25C were downregulated upon FLL treatment in human neuroglioma cells. The expression level of Cyclin B1, CDC2 and cdc25C was negatively correlated with the time of treatment by FLL. In contrast, p53, p21 and p16 were obviously upregulated by FLL treatment in a time-dependent manner. Conclusions: These results confirmed that FLL could induce apoptosis in human neuroglioma cells, the underlying molecular mechanisms, at least partially, through activation p21/p53 and suppression CDC2/cdc25C signaling in vitro.

  13. Insecticidal Activity of Ethyl Acetate Extracts from Culture Filtrates of Mangrove Fungal Endophytes

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Silva; Basukriadi, Adi; Pawiroharsono, Suyanto

    2015-01-01

    In the search for novel potent fungi-derived bioactive compounds for bioinsecticide applications, crude ethyl acetate culture filtrate extracts from 110 mangrove fungal endophytes were screened for their toxicity. Toxicity tests of all extracts against brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae were performed. The extracts with the highest toxicity were further examined for insecticidal activity against Spodoptera litura larvae and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition activity. The results showed that the extracts of five isolates exhibited the highest toxicity to brine shrimp at 50% lethal concentration (LC50) values of 7.45 to 10.24 ppm. These five fungal isolates that obtained from Rhizophora mucronata were identified based on sequence data analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of rDNA as Aspergillus oryzae (strain BPPTCC 6036), Emericella nidulans (strains BPPTCC 6035 and BPPTCC 6038), A. tamarii (strain BPPTCC 6037), and A. versicolor (strain BPPTCC 6039). The mean percentage of S. litura larval mortality following topical application of the five extracts ranged from 16.7% to 43.3%. In the AChE inhibition assay, the inhibition rates of the five extracts ranged from 40.7% to 48.9%, while eserine (positive control) had an inhibition rate of 96.8%, at a concentration of 100 ppm. The extracts used were crude extracts, so their potential as sources of AChE inhibition compounds makes them likely candidates as neurotoxins. The high-performance liquid chromatography profiles of the five extracts differed, indicating variations in their chemical constituents. This study highlights the potential of culture filtrate ethyl acetate extracts of mangrove fungal endophytes as a source of new potential bioactive compounds for bioinsecticide applications.

  14. Formation of ethyl acetate by Kluyveromyces marxianus on whey during aerobic batch and chemostat cultivation at iron limitation.

    PubMed

    Löser, Christian; Urit, Thanet; Förster, Sylvia; Stukert, Anton; Bley, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    The ability of Kluyveromyces marxianus to convert lactose into ethyl acetate offers a chance for an economic reuse of whey. Former experiments with K. marxianus DSM 5422 proved limitation of growth by iron (Fe) or copper as a precondition for significant ester synthesis. Several aerobic batch and chemostat cultivations were done with whey-borne media of a variable Fe content for exploring the effect of Fe on growth, the Fe content of biomass, and metabolite synthesis. At low Fe doses, Fe was the growth-limiting factor, the available Fe was completely absorbed by the yeasts, and the biomass formation linearly depended on the Fe dose governed by a minimum Fe content in the yeasts, x (Fe,min). At batch conditions, x (Fe,min) was 8.8 ?g/g, while during chemostat cultivation at D?=?0.15 h(-1), it was 23 ?g/g. At high Fe doses, sugar was the growth-limiting factor, Fe was more or less absorbed, and the formed biomass became constant. Significant amounts of ethyl acetate were only formed at Fe limitation while high Fe doses suppressed ester formation. Analysis of formed metabolites such as glycerol, pyruvate, acetate, ethanol, ethyl acetate, isocitrate, 2-oxoglutarate, succinate, and malate during chemostat cultivation allowed some interpretation of the Fe-dependent mechanism of ester synthesis; formation of ethyl acetate from acetyl-SCoA and ethanol is obviously initiated by a diminished metabolic flux of acetyl-SCoA into the citrate cycle and by a limited oxidation of NADH in the respiratory chain since Fe is required for the function of aconitase, succinate dehydrogenase, and the electron-transferring proteins. PMID:22695802

  15. (N,N?-Di­ethyl­thio­urea-?S)tris­(triphenylphosphane-?P)silver(I) acetate methanol monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Wattanakanjana, Yupa; Nimthong, Arunpatcha; Kamrod, Chanakan

    2014-01-01

    In the mononuclear title complex, [Ag(C5H12N2S)(C18H15P)3](CH3COO)·CH3OH, the AgI ion is in a distorted tetra­hedral coordination geometry formed by three P atoms from three tri­phenyl­phosphane ligands and one S atom from an N,N?-di­ethyl­thio­urea ligand. In the crystal, the acetate anion is connected to the complex mol­ecule via a pair of N—H?O hydrogen bonds [graph-set motif R 2 2(8)] and the solvent methanol mol­ecule is connected to the anion via an O—H?O hydrogen bond. This aggregate is further connected through a weak C—H?O hydrogen bond, forming a chain along [100]. In addition, sixfold phenyl embraces with inter­molecular distances of 6.6463?(13)–6.667?(2)?Å are arranged in a chain along [001]. The combination of hydrogen bonding and phen­yl?phenyl inter­actions leads to the formation of a two-dimensional network parallel to (010). PMID:24940203

  16. Impact of ionic liquid pretreatment conditions on cellulose crystalline structure using 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Gang; Varanasi, Patanjali; Arora, Rohit; Stavila, Vitalie; Simmons, Blake A; Kent, Michael S; Singh, Seema

    2012-08-23

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have been shown to affect cellulose crystalline structure in lignocellulosic biomass during pretreatment. A systematic investigation of the swelling and dissolution processes associated with IL pretreatment is needed to better understand cellulose structural transformation. In this work, 3-20 wt % microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel) solutions were treated with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C(2)mim][OAc]) and a mixture of [C(2)mim][OAc] with the nonsolvent dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) at different temperatures. The dissolution process was slowed by decreasing the temperature and increasing cellulose loading, and was further retarded by addition of DMSO, enabling in-depth examination of the intermediate stages of dissolution. Results show that the cellulose I lattice expands and distorts prior to full dissolution in [C(2)mim][OAc] and that upon precipitation the former structure leads to a less ordered intermediate structure, whereas fully dissolved cellulose leads to a mixture of cellulose II and amorphous cellulose. Enzymatic hydrolysis was more rapid for the intermediate structure (crystallinity = 0.34) than for cellulose II (crystallinity = 0.54). PMID:22823503

  17. Validation of an efficient method for the determination of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables using ethyl acetate for extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Perihan Aysal; Árpád Ambrus; Steven J. Lehotay; Andrew Cannavan

    2007-01-01

    In this study, a version of the “quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe” (QuEChERS) method was modified to use ethyl acetate (EtOAc) rather than acetonitrile (MeCN) for extraction in the determination of multiple pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables. EtOAc is better suited than MeCN for gas chromatographic (GC) analysis with electron capture detection (ECD) and nitrogen-phosphorus detection (NPD).

  18. Complete Oxidation of CO, Ethanol, and Ethyl Acetate over Copper Oxide Supported on Titania and Ceria Modified Titania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Per-Olof Larsson; Arne Andersson

    1998-01-01

    Titania and titania modified with 3 and 12 ?mol Ce\\/m2surface area of the titania were prepared and were used as supports for copper oxide. Preparations with 3 and 12 ?mol CuOx\\/m2surface area of the support were tested for the combustion of CO, ethyl acetate, and ethanol. The results show that the Ce-doped titania surface is good as support for CuOxand

  19. Cross-linked HTPB-based polyurethaneurea membranes for recovery of ethyl acetate from aqueous solution by pervaporation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yunxiang Bai; Jinwen Qian; Chunfang Zhang; Lin Zhang; Quanfu An; Huanlin Chen

    2008-01-01

    Cross-linked hydroxy terminated polybutadiene (HTPB)-based polyurethaneurea (PU), HTPB–DVB–PU, was synthesized by a three-step polymerization process. It was firstly used as membrane material to recover aroma, ethyl acetate (EA), from aqueous solution by pervaporation (PV). The effects of the content of cross-linker DVB, EA concentration in feed, and operating temperature on the PV performance of HTPB–DVB–PU membranes were investigated. The membranes

  20. Ethyl acetate extracts of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) sprouts inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong-Han Hong; Wen-Wan Chao; Miaw-Ling Chen; Bi-Fong Lin

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate if food components that exert anti-inflammatory effects may be used for inflammatory disorders by examining alfalfa sprout ethyl acetate extract (ASEA). The cytokine profile and life span of BALB\\/c mice with acute inflammation after intra-peritoneal (ip) injection of 15 mg\\/kg BW lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were determined. The results showed that the life span of LPS-induced inflammatory

  1. Antioxidant effects of ethyl acetate extract of Desmodium gangeticum root on myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury in rat hearts

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This study aims to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the ethyl acetate extract of Desmodium gangeticum root for cardioprotection from ischemia reperfusion-induced oxidative stress. Methods The in vitro antioxidant potential of the extract was in terms of hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, lipid peroxide scavenging activity, nitric oxide scavenging activity and diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity. The in vivo antioxidant potential of the extract was assessed in an isolated rat heart model. Results Free radicals were scavenged by the extract in a concentration-dependent manner within the range of the given concentrations in all models. Administration of the ethyl acetate extract of Desmodium gangeticum root (100 mg per kg body weight) before global ischemia caused a significant improvement of cardiac function and a decrease in the release of lactate dehydrogenase in coronary effluent, as well as the level of malondialdehyde in myocardial tissues. Conclusion The ethyl acetate extract of Desmodium gangeticum root protects the myocardium against ischemia-reperfusion-induced damage in rats. The effects of the extract may be related to the inhibition of lipid peroxidation. PMID:20180993

  2. Antioxidant and Protective Effect of Ethyl Acetate Extract of Podophyllum Hexandrum Rhizome on Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Rat Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ganie, Showkat Ahmad; Haq, Ehtishamul; Masood, Akbar; Hamid, Abid; Zargar, Mohmmad Afzal

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of ethyl acetate extract was carefully investigated by the methods of DPPH radical scavenging activity, Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, Superoxide radical scavenging activity, Hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity and its Reducing power ability. All these in vitro antioxidant activities were concentration dependent which were compared with standard antioxidants such as BHT, ?-tocopherol. The hepatoprotective potential of Podophyllum hexandrum extract was also evaluated in male Wistar rats against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage. Pre-treated rats were given ethyl acetate extract at 20, 30 and 50?mg/kg dose prior to CCl4 administration (1?ml/kg, 1:1 in olive oil). Rats pre-treated with Podophyllum hexandrum extract remarkably prevented the elevation of serum AST, ALT, LDH and liver lipid peroxides in CCl4-treated rats. Hepatic glutathione levels were significantly increased by the treatment with the extract in all the experimental groups. The extract at the tested doses also restored the levels of liver homogenate enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S- transferase) significantly. This study suggests that ethyl acetate extract of P. hexandrum has a liver protective effect against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity and possess in vitro antioxidant activities. PMID:21394192

  3. CAN-mediated stereoselective cyclization of epoxypropyl cinnamyl amines to 3,4,5-trisubstituted piperidines and supramolecular assembly of the latter aided by ethyl acetate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vijay Nair; Kishor Mohanan; T. D. Suja; Eringathodi Suresh

    2006-01-01

    The stereoselective intramolecular cyclization of epoxypropyl cinnamyl amines mediated by substoichiometric quantities of CAN leading to the synthesis of functionalized piperidines and the formation of a supramolecular assembly of the latter with ethyl acetate is described.

  4. The antihypertensive effect of ethyl acetate extract of radish leaves in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Chung, Da-Hee; Kim, Sun-Hee; Myung, Nahye; Cho, Kang Jin; Chang, Moon-Jeong

    2012-08-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is a cruciferous vegetable, and its leaves have antioxidant and anticancer properties. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of ethyl acetate extracts from radish leaves on hypertension in 11-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). The SHRs were randomly divided into 3 groups of 6 rats each on the basis of initial systolic blood pressure (SBP) and were treated with oral administration of radish leaf extract (0, 30, or 90 mg/kg body weight [bw], respectively) for 5 weeks. Six Wistar rats were used as normotensive controls. The amount of the radish leaf extract had no effect on body weight. The SBP of the SHRs showed a decreasing trend with the consumption of the radish leaf extract. In the third week, the SBP of the group fed 90 mg extract/kg bw reduced from 214 mmHg to 166 mmHg and was significantly lower than that of the normotensive and hypertensive controls. The extract did not show a significant effect on the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity in the serum, kidney, and lung. The extract increased the concentration of NO in serum and the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase and catalase in red blood cells (RBCs). The serum concentrations of Na(+) and K(+) were not significantly different between all groups. However, the fecal concentrations of Na(+) and K(+) increased; the fecal concentrations of Na(+) and K(+) for the normotensive and hypertensive controls were not different. Urinary excretion of Na(+) was higher in the normotensive Wistar rats than in the SHRs, while that of K(+) was not significantly different. These findings indicate that consumption of radish leaves might have had antihypertensive effects in SHRs by increasing the serum concentration of NO and fecal concentration of Na(+) and enhancing antioxidant activities. PMID:22977684

  5. [Chemical constituents from ethyl acetate extract of flower of Albizia julibrissin].

    PubMed

    Rong, Guang-Qing; Geng, Chang-An; Ma, Yun-Bao; Huang, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Hong-Ling; Zhao, Yong; Zhang, Xue-Mei; Chen, Ji-Jun

    2014-05-01

    The ethyl acetate extract of the flower of Albizia julibrissin was isolated and purified by silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and MCI GEL CHP-20P column chromatography to yield 29 compounds. Their structures were elucidated as 8-hydroxy-2, 6-dimethyl-2E, 6Z-octadienoic acid (1), 8-O-formyl-2, 6-dimethyl-2E, 6Z-octadienoic acid (la), 8-hydroxy-2, 6-dimethyl-2E, 6E-octadienoic acid (2), 8-O-formyl-2, 6-dimethyl-2E, 6E-octadienoic acid (2a), (2E, 6S)-2, 6-dimethyl-6-O-beta-D-xylpyranosyloxy-2, 7-menthia-folic acid (3), clovan-2beta, 9alpha-diol (4), 2beta-O-formyl-clovan-9alpha-ol (4a), 2beta, 9alpha-O-diformyl-clovan (4b), vomifoliol (5), (6S, 9R)-roseoside (6), vanillin (7), 4-O-ethylgallic acid (8), 3-ethoxy4-hydroxy-benzoic acid (9), p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (10), gallic acid (11), protocatechoic acid (12), stearic acid (13), palmitic acid (14), 2, 3-dihydroxypropyl hexadecanoate (15), linoleic acid (16), scopoletin (17), indole-3-carboxaldehyde (18), 2-furoic acid (19), 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde (20), (22E, 24R)-5alpha, 8alpha-epidioxy-ergosta-6, 22-dien-3beta-ol (21), (22E, 24R)-5alpha, 8alpha-epidioxy-ergosta-6, 9, 22-trien-3beta-ol (22), (+)-lariciresinol 9'-stearate (23), formononetin (24) and uridine (25). Compounds 1a, 2a, 4a and 4b were new artifacts from the separation process, and others were obtained from A. julibrissin for the first time. PMID:25282893

  6. Photochemical reduction of iron trichloride in ethyl acetate: synthesis, Mössbauer spectra and the crystal structure at 80 K of hexakis(ethyl acetate)iron(II) bis-tetrachloroironate(III)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S?awomir Szafert; Tadeusz Lis; Krzysztof Drabent; Piotr Sobota

    1994-01-01

    FeCl3 in ethyl acetate under the influence of sunlight, undergoes partial reduction yields the [Fe(CH3CO2Et)6](FeCl4)2 salt. The Mössbauer spectra showed that the iron atoms are at +2 and +3 oxidation states. The crystal structure determined by X-ray diffraction methods at 80 K and refined by full-matrix least-squares techniques toR=0.028 for 2410 independent non-zero reflections is in good agreement with the

  7. Asymmetric cyclopropanation of ketene silyl acetal with allylic acetate catalyzed by a palladium complex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akiharu Satake; Hitomi Kadohama; Hiroyuki Koshino; Tadashi Nakata

    1999-01-01

    The first asymmetric cyclopropanation of ketene silyl acetal with allylic acetate was achieved. New chiral oxazolidinylpyrazole ligands and their ?3-allylpalladium complexes were synthesized. Reaction of cinnamyl acetate with ketene silyl acetal of ethyl isobutylate in the presence of a palladium complex gave a phenyl cyclopropane derivative in 20? 54%ee.

  8. Cytotoxic activities of hexane, ethyl acetate and butanol extracts of marine sponges from Mauritian Waters on human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Beedessee, Girish; Ramanjooloo, Avin; Aubert, Geneviève; Eloy, Laure; Surnam-Boodhun, Rashmee; Soest, Rob W M van; Cresteil, Thierry; Marie, Daniel E P

    2012-09-01

    The ocean is an exceptional source of natural products with many of them exhibiting novel structural features and bioactivity. As one of the most interesting phylum with respect to pharmacological active marine compounds, Poriferas have been investigated widely in the last few decades. A total of 60 organic extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and butanol) from 20 species of marine sponges from Mauritius were screened at 50?g/ml in an in vitro screening assay against 9 human cancer cell lines. From these tested extracts, many exhibited pronounced cytotoxic effect at least in one of the cell lines and cell type cytotoxic specificity was observed. 27% of ethyl acetate, 11% of hexane and 2% of butanol extracts were found to possess a cytotoxicity ?75% on 9 different cancer cell lines with the sponges Petrosia sp. 1, Petrosia sp. 2, Pericharax heteroraphis and Jaspis sp. being the most active. Overall, the HL-60cells were much more sensitive to most of the extracts than the other cell lines. We further evaluated the properties of the ethyl acetate (JDE) and hexane extract (JDH) of one sponge, Jaspis sp. on KB cells. JDE displayed a smaller IC(50) than JDH. Clonogenic assay confirmed the antiproliferative effect of both extracts while mitochondrial membrane potential change and microscopic analysis demonstrated extracts-induced apoptosis. Treatment with 100ng/ml of JDE led to a significant increase of cells (24h: 4.02%; 48h: 26.23%) in sub-G1 phase. The cytotoxic properties of the tested extracts from these sponges suggest the presence of compounds with pharmacological potential and are currently undergoing fractionation to isolate the active constituents. PMID:22743579

  9. Antibacterial and dermal toxicological profiles of ethyl acetate extract from Crassocephalum bauchiense (Hutch.) Milne-Redh (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The emergence in recent years of numerous resistant strains of pathogenic bacteria to a range of formerly efficient antibiotics constitutes a serious threat to public health. Crassocephalum bauchiense, a medicinal herb found in the West Region of Cameroon is used to treat gastrointestinal infections as well as liver disorders. The ethyl acetate extract from the leaves of C. bauchiense was evaluated for its antibacterial activity as well as acute and sub-acute toxicities. Methods The plant extract was prepared by maceration in ethyl acetate. Its phytochemical screening was done by standard methods. The broth microdilution method was used to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity. The in vivo antibacterial activity of a gel formulation (0.05, 1 and 2% w/v) of this extract was evaluated using a Staphylococcus aureus-induced dermatitis in a murine model. Selected haematological and biochemical parameters were used to evaluate the dermal sub-acute toxicity of the extract in rats. Results Phytochemical screening of the C. bauchiense extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, phenols, tannins and sterols. In vitro antibacterial activities were observed against all the tested microorganisms (MIC = 0.04-6.25 mg/ml). Formulated extract-gel (2% w/v) and gentamycin (reference drug) eradicated the microbial infection after five days of treatment. A single dermal dose of this extract up to 32 g/kg body weight (bw) did not produce any visible sign of toxicity. Also, daily dermal application of the C. bauchiense extract gel formulation for 28 days did not show any negative effect, instead some biochemical parameters such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT and AST), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglycerides were significantly (p < 0.05) affected positively. Conclusion These results indicate that the C. bauchiense ethyl acetate extract can be used safely for the treatment of some bacterial infections. PMID:21615960

  10. 40 CFR 721.10074 - Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl...Chemical Substances § 721.10074 Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl...chemical substance identified as acetic acid, 2-chloro-,...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10074 - Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl...Chemical Substances § 721.10074 Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl...chemical substance identified as acetic acid, 2-chloro-,...

  12. Electronic spectroscopy of tryptophan analogs in supersonic jets: 3Indole acetic acid, 3-indole propionic acid, tryptamine, and N-acetyl tryptophan ethyl ester

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young D. Park; Thomas R. Rizzo; Linda A. Peteanu; Donald H. Levy

    1986-01-01

    The electronic spectroscopy of four different tryptophan analogs, 3-indole acetic acid, 3-indole propionic acid, tryptamine, and N-acetyltryptophan ethyl ester (NATE) has been studied in a supersonic molecular beam using laser-induced fluorescence and resonantly enhanced two-photon ionization. The electronic transition to the lowest excited singlet state occurs at 35 039, 34 965, 34 918, and 34 881±2 cm?1 for 3-indole acetic

  13. The effects of chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of Brassica rapa L. on cell-mediated immune response in mice.

    PubMed

    Jafarian-Dehkordi, A; Zolfaghari, B; Mirdamadi, M

    2013-07-01

    Turnips with a long history of usage, are helpful in preventing breast and prostate cancer, inflammation and body`s immune system dysfunction. In this study, we investigated the effects of chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of Brassica rapa L. on cell-mediated immune response in mice. Chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of B. rapa glands were prepared by maceration method. To study the effects of B. rapa on acquired immunity, groups of Balb/c mice (n=8) were used. Sheep red blood cell (SRBC) was injected (s.c., 1×10(8)cells/ml, 0.02 ml) and 5 days later, different extracts (10, 100 and 500 mg/kg), betamethasone (4 mg/kg) and Levamisol (4 mg/kg) as a positive control and normal saline as a negative control were given i.p. After 1 h SRBC was injected to footpad (s.c., 1×10(8)cells/ml, 0.02 ml) and footpad swelling was measured up to 72 h. To investigate the effects of B. rapa on innate immunity the same procedure was used, but animals only received one injection of SRBC 1 h after i.p. injection of test compounds. Our findings showed that SRBC induced an increase in paw swelling with maximum response at 6-8 and 2-4 h for innate and acquired immunity, respectively. Betamethasone inhibited and levamisol increased paw thickness in both models. In both innate and acquired immunity models, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of B. rapa glands significantly and dose-dependently reduced paw thickness. Ethyl acetate extract showed better effect. As glucosinolates are better extracted by ethyl acetate, it may be concluded that they are contributed in the more pronounced effects of ethyl acetate extract. PMID:24019825

  14. Oxides of copper, ceria promoted copper, manganese and copper manganese on Al 2O 3 for the combustion of CO, ethyl acetate and ethanol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Per-Olof Larsson; Arne Andersson

    2000-01-01

    Combustion of CO, ethyl acetate and ethanol was studied over CuOx\\/Al2O3, CuOx–CeO2\\/Al2O3, CuMn2O4\\/Al2O3 and Mn2O3\\/Al2O3 catalysts. It was found that modification of the alumina with ceria before subsequent copper oxide deposition increases the activity for combustion of CO substantially, but the effect of ceria was small on the combustion of ethyl acetate and ethanol. The activity increases with the CuOx

  15. Ethyl acetate extract of the Mauritian sponge Jaspis sp. induces cell arrest in human promyelocytic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Beedessee, Girish; Ramanjooloo, Avin; Aubert, Geneviève; Eloy, Laure; Arya, Deepak; van Soest, Rob W M; Cresteil, Thierry; Marie, Daniel E P

    2013-07-01

    Marine sponges are considered as a gold mine of new natural products possessing numerous biological activities. We examined the cytotoxic properties of the ethyl acetate extract (JDE) of the previously unrecorded sponge, Jaspis sp. collected from Mauritius Waters. JDE displayed an interesting IC50 of 0.057±0.04?g/mL on HL-60 cells evaluated by MTS assay. Mitochondrial membrane potential change, microscopic analysis and DNA fragmentation assays also confirmed JDE induced apoptosis on HL-60 cells. Annexin V staining demonstrated that JDE induced apoptosis at different concentrations. Treatment with 100ng/mL of JDE led to an accumulation of cells in G2/M phase after 24 h, causing a significant increase of cells (24h: 5.84%; 48h: 13.41%) in sub-G1 phase suggesting that JDE can induce cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase. PMID:23598257

  16. Effect of dimethyl sulfoxide on ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate pretreatment of eucalyptus wood for enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Long; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Endo, Takashi

    2013-07-01

    Ground eucalyptus wood was pretreated with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMIM]OAc)-dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solutions with different mixing ratios under various conditions. The changes in the composition and structure of the biomass were investigated; and the enzymatic hydrolysis performance of the pretreated biomass was evaluated. [EMIM]OAc-DMSO pretreatment had a relatively mild effect on the composition of the biomass, but excessively high pretreatment temperatures led to massive loss of xylan after pretreatment. The enzymatic digestibility of the biomass was significantly improved with increased pretreatment temperature. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the disruption of cellulose crystal structure by [EMIM]OAc at a sufficiently high temperature was primarily responsible for the remarkable improvement in the digestibility. Appropriate addition of DMSO could help minimize the consumption of [EMIM]OAc without impairing the performance of the ionic liquid, and contribute to the improvement in pretreatment efficiency due to the viscosity reduction effect on the pretreatment liquor. PMID:23685645

  17. Sonochemically prepared Pt/CeO2 and its application as a catalyst in ethyl acetate combustion.

    PubMed

    Perkas, Nina; Rotter, Hadar; Vradman, Leonid; Landau, Miron V; Gedanken, Aharon

    2006-08-01

    Highly dispersed Pt nanoparticles were incorporated in CeO2 nanopowders by an ultrasound-assisted reduction procedure. The activity of the Pt/CeO2 catalysts was studied in the reaction of the ethyl acetate combustion, and complete conversion was achieved at low temperature. It was demonstrated that the higher dispersion of the CeO2 support, the better the performance of the Pt/CeO2 catalysts. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, TEM, HRTEM, EDX, BET, and XPS. The homogeneous incorporation of 2-4 nm Pt nanoparticles into the interparticle distance of the CeO2 nanopowders was demonstrated. The advantage of the sonochemical method for catalyst preparation, in comparison with the traditional incipient wetness impregnation, was explained as the result of the homogeneity and better dispersion of the active metal phase obtained by ultrasound irradiation. PMID:16863262

  18. In-vivo Antioxidant Effects of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Mentha spicata L. on 4-Nitroquinoline-1-Oxide Injected Mice.

    PubMed

    Arumugam, Ponnan; Ramesh, Arabandi

    2011-01-01

    Antioxidant effects of ethyl acetate fraction of Mentha spicata (L.) were evaluated against 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide injected mice. For this study, experiment setup consisted of 36 albino mice of either sex divided into 6 groups: Control (25% DMSO in water), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) alone group (80, 160 mg/Kg body weight-bwt), 4-NQO (7.5 mg/Kg bwt-IP) alone and 4-NQO + EAF. EAF and vehicles were administered orally for five consecutive days. 4-NQO (7.5 mg/Kg bwt) was injected intraperitoneally on the 6(th) day. After 24 h, the animals were killed; liver sample was extracted and used for bio-assay. 4-NQO alone treated group decreased (27-60%) the antioxidant activities and promoted lipid peroxidation (LPO-60%) over their respective control values. Pretreatment with EAF, at the maximum dose (160 mg/Kg bwt) brought down the LPO up to 87% enhanced by 4-NQO. Among the enzymatic antioxidants, glutathione S-transferase (GST) was the most affected enzyme with 4-NQO and the least was catalase (CAT). Pretreatment with EAF (160 mg/Kg bwt), the restoration of antioxidants like glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and CAT were found equal or less than 1.2 fold higher than that of the respective control values whereas, GST was observed to be the most restored antioxidant. Be reduced glutathione (GSH) and the least vitamin C over their control values. EAF restored the GSH and Vitamin E levels were found to be 1.2 fold higher than the respective control values. PMID:24250414

  19. Nephroprotective effects of Zingiber zerumbet Smith ethyl acetate extract against paracetamol-induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Hamid, Zariyantey; Budin, Siti Balkis; Wen Jie, Ng; Hamid, Asmah; Husain, Khairana; Mohamed, Jamaludin

    2012-01-01

    Paracetamol (PCM) overdose can cause nephrotoxicity with oxidative stress as one of the possible mechanisms mediating the event. In this study, the effects of ethyl acetate extract of Zingiber zerumbet rhizome [200 mg per kg of body weight (mg/kg) and 400 mg/kg] on PCM-induced nephrotoxicity were examined. Rats were divided into five groups containing 10 rats each. The control group received distilled water while other groups were treated with extract alone (400 mg/kg), PCM alone (750 mg/kg), 750 mg/kg PCM+200 mg/kg extract (PCM+ 200-extract), and 750 mg/kg PCM+400 mg/kg extract (PCM+400-extract), respectively, for seven consecutive days. The Z. zerumbet extract was given intraperitoneally concurrent with oral administration of PCM. Treatment with Z. zerumbet extract at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg prevented the PCM-induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative impairments of the kidney, as evidenced by a significantly reduced (P<0.05) level of plasma creatinine, plasma and renal malondialdehyde (MDA), plasma protein carbonyl, and renal advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP). Furthermore, both doses were also able to induce a significant increment (P<0.05) of plasma and renal levels of glutathione (GSH) and plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. The nephroprotective effects of Z. zerumbet extract were confirmed by a reduced intensity of renal cellular damage, as evidenced by histological findings. Moreover, Z. zerumbet extract administered at 400 mg/kg was found to show greater protective effects than that at 200 mg/kg. In conclusion, ethyl acetate extract of Z. zerumbet rhizome has a protective role against PCM-induced nephrotoxicity and the process is probably mediated through its antioxidant properties. PMID:22374609

  20. In-vivo Antioxidant Effects of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Mentha spicata L. on 4-Nitroquinoline-1-Oxide Injected Mice

    PubMed Central

    Arumugam, Ponnan; Ramesh, Arabandi

    2011-01-01

    Antioxidant effects of ethyl acetate fraction of Mentha spicata (L.) were evaluated against 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide injected mice. For this study, experiment setup consisted of 36 albino mice of either sex divided into 6 groups: Control (25% DMSO in water), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) alone group (80, 160 mg/Kg body weight-bwt), 4-NQO (7.5 mg/Kg bwt-IP) alone and 4-NQO + EAF. EAF and vehicles were administered orally for five consecutive days. 4-NQO (7.5 mg/Kg bwt) was injected intraperitoneally on the 6th day. After 24 h, the animals were killed; liver sample was extracted and used for bio-assay. 4-NQO alone treated group decreased (27-60%) the antioxidant activities and promoted lipid peroxidation (LPO-60%) over their respective control values. Pretreatment with EAF, at the maximum dose (160 mg/Kg bwt) brought down the LPO up to 87% enhanced by 4-NQO. Among the enzymatic antioxidants, glutathione S-transferase (GST) was the most affected enzyme with 4-NQO and the least was catalase (CAT). Pretreatment with EAF (160 mg/Kg bwt), the restoration of antioxidants like glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and CAT were found equal or less than 1.2 fold higher than that of the respective control values whereas, GST was observed to be the most restored antioxidant. Be reduced glutathione (GSH) and the least vitamin C over their control values. EAF restored the GSH and Vitamin E levels were found to be 1.2 fold higher than the respective control values. PMID:24250414

  1. Crude ethyl acetate extract of marine microalga, Chaetoceros calcitrans, induces Apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Su Hua; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu Mohamed; Yusoff, Fatimah Md; Yap, Swee Keong; Loh, Su Peng

    2014-01-01

    Background: Marine brown diatom Chaetoceros calcitrans and green microalga Nannochloropsis oculata are beneficial materials for various applications in the food, nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical industries. Objective: This study investigated cytotoxicity of different crude solvent extracts from C. calcitrans and N. oculata against various cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was carried out to screen the cytotoxic effects of hexane (Hex), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate, and methanol extract from C. calcitrans and N. oculata toward various cancer cell lines. Flow cytometry cell cycle was used to determine the cell cycle arrest while the mode of cell death was investigated through acridine orange/propidium iodide (AOPI) staining, Annexin V-Fluorescein Isothiocyanate (FITC) and Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated d-UTP Nick End Labeling (TUNEL) assays. Expression profile of apoptotic and proliferative-related genes was then determined using the multiplex gene expression profiler (GeXP). Results: Crude ethyl acetate (CEA) extract of C. calcitrans inhibited growth of MDA-MB-231 cells, with IC50 of 60 ?g/mL after 72 h of treatment. Further studies were conducted to determine the mode of cell death at various concentrations of this extract: 30, 60 and 120 ?g/mL. The mode of cell death was mainly apoptosis as shown through apoptosis determination test. The expression data from GeXP showed that caspase-4 was upregulated while B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2(Bcl-2) was down regulated. Thus, caspase-4 induction endoplasmic reticulum death pathway is believed to be one of the mechanisms underlying the induction of apoptosis while Bcl-2 induced S and G2/M cell cycle phase arrest in MDA-MB-231 cells. Conclusion: CEA extract of C. calcitrans showed the highest cytotoxicity on MDA-MB-231 via apoptosis. PMID:24696543

  2. Preparation of vinyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Tustin, Gerald Charles (Kingsport, TN); Zoeller, Joseph Robert (Kingsport, TN); Depew, Leslie Sharon (Kingsport, TN)

    1998-01-01

    This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting a mixture of hydrogen and ketene with a heterogeneous catalyst containing a transition metal to produce acetaldehyde, which is then reacted with ketene in the presence of an acid catalyst to produce vinyl acetate.

  3. Cellular Anti-Melanogenic Effects of a Euryale ferox Seed Extract Ethyl Acetate Fraction via the Lysosomal Degradation Machinery

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Seung-Hwa; Nam, In-Jeong; Kwak, Hyeong Seob; Kim, Ki-Chan; Lee, Sang-Han

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ethyl acetate fraction of Euryale ferox seed extracts (Efse-EA) on melanogenesis in immortalized mouse melanocyte cell line, melan-a. Efse-EA showed strong dose-dependent mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activity. Treatment of melan-a cells with 30 ?g/mL Efse-EA produced strong inhibition of cellular tyrosinase and melanin synthesis. Efse-EA significantly reduced the levels of melanogenesis-related proteins, such as tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related proteins 1 and 2, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor. Because Efse-EA treatment reduced tyrosinase protein levels without changing its mRNA expression, we investigated whether this decrease was related to proteasomal or lysosomal degradation of tyrosinase. We found that chloroquine, a lysosomal proteolysis inhibitor, almost completely abolished both the down-regulation of tyrosinase and the inhibition of melanin synthesis induced by Efse-EA. These results suggested that Efse-EA may contribute to the inhibition of melanogenesis by altering lysosomal degradation of tyrosinase, and that this extract may provide a new cosmetic skin-whitening agent. PMID:25915032

  4. Antitumor Activities of Ethyl Acetate Extracts from Selaginella doederleinii Hieron In Vitro and In Vivo and Its Possible Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Li, Juan; Zhao, Ping; Ma, Wen-tao; Feng, Xie-he; Chen, Ke-li

    2015-01-01

    The antitumor activities of ethyl acetate extracts from Selaginella doederleinii Hieron (SD extracts) in vitro and in vivo and its possible mechanism were investigated. HPLC method was developed for chemical analysis. SD extracts were submitted to 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay on different cells, flow cytometry, and RT-PCR analysis using HepG2 cell and antitumor activity in vivo using H-22 xenograft tumor mice. Six biflavonoids from SD extracts were submitted to molecular docking assay. The results showed that SD extracts had considerable antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo without obvious toxicity on normal cells and could induce cell apoptosis. The mechanisms of tumorigenesis and cell apoptosis induced by SD extracts may be associated with decreasing the ratio of bcl-2 and bax mRNA level, activating caspase-3, suppressing survivin, and decreasing the gene expression of COX-2, 5-LOX, FLAP, and 12-LOX mRNA. The main active component in SD extracts is biflavonoids and some exhibited strong interactions with COX-2, 5-LOX, 12-LOX, and 15-LOX. These results offering evidence of possible mechanisms of SD extracts suppress cell proliferation and promote apoptosis and provide the molecular theoretical basis of clinical application of S. doederleinii for cancer therapy. PMID:25866543

  5. A Viscosity-Temperature Study for a Glass-Forming-Non Aqueous Electrolyte: Zinc Bromide in Ethyl Acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, M.

    1984-01-01

    The low temperature behavior of solutions of zinc bromide in ethyl acetate has been studied by viscosity measurements and differential thermal analysis. It is shown that the solutions go through a glass transition at temperatures between 100 K and 220 K. With decreasing temperature, ?(T) behaves first Arrhenius-like and then obeys the Fulcher relation. A reduction of the viscosity with respect to that of the pure solvent (?s) gives a family of curves converging to one point at high temperature; if moreover In (?/?s) is plotted vs. the inverse of the reduced temperature T/Tg, Tg being the glass transition temperature, the plots coincide within 5% for all solutions. A simple relation between the reduced viscosity and the lone entropy is found, since one obtains din (?/?s)/d (Tg/T) = ? (Tg/T - Tg). Comparison is made with the Adam-Gibbs model. The properties of these glass-forming electrolytes are assumed to be due to a "granular" structure which becomes quasi-polymeric at high concentration.

  6. Analysis of pesticide residues in fruit and vegetables with ethyl acetate extraction using gas and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tuija Pihlström; Gun Blomkvist; Paula Friman; Ulla Pagard; Bengt-Göran Österdahl

    2007-01-01

    A multiresidue method based on extraction with ethyl acetate has been used at the Swedish National Food Administration since\\u000a 1989 to monitor pesticide residues in fruit and vegetables. The method has been continuously adjusted, resulting in simple\\u000a and quick analyses of pesticide residues. To recover basic pesticides, the addition of an alkali is necessary. The addition\\u000a of sodium hydrogen carbonate

  7. Multifilament fibres of poly(?-caprolactone)\\/poly(lactic acid) blends with multiwalled carbon nanotubes as sensor materials for ethyl acetate and acetone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosina Rentenberger; Aurélie Cayla; Tobias Villmow; Dieter Jehnichen; Christine Campagne; Maryline Rochery; Eric Devaux; Petra Pötschke

    Conductive poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL)+4% multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)\\/poly(lactic acid) (PLA)=50\\/50wt% blend multifilament fibres were melt-spun and a woven textile was made by a handloom with the conductive fibres in weft direction. The fibres were tested for cyclic liquid sensing in ethyl acetate and acetone as two moderate solvents and in ethanol as a poor solvent. The liquid sensing responses, namely the

  8. An environmental friendly approach for the synthesis of the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate and its dissolubility to 1, 3, 5-triamino-2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haixiang Zhu; Jinshan Li; Rong Xu; Shiyuan Yang

    The ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([Emim] Ac) is a good solvent for the famous insensitive high explosive 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB). In this work, a novel one-pot method has been proposed to synthesize [Emim] Ac using 1-methylimidazole and bromethyl as starting materials, and the reaction conditions have been optimized experimentally. Results show that the one-pot method has advantages of high yield and

  9. Inhibitory effects of ethyl acetate extract of Cordyceps sinensis mycelium on various cancer cells in culture and B16 melanoma in C57BL\\/6 mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian Yong Wu; Qiao Xia Zhang; Po Hong Leung

    2007-01-01

    The cultivated mycelium of a Cordyceps sinensis (Cs) fungus was sequentially extracted by petroleum ether (PE), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), ethanol (EtOH) and hot water. All solvent extracts except hot water extract showed a significant and dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the proliferation of four cancer cell lines, MCF-7 breast cancer, B16 mouse melanoma, HL-60 human premyelocytic leukemia and HepG2 human hepatocellular

  10. The effect of pomelo mix ethyl acetate extract on CYP3A6 and P-glycoprotein gene transcripts in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Irshaid, Yacoub M; Zihlef, Malek A; Zmeili, Suheil M; Al-Antary, Eman T; Zmaily, Mais G; Al-Embideen, Somya N; Amireh, Abdallah O

    2014-07-01

    Pomelo fruit juice and pomelo ethylacetate extract have been shown to increase the bioavailability of some CYP3A substrates. The purpose of this study was to investigate if this effect might be contributed to by changes in CYP3A and p-glycoprotein mRNAs levels in the liver and proximal small intestine. The ethyl acetate extract of pomelo mix was administered for 7 days to 10 rabbits. Nine rabbits were administered tap water for 7 days. The administration was through oral intubation to the stomach. On the 8(th) day, the rabbits were sacrificed, and the liver and the proximal 15 cm of the small intestine were dissected. Total RNA was extracted from the specimens and cDNA was prepared by quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using specific primers. The ethyl acetate extract of pomelo mix reduced the mRNA expression of CYP3A6 almost 5-folds in the intestine and 2-folds in the liver. In contrast, a 1-fold increase to the p-glycoprotein mRNA expression was observed under the same experimental conditions. In conclusion, the ethyl acetate extract of pomelo mix reduced the mRNA expression of CYP3A6 in both intestine and liver but to different degrees, while the p-glycoprotein mRNA expression was not reduced. PMID:24856265

  11. Ethyl Acetate Extract from Tissue-Cultured Mountain Ginseng Adventitious Roots Inhibits In Vitro Platelet Aggregation in Whole Human Blood and Augments Peripheral Blood Flow in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, In Sun; Kim, Seul-Ki; Jeon, Min Hwa; Jeon, Won Kyung

    2011-01-01

    We previously reported that in vitro anti-platelet activity of tissue-cultured mountain ginseng (TCMG) ethanol extracts show improved efficacy when compared with commercial ginseng products such as Korean red ginseng and Panax ginseng. However, information on the anti-platelet activity of the ethyl acetate fraction from TCMG adventitious roots is limited. Therefore, in this study, we further investigated the effects of an ethyl acetate extract of TCMG (EA-TCMG) adventitious roots on in vitro antiplatelet activity in whole human blood and its effect on peripheral blood flow in mice. We found that EA-TCMG inhibited platelet aggregation with IC50 values of 271, 180, and 147 ?g/mL induced by collagen, adenosine-5?-diphosphate, and arachidonic acid, respectively. Among the three agonists used, thromboxane A2 formation induced by arachidonic acid was markedly suppressed. Furthermore, EA-TCMG improved the peripheral circulatory disturbance by improving vascular blood flow. In conclusion, these results suggest that ethyl acetate extracts from TCMG adventitious roots might inhibit vascular platelet aggregation and thrombus formation. PMID:23717090

  12. Inhibitory effect of ethyl acetate extract of the shaggy inc cap medicinal mushroom, Coprinus comatus (Higher Basidiomycetes) fruit bodies on cell growth of human ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Rouhana-Toubi, Amal; Wasser, Solomon P; Agbarya, Abed; Fares, Fuad

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, we screened organic extracts of different mushroom mycelia and picked ethyl acetate extract of Coprinus comatus as one of the most active extracts against human ovarian cancer cells. In the current study, we extracted a dry powder of C. comatus fruit bodies using ethyl acetate and examined its effect on the viability of three cell lines originated from human ovarian cancer (ES-2, SKOV-3, and SW-626). This extract was active against all tested cell lines, in a dose-dependent manner (concentrations 50-200 µg/mL, P<0.01). In an attempt to segregate the active fraction, we subjected the extract to chromatography on a silica gel column. The effect of six different fractions and of the crude extract on the viability of ES-2 cells was examined after exposure time of 24 h. Fraction F (last eluted) was significantly more effective than crude extract in the reduction of cell viability (P<0.01). Fraction F was also significantly more active than crude extract in the reduction of viability of SKOV-3 cells. We next identified some of the compounds of fraction F (mainly fatty acids) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In summary, ethyl acetate extract of C. comatus reduced viability of three lines of human ovarian cancer. Fractionation of this extract by a silica gel column enabled the selection of a fraction significantly more active than the original extract. PMID:24266371

  13. Prompt-NO formation in methane/oxygen/nitrogen flames seeded with oxygenated volatile organic compounds: Methyl ethyl ketone or ethyl acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Lamoureux, N.; El-Bakali, A.; Gasnot, L.; Pauwels, J.F.; Desgroux, P. [UMR CNRS 8522 PC2A ''Physicochimie des Processus de Combustion et de l'Atmosphere,'' Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, 59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex (France)

    2008-04-15

    In the present work, CH and NO profiles are determined using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) measurements in eight low-pressure laminar flames of CH{sub 4}/O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} containing various amounts of methyl ethyl ketone or ethyl acetate with respect to the equivalence ratio. Relative CH LIF signals are calibrated using cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS), while NO LIF calibration is performed in the burned gases of NO seeded flames. Temperature measurements are obtained using a coated Pt/Rh thermocouple and serve as temperature profiles input for Chemkin modeling. Volatile organic compound (VOC) submechanisms, previously validated upon major and intermediate species profiles measured using sampling techniques, are incorporated into the GDF-Kin 3.0{sub N}CN for the CH{sub 4} oxidation. This mechanism is adjusted and validated to predict the effect of VOCs seeding on CH and NO formation. It takes into account not only the CH and NO profiles but those previously measured. When methane is replaced by either MEK or EA, the NO mole fraction in the burned gases and the CH peak value are found to jointly decrease, indicating that NO is mainly formed according to the prompt-NO mechanism. According to the kinetic analysis, the VOC impact on NO formation is demonstrated. It is shown that CH radical formation, through the C1 sequence, mainly involves the CH{sub 3} radical, which is formed with the same propensity by one molecule of methane, MEK, or EA. Due to the methane replacement by VOC while the equivalence ratio is maintained constant, we found that the CH peak value decrease follows the total fuel volumetric flow rate decrease, yielding, an NO decrease in the burned gases. (author)

  14. Modification and re-validation of the ethyl acetate-based multi-residue method for pesticides in produce.

    PubMed

    Mol, Hans G J; Rooseboom, Astrid; van Dam, Ruud; Roding, Marleen; Arondeus, Karin; Sunarto, Suryati

    2007-11-01

    The ethyl acetate-based multi-residue method for determination of pesticide residues in produce has been modified for gas chromatographic (GC) analysis by implementation of dispersive solid-phase extraction (using primary-secondary amine and graphitized carbon black) and large-volume (20 muL) injection. The same extract, before clean-up and after a change of solvent, was also analyzed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). All aspects related to sample preparation were re-assessed with regard to ease and speed of the analysis. The principle of the extraction procedure (solvent, salt) was not changed, to avoid the possibility invalidating data acquired over past decades. The modifications were made with techniques currently commonly applied in routine laboratories, GC-MS and LC-MS-MS, in mind. The modified method enables processing (from homogenization until final extracts for both GC and LC) of 30 samples per eight hours per person. Limits of quantification (LOQs) of 0.01 mg kg(-1) were achieved with both GC-MS (full-scan acquisition, 10 mg matrix equivalent injected) and LC-MS-MS (2 mg injected) for most of the pesticides. Validation data for 341 pesticides and degradation products are presented. A compilation of analytical quality-control data for pesticides routinely analyzed by GC-MS (135 compounds) and LC-MS-MS (136 compounds) in over 100 different matrices, obtained over a period of 15 months, are also presented and discussed. At the 0.05 mg kg(-1) level acceptable recoveries were obtained for 93% (GC-MS) and 92% (LC-MS-MS) of pesticide-matrix combinations. PMID:17563885

  15. Norethisterone and norethisterone acetate.

    PubMed

    1979-12-01

    This monograph on norethisterone and its acetate (NOR) includes chemical and physical data (synonyms and trade names), structural and molecular formulae and molecular weight of NOR, chemical and physical properties of NOR, and the production, use, occurrence, and analysis of NOR. Production of NOR and its acetate, both of which are not known to occur naturally, occurs via conversion of estrone to its methyl ester which is reduced to estradiol 3-methyl ether with lithium aluminum hydride; NOR acetate is synthesized by acetylating NOR with acetic anhydride in pyridine. NOR has been used for human medicine in a variety of ways: 1) to treat amenorrhea, 2) to treat dysfunctional uterine bleeding, and 3) for treating endometriosis. It has also been used to treat premenstrual tension and dysmenorrhea. Medicinal use of NOR acetate is similar to that for NOR. Analytical procedures for determining NOR as a bulk chemical are presented tabularly. Biological data relevant to the evaluation of carcinogenic risk to humans are presented briefly. With experimental animals, when administered alone NOR and/or its acetate increased the incidence of benign liver tumors in male mice and of pituitary tumors in females; females also suffered granulosa-cell ovarian tumors. NOR in combination with an estrogen increased incidence of pituitary tumors in mice of both sexes. NOR is embryolethal in some species and produces virilization in female fetuses. It is concluded that there is limited evidence for the carcinogenicity of NOR and its acetate in animals. Human studies are not available, but NOR is implicated causally as a progestogenic element in side effects of combined oral contraceptive usage. PMID:120838

  16. Effects of acetic acid\\/acetic anhydride ratios on the properties of corn starch acetates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cherif Ibrahima Khalil Diop; Hai Long Li; Bi Jun Xie; John Shi

    2011-01-01

    Corn starch was pre-treated with acetic acid and then acetylated by acetic anhydride under microwave irradiation. The effects of molar ratios of these two reagents on the acetylation of starch were investigated. Starch acetate with a high degree of substitution (DS, 2.93) was obtained at a molar ratio (acetic acid\\/acetic anhydride) of 1:1. However, the DS should tend to decrease

  17. The effect of culture liquid ethyl acetate mycelium extracts of medicinal mushrooms on the viability of human pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sharvit, Lital E; Wasser, Solomon P; Fares, Fuad

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer, one of the deadliest of all solid malignancies, is one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide, with 232,000 new cases and 213,000 deaths reported each year. These unfortunate statistics reflect the advanced stage at which most patients with pancreatic cancer are diagnosed and the paucity of effective chemotherapeutic regimens. Fungal metabolites have been gaining scientific interest because of their medicinal properties. In the present study, 31 different mushroom extracts of 12 medicinal mushroom species were screened for their effect on the viability of human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells. Extraction procedures were executed with organic solvents--ethanol (EAL), ethyl acetate (EAC), and chloroform (CHL). In some cases, culture liquid (CL) extraction was also performed. All extracts were diluted to a concentration of 50 mg/mL dimethyl sulfoxide. Extract effects on cell viability were examined in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells HPAF-II (well differentiated) and PL5 (porrly differentiated), using XTT assay and crystal violet assay (CV). Furthermore, extract effects on LDH leakage were also studied in order to exclude necrotic damage of the extract. The screening phase revealed that among the total 31 extracts examined with various treatment doses (50-500 ?g/mL) administered for 72 h, the CL extract of the mushroom Cyathus striatus exhibited the most prominent decrease in cell viability. Moreover, exposure of cells to lower concentrations then the above (1, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 15, 20, and 50 ?g/mL) for 24, 48, and 72 h showed a significant decrease in cell viability. Crystal violet results support these findings, and LDH levels measured suggest the lack of a necrotic effect of the extract. Our results indicate that C. striatus CL extract inhibits the viability of human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells; HPAF-II and PL45. Growth inhibition can be achieved in low concentrations of the extract and a short exposure period. This effect can be mediated through apoptosis induction and/or cell cycle arrest; therefore, additional experiments are needed in order to elucidate the extract mechanism of action. These findings may lead to the development of new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. PMID:22506577

  18. Indirect photolysis of perfluorochemicals: hydroxyl radical-initiated oxidation of N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamido acetate (N-EtFOSAA) and other perfluoroalkanesulfonamides.

    PubMed

    Plumlee, Megan H; McNeill, Kristopher; Reinhard, Martin

    2009-05-15

    Selected perfluorinated surfactants were irradiated in aqueous hydrogen peroxide solutions using artificial sunlight to study transformation under aquatic environmental conditions. Indirect photolysis mediated by hydroxyl radical was observed for N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamidoethanol (N-EtFOSE), N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamido acetate (N-EtFOSAA), N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamide (N-EtFOSA), and perfluorooctane sulfonamide acetate (FOSAA). An upper limitforthe bimolecular reaction rate constant for reaction of *OH and N-EtFOSAA was determined to be (1.7 +/- 0.7) x 10(9) M(-1)s(-1). A proposed reaction pathwayfor degradation of the parent perfluorochemical, N-EtFOSE, to the other perfluoroalkanesulfonamides and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) was developed and includes oxidation and N-dealkylation steps. As they did not undergo additional degradation, perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) and PFOA were the final degradation products of hydroxyl radical-initiated oxidation. UV-visible absorption spectra for the perfluorochemicals, showing absorbance in the UV region below the range of natural sunlight are also reported. In sunlit environments, indirect photolysis of perfluorochemicals is likely to be important in the determination of their environmental fate given the slow rates expected for biotransformation and weak sorption. Photolytic conversion of perfluorochemicals into refractory perfluorinated acids, mainly PFOA, could mean that a significant fraction of these compounds will accumulate in the world's oceans. PMID:19544870

  19. Oxidation of ethyl acetate by a high performance nanostructure (Ni, Mn)Ag\\/ZSM-5 bimetallic catalysts and development of an artificial neural networks predictive modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Azadeh Jodaei; Darush Salari; Ali Niaei; Masumeh Khatamian; Seyed Ali Hosseini

    2011-01-01

    The catalytic oxidation of ethyl acetate in low concentration was investigated over mono-metallic Ag\\/ZSM5 and bimetallic (Ni, Mn)-Ag\\/ZSM-5 catalysts. Catalytic studies were carried out in a catalytic fixed bed reactor under atmospheric pressure. The sequence of catalytic activity was as follows: Ni-Ag-ZSM-5 > Mn-Ag-ZSM-5 > Ag-ZSM-5 > H-ZSM-5. The catalysts were characterized by ICP-AES, X-ray diffraction (XRD), low temperature nitrogen

  20. Ulipristal acetate: in uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Croxtall, Jamie D

    2012-05-28

    Ulipristal acetate, a selective progesterone-receptor modulator, inhibits the proliferation and induces apoptosis of leiomyoma cells in vitro. It also modulates the expression of vascular endothelial growth factors and hormone receptors and modulates extracellular matrix breakdown in leiomyoma cells but not in myometrial cells. In two randomized, double-blind, multinational phase III trials of 13 weeks' duration in women aged 18-50 years with uterine fibroids, a once-daily regimen of oral ulipristal acetate 5 mg/day controlled excessive uterine bleeding (primary endpoint) in ?90% of patients. Ulipristal acetate 5 mg/day was more effective than placebo and was shown to be noninferior to intramuscular leuprolide acetate 3.75 mg once monthly in controlling uterine bleeding. Uterine bleeding was rapidly controlled by ulipristal acetate. Approximately half of recipients of ulipristal acetate 5 mg/day became amenorrhoeic within the first 10 days of treatment. Furthermore, uterine bleeding was controlled significantly more rapidly for recipients of ulipristal acetate than recipients of leuprolide acetate. A significantly greater median reduction from baseline in total fibroid volume was observed for recipients of ulipristal acetate 5 mg once daily than recipients of placebo following 13 weeks' treatment (coprimary endpoint). For patients who did not undergo surgery, the volume reduction was maintained for at least 6 months after discontinuing treatment. Ulipristal acetate was generally well tolerated in women with uterine fibroids. The incidence of hot flush occurred with a significantly lower frequency for recipients of ulipristal acetate than for recipients of leuprolide acetate. PMID:22568731

  1. Poly(vinyl acetate), poly((1- O-(vinyloxy) ethyl-2,3,4,6-tetra- O-acetyl-?- d-glucopyranoside) and amorphous poly(lactic acid) are the most CO 2-soluble oxygenated hydrocarbon-based polymers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Tapriyal; Y. Wang; R. M. Enick; J. K. Johnson; J. Crosthwaite; M. C. Thies; I. H. Paik; A. D. Hamilton

    2008-01-01

    Poly(vinyl acetate), PVAc, remains the most CO2-soluble non-fluorous polymer identified to date. Small sugar acetates are known to be extraordinarily CO2-philic, but cellulose triacetate, a crystalline high molecule weight polymer is CO2 insoluble. Therefore, an amorphous high molecular weight polymer with pendant sugar acetates was synthesized. This polymer, poly(1-O-(vinyloxy) ethyl-2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-?-d-glucopyranoside, P(AcGIcVE), was indeed CO2-soluble, however cloud point pressures of P(AcGIcVE)

  2. 4-Carbamoylpiperidinium acetate monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Smith, Graham; Wermuth, Urs D

    2010-01-01

    In the structure of the title compound, C(6)H(13)N(2)O(+)·C(2)H(3)O(2) (-)·H(2)O, the amide H atoms of the cations form centrosymmetric cyclic hydrogen-bonding associations incorporating two water mol-ecules [graph set R(4) (2)(8)], which are conjoint with cyclic water-bridged amide-amide associations [R(4) (4)(12)] and larger R(4) (4)(20) associations involving the water mol-ecule and the acetate anions, which bridge through the piperidinium H-bond donors, giving an overall three-dimensional framework structure. PMID:21589458

  3. 4-Carbamoylpiperidinium acetate monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Graham; Wermuth, Urs D.

    2010-01-01

    In the structure of the title compound, C6H13N2O+·C2H3O2 ?·H2O, the amide H atoms of the cations form centrosymmetric cyclic hydrogen-bonding associations incorporating two water mol­ecules [graph set R 4 2(8)], which are conjoint with cyclic water-bridged amide–amide associations [R 4 4(12)] and larger R 4 4(20) associations involving the water mol­ecule and the acetate anions, which bridge through the piperidinium H-bond donors, giving an overall three-dimensional framework structure. PMID:21589458

  4. Electronic spectroscopy of tryptophan analogs in supersonic jets: 3-Indole acetic acid, 3-indole propionic acid, tryptamine, and N-acetyl tryptophan ethyl ester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Young D.; Rizzo, Thomas R.; Peteanu, Linda A.; Levy, Donald H.

    1986-06-01

    The electronic spectroscopy of four different tryptophan analogs, 3-indole acetic acid, 3-indole propionic acid, tryptamine, and N-acetyltryptophan ethyl ester (NATE) has been studied in a supersonic molecular beam using laser-induced fluorescence and resonantly enhanced two-photon ionization. The electronic transition to the lowest excited singlet state occurs at 35 039, 34 965, 34 918, and 34 881±2 cm-1 for 3-indole acetic acid, 3-propionic acid, tryptamine, and NATE, respectively. The relatively small differences in the electronic origin transition frequencies suggests that the lowest excited singlet state for all of these moelcules is the 1Lb state. The spectra reveal that each of these molecules have stable conformers in the gas phase, analogous to our previously reported studies of tryptophan. A low frequency vibrational mode has been observed in 3-indole propionic acid, tryptamine, NATE, and tryptophan which involves motion of the side chain against the indole ring. We have observed that forming a van der Waals complex between tryptamine and a single methanol molecule causes the spectral features due to different conformers of the free molecule to collapse to a single line, suggesting that one particular conformer becomes the most stable species. This emphasizes the importance of including solvent interactions in any attempt to model the behavior of these molecules in solution.

  5. Photolytic degradation of chlorophenols from industrial wastewaters by organic oxidants peroxy acetic acid, para nitro benzoic acid and methyl ethyl ketone peroxide: identification of reaction products.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Swati; Mukhopadhyay, Mausumi; Murthy, Zagabathuni Venkata Panchakshari

    2014-01-01

    In this investigation, chlorophenol (CP) containing industrial wastewater was remediated by ultraviolet irradiation in conjunction with organic oxidants, peroxy acetic acid (PAA); para nitro benzoic acid (PNBA); and methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP). CP mineralization was studied with regard to chemical oxygen demand (COD) and chloride ion release under identical test conditions. COD depletion to the extent of 81% by PAA, 66% by PNBA, and 67% by MEKP was noted along with an upwardly mobile trend of chloride ion release upon irradiation of samples at 254 nm. A 90-99% decrease in CP concentration (as per high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis) was achieved with an additional 15.0 ml of organic oxidant in all cases. Gas chromatography high resolution mass spectroscopy (GC-HRMS) results also indicated the formation of such reaction products as are free from chlorine substitutions. This treatment also leads to total decolorization of the collected samples. PMID:24647192

  6. Synergistic effect of delignification and treatment with the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate on enzymatic digestibility of poplar wood.

    PubMed

    Wu, Long; Kumagai, Akio; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Endo, Takashi

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the effects of removing key recalcitrance factors by ionic liquid (IL) treatment on the cellulase digestibility of poplar wood. Ground biomass was subjected to chlorite delignification and IL (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate) treatment alone or in combination. The compositional and structural features of differentially treated biomass samples and their hydrolysis performance at various cellulase loadings were investigated. IL treatment caused minor compositional changes but drastically decreased cellulose crystallinity; in particular, when administered after delignification, an X-ray diffractogram similar to that of cellulose II polymorph was observed, suggesting that in the absence of lignin, the cellulose was dissolved in the IL and regenerated in water with a polymorphic transformation. The structural changes induced by the combined delignification-IL treatment facilitated the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose; the biomass could be fully degraded within 72 h by 4 FPU of cellulase per gram glucan, with cellobiose degradation being the rate-limiting step. PMID:24755318

  7. Characteristics of lipid extraction from Chlorella sp. cultivated in outdoor raceway ponds with mixture of ethyl acetate and ethanol for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Lu, Weidong; Wang, Zhongming; Yuan, Zhenhong

    2015-09-01

    In this work, neutral lipids (NLs) extraction capacity and selectivity of six solvents were firstly compared. In addition, an eco-friendly solvent combination of ethyl acetate and ethanol (EA/E) was proposed and tested for lipid extraction from Chlorella sp. cultivated in outdoor raceway ponds and effect of extraction variables on lipid yield were intensively studied. Results indicated that lipid extraction yield was increased with solvent to biomass ratio but did not vary significantly when the value exceeded 20:1. Lipid yield was found to be strongly dependent on extraction temperature and time. Finally, fatty acid profiles of lipid were determined and results indicated that the major components were octadecanoic acid, palmitic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid, demonstrating that the lipid extracted from the Chlorella sp. cultivated in outdoor raceway ponds by EA/E was suitable feedstock for biodiesel production. PMID:25838039

  8. Cognitive enhancing and antioxidant activity of ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the methanol extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis in scopolamine-induced amnesia

    PubMed Central

    Nade, Vandana S.; Kanhere, Sampat V.; Kawale, Laxman A.; Yadav, Adhikrao V.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the cognitive enhancing and antioxidant activity of Hibiscus rosa sinensis. Materials and Methods: The learning and memory was impaired by administration of scopolamine (1 mg/kg, i.p.) in mice which is associated with altered brain oxidative status. The object recognition test (ORT) and passive avoidance test (PAT) were used to assess cognitive enhancing activity. Animals were treated with an ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the methanol extract of H. sinensis (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o). Results: The ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the methanol extract of H. sinensis (EASF) attenuated amnesia induced by scopolamine and aging. The discrimination index (DI) was significantly decreased in the aged and scopolamine group in ORT. Pretreatment with EASF significantly increased the DI. In PAT, scopolamine-treated mice exhibited significantly shorter step-down latencies (SDL). EASF treatment showed a significant increase in SDL in young, aged as well as in scopolamine-treated animals. The biochemical analysis of brain revealed that scopolamine treatment increased lipid peroxidation and decreased levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GSH). Administration of extract significantly reduced LPO and reversed the decrease in brain SOD and GSH levels. The administration of H. sinensis improved memory in amnesic mice and prevented the oxidative stress associated with scopolamine. The mechanism of such protection of H. sinensis may be due to augmentation of cellular antioxidants. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggested that H. sinensis had a protective role against age and scopolamine-induced amnesia, indicating its utility in management of cognitive disorders. PMID:21572646

  9. Ethyl acetate extract from Angelica Dahuricae Radix inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced production of nitric oxide, prostaglandin E 2 and tumor necrosis factor-? via mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor-?B in macrophages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ok-Hwa Kang; Go-Hoon Lee; Hyuk Joon Choi; Pil Sang Park; Hee-Sung Chae; Seung-Il Jeong; Youn-Chul Kim; Dong Hwan Sohn; Hyun Park; John Hwa Lee; Dong-Yeul Kwon

    2007-01-01

    Angelica dahurica (Umbelliferae) has been used to treat headache of common cold, supraorbital neuralgia, painful swelling on the body, nasal stuffiness, leukorrhea and arthralgia due to wind-dampness in Korean traditional medicine. It is also claimed to be effective in the treatment of acne, erythema, headache, toothache, sinusitis, colds and flu. The present study focused whether the ethyl acetate extract from

  10. Molecular Structure of Phenylmercuric acetate

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2004-11-10

    Phenylmercuric acetate is white to white-yellow crystalline powder that is odorless. This phenyl mercury compound is used mainly as a fungicide, herbicide, slimicide and bacteriocide. Phenylmercuric acid serves as a preservative in canned paint, eye ointments and drops, injectable solutions, skin disinfectants and in cosmetics products such as hair shampoos, mouthwashes and toothpastes. It is also used in contraceptive gels and foams. Phenylmercuric acetate is prepared by interaction of benzene with mercuric acetate in glacial acetic acid. Phenylmercuric acetate's former production and use as a fungicide and as a mildew inhibitor in paints may have resulted in its direct release to the environment. This substance is very toxic to aquatic organisms and may be hazardous to the environment.

  11. Synthesis of the perdeuterated cellulose solvents N -methylmorpholine N -oxide (NMMO-d 11 and NMMO- 15 Nd 11 ), N,N -dimethylacetamide (DMAcd 9 and DMAc 15 Nd 9 ), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIM-OAc-d 14 ) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (BMIM-OAc-d 18 )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Adelwöhrer; Yuko Yoneda; Toshiyuki Takano; Fumiaki Nakatsubo; Thomas Rosenau

    2009-01-01

    The syntheses of several perdeuterated substances—some of them isotopically labeled (15N) in addition—are described, which act as direct solvents of cellulose either on their own, such as N-methylmorpholine N-oxide (NMMO), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (BMIM-OAc), or 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIM-OAc), or in combination\\u000a with auxiliaries, such as N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc—for the cellulose solvent DMAc\\/LiCl). NMMO-d11 (9) was obtained in an eight-step approach from non-labeled

  12. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  15. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  16. Ulipristal acetate for emergency contraception.

    PubMed

    Russo, J A; Creinin, M D

    2010-09-01

    Ulipristal acetate is a progesterone receptor modulator. As an emergency contraceptive, a 30-mg micronized formulation is effective for use up to 120 h from unprotected sexual intercourse. Ulipristal acetate acts as an antagonist of the progesterone receptor at the transcriptional level and a competitive antagonist of glucocorticoid receptor function. In contrast to other contraceptives, it has little effect on sex hormone-binding globulin. Although a single small study demonstrated some potential endometrial effects after ulipristal acetate administration, the clinical relevance of these findings is unclear. The incidence of adverse events in clinical trials for emergency contraception has typically been minimal, with one study showing a higher than expected incidence of nausea upon ulipristal acetate use. Ulipristal acetate, like other emergency contraceptive products, can lengthen the time to the next expected menstruation. Ulipristal acetate may have several advantages over currently approved emergency contraceptives. When compared to levonorgestrel, ulipristal acetate maintains its efficacy for a full 120 h, whereas levonorgestrel formulations have declining efficacy over that time frame. Moreover, although the copper intrauterine device (IUD) is highly effective as an emergency contraceptive, accessibility is an issue since the IUD requires a skilled provider for insertion. PMID:20967297

  17. Evaluation of Antiradical and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Ethyl Acetate and Butanolic Subfractions of Agelanthus dodoneifolius (DC.) Polhill & Wiens (Loranthaceae) Using Equine Myeloperoxidase and Both PMA-Activated Neutrophils and HL-60 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Boly, Rainatou; Franck, Thierry; Kohnen, Stephan; Lompo, Marius; Guissou, Innocent Pierre; Dubois, Jacques; Serteyn, Didier; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange

    2015-01-01

    The ethyl acetate and n-butanolic subfractions of Agelanthus dodoneifolius were investigated for their antioxidant and antimyeloperoxidase (MPO) activities. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was assessed by lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence (CL) and dichlorofluorescein- (DCF-) induced fluorescence techniques from phorbol myristate acetate- (PMA-) stimulated equine neutrophils and human myeloid cell line HL-60, respectively. In parallel, the effects of the tested subfractions were evaluated on the total MPO release by stimulated neutrophils and on the specific MPO activity by means of immunological assays. The results showed the potent activity of the butanolic subfraction, at least in respect of the chemiluminescence test (IC50 = 0.3 ± 0.1?µg/mL) and the ELISA and SIEFED assays (IC50 = 2.8 ± 1.2?µg/mL and 1.3 ± 1.0?µg/mL), respectively. However, the ethyl acetate subfraction was found to be the most potent in the DCF assay as at the highest concentration, DCF fluorescence intensity decreases of about 50%. Moreover, we demonstrated that the ethyl acetate subfraction was rich in catechin (16.51%) while it was not easy to identify the main compounds in the butanolic subfraction using the UPLC-MS/MS technique. Nevertheless, taken together, our results provide evidence that Agelanthus dodoneifolius subfractions may represent potential sources of natural antioxidants and of antimyeloperoxidase compounds. PMID:25821497

  18. Ulipristal acetate: contraceptive or contragestive?

    PubMed

    Keenan, Jeffrey A

    2011-06-01

    Ulipristal acetate is the first selective progesterone receptor modulator approved for postcoital contraception in the US. It appears to be significantly more effective in inhibition of ovulation than other forms of emergency contraception. However, ulipristal acetate is structurally similar to mifepristone, and several lines of evidence suggest that a postfertilization mechanism of action is also operative. This mechanism of action is considered to be contragestive versus contraceptive. Ulipristal acetate administration is contraindicated in a known or suspected pregnancy; however, it could quite possibly be used as an effective abortifacient. Health-care providers should inform patients of the possibility of both mechanisms of action with use of this drug. PMID:21666088

  19. Molecular Structure of Sodium acetate

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-08-26

    Sodium acetate is known for its ability to supercool. It freezes at 130 degrees, but can exist as a liquid at a much lower temperature. In order to melt solidified sodium acetate, however, every single crystal must liquify, otherwise the material will recrystallize. Sodium acetate has been used as a deicer for roads and runways. It is also used a component of buffer systems and in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals and heat pads. The compound is quite stable. It may act as an irritant and be harmful if inhaled or absorbed through the skin.

  20. Antibiofilm Properties of Acetic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Alhede, Morten; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Nielsen, Anne K.; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Homøe, Preben; Høiby, Niels; Givskov, Michael; Kirketerp-Møller, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are known to be extremely tolerant toward antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. These biofilms cause the persistence of chronic infections. Since antibiotics rarely resolve these infections, the only effective treatment of chronic infections is surgical removal of the infected implant, tissue, or organ and thereby the biofilm. Acetic acid is known for its antimicrobial effect on bacteria in general, but has never been thoroughly tested for its efficacy against bacterial biofilms. In this article, we describe complete eradication of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative biofilms using acetic acid both as a liquid and as a dry salt. In addition, we present our clinical experience of acetic acid treatment of chronic wounds. In conclusion, we here present the first comprehensive in vitro and in vivo testing of acetic acid against bacterial biofilms. PMID:26155378

  1. Methanogenesis from acetate: enrichment studies.

    PubMed

    Baresi, L; Mah, R A; Ward, D M; Kaplan, I R

    1978-07-01

    An acetate enrichment culture was initiated by inoculating anaerobic sludge from a mesophilic methane digestor into a mineral salts medium with calcium acetate as the sole carbon and energy source. This enrichment was maintained indefinitely by weekly transfer into medium of the same composition. A study of this enrichment disclosed an unexpected age-dependent inhibition of methanogenesis by H2 and formate which apparently differed from the inhibition by chloroform and benzyl viologen. This age-dependent inhibition indicated that microbial interactions of the mixed enrichment population may play a regulatory role in methane formation. Futhermore, stimulation of methanogenesis in the acetate enrichment by addition of yeast extract showed a nutrient limitation which indicated that syntrophic interactions leading to formation of growth factors may also occur. A model is presented to illustrate the possible interrelationships between methanogenic and nonmethanogenic bacteria in their growth and formation of methane and carbon dioxide from acetate. PMID:697356

  2. Molecular Structure of Acetic acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-06-02

    Acetic Acid commonly associated with vinegar; it is the most commercially important organic acid and is used to manufacture a wide range of chemical products, such as plastics and insecticides. Acetic acid is produced naturally by Aceto bacteria but, except for making vinegar, is usually made through synthetic processes. Ethanoic acid is used as herbicide, as a micro-biocide, as a fungicide and for pH adjustment.

  3. Protective effects of ethyl acetate fraction of Lawsonia inermis fruits extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative damage in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Ben Hsouna, Anis; Mongi, Saoudi; Culioli, Gérald; Blache, Yves; Ghlissi, Zohra; Chaabane, Rim; El Feki, Abdelfattah; Jaoua, Samir; Trigui, Mohamed

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate the antioxidant properties of different fractions obtained from the fruits of Lawsonia inermis, a widely used medicinal plant, against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced oxidative stress in rat liver. The results show that several fractions obtained from L. inermis fruits possessed important antioxidant activity. Among them, the ethyl acetate (EA) fraction showed the highest antioxidant activity. Then, EA fraction was selected for the purification of potential antioxidant compounds. The hepatoprotective effects of EA fraction and its most active constituent, gallic acid (GA), were evaluated against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. CCl4 induced oxidative stress by a significant rise in serum marker enzymes. However, pretreatment of rats with EA fraction of fruits of L. inermis at a dose of 250 mg kg(-1) body weight and GA significantly lowered some serum biochemical parameters (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase) in treated rats. A significant reduction in hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and an increase in antioxidant enzymes namely superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase by treatment with plant extract and GA, against CCl4-treated rats, were observed. Histopathological examinations showed extensive liver injuries, characterized by extensive hepatocellular necrosis, vacuolization, and inflammatory cell infiltration. This potential antioxidant activity is comparable to those of the major purified antioxidant compound, GA. Based on these results, it was observed that fruits of L. inermis protect liver from oxidative stress induced by CCl4 and thus help in evaluation of traditional claim on this plant. PMID:24215067

  4. Ethyl Acetate Extract from Celastrus aculeatus Merr. Suppresses Synovial Inflammation in Adjuvant Arthritis Rats through Apoptosis Induction of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Shu-tong; Chen, Pei-hong; Chen, Yu-yao; Lin, Xiao-chun; Liu, Jun-shan; Tong, Li

    2014-01-01

    Celastrus aculeatus Merr. has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in clinic. However, the main active fraction of this plant is still unclear. In this study, we attempted to evaluate the suppressive effect of ethyl acetate extract (EAE) from Celastrus aculeatus Merr. on synovial inflammation in adjuvant arthritis (AA) rats induced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra (Mtb) and to explore the underlying mechanisms. SD rats immunized with heat-killed Mtb were fed with EAE and observed for erythema, swelling, and induration of each paw. The pathologic changes in joint synovium were tested by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Apoptosis induction of synoviocytes was tested immunohistochemically. Apoptosis of peripheral lymphocytes and the level of regulatory T cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. After treatment with EAE, the joint inflammation in rats with AA was alleviated. Both apoptotic ratios of synoviocytes and peripheral lymphocytes and the ratio of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ to CD4 regulatory T cells were significantly increased. In summary, we first demonstrated that EAE of Celastrus aculeatus Merr. can inhibit synovial inflammation in AA rats through apoptosis induction of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ T cells. Our study provides a rationale for the application of Celastrus aculeatus Merr. to treat RA. PMID:25548591

  5. Autophagic Cell Death Is Induced by Acetone and Ethyl Acetate Extracts from Eupatorium odoratum In Vitro: Effects on MCF-7 and Vero Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Harun, Faizah Bt.; Syed Sahil Jamalullail, Syed Mohsin; Yin, Khoo Boon; Othman, Zulkhairi; Tilwari, Anita; Balaram, Prabha

    2012-01-01

    Eupatorium odoratum (EO) contains many biologically active compounds, the anticancer effects of which are not well documented. This study evaluates the cytotoxic effects and mechanism of action of EO extracts on MCF-7 and Vero cell lines. Evaluation of the cytotoxic activity using MTT assay, morphological alterations, and apoptosis were carried out. Autophagy was evaluated by LC3-A protein expression. Cytotoxic activity, membrane blebbing and ballooning at 24 hours, replacement by mass vacuolation, and double membrane vesicles mimicking autophagy and cell death were observed in the cancer cells. No apoptosis was observed by DNA fragmentation assay. Overexpression of LC3-A protein indicated autophagic cell death. Cell cycle analysis showed G0 and G2/M arrest. The Vero cells did not show significant cell death at concentrations <100??g/mL. These results thus suggest that acetone and ethyl acetate extracts of EO induce cell death through induction of autophagy and hold potential for development as potential anticancer drugs. PMID:22666123

  6. Autophagic cell death is induced by acetone and ethyl acetate extracts from Eupatorium odoratum in vitro: effects on MCF-7 and vero cell lines.

    PubMed

    Harun, Faizah Bt; Syed Sahil Jamalullail, Syed Mohsin; Yin, Khoo Boon; Othman, Zulkhairi; Tilwari, Anita; Balaram, Prabha

    2012-01-01

    Eupatorium odoratum (EO) contains many biologically active compounds, the anticancer effects of which are not well documented. This study evaluates the cytotoxic effects and mechanism of action of EO extracts on MCF-7 and Vero cell lines. Evaluation of the cytotoxic activity using MTT assay, morphological alterations, and apoptosis were carried out. Autophagy was evaluated by LC3-A protein expression. Cytotoxic activity, membrane blebbing and ballooning at 24 hours, replacement by mass vacuolation, and double membrane vesicles mimicking autophagy and cell death were observed in the cancer cells. No apoptosis was observed by DNA fragmentation assay. Overexpression of LC3-A protein indicated autophagic cell death. Cell cycle analysis showed G0 and G2/M arrest. The Vero cells did not show significant cell death at concentrations <100??g/mL. These results thus suggest that acetone and ethyl acetate extracts of EO induce cell death through induction of autophagy and hold potential for development as potential anticancer drugs. PMID:22666123

  7. Splitless large-volume GC-MS injection for the analysis of organophosphorus and organochlorine pesticides in vegetables using a miniaturised ethyl acetate extraction.

    PubMed

    Agüera, A; Piedra, L; Hernando, M D; Fernández-Alba, A R; Contreras, M

    2000-08-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive multiresidue method has been developed for the determination of ten organophosphorus and organochlorine pesticides, commonly used in crop protection. The analysis uses a miniaturised extraction with ethyl acetate followed by large volume injection (10 microL) GC-EI-MS analysis in SIM (selective ion monitoring) mode. Sensitivity and selectivity of the method were acceptable with limits of detection (LODs) lower than 0.01 mg kg-1, except for endosulfan alpha and beta (0.05 mg kg-1). Average recoveries of between 63-99% were obtained and good linearity was observed in the range from 0.01 to 1.00 mg kg-1. Repeatability and reproducibility studies yielded relative standard deviations lower than 20% in all the cases. The method was applied to the analysis of 110 tomato, pepper and cucumber samples, as part of the monitoring programme of the Association of Producers and Exporters of Fruits and Vegetables of Almería. PMID:11002922

  8. Comparative evaluation of the metabolic effects of hydroxytyrosol and its lipophilic derivatives (hydroxytyrosyl acetate and ethyl hydroxytyrosyl ether) in hypercholesterolemic rats.

    PubMed

    Tabernero, María; Sarriá, Beatriz; Largo, Carlota; Martínez-López, Sara; Madrona, Andrés; Espartero, José Luis; Bravo, Laura; Mateos, Raquel

    2014-07-25

    Hydroxytyrosol (HT), a virgin olive oil phenolic phytochemical with proven health benefits, has been used to generate new lipophilic antioxidants to preserve fats and oils against autoxidation. The aim of this work is to comparatively evaluate the physiological effects of HT and its lipophilic derivatives, hydroxytyrosyl acetate (HT-Ac) and ethyl hydroxytyrosyl ether (HT-Et), in high-cholesterol fed animals. Male Wistar rats (n = 8) were fed a standard diet (C group), a cholesterol-rich diet (Chol group) or a cholesterol-rich diet supplemented with phenolic compounds (HT group, HT-Ac group and HT-Et group) for 8 weeks. Body and tissue weights, the lipid profile, redox status, and biochemical, hormonal, and inflammatory biomarkers were evaluated. Plasma levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, glucose, insulin and leptin, as well as malondialdehyde in serum increased in Chol compared to C (p < 0.05). Rats fed the test diets had improved glucose, insulin, leptin and MDA levels and antioxidant capacity status, with HT-Ac being the most effective compound. The studied phenolic compounds also modulated TNF-? and IL-1? plasma levels compared to Chol. HT-Ac and HT-Et improved adipose tissue distribution and adipokine production, decreasing MCP-1 and IL-1? levels. Our results confirm the metabolic effects of HT, which are maintained and even improved by hydrophobic derivatives, particularly HT-Ac. PMID:24855654

  9. Taraxerol acetate at 100 K.

    PubMed

    Billodeaux, D R; Benavides, G A; Fischer, N H; Fronczek, F R

    1999-12-15

    The title triterpene, D-friedoolean-14-en-3 beta-yl acetate, C32H52O2, was isolated from dichloromethane extracts of the roots of common ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia. The skeleton contains five fused six-membered rings with an average Csp3-Csp3 bond distance of 1.549 (6) A and one double bond of length 1.348 (6) A. The D and E rings are cis-fused. The compound also contains a beta-oriented acetate group with a C-O distance 1.461 (5) A. PMID:10641284

  10. Cancer-specific chemoprevention and anti-metastatic potentials of Rheum emodi rhizome ethyl acetate extracts and identification of active principles through HPLC and GC-MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Devanga Ragupathi Naveen; George, Vazhapilly Cijo; Suresh, Palamadai Krishnan; Kumar, Rangasamy Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Rheum emodi Wall. ex Meissn. (Polygonaceae) is a Himalayan perennial herb which has been cultivated over 5000 years for its medicinal properties by rural and tribal people of Kashmir, and has great significance for its traditional use in Ayurvedic, Unani and folk systems of medicine for cancer treatments. However, there is lack of reports pertaining to specific-chemopreventive properties of R. emodi rhizome. The present study investigates R. emodi rhizome hot and cold ethyl acetate extracts (EHR and ECR) for specific-chemopreventive properties. The extracts were found to be effective antioxidant sources, and showed significant (P<0.05) cancer-specific cytotoxicity towards MDA-MB-231 cells (when compared to WRL-68 [non-tumoral cells]) with IC(50) values of 56.59±1.29 ?g/ml (EHR) and 152.38±1.45 ?g/ml (ECR) respectively, and induced apoptosis significantly (P<0.05) high in MDA-MB-231 cells (estrogen receptor-(ER)-negative) when compared to MCF-7 cells (ER-positive). Extracts also demonstrated evident anti-metastatic activity. Further, the extracts were chemically characterized through HPLC analysis which revealed major polyphenolics and the GC-MS analysis of the effective extract EHR unveiled (Methyl 6,7-dideoxy-6-C-methyl-2,3-di-O-methyl-à-D-gluco-oct-6-eno-1,5-pyranosid)urono-8,4-lactone,Chrysophanol, derivatives of cyclopropanes and a quinazoline derivative. Overall, EHR exhibited significantly better results on par with ECR, and thus could be considered for their use in designing cancer-specific chemopreventive agents against ER-negative breast cancer. PMID:25553709

  11. Microwave-assisted extraction and accelerated solvent extraction with ethyl acetate-cyclohexane before determination of organochlorines in fish tissue by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection.

    PubMed

    Weichbrodt, M; Vetter, W; Luckas, B

    2000-01-01

    Focused open-vessel microwave-assisted extraction (FOV-MAE), closed-vessel microwave-assisted extraction (CV-MAE), and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) were used for extraction before determination of organochlorine compounds (polychlorinated biphenyls, DDT, toxaphene, chlordane, hexachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclohexanes, and dieldrin) in cod liver and fish fillets. Wet samples were extracted without the time-consuming step of lyophilization or other sample-drying procedures. Extractions were performed with the solvent mixture ethyl acetate-cyclohexane (1 + 1, v/v), which allowed direct use of gel-permeation chromatography without solvent exchange. For FOV-MAE, the solvent mixture removed water from the sample matrix via azeotropic distillation. The status of water removal was controlled during extraction by measuring the temperature of the distillate. After water removal, the temperature of the distillate increased and the solvent mixture became less polar. Only the pure extraction solvent allowed quantitative extraction of the organochlorine compounds. For CV-MAE, water could not be separated during the extraction. For this reason, the extraction procedure for wet fish tissue required 2 extraction steps: the first for manual removal of coextracted water, and the second for quantitative extraction of the organochlorine compounds with the pure solvent. Therefore, CV-MAE is less convenient for samples with high water content. For ASE, water in the sample was bound with Na2SO4. The reproducibility for each technique was very good (relative standard deviation was typically <10%); the slightly varying levels were attributed to deviations during sample cleanup and the generally low levels. PMID:11128135

  12. Ozone decomposition in aqueous acetate solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Sehested, K.; Holcman, J.; Bjergbakke, E.; Hart, E.J.

    1987-01-01

    The acetate radical ion reacts with ozone with a rate constant of k = (1.5 +/- 0.5) x 10Z dmT mol s . The products from this reaction are CO2, HCHO, and O2 . By subsequent reaction of the peroxy radical with ozone the acetate radical ion is regenerated through the OH radical. A chain decomposition of ozone takes place. It terminates when the acetate radical ion reacts with oxygen forming the unreactive peroxy acetate radical. The chain is rather short as oxygen is developed, as a result of the ozone consumption. The inhibiting effect of acetate on the ozone decay is rationalized by OH scavenging by acetate and successive reaction of the acetate radical ion with oxygen. Some products from the bimolecular disappearance of the peroxy acetate radicals, however, react further with ozone, reducing the effectiveness of the stabilization.

  13. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...form. It is produced synthetically by the neutralization of acetic acid with sodium carbonate or by treating calcium acetate with sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...form. It is produced synthetically by the neutralization of acetic acid with sodium carbonate or by treating calcium acetate with sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...form. It is produced synthetically by the neutralization of acetic acid with sodium carbonate or by treating calcium acetate with sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...form. It is produced synthetically by the neutralization of acetic acid with sodium carbonate or by treating calcium acetate with sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...form. It is produced synthetically by the neutralization of acetic acid with sodium carbonate or by treating calcium acetate with sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food...

  18. Electron tunneling studies of Mn12-Acetate 

    E-print Network

    Ma, Lianxi

    2008-10-10

    We used self-assembling tunnel junctions (SATJs) to study the electron transport through films of the molecular magnets, Mn12-Acetate. Pulse laser deposition (PLD) was used to deposit two monolayers of Mn12-Acetate on ...

  19. Concentrating aqueous acetate solutions with tertiary amines 

    E-print Network

    Lee, Champion

    1993-01-01

    Water may be extracted from aqueous calcium acetate or sodium acetate solutions using low miscibility, low molecular weight tertiary amines, e.g. triethylamine (TEA) and N,N- dietliylmethylaniine (DEMA). This novel extraction technology...

  20. A new method to clean industrial water from acetic acid via esterification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. L. Bianchi; V. Ragaini; C. Pirola; G. Carvoli

    2003-01-01

    The valorisation of very low concentration of acetic acid (6%, w\\/w) was investigated by reacting with n-butanol and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol taking advantage of the different solubilities of acetic acid and acetic ester in water. The esterification of very diluted solution of acetic acid with alcohol is a reversible reaction and the conversion is greatly restricted by equilibrium limitation. Therefore, the peculiarity

  1. 21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2396 Lead acetate. (a...additive lead acetate may be safely used in cosmetics intended for coloring hair on the scalp...The amount of the lead acetate in the cosmetic shall be such that the lead...

  2. 21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2396 Lead acetate. (a...additive lead acetate may be safely used in cosmetics intended for coloring hair on the scalp...The amount of the lead acetate in the cosmetic shall be such that the lead...

  3. Ethyl 7-oxo-7H-benzo[de]imidazo[5,1-a]iso­quinoline-11-carboxyl­ate–tri­fluoro­acetic acid (1/1)

    PubMed Central

    Stibrany, Robert T.; Potenza, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    The structure of the title tri­fluoro­acetic acid adduct, C17H12N2O3·C2HF3O2, contains a tri­fluoro­acetic acid mol­ecule hydrogen bonded to the imine N atom of the imidazole ring of a nearly planar four-fused-ring system (r.m.s. deviatiation = 0.013?Å). The carb­oxy­lic acid group of the triflouro­acetic acid mol­ecule is twisted with respect to the mean plane of the four-fused-ring sytem by 75.9?(2)°. A short intra­molecular C—H?O hydrogen bond occurs. In the crystal, the adduct mol­ecules are arranged into stacks along the b axis via ?–? inter­actions between imidazole rings and between imidazole and one of the benzene rings [centroid–centroid distances 3.352?(2) and 3.485?(2)?Å, respectively]. Molecules are linked via C—H?O hydrogen bonds, forming an alternating polymeric head-to-head/tail-to-tail stepped chain approximately along the a-axis direction and tilted on an axis bisecting the b and c axes. PMID:23795131

  4. Experimental and theoretical spectral properties of ethyl 2-(7-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yl)acetate doped sol-gel materials: new materials with potential optical application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Ahmed; B. Koleva; S. Gutzov; I. Petkov

    2007-01-01

    Silica xerogels and monoliths, containing ethyl 2-(7-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yl)acetate (K4) or Sm3 +  ions and K4 are prepared by sol-gel technique. NMR investigations, UV\\/Vis, IR- and luminescence spectral properties of K4\\u000a in solution and in monoliths are presented. The IR-spectroscopic properties of the prepared sol-gel materials are examined\\u000a by applying the reduced-difference procedure to non-polarized IR-spectra. The results show that the sol-gel medium

  5. Crystal structure of ethyl 2-{4-[(5-chloro-1-benzo-furan-2-yl)meth-yl]-3-methyl-6-oxo-1,6-di-hydro-pyridazin-1-yl}acetate.

    PubMed

    Boukharsa, Youness; El Ammari, Lahcen; Taoufik, Jamal; Saadi, Mohamed; Ansar, M'hammed

    2015-05-01

    In the title compound, C18H17ClN2O4, the dihedral angle between the benzofuran ring system [maximum deviation 0.014?(2)?Å] and the oxopyradizine ring is 73.33?(8)°. The structure is characterized by disorder of the ethyl group, which is split into two parts, with a major component of 0.57?(3), and the acetate carbonyl O atom, which is statistically disordered. In the crystal, the molecules are linked by C-H?O inter-actions, forming a three-dimensional network. PMID:25995910

  6. Cinnamyl acetate synthesis by lipase-catalyzed transesterification in a solvent-free system.

    PubMed

    Geng, Bo; Wang, Mengfan; Qi, Wei; Su, Rongxin; He, Zhimin

    2012-01-01

    Cinnamyl acetate was synthesized using immobilized lipase through transesterification between ethyl acetate and cinnamyl alcohol. In the solvent-free system, ethyl acetate acted as not only the acyl donor but also as the solvent of cinnamyl alcohol. Conversion (90.06%) was achieved after 3 H when transesterification was carried out at ethyl acetate/cinnamyl alcohol 15:1, 2.67 g L of lipase (Novozym 435) loading, and 40°C. Excellent stability and reusability of the enzyme resulted from the moderate reaction system. Kinetic studies showed that the Michaelis constants for ethyl acetate and cinnamyl alcohol and the inhibition constant of cinnamyl alcohol were 2.241, 206.82, and 0.461 mmol L?¹, respectively, which indicated that the reaction complied with the Ping-Pong Bi-Bi mechanism, with the inhibition of cinnamyl alcohol on lipase. PMID:23586860

  7. 40 CFR 721.10001 - 2-Ethoxyethanol, 2-ethoxyethanol acetate, 2-methoxyethanol, and 2-methoxyethanol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified as 2-ethoxyethanol (CAS No. 110-80-5), 2-ethoxyethanol acetate (CAS No. 111-15-9), 2-methoxyethanol (CAS No. 109-86-4), and 2-methoxyethanol acetate (CAS No....

  8. 40 CFR 721.10001 - 2-Ethoxyethanol, 2-ethoxyethanol acetate, 2-methoxyethanol, and 2-methoxyethanol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...reporting . (1) The chemical substances identified as 2-ethoxyethanol (CAS No. 110-80-5), 2-ethoxyethanol acetate (CAS No. 111-15-9), 2-methoxyethanol (CAS No. 109-86-4), and 2-methoxyethanol acetate (CAS No....

  9. 40 CFR 721.10001 - 2-Ethoxyethanol, 2-ethoxyethanol acetate, 2-methoxyethanol, and 2-methoxyethanol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...reporting . (1) The chemical substances identified as 2-ethoxyethanol (CAS No. 110-80-5), 2-ethoxyethanol acetate (CAS No. 111-15-9), 2-methoxyethanol (CAS No. 109-86-4), and 2-methoxyethanol acetate (CAS No....

  10. 40 CFR 721.10001 - 2-Ethoxyethanol, 2-ethoxyethanol acetate, 2-methoxyethanol, and 2-methoxyethanol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...reporting . (1) The chemical substances identified as 2-ethoxyethanol (CAS No. 110-80-5), 2-ethoxyethanol acetate (CAS No. 111-15-9), 2-methoxyethanol (CAS No. 109-86-4), and 2-methoxyethanol acetate (CAS No....

  11. 40 CFR 721.10001 - 2-Ethoxyethanol, 2-ethoxyethanol acetate, 2-methoxyethanol, and 2-methoxyethanol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...reporting . (1) The chemical substances identified as 2-ethoxyethanol (CAS No. 110-80-5), 2-ethoxyethanol acetate (CAS No. 111-15-9), 2-methoxyethanol (CAS No. 109-86-4), and 2-methoxyethanol acetate (CAS No....

  12. Positron scattering from vinyl acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiari, L.; Zecca, A.; Blanco, F.; García, G.; Brunger, M. J.

    2014-09-01

    Using a Beer-Lambert attenuation approach, we report measured total cross sections (TCSs) for positron scattering from vinyl acetate (C4H6O2) in the incident positron energy range 0.15-50 eV. In addition, we also report an independent atom model with screening corrected additivity rule computation results for the TCSs, differential and integral elastic cross sections, the positronium formation cross section and inelastic integral cross sections. The energy range of these calculations is 1-1000 eV. While there is a reasonable qualitative correspondence between measurement and calculation for the TCSs, in terms of the energy dependence of those cross sections, the theory was found to be a factor of ˜2 larger in magnitude at the lower energies, even after the measured data were corrected for the forward angle scattering effect.

  13. Fungal degradation of polyvinyl acetate.

    PubMed

    García Trejo, A

    1988-08-01

    Certain Aspergillus and Penicillium strains isolated from soil grow well and degrade a commercial sample of polyvinyl acetate (PVA, 4.5 g liter-1) when it is used as the only carbon source. These strains showed an increase in dry weight after 11 days of incubation, along with a depletion of carbohydrates, protein, and deoxyribonucleic acid. This was interpreted as an active turnover of the above metabolites during the degradation. This effect was greatly enhanced by equilibrating the carbon:nitrogen ratio by addition of yeast extract in the original culture. The increase in esterase activity and the loss of viscosity were also considered evidence of the fungal degradation. Isolation of the enzyme was attempted, but unsuccessful. PMID:3181066

  14. Crystal structure of ethyl 2-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-2-[2-(4-nitro-phen-yl)hydrazinyl-idene]acetate.

    PubMed

    Loughzail, Mohamed; Baouid, Abdesselam; El Ammari, Lahcen; Saadi, Mohamed; Berraho, Moha

    2015-04-01

    The title compound, C17H15N5O4, was obtained via the condensation of 3-eth-oxy-2-[2-(4-nitro-phen-yl)hydrazono]-3-oxo-propanoic acid with 1,2-di-amino-benzene. In the mol-ecule, the dihedral angles between the acetate group and the two aromatic subunits (benzimidazole and nitro-phenyl-hydrazone) are 7.35?(9) and 18.23?(9)°, respectively. Intra-molecular N-H?O and N-H?N contacts occur. In the crystal, C-H?O and N-H?O hydrogen bonds link the mol-ecules into chains along the b-axis direction. PMID:26029432

  15. Crystal structure of ethyl 2-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-2-[2-(4-nitro­phen­yl)hydrazinyl­idene]acetate

    PubMed Central

    Loughzail, Mohamed; Baouid, Abdesselam; El Ammari, Lahcen; Saadi, Mohamed; Berraho, Moha

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, C17H15N5O4, was obtained via the condensation of 3-eth­oxy-2-[2-(4-nitro­phen­yl)hydrazono]-3-oxo­propanoic acid with 1,2-di­amino­benzene. In the mol­ecule, the dihedral angles between the acetate group and the two aromatic subunits (benzimidazole and nitro­phenyl­hydrazone) are 7.35?(9) and 18.23?(9)°, respectively. Intra­molecular N—H?O and N—H?N contacts occur. In the crystal, C—H?O and N—H?O hydrogen bonds link the mol­ecules into chains along the b-axis direction.

  16. Ethyl acetate extract of germinated brown rice attenuates hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells: role of anti-apoptotic, pro-survival and antioxidant genes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There are reports of improved metabolic outcomes due to consumption of germinated brown rice (GBR). Many of the functional effects of GBR can be linked to its high amounts of antioxidants. Interestingly, dietary components with high antioxidants have shown promise in the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This effect of dietary components is mostly based on their ability to prevent apoptosis, which is believed to link oxidative damage to pathological changes in AD. In view of the rich antioxidant content of GBR, we studied its potential to modulate processes leading up to AD. Methods The total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of the ethyl acetate extract of GBR were compared to that of brown rice (BR), and the cytotoxicity of both extracts were determined on human SH-SY5Y neuronal cells using 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) Assay. Based on its higher antioxidant potentials, the effect of the GBR extract on morphological changes due to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative damage in human SH-SY5Y neuronal cells was examined using inverted light microscope and fluorescence microscope by means of acridine orange-propidium iodide (AO/PI) staining. Also, evaluation of the transcriptional regulation of antioxidant and apoptotic genes was carried out using Multiplex Gene Expression System. Results The ethyl acetate extract of GBR had higher total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity compared to BR. The cytotoxicity results showed that GBR extract did not cause any damage to the human SH-SY5Y neuronal cells at concentrations of up to 20 ppm, and the morphological analyses showed that the GBR extract (up to 10 ppm) prevented H2O2-induced apoptotic changes in the cells. Furthermore, multiplex gene expression analyses showed that the protection of the cells by the GBR extract was linked to its ability to induce transcriptional changes in antioxidant (SOD 1, SOD 2 and catalase) and apoptotic (AKT, NF-K?, ERK1/2, JNK, p53 and p38 MAPK) genes that tended towards survival. Conclusions Taken together, the results of our study showed that the ethyl acetate extract of GBR, with high antioxidant potentials, could prevent H2O2-induced oxidative damage in SH-SY5Y cells. The potential of GBR and its neuroprotective mechanism in ameliorating oxidative stress-related cytotoxicity is therefore worth exploring further. PMID:23866310

  17. Validation and uncertainty analysis of a multiresidue method for 67 pesticides in made tea, tea infusion, and spent leaves using ethyl acetate extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kanrar, Bappaditya; Mandal, Sudeb; Bhattacharyya, Anjan

    2010-01-01

    A rapid, specific, and sensitive multiresidue method to determine 67 pesticides in made tea, tea infusion, and spent leaves was developed and validated for routine analysis by GC/MS with an approximately 29 min GC run time. The method was reproducible (HorRat < 0.5 at 50 ng/g) when validated at 50 and 100 ng/g. The samples were extracted with ethyl acetate-cyclohexane (9 + 1, v/v), and the extracts were cleaned up by dispersive SPE with primary-secondary amine sorbent + graphitized carbon black + Florisil. The recoveries of all the pesticides were within 70-120% with an RSD of < 20% at 50 ng/g and R2 > 0.99. The matrix effect on the signals of the compounds was corrected by using matrix-matched calibration standards. The LOQ met the requirements of the maximum residue limits for pesticides in tea as recommended by the European Union. PMID:20480885

  18. N-[4-Acetyl-5-isobutyl-5-(2-p-tolyl­prop­yl)-4,5-dihydro-1,3,4-thia­diazol-2-yl]acetamide ethyl acetate hemisolvate

    PubMed Central

    Loughzail, Mohamed; Mazoir, Noureddine; Maya, Celia M.; Berraho, Moha; Benharref, Ahmed; Bouhmaida, Nouzha

    2009-01-01

    The racemic title compound, a new terpenoid, C20H29N3O2S·0.5C4H8O2, was synthesized from Cedrus Atlantica essential oil. The compound crystallizes with a disordered ethyl acetate solvent mol­ecule. The thia­diazole ring is almost planar, with a maximum deviation from the mean plane of 0.015?(2)?Å for the C atom connected to the isobutyl group and has a puckering amplitude of 0.026?(2)?Å. The dihedral angle between the benzene and thia­diazole rings is 18.32?(8)°. The crystal packing involves inter­molecular N—H?O hydrogen bonds. PMID:21581682

  19. Ulipristal acetate in emergency contraception.

    PubMed

    Goldstajn, Marina Sprem; Baldani, Dinka Pavici?; Skrgati?, Lana; Radakovi?, Branko; Vrbi?, Hrvoje; Cani?, Tomislav

    2014-03-01

    Despite the widespread availability of highly effective methods of contraception, unintended pregnancy is common. Unplanned pregnancies have been linked to a range of health, social and economic consequences. Emergency contraception reduces risk of pregnancy after unprotected intercourse, and represents an opportunity to decrease number of unplanned pregnancies and abortions. Emergency contraception pills (ECP) prevent pregnancy by delaying or inhibiting ovulation, without interfering with post fertilization events. If pregnancy has already occurred, ECPs will not be effective, therefore ECPs are not abortificants. Ulipristal acetate (17alpha-acetoxy-11beta-(4N-N,N-dymethilaminophenyl)-19-norpregna--4,9-diene-3,20-dione) is the first drug that was specifically developed and licensed for use as an emergency contraceptive. It is an orally active, synthetic, selective progesterone modulator that acts by binding with high affinity to the human progesterone receptor where it has both antagonist and partial agonist effects. It is a new molecular entity and the first compound in a new pharmacological class defined by the pristal stem. Up on the superior clinical efficacy evidence, UPA has been quickly recognized as the most effective emergency contraceptive pill, and recently recommended as the first prescription choice for all women regardless of the age and timing after intercourse. This article provides literature review of UPA and its role in emergency contraception. PMID:24851646

  20. 21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vitamin A acetate. 582.5933 Section 582...AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5933 Vitamin A acetate. (a) Product. Vitamin A acetate. (b) Conditions of...

  1. 21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vitamin A acetate. 582.5933 Section 582...AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5933 Vitamin A acetate. (a) Product. Vitamin A acetate. (b) Conditions of...

  2. 21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitamin A acetate. 582.5933 Section 582...AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5933 Vitamin A acetate. (a) Product. Vitamin A acetate. (b) Conditions of...

  3. 21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vitamin A acetate. 582.5933 Section 582...AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5933 Vitamin A acetate. (a) Product. Vitamin A acetate. (b) Conditions of...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vitamin A acetate. 582.5933 Section 582...AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5933 Vitamin A acetate. (a) Product. Vitamin A acetate. (b) Conditions of...

  5. Doped with Sodium Acetate and Metallic Sodium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tada, Satoki; Isoda, Yukihiro; Udono, Haruhiko; Fujiu, Hirofumi; Kumagai, Shunji; Shinohara, Yoshikazu

    2014-06-01

    We have investigated the thermoelectric properties of p-type Na-doped Mg2 Si0.25Sn0.75 solid solutions prepared by liquid-solid reaction and hot-pressing methods. Na was introduced into Mg2Si0.25Sn0.75 by using either sodium acetate (CH3COONa) or metallic sodium (2 N). The samples doped with sodium acetate consisted of phases with antifluorite structure and a small amount of MgO as revealed by x-ray diffraction, whereas the sample doped with metallic sodium contained the Sn, MgO, and Mg2SiSn phases. The hole concentrations of Mg1.975Na0.025Si0.25Sn0.75 doped by sodium acetate and metallic sodium were 1.84 × 1025 m-3 and 1.22 × 1025 m-3, respectively, resulting in resistivities of 4.96 × 10-5 ? m (sodium acetate) and 1.09 × 10-5 ? m (metallic sodium). The Seebeck coefficients were 198 ?V K-1 (sodium acetate) and 241 ?V K-1 (metallic sodium). The figures of merit for Mg1.975Na0.025Si0.25Sn0.75 were 0.40 × 10-3 K-1 (sodium acetate) and 0.25 × 10-3 K-1 (metallic sodium) at 400 K. Thus, sodium acetate is a suitable Na dopant for Mg2Si1- x Sn x .

  6. Acetic Acid Off Gassing in Clamshell Enclosures

    E-print Network

    Brewer, Allison

    2013-01-01

    . This presentation will investigate the use of acid detection strips (A-D strips) to study acetic acid off gassing occurring in custom-made, cloth covered book boxes constructed and used by conservators in research libraries....

  7. Fragrance material review on 4-methylbenzyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 4-methylbenzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 4-Methylbenzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 4-methylbenzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, skin irritation, skin sensitization, and elicitation data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22414643

  8. Methanogenesis from acetate: a nonmethanogenic bacterium from an anaerobic acetate enrichment.

    PubMed

    Ward, D M; Mah, R A; Kaplan, I R

    1978-06-01

    A methanogenic acetate enrichment was initiated by inoculation of an acetate-mineral salts medium with domestic anaerobic digestor sludge and maintained by weekly transfer for 2 years. The enrichment culture contained a Methanosarcina and several obligately anaerobic nonmethanogenic bacteria. These latter organisms formed varying degrees of association with the Methanosarcina, ranging from the nutritionally fastidious gram-negative rod called the satellite bacterium to the nutritionally nonfastidious Eubacterium limosum. The satellite bacterium had growth requirements for amino acids, a peptide, a purine base, vitamin B12, and other B vitamins. Glucose, mannitol, starch, pyruvate, cysteine, lysine, leucine, isoleucine, arginine, and asparagine stimulated growth and hydrogen production. Acetate was neither incorporated nor metabolized by the satellite organism. Since acetate was the sole organic carbon source in the enrichment culture, organism(s) which metabolize acetate (such as the Methanosarcina) must produce substrates and growth factors for associated organisms which do not metabolize acetate. PMID:677881

  9. Isolation of acetic acid bacteria from honey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kanlaya Kappeng; Wasu Pathom-aree

    Four thermotolerant acetic acid bacteria designated as CMU1, CMU2, CMU3 and CMU4 were isolated from six honey samples produced by three native bee species in northern Thailand, namely the dwarf honey bee (Apis florea), Asian honey bee (A. cerena) and giant honey bee (A. dorsata). All isolates were tested for their tolerance to acetic acid and ethanol at 30?C and

  10. Nomegestrol acetate/estradiol: in oral contraception.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lily P H; Plosker, Greg L

    2012-10-01

    Nomegestrol acetate/estradiol is a combined oral contraceptive with approval in many countries. This fixed-dose combination tablet contains nomegestrol acetate, a highly selective progestogen, and estradiol, a natural estrogen. It is the first monophasic combined oral contraceptive to contain estradiol, and is taken in 28-day cycles, consisting of 24 active therapy days with 4 placebo days (i.e. 24/4-day cycles). In two large, 1-year, randomized, open-label, multicentre, phase III trials in healthy adult women (aged 18-50 years), nomegestrol acetate/estradiol was at least as effective as drospirenone/ethinylestradiol as contraceptive therapy, as the pregnancy rates in women aged 18-35 years (primary efficacy population) in terms of the Pearl Index (primary endpoint) were numerically lower with nomegestrol acetate/estradiol, although the between-group difference was not statistically significant. In both trials, nomegestrol acetate/estradiol was given in a 24/4-day cycle, and drospirenone/ethinylestradiol was given in a 21/7-day cycle. The criteria for using condoms in case of forgotten doses were less stringent in the nomegestrol acetate/estradiol group than in the drospirenone/ethinylestradiol group. Nomegestrol acetate/estradiol therapy for up to 1 year was generally well tolerated in healthy adult women, with an acceptable tolerability profile in line with that expected for a combined oral contraceptive. The most commonly reported adverse events were acne and abnormal withdrawal bleeding (most often shorter, lighter or absent periods). Overall, compared with drospirenone/ethinylestradiol, nomegestrol acetate/estradiol appeared to be associated with less favourable acne-related outcomes, and shorter, lighter or absent periods. PMID:22950535

  11. Acetate Oxidation Is the Dominant Methanogenic Pathway from Acetate in the Absence of Methanosaetaceae†

    PubMed Central

    Karakashev, Dimitar; Batstone, Damien J.; Trably, Eric; Angelidaki, Irini

    2006-01-01

    The oxidation of acetate to hydrogen, and the subsequent conversion of hydrogen and carbon dioxide to methane, has been regarded largely as a niche mechanism occurring at high temperatures or under inhibitory conditions. In this study, 13 anaerobic reactors and sediment from a temperate anaerobic lake were surveyed for their dominant methanogenic population by using fluorescent in situ hybridization and for the degree of acetate oxidation relative to aceticlastic conversion by using radiolabeled [2-14C]acetate in batch incubations. When Methanosaetaceae were not present, acetate oxidation was the dominant methanogenic pathway. Aceticlastic conversion was observed only in the presence of Methanosaetaceae. PMID:16820524

  12. Acetate Transport and Utilization in the Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Deelchand, Dinesh K.; Shestov, Alexander A.; Koski, Dee M.; U?urbil, Kâmil; Henry, Pierre-Gilles

    2009-01-01

    Acetate, a glial-specific substrate, is an attractive alternative to glucose for the study of neuronal-glial interactions. The present study investigates the kinetics of acetate uptake and utilization in the rat brain in vivo during infusion of [2-13C]acetate using NMR spectroscopy. When plasma acetate concentration was increased, the rate of brain acetate utilization (CMRace) increased progressively and reached close to saturation for plasma acetate concentration > 2-3 mM, whereas brain acetate concentration continued to increase. The Michaelis-Menten constant for brain acetate utilization ( KMutil=0.01±0.14mM) was much smaller than for acetate transport through the blood-brain barrier ( KMt=4.18±0.83mM). The maximum transport capacity of acetate through the blood-brain barrier ( Vmaxt=0.96±0.18?mol/g/min) was nearly two-fold higher than the maximum rate of brain acetate utilization ( Vmaxutil=0.50±0.08?mol/g/min). We conclude that, under our experimental conditions, brain acetate utilization is saturated when plasma acetate concentrations increase above 2-3 mM. At such high plasma acetate concentration, the rate-limiting step for glial acetate metabolism is not the blood-brain barrier, but occurs after entry of acetate into the brain. PMID:19393008

  13. Direct detection of the acetate-forming activity of the enzyme acetate kinase.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Matthew L; Ingram-Smith, Cheryl J; Smith, Kerry S

    2011-01-01

    Acetate kinase, a member of the acetate and sugar kinase-Hsp70-actin (ASKHA) enzyme superfamily, is responsible for the reversible phosphorylation of acetate to acetyl phosphate utilizing ATP as a substrate. Acetate kinases are ubiquitous in the Bacteria, found in one genus of Archaea, and are also present in microbes of the Eukarya. The most well characterized acetate kinase is that from the methane-producing archaeon Methanosarcina thermophila. An acetate kinase which can only utilize PP(i) but not ATP in the acetyl phosphate-forming direction has been isolated from Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of amoebic dysentery, and has thus far only been found in this genus. In the direction of acetyl phosphate formation, acetate kinase activity is typically measured using the hydroxamate assay, first described by Lipmann, a coupled assay in which conversion of ATP to ADP is coupled to oxidation of NADH to NAD(+) by the enzymes pyruvate kinase and lactate dehydrogenase, or an assay measuring release of inorganic phosphate after reaction of the acetyl phosphate product with hydroxylamine. Activity in the opposite, acetate-forming direction is measured by coupling ATP formation from ADP to the reduction of NADP(+) to NADPH by the enzymes hexokinase and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Here we describe a method for the detection of acetate kinase activity in the direction of acetate formation that does not require coupling enzymes, but is instead based on direct determination of acetyl phosphate consumption. After the enzymatic reaction, remaining acetyl phosphate is converted to a ferric hydroxamate complex that can be measured spectrophotometrically, as for the hydroxamate assay. Thus, unlike the standard coupled assay for this direction that is dependent on the production of ATP from ADP, this direct assay can be used for acetate kinases that produce ATP or PP(i). PMID:22214984

  14. An acetate switch regulates stress erythropoiesis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Min; Nagati, Jason S; Xie, Jian; Li, Jiwen; Walters, Holly; Moon, Young-Ah; Gerard, Robert D; Huang, Chou-Long; Comerford, Sarah A; Hammer, Robert E; Horton, Jay D; Chen, Rui; Garcia, Joseph A

    2014-09-01

    The hormone erythropoietin (EPO), which is synthesized in the kidney or liver of adult mammals, controls erythrocyte production and is regulated by the stress-responsive transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-2 (HIF-2). We previously reported that the lysine acetyltransferase CREB-binding protein (CBP) is required for HIF-2? acetylation and efficient HIF-2-dependent EPO induction during hypoxia. We now show that these processes require acetate-dependent acetyl CoA synthetase 2 (ACSS2). In human Hep3B hepatoma cells and in EPO-generating organs of hypoxic or acutely anemic mice, acetate levels rise and ACSS2 is required for HIF-2? acetylation, CBP-HIF-2? complex formation, CBP-HIF-2? recruitment to the EPO enhancer and efficient induction of EPO gene expression. In acutely anemic mice, acetate supplementation augments stress erythropoiesis in an ACSS2-dependent manner. Moreover, in acquired and inherited chronic anemia mouse models, acetate supplementation increases EPO expression and the resting hematocrit. Thus, a mammalian stress-responsive acetate switch controls HIF-2 signaling and EPO induction during pathophysiological states marked by tissue hypoxia. PMID:25108527

  15. A mammalian acetate switch regulates stress erythropoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Min; Nagati, Jason S.; Xie, Jian; Li, Jiwen; Walters, Holly; Moon, Young-Ah; Gerard, Robert D.; Huang, Chou-Long; Comerford, Sarah A.; Hammer, Robert E.; Horton, Jay D.; Chen, Rui; Garcia, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine erythropoietin (Epo), which is synthesized in the kidney or liver of adult mammals, controls erythrocyte production and is regulated by the stress-responsive transcription factor Hypoxia Inducible Factor 2 (HIF-2). We previously reported that the lysine acetyltransferase Cbp is required for HIF-2? acetylation and efficient HIF-2 dependent Epo induction during hypoxia. We now show these processes require acetate-dependent acetyl CoA synthetase 2 (Acss2). In Hep3B hepatoma cells and in Epo-generating organs of hypoxic or acutely anemic mice, acetate levels increase and Acss2 is required for HIF-2? acetylation, Cbp/HIF-2? complex formation and recruitment to the Epo enhancer, and efficient Epo induction. In acutely anemic mice, acetate supplementation augments stress erythropoiesis in an Acss2-dependent manner. In acquired and genetic chronic anemia mouse models, acetate supplementation also increases Epo expression and resting hematocrits. Thus, a mammalian stress-responsive acetate switch controls HIF-2 signaling and Epo induction during pathophysiological states marked by tissue hypoxia. PMID:25108527

  16. Treatment of Pedophilia with Leuprolide Acetate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy Raymond; Bean Robinson; Chris Kraft; Barry Rittberg; Eli Coleman

    2002-01-01

    To date, the literature on the treatment of individuals who have committed sexual offenses has focused primarily on psychotherapeutic interventions and the use of antiandrogens. Recently case reports and small series supporting the efficacy of other psychiatric medication, such as serotonin reuptake inhibitors, have been published. Only a few publications have looked at the efficacy of leuprolide acetate, an LH-RH

  17. Heat Bonding of Irradiated Ethylene Vinyl Acetate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slack, D. H.

    1986-01-01

    Reliable method now available for joining parts of this difficult-tobond material. Heating fixture encircles ethylene vinyl acetate multiplesocket part, providing heat to it and to tubes inserted in it. Fixtures specially designed to match parts to be bonded. Tube-and-socket bonds made with this technique subjected to tensile tests. Bond strengths of 50 percent that of base material obtained consistently.

  18. Fragrance material review on ?-methylbenzyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of ?-methylbenzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. ?-Methylbenzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for ?-methylbenzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, and repeated dose data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22406576

  19. Fragrance material review on benzyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Vitale, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of benzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Benzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for benzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, phototoxicity, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, reproductive toxicity, genotoxicity, or carcinogenicity data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Refer Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22387848

  20. Process for the preparation of vinyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Tustin, Gerald Charles (Kingsport, TN); Zoeller, Joseph Robert (Kingsport, TN); Depew, Leslie Sharon (Kingsport, TN)

    1998-01-01

    This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting within a contact zone a mixture of ketene and acetaldehyde with an acid catalyst at about one bar pressure and between about 85.degree. and 200.degree. C. and removing the reaction products from the contact zone.

  1. Phenyl Acetate Preparation from Phenol and Acetic Acid: Reassessment of a Common Textbook Misconception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hocking, M. B.

    1980-01-01

    Reassesses a common textbook misconception that "...phenols cannot be esterified directly." Results of experiments are discussed and data tables provided of an effective method for the direct preparation of phenyl acetate. (CS)

  2. Simultaneous Capillary Gas Chromatographic Determination of Cyproterone Acetate and 15?-Hydroxycyproterone Acetate in Urine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jasmina Novakovic; Eva Tvrzická

    1993-01-01

    The simultaneous capillary GC determination of underivatized antiandrogen cyproterone acetate (CPA) and its active metabolite 15?-hydroxycyproterone acetate (OH-CPA) in spiked urine was performed on a flexible VCOT quartz capillary column, coated with a non-polar CP-Sil 5 CB liquid phase. A split\\/splitless injector and a flame-ionization detector were used. Equilin was used as an internal standard, and resolution of all the

  3. The effect of acetic acid and acetate on CO2 corrosion of carbon steel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong Liu; ZhenYu Chen; XingPeng Guo

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to consider the effect of acetic acid and acetate on the anodic and cathodic reactions of carbon steel present in CO2 corrosion. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The corrosion behaviour of carbon steel (N80) in CO2-saturated 1% NaCl solution at 50°C and 0.1 MPa was investigated by using weight-loss tests, electrochemical methods (polarization curves and

  4. 21 CFR 520.1341 - Megestrol acetate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false Megestrol acetate tablets. 520.1341 Section 520.1341 Food and...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1341 Megestrol acetate tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 5 or 20 milligrams of megestrol...

  5. 21 CFR 520.1341 - Megestrol acetate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Megestrol acetate tablets. 520.1341 Section 520.1341 Food and...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1341 Megestrol acetate tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 5 or 20 milligrams of megestrol...

  6. Studies on an acetate-fermenting strain of Methanosarcina.

    PubMed

    Mah, R A; Smith, M R; Baresi, L

    1978-06-01

    An acetate-fermenting strain of Methanosarcina was isolated from an acetate enrichment culture inoculated with anaerobic sludge from a waste treatment digestor. In pure culture, this organism fermented acetate in the absence of added hydrogen at rates comparable in magnitude to those found in digestor systems. This rate was significantly higher than previously obtained for pure cultures of this genus. Mineral components of yeast extract were highly stimulatory for cultures growing on methanol. Comparable stimulation was not observed for cultures growing on acetate. Labeling studies indicated that acetate was converted to methane and CO2 as predicted by previous studies on mixed cultures. Total oxidation or reduction of acetate was not the mechanism of conversion of acetate to methane by the pure culture. The ability of this strain to form colonies or to produce methane from acetate was apparently influenced by the choice of substrate and conditions used for growing the inoculum. PMID:677880

  7. Expression of Acetate Permease-like (apl) Genes in Subsurface Communities of Geobacter Species Under Fluctuating Acetate Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Elifantz, H.; N'Guessan, A. L.; Mouser, Paula; Williams, Kenneth H.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Risso, Carla; Holmes, Dawn; Long, Philip E.; Lovley, Derek R.

    2010-09-01

    The addition of acetate to uranium-contaminated aquifers in order to stimulate the growth and activity of Geobacter species that reduce uranium is a promising in situ bioremediation option. Optimizing this bioremediation strategy requires that suf?cient acetate be added to promote Geobacter species growth. We hypothesized that under acetate-limiting conditions, subsurface Geobacter species would increase the expression of either putative acetate symporters genes (aplI and aplII). Acetate was added to a uranium-contaminated aquifer (Ri?e, CO) in two continuous amendments separated by 5 days of groundwater ?ush to create changing acetate concentrations. While the expression of aplI in monitoring well D04 (high acetate) weakly correlated with the acetate concentration over time, the transcript levels for this gene were relatively constant in well D08 (low acetate). At the lowest acetate concentrations during the groundwater ?ush, the transcript levels of aplII were the highest. The expression of aplII decreased 2–10-fold upon acetate reintroduction. However, the overall instability of acetate concentrations throughout the experiment could not support a robust conclusion regarding the role of apl genes in response to acetate limitation under ?eld conditions, in contrast to previous chemostat studies, suggesting that the function of a microbial community cannot be inferred based on lab experiments alone.

  8. Ferroelectric thin film bismuth titanate prepared from acetate precursor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanxia Lu; David T. Hoelzer; Walter A. Schulze; Bmce Tuttle; B. G. Potter

    1994-01-01

    Bismuth titanate (Bi4Ti3O12) thin films were fabricated by spin coat deposition-rapid thermal processing (RTP) technique. Acetate derived solution for deposition was synthesized by blending dissolved bismuth acetate in aqueous acetic acid, and then adding with titanium acetate. A series of electrically insulating, semiconducting and conducting substrates were evaluated for Bi4 Ti3O12 films deposition. While X-ray diffraction and TEM analyses indicated

  9. Diminution of Hepatic Response to 7, 12-dimethylbenz(?)anthracene by Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Acacia catechu Willd. through Modulation of Xenobiotic and Anti-Oxidative Enzymes in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rakesh; Kaur, Rajbir; Singh, Amrit Pal; Arora, Saroj

    2014-01-01

    Background Liver is the primary metabolizing site of body and is prone to damage by exogenous as well as endogenous intoxicants. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as 7, 12- dimethylbenz(?)anthracene (DMBA) is an exogenous hepatotoxin, which is well known for modulating phase I, II and anti-oxidative enzymes of liver. Plants contain plethora of polyphenolic compounds which can reverse the damaging effect of various xenobiotics. The present study investigated protective role of the ethyl acetate fraction of Acacia catechu Willd. (EAF) against DMBA induced alteration in hepatic metabolizing and anti-oxidative enzymes in rats. Methodology and Principal Findings The rats were subjected to hepatic damage by treating with DMBA for 7 weeks on alternative days and treatment schedule was terminated at the end of 14 weeks. The rats were euthanized at the end of protocol and livers were homogenized. The liver homogenates were used to analyse phase I (NADPH-cytochrome P450 reducatse, NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase, cytochrome P420, cytochrome b5), phase II (glutathione-S-transferase, DT diaphorase and ?-Glutamyl transpeptidase) and antioxidative enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, guiacol peroxidase and lactate dehydrogenase). Furthermore, other oxidative stress parameters (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, lipid hydroperoxides and conjugated dienes and reduced glutathione) and liver marker enzymes (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase and alkaline phosphatase) were also studied. The DMBA induced significant changes in activity of hepatic enzymes that was reversed by treatment with three dose levels of EAF. Conclusion It is concluded that EAF affords hepato-protection against DMBA in rats through modulation of phase I, II and anti-oxidative enzymes. PMID:24587216

  10. Ethyl acetate extract from Angelica Dahuricae Radix inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced production of nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2 and tumor necrosis factor-alphavia mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor-kappaB in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ok-Hwa; Lee, Go-Hoon; Choi, Hyuk Joon; Park, Pil Sang; Chae, Hee-Sung; Jeong, Seung-Il; Kim, Youn-Chul; Sohn, Dong Hwan; Park, Hyun; Lee, John Hwa; Kwon, Dong-Yeul

    2007-04-01

    Angelica dahurica (Umbelliferae) has been used to treat headache of common cold, supraorbital neuralgia, painful swelling on the body, nasal stuffiness, leukorrhea and arthralgia due to wind-dampness in Korean traditional medicine. It is also claimed to be effective in the treatment of acne, erythema, headache, toothache, sinusitis, colds and flu. The present study focused whether the ethyl acetate extract from Angelica Dahuricae Radix (EAAD) inhibits production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, as well as expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. EAAD inhibited LPS-induced NO, PGE(2) and TNF-alpha production as well as expression of iNOS and COX-2 in RAW 264.7 cells. EAAD inhibited LPS-induced TNF-alpha production in THP-1 cells. Furthermore, EAAD suppressed LPS-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and extracellular-signal regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2), I-kappaBalpha degradation, and NF-kappaB activation in RAW 264.7 cells. These results suggest that EAAD has the inhibitory effects on LPS-induced TNF-alpha, NO and PGE(2) production, and expression of iNOS and COX-2 in macrophage through blockade in the phosphorylation of MAPKs, following I-kappaBalpha degradation and NF-kappaB activation. PMID:17229575

  11. Development of an Amperometric Acetic Acid Sensor in Organic System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shin Lin; Tse-Chuan Chou

    An amperometric method was developed by using a lead working electrode in acetonitrile organic solution for detecting acetic acid. The mechanisms of electrochemical reaction were corresponding to the reduction of acetic ions in acetonitrile organic solution. The steady state amperometric current resulted from the reduction of acetic ions to produce the aldehyde in a two-electron process. In the organic sensing

  12. Original article Ethanol and acetic-acid tolerance

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Ethanol and acetic-acid tolerance in Indian geographical populations of Drosophila clines of ethanol toler- ance (1.5-4.2%) and acetic-acid tolerance (2.9-4.9%) were observed in adult individuals of 4 geographical populations of Drosophila immigrans. Thus, both ethanol and acetic

  13. Facile hydrolysis and alcoholysis of palladium acetate.

    PubMed

    Bedford, Robin B; Bowen, John G; Davidson, Russell B; Haddow, Mairi F; Seymour-Julen, Annabelle E; Sparkes, Hazel A; Webster, Ruth L

    2015-05-26

    Palladium(II) acetate is readily converted into [Pd3 (?(2) -OH)(OAc)5 ] (1) in the presence of water in a range of organic solvents and is also slowly converted in the solid state. Complex 1 can also be formed in nominally anhydrous solvents. Similarly, the analogous alkoxide complexes [Pd3 (?(2) -OR)(OAc)5 ] (3) are easily formed in solutions of palladium(II) acetate containing a range of alcohols. An examination of a representative Wacker-type oxidation shows that the Pd-OH complex 1 and a related Pd-oxo complex 4 can be excluded as potential catalytic intermediates in the absence of exogenous water. PMID:25865439

  14. Assessment Guidelines for Managing Cellulose Acetate Collections

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2001-01-01

    Photographic negatives, motion picture film, microfilm, and sound recordings produced from the 1930s into the 1950s often used cellulose acetate as the transparent plastic carrier. As anyone who has ever come in contact with it well knows, its strong vinegar-like scent is hard to miss. Unfortunately, over time, the material is prone to deterioration, which eventually renders it unusable. In an effort to help guide libraries in Australia with this problem, the National Library of Australia has created this document. It provides assistance in identification of cellulose acetate (vs. other similar materials) and establishes criteria to assess condition, cultural importance, and use within the library or storage context. The document guides readers through the first step in a strategy for preserving these collections.

  15. Ulipristal acetate: the newest emergency contraceptive.

    PubMed

    Wilton, Jeanne M

    2012-01-01

    More than 50 percent of pregnancies in the United States are unplanned. Emergency contraception has been shown to possibly reduce the risk of pregnancy by as much as 75 percent. Ulipristal acetate is a selective progesterone receptor modulator that was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for emergency contraceptive use in August 2010. This article reviews information on its mechanism of action, efficacy, safety and implications for women's health nurses. PMID:22900810

  16. Mechanical and optical characterization of cellulose acetate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Ishikawa; S. Tadano

    1988-01-01

    To obtain the basic relations for photo-viscoelastoplastic stress analysis using cellulose acetate, the effect of strain rate\\u000a as well as room temperature on mechanical and optical properties was precisely investigated by the uniaxial tension test.\\u000a As a result, the nonlinear stress-strain, the non-linear-stress-fringe order and the nonlinear-fringe-order strain relations\\u000a were uniquely reoresented in their nondimensional forms regardless of strain rate

  17. Calcium magnesium acetate production and cost reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Leuschner, A.P.

    1988-02-01

    The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (Energy Authority), Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc. (ConEd), the New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT), the New York State Thruway Authority (NYSTA), Chevron Chemical Company, the National Corn Growers Association (NCGA), and the Massachusetts Department of Public Works (MDPW) sponsored a research program to develop technology capable of producing Calcium Magnesium Acetate (CMA), an alternative road deicer, at a quality and cost which will allow its increased use. The objectives of this program were to determine the feasibility of: (1) producing CMA from regionally available waste and low grade organic feedstocks via biochemical engineering technologies; (2) operating the fermentation at concentrated product levels to reduce energy requirements and minimize drying process costs; (3) using this production approach to produce an environmentally acceptable CMA product; and (4) using and adapting an existing facility for a CMA commercial demonstration plant. The experimental program included:(1) selection of microorganisms for their ability to grow in the absence of sodium chloride and to tolerate high concentrations of calcium, magnesium, and acetate ions; (2) analysis of waste feedstocks for their potential conversion to acetate; (3) analysis of waste organic material for impurities in CMA that could carry over into the environment; (4) batch experiments to determine pH tolerance, growth in the absence of sodium chloride (NaCl), tolerance to magnesium, calcium and acetate ions, effect of substrate concentration, acid distribution, and acid production; and (5) semi-continuous laboratory scale anaerobic digestion experiments to determine loading rates, conversion efficiencies, and other design data. 67 refs., 33 figs., 66 tabs.

  18. Nonlinear Dielectric Relaxation Spectra of Polyvinyl Acetate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takeo Furukawa; Kiyokazu Matsumoto

    1992-01-01

    The frequency spectra of the linear and third nonlinear permittivities, \\\\varepsilon1* and \\\\varepsilon3*, have been measured for polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) at temperatures above Tg. The Debye relaxation of \\\\varepsilon1* associated with the micro-Brownian motion of noncrystalline segments is found to be accompanied by the complex frequency dependence of \\\\varepsilon3* due to combined contributions from the intrinsic nonlinear dielectricity and the

  19. Experimental evidence of an acetate transporter protein and characterization of acetate activation in aceticlastic methanogenesis of Methanosarcina mazei.

    PubMed

    Welte, Cornelia; Kröninger, Lena; Deppenmeier, Uwe

    2014-10-01

    Aceticlastic methanogens metabolize acetate to methane and carbon dioxide. The central metabolism and the electron transport chains of these organisms have already been investigated. However, no particular attention has been paid to the mechanism by which acetate enters the archaeal cell. In our study we investigated Methanosarcina mazei acetate kinase (Ack) and the acetate uptake reaction. At a concentration of 2 mM acetate, the Ack activity in cell extract of M. mazei was not limiting for the methane formation rate. Instead, the methanogenesis rate was controlled by the substrate concentration and increased 10-fold at 10 mM acetate. Subsequently, we analyzed the involvement of the putative acetate permease MM_0903 using a corresponding deletion mutant. At 2 mM acetate, only 25% of the wild-type methane formation rate was measured in the mutant. This indicated that the supply of acetate to Ack was limiting the rate of methane formation. Moreover, the mutant revealed an increased acetate kinase activity compared with the wild type. These results show for the first time that an acetate transporter is involved in aceticlastic methanogenesis and may be an important factor in the acetate threshold concentration for methanogenesis of Methanosarcina spp. PMID:25088360

  20. Ethyl 4-nitro­phenyl­acetate

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ji; Liu, Jun; Peng, Hui-Qing

    2008-01-01

    In the asymmetric unit of the title compound, C10H11NO4, there are two crystallographically independent mol­ecules, which are connected via a C—H?O hydrogen bond. The crystal structure is stabilized by this hydrogen bond together with an N—O?? contact [O?Cg 3.297?(5)?Å; Cg is the centroid of one of the benzene rings]. PMID:21201470

  1. Adaptation and tolerance of bacteria against acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Tr?ek, Janja; Mira, Nuno Pereira; Jarboe, Laura R

    2015-08-01

    Acetic acid is a weak organic acid exerting a toxic effect to most microorganisms at concentrations as low as 0.5 wt%. This toxic effect results mostly from acetic acid dissociation inside microbial cells, causing a decrease of intracellular pH and metabolic disturbance by the anion, among other deleterious effects. These microbial inhibition mechanisms enable acetic acid to be used as a preservative, although its usefulness is limited by the emergence of highly tolerant spoilage strains. Several biotechnological processes are also inhibited by the accumulation of acetic acid in the growth medium including production of bioethanol from lignocellulosics, wine making, and microbe-based production of acetic acid itself. To design better preservation strategies based on acetic acid and to improve the robustness of industrial biotechnological processes limited by this acid's toxicity, it is essential to deepen the understanding of the underlying toxicity mechanisms. In this sense, adaptive responses that improve tolerance to acetic acid have been well studied in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Strains highly tolerant to acetic acid, either isolated from natural environments or specifically engineered for this effect, represent a unique reservoir of information that could increase our understanding of acetic acid tolerance and contribute to the design of additional tolerance mechanisms. In this article, the mechanisms underlying the acetic acid tolerance exhibited by several bacterial strains are reviewed, with emphasis on the knowledge gathered in acetic acid bacteria and E. coli. A comparison of how these bacterial adaptive responses to acetic acid stress fit to those described in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is also performed. A systematic comparison of the similarities and dissimilarities of the ways by which different microbial systems surpass the deleterious effects of acetic acid toxicity has not been performed so far, although such exchange of knowledge can open the door to the design of novel approaches aiming the development of acetic acid-tolerant strains with increased industrial robustness in a synthetic biology perspective. PMID:26142387

  2. Methods for Isolation of Auxotrophic Mutants of Methanobacterium ivanovii and Initial Characterization of Acetate Auxotrophs

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Mahendra K.; Zeikus, J. Gregory

    1987-01-01

    To develop a biochemical genetic approach to understanding cell carbon synthesis or metabolic pathways in methanogens, Methanobacterium ivanovii was selected as a model organism for genetic manipulation studies. The organism displayed a colony size of 3 to 6 mm in less than 2 weeks and had a plating efficiency of about 90%, which made it suitable for replica plating. Mutagenesis and selection techniques were developed for selection of acetate auxotrophs. Chemical mutagenesis with ethyl methanesulfonate, followed by enrichment with bacitracin as a selective agent, resulted in stable acetate auxotrophs. M. ivanovii was very sensitive to UV, but UV-induced acetate auxotrophs were unstable and reverted within two to four transfers. The acetate auxotrophs were analyzed in relation to wild type for carbon monoxide dehydrogenase enzyme activity. PMID:16347369

  3. Induction of Apoptosis in MCF-7 Cells via Oxidative Stress Generation, Mitochondria-Dependent and Caspase-Independent Pathway by Ethyl Acetate Extract of Dillenia suffruticosa and Its Chemical Profile

    PubMed Central

    Tor, Yin Sim; Yazan, Latifah Saiful; Foo, Jhi Biau; Wibowo, Agustono; Ismail, Norsharina; Cheah, Yoke Kqueen; Abdullah, Rasedee; Ismail, Maznah; Ismail, Intan Safinar; Yeap, Swee Keong

    2015-01-01

    Dillenia suffruticosa, which is locally known as Simpoh air, has been traditionally used to treat cancerous growth. The ethyl acetate extract of D. suffruticosa (EADs) has been shown to induce apoptosis in MCF-7 breast cancer cells in our previous study. The present study aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in EADs-induced apoptosis and to identify the major compounds in the extract. EADs was found to promote oxidative stress in MCF-7 cells that led to cell death because the pre-treatment with antioxidants ?-tocopherol and ascorbic acid significantly reduced the cytotoxicity of the extract (P<0.05). DCFH-DA assay revealed that treatment with EADs attenuated the generation of intracellular ROS. Apoptosis induced by EADs was not inhibited by the use of caspase-inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK, suggesting that the cell death is caspase-independent. The use of JC-1 dye reflected that EADs caused disruption in the mitochondrial membrane potential. The related molecular pathways involved in EADs-induced apoptosis were determined by GeXP multiplex system and Western blot analysis. EADs is postulated to induce cell cycle arrest that is p53- and p21-dependent based on the upregulated expression of p53 and p21 (P<0.05). The expression of Bax was upregulated with downregulation of Bcl-2 following treatment with EADs. The elevated Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and the depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential suggest that EADs-induced apoptosis is mitochondria-dependent. The expression of oxidative stress-related AKT, p-AKT, ERK, and p-ERK was downregulated with upregulation of JNK and p-JNK. The data indicate that induction of oxidative-stress related apoptosis by EADs was mediated by inhibition of AKT and ERK, and activation of JNK. The isolation of compounds in EADs was carried out using column chromatography and elucidated using the nuclear resonance magnetic analysis producing a total of six compounds including 3-epimaslinic acid, kaempferol, kaempferide, protocatechuic acid, gallic acid and ?-sitosterol-3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside. The cytotoxicity of the isolated compounds was determined using MTT assay. Gallic acid was found to be most cytotoxic against MCF-7 cell line compared to others, with IC50 of 36 ± 1.7 ?g/mL (P<0.05). In summary, EADs generated oxidative stress, induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in MCF-7 cells by regulating numerous genes and proteins that are involved in the apoptotic signal transduction pathway. Therefore, EADs has the potential to be developed as an anti-cancer agent against breast cancer. PMID:26047480

  4. Eslicarbazepine acetate (BIA 2-093)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis Almeida; Patrício Soares-da-Silva

    2007-01-01

    Summary  Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) [(S)-(?)-10-acetoxy-10, 11-dihydro-5H-dibenz[b,f]azepine-5-carboxamide], formerly known as BIA 2-093, is a novel central nervous system (CNS)-active compound with anticonvulsant\\u000a activity. It behaves as a voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) blocker and is currently under clinical development for the\\u000a treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder. ESL shares with carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine the dibenzazepine nucleus bearing\\u000a the 5-carboxamide substitute, but is structurally

  5. Phytogenic biosynthesis and emission of methyl acetate.

    PubMed

    Jardine, Kolby; Wegener, Frederik; Abrell, Leif; van Haren, Joost; Werner, Christiane

    2014-02-01

    Acetylation of plant metabolites fundamentally changes their volatility, solubility and activity as semiochemicals. Here we present a new technique termed dynamic (13) C-pulse chasing to track the fate of C1-3 carbon atoms of pyruvate into the biosynthesis and emission of methyl acetate (MA) and CO2 . (13) C-labelling of MA and CO2 branch emissions respond within minutes to changes in (13) C-positionally labelled pyruvate solutions fed through the transpiration stream. Strong (13) C-labelling of MA emissions occurred only under pyruvate-2-(13) C and pyruvate-2,3-(13) C feeding, but not pyruvate-1-(13) C feeding. In contrast, strong (13) CO2 emissions were only observed under pyruvate-1-(13) C feeding. These results demonstrate that MA (and other volatile and non-volatile metabolites) derive from the C2,3 atoms of pyruvate while the C1 atom undergoes decarboxylation. The latter is a non-mitochondrial source of CO2 in the light generally not considered in studies of CO2 sources and sinks. Within a tropical rainforest mesocosm, we also observed atmospheric concentrations of MA up to 0.6 ppbv that tracked light and temperature conditions. Moreover, signals partially attributed to MA were observed in ambient air within and above a tropical rainforest in the Amazon. Our study highlights the potential importance of acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) biosynthesis as a source of acetate esters and CO2 to the atmosphere. PMID:23862653

  6. Platinum acetate blue: synthesis and characterization.

    PubMed

    Cherkashina, Natalia V; Kochubey, Dmitry I; Kanazhevskiy, Vladislav V; Zaikovskii, Vladimir I; Ivanov, Vladimir K; Markov, Alexander A; Klyagina, Alla P; Dobrokhotova, Zhanna V; Kozitsyna, Natalia Yu; Baranovsky, Igor B; Ellert, Olga G; Efimov, Nikolai N; Nefedov, Sergei E; Novotortsev, Vladimir M; Vargaftik, Michael N; Moiseev, Ilya I

    2014-08-18

    Platinum acetate blue (PAB) of the empirical formula Pt(OOCMe)2.5±0.25, a byproduct in the synthesis of crystalline platinum(II) acetate Pt4(OOCMe)8, is an X-ray amorphous substance containing platinum in the oxidation state between (II) and (III). Typical PAB samples were studied with X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis-thermogravimetric, extended X-ray absorption fine structure, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, magnetochemistry, and combined quantum chemical density functional theory-molecular mechanics modeling to reveal the main structural features of the PAB molecular building blocks. The applicability of PAB to the synthesis of platinum complexes was demonstrated by the preparation of the new homo- and heteronuclear complexes Pt(II)(dipy)(OOCMe)2 (1), Pt(II)(?-OOCMe)4Co(II)(OH2) (2), and Pt(III)2(OOCMe)4(O3SPhMe)2 (3) with the use of PAB as starting material. PMID:25102316

  7. Counterflow immunoisotachophoresis on cellulose acetate membranes.

    PubMed

    Abelev, G I; Karamova, E R

    1984-11-01

    Discontinuous electrophoresis on cellulose acetate membranes with the use of 0.06 M Tris-HCl (pH 6.7) as the leading electrolyte and 0.012 M Tris-beta-alanine (pH 8.6) as the terminating one results in concentration of the proteins present in the system on the Cl-/beta-alanine- boundary. If the antigen solution is placed in a "pocket" ahead of the moving boundary, a counterflow to the cathode arises due to electroendosmosis. At constant voltage the migration rate of the boundary drops and that of electroendosmosis does not change until they become equal. In such a stationary position, the antigen-containing solution is passing through the Cl-/beta-alanine- boundary to the cathode, while all the proteins are completely "absorbed" on the boundary as highly concentrated bands. Addition of ampholytes to the antigen solution contributes to the isotachophoretic separation of a protein mixture on the strip. The concentrated and separated antigens can be revealed by immunofixation, immunodiffusion, or crossed immunoelectrophoresis in gel. The technique is approximately 100 times more sensitive compared to the usual immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis methods on cellulose acetate membranes, and is applicable to the detection of trace amounts of antigens in the urine, liquor, amniotic fluid, tears, and other biological fluids with low protein contents. PMID:6528978

  8. [Ulipristal acetate, 5mg: a new alternative].

    PubMed

    Monleón Sancho, Javier; Romaguera, Eugenia; Romero, Ainhoa; Higueras, Gema; Morcillo, Inmaculada; Fuster, Sonia

    2013-07-01

    Fibroids have a high prevalence (approaching 50%) in the female population. Although they are a benign entity, they represent a health problem of considerable magnitude, causing hemorrhaging, pain and sterility. Surgical treatment is currently safe and effective, but in recent decades numerous less invasive alternatives have appeared, such as uterine artery embolization and thermal ablation (HIFU and radiofrequency). New possibilities for medical treatment have also emerged, such as GnRh analogues, aromatase inhibitors and selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs). SPRMs act through progesterone receptors and behave as agonists or antagonists in various target organs. Among them, ulipristal acetate (UA) inhibits the proliferation and induction of apoptosis and cell death pathways in leiomyoma cells, translating at the clinical level to smaller fibroids and lower uterine volumes, with no significant side effects. UA also produces amenorrhea in most patients. Randomized, phase III (PEARL I and II) clinical trials have shown the efficacy and security of UA versus placebo and leuprolide acetate (LA). UA is similar to LA, and superior to placebo in controlling bleeding and decreasing the size of the fibroid, with fewer side effects than LA. The safety and tolerance of UA have been satisfactory. UA is a reality in the preoperative treatment of fibroids, with broad potential for further development. PMID:24314567

  9. Atmospheric formic and acetic acids in Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanhueza, Eugenio; Figueroa, Luis; Santana, Magaly

    Gas, phase and rain concentrations of HCOOH and CH 3COOH have been measured at various sites in the savannah climatic region, a cloud forest site and a coastal site in Venezuela. Gas phase and rain water were sampled using the aqueous scrubber technique and a wet only collector, respectively. Analyses were made by ion chromatography. The results indicate that formic and acetic acids are important components of the Venezuelan atmosphere. They are homogeneously distributed, suggesting a widespread source. Boundary layer concentrations during the dry season (HCOOH, 1.8 ppbv; CH 3COOH, 1.25 ppbv) are higher than in the wet season (HCOOH, 1.0 ppbv; CH 3COOH, 0.7 ppbv), mainly due to a longer lifetime of the acid during the dry season (˜6 days) compared with the wet season (˜2 days). The overall concentrations in rain are 7.0 and 4.0 ?M for formic and acetic acids, respectively. The estimated annual total depositions are: HCOOH, 17 mmol m -2 yr -1 and CH 3COOH,10 mmol m -2 yr -1; around half of the acids are removed by dry deposition. It is established that a larger source (˜1.8 times) of both acids is present during the wet season. We speculate that atmospheric oxidation of hydrocarbons should be the main source of HCOOH and CH 3COOH in the Venezuelan atmosphere; soil emissions could make a significant contribution during the dry season.

  10. Dispersibility and emulsion-stabilizing effect of cellulose nanowhiskers esterified by vinyl acetate and vinyl cinnamate.

    PubMed

    Sèbe, Gilles; Ham-Pichavant, Frédérique; Pecastaings, Gilles

    2013-08-12

    The surface of cotton cellulose nanowhiskers (CNW's) was esterified by vinyl acetate (VAc) and vinyl cinnamate (VCin), in the presence of potassium carbonate as catalyst. Reactions were performed under microwave activation and monitored by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The supramolecular structure of CNW's before and after modification was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Distinctively from the acetylation treatment, an increase in particles dimensions was noted after esterification with VCin, which was assigned to ?-? stacking interactions that may exist between cinnamoyl moieties. The dispersibility and emulsion stabilizing effect of acylated CNW's was examined in ethyl acetate, toluene, and cyclohexane, three organic solvents of medium to low polarity. The acylated nanoparticles could never be dispersed in toluene nor cyclohexane, but they formed stable dispersions in ethyl acetate while remaining dispersible in water. Stable ethyl acetate-in-water, toluene-in-water, and cyclohexane-in-water emulsions were successfully prepared with CNW's grafted with acetyl moieties, whereas the VCin-treated particles could stabilize only the cyclohexane-in-water emulsions. The impact of esterification treatment on emulsion stability and droplets size was particularly discussed. PMID:23883187

  11. Synthesis and regeneration of lead (IV) acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, T.J.; Al-Shareef, H.N.; Moore, G.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Materials Lab.

    1996-11-01

    Lead acetate [Pb(O{sub 2}CMe){sub 4}] was easily synthesized from a warm solution of Pb{sub 3}O{sub 4}, HO{sub 2}CMe and O(OCMe){sub 2} following literature preparations when the appropriate measures to minimize water contamination were followed. Furthermore, Pb(O{sub 2}CMe){sub 4} which has been decomposed (evidenced by the appearance of a purple color due to oxidation) can be regenerated using a similar preparatory route. Introduction of Pb(O{sub 2}CMe){sub 4} from the two routes outlined above into the IMO process for production of PZT thin films gave films with comparable ferroelectric properties to commercially available Pb(O{sub 2}CMe){sub 4} precursors. However, the freshly synthesized material yields PZT films with better properties compared to the recycled material.

  12. Ulipristal acetate: a new emergency contraceptive.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Jade L; Bulloch, Marilyn N

    2011-07-01

    Ulipristal acetate (UPA) is a newly developed emergency contraceptive currently available in the USA and Europe. It is approved as a 30 mg one-time dose taken within 120 h (5 days) of unprotected intercourse or failed contraception. This selective progesterone receptor modulator appears to be more effective than the levonorgestrel-containing emergency contraceptive, which must be taken within 72 h of unprotected intercourse. According to pharmacodynamic trials, UPA delays follicular maturation and ovulation. In addition, UPA may modulate the endometrium. Both Phase III clinical trials found that UPA does not lose efficacy within the 120-h dosing interval. Throughout all phases of clinical studies, UPA was shown to be well tolerated with only minimal adverse drug reactions, all of which are similar to competitor therapies. PMID:22114852

  13. Leuprolide acetate treatment of catamenial pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Garris, P D; Sokol, M S; Kelly, K; Whitman, G F; Plouffe, L

    1994-01-01

    A 35-year-old nulligravid female with a 20 pack year history of smoking and continuous OC use since age 16 presented with recurrent pneumothoraces coinciding with the onset of menses at age 28. At that time she underwent a right partial pleurectomy and lobectomy, which demonstrated bullous disease but no glandular or stromal elements. Although catamenial respiratory discomfort persisted while on OCs, no pneumothoraces were documented until age 33 at which time she was given the diagnosis of catamenial pneumothorax. A diagnostic laparoscopy failed to demonstrate endometriosis or the presence of diaphragmatic defects. In an effort to preserve her fertility, she began a course of LA-GnRH-a therapy with depot LA. Because of disabling vasomotor and emotional side effects, continuous conjugated estrogens and MPA acetate were given as add-back therapy. She has remained symptom and side effect free for over 2 years on this regimen. PMID:8293833

  14. 4-Carbamoylpiperidinium phenyl-acetate hemihydrate.

    PubMed

    Smith, Graham; Wermuth, Urs D

    2010-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C(6)H(13)N(2)O(+)·C(8)H(7)O(2) (-)·0.5H(2)O, comprises two isonipecotamide cations, two phenyl-acetate anions and a water mol-ecule of solvation. The hydrogen-bonding environments for both sets of ion pairs are essentially identical with the piperidinium and amide 'ends' of each cation involved in lateral heteromolecular hydrogen-bonded cyclic N-H?O associations [graph set R(2) (2)(11)] which incorporate a single carboxyl O-atom acceptor. These cyclic motifs enclose larger R(5) (5)(21) cyclic systems, forming sheet substructures which lie parallel to (101) and are linked across b by the single water mol-ecule via water O-H?O(c) (c = carboxylate) associations, giving a duplex-sheet structure. PMID:21589544

  15. 4-Carbamoylpiperidinium phenyl­acetate hemihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Graham; Wermuth, Urs D.

    2010-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C6H13N2O+·C8H7O2 ?·0.5H2O, comprises two isonipecotamide cations, two phenyl­acetate anions and a water mol­ecule of solvation. The hydrogen-bonding environments for both sets of ion pairs are essentially identical with the piperidinium and amide ‘ends’ of each cation involved in lateral heteromolecular hydrogen-bonded cyclic N—H?O associations [graph set R 2 2(11)] which incorporate a single carboxyl O-atom acceptor. These cyclic motifs enclose larger R 5 5(21) cyclic systems, forming sheet substructures which lie parallel to (101) and are linked across b by the single water mol­ecule via water O—H?Oc (c = carboxylate) associations, giving a duplex-sheet structure. PMID:21589544

  16. Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid by an enzyme preparation from Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinecke, D. M.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid is oxidized to oxindole-3-acetic acid by Zea mays tissue extracts. Shoot, root, and endosperm tissues have enzyme activities of 1 to 10 picomoles per hour per milligram protein. The enzyme is heat labile, is soluble, and requires oxygen for activity. Cofactors of mixed function oxygenase, peroxidase, and intermolecular dioxygenase are not stimulatory to enzymic activity. A heat-stable, detergent-extractable component from corn enhances enzyme activity 6- to 10-fold. This is the first demonstration of the in vitro enzymic oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid in higher plants.

  17. Ethyl 2-{5-[(3-oxo-3,4-di-hydro-2H-1,4-benzo-thia-zin-4-yl)meth-yl]-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl}acetate.

    PubMed

    Sebbar, Nada Kheira; Zerzouf, Abdelfettah; Essassi, El Mokhtar; Saadi, Mohamed; El Ammari, Lahcen

    2014-02-01

    In the title compound, C15H16N4O3S, the six-membered heterocycle of the benzo-thia-zine fragment exhibits a screw boat conformation. The dihedral angle between the planes through the triazole ring and the benzene ring fused to the 1,4-thia-zine ring is 62.98?(11)°. The mean plane formed by the atoms belonging to the acetate group is nearly perpendicular to the triazole ring [dihedral angle = 74.65?(12)°]. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by pairs of C-H?O inter-actions, forming dimeric aggregates. PMID:24764845

  18. Ethyl 2-{5-[(3-oxo-3,4-di­hydro-2H-1,4-benzo­thia­zin-4-yl)meth­yl]-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl}acetate

    PubMed Central

    Sebbar, Nada Kheira; Zerzouf, Abdelfettah; Essassi, El Mokhtar; Saadi, Mohamed; El Ammari, Lahcen

    2014-01-01

    In the title compound, C15H16N4O3S, the six-membered heterocycle of the benzo­thia­zine fragment exhibits a screw boat conformation. The dihedral angle between the planes through the triazole ring and the benzene ring fused to the 1,4-thia­zine ring is 62.98?(11)°. The mean plane formed by the atoms belonging to the acetate group is nearly perpendicular to the triazole ring [dihedral angle = 74.65?(12)°]. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by pairs of C—H?O inter­actions, forming dimeric aggregates. PMID:24764845

  19. Heterogeneous catalyst for the production of acetic anhydride from methyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Ramprasad, D.; Waller, F.J.

    1999-04-06

    This invention relates to a process for producing acetic anhydride by the reaction of methyl acetate, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen at elevated temperatures and pressures in the presence of an alkyl halide and a heterogeneous, bifunctional catalyst that contains an insoluble polymer having pendant quaternized phosphine groups, some of which phosphine groups are ionically bonded to anionic Group VIII metal complexes, the remainder of the phosphine groups being bonded to iodide. In contrast to prior art processes, no accelerator (promoter) is necessary to achieve the catalytic reaction and the products are easily separated from the catalyst by filtration. The catalyst can be recycled for consecutive runs without loss in activity. Bifunctional catalysts for use in carbonylating dimethyl ether are also provided.

  20. Heterogeneous catalyst for the production of acetic anhydride from methyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Ramprasad, Dorai (Allentown, PA); Waller, Francis Joseph (Allentown, PA)

    1999-01-01

    This invention relates to a process for producing acetic anhydride by the reaction of methyl acetate, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen at elevated temperatures and pressures in the presence of an alkyl halide and a heterogeneous, bifunctional catalyst that contains an insoluble polymer having pendant quaternized phosphine groups, some of which phosphine groups are ionically bonded to anionic Group VIII metal complexes, the remainder of the phosphine groups being bonded to iodide. In contrast to prior art processes, no accelerator (promoter) is necessary to achieve the catalytic reaction and the products are easily separated from the catalyst by filtration. The catalyst can be recycled for consecutive runs without loss in activity. Bifunctional catalysts for use in carbonylating dimethyl ether are also provided.

  1. Biodegradable Blends of Cellulose Acetate and Starch: Production and Properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean M. Mayer; Glenn R. Elion; Charles M. Buchanan; Barbara K. Sullivan; Sheldon D. Pratt; David L. Kaplan

    1995-01-01

    Blends of cellulose acetate (2.5 degree of substitution) and starch were melt processed and evaluated for mechanical properties, biodegradability during composting, and marine and soil toxicity. Formulations containing, on a weight basis, 57% cellulose acetate (CA), 25% corn starch (St) and 19% propylene glycol (PG) had mechanical properties similar to polystyrene. Increasing plasticizer or starch content lowered tensile strength. Simulated

  2. Synthesis and characterization of cellulose acetate produced from recycled newspaper

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guimes Rodrigues Filho; Douglas Santos Monteiro; Carla da Silva Meireles; Rosana Maria Nascimento de Assunção; Daniel Alves Cerqueira; Hernane Silva Barud; Sidney J. L. Ribeiro; Younes Messadeq

    2008-01-01

    In this work, the viability of recycling newspaper for producing cellulose acetate was tested. Newspaper recycling is extremely important not only for the environment preservation, but also from the economical point of view of aggregating value to this residue. Cellulose acetate was produced from a homogeneous acetylation, and then characterized by FTIR, DSC and TGA. Acetylation times were 48h for

  3. Transition-Metal-Catalyzed Carbonylation of Methyl Acetate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polichnowski, S. W.

    1986-01-01

    Presents a study of the rhodium-catalyzed, ioding-promoted carbonylation of methyl acetate. This study provides an interesting contrast between the carbonylation of methyl acetate and the carbonylation of methanol when similar rhodium/iodine catalyst systems are used. (JN)

  4. Anaerobic thermophilic fermentation for acetic acid production from milk permeate.

    PubMed

    Talabardon, M; Schwitzguébel, J P; Péringer, P

    2000-01-01

    Fermentation of milk permeate to produce acetic acid under anaerobic thermophilic conditions (approximately 60 degrees C) was studied. Although none of the known thermophilic acetogenic bacteria can ferment lactose, it has been found that one strain can use galactose and two strains can use lactate. Moorella thermoautotrophica DSM 7417 and M. thermoacetica DSM 2955 were able to convert lactate to acetate at thermophilic temperatures with a yield of approximately 0.93 g g(-1). Among the strains screened for their abilities to produce acetate and lactate from lactose, Clostridium thermolacticum DSM 2910 was found precisely to produce large amounts of lactate and acetate. However, it also produced significant amounts of ethanol, CO2 and H2. The lactate yield was affected by cell growth. During the exponential phase, acetate, ethanol, CO2 and H2 were the main products of fermentation with an equimolar acetate/ethanol ratio, whereas during the stationary phase, only lactic acid was produced with a yield of 4 mol per mol lactose, thus reaching the maximal theoretical value. When this bacterium was co-cultured with M. thermoautotrophica, lactose was first converted mainly to lactic acid, then to acetic acid, with a zero residual lactic acid concentration and an overall yield of acetate around 80%. Under such conditions, only 13% of the fermented lactose was converted to ethanol by C. thermolacticum. PMID:10784299

  5. Original article Ethanol and acetic-acid tolerances

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Ethanol and acetic-acid tolerances in Drosophila melanogaster: similar maternal) Summary - Ethanol and acetic-acid tolerances were studied in a cross between 2 geo- graphic races disappeared in the F2. Further investigations demonstrated that for ethanol tolerance, the large difference

  6. Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid and oxindole-3-acetic acid to 2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-1H indole-3-acetic acid-7'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside in Zea mays seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nonhebel, H. M.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    Radiolabeled oxindole-3-acetic acid was metabolized by roots, shoots, and caryopses of dark grown Zea mays seedlings to 2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-1H indole-3-acetic acid-7'-O-beta-D-glycopyranoside with the simpler name of 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside. This compound was also formed from labeled indole-3-acetic acid supplied to intact seedlings and root segments. The glucoside of 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid was also isolated as an endogenous compound in the caryopses and shoots of 4-day-old seedlings. It accumulates to a level of 4.8 nanomoles per plant in the kernel, more than 10 times the amount of oxindole-3-acetic acid. In the shoot it is present at levels comparable to that of oxindole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-acetic acid (62 picomoles per shoot). We conclude that 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside is a natural metabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in Z. mays seedlings. From the data presented in this paper and in previous work, we propose the following route as the principal catabolic pathway for indole-3-acetic acid in Zea seedlings: Indole-3-acetic acid --> Oxindole-3-acetic acid --> 7-Hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid --> 7-Hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside.

  7. Measurement of the rates of oxindole-3-acetic acid turnover, and indole-3-acetic acid oxidation in Zea mays seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nonhebel, H. M.; Bandurski, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1986-01-01

    Oxindole-3-acetic acid is the principal catabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in Zea mays seedlings. In this paper measurements of the turnover of oxindole-3-acetic acid are presented and used to calculate the rate of indole-3-acetic acid oxidation. [3H]Oxindole-3-acetic acid was applied to the endosperm of Zea mays seedlings and allowed to equilibrate for 24 h before the start of the experiment. The subsequent decrease in its specific activity was used to calculate the turnover rate. The average half-life of oxindole-3-acetic acid in the shoots was found to be 30 h while that in the kernels had an average half-life of 35h. Using previously published values of the pool sizes of oxindole-3-acetic acid in shoots and kernels from seedlings of the same age and variety, and grown under the same conditions, the rate of indole-3-acetic acid oxidation was calculated to be 1.1 pmol plant-1 h-1 in the shoots and 7.1 pmol plant-1 h-1 in the kernels.

  8. Facile cleavage of carbohydrate benzyl ethers and benzylidene acetals using the NaBrO 3 Na 2S 2O 4 reagent under two-phase conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matteo Adinolfi; Gaspare Barone; Luigi Guariniello; Alfonso Iadonisi

    1999-01-01

    Benzyl ether and benzylidene acetal carbohydrate protecting groups can be selectively cleaved by reaction with sodium bromate\\/sodium dithionite in ethyl acetate\\/water. Under the mild (room temperature, short reaction time) conditions needed, a variety of other protecting functionalities such as acetyl, chloroacetyl, benzoyl, pivaloyl, tosyl, t-butyldimethylsilyl, trityl, and isopropylidene groups remain unaffected.

  9. Pharmacokinetics and drug interactions of eslicarbazepine acetate.

    PubMed

    Bialer, Meir; Soares-da-Silva, Patricio

    2012-06-01

    Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) is a novel once-daily antiepileptic drug (AED) approved in Europe since 2009 that was found to be efficacious and well tolerated in a phase III clinical program in adult patients with partial onset seizures previously not controlled with treatment with one to three AEDs, including carbamazepine (CBZ). ESL shares with CBZ and oxcarbazepine (OXC) the dibenzazepine nucleus bearing the 5-carboxamide substitute, but is structurally different at the 10,11 position. This molecular variation results in differences in metabolism, preventing the formation of toxic epoxide metabolites such as carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide. Unlike OXC, which is metabolized to both eslicarbazepine and (R)-licarbazepine, ESL is extensively converted to eslicarbazepine. The systemic exposure to eslicarbazepine after ESL oral administration is approximately 94% of the parent dose, with minimal exposure to (R)-licarbazepine and OXC. After ESL oral administration, the effective half-life (t(1/2,eff) ) of eslicarbazepine was 20-24 h, which is approximately two times longer than its terminal half-life (t(1/2)). At clinically relevant doses (400-1,600 mg/day) ESL has linear pharmacokinetics (PK) with no effects of gender or moderate liver impairment. However, because eslicarbazepine is eliminated primarily (66%) by renal excretion, dose adjustment is recommended for patients with renal impairment. Eslicarbazepine clearance is induced by phenobarbital, phenytoin, and CBZ and it dose-dependently decreases plasma exposure of oral contraceptive and simvastatin. PMID:22612290

  10. Eslicarbazepine acetate for partial-onset seizures.

    PubMed

    Rauchenzauner, Markus; Luef, Gerhard

    2011-12-01

    Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL), a new voltage-gated sodium channel blocker that is chemically related to carbamazepine and partially metabolized to oxcarbazepine, has attracted attention as results of previous Phase II and III studies demonstrated and confirmed efficacy and tolerability of ESL 800 and 1200 mg once daily as add-on therapy for adult patients with drug-resistant partial-onset seizures. In children, efficacy data point towards a dose-dependent decrease in seizure frequency and tolerability analyses showed a low incidence of mild drug-related adverse effects at 5 and 15 mg/kg/day. The most frequently reported adverse effects were dizziness, somnolence, headache, diplopia, nausea and vomiting. The convenience of once-daily dosing and a short/simple titration regimen in combination with a comparative efficacy and tolerability profile might promote ESL as a valid alternative to the current adjunctive antiepileptic drug therapy armamentarium for drug-resistant partial seizures in adults. Since clinical trials in children and adolescents on ESL efficacy and safety are ongoing and data already published are far from conclusive, the therapeutic value of ESL in this special population has to be established in the near future. PMID:22091592

  11. Micelles Protect and Concentrate Activated Acetic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, Zoe; House, C.

    2014-01-01

    As more and more exoplanets are discovered and the habitability of such planets is considered, one can turn to searching for the origin of life on Earth in order to better understand what makes a habitable planet. Activated acetic acid, or methyl thioacetate, has been proposed to be central to the origin of life on Earth, and also as an important energy currency molecule in early cellular evolution. We have investigated the hydrolysis of methyl thioacetate under various conditions. Its uncatalyzed rate of hydrolysis is about three orders of magnitude faster (K = 0.00663 s^-1; 100°C, pH 7.5, concentration = 0.33mM) than published rates for its catalyzed production making it unlikely to accumulate under prebiotic conditions. However, we also observed that methyl thioacetate was protected from hydrolysis when inside its own hydrophobic droplets. We found that methyl thioacetate protection from hydrolysis was also possible in droplets of hexane and in the membranes of nonanoic acid micelles. Thus, the hydrophobic regions of prebiotic micelles and early cell membranes could have offered a refuge for this energetic molecule increasing its lifetime in close proximity to the reactions for which it would be needed. Methyl thioacetate could thus be important for the origin of life on Earth and perhaps for better understanding the potential habitability of other planets.

  12. Emergency contraception: potential role of ulipristal acetate.

    PubMed

    Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Meng, Chun-Xia

    2010-01-01

    Unintended pregnancy is a global reproductive health problem. Emergency contraception (EC) provides women with a safe means of preventing unwanted pregnancies after having unprotected intercourse. While 1.5 mg of levonorgestrel (LNG) as a single dose or in 2 doses with 12 hours apart is the currently gold standard EC regimen, a single dose of 30 mg ulipristal acetate (UPA) has recently been proposed for EC use up to 120 hours of unprotected intercourse with similar side effect profiles as LNG. The main mechanism of action of both LNG and UPA for EC is delaying or inhibiting ovulation. However, the 'window of effect' for LNG EC seems to be rather narrow, beginning after selection of the dominant follicular and ending when luteinizing hormone peak begins to rise, whereas UPA appears to have a direct inhibitory effect on follicular rupture which allows it to be also effective even when administered shortly before ovulation, a time period when use of LNG is no longer effective. These experimental findings are in line with results from a series of clinical trials conducted recently which demonstrate that UPA seems to have higher EC efficacy compared to LNG. This review summarizes some of the data available on UPA used after unprotected intercourse with the purpose to provide evidence that UPA, a new type of second-generation progesterone receptor modulator, represents a new evolutionary step in EC treatment. PMID:21072297

  13. PHA based denitrification: municipal wastewater vs. acetate.

    PubMed

    Krasnits, Eli; Beliavsky, Michael; Tarre, Sheldon; Green, Michal

    2013-03-01

    Denitrification of municipal wastewater based on bacterial storage polymers-Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) - was investigated in biofilm sequencing batch reactors, as a part of a two sludge system for wastewater treatment and in comparison to acetate based synthetic wastewater. The results show that PHA based denitrification (PBD) of real wastewater can be a viable alternative, especially for wastewater with low COD/N ratio, without the need for external carbon source addition. High nitrate removal capacity of about 40-50 mg N/L with a low COD/N requirement of about 4-5, were observed. It was found that entrapped particulate organic matter contributed additional reducing power, on top of the storage materials, thus allowing for the high nitrate reduction capacity. Daily removal rates were similar to those of extensive treatment systems (0.24-0.31 gr N/L reactor*d). Large differences in storage yield and composition between biomass grown on synthetic and municipal wastewater were observed. PMID:23395755

  14. Polyvinyl acetate-based film coatings.

    PubMed

    Kolter, K; Dashevsky, A; Irfan, Muhamad; Bodmeier, R

    2013-12-01

    Polyvinyl acetate-based colloidal aqueous polymer dispersion Kollicoat(®) SR 30 D results in coatings characterized by moderate swelling behaviour, lipophilicity, pH-independent permeability for actives and high flexibility to withstand mechanical stress and is therefore used for controlled release coating. The colloidal aqueous polymer dispersion of Kollicoat(®) SR 30 D can be easily processed due to an optimal low minimum film forming temperature (MFT) of 18 °C without plasticizer addition and a thermal after-treatment (curing) of coated pellets. The drug release from Kollicoat(®) SR 30 D coated pellets was almost pH independent. Drug release could be easily adjusted by coating level or addition of soluble pore forming polymers. Physically stable Kollicoat(®) SR 30 D dispersions were obtained with the water-soluble polymers Kollidon(®) 30 and Kollicoat(®) IR up to 50% w/w. The addition of only 10% w/w triethyl citrate as plasticizer improved the flexibility of the films significantly and allowed compaction of the pellets. The drug release was almost independent of the compression force and the pellet content of the tablets. The inclusion of various tableting excipients slightly affected the drug release, primarily because of a different disintegration rate of the tablets. A combination of Kollicoat(®) SR 30 D and Kollicoat(®) IR with higher coating levels>10 mg/cm(2) is a relatively new alternative to OROS system which does not require drilling. PMID:24076229

  15. Biodegradable cellulose acetate nanofiber fabrication via electrospinning.

    PubMed

    Christoforou, Theopisti; Doumanidis, Charalabos

    2010-09-01

    Nanofiber manufacturing is one of the key advancements in nanotechnology today. Over the past few years, there has been a tremendous growth of research activities to explore electrospinning for nanofiber formation from a rich variety of materials. This quite simple and cost effective process operates on the principle that the solution is extracted under the action of a high electric field. Once the voltage is sufficiently high, a charged jet is ejected following a complicated looping trajectory. During its travel, the solvent evaporates leaving behind randomly oriented nanofibers accumulated on the collector. The combination of their nanoscale dimensionality, high surface area, porosity, flexibility and superior strength makes the electrospun fibers suitable for several value-added applications, such as filters, protecting clothes, high performance structures and biomedical devices. In this study biodegradable cellulose acetate (CA) nanofibrous membranes were produced using electrospinning. The device utilized consisted of a syringe equipped with a metal needle, a microdialysis pump, a high voltage supply and a collector. The morphology of the yielded fibers was determined using SEM. The effect of various parameters, including electric field strength, tip-to-collector distance, solution feed rate and composition on the morphological features of the electrospun fibers was examined. The optimum operating conditions for the production of uniform, non-beaded fibers with submicron diameter were also explored. The biodegradable CA nanofiber membranes are suitable as tissue engineering scaffolds and as reinforcements of biopolymer matrix composites in foils by ultrasonic welding methods. PMID:21133179

  16. 40 CFR 180.1258 - Acetic acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acetic acid; exemption from the requirement...From Tolerances § 180.1258 Acetic acid; exemption from the requirement...residues of the biochemical pesticide acetic acid when used as a...

  17. 40 CFR 180.1258 - Acetic acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acetic acid; exemption from the requirement...From Tolerances § 180.1258 Acetic acid; exemption from the requirement...residues of the biochemical pesticide acetic acid when used as a...

  18. Computerized image analysis for acetic acid induced intraepithelial lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenjing; Ferris, Daron G.; Lieberman, Rich W.

    2008-03-01

    Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) exhibits certain morphologic features that can be identified during a visual inspection exam. Immature and dysphasic cervical squamous epithelium turns white after application of acetic acid during the exam. The whitening process occurs visually over several minutes and subjectively discriminates between dysphasic and normal tissue. Digital imaging technologies allow us to assist the physician analyzing the acetic acid induced lesions (acetowhite region) in a fully automatic way. This paper reports a study designed to measure multiple parameters of the acetowhitening process from two images captured with a digital colposcope. One image is captured before the acetic acid application, and the other is captured after the acetic acid application. The spatial change of the acetowhitening is extracted using color and texture information in the post acetic acid image; the temporal change is extracted from the intensity and color changes between the post acetic acid and pre acetic acid images with an automatic alignment. The imaging and data analysis system has been evaluated with a total of 99 human subjects and demonstrate its potential to screening underserved women where access to skilled colposcopists is limited.

  19. Crystal structure of a mixed solvated form of amoxapine acetate

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Rajni M.; Raval, Vishal; Oswald, Iain D. H.; Florence, Alastair J.

    2015-01-01

    The mixed solvated salt 4-(2-chloro­dibenzo[b,f][1,4]oxazepin-11-yl)piperazin-1-ium acetate–acetic acid–cyclo­hexane (2/2/1), C17H17ClN3O+·C2H3O2 ?·C2H4O2·0.5C6H12, crystallizes with one mol­ecule of protonated amoxapine (AXPN), an acetate anion and a mol­ecule of acetic acid together with half a mol­ecule of cyclo­hexane. In the centrosymmetric crystal, both enanti­omers of the protonated AXPN mol­ecule stack alternatively along [001]. Acetate anions connect the AXPN cations through N—H?O hydrogen bonding in the [010] direction, creating a sheet lying parallel to (100). The acetic acid mol­ecules are linked to the acetate anions via O—H?O hydrogen bonds within the sheets. Within the sheets there are also a number of C—H?O hydrogen bonds present. The cyclo­hexane solvent mol­ecules occupy the space between the sheets. PMID:25878802

  20. SAGA complex components and acetate repression in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Georgakopoulos, Paraskevi; Lockington, Robin A; Kelly, Joan M

    2012-11-01

    Alongside the well-established carbon catabolite repression by glucose and other sugars, acetate causes repression in Aspergillus nidulans. Mutations in creA, encoding the transcriptional repressor involved in glucose repression, also affect acetate repression, but mutations in creB or creC, encoding components of a deubiquitination system, do not. To understand the effects of acetate, we used a mutational screen that was similar to screens that uncovered mutations in creA, creB, and creC, except that glucose was replaced by acetate to identify mutations that were affected for repression by acetate but not by glucose. We uncovered mutations in acdX, homologous to the yeast SAGA component gene SPT8, which in growth tests showed derepression for acetate repression but not for glucose repression. We also made mutations in sptC, homologous to the yeast SAGA component gene SPT3, which showed a similar phenotype. We found that acetate repression is complex, and analysis of facA mutations (lacking acetyl CoA synthetase) indicates that acetate metabolism is required for repression of some systems (proline metabolism) but not for others (acetamide metabolism). Although plate tests indicated that acdX- and sptC-null mutations led to derepressed alcohol dehydrogenase activity, reverse-transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed no derepression of alcA or aldA but rather elevated induced levels. Our results indicate that acetate repression is due to repression via CreA together with metabolic changes rather than due to an independent regulatory control mechanism. PMID:23173087

  1. Clostridiumm ljungdahlii, an anaerobic ethanol and acetate producing microorganism

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, J.L.; Clausen, E.C.

    1992-12-22

    A newly discovered microorganism was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Clostridium ljungdahlii, having the identifying characteristics of ATCC No. 49587. Cultured in an aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic conditions, this microorganism is capable of producing ethanol and acetate from CO and H[sub 2]O and/or CO[sub 2] and H[sub 2] in synthesis gas. Under optimal growth conditions, the microorganism produces acetate in preference to ethanol. Conversely, under non-growth conditions, ethanol production is favored over acetate. 3 figs.

  2. Mosquito larvicidal activity of gluanol acetate, a tetracyclic triterpenes derived from Ficus racemosa Linn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Abdul Rahuman; P. Venkatesan; Kannappan Geetha; Geetha Gopalakrishnan; A. Bagavan; C. Kamaraj

    2008-01-01

    The larvicidal activity of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, petroleum ether, acetone, and methanol extracts of the leaf and bark\\u000a of Ficus racemosa (Moraceae) was assayed for their toxicity against the early fourth-instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). The larval mortality was observed after 24-h exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects;\\u000a however, the highest larval mortality was found in

  3. Water dispersible microbicidal cellulose acetate phthalate film

    PubMed Central

    Neurath, A Robert; Strick, Nathan; Li, Yun-Yao

    2003-01-01

    Background Cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) has been used for several decades in the pharmaceutical industry for enteric film coating of oral tablets and capsules. Micronized CAP, available commercially as "Aquateric" and containing additional ingredients required for micronization, used for tablet coating from water dispersions, was shown to adsorb and inactivate the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), herpesviruses (HSV) and other sexually transmitted disease (STD) pathogens. Earlier studies indicate that a gel formulation of micronized CAP has a potential as a topical microbicide for prevention of STDs including the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The objective of endeavors described here was to develop a water dispersible CAP film amenable to inexpensive industrial mass production. Methods CAP and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) were dissolved in different organic solvent mixtures, poured into dishes, and the solvents evaporated. Graded quantities of a resulting selected film were mixed for 5 min at 37°C with HIV-1, HSV and other STD pathogens, respectively. Residual infectivity of the treated viruses and bacteria was determined. Results The prerequisites for producing CAP films which are soft, flexible and dispersible in water, resulting in smooth gels, are combining CAP with HPC (other cellulose derivatives are unsuitable), and casting from organic solvent mixtures containing ?50 to ?65% ethanol (EtOH). The films are ?100 µ thick and have a textured surface with alternating protrusions and depressions revealed by scanning electron microscopy. The films, before complete conversion into a gel, rapidly inactivated HIV-1 and HSV and reduced the infectivity of non-viral STD pathogens >1,000-fold. Conclusions Soft pliable CAP-HPC composite films can be generated by casting from organic solvent mixtures containing EtOH. The films rapidly reduce the infectivity of several STD pathogens, including HIV-1. They are converted into gels and thus do not have to be removed following application and use. In addition to their potential as topical microbicides, the films have promise for mucosal delivery of pharmaceuticals other than CAP. PMID:14617380

  4. Inhibition of Ice Growth and Recrystallization by Zirconium Acetate and Zirconium Acetate Hydroxide

    PubMed Central

    Mizrahy, Ortal; Bar-Dolev, Maya; Guy, Shlomit; Braslavsky, Ido

    2013-01-01

    The control over ice crystal growth, melting, and shaping is important in a variety of fields, including cell and food preservation and ice templating for the production of composite materials. Control over ice growth remains a challenge in industry, and the demand for new cryoprotectants is high. Naturally occurring cryoprotectants, such as antifreeze proteins (AFPs), present one solution for modulating ice crystal growth; however, the production of AFPs is expensive and inefficient. These obstacles can be overcome by identifying synthetic substitutes with similar AFP properties. Zirconium acetate (ZRA) was recently found to induce the formation of hexagonal cavities in materials prepared by ice templating. Here, we continue this line of study and examine the effects of ZRA and a related compound, zirconium acetate hydroxide (ZRAH), on ice growth, shaping, and recrystallization. We found that the growth rate of ice crystals was significantly reduced in the presence of ZRA and ZRAH, and that solutions containing these compounds display a small degree of thermal hysteresis, depending on the solution pH. The compounds were found to inhibit recrystallization in a manner similar to that observed in the presence of AFPs. The favorable properties of ZRA and ZRAH suggest tremendous potential utility in industrial applications. PMID:23555701

  5. Inhibition of ice growth and recrystallization by zirconium acetate and zirconium acetate hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Mizrahy, Ortal; Bar-Dolev, Maya; Guy, Shlomit; Braslavsky, Ido

    2013-01-01

    The control over ice crystal growth, melting, and shaping is important in a variety of fields, including cell and food preservation and ice templating for the production of composite materials. Control over ice growth remains a challenge in industry, and the demand for new cryoprotectants is high. Naturally occurring cryoprotectants, such as antifreeze proteins (AFPs), present one solution for modulating ice crystal growth; however, the production of AFPs is expensive and inefficient. These obstacles can be overcome by identifying synthetic substitutes with similar AFP properties. Zirconium acetate (ZRA) was recently found to induce the formation of hexagonal cavities in materials prepared by ice templating. Here, we continue this line of study and examine the effects of ZRA and a related compound, zirconium acetate hydroxide (ZRAH), on ice growth, shaping, and recrystallization. We found that the growth rate of ice crystals was significantly reduced in the presence of ZRA and ZRAH, and that solutions containing these compounds display a small degree of thermal hysteresis, depending on the solution pH. The compounds were found to inhibit recrystallization in a manner similar to that observed in the presence of AFPs. The favorable properties of ZRA and ZRAH suggest tremendous potential utility in industrial applications. PMID:23555701

  6. Cosolvent gel-like materials from partially hydrolyzed poly(vinyl acetate)s and borax.

    PubMed

    Angelova, Lora V; Terech, Pierre; Natali, Irene; Dei, Luigi; Carretti, Emiliano; Weiss, Richard G

    2011-09-20

    A gel-like, high-viscosity polymeric dispersion (HVPD) based on cross-linked borate, partially hydrolyzed poly(vinyl acetate) (xPVAc, where x is the percent hydrolysis) is described. Unlike hydro-HVPDs prepared from poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and borate, the liquid portion of these materials can be composed of up to 75% of an organic cosolvent because of the influence of residual acetate groups on the polymer backbone. The effects of the degree of hydrolysis, molecular weight, polymer and cross-linker concentrations, and type and amount of organic cosolvent on the rheological and structural properties of the materials are investigated. The stability of the systems is explored through rheological and melting-range studies. (11)B NMR and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) are used to probe the structure of the dispersions. The addition of an organic liquid to the xPVAc-borate HVPDs results in a drastic increase in the number of cross-linked borate species as well as the agglomeration of the polymer into bundles. These effects result in an increase in the relaxation time and thermal stability of the networks. The ability to make xPVAc-borate HVPDs with very large amounts of and rather different organic liquids, with very different rheological properties that can be controlled easily, opens new possibilities for applications of PVAc-based dispersions. PMID:21848256

  7. Miscibility studies on blends of cellulose acetate and nylon 6

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. M Shashidhara; K. H Guruprasad; A Varadarajulu

    2002-01-01

    Miscibility studies on cellulose secondary acetate(CA)\\/Nylon 6(N6) blends have been carried out in this work. Dilute solution viscometry for the blend solutions using formic acid as the common solvent shows the existence of miscibility window.

  8. Extruding foams from corn starch acetate and native corn starch.

    PubMed

    Guan, Junjie; Hanna, Milford A

    2004-01-01

    Because of the hydrophilic characteristics of native starch foams and the cost of modifying starch, the uses of starch and modified starch foams are hindered. To decrease hydrophilicity and cost of starch foams, native corn starch was blended with starch acetate and extruded. A twin-screw mixing extruder was used to produce the foams. Native starch content, screw speed, and barrel temperature had significant effects on molecular degradation of starches during extrusion. The melting temperature of extruded starch acetate/native starch foam was higher (216 degrees C) than that for starch acetate (193.4 degrees C). Strong peaks in the X-ray diffractograms of extruded starch acetate/native starch foam suggested new crystalline regions were formed. Optimum conditions for high radial expansion ratio, high compressibility, low specific mechanical energy requirement, and low water absorption index were 46.0% native starch content, 163 rpm screw speed, and 148 degrees C barrel temperature. PMID:15530049

  9. Electronic interactions between gold films and mn12-acetate

    E-print Network

    Means, Joel Lewis

    2009-05-15

    Interactions between Mn12–acetate molecular magnets and thin gold films have been explored in light of the theory of weak localization. Low-temperature measurements of the magnetoresistance of gold films of varying thicknesses, with and without...

  10. Degradation by acetic acid for crystalline Si photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Atsushi; Uchiyama, Naomi; Hara, Yukiko

    2015-04-01

    The degradation of crystalline Si photovoltaic modules during damp-heat test was studied using some test modules with and without polymer film insertion by observing electrical and electroluminescence properties and by chemical analyses. Acetic acid generated by the hydrolysis decomposition of ethylene vinyl acetate used as an encapsulant is the main origin of degradation. The change in electroluminescence images is explained on the basis of the corrosion of electrodes by acetic acid. On the other hand, little change was observed at the pn junction even after damp-heat test for a long time. Therefore, carrier generation occurs even after degradation; however, such generated carriers cannot be collected owing to corrosion of electrodes. The guiding principle that module structure and module materials without saving acetic acid into the modules was obtained.

  11. 21 CFR 522.2477 - Trenbolone acetate and estradiol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...has not been established for this product in preruminating calves. Do not use in calves to be processed for veal. (3) Pasture cattle (slaughter, stocker, and feeder steers and heifers )—(i) Amount . (A) 40 mg trenbolone acetate and...

  12. Disposition of eslicarbazepine acetate in the mouse after oral administration.

    PubMed

    Alves, Gilberto; Figueiredo, Isabel; Castel-Branco, Margarida; Lourenço, Nulita; Falcão, Amílcar; Caramona, Margarida; Soares-da-Silva, Patrício

    2008-10-01

    Eslicarbazepine acetate is a promising antiepileptic drug structurally related to carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine, which is in the final phase of clinical development. The metabolism of eslicarbazepine acetate is clearly species dependent and, in this case, among small laboratory animals, the mouse seems to be the most relevant species to humans. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the plasma, brain and liver disposition of eslicarbazepine acetate in mice to better understand its disposition in humans. Adult male CD-1 mice were treated orally with a single dose of eslicarbazepine acetate 350 mg/kg. Blood samples, brain and liver tissues were taken at 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2, 4, 6, 10, 16 and 24 h post-dose. Plasma and tissue levels of eslicarbazepine acetate and its metabolites (S-licarbazepine, R-licarbazepine and oxcarbazepine) were assessed by using high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection. Both eslicarbazepine acetate and R-licarbazepine concentrations were below the limit of quantification of the assay in all matrices. Eslicarbazepine acetate was rapidly and extensively metabolized to S-licarbazepine (major metabolite), which was oxidized to oxcarbazepine to a small extent. The brain/plasma ratios suggest that the brain exposure to S-licarbazepine and oxcarbazepine was approximately 30% of their total systemic exposure. However, S-licarbazepine crossed the blood-brain barrier (BBB) less efficiently than oxcarbazepine. On the other hand, the liver/plasma ratios support the notion that S-licarbazepine undergoes hepatic accumulation, whereas oxcarbazepine appears to leave this compartment twice as fast as S-licarbazepine. Thus, the diffusion through the BBB is favourable to oxcarbazepine and the liver acts like a deposit of the pharmacologically active metabolite of eslicarbazepine acetate (S-licarbazepine). PMID:18710399

  13. Intrinsic hydration of monopositive uranyl hydroxide, nitrate, and acetate cations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Winnie Chien; Victor Anbalagan; Melvin Zandler; Michael Van Stipdonk; Dorothy Hanna; Garold Gresham; Gary Groenewold

    2004-01-01

    The intrinsic hydration of three monopositive uranyl-anion complexes (UO2A)+ (where A = acetate, nitrate, or hydroxide) was investigated using ion-trap mass spectrometry (IT-MS). The relative rates\\u000a for the formation of the monohydrates [(UO2A)(H2O)]+, with respect to the anion, followed the trend: Acetate ? nitrate ? hydroxide. This finding was rationalized in terms of\\u000a the donation of electron density by the

  14. Purification of Acetic Acid Wastewater using Layer Melt Crystallization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kwang-Joo Kim

    2008-01-01

    Ice crystalline layers were prepared from a binary eutectic mixture of acetic acid and water using layer melt crystallization. The crystalline layers were obtained under the conditions of the cooling temperature at 269, 268, and 267 K, the feed compositions of 0.5, 1.0, and 5.0 wt% acetic acid, and the cooling rates of 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 K\\/min. After crystallization, sweating operations were

  15. EFFECT OF SURFACTANTS ON FILM FORMATION OF POLY (VINYL ACETATE) AND POLY (VINYL ACETATE-BUTYL ACRYLATE) LATEXES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. R. Vijayendran; T. Bone; L. C. Sawyer

    1982-01-01

    Effect of ethoxylated nonyl phenol type non-ionic and alkyl sulfate type anionic surfactants on the film formation process of poly (vinyl acetate) and poly (vinyl acetate-acrylate) latexes are discussed. HLB value of non-ionic surfactant is shown to affect glass transition temperature, minimum film formation temperature and rate of film coalescence of vinyl acrylic latexes. Higher HLB non-ionic surfactant appears to

  16. PREPARATION OF WATER-SOLUBLE AND WATER-SWELLABLE STARCH ACETATES USING MICROWAVE HEATING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch acetates of degree of substitution 0.1-1.5 were prepared by heating corn starch, acetic acid and acetic anhydride in sealed, stirred, Teflon vessels in a microwave reactor. Reaction efficiencies were typically >90% at reaction temperatures of 150-160 deg C for 4-7 minutes. Starch acetates w...

  17. Effect of sulfate and nitrate on acetate conversion by anaerobic microorganisms in a freshwater sediment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johannes C. M Scholten; Peter M van Bodegom; Jaap Vogelaar; Alexander van Ittersum; Kees Hordijk; Wim Roelofsen; Alfons J. M Stams

    2002-01-01

    Acetate is quantitatively the most important substrate for methane production in a freshwater sediment in The Netherlands. In the presence of alternative electron acceptors the conversion of acetate by methanogens was strongly inhibited. By modelling the results, obtained in experiments with and without 13C-labelled acetate, we could show that the competition for acetate between methanogens and sulfate reducers is the

  18. Ulipristal acetate: a review of its use in emergency contraception.

    PubMed

    McKeage, Kate; Croxtall, Jamie D

    2011-05-01

    Ulipristal acetate (ellaOne®; ella®) is the first of a new class of selective progesterone receptor modulators, and is indicated for emergency contraception within 120 hours after unprotected sexual intercourse or contraceptive failure. The principal effect of ulipristal acetate is to inhibit or delay ovulation. This effect may result from the drug's ability to delay the onset of luteinizing hormone (LH) surge or postpone LH peak if LH surge has started, or possibly by a direct inhibitory effect on follicular rupture, when administered in the follicular phase (including just before ovulation). In clinical trials, a single oral dose of ulipristal acetate 30?mg was effective in preventing pregnancies in women requesting emergency contraception after unprotected sexual intercourse and provided sustained efficacy throughout the 120-hour postcoital period in which it is indicated. When compared with levonorgestrel in well designed noninferiority trials, it was no less effective in preventing pregnancies when administered within 72 hours of unprotected intercourse, but was more effective when administered later (within 72-120 hours). Results of a meta-analysis suggest that ulipristal acetate may be more effective than levonorgestrel from day 1 and throughout the entire 5-day period following unprotected sexual intercourse. Ulipristal acetate is generally well tolerated, with a similar tolerability profile to that of levonorgestrel. In general, the onset of menses is delayed by 2-3 days following treatment. Although, ulipristal acetate is more expensive than levonorgestrel, it may represent a cost-effective alternative to levonorgestrel for women requesting emergency contraception within 120 hours of unprotected intercourse. Thus, ulipristal acetate provides effective, sustained and well tolerated emergency contraception when taken within 120 hours of unprotected sexual intercourse, thereby offering an extended treatment window compared with levonorgestrel, which should be administered within 72 hours. PMID:21568368

  19. Laboratory millimeter wave spectrum and astronomical search for vinyl acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesniková, L.; Peña, I.; Alonso, J. L.; Cernicharo, J.; Tercero, B.; Kleiner, I.

    2015-05-01

    Context. The recent discovery of methyl acetate in Orion KL makes vinyl acetate, CH3C=OOCH=CH2, a potential molecule in the interstellar medium. We obtained very accurate spectroscopic constants in a comprehensive laboratory analysis of its rotational spectra which can be used to predict those transition frequencies towards interstellar sources. Aims: We present the experimental study and theoretical analysis of the ground torsional state of vinyl acetate in a large spectral range for astrophysical use. Methods: The room-temperature rotational spectrum of vinyl acetate has been measured from 125 to 305 GHz to provide direct frequencies to the astronomical community. Additional measurements have also been made using a broadband CP-FTMW spectrometer in the region of 6-18 GHz. Transition lines, corresponding to the most stable conformer, have been observed and assigned. All the rotational transitions revealed the A-E splitting due to the methyl internal rotation and had to be treated with a specific internal rotation code (BELGI-Cs). Results: We analyzed 2508 transitions up to J'' = 75 for vt = 0 for the most stable conformer of vinyl acetate. The new lines were globally fitted with previously published data and 24 parameters of the Hamiltonian were accurately determined. The spectral features of vinyl acetate were then searched for in Orion KL. Using the whole line survey of Orion KL (80-280 GHz) obtained with the IRAM 30 m radio telescope we can provide only an upper limit to the column density of vinyl acetate. However, using the ALMA science verification data we obtain a tentative detection of this species that will require further search at other frequencies to confirm its presence in this high mass star forming region. Table 2 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/577/A91

  20. Tetrazole acetic acid: Tautomers, conformers, and isomerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araujo-Andrade, C.; Reva, I.; Fausto, R.

    2014-02-01

    Monomers of (tetrazol-5-yl)-acetic acid (TAA) were obtained by sublimation of the crystalline compound and the resulting vapors were isolated in cryogenic nitrogen matrices at 13 K. The conformational and tautomeric composition of TAA in the matrix was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and vibrational calculations carried out at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. TAA may adopt two tautomeric modifications, 1H- and 2H-, depending on the position of the annular hydrogen atom. Two-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs) of TAA were theoretically calculated at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level, for each tautomer. Four and six symmetry-unique minima were located on these PESs, for 1H- and 2H-TAA, respectively. The energetics of the detected minima was subsequently refined by calculations at the QCISD level. Two 1H- and three 2H-conformers fall within the 0-8 kJ mol-1 energy range and should be appreciably populated at the sublimation temperature (˜330 K). Observation of only one conformer for each tautomer (1ccc and 2pcc) is explained in terms of calculated barriers to conformational rearrangements. All conformers with the cis O=COH moiety are separated by low barriers (less than 10 kJ mol-1) and collapse to the most stable 1ccc (1H-) and 2pcc (2H-) forms during deposition of the matrix. On the trans O=COH surfaces, the relative energies are very high (between 12 and 27 kJ mol-1). The trans forms are not thermally populated at the sublimation conditions and were not detected in matrices. One high-energy form in each tautomer, 1cct (1H-) and 2pct (2H-), was found to differ from the most stable form only by rotation of the OH group and separated from other forms by high barriers. This opened a perspective for their stabilization in a matrix. 1cct and 2pct were generated in the matrices selectively by means of narrow-band near-infrared (NIR) irradiations of the samples at 6920 and 6937 cm-1, where the first OH stretching overtone vibrations of 1ccc and 2pcc occur. The reverse transformations could be induced by irradiations at 7010 and 7030 cm-1, transforming 1cct and 2pct back to 1ccc and 2pcc, also selectively. Besides the NIR-induced transformations, the photogenerated 1cct and 2pct forms also decay in N2 matrices back to 1ccc and 2pcc spontaneously, with characteristic decay times of hours (1H) and tens of minutes (2H). The decay mechanism is rationalized in terms of the proton tunneling. In crystals, TAA exists exclusively as 1H-tautomer. By contrast, the tautomeric composition of the matrix-isolated monomers was found to consist of both 1H- and 2H-tautomers, in comparable amounts. A mechanistic discussion of the tautomerization process occurring during sublimation, accounting also for the observed minor decomposition of TAA leading to CO2 and 5-methyl-tetrazole, is proposed.

  1. Zuclopenthixol acetate for acute schizophrenia and similar serious mental illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Jayakody, Kaushadh; Gibson, Roger Carl; Kumar, Ajit; Gunadasa, Shalmini

    2014-01-01

    Background Medication used for acute aggression in psychiatry must have rapid onset of effect, low frequency of administration and low levels of adverse effects. Zuclopenthixol acetate is said to have these properties. Objectives To estimate the clinical effects of zuclopenthixol acetate for the management of acute aggression or violence thought to be due to serious mental illnesses, in comparison to other drugs used to treat similar conditions. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia’s Group Trials Register (July 2011). We supplemented this by citation searching and personal contact with authors and relevant pharmaceutical companies. Selection criteria All randomised clinical trials involving people thought to have serious mental illnesses comparing zuclopenthixol acetate with other drugs. Data collection and analysis Two review authors extracted and cross-checked data independently. We calculated fixed-effect relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for dichotomous data. We analysed by intention-to-treat. We used mean differences (MD) for continuous variables. Main results We found no data for the primary outcome, tranquillisation. Compared with haloperidol, zuclopenthixol acetate was no more sedating at two hours (n = 40, 1 RCT, RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.27 to 1.34). People given zuclopenthixol acetate were not at reduced risk of being given supplementary antipsychotics (n = 134, 3 RCTs, RR 1.49, 95% CI 0.97 to 2.30) although additional use of benzodiazepines was less (n = 50, 1 RCT, RR 0.03, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.47). People given zuclopenthixol acetate had fewer injections over seven days compared with those allocated to haloperidol IM (n = 70, 1 RCT, RR 0.39, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.84, NNT 4, CI 3 to 14). We found no data on more episodes of aggression or harm to self or others. One trial (n = 148) reported no significant difference in adverse effects for people receiving zuclopenthixol acetate compared with those allocated haloperidol at one, three and six days (RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.27). Compared with haloperidol or clotiapine, people allocated zuclopenthixol did not seem to be at more risk of a range of movement disorders (< 20%). Three studies found no difference in the proportion of people getting blurred vision/dry mouth (n = 192, 2 RCTs, RR at 24 hours 0.90, 95% CI 0.48 to 1.70). Similarly, dizziness was equally infrequent for those allocated zuclopenthixol acetate compared with haloperidol (n = 192, 2 RCTs, RR at 24 hours 1.15, 95% CI 0.46 to 2.88). There was no difference between treatments for leaving the study before completion (n = 522, RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.31 to 2.31). One study reported no difference in adverse effects and outcome scores, when high dose (50-100 mg/injection) zuclopenthixol acetate was compared with low dose (25-50 mg/injection) zuclopenthixol acetate. Authors’ conclusions Recommendations on the use of zuclopenthixol acetate for the management of psychiatric emergencies in preference to ‘standard’ treatment have to be viewed with caution. Most of the small trials present important methodological flaws and findings are poorly reported. This review did not find any suggestion that zuclopenthixol acetate is more or less effective in controlling aggressive acute psychosis, or in preventing adverse effects than intramuscular haloperidol, and neither seemed to have a rapid onset of action. Use of zuclopenthixol acetate may result in less numerous coercive injections and low doses of the drug may be as effective as higher doses. Well-conducted pragmatic randomised controlled trials are needed. PMID:22513898

  2. Methyl Acetate and its singly deuterated isotopomers in the interstellar medium

    E-print Network

    Das, Ankan; Sahu, Dipen; Gorai, Prasanta; Sivaraman, B; Chakrabarti, Sandip K

    2015-01-01

    Methyl acetate (CH_3COOCH_3) has been recently observed by IRAM 30 m radio telescope in Orion though the presence of its deuterated isotopomers is yet to be confirmed. We therefore study the properties of various forms of methyl acetate, namely, CH_3COOCH_3, CH_2DCOOCH_3 and CH_3COOCH_2D. Our simulation reveals that these species could be produced efficiently both in gas as well as in ice phases. Production of methyl acetate could follow radical-radical reaction between acetyl (CH_3CO) and methoxy (CH_3O) radicals. To predict abundances of CH_3COOCH_3 along with its two singly deuterated isotopomers and its two isomers (ethyl formate and hydroxyacetone), we prepare a gas-grain chemical network to study chemical evolution of these molecules. Since gas phase rate coefficients for methyl acetate and its related species were unknown, either we consider similar rate coefficients for similar types of reactions (by following existing data bases) or we carry out quantum chemical calculations to estimate the unknown r...

  3. A novel long-chained acetate in the defensive secretion of thrips.

    PubMed

    Tschuch, Gunther; Lindemann, Peter; Niesen, Anja; Csuk, René; Moritz, Gerald

    2005-07-01

    Defensive secretions of adult and larval Suocerathrips linguis (Phlaeothripidae, Thysanoptera) were found to contain a long-chained acetate, (11Z)-11,19-eicosadienyl acetate, that was not previously known to occur naturally. This substance occurred together with octadecyl acetate and other long-chained acetates. The eicosadienyl acetate repels ants and spreads on the surface of such potential predators. The mixture can provide a long-lasting surface coating. PMID:16222792

  4. Dodecyl acetate, a second pheromone component of the cabbage looper moth, Trichoplusia ni

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louis B. Bjostad; Lyle K. Gaston; Lesly L. Noble; J. Harvey Moyer; H. H. Shorey

    1980-01-01

    Dodecyl acetate was identified as a second component of the sex pheromone ofTrichoplusia ni (Hübner). Dodecyl acetate comprised 9.6% by weight of the total pheromone [(Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate plus dodecyl acetate] extracted from glands and 7.3% by weight of the total pheromone evaporated from the surfaces of glands. Dodecyl acetate appears to function as a short-range pheromone component. Evaporation at female

  5. The Metabolism of Acetate by the Blue-green Algae, Anabaena variabilis and Anacystis nidulans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Pearce; N. G. Carr

    1967-01-01

    SUMMARY The utilization of acetate by blue-green algae was examined and the activities of enzymes involved in its metabolism measured. Although acetate did not stimulate the endogenous respiration of these organisms, the oxida- tion of acetate was followed by the rate of release of (14C) carbon dioxide from (I-~~CC) and (2-l4CC) sodium acetate. Similarly, sodium acetate did not alter the

  6. Eslicarbazepine acetate: an update on efficacy and safety in epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Verrotti, Alberto; Loiacono, Giulia; Rossi, Alessandra; Zaccara, Gaetano

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder. Despite a broad range of commonly used antiepileptic drugs, approximately 30% of patients with epilepsy have drug resistance or encounter significant adverse effects. Eslicarbazepine acetate is a new central nervous system-active compound with anticonvulsant activity whose mechanism of action is by blocking the voltage-gated sodium channel. Eslicarbazepine acetate was approved by the European Medicines Agency and launched onto the European market in 2009 for adjunctive treatment in adult subjects of partial-onset seizures, with or without secondary generalization. This article provides an overview on the recent studies on eslicarbazepine acetate in the treatment of drug-resistant partial epilepsy. Efficacy and safety of this drug for partial-onset seizures were assessed in four randomized clinical trials with responder rates ranged between 17% and 43%. Adverse events were usually mild to moderate in intensity and the most common were dizziness, somnolence, nausea, diplopia, headache, vomiting, abnormal coordination, blurred vision, vertigo and fatigue. Eslicarbazepine acetate is not recommended below 18 years, but a published phase II trial had the main goal to evaluate the pharmacokinetics, efficacy and safety of this drug in pediatric population. Eslicarbazepine acetate appears to be a safe and effective drug with a linear pharmacokinetics, very low potential for drug-drug interactions and therefore it can offer a valid alternative to current antiepileptic drugs. Additionally, it is undergoing investigation for monotherapy in subjects with partial epilepsy, and other neurological and psychiatric disorders. PMID:24225327

  7. Photodissociation spectroscopy of the Mg{sup +}-acetic acid complex

    SciTech Connect

    Abate, Yohannes; Kleiber, P. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 and Optical Science and Technology Center, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States)

    2006-11-14

    We have studied the structure and photodissociation of Mg{sup +}-acetic acid clusters. Ab initio calculations suggest four relatively strongly bound ground state isomers for the [MgC{sub 2}H{sub 4}O{sub 2}]{sup +} complex. These isomers include the cis and trans forms of the Mg{sup +}-acetic acid association complex with Mg{sup +} bonded to the carbonyl O atom of acetic acid, the Mg{sup +}-acetic acid association complex with Mg{sup +} bonded to the hydroxyl O atom of acetic acid, or to a Mg{sup +}-ethenediol association complex. Photodissociation through the Mg{sup +}-based 3p<-3s absorption bands in the near UV leads to direct (nonreactive) and reactive dissociation products: Mg{sup +}, MgOH{sup +}, Mg(H{sub 2}O){sup +}, CH{sub 3}CO{sup +}, and MgCH{sub 3}{sup +}. At low energies the dominant reactive quenching pathway is through dehydration to Mg(H{sub 2}O){sup +}, but additional reaction channels involving C-H and C-C bond activation are also open at higher energies.

  8. Catalytic oxidation of butyl acetate over silver-loaded zeolites.

    PubMed

    Wong, Cheng Teng; Abdullah, Ahmad Zuhairi; Bhatia, Subhash

    2008-09-15

    The performance of silver-loaded zeolite (HY and HZSM-5) catalysts in the oxidation of butyl acetate as a model volatile organic compound (VOC) was studied. The objective was to find a catalyst with superior activity, selectivity towards deep oxidation product and stability. The catalyst activity was measured under excess oxygen condition in a packed bed reactor operated at gas hourly space velocity (GHSV)=15,000-32,000 h(-1), reaction temperature between 150 and 500 degrees C and butyl acetate inlet concentration of 1000-4000 ppm. Both AgY and AgZSM-5 catalysts exhibited high activity in the oxidation of butyl acetate. Despite lower silver content, AgY showed better activity, attributed to better metal dispersion, surface characteristics and acidity, and its pore system. Total conversion of butyl acetate was achieved at above 400 degrees C. The oxidation of butyl acetate followed a simple power law model. The reaction orders, n and m were evaluated under differential mode by varying the VOC partial pressure between 0.004 and 0.018 atm and partial pressure of oxygen between 0.05 and 0.20 atm. The reaction rate was independent of oxygen concentration and single order with respect to VOC concentration. The activation energies were 19.78 kJ/mol for AgY and 32.26 kJ/mol for AgZSM-5, respectively. PMID:18294771

  9. Isothermal decomposition of gamma-irradiated palladium acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahfouz, R. M.; Alshehri, S. M.; Monshi, M. A. S.; Abd El-Salam, N. M.

    2004-06-01

    The isothermal decomposition of un-irradiated (pristine) and pre-gamma-irradiated palladium acetate was studied in the temperature range (498-508 K) and in air using the isothermal thermogravimetric technique. The data were analysed using various solid state reaction models. The results showed that the kinetics of isothermal decomposition of palladium acetate was governed by random nucleation reaction (Erofe'ev equation A(3)). The activation energies of the main decomposition process for un-irradiated and pre-gamma-irradiated samples were calculated. The change in texture and crystal structure of the investigated palladium acetate by gamma-irradiation was studied using electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques.

  10. Disinfection of mung bean seed with gaseous acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Delaquis, P J; Sholberg, P L; Stanich, K

    1999-08-01

    Mung bean seed inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes (3 to 5 log CFU/g) was exposed to gaseous acetic acid in an aluminum fumigation chamber. Salmonella Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 were not detected by enrichment of seeds treated with 242 microl of acetic acid per liter of air for 12 h at 45 degrees C. L. monocytogenes was recovered by enrichment from two of 10 25-g seed samples treated in this manner. Fumigation with gaseous acetic acid was also lethal to indigenous bacteria and fungi on mung bean seed. The treatment did not significantly reduce seed germination rates, and no differences in surface microstructure were observed between treated and untreated seed viewed by scanning electron microscopy. PMID:10456753

  11. Syntrophic acetate oxidation in industrial CSTR biogas digesters.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li; Müller, Bettina; Westerholm, Maria; Schnürer, Anna

    2014-02-10

    The extent of syntrophic acetate oxidation (SAO) and the levels of known SAO bacteria and acetate- and hydrogen-consuming methanogens were determined in sludge from 13 commercial biogas production plants. Results from these measurements were statistically related to the prevailing operating conditions, through partial least squares (PLS) analysis. This revealed that high abundance of microorganisms involved in SAO was positively correlated with relatively low abundance of aceticlastic methanogens and high concentrations of free ammonia (>160 mg/L) and volatile fatty acids (VFA). Temperature was identified as another influencing factor for the population structure of the syntrophic acetate oxidising bacteria (SAOB). Overall, there was a high abundance of SAOB in the different digesters despite differences in their operating parameters, indicating that SAOB are an enduring and important component of biogas-producing consortia. PMID:24333792

  12. Resonant spin tunneling in randomly oriented nanospheres of Mn?? acetate

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lendinez, S.; Billinge, S. J. L.; Zarzuela, R.; Tejada, J.; Terban, M. W.; Espin, J.; Imaz, I.; Maspoch, D.; Chudnovsky, E. M.

    2015-01-01

    We report measurements and theoretical analysis of resonant spin tunneling in randomly oriented nanospheres of a molecular magnet. Amorphous nanospheres of Mn?? acetate have been fabricated and characterized by chemical, infrared, TEM, X-ray, and magnetic methods. Magnetic measurements have revealed sharp tunneling peaks in the field derivative of the magnetization that occur at the typical resonant field values for the Mn?? acetate crystal in the field parallel to the easy axis.Theoretical analysis is provided that explains these observations. We argue that resonant spin tunneling in a molecular magnet can be established in a powder sample, without the need for amore »single crystal and without aligning the easy magnetization axes of the molecules. This is confirmed by re-analyzing the old data on a powdered sample of non-oriented micron-size crystals of Mn?? acetate. Our findings can greatly simplify the selection of candidates for quantum spin tunneling among newly synthesized molecular magnets.« less

  13. Acetate Metabolism in Anaerobes from the Domain Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Ferry, James G.

    2015-01-01

    Acetate and acetyl-CoA play fundamental roles in all of biology, including anaerobic prokaryotes from the domains Bacteria and Archaea, which compose an estimated quarter of all living protoplasm in Earth’s biosphere. Anaerobes from the domain Archaea contribute to the global carbon cycle by metabolizing acetate as a growth substrate or product. They are components of anaerobic microbial food chains converting complex organic matter to methane, and many fix CO2 into cell material via synthesis of acetyl-CoA. They are found in a diversity of ecological habitats ranging from the digestive tracts of insects to deep-sea hydrothermal vents, and synthesize a plethora of novel enzymes with biotechnological potential. Ecological investigations suggest that still more acetate-metabolizing species with novel properties await discovery. PMID:26068860

  14. The assimilation of acetate and propionate by Prototheca zopfi

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, D.; Callely, A. G.

    1965-01-01

    1. The tricarboxylic acid and glyoxylate cycles are of major importance in the assimilation of acetate and propionate by Prototheca zopfii. The pattern of assimilation of [2-14C]acetate and [2-14C]propionate by whole cells growing with their respective substrates is similar except that, with propionate, ?-hydroxypropionate is the first labelled intermediate detected. 2. Carbon dioxide fixation is of little quantitative importance for the growth of this organism with propionate. 3. The yield of cells obtained/mole of acetate is similar to that obtained/mole of propionate and about half that obtained/mole of n-butyrate, these substrates acting as sole sources of carbon and energy. PMID:16749100

  15. Resonant spin tunneling in randomly oriented nanospheres of Mn?? acetate

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lendinez, S. [Univ. de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain (Europe); Billinge, S. J. L. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Zarzuela, R. [Univ. de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain (Europe); Tejada, J. [Univ. de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain (Europe); Terban, M. W. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Espin, J. [Univ. Autonoma Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain (Europe); Imaz, I. [Univ. Autonoma Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain (Europe); Maspoch, D. [Univ. Autonoma Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain (Europe); Chudnovsky, E. M. [City Univ. of New York, Bronx, NY (United States)

    2015-01-01

    We report measurements and theoretical analysis of resonant spin tunneling in randomly oriented nanospheres of a molecular magnet. Amorphous nanospheres of Mn?? acetate have been fabricated and characterized by chemical, infrared, TEM, X-ray, and magnetic methods. Magnetic measurements have revealed sharp tunneling peaks in the field derivative of the magnetization that occur at the typical resonant field values for the Mn?? acetate crystal in the field parallel to the easy axis.Theoretical analysis is provided that explains these observations. We argue that resonant spin tunneling in a molecular magnet can be established in a powder sample, without the need for a single crystal and without aligning the easy magnetization axes of the molecules. This is confirmed by re-analyzing the old data on a powdered sample of non-oriented micron-size crystals of Mn?? acetate. Our findings can greatly simplify the selection of candidates for quantum spin tunneling among newly synthesized molecular magnets.

  16. Acetate Metabolism in Anaerobes from the Domain Archaea.

    PubMed

    Ferry, James G

    2015-01-01

    Acetate and acetyl-CoA play fundamental roles in all of biology, including anaerobic prokaryotes from the domains Bacteria and Archaea, which compose an estimated quarter of all living protoplasm in Earth's biosphere. Anaerobes from the domain Archaea contribute to the global carbon cycle by metabolizing acetate as a growth substrate or product. They are components of anaerobic microbial food chains converting complex organic matter to methane, and many fix CO2 into cell material via synthesis of acetyl-CoA. They are found in a diversity of ecological habitats ranging from the digestive tracts of insects to deep-sea hydrothermal vents, and synthesize a plethora of novel enzymes with biotechnological potential. Ecological investigations suggest that still more acetate-metabolizing species with novel properties await discovery. PMID:26068860

  17. Carbon-11-acetate PET imaging in renal disease

    SciTech Connect

    Shreve, P.; Chiao, Ping-Chun; Humes, H.D.; Schwaiger, M.; Gross, M.D. [Univ. of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of [1-{sup 11}C]acetate as a metabolic tracer for renal imaging in human subjects. Eighteen patients underwent dynamic PET imaging of the kidneys after intravenous bolus injection of 10-20 mCi [1-{sup 11}C]acetate. Time-activity curves of renal parenchyma tracer activity were fitted to a two-compartment model using direct arterial blood sampling for the arterial input function. Renal uptake of [1-{sup 11}C]acetate is prompt and high target-to-background ratios are achieved even in the presence of markedly reduced renal function. Carbon-11-acetate is cleared from the renal parenchyma without any urinary excretion and the rate of clearance is comparable to myocardial clearance rates. Among normal subjects, K{sub 1} ranged from 0.653 to 1.37 ml/min-g, and was reduced to as low as 0.363 ml/min-g in severe renal disease (serum creatinine greater than 5 mg/dl), while k{sub 2} ranged from 0.114 to 0.166 min{sup {minus}1} among normal subjects and was reduced to as low as 0.053 min{sup {minus}1} in severe renal disease. Kinetic parameters K{sub 1} and k{sub 2} were both reduced in the presence of intrinsic renal disease or significant renal artery stenosis. Renal cell carcinoma demonstrated similar uptake of [1-{sup 11}C]acetate, but substantially reduced the rate of clearance compared to normal and diseased non-neoplastic renal tissue, allowing for ready differentiation of renal cell carcinoma from non-neoplastic renal tissue on images acquired beyond 10 min of tracer administration. Carbon-11-acetate is a promising physiologic tracer for the study of renal disease. 26 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Distribution of Tunnel Splittings in Mn12 Acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertes, K. M.; Suzuki, Yoko; Sarachik, M. P.; Paltiel, Y.; Shtrikman, H.; Zeldov, E.; Rumberger, E.; Hendrickson, D. N.; Christou, G.

    2001-11-01

    In magnetic fields applied parallel to the anisotropy axis, the relaxation of the magnetization of Mn12-acetate measured for different sweep rates collapses onto a single scaled curve. The form of the scaling implies that the dominant symmetry-breaking process responsible for tunneling is a locally varying second-order transverse anisotropy, forbidden by tetragonal symmetry in the perfect crystal, which gives rise to a broad distribution of tunnel splittings in a real crystal of Mn12 acetate. Different forms applied to even- and odd-numbered steps provide a clear distinction between even resonances (associated with crystal anisotropy) and odd resonances (which require a transverse magnetic field).

  19. First synthesis and characterization for the stereoisomers of Ulipristal acetate.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yi; Li, Xiaolong; Liu, Hong; Yu, Yongguo; Hai, Li; Guo, Li; Wu, Yong

    2015-03-01

    The three stereoisomers, 11?,17?-isomer I, 11?,17?-isomer II and 11?,17?-isomer III are related substances of the selective progesterone receptor modulator Ulipristal acetate. Herein, we presented an efficient and practical synthesis approach to deliver these three stereoisomers for the first time, and also confirmed the structure of the key intermediate 5a by single-crystal X-ray analysis. Our research will be of immense help for organic chemists to study the impurity profile of Ulipristal acetate. PMID:25554579

  20. Kanokonyl acetate-rich Indian valerian from northwestern Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Mathela, Chandra S; Padalia, Rajendra C; Chanotiya, Chandan S

    2009-09-01

    The volatile composition of rhizomes of Valeriana wallichii DC has been studied by GC, GC/MS and NMR spectroscopy. Sesquiterpenes were shown to be the main constituents (> 89.3%) comprising kanokonyl acetate (42.4%), gamma-curcumene (10.7%), ar-curcumene (7.2%), (Z)-beta-farnesene (3.2%), xanthorrhizol (4.1%), 7-epi-alpha-selinene (2.2%), valeranone (2.0%) and curcuphenol (1.4%). The unique presence of kanokonyl acetate and the complete absence of the earlier reported chemotype marker constituents of Indian valerian viz. maaliol and patchouli alcohol makes the composition significant. PMID:19831039

  1. 40 CFR 180.595 - Flufenpyr-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...General. (1) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide, flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, [2-chloro-4-fluoro-5...01 (2) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid,...

  2. 40 CFR 180.595 - Flufenpyr-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...General. (1) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide, flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, [2-chloro-4-fluoro-5...01 (2) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid,...

  3. 40 CFR 180.595 - Flufenpyr-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...General. (1) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide, flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, [2-chloro-4-fluoro-5...01 (2) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid,...

  4. 40 CFR 180.595 - Flufenpyr-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...General. (1) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide, flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, [2-chloro-4-fluoro-5...01 (2) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid,...

  5. Occurrence and metabolism of 7-hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid in Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewer, P.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1987-01-01

    7-Hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid was identified as a catabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in germinating kernels of Zea mays and found to be present in amounts of ca 3.1 nmol/kernel. 7-Hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid was shown to be a biosynthetic intermediate between 2-indolinone-3-acetic acid and 7-hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid-7'-O-glucoside in both kernels and roots of Zea mays. Further metabolism of 7-hydroxy-2-[5-3H]-indolinone-3-acetic acid-7'-O-glucoside occurred to yield tritiated water plus, as yet, uncharacterized products.

  6. Eslicarbazepine acetate in the management of refractory bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Nath, Kamal; Bhattacharya, Arnab; Praharaj, Samir Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Eslicarbazepine acetate is a novel third-generation antiepileptic related to carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine with a benign adverse effect profile. We report a patient with bipolar mania with intolerance to multiple antimanic drugs, responding to eslicarbazepine without any serious adverse effect. PMID:23151469

  7. Distribution of furfuryl alcohol between water and butyl acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Veber, N.V.; Khisamotdinova, A.I.; Tabachova, S.I.

    1985-06-10

    This paper studies the distribution of furfuryl alcohol between water and butyl acetate, which has a comparatively low solubility in water (0.5 g in 100 ml of water), forming a heterogeneous azeotropic mixture. Butyl acetate is capable of giving a hydrogen bond at the carbonyl oxygen with hydroxyl compounds, which serves as the basis for its use as an extraction reagent. The distribution of furfuryl alcohol between water and butyl acetate was studied without salting out agents, and also in the presence of sodium chloride. The experiments were conducted with model solutions of freshly redistilled furfuryl alcohol by shaking equal volumes of the phases in a separatory funnel at 18-20 C. An analysis of furfuryl alcohol in experiments without salting out was performed by a titrimetric method. The results of the distribution of furfuryl alcohol without salting out agents are presented in a table. The distribution of furfuryl alcohol in butyl acetate in the presence of sodium chloride was studied in a smaller range of concentrations.

  8. On the Structure of Cellulose Acetate Molecules in Acetone Solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seymour J. Singer; Herman Mark

    1948-01-01

    Data obtained from sedimentation velocity and viscosity measurements on a series of cellulose acetate fractions in acetone are interpreted in terms of two models, the impenetrable ellipsoid of rotation and the uniform density random coil. The lack of agreement using the former model is shown to be a real effect, rather than one determined by experimental inaccuracy. As other investigations

  9. Thermodynamic analysis of acetic acid steam reforming for hydrogen production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goicoechea, Saioa; Ehrich, Heike; Arias, Pedro L.; Kockmann, Norbert

    2015-04-01

    A thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen generation by acetic acid steam reforming has been carried out with respect to applications in solid oxide fuel cells. The effect of operating parameters on equilibrium composition has been examined focusing especially on hydrogen and carbon monoxide production, which are the fuels in this type of fuel cell. The temperature, steam to acetic acid ratio, and to a lesser extent pressure affect significantly the equilibrium product distribution due to their influence on steam reforming, thermal decomposition and water-gas shift reaction. The study shows that steam reforming of acetic acid with a steam to acetic acid ratio of 2 to 1 is thermodynamically feasible with hydrogen, carbon monoxide and water as the main products at the equilibrium at temperatures higher than 700 °C, and achieving CO/CO2 ratios higher than 1. Thus, it can be concluded that within the operation temperature range of solid oxide fuel cells - between 700 °C and 1000 °C - the production of a gas rich in hydrogen and carbon monoxide is promoted.

  10. Application Studies of Cellulose Acetate and Polymethylmethacrylate Blend Ultrafiltration Membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Vidya; D. Mohan

    2010-01-01

    The preparation of novel membranes based on cellulose acetate and polymethylmethacrylate blends in the absence and presence of the pore former by solution blending and ultrafiltration set up was carried out. The effect of compaction time on pure water flux at higher transmembrane pressure for various polymer compositions of the above blends both in the presence and absence of the

  11. Tarapacol 15-Acetate, a New Diterpenoid from Grindelia tarapacana Phil.

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Lin; Timmermann, Barbara N.; Grittini, Carina; Bruck, Michael A.; Enemark, John H.

    1996-01-01

    In the title compound, 15-acetoxy-14(S)-hydroxy-13-epi-manoyl oxide {IUPAC systematic name: 2-(dodecahydro-3,4a,7,7,10a-pentamethyl-1H-naphtho[2,1-b]pyran-3-yl)-2-hydroxyethyl acetate}, C22H38N4, rings A and B have chair conformations. Ring C adopts...

  12. Diffusion of retinol acetate (1); carbon dioxide (2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelmann, J.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Gases in Gases, Liquids and their Mixtures' of Volume 15 `Diffusion in Gases, Liquids and Electrolytes' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It is part of the chapter of the chapter `Diffusion in Pure Gases' and contains data on diffusion of (1) retinol acetate; (2) carbon dioxide

  13. CIDRS INDUCE ESTROUS CYCLES, MELENGESTROL ACETATE (MGA) DOES NOT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Postpartum anestrous interval in beef cows is a major factor contributing to reproductive failure during a defined breeding season. Our objectives were to determine the ability of a controlled internal drug-releasing device (CIDR), or melengestrol acetate (MGA) to induce ovulation and to eliminate s...

  14. 40 CFR 721.303 - Substituted acetate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (1) The chemical substance identified as acetic acid, 2-methoxy-, methyl ester (PMN P-99-0365, CAS No. 6290-49-9) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses described in paragraph (a)(2) of...

  15. Intrinsic Hydration of Uranyl-Hydroxide, -Nitrate and -Acetate Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Winnie Chien; Dorothy Hanna; Victor Anbalagan; Garold Gresham; Gary Groenewold; Michael Van Stipdonk

    2004-06-01

    The intrinsic hydration of three monopositive uranyl-anion complexes (UO2A)+ (where A = acetate, nitrate, or hydroxide) was investigated using ion-trap mass spectrometry (IT-MS). The relative rates for the formation of the monohydrates [(UO2A)(H2O)]+, with respect to the anion, followed the trend: Acetate = nitrate >> hydroxide. This finding was rationalized in terms of the donation of electron density by the strongly basic OH- to the uranyl metal center, thereby reducing the Lewis acidity of U and its propensity to react with incoming nucleophiles, viz., H2O. An alternative explanation is that the more complex acetate and nitrate anions provide increased degrees of freedom that could accommodate excess energy from the hydration reaction. The monohydrates also reacted with water, forming dihydrates and then trihydrates. The rates for formation of the nitrate and acetate dihydrates [(UO2A)(H2O)2]+ were very similar to the rates for formation of the monohydrates; the presence of the first H2O ligand had no influence on the addition of the second. In contrast, formation of the [(UO2OH)(H2O)2]+ was nearly three times faster than the formation of the monohydrate.

  16. Fragrance material review on 2,4-dimethylbenzyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2,4-dimethylbenzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2,4-Dimethylbenzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, iso-butyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2,4-dimethylbenzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22414641

  17. Fragrance material review on p-isopropylbenzyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of p-isopropylbenzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. p-Isopropylbenzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1 to 4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for p-isopropylbenzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22406560

  18. Functionalized ?,?-dibromo esters through Claisen rearrangements of dibromoketene acetals.

    PubMed

    Dupper, Nathan J; Kwon, Ohyun

    2015-02-20

    Allylic alcohols can be transformed into ?,?-unsaturated ?,?-dibromo esters through a two-step process: formation of a bromal-derived mixed acetal, followed by tandem dehydrobromination/Claisen rearrangement. The scope and selectivity of both steps have been investigated. The product ?,?-dibromo esters were subjected to various carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, oxidations, and lactonizations. PMID:25671693

  19. Cellulose acetate coated mercury film electrodes for anodic stripping voltametry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph. Wang; Lori D. Hutchins-Kumar

    1986-01-01

    The response characteristics and analytical advantages of cellulose acetate coated mercury film electrodes for anodic stripping measurements of trace metals are described. The coating provides an effective barrier of the mercury surface, thus eliminating the effects of various organic surfactants. For example, up to at least 100 ppm gelatin does not alter the response. The diagnostic power of rotating disk

  20. Synthesis of methyl acetate from syngas via dimethyl ether

    SciTech Connect

    Tartamella, T.; Sardesai, A.; Lanterman, H.B.; Lee, S.

    1999-07-01

    Dimethyl ether (DME) can be used as a building block for a variety of specialty chemicals in the petrochemical industry. Its utilization stems mainly from its efficient production from synthesis gas in a single stage. This Liquid Phase Dimethyl Ether (LP-DME) process, based on dual catalysts slurried in inert oil, can alleviate the chemical equilibrium limitation governing the methanol synthesis reaction and concurrently improve once-through syngas conversion and reactor productivity. Studies in the past have focused on using DME as a feedstock for gasoline range hydrocarbons as well as lower olefins. The focus of this investigation is to study the synthesis of methyl acetate, an important intermediate for acetic acid, from dimethyl ether. In particular, conversion of DME to methyl acetate is investigated over a variety of Group VIII metal substituted phosphotungstic acid salts. Key aspects of the process such as the effect of active metal, support types, multiple metal loading, and feed conditions are examined. Thus, this paper introduces a novel process route for synthesis of methyl acetate from natural gas-based syngas via dimethyl ether as an intermediate.

  1. Condensation of acetol and acetic acid vapor with sprayed liquid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cellulose-derived fraction of biomass pyrolysis vapor was simulated by evaporating acetol and acetic acid (AA) from flasks on a hot plate. The liquid in the flasks was infused with heated nitrogen. The vapor/nitrogen stream was superheated in a tube oven and condensed by contact with a cloud of ...

  2. Reaction with dioxygen of a Cu(I) complex of 1-benzyl-[3-(2'-pyridyl)]pyrazole triggers ethyl acetate hydrolysis: acetato-/pyrazolato-, dihydroxo- and diacetato-bridged Cu(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Jhumpa; Mukherjee, Rabindranath

    2006-04-01

    A copper(I) compound [(L2)Cu(MeCN)2][ClO4] (1) containing a new bidentate N-donor ligand L2, 1-benzyl-[3-(2'-pyridyl)]pyrazole, derived from the condensation of HL1 [HL1 = 3-(2-pyridyl)pyrazole] and benzyl chloride, has been synthesized. Structural analysis reveals that in the copper(I) centre is coordinated by a pyridine and a pyrazole nitrogen from L2 and two MeCN molecules, providing a distorted tetrahedral geometry. Reaction of with dioxygen in N,N'-dimethylformamide (dmf) at 25 degrees C and subsequent workup with MeCO2Et afforded an acetato-/pyrazolato-bridged polymeric copper(II) compound [(mu-L1)Cu(mu-O2CMe)]n (2). Notably, the deprotonated form of HL(1) and MeCO2- have originated from debenzylation of L2 and hydrolysis of MeCO2Et, respectively. The structural analysis of reveals a near-planar {Cu2(mu-L1)2}2+ core unit in which two adjacent Cu(II) ions are bridged by the deprotonated N,N-bidentate pyridylpyrazole units of two L1 and each such {Cu2(mu-L1)2}2+ unit is bridged by MeCO2- in a monodentate bridging mode [Cu...Cu separations (A): 3.9232(4) pyrazolate bridge; 3.3418(4) acetate bridge], providing a polymeric network. Careful oxygenation of in MeCN led to the isolation of a dihydroxo-bridged dicopper(II) compound [{(L2)Cu(mu-OH)(OClO3)}2] (3). Interestingly, complex brings about hydrolysis of MeCO2Et under mild conditions (dmf, ca. 60 degrees C), generating a bis-mu-1,3-acetato-bridged dicopper(II) complex, [{(L2)Cu(dmf)(mu-O2CMe)}2][ClO4]2.dmf.0.5MeCO2H (4). Compounds and have {Cu2(mu-OH)2}2+ [Cu...Cu separation of 2.8474(9) A] and {Cu2(mu-O2CMe)2}2+ cores [Cu...Cu separation: 3.0988(26) and 3.0792(29) A (two independent molecules in the asymmetric unit)] in which each Cu(II) centre is terminally coordinated by L2. A rationale has been provided for the observed debenzylation of L2 and hydrolysis of MeCO(2)Et. The intramolecular magnetic coupling between the Cu(II) (S = 1/2) ions was found to be ferromagnetic (2J = 82 cm(-1)) in the case of , but antiferromagnetic for (2J = -158 cm(-1)) and (2J = -96 cm(-1)). Absorption and EPR spectroscopic properties of the copper(II) compounds have also been investigated. PMID:16547535

  3. Acetate: A better astrobiological indicator of life than methane?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanik, I.; Russell, M. J.; Hodyss, R. P.; Johnson, P. V.

    2009-12-01

    The emergence of life on the ocean floor of the early Earth has implications for life detection on other rocky planetary bodies having subsurface ocean or ground waters in our solar system. At bottom life hydrogenates carbon dioxide. This is true not only of oxygenic photosynthesis—a relatively late evolutionary invention—but also of autotrophic chemosynthesizers such as the acetogenic bacteria and the methanoarchaea; respectively probably the first and second organisms to have emerged on Earth. Both of these prokaryotes use the acetyl coenzyme-a pathway for biosynthesis, though the variant leading to methanogenesis is substantially more complicated and therefore more highly evolved. Yet serpentinization and volcanism can produce methane with facility—an ambiguity that confounds life detection. In contrast, hydrothermal vent experiments to date along with hot spring analyses have indicated that no significant concentrations of abiotic acetate were produced in spite of the simplicity of the biological pathway. It seems that the geochemical conditions that generate abiotic methane are generally too reducing to produce acetate. Thus, the generation of acetate is solely a biotic process. As there is every reason to believe that the same chemical and electrochemical tensions would occur on other wet rocky planets containing subsurface ocean or ground waters. This encourages us to look into chemical and spectroscopic methods of detecting of acetate (both remotely and in situ) which is a better indicator than methane for the past or present biological activity on planetary bodies such as Mars. We, at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, have designed laboratory experiments to investigate the feasibility of detecting acetate using conventional chemical and spectroscopic methods. The results and applicability of these techniques for the future astrobiology missions will be discussed.

  4. The Key to Acetate: Metabolic Fluxes of Acetic Acid Bacteria under Cocoa Pulp Fermentation-Simulating Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Philipp; Frey, Lasse Jannis; Berger, Antje; Bolten, Christoph Josef; Hansen, Carl Erik

    2014-01-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) play an important role during cocoa fermentation, as their main product, acetate, is a major driver for the development of the desired cocoa flavors. Here, we investigated the specialized metabolism of these bacteria under cocoa pulp fermentation-simulating conditions. A carefully designed combination of parallel 13C isotope labeling experiments allowed the elucidation of intracellular fluxes in the complex environment of cocoa pulp, when lactate and ethanol were included as primary substrates among undefined ingredients. We demonstrate that AAB exhibit a functionally separated metabolism during coconsumption of two-carbon and three-carbon substrates. Acetate is almost exclusively derived from ethanol, while lactate serves for the formation of acetoin and biomass building blocks. Although this is suboptimal for cellular energetics, this allows maximized growth and conversion rates. The functional separation results from a lack of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and malic enzymes, typically present in bacteria to interconnect metabolism. In fact, gluconeogenesis is driven by pyruvate phosphate dikinase. Consequently, a balanced ratio of lactate and ethanol is important for the optimum performance of AAB. As lactate and ethanol are individually supplied by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts during the initial phase of cocoa fermentation, respectively, this underlines the importance of a well-balanced microbial consortium for a successful fermentation process. Indeed, AAB performed the best and produced the largest amounts of acetate in mixed culture experiments when lactic acid bacteria and yeasts were both present. PMID:24837393

  5. The key to acetate: metabolic fluxes of acetic acid bacteria under cocoa pulp fermentation-simulating conditions.

    PubMed

    Adler, Philipp; Frey, Lasse Jannis; Berger, Antje; Bolten, Christoph Josef; Hansen, Carl Erik; Wittmann, Christoph

    2014-08-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) play an important role during cocoa fermentation, as their main product, acetate, is a major driver for the development of the desired cocoa flavors. Here, we investigated the specialized metabolism of these bacteria under cocoa pulp fermentation-simulating conditions. A carefully designed combination of parallel 13C isotope labeling experiments allowed the elucidation of intracellular fluxes in the complex environment of cocoa pulp, when lactate and ethanol were included as primary substrates among undefined ingredients. We demonstrate that AAB exhibit a functionally separated metabolism during coconsumption of two-carbon and three-carbon substrates. Acetate is almost exclusively derived from ethanol, while lactate serves for the formation of acetoin and biomass building blocks. Although this is suboptimal for cellular energetics, this allows maximized growth and conversion rates. The functional separation results from a lack of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and malic enzymes, typically present in bacteria to interconnect metabolism. In fact, gluconeogenesis is driven by pyruvate phosphate dikinase. Consequently, a balanced ratio of lactate and ethanol is important for the optimum performance of AAB. As lactate and ethanol are individually supplied by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts during the initial phase of cocoa fermentation, respectively, this underlines the importance of a well-balanced microbial consortium for a successful fermentation process. Indeed, AAB performed the best and produced the largest amounts of acetate in mixed culture experiments when lactic acid bacteria and yeasts were both present. PMID:24837393

  6. Phase separation and heat-induced gelation characteristics of cellulose acetate in a mixed solvent system

    E-print Network

    Khan, Saad A.

    Phase separation and heat-induced gelation characteristics of cellulose acetate in a mixed solvent-DMA interactions. Keywords Cellulose acetate gels Á Gelation Á Viscoelastic behaviour Á Elastic modulus Á Viscous

  7. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole...acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification...acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to...treatment of carcinoid tumors of endocrine tissue. (b)...

  8. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole...acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification...acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to...treatment of carcinoid tumors of endocrine tissue. (b)...

  9. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole...acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification...acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to...treatment of carcinoid tumors of endocrine tissue. (b)...

  10. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole...acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification...acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to...treatment of carcinoid tumors of endocrine tissue. (b)...

  11. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole...acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification...acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to...treatment of carcinoid tumors of endocrine tissue. (b)...

  12. Controlled release of triprolidine using ethylene-vinyl acetate membrane and matrix systems.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sang-Chul; Lee, Hyun-Jin

    2002-09-01

    The studies on the permeability of triprolidine through ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymer membrane using two-chamber diffusion cell was carried out to develop the controlled delivery system. To evaluate the effect of drug concentration in reservoir, polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400 was added to saline solution as a solubilizer and a sink condition was maintained in the receptor solution. The permeation rate of drug through EVA membrane was proportional to PEG 400 volume fraction. A linear relationship existed between the permeation rate and the reciprocal of the membrane thickness. Triprolidine-containing matrix was fabricated with EVA copolymer to control the release of the drug. The plasticizers was added for preparing the pore structure of EVA membranes to increase the drug release. The effects of PEG 400, vinyl acetate (VA) contents of EVA, membrane thickness, drug concentration, temperature, and plasticizers, on drug release were studied. The release rate of drug from the EVA matrix increased with PEG 400 volume fraction, increased temperature and drug loading doses. An increased vinyl acetate comonomer content in EVA membrane increased the drug release rate and permeability coefficient. Among the plasticizers used such as alkyl citrates and phthalates, tetra ethyl citrate showed the best enhancing effects showing the enhancement factor of 1.88. The release of triprolidine from the EVA matrix follows a diffusion controlled model, where the quantity released per unit area is proportional to the square root of time. The controlled release of triprolidine could be achieved using the EVA polymer including the plasticizer. PMID:12191692

  13. Grain-oriented ferroelectric bismuth titanate thin film prepared from acetate precursor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanxia Lu; David T. Hoelzer; Walter A. Schulze; Bruce Tuttle; B. G. Potter

    1996-01-01

    Bismuth titanate (Bi4Ti3O12) thin films were fabricated by a spin coating deposition and rapid thermal processing (RTP) technique. The acetate-derived solution for deposition was synthesized by blending dissolved bismuth acetate in aqueous acetic acid and then adding titanium acetate. A series of electrically insulating, semiconducting and conducting substrates were evaluated for Bi4Ti3O12 films deposition. X-ray diffraction indicated that the initial

  14. Oral acetate supplementation after prolonged moderate intensity exercise enhances early muscle glycogen resynthesis in horses.

    PubMed

    Waller, Amanda P; Geor, Raymond J; Spriet, Lawrence L; Heigenhauser, George J F; Lindinger, Michael I

    2009-08-01

    Oral acetate supplementation enhances glycogen synthesis in some mammals. However, while acetate is a significant energy source for skeletal muscle at rest in horses, its effects on glycogen resynthesis are unknown. We hypothesized that administration of an oral sodium acetate-acetic acid solution with a typical grain and hay meal after glycogen-depleting exercise would result in a rapid appearance of acetate in blood with rapid uptake by skeletal muscle. It was further hypothesized that acetate taken up by muscle would be converted to acetyl CoA (and acetylcarnitine), which would be metabolized to CO2 and water via the tricarboxylic acid cycle, generating ATP within the mitochondria and thereby allowing glucose taken up by muscle to be preferentially incorporated into glycogen. Gluteus medius biopsies and jugular venous blood were sampled from nine exercise-conditioned horses on two separate occasions, at rest and for 24 h following a competition exercise test (CET) designed to simulate the speed and endurance test of a 3 day event. After the CETs, horses were allowed water ad libitum and either 8 l of a hypertonic sodium acetate-acetic acid solution via nasogastric gavage followed by a typical hay-grain meal (acetate treatment) or a hay-grain meal alone (control treatment). The CET significantly decreased muscle glycogen concentration by 21 and 17% in the acetate and control treatments, respectively. Acetate supplementation resulted in a rapid and sustained increase in plasma [acetate]. Skeletal muscle [acetyl CoA] and [acetylcarnitine] were increased at 4 h of recovery in the acetate treatment, suggesting substantial tissue extraction of the supplemented acetate. Acetate supplementation also resulted in an enhanced rate of muscle glycogen resynthesis during the initial 4 h of the recovery period compared with the control treatment; however, by 24 h of recovery there was no difference in glycogen replenishment between trials. It is concluded that oral acetate could be an alternative energy source in the horse. PMID:19429643

  15. EVALUATION OF NATURAL SOURCE VITAMIN E, RRR--TOCOPHERYL ACETATE, AS AN ALTERNATIVE MICRONUTRIENT SOURCE AND

    E-print Network

    EVALUATION OF NATURAL SOURCE VITAMIN E, RRR--TOCOPHERYL ACETATE, AS AN ALTERNATIVE MICRONUTRIENT APPROVAL EVALUATION OF NATURAL SOURCE VITAMIN E, RRR--TOCOPHERYL ACETATE, AS AN ALTERNATIVE MICRONUTRIENT: Evaluation of Natural Source Vitamin E, RRR--Tocopheryl Acetate, as an Alternative Micronutrient Source

  16. SPECTROFLUOROMETRIC AND HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC DETERMINATION OF a-TOCOPHEROL ACETATE IN OLIVE OIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed for the quantitative determination of '-acetate tocopherol in olive oil. After extracts in n-hexane, acetate '- tocopherol were quantitatively analyzed by HPLC with fluorimetric detector. The presence of acetate '- tocopherol in...

  17. 21 CFR 175.350 - Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2009-04-01 true Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer. 175.350 Section 175.350... § 175.350 Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer. A copolymer of vinyl acetate and crotonic acid may be safely used as a coating or...

  18. 75 FR 52269 - Acetic Acid Ethenyl Ester, Polymer With Oxirane; Tolerance Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ...EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0429; FRL-8841-2] Acetic Acid Ethenyl Ester, Polymer With Oxirane...requirement of a tolerance for residues of acetic acid ethenyl ester, polymer with oxirane...permissible level for residues of acetic acid ethenyl ester, polymer with oxirane...

  19. Direct Determination of Citric Acid in Milk with an Improved Pyridine-Acetic Anhydride Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Marier; M. Boulet

    1958-01-01

    SUMMARY The determination of citric acid with pyridine and acetic anhydride has been in- vestigated at reaction temperatures from 17 to 60 ° C. The optimum proportions of pyridine, acetic anhydride, water, and acetic acid for maximum color intensity and stability are given for each temperature. The procedure has been modified to eliminate the violent nature of the reaction, even

  20. Effect of Ethanol, Acetate, and Phenol on Toluene Degradation Activity and todlux

    E-print Network

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    Effect of Ethanol, Acetate, and Phenol on Toluene Degradation Activity and tod­lux Expression with increasing influent concentrations of ethanol, acetate, or phenol. Three inhibitory mechanisms were) by acetate and ethanol, which was quantified by a decrease in specific bioluminescence; (2) competitive

  1. Isothermal decomposition of gamma-irradiated dysprosium acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahfouz, R. M.; Al-Shehri, S. M.; Monshi, M. A. S.; Abd El-Salam, N. M.

    Isothermal decomposition of un-irradiated and pre-gamma-irradiated dysprosium acetate [Dy(CH3COO)(3)] has been investigated at different temperatures between 603-623 K. Irradiation was observed to enhance the rate of decomposition without modifying the mechanism of the thermal decomposition. Thermal decomposition of dysposium acetate is shown to proceed by a nucleation and growth mechanism (Avarmi-Erofe'ev equation) both for un-irradiated and pre-gamma-irradiated samples. The enhancement of the decomposition was found to increase with an increase in the gamma-ray dose applied to the sample and may be attributed to an increase in point defects and formation of additional nucleation centers generated in the host lattice. Thermodynamic values of the main decomposition process were calculated and evaluated.

  2. Ulipristal acetate, a progesterone receptor modulator for emergency contraception

    PubMed Central

    Jadav, Shilpa P.; Parmar, Dinesh M.

    2012-01-01

    Unwanted pregnancy is a global reproductive health problem. Emergency contraception is defined as the use of drug or device after unprotected or underprotected intercourse to prevent an unwanted pregnancy. 1.5 mg of levonorgestrel as a single dose or in two doses with 12 h apart taken within 72 h of unprotected intercourse is the current gold standard emergency contraception regimen. This method is only effective if used as soon as possible after sexual intercourse and before ovulation. A single dose of 30 mg ulipristal acetate, a novel selective progesterone receptor modulator, has recently been proposed for the emergency contraception use up to 120 h of unprotected intercourse with similar side effect profiles as levonorgestrel. Ulipristal acetate could possibly prevent pregnancy when administered in the advanced follicular phase, even if luteinizing hormone levels have already begun to rise, a time when levonorgestrel is no longer effective in inhibiting ovulation. PMID:22629083

  3. Ulipristal acetate, a progesterone receptor modulator for emergency contraception.

    PubMed

    Jadav, Shilpa P; Parmar, Dinesh M

    2012-04-01

    Unwanted pregnancy is a global reproductive health problem. Emergency contraception is defined as the use of drug or device after unprotected or underprotected intercourse to prevent an unwanted pregnancy. 1.5 mg of levonorgestrel as a single dose or in two doses with 12 h apart taken within 72 h of unprotected intercourse is the current gold standard emergency contraception regimen. This method is only effective if used as soon as possible after sexual intercourse and before ovulation. A single dose of 30 mg ulipristal acetate, a novel selective progesterone receptor modulator, has recently been proposed for the emergency contraception use up to 120 h of unprotected intercourse with similar side effect profiles as levonorgestrel. Ulipristal acetate could possibly prevent pregnancy when administered in the advanced follicular phase, even if luteinizing hormone levels have already begun to rise, a time when levonorgestrel is no longer effective in inhibiting ovulation. PMID:22629083

  4. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate: potential drug-excipient incompatibility.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zedong; Choi, Duk Soon

    2008-01-01

    The stability of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMC-AS) and its potential incompatibility with active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) carrying hydroxyl group(s) were investigated in this research. HPMC-AS may undergo hydrolysis under harsh processing conditions with the generation of succinic acid and acetic acid, which can form ester bond(s) with the hydroxyl group(s) in API. In this case, the hot-melt extrusion (HME) product prepared from HPMC-AS and our model compound (compound A) was tested after heating at 140 degrees C up to 5 h. The succinate esters of compound A and its epimer were found in the product, suggesting potential drug-excipient incompatibility during formulation development. In addition, dyphylline was also tested with HPMC-AS and the potential incompatibility was further confirmed. PMID:18758966

  5. The vapour pressures of saturated aqueous solutions of magnesium, calcium, nickel and zinc acetates and molar enthalpies of solution of magnesium, calcium, zinc and lead acetates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Apelblat; Eli Korin

    2001-01-01

    Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of magnesium, calcium, nickel and zinc acetates were determined as a function of temperature. The vapour pressures served to evaluate the water activities, osmotic coefficients and molar enthalpies of vaporization. Molar enthalpies of solution of magnesium acetate tetrahydrate,?solHm (T= 294.71K ;m= 0.01 mol · kg?1) =?(15.65 ± 0.97)kJ · mol?1; calcium acetate,?solHm (T=

  6. Effect of lead acetate toxicity on experimental male albino rat

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Nabil M; Eweis, Esam A; El-Beltagi, Hossam S; Abdel-Mobdy, Yasmin E

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of different doses of lead acetate (1/20, 1/40 and 1/60 of LD50) on body weight gain, blood picture, plasma protein profile and the function of liver, kidney and thyroid gland. Methods Male albino rats were divided into four groups, the first group represented the health control animals, while the second, third and fourth groups were ingested orally with sub lethal doses of lead acetate (1/20, 1/40 and 1/60) of the oral LD50, respectively. One dose was ingested every two days during the experimental period (14 weeks) including the adaptation time. Blood was collected and used for all analysis. Results The results showed that, the ingestion of Pb2+ induced significant stimulation in glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (ALT) and glutamic-oxalacetic transaminease (AST) activity. Also, total soluble protein and albumin contents of plasma were significantly decreased, while the content of globulin was changed by the Pb2+ treatments. The cholinesterase activity was inhibited, but the activities of alkaline and acid phosphates and lactate dehydrogenase were stimulated, while plasma glucose level was elevated as a result of lead acetate intoxication. In case of blood picture, Pb2+ ingestion reduced the contents of hemoglobin and RBCs count of intoxicated rat's blood and the plasma levels of T3, T4 and blood WBCs count were decreased. Conclusions It can be concluded that lead acetate has harmful effect on experimental male albino rats. Therefore, the present work advises people to prevent exposure to the lead compound to avoid injurious hazard risk. PMID:23569832

  7. Mode of Action of the Antibacterial Compound Dequalinium Acetate

    PubMed Central

    Hugo, W. B.; Frier, M.

    1969-01-01

    Dequalinium acetate is taken up rapidly by bacterial cells. Unlike the membrane-active drugs exemplified by cetrimide or chlorhexidine, its capacity for damaging the plasma membrane is low. The drug appears to penetrate quite rapidly into the cytoplasm where its effect seems to be exerted. A review of the evidence obtained in this study suggests that nucleic acid-containing components of the cell may be the prime target of this compound. PMID:4975451

  8. Transport properties of polyaniline-cellulose-acetate blends

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jérôme Planès; Andreas Wolter; Yasmina Cheguettine; Adam Pron; Françoise Genoud; Maxime Nechtschein

    1998-01-01

    Transport properties of polyaniline (PANI)-cellulose acetate (CA) conducting blends have been investigated at various length scales and temperatures. We report on the results of dc and ac conductivity measurements, magnetoresistance and electron-spin resonance (ESR) performed on composite films with PANI weight fraction p ranging from the percolation threshold-pc~=0.1%-to a few percent. Three different PANI doping agents have been tested, namely,

  9. Enhancement of hepatic detoxification enzyme activity by dietary mercuric acetate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Wagstaff

    1973-01-01

    This report deals with stimulation of liver microsomal enzymes by dietary mercuric acetate (HgAc) and interactions of HgAc with phenobarbital sodium (PB). There is a diphasic response of microsomal enzymes in rats exposed to mercurials. Detoxication activity increased as the dietary dose of HgAc was increased. Liver weight was unaffected by ingestion of HgAc . Toxicity of HgAc increased with

  10. Rapid electrophoresis and quantitation of haemoglobins on cellulose acetate

    PubMed Central

    Marengo-Rowe, A. J.

    1965-01-01

    A rapid and reproducible electrophoretic method for the separation and quantitation of haemoglobins on cellulose acetate is described. The accuracy of the method and its possible sources of error are discussed. The normal range for haemoglobin A2 by this method is 1% to 3% of the total haemoglobin concentration. Blood samples from 32 thalassaemic patients showed haemoglobin A2 values of 3·5% to 7%. Images PMID:5844210

  11. Organisms Associated with Acetic Acid Bacteria in Vinegar Production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra Rainieri; Carlo Zambonelli

    Vinegars are the product of scalar fermentations carried out by several groups of microorganisms acting at different moments\\u000a in time. The initial phase is generally represented by an alcoholic fermentation commonly carried out by yeasts. Lactic acid\\u000a bacteria (LAB) can also play a role in releasing ethanol and acetic acid from heterofermentative lactic acid fermentations.\\u000a Depending on the nature of

  12. Use of fibre wastes from production of acetate fibres

    SciTech Connect

    Askarov, M.I.; Tashpulatova, A.B.

    1995-07-01

    The rational use of production wastes is an important part of the Fergana Chemical Fibre Plant in Russia. This recycling reduces the negative effect of the technological process on the environment, increases the economy of production, and produces additional consumer goods. Consumer goods began to be produced at the plant in 1978 with processing of amide-acetate textured fibres into yarn for hand knitting. The need to increase the volumes and expand the variety of goods for the market predetermined an important increase in production of this product. Production of consumer goods has increased since 1990, and both fibre wastes and untreated low-grade fibres and filaments have been used as the starting material. Technological processes for processing wastes and low-grade figured, textured polyamide-acetate fibres into knitting yarn, haberdashery cord, and finishing tape and fringe were created and introduced in subsequent years. The primary technological formulation for production of these materials is well known and is used in light industry. However, production of each type of product in the plant was preceded by research related to selection of the optimum linear density of the filaments used, composition of blends, and the structure of figured fibres, as well as the concrete technological parameters and operating regimes of the equipment to produce articles of the required quality. Development and testing of new decorative textiles are continuing. Low grade and nonstandard acetate semifinished fibre from spinning machines and low grade, bulk dyed acetate fibres have been selected as the raw material for fabrication of these articles.

  13. Photocatalytic oxidation and decomposition of acetic acid on titanium silicalite.

    PubMed

    Lee, G D; Tuan, V A; Falconer, J L

    2001-03-15

    Transient reaction of adsorbed monolayers of acetic acid was used to characterize the photocatalytic properties of titanium silicalite zeolites (TS-1). The TS-1 zeolites having Si/Ti ratios of 5, 12.5, and 50 are effective catalysts at room temperature for both photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) and decomposition (PCD) of acetic acid. The rates of PCO are higher than the rates of PCD for each catalyst. Acetic acid oxidized photocatalytically in 0.2% O2 to form gas-phase CO2 and CH4 and adsorbed H2O on the TS-1 catalysts, whereas no CH4 formed on Degussa P25 TiO2. Isotope labeling showed that, on both TiO2 and TS-1 catalysts, the alpha-carbon formed CO2 whereas the beta-carbon formed CH4 and CO2. The rates of oxidation of the two carbons have different dependencies on UV intensity. The catalysts with higher Si/Ti ratios adsorbed significantly more acetic acid, and the PCO rates per gram of titanium are highest on the TS-1 catalyst with the lowest Ti content, apparently because a larger fraction of the Ti atoms are surface atoms on this catalyst. During PCD in an inert atmosphere, CO2, CH4, and C2H6 formed on TiO2 and on the catalyst with a Si/Ti ratio of 5, but C2H6 was not detected on the other catalysts. The CO2/CH4 selectivity during PCD increased with increasing Si/Ti ratio. The first step in PCO and PCD on TS-1 catalysts appears to be similar and involves formation of a CH3 radical. PMID:11347941

  14. Acetic Acid Bacteria Taxonomy from Early Descriptions to Molecular Techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Gullo; Paolo Giudici

    The exploitation of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) has a long history in fermentation processes and now represents an emerging\\u000a field in biotechnological applications, especially with regard to the biosynthesis of useful chemicals with a potentially\\u000a high economic value and, in food science, through the standardization of microbiological processes for the manufacture of\\u000a both vinegar and other fermented beverages.

  15. Zinc acetate and lyophilized aloe barbadensis as vaginal contraceptive

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Fahim; M. Wang

    1996-01-01

    Twenty samples of fresh ejaculate, donated by healthy volunteers ranging in age from 20–30 years, were obtained from the Center for Fertility & Cryobiology, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri. Average semen volume was 2.49 ml; average sperm motility was 71.32%; and average sperm density was 113.71 × 106\\/ml. Testing for spermicidal effectiveness of a 1% concentration of zinc acetate, zinc

  16. Acetate enhances startup of a H?-producing microbial biocathode.

    PubMed

    Jeremiasse, Adriaan W; Hamelers, Hubertus V M; Croese, Elsemiek; Buisman, Cees J N

    2012-03-01

    H(2) can be produced from organic matter with a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC). To decrease MEC capital costs, a cathode is needed that is made of low-cost material and produces H(2) at high rate. A microbial biocathode is a low-cost candidate, but suffers from a long startup and a low H(2) production rate. In this study, the effects of cathode potential and carbon source on microbial biocathode startup were investigated. Application of a more negative cathode potential did not decrease the startup time of the biocathode. If acetate instead of bicarbonate was used as carbon source, the biocathode started up more than two times faster. The faster startup was likely caused by a higher biomass yield for acetate than for bicarbonate, which was supported by thermodynamic calculations. To increase the H(2) production rate, a flow through biocathode fed with acetate was investigated. This biocathode produced 2.2 m(3) H(2) m(-3) ?reactor day(-1) at a cathode potential of -0.7 V versus NHE, which was seven times that of a parallel flow biocathode of a previous study. PMID:22012403

  17. Role of fluoride in accelerating the reactions of dialkylstannylene acetals.

    PubMed

    Lu, Simiao; Boyd, Russell J; Grindley, T Bruce

    2015-03-20

    The most common method for achieving the regioselective monoalkylation of diols involves formation of dialkylstannylene acetals as intermediates. Reactions of dialkylstannylene acetals with alkyl halides are slow, but rates are enhanced by addition of fluoride or other nucleophiles. The mechanism of the fluoride-accelerated alkylation of dialkylstannylene acetals was studied at several levels of theory in the gas phase, in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) solution, and in DMF solution in the presence of tetramethylammonium ions. The reactive species were adducts involving addition of fluoride to tin. Under the conditions that most closely simulated experiment, reactions from fluoridated monomers and monofluoridated dimers were calculated to have similar activation energies. In the transition states in the rate-determining steps for the two pathways, carbon-oxygen bond formation was between 60 and 75% complete while tin-oxygen bond cleavage was much less advanced, between 6 and 16% complete. A test of Sn-O bond dissociation indicated that the "Sn-O bond cleavage first" mechanism is not a minimum energy pathway. PMID:25668481

  18. Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Potential Problems for Photovoltaic Packaging: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Kempe, M. D.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Terwilliger, K. M.; McMahon, T. J.; Kennedy, C. E.; Borek, T. T.

    2006-05-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) devices are typically encapsulated using ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) to provide mechanical support, optical coupling, electrical isolation, and protection against environmental exposure. Under exposure to atmospheric water and/or ultraviolet radiation, EVA will decompose to produce acetic acid, lowering the pH and increasing the surface corrosion rates of embedded devices. Even though acetic acid is produced at a very slow rate, it may not take much to catalyze reactions that lead to rapid module deterioration. Another consideration is that the glass transition of EVA, as measured using dynamic mechanical analysis, begins at temperatures of about ?15 C. Temperatures lower than this can be reached for extended periods of time in some climates. Because of increased moduli below the glass transition temperature, a module may be more vulnerable to damage if a mechanical load is applied by snow or wind at low temperatures. Modules using EVA should not be rated for use at such low temperatures without additional low-temperature mechanical testing beyond the scope of UL 1703.

  19. Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Potential Problems for Photovoltaic Packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kempe, M. D.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Terwilliger, K. M.; McMahon, T. J.; Kennedy, C. E.; Borek, T. T.

    2006-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) devices are typically encapsulated using ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) to provide mechanical support, optical coupling, electrical isolation, and protection against environmental exposure. Under exposure to atmospheric water and/or ultraviolet radiation, EVA will decompose to produce acetic acid, lowering the pH and increasing the surface corrosion rates of embedded devices. Even though acetic acid is produced at a very slow rate, it may not take much to catalyze reactions that lead to rapid module deterioration. Another consideration is that the glass transition of EVA, as measured using dynamic mechanical analysis, begins at temperatures of about -15 degC. Temperatures lower than this can be reached for extended periods of time in some climates. Because of increased moduli below the glass transition temperature, a module may be more vulnerable to damage if a mechanical load is applied by snow or wind at low temperatures. Modules using EVA should not be rated for use at such low temperatures without additional low-temperature mechanical testing beyond the scope of UL1703.

  20. Inhibition of C4 photosynthesis by (benzamidooxy)acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, H; Ku, M S; Edwards, G E

    1982-12-01

    (Benzamidooxy)acetic acid (common name benzadox) which has herbicidal properties was evaluated as a potential inhibitor of photosynthesis in C4 plants. Among enzymes of the C4 pathway, it was a relatively strong inhibitor of alanine aminotransferase in in vitro experiments at concentrations of 5mM. In benzadox treated leaves of Panicum miliaceum, a NAD-malic enzyme type C4 species, there was strong inhibition of both alanine and aspartate aminotransferase and of photosynthetic O2 evolution within one hour. Consistent with the inhibition of these enzymes of the C4 cycle, the pool sizes of metabolites of the cycle was altered: the aspartate level was increased two fold, while the levels of other metabolites such as pyruvate, alanine, oxalacetate and malate were decreased. Kinetic studies with partially purified alanine aminotransferase showed that benzadox is a competitive inhibitor with respect to alanine and a noncompetitive inhibitor with respect to 2-oxoglutarate. Comparisons between the structures and inhibitory actions of benzadox and (aminooxy)acetic acid, the latter a potent inhibitor of alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, suggest that in vivo, benzadox may exert its effect through metabolism to (aminooxy)acetic acid. PMID:24458342

  1. Miscibility and dynamical properties of cellulose acetate/plasticizer systems.

    PubMed

    Bao, Cong Yu; Long, Didier R; Vergelati, Caroll

    2015-02-13

    Due to its biodegradability and renewability, a great interest has been devoted to investigating cellulose acetate in order to expand its potential applications. In addition, secondary cellulose acetate (CDA) could also be considered as a model system for strongly polar polymer system. The dynamical behavior of CDA is supposed to be governed by H-bonding and dipolar interaction network. Due to their high glass transition temperature, cellulose acetate-based systems are processed when blended with plasticizers. It is thus of utmost importance to study the miscibility and plasticizing effects of various molecules. We prepared CDA films via solvent casting method with diethyl phthalate as the plasticizer. Miscibility diagrams were established by calorimetry and thermo-mechanical (DMTA) experiments. Dynamical properties were analyzed by DMTA and broadband dielectric spectroscopy. We could identify the ?-relaxation of these CDA-plasticizer systems in the frequency range from 0.06 Hz to 10(6)Hz, which allowed for describing the dynamics in the so-called Williams-Landel-Ferry/Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann regime. PMID:25458277

  2. Rose bengal acetate photodynamic therapy-induced autophagy.

    PubMed

    Dini, Luciana; Inguscio, Valentina; Tenuzzo, Bernardetta; Panzarini, Elisa

    2010-11-15

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT), an anticancer therapy requiring the exposure of cells or tissue to a photosensitizing drug followed by irradiation with visible light of the appropriate wavelength, induces cell death by the efficient induction of apoptotic as well as non-apoptotic mechanisms, such as necrosis and autophagy, or a combination of all three mechanisms. However, the exact role of autophagy in photodynamic therapy is still a matter of debate. To understand the role of autophagy in PDT, we investigated the induction of autophagy in HeLa cells photosensitized with Rose Bengal Acetate (RBAc). After incubation with Rose Bengal Acetate (10-5 M), HeLa cells were irradiated for 90 seconds (green LED DPL 305, emitting at 530 +15 nm to obtain 1.6 J/cm2 as the total light dose) and allowed to recover for 72 h. Induction of autophagy and apoptosis were observed with peaks at 8 h and 12 h after irradiation, respectively. Autophagy was detected by biochemical (Western Blotting for the LC3B protein) and morphological criteria (TEM, cytochemistry). In addition, the pan-caspase inhibitor, z-VAD, was unable to completely prevent cell death. The simultaneous onset of apoptosis and autophagy following Rose Bengal Acetate PDT is of remarkable interest in light of the findings that autophagy can result in the class II presentation of antigens and thus, explain why low dose PDT can yield anti-tumor immune responses. PMID:20935508

  3. Change in the plasmid copy number in acetic acid Bacteria in response to growth phase and acetic acid Concentration.

    PubMed

    Akasaka, Naoki; Astuti, Wiwik; Ishii, Yuri; Hidese, Ryota; Sakoda, Hisao; Fujiwara, Shinsuke

    2015-06-01

    Plasmids pGE1 (2.5 kb), pGE2 (7.2 kb), and pGE3 (5.5 kb) were isolated from Gluconacetobacter europaeus KGMA0119, and sequence analyses revealed they harbored 3, 8, and 4 genes, respectively. Plasmid copy numbers (PCNs) were determined by real-time quantitative PCR at different stages of bacterial growth. When KGMA0119 was cultured in medium containing 0.4% ethanol and 0.5% acetic acid, PCN of pGE1 increased from 7 copies/genome in the logarithmic phase to a maximum of 12 copies/genome at the beginning of the stationary phase, before decreasing to 4 copies/genome in the late stationary phase. PCNs for pGE2 and pGE3 were maintained at 1-3 copies/genome during all phases of growth. Under a higher concentration of ethanol (3.2%) the PCN for pGE1 was slightly lower in all the growth stages, and those of pGE2 and pGE3 were unchanged. In the presence of 1.0% acetic acid, PCNs were higher for pGE1 (10 copies/genome) and pGE3 (6 copies/genome) during the logarithmic phase. Numbers for pGE2 did not change, indicating that pGE1 and pGE3 increase their PCNs in response to acetic acid. Plasmids pBE2 and pBE3 were constructed by ligating linearized pGE2 and pGE3 into pBR322. Both plasmids were replicable in Escherichia coli, Acetobacter pasteurianus and G. europaeus, highlighting their suitability as vectors for acetic acid bacteria. PMID:25575969

  4. Elevated acetate concentrations in the rhizosphere of Spartina alterniflora and potential influences on sulfate reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, Mark E.; Tugel, Joyce B.; Giblin, A. E.; Banta, G. T.; Hobbie, J. E.

    1992-01-01

    Acetate is important in anaerobic metabolism of non-vegetated sediments but its role in salt marsh soils was not investigated thoroughly. Acetate concentrations, oxidation (C-14) and SO4(2-) reduction (S-35) were measured in S. alterniflora soils in NH and MA. Pore water from cores contained greater than 0.1 mM acetate and in some instances greater than 1.0 mM. Non-destructive samples contained less than 0.01 mM. Acetate was associated with roots and concentrations were highest during vegetative growth and varied with changes in plant physiology. Acetate turnover was very low whether whole core or slurry incubations were used. Radiotracers injected directly into soils yielded rates of SO4(2-) reduction and acetate oxidation not significantly different from core incubation techniques. Regardless of incubation method, acetate oxidation did not account for a significant percentage of SO4(2-) reduction. These results differ markedly from data for non-vegetated coastal sediments where acetate levels are low, oxidation rate constants are high and acetate oxidation rates greatly exceed rates of SO4(2-) reduction. The discrepancy between rates of acetate oxidation and SO4(2-) reduction in marsh soils may be due either to the utilization of substrates other than acetate by SO4(2-) reducers or artifacts associated with measurements of organic utilization by rhizosphere bacteria.

  5. Stability of poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) and leuprolide acetate in in-situ forming drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Dong, W Y; Körber, M; López Esguerra, V; Bodmeier, R

    2006-10-10

    In-situ forming drug delivery systems are prepared by dissolving a drug and a biodegradable polymer (poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide), PLGA) in a biocompatible organic solvent (In-situ implant, ISI) or further emulsified into an external phase (oil or aqueous solution), resulting in oil-in-oil or oil-in-water emulsions (In-situ forming microparticles, ISM). The chemical stability of PLGA and the drug is a major concern. In this study, the stability of PLGA and leuprolide acetate in the in-situ forming systems and lyophilized sponges was investigated. The degradation of PLGA increased with increasing storage temperature and water content in the biocompatible solvents. A faster degradation occurred in polar protic solvents (2-pyrrolidone, PEG 400, triethyl citrate) than in polar aprotic solvents (N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, DMSO, triacetin, ethyl acetate). The presence of leuprolide acetate significantly accelerated PLGA degradation, especially in solution state. PLGA was stable in oily suspensions at 4 degrees C and degraded only slightly faster than solid powder at 25 degrees C. No interaction between the oils and the PLGA was observed as indicated by an unchanged T(g) of approx. 47 degrees C. PLGA underwent a slight degradation at 4 degrees C after 150 days in water and saturated sodium chloride solution. The degradation was slower in saturated sodium chloride solution than in water at 25 degrees C. Residual acetic acid in lyophilized sponges facilitated the PLGA degradation in contrast to dioxane. Leuprolide acetate did not affect the PLGA stability negatively. However, lidocaine significantly enhanced the polymer degradation in the sponges. Finally, leuprolide acetate was chemically stable in the sponges, the oils and the polymer solutions in suspension state, but unstable (aggregation) when dissolved in the polymer solutions and stored at 25 degrees C and 40 degrees C. PMID:16963145

  6. Pharmacokinetics of eslicarbazepine acetate in patients with moderate hepatic impairment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis Almeida; J. Hendrick Potgieter; Joana Maia; M. Alida Potgieter; Fernando Mota; P. Soares-da-Silva

    2008-01-01

    Objective  To evaluate the effect of moderate liver impairment on the pharmacokinetics of eslicarbazepine acetate (BIA 2-093, ESL), a\\u000a novel voltage-gated sodium channel blocker currently in clinical development.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The pharmacokinetics of ESL following an administration regimen of 800 mg once-daily for 8 days was characterized in patients\\u000a with moderate liver impairment (n?=?8) and in subjects with normal liver function (n?=?8, control

  7. Complexation of thorium(IV) with acetate at variable temperatures.

    PubMed

    Rao, Linfeng; Zhang, Zhicheng; Zanonato, PierLuigi; Di Bernardo, Plinio; Bismondo, Arturo; Clark, Sue B

    2004-09-21

    The complexation between Th(IV) and acetate in 1.05 mol kg(-1) NaClO4 was studied at variable temperatures (10, 25, 40, 55 and 70 degrees C). The formation constants of five successive complexes, Th(Ac)j(4-j)+ where Ac = CH3COO- and j = 1-5, and the molar enthalpies of complexation were determined by potentiometry and calorimetry. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) provided additional information on the complexes in solution. The effect of temperature on the stability of the complexes is discussed in terms of the electrostatic model. PMID:15349159

  8. Potassium 2-(N-hydroxy­carbamo­yl)acetate monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Prisyazhnaya, Elena V.; Odarich, Irina; Fritsky, Igor O.; Gumienna-Kontecka, El?bieta; Iskenderov, Turganbay S.

    2009-01-01

    The crystal structure of the title compound, K+·C3H4NO4 ?·H2O, consists of potassium cations, monoanions of 2-carboxy­acetohydroxamic acid [namely 2-(N-hydroxy­carbamo­yl)acetate] and solvent water mol­ecules. The elements of the structure are united in a three-dimensional network by numerous K?O coordinate bonds and O—H?O and N—H?O hydrogen bonds. The coordination sphere of the K+ ions may be described as a distorted double capped octa­hedron. Bond lengths and angles are similar to those in related compounds. PMID:21577769

  9. A simple and convenient synthetic route to Ulipristal acetate.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yongguo; He, Yun; Zhao, Yi; Hai, Li; Wu, Yong

    2013-12-11

    We set out to describe a new and efficient route for preparing Ulipristal acetate with a good yield. The selected epoxidization conditions gave out 80% of 5?,10?-epoxide 2a in the two diastereoisomers which greatly improved the yield of 11?-substituted isomer 4a. And phenyl-sulfinyl compound 6 was synthesized from ketone 5 directly treated with phenylsulfenyl chloride in the presence of triethylamine. These synthetic procedures is only 8 steps, less than currently reported in the literature, but more suitable for industrial process. PMID:24095652

  10. Carboxymethylcellulose acetate butyrate in water-based automotive paints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JD Posey-Dowty; KS Seo; KR Walker; AK Wilson

    2002-01-01

    Summaries  Water-dispersible carboxymethylcellulose acetate butyrate (CMCAB) has been shown to improve flow and levelling, and reduce\\u000a cratering, picture framing, and other defects in water-borne paints.\\u000a \\u000a Rheology control agents which are normally used to keep pigments dispersed and to prevent sagging often increase elasticity\\u000a of the paint. Fine-tuning the rheological profile of water-borne coatings is critical because too much elasticity can lead

  11. Kinetic Modeling of Esterification of Ethylene Glycol with Acetic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, Vishnu P.; Maity, Sunil K. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Hyderabad, Ordnance Factory Estate, Yeddumailiram-502205, Andhra Pradesh (India); Mukherjee, Rudra Palash [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur, Mahatma Gandhi Avenue, Durgapur-713209, West Bengal (India); Bantraj, Kandi [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela-769008, Orissa (India)

    2010-10-26

    The reaction kinetics of the esterification of ethylene glycol with acetic acid in the presence of cation exchange resin has been studied and kinetic models based on empirical and Langmuir approach has been developed. The Langmuir based model involving eight kinetic parameters fits experimental data much better compared to empirical model involving four kinetic parameters. The effect of temperature and catalyst loading on the reaction system has been analyzed. Further, the activation energy and frequency factor of the rate constants for Langmuir based model has been estimated.

  12. Glatiramer acetate treatment of multiple sclerosis: an immunological perspective.

    PubMed

    Racke, Michael K; Lovett-Racke, Amy E

    2011-02-15

    Glatiramer acetate (GA) has been used as an immunomodulatory agent for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) in the United States since 1996. It is currently one of two first-line agents for use in the treatment of relapsing-remitting MS. GA was the first agent to be used in the treatment of MS that was developed using the animal model of MS called experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. In this commentary, we examine the development of GA as a treatment for MS and discuss its mechanism of action as suggested by recent studies using modern immunologic methods. PMID:21289312

  13. Electrical and Thermal Properties of Polyvinyl Acetal Based Nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Sauers, Isidor [ORNL; James, David Randy [ORNL; Ellis, Alvin R [ORNL; Tuncer, Enis [ORNL; Polyzos, Georgios [ORNL; Pace, Marshall O [ORNL

    2009-10-01

    A water chemistry procedure is used to synthesize titanium dioxide nanoparticles which can later be blended with a polymer to form a nanodielectric. The synthesized nanoparticles are dispersed in two grades of polyvinyl acetal (commercially available under the trade names BX-L and KS-10, manufactured by SEKISUI Chemicals). Nanocomposite materials were prepared with 15 and 33 wt% titanium dioxide. The variation of the glass transition temperature with increasing filler weight fraction is presented. The dielectric breakdown strengths of the nanodielectric samples are reported. The presented results can be employed to optimize the dielectric properties of the studied nanocomposites for potential use in cryogenic high voltage applications.

  14. Hydrogen Fluoride Capture by Imidazolium Acetate Ionic Liquid

    E-print Network

    Chaban, Vitaly

    2015-01-01

    Extraction of hydrofluoric acid (HF) from oils is a drastically important problem in petroleum industry, since HF causes quick corrosion of pipe lines and brings severe health problems to humanity. Some ionic liquids (ILs) constitute promising scavenger agents thanks to strong binding to polar compounds and tunability. PM7-MD simulations and hybrid density functional theory are employed here to consider HF capture ability of ILs. Discussing the effects and impacts of the cation and the anion separately and together, I will evaluate performance of imidazolium acetate and outline systematic search guidelines for efficient adsorption and extraction of HF.

  15. [Research of imidazo[1,2-a]benzimidazole derivatives. XXX. Synthesis and properties of (imidazo[1,2-a]benzimidazolyl-2)acetic acid derivatives].

    PubMed

    Anisimova, V A; Tolpygin, I E; Spasov, A A; Serdiuk, T S; Sukhov, A G

    2011-01-01

    Ethyl esters of (9-subtituted-imidazo[1,2-a]benzimidazolyl-2)acetic acids were synthesized. The chemical properties of these esters (hydrolysis, decarboxylation, hydrazinolysis) and biological activity (fungicidal, antimicrobial, antiarrhythmic activity, and also affects on the brain rhythmogenesis) of the prepared compounds were studied. PMID:22497083

  16. Release of doxycycline through cellulose acetate symmetric and asymmetric membranes produced from recycled agroindustrial residue: Sugarcane bagasse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guimes Rodrigues Filho; Sabrina Dias Ribeiro; Carla da Silva Meireles; Leandro Gustavo da Silva; Reinaldo Ruggiero; Moacir Fernandes Ferreira; Daniel Alves Cerqueira; Rosana Maria Nascimento de Assunção; Mara Zeni; Patricia Polleto

    2011-01-01

    Cellulose acetate is one of the components employed in drug controlled-release systems in the form of membranes. The aim of this study was to examine the controlled-release of doxycycline employing cellulose acetate symmetric and asymmetric membranes as matrices. The cellulose triacetate was produced from sugarcane bagasse through a homogeneous acetylation reaction, using acetic acid as the solvent, acetic anhydride as

  17. E¡ect of sulfate and nitrate on acetate conversion by anaerobic microorganisms in a freshwater sediment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johannes C. M. Scholten; Peter M. van Bodegom; Jaap Vogelaar; Alexander van Ittersum; Kees Hordijk; Wim Roelofsen; Alfons J. M. Stams

    Acetate is quantitatively the most important substrate for methane production in a freshwater sediment in The Netherlands. In the presence of alternative electron acceptors the conversion of acetate by methanogens was strongly inhibited. By modelling the results, obtained in experiments with and without 13C-labelled acetate, we could show that the competition for acetate between methanogens and sulfate reducers is the

  18. Indium acetate toxicity in male reproductive system in rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kuo-Hsin; Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Leung, Chung-Man; Chen, Hsin-Pao; Hsu, Ping-Chi

    2014-07-01

    Indium, a rare earth metal characterized by high plasticity, corrosion resistance, and a low melting point, is widely used in the electronics industry, but has been reported to be an environmental pollutant and a health hazard. We designed a study to investigate the effects of subacute exposure of indium compounds on male reproductive function. Twelve-week old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into test and control groups, and received weekly intraperitoneal injections of indium acetate (1.5 mg/kg body weight) and normal saline, respectively, for 8 weeks. Serum indium levels, cauda epididymal sperm count, motility, morphology, chromatin DNA structure, mitochondrial membrane potential, oxidative stress, and testis DNA content were investigated. The indium acetate-treated group showed significant reproductive toxicity, as well as an increased percentage of sperm morphology abnormality, chromatin integrity damage, and superoxide anion generation. Furthermore, positive correlations among sperm morphology abnormalities, chromatin DNA damage, and superoxide anion generation were also noted. The results of this study demonstrated the toxic effect of subacute low-dose indium exposure during the period of sexual maturation on male reproductive function in adulthood, through an increase in oxidative stress and sperm chromatin DNA damage during spermiogenesis, in a rodent model. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2014. PMID:25044390

  19. Use of zinc acetate to treat copper toxicosis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Brewer, G J; Dick, R D; Schall, W; Yuzbasiyan-Gurkan, V; Mullaney, T P; Pace, C; Lindgren, J; Thomas, M; Padgett, G

    1992-08-15

    Zinc acetate was used for the treatment and prophylaxis of hepatic copper toxicosis in 3 Bedlington Terriers and 3 West Highland White Terriers. Two dogs of each breed were treated for 2 years, and 1 of each breed for 1 year. A dosage of 200 mg of elemental zinc per day was required to achieve therapeutic objectives related to copper, which included a doubling of plasma zinc concentration to 200 micrograms/dl and a suppression of oral 64 copper absorption. The dosage was later reduced to 50 to 100 mg/day to avoid an excessive increase in plasma zinc concentration. The preliminary clinical results were good. Three dogs had mild to moderate active liver disease and high liver copper concentrations at the time of initiation of zinc administration. Biopsy of the liver 2 years later revealed a reduction in hepatitis and copper concentrations. One other dog without active hepatitis also had a reduction in hepatic copper concentrations over a 2-year period. All 6 dogs have done well clinically. On the basis of these findings, we believe zinc acetate to be an effective and nontoxic treatment for copper toxicosis in dogs. PMID:1517130

  20. A new contraceptive pill containing 17?-estradiol and nomegestrol acetate.

    PubMed

    Christin-Maitre, Sophie; Laroche, Emmanuelle; Bricaire, Léopoldine

    2013-01-01

    Most combined oral contraceptive pills contain ethinyl estradiol (EE) with progestins. In order to minimize the pill's cardiovascular risks, the concept of using 17?-estradiol (E2), the endogenous estradiol, arose in the 1970s. Many attempts to develop a pill containing 17?-E2 have failed as cycle control was low. The first pill containing 17?-E2 was launched in 2011. This monophasic pill contains 24 pills with 1.5 mg 17?-E2 and 2.5 mg nomegestrol acetate, and four placebo pills. Studies conducted in Europe and the USA demonstrate that its Pearl index is 0.38 and 1.13, respectively. It has less influence on hemostasis, fibrinolysis markers, lipids and carbohydrate metabolism than the combined oral contraceptive levonorgestrel/EE (150 g/30 g and 100 µg/20 µg). Withdrawal bleedings are shorter and lighter as compared with women using drospirenone/EE (3 mg/ 30 µg). The number of women without withdrawal bleeding is approximately 30% after 12 months. Even though its contraindications are identical to other combined oral contraceptives, this nomegestrol acetate/E2 pill should be considered to be of interest for many women. PMID:23241152

  1. Water-promoted One-step Anodic Acetoxylation of Benzene to Phenyl Acetate with High Selectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Juan; Qin, Song; Li, Gui-ying; Hu, Chang-wei

    2011-04-01

    One-step anodic acetoxylation of benzene to phenyl acetate was studied in acetic acid-water solution using a one-compartment electrochemical cell in galvanostatic mode. Compared to the anhydrous system, the addition of water improved the current efficiency for the electro-synthesis of phenyl acetate. The maximum efficiency reached 4.8% with the selectivity of 96% to phenyl acetate when the electrolysis was carried out under the optimal conditions. The investigation also indicated that the concentration of phenyl acetate increased linearly in 12 h and reached 1.07 g/L with the selectivity of 95%. Cyclic voltammetry experiments showed that the adsorption of benzene at Pt anode enhanced by the addition of water was critical to the formation of phenyl acetate. An activated benzene mechanism was proposed for the anodic acytoxylation, and the analysis of gas products demonstrated that Kolbe reaction was the main side reaction.

  2. Selection of a Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis strain with a decreased ability to produce acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Margolles, Abelardo; Sánchez, Borja

    2012-05-01

    We have characterized a new strain, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis CECT 7953, obtained by random UV mutagenesis, which produces less acetic acid than the wild type (CECT 7954) in three different experimental settings: De Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broth without sodium acetate, resting cells, and skim milk. Genome sequencing revealed a single Phe-Ser substitution in the acetate kinase gene product that seems to be responsible for the strain's reduced acid production. Accordingly, acetate kinase specific activity was lower in the low acetate producer. Strain CECT 7953 produced less acetate, less ethanol, and more yoghourt-related volatile compounds in skim milk than the wild type did. Thus, CECT 7953 shows promising potential for the development of dairy products fermented exclusively by a bifidobacterial strain. PMID:22389372

  3. Biomass bioconversion to calcium magnesium acetate deicing salt. Final project report on Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Trantolo, D.J.

    1989-06-01

    The project experimentally investigated using biomass as feedstock for conversion to calcium magnesium acetate (CMA), an alternative road salt. This new organic road salt will prevent corrosion of bridge decks, underground cables, and rusting of cars and trucks. CMA from biomass will reduce costs, compared to petroleum and natural gas for making this material. Phase I work focused on bioconversion of sewage sludge residuals to CMA. The process is based on a packed bed fermenter to produce acetic acid from biomass, as well as liquid ion exchange to recover acetic acid from the fermenter broth prior to the final production step which occurs by passing the acetic acid over limestone. In Phase I: (1) percent bioconversion and kinetics of biomass to acetic acid have been confirmed in small batch fermenters; (2) equilibrium constants for acetic acid recovery via liquid ion exchange have been documented; and (3) rates of conversion to CMA have been determined.

  4. Adaptation to alcoholic fermentation in Drosophila: a parallel selection imposed by environmental ethanol and acetic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Chakir, M; Peridy, O; Capy, P; Pla, E; David, J R

    1993-01-01

    Besides ethanol, acetic acid is produced in naturally fermenting sweet resources and is a significant environmental stress for fruit-breeding Drosophila populations and species. Although not related to the presence of an active alcohol dehydrogenase, adult acetic acid tolerance was found to correlate with ethanol tolerance when sensitive (Afrotropical) and resistant (European) natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster were compared. The same correlation was found when comparing various Drosophila species. Tolerance to acetic acid also correlated with the tolerance to longer aliphatic acids of three, four, or five carbons but did not correlate with the tolerance to inorganic acids (i.e., hydrochloric and sulfuric acids). These observations suggest that acetic acid is detoxified by the conversion of acetate into acetyl-CoA, a metabolic step also involved in ethanol detoxification. Future investigations on the adaptation of Drosophila to fermenting resources should consider selective effects of both ethanol and acetic acid. PMID:8475110

  5. Evaluation of hypromellose acetate succinate (HPMCAS) as a carrier in solid dispersions.

    PubMed

    Tanno, Fumié; Nishiyama, Yuichi; Kokubo, Hiroyasu; Obara, Sakaé

    2004-01-01

    The utility of hypromellose acetate succinate (HPMCAS), a cellulosic enteric coating agent, as a carrier in a solid dispersion of nifedipine (NP) was evaluated in comparison with other polymers, including hypromellose (HPMC), hypromellose phthalate (HPMCP), methacrylic acid ethyl acrylate copolymer (MAEA), and povidone (PVP). An X-ray diffraction study showed that the minimum amount of HPMCAS required to make the drug completely amorphous was the same as that of other cellulosic polymers, and less than that in dispersions using non-cellulosic polymers. Hypromellose acetate succinate showed the highest drug dissolution level from its solid dispersion in a dissolution study using a buffer of pH 6.8. This characteristic was unchanged after a storage test at high temperature and high humidity. The inhibitory effect of HPMCAS on recrystallization of NP from a supersaturated solution was the greatest among all the polymers examined. Further, the drug release pattern could be modulated by altering the ratio of succinoyl and acetyl moieties in the polymer chain. Our results indicate that HPMCAS is an attractive candidate for use as a carrier in solid dispersions. PMID:15000425

  6. Ethyl 2-(4-nitro­phen­oxy)acetate

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Su-Wen

    2012-01-01

    In the title mol­ecule, C10H11NO5, the methyl C atom deviates by 0.830?(6)?Å from the mean plane of the remaining non-H atoms. In the crystal, weak C—H?O hydrogen bonds link the mol­ecules into layers parallel to the bc plane. PMID:22590398

  7. Effect of eslicarbazepine acetate and oxcarbazepine on cognition and psychomotor function in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Milovan, Denise; Almeida, Luis; Romach, Myroslava K; Nunes, Teresa; Rocha, José Francisco; Sokowloska, Marta; Sellers, Edward M; Soares-da-Silva, Patrício

    2010-08-01

    The results of two single-blind studies conducted to evaluate the cognitive and psychomotor effects of eslicarbazepine acetate and oxcarbazepine following single and repeated administration in healthy volunteers are reported. The cognitive and psychomotor evaluation consisted of several computerized and paper-and-pencil measures. Eslicarbazepine acetate and oxcarbazepine had similar overall cognitive profiles and did not cause clinically relevant cognitive impairment. The incidence of adverse events was lower with eslicarbazepine acetate than with oxcarbazepine. PMID:20708576

  8. Nanoporous In2O3-based cataluminescence sensor for acetic acid vapor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoan Cao; Yanqin Hu; Ying Tao

    2008-01-01

    In the present paper, we reported a cataluminescence (CTL) sensor using nanoporous In2O3 as sensing material to determine trace acetic acid in air. The proposed sensor showed high sensitivity and selectivity to acetic acid at optimal temperature of 293degC. Quantitative analysis was performed at a wavelength of 440 nm. The linear range of CTL intensity versus concentration of acetic acid

  9. Validation of Human Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model for Vinyl Acetate Against Human Nasal Dosimetry Data

    SciTech Connect

    Hinderliter, Paul M.; Thrall, Karla D.; Corley, Rick A.; Bloemen, Louis J.; Bogdanffy, M S.

    2005-05-01

    Vinyl acetate has been shown to induce nasal lesions in rodents in inhalation bioassays. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for vinyl acetate has been used in human risk assessment, but previous in vivo validation was conducted only in rats. Controlled human exposures to vinyl acetate were conducted to provide validation data for the application of the model in humans. Five volunteers were exposed to 1, 5, and 10 ppm 13 C1 , 13 C2 vinyl acetate via inhalation. A probe inserted into thenasopharyngeal region sampled both 13 C1 , 13 C2 vinyl acetate and the major metabolite 13 C1 , 13 C2 acetaldehyde during rest and light exercise. Nasopharyngeal air concentrations were analyzed in real time by ion trap mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Experimental concentrations of both vinyl acetate and acetaldehyde were then compared to predicted concentrations calculated from the previously published human model. Model predictions of vinyl acetate nasal extraction compared favorably with measured values of vinyl acetate, as did predictions of nasopharyngeal acetaldehyde when compared to measured acetaldehyde. The results showed that the current PBPK model structure and parameterization are appropriate for vinyl acetate. These analyses were conducted from 1 to 10 ppm vinyl acetate, a range relevant to workplace exposure standards but which would not be expected to saturate vinyl acetate metabolism. Risk assessment based on this model further concluded that 24 h per day exposures up to 1 ppm do not present concern regarding cancer or non-cancer toxicity. Validation of the vinyl acetate human PBPK model provides support for these conclusions.

  10. Degradation of acetic acid with sulfate radical generated by persulfate ions photolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Justine Criquet; Nathalie Karpel Vel Leitner

    2009-01-01

    The photolysis of S2O82- was studied for the removal of acetic acid in aqueous solution and compared with the H2O2\\/UV system. The SO4- radicals generated from the UV irradiation of S2O82- ions yield a greater mineralization of acetic acid than the OH radicals. Acetic acid is oxidized by SO4- radicals without significant formation of intermediate by-products. Increasing system pH results

  11. Synthesis of Degradable Materials Based on Caprolactone and Vinyl Acetate Units Using Radical Chemistry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seema Agarwal; Rimpu Kumar; Thomas Kissel; Regina Reul

    2009-01-01

    Present studies are carried out with an aim to make degradable materials based on caprolactone and vinyl acetate units using radical chemistry. Radical ring-opening copolymerization of 2-methylene-l,3-dioxepane (MDO) with vinyl acetate in presence of AIBN initiator at 70 °C was carried out to achieve the aim. The copolymerization introduced degradable PCL repeat units onto the C-C backbone of poly(vinyl acetate).

  12. Development and Characterization of Poly(1-vinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate) Copolymer Based Polymer Electrolytes

    PubMed Central

    Sa'adun, Nurul Nadiah; Subramaniam, Ramesh; Kasi, Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) are developed using poly(1-vinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate) [P(VP-co-VAc)] as the host polymer, lithium bis(trifluoromethane) sulfonimide [LiTFSI] as the lithium salt and ionic liquid, and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide [EMImTFSI] by using solution casting technique. The effect of ionic liquid on ionic conductivity is studied and the optimum ionic conductivity at room temperature is found to be 2.14?×?10?6?S?cm?1 for sample containing 25?wt% of EMImTFSI. The temperature dependence of ionic conductivity from 303?K to 353?K exhibits Arrhenius plot behaviour. The thermal stability of the polymer electrolyte system is studied by using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) while the structural and morphological properties of the polymer electrolyte is studied by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), respectively. PMID:25431781

  13. Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid by etiolated and green corn tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Reinecke, D. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

    1989-04-01

    Etiolated corn tissues oxidase indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to oxindole-3-acetic acid (OxIAA). This oxidation results in loss of auxin activity and may plant a role in regulating IAA-stimulated growth. The enzyme has been partially purified and characterized and shown to require O{sub 2}, and a heat-stable lipid-soluble corn factor which can be replaced by linolenic or linoleic acids in the oxidation of IAA. Corn oil was tested as a cofactor in the IAA oxidation reaction. Corn oil stimulated enzyme activity by 30% while trilinolein was inactive. The capacity of green tissue to oxidize IAA was examined by incubating leaf sections from 2 week old light-grown corn seedlings with {sup 14}C-IAA. OxIAA and IAA were separated from other IAA metabolites on a 3 ml anion exchange column. Of the IAA taken up by the sections, 13% was oxidized to OxIAA. This is the first evidence that green tissue of corn may also regulate IAA levels by oxidizing IAA to OxIAA.

  14. Vacuum ultraviolet and infrared spectra of condensed methyl acetate on cold astrochemical dust analogs

    SciTech Connect

    Sivaraman, B. [Space and Atmospheric Sciences Division, Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad 380009 (India); Nair, B. G.; Mason, N. J. [Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Lo, J.-I.; Cheng, B.-M. [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, 101 Hsin-Ann Road, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Kundu, S.; Davis, D.; Prabhudesai, V.; Krishnakumar, E. [Department of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Raja Sekhar, B. N., E-mail: bhala@prl.res.in [B-4, Indus-1, BARC Spectroscopy Lab at Indus-1, Atomic and Molecular Physics Division, BARC, Mumbai and RRCAT, Indore 452013 (India)

    2013-12-01

    Following the recent report of the first identification of methyl acetate (CH{sub 3}COOCH{sub 3}) in the interstellar medium (ISM), we have carried out vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy studies on methyl acetate from 10 K until sublimation in an ultrahigh vacuum chamber simulating astrochemical conditions. We present the first VUV and IR spectra of methyl acetate relevant to ISM conditions. Spectral signatures clearly showed molecular reorientation to have started in the ice by annealing the amorphous ice formed at 10 K. An irreversible phase change from amorphous to crystalline methyl acetate ice was found to occur between 110 K and 120 K.

  15. Vacuum Ultraviolet and Infrared Spectra of Condensed Methyl Acetate on Cold Astrochemical Dust Analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivaraman, B.; Nair, B. G.; Lo, J.-I.; Kundu, S.; Davis, D.; Prabhudesai, V.; Raja Sekhar, B. N.; Mason, N. J.; Cheng, B.-M.; Krishnakumar, E.

    2013-12-01

    Following the recent report of the first identification of methyl acetate (CH3COOCH3) in the interstellar medium (ISM), we have carried out vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy studies on methyl acetate from 10 K until sublimation in an ultrahigh vacuum chamber simulating astrochemical conditions. We present the first VUV and IR spectra of methyl acetate relevant to ISM conditions. Spectral signatures clearly showed molecular reorientation to have started in the ice by annealing the amorphous ice formed at 10 K. An irreversible phase change from amorphous to crystalline methyl acetate ice was found to occur between 110 K and 120 K.

  16. An abnormal N-heterocyclic carbene-carbon dioxide adduct from imidazolium acetate ionic liquids: the importance of basicity.

    PubMed

    Kelemen, Zsolt; Péter-Szabó, Barbara; Székely, Edit; Hollóczki, Oldamur; Firaha, Dzmitry S; Kirchner, Barbara; Nagy, József; Nyulászi, László

    2014-09-26

    In the reaction of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [C2C1Im][OAc] ionic liquid with carbon dioxide at 125?°C and 10?MPa, not only the known N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-CO2 adduct I, but also isomeric aNHC-CO2 adducts II and III were obtained. The abnormal NHC-CO2 adducts are stabilized by the presence of the polarizing basic acetate anion, according to static DFT calculations and ab initio molecular dynamics studies. A further possible reaction pathway is facilitated by the high basicity of the system, deprotonating the initially formed NHC-CO2 adduct I, which can then be converted in the presence of the excess of CO2 to the more stable 2-deprotonated anionic abnormal NHC-CO2 adduct via the anionic imidazolium-2,4-dicarboxylate according to DFT calculations on model compounds. This suggests a generalizable pathway to abnormal NHC complex formation. PMID:25137312

  17. Interactions Between Thin Metallic Films and Mn12-Acetate.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Means, Joel; Teizer, Winfried; Dunbar, Kim R.

    2007-03-01

    Single-molecule magnets are a novel class of materials which have been extensively studied in recent years. One such molecule is Mn12-Acetate, [Mn12O12(CH3COO)16(H2O)4].2CH3COOH.4H2O. Its high-spin ground state (S=10) at low temperatures leads to many interesting phenomena. Here we explore the effect these molecules have on the electronic transport properties of a normal-conducting, metallic thin film in the temperature range from 0.2K to 1K and magnetic fields up to 3T. The magnetoresistance of Au films is measured in agreement with published results. Measurement of Au films with a few monolayers of Mn12-Ac on the surface show a different behavior.

  18. Regioselective alcoholysis of silychristin acetates catalyzed by lipases.

    PubMed

    Vav?íková, Eva; Gavezzotti, Paolo; Purchartová, Kate?ina; Fuksová, Kate?ina; Biedermann, David; Kuzma, Marek; Riva, Sergio; K?en, Vladimír

    2015-01-01

    A panel of lipases was screened for the selective acetylation and alcoholysis of silychristin and silychristin peracetate, respectively. Acetylation at primary alcoholic group (C-22) of silychristin was accomplished by lipase PS (Pseudomonas cepacia) immobilized on diatomite using vinyl acetate as an acetyl donor, whereas selective deacetylation of 22-O-acetyl silychristin was accomplished by Novozym 435 in methyl tert-butyl ether/ n-butanol. Both of these reactions occurred without diastereomeric discrimination of silychristin A and B. Both of these enzymes were found to be capable to regioselective deacetylation of hexaacetyl silychristin to afford penta-, tetra- and tri-acetyl derivatives, which could be obtained as pure synthons for further selective modifications of the parent molecule. PMID:26016503

  19. Inelastic Neutron Scattering Study of Mn12-Acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, T. M.; Robinson, R. A.; Nakotte, H.; Zhong, Y.; Sarachik, M. P.; Friedman, J. R.; Aubin, S. M. J.; Hendrickson, D. N.

    1998-03-01

    We have performed zero-field inelastic neutron scattering experiments on a deuterated sample of Mn12 acetate, using the PHAROS chopper spectrometer at the LANSCE spallation neutron source at Los Alamos, covering energy transfers between 0 and 3.5THz, and temperatures between 1.4 and 77K. We confirm the presence of a well-defined excitation at 0.3THz, and have studied the temperature dependence of the spectrum beyond this energy transfer. There is some evidence at the lowest temperature for a discrete excitation at 0.72THz, and the strong peak at 1.2THz softens substantially, or grows a shoulder on its low-energy side, with increasing temperature. The multi-peak response between 1.5 and 2.5 THz weakens in intensity and becomes more diffuse with increasing temperature.

  20. Diffusion relaxation of photoinduced gratings in polyvinyl acetate latex films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veniaminov, A. V.; Bartsch, E.

    2011-03-01

    The features of the postexposure relaxation of holographic gratings recorded in inhomogeneous polyvinyl acetate latex films with photosensitive agents (photochromic molecules of fulgide dyes and phenanthrenequinone) have been considered. The diffusion coefficients and rms displacements of izomerized probe in polymer latex particles and aqueous environment are determined within the model of two diffusion states. The effective diffusion coefficient of the molecular probe, which is responsible for the relaxation of gratings, increases with an increase in their period in wet films, whereas in dry films, this parameter is independent of the grating period. In the films subjected to high-temperature treatment the effective diffusion coefficient decreases with an increase in the grating period. The successive stages of grating relaxation in latex films with phenanthrenequinone are related to the diffusion of free molecules, radicals, and polymer chains, as well as to the local displacement of macromolecular segments at distances of 5-25 nm.

  1. Ulipristal acetate and its role in emergency contraception: a comment.

    PubMed

    Peitsidis, Panagiotis

    2012-09-01

    The use of selective progesterone modulators (SRMs) has been investigated extensively over the last few years. Ulipristal acetate (UPA) is an selective progesterone receptor modulator (SPRM) which has been in use since 2010 as an effective alternative emergency contraception (EC) regimen to Levonorgestrel (LNG). It acts by inhibiting ovulation and delaying implantation. Its effectiveness is active up to 120 h after sexual intercourse. UPA is safe and has a good tolerability profile. Health care practitioners should inform women of all reproductive ages that UPA is an effective alternative agent for those who are dissatisfied with other means of EC, and its activity of up to 120 h after sexual intercourse should also be highlighted. PMID:22873821

  2. Acetylation of barnyardgrass starch with acetic anhydride under iodine catalysis.

    PubMed

    Bartz, Josiane; Goebel, Jorge Tiago; Giovanaz, Marcos Antônio; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa; Schirmer, Manoel Artigas; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra

    2015-07-01

    Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) is an invasive plant that is difficult to control and is found in abundance as part of the waste of the paddy industry. In this study, barnyardgrass starch was extracted and studied to obtain a novel starch with potential food and non-food applications. We report some of the physicochemical, functional and morphological properties as well as the effect of modifying this starch with acetic anhydride by catalysis with 1, 5 or 10mM of iodine. The extent of the introduction of acetyl groups increased with increasing iodine levels as catalyst. The shape of the granules remained unaltered, but there were low levels of surface corrosion and the overall relative crystallinity decreased. The pasting temperature, enthalpy and other gelatinisation temperatures were reduced by the modification. There was an increase in the viscosity of the pastes, except for the peak viscosity, which was strongly reduced in 10mM iodine. PMID:25704707

  3. UV recording with vinyl acetate and muicle dye film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toxqui-Lopez, S.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Santacruz-Vazquez, V.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.; Ordoñez-Padilla, J.

    2015-03-01

    Nowadays, there are many types of holographic recording medium some of them are photopolymer systems that generally consist of a polymeric host matrix, photopolymerizable momomer, photosensitizing dye and charge transfer agent but some of them have an undesirable feature, the toxicity of their components. Therefore, the present research study material recording, vinyl acetate is selected as polymeric matrix and natural dye from "muicle plant" is used as the photoinitiation these components are not toxic. The films are fabricated using gravity settling method at room temperature by this method, uniform films is obtained with good optical quality. To characterize the medium, been obtained when the coherent reed light (632.8 nm) was sent normally to the grating.

  4. Teratological studies of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose acetate succinate in rats.

    PubMed

    Hoshi, N; Ueno, K; Igarashi, T; Kitagawa, H; Fujita, T; Ichikawa, N; Kondo, Y; Isoda, M

    1985-10-01

    A teratogenicity study was carried out in S1c: SD rats orally administered Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS), a useful pharmaceutical excipient, at dose levels of 625, 1,250 and 2,500 mg/kg/day for a period of 11 days from day 7 to day 17 of gestation. Two-thirds of the pregnant females in each group were sacrificed on Day 21 of gestation and their fetuses were examined. The remaining dams were allowed to litter naturally, and the postnatal development of the offsprings was observed. The incidences of external, internal, and skeletal anomalies were not significantly increased in the fetuses of any treated groups. HPMCAS caused no effects on parturition, lactation, postnatal growth and reproductive ability of the male and female offspring. PMID:3841674

  5. Regioselective Alcoholysis of Silychristin Acetates Catalyzed by Lipases ‡

    PubMed Central

    Vav?íková, Eva; Gavezzotti, Paolo; Purchartová, Kate?ina; Fuksová, Kate?ina; Biedermann, David; Kuzma, Marek; Riva, Sergio; K?en, Vladimír

    2015-01-01

    A panel of lipases was screened for the selective acetylation and alcoholysis of silychristin and silychristin peracetate, respectively. Acetylation at primary alcoholic group (C-22) of silychristin was accomplished by lipase PS (Pseudomonas cepacia) immobilized on diatomite using vinyl acetate as an acetyl donor, whereas selective deacetylation of 22-O-acetyl silychristin was accomplished by Novozym 435 in methyl tert-butyl ether/n-butanol. Both of these reactions occurred without diastereomeric discrimination of silychristin A and B. Both of these enzymes were found to be capable to regioselective deacetylation of hexaacetyl silychristin to afford penta-, tetra- and tri-acetyl derivatives, which could be obtained as pure synthons for further selective modifications of the parent molecule. PMID:26016503

  6. Emission of formic and acetic acids from tropical Savanna soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanhueza, Eugenio; Andreae, Meinrat O.

    1991-09-01

    Fluxes of formic (HCOOH) and acetic (CH3COOH) acids between soils and the atmosphere were measured in a scrub-grass savanna and a semideciduous forest of Venezuela. High emissions of both acids were observed from savanna soils during daytime, with a daily contribution to the atmospheric boundary layer of about 0.15 ppb HCOOH and 0.07 ppb CH3COOH. Soil watering, simulating rainfall, produces a significant increase in CH3COOH emissions. Forest soils consumed these acids, with deposition velocities of 0.21 and 0.16 cm s-1. Savanna soils appear to be a significant source of HCOOH and CH3COOH to the tropical savanna atmosphere.

  7. Reversible acetylation regulates acetate and propionate metabolism in Mycobacterium smegmatis

    PubMed Central

    Hayden, Jennifer D.; Brown, Lanisha R.; Gunawardena, Harsha P.; Perkowski, Ellen F.; Chen, Xian

    2013-01-01

    Carbon metabolic pathways are important to the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis. However, extremely little is known about metabolic regulation in mycobacteria. There is growing evidence for lysine acetylation being a mechanism of regulating bacterial metabolism. Lysine acetylation is a post-translational modification in which an acetyl group is covalently attached to the side chain of a lysine residue. This modification is mediated by acetyltransferases, which add acetyl groups, and deacetylases, which remove the acetyl groups. Here we set out to test whether lysine acetylation and deacetylation impact acetate metabolism in the model mycobacteria Mycobacterium smegmatis, which possesses 25 candidate acetyltransferases and 3 putative lysine deacetylases. Using mutants lacking predicted acetyltransferases and deacetylases we showed that acetate metabolism in M. smegmatis is regulated by reversible acetylation of acetyl-CoA synthetase (Ms-Acs) through the action of a single pair of enzymes: the acetyltransferase Ms-PatA and the sirtuin deacetylase Ms-SrtN. We also confirmed that the role of Ms-PatA in regulating Ms-Acs regulation depends on cAMP binding. We additionally demonstrated a role for Ms-Acs, Ms-PatA and Ms-SrtN in regulating the metabolism of propionate in M. smegmatis. Finally, along with Ms-Acs, we identified a candidate propionyl-CoA synthetase, Ms5404, as acetylated in whole-cell lysates. This work lays the foundation for studying the regulatory circuit of acetylation and deacetylation in the cellular context of mycobacteria. PMID:23813678

  8. Inflammatory cells’ role in acetic acid-induced colitis

    PubMed Central

    Sanei, Mohammad H.; Hadizadeh, Fatemeh; Adibi, Peyman; Alavi, Sayyed Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Free radicals are the known mechanisms responsible for inducing colitis with two origins: Inflammatory cells and tissues. Only the inflammatory cells can be controlled by corticosteroids. Our aim was to assess the importance of neutrophils as one of the inflammatory cells in inducing colitis and to evaluate the efficacy of corticosteroids in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Materials and Methods: Thirty-six mice were divided into six groups of six mice each. Colitis was induced in three groups by exposing them to acetic acid through enema (group 1), ex vivo (group 3), and enema after immune suppression (group 5). Each group had one control group that was exposed to water injection instead of acetic acid. Tissue samples were evaluated and compared based on macroscopic damages and biochemical and pathological results. Results: Considering neutrophilic infiltration, there were significant differences between groups 1, 3, 5, and the control of group 1. Groups 3, 5, and their controls, and group 1 and the control of group 3 had significant differences in terms of goblet depletion. Based on tissue originated H2O2, we found significant differences between group 1 and its control and group 3, and also between groups 5 and the control of group 3. All the three groups were significantly different from their controls based on Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP) and such differences were also seen between group 1 with two other groups. Conclusion: Neutrophils may not be the only cause of oxidation process in colitis, and also makes the effectiveness of corticosteroids in the treatment of this disease doubtful. PMID:25337523

  9. Recent advances in nitrogen-fixing acetic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Pedraza, Raúl O

    2008-06-30

    Nitrogen is an essential plant nutrient, widely applied as N-fertilizer to improve yield of agriculturally important crops. An interesting alternative to avoid or reduce the use of N-fertilizers could be the exploitation of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB), capable of enhancing growth and yield of many plant species, several of agronomic and ecological significance. PGPB belong to diverse genera, including Azospirillum, Azotobacter, Herbaspirillum, Bacillus, Burkholderia, Pseudomonas, Rhizobium, and Gluconacetobacter, among others. They are capable of promoting plant growth through different mechanisms including (in some cases), the biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), the enzymatic reduction of the atmospheric dinitrogen (N(2)) to ammonia, catalyzed by nitrogenase. Aerobic bacteria able to oxidize ethanol to acetic acid in neutral or acid media are candidates of belonging to the family Acetobacteraceae. At present, this family has been divided into ten genera: Acetobacter, Gluconacetobacter, Gluconobacter, Acidomonas, Asaia, Kozakia, Saccharibacter, Swaminathania, Neoasaia, and Granulibacter. Among them, only three genera include N(2)-fixing species: Gluconacetobacter, Swaminathania and Acetobacter. The first N(2)-fixing acetic acid bacterium (AAB) was described in Brazil. It was found inside tissues of the sugarcane plant, and first named as Acetobacter diazotrophicus, but then renamed as Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus. Later, two new species within the genus Gluconacetobacter, associated to coffee plants, were described in Mexico: G. johannae and G. azotocaptans. A salt-tolerant bacterium named Swaminathania salitolerans was found associated to wild rice plants. Recently, N(2)-fixing Acetobacter peroxydans and Acetobacter nitrogenifigens, associated with rice plants and Kombucha tea, respectively, were described in India. In this paper, recent advances involving nitrogen-fixing AAB are presented. Their natural habitats, physiological and genetic aspects, as well as their association with different plants and contribution through BNF are described as an overview. PMID:18177965

  10. Investigation of carbon tetrachloride destruction by copper acetate.

    PubMed

    Chien, Yi-Chi

    2012-01-01

    Halogenated synthetic organic compounds are used in a wide variety of pesticides, solvents, refrigerants, fire retardants, and paints that cause extensive pollution to the air, surface water, groundwater, and soils. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl) is a typical halogenated synthetic organic compound that has been suspected to be toxic and carcinogenic and to cause ozone depletion. In the present work, molecular-level destruction of CCl by copper acetate was investigated by extended X-ray absorption fine structural spectra, X-ray absorption near-edge spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. Experimentally, the Cl species dissociated from CCl were abstracted by copper species and formed CuCl. At 473 to 533 K, reaction products (copper chloride) aggregated on the surfaces of CuO, which might cause the obstruction of further CCl destruction. Due to the insertion of Cl species into the matrix of CuO, the bond distances of Cu-O and Cu-(O)-Cu were increased by 0.3 to 0.4 Å and 0.3 to 0.6 Å, respectively. However, at 603 K, because 79.5% of the Cu was in the CCl destruction solid products, the coordination number of Cu-(O)-Cu increased to 5.6. Molecular level investigations are a key to identifying the mechanisms of the CCl destruction process. In addition, identification of the molecular characteristics of the products may help in safe disposal of the toxic substances. The success of this study paved the way for the destruction of halogenated organic compounds by copper acetate. PMID:22370408

  11. Comparison of unitrophic and mixotrophic substrate metabolism by an acetate-adapted strain of Methanosarcina barkeri

    SciTech Connect

    Krzycki, J.A.; Wolkin, R.H.; Zeikus, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    We examined the unitrophic metabolism of acetate and methanol individually and the mixotrophic utilization of these compounds by using detailed /sup 14/C-labeled tracer studies in a strain of Methanosarcina barkeri adapted to grow on acetate as the sole carbon and energy source. The substrate consumption rate and methane production rate were significantly lower on acetate alone than during the unitrophic or mixotrophic metabolism of methanol. Cell yields (in grams per mole of substrate) were identical during exponential growth on acetate and exponential growth on methanol. During unitrophic metabolism of acetate, the methyl moiety accounted for the majority of the CH/sub 4/ produced, but 14% of the CO/sub 2/ generated originated from the methyl moiety. This correlated with the concurrent reduction of equivalent amounts of the C-1 of acetate to CH/sub 4/. /sup 14/CH/sub 4/ was also produced from added /sup 14/CO/sub 2/, although to a lesser extent than from reduction of the C-1 of acetate. During mixotrophic metabolism, methanol and acetate were catabolized simultaneously. The rates of /sup 14/CH/sub 4/ and /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ generation from (2-/sup 14/C)acetate were logarithmic and higher in mixotrophic than in unitrophic cultures at substrate concentrations of 50 mM. A comparison of the oxidoreductase activities in cell extracts of the acetate-adapted strain grown on acetate and of strain MS grown on methanol or on H/sub 2/ plus CO/sub 2/ indicated that the pyruvate, ..cap alpha..-ketoglutarate, and isocitrate dehydrogenase activities remained constant, whereas the CO dehydrogenase activity was significantly higher (5,000 nmol/min per mg of protein) in the acetate-adapted strain. These results suggested that a significant intramolecular redox pathway is possible for the generation of CH/sub 4/ from acetate, that energy metabolism from acetate by M. barkeri is not catabolite repressed by methanol, and that the acetate-adapted strain is a metabolic mutant with depressed CO dehydrogenase activity.

  12. Sphagnum's coup de grace: Carbon flow to acetate in northern peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, B.; Arthur, M. A.; House, C.; Freean, K.

    2008-12-01

    Isotopic estimates of the microbial pathway of methane formation in acidic northern peatlands conclude that methane is derived from the pathway of CO2 reduction, whereas, microbial incubation and genomic studies have identified an important role played by acetoclastic methanogens in similar acidic systems. We believe our first ever intramolecular acetate isotopic analyses from an acidic wetland in central Pennsylvania resolve the apparent conflicting pathway estimates by indicating that the isotopic and microbial incubation studies are consistent with each other and with a pathway of methane formation through acetate from an isotopically depleted autotrophic acetate source. Intramolecular acetate isotopic measurements allow us to estimate that as much as 1/3 of the acetate in acidic wetlands is derived from autotrophy. Given a simple case of glucose fermentation to acetate, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen, our acetate production pathway estimate requires that nearly all of the carbon products from fermentation must flow through the acetate pool. Our work confirms the prior hypothesis and prior observations that acetate is an important metabolic end product in northern acidic wetlands. Further, we hypothesize an alternative fate of acetate in peat porewaters that alludes to an ecological role of autotorophic acetogens and acetate oxidizers in creating the impermeable humified peat catotelm unique to sphagnum dominated systems. The diversion of carbon flow to from methane to acetate increases the organic acid production and we hypothesize that the net transport of dissolved fulvic acids into the catotelm allows coupled acetate oxidation and fulvic acid reduction. This process of acetate consumption would create a net addition of hydrophobic, amorphous, and therefore more impermeable organic carbon. We conclude that an ecological strategy of the sphagnum mosses may not simply be to decrease the pH of the environment to slow metabolism, but rather to force the microbial community in the catotelm toward the oxidation of acetate and the reduction of peat humus, thereby aiding production of the characteristic impermeable organic seal. The sensitivity of sphagnum ecosystems to external sources of alkalinity may prove to be an important control on the ancient flux of methane from peatlands and may be an important direction of continued research.

  13. Effects of Environmental Parameters on the Formation and Turnover of Acetate by Forest Soils

    PubMed Central

    Kusel, K.; Drake, H. L.

    1995-01-01

    The capacity to form acetate from endogenous matter was a common property of diverse forest soils when incubated under anaerobic conditions. At 15 to 20(deg)C, acetate synthesis occurred without appreciable delay when forest soils were incubated as buffered suspensions or in microcosms at various percentages of their maximum water holding capacity. Rates for acetate formation with soil suspensions ranged from 35 to 220 (mu)g of acetate per g (dry weight) of soil per 24 h, and maximal acetate concentrations obtained in soil suspensions were two- to threefold greater than those obtained with soil microcosms at the average water holding capacity of the soil. Cellobiose degradation in soil suspensions yielded H(inf2) as a transient product. Under anaerobic conditions, supplemental H(inf2) and CO(inf2) were directed towards the acetogenic synthesis of acetate, and enrichments yielded a syringate-H(inf2)-consuming acetogenic consortium. At in situ temperatures, acetate was a relatively stable anaerobic end product; however, extended incubation periods induced acetoclastic methanogenesis and sulfate reduction. Higher mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures greatly enhanced the capacity of soils to form methane. Although methanogenic and sulfate-reducing activities under in situ-relevant conditions were negligible, these findings nonetheless demonstrated the occurrence of methanogens and sulfate-reducing bacteria in these aerated terrestrial soils. In contrast to the protracted stability of acetate under anaerobic conditions at 15 to 20(deg)C with unsupplemented soils, acetate formed by forest soils was rapidly consumed in the presence of oxygen and nitrate, and substrate-product stoichiometries indicated that acetate turnover was coupled to oxygen-dependent respiration and denitrification. The collective results suggest that acetate formed under anaerobic conditions might constitute a trophic link between anaerobic and aerobic processes in forest soils. PMID:16535147

  14. Anglesite (PbSO 4) solubility in acetate solutions: The determination of stability constants for lead acetate complexes to 85°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, Thomas H.

    1989-02-01

    Anglesite solubilities were determined at 25, 40, 55, 70, and 85°C in solutions with equal molal concentrations of acetic acid and sodium acetate (each ranging from 0.001 to 0.25 m) and at pH values near 4.6. Experiments were conducted using 1000 ml, externally heated glass reaction vessels, and lead concentrations were measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. For run conditions with free acetate concentrations less than about 0.01 m, measured a anglesite solubilities are less than or equal to 100 mg/l. Above free acetate concentrations of 0.01 m, measured anglesite solubilities rise sharply to concentrations near 1000 mg/l. Extracted from these solubility data, by a numerical successive linear extrapolation method, were stoichiometries and thermodynamic stability constants (ionic strength = 0) for the complexes Pb(CH 3COO) + and Pb(CH 3COO) 2. Log K1 and log K2 values for the formation reactions Pb + + CH 3COO - = PbCH 3COO + and Pb 2+ + 2CH 3COO - = Pb(CH 3COO) 2 respectively are log K1: (2.4±0.1, 25°C), (2.4±0.1, 40°C), (2.5±0.1, 55°C), (2.6±0.1, 70°C), (2.7±0.2, 85°C) and log K2: (3.4±0.4, 25°C), (3.6±0.2, 40°C), (3.8 ±0.2, 55°C), (4.0±0.2, 70°C), (4.3±0.2, 85°C). Lead hydrolysis was found to be significant in those experiments conducted at 70 and 85°C. However, hydrolyzed lead was not detected at 25, 40, and 55°C. PbOH + as percent of total observed lead ranged from 0.2 to 24% and 2 to 86% in those experiments at 70 and 85°C, respectively. Calculations of lead speciation in acetate solutions show that the equivalence point for PbCH 3COO + and Pb(CH 3COO) 2 shifts to lower acetate concentrations from 25 to 85°C. These speciation calculations also suggest that lead acetate complexes could be significant in high acetate formation waters. These waters typically contain at least 1,000 ppm acetate (0.017 molal as acetic acid). Furthermore, if these waters are not too acid and if concentrations of competing ligands are low, lead acetate complexes should be the dominant lead species.

  15. Transcriptome analysis of acetic-acid-treated yeast cells identifies a large set of genes whose overexpression or deletion enhances acetic acid tolerance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeji; Nasution, Olviyani; Choi, Eunyong; Choi, In-Geol; Kim, Wankee; Choi, Wonja

    2015-08-01

    Acetic acid inhibits the metabolic activities of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, a better understanding of how S. cerevisiae cells acquire the tolerance to acetic acid is of importance to develop robust yeast strains to be used in industry. To do this, we examined the transcriptional changes that occur at 12 h post-exposure to acetic acid, revealing that 56 and 58 genes were upregulated and downregulated, respectively. Functional categorization of them revealed that 22 protein synthesis genes and 14 stress response genes constituted the largest portion of the upregulated and downregulated genes, respectively. To evaluate the association of the regulated genes with acetic acid tolerance, 3 upregulated genes (DBP2, ASC1, and GND1) were selected among 34 non-protein synthesis genes, and 54 viable mutants individually deleted for the downregulated genes were retrieved from the non-essential haploid deletion library. Strains overexpressing ASC1 and GND1 displayed enhanced tolerance to acetic acid, whereas a strain overexpressing DBP2 was sensitive. Fifty of 54 deletion mutants displayed enhanced acetic acid tolerance. Three chosen deletion mutants (hsps82?, ato2?, and ssa3?) were also tolerant to benzoic acid but not propionic and sorbic acids. Moreover, all those five (two overexpressing and three deleted) strains were more efficient in proton efflux and lower in membrane permeability and internal hydrogen peroxide content than controls. Individually or in combination, those physiological changes are likely to contribute at least in part to enhanced acetic acid tolerance. Overall, information of our transcriptional profile was very useful to identify molecular factors associated with acetic acid tolerance. PMID:26062532

  16. Modification of wheat starch with succinic acid/acetic anhydride and azelaic acid/acetic anhydride mixtures I. Thermophysical and pasting properties.

    PubMed

    Subari?, Drago; A?kar, Dur?ica; Babi?, Jurislav; Saka?, Nikola; Jozinovi?, Antun

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of modification with succinic acid/acetic anhydride and azelaic acid/acetic anhydride mixtures on thermophysical and pasting properties of wheat starch. Starch was isolated from two wheat varieties and modified with mixtures of succinic acid and acetic anhydride, and azelaic acid and acetic anhydride in 4, 6 and 8 % (w/w). Thermophysical, pasting properties, swelling power, solubility and amylose content of modified starches were determined. The results showed that modifications with mixtures of afore mentioned dicarboxylic acids with acetic anhydride decreased gelatinisation and pasting temperatures. Gelatinisation enthalpy of Golubica starch increased, while of Srpanjka starch decreased by modifications. Retrogradation after 7 and 14 day-storage at 4 °C decreased after modifications of both starches. Maximum, hot and cold paste viscosity of both starches increased, while stability during shearing at high temperatures decreased. % setback of starches modified with azelaic acid/acetic anhydride mixture decreased. Swelling power and solubility of both starches increased by both modifications. PMID:25328203

  17. Catalysis of the Carbonylation of Alcohols to Carboxylic Acids Including Acetic Acid Synthesis from Methanol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, Denis; DeKleva, Thomas W.

    1986-01-01

    Monsanto's highly successful synthesis of acetic acid from methanol and carbon monoxide illustrates use of new starting materials to replace pretroleum-derived ethylene. Outlines the fundamental aspects of the acetic acid process and suggests ways of extending the synthesis to higher carboxylic acids. (JN)

  18. Eslicarbazepine acetate: a review of its use as adjunctive therapy in refractory partial-onset seizures.

    PubMed

    Keating, Gillian M

    2014-07-01

    Eslicarbazepine acetate (Aptiom(®), Zebinix(®)) is approved for the adjunctive treatment of partial-onset seizures in adults aged ?18 years. Adjunctive therapy with oral eslicarbazepine acetate 800 or 1,200 mg once daily was associated with a significantly lower standardized seizure frequency (primary endpoint) than placebo in patients aged ?18 years with refractory partial-onset seizures in three, randomized, double-blind, multinational, phase III trials. In a fourth randomized, double-blind, multinational, phase III trial in patients aged ?16 years with refractory partial-onset seizures, adjunctive eslicarbazepine acetate 1,200 mg once daily, but not 800 mg once daily, was associated with a significantly lower standardized seizure frequency (primary endpoint). Responder rates were significantly higher with eslicarbazepine acetate 1,200 mg once daily than with placebo in these four trials, and with eslicarbazepine acetate 800 mg once daily than with placebo in two trials. The efficacy of eslicarbazepine acetate was maintained in the longer term, according to the results of 1-year extension studies. Adjunctive therapy with oral eslicarbazepine acetate was generally well tolerated in patients with refractory partial-onset seizures, with most adverse events being of mild to moderate severity. In conclusion, eslicarbazepine acetate is a useful option for the adjunctive treatment of patients with refractory partial-onset seizures. PMID:24972948

  19. Vinegar as a burn-down herbicide: Acetic acid concentrations, application volumes, and adjuvants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acetic acid acts as a contact herbicide, injuring and killing plants by first destroying the cell membranes, which causes the rapid desiccation of the plant tissues. Vinegars with acetic acid concentrations of 11% or greater can burn the skin and cause serious to severe eye injury, including blindn...

  20. Ammonium Acetate Extracts and Their Analysis for the Speciation of Metal Ions in Soils and Sediments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ure; R. Thomas; D. Littlejohn

    1993-01-01

    The use of ammonium acetate (1 mol\\/l at pH 7) extraction of soils and sediments for the speciation of metal ions is briefly discussed. Because the sensitivity of flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) is insufficiently sensitive for the determination of many of the heavy metals in ammonium acetate extracts of unpolluted, and even in some polluted soils, the use of

  1. Migration of vinyl acetate from semiconductive to insulation of power cables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Haridoss

    1990-01-01

    Semiconductor compounds based on ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymers were used along with ultraclean insulation to form an ideal interface for diffusion studies. The interface was analyzed before and after diffusion at different temperatures, using micro-Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy. Migration of vinyl acetate species was detected at these interfaces using their characteristic absorptions at 1742, 1240, and 1025 cm-1. The results

  2. Acetate stimulates atmospheric CH4 oxidation by an alpine tundra Ann E. West, Steven K. Schmidt*

    E-print Network

    Schmidt, Steven K.

    Acetate stimulates atmospheric CH4 oxidation by an alpine tundra soil Ann E. West, Steven K CH4 by an alpine tundra soil. Acetate, formate, methanol, trimethylamine and yeast extract were; Jensen et al., 1998b). West and Schmidt (1998) demonstrated that, in a well-drained alpine tundra soil

  3. High sodium bicarbonate and acetate hemodialysis: Double-blind crossover comparison of hemodynamic and ventilatory effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William L Henrich; Terry D Woodard; Barry D Meyer; Timothy R Chappell; Lewis J Rubin

    1983-01-01

    High sodium bicarbonate and acetate hemodialysis: Double-blind crossover comparison of hemodynamic and ventilatory effects. The superiority of bicarbonate dialysis (Bi HD) over acetate dialysis (Ac HD) using a high sodium dialysate has not been established to our knowledge. We compared Bi HD to Ac HD over 6 weeks each in ten stable patients using a double-blind crossover design and a

  4. Ulipristal Acetate Taken 48–120 Hours After Intercourse for Emergency Contraception

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Fine; Henri Mathé; Savita Ginde; Vanessa Cullins; Johanna Morfesis; Erin Gainer

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of ulip- ristal acetate as emergency contraception in women presenting 48-120 hours after receiving ulipristal acetate for unprotected intercourse. METHODS: Women aged 18 years or older with regu- lar cycles who presented for emergency contraception 48 to 120 hours after unprotected intercourse were enrolled in 45 Planned Parenthood clinics and treated with a

  5. Enzymology of the Pathway for Acetate Conversion to Methane in Methanosarcina thermophilia

    SciTech Connect

    Ferry, James G.

    1999-05-04

    These topics are covered: Regulation of enzyme synthesis; Activation of acetate to acetyl-CoA; Biochemistry of acetyl-CoA cleavage; Electron transport; Other enzymes implicated in the pathway of acetate conversion to methane; and publications resulting from this work.

  6. Propagation of Avalanches in Mn12-acetate: Magnetic Deflagration Yoko Suzuki,1

    E-print Network

    Lombardi, John R.

    Propagation of Avalanches in Mn12-acetate: Magnetic Deflagration Yoko Suzuki,1 M. P. Sarachik,1 E- acetate indicate that the magnetization avalanche spreads as a narrow interface that propagates through. This phenomenon, also ob- served in other molecular magnets, has been attributed to a thermal runaway (avalanche

  7. Experimental study of aluminum-, calcium-, and magnesium-acetate complexing at 80 degree C

    SciTech Connect

    Fein, J.B. (Illinois State Water Survey, Champaign, IL (USA))

    1991-04-01

    The stabilities of Al-, Ca-, and Mg-acetate complexes were determined separately at 80{degree}C by measuring the solubilities of gibbsite, portlandite, and brucite as functions of acetate concentrations. The experiments were conducted using geologically realistic acetate concentrations in order to observe the acetate complexes that are important in sedimentary basin fluids. The experimental measurements are used to calculate the stoichiometries and thermodynamic properties of the important Al-, Ca-, and Mg-acetate complexes. The data indicate that Al(OAc){sup 2+} and Al(OAc){sup +}{sub 2} are the important Al-acetate complexes in the gibbsite system. Ca(OAc){sup +} and Mg(OAc){sup +} are the dominant acetate complexes in the portlandite and the brucite systems, respectively. The calculated values of the log of the dissociation constants for Al(OAc){sup +}{sub 2}, Al (OAc){sup 2+}, Ca(OAc){sup +}, and Mg(OAc){sup +} are -4.8 {plus minus} 0.2, -2.9 {plus minus} 0.1, -1.2 {plus minus} 0.2, and -1.3 {plus minus} 0.3, respectively. Thermodynamic models that incorporate these results indicate that the presence of acetate in sedimentary basin fluids can not markedly enhance rock porosity through mineral dissolution.

  8. Preparation of biomaterials on the basis of a water-soluble cellulose acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akmalova, G. Yu.; Gulyamova, N. S.; Zainutdinov, U. N.; Rakhmanberdiev, G. R.; Negmatova, K. S.; Negmatova, M. I.

    2012-07-01

    Biomaterials were obtained on the basis of water-soluble cellulose acetate and diterpenoids group of plants Lagohulusa intoxicating having hemostatic properties. It is established that these biomaterials on the basis of water-soluble cellulose acetate and lagohilina (or lagohirzina) had increased hemostatic activity and reduce parenchymal hemorrhage 5-6 times compared to control.

  9. Sex Pheromone of the Leaf-Miner Phyllonorycter Platani : ( Z 10)-Tetradecenyl Acetate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mitko Subchev; Albena Mircheva; John Pickett; Lester Wadhams; Christine Woodcock; Alcindo dos Santos; Stephan Franke; Wittko Francke

    2003-01-01

    A female produced sex pheromone of the leaf-miner pest Phyllonorycter platani (Staudinger) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) was identified as (Z10)-tetradecenyl acetate. Field trapping trials confirmed activity of this compound. The presence of the geometrical isomer (E10)-tetradecenyl acetate, a pheromone component of other Phyllonorycter species, reduced trap efficacy.

  10. High Pressure CO2 Corrosion Electrochemistry and the Effect of Acetic Acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Srdjan SNesic; Keith George; Shihuai Wang

    2004-01-01

    The carbon dioxide corrosion electrochemistry of mild steel has been studied in the presence of high CO2 partial pressures and acetic acid (HAc). Potentiodynamic sweeps, linear polarization resistance (LPR) and weight loss (WL) experiments have been conducted to investigate the effects of flow velocity, CO2 partial pressure, and acetic acid concentration on the corrosion rate of mild steel. Electrochemical impedance

  11. [Conversion of acetic acid to methane by thermophiles]. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Zinder, S.H.

    1994-02-01

    Acetate is the precursor of approximately two-thirds of the methane produced by anaerobic bioreactors and many other methanogenic habitats. Besides their intrinsic interest, thermophilic acetotrophic methanogenic cultures usually grow at least twice as fast as their mesophilic counterparts, making them more amenable to study. In recent years, attention has been mainly focused on the thermophilic acetate utilizing methanogen Methanothrix strain CALS-1. Methanothrix, also called Methanosaeta, is one of only two methanogenic genera known to convert acetate to methane, the other being Methanosarcina. The faster-growing more versatile Methanosarcina has been better studied. However, when one examines anaerobic digestor contents, Methanothrix is often the dominant acetate-utilizing methanogen. As described in previous progress reports, the authors have achieved methanogenesis from acetate in cell-free extracts of Methanothrix strain CALS-1 grown in a pH auxostat. Using these cell extracts, specific activities for methanogenesis from acetate and ATP of 100--300 nmol/min were routinely obtained, levels comparable to the rate in whole cells, which is not usually the case in methanogenic extracts. Recently obtained results are given and discussed for the following: Methanogenesis in crude extracts; Role of the cell membrane in methanogenesis from acetate; Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase; Novel thermophilic cultures converting acetate to methane; and Methanol-utilizing methanogen.

  12. Kinetics of butyrate, acetate, and hydrogen metabolism in a thermophilic, anaerobic, butyrate-degrading triculture.

    PubMed

    Ahring, B K; Westermann, P

    1987-02-01

    Kinetics of butyrate, acetate, and hydrogen metabolism were determined with butyrate-limited, chemostat-grown tricultures of a thermophilic butyrate-utilizing bacterium together with Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum and the TAM organism, a thermophilic acetate-utilizing methanogenic rod. Kinetic parameters were determined from progress curves fitted to the integrated form of the Michaelis-Menten equation. The apparent half-saturation constants, K(m), for butyrate, acetate, and dissolved hydrogen were 76 muM, 0.4 mM, and 8.5 muM, respectively. Butyrate and hydrogen were metabolized to a concentration of less than 1 muM, whereas acetate uptake usually ceased at a concentration of 25 to 75 muM, indicating a threshold level for acetate uptake. No significant differences in K(m) values for butyrate degradation were found between chemostat- and batch-grown tricultures, although the maximum growth rate was somewhat higher in the batch cultures in which the medium was supplemented with yeast extract. Acetate utilization was found to be the rate-limiting reaction for complete degradation of butyrate to methane and carbon dioxide in continuous culture. Increasing the dilution rate resulted in a gradual accumulation of acetate. The results explain the low concentrations of butyrate and hydrogen normally found during anaerobic digestion and the observation that acetate is the first volatile fatty acid to accumulate upon a decrease in retention time or increase in organic loading of a digestor. PMID:16347293

  13. A Phase Transfer Catalyzed Permanganate Oxidation: Preparation of Vanillin from Isoeugenol Acetate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampman, Gary M.; Sharpe, Steven D.

    1983-01-01

    Background information, laboratory procedures, and results are provided for the preparation of vanillin from isoeugenol acetate. Reaction scheme used to prepare the vanillin and a table indicating the different oxidation experiments carried out on isoeugenol or isoeugenol acetate are also provided. (JN)

  14. UNIQUE ACETYLATION OF OLIGOSACCHARIDES BY TRICHODERMA REESEI ACETYL ESTERASE IN WATER - VINYL ACETATE MIXTURE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purified T. reesei RUT C-30 acetyl esterase catalyzes acetyl transfer to a variety of carbohydrates in water in the presence of vinyl acetate as the acetyl group donor. The degree of conversion and the number of formed acetates depended on the acceptor used. With some acceptors, such as methyl or ...

  15. Phase-inversion cellulose acetate membranes for suppression of protein interferences in anodic stripping voltammetry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boy Hoyer; Nina Jensen

    1995-01-01

    The phase-inversion (PI) method was used to cast permselective cellulose acetate membranes on glassy carbon electrodes with the aim of suppressing protein interferences in anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). By using cadmium and lead as test analytes and differential pulse ASV as detection method, it was found that the modification of the electrode greatly reduces the interference from albumin. Cellulose acetate

  16. Room-temperature phosphorescence of pyrene in agar-agar solid matrix doped with lead acetate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. V. Melnikov; A. N. Salnikov; A. V. Spivack

    2001-01-01

    Luminescence analysis, involving electronic recombination of the pyrene molecules, introduced into agar-agar solid-matrix was carried out. For the first time, room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) of pyrene, activated with lead acetate, was observed. It was established that increased lead acetate concentration resulted in weakened luminosity of pyrene excimers and emergence of phosphorescence.

  17. Influence of acetate and CO 2 on the TMAO-reduction reaction by Shewanella baltica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Debevere; F. Devlieghere; P. van Sprundel; B. De Meulenaer

    2001-01-01

    In this work, the TMAO-reduction by Shewanella baltica, one of the representative spoilage organisms in modified atmosphere packaged marine fish fillets, and the effect of acetate and CO2 on this reduction were studied in vitro. The growth of S. baltica and the corresponding evolution of some compounds (acetate, lactate, pyruvate, glucose and trimethylamine (TMA)) were followed during storage at 4°C

  18. First principle analysis of the catalytic reaction pathways in the synthesis of vinyl acetate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rutger A van Santen; WD Provine; DA Dixon; GW Coulston; JJ Lerou; Santen van RA

    1996-01-01

    Acetoxylation of ethylene over supported palladium and palladium\\/gold is a well established commercial route for the formation of vinyl acetate. While the overall reaction chemistry for the synthesis of vinyl acetate was uncovered some thirty years ago (Eur. Chem. News 1967; World Pet. Cong. Proc. 1968, U.S. Patent 1967 & 1977), the active catalytic surface ensembles, key reaction intermediates, and

  19. Sex pheromone of the leaf-miner Phyllonorycter platani: (Z10)-tetradecenyl acetate.

    PubMed

    Subchev, Mitko; Mircheva, Albena; Pickett, John; Wadhams, Lester; Woodcock, Christine; dos Santos, Alcindo; Franke, Stephan; Francke, Wittko

    2003-10-01

    A female produced sex pheromone of the leaf-miner pest Phyllonorycter platani (Staudinger) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) was identified as (Z10)-tetradecenyl acetate. Field trapping trials confirmed activity of this compound. The presence of the geometrical isomer (E10)-tetradecenyl acetate, a pheromone component of other Phyllonorycter species, reduced trap efficacy. PMID:14682521

  20. The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of sodium and potassium acetates, chlorates, and perchlorates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Apelblat; Emanuel Manzurola

    2007-01-01

    Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of sodium acetate, potassium acetate, sodium perchlorate, and potassium perchlorate were determined over the (278 to 318)K temperature range and compared with available in the literature data. The cases of saturated solutions of sodium chlorate and potassium chlorate are also considered. The determined vapour pressures were used to obtain the water activities, the

  1. The use of polyphenolic extract, purified hydroxytyrosol and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid from olive mill wastewater for the stabilization of refined oils: a potential alternative to synthetic antioxidants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ines Fki; Noureddine Allouche; Sami Sayadi

    2005-01-01

    Ethyl acetate extracts of olive mill waste water (OMWW) were prepared, under in optimal conditions, using a continuous counter-current extraction unit. The antiradical and antioxidant activities of the OMWW extract as well as pure phenolic compounds identified in this extract were evaluated. Results showed that pure hydroxytyrosol and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid had the highest radical-scavenging effects on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical and

  2. Development of Acetic Acid Removal Technology for the UREX+Process

    SciTech Connect

    Robert M. Counce; Jack S. Watson

    2009-06-30

    It is imperative that acetic acid is removed from a waste stream in the UREX+process so that nitric acid can be recycled and possible interference with downstreatm steps can be avoidec. Acetic acid arises from acetohydrozamic acid (AHA), and is used to suppress plutonium in the first step of the UREX+process. Later, it is hydrolyzed into hydroxyl amine nitrate and acetic acid. Many common separation technologies were examined, and solvent extraction was determined to be the best choice under process conditions. Solvents already used in the UREX+ process were then tested to determine if they would be sufficient for the removal of acetic acid. The tributyl phosphage (TBP)-dodecane diluent, used in both UREX and NPEX, was determined to be a solvent system that gave sufficient distribution coefficients for acetic acid in addition to a high separation factor from nitric acid.

  3. Preparation and characterization of manganese(IV) in aqueous acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Jee, Joo-Eun; Pestovsky, Oleg; Bakac, Andreja

    2010-12-28

    Mn(IV) acetate was generated in acetic acid solutions and characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, magnetic susceptibility, and chemical reactivity. All of the data are consistent with a mononuclear manganese(IV) species. Oxidation of several substrates was studied in glacial acetic acid (HOAc) and in 95:5 HOAc-H(2)O. The reaction with excess Mn(OAc)(2) produces Mn(OAc)(3) quantitatively with mixed second-order kinetics, k (25.0 °C) = 110 ± 4 M(-1) s(-1) in glacial acetic acid, and 149 ± 3 M(-1) s(-1) in 95% AcOH, ?H(‡) = 55.0 ± 1.2 kJ mol(-1), ?S(‡) = -18.9 ± 4.1 J mol(-1) K(-1). Sodium bromide is oxidized to bromine with mixed second order kinetics in glacial acetic acid, k = 220 ± 3 M(-1) s(-1) at 25 °C. In 95% HOAc, saturation kinetics were observed. PMID:21046054

  4. Studies of the esterase activity of cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase with resorufin acetate as substrate.

    PubMed Central

    Kitson, T M; Kitson, K E

    1997-01-01

    Resorufin acetate is a very good substrate for sheep liver cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase, both from the point of view of practical spectrophotometry and in terms of information provided about the nature of the catalysis shown by this enzyme. p-Nitrophenyl (PNP) acetate competes against resorufin acetate for the enzyme's active site (although relatively weakly as the latter substrate has the lower Michaelis constant), but acetaldehyde (in the presence of NAD+) inhibits the hydrolysis of resorufin acetate only at very high aldehyde concentration. In the absence of cofactor, the rate-limiting step in the hydrolysis of resorufin acetate and of PNP acetate is hydrolysis of the common acetyl-enzyme, as shown by the observation of bursts of chromophoric product and very similar values of kcat. In the presence of NAD+ or NADH, however, the deacylation step with resorufin acetate is greatly accelerated until acylation seems to become rate-limiting, because no burst is seen under these conditions. Millimolar concentrations of Mg2+ activate the hydrolyis of resorufin acetate both in the presence and absence of cofactors. With both Mg2+ and cofactor the kcat for hydrolysis of resorufin acetate is 30-35 s-1; this is three orders of magnitude higher than the kcat for aldehyde oxidation in the presence of Mg2+, showing that the enzyme's potential catalytic efficency is very much hampered by the slowness with which NADH dissociates from its binding site. The pH profile for the hydrolysis of resorufin acetate in the presence of NAD+ or NADH fits well to a theoretical ionization curve of pKa approx. 8.2; it is suggested that this might belong to the enzyme's putative catalytic residue (Cys-302). PMID:9148739

  5. [Aminomethyl derivatives of (benzisothiazolin-3-one-2-yl)acetic acid amides and 2-(1,2-benzisothiazoline-3-one-2-yl)propionic acid amides].

    PubMed

    S?awik, T

    1991-11-01

    In the search for pharmacological active new derivatives of 1,2-benzisothiazolin-3-on amides of (3-oxo-1,2-benzisothiazolin-2-yl)acetic acid and 3-(3-oxo-1,2-benzisothiazolin-2-yl)propionic acid were obtained. In the reaction of these amides with formaldehyde and various second aryl amines the title compounds are formed. Morpholinmethylamide of (3-oxo-1,2-benzisothiazolin-2-yl)acetic acid showed activity against Trichomonas vaginalis. In the reaction of ethyl esters of (3-oxo-1,2-benzisothiazolin-2-yl) acetic- and -propionic acids with hydrazine hydrate products of ring-opening of isothiazole-2,2'-dithio-bis [N- (ethoxycarbonylmethyl)benzamide] and 2,2'-dithio-bis[N-(ethoxycarbonylethyl)benzamide are formed. PMID:1811228

  6. Scaleable production and separation of fermentation-derived acetic acid. Final CRADA report.

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, S. W.; Energy Systems

    2010-02-08

    Half of U.S. acetic acid production is used in manufacturing vinyl acetate monomer (VAM) and is economical only in very large production plants. Nearly 80% of the VAM is produced by methanol carbonylation, which requires high temperatures and exotic construction materials and is energy intensive. Fermentation-derived acetic acid production allows for small-scale production at low temperatures, significantly reducing the energy requirement of the process. The goal of the project is to develop a scaleable production and separation process for fermentation-derived acetic acid. Synthesis gas (syngas) will be fermented to acetic acid, and the fermentation broth will be continuously neutralized with ammonia. The acetic acid product will be recovered from the ammonium acid broth using vapor-based membrane separation technology. The process is summarized in Figure 1. The two technical challenges to success are selecting and developing (1) microbial strains that efficiently ferment syngas to acetic acid in high salt environments and (2) membranes that efficiently separate ammonia from the acetic acid/water mixture and are stable at high enough temperature to facilitate high thermal cracking of the ammonium acetate salt. Fermentation - Microbial strains were procured from a variety of public culture collections (Table 1). Strains were incubated and grown in the presence of the ammonium acetate product and the fastest growing cultures were selected and incubated at higher product concentrations. An example of the performance of a selected culture is shown in Figure 2. Separations - Several membranes were considered. Testing was performed on a new product line produced by Sulzer Chemtech (Germany). These are tubular ceramic membranes with weak acid functionality (see Figure 3). The following results were observed: (1) The membranes were relatively fragile in a laboratory setting; (2) Thermally stable {at} 130 C in hot organic acids; (3) Acetic acid rejection > 99%; and (4) Moderate ammonia flux. The advantages of producing acetic acid by fermentation include its appropriateness for small-scale production, lower cost feedstocks, low energy membrane-based purification, and lower temperature and pressure requirements. Potential energy savings of using fermentation are estimated to be approximately 14 trillion Btu by 2020 from a reduction in natural gas use. Decreased transportation needs with regional plants will eliminate approximately 200 million gallons of diesel consumption, for combined savings of 45 trillion Btu. If the fermentation process captures new acetic acid production, savings could include an additional 5 trillion Btu from production and 7 trillion Btu from transportation energy.

  7. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid, as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2007-03-27

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired co-solvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon, are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  8. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid, as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2004-06-22

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired co-solvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon, are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  9. A low frequency assignment for infrared and Raman spectra of (+)-bornyl acetate using related compounds and deuterated derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. B.; Hammaker, R. M.; Fateley, W. G.

    Twenty-one fundamentals of (+)-bornyl acetate and nine deuterium substituted modifications (2- d1; 3,3- d2; 2,3,3- d3; acetate- d3; 2- d1 acetate- d3; 3,3- d2 acetate- d3; 2,3,3- d3 acetate- d3; 10- d1; 10,10,10- d3) as well as (-)-isobornyl-1-10,10.10- d3 acetate have been assigned between 200 and 850cm -1. These results supplement the previous assignment of nineteen fundamentals of (-)-isobornyl acetate and seven deuterium substituted modifications (2- d1,; 3,3- d2; 2,3,3- d3; acetate- d3; 2- d1 acetate- d3; 3,3- d2 acetate- d3; 2,3,3- d3 acetate- d3) between 200 and 900cm -1 [8]. These fundamentals are: skeletal vibrations of the quaternary carbons, ring breathing, bending, and twisting vibrations, and vibrations of the acetate group. Key model compounds used in this analysis are norbornane, neopentane, methyl acetate, cyclopentanol, and the (-)-isobornyl acetate system. A series of related compounds (norbornane, bornane, endo-norbomyl acetate, 1-methyl-endo-norbornyl acetate, apobornyl acetate, and (+)-bornyl acetate) is used to identify frequencies associated with the quaternary carbon and the acetate group. Raman spectra are more useful for the quaternary carbon frequencies and i.r. spectra are more useful for acetate group frequencies. Four exo stereoisomer alcohols (1-methyl-exo-norborneol, 1-methy d3-exonorborneoI, apoisoborneol, (-)-isoborneol) and three endo stereoisomer alcohols (1-methyl-endo-norborneol, apoborneol, (+)-borneol) serve as model compounds for a modification of the earlier assignment [8] for the skeletal stretching of the quaternary carbons in the (-)-isobornyl acetate system and extension of this modified assignment to the (+)-bornyl acetate system. Quaternary carbon symmetric skeletal stretching is believed to be responsible for prominent Raman bands between 580 and 680cm -1 in the 36 bicyclic ring compounds investigated to date. Fermi resonance is proposed as the explanation for a number of unexpected intensity patterns observed in the i.r. and Raman spectra.

  10. Esters of Indole-3-Acetic Acid from Avena Seeds 1

    PubMed Central

    Percival, Frank W.; Bandurski, Robert S.

    1976-01-01

    The present studies showed that about 80% of the indole-3-acetic acid extractable from Avena kernels by aqueous acetone was esterified to polymers precipitable by ammonium sulfate and ethanol or acetone. The polymers were positively charged, being adsorbed to cation exchange columns at a pH of 3, or below, and eluted at a pH greater than 4. The polymers were heterogeneous with respect to size, about 5,000 to 20,000 daltons, and charge, exhibiting apparent pKa values of 4.2 and 4.7. The polymer fractions contained esterified IAA, anthrone-reactive material that liberated glucose upon acid hydrolysis, phenolic compounds, and peptidic material with a high proportion of hydrophobic amino acids. Since the esterified IAA was unstable, establishing polymer purity was not possible, and the designation IAA-glucoprotein fraction was adopted. Dehusked Avena kernels contained 8 mg/kg total IAA of which 5.5% was free and 94.5% esterified. IAA bound through a peptidic linkage was present, but in only trace amounts. PMID:16659621

  11. [Eslicarbazepine acetate in clinical practice. Efficacy and safety results].

    PubMed

    Serrano-Castro, Pedro J; Payán-Ortiz, Manuel; Cimadevilla, José M; Quiroga-Subirana, Pablo; Fernández-Pérez, Javier

    2013-03-16

    INTRODUCTION. Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) is a new antiepileptic drug (AED) licensed in Spain in February 2011 as an adjunctive therapy in adults with partial seizures with or without secondary generalization. Clinical trials with ESL have demonstrated acceptable efficacy and safety. AIM. To evaluate the results of ESL in our epilepsy unit during its first year of clinical experience with this AED. PATIENTS AND METHODS. We included all patients who started treatment with ESL at our epilepsy unit from March 2011 to May 2012. We collected the following variables: gender, aetiology of epilepsy, epileptogenic area, reason for switch to ESL, clinical response after initiation of ESL, adverse effects of ESL, refractoriness criteria and treatment discontinuation. A bivariate factor-to-factor correlation study was carried out to establish associations between the independent variables and the clinical response. RESULTS. We recruited 105 patients (51.4% male). 20,7% of patients remained seizure-free and 58.4% showed > 50% improvement after introduction of ESL. At 6 months, 18.1% had experienced some type of side effect, with cognitive disorders being the most common, and 11.5% had discontinued treatment. Combination with lacosamide proved to be significantly less effective in the control of seizures. Combination of ESL with the rest of sodium channel inhibitors was similar in efficacy to others combinations. CONCLUSIONS. ESL is a well-tolerated and effective AED when is used as adjunctive treatment with most of other AED in clinical practice. PMID:23483464

  12. Protective effects of incensole acetate on cerebral ischemic injury.

    PubMed

    Moussaieff, Arieh; Yu, Jin; Zhu, Hong; Gattoni-Celli, Sebastiano; Shohami, Esther; Kindy, Mark S

    2012-03-14

    The resin of Boswellia species is a major anti-inflammatory agent that has been used for centuries to treat various conditions including injuries and inflammatory conditions. Incensole acetate (IA), a major constituent of this resin, has been shown to inhibit NF-?B activation and concomitant inflammation, as well as the neurological deficit following head trauma. Here, we show that IA protects against ischemic neuronal damage and reperfusion injury in mice, attenuating the inflammatory nature of ischemic damage. IA given post-ischemia, reduced infarct volumes and improved neurological activities in the mouse model of ischemic injury in a dose dependent fashion. The protection from damage was accompanied by inhibition of TNF-?, IL-1? and TGF-? expression, as well as NF-?B activation following injury. In addition, IA is shown to have a therapeutic window of treatment up to 6h after ischemic injury. Finally, the protective effects of IA were partially mediated by TRPV3 channels as determined by the TRPV3 deficient mice and channel blocker studies. This study suggests that the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective activities of IA may serve as a novel therapeutic treatment for ischemic and reperfusion injury, and as a tool in the ongoing research of mechanisms for neurological damage. PMID:22284622

  13. Thermal Conductivity of Ethylene Vinyl Acetate Copolymer/Nanofiller Blends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghose, S.; Watson, K. A.; Working, D. C.; Connell, J. W.; Smith, J. G., Jr.; Lin, Y.; Sun, Y. P.

    2007-01-01

    To reduce weight and increase the mobility, comfort, and performance of future spacesuits, flexible, thermally conductive fabrics and plastic tubes are needed for the Liquid Cooling and Ventilation Garment. Such improvements would allow astronauts to operate more efficiently and safely for extended extravehicular activities. As an approach to raise the thermal conductivity (TC) of an ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (Elvax 260), it was compounded with three types of carbon based nanofillers: multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), vapor grown carbon nanofibers (CNFs), and expanded graphite (EG). In addition, other nanofillers including metallized CNFs, nickel nanostrands, boron nitride, and powdered aluminum were also compounded with Elvax 260 in the melt at various loading levels. In an attempt to improve compatibility between Elvax 260 and the nanofillers, MWCNTs and EG were modified by surface coating and through noncovalent and covalent attachment of organic molecules containing alkyl groups. Ribbons of the nanocomposites were extruded to form samples in which the nanofillers were aligned in the direction of flow. Samples were also fabricated by compression molding to yield nanocomposites in which the nanofillers were randomly oriented. Mechanical properties of the aligned samples were determined by tensile testing while the degree of dispersion and alignment of nanoparticles were investigated using high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. TC measurements were performed using a laser flash (Nanoflash ) technique. TC of the samples was measured in the direction of, and perpendicular to, the alignment direction. Additionally, tubing was also extruded from select nanocomposite compositions and the TC and mechanical flexibility measured.

  14. Transport properties of polyaniline-cellulose-acetate blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planès, Jérôme; Wolter, Andreas; Cheguettine, Yasmina; Pro?, Adam; Genoud, Françoise; Nechtschein, Maxime

    1998-09-01

    Transport properties of polyaniline (PANI)-cellulose acetate (CA) conducting blends have been investigated at various length scales and temperatures. We report on the results of dc and ac conductivity measurements, magnetoresistance and electron-spin resonance (ESR) performed on composite films with PANI weight fraction p ranging from the percolation threshold-pc~=0.1%-to a few percent. Three different PANI doping agents have been tested, namely, camphor sulfonic acid (CSA), di(i-octyl phosphate) (DiOP) and phenyl phosphonic acid (PPA). The percolative behavior of ?dc resembles that of published results on PANI/PMMA blends. The onset frequency ?? of the dispersion in ?ac appears to follow the scaling law: ??~?zdc with z~=1. The temperature dependence is of the form of ln?(T)~-(T0/T)? the exponent decreasing from 0.75 to 0.5 with increasing p. The microscopic metallic character of transport is found in ESR and microwave measurements. Spin-dependent conductivity is inferred from the (B/T)2 universal behavior of magnetoresistance. Those results are discussed in conjunction with the ongoing debate on the nature of disorder in conducting polymers-homogeneous versus heterogeneous.

  15. Successful pregnancy after treatment with ulipristal acetate for uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Monleón, Javier; Martínez-Varea, Alicia; Galliano, Daniela; Pellicer, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This case report presents a clinical pregnancy after ulipristal acetate (UA) to decrease uterine fibroid size. A 37-year-old patient, gravida 1, abortus 1, with uterine fibroids was treated with 5?mg of UA daily for 13 weeks starting eight months after a multiple laparotomic myomectomy. Fibroid shrinkage and restoration of the morphology of endometrial cavity were evaluated in order to allow a subsequent pregnancy. A decrease of the uterine fibroids and a normal morphology of the endometrial cavity were noted by transvaginal ultrasound after treatment. An endometrial biopsy excluded histologic endometrial changes. Three months after the end of UA the patient reported amenorrhea for 5 weeks and a clinical pregnancy was confirmed with transvaginal ultrasound. She underwent a subsequent uneventful pregnancy. Thus, the spontaneous pregnancy after UA to reduce fibroid size may support the potential clinical utility of this selective progesterone receptor modulator in the management of women with pregnancy desire and uterine fibroids after a prior myomectomy. Patients who refuse a new surgical procedure and/or those who are going to undergo assisted reproductive techniques would benefit from UA. It effectively shrinks fibroids, avoids risks of a new surgical procedure, and allows an immediate attempt at conception after the end of treatment. PMID:25143845

  16. Medroxyprogesterone acetate enhances in vivo and in vitro antibody production

    PubMed Central

    Vermeulen, Mónica; Pazos, Patricia; Lanari, Claudia; Molinolo, Alfredo; Gamberale, Romina; Geffner, Jorge R; Giordano, Mirta

    2001-01-01

    In the present study we examine the effects of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) on the specific antibody secretion to T-dependent antigens. Our results show that the in vivo administration of MPA to mice, 7 or 90 days before immunization with sheep red blood cells (SRBC), significantly enhanced both, primary and secondary antibody responses, without affecting delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH). These effects could be counteracted by the anti-progestin onapristone or ZK 98299 (ZK) suggesting that MPA interacted with progesterone (PRG) receptors to increase B-cell response. To better understand the mechanisms involved in MPA activity we carried out cultures of splenocytes, bone marrow cells or lymph node cells from immunized mice in the presence of MPA, and evaluated the amount of antibody release to supernatants. We found that low doses of MPA (10?9 m and 10?10 m) significantly enhanced the in vitro production of specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies, an effect that appears to involve the interaction of the progestin with PRG receptors, as judged by the inhibition of MPA effects with ZK (10?8 m) or RU486 (10?9 m). These receptors were detected by flow cytometry analysis in a proportion of T lymphocytes. Because MPA did not increase the number of immunoglobulin-secreting cells, our findings suggest that MPA enhanced the capacity of individual cells to produce specific immunoglobulin. PMID:11576224

  17. Plasmacatalytic removal of lead acetate assisted by precipitation.

    PubMed

    Haddou, Nabila; Ghezzar, Mouffok Redouane; Abdelmalek, Fatiha; Ognier, Stéphanie; Martel, Marc; Addou, Ahmed

    2014-07-01

    The Gliding Arc Discharge (GAD) is an efficient non-thermal plasma technique able to degrade organic compounds dispersed in water at atmospheric pressure. The degradation of the organometallic lead acetate (PbAc) in aqueous solution was performed by two distinct plasmageneous processes: GAD and GAD/TiO2. The global oxidation of the organic matter was followed by Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and the mineralization was determined by the Total Organic Carbon (TOC). The Pb(2+) ions released during the degradation process were measured by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). For 2h of GAD treatment, the degradation rate of PbAc (10mM) reached 83% and for the same duration of GAD/TiO2 process ([TiO2]=1gL(-1)), it reached 93%. The release of Pb(2+) ions in the solution was respectively of 95% and 57% for GAD and GAD/TiO2 processes. The released Pb(2+) ions were removed by precipitation process in a basic medium at pH=11.1. A reaction mechanism was proposed to explain the PbAc molecule degradation and the Pb(2+) elimination. PMID:24462087

  18. [Abiraterone acetate(ZYTIGA®)-development and literature review].

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Yukiko; Mukai, Harumi; Suzukawa, Kazumi; Oyama, Ryo

    2014-07-01

    Abiraterone acetate(AA)has been approved in more than 80 countries for the treatment of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer(mCRPC). In July 2013, a marketing approval application for AA was submitted to the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare. AA is a selective inhibitor of CYP17A1, a crucial enzyme for androgen biosynthesis. AA exerts its anti-tumor activity by directly inhibiting androgen production at all three sources, i. e., the testes, adrenal glands, and tumor itself. Data from international phase III studies and phase I and II studies in Japan have indicated that AA improves the overall survival and quality of life(QoL)of patients with mCRPC. Herein, we have summarized the development of AA and the results of important international and local clinical trials in Japan. In addition, the effect of food on AA bioavailability, concomitant steroid use, and liver function test abnormalities have been discussed regarding the appropriate use of AA. PMID:25131865

  19. Cellulose acetate coated mercury film electrodes for anodic stripping voltametry

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Hutchins-Kumar, L.D.

    1986-02-01

    The response characteristics and analytical advantages of cellulose acetate coated mercury film electrodes for anodic stripping measurements of trace metals are described. The coating provides an effective barrier of the mercury surface, thus eliminating the effects of various organic surfactants. For example, up to at least 100 ppm gelatin does not alter the response. The diagnostic power of rotating disk measurements is used to evaluate the transport toward the mercury surface. The response is limited by the permeability of the film, thus allowing stripping measurements in systems with poorly controlled mass transport. Base hydrolysis of the film is used to manipulate the permeability. Scanning electron micrographs show the microstructures of the films following different hydrolysis times. The discriminative properties of these coatings can be used also to improve the resolution between two adjacent stripping peaks. The response of the modified electrode is directly proportional to the analyte concentration and is reproducible. With a 10-min deposition time, detection limits are 7 x 10 M lead and 1.3 x 10 Z M cadmium. Various metal ions and organic surfactants are tested. The performance of this novel electrode system is compared to that of a conventional mercury film electrode. 19 references, 9 figures, 2 tables.

  20. Quantum chemical computational studies on bis-thiourea zinc acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pir, Hacer; Günay, Nergin; Tamer, Ömer; Avci, Davut; Tarcan, Erdo?an; Atalay, Yusuf

    2013-08-01

    In this study, quantum chemical calculations of vibrational spectra, Raman spectra, electronic properties (total energy, dipole moment, electronegativity, chemical hardness and softness), Mulliken atomic charges and thermodynamic parameters of bis-thiourea zinc acetate (BTZA) have been performed using Gaussian 09 program. Additionally, nonlinear optical (NLO), conformational, natural bond orbital (NBO) analyses of BTZA have been carried out using the same program. The structural and spectroscopic data of the molecule in the ground state have been calculated using Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional method (DFT/B3LYP) with the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. In addition, the molecular frontier orbital energies (HOMO, HOMO-1, LUMO and LUMO+1) of the title compound have been calculated at the HF and B3LYP levels. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. Finally, the calculated results were applied to simulate infrared and Raman spectra of the title compound which showed good agreement with the experimental ones.

  1. Photocatalytic decomposition of cortisone acetate in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Romão, Joana Sobral; Hamdy, Mohamed S; Mul, Guido; Baltrusaitis, Jonas

    2015-01-23

    The photocatalytic decomposition of cortisone 21-acetate (CA), a model compound for the commonly used steroid, cortisone, was studied. CA was photocatalytically decomposed in a slurry reactor with the initial rates between 0.11 and 0.46 mg L(-1)min(-1) at 10 mg L(-1) concentration, using the following heterogeneous photocatalysts in decreasing order of their catalytic activity: ZnO>Evonik TiO2 P25>Hombikat TiO2>WO3. Due to the lack of ZnO stability in aqueous solutions, TiO2 P25 was chosen for further experiments. The decomposition reaction was found to be pseudo-first order and the rate constant decreased as a function of increasing initial CA concentration. Changing the initial pH of the CA solution did not affect the reaction rate significantly. The decomposition reaction in the presence of the oxidizing sacrificial agent sodium persulfate showed an observed decomposition rate constant of 0.004 min(-1), lower than that obtained for TiO2 P25 (0.040 min(-1)). The highest photocatalytic degradation rate constant was obtained combining both TiO2 P25 and S2O8(2-) (0.071 min(-1)) showing a synergistic effect. No reactive intermediates were detected using LC-MS showing fast photocatalytic decomposition kinetics of CA. PMID:24953705

  2. Ethylene and dimethyl acetals from hydroformylated linseed, soybean, and safflower methyl esters as plasticizers for polyvinyl chloride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Awl; E. N. Frankel; E. H. Pryde; G. R. Riser

    1974-01-01

    Dimethyl and ethylene acetals of polyformylated unsaturated fatty esters were prepared, characterized, and evaluated as polyvinyl\\u000a chloride plasticizers. Dimethyl acetals were prepared with trimethyl orthoformate as a water scavenger in the acid catalyzed\\u000a acetalation reaction. With ethylene acetals, water was removed azeotropically. Although the acetals prepared were mixtures,\\u000a molecular distillation gave diacetal esters of 80–90% purity and triacetal esters of

  3. 40 CFR 721.2076 - D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. 721.2076 Section 721.2076 Protection...acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant...acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt (PMN P-00-7; CAS...

  4. 40 CFR 721.2076 - D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. 721.2076 Section 721.2076 Protection...acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant...acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt (PMN P-00-7; CAS...

  5. Quantification of syntrophic acetate-oxidizing microbial communities in biogas processes

    PubMed Central

    Westerholm, Maria; Dolfing, Jan; Sherry, Angela; Gray, Neil D; Head, Ian M; Schnürer, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Changes in communities of syntrophic acetate-oxidizing bacteria (SAOB) and methanogens caused by elevated ammonia levels were quantified in laboratory-scale methanogenic biogas reactors operating at moderate temperature (37°C) using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The experimental reactor was subjected to gradually increasing ammonia levels (0.8–6.9 g NH4+-N l?1), whereas the level of ammonia in the control reactor was kept low (0.65–0.90 g NH4+-N l?1) during the entire period of operation (660 days). Acetate oxidation in the experimental reactor, indicated by increased production of 14CO2 from acetate labelled in the methyl carbon, occurred when ammonia levels reached 5.5 and 6.9 g NH4+-N l?1. Syntrophic acetate oxidizers targeted by newly designed qPCR primers were Thermacetogenium phaeum, Clostridium ultunense, Syntrophaceticus schinkii and Tepidanaerobacter acetatoxydans. The results showed a significant increase in abundance of all these bacteria except T. phaeum in the ammonia-stressed reactor, coincident with the shift to syntrophic acetate oxidation. As the abundance of the bacteria increased, a simultaneous decrease was observed in the abundance of aceticlastic methanogens from the families Methanosaetaceae and Methanosarcinaceae. qPCR analyses of sludge from two additional high ammonia processes, in which methane production from acetate proceeded through syntrophic acetate oxidation (reactor SB) or through aceticlastic degradation (reactor DVX), demonstrated that SAOB were significantly more abundant in the SB reactor than in the DVX reactor. PMID:23761313

  6. Acetic Acid Acts as a Volatile Signal To Stimulate Bacterial Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yun; Gozzi, Kevin; Yan, Fang

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Volatiles are small air-transmittable chemicals with diverse biological activities. In this study, we showed that volatiles produced by the bacterium Bacillus subtilis had a profound effect on biofilm formation of neighboring B. subtilis cells that grew in proximity but were physically separated. We further demonstrated that one such volatile, acetic acid, is particularly potent in stimulating biofilm formation. Multiple lines of genetic evidence based on B. subtilis mutants that are defective in either acetic acid production or transportation suggest that B. subtilis uses acetic acid as a metabolic signal to coordinate the timing of biofilm formation. Lastly, we investigated how B. subtilis cells sense and respond to acetic acid in regulating biofilm formation. We showed the possible involvement of three sets of genes (ywbHG, ysbAB, and yxaKC), all encoding putative holin-antiholin-like proteins, in cells responding to acetic acid and stimulating biofilm formation. All three sets of genes were induced by acetate. A mutant with a triple mutation of those genes showed a severe delay in biofilm formation, whereas a strain overexpressing ywbHG showed early and robust biofilm formation. Results of our studies suggest that B. subtilis and possibly other bacteria use acetic acid as a metabolic signal to regulate biofilm formation as well as a quorum-sensing-like airborne signal to coordinate the timing of biofilm formation by physically separated cells in the community. PMID:26060272

  7. Paradigm for industrial strain improvement identifies sodium acetate tolerance loci in Zymomonas mobilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Shihui [ORNL; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Klingeman, Dawn Marie [ORNL; Pelletier, Dale A [ORNL; Lu, Tse-Yuan [ORNL; Martin, S L. [North Carolina State University; Guo, Hao-Bo [ORNL; Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL; Brown, Steven D [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The application of systems biology tools holds promise for rational industrial microbial strain development. Here, we characterize a Zymomonas mobilis mutant (AcR) demonstrating sodium acetate tolerance that has potential importance in biofuel development. The genome changes associated with AcR are determined using microarray comparative genome sequencing (CGS) and 454-pyrosequencing. Sanger sequencing analysis is employed to validate genomic differences and to investigate CGS and 454-pyrosequencing limitations. Transcriptomics, genetic data and growth studies indicate that over-expression of the sodium-proton antiporter gene nhaA confers the elevated AcR sodium acetate tolerance phenotype. nhaA over-expression mostly confers enhanced sodium (Na{sup +}) tolerance and not acetate (Ac{sup -}) tolerance, unless both ions are present in sufficient quantities. NaAc is more inhibitory than potassium and ammonium acetate for Z. mobilis and the combination of elevated Na{sup +} and Ac{sup -} ions exerts a synergistic inhibitory effect for strain ZM4. A structural model for the NhaA sodium-proton antiporter is constructed to provide mechanistic insights. We demonstrate that Saccharomyces cerevisiae sodium-proton antiporter genes also contribute to sodium acetate, potassium acetate, and ammonium acetate tolerances. The present combination of classical and systems biology tools is a paradigm for accelerated industrial strain improvement and combines benefits of few a priori assumptions with detailed, rapid, mechanistic studies.

  8. Extraction and sorption of acetic acid at pH above pK{sub a} to form calcium magnesium acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Reisinger, H.; King, C.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The use of rock salt for deicing roads has many negative effects on automobiles, highway systems, and the environment. Calcium magnesium acetate, hence-forth denoted CMA, has been identified as a more desirable, environmentally benign solid deicer for high-ways, airport runaways, and similar applications. CMA is also of interest as an additive for scavenging sulfur in combustion processes so as to reduce emissions of sulfur oxides and as a catalyst for coal gasification. Different extractants (trioctylphosphine oxide and secondary, tertiary, and quaternary amines) and solid sorbents (tertiary and quaternary amines) were investigated as agents for recovery of acetic acid as part of a process for production of CMA from fermentation acetic acid. The pH and temperature dependencies for uptake of acetic acid by these extractants and sorbents were measured, along with the degrees of regeneration by aqueous suspensions of slaked dolomitic lime. These results enable identification of agents having optimal basicity. Among the extractants, the secondary amine Amberlite LA-2 gave the best combined performance for extraction and regeneration. Among the sorbents, a tertiary amine, Amberlite IRA-35, gave the best performance. Trioctylphosphine oxide does not maintain capacity in the pH range (about 6) most attractive for acetic acid fermentation. Slurred crushed dolomite is not sufficiently basic to accomplish regeneration.

  9. Preparation and properties of (R)-(-)-1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl- (R)-(+)-alpha-hydroxy-alpha-(4-[125I]iodophenyl)-alpha-phenyl acetate and (R)-(-)-1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl-(S)-(-)-alpha-hydroxy-alpha- (4-[125I]iodophenyl)-alpha-phenyl acetate as potential radiopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Cohen, V I; Rzeszotarski, W J; Gibson, R E; Fan, L H; Reba, R C

    1989-10-01

    rac-4-Nitrobenzilic acid was synthesized and resolved with quinidine and quinine to give the corresponding (R)- and (S)-salts. The resolved diastereomeric salts were converted to (R)- and (S)-4-nitrobenzilic acids and subsequent esterification gave their corresponding ethyl esters. Transesterification with (R)-(-)-3-quinuclidinol afforded (R)-(-)-1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl-(R)-(+)-alpha-hydroxy-alpha- (4-nitrophenyl)-alpha-phenyl acetate and (R)-(-)-1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl-(S)-(-)-alpha-hydroxy- alpha-(4-nitrophenyl)-alpha-phenyl acetate. After hydrogenation, the (R,R)- and (R,S)-amines were converted to the respective triazene derivatives. The triazene derivatives reacted with sodium [125I]iodide to give (R)-(-)-1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl-(R)-(+)- alpha-hydroxy-alpha-(4-[125I]iodophenyl)-alpha-phenyl acetate and (R)-(-)-1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl-(S)-(-)-alpha-hydroxy- alpha-(4-[125I]iodophenyl)-alpha-phenyl acetate. The evaluation of their affinities to muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (MAcChR) shows that (R)-(-)-1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl-(S)-(-)-alpha-hydroxy-alpha-(4- [125I]iodophenyl)-alpha-phenyl acetate exhibits an affinity for the MAcChR from corpus striatum that is approximately threefold lower than that of (R)-(-)-1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl-(R)-(+)-alpha-hydroxy-alpha-(4- [125I]iodophenyl)-alpha-phenyl acetate. PMID:2600789

  10. Catalytic Acetylation of Pinus radiata (D. Don) with Limited Supply of Acetic Anhydride Using Conventional and Microwave Heating

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anil Kumar Sethy; Peter Vinden; Grigori Torgovnikov; Holger Militz; Carsten Mai; Lars Kloeser; Simon Przewloka

    2012-01-01

    This study outlines the effect of catalyst (potassium acetate) and microwave heating on the rate and degree of acetylation in radiata pine. Sapwood samples were impregnated with potassium acetate dissolved in two different solvents (water and methanol). Catalyst loaded samples were dried and impregnated with acetic anhydride followed by conventional and microwave heating. The degree of acetylation was evaluated by

  11. Acetate Availability and Utilization Supports the Growth of Mutant Sub-Populations on Aging Bacterial Colonies

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, Jessica M.; Wrande, Marie; Hughes, Diarmaid

    2014-01-01

    When bacterial colonies age most cells enter a stationary phase, but sub-populations of mutant bacteria can continue to grow and accumulate. These sub-populations include bacteria with mutations in rpoB (RNA polymerase ?-subunit) or rpoS (RNA polymerase stress-response sigma factor). Here we have identified acetate as a nutrient present in the aging colonies that is utilized by these mutant subpopulations to support their continued growth. Proteome analysis of aging colonies showed that several proteins involved in acetate conversion and utilization were upregulated during aging. Acetate is known to be excreted during the exponential growth phase but can be imported later during the transition to stationary phase and converted to acetyl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA is used in multiple processes, including feeding into the TCA cycle, generating ATP via the glyoxylate shunt, as a source of acetyl groups for protein modification, and to support fatty acid biosynthesis. We showed that deletion of acs (encodes acetyl-CoA synthetase; converts acetate into acetyl-CoA) significantly reduced the accumulation of rpoB and rpoS mutant subpopulations on aging colonies. Measurement of radioactive acetate uptake showed that the rate of conversion decreased in aging wild-type colonies, was maintained at a constant level in the rpoB mutant, and significantly increased in the aging rpoS mutant. Finally, we showed that the growth of subpopulations on aging colonies was greatly enhanced if the aging colony itself was unable to utilize acetate, leaving more acetate available for mutant subpopulations to use. Accordingly, the data show that the accumulation of subpopulations of rpoB and rpoS mutants on aging colonies is supported by the availability in the aging colony of acetate, and by the ability of the subpopulation cells to convert the acetate to acetyl-CoA. PMID:25275605

  12. Long-term effectiveness of glatiramer acetate in clinical practice conditions.

    PubMed

    Arnal-García, Carmen; Amigo-Jorrin, Maria Del Campo; López-Real, Ana Maria; Lema-Devesa, Carme; Llopis, Noemi; Sanchez-de la Rosa, R

    2014-12-01

    Glatiramer acetate currently represents one of the main treatments for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). However, the information available about its long-term effect in clinical practice is still limited. Thus, this multicenter retrospective cohort study aimed to assess the long-term effectiveness of glatiramer acetate in this setting. The study population included RRMS patients treated with glatiramer acetate for at least 5 years after its marketing authorization and the primary endpoint was long-term clinical effectiveness, defined as absence of disability progression for at least five consecutive years. A total of 149 patients were included into the study, who had received glatiramer acetate for a mean of 6.9 ± 1.4 years (5 years, n=149; 6 years, n=112; 7 years, n=63; 8 years, n=32; 9 years, n=21). More than 85% of patients remained free from disability progression through years 1 to 9 of glatiramer acetate treatment, and 75.2% showed absence of disability progression for at least five consecutive years. Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores were maintained, with most patients showing stable/improved EDSS and 92.6% sustaining EDSS <6. Decreased annual relapse rates and increased proportion of relapse-free patients were maintained during the whole glatiramer acetate treatment compared to the year prior to its authorization (p<0.001). The number of gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted lesions also decreased from pre-glatiramer-acetate assessment to last follow-up whilst on glatiramer acetate (p<0.05). In conclusion, administration of glatiramer acetate shows long-term clinical effectiveness for RRMS treatment; its effect under clinical practice conditions slowed disability progression and reduced relapse occurrence for up to 9 years. PMID:25257663

  13. Pathway identification combining metabolic flux and functional genomics analyses: acetate and propionate activation by Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Veit, Andrea; Rittmann, Doris; Georgi, Tobias; Youn, Jung-Won; Eikmanns, Bernhard J; Wendisch, Volker F

    2009-03-10

    Corynebacterium glutamicum can utilize acetic acid and propionic acid for growth and amino acid production. Growth on acetate as sole carbon source requires acetate activation by acetate kinase (AK) and phosphotransacetylase (PTA), encoded in the pta-ack operon. Genetic and enzymatic studies showed that these enzymes also catalyze propionate activation and were required for growth on propionate as sole carbon source. However, when glucose was present as a co-substrate strain lacking the AK-PTA pathway was still able to utilize acetate or propionate for growth indicating that an alternative activation pathway exists. As shown by (13)C-labelling experiments, the carbon skeleton of acetate is conserved during activation to acetyl-CoA in this pathway. Metabolic flux analysis during growth on an acetate-glucose mixture revealed that in the absence of the AK-PTA pathway carbon fluxes in glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and anaplerosis via PEP carboxylase and/or pyruvate carboxylase were increased, while the glyoxylate cycle flux was decreased. DNA microarray experiments identified cg2840 as a constitutively and highly expressed gene putatively encoding a CoA transferase. Purified His-tagged Cg2840 protein was active as CoA transferase interconverting acetyl-, propionyl- and succinyl-moieties as CoA acceptors and donors. Strains lacking both the CoA transferase and the AK-PTA pathway could neither activate acetate nor propionate in the presence or absence of glucose. Thus, when these short-chain fatty acids are co-metabolized with other carbon sources, CoA transferase and the AK-PTA pathway constitute a redundant system for activation of acetate and propionate. PMID:19162097

  14. Effect of acetic acid on lipid accumulation by glucose-fed activated sludge cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Mondala, Andro; Hernandez, Rafael; French, Todd; McFarland, Linda; Sparks, Darrell; Holmes, William; Haque, Monica

    2012-01-01

    The effect of acetic acid, a lignocellulose hydrolysis by-product, on lipid accumulation by activated sludge cultures grown on glucose was investigated. This was done to assess the possible application of lignocellulose as low-cost and renewable fermentation substrates for biofuel feedstock production. Results: Biomass yield was reduced by around 54% at a 2 g L -1 acetic acid dosage but was increased by around 18% at 10 g L -1 acetic acid dosage relative to the control run. The final gravimetric lipid contents at 2 and 10 g L -1 acetic acid levels were 12.5 ���± 0.7% and 8.8 ���± 3.2% w/w, respectively, which were lower than the control (17.8 ���± 2.8% w/w). However, biodiesel yields from activated sludge grown with acetic acid (5.6 ���± 0.6% w/w for 2 g L -1 acetic acid and 4.2 ���± 3.0% w/w for 10 g L -1 acetic acid) were higher than in raw activated sludge (1-2% w/w). The fatty acid profiles of the accumulated lipids were similar with conventional plant oil biodiesel feedstocks. Conclusions: Acetic acid enhanced biomass production by activated sludge at high levels but reduced lipid production. Further studies are needed to enhance acetic acid utilization by activated sludge microorganisms for lipid biosynthesis.

  15. The feeding value of water and acetic acid reconstituted sorghum grain for lactating dairy cows 

    E-print Network

    Bade, David Heinie

    1972-01-01

    (both molar percent and concentrat1on); not in an increase in ruminal propionic acid. This study ind1cates that the addition of 1. 5, 2. 0 and 2. 5X acetic acid to reconstituted grain results in a rumi nal acetic:propi oni c acid ratio similar... in total volatile fatty acid production from reconstitution have been reported in vitro (12) and 1n vivo (12, 31, 34). A more narrow acetic:propionic acid ratio was reported by Helm (12) in vitro and in vi vo from reconstituted sorghum gra1n compared...

  16. Isolation and characterization of acetate-utilizing anaerobes from a freshwater sediment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. M. Scholten; A. J. M. Stams

    2000-01-01

    Acetate-degrading anaerobic microorganisms in freshwater sediment were quantified by the most probable number technique. From\\u000a the highest dilutions a methanogenic, a sulfate-reducing, and a nitrate-reducing microorganism were isolated with acetate\\u000a as substrate. The methanogen (culture AMPB-Zg) was non-motile and rod-shaped with blunted ends (0.5–1 ?m × 3–4 ?m long). Doubling\\u000a times with acetate at 30–35°C were 5.6–8.1 days. The methanogen

  17. Improved monitoring of female codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with pear ester plus acetic acid in sex pheromone-treated orchards.

    PubMed

    Knight, Alan

    2010-08-01

    The performance of clear delta traps baited with 3.0 mg of pear ester, ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, and 5.0 ml of acetic acid in separate lures was compared with orange delta traps baited with a single lure containing 3.0 mg of both pear ester and the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone) for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), in apple, Malus domestica (Borkhausen). Residual analyses and field tests demonstrated that both the pear ester and acetic acid lures were effective for at least 8 wk. The two trap-lure combinations caught a similar number of total moths in an orchard treated with sex pheromone dispensers during short-term trials in 2008. However, the mean catch of female moths was significantly higher and male moths significantly lower in clear traps baited with pear ester and acetic acid versus orange traps baited with pear ester and codlemone. Season-long studies were conducted with these two trap-lure combinations in orchards treated with (n = 6) and without (n = 7) sex pheromone dispensers during 2009. The two trap-lure combinations caught similar numbers of moths in dispenser-treated orchards. In contrast, total catch was significantly higher (>2-fold) in the orange compared with the clear traps in untreated orchards. The clear caught >6-fold more females than the orange trap in both types of orchards. These studies suggest that deploying clear delta traps baited with pear ester and acetic acid can be an effective monitoring tool for female codling moth and an alternative to codlemone-baited traps in sex pheromone-treated orchards. PMID:22127179

  18. Investigation of unique interactions between cellulose acetate and ionic liquid [EMIM]SCN, and their influences on hollow fiber ultrafiltration membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ding Yu Xing; Na Peng; Tai-Shung Chung

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the molecular interactions between ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate ([EMIM]SCN) and cellulose acetate (CA), employing not only experimental characterizations including FTIR and rheological tests, but also molecular dynamics simulations. Due to the electrostatic nature of ionic liquids, [EMIM]SCN interacts intensely with CA molecules through pronounced hydrogen bonding, Coulombic forces and van der Waals interactions, which play an important

  19. Liquid-liquid solvent extraction of rare earths from chloride medium with sec -nonylphenoxy acetic acid and its mixtures with neutral organophosphorus extractants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pengfei Xiao; Changli Bao; Naizhong Song; Cui Li; Qiong Jia

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, sec-nonylphenoxy acetic acid (CA100) and its mixtures with four neutral organophosphorus extractants, tri-butyl-phosphate (TBP),\\u000a 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid di-2-ethyl ester (DEHEHP), Cyanex923, and Cyanex925 have been applied to the extraction of rare\\u000a earths. Results show that all the four mixing systems do not have evident synergistic effects on the extraction of rare earths.\\u000a The different extraction effects

  20. Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry Experiment: The Determination of Formation Constants for Acetate and Mono-and Dichloroacetate Salts of Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Methyl-and Ethylamines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Amelia, Ronald P.; Chiang, Stephanie; Pollut, Stephanie; Nirode, William F.

    2014-01-01

    The formation and the hydrolysis of organic salts produced by the titration of a 0.1 M solution of the following amines: methyl-, dimethyl-, trimethyl-, ethyl-, diethyl-, and triethylamine with a 0.1 M solution of acetic, chloroacetic, and dichloracetic acids are studied. The pK[subscript b] of the amine and the pH at the end point were determined…

  1. Thermal Conductivity of Ethylene Vinyl Acetate Copolymer/Nanofiller Blends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghose, Sayata; Watson, Kent A.; Working, Dennis C.; Connell, John W.; Smith, Joseph G., Jr.; Lin, Y.; Sun, Y. P.

    2007-01-01

    To reduce weight and increase the mobility, comfort, and performance of future spacesuits, flexible, thermally conductive fabrics and plastic tubes are needed for the Liquid Cooling and Ventilation Garment. Such improvements would allow astronauts to operate more efficiently and safely for extended extravehicular activities. As an approach to raise the thermal conductivity (TC) of an ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (Elvax(TM)260), it was compounded with three types of carbon based nanofillers: multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), vapor grown carbon nanofibers (CNFs), and expanded graphite (EG). In addition, other nanofillers including metallized CNFs, nickel nanostrands, boron nitride, and powdered aluminum were also compounded with Elvax(TM) 260 in the melt at various loading levels. In an attempt to improve compatibility between Elvax 260 and the nanofillers, MWCNTs and EG were modified by surface coating and through noncovalent and covalent attachment of organic molecules containing alkyl groups. Ribbons of the nanocomposites were extruded to form samples in which the nanofillers were aligned in the direction of flow. Samples were also fabricated by compression molding to yield nanocomposites in which the nanofillers were randomly oriented. Mechanical properties of the aligned samples were determined by tensile testing while the degree of dispersion and alignment of nanoparticles were investigated using high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. TC measurements were performed using a laser flash (Nanoflash(TM)) technique. TC of the samples was measured in the direction of, and perpendicular to, the alignment direction. Additionally, tubing was also extruded from select nanocomposite compositions and the TC and mechanical flexibility measured.

  2. Photoluminescence of cellulose acetate and silica sphere composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Kwang-Sun

    2014-08-01

    Strong blue and green light emission has been observed from the cellulose acetate (CA) and silica sphere composite. Two different amounts of silica spheres were mixed in the CA solution to fabricate large area super-hydrophobic films. The silica spheres and CA solution ratios were 0.07:4.0 (SSCA-A) and 0.14:4.0 (SSCA-B). The milky color solution of SSCA-A and SSCA-B slowly turned to light yellow and red, respectively, with the time passed. The colors became intense yellow and red for the SSCA-A and SSCA-B, respectively, after 38 days. FTIR spectra show more absorption at 3478 cm-1 corresponding sbnd OH stretching vibration, at 2963 cm-1 caused by sbnd CH stretching vibration, at 1746 and 1713 cm-1 representing the Cdbnd O stretching vibration, and at 1100 cm-1 corresponding sbnd Rsbnd OH and Sisbnd Osbnd Si stretching vibration for CA and silica. Therefore, aged SSCA-A and SSCA-B have more sbnd OH, sbnd CH, sbnd Cdbnd O, and Sisbnd Osbnd Si groups than pure CA. UV-visible spectra show the absorption peaks at 410 nm for both SSCA-A and SSCA-B. Photoluminescence (PL) peaks were shifted toward longer wavelength with the increase of the excitation wavelength and became maximum at approximately 470 nm with excitation wavelength at 400 nm for the SSCA-A. There were two maximum luminescence peaks at 470 and 530 nm with the excitation wavelength at 400 and 470 nm, respectively, for the SSCA-B. The luminescence peak shift was due to the multiple emission center proved by the different excitation energy.

  3. Randomized Study Combining Interferon & Glatiramer Acetate in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Lublin, Fred D.; Cofield, Stacey S.; Cutter, Gary R.; Conwit, Robin; Narayana, Ponnada A.; Nelson, Flavia; Salter, Amber R.; Gustafson, Tarah; Wolinsky, Jerry S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective A double-blind, randomized, controlled study to determine if combined use of interferon beta-1a (IFN) 30ug IM weekly and glatiramer acetate (GA) 20mg daily is more efficacious than either agent alone in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Methods 1008 participants were randomized and followed until the last participant enrolled completed 3 yrs. The primary endpoint was reduction in annualized relapse rate utilizing a strict definition of relapse. Secondary outcomes included time to confirmed disability, Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC) score and MRI metrics. Results Combination IFN + GA was not superior to the better of the single agents (GA) in risk of relapse. Both the combination therapy and GA were significantly better than IFN in reducing the risk of relapse. The Combination was not better than either agent alone in lessening confirmed EDSS progression or change in MSFC over 36 months. The combination was superior to either agent alone in reducing new lesion activity and accumulation of total lesion volumes. In a post hoc analysis, combination therapy resulted in a higher proportion of participants attaining disease activity free status (DAFS) compared to either single arm; driven by the MRI results. Interpretation Combining the two most commonly prescribed therapies for MS did not produce a significant clinical benefit over three years. An effect was seen on some MRI metrics. In a test of comparative efficacy, GA was superior to IFN in reducing the risk of exacerbation. The extension phase for CombiRx will address if the observed differences in MRI and DAFS findings predict later clinical differences. PMID:23424159

  4. Acetic Acid Bacteria, Newly Emerging Symbionts of Insects?

    PubMed Central

    Crotti, Elena; Rizzi, Aurora; Chouaia, Bessem; Ricci, Irene; Favia, Guido; Alma, Alberto; Sacchi, Luciano; Bourtzis, Kostas; Mandrioli, Mauro; Cherif, Ameur; Bandi, Claudio; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2010-01-01

    Recent research in microbe-insect symbiosis has shown that acetic acid bacteria (AAB) establish symbiotic relationships with several insects of the orders Diptera, Hymenoptera, Hemiptera, and Homoptera, all relying on sugar-based diets, such as nectars, fruit sugars, or phloem sap. To date, the fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster and Bactrocera oleae, mosquitoes of the genera Anopheles and Aedes, the honey bee Apis mellifera, the leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus, and the mealybug Saccharicoccus sacchari have been found to be associated with the bacterial genera Acetobacter, Gluconacetobacter, Gluconobacter, Asaia, and Saccharibacter and the novel genus Commensalibacter. AAB establish symbiotic associations with the insect midgut, a niche characterized by the availability of diet-derived carbohydrates and oxygen and by an acidic pH, selective factors that support AAB growth. AAB have been shown to actively colonize different insect tissues and organs, such as the epithelia of male and female reproductive organs, the Malpighian tubules, and the salivary glands. This complex topology of the symbiosis indicates that AAB possess the keys for passing through body barriers, allowing them to migrate to different organs of the host. Recently, AAB involvement in the regulation of innate immune system homeostasis of Drosophila has been shown, indicating a functional role in host survival. All of these lines of evidence indicate that AAB can play different roles in insect biology, not being restricted to the feeding habit of the host. The close association of AAB and their insect hosts has been confirmed by the demonstration of multiple modes of transmission between individuals and to their progeny that include vertical and horizontal transmission routes, comprising a venereal one. Taken together, the data indicate that AAB represent novel secondary symbionts of insects. PMID:20851977

  5. Reactivity and reaction intermediates for acetic acid adsorbed on CeO2(111)

    SciTech Connect

    Calaza, Florencia [Max Planck Society, Fritz Haber Institute; Chen, Tsung-Liang [ORNL; Mullins, David R [ORNL; Xu, Ye [Louisiana State University; Overbury, Steven {Steve} H [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Adsorption and reaction of acetic acid on a CeO2(1 1 1) surface was studied by a combination of ultra-highvacuum based methods including temperature desorption spectroscopy (TPD), soft X-ray photoelectronspectroscopy (sXPS), near edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (NEXAFS) and reflection absorption IRspectroscopy (RAIRS), together with density functional theory (DFT) calculations. TPD shows that thedesorption products are strongly dependent upon the initial oxidation state of the CeO2surface, includingselectivity between acetone and acetaldehyde products. The combination of sXPS and NEXAFS demon-strate that acetate forms upon adsorption at low temperature and is stable to above 500 K, above whichpoint ketene, acetone and acetic acid desorb. DFT and RAIRS show that below 500 K, bridge bondedacetate coexists with a moiety formed by adsorption of an acetate at an oxygen vacancy, formed bywater desorption.

  6. Effect of Shear on Gelation of Polyacrylamide-Chromium Acetate Gelant in a Circular Tube

    E-print Network

    Li, Xianping

    2010-11-26

    This research studies the gelation and flow properties of a partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM)-chromium acetate gel system under shear conditions. Gelation was observed in steady shear on a rheometer and during injection through a 1,031-ft...

  7. Ultrasound assisted lipase catalyzed synthesis of cinnamyl acetate via transesterification reaction in a solvent free medium.

    PubMed

    Tomke, Prerana D; Rathod, Virendra K

    2015-11-01

    Cinnamyl acetate is known for its use as flavor and fragrance material in different industries such as food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic etc. This work focuses on ultrasound assisted lipase (Novozym 435) catalyzed synthesis of cinnamyl acetate via transesterification of cinnamyl alcohol and vinyl acetate in non-aqueous, solvent free system. Optimization of various parameters shows that a higher yield of 99.99% can be obtained at cinnamyl alcohol to vinyl acetate ratio of 1:2 with 0.2% of catalyst, at 40°C and 150rpm, with lower ultrasound power input of 50W (Ultrasound intensity 0.81W/cm(2)), at 25kHz frequency, 50% duty cycle. Further, the time required for the maximum conversion is reduced to 20min as compared to 60min of conventional process. Similarly, the enzyme can be successfully reused seven times without loss of enzyme activity. Thus, ultrasound helps to enhance the enzyme catalyzed synthesis of flavors. PMID:26186841

  8. Biosynthesis of the Halogenated Auxin, 4-Chloroindole-3-Acetic Acid1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Tivendale, Nathan D.; Davidson, Sandra E.; Davies, Noel W.; Smith, Jason A.; Dalmais, Marion; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid I.; Quittenden, Laura J.; Sutton, Lily; Bala, Raj K.; Le Signor, Christine; Thompson, Richard; Horne, James; Reid, James B.; Ross, John J.

    2012-01-01

    Seeds of several agriculturally important legumes are rich sources of the only halogenated plant hormone, 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid. However, the biosynthesis of this auxin is poorly understood. Here, we show that in pea (Pisum sativum) seeds, 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid is synthesized via the novel intermediate 4-chloroindole-3-pyruvic acid, which is produced from 4-chlorotryptophan by two aminotransferases, TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE RELATED1 and TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE RELATED2. We characterize a tar2 mutant, obtained by Targeting Induced Local Lesions in Genomes, the seeds of which contain dramatically reduced 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid levels as they mature. We also show that the widespread auxin, indole-3-acetic acid, is synthesized by a parallel pathway in pea. PMID:22573801

  9. Two-dimensional isobutyl acetate production pathways to improve carbon yield

    PubMed Central

    Tashiro, Yohei; Desai, Shuchi H.; Atsumi, Shota

    2015-01-01

    For an economically competitive biological process, achieving high carbon yield of a target chemical is crucial. In biochemical production, pyruvate and acetyl-CoA are primary building blocks. When sugar is used as the sole biosynthetic substrate, acetyl-CoA is commonly generated by pyruvate decarboxylation. However, pyruvate decarboxylation during acetyl-CoA formation limits the theoretical maximum carbon yield (TMCY) by releasing carbon, and in some cases also leads to redox imbalance. To avoid these problems, we describe here the construction of a metabolic pathway that simultaneously utilizes glucose and acetate. Acetate is utilized to produce acetyl-CoA without carbon loss or redox imbalance. We demonstrate the utility of this approach for isobutyl acetate (IBA) production, wherein IBA production with glucose and acetate achieves a higher carbon yield than with either sole carbon source. These results highlight the potential for this multiple carbon source approach to improve the TMCY and balance redox in biosynthetic pathways. PMID:26108471

  10. Isolation and characterization of novel microsatellite markers for the northern mauxia shrimp, Acetes chinensis, using pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jung-Ha; Kang, Hyun-Sook; Noh, Eun-Soo; Park, Jung-Youn; An, Chel-Min

    2014-12-01

    Among the 14 species in the Acetes genus, Acetes japonicus and Acetes chinensis, are the only and also abundant two species around the Korean Peninsula, and are used in traditional recipes. These species are of great economic importance, but little is known about their population genetics, despite the fact that information of this kind is important for stock assessment, fisheries management and identification of origin. A total of 9 microsatellite (MS) markers for A. chinensis were developed using pyrosequencing techniques. Polymorphisms of these markers were evaluated in 96 wild individuals collected from the Yellow Sea off the coast of Korea. A total of 133 alleles were detected at nine loci, with a cross-species transferability of 56% with A. japonicus. These markers will facilitate assessment of population genetic diversity in the genus Acetes. PMID:24878169

  11. Acetate Oxidation Coupled to Fe(III) Reduction in Hyperthermophilic Microorganisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JASON M. TOR; KAZEM KASHEFI; DEREK R. LOVLEY

    2001-01-01

    No hyperthermophilic microorganisms have previously been shown to anaerobically oxidize acetate, the key extracellular intermediate in the anaerobic oxidation of organic matter. Here we report that two hyperther- mophiles, Ferroglobus placidus and \\

  12. 76 FR 11488 - Determination That MEGACE (Megestrol Acetate) Tablets and Nine Other Drug Products Were Not...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ...Determination That MEGACE (Megestrol Acetate) Tablets and Nine Other Drug Products Were Not...amantadine hydrochloride (HCl)) Tablets and ANDA 84-935 for DEXEDRINE (dextroamphetamine sulfate) Tablets in the Federal Register of July...

  13. Methane production from bicarbonate and acetate in an anoxic marine sediment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crill, P. M.; Martens, C. S.

    1986-01-01

    Methane production from C-14 labeled bicarbonate and acetate was measured over the top 28 cm of anoxic Cape Lookout Bight sediments during the summer of 1983. The depth distribution and magnitude of summed radioisotopically determined rates compare well with previous measurements of total methane production and the sediment-water methane flux. Methane production from CO2 reduction and acetate fermentation accounts for greater than 80 percent of the total production rate and sediment-water flux. Methane production from bicarbonate was found to occur in all depth intervals sampled except those in the top 2 cm, whereas significant methane production from acetate only occurred at depths below 10 cm where sulfate was exhausted. Acetate provided 20 to 29 percent of the measured methane production integrated over the top 30 cm of the sediments.

  14. Two-dimensional isobutyl acetate production pathways to improve carbon yield.

    PubMed

    Tashiro, Yohei; Desai, Shuchi H; Atsumi, Shota

    2015-01-01

    For an economically competitive biological process, achieving high carbon yield of a target chemical is crucial. In biochemical production, pyruvate and acetyl-CoA are primary building blocks. When sugar is used as the sole biosynthetic substrate, acetyl-CoA is commonly generated by pyruvate decarboxylation. However, pyruvate decarboxylation during acetyl-CoA formation limits the theoretical maximum carbon yield (TMCY) by releasing carbon, and in some cases also leads to redox imbalance. To avoid these problems, we describe here the construction of a metabolic pathway that simultaneously utilizes glucose and acetate. Acetate is utilized to produce acetyl-CoA without carbon loss or redox imbalance. We demonstrate the utility of this approach for isobutyl acetate (IBA) production, wherein IBA production with glucose and acetate achieves a higher carbon yield than with either sole carbon source. These results highlight the potential for this multiple carbon source approach to improve the TMCY and balance redox in biosynthetic pathways. PMID:26108471

  15. Synthesis of 2-acylindole-3-acetic acids: a novel base-mediated indole synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazunari Nakao; Yoshinori Murata; Hiroki Koike; Chikara Uchida; Kiyoshi Kawamura; Sachiko Mihara; Shigeo Hayashi; Rodney W. Stevens

    2003-01-01

    An efficient and expedient synthetic route to 2-acylindole-3-acetic acids is described. This work first demonstrates a one-pot room-temperature indole ring construction via the in situ generation of indoline intermediate.

  16. Preventing Repeat Teen Pregnancy: Postpartum Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate, Oral Contraceptive Pills, or the Patch?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Ries Thurman; Natalie Hammond; Helen E. Brown; Mary Ellen Roddy

    2007-01-01

    Study ObjectiveTo prospectively evaluate the repeat teen pregnancy rates, within one year of delivery, among adolescents who choose the contraceptive patch (Ortho Evra) versus oral contraceptive pills (OCP) versus Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (Depo Provera, DMPA) for postpartum contraception.

  17. Synthesis of diphenylhexatriene by the Pd-catalyzed dimerization of cinnamyl acetate.

    PubMed

    Mesganaw, Tehetena; Im, G-Yoon J; Garg, Neil K

    2013-04-01

    A mild and operationally simple method to synthesize diphenylhexatriene (DPH) is reported. The method relies on the Pd-catalyzed dimerization of cinnamyl acetate and provides efficient access to DPH in a single step. PMID:23414259

  18. Effect of eslicarbazepine acetate and oxcarbazepine on cognition and psychomotor function in healthy volunteers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denise Milovan; Luis Almeida; Myroslava K. Romach; Teresa Nunes; José Francisco Rocha; Marta Sokowloska; Edward M. Sellers; Patrício Soares-da-Silva

    2010-01-01

    The results of two single-blind studies conducted to evaluate the cognitive and psychomotor effects of eslicarbazepine acetate and oxcarbazepine following single and repeated administration in healthy volunteers are reported. The cognitive and psychomotor evaluation consisted of several computerized and paper-and-pencil measures. Eslicarbazepine acetate and oxcarbazepine had similar overall cognitive profiles and did not cause clinically relevant cognitive impairment. The incidence

  19. Acetate is a superior substrate for microbial fuel cell initiation preceding bioethanol effluent utilization.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guotao; Thygesen, Anders; Meyer, Anne S

    2015-06-01

    This study assessed cell voltage development, electricity recovery, and microbial community composition in response to initial substrate including acetate, xylose, acetate/xylose 1:1 mixture (ace/xyl), and bioethanol effluent (BE) during microbial fuel cell (MFC) operation at 1000?? external resistance. The BE mainly contained 20.5 g/L xylose, 1.8 g/L arabinose, and 2.5 g/L propionic acid. The MFCs initially fed with acetate showed shorter initiation time (1 day), higher average cell voltage (634?±?9 mV), and higher coulombic efficiency (31.5?±?0.5 %) than those initially fed with ace/xyl or xylose. However, BE-initiated MFCs only generated 162?±?1 mV. The acetate-initiated MFCs exhibited longer adaptation time (21 h) and lower cell voltage (645?±?10 mV) when the substrate was switched to xylose, whereas substrate switching to BE produced the highest voltage (656 mV), maximum power density (362?±?27 mW/m(2)), maximum current density (709?±?27 mA/m(2)), and coulombic efficiency (25?±?0.5 %) in the acetate-initiated MFCs. The microbial community in acetate-initiated MFCs was less diverse and contained more electrogenic bacteria (13.9?±?0.4 %) including Geobacter sulfurreducens and Desulfuromonas acetexigen than the MFCs initially fed with ace/xyl, xylose, and BE. After switching the substrate to xylose and subsequently to BE, the microbial community in the acetate-initiated MFCs became more diverse, while no significant changes were observed in ace/xyl-, xylose-, and BE-initiated MFCs. The results showed that initial substrate affected the power generation and the capability to adapt to the substrate alteration in MFCs. Acetate-initiated MFCs showed best performance in utilizing BE. PMID:25794875

  20. Acetic acid induces pH-independent cellular energy depletion in Salmonella enterica.

    PubMed

    Tan, Sin Mei; Lee, Sui Mae; Dykes, Gary A

    2015-03-01

    Weak organic acids are widely used as preservatives and disinfectants in the food industry. Despite their widespread use, the antimicrobial mode of action of organic acids is still not fully understood. This study investigated the effect of acetic acid on the cell membranes and cellular energy generation of four Salmonella strains. Using a nucleic acid/protein assay, it was established that acetic acid did not cause leakage of intracellular components from the strains. A scanning electron microscopy study further confirmed that membrane disruption was not the antimicrobial mode of action of acetic acid. Some elongated Salmonella cells observed in the micrographs indicated a possibility that acetic acid may inhibit DNA synthesis in the bacterial cells. Using an ATP assay, it was found that at a neutral pH, acetic acid caused cellular energy depletion with an ADP/ATP ratio in the range between 0.48 and 2.63 (p<0.05) that was apparent for the four Salmonella strains. We suggest that this effect was probably due solely to the action of undissociated acid molecules. The antimicrobial effect of acetic acid was better under acidic conditions (ADP/ATP ratio of 5.56 ± 1.27; p<0.05), where the role of both pH and undissociated acid molecules can act together. We concluded that the inhibitory effect of acetic acid is not solely attributable to acidic pH but also to undissociated acid molecules. This finding has implication for the use of acetic acid as an antimicrobial against Salmonella on food products, such as chicken meat, which can buffer its pH. PMID:25562466

  1. Interspecies acetate transfer influences the extent of anaerobic benzoate degradation by syntrophic consortia

    SciTech Connect

    Warikoo, V.; McInerney, M.J.; Suflita, J.M. [and others

    1997-03-01

    Benzoate degradation by an anaerobic, syntrophic bacterium, strain SB, in coculture with Desulfovibrio strain G-11 reached a threshold value which depended on the amount of acetate added, and ranged from about 2.5 to 29.9 {mu}M. Increasing acetate concentrations also uncompetitively inhibited benzoate degradation. The apparent V{sub max} and K{sub m} for benzoate degradation decreased with increasing acetate concentration, but the benzoate degradation capacity (V{sub max}/K{sub m}) of cell suspensions remained comparable. The addition of an acetate-using bacterium to cocultures after the threshold was reached resulted in the degradation of benzoate to below the detection limit. Mathematical simulations showed that the benzoate threshold was not predicted by the inhibitory effect of acetate on benzoate degradation kinetics. With nitrate instead of sulfate as the terminal electron acceptor, no benzoate threshold was observed in the presence of 20 mM acetate even though the degradation capacity was lower with nitrate than with sulfate. When strain SB was grown with a hydrogen-using partner that had a 5-fold lower hydrogen utilization capacity, a 5 to 9-fold lower the benzoate degradation capacity was observed compared to SB/G-11 cocultures. The Gibb`s free energy for benzoate degradation was less negative in cell suspensions with threshold compared to those without threshold. These studies showed that the threshold was not a function of the inhibition of benzoate degradation capacity by acetate, or the toxicity of the undissociated form of acetate. Rather a critical or minimal Gibb`s free energy may exist where thermodynamic constraints preclude further benzoate degradation.

  2. Influence of solvent on the structure and performance of cellulose acetate membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhansheng Li; Jizhong Ren; Anthony G. Fane; Dong Fei Li; Fook-Sin Wong

    2006-01-01

    The liquid–liquid demixing process of cellulose acetate (CA) in two nonvolatile solvents N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and ?-butyrolactone (GBL) coagulating in water was investigated. Due to the relatively “poor” solvency of GBL for cellulose acetate and the higher interaction parameter between GBL and water, the CA\\/GBL\\/H2O system exhibits a delayed liquid–liquid demixing, while the CA\\/NMP\\/H2O has an instantaneous one. The solvent quality

  3. Acetate catabolism in the dissimilatory iron-reducing isolate GS-15.

    PubMed

    Champine, J E; Goodwin, S

    1991-04-01

    Acetate-grown GS-15 whole-cell suspensions were disrupted with detergent and assayed for enzymes associated with acetate catabolism. Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase and formate dehydrogenase were not observed in GS-15. Catabolic levels of acetokinase and phosphotransacetylase were observed. Enzyme activities of the citric acid cycle, i.e., isocitrate dehydrogenase, 2-oxoglutarate sythase, succinate dehydrogenase, fumarase, and malate dehydrogenase, were observed. PMID:1901574

  4. Correlation of Acetate Catabolism and Growth Yield in Staphylococcus aureus: Implications for Host-Pathogen Interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Greg A. Somerville; B. Said-Salim; Jaala M. Wickman; Sandra J. Raffel; Barry N. Kreiswirth; James M. Musser

    2003-01-01

    Recently, we reported that the prototypical Staphylococcus aureus strain RN6390 (a derivative of NCTC 8325) had significantly reduced aconitase activity relative to a diverse group of S. aureus isolates, leading to the hy- pothesis that strain RN6390 has impaired tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle-mediated acetate catabolism. Analysis of the culture supernatant from RN6390 confirmed that acetate was incompletely catabolized, suggesting that

  5. Differential effects of the microbial metabolite, acetic acid, on sprouting of aquatic plant propagules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David F. Spencer; Gregory G. Ksander

    1995-01-01

    Subterranean vegetative propagules are important life cycle stages for some species of rooted aquatic plants. Sediments contain numerous compounds resulting from anaerobic degradation of organic matter, including acetic acid. Tubers, turions, and winter buds of Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle, Potamogeton gramineus L., and Potamogeton pectinatus L. were exposed to acetic acid concentrations from 0 to 696 mmol l?1 for 1–8

  6. Inhibition of the methanogenic fermentation of p-toluic acid (4-methylbenzoic acid) by acetate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hervé Macarie; Jean-Pierre Guyot

    1992-01-01

    The potential inhibitory effect of acetate on p-toluic acid methanogenic fermentation was studied during the continuous operation at 5.3 days hydraulic retention time of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor fed with a synthetic waste-water containing 3.67 mmp-toluic acid as sole carbon and energy source. In the absence of acetate, a chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency of 56.8% and an

  7. Cobalt (II) chloride promoted formation of honeycomb patterned cellulose acetate films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olga Naboka; Anke Sanz-Velasco; Per Lundgren; Peter Enoksson; Paul Gatenholm

    CoCl2 containing honeycomb patterned films were prepared from cellulose acetate (CA)\\/CoCl2\\/acetone solutions by the breath figure method in a wide range of humidities. Size and pore regularity depend on the CA\\/CoCl2 molar ratio and humidity. When replacing CoCl2 with Co(NO3)2 or CoBr2, no formation of ordered porosity in the cellulose acetate films is observed. According to data from scanning electron

  8. The influence of degree of substitution on blend miscibility and biodegradation of cellulose acetate blends

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles M. Buchanan; Debra Dorschel; Robert M. Gardner; Ron J. Komarek; Andrew J. Matosky; Alan W. White; Matthew D. Wood

    1996-01-01

    In this account, we report our findings on blends of cellulose acetate having a degree of substitution (DS) of 2.49 (CA2.5) with a cellulose acetate having a DS of 2.06 (CA2.0). This blend system was examined over the composition range of 0–100% CA2.0 employing both solvent casting of films (no plasticizer) and thermal processing (melt-compressed films and injection molding) using

  9. Recovery of dilute acetic acid through esterification in a reactive distillation column

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Saha; S. P. Chopade; S. M. Mahajani

    2000-01-01

    The recovery of acetic acid from its dilute aqueous solutions is a major problem in both petrochemical and fine chemical industries. The conventional methods of recovery are azeotropic distillation, simple distillation and liquid–liquid extraction. Physical separations such as distillation and extraction suffer from several drawbacks. The esterification of an aqueous solution (30%) of acetic acid with n-butanol\\/iso-amyl alcohol is a

  10. Putative ABC Transporter Responsible for Acetic Acid Resistance in Acetobacter aceti

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shigeru Nakano; Masahiro Fukaya; Sueharu Horinouchi

    2006-01-01

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoretic analysis of the membrane fraction of Acetobacter aceti revealed the presence of several proteins that were produced in response to acetic acid. A 60-kDa protein, named AatA, which was mostly induced by acetic acid, was prepared; aatA was cloned on the basis of its NH2-terminal amino acid sequence. AatA, consisting of 591 amino acids and containing ATP-binding

  11. A novel fermentation process for calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) production from cheese whey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shang-Tian Yang; I-Ching Tang; Hui Zhu

    1992-01-01

    A novel, anaerobic fermentation process is developed to produce calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) from cheese whey. CMA can\\u000a be used as a noncorrosive road deicer. It poses no environmental threats and has many advantages over road salt. A coculture\\u000a consisting of homolactic and homoacetic bacteria was used to convert whey lactose to lactate and then to acetate in a continuous,

  12. Preparation of transparent, electrically conducting ZnO film from zinc acetate and alkoxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Ohya; H. Saiki; Y. Takahashi

    1994-01-01

    Very uniform and transparent zinc oxide thin films doped with aluminium and indium were fabricated by the dip-coating technique using solutions prepared by the ethanolamine method. As starting materials, zinc acetate and zinc n-propoxide were used. Zinc acetate and propoxide are soluble in PriOH in the presence of diethanolamine, although they are hardly soluble without the amine. The prepared solutions

  13. Investigation of acetic acid-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment on corn stover

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian Xu; Mette Hedegaard Thomsen; Anne Belinda Thomsen

    2010-01-01

    Acetic acid (AA)-catalyzed liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatments on raw corn stover (RCS) were carried out at 195 °C at 15 min\\u000a with the acetic acid concentrations between 0 and 400 g\\/kg RCS. After pretreatment, the liquor fractions and water-insoluble\\u000a solids (WIS) were collected separately and tested in terms of the recoveries of glucan and xylan from both the liquor fractions\\u000a and the

  14. Use of titanium in the manufacture of equipment for acetic acid production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. M. Pischik; A. I. Tsinman; N. I. Bal'vas

    1983-01-01

    In the production of acetic acid from methanol and carbon monoxide with the use of iodine compounds as the catalyst,tantalu m, zirconium, Hastelloy type alloys, and molybdenumcontaining steels are used for the production of equipment. The production medium for the acid in the stage of synthesis and purification at I00-185~ contains up to 17% water, methyl acetate, methyl iodide, methanol,

  15. Spray-chilling and carcass decontamination systems using lactic and acetic acid

    E-print Network

    Hamby, Patrick Lawrence

    1986-01-01

    OF SCIENCE December 1986 Najor Subject; Food Science and Technology SPRAY-CHILLING AND CARCASS DECONTAMINATION SYSTEMS USING LACTIC AND ACETIC ACID A Thesis by PATRICK LAWRENCE NAMBY Approved as to style and content by: H. R. Cross (Co...-Chairman of Committee) f W. Sa 11 (Co-Chai n Committee) Fred A. Gardner (Member) C. Vanderz t (Member ary C. Smith (Head of Department) December 1986 ABSTRACT Spray-Chilling and Carcass Decontamination Systems Using Lactic and Acetic Acid (December 1986...

  16. CD28 ?CD57 + T cells predominate in CD8 responses to glatiramer acetate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert B. Ratts; Amy E. Lovett-Racke; Judy Choy; Sara C. Northrop; Rehana Z. Hussain; Nitin J. Karandikar; Michael K. Racke

    2006-01-01

    Human T cells adopt a CD28?CD57+ phenotype in chronic viral infections and this has been hypothesized to result from continuous stimulation, however this phenotype may be due to direct viral effects on T cells. Employing MS patients before and after chronic in vivo administration of the antigen glatiramer acetate (GA) we examine this hypothesis. Pre-treatment glatiramer acetate-specific CD8 T cells

  17. Indole-3-Acetic Acid Biosynthesis in Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, M.; Riov, J.; Sharon, A.

    1998-01-01

    We characterized the biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid by the mycoherbicide Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene. Auxin production was tryptophan dependent. Compounds from the indole-3-acetamide and indole-3-pyruvic acid pathways were detected in culture filtrates. Feeding experiments and in vitro assay confirmed the presence of both pathways. Indole-3-acetamide was the major pathway utilized by the fungus to produce indole-3-acetic acid in culture. PMID:9835603

  18. Effect of acetate and other cell wall components on enzymatic hydrolysis of aspen wood 

    E-print Network

    Kong, Fanran

    1990-01-01

    EFFECT OF ACETATE AND OTHER CELL WALL COMPONENTS ON ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF ASPEN WOOD A Thesis by FANRAN KONG Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1990 Major Subject: Forestry ~ OF ACETATE AND OTHER CELL WALL COMPONENTS ON ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF ASPEN WOOD A Thesis by FANRAN KONG Approve to style d content by: Ed J. Soltes (Chair of Committee) Joe Massey (Memb...

  19. Influence of acetate on the growth of Candida utilis in continuous culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Hueting; D. W. Tempest

    1977-01-01

    Candida utilis was grown on acetate in chemostat cultures that were, successively, carbon and ammonia-limited (30° C; pH 5.5). With carbon(acetate)-limited cultures, the specific rate of oxygen consumption (qO2) was not a linear function of the growth rate but was markedly stimulated at the higher dilution rates, thus effecting a marked decrease in the YO value. This increased respiration rate,

  20. Characterization of poly(ethylene- co-vinyl acetate) (EVA) filled with low grade magnesium hydroxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. I. Fernández; L. Haurie; J. Formosa; J. M. Chimenos; M. Antunes; J. I. Velasco

    2009-01-01

    Low-grade magnesium hydroxide (LG-MH) is a solid by-product that undergoes an endothermic decomposition in the temperature range of 300–750°C. Due to its thermal behaviour and its lower cost relative to pure Mg(OH)2, it was studied as a non-halogenated flame retardant filler in a 28% vinyl acetate (VA) content poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) matrix. The solid was characterized by XRF and the crystalline